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Area
Wage
Survey




3

Fresno, California,
Metropolitan Area
June 1978
'

Preface
This bulletin provides results of a June 1978 survey of occupational
earnings and supplementary wage benefits in the Fresno, California, Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Area. The survey was made as part of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics' annual area wage survey program. It was conducted by
the Bureau's regional office in San Francisco, C alif., under the general
direction of Milton Keenan, Assistant Regional Commissioner for Operations.
The survey could not have been accomplished without the cooperation of the
many firm s whose wage and salary data provided the basis for the statistical
information in this bulletin. The Bureau wishes to express sincere appre­
ciation for the cooperation received.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be
reproduced without perm ission of the Federal Government.
Please credit




the Bureau of
publication.

Labor Statistics

and

cite the name and

number

of this

Note:
Also available for the Fresno area are listings of union wage rates
for building trades, printing trades, local-tran sit operating em ployees, local
truckdrivers and helpers, and grocery store employees.
Free copies of
these are available from the Bureau's regional offices. (See back cover for
addresses.)

Area
Wage
Survey

Fresno, California,
Metropolitan Area
June 1978

U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

Contents

Page

Page

September 1978
Bulletin 2025-31

Introduction_______________________________________

2

T ables:
A. Earnings, all establishments:
A - l . Weekly earnings of office workers__
A -2. Weekly earnings of professional
and technical workers_____________
A -3 . Average weekly earnings of
office, professional, and
technical workers, by s e x ________
A -4 . Hourly earnings of maintenance,
toolroom, and powerplant
workers____________________________
A - 5. Hourly earnings of material
movement and custodial workers__
A - 6. Average hourly earnings of
maintenance, toolroom, powerplant, material movement, and
custodial workers, by s e x ________
A -7 . Percent increases in average
hourly earnings, adjusted for
employment shifts, for selected
occupational groups________________

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S,
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, GPO
Bookstores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on back cover.




3
5
6
7
8

9

10

T ables— Continued
B. Establishment practices and
supplementary wage provisions:
B -l . Minimum entrance salaries for
inexperienced typists and clerks_ 11
_
B -2. Late-shift pay provisions for
full-time manufacturing
production and related workers____ 12
B -3. Scheduled weekly hours and days of
full-time first-shift workers_______ 13
B -4. Annual paid holidays for full-time
workers______________________________ 14
B -5. Paid vacation provisions for
full-time workers___________________ 15
B -6. Health, insurance, and pension
plans for full-time workers_________ 17
B -7. Life insurance plans for
full-time workers___________________ 18
Appendix A.
Appendix B.

Scope and method of survey________ 21
Occupational descriptions__________ 27

Introduction
This area is 1 of 75 in which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and re­
lated benefits. (See list of areas on inside back cover.) In each area,
occupational earnings data (A -se r ie s tables) are collected annually. Infor­
mation on establishment practices and supplementary wage benefits (B series tables) is obtained every third year.
Each year after all individual area wage surveys have been com ­
pleted, two summary bulletins are issued. The first brings together data
for each metropolitan area surveyed; the second presents national and re ­
gional estim ates, projected from individual metropolitan area data, for all
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, excluding Alaska
and Hawaii.
A major consideration in the area wage survey program is the need
to describe the level and movement of wages in a variety of labor markets,
through the analysis of (1) the level and distribution of wages by occupation,
and (2) the movement of wages by occupational category and skill level.
The program develops information that may be used for many purposes,
including wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and a s ­
sistance in determining plant location. Survey results also are used by the
U.S. Department of Labor to make wage determinations under the Service
Contract Act of 1965.
A -se r ie s tables
Tables A - l through A -6 provide estimates of straight-tim e weekly
or hourly earnings for workers in occupations common to a variety of
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries.
For the 31 largest survey
areas, tables A - 8 through A - 13 provide sim ilar data for establishments
employing 500 workers or more.




Table A -7 provides percent changes in average hourly earnings of
office clerical workers, electronic data processirig workers, industrial
nurses, skilled maintenance trades w orkers, and unskilled plant workers.
Where possible, data are presented for all industries and for manufacturing
and nonmanufacturing separately.
Data are not presented for skilled main­
tenance workers in nonmanufacturing because the number of workers em ­
ployed in this occupational group in nonmanufacturing is too small to warrant
separate presentation.
This table provides a measure of wage trends after
elimination of changes in average earnings caused by employment shifts
among establishments as well as turnover of establishments included in
survey samples.
For further details, see appendix A.
B -series

ta b le s

The B - s e r i e s t a b le s p r e s e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on m i n i m u m e n t r a n c e
s a l a r i e s f o r i n e x p e r i e n c e d t y p is ts and c l e r k s ; l a t e - s h i f t p a y p r o v i s i o n s and
p r a c t i c e s f o r p r o d u c t i o n and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g ; and data
s e p a r a t e l y f o r p r o d u c t i o n and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s and o f f i c e w o r k e r s on s c h e d ­
u le d w e e k l y h o u r s and da ys o f f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s ; p a id h o l i d a y s ; p a id v a c a ­
t i o n s ; health, i n s u r a n c e , and p e n s i o n p l a n s ; and m o r e d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n
on lif e i n s u r a n c e pla n s.

Appendixes
A p p e n d i x A d e s c r i b e s th e m e t h o d s and c o n c e p t s u s e d in th e a r e a
wage survey p ro g ra m .
It p r o v i d e s i n f o r m a t i o n on the s c o p e o f th e a r e a
s u r v e y , the a r e a ' s i n d u s t r i a l c o m p o s i t i o n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g , and l a b o r management agreem ent covera g e.

Appendix B provides job descriptions used by Bureau field econ­
omists to classify workers by occupation.

A. Earnings
Table A-1. Weekly earnings of office workers in Fresno, Calif., June 1978
""^^^eekl^arnlng^^™
(standard)
Num
ber
Oc cupation and indu str y di vi s io n
w
orkers

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

N u m b er o f w or k er s r ec eiv in g s t ra i g h t -t im e weekly earnings of—
S

%

Mean2

M
edian 2

M
iddle range 2

s

S

S

s

s

s

*

s

%

s

S

S

%

*

120

125

130

14 0

15 0

160

170

180

19 0

20 0

210

2 20

2 30

24 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

125

130

14 0

15 0

16 0

170

180

190

200

21 0

220

2 30

24 0

250

3

31
4
27

8
i
7

19
8
11

27
13
14

22
10
12

13
5
8

21
9
12
4

23
9
11
3

9
9

15
7
8

9
4
5

~

“

-

-

-

-

3
3

~
”

3
2
1

1
1
"

9
6
3

3
2
1

-

3
2
1

2
1
i

-

-

19
19

1
i

6
i
5

5
4
i

9
2
7

4
i
3

7
7

12
5
7

3
3

10
3
7

-

-

3

20
8
12

8
4
4

6
3
3

5
3
2

3
2
1

6

3

3
2
1

2 50

260

s

*

%

*

-

3

11 5
Under
and
s
under
115
120

28 0

300

323

-

-

and

26 0

280

300

32 0

over

“

15
3
12
2

12
6
6
5

4
“
4
4

6
6
*6

-

7
1
6

1
1

“

2
2

4
1
3

~

6
i
5

6
2
4

1
i

2

3
2
1

-

-

6

1
1
-

-

5
4
i

3
3

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

1
1
“
1
1

-

-

~

-

~

ALL WORKERS
SECRETARIES ------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------PUBLIC U T IL I T IE S -------------------

234
79
155
24

39 -5
40 .0
3 9 .5
40 .0

$
20 5.00
20 3.00
20 6.00
28 4.50

$
196.00
19 5.03
19 6.50
293.50

$
$
1 6 7.30 -2 30.0 0
1 7 7.00 -2 24.5 0
1 6 0.00 -2 34.5 0
21 8.50 -3 20.5 0

212.50
201.50
272.50

2 0 1.50 -2 70.0 0
1 9 0.50 -2 12.5 0
21 2.50 -2 72.5 0

-

-

-

-

~

I

SECRETARIES. CLASS B ----------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

34
18
IN

40 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

230.00
2 0 4.00
2 5 9.50

SECRETARIES. CLASS C ----------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

95
20
75

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
40 .0

2 0 8.00
21 5.50
2 0 6.00

207.00
219.00
205.00

1 6 7.50 -2 36.5 0
1 8 3.50 -2 32.5 0
1 5 3.50 -2 36.5 0

-

SECRETARIES. CLASS D ----------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

68
29
39

39 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

20 8.00
2 0 5.53
21 0.00

190.50
195.00
185.00

1 7 7.30 -2 26.5 3
1 7 7.00 -2 18.0 0
1 7 2 .3 0 -2 2 6 .5 0

“

se c r e ta r ie s,

-----------------

22

3 9 .0

1 5 5.50

153.50

1 4 6.00 -1 61.0 0

-

-

-

-

3

6

4

5

2

2

-

-

-

TYPISTS ---------------------------------------------------m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ------------------------

70
30
40

3 9 .0
40 .0
38 .0

147.50
16 2.00
13 6.53

143.50
157.00
137.00

1 3 0.50 -1 61.5 0
15 0.00 -1 65.5 0
1 2 5.30 -1 41.5 3

-

10
1
9

3

1

10
8
2

13
7
6

1
1

3
3

1
1

-

1

11
5
6

1
1

3

15
2
13

"

“

“

-

T YP I ST S. CLASS A -------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

27
18

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

16 1.00
1 7 1.50

157.00
163.50

1 4 2.50 -1 63.5 0
15 7.30 -1 88.5 0

-

_

-

-

4
“

5
2

6
4

6

”

3
3

1
1

-

6

1
1

T YP I ST S. CLASS B -------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

43
31

3 8 .5
37 .5

13 8.50
13 5.00

139.00
13 5.00

1 2 5.00 -1 50.5 3
1 1 8.00 -1 40.0 3

-

6
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

7
6

1

9

FILE CLERKS ------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

85
79

3 8 .0
3 7 .5

1 2 4.00
12 3.50

118.00
11 8.00

1 1 8.30 -1 26.0 0
1 1 8.30 -1 26.0 3

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

1
1

-

77

37 .5

1 2 4.50

118.00

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

”

1
1

-

~

“

”

-

1
1

-

-

1

-

5
5

6

-

4

-

-

-

-

~

-

-

_

2
“

-

_

5
5
“

1
1
“

5
5

1
1

FILE

CLERKS.

class

e

CLASS B -----------------

-

-

-

“
3
3

1
1

8
8

43
43

10
6

18
18

2
2

1 1 8.00 -1 26.0 0

6

41

8

16

2

2

-

-

-

-

-

U

-

-

7
7

-

-

“

4
4

-

“

6
6

-

4

1
1

“

-

i
t

10
2
8

5
4
i

4
4
”

16
10
6

3

-

3

“

2
2

2
2

12
12

3
3

10
10

4

-

4

24
3

2
2

2
2

12
12

3
3

10
10

3
3

24
3

-

4
4

6

”

15 3.50
152.00

1 2 6.50 -1 69.0 3
1 2 6 .5 0 -1 6 9 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

50
25
25

39 .5
40 .0
3 9 .5

14 3.50
14 7.00
14 0.00

141.50
14 9.00
126.50

12 6.50 -1 55.0 3
1 3 0.00 -1 56.5 0
1 2 6.50 -1 55.0 3

“

8
2
6

ORDER CLERKS ---------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

72
41

40 .0
40 .0

17 7.50
16 2.00

18 0.50
161.00

1 5 7.50 -1 88.5 0
1 4 4.50 -1 73.0 0

-

-

ORDER CLERKS. CLASS B --------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------

68
39

40 .0
40 .0

17 6.00
1 6 0.53

180.50
16 1.00

15 2 .5 0 -1 8 8 .5 0
14 4 .0 0 -1 7 0 .0 0

-

ACCOUNTING CLERKS ----------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

309
97
212

3 9 .5
40 .0
3 9 .5

16 4.50
17 9.50
15 7.50

16 0.50
178.50
16 0.50

141.00 -1 7B .50
1 4 7.50 -2 08.0 0
13 8 .0 0 -1 6 9 .0 0

111
46
65

39 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

18 4.50
20 7.50
16 8.50

186.00
206.00
17 2.50

1 6 4.00 -2 08.0 0
18 6 .0 0 -2 1 2 .5 3
1 4 1.00 -1 87.5 0

~

-

~

~

”

1
1

13
2
11

14
8
6

32
7
25

42
14
28

10
3
7

73
5
68

34
10
24

24
15
9

3
3
~

17
7
10

17
13

-

5

4

“

5

-

-

4

3

3

-

-

7

14
10

3

3

19
10
9

2
2

6

19
5
14

17

-

13
2
11

6

-

1
1

10

4

4

1 at $ 320 to $ 340; 4 at $ 340 to $ 3 60 ; and 1 at $ 36 0 to $ 380.
2 at $ 105 to $ 110; and 2 at $ 110 to $ 115.

3

~

“
-

-

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

i
i

~

-

~

1

ii
ii

4

4

See footnotes at end of t ab le s .




-

“

-

1 6 2.50
1 5 0.50

n

4

10
9

39 .5
3 9 .5

W o r k e r s w e r e distributed as fo llo w s :
W o r k e r s w e r e distributed as fo llo w s :

-

-

27
24

*
**

-

“

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS ------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS A —
MANUFACTURING ------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------ *

“

"

~

-

-

i

-

-

3
“

~

i
i

~

“

-

-

“

~

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

“
-

-

-

-

“

“

“

1
1
“

3
3
~

-

-

1
1

3
3

-

“
-

Table A-1. W eekly earnings of office workers in Fresno, Calif., June 1978— Continued
Weekl)^arnlngs^™"
(st m
dard)
Occupation and indu stry div ision

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

Average
weekly
hours*
(standard)

N u m b er of w or k er s receiving s tr a ig ht -t im e we ekly e arnings of—
S

S

11 5
Mean2

M
edian 2

M
iddle range 2

Under
S

115

$

12 0

4

%

%

12 5

13 0

14 0

4

%

150

160

$
170

s
180

s

190

s

200

s

210

*

s

s

2 20

2 30

240

*
2 50

s

%

260

280

%

30 0

and
under

32 0
and

1 3 0 . 14 0

12 3

125

4
4

ii
ii

8
i
7

15 0

16 0

170

180

190

200

213

220

230

240

250

260

28 0

300

4
4

-

-

1
1

-

5
-

-

-

-

-

-

3 2 0 ove r

ALL WORKERS—
CONTINUED
ACCOUNTING CLERKS -

CONTINUED

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS R ------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

177
30
147

40 .0
40 .0
40 .0

$
15 2.50
14 9.53
15 3.00

$
15 6.00
145.50
160.50

$
$
13 3.50 -1 64.0 0
12 9 .0 0 -1 5 8 .0 0
1 3 6 .5 0 -1 6 5 .5 0

PAYROLL CLERKS ---------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

30
22

40 .3
40 .0

17 6.03
17 4.00

17 2.00
1 7 1.00

1 5 4 .0 0 -1 9 1 .0 0
1 5 4 .0 0 -1 9 1 .0 0

_

-

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

131
49
82

39 .5
40 .0
39 .5

15 9.00
15 7.50
16 0.00

16 1.00
15 5.50
16 5.50

14 4 .3 0 -1 6 7 .5 0
1 4 4 .0 0 -1 6 5 .5 3
15 0 .3 0 -1 6 7 .5 3

-

-

-

-

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS. CLASS A -------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

35
27

40 .0
39 .5

1 7 1.00
16 7.00

1 6 8.00
168.00

1 6 3 .0 0 -1 7 2 .5 0
1 6 2.50 -1 70.5 0

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS.

CLASS B --------

90

39 .5

1 5 4.00

15 7.00

1 3 8 .0 0 -1 6 7 .5 0

NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

55

39 .5

15 6.50

16 1.00

13 8 .0 0 -1 6 7 .5 0

18
4
14

32
10
22

4
4

66
1
65

12
2
10

-

-

-

-

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

3

6
6

3
3

5
4

3
1

3
3

1
1

1

_

_

_

_

_

-

1
1

1

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
-

18
6
12

13
11
2

22
9
13

44
9
35

14
5
9

2

2
2

1
1
-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

_

2

1
1
-

3

-

7
1
6

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

9
9

ii
9

2
2

1

_

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

8
7

2

“

1
~

-

-

7

3

17

11

13

33

3

-

_

_

_

_

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

12

2

6

26

6

See footnotes at end of t ab le s.




-

12
7
5

4

3

-

Table A -2 . W eekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Fresno, C alif., June 1978
W
eekly earnings
(standard)
>r
e
Occupatio n and indu str y d ivi sio n
e
rs

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

Numb er of w or k er s receiving s t ra i g h t -t im e w ee kl y earnings of---S

Mean2

Median2

M
iddle range2

s

s
15 0

160

s
17 0

s

%

180

190

210

s

$

S

S

200

220

23 0

s

s
24 0

250

*

%

26 0

270

S

28 0

s

s

%

29 0

300

310

s
320

s
340

%

36 0

and
under

380
and

160

17 0

18 0

190

20 0

210

220

230

~
“

2
2

2
2

9
i

5
5

2
2

“

250

260

270

280

290

300

3

240

3
2

3
2

t
1

”

i
i

31 0

340

~
“

360

38 0

over

~

3 20

~

-

~

ALL WORKERS
COMPUTER OPERATORS ----------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------

34
18

40 .0
4 0 .0

$
21 3.50
22 1.00

$
20 1.00
208.00

$
$
1 9 2.00 -2 49.0 0
19 9 .5 0 -2 5 3 .5 0

3

~

CLASS B

22

40 .0

2 2 4.00

212.00

1 9 9.50 -2 51.0 0

-

-

-

2

4

5

2

-

-

3

2

3

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

DRAFTERS ----------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------

42
42

40 .0
40 .0

2 4 5.00
24 5.00

238.50
238.50

2 1 8.50 -2 76.0 0
2 1 8.50 -2 76.0 0

-

-

-

-

2
2

4
4

6
6

4
4

5
5

2
2

4
4

3
3

8
8

2
2

-

-

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

ORAFTERS. CLASS B --------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------

26
26

40 .0
40 .0

23 9.50
23 9.50

230.00
230.00

2 1 8.50 -2 62.0 0
21 8 .5 0 -2 6 2 .0 0

-

-

-

4
4

4
4

4
4

2
2

2
2

2
2

3
3

5
5

-

-

-

-

-

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS -----------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------PUBLIC UT IL IT IE S ----------------

53
49
49

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
40 .0

30 5.00
30 3.50
30 3.50

31 2.50
312.50
31 2.50

2 7 5.00 -3 12.5 0
2 7 5.30 -3 12.5 0
27 5 .0 0 -3 1 2 .5 0

-

6
6
6

-

-

~

-

-

-

13
12
12

-

COMPUTER OPERATORS.

“

-

-

-

“

“

-

-

Se e footnotes at end of t abl es.




-

-

5

-

-

-

~

~

-

24
24
24

”

-

3

2
2
2

5
5
5

Table A -3 . Average w eekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex,
in Fresno, Calif., June 1978
A v e ra g e
(m e a n 2 )

Sex, 3 occupation,

and industry div ision

ef
r

w
orkers

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS -

W eek ly

earnings1
(standard)

SECRETARIES --------------------MANUFACTURING --------NONMANUFACTURING —
PUBLIC UT ILITIES

of
w
orker.

W
eekly
W
eekly
earnings1
hours1
(standard) (standard)

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry div ision

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

Weekly
Weekly
earnings1
hours1
(standard) (standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS UOMEN— CONTINUED

40 .0
85
79

3 8 .0
37.5

$
12 4.00
12 3.50

77

FILE CLERKS ---------------NONMANUFACTURING

U OH EN

Average
(mean2)

Number

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WOMEN— CONTINUED
15

-

W edchr

hours
(standard)

S e x , 3 occupation, and industry division

HEN

ACCOUNTING CLERKS -----------OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

Average
(mean2)

N um ber

37.5

12 4.50

PAYROLL CLERKS ---------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

26
18

4 0 .0
40 .0

$
176.50
174.00

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

131
49
82

39 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

159.00
1 5 7 .5 0
160.00

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS. CLASS A -------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

35
27

4 0 .0
3 9 .5

1 7 1.00
167.00

KEY ENTRY OPERATORS. CLASS B -------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

90
35
55

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

1 5 4.00
15 0.00
1 5 6.50

24

40 .0

204.00
2 0 3.00
20 4.50
281.00

SUITCHROARD OPERATORS
NONHANUFACTURING —

27
24

39.5
39.5

162.50
15 0.50

SECRETARIES. CLASS B
MANUFACTURING ----------NONMANUFACTURING —

33
18
15

40 .0
40 .0
4 0 .0

226.00
204.00
2 5 2.50

SUITCHBOARO OPERA TOR-RECEPTIONISTSMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

50
25
25

39.5
4 0 .0
39.5

1 4 3.50
14 7.00
14 0.00

SECRETARIES. CLASS C
MANUFACTURING ----------NONMANUFACTURING —

95
20
75

4 0 .0
40 .0
40 .0

208.00
215.50
20 6.00

ORDER CLERKS ------MANUFACTURING

65
38

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

17 7.00
16 1.50

SECRETARIES. CLASS 0
MANUFACTURING ----------NONMANUFACTURING

67
29
38

39 .5
39 .5
40 .0

207.00
205.50
208.00

63
37

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

17 6.00
16 1.50

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - HEN

22

3 9 .0

1 5 5.50

294
87
207

39.5
4 0 .0
39.5

16 3.00
17 7.00
15 7.00

COMPUTER OPERATORS -------------------------------------

SECRETARIES.

CLASS B -----------

17

70
30
40

39 .0
4 0 .0
38 .0

1 4 7.50
1 6 2.00
1 3 6.50

ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS A
MANUFACTURING ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------

99
37
62

39.5
39.5
3 9 .5

18 2.50
23 8.00
16 7.00

DRAFTERS -----------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

42
42

4 0 .0
40 .0

2 4 5.00
2 4 5,03

TYPI STS. CLASS A
MANUFACTURING —

27
18

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 6 1.00
1 7 1.50

ACCOUNTING CLERKS.
MANUFACTURING -----NONMANUFACTURING

174
29
145

40 .0
40 .0
40 .0

1 5 2.50
14 9.50
15 3.00

DRAFTERS. CLASS B ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

26
26

4 0 .0
40 .0

2 3 9.50
2 3 9.50

TYPI STS. CLASS B
NONMANUFACTURING

43
31

38 .5
3 7 .5

1 3 8.50
1 3 5.00

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS ------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC UT IL IT IE S ------------------------------

53
49
49

3 9 .5
40 .0
40 .0

3 0 5 .0 0
3 0 3 .5 0
3 0 3.50

CLASS E

TYPISTS ------------------------MANUFACTURING —
NONMANUFACTURING

FILE

CLERKS.

CLASS 8

ORDER CLERKS. CLASS B
MANUFACTURING -------------ACCOUNTING CLERKS MANUFACTURING —
NONMANUFACTURING

CLASS

R

See footnotes at end of tables.




6

COMPUTER OPERATORS.

o

39 .5
40 .0
39 .5
4 0 .0

o

232
79
153
22

215.00
2 2 3.50

Table A -4 .

Hourly earnings of m aintenance, toolroom , and powerplant workers in Fresno, C alif., June 1978
H
ourly earnings 4

Nu mb er of w or k er s rec eiving s t ra ig h t -t i m e hourly earnings of—

Median2

M
iddle range 2

5.2 0

Under
and
X
under
5.1 0
5.2 0, 5.4 0

5 .4 0

5.6 0

%

%

5 .6 0

5.8 0

6.0 0

1 -------- T -------- ~ i -------- s
6.2 0 6 .4 0 6 .6 0 6 .8 0

6.4 0

6.0 0

6 .2 0

2
2

5.8 0

4

~

-

-

4
4

6.6 0

6.8 0

7.0 0

%

s

s

.00

%

%

7.2 0

7.4 0

7. 6 3 7 . 8 0

%

%

s

S

%

s

%

8.0 0

8 .2 0

8 . 40

8 .6 0

9 .0 0

9.40

9.8 0

-

s

5.1 3

Occupation and industry division

and

9 .4 0

9.80

ove r

“

~

*23
”

7.2 0

7 .4 0

7.6 0

7 .8 0

8 .0 0

8.2 0

8.4 0

8 .6 0

9.30

8
8

3
3

3
3

2

2

3
3

18
18

4
4

3
3

-

_

_

_

"

12
12

-

-

6
6

-

-

3
3

9

“

3
3

10
10

2
2

19
19

71
71

_

3
3

6

_

-

6

”

12
12
12

2
2
-

2
2
2

6
6

6

-

6

12
~
12
12

2 **17
~
5
12
2
12
2

_

_

-

-

i
i

-

-

-

-

-

ALL WORKERS
MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIANS -----------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

8.2 7
7.6 5

8 . 33
8.00

7 .3 3 7 .0 4 -

9.81
8.33

MAINTENANCE MACHINISTS ----------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

8.3 2
8.1 7

8 .4 4
8.3 3

8 .2 5 8 .0 0 -

8.86
8.44

_

7.2 8
7.3 0

7.5 0
7 .5 0

6 .3 4 6 .3 4 -

8.33
8.33

35
35

10
10

6
3

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS
(MOTOR VEHICLES) ---------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUF A C T U R I N 6 -----------------------------PUBLIC UT IL I T IE S -------------------------

7.7 1
7.3 2
7 .9 4
8.6 7

7 .5 0
7 .2 7
7.8 0
9 .0 5

6 .8 8 6 .0 5 6 .8 8 7 .8 0 -

8.75
8.00
9.
9.75

4
4
-

12
12

10
4
6

MAINTENANCE

TRADES HELPERS -------------

5.9 3

6 .5 8

5 .0 5 -

6.95

-

2

STATIONARY ENGINEERS --------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

7.3 9
7.5 1

7 .3 0
7 .6 0

7 .0 0 6 .8 8 -

7.65
8.13

_

_

-

-

BOILER TENDERS -----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

7 .3 4
7.3 4

8 .3 3
8.3 3

6 .0 9 6 .0 9 -

8.33
8.33

3
3

-

8
8

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS (MACHINERY)
MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

*
**
t

-

269
262

W o r k e r s w er e at $ 9 . 8 0 to $ 10 .2 0.
W o r k e r s w er e di stributed as foll ow s:
W o r k e r s w er e di stributed as follow s:

12 at $ 9. 80 to $ 10.20; and 5 at $ 10.6 0 to $ 11.
10 at $ 4 . 4 0 to $ 4 . 5 0 ; and 7 at $ 5 to $ 5 . 1 0 .

See footnotes at end of t ab le s .




7

1
i

4

-

-

“

-

2
2

4

8
8

19
17

24
24

26
26

_

_

_

-

-

19
10
9
3

1
1

9
9
-

7
3

4

-

4

4
4

20
20

-

-

2

-

8

-

_

_

3
3

_

-

2
2

-

-

_

-

-

16

-

3

-

-

-

10
4
4

2
2

13
2

_

-

"

5
5

-

-

-

-

-

_

21
21

-

“
-

Table A -5 . Hourly earnings of m aterial movement and custodial workers in Fresno, Calif., June 1978
H
ourly eam
ings 4

N u m b er of w o r k e r s rec eiving st ra ig h t -t i m e hourly earnings of—
S

M
ean 2

Median2

M
iddle range 2

S

s

%

s

S

s

S

S

s

3 .8 0

4.0 0

4.4 0

4.6 0

4.8 0

5 .6 0

6.0 0

6.4 0

7 .2 0

S
7.60

s

3 .6 0

s
6 . 80

%

3 .4 0

s
5.2 0

S

3 .2 0

S
4.20

%

2 .8 0

*
3 .0 0

%

2.60

8.0 0

8.4 0

8.8 0

1 -------9.2 0

2.80

Occupation and industry division

Num
ber
of
w
orkers

3.07

3 .2 0

3.4 0

3.6 0

3 .8 0

4.0 0

4.2 0

4.4 0

4 .6 0

1.80

5.2 0

5.6 0

6 .0 0

6.4 0

6.8 0

7 . 20

7.6 0

8 .0 0

8.4 0

8.8 0

9.2 0

9.6 0

-

-

-

11
11

13
1
12

-

4
2
2

5
2
3

18
4
14

33
7
26
6

16
5
11
9

28
15

63
16
47
5

72
26
46
-

4
4

10
10

16
16

11

5
3
2

28

-

110
110
-

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

2
2

42
42

4
4

10
10

-

-

-

3
2

-

-

15
13

_

-

2
2

_

-

4
2

2

-

1
1

8
“

14
14

6
6

9
9

11
11

-

24
24

-

-

-

-

16

-

84
“

_

11
4
7

2
2

“

21
16
5

44
26
18

4
4

40
40

-

-

18
18
~

1
1

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

and
under

ALL WORKERS
TRUCKORIVERS -------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PUBLIC UTILI TIE S -----------------------------

4 59
192
267
37

$
7.1 4
8*31
6.2 9
6.1 0

$
6.9 6
9.2 6
6.5 3
6.1 5

$
5 .9 8 6 .9 6 5 .2 5 5 .7 5 -

$
9 .0 3
9 .5 3
7 .2 0
6.1 5

TRUCKORIVERS. MEDIUM TRUCK ------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

93
78

6 .5 1
6.3 4

6.5 3
6.5 3

5 .5 4 5 .9 7 -

6 .6 1
6.5 3

TRUCKDRIVERS. HEAVY TRUCK --------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

164
64

8.1 7
6.1 8

9.5 3
6.3 5

7 .2 0 5 .2 5 -

9.5 3
7 .2 0

TRUCKORIVERS. TRACTOR-TRAILER -----MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

168
66
102

6.8 5
7.3 5
6.5 3

6 .9 6
6 .9 6
7 . 20

6 .5 4 6 .5 4 4 .1 3 -

8.2 5
9 .2 6
8 .2 5

RECEIVERS --------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

55
18

5.1 6
5.0 3

4 .8 5
4 .7 4

4 .6 8 4 .6 8 -

5.2 0
5 .5 7

SHIPPERS ANO RECEIVERS --------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

51
25
26

5.8 9
5.2 8
6 .4 8

6.0 0
5 .4 5
6.8 0

5 .0 8 4 .7 9 6 .0 0 -

6.8 0
5 .8 0
7 .1 3

WAREHOUSEMEN -------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

148
83
68

5 .3 6
5 .2 1
5.5 3

5 .0 8
5.0 8
6.0 0

4 .7 0 4 .8 8 4 .6 4 -

6.0 0
5.4 3
6.0 5

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS -----------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

147
94
53

4.4 7
5 .0 3
3 .4 9

4 .5 1
4 .6 8
3 .0 0

3 .0 0 4 .5 1 3 .0 0 -

5.3 0
5.8 0
4.0 0

FORKLIFT OPERATORS -----------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

339
245
94

5.3 6
5 .0 7
6 .1 2

5 .0 8
4 .6 8
5.9 3

4 .5 9 4 .5 9 5 .5 3 -

5.9 3
5 .3 7
7 .0 4

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

JANITORS. PORTERS. ANO CLEANERS -----MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

376
105
271

4 .2 1
4.5 8
4.0 6

3 .9 0
4.51
3 .9 0

3 .9 0 4 .0 8 3 .9 0 -

4 .5 1
5.0 2
3 .9 0

7
1
6

1
1

6

-

5

29
6
23

_

_

_

_

6

"

12

_

10

-

10

_

-

_

40
40
2

~

-

-

-

-

-

6

12

-

"

-

"

-

_

_

2
-

1
1

1
-

-

1

1

-

-

“

-

-

-

18
3

2
-

5
4

-

-

16
9

4
2
2

_

_

-

2
2
-

5
4
i

6
6

4
4

5
5

10
4
6

12
12

-

-

2
2
-

-

-

-

_
-

-

27
7
20

36
36
-

12
10
2

4

40
10
30

_

13
7
6

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

24
17
7

11
11

12
10
2

2
2

12
12
“

-

20
20

-

-

-

“

3
3
~

-

-

-

42
42

55
37
18

20
2
18

20
20

6
6

24

15
12
3

3

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

8
8
-

_

1

3

-

-

-

1

3
2
1

1
1
-

3
3
-

i
i
-

8
8

-

13
1
12

10
10

8
8

2
2

55
55

-

-

-

16
12
4

-

“

38
37
1

11

_

9

-

2

-

15
9
6

15
13
2

25
10
15

3
2
1

57
32
25

"

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

11
3
8

31
7
24

2
2
-

4
2

i

See footnotes at end of tables.




11

8

177
3
17 4

1

-

3

“

-

-

4

3

-

“

~

3
3

24
6

3
3

-

-

-

6

6
-

18
9
9
3

~

9

-

-

_

~

-

-

-

-

*

i

8

“

~
“

3

-

~

“

-

~




Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom
powerplant, material movement, and custodial workers,
by sex, in Fresno, Calif., June 1978
Average
(mean2)
hourly
earnings4

Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

N ber
um
Sex, 3 occupation, and industry division

MAINTENANCE. TOOLROOM. AND
PONERPLA NT OCCUPATIONS - M
EN
MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIANS ---------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

of
workers

Average
(m e a n !)

hourly
earnings4

MATERIAL MOVEMENT ANO CUSTOOIAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED
70
46

$
8.2 7
7.6 5

TRUCKDRIVERS -

CONTINUED

TRUCKORIVERS. TRACTOR-TRAILER —
MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

168
66
102

$
6 .8 5
7.3 5
6.5 3

MAINTENANCE MACHINISTS --------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

40
31

8.3 2
8.1 7

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS (MACHINERY) MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------

269
262

7.2 8
7 .3 0

RECEIVERS -----------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

42
18
24

5.3 5
5.0 3
5.5 9

MAINTENANCE MECHANICS
(MOTOR VEHICLES 1 -------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------PURLIC UT ILITIES -----------------------------

133
49
81
50

7.7 1
7.3 2
7.9 4
8.6 7

SHIPPERS ANO RECEIVERS ----------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

51
25
26

5.8 9
5.2 8
6.4 8

MAINTENANCE TRAOES HELPERS ------------------

43

5.9 3

WAREHOUSEMEN ----------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

147
79
68

5.3 7
5 .2 3
5.5 3

statio nary

e n g i n e e r s -------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------

33
15

7.3 9
7.5 1

BOILER TENOERS --------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------

38
38

7 .3 4
7 .3 4

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS -------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

147
94
53

4.4 7
5.0 3
3.4 9

FORKLIFT OPERATORS --------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

3 39
245
94

5.3 6
5.0 7
6.1 2

JANITORS. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS —
MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------

314
95
219

4.2 5
4.6 3
4.0 8

62

4.0 0

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - MEN
TRUCKDRIVERS ---------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------PUBLIC UT ILITIES --------------------------

4 59
192
267
37

7 .1 4
8.3 1
6 . 29
6 .1 3

TRUCKDRIVERS. MEOIUM TRUCK ---------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

93
78

6.5 1
6.3 4

TRUCKDRIVERS. HEAVY TRUCK -----------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------

164
64

8 . 17
6.1 8

MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL
OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN

JANITORS.

See footnotes at end of tabl es.

9

PORTERS.

AND CLEANERS -




Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted for employment shifts.
for selected occupational groups in Fresno, Calif., for selected periods
Industry and occupational group 5

June 1975
to
June 1976

June 1976
to
June 1977

June 1977
to
June 1978

A l l industries:
Office c l e r i c a l ____________ ____________________________
E le ctr on ic data p r o c e s s i n g ________ _____ _________
Industrial n ur s es _________________________________________
Skilled maintenance tra des _____________________________
Unskilled plant w o r k e r s . ____________________________

7.8

6.7

6.8

( 6)
( 6)
10.1
8.4

( 6)
( 6)

9.2
6.6

( 6)
( 6)
6.2
7.0

Manufacturing:
Office c l e r i c a l ____________________________________________
E le ctr on ic data p r o c e s s in g _____________________________
Industrial n ur s es ____________________ _____ _________
Skilled maintenance tra de s _____________________________
Unskilled plant w o r k e r s . __ ______ __________________

( 6)
( 6)
( 6)
10.4
8.2

( 6)
( 6)
( 6)
9.7
5.2

( 6)
( 6)
( 6)
5. 7
5.6

7.1

7.1

7.0

(‘ )
( 6)
( 6)

(‘ )
( 6)
( 6)

(*)
( 6)
( 6)

Nonmanufacturing:
Office c l e r i c a l . _________________ ____________________
E le ct r on ic data p r oc e s si ng _____________________________
Industrial n u r s es _________________________________________
Unskilled plant w o r k e r s . ____________________________

See footnotes at end of tables.

A re vi s e d descr ipt ion fo r c om put er op erators is being introduced in this ar ea in
1978.
The r evi se d des cription is not c on si d ere d equivalent to the previous description.
T h er ef or e , the earnings of c om put er op erators a r e not used in computing percent inc r ea s es
for the el ec tro ni c data p r oc e s s in g group.

10

B. Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions
Table B-1. Minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced typists and clerks in Fresno, Calif., June 1978
Inexperienced typists
Manufacturing
■ i n i m u m w ee kl y s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a l a r y 7
M

Nonmanufacturing

40

45

XXX

A ll
schedules

STUDIED -------------------------

12 0

ESTABLISHMENTS HAWING A SPECIFIED
MINIMUM ---------------------------------------------------------------

22

8

7

1
2
2
3
5

_

-

-

-

UNDER $ 1 0 5 . 0 0 ---------------------------------------------$ 1 0 5 . 0 0 ANO UNDER $ 1 1 0 . 0 0 -----------------5 1 1 0 - 0 0 AMO UMOER 5 1 1 5 . 0 3 -----------------$ 1 1 5 . 0 0 ANO UNDER $ 1 2 0 . 0 0 -----------------$ 1 2 0 . 0 0 AND UNDER $ 1 2 5 . 0 0 -----------------$ 1 2 5 . 0 0 ANO UNDER $ 1 3 0 . 0 0 -------------$ 1 3 0 . 0 0 AND UNDER $ 1 3 5 . 0 0 -------------$ 1 3 5 . 0 0 AND UNDER $ 1 4 0 . 0 0 -------------$ 1 4 0 . 0 0 AND UNOER $ 1 4 5 . 0 0 -------------$ 1 4 5 . 0 0 ANO UNOER $ 1 5 0 . 0 0 -------------$ 1 5 0 . 0 0 AND UNOER $ 1 5 5 . 0 0 -------------$ 1 5 5 . 0 0 AND UNOER $ 1 6 0 . 0 0 -------------$ 1 6 0 . 0 0 ANO UNDER $ 1 6 5 . 0 0 -------------$ 1 6 5 . 0 0 ANO UNDER $ 1 7 0 . 0 0 -------------$ 1 7 0 . 0 0 AND UNDER $ 1 7 5 . 0 0 -------------$ 1 7 5 . 0 0 AND OVER ------------------------------

2
1

2
1

XXX

14

9

1
2
2
i
4

-

~
1

1

1

1
1

3

-

1

-

1
-

2

1

1

1
-

-

~

~

4
1
1
1

-

~

XXX

1
2

2

1

1

B a s e d on standard weekly hours 9 of—

All
indust ries

-

-

40

119

45

XXX

74

XXX

36

14

13

22

17

4

-

1

1
5

_

1
2
1
-

1
6

_

6

2

1
2

4
5
2
2

3

3

l

i

4

1

1

i

3
1

2

1
1
1
1
2
1

i

4

i
1
-

40

3 7 Vs

3
3
i
3
1

1

XXX

-

1
-

-

1

1

-

-

-

1

-

i

1

-

-

-

A ll
schedules

A ll
schedules

3 7 Vs

-

-

2
1
1
1

75

40

Nonmanufacturing

Manufacturing

B ase d on standard wee kly hours 9 of—

A ll
industries
A ll
schedules

ESTABLISHMENTS

Other inexperienced c le r ic a l w or k er s 8

-

-

3

3

-

1
3

1
~

1
1

~

-

1

1

~

“

ESTABLISHMENTS HAVING NO SPECIFIED
MINIMUM ------------------------------------------------

11

5

XXX

6

XXX

xxx

25

12

XXX

13

XXX

XXX

ESTABLISHMENTS UHICH DIO NOT EMPLOY
WORKERS IN THIS CATEGORY -----------------

87

32

XXX

55

XXX

XXX

58

14

xxx

34

xxx

xxx

1

-

Se e footnotes at end of t abl es.




11

-

-

-




Table B-2. Late-shift pay provisions for full-tim e manufacturing production
and related workers in Fresno, C alif., June 1978
( A ll f u l l - t i m e manufacturing production and related w o r k e r s = 100 p ercent)
W o r k e r s on late shifts

A l l w or k er s 10
Second shift

Third shift

Second shift

Th ird shift

PERCENT OF WORKERS
IN ESTABLISHMENTS (JITH LATE SHIFT PROVISIONS

87.9

63.3

1 8 .3

7 .2

UITH NO PAY DIFFERENTIAL FOR LATE SHIFT UORK
WITH PAY DIFFERENTIAL FOR LATE SHIFT UORK —
UNIFORM CENTS-PER-HOUR DIFFERENTIAL -------------UNIFORM PERCENTAGE DIFFERENTIAL ----------------------OTHER DIFFERENTIAL -----------------------------------------------------

10.4
77 .6
6 9 .0
6.1
2.5

3.1
60 .2
50.1
6.1
4 .3

1.2
17.1
15 .0
1.9
.2

.4
6 .8
6 .3
.4
.i

16 . 6
8.0

20.8
12.0

16 .7
8 .0

22 .6
12 .0

AVERAGE PAY DIFFERENTIAL
UNIFORM CENTS-PER-HOUR DIFFERENTIAL ------------------UNIFORM PERCENTAGE DIFFERENTIAL ---------------------------PERCENT OF WORKERS BY TYPE ANO
AMOUNT OF PAY DIFFERENTIAL
UNIFORM
10
11
12
15
16
17
18
19
20
22
25
28
35
50

c e n t s - p e r - hour:

CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------ANO UNDER 18 CENTS ---------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------CENTS ---------------------------------------------------------------------CENTS ----------------------------------------------------------------------

UNIFORM p e r c e n t a g e :
8
PERCENT -----------------------------------------------------------------12 PERCENT -----------------------------------------------------------------

10.8
3 .6
5 .0
19 .4
2.0
3 .1
2.6
~
13.9
4 .0
2.8
1 .7
“

6 .1

14.8
3.6
3.1
~
2 .9
9 .6
2 .0
8 .9
2.8
2 .3
_
6 .1

See footnote at end of tables.

12

1.0
1.0
1.2
6.2
.8
1.3
1.5
.8
.7
.5
"
1.9

•6
1 .0
•6
2 .9
.5

.7
_
.4

Table B-3. Scheduled w eekly hours and days of full-tim e first-shift workers in Fresno, C alif., June 1978
Production and related w or k er s

Offic e w or k er s

It em
A ll industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

1QP

10 0

100

PERCENT OF WORKERS BY SCHEDULED
WEEKLY HOURS AND DAYS
ALL FULL-TIME
35
36
37
37
40

42
44
50

WORKERS — --------------------

HOURS—5 DAYS ---------------------------------------------1 / 3 HOUR S—5 D A Y S ------------------------------------HOURS-5 D A Y S ---------------------------------------------1 / 2 HOURS—5 O A Y S ------------------------------------HOURS -------------------------------------------------------------4 DAYS -----------------------------------------------------------5 DAYS -----------------------------------------------------------HOURS-5 DAYS ---------------------------------------------HOURS-5 1 / 2 OAYS ------------------------------------HOURS— OAYS ---------------------------------------------6

100

100

100

1 0 0 ................

3

5
-

-

-

_

1

-

.100

3
15
ao

1
8
86
1
84
i
1
(12)

_
93
3
90
2
-

-

3

_
_

-

21
76

11
89
-

24
72
72

_

3

80
-

98

76

-

_

-

_

89
-

1
<12>

_

-

100
100
-

2

-

-

-

-

39.4

39 .7

39 .3

40 .0

_
-

98
-

-

_

AVERAGE SCHEDULED
WEEKLY HOURS
ALL WEEKLY WORK SCHEDULES -----------------------

S ee fo o tn o te

39 .7

39.8

39 .6

4 0 .2

at en d o f ta b le s .




13

Table B-4. Annual paid holidays for full-tim e workers in Fresno, C alif., June 1978
Pr oduction and related w or k ers

Of fi ce w o r k e r s

Ite m
A ll industries

per ce nt

of

M anuf actur ing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

100

100

10 0

100

100

<121

_

workers

WORKERS ------------------

100

10 0

10 0

IN ESTABLISHMENTS NOT PROVIDING
PAID HOLIDAYS --------------------------------------IN ESTABLISHMENTS PR0VIDIN6
PAID HOLIDAYS ---------------------------------------

2

-

5

1

<121

98

10 0

95

99

99

10 0

99

100

8 .3

8 .7

8 .0

9 .9

9 .3

9 .1

9 .4

9 .8

-

-

-

<121
<121

<121
<121

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

ALL FULL-TIME

a ve r a g e

n umber

of

paid

-

holidays

FOR WORKERS IN ESTABLISHMENTS
PROVIDING HOLIDAYS ---------------------------PERCENT OF WORKERS BY NUMBER
OF PAID HOLIDAYS PROVIOEO
6
7
1
2

HALF DAYS ----------------HALF DAYS ----------------HOLIDAY ---------------------HOLIDAYS ------------------PLUS A HALF DAYS
3 HOLIDAYS ------------------A HOLIDAYS ------------------5 HOLIOAYS -------------------PLUS 5 HALF DAYS
6 HOLIOAYS -------------------PLUS 2 HALF DAYS
7 HOLIDAYS -------------------PLUS 2 HALF DAYS
B HOLIDAYS -------------------PLUS 1 HALF DAY 9 HOLIDAYS -----------------PLUS 1 HALF OAY ID HOLIOAYS ----------------11 HOLIDAYS ----------------12 HOLIDAYS ----------------13 HOLIDAYS -----------------

1
i
2
1
i
i
2
1
2
3
1
9
2
2D

1
<121
~

2
3
2
~

3
3
25

2
2
3
1
1

-

<121
<121
3
6
1
14

2

-

3

16

6
10

~

22

26

20

~

~

~

21
7
1

25
8
2

19
7

98
96
95
93
92
90
89
86
76
74
52
52
30
30
9
i

100
99
99
97
97
94
92
92
89
89
61
61
35
35
11
2
~

<121
<121
<121

95
93
92
90
88
86
86
80
64
61
45
45
25
25
7

46
32

-

1
1
11
<121
11
10
11
20
18
6
3
7

1
1
2

<121
<121

-

1

-

-

_

-

1
1
13

-

-

-

-

3
1
22
~

21
-

41
7
1

8
13
9
25
12
5
4
9

3
8
-

14
-

49
26
-

PERCENT OF WORKERS BY TOTAL
PAID HOLIDAY TIME PROVIOEO131
1 DAY OR MORE --------2 DAYS OR MORE ------3 DAYS OR MORE ------3 1 / 2 OAYS OR MORE
4 0»YS OR MORE ------5 DAYS OR MORE ------6 DAYS OR MORE ------7 DAYS OR MORE ------7 1 / 2 DAYS OR MORE
8 OAYS OR MORE ------8 1 / 2 DAYS OR MORE
9 DAYS OR MORE ------9 1 / 2 OAYS OR MORE
10 DAYS OR MORE —
11 OAYS OR MORE —
12 DAYS OR MORE —
13 DAYS -----------------------

99
99
99
99
99
99
97
97
95
95
88
88
78
78
32
-

'

S e e f o o t n o t e s at e n d o f t a b l e s .




14

99
99
99
99
99
99
99
98
86
86
75
65
54
34
16
10
7

10 0
99
99
99
99
98
96
96
94
94
70
70
49
49
8
i

99
99
99
99
99
99
99
98
85
85
77
64
55
30
18
13
9

100
100
100
100
10 0
100
99
99
96
96
88
88
75
75
26
-

Table B -5. Paid vacation provisions for full-tim e workers in Fresno, C alif., June 1978
Production and rela ted w or k er s

Of fi ce w o r k e r s

It e m
A ll industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

PERCENT OF WORKERS
100

100

1

3

99
88
11

97
80
17

100
95
5

6 MONTHS OF SERVICE:
UNDER 1 WEEK -------------------------1
WEEK --------------------------------------OVER 1 AND UNDER 2 WEEKS

5
18
1

5
11

1 YEAR OF SERVICE:
UNDER 1 WEEK -------------------------1 WEEK ---------------------------------------OVER 1 AND UNDER 2 WEEKS
2 WEEKS -------------------------------------OVER 2 AND UNDER 3 WEEKS
3 WEEKS --------------------------------------

1
66
( 12 1
27
2
2

3
70
1
18
3
3

2 YEARS OF SERVICE:
UNDER 1 WEEK -------------------------1 WEEK ---------------------------------------2 WEEKS -------------------------------------OVER 2 ANO UNDER 3 WEEKS
3 WEEKS --------------------------------------

1
19
74
2
2

ALL FULL-TIHE

WORKERS ---------------

IN ESTABLISHMENTS NOT PROVIDING
PAID VACATIONS ---------------------------------IN ESTABLISHMENTS P R0 V I0 IN 6
PAID VACATIONS ---------------------------------LENGTH-OF-TIME PAYMENT ------------PERCENTAGE PAYMENT ----------------------AMOUNT OF PAID

100

100

10 0

10 0

100

100

<12>

1

_

_

100
98
2

99
99
1

99
99
i

100
99
i

10 0
100

6
24
2

43

( 12 1
44
( 12 1

25
1

(12 1
49
(12 1

62

29

-

-

VACATION AFTER: 14

34

39

29

25

33
-

-

34
2
2

70

63
1
3

59
2
9

65
(12)
1

65

2
25
64
3
3

14
83
2
2

3
92
5

3
92
1
3

a
80
2
9

2
96
(121
2

1
93

1
6
87
2
2

2
6
83
3
3

6
90
2
2

2
93
1
4

4
84
2
9

1
96
(12)
3

UNOER 1 WEEK -------------------------1 WEEK ---------------------------------------2 WEEKS -------------------------------------OVER 2 AND UNOER 3 WEEKS
3 WEEKS --------------------------------------

1
6
86
2
3

2
6
81
3
5

6
90
2
2

2
93
1
5

4
81
2
12

1
96
(12)
3

5 YEARS OF SERVICE:
UNOER 1 WEEK -------------------------1 WEEK ---------------------------------------2 WEEKS -------------------------------------OVER 2 AND UNOER 3 WEEKS
3 WEEKS -------------------------------------A WEEKS --------------------------------------

1
4
63
3
26
2

2
1
72
1
18
3

1
39
1
55
4

1
72
2
16
9

1
30
(12)
66
2

3

a

YEARS OF SERVICE:
UNDER 1 WEEK -------------------------1 WEEK ---------------------------------------2 WEEKS ------------------------------------OVER 2 ANO UNDER 3 WEEKS
3 WEEKS -------------------------------------years

of

~

5

-

-

6

_

_

-

6

_
-

95
5

-

94
6

servic e:

95
5

-

6

_

-

6
56
5
33
1

88
7
5

S e e f o o t n o t e s at e n d o f t a b l e s .




-

94

15

-

92
-

3
6

Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions for full-tim e workers in Fresno, C alif., June 1978— Continued
Production and related w or k er s

O ff ic e w o r k e r s

It em
A ll industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

AMOUNT OF PAID VACATION AFTER14 CONTINUED
10

YEARS OF s e r v i c e :
UNDER 1 WEEK -------------------------------1 WEEK ---------------------------------------------2 WEEKS -------------------------------------------OVER 2 AND UNDER 3 WEEKS —
3 WEEKS ------------------------------------------OVER 3 AND UNOER 4 WEEKS —
4 WEEKS -------------------------------------------

12

years

of

1

20

25

se rv ic e :

YEARS OF SERVICE:
UNOER 1 WEEK -------------------------------1 WEEK ---------------------------------------------2 WEEKS -------------------------------------------OVER 2 AND UNOER 3 WEEKS —
3 WEEKS -------------------------------------------OVER 3 AND UNDER 4 WEEKS —
4 WEEKS -------------------------------------------5 WEEKS -------------------------------------------YEARS OF SERVICE:
UNDER 1 WEEK -------------------------------1 WEEK ---------------------------------------------2 WEEKS -------------------------------------------OVER 2 AND UNOER 3 WEEKS —
3 WEEKS -------------------------------------------OVER 3 AND UNOER 4 WEEKS —
4 WEEKS -------------------------------------------OVER 4 AND UNOER 5 WEEKS —
5 WEEKS -------------------------------------------6 WEEKS -------------------------------------------YEARS OF SERVICE:*
UNOER 1 WEEK --------------------------------1 WEEK ---------------------------------------------2 WEEKS -------------------------------------------OVER 2 ANO UNDER 3 WEEKS —
3 WEEKS -------------------------------------------4 WEEKS -------------------------------------------5 WEEKS -------------------------------------------6 WEEKS --------------------------------------------

*

i

71
6
6

6

i
4
8
i
73
4
8

UNDER 1 WEEK -------------------------------1 WEEK ---------------------------------------------2 WEEKS ------------------------------------------OVER 2 AND UNOER 3 WEEKS —
3 WEEKS -------------------------------------------OVER 3 AND UNOER 4 WEEKS —
4 WEEKS -------------------------------------------5 WEEKS -------------------------------------------15

2
1
9

4

ii
2
72
3

E st i m at e s

See fo o tn o te s

of prov is ion s




~

69
6

9

~

i

2
1
5
49
i
37
2

_

5

1
4
(12 1
83
3
8

_

_

1
94
-

6

7
2
77
1
7

1
~

84
6

8

-

4

5
i
45
1
41
1

1
4
5
1
30
(12 )
45
1
11

2
1
5
«
27
-

48
2
11

_

_

6
6

2
42
1
44

_

6
6
2
32
( 12 1
42
~
12

6

70

_

1
7
89
“
3

2

of s e r v i c e

_

_

i

1
4
5
1
30
24
28
1

6
6
2
32
22
32
1

-

5
27
37
23
2

are

identical.

i
4
(12)
81
3
10
(12)
.
1

1
~
23

'

fo r longer p eriods

a t en d o f t a b le s

2
1
10

6
12
2
74
(12*
6

1
~

7
9
80
3

3
(12)
25
(12)
69
(12)

_
1
3
(12)
10
(12)
80
-

5
(12)

1
9
75
-

14

1
3
(12)
85
4
7

3
-

91
-

6

_
i

9
72
17
~

1
3
(12)
83
4
8
1

-

3
-

90
(12)
6

_

1
7
38
1
52

1
2
(12)
21
(12)
74
1

_

1
2
(12)
8
(12)
84

_

3
_

28
(12)
69
“

_

1
7
-

19
-

62

_

3
-

3
_

93

-

-

_

10

3
1

“

~

_
1
3
(12)
10
54
30
1

_

1
7
-

19
46
24
3

1
2
(12)
8
57
31
1

1

_
3
_
3
6
87
1

Table B-6. Health, insurance, and pension plans for fu ll-tim e workers in Fresno, Calif., June 1978
Of fi ce w or k er s

P roduction and rel ated w or k er s
Item
A ll industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufactur ing

Public utilities

A ll industries

Manufacturing

Nonmanufacturing

Public utilities

PERCENT OF WORKERS
ALL FULL-TINE

WORKERS -------------

too

100

10 0

10 0

10 0

100

99

100

99

10 0

99
72

94
81

97
90

93
79

99
72

76
72

70
68

78
68

90
82

74
64

74
72

53

65

93

92

81

95

95

13
13

10
10

15
15

48
46

16
15

20
17

15
15

39
17

10 0

100

97

96

86
84

89
77

76
74

60

IN ESTABLISHMENTS PROVIDING AT
LEAST ONE OF THE BENEFITS
SHOWN BELOW1 5 ----------------------------------------

97

LIFE INSURANCE ------------------------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLANS ----------------

88
80

ACCIDENTAL DEATH AND
OISHEHBERNENT INSURANCE -------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLANS ----------------

76
73

SICKNESS AND ACCIDENT INSURANCE
OR SICK LEAVE OR BOTH1 6 ----------------

too

SICKNESS AND ACCIDENT
INSURANCE -----------------------------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLANS -----------SICK LEAVE (FULL PAY AND NO
WAITING PERIOD) ---------------------------SICK LEAVE (PARTIAL PAY OR
WAITING PERIOD) ----------------------------

31

23

38

87

82

74

84

95

23

23

23

4

10

5

11

(12)

LONG-TERN DISABILITY
INSURANCE ----------------------------------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLANS ----------------

21
16

21
19

20
15

72
64

62
46

50
40

65
48

65
63

HOSPITALIZATION INSURANCE -----------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLANS ----------------

97
86

97
91

96
81

100
72

99
49

10 0
86

99
38

10 0
72

SURGICAL INSURANCE ---------------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLANS -----------------

97
86

97
91

96
81

100
72

99
49

10 0
86

99
38

10 0
72

MEDICAL INSURANCE ------------------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLANS -----------------

94
85

97
91

92
81

97
69

97
48

10 0
86

96
38

99
71

MAJOR MEDICAL INSURANCE ----------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLANS -----------------

97
86

97
91

96
81

100
72

99
49

100
86

99
38

10 0
72

DENTAL INSURANCE --------------------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLANS -----------------

66
59

74
70

58
49

97
77

65
35

73
60

63
28

97
71

RETIREMENT PENSION ----------------------------NONCONTRIBUTORY PLANS -----------------

72
64

66
59

77
69

85
82

84
70

86
65

83
72

71
70

S e e fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le s .




Table B-7. Life insurance plans for full-tim e workers in Fresno, C alif., June 1978
Production and related w or k ers
A l l industries

Office w o r k e r s

Manufacturing

A l l industries

Manufacturing

It em
All
plans 1
7

None contributory
plans 1
7

All
p l a n s 17

Noncontributory
plans 1
7

All
plans 1
7

68

45

Noncontributory
plans 17

All
plans 17

Noncontributory
plans 1
7

TYPE OF PLAN ANO AMOUNT
OF INSURANCE

ALL FULL-TIME WORKERS ARE PROVIDED THE SAME
FLAT-SUM DOLLAR AMOUNT:
PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME WORKERS 18--------------------------amount of i n s u r a n c e p r o v i o e d : 19
MEAN ------------------------------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE ( 5 0 PERCENT 1 -----------------------MIOOLE RANGE ( 8 0 PERCENT) ------------------------

AMOUNT OF INSURANCE IS RASEO ON A SCHEDULE
WHICH i n d i c a t e s a s p e c i f i e d d o l l a r amount

69
* 5 • 500
*5.0 00
*3 *0 0 0 - 6*000
* 2 .0 0 0 -1 0 .0 0 0

67
*5.5 00
*5.0 00
* 3 .0 0 0 - 6 .0 00
* 2 .0 0 0 -1 0 .0 0 0

70
*4.8 00
*5.0 00
* 2 .5 0 0 - 5.0 0 0
* 2 .0 0 0 - 7.5 0 0

*4.8 00
*5 .0 00
* 2 .0 0 0 - 5.0 00
* 2 .0 0 0 - 7.5 0 0

*4.1 00
*3.0 00
* 2 .0 0 0 - 5.0 00
* 2 .0 0 0 - 6.0 0 0

40
*3.9 00
*3.0 00
* 2 .0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0
* 2 .0 0 0 - 6.0 00

21
* 5 .2 0 0
* 5 .0 3 0
* 5 .3 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0
* 2 .0 0 0 -1 0 .0 0 0

18
* 5 .3 0 0
*5.0 00
* 5 .0 0 0 - 5 .0 0 0
* 2 .0 0 0 -1 0 .0 0 0

of

f or a s p e c i f i e d l e n g t h of s e r v i c e :
PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME WORKERS18--------------------------AMOUNT of i n s u r a n c e p r o v i d e d 19 a f t e r :
6 MONTHS OF SERVICE:
m e a n ------------------------------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE ( 5 0 PERCFNT) -----------------------MIOOLE RANGE ( 8 0 PERCENT) -----------------------1 YEAR OF SERVICE:
m e a n ------------------------------------------------------------------------m e d i a n --------------------------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE ( 5 0 PERCENT) -----------------------MIOOLE RANGE ( 8 0 PERCENT) -----------------------5 YEARS OF SERVICE:
m e a n ------------------------------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE ( 5 0 PERCENT) -----------------------MIDDLE RANGE ( 8 0 PERCENT) -----------------------i d y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
ME AN ------------------------------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE ( 5 0 PERCENT) ------------------------MIOOLE RANGE ( 8 0 PERCENT) -----------------------20 YEARS OF SERVICE:
m e a n ------------------------------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------------------------MIOOLE RANGE ( 5 0 PERCENT) -----------------------MIDDLE RANGE ( 8 0 PERCENT) ------------------------

in sura n ce

3

3

9

(6
(6
(6
(6

1
1
*
1

(6)
(6)
(61
(6)

(61
(61
(6*
(61

(61
(61
( 61
( 61

(6
(6
(6
<6

(6»
(61
(61
(6 *

(6
(6
(6
(6

1
1
)
1

(6 )
(6 >
(6)
(6)

(6)
( 61
( 61
( 61

(6)
16*
€6*
( 61

C *
6
(6 1
(6 1
(6 1

(6)
(6»
(6)
(6)

(6*
C6*
(6)
(6)

(6
(6
(6
(6

1
1
*
)

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

(6)
(6)
(6)
( 61

( 61
(6)
( 61
( 61

(6
(6
16
(6

(6 )
(6 >
(6)
(6 >

C6 *
(6 1
(6)
(6)

(6*
(6 *
<6*
(6 )

(6
(6
<6
(6

1
•
*
)

(61
( 61
(61
(6)

(6 1
(6)
(61
( 61

16*
( 61
<6*
(6 1

(61
(6 1
(6 1
(6 1

(6)
(6)
(6 )
(6 >

(6)
C6 1
(6)
(6)

(6)
(61
(6)
(61

(6
<6
(6
(6

1
*
*
*

(61
( 61
(6)
(6)

( 61
(61
(61
( 61

16*
(6)
€6*
(6 1

(6
(6
(6
(6

2

3

(6)
(6 >
(6 >
(6 )

16*
(6)
(6)
(6)

(6)
(6)
(6)
(6)

(6 >
(6 )
(6)
(6)

(6»
(6)
(6)
(6>

(6)
(6)
(6 )
(6 )

See footnotes at end of t a b l e s .




9

3

2

18

I
1
•
*

1
I
*
1

*
»
l
1

Table B-7. Life insurance plans for full-tim e workers in Fresno, C alif., June 1978— Continued
O ffic e w o r k e r s

P r o d u c t io n an d r e la t e d w o r k e r s
A l l in d u s t r i e s

M a n u f a c t u r in g

M a n u fa c t u r in g

A l l in d u s t r ie s

Item
A ll
p la n s 1
7

N o n co n trib u to r y
p la n s 17

A ll
p la n s 17

6

3

3

N o n co n trib u to r y
p la n s 17

A ll
p la n s 17

N o n co n trib u to r y
p la n s 17

A ll
p la n s 17

N o n co n trib u to r y
p la n s 17

TYPE OF PLAN AND AMOUNT
OF INSURANCE-CONTINUED

AMOUNT OF INSURANCE IS BASEO ON A SCHEDULE
WHICH INDICATES A SPECIFIED DOLLAR AMOUNT OF
INSURANCE FOR A SPECIFIED AMOUNT OF EARNINGS:
PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME WORKERS18 -------------------AMOUNT OF INSURANCE PROVIOEO19 I F :
ANNUAL EARNINGS ARE * 5 . 0 0 0 :
MEA N------------------------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE < 50 PERCENT) -----------------MIDDLE RANGE < 80 PERCENT) ----------------ANNUAL EARNINGS ARE SIO' OO O:
ME AN------------------------------------------------------------------MEDIAN -------------------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE < 50 PERCENT) ----------------MIDDLE RANGE < 8 0 PERCENT) -----------------ANNUAL EARNINGS ARE * 1 5 . 0 0 0 :
MEAN ------------------------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE < 5 0 PERCENT) ----------------MIDDLE RANGE < 80 PERCENT) -----------------ANNUAL EARNINGS ARE * 2 0 . 3 0 0 :
ME AN-------------------------------------------------------------------MEDIAN --------------------------------------------------------------HIODLE RANGE < 50 PERCENT) ----------------HIOOLE RANGE < 80 PERCENT) ------------------

AMOUNT OF INSURANCE I S EXPRESSED AS A FACTOR OF
a n n u a l e a r n i n g s : 20
PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME WORKERS 18--------------------------FACTOR OF ANNUAL EARNINGS USED TO CALCULATE
AMOUNT OF INSURANCE:19 20
ME AN-------------------------------------------------------------------------MEOIAN ---------------------------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE < 5 0 PERCENT) -----------------------MIDDLE RANGE < 80 PERCENT) -----------------------PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME WORKERS COVEREO BY
PLANS NOT SPECIFYING A MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF
INSURANCE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME WORKERS COVERED BY
PLANS SPECIFYING A MAXIMUM AMOUNT O
F
INSURANCE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------SPECIFIED MAXIMUM AMOUNT OF INSURANCE:19
MEA N-------------------------------------------------------------------------MEDIAN ---------------------------------------------------------------------MIDDLE RANGE < 50 PERCENT) -----------------------MIDDLE RANGE < 80 PERCENT) ------------------------

AMOUNT OF INSURANCE I S BASEO ON SOME OTHER TYPE
of p l a n :
PERCENT OF ALL FULL-TIME WORKERS 18---------------------------

20

16

14

14

*7.0 00
* 5 .0 0 0
*5*0 00 -10 *00 0
* 5 .0 0 0 -1 0 .0 0 0

<6 )
<6 )
C6>
f6 )

(6
<6
(6
<6

>
>
>
»

*6.2 00
*5.0 00
* 5 * 0 0 0 - 5*000
* 5 .0 0 0 -1 1 .0 0 0

*5*401
*5*000
* 5 * 0 0 0 - 5*000
* 5 .0 0 0 - 5 .3 00

*7 .3 0 0
*5 .0 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0 -1 0 .0 0 0
* 5 .0 0 0 -1 0 .0 0 0

*7 * 300
<5.000
*5*000-10*000
* 5 *0 0 0 -1 0 .0 0 0

* 1 0 .0 0 0 - 2 2 . 0 0 0

*13 .8 0 0
*13 .0 0 0
*1 0 .3 0 0 -2 0 .0 0 0
*10 .0 0 3 -2 0 .0 0 0

<6 )
<6 )
<6 )
<6»

<6>
<6 1
<6 )
<6 >

*23 .700
*20 .000
*12 .500 -4 0.00 0
*1 0 .0 0 0 -4 0 .3 0 0

*24 .5 0 0
*2 0 .0 0 0
*1 2 .5 0 0 -4 0 .0 0 0
*10 .0 0 0 -4 0 .0 0 0

*15 .100
*12 .500
*10 .003 -1 5*00 0
* 1 0 .3 0 0 — 5*000
2

*15 .100
*12 .500
* 10 .000 -1 5.00 0
*1 0 .0 0 0 -2 5 ,0 0 0

*2 2 .500
*1 7 .500
*1 5 . 0 0 0-30.0 00
*1 5 . 0 0 0-30.0 00

* 2 0 .8 0 0
*15 .0 0 0
*1 5 .0 0 0 -3 0 .0 0 0
*1 5 .0 0 0 -3 0 .0 0 0

<6>
<6 )
<6 )
<6 )

<6
<6
<6
<6

«
)
»
>

*37 .700
*3 5 .000
*15 .000 -6 5.00 0
*1 5 .0 0 0 -6 5 .0 0 0

* 4 3 .0 0 0
*35 .0 0 0
*1 5 .0 0 0 -6 5 .0 0 0
*1 5 .0 0 0 -6 5 .0 0 0

*22*803
*15*003
*15 *03 0-2 5*0 30
*15*000-45*000

*22 .800
*15 ,000
* 15 .000 -2 5,00 0
* 1 5 » 00 0-45,0 00

*27 .*00
*20 .0 0 3
*2 0 .0 0 0 -4 0 .0 0 0
*20 .000 -4 0.00 0

f 61
<6»
16 >
<6 )

<6
<6
<6
<6

)
)
)
*

*48*600
*65 .003
*2 0 .3 0 0 -6 5 .0 0 0
* 2 0 .000 -6 5.00 0

*51*000
*65 .000
*2 0 .0 0 0 -6 5 .0 0 0
*2 0 .0 0 0 -6 5 .0 0 0

*32*200
*20*000
*2 3 .0 3 0 -3 5 *3 0 0
*1 7 .5 3 0 -7 5 *0 3 0

*3 2 .200
<20.000
*2 0 .0 0 0 -3 5 .0 0 0
* 1 7 .500 -7 5.00 0

*7.8 00
*6.0 00
*5. 0 0 0 - 1 1 * 0 0 0
* 5 . 00 0-11.0 00
*1 5 .400
*10 .000

S10. 0 0 0 - 2 2 . 0 0 0

13 0.00 0
*2 2 .500

*20.00 0-02.0 00

*2 0 .0 0 0 - 0 2 . 0 0 0

8

1 .2 6
1.0 0
1.0 0 -2 .0 0
.5 0 -2 .0 0

7

8

6

1.0 5
1 .0 0
.5 3 -1 .0 0
.5 0 -2 .0 0

1.0 8
1.0 0
.5 0 -2 .0 0
.5 0 -2 .0 0

8

1.08
1.00
. 50- 2 .0 0
.5 0 -2 .0 0

8

5

1

-

-

>
)
)
>

<6>
<6 )
<6>
<6>

-

-

3

3

3

19

24

1.5 6
1.5 0
1 .0 0 -2 .0 3
1 .0 0 -2 .0 0

19

1.4 0
1.0 0
1 .0 0 -2 .0 0
1 .0 0 -2 .0 0

39

1 .7 8
2 .0 0
1 .5 0 -2 .0 0
1 .0 0 -2 .0 0

34

1.61
1.5 0
1 .5 0 -2 .0 0
1 .0 0 -2 .0 0

21

17

31

27

2

8

1
<6
<6
<6
<6

See footnotes at end of t a b l e s .




3

2

8

7

<6»
<6 )
<6 I
<6 )

<6>
<6>
<6 )
<6 »

15

15

*5 4 .900
<6 >
<6 1
<6 >

3

4

*4 9 .6 0 0
<6 )
<6 )
<6 •

4

Footnotes

Some of these standard footnotes may not apply to this bulletin.

14 Includes payments other than "length of t i m e ," such as percentage
of annual earnings or flat-sum payments, converted to an equivalent time
basis; for example, 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 week's
pay. Periods of service are chosen arbitrarily and do not necessarily reflect
individual provisions for progression; for exam ple, changes in proportions
at 10 years include changes between 5 and 10 years. Estimates are cumula­
tive. Thus, the proportion eligible for at least 3 weeks' pay after 10 years
includes those eligible for at least 3 weeks' pay after fewer years of service.
1 Estimates listed after type of benefit are for all plans for which
5
at least a part of the cost is borne by the employer.
"Noncontributory
plans" include only those financed entirely by the employer. Excluded are
legally required plans, such as w orkers' disability compensation, social s e ­
curity, and railroad retirement.
1 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and
6
accident insurance shown separately below. Sick leave plans are limited to
those which definitely establish at least the minimum number of days' pay
that each employee can expect. Informal sick leave allowances determined
on an individual basis are excluded.
17 Estimates under "A ll plans" relate to all plans for which at least
a part of the cost is borne by the employer. Estim ates under "Noncontrib­
utory plans" include only those financed entirely by the employer.
18 For "A ll in d u stries," all full-tim e production and related workers
or office workers equal 100 percent.
For "M anufacturing," all full-tim e
production and related workers or office workers in manufacturing equal 100
percent.
1 The mean amount is computed by multiplying the number of workers
9
provided insurance by the amount of insurance provided, totaling the prod­
ucts, and dividing the sum by the number of w orkers. The median indicates
that half of the workers are provided an amount equal to or sm aller and half
an amount equal to or larger than the amount shown. Middle range (50 p er­
cent)— a fourth of the workers are provided an amount equal to or less than
the sm aller amount and a fourth are provided an amount equal to or more
than the larger amount. Middle range (80 percent)— 10 percent of the work­
ers are provided an amount equal to or less than the sm aller amount and 10
percent are provided an amount equal to or m ore than the larger amount.
20 A factor of annual earnings is the number by which annual earnings
are multiplied to determine the amount of insurance provided. For example,
a factor of 2 indicates that for annual earnings of $ 10,000 the amount of
insurance provided is $ 20,000.

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive
their regular straight-tim e salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at reg­
ular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly
hours.
2 The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of
all workers and dividing by the number of workers.
The median desig­
nates position— half of the workers receive the same or more and half r e ­
ceive the same or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined
by two rates of pay; a fourth of the workers earn the same or less than
the lower of these rates and a fourth earn the same or more than the
higher rate.
3 Earnings data relate only to workers whose sex identification was
provided by the establishment.
4 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
holidays, and late shifts.
5 Estimates for periods ending prior to 1976 relate to men only for
skilled maintenance and unskilled plant workers. A ll other estimates re ­
late to men and women.
6 Data do not meet publication criteria or data not available.
7 Form ally established minimum regular straight-tim e hiring sa l­
aries that are paid for standard workweeks.
8 Excludes workers in subclerical jobs such as m essenger.
9 Data are presented for all standard workweeks combined, and for
the most common standard workweeks reported.
1 Includes all production and related workers in establishments
0
currently operating late shifts, and establishments whose form al provisions
cover late shifts, even though the establishments were not currently
operating late shifts.
1 Less than 0.05 percent.
1
1 Less than 0.5 percent.
2
1 A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount;
3
for example, the proportion of workers receiving a total of 10 days
includes those with 10 full days and no half days, 9 full days- and 2
half days, 8 full days and 4 half days, and so on. Proportions then
were cumulated.




20

Appendix A.
Scope and Method
of Survey
In each of the 75 1 areas currently surveyed, the Bureau obtains
wages and related benefits data from representative establishments within
six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communication,
and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance,
and real estate; and serv ices. Government operations and the construction
and extractive industries are excluded. Establishments having fewer than a
prescribed number of workers are also excluded because of insufficient
employment in the occupations studied. Appendix table 1 shows the number
of establishments and workers estimated to be within the scope of this
survey, as well as the number actually studied.
Bureau field representatives obtain data by personal visits at 3-year
intervals. In each of the two intervening years, information on employment
and occupational earnings only is collected by a combination of personal
visit, m ail questionnaire, and telephone interview from establishments
participating in the previous survey.
A sample of the establishments in the scope of the survey is
selected for study prior to each personal visit survey. This sample, less
establishments which go out of business or are no longer within the industrial
scope of the survey, is retained for the following two annual surveys. In
most ca ses, establishments new to the area are not considered in the scope
of the survey until the selection of a sample for a personal visit survey.
The sampling procedures involve detailed stratification of all
establishments within the scope of an individual area survey by industry
and number of em ployees.
From this stratified universe a probability
sample is selected, with each establishment having a predetermined chance
of selection.
To obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater
proportion of large than sm all establishments is selected. When data are
combined, each establishment is weighted according to its probability of
selection so that unbiased estimates are generated. For example, if one
out of four establishments is selected, it is given a weight of 4 to represent
itse lf plus three others.
An alternate of the same original probability is
chosen in the same industry-size classification if data are not available
from the original sample m em ber. If no suitable substitute is available,
additional weight is assigned to a sample member that is sim ilar to the
m issing unit.
1
Included in the 75 areas are 5 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas
Akron, Ohio; Birmingham, A la.; Norfolk—Virginia Beach—Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, V a.—N .C .;
Poughkeepsie—Kingston—Newburgh, N .Y .; and Utica—Rome, N .Y . In addition, the Bureau conducts more
limited area studies in approximately 100 areas at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of
the U. S. Department of Labor.




Occupations and earnings
Occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufac­
turing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the following types: (1)
Office clerical; (2) professional and technical; (3) maintenance, toolroom,
and powerplant; and (4) material movement and custodial. Occupational
classification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take
account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job.
Occupations selected for study are listed and described in appendix B.
Unless otherwise indicated, the earnings data following the job titles
are for all industries combined. Earnings data for some of the occupations
listed and described, or for some industry divisions within the scope of the
survey, are not presented in the A -se r ie s tables because either (1) employ­
ment in the occupation is too small to provide enough data to merit presen­
tation, or (2) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment
data. Separate m en's and women's earnings data are not presented when the
number of workers not identified by sex is 20 percent or more of the men
or women identified in an occupation.
Earnings data not shown separately
for industry divisions are included in data for all industries combined.
Likewise, for occupations with more than one level, data are included in
the overall classification when a subclassification is not shown or information
to subclassify is not available.
Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for full-tim e
w orkers, i .e ., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule. Earnings
data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living
allowances and incentive bonuses are included. Weekly hours for office
clerical and professional and technical occupations refer to the standard
workweek (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which employees receive
regular straight-tim e salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular
and/or premium rates). Average weekly earnings for these occupations
are rounded to the nearest half dollar. Vertical lines within the distribution
of workers on some A -tables indicate a change in the size of the class
intervals.
These surveys measure the level of occupational earnings in an area
at a particular tim e. Comparisons of individual occupational averages over
time may not reflect expected wage changes. The averages for individual
jobs are affected by changes in wages and employment patterns. For example,
proportions of workers employed by high- or low-wage firm s may change,
or high-wage workers may advance to better jobs and be replaced by new
workers at lower rates. Such shifts in employment could decrease an
are
occupational average even though most establishments in an area increase
wages during the year. Changes in earnings of occupational groups, shown in
table A - 7, are better indicators of wage trends than are earnings changes for
individual jobs within the groups.

Average earnings reflect composite, areawide estim ates. Industries
and establishments differ in pay level and job staffing, and thus contribute
differently to the estimates for each job. Pay averages may fail to reflect
accurately the wage differential among jobs in individual establishments.
Average pay levels for men and women in selected occupations
should not be assumed to reflect differences in pay of the sexes within
individual establishments. Factors which may contribute to differences
include progression within established rate ranges (only the rates paid
incumbents are collected) and performance of specific duties within the
general survey job descriptions. Job descriptions used to classify employees
in these surveys usually are more generalized than those used in individual
establishments and allow for minor differences among establishments in
specific duties performed.
Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all estab­
lishments within the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed.
Because occupational structures among establishments differ, estimates of
occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied
serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These
differences in occupational structure do not affect m aterially the accuracy of
the earnings data.

Electronic data processing2
Computer systems
analysts, classes
A , B , and C
Computer program m ers,
classes A, B, and C
Industrial nurses
Registered industrial
nurses
Skilled maintenance
Carpenters
Electricians
Percent changes for indivic
as follows:

Skilled maintenance—
Continued
Painters
Machinists
Mechanics (machinery)
Mechanics (motor vehicle)
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers
Unskilled plant
Janitors, porters, and
cle aners
M aterial handling laborers
areas in the program are computed

1. Average earnings are computed for each occupation for
the 2 years being compared. The averages are derived
from earnings in those establishments which are in the
survey both years; it is assumed that employment
remains unchanged.

Wage trends for selected occupational groups
2.
The percent increases presented in table A -7 are based on changes
in average hourly earnings of men and women in establishments reporting
the trend jobs in both the current and previous year (matched establishments).
The data are adjusted to remove the effect on average earnings of employ­
ment shifts among establishments and turnover of establishments included
in survey sam ples. The percent increases, however, are still affected by
factors other than wage increases.
Hirings, layoffs, and turnover may
affect an establishment average for an occupation when workers are paid
under plans providing a range of wage rates for individual jobs. In periods
of increased hiring, for example, new employees may enter at the bottom
of the range, depressing the average without a change in wage rates.
The percent changes relate to wage changes between the indicated
dates. When the time span between surveys is other than 12 months, annual
rates are shown. (It is assumed that wages increase at a constant rate
between surveys.)

Each occupation is assigned a weight based on its
proportionate employment in the occupational group in
the base year.

3.

These weights are used to compute group averages.
Each occupation's average earnings (computed in step 1)
is multiplied by its weight.
The products are totaled
to obtain a group average.

4.

The ratio of group averages for 2 consecutive years is
computed by dividing the average for the current year
by the average for the ea rlier year.
The result—
expressed as a percent— less 100 is the percent change.

For a more detailed description of the method used to compute
these wage trends, see "Improving A rea Wage Survey In d e x e s," Monthly
Labor Review, January 1973, pp. 5 2 -5 7 .
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions

Occupations used to compute wage trends are:
Office clerical

Office clerical— Continued

Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
T ypists, classes
A and B
File clerks, classes A ,
B , and C
M essengers
Switchboard operators

Order clerks, classes
A and B
Accounting clerks,
classes A and B
B o okke eping - ma chine
operators, class B
Payroll clerks
Key entry operators,
classes A and B




The incidence of selected establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions is studied for fu ll-tim e production and related workers and
office workers. Production and related workers (referred to hereafter as
production workers) include working supervisors and all nonsupervisory
workers (including group leaders and trainees) engaged in fabricating,
processing, assembling, inspection, receiving, storage, handling, pack­
ing, warehousing, shipping, maintenance, repair, janitorial and guard se r ­
v ic es, product development, auxiliary production for plant's o w n use
(e .g ., powerplant), and recordkeeping and other services closely a sso ci­
ated with the above production operations.
(Cafeteria and route workers
2
The earnings o f computer operators are not included in the wage trend computation ior this group.
A revised job description is being introduced in this survey which is not equivalent to the previous description.

are excluded in manufacturing industries but included in nonmanufacturing
industries.) In finance and insurance, no workers are considered to be
production w orkers. Office workers include working supervisors and all nonsupervisory workers (including lead workers and trainees) performing
clerical or related office functions in such departments as accounting,
advertising, purchasing, collection, credit, finance, legal, payroll, personnel,
sa le s, industrial relations, public relations, executive, or transportation.
Adm inistrative, executive, professional, and part-time employees as well
as construction workers utilized as separate work forces are excluded from
both the production and office worker categories.
Minimum entrance salaries (table B - l ) . Minimum entrance salaries
for office workers relate only to the establishments visited. Because of the
optimum sampling techniques used and the probability that large establish­
ments are m ore likely than sm all establishments to have formal entrance
rates above the subclerical lev el, the table is more representative of policies
in medium and large establishments.
(The " X 's " shown under standard
weekly hours indicate that no meaningful totals are applicable.)
Shift differentials— manufacturing (table B -2 ). Data were collected
on policies of manufacturing establishments regarding pay differentials for
production workers on late shifts. Establishments considered as having
policies are those which (1) have provisions in writing covering the operation
of late shifts, or (2) have operated late shifts at any time during the 12
months preceding a survey. When establishments have several differentials
which vary by job, the differential applying to the majority of the production
workers is recorded. When establishments have differentials which apply
only to certain hours of work, the differential applying to the majority of
the shift hours is recorded.
For purposes of this study, a late shift is either a second (evening)
shift which ends at or near midnight or a third (night) shift which starts at
or near midnight.
Differentials for second atid third shifts are summarized separately
for (1) establishment policies (an establishment's differentials are weighted
by all production workers in the establishment at the time of the survey)
and (2) effective practices (an establishment's differentials are weighted by
production workers employed on the specified shift at the time of the survey).
Scheduled weekly hours; paid holidays; paid vacations; and health,
insurance, and pension plans. Provisions which apply to a majority of the
production or office workers in an establishment are considered to apply to
all production or office workers in the establishment; a practice or provision
is considered nonexistent when it applies to less than a majority. Holidays;
vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are considered applicable
to employees currently eligible for the benefits as well as to employees who
will eventually become eligible.
Scheduled weekly hours and days (table B -3 ) . Scheduled weekly
hours and days refer to the number of hours and days per week which full­
time first (day) shift workers are expected to work, whether paid for at
straight-tim e or overtime rates.
Paid holidays (table B -4 ) . Holidays are included if workers who
are not required to work are paid for the time off and those required to
work receive premium pay or compensatory time off. They are included
only if they are granted annually on a formal basis (provided for in




written form or established by custom). Holidays
in a particular year they fall on a nonworkday
granted another day off. Paid personal holiday
the automobile and related industries, are included

are included even though
and employees are not
plans, typically found in
as paid holidays.

Data are tabulated to show the percent of workers who (1) are
granted specific numbers of whole and half holidays and (2) are granted
specified amounts of total holiday time (whole and half holidays are
aggregated).
Paid vacations (table B -5 ) . Establishments report their method of
calculating vacation pay (time basis, percent of annual earnings, flat-sum
payment, etc.) and the amount of vacation pay granted. Only basic formal
plans are reported. Vacation bonuses, vacation-savings plans, and "extended"
or "sabbatical" benefits beyond basic plans are excluded.
For tabulating vacation pay granted, all provisions are expressed
on a time basis. Vacation pay calculated on other than a time basis is
converted to its equivalent time period. Two percent of annual earnings,
for example, is tabulated as 1 week's vacation pay.
A lso, provisions after each specified length of service are related
to all production or office workers in an establishment regardless of length of
service. Vacation plans commonly provide for a larger amount of vacation
pay as service lengthens. Counts of production or office workers by length
of service were not obtained. The tabulations of vacation pay granted
present, therefore, statistical measures of these provisions rather than
proportions of workers actually receiving specific benefits.
Health, insurance, and pension plans (tables B -6 and B -7 ). Health,
insurance, and pension plans include plans for which the employer pays
either all or part of the cost. The cost may be (1) underwritten by a
comm ercial insurance company or nonprofit organization, (2) covered by a
union fund to which the employer has contributed, or (3) borne directly by
the employer out of operating funds or a fund set aside to cover the cost.
A plan is included even though a majority of the employees in an establish­
ment do not choose to participate in it because they are required to bear
part of its cost (provided the choice to participate is available or will
eventually become available to a m ajority). Legally required plans such as
social security, railroad retirem ent, w orkers' disability compensation, and
temporary disability insurance 3 are excluded.
3
Temporary disability insurance which provides benefits to covered workers disabled by injury or illness
which is not work-connected is mandatory under State laws in California, New Jersey, New York, and Rhode
Island. Establishment plans which meet only the legal requirements are excluded from these data, but those
under which (1) employers contribute more than is legally required or (2) benefits exceed those specified in the
State law are included. In Rhode Island, benefits are paid out of a State fund to which only employees
contribute. In each of the other three States, benefits are paid either from a State fund or through a private plan.
State fund financing: In California, only employees contribute to the State fund; in New Jersey,
employees and employers contribute; in New York, employees contribute up to a specified maximum
and employers pay the difference between the employees' share and the total contribution required.
Private plan financing: In California and New Jersey, employees cannot be required to contribute
more than they would if they were covered by the State fund; in New York, employees can agree
to contribute more if the State rules that the additional contribution is commensurate with the
benefit provided.
Federal legislation (Railroad Unemployment insurance Act) provides temporary disability insurance benefits
to railroad workers for illness or injury, whether work-connected or not. The legislation requires that employers
bear the entire cost of the insurance.

Life insurance includes form al plans providing indemnity (usually
through an insurance policy) in case of death of the covered worker.
Information is also provided in table B -7 on types of life insurance plans
and the amount of coverage iij all industries combined and in manufacturing.
Accidental death and dismemberment insurance is limited to plans
which provide benefit payments in case of death or loss of limb or sight as a
direct result of an accident.
Sickness auid accident insurance includes only those plans which
provide that predetermined cash payments be made directly to employees
who lose time from work because of illness or injury, e .g ., $ 50 a week
for up to 26 weeks of disability.
Sick leave plans are limited to formal plan s4 which provide for
continuing an em ployee's pay during absence from work because of illness.
Data collected distinguish between (1) plans which provide full pay with no
waiting period, and (2) plans which either provide partial pay or require a
waiting period.
Long-term disability insurance plans provide payments to totally
disabled employees upon the expiration of their paid sick leave and/or sick­
ness and accident insurance, or after a predetermined period of disability
(typically 6 months). Payments are made until the end of the disability, a
maximum age, or eligibility for retirement benefits. Full or partial pay­
ments are almost always reduced by social security, workers' disability
compensation, and private pension benefits payable to the disabled employee.
Hospitalization, surgical, and medical insurance plans reported
in these surveys provide full or partial payment for basic services rendered.
Hospitalization insurance covers hospital room and board and may cover
other hospital expenses. Surgical insurance covers surgeons' fees. Medical
insurance covers doctors' fees for home, office, or hospital calls. Plans
restricted to post-operative medical care or a doctor's care for minor
ailments at a worker's place of employment are not considered to be
medical insurance.
Major medical insurance coverage applies to services which go
beyond the basic services covered under hospitalization, surgical, and
medical insurance. Major medical insurance typically (1) requires that a
"deductible" (e .g ., $ 5 0 ) be met before benefits begin, (2) has a coinsurance
feature that requires the insured to pay a portion (e.g., 20 percent) of
certain expenses, and (3) has a specified dollar maximum of benefits (e.g .,
$ 10, 000 a year).
Dental insurance plans provide normal dental service benefits,
usually for fillings, extractions, and X -r a y s . Plans which provide benefits
only for oral surgery or repairing accident damage are not reported.
Retirement pension plans provide for regular payments to the
retiree for life. Included are deferred profit-sharing plans which provide
the option of purchasing a lifetime annuity.

Labor-management agreement coverage
The following tabulation shows the percent of full-tim e production
and office workers employed in establishments in the Fresno area in which
a union contract or contracts covered a m ajority of the workers in the
respective categories, June 1978:
Production and
related workers
A ll industries_______________
Manufacturing__________
Nonmanufacturing_______
Public utilities_______

63
66
59
92

7
9
50

An establishment is considered to have a contract covering all
production or office workers if a m ajority of such workers is covered by a
labor-management agreement. Therefore, all other production or office
workers are employed in establishments that either do not have labormanagement contracts in effect, or have contracts that apply to fewer than
half of their production or office workers.
Estim ates are not necessarily
representative of the extent to which all workers in the area may be covered
by the provisions of labor-management agreem ents, because small establish­
ments are excluded and the industrial scope of the survey is limited.

Industrial composition in manufacturing
Nearly one-third of the workers within the scope of the survey in
the Fresno area were employed in manufacturing firm s.
The following
presents the major industry groups and specific industries as a percent of
all manufacturing:
Industry groups
Food and kindred products____
Machinery, except
e le c tr ic a l_____________________
Prim ary metal industries____
Stone, clay, and glass
products______________________
Transportation equipment____
Textile mill products__________
Apparel and other textile
products______________________

4
An establishment is considered as having a formal plan if it specifies at least the minimum number
of days of sick leave available to each employee. Such a plan need not be written, but informal sick leave
from
allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.




Office workers

Specific industries
37
12
8

Preserved fruits and
vegetables____________________ 14
B evera g es_____________________ 7
Nonferrous fo u n d ries________ 7

6
6
5
5

This information is based on estimates of total employment derived
universe materials compiled before actual survey.
Proportions in
various industry divisions may differ from proportions based on the results
of the survey as shown in appendix table 1.

Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Fresno, C alif.,1June 1978
Nu mb er of est ab lis hm en ts

W o r k e r s in estab lishm en ts

Mi n im um
emplo yme nt
Industry d ivi sio n 2
ments in scope
of study

Within sc op e of study
Within scope
of s tudy 3

Studied
Studied

T o t a l4
Nu mb er

ALL DIVISIONS ---------------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------------------------------------n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g -----------------------------------------------------------------TRANSPORTATION, c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and
OTHER PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 5 ------------------------------------------WHOLESALE TRADE
-------------------------------------------------------------RETAIL TRADE
--------------------------------------------------------------------FINANCE. INSURANCE. AND REAL ESTATE
--------------SERVICES7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Full-tim e
office w or ker s

T o t a l4

31 9

120

“ 3 .7 0 8

100

24 .998

6.6 37

24.746

50

95
22 4

45
75

15 .541
28 .167

36
6a

11 .280
13.718

1.440
5.1 97

10.514
14 ,232

50
50
50
50
50

25
52
83
26
38

14
14
25
9
13

5.0 4 2
3.707
12*303
4.0 07
3.4 08

12
8
27
9
8

88 8
f 61

4.169
1.1 8 7
5,158
2,3 07
1,411

1 Th e F r e s n o Standard Me tro p ol it an Statistical A r e a , as defined by the Office of M an age m ent
and Budget through F e b r u a r y 19 74 , c o n s is t s of F r e s n o County. The " w o r k e r s within sc ope of study"
e s t i m a t e s shown in this table pr ov id e a rea sonably ac curate description of the s iz e and co mp osi tio n
of the labor f o r c e included in the s u rve y.
E s ti m at e s ar e not intended, ho w ev er , for c o m p a r i s o n
with other em pl oy m en t indexes to m e a s u r e emplo yme nt trends or le vel s since (1) planning of wage
s u rv e ys r eq u i r es es t a b li sh m en t data c o m p ile d consid era bl y in advance of the payr oll per iod studied,
and (2) sm a l l es t a b li sh m en ts a r e exclu ded f r o m the scope of the survey.
2 Th e 1972 edition of the Standard Industrial C la s si fi c at io n Manual w as used to c l a s s i f y e s t a b ­
lis h m en t s by indu str y division.
H o w e v e r , all government operations a r e excluded f r o m the scope
of the su rvey.
3 Includes a ll es t a b li sh m en ts with total em ployment at or above the m i n i m u m limitation. A l l
outlets (within the a r e a ) of c om p an ie s in industries such as trade , finance, auto rep air s e r v i c e , and
m ot io n pict ure th e at e rs a r e c o n s id er e d as one establishment.




P er c en t

F u l l - time
production and
related w or k er s

2.3 1 0
i 6>
<6 1
( 61
<61

(6 1
<6 )
(6 1

4 Includes exec uti ve, p r of es si on al , p a r t - t i m e , and other w o r k e r s excluded f r o m the separate
production and office ca te go r ie s .
5 Ab br ev ia te d to "p u b l i c u ti lit ie s" in the A - and B - s e r i e s tabl es.
T axi ca b s and se r v i c e s
incidental to water transp ortatio n ar e excluded.
6 Sep arate pr esentation of data is not m ad e fo r this division.
7 Hotels and m o t e l s ; laundries and other p ers on al s e r v i c e s ; b usi n ess s e r v i c e s ; automobile
r ep a ir , ren tal, and parking; m ot ion pi ct ur e s ; nonprofit m e m b e r s h i p organizations (excluding religious
and charitable organ izatio ns ); and engineering and ar chi tec tur al s e r v i c e s .

25




Appendix B.
Occupational
Descriptions
The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the
Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into
appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of
payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to
establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping of
occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because
of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability
of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may differ sig­
nificantly from those in use in individual establishments or those pre­
pared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the
Bureau's field economists are instructed to exclude working super­
v iso r s; apprentices; and part-tim e, temporary, and probationary workers.
Handicapped workers whose earnings are reduced because of their
handicap are also excluded. Learners, beginners, and trainees, unless
specifically included in the job description, are excluded.

Office
SECRET ARY— Continued

SECRETARY

Exclusions— Continued

Assigned as a personal secretary, normally to one individual.
Maintains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day activ­
ities of the supervisor. Works fairly independently receiving a minimum of
detailed supervision and guidance. Perform s varied clerical and secretarial
duties requiring a knowledge of office routine and understanding of the
organization, program s, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor.

a. Positions which do not meet the "p erso n a l"
described above;

b. Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial-type duties;
c. Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of pro­
fessional, technical, or managerial persons;

Exclusions

d.

Not all positions that are titled "se c re ta r y " possess the above
ch aracteristics. Examples of positions which are excluded from the definition
are as follows:




secretary concept

Assistant-type positions which entail more difficult or more re­
sponsible technical, administrative, or supervisory duties which
are not typical’ of secretarial work, e .g ., Administrative A ssist­
ant, or Executive Assistant;

Listed below are several occupations for which revised descriptions or titles are being introduced
in this survey:
Guard
Shipper and receiver
(previously surveyed
as shipping and
receiving clerk)
Truckdriver

Order clerk
Payroll clerk
Secretary
Key entry operator
Transcribing-machine typist
Computer operator

The Bureau has discontinued collecting data for tabulating-machine operator.
classified as watchmen are now classified as guards under the revised description.

27

Workers previously

SECRETARY— Continued

SEC RE T ARY— Continued

Exclusions— Continued

Clas sification by Level— Continued

e.

Positions which do not fit any of the situations listed in the
sections below titled ''L evel of S u p erv iso r," e .g ., secretary to the
president of a company that employs, in all, over 5 ,0 0 0 persons;

f.

Trainees.

Classification by Level

LS—
4

Secretary jobs which meet the above characteristics are matched at
one of five levels according to (a) the level of the secretary's supervisor
within the company's organizational structure and, (b) the level of the
secretary's responsibility. The chart following the explanations of these two
factors indicates the level of the secretary for each combination of the
factors.
Level of Secretary's Supervisor (LS)
Secretaries should be matched at one of the four LS levels described
below according to the level of the secretary's supervisor within the company
organizational structure.
LS—1

a. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a sm all organizational
unit (e .g ., fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); or
b. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional
employee, administrative officer or assistant, skilled technician
or expert.
(NOTE: M a n y companies assign stenographers,
rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of
supervisory or nonsupervisory worker.)

LS—2

a. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose respon­
sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in
the definition for LS—
3, but whose organizational unit normally
numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided
into organizational segments which are often, in turn, further
subdivided. In some companies, this level includes a wide range
of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
b. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, e tc ., (or
other equivalent level of official) that em ploys, in all, fewer
than 5 ,0 0 0 persons.

LS—
3

e.

a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company
that em ploys, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chairman of the
board or president) of a company that em ploys, in all, over 100
but fewer than 5, 000 persons; or

Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational
segment (e .g ., a middle management supervisor of an organi­
zational segment often involving as many as several hundred
persons) of a company that em ploys, in a ll, over 2 5 ,0 0 0 persons.

a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company
that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of
the board or president) of a company that em ploys, in all,
over 5, 000 but fewer than 25, 000 persons; or
c. Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer
level, of a major segment or subsidiary of a company that
employs, in all, over 2 5 ,0 0 0 persons.

NOTE: The term "corporate o ffic e r " used in the above LS def­
inition refers to those officials who have a significant corporatewide policy­
making role with regard to major company activities. The title "vice
p resid en t," though normally indicative of this role, does not in all cases
identify such positions. Vice presidents whose prim ary responsibility is to
act personally on individual cases or transactions (e .g ., approve or deny
individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts; di­
rectly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate
o fficers" for purposes of applying the definition.
Level of Secretary's Responsibility (LR)
This factor evaluates the nature of the work relationship between
the secretary and the supervisor, and the extent to which the secretary is
expected to exercise initiative and judgment. Secretaries should be matched
at LR—1 or LR— described below according to their level of responsibility.
2
Level of Responsibility 1 (LR—1)
Perform s varied secretarial duties including or comparable to most
of the following:
a.

Answers telephones, greets
coming mail.

personal

ca llers,

and

opens

b.

Answers telephone requests which have standard answers.
reply to requests by sending a form letter.

in­
May

c. Secretary to the head (immediately below the officer level) over
either a m ajor corporatewide functional activity (e .g ., marketing,
research, operations, industrial relations, etc.) or a major
geographic or organizational segment (e .g ., a regional headquar­
te r s; a m ajor division) of a company that em ploys, in all,
over 5 ,0 0 0 but fewer than 2 5 ,0 0 0 em ployees; or

c.

Reviews correspondence, m emoranda, and reports prepared by
others for the supervisor's signature to ensure procedural and
typographical accuracy.

d.

d. Secretary to the head of
(or other equivalent level
over 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or

Maintains supervisor's
instructed.

e.

Types, takes and transcribes dictation, and files.




an individual plant, factory, etc.,
of official) that em ploys, in all,

calendar

and

makes

appointments

as

SECRET ARY— Continued

STENOGRAPHER— Continued

Level of Responsibility 2 (LR—
2)

Stenographer, Senior

P erform s duties described under LR—1 and, in addition performs
tasks requiring greater judgment, initiative, and knowledge of office functions
including or comparable to m ost of the following:

Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vocabulary
such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also set up
and maintain file s , keep records, etc.

a. Screens telephone and personal callers, determining which can
be handled by the supervisor's subordinates or other offices.
b.

Answers requests which require a detailed knowledge of o f­
fice procedures or collection of information from files or
other offices.
May sign routine correspondence in own or
su pervisor's name.

c.

Compiles or a ssists in compiling periodic reports on the basis
of general instructions.

d. Schedules tentative appointments without prior clearance. A s ­
sem bles n ecessary background material for scheduled meetings.
Makes arrangements for meetings and conferences.
e.

Explains su pervisor's requirements to other employees in super­
v iso r 's unit. (Also types, takes dictation, and files.)

The following tabulation shows the level of the secretary for each
LS and LR combination:

L evel of secreta ry 's
______supervisor_____

Perform s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater in­
dependence and responsibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by
the following: Work requires a high degree of stenographic speed and
accuracy; a thorough working knowledge of general business and office pro­
cedure; and of the specific business operations, organization, policies,
procedures, file s, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing steno­
graphic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining follow­
up files; assembling m aterial for reports, memoranda, and letters; com­
posing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming
m ail; and answering routine questions, etc.
TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE TYPIST
Prim ary duty is to type copy of voice recorded dictation which does
not involve varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as that used in
legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also type from written
copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively
routine clerical tasks.
(See Stenographer definition for workers involved
with shorthand dictation.)

Level of secretary's responsibility
TYPIST
LR—1

LS—1.
LS—
2.
LS—
3.
LS—
4.

OR

Class
Class
Class
Class

E
D
C
B

LR—
2
Class
Class
Class
Class

D
C
B
A

STENOGRAPHER
P rim ary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe
the dictation.
May also type from written copy. May operate from a
stenographic pool.
May occasionally transcribe from voice recordings (if
prim ary duty is transcribing from recordings, see Transcribing-M achine
Typist).
NOTE: This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a
secretary norm ally works in a confidential relationship with only one manager
or executive and perform s m ore responsible and discretionary tasks as
described in the secretary job definition.

Uses a typewriter to make copies of various materials or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May include
typing of stencils, m ats, or sim ilar materials for use in duplicating
pro cesses.
May do clerical work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and
distributing incoming m ail.
Class A . Perform s one or more of the following: Typing material
in final form when- it involves combining material from several sources; or
responsibility for correct s.pelling, syllabication, punctuation, etc., of tech­
nical or unusual words or foreign language m aterial; or planning layout
and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and
balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit
circumstances.
Class B . P erform s one or more of the following: Copy typing from
rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of form s, insurance policies, etc.;
or setting up simple standard tabulations; or copying more complex tables
already set up and spaced properly.
FILE CLERK

Stenographer, General
keep

Dictation involves a norm al routine vocabulary. May maintain files,
simple reco rd s, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks.




F ile s, c la ssifies, and retrieves material in an established filing
system . May perform clerical and manual tasks required to maintain files.
Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.

FILE CLERK— Continued

ORDER CLERK— Continued

Class A . C lassifies and indexes file material such as correspond­
ence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an established filing system
containing a number of varied subject matter files. May also file this
material. May keep records of various types in conjunction with the files.
May lead a sm all group of lower level file clerks.

adequacy of information recorded; ascertaining credit rating of customer;
furnishing customer with acknowledgement of receipt of order; following-up
to see that order is delivered by the specified date or to let customer know
of a delay in delivery; maintaining order file; checking shipping invoice
against original order.

Class B . Sorts, codes, and files unclassified m aterial by simple
(subject matter) headings or partly classified m aterial by finer subheadings.
Prepares simple related index and cro ss-referen ce aids. As requested,
locates clearly identified material in files and forwards m aterial. May per­
form related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files.

Exclude workers paid on a comm ission basis or whose duties include
any of the following: Receiving orders for services rather than for material
or merchandise; providing customers with consultative advice using knowl­
edge gained from engineering or extensive technical training; emphasizing
selling skills; handling material or merchandise as an integral part of the job.

Class C . P erform s routine filing of m aterial that has already been
classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classification
system (e .g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numerical). As requested,
locates readily available material in files and forwards m aterial; and may
fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks
required to maintain and service files.

Positions
definitions:

MESSENGER
Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, operating
minor office machines such as sealers or m a ile rs, opening and distributing
m ail, and other minor clerical work. Exclude positions that require operation
of a motor vehicle as a significant duty.

are

classified

into

levels

according to

the

following

Class A . Handles orders that involve making judgments such as
choosing which specific product or m aterial from the establishment's product
lines will satisfy the customer's needs, or determining the price to be quoted
when pricing involves more than m erely referring to a price list or making
some simple mathematical calculations.
Class B . Handles orders involving items which have readily iden­
tified uses and applications. May refer to a catalog, manufacturer's manual,
or sim ilar document to insure that proper item is supplied or to verify
price of ordered item.
ACCOUNTING CLERK

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Operates a telephone switchboard or console used with a private
branch exchange (PBX) system to relay incoming, outgoing, and intrasystem
calls. May provide information to ca llers, record and transmit m essages,
keep record of calls placed and toll charges. Besides operating a telephone
switchboard or console, may also type or perform routine clerical work
(typing or routine clerical work may occupy the m ajor portion of the worker's
tim e, and is usually performed while at the switchboard or console). Chief or
lead operators in establishments employing more than one operator are
excluded. For an operator who also acts as a receptionist, see Switchboard
Operator-Receptionist.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST
At a single-position telephone switchboard or console, acts both as
an operator— see Switchboard Operator— and as a receptionist. Receptionist's
work involves such duties as greeting v isitors; determining nature of visitor's
business and providing appropriate information; referring visitor to appro­
priate person in the organization or contacting that person by telephone and
arranging an appointment; keeping a log of v isitors.
ORDER CLERK
Receives written or verbal custom ers' purchase orders for material
or merchandise from customers or sales people. Work typically involves
some combination of the following duties: Quoting prices; determining availa­
bility of ordered items and suggesting substitutes when necessary; advising
expected delivery date and method of delivery; recording order and customer
information on order sheets; checking order sheets for accuracy and




Performs one or more accounting clerical tasks such as posting to
registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal consistency, completeness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting documents;
assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining and verifying
for clerical accuracy various types of reports, lists, calculations, posting,
etc.; or preparing simple or assisting in preparing more complicated journal
vouchers. May work in either a manual or automated accounting system.
The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office
practices and procedures which relates to the clerical processing and re­
cording of transactions and accounting information. With experience, the
worker typically becomes familiar with the bookkeeping and accounting term s
and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a
knowledge of the formal principles of bookkeeping and accounting.
Positions
definitions:

are

classified into levels

on the basis of the following

Class A. Under general supervision, perform s accounting clerical
operations which require the application of experience and judgment, for
example, clerically processing complicated or nonrepetitive accounting tran s­
actions, selecting among a substantial variety of prescribed accounting codes
and classifications, or tracing transactions through previous accounting
actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or
more class B accounting clerks.
Class B. Under close supervision, following detailed instructions
and standardized procedures, perform s one or more routine accounting
clerical operations, such as posting to ledgers, cards, or worksheets

30

ACCOUNTING CLERK— Continued

PAYROLL CLERK— Continued

where identification of items and locations of postings are clearly indicated;
checking accuracy and completeness of standardized and repetitive records
or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few prescribed
accounting codes.

listings against source records; tracing and correcting errors in listings;
and assisting in preparation of periodic summary payroll reports. In a nonautomated payroll system , computes wages. Work may require a practical
knowledge of governmental regulations, company payroll policy, or the
computer system for processing payrolls.

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter key­
board) to keep a record of business transactions.

KEY ENTRY OPERATOR
Operates keyboard-controlled data entry device such as keypunch
machine or key-operated magnetic tape or disk encoder to transcribe
data into a form suitable for computer processing. Work requires skill in
operating an alphanumeric keyboard and an understanding of transcribing
procedures and relevant data entry equipment.

Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and familiarity with the structure
of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and
distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work.
May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand.

Positions
definitions:

Class B . Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of a
set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases
or sections include accounts payable, payroll, customers' accounts (not in­
cluding a simple type of billing described under machine biller), cost dis­
tribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist
in preparation of tria l balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting
department.

are classified into levels on the basis of the following

Class A . Work requires the application of experience and judgment
in selecting procedures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting,
selecting, or coding items to be entered from a variety of source documents.
On occasion may also perform routine work as described for class B.
NOTE: Excluded are operators above class A using the key entry
controls to a ccess, read, and evaluate the substance of specific records to
take substantive actions, or to make entries requiring a sim ilar level of
knowledge.

MACHINE BILLER
Prepares statements, b ills, and invoices on a machine other than
an ordinary or electrom atic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings
or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to billing
operations. For wage study purposes, machine billers are classified by type
of machine, as follows:

Class B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision
or following specific procedures or detailed instructions, works from
various standardized source documents which have been coded and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be entered. Refers
to supervisor problems arising from erroneous item s, codes, or missing
information.

Billing-m achine b ille r . Uses a special billing machine (combination
typing and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from custom ers'
purchase ord ers, internally prepared orders, shipping memoranda, etc.
Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges
and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on
the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by
machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of
the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Professional and Technical
COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS

Bookkeeping-machine b ille r . Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or
without a typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers' bills as part of the
accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simultaneous entry of
figures on custom ers' ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates
figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints
automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge
of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and
credit slips.

Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures for solving
them by use of electronic data processing equipment. Develops a complete
description of all specifications needed to enable programmers to prepare
required digital computer program s. Work involves most of the following:
Analyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions
and criteria required to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and
types of records, file s, and documents to be used; outlines actions to be
performed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for presentation
to management and for programming (typically this involves preparation of
work and data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and
participates in trial runs of new and revised system s; and recommends
equipment changes to obtain more effective overall operations. (NOTE:
Workers performing both system s analysis and programming should be
classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)

PAYROLL CLERK
P erform s the clerical tasks necessary to process payrolls and to
maintain payroll records. Work involves most of the following: Processing
w orkers' time or production records; adjusting workers' records for changes
in wage rates, supplementary benefits, or tax deductions; editing payroll




31

COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS— Continued

COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS— Continued

Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the man­
agement or supervision of other electronic data processing em ployees,
or systems analysts prim arily concerned with scientific or engineering
problem s.

language, cause the manipulation of data to achieve desired results. Work
involves most of the following: Applies knowledge of computer capa­
bilities, mathematics, logic employed by computers, and particular sub­
ject matter involved to analyze charts and diagrams of the problem to
be programmed; develops sequence of program steps; writes detailed flow
charts to show order in which data will be processed; converts these
charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects
program s; prepares instructions for operating personnel during production
run; analyzes, reviews, and alters programs to increase operating effi­
ciency or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of program de­
velopment and revisions. (NOTE: Workers performing both system s anal­
ysis and programming should be classified as systems analysts if this is
the skill used to determine their pay.)

For wage study purposes, systems analysts are classified as follows:
Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on
complex problems involving all phases of systems analysis. Problems are
complex because of diverse sources of input data and multiple-use require­
ments of output data. (For example, develops an integrated production
scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in
which every item of each type is automatically processed through the full
system of records and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the
computer.) Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing
problems and advises subject-m atter personnel on the implications of new or
revised systems of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if
needed, for approval of major system s installations or changes and for
obtaining equipment.

Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the man­
agement or supervision of other electronic data processing em ployees,
or programmers primarily concerned with scientific and/or engineering
problems.
For wage study purposes, program m ers are classified

May provide functional direction to lower level systems analysts
who are assigned to a ssist.

as

follows:

Class A . Works independently or under only general direction
on complex problems which require competence in all phases of pro­
gramming concepts and practices. Working from diagrams and charts
which identify the nature of desired results, major processing steps to
be accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the prob­
lem solving routine; plans the full range of programming actions needed
to efficiently utilize the computer system in achieving desired end products.

Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on
problems that are relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program, and
operate. Problem s are of limited complexity because sources of input data
are homogeneous and the output data are closely related.
(For example,
develops system s for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining
accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory
accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with
persons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises
subject-m atter personnel on the implications of the data processing systems
to be applied.

At this level, programming is difficult because computer equip­
ment must be organized to produce several interrelated but diverse prod­
ucts from numerous and diverse data elem ents. A wide variety and ex­
tensive number of internal processing actions must occur.
This requires
such actions as development of common operations which can be re­
used, establishment of linkage points between operations, adjustments to
data when program requirements exceed computer storage capacity, and
substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements to form a
highly integrated program.

OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or
system, as described for class A. Works independently on routine assign­
ments and receives instruction and guidance on complex assignments. Work
is reviewed for accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions, and to
insure proper alignment with the overall system .

May provide functional direction to lower level program m ers who
are assigned to assist.

COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS

Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on
relatively simple programs, or on simple segments of complex program s.
Program s (or segments) usually process information to produce data in two
or three varied sequences or form ats. Reports and listings are produced by
refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor additions to or deletions from
input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be
processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy
and sequencing of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typically,
the program deals with routine recordkeeping operations.

Converts statements of business problem s, typically prepared by a
systems analyst, into a sequence of detailed instructions which are re­
quired to solve the problems by automatic data processing equipment.
Working from charts or diagram s, the program m er develops the pre­
cise instructions which, when entered into the computer system in coded

Works on complex programs (as described for class A) under
close direction of a higher level program m er or supervisor. May assist
higher level programmer by independently performing less difficult tasks
assigned, and performing more difficult tasks under fairly close direction.

Class C. Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analyses
as assigned, usually of a single activity. Assignments are designed to
develop and expand practical experience in the application of procedures and
skills required for system s analysis work. For example, may assist a higher
level systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required by
programmers from information developed by the higher level analyst.




OR

32

COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS— Continued

COMPUTER OPERATOR— Continued

May guide or instruct lower level programm ers.

Class B . In addition to established production runs, work assign­
ments include runs involving new program s, applications, and procedures
(i.e ., situations which require the operator to adapt to a variety of problems).
At this level, the operator has the training and experience to work fairly
independently in carrying out most assignments. Assignments may require
the operator to select from a variety of standard setup and operating
procedures. In responding to computer output instructions or error con­
ditions, applies standard operating or corrective procedures, but may
deviate from standard procedures when standard procedures fail if deviation
does not materially alter the computer unit's production plans. Refers the
problem or aborts the program when procedures applied do not provide a
solution. May guide lower level operators.

Class C . Makes practical applications of programming practices
and concepts usually learned in formal training courses. Assignments
are designed to develop competence in the application of standard pro­
cedures to routine problem s.
Receives close supervision on new aspects
of assignments; and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance
with required procedures.
COMPUTER OPERATOR
In accordance with operating instructions, monitors and operates
the control console of a digital computer to process data. Executes runs by
either serial processing (processes one program at a tim e) or m ulti­
processing (processes two or more programs simultaneously). The following
duties characterize the work of a computer operator:
- Studies
needed.

operating

- Loads equipment
paper, etc.).

instructions
w ith

to

required

determine
items

equipment

(tapes,

Class C . Work assignments are limited to established production
runs (i.e ., programs which present few operating problems). Assignments
may consist prim arily of on-the-job training (sometimes augmented by
classroom instruction). When learning to run program s, the supervisor or a
higher level operator provides detailed written or oral guidance to the
operator before and during the run. After the operator has gained experience
with a program, however, the operator works fairly independently in
applying standard operating or corrective procedures in responding to
computer output instructions or error conditions, but refers problems to a
higher level operator or the supervisor when standard procedures fail.

setup

cards, disks,

- Switches necessary auxilliary equipment into system .
- Starts and operates computer.
- Responds to operating and computer output instructions.

PERIPHERAL EQUIPMENT OPERATOR

- Reviews error m essages and makes corrections during operation
or refers problem s.

Operates peripheral equipment w h i c h directly supports digital
computer operations. Such equipment is uniquely and specifically designed
for computer applications, but need not be physically or electronically
connected to a computer. Printers, plotters, card read/punches, tape
readers, tape units or drives, disk units or drives, and data display units
are examples of such equipment.

- Maintains operating record.
May test-ru n new or modified programs. May a ssist in modifying
system s or program s. The scope of this definition includes trainees working
to become fully qualified computer operators, fully qualified computer
operators, and lead operators providing technical assistance to lower level
operators. It excludes workers who monitor and operate remote terminals.

The following duties characterize the work of a peripheral equipment
operator:

Class A . In addition to work assignments described for a class B
operator (see below) the work of a class A operator involves at least one
of the following:

- Loading printers and plotters with correct paper; adjusting
controls for form s, thickness, tension, printing density, and
location; and unloading hard copy.

- Deviates from standard procedures to avoid the loss of infor­
mation or to conserve computer time even though the procedures
applied m aterially alter the computer unit's production plans.

- Labelling tape reels, disks, or card decks.
- Checking labels and mounting and dismounting
reels or disks on specified units or drives.

- Tests new p ro g ra m s, applications, and procedures.
- Advises program m ers
techniques.

and

subject-matter

experts

- Setting controls which regulate operation of the equipment.
on s e t u p

- Observing panel lights for warnings
taking appropriate action.

- A ssists in (1) maintaining, modifying, and developing operating
system s or program s; (2) developing operating instructions and
techniques to cover problem situations; and/or (3) switching to
em ergency backup procedures (such assistance require's a working
knowledge of program language, computer features, and software
sy ste m s).
An operator at this level typically guides




designated tape

and error

indications and

- Examining tapes, cards, or other material for creases, tears,
or other defects which could cause processing problems.
This classification excludes workers (1). who monitor and operate a
control console (see computer operator) or a remote terminal, or (2) whose
duties are limited to operating decollaters, bu rsters, separators, or similar
equipment.

lower level operators.

33

COMPUTER DATA LIBRARIAN

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN

Maintains library of media (tapes, disks, cards, cassettes) used
for automatic data processing applications. The following or sim ilar duties
characterize the work of a computer data librarian: Classifying, cataloging,
and storing media in accordance with a standardized system ; upon proper
requests, releasing media for processing; maintaining records of releases
and returns; inspecting returned media for damage or excessive wear to
determine whether or not they need replacing. May perform minor repairs
to damaged tapes.

Works on various types of electronic equipment and related devices
by performing one or a combination of the following: Installing, maintaining,
repairing, overhauling, troubleshooting, modifying, constructing, and testing.
Work requires practical application of technical knowledge of electronics
principles, ability to determine malfunctions, and skill to put equipment in
required operating condition.

DRAFTER
Class A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from established drafting
precedents. Works in close support with the design originator, and may
recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of each change on the
details of form , function, and positional relationships of components and
parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance. Completed work
is reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering
determinations. May either prepare drawings or direct their preparation by
lower level drafters.
Class B . Perform s nonroutine and complex drafting assignments
that require the application of most of the standardized drawing techniques
regularly used. Duties typically involve such work as: Prepares working
drawings of subassemblies with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and
precise positional relationships between components; prepares architectural
drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of founda­
tions, wall sections, floor plans, and roof. Uses accepted formulas and
manuals in making necessary computations to determine quantities of
materials to be used, load capacities, strengths, str e sse s, etc. Receives
initial instructions, requirements, and advice from supervisor. Completed
work is checked for technical adequacy.
Class C. Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for
engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of
drawings prepared include isom etric projections (depicting three dimensions
in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of components
and convey needed information.
Consolidates details from a number of
sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of
approach, applicable precedents, and advice on source materials are given
with initial assignments. Instructions are less complete when assignments
recur. Work may be spot-checked during progress.
DRAFTER -TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing
cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil.
(Does not
include tracing limited to plans prim arily consisting of straight lines and a
large scale not requiring close delineation.)

The equipment— consisting of either many different kinds of circuits
or multiple repetition of the same kind of circuit— includes, but is not limited
to, the following: (a) Electronic transmitting and receiving equipment (e.g.,
radar, radio, television, telephone, sonar, navigational aids), (b) digital and
analog computers, and (c) industrial and medical measuring and controlling
equipment.
This classification excludes repairers of such standard electronic
equipment as common office machines and household radio and television
sets; production assemblers and teste rs; workers whose primary duty is
servicing electronic test instruments; technicians who have administrative
or supervisory responsibility; and drafters, designers, and professional
engineers.
Positions
definitions:

are classified

into levels on the basis of the following

Class A . Applies advanced technical knowledge to solve unusually
complex problems (i.e ., those that typically cannot be solved solely by
reference to manufacturers' manuals or sim ilar documents! in working on
electronic equipment. Examples of such problems include location and
density of circuitry, electromagnetic radiation, isolating malfunctions, and
frequent engineering changes. Work involves: A detailed understanding of
the interrelationships of circuits; exercising independent judgment in per­
forming such tasks as making circuit analyses, calculating wave form s,
tracing relationships in signal flow; and regularly using complex test in­
struments (e.g., dual trace oscilloscopes, Q -m e te r s, deviation m eters,
pulse generators).
Work may be reviewed by supervisor (frequently an engineer or
designer) for general compliance with accepted practices. May provide
technical guidance to lower level technicians.
Class B . Applies comprehensive technical knowledge to solve com ­
plex problems [i.e ., those that typically can be solved solely by properly
interpreting manufacturers' manuals or sim ilar documents) in working on
electronic equipment. Work involves: A fam iliarity with the interrelation­
ships of circuits; and judgment in determining work sequence and in selecting
tools and testing instruments, usually less complex than those used by the
class A technician.
Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher
level technician, and work is reviewed for specific compliance with accepted
practices and work assignments. May provide technical guidance to lower
level technicians.

AND/OR
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized item s.
Work is closely supervised during progress.




Class C. Applies working technical knowledge to perform simple or
routine tasks in working on electronic equipment, following detailed in­
structions which cover virtually all procedures. Work typically involves such

ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN— Continued

MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN— Continued

tasks as: A ssisting higher level technicians by performing such activities as
replacing components, wiring circuits, and taking test readings; repairing
simple electronic equipment; and using tools and common test instruments
(e .g ., m ultim eters, audio signal generators, tube testers, oscilloscopes). Is
not required to be fam iliar with the interrelationships of circuits.
This
knowledge, however, may be acquired through assignments designed to in­
crease competence (including classroom training) so that worker can advance
to higher level technician.

equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of
wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician's handtools
and measuring and testing instruments. In general, the work of the main­
tenance electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher
level technician. Work is typically spot checked, but is given detailed
review when new or advanced assignments are involved.
REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSE
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general medical
direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or
suffer an accident on the prem ises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or
injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees' injuries; keeping
records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or
other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations of
applicants and em ployees; and planning and carrying out programs involving
health education, afccident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or
other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel.
Nursing supervisors or head nurses in establishments employing more than
one nurse are excluded.

Maintenance, Toolroom, and Powerplant
MAINTENANCE CARPENTER
P erform s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain
in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters,
benches, partitions, d oors, flo o rs, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood
in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and
laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, m odels, or verbal instructions;
using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard
measuring instrum ents; making standard shop computations relating to di­
mensions of work; and selecting materials necessary for the work. In gen­
era l, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN
P erform s a variety of electrical trade functions such as the in­
stallation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, distri­
bution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work involves
m ost of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical
equipment such as generators, transform ers, switchboards, controllers,
circuit breakers, m o to rs, heating units, conduit system s, or other tran s­
m ission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other
specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or




MAINTENANCE PAINTER
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an estab­
lishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities
and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for
painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes
and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors,
o ils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or con­
sistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
MAINTENANCE MACHINIST
Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of
metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work in­
volves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and specifica­
tions; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of machinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard
machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard
shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds
of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the common metals;
selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for this work;
and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
m achinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop
practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (MACHINERY)
Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechanical
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling
machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in
scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items
obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a
machine shop or sending the machine to a machine shop for major repairs;
preparing written specifications for m ajor repairs or for the production of
parts ordered from machine shops; reassembling machines; and making all
n ecessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a machinery
maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary
duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (MOTOR VEHICLE)
Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an estab­
lishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and per­
forming repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges,

MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (MOTOR VEHICLE)— Continued

MAINTENANCE TRADES HELPER

d rills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing
broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; re­
assembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle and making
necessary adjustments; and aligning wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or
tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the motor vehicle maintenance
mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

A ssists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by
performing specific or general duties of le s s e r skill, such as keeping a
worker supplied with materials and too ls; cleaning working area, machine,
and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding m aterials or tools; and
performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of
work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding m aterials
and tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to
perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also
performed by workers on a full-tim e b a sis.

This classification d o e s not i n c l u d e
custom ers' vehicles in automobile repair shops.

mechanics

who

repair

MAINTENANCE PIPEFITTER
Installs or repairs water, steam , gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Laying
out work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other
written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths with
chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machines; threading
pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven
machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers;
making standard shop computations relating to p ressu res, flow, and size of
pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes
meet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. W orkers prim arily
engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating systems
are excluded.
MAINTENANCE SH E E T -M E T A L WORKER
Fabricates, in stalls, and maintains in good repair the sheet-m etal
equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves,
lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment.
Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out all types of
sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels, or other specifica­
tions; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-m etal working
machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping,
fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-m etal articles as required. In
general, the work of the maintenance sheet-m etal worker requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are
required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out work;
interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety of handtools
and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to str e s s e s , strength
of m aterials, and centers of gravity; aligning and balancing equipment;
selecting standard too ls, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and
maintaining in good order power transm ission equipment such as drives and
speed reducers. In general, the m illwright's work normally requires a
rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR (TOOLROOM)
Specializes in operating one or m ore than one type of machine
tool (e .g ., jig borer, grinding machine, engine lathe, milling machine) to
machine metal for use in making or maintaining jig s , fixtures, cutting tools,
gauges, or metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or
nonmetallic material (e .g ., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically
involves: Planning and performing difficult machining operations which
require complicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; setting up machine
tool or tools (e.g ., install cutting tools and adjust guides, stops, working
tables, and other controls to handle the size of stock to be machined;
determine proper feeds, speeds, tooling, and operation sequence or select
those prescribed in drawings, blueprints, or layouts); using a variety of
precision measuring instruments: making necessary adjustments during
machining operation to achieve requisite dimensions to very close tolerances.
May be required to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating o ils,
to recognize when tools need dressing, and to dress tools. In general, the
work of a machine-tool operator (toolroom) at the skill level called for in
this classification requires extensive knowledge of machine-shop and tool­
room practice usually acquired through considerable on-the-job training and
experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, this classification does not
include machine-tool operators (toolroom) employed in tool and die jobbing
shops.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
Constructs and repairs jig s , fixtures, cutting too ls, gauges, or
metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or nonmetallic
m aterial (e .g ., plastic, plaster, rubber, g la ss). Work typically involves:
Planning and laying out work according to m od els, blueprints, drawings, or
other written or oral specifications; understanding the working properties of
common metals and alloys; selecting appropriate m aterials, to o ls, and
processes required to complete task; making necessary shop computations;
setting up and operating various machine tools and related equipment; using
various tool and die m aker's handtools and precision measuring instruments;
working to very close tolerances; heat-treating m etal parts amd finished tools
and dies to achieve required qualities; fitting and assembling parts to p re­
scribed tolerances and allowances. In general, the tool and die m aker's
work requires rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice
usually acquired through formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, this classification does not
include tool and die makers who (1) are employed in tool and die jobbing
shops or (2) produce forging dies (die sinkers).

STATIONARY ENGINEER

SHIPPER AND RECEIVER— Continued

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of
stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the
establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or a irconditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as
steam engines, air co m p ressors, generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating
and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps;
making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery,
temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations.
Head or chief engineers in establishments employing more than one engineer
are excluded.

Receivers typically are responsible for most of the following:
Verifying the correctness of incoming shipments by comparing items and
quantities unloaded against bills of lading, invoices, manifests, storage
receipts, or other records; checking for damaged goods; insuring that
goods are appropriately identified for routing to departments within the
establishment; preparing and keeping records of goods received.

BOILER TENDER
F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which em ­
ployed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water and
safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boiler room equipment.

Material Movement and Custodial
TRUCKDRIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
m aterials, merchandise, equipment, or workers between various types of
establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishm ents, or between retail establishments and
custom ers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck
with or without h elpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in
good working order. Salesroute and over-the-road drivers are excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by type and
rated capacity of truck, as follows:
Truckdriver, light truck
(straight truck, under IV2 tons, usually 4 wheels)
Truckdriver, medium truck
(straight truck, IV2 to 4 tons inclusive, usually 6 wheels)
Truckdriver, heavy truck
(straight truck, over 4 tons, usually 10 wheels)
Truckdriver, tra c to r-tra iler
SHIPPER AND RECEIVER
P erform s clerical and physical tasks in connection with shipping
goods of the establishment in which employed and receiving incoming
shipments. In performing day-to-day, routine tasks, follows established
guidelines. In handling unusual nonroutine problem s, receives specific guid­
ance from supervisor or other officials. May direct and coordinate the
activities of other workers engaged in handling goods to be shipped or being
received.
Shippers typically are responsible for most of the following:
Verifying that orders are accurately filled by comparing items and quantities
of goods gathered for shipment against documents; insuring that shipments
are properly packaged, identified with shipping information, and loaded into
transporting veh icles; preparing and keeping records of goods shipped, e .g .,
m anifests, bills of lading.




For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Shipper
Receiver
Shipper and receiver
WAREHOUSEMAN
As directed, perform s a variety of warehousing duties which require
an understanding of the establishment's storage plan. Work involves most
of the following: Verifying materials (or merchandise) against receiving
documents, noting and reporting discrepancies and obvtous damages; routing
m aterials to prescribed storage locations; storing, stacking, or palletizing
materials in accordance with prescribed storage methods; rearranging and
taking inventory of stored m aterials; examining stored materials and re­
porting deterioration and damage; removing material from storage and
preparing it for shipment. May operate hand or power trucks in performing
warehousing duties.

Exclude workers whose primary duties involve shipping and re­
ceiving work (see Shipper and Receiver and Shipping Packer), order filling
(see Order F ille r), or operating power trucks (see Pow er-Truck Operator).
ORDER FILLER
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers'
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and in­
dicating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisition
additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other
related duties.

SHIPPING PACKER
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them
in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent
upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of container
employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of items in
shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following: Knowledge
of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection of appropriate
type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using excelsior
or other m aterial to prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing
container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on container.
Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.

MATERIAL HANDLING LABORER

GU ARD— C ontinue d

A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or
other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the following:
Loading and unloading various fnaterials and merchandise on or from freight
ca rs, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving, or placing
materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting
materials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshore
workers, who load and unload ships, are excluded.

Guards employed by establishments which provide protective se r ­
vices on a contract basis are included in this occupation.

POW ER-TRUCK OPERATOR
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered truck
or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a warehouse,
manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of powertruck, as follows:
Forklift operator
Power-truck operator (other than forklift)

For wage study purposes, guards are classified as follows:
Class A . Enforces regulations designed to prevent breaches of
security. Exercises judgment and uses discretion in dealing with em er­
gencies and security violations encountered.
Determines whether first
response should be to intervene directly (asking for assistance when deemed
necessary and time allows), to keep situation under surveillance, or to re­
port situation so that it can be handled by appropriate authority.
Duties
require specialized training in methods and techniques of protecting security
areas. Commonly, the guard is required to demonstrate continuing physical
fitness and proficiency with firearm s or other special weapons.
Class B . Carries out instructions prim arily oriented toward in­
suring that emergencies and security violations are readily discovered and
reported to appropriate authority. Intervenes directly only in situations which
require minimal action to safeguard property or persons.
Duties require
minimal training.
Commonly, the guard is not required to demonstrate
physical fitness. May be armed, but generally is not required to demonstrate
proficiency in the use of firearm s or special weapons.
JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER

GUARD
Protects property from theft or damage, or persons from hazards
or interference. Duties involve serving at a fixed post, making rounds on
foot or by motor vehicle, or escorting persons or property. May be deputized
to make arrests.
May also help visitors and customers by answering
questions and giving directions.




38

Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas and
washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or com m ercial or
other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Sweeping,
mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash, and other
refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures or
trim m ings; providing supplies and minor maintenance serv ices; and cleaning
lavatories, showers, and restroom s. W orkers who specialize in window
washing are excluded.

Service Contract
Act Surveys
The following areas are sur­
veyed periodically for use in admin­
istering the Service Contract Act
of 1965. Survey results are pub­
lished in releases which are availa­
ble, at no cost, while supplies last
from any of the BLS regional offices
shown on the back cover.
Alaska (statewide)
Albany, Ga.
Alexandria— e e sv ille , La.
L
Alpena—
Standish—Tawas City, Mich.
Ann A rbor, Mich.
Atlantic City, N.J.
Augusta, Ga.—
S.C.
Austin, Tex.
Bakersfield, Calif.
Baton Rouge, La.
Battle Creek, Mich.
Beaumont—Port ArthuiMDrange, Tex.
Beaumont—
Port Arthun-Orange
and Lake Charles, T ex.—
La.
Biloxi—
Gulfport and Pascagoula—
M oss Point, M iss.
Binghamton, N .Y.
Birmingham, Ala.
Bloomington—
Vincennes, Ind.
Brem erton—
Shelton, Wash.
Brunswick, Ga.
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Champaign—
Urbana—
Rantoul, 111.
Charleston—
North Charleston—
W aiterboro, S.C .
Charlotte—
Gastonia, N.C.
Cheyenne, Wyo.
Clarksville—
Hopkinsville, Tenn.—
Ky.
Colorado Springs, Colo.
Columbia—
Sumter, S.C .
Columbus, Ga.—
Ala.
Columbus, M iss.
Decatur, 111.
Des Moines, Iowa
Duluth—
Superior, Minn.—W is.
El Paso—
Alamogordo—Las C ruces,
Tex.—
N. Mex.
Eugene—
Springfield—
Medford, Oreg.
Fayetteville, N.C.




Fort Lauderdale—
Hollywood
and West Palm Beach—
Boca Raton, Fla.
Fort Smith, Ark.—
Okla.
Frederick—Hagers town—
Chambersburg, Md.—
Pa.
Goldsboro, N.C.
Grand Island—
Hastings, Nebr.
Guam, Territory of
Harrisburg—
Lebanon, Pa.
Knoxville, Tenn.
Laredo, Tex.
Las Vegas—
Tonopah, Nev.
Lima, Ohio
Little Rock^-North Little Rock, Ark.
Logansport—
Peru, Ind.
Lorain—Elyria, Ohio
Lower Eastern Shore, Md.— a.—
V
Del.
Macon, Ga.
Madison, Wis.
Maine (statewide)
Mansfield, Ohio
McAllen—
Phar r—
Edinburg
and B rownsville—
Harlingen—
San Benito, Tex.
Meridian, M iss.
Middlesex, Monmouth, and
Ocean C os., N.J.
Mobile—
Pensacola—Panama City,
Ala.—
Fla.
Montana (statewide)
Nashville—
Davidson, Tenn.
New Bern—
Jacksonville, N.C.
New Hampshire (statewide)
New London—
Norwich, Conn.—
R.I.
North Dakota (statewide)
Northern New York
Northwest Texas
Orlando, Fla.
Oxnard—
Simi Valley—
Ventura, Calif.
Peoria, 111.
Phoenix, Ariz.
Pine Bluff, Ark.
Pueblo, Colo.
Puerto Rico
Raleigh—
Durham, N.C.
Reno, Nev.
Salina, Kans.

Salinas—
Seaside—
Monterey, Calif.
Sandusky, Ohio
Santa Barbara—
Santa Maria—
Lompoc, Calif.
Savannah, Ga.
Selm a, Ala.
Shreveport, La.
South Dakota (statewide)
Southern Idaho
Southwest Virginia
Spokane, Wash.
Springfield, 111.
Stockton, Calif.
Tacoma, Wash.
Tampa—
St. Petersburg, Fla.
Topeka, Kans.
Tucson—
Douglas, A riz.
Tulsa, Okla.
Upper Peninsula, Mich.
Vermont (statewide)
Virgin Islands of the U.S.
Waco and Killeen—
Tem ple, Tex.
Waterloo—Cedar Falls , Iowa
West Virginia (statewide)
Wichita Falls—Lawton— ltus,
A
Tex .—
Okla.
Wilmington, Del.—
N.J.—
Md.
Y akima—
Richland—
Kennewick—
Pendleton, Wash.—
Oreg.

ALSO AVAILABLE—
An annual report on salaries for
accountants, auditors, chief account­
ants, attorneys, job analysts, direc­
tors of personnel, buyers, chemists,
engineers, engineering technicians,
drafters, an d clerical employees
is available. Order as BLS Bulle­
tin 1980, National Survey of P ro­
fessional, Administrative, Technical
and Clerical Pay, March 1977, $ 2.40
a copy, from any of the BLS re­
gional sales offices shown on the
back cover, or from the Superin­
tendent of Documents, U.S. Govern­
ment Printing Office, Washington,
D.C. 20402.




Area Wage
Surveys
A list of the latest bulletins available is presented below. Bulletins
may be purchased from any of the BLS regional offices shown on the back
cover, or from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing
O ffice, Washington, D.C. 20402. Make checks payable to Superintendent of
Documents. A directory of occupational wage surveys, covering the years
1970 through 1976, is available on request.

A rea

Bulletin number
and price*

Akron, Ohio, Dec. 1977_______________________________________ 1950-70, 80 cents
Albany—Schenectady—Troy, N .Y ., Sept. 1977 __________ ____ 1950-52, 80 cents
Anaheim—Santa Ana—Garden Grove,
C alif., Oct. 1977_____________________________________________
1950-60, $1 .0 0
Atlanta, G a., May 1978 1______________________________________ 2025-28, $ 1.40
Baltim ore, M d., Aug. 1977------------------------------------------------------ 1950-39, $1 .2 0
B illings, Mont., July 1977 1 ----------------------------------------------------- 1950-40, $ 1.00
Birmingham, A la ., M ar. 1978________________________________ 2025-15, 80 cents
Boston, M a s s ., Aug. 1977 ____________________________________ 1950-50, $ 1.20
Buffalo, N .Y ., Oct. 1977 ______________________________________ 1950-58, $ 1 .0 0
Canton, Ohio, May 1978_______________________________________ 2025-22, 70 cents
Chattanooga, Tenn.—G a ., Sept. 1977 -------------------------------------- 1950 -4 4, 70 cents
Chicago, 111., May 1977 1______________________________________ 1950 -4 1, $ 1 .4 0
Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.—Ind., July 1 9 7 7 1 ---------------------------------- 1950 -4 5, $ 1.20
Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1977 1 _________________________________ 1950 -5 3, $ 1 .4 0
Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1977___________________________________ 1950-64, $ 1 .0 0
Corpus Christi, T e x ., July 1978_____________________________ 2025-29, $ 1.00
Dallas—Fort W orth, T e x ., Oct. 1977_________________________ 1950-65, $ 1 .2 0
Davenport—Rock Island— oline, Iowa—
M
111., Feb. 1978______ 2 0 2 5 -6 , 70 cents
Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1977 1_____________________________________ 1950-71, $ 1 .1 0
Daytona Beach, F la ., Aug. 1977 1____________________________ 1950-43, $1 .0 0
Denver—Boulder, C olo., Dec. 1977 1_________________________ 1950-74, $1.40
Detroit, M ich ., M ar. 1978____________________________________ 2025-11, $ 1 .2 0
Fresno, C alif., June 1 9 7 8 1 __________________________________ 2025-31, $ 1 .2 0
Gainesville, F la ., Sept. 1977 1________________________________ 1 950 -4 6, $ 1 .0 0
Green Bay, W is ., July 1977__________________________________
1950-36, 70 cents
Greensboro-W inston-Salem —
High Point,
N .C ., Aug. 1977 1 _____________________________________________ 1950-42, $1 .1 0
Greenville—
Spartanburg, S .C ., June 1978____________________ 2025-30, $ 1.00
Hartford, Conn., M ar. 1978 1_________________________________ 2025-14, $ 1 .2 0
Houston, T ex., Apr. 1978_____________________________________ 2025-23, $ 1 .2 0
Huntsville, A la ., Feb. 1978__________________________________ 2 0 2 5 -4 , 70 cents
Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 1977_________________________________
1950-56, $1 .0 0
Jackson, M is s ., Jan. 1978____________________________________ 2 0 2 5 -1 , 70 cents
Jacksonville, F la ., Dec. 1977________________________________ 1950-67, 70 cents
Kansas City, Mo.—K an s., Sept. 1977 _________________________ 1950 -5 4, $ 1 .0 0
Los Angeles—Long Beach, C alif., Oct. 1977------------------------- 1950-61, $ 1 .2 0
Louisville, Ky.—
Ind., Nov. 1977 1____________________________ 1950-66, $ 1.20
M em phis, Term.— rk.— is s ., Nov. 1977____________________ 1950-63, 70 cents
A
M




A rea
M iam i, F la ., Oct. 1977____________________ __________________
Milwaukee, W is ., Apr. 1978 1 _______________________________
Minneapolis—St. Paul, Minn.— is ., Jan. 1978 1____________
W
Nassau-Suffolk, N .Y ., June 1977 ____________________________
Newark, N .J ., Jan. 1978 1 _____________ _______________________
New Orleans, L a ., Jan. 1978________________________________
New York, N .Y .— .J ., May 1977____________________________
N
Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth, Va.—
N .C ., May 1978______________________________________________
Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and
Newport News—
Hampton, Va.— .C ., May 1978_____________
N
Northeast Pennsylvania, Aug. 1977 1________________________
Oklahoma City, O kla., Aug. 1977 1 __________________________
Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa, Oct. 1977 1 ____________________________
Paterson-Clifton—P assaic, N .J ., June1977 _________________
Philadelphia, Pa.—N .J ., Nov. 1977................ ..............................
Pittsburgh, P a., Jan. 1978...............................................................
Portland, Maine, Dec. 1977............. ..............................................
Portland, Oreg.— ash ., May 1978___________________________
W
Poughkeepsie, N .Y ., June 1977 _____________________________
Poughkeepsie-Kingston—
Newburgh, N .Y ., June 1976______
Providence-Warwick—Pawtucket, R.I.—
M a ss., June 1978____________________________________________
Richmond, V a ., June 1978___________________________________
St. Louis, Mo.—111., M ar. 1978_______________________________
Sacramento, C alif., Dec. 1977 1_____________________________
Saginaw, M ich., Nov. 1977----------------------------------------------------Salt Lake City—
Ogden, Utah, Nov. 1977_____________________
San Antonio, T ex ., May 1978_________________________________
San Diego, C alif., Nov. 1977 1_______________________________
San Francisco—
Oakland, C alif., M ar. 1978 1_________________
San Jose, C alif., M ar. 1978 1________________________________
Seattle-E verett, W ash ., Dec. 1977__________________________
South Bend, Ind., Aug. 1977 1 ________________________________
Toledo, O hio-M ich., May 1978 1____________________________
Trenton, N .J ., Sept. 1977____________________________________
U tica-R om e, N .Y ., July 1977 1 ______________________________
Washington, D .C .-M d .-V a ., M ar. 1 9 7 8 1____________________
Wichita, Kans., A pr. 1978___________________________________
W orcester, M a s s ., Apr. 1 9 7 8 1_____________________________
York, P a., Feb. 1 9 7 8 1________________________________________

Bulletin number
and price*
1950-57,
2025-18,
20 2 5 -2 ,
1950-27,
20 2 5 -7 ,
20 2 5 -5 ,
1950-31,

$1.00
$1.40
$1.40
$1.00
$1.40
$1.00
$1.20

2025-20, 70 cents
2025-21,
1950-38,
1950-49,
1950-55,
1950-34,
1950-62,
20 2 5 -3 ,
1950-69,
2025-25,
1950-25,
1900-55,

80 cents
$ 1.10
$ 1.10
$1.10
70 cents
$1.20
$1.10
70 cents
$1.00
70 cents
55 cents

2025-27,
2025-26,
2025-13,
1950-72,
1950-59,
1950-68,
2025-17,
1950-73,
2 025 -1 0,
2 0 2 5 -9 ,
1950-75,
1950-51,
2025-24,
1950-47,
1950-37,
2025-12,
2025-16,
2025-19,
20 2 5 -8 ,

$1.40
80 cents
$1.20
$1.00
70 cents
80 cents
70 cents
$1.10
$1.40
$1.20
80 cents
$1.10
$1.20
70 cents
$1.10
$1.40
80 cents
$1.10
$ 1.10

Prices are determined by the Government Printing Office and are subject to change.
Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.

Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor

U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

Third Class Mail

Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300

Lab-441

Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices
Region I

Region II

Region 11
1

Region IV

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (AreaCode617)

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: 399-5406 (AreaCode212)

3535 Market Street,
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 596-1154 (AreaCode215)

Suite 540
>371 Peachtree St., N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 881 -4418 (Area Code 404)

Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

Delaware
District of Columbia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia

Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Mississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee

Region V

Region VI

Regions VII and VIII

Regions IX and X

9th Floor, 230 S. Dearborn St.
Chicago, ill. 60604
Phone:353-1880 (Area Code 312)

Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (AreaCode214)

Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone:556-4678 (Area Code 415)

Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas

VII
Iowa
Kansas
Missouri
Nebraska

IX
Arizona
California
Hawaii
Nevada

Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
Wisconsin




VIII
Colorado
Montana
North Dakota
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

X
Alaska
Idaho
Oregon
Washington