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a.s-

H -'

AREA WAGE SURVEY
D u rh am , N orth C arolina, M e tro p o lita n A rea,
D ecem b er 1973
B u lletin 1795-9




D ayton & Montgomery Co.
Public Library
JU L231974

DOCUMENT COLLECTION

U S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Rnrpau of Labor Statistics




ANNOUNCEMENT
Beginning with the 1795 series, Area Wage Surveys will be
issued as bulletins (for sale) only every third year. These bulletins
will contain information on establishment practices and supplementary
benefits as well as earnings. In the interim years, supplements
containing data on earnings only will be issued free. Supplements
can be obtained from BLS Regional Offices listed on the back cover
of this publication.

Preface
This bulletin provides results of a December 1973 survey of occupational earnings
and supplementary wage benefits in the Durham, North Carolina, Standard Metropolitan
Statistical Area (Durham and Orange Counties). The survey was made as part of the Bureau
of Labor Statistics' annual area wage survey program. The program is designed to yield
data for individual metropolitan areas, as well as national and regional estimates for all
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii.
A major consideration in the area wage survey program is the need to describe
the level and movement of wages in a variety of labor markets, through the analysis, of
(1) the level and distribution of wages by occupation, and (2) the movement of wages by
occupational category and skill level. The program develops information that may be used
for many purposes, including wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and
assistance in determining plant location. Survey results also are used by the U.S. Department
of Labor to make wage determinations under the Service Contract Act of 1965.
Currently, 94 areas are included in the program. (See list of areas on inside back
cover.) In each area, occupational earnings data are collected annually. Information on
establishment practices and supplementary wage benefits, collected every second year in the
past, is now obtained every third year. Results of the next two annual surveys, providing
earnings data only, will be issued as free supplements to this bulletin. The supplements
may be obtained from the Bureau's regional offices. (See back cover for addresses.)
Each year after all individual area wage surveys have been completed, two summary
bulletins are issued. The first brings together data for each metropolitan area surveyed.
The second summary bulletin presents national and regional estimates, projected from
individual metropolitan area data.
The Durham survey was conducted by the Bureau's regional office in Atlanta, Ga.,
under the general direction of Donald M. Cruse, Associate Assistant Regional Director for
Operations. The survey could not have been accomplished without the cooperation of the
many firm s whose wage and salary data provided the basis for the statistical information
in this bulletin. The Bureau wishes to express sincere appreciation for the cooperation
received.

Note:
A current report on occupational earnings and supplementary wage provisions in
the Raleigh^Durham area is also available for metalworking (December 1973).

AREA WAGE SURVEY

B u lle tin 17 95 -9
April 1974

U.S. D E P A R TM EN T OF LABOR, Peter J. Brennan, Secretary
B U R E A U OF L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S , Julius Shiskin, Commissioner

Durham , North Carolina, M etropolitan Area, December 1973
CO NTENTS
Page
2 Introduction
Tables:
A.
3
4
4
5
6
7
8
8

A - 1.
A -2 .
A -3 .
A -4 .
A -5 .
A -6 .
A -7 .
A -8 .
B.

9
10
11
12
13
14
16

Earnings:
Weekly earnings of office workers
Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers
Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex
Hourly earnings of maintenance and powerplant workers
Hourly earnings of custodial and material movement workers
Average hourly earnings of maintenance, powerplant, custodial, and material movement workers, by sex
Indexes of earnings for selected occupational groups and percents of increase for selected periods
Percents of increase in average hourly earnings for selected occupational groups, adjusted for employment shifts

E s t a b l i s h m e n t p r a c t i c e s an d s u p p l e m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s :
Estab
Minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced typists and clerks
B -l.
Late-shift pay provisions for manufacturing plant workers
B -2 .
Scheduled weekly hours and days of first-shift workers
B -3.
B -4.
Annual paid holidays
B-4a. Identification of major paid holidays
B -5.
Paid vacation provisions
B -6.
Health, insurance, and pension plan provisions

18 Appendix A.
21 Appendix B.

Scope and method of survey
Occupational descriptions




F o r sale b y th e S u p e r in te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , ll. S . G o v e r n m e n t P r in t in g O f f ic e , W a s h in g to n , D C. 2 0 4 0 2 G P O B o o k s t o r e s o r
8 L S R e g io n a l O ff ic e s lis t e d o n b a c k c o v e r . P r ic e 6 5 c e n ts . M a k e c h e c k s p a y a b le t o S u p e r in te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts .

1

Introduction
This area is 1 of 94 in which the U.S. Department of Labor's
Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and
related benefits on an areawide basis. In this area, data were obtained
by personal visits of Bureau field economists to representative estab­
lishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transpor­
tation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail
trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. Major industry
groups excluded from these studies are government operations and the
construction and extractive industries. Establishments having fewer than
a prescribed number of workers are omitted because of insufficient
employment in the occupations studied. Separate tabulations are provided
for each of the broad industry divisions which meet publication criteria.

plant workers.
The first of these, table A -7 , measures changes in
average earnings of the four occupational groups over time.
Where
possible, data are presented for all industries and manufacturing.
Table A - 8 presents another measure of wage movements. The percents
of change reported for the occupational groups are computed to eliminate
changes in average earnings caused by employment shifts among estab­
lishments as well as turnover of establishments included in survey
samples. Where possible, data also are presented for nonmanufacturing.
Appendix A discusses more fully differences between these tables.
B- series tables
The B -se r ie s tables present information on minimum entrance
salaries for office w orkers; late-shift pay provisions and practices for
plant workers in manufacturing; and data separately for plant and office
workers on scheduled weekly hours and days of first-shift workers; paid
holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans.

A -se r ie s tables
Tables A - 1 through A -6 provide estimates of straight-time
hourly or weekly earnings for workers in occupations common to a
variety of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. Occupations
were selected from the following categories: (a) Office clerical, (b) pro­
fessional and technical, (c) maintenance and powerplant, and (d) custodial
and material movement. In the 22 largest survey areas, tables A -l a
through A -6 a provide similar data for establishments employing 500
workers or m ore.

Appendixes
This bulletin has two appendixes. Appendix A describes the
methods and concepts used in the area wage survey program and provides
information on the scope of the area survey. It also provides infor­
mation on labor-management agreement coverage. Appendix B provides
job descriptions used by Bureau field economists to classify workers in
occupations for which straight-time earnings, information is presented.

Following the occupational wage tables are two tables providing
indexes and percents of change in average earnings of office clerical
workers, industrial nurses, skilled maintenance workers, and unskilled




2

A. Earnings
Table A-1. W eekly earnings of office workers in Durham, N.C., December 1973
N u m b e r of workers receiving straight-time weekly earnings of—
Number

O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d iv i s i o n
workers

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard]

70
Mean ^

Median ^

Middle ranged

%

t

$

75

s
80

%

s

*
85

90

95

s

S
100

110

$
120

*
130

$
160

$
150

$
160

%

t
170

180

s

s
190

200

%
210

$
220

(
230

an d
under

260

and

75

80

85

90

-

-

-

3
-

-

“

3

95

100

110

120

130

160

150

6

29
16

25
16
11

15
7
8

13
5

13

8

170

180

190

200

210

220

7
3

25

1
-

7
7

11
11

9

3
3

3

2

6

2

9

3

2

6

2

6

22

1

230

260

over

160

MEN AND WOMEN CO MB I N E D
$
163.50

$
1 3 3.00
168.50

$
$
1 1 2 .0 0 -1 6 7 .5 0
1 1 3 .0 0 -1 9 2 .5 0

-

1 2 9.00

1 0 8 .5 0 -1 5 6 .0 0

“

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------MA NU FACTURING --------------------NCNMANUF AC TU RI NG -----------------

165
91

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B -------MA NUFACTURING --------------------NC NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

157
69

3 8 .0
3 7 .5

1 1 6.50

106.50

9 5 .5 0 -1 3 8 .5 0

12

18

6

2

-

1

_

10

5

6

6

6

18

6

3

2

2
2

1

6

5
5

3

-

15
-

9

1 0 1 .5 0 -1 5 2 .5 0

2
-

16

1 6 5.50

2
-

18

135.00

1

-

1

-

-

88

3 9 .0

102.00

9 8 .5 0

9 1 .5 0 -1 1 2 .5 0

2

*

2

15

12

20

12

12

5

8
1

1
1

-

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

3

3

1

-

3

3

-

76

3 8 .5
3 8 .0
3 9 ,0

1 5 5.00
129.50

-

2
6
30

17

CLERKS, PAYROLL ---------------------MA NUFACTURING ---------------------

31

38 .5

1 2 6.00

125.00

1 0 6 .5 0 -1 3 3 .5 0

-

-

-

-

2

1

7

3

6

8

20

3 9 .0

132.00

130.50

1 2 0 .5 0 -1 3 5 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

*

3

2

5

7

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A -------MA NUFACTURING --------------------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

61
26
37

3 9 .0

116.50
123.00
1 1 2.50

1 0 3 .0 0 -1 2 2 .0 0
1 1 5 .5 0 -1 6 7 .5 0
9 9 .5 0 -1 1 8 .5 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

3

1
7

5
6

1
l

*

21
6
15

1
1

*

11
3
8

9

-

3
-

8

6 0 .0
3 8 .0

119.50
I 3 5 .0 0
109.50

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B -------NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

97
89

3 8 .5
3 8 .5

1 0 4.00

102.50
1 0 2.50

9 6 .5 0 -1 1 2 .0 0
9 6 .5 0 -1 1 1 .0 0

-

-

102.50

MESSENGERS (OFFICE BUYS AND GIRLSINONMAN UF AC TO RI NG -----------------

29
22

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

9 8 .0 0
9 7 .0 0

9 5 .0 0
9 5 . 50

8 9 .0 0 -1 0 5 .5 0
8 9 .0 0 -1 0 3 .0 0

“

SECRETARIES --------------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NONMANUF AC TU RI NG -----------------

430
208

3 9 .0
3 9 .0
3 8 .5

16 6.00
1 5 9.00

161.00
158.00

1 2 0 .0 0 -1 6 6 .5 0
1 3 5 .0 0 -1 7 9 .5 0

-

-

-

-

1 3 0.50

1 3 0.00

1 1 5 .0 0 -1 6 6 .0 0

-

SECRETARIES, CLASS 8 -------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NUNMANUF AC TU RI NG -----------------

73

3 9 .0

169.50
1 9 6.00
1 6 5.50

1 6 5 .5 0 -1 9 9 .0 0
1 7 5 .0 0 -2 2 1 .5 0
1 2 9 .0 0 -1 6 3 .0 0

-

3 9 .0
3 8 .5

1 6 6.00
200.00

-

35

-

-

SECRETARIES, CLASS C -------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

1B2
111
71

3 9 .0
3 9 .5

1 5 0.50
15 9.50

3 8 .5

136.50

SECRETARIES, CLASS D -------------MANU FA CT UR IN G --------------------NU NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

162
56
106

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL -------------N U N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

98
57

SW ITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B ---N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

22
17

3 9 .5

SWITCH BO AR D o p e r a t o r - r e c e p t IONISTSN G N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

50
38

3 8 .0
3 8 .0

typists,

81

3 7 .5

9 7 .5 0

See

CLASS 8 ---------------------

fo o tn o te s

at en d

222

38

167.00

-

3
3

10
10

6
5

16

30
30

26
26

3
1

1

“
1
1

l
1

7
5

6
4

5
5

6
4

2
2

-

-

7
-

5

-

67
16

18

7

1
4

-

-

_

3

-

-

-

-

3
6

31

69
13
36

51
17

-

-

-

-

-

_

51

69
36

6
6

168.00

1 3 6 .0 0 -1 7 2 .0 0

-

_

-

-

_

163.50
139.50

1 6 3 .5 0 -1 7 8 .0 0
1 2 1 .5 0 -1 6 8 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

i
i

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

6

6

2

28
15
13

32
19
13

36
32
4

7

7
3
4

2

36

12
39

4

2

7

10

4

2

7

7

2
5

12
2
10

17
10

25

38
18

15
10

7

11
16

20

5
5

3

35

3

3 9 .0

1 2 3.00

1 2 0.00

1 0 8 .0 0 -1 3 6 .0 0

-

-

19

1 0 9 .0 0 -1 6 5 .0 0

-

-

-

-

38
16

31

12 2.50

7
-

33

1 2 9.50

-

-

3 9 .0
3 8 .5

11

7

1

16
10

1 1 9.00

11 9.50

1 0 6 .5 0 -1 3 1 .0 0

-

-

-

-

7

6

22

22

26

18

6

2

3 8 .5

1 1 8.50

1 2 0.00

1 1 1 .5 0 -1 2 6 .5 0

-

_

-

i

5

2

12

30

10

7

1 1 5.00

1 1 6.50

10 3 . 0 0 - 1 2 3 . 0 0

-

-

~

i

5

2

12

17

-

8 8 .5 0

7 3 .5 0 -1 0 3 .0 0
7 3 .0 0 -1 0 2 .5 0

8

1

4

-

1

1

6

2

-

-

8

-

3

-

1

-

3

1 0 8.50

107.50

9 6 .0 0 -1 1 9 .0 0

-

-

1

-

11

3

17

-

-

-

9

3

16

1

8 8 .0 0 -1 0 2 .5 0

-

16

16

6

-

-

5

5

3

3
2

6
4

4
4

4
4

4

4
6

1
1

2

-

-

-

~

*

4

4
6
“

_

19

28

11
8

27

15
15

6
4

2
2

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

“

-

6

2

1

-

5

2

l

-

-

•
-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

.

-

_

-

_

-

-

3

9 6 .0 0

-

6

9 6 .0 0 -1 1 3 .0 0

7
6

5

1 0 7.00

6
4

-

2

106.00

6
4

i

1

8 6 .5 0

8 3 .0 0
8 1 .5 0

7
6

2

6

39 .5

10
8

3

22
19

l

3 8 .0

30
16

-

o f t a b le s .




_

1

“

3

3

7

22

11

3

1

-

Table A -2. Weekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Durham, N .C., December 1973

Table A-3. Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex,
in Durham, N.C., December 1973
Average

Average

S ex,

o c c u p a tio n ,

and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

(standard)

OF F I C E O C CU PA TI ON S - MEN
CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -------M A N U FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

61
37

ME SSENGERS (OFFICE BOYS) ----------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

23
17

Weekly
earnings *
(standard)

S ex,

o c c u p a t io n ,

and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

126
70

39.0 128.00
38.5 129.00

of

Weekly
hours *
(standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

S ex,

o c c u p a t io n , and in d u s t r y d iv is io n

Number
of
workers

Weekly
[standard)

Weekly
earnings1
(standard)

$
88.50
86.50

OF F I C E O C C U PA TI ON S WOMEN— C O NT IN UE D

OFFICE O C C U PA TI ON S WOMEN— CONT IN UE D
36.5 190.50
36.5 195.50 KE YPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B
N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -------39.0
96.00
39.5
96.00 SECRETARIES -------M A N U FA CT UR IN G —
N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG

96
89

38.5 106.00
38.5 102.50

SWITCH BO AR D OPERATORS, CLASS 8 ---------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

22
17

39.5
39.5

630
208

39.0 166.00
39.0 159.00
38.5 130.50

SWITCH BO AR D O P E R A T O R - R EC EP TI ON IS TS N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

50
38

38.0 108.50
38.0 106.00

222

TYPISTS, CLASS 8 ---------------------

81

37.5

73
38
38

39.0 169.50
39.0 196.00
38.5 165.50

SECRETARIES, CLASS C ~
MA NU FA CT UR IN G -------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----

182
111
71

39.0 150.50
39.5 159.50
38.5 136.50

COMP UT ER OPERATORS, CLASS 8 --------

60

39.0 169.50

21
19

39.0 180.50
39.0 182.50

O F FI CE OC CU PA TI ON S - WOMEN
CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A -----------------N O N M A N U F A C T U R I N G ------------------------------- ---------

Average

Number
Weekly

SECRETARIES, CLASS B
MA NU FA CT UR IN G -----N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG —

97.50

PROFES SI ON AL AND TE CHNICAL
OC C U P A T I O N S - MEN

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS 8 ------------------M A N U FA CT UR IN G ------------------------------------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------------------------------

167
59
88

38.5 113.00
37.5 129.50
39.0 102.00

CLERKS, PAYROLL ---------------------------------------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G -------------------------------------------------

31
20

38.5 126.00
39.0 132.00

SECRETARIES, CLASS D
MA NU FA CT UR IN G -----N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG —

162
56
106

39.0 123.00
39.0 129.50
38.5 119.00

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS - WOMEN

KE YPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A ------------------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ------------------------------------------------N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG -----------------------------------------

60
26
36

39.0 119.50
60.0 135.00
38.0 109.50

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL M A N U FA CT UR IN G -------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----

96
39
57

38.5 118.50
38.5 123.50
38.0 115.00

NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) --MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

S e e fo o tn o te a t en d o f t a b le s .




4

Table A -4. Hourly earnings of maintenance and powerplant workers in Durham, N .C., December 1973
N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f---

Hourly earnings3

t

$

s

*
3 .7 0

S

S

s

$

S

4 .8 0

5 .0 0

*
5 .4 0

$

4 .6 0

t
5 .2 0

$

4 .0 0

t
$
4 .3 0 4 .4 0

s

3 .9 0

i
4 .2 0

*

3 .8 0

t
4 .1 0

S

3 .3 0

*
*
3 . 40 3 . 50 3 .6 0

3 .1 0

3 .2 0

5 .6 0

5 .8 0

6 .0 0

6 .2 0

3 .2 0

3 .3 0

3 .4 0

3 . 50

4 .3 0

4 .4 q 4 . 6 0

4 .8 0

5 .0 0

5 .2 0

5 .4 0

5 .6 0

5 .8 0

6 .0 0

6 .2 0

6 .4 0

5 .5 5
5 .5 6

2
2

-

1
1

-

“

-

-

-

11
11

-

-

-

•

-

-

-

5 .5 7
5 .5 7

-

-

-

1

-

*

*

1

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6
6

-

O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d iv i s i o n

workers

Mean 2 Median2

Middle range 2

S

and
u n d er
3 . 60

3 .7 0

3 .8 0

3 .9 0

4 .0 0

4 .1 0

4 .2 0

4
4

"

"

“

2
2

6

“

-

-

3

3
3

-

“

2
2

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

-

MEN AND WOMEN C O MB IN ED
$
CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------

$

26
20

4 .5 1
4 .6 4

4 .1 8
5 .5 1

3 .5 9 3 .5 6 -

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE
MA NU FACTURING ---------

5*
5*

5 .1 5
5 .1 5

5 .5 3
5 .5 3

4 .4 9 4 .4 9 -

MECHANICS, AU TOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE) ----------NONMANUF AC TU RI NG
PUBLIC UTILITIES --MECHANICS, MA INTENANCE —
MA NUFACTURING ---------

$

$

29

5 .0 1

5 .0 3

4 .6 3 -

5 .2 5

24

5 . 09

5 .0 4

4 .6 6 -

5 .1 0

18
16

4 .0 8
4 .0 8

4 .0 4
4 .0 4

3 .3 8 3 .3 8 -

4 .3 5
4 .3 5

-

-

-

8

S ee fo o tn o te s a t en d o f t a b le s




3

5

-

3

2

5

3

2
-

_

-

-

*

*

40
40

-

10

-

2

-

-

-

5

-

.

-

*

2
2

3
3

10

-

-

-

-

-

5

-

2
2

2
2

Table A -5 . Hourly earnings of custodial and material movement workers in Durham, N.C., December 1973
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a ig h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f —

Hourly earnings

O c c u p a t io n a n d in d u s t r y d iv i s i o n

5

1

Number
of

s

*

s

t

1.80 2.00 2.20 2.60 2.60
Mean 2

M edian2

Middle range 2

t

%

2.80 3.00

$

t

3.20 3.60

*

*

*

i

i

t

3.60 3.80 6.00 6.20 6.60 6.60

»

6.80 5.00

i

*

i

5.20 5.60 5.60

»

i

5.80 6.00

t
6.20

and
under

2.00 2.20 2.60 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.60 3.60 3.80 6.00 6.20 6 . 6 0 6 . 6 0 6.80 5.00 5.20 5.60 5.60 5.60 6.00 6.20 6.60

MEN AND WC MF N C0M91NFD
$

$

$

$

86

3 .2 9

68

3.58

3.71
3.76

2.66- 3.78
3.09- 3.80

39

3.39

3.72

3.02- 3.76

666

256
390

2.51
3.65
1.90

2.03
3.72
1.87

1.85- 3.68
3.62- 3.76
1.83- 1.90

LABORERS, MATERIAL HAND LI NG
MA NU FA CT UR IN G ------------

96
71

2.78
2.91

2.55
2.75

2.26- 3.53
2.36- 3.56

PACKERS, SH IPPING
MANUFA CT UR IN G ■

56
67

3.16
3.16

3.22
3.59

2.21- 6.06
2.19- 6.05

251
67
206

6.18
3.66
6.35

6.13
3.97
6.59

2.65- 6.26
2.59- 6.31
2.62- 6.25

116
36

2.68
3.26

2.67
2.78

2.25- 2.73
2.57- 6.16

91
86

3.31
3.39

GUARDS AND WATCHMEN
MANUFA CT UR IN G WA TCHMEN
MA NU FA CT UR IN G
JANITORS, PORTERS, AND CLEANERS --MA NU FA CT UR IN G --------------------N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

TRUCKDRIVERS
-----M A N U FA CT UR IN G —
N O NM AN UF AC TU RI NG
TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM I 1-1/2 TO
AN0 INCLUDING 6 TONS) -------MA NU FA CT UR IN G -----------------TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT)
MA NU FA CT UR IN G ----------

2.55- 3.92
2.59- 3.93

13
1 3
9

309
3
306

-

6

1
1

5

33
33

9
6

196
196

66

7

5

5

6

6

53

31
13

18
-

23
23

13
13

9
9

10

20

17

66

16

3

6

1

1

20

17

13
33

7

10

9

2

3

20

17

62
12

16
7

22

5
5

-

-

8
1

3
13
12

3
2

1

1

1

1

1

3

6
6
6

6

3

7
7

-

2
2

3
2

2
2

2

1
1

1

l

2

-

-

3
3

6

21
21
10
10

12
12

5

6

101
101

2
1
l

12
12

10

2

2

1
1

2
2

3
3

29
28

6
2
-

22

6
6

25

5

58

S e e fo o tn o te s at en d o f ta b le s .




2
-

10

2

39
39

-

1
1

5




Table A-6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, powerplant,
custodial, and material movement workers, by sex.
in Durham, N.C., December 1973
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Average
(m ean2 )

Sex, occupation, and industry division

earnings3

MAINTENANCE ------------

Average
(m ean2 )
hourly
earnings3

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
D C CU PA TI ON S- ME N— CO NTINUED

MAI NT FNANCE A NO POWERPLANT
OC CU PA TI ON S - MEN
CARPENTERS,

Number
of
workers

26
20

4.51

JANITORS, PORTERS,

AND CLEANERS ---

485
218
267

2.59
3.42
1.92

96
71

2.78
2.91

251
47
204

3.46
4.35

MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

114
34

2.68
3.24

TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT) --------MA NU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

91
84

3.31
3.39

159

2.25

N O N M A N UF AC TU RI NG -----------------

MECHANICS,

54
54

5.15
5.15 LABORERS, MATERIAL H A ND LI NG -------MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

24

ELECTRICIANS, MAINTENANCE ---------MANU FA CT UR IN G ---------------------

5.09

18
18

4.08
4.08

AUTOMOTIVE

NO NM AN UF AC TU RI NG
MECHANICS, MA INTENANCE --------------

CUSTODIAL AND MA TERIAL MOVEMENT
OCCUPATI CN S- ME N
GUARDS AND WATCHMEN ----------------MA NU FACTURING ---------------------

85
67

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM

3.39

JANITORS,

WATCHMEN

(1-1/2 TO

Cu s t o d i a l and m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t
OCCUPA TI CN S- WC ME N

3.29
3.58

39

MANUFA CT UR IN G ---------------------

See footnotes at end of tables.

7

PORTERS,

AND CLEANERS ---

Table A-7. Indexes of earnings for selected occupational groups and percents of increase for selected periods
Table A-8. Percents of increase in average hourly earnings for selected occupational groups, adjusted for employment shifts




N O T E : D a ta f o r t a b l e s A - 7 a n d A - 8 a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e
D u r h a m s u r v e y s in c e d a ta d o n o t m e e t p u b lic a t io n c r i t e r i a .
R e f e r e n c e s to ta b le s A - 7 a n d A - 8
b u lle t in d o n o t a p p ly to th is a r e a .

8

in t h e

sta n d a rd

fo r

th e

te x t o f

th e

B. Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions
Table B-1. Minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced typists and clerks in Durham, N.C., December 1973
O th er in e x p e r ie n c e d c l e r i c a l w o r k e r * 5

In e x p e r ie n c e d ty p is ts

M in im u m w e e k ly s t r a ig h t - t im e s a l a r y 4

A ll
s c h e d u le s

E s ta b lis h m e n t s s t u d ie d --------------------

------------------

----—

E s ta b lis h m e n t s ha vin g a s p e c i f ie d m in im u m __ ________ ___

A ll
sc h e d u le s

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

40

56

25

XXX

31

XXX

56

7

2

2

5

3

11

7 5 .0 0 and u n d er $ 7 7 .5 0 ___________________________________
77.50 and u n d er $ 8 0 .0 0 __ _________ ________ - _________
8 0 .0 0 and u n d er $ 8 2 .5 0 _________ _________________ _______
8 2 .5 0 and u n d e r $ 8 5 .0 0 ___________________________________
85.0 0 and u n d er $ 8 7 .5 0 __ __ ______________________________
8 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 9 0 .0 0 ---------------------------------------------- -----9 0 .0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 9 2 .5 0 _________ __________________________
9 2.5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 9 5 .0 0 ----- _ ________ _____ — ______
9 5 .0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 9 7 .5 0 ________________________ _________
9 7 .5 0 a n d u n d e r $ 100 .00 _____________________ ______ _______
100.00 a n d u n d e r $ 1 0 2 .5 0 _____ ______________ _
___

1
1
.
3
1
1

_
.
1
1

_
_
1
1

1
1
_
2
1
-

_
.
2
1
-

1
2
.

-

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g n o s p e c i f i e d m i n i m u m --------------------------

12

5

X XX

7

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s w h i c h d id n o t e m p l o y w o r k e r s
in t h i s c a t e g o r y --------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------

37

18

X XX

19

$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

S ee

fo o tn o te s

at e n d




o f t a b le s .

9

N on m a n u factu rin g

B a s e d on sta n d a rd w e e k ly h o u r s 6 o f —
—

A ll
in d u s t r ie s

B a se d on sta n d a rd w eek ly h o u r s 6 o f —

A ll
in d u s tr ie s

M a n u fa ctu rin g

N on m a n u fa ctu rin g

M a n u fa ctu rin g

40

A ll
s c h e d u le s

25

XXX

31

8

6

1
1
_
_

.
_
_
_

3
3
_
_
.
_

3
3
_
_
_
_

40

XXX

3

2

_

_

-

3
1

1
1
.
1

_
_
1
_
.
_
1

-

-

X XX

19

11

XXX

8

X XX

X XX

26

11

X XX

15

XXX

4




Table B-2. Late-shift pay provisions for manufacturing plant workers
in Durham, N.C., December 1973
( A ll p la n t w o r k e r s in m a n u fa c t u r in g ■ 1 0 0 p e r c e n t )
P e r c e n t o f m a n u fa ctu rin g p la n t w o r k e r s —

L a t e -s h ift p a y p r o v is io n

In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g p r o v i s i o n s 7
f o r la t e s h ift s
T h ir d o r o th e r
s h ift

S e c o n d s h ift

A c t u a ll y w o r k in g o n la t e s h ift s

S e c o n d s h ift

T h ir d o r o th e r
s h ift

•
6 4 .1

8 1 .3

1 8 .8

3.5

N o p a y d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r w o r k o n la t e s h i f t _ _
_

1 6 .5

0.6

3 .5

P a y d i f f e r e n t i a l f o r w o r k o n l a t e s h ift ___ ______

6 4 .8

6 3 .5

1 5 .3

1 4 .8

2 4 .7

2 .5

3.4

1 5 .9

_

2 .7

.3
.5
.5

-

0
3.4

T y p e an d a m ou n t o f d iffe r e n t ia l:
U n i f o r m c e n t s ( p e r h o u r ) ____________________
5 ce n ts
7 V2 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------------------10 c e n t s --------------------------------- ------------------------1 3 V3 c e n t s ___________________________________
15 c e n t s - ___________________________________
17 c e n t s _____________________ ________________
2 0 c e n t s __________________________ ____________
2 5 c e n t s ______________________________________
35 c e n t s
___________________ _________________
U n i f o r m p e r c e n t a g e ___________________________
8 p e r c e n t _____________________________________
10 p e r c e n t ____________________________________
12 V2 p e r c e n t ------------------------ ------------------------15 p e r c e n t ______________ ____ ____ ___ _

_

-

2 .8
6 .3
1.1

-

-

4 .3
2 .8
-

1 .0
.2

*

1.7

-

3 7 .7

5 0 .1

_

3 2 .0
1 8 .1

19.6
1 2 .7
5.4

-

F u ll d a y s ' p ay fo r r e d u c e d h o u rs
p l u s c e n t s d i f f e r e n t i a ] ____ _________________

See

fo o tn o te s

at e n d

-

2 .9
1 .7

1.1

o f ta b le s .

10

.3

-

.1
-

.2

1 2 .8

.1

11.1

.

1 .7

-

.1
-

Table B-3. Scheduled w eekly hours and days of first-shift workers in Durham, N .C ., December 1973
P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s

P e r c e n t o f o ffic e w o r k e r s

W e e k ly h o u r s and d a y s
A ll in d u s tr ie s

A l l w o r k e r s __

__

_____ _ _________
_

__

____

3 0 h o u r s — 5 d a y s _________ ___________ _ __________
3 5 h o u r s — 5 d a y s _ _ ____________________ ___________
_ _
3 6 '/z h o u r s — 5 d a y s __________________
______________
3 7 V2 h o u r s — 5 d a y s ________ ______________________
38 V2 h o u r s — 5 d a y s ___________________________________
38 V4 h o u r s — 5 d a y s ______________ ____________________
4 0 h o u r s _________________ _____________________ .___ ______
5 d a y s . _______________________________________________
5 '/ 2 d a y s ....................................................................................
4 2 h o u r s — 5 d a y s ______________________________________
4 4 h o u r s __________________________________________ _______
5 V2 d a y s ________________ ___________ _________________
6 d a y s — _____________________ ______________ _________
4 5 h o u r s — 5 d a y s ________________________ ___________ —
4 8 h o u r s — 6 d a y s ____ - _________ - ___ _______ __________
53 h o u r s — 6 d a y s ______________________________________

See

fo o tn o te

100

(’ )
3
3
15
62
59
3
2
2
2
(’ )
11
1
1

M a n u f a c t u r in g

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

A ll in d u s t r ie s

M a n u f a c t u r in g

P u b li c u t ilit ie s

100

100

100

100

100

_

_
_
_
-

10
10
8
11
14
47
47
-

9
_

_
_

20
_
_

_

70
70
_

100
10 0
_
_
_

23
61
61
2
2
12
-

95
95
5
5
-

1

at e n d o f t a b l e s .




11

-

-

_

Table B-4. Annual paid holidays in Durham, N .C., December 1973
P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s

P e r c e n t o f o ffic e w o r k e r s

Ite m
A ll in d u s tr ie s

A l l w o r k e r s --------------------------------------------------------------

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o d i v i n g
p a i d h o l i d a y s __________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
n o p a i d h o l i d a y s _______________________________________

M a n u f a c t u r in g

P u b lic u tilitie s

A ll in d u s t r ie s

M a n u fa c tu r in g

P u b li c u t ilit ie s

100

100

100

100

100

100

88

100

100

99

100

100

12

-

-

1

-

-

1
3
16
8
1
7
10
32
9

-

1
3

(’ )

16
9
2
3
4
47
15

-

9
42
52
59
60
68
84
87
88

15
62
66
70
71
80
96
98
100

N u m b e r o f d a y s 10
2 h o l i d a y s ___________________ ___________________________
3 h o l i d a y s _______ _______________________________________
5 h o l i d a y s _____________________________ _________________
6 h o l i d a y s ---------------------------------------------------------------------------6 h o l i d a y s p lu s 1 h a l f d a y __________ ______________
7 h o l i d a y s ___________ ___________________________________
8 h o l i d a y s _________________________________________________
9 h o l i d a y s _________________________________________________
10 h o l i d a y s ____________________________________ _________

.

2
2

5
52
43
-

18
(9 )
32
10
11
25

.

3
10
(’ )

1

13
27
46

1
-

79
20
-

T o t a l h o l i d a y t i m e 11
10 d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------9 d a y s o r m o r e __________________________________________
8 d a y s o r m o r e ____________________
___________________
7 d a y s o r m o r e ----------------------------------------------------------------6 V2 d a y s o r m o r e _______________________________________
6 d a y s o r m o r e ----------------------------------------------------------------5 d a y s o r m o r e ----------------------------------------------------------------3 d a y s o r m o r e ----------------------------------------------------------------2 d a y s o r m o r e -----------------------------------------------------------------

See

fo o tn o te s




at e n d

_
-

43
95
95
100
100
100
100

o f t a b le s .

12

25
36
46
78
78
96
98
99
99

46
72
86
87
87
97
99
100
100

_
-

20
99
99
100
100
100
100

Table B-4a. Identification of major paid holidays in Durham, N.C., December 1973
P e r c e n t o f o ffic e w o r k e r s

P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s
H o l i d a y 10
A ll in d u s tr ie s

A l l w o r k e r s _______________________________________

N e w Y e a r ' s D a y --------------------------------------------------------------W a s h i n g t o n 's B i r t h d a y ------------------—__________________
G o o d F r i d a y ----------------------------------------------------------------------E a s t e r M o n d a y __________________________________________
M e m o r i a l D a y -----------------------------------------------------------------F o u r t h o f J u l y -----------------------------------------------------------------L a b o r D a y -------------------------------------------------------------------------T h a n k s g i v i n g D a y ______________________________________
D a y a f t e r T h a n k s g i v i n g _____________ ______________
C h r i s t m a s E v e ---------------------------------------------------------------C h r i s t m a s D a y ------------------------------------------------- -----------E x t r a d a y d u r in g C h r i s t m a s w e e k -------------------------N e w Y e a r ' s E v e _______________ ______________________
F l o a t i n g h o l i d a y , 1 d a y 13 _ ____ ______ _____________
F l o a t i n g h o l i d a y , 2 d a y s 13--------------- ------ ------------F l o a t i n g h o l i d a y , 4 d a y s 13- ______ __ ___________
E m p l o y e e ' s b i r t h d a y ____ ________ _____________________
E m p l o y e e ' s a n n i v e r s a r y ___________ _________________

S ee

fo o tn o te s

P u b lic u tilitie s

M a n u fa c tu r in g

M a n u fa c tu r in g

P u b li c u t ilit ie s

100

100

100

100

10 0

10 0

74
5
5
65
49
80
86
81
34
33
84
7
2

80
7
7
80
68
87
98
92
52
46
94
9
3
5
2

100
100
75
100
100
100
43
100
-

98
1
4
78
52
99
98
99
24
43
99
3

10 0
-

-

11

97
2
13
50
84
99
100
99
37
25
98
4
3

20

6

3
1
10
6
4

13
-

at e n d o f t a b l e s .




A ll in d u s tr ie s

13

3

11
9

14

36

(’ )

100
97
100
100
10 0
20
100
-

2

Table B-5. Paid vacation provisions in Durham, N .C., December 1973
P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s

P e r c e n t o f o ffic e w o r k e r s

V a c a t io n p o lic y
A ll in d u s t r ie s

P u b lic u t ilit ie s

A l l in d u s t r ie s

M a n u fa c tu r in g

P u b lic u tilitie s

100

100

100

100

100

100

98
81
17

100
73
27

100
100
-

99
99
*

100
100
-

100
100
“

'

A l l w o r k e r s _______________________ _______—.......... .

M a n u fa c tu r in g

'

28
55

-

3
89
"

-

21
-

7
-

75
3

93

80
20
-

M eth od o f p a y m en t
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a i d v a c a t i o n s ______________________ ___________________
L e n g t h - o f - t i m e p a y m e n t __________________ _______
P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t ___ ___________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
n o p a i d v a c a t i o n s _____________________________________

2

(’ )

A m o u n t o f v a c a t i o n p a y 14
A fte r 6 m on th s o f s e r v ic e
U n d e r 1 w e e k _______ ____________________________________
1 w e e k _________________________________________ ___________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ___________________________

18
38

-

(’ )

1
60
3

A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e
1
O
2
3

w e e k ____ ________________________________________________
v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ___________________________
w e e k s ____________________________________________________
w e e k s _________________________________ __________________

(’ )

42
3
55
"

37
1
58
2

32

-

-

65
3

20
80
-

-

-

19
5
74
3

-

5
-

1
-

-

80
20

92
-

99
-

10 0
-

53
3
41

57
20
24
“

A fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ______________________ ____
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ______________ _____________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________________

(’ )

5
-

91
.3

-

2
-

-

98

100

-

-

-

-

A fte r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________________
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ...................... ..........................
2 w e e k s ______________ ____________________________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ___________________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________________

22
3
70
3

-

3

(’ )

_

“

A fte r 4 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1
O
2
O
3

w e e k __________________________ ______ ___________ _______
v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ___________________________
w e e k s _____ ______________________________________________
v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ___________ ____ ___________
w e e k s ..................... ..................... ................................................

22
3
70
3

-

19
5
74
3

80
20

(’ )

5
-

1
-

_

92
3

99
-

100
-

-

-

3
53
15
28

(’ )
51
3
46

-

A fte r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1
2
O
3

w e e k ________________________________ ____________________
w e e k s _____ ______________________________________________
v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ___________________________
w e e k s ____________________________________________________

See

fo o tn o te s




7
78
3
10

-

2
81
3
15

80
20

a t en d o f t a b le s .

14

-

100
-

Table B-5.

Paid vacation provisions in Durham, N.C., December 1973— Continued
P e r c e n t o f o ffic e w o r k e r s

P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s
V a c a t io n p o lic y
P u b lic u t ilit ie s

A ll in d u s t r ie s

_
5
-

2
9
-

75
20

87
-

*

3

2

-

-

2
7
-

(’ )
7
-

_
-

80
20

87
-

90
-

100
-

-

3

3

-

-

2
6
48
1
43

(’ )
2
28
3
67

20

-

-

-

2
5
19
74
1

(’ )
2
12
84
2

-

-

A ll in d u s tr ie s

M a n u fa c tu r in g

5
36
1
53
1
1

2
32
2
63
2

5
30
1
55
1
4

2
24
2
66
6

5
21
30
2
38
1

2
10
33
3
53

5
18
20
52
1
1

2
10
25
62
2

5
18
17
18
37
1

2
10
21
16
51

-

2
5
18
57
18

-

20

-

5
18
17
18
36
1
1

2
10
21
16
50

-

80
-

2
5
18
57
18

-

20

-

M a n u f a c t u r in g

P u b li c u t ilit ie s

A m o u n t o f v a c a t i o n p a y 14— C o n t in u e d
A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k _____________________________________________________
2 w e e k s _______________________________ ____________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ______________ ______ ______
3 w e e k s ____________________________________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ___________________________
4 w e e k s ____________________________________________________
A fte r

(’ )
10
•
87
-

_
i
99
-

12 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e

1 w e e k _____________________________________________________
2 w e e k s ________________________________ ___________________
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ________________ __________
3 w e e k s _______________ ______________ _____________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ___________________________
4 w e e k s ___________________________________________________
A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e
1 w e e k ______ ____________________________________________
2 w e e k s ___________ ____ ___________________________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________________
O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ___________________________
4 w e e k s _____________________________ ___________________
O v e r 4 a n d u n d e r 5 w e e k s ___________________________

-

80
-

-

.
-

98
2
-

A fte r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________________
2 w e e k s ___________ ___________ — ----------------------------------3 w e e k s ___________________________________________________
4 w e e k s ___________________________________________________
5 w e e k s ___________________________________________________
O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ___________________________

80
20

-

_
100
-

A ft e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________________
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________________
3 w e e k s __________________________________ _________________
4 w e e k s ___________________________________________________
5 w e e k s ___________________________________________________
O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ___________________________

-

80

(*>
2
10
31
56
-

_
-

100
-

-

M a x im u m v a c a tio n a v a ila b le *
1 w e e k _______________________________________________ _____
2 w e e k s ___________________________________________________
3 w e e k s ___________________________________________________
4 w e e k s ___________ ________________________________________
5 w e e k s _____ ______ _______________________________________
O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ___________________ ________
6 w e e k s ___________________________________________________

*

-

2

1

E s t im a t e s o f p r o v is io n s f o r 30 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e a r e id e n t ic a l.

S ee fo o tn o te s at en d o f t a b le s .




15

(’ )
2
10
29
56
-

2

_
100
-

Table B-6. Health, insurance, and pension plan provisions in Durham, N .C ., December 1973
P e r c e n t o f p la n t w o r k e r s
T y p e o f b e n e fit and
f i n a n c i n g 15

A ll in d u s t r ie s

A ll w o r k e r s

P u b lic u tilitie s

M a n u fa c tu r in g

100

100

10 0

P u b lic u tilitie s

S ic k n e s s an d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e
N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y p la n s
S ic k le a v e ( fu ll p a y an d n o
w a it in g p e r io d )
S ic k le a v e (p a r t ia l p a y o r
w a i t i n g p e r i o d ) _________________________________

_ _
_
_
_ _
_ _
_

100

99

L if e in s u r a n c e _
N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y p la n s
__ . . . . . .
A c c id e n t a l d ea th and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e
.....
__
_
N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y p l a n s _________________________
S ic k n e s s and a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s i c k l e a v e o r b o t h 16

100

100

100

100

100

97
78

98
87

100
76

99
79

99
98

100
80

30
24

28
20

48
48

42
31

26
25

18
18

10 0

88

94

100

95

96

82

39
30

37
27

20
20

22
11

9
8

2
-

22

24

24

75

79

3

34

39

57

20

16

79

36
36
83
64
83
64
80
64
80
63
1
1
75
62

39
39
80
71
80
71
80
71
83
71
-

71
71
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
20
20
100
100

81
54
97
78
97
78
93
77
96
77
1
1
82
68

77
77
90
88
90
88
87
86
91
88
3
3
99
80

79
79
100
98
100
98
100
98
100
98

-

80
72

S ee fo o tn o te s at end o f t a b le s .




A ll in d u s tr ie s

100

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g a t
le a s t 1 o f th e b e n e fit s sh o w n b e lo w

L o n g -t e r m d is a b ilit y in s u r a n c e
N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y p la n s
H o s p it a liz a t io n in s u r a n c e
„ ..
N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y p la n s
S u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e
N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y p la n s
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e
_
N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y p la n s
M a jo r m e d ic a l in s u r a n c e
_
N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y p la n s
_
D e n ta l in s u r a n c e
N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y p la n s
_
R e tir e m e n t p e n sio n
N o n c o n t r i b u t o r y p la n s

P e r c e n t o f o ffic e w o r k e r s

M a n u fa c tu r in g

16

“
100
100

Footnotes

A ll of these standard footnotes may not apply to this bulletin.

1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-tim e salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime
at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours.
2 The mean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all workers and dividing by the number of w orkers. The median
designates position— half of the em ployees surveyed receive m ore and half receive le ss than the rate shown.
The middle range is defined
by 2 rates of pay; a fourth of the workers earn le ss than the lower of these rates and a fourth earn m ore than the higher rate.
3 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
4 These salaries relate to form ally established minimum starting (hiring) regular straight-tim e salaries that are paid for standard
workweeks.
5 Excludes workers in subclerical jobs such as m essenger.
6 Data are presented for all standard workweeks combined, and for the m ost common standard workweeks reported.
7 Includes all plant workers in establishments currently operating late sh ifts, and establishments whose form al provisions cover late
shifts, even though the establishments were not currently operating late shifts.
8 L ess than 0.05 percent.
9 L ess than 0.5 percent.
10 For purposes of this study, pay for a Sunday in D ecem ber, negotiated in the automobile industry, is not treated as a paid holiday.
1 A ll combinations of full and half days that add to the same amount are combined; for exam ple, the proportion of workers receiving
1
a total of 9 days includes those with 9 full days and no half days, 8 full days and 2 half days, 7 full days and 4 half days, and so on.
Proportions then were cumulated.
1 These days are provided as part of a Christmas—New Y ear holiday period which typically begins with Christmas Eve and ends with
2
New Y e a r 's Day. Such a holiday period is common in the automobile, aerospace, and farm implement industries.
1 "F lo a tin g " holidays vary from year to year according to employer or employee choice.
3
1 Includes payments other than "length of t i m e ," such as percentage of annual earnings or fla t-su m payments, converted to an
4
equivalent tim e b a sis; for exam ple, 2 percent of annual earnings was considered as 1 w eek's pay. Periods of service are chosen arbitrarily
and do not n ecessarily reflect individual provisions for progression; for exam ple, changes in proportions at 10 years include changes between
5 and 10 y ea rs. Estim ates are cumulative. Thus, the proportion eligible for at least 3 w eeks' pay after 10 years includes those eligible for
at least 3 weeks' pay after fewer years of service.
1 Estim ates listed after type of benefit are for all plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer. "Noncontributory
5
plans" include only those financed entirely by the em ployer. Excluded are legally required plains, such as workmen's compensation, social
security, and railroad retirem ent.
18 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and accident insurance shown separately below. Sick leave plans are
lim ited to those which definitely establish at least the minimum number of days' pay that each employee can expect. Informal sick leave
allowances determined on an individual basis are excluded.




17

Appendix A
A v e r a g e p a y l e v e l s f o r m e n a n d w o m e n i n s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s s h o u ld n o t b e a s s u m e d
to r e f l e c t d i f f e r e n c e s in p a y o f t h e s e x e s w it h i n i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
F a c t o r s w h ic h m a y
c o n t r i b u t e t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n c l u d e p r o g r e s s i o n w it h i n e s t a b l i s h e d r a t e r a n g e s , s i n c e o n l y t h e r a t e s
p a i d i n c u m b e n t s a r e c o l l e c t e d , a n d p e r f o r m a n c e o f s p e c i f i c d u t i e s w it h i n t h e g e n e r a l s u r v e y j o b
d e sc r ip tio n s.
J o b d e s c r i p t i o n s u s e d t o c l a s s i f y e m p l o y e e s in t h e s e s u r v e y s u s u a l l y a r e m o r e
g e n e r a l i z e d th a n t h o s e u s e d i n i n d i v i d u a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a n d a l l o w f o r m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s a m o n g
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in s p e c i f i c d u t i e s p e r f o r m e d .

A r e a w a g e a n d r e la t e d b e n e fit s d a ta a r e o b t a in e d b y p e r s o n a l v i s i t s o f B u r e a u f ie l d
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a t 3 - y e a r i n t e r v a l s . 1 In e a c h o f t h e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s , i n f o r m a t i o n on e m p l o y m e n t
a n d o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s is c o ll e c t e d b y a c o m b in a t io n o f p e r s o n a l v is it an d m a il q u e s t io n n a ir e
f r o m e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p a r t i c i p a t i n g in t h e p r e v i o u s s u r v e y .
In e a c h o f t h e 9 4 1* a r e a s c u r r e n t l y s u r v e y e d , d a ta a r e o b t a i n e d f r o m r e p r e s e n t a t i v e
2
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h i n s i x b r o a d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s : M a n u f a c t u r i n g ; t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n ,
and o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ; w h o le s a le t r a d e ; r e t a il t r a d e ; fin a n c e , in s u r a n c e , an d r e a l e s t a t e ; and
s e r v ic e s .
M a j o r i n d u s t r y g r o u p s e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s e s t u d i e s a r e g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t i o n s a n d th e
c o n s tr u c tio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u s tr ie s .
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g f e w e r th a n a p r e s c r i b e d n u m b e r o f
w o r k e r s a r e o m i t t e d b e c a u s e o f i n s u f f i c i e n t e m p l o y m e n t in t h e o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d i e d .
S ep a ra te
t a b u la t io n s a r e p r o v id e d f o r e a c h o f th e b r o a d in d u s t r y d iv i s i o n s w h ic h m e e t p u b lic a t io n c r i t e r i a .

O c c u p a t io n a l e m p lo y m e n t e s t im a t e s r e p r e s e n t th e t o t a l in a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s w it h in th e
s c o p e o f th e s t u d y a n d n o t th e n u m b e r a c t u a l l y s u r v e y e d .
B e c a u s e o c c u p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e s a m o n g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s
d iffe r , e s tim a te s
o f o c c u p a t io n a l
e m p lo y m e n t o b t a in e d f r o m
th e s a m p le o f
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s s t u d i e d s e r v e o n l y t o i n d i c a t e th e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e j o b s s t u d i e d .
T hese
d i f f e r e n c e s in o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e d o n o t a f f e c t m a t e r i a l l y t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e e a r n i n g s d a t a .

T h e s e s u r v e y s a r e c o n d u c te d on a s a m p le b a s is .
T h e s a m p lin g p r o c e d u r e s in v o lv e
d e t a i l e d s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h i n t h e s c o p e o f an i n d i v i d u a l a r e a s u r v e y b y
in d u s t r y a n d n u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s . F r o m th is s t r a t i f i e d u n iv e r s e a p r o b a b ili t y s a m p le i s s e le c t e d ,
w it h e a c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t h a v i n g a p r e d e t e r m i n e d c h a n c e o f s e l e c t i o n .
T o o b t a in o p t i m u m a c c u r a c y
a t m i n i m u m c o s t , a g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n o f l a r g e th a n s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i s s e l e c t e d .
W hen
d a ta a r e c o m b in e d , e a c h e s t a b lis h m e n t is w e ig h t e d a c c o r d i n g t o its p r o b a b ili t y o f s e l e c t i o n , s o
th a t u n b ia s e d e s t im a t e s a r e g e n e r a t e d . F o r e x a m p le , i f o n e ou t o f f o u r e s t a b lis h m e n t s is s e l e c t e d ,
it i s g i v e n a w e ig h t o f f o u r t o r e p r e s e n t i t s e l f p lu s t h r e e o t h e r s .
A n a lte r n a te o f th e s a m e
o r i g i n a l p r o b a b i l i t y i s c h o s e n in t h e s a m e i n d u s t r y - s i z e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i f d a t a a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e
f o r th e o r ig in a l s a m p le m e m b e r .
I f n o s u it a b le s u b s titu te is a v a i la b l e , a d d it io n a l w e ig h t is
a s s i g n e d t o a s a m p l e m e m b e r t h a t i s s i m i l a r t o t h e m i s s i n g u n it .
O c c u p a tio n s

and

W age

fo r

s e le c te d

o c c u p a tio n a l g ro u p s

I n d e x e s in t a b le A - 7 m e a s u r e w a g e s a t a g iv e n t im e , e x p r e s s e d a s a p e r c e n t o f w a g e s
d u r in g th e b a s e p e r i o d .
S u b t r a c t i n g 1 0 0 f r o m th e i n d e x y i e l d s t h e p e r c e n t c h a n g e in w a g e s f r o m
th e b a s e p e r i o d t o t h e d a t e o f t h e i n d e x .
T h e p e r c e n t s o f c h a n g e o r i n c r e a s e in t a b l e s A - 7
a n d A - 8 r e l a t e t o w a g e c h a n g e s b e t w e e n th e i n d i c a t e d d a t e s .
A n n u al r a te s o f in c r e a s e , w h e re
s h o w n , r e f l e c t th e a m o u n t o f i n c r e a s e f o r 12 m o n t h s w h e n t h e t i m e s p a n b e t w e e n s u r v e y s w a s
o t h e r th a n 12 m o n t h s .
T h e s e c o m p u t a t io n s a r e b a s e d o n th e a s s u m p t io n th a t w a g e s i n c r e a s e d a t
a co n sta n t ra te b e tw e e n s u r v e y s .

E a r n in g s

P e r c e n t s o f c h a n g e r e p o r t e d in t a b l e s A - 7 a n d A - 8 r e f l e c t t w o d i f f e r e n t m e a s u r e s o f
w age m ov em en t.
T a b l e A - 7 p r o v i d e s p e r c e n t s o f c h a n g e in a v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n i n g s o f o f f i c e
c l e r i c a l w o r k e r s a n d in d u s t r ia l n u r s e s a n d a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f s k il le d m a in t e n a n c e a n d
u n s k i l l e d p la n t w o r k e r s in t h e a r e a .
T a b le A - 8 p r o v id e s p e r c e n t s o f c h a n g e in a v e r a g e h o u r ly
e a r n i n g s f o r th e s a m e o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , a d j u s t e d t o e x c l u d e t h e e f f e c t o f e m p l o y m e n t s h i f t s .
T h e m e t h o d u s e d t o c o m p u t e w a g e t r e n d s in t a b l e A - 8 i s b a s e d o n c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e h o u r l y
e a r n i n g s f o r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s r e p o r t i n g i n d e x j o b s in b o t h th e c u r r e n t a n d p r e v i o u s y e a r ( m a t c h e d
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ) ; e s t a b l i s h m e n t e m p l o y m e n t in t h e j o b s w a s h e ld c o n s t a n t .
D a ta f o r th e m a t c h e d
e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e w e ig h t e d to r e p r e s e n t a l l e s t a b lis h m e n t s r e p o r t in g th e j o b in th e p r e v i o u s y e a r .

O c c u p a t io n s s e l e c t e d f o r s tu d y a r e c o m m o n t o a v a r i e t y o f m a n u fa c t u r in g a n d n o n ­
m a n u fa c t u r in g in d u s t r ie s , an d a r e o f th e fo llo w in g t y p e s :
(1 ) O f f i c e c l e r i c a l ; ( 2 ) p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d
t e c h n i c a l ; (3 ) m a i n t e n a n c e a n d p o w e r p l a n t ; a n d ( 4 ) c u s t o d i a l a n d m a t e r i a l m o v e m e n t .
O c c u p a t io n a l
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s b a s e d on a u n if o r m s e t o f jo b d e s c r i p t i o n s d e s ig n e d t o ta k e a c c o u n t o f in t e r ­
e s t a b l i s h m e n t v a r i a t i o n in d u t ie s w it h i n t h e s a m e j o b .
O c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d f o r stu d y a r e lis t e d
a n d d e s c r i b e d in a p p e n d i x B .
U n le s s o t h e r w is e in d ic a t e d , th e e a r n in g s d a ta fo ll o w in g th e jo b
t it le s a r e f o r a ll in d u s t r ie s c o m b in e d .
E a r n in g s d a ta f o r s o m e o f th e o c c u p a t io n s li s t e d an d
d e s c r i b e d , o r f o r s o m e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s w it h i n o c c u p a t i o n s , a r e n o t p r e s e n t e d in t h e A - s e r i e s
t a b l e s , b e c a u s e e i t h e r ( 1 ) e m p l o y m e n t in t h e o c c u p a t i o n i s t o o s m a l l t o p r o v i d e e n o u g h d a t a t o
m e r i t p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r (2 ) t h e r e i s p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t d a ta .
E a r n i n g s d a t a n o t s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y f o r i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d in a l l i n d u s t r i e s c o m b i n e d
d a ta , w h e re sh ow n .
L ik e w is e ,
d a t a a r e i n c l u d e d in t h e o v e r a l l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h e n a s u b ­
c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f e l e c t r o n i c s t e c h n ic i a n s , s e c r e t a r i e s , o r t r u c k d r i v e r s is n o t s h o w n o r in fo r m a t io n
t o s u b c la s s if y is n o t a v a ila b le .

M eth od
O ffic e

of

c o m p u t in g

c le r i c a l (m e n

w age

tre n d s.

O c c u p a t io n s

and w o m e n ):

B o o k k e e p in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B
C le r k s , a c c o u n t in g , c l a s s e s A and B
C le r k s , f il e , c la s s e s A , B, and C
C le r k s , o r d e r
C le r k s , p a y r o ll
K eyp u n ch o p e r a t o r s , c la s s e s A and B
M e s s e n g e r s (o ffic e b o y s and g ir ls )
S e c r e ta r ie s
S ten ogra p h ers, g en era l
S te n o g r a p h e r s , s e n io r
S w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s e s A and B
T a b u la t in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
c la s s B
T y p is ts , c la s s e s A and B

O c c u p a t i o n a l e m p l o y m e n t a n d e a r n i n g s d a ta a r e s h o w n f o r f u l l - t i m e w o r k e r s , i . e . , t h o s e
h ir e d to w o rk a r e g u la r w e e k ly s c h e d u le .
E a r n i n g s d a ta e x c l u d e p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d
f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o li d a y s , a n d la te s h ift s .
N o n p r o d u c t io n b o n u s e s a r e e x c l u d e d , b u t c o s t o f - l i v i n g a ll o w a n c e s a n d in c e n t i v e b o n u s e s a r e in c lu d e d .
W e e k ly h o u r s f o r o f f ic e c l e r i c a l and
p r o f e s s io n a l an d t e c h n ic a l o c c u p a t io n s r e f e r t o th e s ta n d a r d w o r k w e e k (r o u n d e d t o th e n e a r e s t
h a lf h o u r ) f o r w h ic h e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t i m e s a la r ie s (e x c l u s i v e o f p a y f o r
o v e r t i m e at r e g u l a r a n d / o r p r e m iu m r a t e s ) . A v e r a g e w e e k l y e a r n in g s f o r t h e s e o c c u p a t io n s a r e
r o u n d e d t o th e n e a r e s t h a lf d o lla r .
T h e s e s u r v e y s m e a s u r e t h e l e v e l o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s in an a r e a a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e .
C o m p a r is o n s o f in d iv id u a l o c c u p a t io n a l a v e r a g e s o v e r t im e m a y n o t r e f l e c t e x p e c t e d w a g e c h a n g e s .
T h e a v e r a g e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l j o b s a r e a f f e c t e d b y c h a n g e s in w a g e s a n d e m p l o y m e n t p a t t e r n s .
F or
e x a m p le , p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y h ig h - o r lo w -w a g e f ir m s m a y c h a n g e , o r h ig h -w a g e
w o r k e r s m a y a d v a n c e to b e t t e r jo b s a n d b e r e p la c e d b y n ew w o r k e r s at lo w e r r a t e s .
S u ch
s h i f t s in e m p l o y m e n t c o u l d d e c r e a s e a n o c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e e v e n t h o u g h m o s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in
an a r e a i n c r e a s e w a g e s d u r i n g t h e y e a r .
T r e n d s in e a r n i n g s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , s h o w n in
t a b l e s A - 7 a n d A - 8 , a r e b e t t e r i n d i c a t o r s o f w a g e t r e n d s th a n i n d i v i d u a l j o b s w it h i n t h e g r o u p s .
A v e r a g e e a r n in g s r e f l e c t c o m p o s i t e , a r e a w id e e s t i m a t e s .
I n d u s tr ie s a n d e s t a b lis h m e n t s
d i f f e r in p a y l e v e l a n d j o b s t a f f i n g , a n d t h u s c o n t r i b u t e d i f f e r e n t l y t o t h e e s t i m a t e s f o r e a c h j o b .
P a y a v e r a g e s m a y f a i l t o r e f l e c t a c c u r a t e l y t h e w a g e d i f f e r e n t i a l a m o n g j o b s in i n d i v i d u a l

In dex es

e s t a b li s h m e n t s .

1 Personal visits were on a 2-y ea r c y c le before July 1972.
2 Included in the 94 areas are 8 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are Austin, T e x .; Binghamton, N .Y . —
P a .; Durham, N. C . ; Fort Lauderdale—H ollywood and West Palm Beach, F la .; Huntsville, A l a .; Lexington, K y .; M elbou rne-T itu sville—C ocoa,
F la.; and Poughkeepsie—Kingston—Newburgh, N .Y .
In addition, the Bureau conducts more lim ited area studies in approxim ately 70 areas
at the request o f the Employment Standards Administration of the U. S. Department o f Labor.




tren d s

fo r

in d iv id u a l a r e a s

in t h e p r o g r a m

used

to

co m p u te

w age

tre n d s

are:

In d u s tr ia l n u r s e s (m e n a n d w o m e n ):
N u rses,

in d u s t r ia l ( r e g i s t e r e d )

S k ille d m a in t e n a n c e ( m e n ) :
C a rp en ters
E le c tr ic ia n s
M a c h in is ts
M e c h a n ic s
M e c h a n ic s (a u to m o tiv e )
P a in te r s
P ip e fitte r s
T o o l a n d d ie m a k e r s
U n s k i l l e d p la n t ( m e n ) :
J a n ito r s , p o r t e r s , and c le a n e r s
L a b o r e r s , m a t e r i a l h a n d lin g
are

co m p u te d

as

fo llo w s :

1.
E a c h o c c u p a t i o n i s a s s i g n e d a w e i g h t b a s e d o n i t s p r o p o r t i o n a t e e m p l o y m e n t in th e
s e l e c t e d g r o u p o f o c c u p a t i o n s in th e b a s e y e a r .
2.
T h e s e w e ig h t s a r e u s e d to c o m p u t e g r o u p a v e r a g e s .
E a c h o c c u p a t i o n 's a v e r a g e
(m e a n ) e a r n in g s is m u lt i p l ie d b y it s w e ig h t.
T h e p r o d u c t s a r e t o t a le d t o o b t a in a g r o u p a v e r a g e .
3.
T h e r a t i o o f g r o u p a v e r a g e s f o r 2 c o n s e c u t i v e y e a r s i s c o m p u t e d b y d iv i d i n g t h e
a v e r a g e f o r th e c u r r e n t y e a r b y t h e a v e r a g e f o r t h e e a r l i e r y e a r .
T h e r e s u lts — e x p r e s s e d a s a
p e r c e n t — l e s s 1 0 0 i s th e p e r c e n t c h a n g e .
4.
T h e c u r r e n t y e a r 's in d e x i s o b t a in e d b y m u lt ip ly in g th e p r e v io u s y e a r 's in d e x b y th e
r a t i o o f th e c u r r e n t y e a r ' s g r o u p a v e r a g e t o t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s g r o u p a v e r a g e .

18

L i m i t a t i o n s o f d a t a . I n d e x e s a n d p e r c e n t s o f c h a n g e in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a s p r e s e n t e d in
t a b l e A - 7 , a r e i n f l u e n c e d b y (1 ) g e n e r a l s a l a r y a n d w a g e c h a n g e s , ( 2 ) m e r i t o r o t h e r p a y i n c r e a s e s
r e c e i v e d in t h e s a m e j o b , ( 3 ) c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e w a g e s d u e t o l a b o r t u r n o v e r , f o r c e e x p a n s i o n s
or
r e d u c tio n s ,
and
(4 ) c h a n g e s
r e s u lt in g
w hen
e s ta b lis h m e n t s e n t e r
a n d le a v e th e a r e a .
O c c u p a t i o n a l a v e r a g e s c a n i n c r e a s e o r d e c r e a s e w it h o u t a n y a c t u a l c h a n g e in w a g e s . F o r e x a m p l e ,
e v e n th o u g h a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s g iv e w a g e i n c r e a s e s , a v e r a g e w a g e s m a y d e c lin e b e c a u s e l o w e r p a y in g e s t a b lis h m e n t s e n t e r th e a r e a o r e x p a n d t h e i r w o r k f o r c e s .
S im ila r ly , w a g e s m a y r e m a in
r e la t i v e ly c o n s t a n t , y e t a v e r a g e s r i s e b e c a u s e h ig h e r - p a y in g e s ta b lis h m e n t s e n t e r th e a r e a o r
exp a n d t h e ir w o r k fo r c e .
A s m e n t i o n e d , d a t a in t a b l e A - 8 a r e a d ju s t e d t o r e m o v e s o m e o f t h e
l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e i n f o r m a t i o n in t a b l e A - 7 , p a r t i c u l a r l y c h a n g e s r e s u l t i n g f r o m f o r c e e x p a n s i o n s
o r r e d u c t i o n s a n d f r o m t h e a d d i t i o n o r d e l e t i o n o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in t h e s u r v e y s a m p l e .
E s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n t a r y w a g e p r o v is io n s
T h e B - s e r i e s t a b le s p r o v id e in fo r m a t io n on e s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s a n d s u p p le m e n ta r y
w a g e p r o v i s i o n s f o r p la n t a n d o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
" P la n t w o r k e r s " in c lu d e w o r k in g f o r e m e n a n d a ll
n o n s u p e r v i s o r y w o r k e r s ( i n c l u d i n g l e a d m e n a n d t r a i n e e s ) e n g a g e d in n o n o f f i c e f u n c t i o n s . C a f e t e r i a
w o r k e r s and
ro u te m e n a r e e x clu d e d
f r o m m a n u f a c t u r i n g , b u t i n c l u d e d in n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g
in d u s t r ie s . " O f f i c e w o r k e r s " in c lu d e w o r k in g s u p e r v i s o r s a n d n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s p e r f o r m in g
c l e r i c a l o r r e la t e d fu n c t io n s . A d m in is t r a t iv e , e x e c u t iv e , a n d p r o f e s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s a r e e x c lu d e d .
M in im u m e n t r a n c e s a l a r i e s f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s r e la t e o n ly t o th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s v i s i t e d .
(S e e t a b le B - l . )
B e c a u s e o f t h e o p t i m u m s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s u s e d a n d t h e p r o b a b i l i t y th a t l a r g e
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e m o r e l i k e l y th a n s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t o h a v e f o r m a l e n t r a n c e r a t e s a b o v e t h e
s u b c l e r i c a l l e v e l , t h e t a b l e i s m o r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f p o l i c i e s in m e d i u m a n d l a r g e e s t a b l i s h m e n t s .
S h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l d a t a a r e l i m i t e d t o p la n t w o r k e r s in m a n u f a c t u r i n g i n d u s t r i e s .
(S e e
t a b le B - 2 . )
T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s p r e s e n t e d in t e r m s o f ( 1 ) e s t a b l i s h m e n t p o l i c y 3 f o r t o t a l p la n t
w o r k e r e m p lo y m e n t , a n d (2 ) e f f e c t i v e p r a c t i c e f o r w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d on th e s p e c i f i e d s h ift at th e
t im e o f th e s u r v e y .
In e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g v a r i e d d i f f e r e n t i a l s , t h e a m o u n t a p p l y i n g t o a
m a jo r it y is u s e d ; i f n o a m o u n t a p p lie s t o a m a jo r it y , th e c la s s if ic a t i o n " o t h e r " is u s e d .
In
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s h a v i n g s o m e l a t e - s h i f t h o u r s p a id a t n o r m a l r a t e s , a d i f f e r e n c e i s r e c o r d e d o n ly
i f it a p p l ie s t o a m a j o r i t y o f th e s h ift h o u r s .
A s e c o n d ( e v e n i n g ) s h i f t e n d s w o r k at o r n e a r
m id n ig h t.
A t h i r d (n ig h t ) s h i f t s t a r t s w o r k a t o r n e a r m id n i g h t .
The
s c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u r s a n d d a y s o f a m a j o r i t y o f t h e f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s in a n
e s t a b l i s h m e n t a r e t a b u l a t e d a s a p p l y i n g t o a l l p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s o f t h a t e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
(S e e
t a b le B - 3 . ) S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s a n d d a y s a r e t h o s e w h ic h a m a jo r i t y o f f u l l - t i m e e m p lo y e e s
a re e x p e c te d to w o rk fo r s tr a ig h t-tim e o r o v e r tim e r a te s .
P a i d h o l i d a y s ; p a i d v a c a t i o n s ; a n d h e a l t h , i n s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s i o n p la n s a r e t r e a t e d
s t a t i s t i c a l l y a s a p p l y in g t o a l l p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s i f a m a j o r i t y o f s u c h w o r k e r s a r e e l i g i b l e
o r m a y e v e n t u a lly q u a lify f o r th e p r a c t i c e s li s t e d .
(S ee t a b le s B - 4 th r o u g h B - 6 . )
Sum s of
i n d i v i d u a l i t e m s in t a b l e s B - 2 t h r o u g h B - 5 m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a l s b e c a u s e o f r o u n d i n g .

T h e s u m m a r y o f v a c a t i o n p la n s i s a s t a t i s t i c a l m e a s u r e o f v a c a t i o n p r o v i s i o n s r a t h e r th a n
a m e a s u r e o f th e p r o p o r t i o n o f w o r k e r s a c t u a lly r e c e iv in g s p e c i f i c b e n e f it s .
(S e e t a b le B - 5 )
P r o v i s i o n s a p p l y t o a l l p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s in a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t r e g a r d l e s s o f le n g t h o f s e r v i c e .
P a y m e n ts on o th e r th a n a t im e b a s is a r e c o n v e r t e d t o a t im e p e r io d ; f o r e x a m p le , 2 p e r c e n t o f
a n n u a l e a r n i n g s a r e c o n s i d e r e d e q u i v a l e n t t o 1 w e e k 's p a y .
O n ly b a s i c p la n s a r e i n c l u d e d .
E s t im a t e s e x c lu d e v a c a t io n b o n u s e s , v a c a t io n - s a v in g s p la n s , an d " e x t e n d e d " o r " s a b b a t ic a l"
b e n e fit s b e y o n d b a s ic p la n s .
S u c h p r o v i s i o n s a r e t y p i c a l in t h e s t e e l ,
a lu m i n u m , a n d c a n
in d u s t r ie s .

H e a lt h , i n s u r a n c e , a n d p e n s i o n p l a n s f o r w h i c h t h e e m p l o y e r p a y s a t l e a s t a p a r t o f
th e c o s t in c lu d e
t h o s e (1 ) u n d e r w r it t e n
b y a c o m m e r c ia l in s u r a n c e co m p a n y
o r n o n p r o fit
o r g a n i z a t i o n , ( 2 ) p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h a u n io n fu n d , o r ( 3 ) p a i d d i r e c t l y b y t h e e m p l o y e r o u t o f
c u r r e n t o p e r a t in g
fu n d s o r
fr o m
a fu n d s e t a s i d e
f o r th is p u r p o s e .
(S e e t a b le B - 6 . )
An
e s t a b l i s h m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e s u c h a p la n i f t h e m a j o r i t y o f e m p l o y e e s a r e c o v e r e d e v e n
t h o u g h l e s s th a n a m a j o r i t y p a r t i c i p a t e u n d e r t h e p la n b e c a u s e e m p l o y e e s a r e r e q u i r e d t o
c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d t h e c o s t . E x c l u d e d a r e l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d p l a n s , s u c h a s w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a t i o n ,
s o c ia l s e c u r it y , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t.

S ic k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e i s l i m it e d t o th a t t y p e o f in s u r a n c e u n d e r w h ic h p r e ­
d e t e r m i n e d c a s h p a y m e n t s a r e m a d e d i r e c t l y t o t h e i n s u r e d d u r in g t e m p o r a r y i l l n e s s o r a c c i d e n t
d is a b ility .
I n fo r m a t io n is p r e s e n t e d f o r a ll s u c h
p la n s t o w h i c h t h e
e m p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t e s .
H o w e v e r , in N e w Y o r k a n d N e w J e r s e y , w h i c h h a v e e n a c t e d t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e la w s
r e q u i r i n g e m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s , 4 p la n s a r e i n c l u d e d o n l y i f t h e e m p l o y e r ( 1 ) c o n t r i b u t e s m o r e
th a n i s l e g a l l y r e q u i r e d , o r ( 2 ) p r o v i d e s t h e e m p l o y e e w it h b e n e f i t s w h i c h e x c e e d t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s
o f t h e la w .
T a b u l a t i o n s o f p a i d s i c k l e a v e p la n s a r e l i m i t e d t o f o r m a l p la n s 5 w h i c h p r o v i d e f u l l
p a y o r a p r o p o r t i o n o f th e w o r k e r 's p a y d u r in g a b s e n c e f r o m w o r k b e c a u s e o f i l l n e s s . S e p a r a te
t a b u l a t i o n s a r e p r e s e n t e d a c c o r d i n g t o ( 1 ) p la n s w h i c h p r o v i d e f u l l p a y a n d n o w a it i n g p e r i o d ,
a n d (2 ) p l a n s w h i c h p r o v i d e e i t h e r p a r t i a l p a y o r a w a i t i n g p e r i o d . In a d d i t i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n
o f p r o p o r t i o n s o f w o r k e r s p r o v i d e d s i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e o r p a i d s i c k l e a v e , an
u n d u p lic a te d t o t a l is s h o w n o f w o r k e r s w h o r e c e i v e e it h e r o r b o th t y p e s o f b e n e fit s .
L o n g t e r m d is a b ili t y in s u r a n c e p la n s p r o v id e p a y m e n ts t o t o t a ll y d is a b le d e m p lo y e e s u p on
th e e x p ir a t i o n o f t h e i r p a id s ic k le a v e a n d /o r s ic k n e s s an d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e , o r a ft e r a
p r e d e te r m in e d p e r io d o f d is a b ility (ty p ic a lly 6 m o n th s ).
P a y m e n t s a r e m a d e u n t il t h e e n d o f t h e
d is a b ility , a m a x im u m a g e , o r e lig ib ilit y fo r r e tir e m e n t b e n e fits .
F u ll o r p a r t ia l p a y m e n ts a r e
a l m o s t a l w a y s r e d u c e d b y s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a t i o n , a n d p r i v a t e p e n s i o n s b e n e f i t s
p a y a b le t o th e d is a b le d e m p lo y e e .

D a t a o n p a id h o l i d a y s a r e l i m i t e d t o h o l i d a y s g r a n t e d a n n u a ll y o n a f o r m a l b a s i s , w h i c h ( 1 )
a r e p r o v i d e d f o r in w r i t t e n f o r m , o r ( 2 ) a r e e s t a b l i s h e d b y c u s t o m .
(S e e ta b le B - 4 .)
H o lid a y s
o r d in a r il y g r a n te d a r e in c lu d e d e v e n th o u g h th e y m a y f a ll on a n o n w o r k d a y an d th e w o r k e r is n ot
g ra n te d a n o th e r day o ff.
T h e f i r s t p a r t o f th e p a id h o li d a y s t a b le p r e s e n t s th e n u m b e r o f w h o le
an d h a lf h o lid a y s a c t u a ll y g r a n t e d .
T h e s e c o n d p a r t c o m b in e s w h o le a n d h a lf h o li d a y s t o s h o w
t o ta l h o lid a y t im e .
T a b le B - 4 a
r e p o r t s th e in c id e n c e o f th e m o s t
c o m m o n p a id h o li d a y s .

M a j o r m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e p la n s p r o t e c t e m p l o y e e s f r o m s i c k n e s s a n d i n j u r y e x p e n s e s
b e y o n d th e c o v e r a g e o f b a s i c h o s p i t a liz a t io n , m e d i c a l , a n d s u r g i c a l p la n s .
T y p ic a l fe a tu re s o f
m a j o r m e d i c a l p la n s a r e (1 ) a " d e d u c t i b l e " ( e . g . , $ 5 0 ) p a id b y th e in s u r e d b e f o r e b e n e fit s
b e g in ; (2 ) a c o in s u r a n c e fe a t u r e r e q u ir in g th e in s u r e d t o p a y a p o r t io n ( e .g . 20 p e r c e n t ) o f
c e r t a in e x p e n s e s ; a n d (3 ) s ta te d d o lla r m a x im u m b e n e fit s ( e .g ., $ 1 0 ,0 0 0 a y e a r ) .
M e d ic a l
in s u r a n c e p r o v id e s c o m p le t e o r p a r t ia l p a y m e n t o f d o c t o r s ' f e e s .
D e n ta l in s u r a n c e u s u a lly c o v e r s
fillin g s , e x tr a c tio n s , and X - r a y s .
E x c l u d e d a r e p la in s w h i c h c o v e r o n l y o r a l s u r g e r y o r a c c i d e n t
dam age.
R e t i r e m e n t p e n s i o n p la n s p r o v i d e p a y m e n t s f o r t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e w o r k e r ' s l i f e .

3 A n establishment was considered as having a p olicy if it met either o f the following conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the tim e
o f the survey, or (2) had formal provisions covering late shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1) had
operated late shifts during the 12 months before the survey, or (2 ) had provisions in written form to operate late shifts.

The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require em ployer contributions.
An establishment is considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the minim um number o f days sick leave available
em ployee.
Such a plan need not be written; but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, are excluded.




Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied in Durham, N.C.,'
by major industry division,2 December 1973
N u m b e r o f e s ta b lis h m e n ts
M in i m u m
e m p lo y m e n t
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n ts in s c o p e
o f stu d y

In d u s try d iv is io n

W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
W i t h in s c o p e o f s t u d y
S t u d ie d

W it h in s c o p e
o f stu d y 3

T o ta l4

S t u d ie d

P la n t
N um ber

_

A l l d i v i s i o n s ____
M a n u fa c tu r in g
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d
o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s 5
____ _
W h o le sa le tra d e
R e t a i l t r a d e _____
F i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ___
S e r v ic e s 8

O ffic e

P ercen t

T o ta l4

_

116

56

2 6 , 657

100

15, 886

4 , 53 3

2 0 ,6 7 0

50
-

37
79

25
31

1 5 ,4 5 8
1 1 ,1 9 9

58
42

1 0 ,1 7 3
5, 713

1 ,4 4 5
3 ,0 8 8

1 3 ,9 8 5
6 , 685

50
50
50
50
50

10
4
36
14
15

5
2
7
7
10

2 ,4 7 3
2 96
3, 899
2 , 848
1 , 683

9
1
15
11
6

1, 1 0 4

619

1, 9 7 4
146
1 ,2 8 7
2 , 104
1. 174

(6 )
(6 )
(7 )
(‘ )

(6 )
(6)
(6 )
(6)

1 T h e D u r h a m S ta n d a r d M e t r o p o lit a n S t a t is t ic a l A r e a , a s d e fin e d b y th e O f f i c e o f M a n a g e m e n t an d B u d g e t th r o u g h N o v e m b e r 1 9 7 2 , c o n s i s t s o f D u r h a m and O r a n g e C o u n t ie s .
The "w ork ers
w it h i n s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s s h o w n in t h i s t a b l e p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s i z e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e i n c l u d e d in t h e s u r v e y .
E s t i m a t e s a r e n o t in t e n d e d ,
h o w e v e r , f o r c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r e m p l o y m e n t i n d e x e s t o m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e ( 1 ) p la n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s e s t a b l i s h m e n t d a t a c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e
o f t h e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d i e d , a n d ( 2 ) s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1967 e d itio n o f th e S ta n d a rd I n d u s tr ia l C la s s if ic a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d to c l a s s i f y e s ta b lis h m e n t s b y in d u s tr y d iv i s i o n .
3 I n c l u d e s a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a t o r a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m l i m i t a t i o n .
A l l o u t l e t s (w it h i n t h e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in i n d u s t r i e s s u c h a s t r a d e , f i n a n c e , a u t o r e p a i r s e r v i c e ,
and m o t io n p ic t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s id e r e d a s 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t .
4 I n c l u d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o t h e r w o r k e r s e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e s e p a r a t e p la n t a n d o f f i c e c a t e g o r i e s .
5 A b b r e v i a t e d t o " p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s " in t h e A - a n d B - s e r i e s t a b l e s .
T a x i c a b s a n d s e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l to w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w e r e e x c l u d e d .
6 T h i s d i v i s i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in t h e A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , a n d f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " in t h e B - s e r i e s t a b l e s .
S e p a ra te p re s e n ta tio n o f
d a ta is n o t m a d e f o r o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o ll o w in g r e a s o n s : (1 ) E m p lo y m e n t is t o o s m a ll to p r o v id e e n o u g h d a ta to m e r i t s e p a r a t e s tu d y , (2 ) th e s a m p le w a s n o t d e s i g n e d in i t ia ll y to p e r m it
s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n , (3 ) r e s p o n s e w a s i n s u f f ic i e n t o r in a d e q u a te to p e r m it s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t io n , an d (4 ) t h e r e is p o s s i b i l i t y o f d i s c l o s u r e o f in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t d a ta .
7 W o r k e r s f r o m t h is e n t i r e d i v i s i o n a r e r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in t h e A - s e r i e s t a b l e s , b u t f r o m t h e r e a l e s t a t e p o r t i o n o n l y in e s t i m a t e s
f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " in t h e B - s e r i e s t a b l e s .
S e p a r a te p r e s e n t a t io n o f d a ta is n o t m a d e f o r o n e o r m o r e o f th e r e a s o n s
g i v e n in f o o t n o t e 6 .
8 H o t e ls and m o t e ls ; la u n d r ie s an d o th e r p e r s o n a l s e r v ic e s ; b u s in e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b ile r e p a ir , r e n t a l, and
p a r k in g ; m o t io n p ic t u r e s ; n o n p r o fit m e m b e r s h ip o r g a n i z a t io n s (e x c lu d in g
r e lig io u s and c h a r it a b le o r g a n iz a t io n s ); and e n g in e e r in g and a r c h it e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .

I n d u s t r i a l c o m p o s i t i o n in m a n u f a c t u r i n g
L a b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t c o v e r a g e
A l m o s t o n e - h a l f o f t h e w o r k e r s w it h i n s c o p e o f t h e s u r v e y in t h e D u r h a m a r e a w e r e
e m p l o y e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g f i r m s .
T h e f o ll o w in g p r e s e n t s th e m a jo r in d u s t r y g r o u p s and
s p e c i f i c in d u s t r ie s a s a p e r c e n t o f a ll m a n u fa c t u r in g :
In d u stry g ro u p s

T h e f o l l o w i n g t a b u l a t i o n s h o w s t h e p e r c e n t o f p la n t a n d o f f i c e w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d in
e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in w h i c h a c o n t r a c t o r c o n t r a c t s c o v e r e d a m a j o r i t y o f t h e w o r k e r s in t h e
r e s p e c t i v e c a t e g o r i e s , D u r h a m , N .C ., D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 3 :

S p e c if ic in d u s t r ie s
P la n t w o r k e r s
40
24

C h e m ic a ls and a llie d
.
P r in t in g a n d p u b lis h in g
A p p a r e l and o th e r t e x tile
p rod u cts
F o o d a n d k i n d r e d p r o d u c t s ___

.1 2
_ 8
,

C ig a r e tte s
W e a v in g m i l l s , c o t t o n
P la s t ic s m a t e r ia ls and

38
......... .1 9

A l l i n d u s t r i e s ___________________
M a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________
P u b l i c u t i l i t i e s _______________________

7
M is c e lla n e o u s fa b r ic a te d
t e x tile p r o d u c ts
___

__

100

O ffic e w o r k e r s
16
2
79

A n e s t a b l i s h m e n t i s c o n s i d e r e d t o h a v e a c o n t r a c t c o v e r i n g a l l p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s
i f a m a jo r it y o f s u c h w o r k e r s a r e c o v e r e d b y a la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t .
T h e r e fo r e ,
a l l o t h e r p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s a r e e m p l o y e d in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s t h a t e i t h e r d o n o t h a v e
l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t c o n t r a c t s in e f f e c t , o r h a v e c o n t r a c t s t h a t a p p l y t o f e w e r t h a n h a l f o f t h e i r
p la n t o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
E s t i m a t e s a r e n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e e x t e n t t o w h ic h
a l l w o r k e r s in th e a r e a m a y b e c o v e r e d b y t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t a g r e e m e n t s ,
b e c a u s e s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s a r e e x c lu d e d an d th e in d u s t r ia l s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y is li m it e d .

6

7
6

T h is in f o r m a t i o n is b a s e d o n e s t im a t e s o f t o t a l e m p lo y m e n t d e r iv e d f r o m u n iv e r s e
m a te r ia ls c o m p ile d b e fo r e a ctu a l s u r v e y .
P r o p o r t i o n s in v a r i o u s i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s m a y
d i f f e r f r o m p r o p o r t i o n s b a s e d o n t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s u r v e y a s s h o w n in t h e a p p e n d i x t a b l e .




52
64

20

Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions
T h e p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f p r e p a r i n g j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s f o r t h e B u r e a u 's w a g e s u r v e y s i s t o a s s i s t i t s f i e l d s t a f f in c l a s s i f y i n g in t o a p p r o p r i a t e
o c c u p a t io n s w o r k e r s w h o a r e e m p lo y e d u n d er a v a r ie t y o f p a y r o ll t it le s and d if f e r e n t w o r k a r r a n g e m e n t s fr o m e s t a b lis h m e n t to e s ta b lis h m e n t and
fr o m
a r e a to a r e a .
T h is p e r m it s th e g r o u p in g o f o c c u p a t io n a l w a g e r a t e s r e p r e s e n t i n g c o m p a r a b le j o b c o n t e n t .
B e c a u s e o f th is e m p h a s is on
i n t e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t a n d i n t e r a r e a c o m p a r a b i l i t y o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c o n t e n t , t h e B u r e a u 's j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s m a y d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m t h o s e in u s e in
in d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s o r t h o s e p r e p a r e d f o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s .
In a p p l y i n g t h e s e j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s , t h e B u r e a u 's f i e l d e c o n o m i s t s a r e i n s t r u c t e d
to e x c l u d e w o r k in g s u p e r v i s o r s ; a p p r e n t i c e s ; l e a r n e r s ; b e g i n n e r s ; t r a i n e e s ; an d h a n d ic a p p e d , p a r t - t i m e , t e m p o r a r y , an d p r o b a t io n a r y w o r k e r s .

OFFICE

B IL L E R ,

C L E R K , A C C O U N T I N G — C o n t in u e d

M A C H IN E

P r e p a r e s s t a t e m e n t s , b i l l s , a n d i n v o i c e s o n a m a c h i n e o t h e r th a n an o r d i n a r y o r e l e c t r o m a t ic t y p e w r it e r .
M a y a l s o k e e p r e c o r d s a s t o b i l l i n g s o r s h ip p i n g c h a r g e s o r p e r f o r m o t h e r
c l e r i c a l w o r k in c id e n t a l t o b il lin g o p e r a t io n s . F o r w a g e s tu d y p u r p o s e s , b i l l e r s , m a c h in e , a r e
c la s s ifie d b y ty p e o f m a c h in e , a s fo llo w s :
B il le r , m a c h in e (b illin g m a c h in e ) .
U ses a s p e c ia l
a n d li d d i n g m a c h i n e ) t o p r e p a r e b i l l s a n d i n v o i c e s f r o m
n a l l y p r e p a r e d o r d e r s , s h ip p i n g m e m o r a n d u m s , e t c .
d e t e r m i n e d d i s c o u n t s a n d s h ip p i n g c h a r g e s a n d e n t r y o f
m a y n ot b e c o m p u te d on th e b illin g m a c h in e , an d to t a ls
b y m a c h in e . T h e o p e r a t io n u s u a lly in v o lv e s a la r g e n u m
p r e p a r e d and is o ft e n d o n e o n a fa n fo ld m a c h in e .

b i l l i n g m a c h i n e ( c o m b i n a t i o n t y p in g
c u s t o m e r s ' p u rch a se o r d e r s , in t e r ­
U s u a lly in v o lv e s a p p lic a t io n o f p r e ­
n e c e s s a r y e x t e n s i o n s , w h ic h m a y o r
w h ic h a r e a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c c u m u l a t e d
b e r o f c a r b o n c o p i e s o f th e b il l b e in g

B il le r , m a c h in e (b o o k k e e p in g m a c h in e ).
U s e s a b o o k k e e p i n g m a c h i n e (w it h o r w it h o u t
a t y p e w r i t e r k e y b o a r d ) to p r e p a r e c u s t o m e r s ' b i l l s a s p a r t o f th e a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e o p e r a ­
t io n . G e n e r a ll y in v o lv e s th e s im u lt a n e o u s e n t r y o f f ig u r e s o n c u s t o m e r s ' le d g e r r e c o r d . T h e
m a c h in e a u t o m a t ic a lly a c c u m u la t e s fig u r e s o n a n u m b e r o f v e r t i c a l c o lu m n s and c o m p u te s
and u s u a lly p r in t s a u t o m a t ic a lly th e d e b it o r c r e d i t b a la n c e s .
D o e s n o t in v o lv e a k n o w l­
e d g e o f b o o k k e e p in g .
W o r k s f r o m u n ifo r m and s ta n d a r d ty p e s o f s a le s and c r e d it s lip s .
B O O K K E E P IN G -M A C H IN E

P o s itio n s

m a c h in e

CLERK,

A C C O U N T IN G

P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e a c c o u n t i n g c l e r i c a l t a s k s s u c h a s p o s t i n g t o r e g i s t e r s an d l e d g e r s ;
r e c o n c il in g b an k a c c o u n t s ; v e r i f y in g th e in t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y , c o m p le t e n e s s , an d m a t h e m a t ic a l
a c c u r a c y o f a c c o u n t in g d o c u m e n t s ; a s s ig n in g p r e s c r i b e d a c c o u n t in g d is t r ib u t io n c o d e s ; e x a m in in g
and v e r ify in g fo r c le r i c a l a c c u r a c y v a r io u s ty p e s o f r e p o r t s , li s t s , c a lc u la tio n s , p o s tin g , e t c .;
o r p r e p a r i n g s i m p l e o r a s s i s t i n g in p r e p a r i n g m o r e c o m p l i c a t e d j o u r n a l v o u c h e r s .
M ay w ork
in e i t h e r a m a n u a l o r a u t o m a t e d a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m .
T h e w o r k r e q u ir e s a k n o w le d g e o f
w h ic h r e l a t e s t o t h e c l e r i c a l p r o c e s s i n g a n d
W ith e x p e r i e n c e , t h e w o r k e r t y p i c a l l y b e c o m
a n d p r o c e d u r e s u s e d in t h e a s s i g n e d w o r k ,
p r in c ip le s o f b o o k k e e p in g and a c c o u n t in g .




c le r i c a l m e th o d s and o f f ic e p r a c t ic e s and p r o c e d u r e s
r e c o r d i n g o f t r a n s a c t i o n s an d a c c o u n t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n .
e s f a m i l i a r w ith t h e b o o k k e e p i n g a n d a c c o u n t i n g t e r m s
b u t is n o t r e q u i r e d t o h a v e a k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f o r m a l

le v e ls

o n th e

b a s is

o f th e

fo llo w in g

d e fin it io n s .

F IL E

C la s s A .
C la s s if ie s an d in d e x e s file m a t e r ia l s u ch a s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , r e p o r t s , t e c h ­
n i c a l d o c u m e n t s , e t c . , in a n e s t a b l i s h e d f i l i n g s y s t e m c o n t a i n i n g a n u m b e r o f v a r i e d s u b j e c t
m a t t e r f i l e s . M a y a l s o f i l e t h is m a t e r i a l . M a y k e e p r e c o r d s o f v a r i o u s t y p e s in c o n j u n c t i o n
w ith t h e f i l e s .
M a y le a d a s m a ll g r o u p o f lo w e r le v e l f i l e c l e r k s .
C la s s B .
S o r t s , c o d e s , and fil e s u n c la s s ifie d m a t e r ia l b y s im p le ( s u b je c t m a tte r ) h e a d ­
in g s o r p a r t l y c l a s s i f i e d m a t e r i a l b y f i n e r s u b h e a d i n g s . P r e p a r e s s i m p l e r e l a t e d i n d e x a n d
c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e a id s .
A s r e q u e s t e d , l o c a t e s c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d m a t e r i a l in f i l e s a n d f o r ­
w a r d s m a t e r ia l . M a y p e r f o r m r e la t e d c l e r i c a l t a s k s r e q u ir e d to m a in ta in and s e r v i c e f i l e s .

C la s s A .
K e e p s a s e t o f r e c o r d s r e q u i r i n g a k n o w l e d g e o f a n d e x p e r i e n c e in b a s i c
b o o k k e e p i n g p r i n c i p l e s , a n d f a m i l i a r i t y w it h t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r a c c o u n t i n g s y s t e m
u s e d . D e t e r m i n e s p r o p e r r e c o r d s a n d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f d e b i t a n d c r e d i t i t e m s t o b e u s e d in e a c h
p h a s e o f th e w o r k .
M a y p r e p a r e c o n s o lid a t e d r e p o r t s , b a la n c e s h e e t s , and o th e r r e c o r d s
by hand.

CLERK,

in t o

F i l e s , c l a s s i f i e s , a n d r e t r i e v e s m a t e r i a l in a n e s t a b l i s h e d f i l i n g s y s t e m . M a y p e r f o r m
c l e r i c a l a n d m a n u a l t a s k s r e q u i r e d t o m a i n t a i n f i l e s . P o s i t i o n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d in t o l e v e l s o n th e
b a s is o f th e f o llo w in g d e f in it io n s .

(w it h o r w it h o u t a t y p e w r i t e r k e y b o a r d ) t o k e e p a r e c o r d

C la s s B .
K e e p s a r e c o r d o f o n e o r m o r e p h a s e s o r s e c t io n s o f a s e t o f r e c o r d s u s u a lly
r e q u ir i n g li t t le k n o w le d g e o f b a s ic b o o k k e e p in g . P h a s e s o r s e c t io n s in c lu d e a c c o u n t s p a y a b le ,
p a y r o l l , c u s t o m e r s ' a c c o u n t s (n o t i n c l u d i n g a s i m p l e t y p e o f b i l l i n g d e s c r i b e d u n d e r b i l l e r ,
m a c h in e ), c o s t d is t r ib u t io n , e x p e n s e d is t r ib u t io n , in v e n t o r y c o n t r o l , e t c . M a y c h e c k o r a s s i s t
in p r e p a r a t i o n o f t r i a l b a l a n c e s an d p r e p a r e c o n t r o l s h e e t s f o r th e a c c o u n t i n g d e p a r t m e n t .

c la s s ifie d

C la s s B .
U n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n , fo ll o w in g d e t a ile d in s t r u c t io n s an d s ta n d a r d iz e d p r o ­
c e d u r e s , p e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e r o u t in e a c c o u n t in g c l e r i c a l o p e r a t io n s , s u c h a s p o s t in g to
le d g e r s , c a r d s , o r w o r k s h e e t s w h e r e id e n t ific a t io n o f it e m s and lo c a t io n s o f p o s tin g s a r e
c le a r l y in d ic a t e d ; c h e c k in g a c c u r a c y and c o m p le t e n e s s o f s ta n d a r d iz e d and r e p e t it iv e r e c o r d s
o r a c c o u n t in g d o c u m e n t s ; and c o d in g d o c u m e n t s u s in g a fe w p r e s c r i b e d a c c o u n tin g c o d e s .

OPERATOR

O p e ra te s a b o o k k e e p in g
o f b u s in e s s t r a n s a c t io n s .

are

C la s s A .
U n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n , p e r f o r m s a c c o u n t i n g c l e r i c a l o p e r a t i o n s w h ic h
r e q u ir e th e a p p lic a t io n o f e x p e r i e n c e an d ju d g m e n t , f o r e x a m p le , c l e r i c a l l y p r o c e s s i n g c o m ­
p lic a t e d o r n o n r e p e t it iv e a c c o u n t in g t r a n s a c t io n s , s e le c t in g a m o n g a s u b s ta n tia l v a r i e t y o f
p r e s c r i b e d a c c o u n t in g c o d e s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , o r t r a c in g t r a n s a c t io n s th r o u g h p r e v io u s
a c c o u n t in g a c t io n s to d e t e r m in e s o u r c e o f d i s c r e p a n c i e s .
M ay be a s s is te d by one o r m o r e
c l a s s B a c c o u n t in g c l e r k s .

C la s s C .
P e r f o r m s r o u t i n e f i l i n g o f m a t e r i a l th a t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n c l a s s i f i e d o r w h ic h
i s e a s i l y c l a s s i f i e d in a s i m p l e s e r i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s y s t e m ( e . g . , a l p h a b e t i c a l , c h r o n o l o g i c a l ,
o r n u m e r i c a l ) . A s r e q u e s t e d , l o c a t e s r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l in f i l e s a n d f o r w a r d s m a ­
t e r i a l ; a n d m a y f i l l o u t w it h d r a w a l c h a r g e . M a y p e r f o r m s i m p l e c l e r i c a l a n d m a n u a l t a s k s
r e q u ir e d to m a in ta in an d s e r v i c e f i l e s .
CLE R K , ORDER
R e c e i v e s c u s t o m e r s ' o r d e r s f o r m a t e r ia l o r m e r c h a n d is e by m a i l , p h o n e , o r p e r s o n a l ly .
D u t ie s i n v o l v e a n y c o m b i n a t i o n o f th e f o l l o w i n g : Q u o t in g p r i c e s t o c u s t o m e r s ; m a k i n g o u t a n o r d e r
s h e e t l i s t i n g th e i t e m s t o m a k e u p t h e o r d e r ; c h e c k i n g p r i c e s a n d q u a n t i t i e s o f i t e m s o n o r d e r
s h e e t ; a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g o r d e r s h e e t s t o r e s p e c t i v e d e p a r t m e n t s t o b e f i l l e d . M a y c h e c k w it h c r e d i t
d e p a r t m e n t to d e t e r m in e c r e d i t r a tin g o ( c u s t o m e r , a c k n o w le d g e r e c e ip t o f o r d e r s f r o m c u s t o m e r s ,
f o l l o w u p o r d e r s t o s e e th a t t h e y h a v e b e e n f i l l e d , k e e p f i l e o f o r d e r s r e c e i v e d , a n d c h e c k s h ip p i n g
i n v o i c e s w it h o r i g i n a l o r d e r s .
CLERK,

PAYROLL

C o m p u te s w a g e s o f c o m p a n y e m p lo y e e s an d e n te r s th e n e c e s s a r y d a ta on th e p a y r o ll
s h e e t s . D u t ie s i n v o l v e : C a l c u l a t i n g w o r k e r s ' e a r n i n g s b a s e d o n t i m e o r p r o d u c t i o n r e c o r d s ; a n d
p o s t i n g c a l c u l a t e d d a t a o n p a y r o l l s h e e t , s h o w in g i n f o r m a t i o n s u c h a s w o r k e r ' s n a m e , w o r k i n g
d a y s , t im e , r a t e , d e d u c t io n s f o r in s u r a n c e , an d t o t a l w a g e s d u e . M a y m a k e o u t p a y c h e c k s and
a s s i s t p a y m a s t e r in m a k i n g u p a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g p a y e n v e l o p e s .
M a y u s e a c a lc u la t in g m a c h in e .

21

KEYPUNCH O PE RATO R

S E C R E T A R Y — C o n tin u ed

O p era tes a k eypu n ch
ta b u la t in g c a r d s o r o n t a p e .

P o s itio n s

are

m a c h in e

c la s s ifie d

in to

to

record

le v e ls

or

o n th e

v e r ify

b a s is

a lp h a b e t ic

a n d /o r

o f th e fo llo w in g

n u m e r ic

d a ta on

d e fin itio n s .

C la s s A .
W o r k r e q u i r e s th e a p p l ic a t io n o f e x p e r i e n c e a n d ju d g m e n t in s e l e c t i n g p r o c e ­
d u r e s t o b e f o ll o w e d a n d in s e a r c h in g f o r , in t e r p r e t in g , s e l e c t i n g , o r c o d in g it e m s to b e
k e y p u n c h e d f r o m a v a r i e t y o f s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s . O n o c c a s i o n m a y a ls o p e r f o r m s o m e r o u tin e
k eypu n ch w o rk .
M a y tr a in in e x p e r ie n c e d k e y p u n ch o p e r a t o r s .

N O T E : T h e t e r m " c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r , " u s e d in t h e l e v e l d e f i n i t i o n s f o l l o w i n g , r e f e r s t o
t h o s e o f f i c i a l s w h o h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r p o r a t e - w i d e p o l i c y m a k i n g r o l e w it h r e g a r d t o m a j o r
c o m p a n y a c t i v i t i e s . T h e t it l e " v i c e p r e s i d e n t , " th o u g h n o r m a ll y in d ic a t iv e o f th is r o l e , d o e s n ot
in a l l c a s e s i d e n t i f y s u c h p o s i t i o n s . V i c e p r e s i d e n t s w h o s e p r i m a r y r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o a c t p e r ­
s o n a l l y o n i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s o r t r a n s a c t i o n s ( e . g . , a p p r o v e o r d e n y i n d i v i d u a l lo a n o r c r e d i t a c t i o n s ;
a d m in is t e r in d iv id u a l t r u s t a c c o u n t s ; d i r e c t l y s u p e r v is e a c l e r i c a l s t a ff) a r e n o t c o n s id e r e d t o b e
" c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r s " f o r p u r p o s e s o f a p p ly in g th e f o ll o w in g le v e l d e f in it i o n s .
C la s s

a ll,
C la s s B .
W o r k is r o u t in e a n d r e p e t i t i v e . U n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n o r f o ll o w in g s p e c i f i c
p r o c e d u r e s o r i n s t r u c t i o n s , w o r k s f r o m v a r i o u s s t a n d a r d iz e d s o u r c e d o c u m e n t s w h ic h h a v e
b e e n c o d e d , a n d f o l l o w s s p e c i f i e d p r o c e d u r e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n p r e s c r i b e d in d e t a i l a n d r e q u i r e
lit t le o r n o s e le c t in g , c o d in g , o r in t e r p r e t in g o f d a ta to b e r e c o r d e d . R e f e r s to s u p e r v is o r
p r o b le m s a r is in g fr o m e r r o n e o u s ite m s o r c o d e s o r m is s in g in fo r m a tio n .

M E S SE N G E R (O ffic e

B oy

or

A

1.
S e c r e t a r y to th e c h a ir m a n o f th e b o a r d o r
o v e r 1 0 0 b u t f e w e r th a n 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r *
1

p r e s id e n t

o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , in

2.
S e c r e t a r y t o a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o th e r th a n th e c h a ir m a n o f th e b o a r d o r p r e s id e n t )
o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 b u t f e w e r t h a n 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r
3.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e h e a d , im m e d ia t e ly b e lo w th e c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r l e v e l,
s e g m e n t o r s u b s i d i a r y o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , i n a l l , o v e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .
C la s s

G ir l)

o f a m a jo r

B

1.
S e c r e t a r y to th e c h a ir m a n
f e w e r th a n 100 p e r s o n s ; o r

o f th e

board

or

p r e s i d e n t o f a c o m p a n y t h a t e m p l o y s , in

P e r f o r m s v a r i o u s r o u t i n e d u t i e s s u c h a s r u n n in g e r r a n d s , o p e r a t i n g m i n o r o f f i c e m a ­
c h in e s s u c h a s s e a l e r s o r m a i l e r s , o p e n in g a n d d is t r ib u t in g m a i l , an d o t h e r m in o r c l e r i c a l w o r k .
E x c lu d e p o s i t io n s th a t r e q u ir e o p e r a t io n o f a m o t o r v e h i c le a s a s ig n ific a n t d u ty .

a ll,

SECRETARY

3.
S e c r e t a r y to th e h e a d , im m e d ia t e ly b e lo w th e o f f i c e r le v e l , o v e r e it h e r a m a jo r
c o r p o r a t e - w i d e fu n c t io n a l a c t iv it y ( e . g . , m a r k e t i n g , r e s e a r c h , o p e r a t io n s , in d u s t r ia l r e l a ­
t i o n s , e t c . ) or a m a j o r g e o g r a p h i c o r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s e g m e n t ( e . g . , a r e g i o n a l h e a d q u a r t e r s ;
a m a j o r d i v i s i o n ) o f a c o m p a n y t h a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 b u t f e w e r t h a n 2 5 , 0 0 0
e m p lo y e e s ; o r

A s s i g n e d a s p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y , n o r m a l l y t o o n e i n d i v i d u a l . M a in t a i n s a c l o s e a n d h i g h l y
r e s p o n s i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e d a y - t o - d a y w o r k o f t h e s u p e r v i s o r . W o r k s f a i r l y in d e p e n d e n t l y r e ­
c e iv in g a m in im u m o f d e t a ile d s u p e r v is io n a n d g u id a n c e . P e r f o r m s v a r ie d c l e r i c a l an d s e c r e t a r ia l
d u t ie s , u s u a lly in c lu d in g m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g :

a.
R e c e iv e s te le p h o n e c a l l s ,
p e r s o n a l c a l l e r s , and in c o m in g
in q u i r e s , a n d r o u t e s t e c h n ic a l in q u i r ie s t o th e p r o p e r p e r s o n s ;
b.

E s ta b lis h e s ,

c.

M a in ta in s

m a in t a in s ,

and

r e v is e s

th e

s u p e r v i s o r 's

m a il,

an sw ers

r o u tin e

2.
S e c r e t a r y t o a c o r p o r a t e o f f i c e r ( o t h e r th a n th e c h a ir m a n o f th e b o a r d
o f a c o m p a n y th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 100 b u t f e w e r t h a n 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

4.
S e c r e t a r y t o t h e h e a d o f a n i n d i v i d u a l p la n t , f a c t o r y ,
o f o f f i c i a l ) th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , o v e r 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s ; o r

d.

R e la y s

s u p e r v i s o r 's

m essages

fro m

c a le n d a r

s u p e r v is o r

and m a k e s

to

file s ;

a p p o in tm e n ts

as

P e r fo r m s

s te n o g r a p h ic

a n d ty p in g

by

oth ers

fo r

th e

E x c lu sio n s
N ot a ll p o s i t io n s th a t a r e t it le d " s e c r e t a r y " p o s s e s s th e
w h ic h

are

e x clu d e d

fro m

th e

d e fin it io n

not

m eet

th e

tr a in e d

in

1.
S e c r e t a r y t o an e x e c u t i v e o r m a n a g e r i a l p e r s o n w h o s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y is n ot e q u iv a le n t
t o o n e o f t h e s p e c i f i c l e v e l s i t u a t i o n s in t h e d e f i n i t i o n f o r c l a s s B , b u t w h o s e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l
u n it n o r m a l l y n u m b e r s a t l e a s t s e v e r a l d o z e n e m p l o y e e s a n d i s u s u a l l y d i v i d e d in t o o r g a n i z a ­
t i o n a l s e g m e n t s w h ic h a r e o f t e n , in t u r n , f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d . In s o m e c o m p a n i e s , t h i s l e v e l
i n c l u d e s a w i d e r a n g e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e c h e l o n s ; in o t h e r s , o n l y o n e o r t w o ; or
2.
S e c r e t a r y t o t h e h e a d o f an i n d i v i d u a l p la n t , f a c t o r y ,
o f o f f i c i a l ) th a t e m p l o y s , in a l l , f e w e r th a n 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .

w ork.

M ay a ls o p e r fo r m o th e r c l e r i c a l and s e c r e t a r ia l ta s k s o f c o m p a r a b le n a tu re an d d iffic u lty .
T h e w o r k t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e s k n o w le d g e o f o f f i c e r o u t in e a n d u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e o r g a n i z a t io n ,
p r o g r a m s , an d p r o c e d u r e s r e la t e d t o th e w o r k o f th e s u p e r v is o r .

o f p o s itio n s

C

in s t r u c t e d ;

s u b o rd in a te s;

e.
R e v ie w s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , m e m o r a n d u m s , and r e p o r ts p r e p a r e d
s u p e r v i s o r 's s i g n a t u r e t o a s s u r e p r o c e d u r a l a n d t y p o g r a p h i c a c c u r a c y ;
f.

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5.
S e c r e t a r y t o th e h e a d o f a la r g e and im p o r t a n t o r g a n i z a t io n a l s e g m e n t ( e .g ., a m id d le
m a n a g e m e n t s u p e r v is o r o f an o r g a n iz a t io n a l s e g m e n t o fte n in v o lv in g a s m a n y a s s e v e r a l
h u n d r e d p e r s o n s ) o r a c o m p a n y t h a t e m p l o y s , in a i l , o v e r 2 5 , 0 0 0 p e r s o n s .
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o r p re sid e n t)

above

c h a r a c t e r is t ic s .

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o th e r e q u iv a le n t le v e l

D

1.
S e c r e t a r y to th e s u p e r v is o r o r h e a d
a b o u t 25 o r 30 p e r s o n s ) ; m-

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s m a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n it ( e . g . ,

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2.
S e c r e t a r y to a n o n s u p e r v is o r y s ta ff s p e c ia lis t , p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e , a d m in is tr a ­
t iv e o f f i c e r , o r a s s is t a n t , s k ille d te c h n ic ia n o r e x p e r t .
(N O T E :
M a n y c o m p a n ie s a s s ig n
s t e n o g r a p h e r s , r a t h e r th a n s e c r e t a r i e s a s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e , t o t h i s l e v e l o f s u p e r v i s o r y o r
n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r .)

fo llo w s :
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P r i m a r y d u ty i s t o ta k e d ic t a t io n u s in g s h o r th a n d , an d to t r a n s c r i b e th e d ic t a t io n . M a y
a ls o ty p e f r o m w r itte n c o p y . M a y o p e r a t e f r o m a s t e n o g r a p h ic p o o l. M a y o c c a s io n a ll y t r a n s c r ib e
f r o m v o i c e r e c o r d in g s ( if p r im a r y d u ty is t r a n s c r ib in g f r o m r e c o r d in g s , s e e T r a n s c r ib in g - M a c h in e
O p e r a t o r , G e n e r a l).

o f p r o fe s s io n a l, te c h n ic a l, o r

d.
S e c r e t a r y p o s i t i o n s in w h i c h t h e d u t i e s a r e e i t h e r s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e r o u t i n e
s u b s t a n t i a l l y m o r e c o m p l e x a n d r e s p o n s i b l e t h a n t h o s e c h a r a c t e r i z e d in t h e d e f i n i t i o n ;

or

N O T E : T h i s j o b i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h a t o f a s e c r e t a r y in t h a t a s e c r e t a r y n o r m a l l y
w o r k s , in a c o n f i d e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w it h o n l y o n e m a n a g e r o r e x e c u t i v e a n d p e r f o r m s m o r e
r e s p o n s i b l e a n d d i s c r e t i o n a r y t a s k s a s d e s c r i b e d in t h e s e c r e t a r y j o b d e f i n i t i o n .
S ten og ra p h er,

e.
A s s i s t a n t t y p e p o s i t io n s w h ic h in v o lv e m o r e d if f ic u l t o r m o r e
n ic a l , a d m in is t r a t iv e , s u p e r v i s o r y , o r s p e c i a l i z e d c l e r i c a l d u tie s w h ic h
s e c r e t a r ia l w o rk .




r e s p o n s ib le t e c h ­
a r e n ot ty p ic a l o f
or

G en eral

D ic t a t io n in v o lv e s a n o r m a l r o u tin e v o c a b u l a r y . M a y m a in ta in f i l e s ,
p e r f o r m o t h e r r e l a t i v e l y r o u t in e c l e r i c a l t a s k s .

k e e p s im p le r e c o r d s ,

S T E N O G R A P H E R — C on tin u ed
S ten ogra p h er,
or

T A B U L A T IN G -M A C H IN E O P E R A T O R ( E le c t r ic A c c o u n tin g M a ch in e O p e r a t o r )-—C ontinued

S e n io r

P o s i t i o n s a r e c l a s s i f i e d in t o l e v e l s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s .

D i c t a t i o n t r i v o l v e s a v a r i e d t e c h n i c a l o r s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a b u l a r y s u c h a s in l e g a l b r i e f s
r e p o r ts on s c ie n t ific r e s e a r c h .
M a y a ls o s e t up an d m a in ta in f i l e s , k e e p r e c o r d s , e t c .

C la s s A .
P e r f o r m s c o m p l e t e r e p o r t i n g a n d t a b u la t in g a s s i g n m e n t s i n c l u d i n g d e v i s i n g
d iffic u lt c o n t r o l p a n e l w ir in g u n d e r g e n e r a l s u p e r v is io n .
A s s ig n m e n t s t y p ic a l ly in v o lv e a
v a r i e t y o f l o n g a n d c o m p l e x r e p o r t s w h ic h o f t e n a r e i r r e g u l a r o r n o n r e c u r r i n g , r e q u i r i n g
s o m e p la n n in g o f t h e n a t u r e a n d s e q u e n c i n g o f o p e r a t i o n s , a n d t h e u s e o f a v a r i e t y o f m a ­
c h in e s .
Is t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e d in t r a i n i n g n e w o p e r a t o r s in m a c h i n e o p e r a t i o n s o r t r a i n i n g
l o w e r l e v e l o p e r a t o r s i n w i r i n g f r o m d i a g r a m s a n d in t h e o p e r a t i n g s e q u e n c e s o f l o n g a n d
c o m p le x r e p o r t s .
D o e s n o t i n c l u d e p o s i t i o n s in w h ic h w i r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s l i m i t e d t o
s e le c t io n and in s e r tio n o f p r e w ir e d b o a r d s .

OR
P e r f o r m s s t e n o g r a p h ic d u t ie s r e q u ir i n g s ig n i f ic a n t ly g r e a t e r in d e p e n d e n c e an d r e s p o n ­
s ib il it y th a n s t e n o g r a p h e r , g e n e r a l, a s e v id e n c e d b y th e f o llo w in g :
W o r k r e q u i r e s a h ig h
d e g r e e o f s t e n o g r a p h ic s p e e d and a c c u r a c y ; a t h o r o u g h w o r k in g k n o w le d g e o f g e n e r a l b u s in e s s
and o f f i c e p r o c e d u r e ; and o f th e s p e c i f ic b u s in e s s o p e r a t io n s , o r g a n iz a tio n , p o l i c i e s , p r o c e ­
d u r e s , f il e s , w o r k flo w , e tc .
U s e s t h i s k n o w l e d g e in p e r f o r m i n g s t e n o g r a p h i c d u t i e s a n d
r e s p o n s i b l e c l e r i c a l t a s k s s u c h a s m a in t a in in g fo llo w u p f i l e s ; a s s e m b l in g m a t e r ia l f o r r e p o r t s ,
m e m o r a n d u m s , an d le t t e r s ; c o m p o s i n g s im p le le t t e r s f r o m g e n e r a l in s t r u c t io n s ; r e a d in g and
r o u tin g in c o m i n g m a il ; an d a n s w e r in g r o u t in e q u e s t io n s , e t c .
S W IT C H B O A R D

OPERATOR

C l a s s A . O p e r a t e s a s i n g l e - o r m u l t i p l e - p o s i t i o n t e l e p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d lin g i n c o m i n g ,
o u t g o i n g , i n t r a p l a n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s . P e r f o r m s f u l l t e l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e o r h a n d le s
c o m p l e x c a l l s , s u c h a s c o n f e r e n c e , c o l l e c t , o v e r s e a s , o r s i m i l a r c a l l s , e i t h e r in a d d i t i o n t o
d o in g r o u tin e w o r k a s d e s c r i b e d
fo r s w it c h b o a r d o p e r a t o r ,
c la s s B , o r as a fu ll-tim e
a s s i g n m e n t . ( " F u l l " t e l e p h o n e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e o c c u r s w h e n th e e s t a b l i s h m e n t h a s v a r i e d
fu n c t io n s th a t a r e n o t r e a d ily u n d e r s t a n d a b le f o r te le p h o n e in fo r m a t io n p u r p o s e s , e . g . , b e c a u s e
o f o v e r la p p in g o r in t e r r e la t e d fu n c t io n s , and c o n s e q u e n t ly p r e s e n t fr e q u e n t p r o b le m s a s to
w h ic h e x t e n s i o n s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c a l l s . )
C l a s s B . O p e r a t e s a s i n g l e - o r m u l t i p l e - p o s i t i o n t e l e p h o n e s w i t c h b o a r d h a n d lin g i n c o m i n g ,
o u t g o i n g , i n t r a p l a n t o r o f f i c e c a l l s . M a y h a n d le r o u t i n e lo n g d i s t a n c e c a l l s a n d r e c o r d t o l l s .
M a y p e r f o r m li m it e d te le p h o n e in fo r m a t i o n s e r v i c e . ( " L i m i t e d " t e le p h o n e in fo r m a t i o n s e r v i c e
o c c u r s i f th e fu n c t io n s o f th e e s t a b lis h m e n t s e r v i c e d a r e r e a d ily u n d e r s ta n d a b le f o r te le p h o n e
i n f o r m a t i o n p u r p o s e s , o r i f t h e r e q u e s t s a r e r o u t i n e , e . g . , g i v in g e x t e n s i o n n u m b e r s w h e n
s p e c ific n am es a re
fu r n is h e d , o r i f c o m p le x
c a lls a r e r e fe r r e d
to a n o th e r o p e r a t o r .)

a s sist

T h e s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s d o n ot in c lu d e
c u s t o m e r s in p l a c i n g c a l l s .

S W IT C H B O A R D

C la s s B .
P e r f o r m s w o r k a c c o r d in g to e s t a b lis h e d p r o c e d u r e s and u n d e r s p e c if ic in ­
s t r u c t io n s . A s s i g n m e n t s t y p i c a l l y in v o lv e c o m p le t e bu t r o u tin e an d r e c u r r i n g r e p o r t s o r p a r t s
o f la r g e r and m o r e c o m p le x r e p o r t s .
O p e r a t e s m o r e d i f f i c u l t t a b u la t in g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c ­
c o u n t i n g m a c h i n e s s u c h a s t h e t a b u l a t o r a n d c a l c u l a t o r , in a d d i t i o n t o t h e s i m p l e r m a c h i n e s
u s e d b y c la s s C o p e r a t o r s . M a y b e r e q u ir e d t o d o s o m e w ir in g fr o m d ia g r a m s . M a y t r a in
n e w e m p l o y e e s in b a s i c m a c h i n e o p e r a t i o n s .

s w it c h b o a r d

o p e ra to rs

in t e l e p h o n e

c o m p a n ie s

who

O P E R A T O R -R E C E P T I O N I S T

In a d d i t i o n t o p e r f o r m i n g d u t i e s o f o p e r a t o r o n a s i n g l e - p o s i t i o n o r m o n i t o r - t y p e s w i t c h ­
b o a r d , a c t s a s r e c e p t io n is t an d m a y a ls o ty p e o r p e r f o r m r o u tin e c l e r i c a l w o r k a s p a r t o f r e g u la r
d u t ie s .
T h i s t y p i n g o r c l e r i c a l w o r k m a y ta k e t h e m a j o r p a r t o f t h is w o r k e r ' s t i m e w h i l e at
s w it c h b o a r d .
T A B U L A T I N G -M A C H I N E

OPERATOR

C la s s C .
U n d e r s p e c i f i c i n s t r u c t io n s , o p e r a t e s s im p le ta b u la tin g o r e l e c t r i c a l a c c o u n tin g
m a c h in e s s u c h a s th e s o r t e r , in t e r p r e t e r , r e p r o d u c in g p u n ch , c o l l a t o r , e t c .
A s s ig n m e n ts
t y p i c a l l y i n v o l v e p o r t i o n s o f a w o r k u n it , f o r e x a m p l e , in d i v i d u a l s o r t i n g o r c o l l a t i n g r u n s ,
o r r e p e t it iv e o p e r a t io n s . M a y p e r f o r m s im p le w ir in g f r o m d ia g r a m s , an d d o s o m e filin g w o r k .
T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E

OPERATOR,

GENERAL

P r i m a r y d u ty is to t r a n s c r i b e d ic t a t io n in v o lv in g a n o r m a l r o u tin e v o c a b u l a r y f r o m
tr a n s c r ib in g -m a c h in e r e c o r d s .
M a y a ls o ty p e f r o m w r it t e n c o p y a n d d o s im p le c l e r i c a l w o r k .
W o r k e r s t r a n s c r ib in g d ic t a t io n in v o lv in g a v a r ie d t e c h n ic a l o r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a b u la r y s u ch as
le g a l b r i e f s o r r e p o r t s on s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h a r e n o t in c lu d e d .
A w o r k e r w h o ta k e s d ic t a t io n
in s h o r th a n d o r b y S te n o ty p e o r s im il a r m a c h in e is c l a s s i f i e d a s a s t e n o g r a p h e r .
T Y P IS T
U s e s a ty p e w r ite r to m a k e c o p ie s o f v a r io u s m
t io n s h a v e b e e n m a d e b y a n o th e r p e r s o n . M a y in c lu d e
r i a l s f o r u s e in d u p l i c a t i n g p r o c e s s e s . M a y d o c l e r i c a l
a s k e e p in g s im p le r e c o r d s , f il in g r e c o r d s a n d r e p o r t s ,

a t e r ia ls o r to m a k e out b ills a fte r c a lc u l a ­
t y p in g o f s t e n c i l s , m a t s , o r s i m i l a r m a t e ­
w o r k in v o lv in g li t t le s p e c i a l t r a in in g , s u ch
o r s o r t i n g a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g in c o m i n g m a i l .

C la s s A .
P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o l l o w i n g : T y p in g m a t e r i a l in f i n a l f o r m w h e n
it i n v o l v e s c o m b i n i n g m a t e r i a l f r o m s e v e r a l s o u r c e s ; o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o r r e c t s p e l l i n g ,
s y l l a b i c a t i o n , p u n c t u a t i o n , e t c . , o f t e c h n i c a l o r u n u s u a l w o r d s o r f o r e i g n la n g u a g e m a t e ­
r i a l ; o r p la n n in g l a y o u t a n d t y p i n g o f c o m p l i c a t e d s t a t i s t i c a l t a b l e s t o m a in t a i n u n i f o r m i t y
a n d b a l a n c e in s p a c i n g . M a y t y p e r o u t i n e f o r m l e t t e r s , v a r y i n g d e t a i l s t o s u it c i r c u m s t a n c e s .

( E l e c t r i c A c c o u n t in g M a c h in e O p e r a t o r )

O p e r a t e s o n e o r a v a r ie t y o f m a c h in e s s u c h a s th e ta b u la t o r , c a lc u l a t o r , c o l l a t o r , in t e r ­
p r e t e r , s o r t e r , r e p r o d u c i n g p u n c h , e t c . E x c l u d e d f r o m t h is d e f i n i t i o n a r e w o r k i n g s u p e r v i s o r s .
A ls o e x c lu d e d a r e o p e r a t o r s o f e le c t r o n i c d ig it a l c o m p u t e r s , e v e n th ou gh th e y m a y a ls o o p e r a t e
E A M e q u ip m e n t.

C la s s B .
P e r f o r m s o n e o r m o r e o f th e f o ll o w in g :
C o p y t y p in g f r o m
rou gh
d r a f t s ; o r r o u t i n e t y p in g o f f o r m s , i n s u r a n c e p o l i c i e s , e t c . ; o r s e t t i n g u p s i m p l e
t a b u la t io n s ; o r c o p y in g m o r e c o m p le x t a b le s a lr e a d y s e t u p an d s p a c e d p r o p e r l y .

o r c le a r
sta n d a rd

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
COM PUTER

COM PUTER

OPERATOR

M o n i t o r s a n d o p e r a t e s th e c o n t r o l c o n s o l e o f a d i g i t a l c o m p u t e r t o p r o c e s s d a t a a c c o r d i n g
t o o p e r a t i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s , u s u a l l y p r e p a r e d b y a p r o g r a m m e r . W o r k i n c l u d e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g :
S t u d i e s i n s t r u c t i o n s t o d e t e r m i n e e q u i p m e n t s e t u p a n d o p e r a t i o n s ; l o a d s e q u i p m e n t w it h r e q u i r e d
it e m s (ta p e r e e l s , c a r d s , e t c .) ; s w it c h e s n e c e s s a r y a u x i lia r y e q u ip m e n t in to c i r c u i t , a n d s t a r t s
an d o p e r a t e s c o m p u t e r ; m a k e s a d ju s t m e n t s to c o m p u t e r to c o r r e c t o p e r a t in g p r o b le m s an d m e e t
s p e c i a l c o n d it io n s ; r e v i e w s e r r o r s m a d e d u r in g o p e r a t io n an d d e t e r m in e s c a u s e o r r e f e r s p r o b le m
t o s u p e r v i s o r o r p r o g r a m m e r ; a n d m a i n t a i n s o p e r a t i n g r e c o r d s . M a y t e s t a n d a s s i s t in c o r r e c t i n g
p rogram .
F or

w age

stu d y p u r p o s e s ,

co m p u ter

o p e ra to rs

are

c la s s ifie d

as

C la s s B .
O p e r a t e s in d e p e n d e n t l y , o r u n d e r o n l y g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n , a c o m p u t e r r u n n in g
p r o g r a m s w it h m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : M o s t o f t h e p r o g r a m s a r e e s t a b l i s h e d
p r o d u c t i o n r u n s , t y p i c a l l y ru n o n a r e g u l a r l y r e c u r r i n g b a s i s ; t h e r e i s l i t t l e o r n o t e s t i n g




OR
O p e r a t e s u n d e r d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n a c o m p u t e r r u n n in g p r o g r a m s o r s e g m e n t s o f p r o g r a m s
w it h t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d e s c r i b e d f o r c l a s s A . M a y a s s i s t a h i g h e r l e v e l o p e r a t o r b y i n d e ­
p e n d e n tly p e r f o r m i n g l e s s d if f ic u l t t a s k s a s s i g n e d , a n d p e r f o r m in g d iffic u l t t a s k s fo llo w in g
d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d w it h f r e q u e n t r e v i e w o f o p e r a t i o n s p e r f o r m e d .

fo llo w s :

C la s s A .
O p e r a t e s i n d e p e n d e n t l y , o r u n d e r o n l y g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n , a c o m p u t e r r u n n in g
p r o g r a m s w it h m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s :
N e w p r o g r a m s a r e fr e q u e n t ly te s t e d
an d in t r o d u c e d ; s c h e d u lin g r e q u ir e m e n t s a r e o f c r i t i c a l im p o r t a n c e to m in i m iz e d o w n tim e ;
t h e p r o g r a m s a r e o f c o m p l e x d e s i g n s o th a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e r r o r s o u r c e o f t e n r e q u i r e s a
w o r k in g k n o w le d g e o f th e to ta l p r o g r a m , and a lt e r n a t e p r o g r a m s m a y n o t b e a v a i la b l e . M a y
g iv e d ir e c t io n and g u id a n c e t o lo w e r le v e l o p e r a t o r s .

O P E R A T O R — C o n t in u e d

o f n e w p r o g r a m s r e q u ir e d ; a lt e r n a t e p r o g r a m s a r e p r o v id e d in c a s e o r ig in a l p r o g r a m n e e d s
m a j o r c h a n g e o r c a n n o t b e c o r r e c t e d w it h i n a r e a s o n a b l e t i m e .
In c o m m o n e r r o r s i t u a ­
t i o n s , d i a g n o s e s c a u s e a n d t a k e s c o r r e c t i v e a c t i o n . T h i s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s a p p l y in g p r e v i o u s l y
p r o g r a m m e d c o r r e c t i v e s t e p s , o r u s in g s ta n d a r d c o r r e c t i o n t e c h n iq u e s .

C la s s C .
W o r k s o n r o u tin e p r o g r a m s u n d e r c l o s e s u p e r v is io n .
Is e x p e c t e d t o d e v e lo p
w o r k i n g k n o w l e d g e o f t h e c o m p u t e r e q u i p m e n t u s e d a n d a b i l i t y t o d e t e c t p r o b l e m s i n v o l v e d in
r u n n in g r o u t i n e p r o g r a m s . U s u a l l y h a s r e c e i v e d s o m e f o r m a l t r a i n i n g in c o m p u t e r o p e r a t i o n .
M a y a s s i s t h ig h e r le v e l o p e r a t o r o n c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .
COM PUTER

PROGRAM M ER,

B U S IN E S S

C o n v e r t s s ta t e m e n t s o f b u s in e s s p r o b l e m s , t y p i c a l l y p r e p a r e d b y a s y s t e m s a n a ly s t , in to a
s e q u e n c e o f d e t a ile d in s t r u c t io n s w h ic h a r e r e q u i r e d t o s o lv e th e p r o b le m s b y a u t o m a t ic d a ta p r o c ­
e s s i n g e q u i p m e n t . W o r k in g f r o m c h a r t s o r d i a g r a m s , t h e p r o g r a m m e r d e v e l o p s t h e p r e c i s e i n ­
s t r u c t i o n s w h i c h , w h e n e n t e r e d in t o t h e c o m p u t e r s y s t e m in c o d e d l a n g u a g e , c a u s e t h e m a n ip u la t i o n

23

C O M P U T E R P R O G R A M M E R , BUSIN ESS— C on tin u ed

C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS— C on tin u ed

o f d a ta t o a c h ie v e d e s i r e d r e s u lt s .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : A p p l ie s k n o w le d g e o f
c o m p u t e r c a p a b ili t ie s , m a t h e m a t i c s , lo g i c e m p lo y e d b y c o m p u t e r s , and p a r t ic u la r s u b je c t m a t t e r
in v o lv e d t o a n a ly z e c h a r t s an d d ia g r a m s o f th e p r o b le m t o b e p r o g r a m m e d ; d e v e lo p s s e q u e n c e
o f p r o g r a m s t e p s ; w r i t e s d e t a i l e d f l o w c h a r t s t o s h o w o r d e r in w h ic h d a ta w i l l b e p r o c e s s e d ;
c o n v e r t s t h e s e c h a r t s t o c o d e d in s t r u c t io n s f o r m a c h in e t o fo llo w ; t e s t s an d c o r r e c t s p r o g r a m s ;
p r e p a r e s i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r o p e r a t i n g p e r s o n n e l d u r in g p r o d u c t i o n r u n ; a n a l y z e s , r e v i e w s , a n d a l t e r s
p r o g r a m s t o i n c r e a s e o p e r a t in g e f f i c i e n c y o r a d a p t t o n e w r e q u ir e m e n t s ; m a in t a in s r e c o r d s o f
p r o g r a m d e v e lo p m e n t an d r e v i s i o n s .
(N O T E : W o r k e r s p e r f o r m i n g b o t h s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s a n d p r o ­
g r a m m i n g s h o u ld b e c l a s s i f i e d a s s y s t e m s a n a ly s t s i f th is is th e s k il l u s e d t o d e t e r m in e t h e ir p a y .)
D o e s n o t in c lu d e e m p lo y e e s p r im a r il y r e s p o n s ib l e f o r th e m a n a g e m e n t o r
o t h e r e l e c t r o n i c d a ta p r o c e s s i n g e m p l o y e e s , o r p r o g r a m m e r s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d
a n d /o r e n g in e e r in g p r o b le m s .
F or w age

stu d y

p u rposes,

program m ers

are

c la s s ifie d

as

e v e r y it e m o f e a c h ty p e is a u t o m a t ic a lly p r o c e s s e d th r o u g h th e f u ll s y s t e m o f r e c o r d s an d
a p p r o p r i a t e f o l l o w u p a c t i o n s a r e i n i t i a t e d b y t h e c o m p u t e r . ) C o n f e r s w it h p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d t o
d e t e r m in e th e d a ta p r o c e s s i n g p r o b le m s an d a d v is e s s u b je c t - m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l o n th e im p li c a ­
t io n s o f n e w o r r e v i s e d s y s t e m s o f d a ta p r o c e s s i n g o p e r a t io n s . M a k e s r e c o m m e n d a t io n s , i f
n e e d e d , f o r a p p r o v a l o f m a j o r s y s t e m s in s t a lla t io n s o r c h a n g e s a n d f o r o b t a in in g e q u ip m e n t.
M a y p r o v id e
a s s is t.

fo llo w s :

who are

in s t r u c t

lo w e r

D o e s n o t in c lu d e e m p lo y e e s p r im a r il y r e s p o n s ib l e f o r th e m a n a g e m e n t o r s u p e r v is io n
o f o t h e r e l e c t r o n i c d a t a p r o c e s s i n g e m p l o y e e s , o r s y s t e m s a n a l y s t s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w it h
s c ie n t if i c o r e n g in e e r in g p r o b le m s .
system s

a n a ly s t s

are

c la s s ifie d

as

C l a s s C . P r e p a r e s d e t a i l d r a w i n g s o f s i n g l e u n it s o r p a r t s f o r e n g i n e e r i n g , c o n s t r u c t i o n ,
m a n u fa c t u r in g , o r r e p a ir p u r p o s e s . T y p e s o f d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d in c lu d e is o m e t r ic p r o je c t io n s
( d e p i c t i n g t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s in a c c u r a t e s c a l e ) a n d s e c t i o n a l v i e w s t o c l a r i f y p o s i t i o n i n g o f
c o m p o n e n t s an d c o n v e y n e e d e d in fo r m a t io n . C o n s o lid a t e s d e t a ils f r o m a n u m b e r o f s o u r c e s
a n d a d ju s t s o r t r a n s p o s e s s c a l e a s r e q u ir e d .
S u g g e s te d m e th o d s o f a p p r o a c h , a p p lic a b le
p r e c e d e n t s , a n d a d v i c e o n s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s a r e g i v e n w it h i n i t i a l a s s i g n m e n t s . I n s t r u c t i o n s
a r e le s s c o m p le te w hen a s s ig n m e n ts r e c u r .
W o r k m a y b e s p o t - c h e c k e d d u r in g p r o g r e s s .
DRAFTSM AN- TRACER
C o p ie s p la n s an d d r a w in g s p r e p a r e d b y o t h e r s b y p la c in g t r a c in g c lo t h o r p a p e r o v e r
d r a w i n g s a n d t r a c i n g w it h p e n o r p e n c i l .
( D o e s n o t i n c l u d e t r a c i n g l i m i t e d t o p la n s p r i m a r i l y
c o n s is t in g o f s t r a ig h t lin e s an d a la r g e s c a le n ot r e q u ir in g c l o s e d e lin e a t io n .)
A N D /O R
P r e p a r e s s im p le
d u r in g p r o g r e s s .
E L E C T R O N IC S

or

r e p e titiv e

d r a w in g s

o f e a s ily

v is u a liz e d

ite m s .

W ork

is

c lo s e ly

s u p e r v is e d

T E C H N IC IA N

fo llo w s :

C la s s A .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n tly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d ir e c t io n on c o m p l e x p r o b le m s in ­
v o lv in g a ll p h a s e s o f s y s te m a n a ly s is .
P r o b le m s a r e c o m p le x b e ca u s e o f d iv e r s e s o u r c e s o f
in p u t d a t a a n d m u l t i p l e - u s e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f o u tp u t d a t a . ( F o r e x a m p l e , d e v e l o p s a n i n t e g r a t e d
p r o d u c t i o n s c h e d u l i n g , i n v e n t o r y c o n t r o l , c o s t a n a l y s i s , a n d s a l e s a n a l y s i s r e c o r d in w h i c h




a s s ig n e d to

C la s s B . P e r f o r m s n o n r o u t in e a n d c o m p l e x d r a ft in g a s s i g n m e n t s th a t r e q u ir e th e a p p l i­
c a t io n o f m o s t o f th e s t a n d a r d iz e d d r a w in g t e c h n iq u e s r e g u l a r ly u s e d .
D u t ie s t y p i c a l l y i n ­
v o lv e su ch w o rk a s:
P r e p a r e s w o r k i n g d r a w i n g s o f s u b a s s e m b l i e s w it h i r r e g u l a r s h a p e s ,
m u lt ip le fu n c t io n s , an d p r e c i s e p o s it io n a l r e la t io n s h ip s b e tw e e n c o m p o n e n t s ; p r e p a r e s a r c h i ­
t e c t u r a l d r a w i n g s f o r c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a b u il d i n g in c l u d i n g d e t a i l d r a w i n g s o f f o u n d a t i o n s , w a l l
s e c t i o n s , f l o o r p l a n s , a n d r o o f . U s e s a c c e p t e d f o r m u l a s a n d m a n u a l s in m a k i n g n e c e s s a r y
c o m p u t a t io n s t o d e t e r m in e q u a n t it ie s o f m a t e r i a l s to b e u s e d , lo a d c a p a c i t i e s , s t r e n g t h s ,
s tr e s s e s , e tc.
R e c e iv e s in it ia l in s t r u c t io n s , r e q u ir e m e n t s , and a d v ic e fr o m
s u p e r v is o r .
C o m p le t e d w o r k is c h e c k e d f o r t e c h n ic a l a d e q u a c y .

le v e l p r o g r a m m e r s .

A n a ly z e s b u s in e s s p r o b le m s t o fo r m u la t e p r o c e d u r e s f o r s o lv in g th e m b y u s e o f e le c t r o n i c
d a ta p r o c e s s i n g e q u ip m e n t .
D e v e lo p s a c o m p le t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f a l l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s n e e d e d t o e n a b le
p rogram m ers
t o p r e p a r e r e q u ir e d
d ig it a l c o m p u t e r
program s.
W ork
in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e
fo llo w in g :
A n a ly z e s s u b je c t - m a t t e r o p e r a t io n s t o b e a u to m a te d and id e n t ifie s c o n d it io n s an d
c r it e r i a r e q u ir e d t o a c h ie v e s a t is fa c t o r y r e s u lt s ; s p e c ifie s n u m b e r and ty p e s o f r e c o r d s , f i l e s , and
d o c u m e n t s t o b e u s e d ; o u t l i n e s a c t i o n s t o b e p e r f o r m e d b y p e r s o n n e l a n d c o m p u t e r s in s u f f i c i e n t
d e t a il f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n t o m a n a g e m e n t a n d f o r p r o g r a m m in g (t y p ic a l ly th is in v o lv e s p r e p a r a t i o n o f
w o r k a n d d a t a f l o w c h a r t s ) ; c o o r d i n a t e s t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f t e s t p r o b l e m s a n d p a r t i c i p a t e s in t r i a l
r u n s o f n e w a n d r e v i s e d s y s t e m s ; a n d r e c o m m e n d s e q u i p m e n t c h a n g e s t o o b t a in m o r e e f f e c t i v e
o v e r a ll o p e r a tio n s .
( N O T E : W o r k e r s p e r f o r m i n g b o t h s y s t e m s a n a l y s i s a n d p r o g r a m m i n g s h o u ld
b e c l a s s i f i e d a s s y s t e m s a n a l y s t s i f t h i s i s t h e s k i l l u s e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r p a y .)

stu d y p u r p o s e s ,

who a re

C la s s A .
P la n s th e g r a p h ic p r e s e n t a t i o n o f c o m p l e x it e m s h a v in g d is t in c t iv e d e s i g n
f e a t u r e s th a t d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y f r o m e s t a b l i s h e d d r a f t i n g p r e c e d e n t s . W o r k s in c l o s e s u p ­
p o r t w it h t h e d e s i g n o r i g i n a t o r , a n d m a y r e c o m m e n d m i n o r d e s i g n c h a n g e s .
A n a ly z e s th e
e f f e c t o f e a c h c h a n g e on th e d e t a ils o f f o r m , fu n c t io n , an d p o s it io n a l r e la t io n s h ip s o f c o m ­
p o n e n ts and p a r t s .
W o r k s w it h a m i n i m u m o f s u p e r v i s o r y a s s i s t a n c e .
C o m p le t e d w o r k is
r e v i e w e d b y d e s i g n o r i g i n a t o r f o r c o n s i s t e n c y w it h p r i o r e n g i n e e r i n g d e t e r m i n a t i o n s .
M ay
e it h e r p r e p a r e d r a w in g s , o r d ir e c t t h e ir p r e p a r a t io n b y lo w e r le v e l d r a ft s m e n .

C O M P U T E R S Y S T E M S A N A L Y S T , B U S IN E S S

w age

a n a ly s ts

DRAFTSM AN

C la s s C .
M a k e s p r a c t i c a l a p p l ic a t io n s o f p r o g r a m m in g p r a c t i c e s a n d c o n c e p t s u s u a lly
l e a r n e d in f o r m a l t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s .
A s s i g n m e n t s a r e d e s i g n e d t o d e v e l o p c o m p e t e n c e in t h e
a p p l ic a t io n o f s t a n d a r d p r o c e d u r e s t o r o u t in e p r o b l e m s .
R e c e iv e s c lo s e s u p e r v is io n on n ew
a s p e c t s o f a s s i g n m e n t s ; a n d w o r k i s r e v i e w e d t o v e r i f y it s a c c u r a c y a n d c o n f o r m a n c e w it h
r e q u ir e d p r o c e d u r e s .

F or

sy ste m s

C la s s C . W o r k s u n d e r im m e d ia t e s u p e r v is io n , c a r r y in g ou t a n a ly s e s a s a s s ig n e d , u s u a lly
o f a s in g le a c t iv it y .
A s s ig n m e n ts a r e d e s ig n e d to d e v e lo p and exp a n d p r a c t ic a l e x p e r ie n c e
in th e a p p l ic a t io n o f p r o c e d u r e s a n d s k il ls r e q u ir e d f o r s y s t e m s a n a ly s i s w o r k . F o r e x a m p le ,
m a y a s s i s t a h ig h e r le v e l s y s t e m s a n a ly s t b y p r e p a r in g th e d e t a ile d s p e c i f ic a t io n s r e q u ir e d
b y p r o g r a m m e r s f r o m in f o r m a t i o n d e v e lo p e d b y th e h ig h e r le v e l a n a ly s t .

OR

or

le v e l

OR

W o r k s on c o m p le x p r o g r a m s (a s d e s c r i b e d f o r c l a s s A ) u n d e r c l o s e d ir e c t io n o f a h ig h e r
le v e l p r o g r a m m e r o r s u p e r v is o r .
M a y a s s i s t h i g h e r l e v e l p r o g r a m m e r b y in d e p e n d e n t l y p e r ­
f o r m in g l e s s d iffic u lt ta s k s a s s ig n e d , an d p e r fo r m in g m o r e d iffic u lt ta s k s u n d e r fa ir ly c lo s e
d ir e c tio n .
g u id e

lo w e r

a s sig n e d to a s s is t.

C la s s B .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n t l y o r u n d e r o n l y g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o n r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e
p r o g r a m s , o r on s im p le s e g m e n ts o f c o m p le x p r o g r a m s .
P r o g r a m s ( o r s e g m e n t s ) u s u a lly
p r o c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n t o p r o d u c e d a t a in t w o o r t h r e e v a r i e d s e q u e n c e s o r f o r m a t s .
R ep orts
and lis t in g s a r e p r o d u c e d b y r e fin in g , a d a p tin g , a r r a y in g , o r m a k in g m in o r a d d itio n s t o o r
d e l e t i o n s f r o m in p u t d a t a w h i c h a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e .
W h ile n u m e r o u s r e c o r d s m a y b e
p r o c e s s e d , t h e d a t a h a v e b e e n r e f i n e d in p r i o r a c t i o n s s o th a t t h e a c c u r a c y a n d s e q u e n c i n g
o f d a ta c a n b e t e s t e d b y u s in g a fe w r o u tin e c h e c k s .
T y p i c a l l y , t h e p r o g r a m d e a l s w it h
r o u tin e r e c o r d - k e e p i n g t y p e o p e r a t io n s .

M ay

to

W o r k s o n a s e g m e n t o f a c o m p le x d a ta p r o c e s s i n g s c h e m e o r s y s t e m , a s d e s c r i b e d f o r
c l a s s A . W o r k s in d e p e n d e n t ly o n r o u tin e a s s i g n m e n t s an d r e c e i v e s in s t r u c t io n an d g u id a n c e
on c o m p le x a s sig n m e n ts .
W o r k i s r e v i e w e d f o r a c c u r a c y o f j u d g m e n t , c o m p l i a n c e w it h
i n s t r u c t i o n s , a n d t o i n s u r e p r o p e r a l i g n m e n t w it h t h e o v e r a l l s y s t e m .

A t t h is l e v e l , p r o g r a m m in g is d if f ic u l t b e c a u s e c o m p u t e r e q u ip m e n t m u s t b e o r g a n i z e d to
p r o d u c e s e v e r a l in t e r r e l a t e d bu t d iv e r s e p r o d u c t s f r o m n u m e r o u s an d d iv e r s e d a ta e le m e n t s .
A w id e v a r i e t y a n d e x t e n s iv e n u m b e r o f in t e r n a l p r o c e s s i n g a c t io n s m u s t o c c u r . T h is r e q u ir e s
s u c h a c t io n s a s d e v e lo p m e n t o f c o m m o n o p e r a t io n s w h ic h ca n b e r e u s e d , e s t a b lis h m e n t o f
li n k a g e p o i n t s b e t w e e n o p e r a t i o n s , a d j u s t m e n t s t o d a t a w h e n p r o g r a m r e q u i r e m e n t s e x c e e d
c o m p u t e r s t o r a g e c a p a c i t y , a n d s u b s t a n t i a l m a n i p u l a t i o n a n d r e s e q u e n c i n g o f d a ta e l e m e n t s
t o f o r m a h ig h ly in t e g r a t e d p r o g r a m .
le v e l p r o g r a m m e r s

d ir e c tio n

C la s s B .
W o r k s in d e p e n d e n t ly o r u n d e r o n ly g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o n p r o b l e m s th a t a r e
r e l a t i v e l y u n c o m p lic a t e d to a n a ly z e , p la n , p r o g r a m , an d o p e r a t e . P r o b l e m s a r e o f li m it e d
c o m p l e x i t y b e c a u s e s o u r c e s o f in p u t d a t a a r e h o m o g e n e o u s a n d t h e o u t p u t d a t a a r e c l o s e l y
r e la te d .
( F o r e x a m p l e , d e v e l o p s s y s t e m s f o r m a i n t a i n i n g d e p o s i t o r a c c o u n t s in a b a n k ,
m a i n t a i n i n g a c c o u n t s r e c e i v a b l e in a r e t a i l e s t a b l i s h m e n t , o r m a i n t a i n i n g i n v e n t o r y a c c o u n t s
i n a m a n u f a c t u r i n g o r w h o l e s a l e e s t a b l i s h m e n t . ) C o n f e r s w it h p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d t o d e t e r m i n e
th e d a ta p r o c e s s i n g p r o b le m s an d a d v is e s s u b je c t - m a t t e r p e r s o n n e l o n th e im p lic a t io n s o f th e
d a ta p r o c e s s in g s y s t e m s to b e a p p lie d .

s u p e r v is io n o f
w it h s c i e n t i f i c

C l a s s A . W o r k s i n d e p e n d e n t l y o r u n d e r o n l y g e n e r a l d i r e c t i o n o n c o m p l e x p r o b l e m s w h ic h
r e q u i r e c o m p e t e n c e in a l l p h a s e s o f p r o g r a m m i n g c o n c e p t s a n d p r a c t i c e s . W o r k i n g f r o m d i a ­
g r a m s a n d c h a r t s w h ic h id e n t ify th e n a tu r e o f d e s i r e d r e s u l t s , m a jo r p r o c e s s i n g s t e p s t o b e
a c c o m p l i s h e d , an d th e r e la t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n v a r i o u s s t e p s o f th e p r o b l e m s o lv i n g r o u t in e ;
p la n s t h e f u l l r a n g e o f p r o g r a m m i n g a c t i o n s n e e d e d t o e f f i c i e n t l y u t i l i z e t h e c o m p u t e r s y s t e m
in a c h i e v i n g d e s i r e d e n d p r o d u c t s .

M a y p r o v id e fu n c tio n a l d ir e c t io n t o lo w e r

fu n c tio n a l

W o r k s o n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t an d r e la t e d d e v i c e s b y p e r f o r m in g o n e
o r a c o m b in a t i o n o f th e fo ll o w in g : I n s t a llin g , m a in t a in in g , r e p a ir in g , o v e r h a u l in g , t r o u b le s h o o t in g ,
m o d ify in g , c o n s t r u c t in g , an d t e s t in g . W o rk r e q u ir e s p r a c t ic a l a p p lic a t io n o f t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e
o f e l e c t r o n i c s p r i n c i p l e s , a b i l i t y t o d e t e r m i n e m a l f u n c t i o n s , a n d s k i l l t o p u t e q u i p m e n t in r e q u i r e d
o p e r a t in g c o n d it io n .

24

E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N — C on tin u ed

E L E C T R O N IC S T E C H N IC IA N — C on tin u ed

T h e e q u ip m e n t— c o n s is t in g o f e it h e r m a n y d if f e r e n t k in d s o f c i r c u i t s o r m u lt ip le r e p e t it io n
o f th e s a m e k in d o f c i r c u i t — in c l u d e s , bu t is n o t li m it e d t o , th e fo ll o w in g : (a ) E l e c t r o n i c t r a n s ­
m it t in g a n d r e c e i v i n g e q u ip m e n t ( e . g . , r a d a r , r a d io , t e l e v i s i o n , t e le p h o n e , s o n a r , n a v ig a t io n a l
a id s ) , (b ) d ig it a l an d a n a lo g c o m p u t e r s , and ( c ) in d u s t r ia l a n d m e d ic a l m e a s u r in g an d c o n t r o llin g
e q u ip m e n t.

R e c e iv e s t e c h n ic a l g u id a n c e , a s r e q u ir e d , f r o m s u p e r v is o r o r h ig h e r le v e l t e c h n ic ia n ,
a n d w o r k i s r e v i e w e d f o r s p e c i f i c c o m p l i a n c e w it h a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e s a n d w o r k a s s i g n m e n t s .
M a y p r o v id e te c h n ic a l g u id a n ce to lo w e r le v e l te c h n ic ia n s .
C la s s C .
A p p l i e s w o r k i n g t e c h n i c a l k n o w l e d g e t o p e r f o r m s i m p l e o r r o u t i n e t a s k s in
w o r k i n g o n e l e c t r o n i c e q u i p m e n t , f o l l o w i n g d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s w h ic h c o v e r v i r t u a l l y a ll
p rocedu res.
W ork t y p ic a lly in v o lv e s s u ch ta s k s a s :
A s s is t in g h ig h e r le v e l t e c h n ic ia n s by
p e r f o r m i n g s u c h a c t iv it ie s a s r e p la c in g c o m p o n e n t s , w ir i n g c i r c u i t s , an d ta k in g t e s t r e a d in g s ;
r e p a ir in g s im p le e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t ; a n d u s in g t o o l s a n d c o m m o n t e s t in s t r u m e n t s ( e .g .,
m u l t i m e t e r s , a u d io s ig n a l g e n e r a t o r s , tu b e t e s t e r s , o s c i l l o s c o p e s ) .
Is n o t r e q u i r e d t o b e
f a m i l i a r w it h t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c i r c u i t s . T h i s k n o w l e d g e , h o w e v e r , m a y b e a c q u i r e d
t h r o u g h a s s i g n m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o i n c r e a s e c o m p e t e n c e ( i n c l u d i n g c l a s s r o o m t r a in i n g ) s o th a t
w o r k e r ca n a d v a n c e t o h ig h e r le v e l t e c h n ic ia n .

T h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n e x c l u d e s r e p a ir m e n o f s u c h s t a n d a r d e l e c t r o n i c e q u ip m e n t a s c o m m o n
o f f ic e m a c h in e s an d h o u s e h o ld r a d io an d t e le v is io n s e t s ; p r o d u c t io n a s s e m b l e r s and t e s t e r s ; w o r k ­
e r s w h o s e p r im a r y d u ty is s e r v ic i n g e l e c t r o n i c t e s t in s t r u m e n t s ; te c h n ic ia n s w h o h a v e a d m in is ­
tr a tiv e o r s u p e r v is o r y r e s p o n s ib ilit y ; and d r a fts m e n ,
d e s i g n e r s , and p r o fe s s io n a l e n g in e e r s .
P o s itio n s

are

c la s s ifie d

in t o

le v e ls

o n th e

b a s is

o f th e

fo llo w in g

d e fin it io n s .

C la s s A .
A p p l ie s a d v a n c e d t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e t o s o l v e u n u s u a lly c o m p l e x p r o b le m s
( i . e . , t h o s e th a t t y p i c a l l y c a n n o t b e s o lv e d s o l e l y b y r e f e r e n c e to m a n u f a c t u r e r s ' m a n u a ls o r
s i m i l a r d o c u m e n t s ) in w o r k i n g o n e l e c t r o n i c e q u i p m e n t . E x a m p l e s o f s u c h p r o b l e m s i n c l u d e
lo c a t io n and d e n s ity o f c ir c u i t r y , e le c t r o - m a g n e t ic r a d ia t io n , is o la t in g m a lfu n c t io n s , and
fr e q u e n t e n g i n e e r in g c h a n g e s . W o r k in v o lv e s : A d e t a ile d u n d e r s ta n d in g o f th e in t e r r e l a t i o n ­
s h i p s o f c i r c u i t s ; e x e r c i s i n g in d e p e n d e n t j u d g m e n t i n p e r f o r m i n g s u c h t a s k s a s m a k i n g c i r c u i t
a n a ly s e s , c a lc u l a t in g w a v e f o r m s , t r a c in g r e la t i o n s h i p s in s ig n a l flo w ; an d r e g u l a r l y u s in g
c o m p l e x t e s t in s t r u m e n t s ( e . g . , d u a l t r a c e o s c i l l o s c o p e s , Q - m e t e r s , d e v ia t io n m e t e r s , p u ls e
g e n e ra to rs ).
W o r k m a y b e r e v ie w e d b y s u p e r v is o r (fr e q u e n t ly an e n g in e e r o r d e s ig n e r ) f o r g e n e r a l
c o m p l i a n c e w it h a c c e p t e d p r a c t i c e s . M a y p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l g u i d a n c e t o l o w e r l e v e l t e c h n i c i a n s .
C la s s B.
A p p lie s c o m p r e h e n s iv e t e c h n ic a l k n o w le d g e t o s o lv e c o m p le x p r o b le m s ( i .e .,
t h o s e th a t t y p i c a l l y c a n b e s o lv e d s o l e l y b y p r o p e r l y in t e r p r e t in g m a n u f a c t u r e r s ' m a n u a ls o r
s i m i l a r d o c u m e n t s ) in w o r k i n g o n e l e c t r o n i c e q u i p m e n t . W o r k i n v o l v e s :
A f a m i l i a r i t y w ith
t h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f c i r c u i t s ; a n d j u d g m e n t in d e t e r m i n i n g w o r k s e q u e n c e a n d in s e l e c t i n g
t o o l s a n d t e s t i n g i n s t r u m e n t s , u s u a l l y l e s s c o m p l e x th a n t h o s e u s e d b y t h e c l a s s A t e c h n i c i a n .

R e c e iv e s t e c h n ic a l g u id a n c e , a s r e q u ir e d , f r o m s u p e r v is o r o r h ig h e r le v e l t e c h n ic ia n .
W o r k is t y p ic a lly s p o t c h e c k e d , but is g iv e n d e t a ile d r e v ie w w h en n e w o r a d v a n c e d a s s ig n m e n ts
a r e in v o lv e d .

N U RSE,

IN D U S T R IA L

(R e g is te r e d )

A r e g i s t e r e d n u r s e w h o g iv e s n u r s in g s e r v ic e u n d e r g e n e r a l m e d ic a l d ir e c t io n t o i l l o r
in ju r e d e m p lo y e e s o r o th e r p e r s o n s w h o b e c o m e il l o r s u f f e r an a c c id e n t o n th e p r e m is e s o f a
f a c t o r y o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . D u t ie s i n v o l v e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :
G i v i n g f i r s t a id
t o t h e i l l o r i n j u r e d ; a t t e n d in g t o s u b s e q u e n t d r e s s i n g o f e m p l o y e e s ' i n j u r i e s ; k e e p i n g r e c o r d s
o f p a t i e n t s t r e a t e d ; p r e p a r i n g a c c i d e n t r e p o r t s f o r c o m p e n s a t i o n o r o t h e r p u r p o s e s ; a s s i s t i n g in
p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s a n d h e a l t h e v a l u a t i o n s o f a p p l i c a n t s a n d e m p l o y e e s ; a n d p la n n in g a n d c a r r y ­
in g o u t p r o g r a m s i n v o l v i n g h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n , a c c i d e n t p r e v e n t i o n , e v a l u a t i o n o f p la n t e n v i r o n m e n t ,
o r o t h e r a c t iv it ie s a ffe c t in g th e h e a lth , w e l f a r e , an d s a fe t y o f a l l p e r s o n n e l . N u r s in g s u p e r v i s o r s
o r h e a d n u r s e s i n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g m o r e th a n o n e n u r s e a r e e x c l u d e d .

MAINTENANCE AND POWERPLANT
C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

F IR E M A N , S T A T IO N A R Y

P e r f o r m s t h e c a r p e n t r y d u t i e s n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s t r u c t a n d m a i n t a i n in g o o d r e p a i r b u i l d ­
in g w o o d w o r k a n d e q u i p m e n t s u c h a s b i n s , c r i b s , c o u n t e r s , b e n c h e s , p a r t i t i o n s , d o o r s , f l o o r s ,
s t a i r s , c a s i n g s , a n d t r i m m a d e o f w o o d in a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :
P la n n i n g a n d l a y i n g o u t o f w o r k f r o m b l u e p r i n t s , d r a w i n g s , m o d e l s , o r v e r b a l i n s t r u c t i o n s ; u s i n g a
v a r i e t y o f c a r p e n t e r 's h a n d t o o l s , p o r t a b l e p o w e r t o o l s , a n d s t a n d a r d m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ; m a k ­
in g s t a n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o d i m e n s i o n s o f w o r k ; a n d s e l e c t i n g m a t e r i a l s n e c e s s a r y
f o r th e w o r k .
In g e n e r a l , t h e w o r k o f t h e m a i n t e n a n c e c a r p e n t e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a i n i n g a n d
e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .

F i r e s s t a t i o n a r y b o i l e r s t o f u r n i s h t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t in w h ic h e m p l o y e d w it h h e a t , p o w e r ,
o r s t e a m . F e e d s fu e ls t o f ir e b y h an d o r o p e r a t e s a m e c h a n ic a l s t o k e r , g a s , o r o il b u r n e r ; and
c h e c k s w a te r and s a fe ty v a lv e s .
M a y c l e a n , o i l , o r a s s i s t in r e p a i r i n g b o i l e r r o o m e q u i p m e n t .

E L E C T R IC IA N , M A IN T E N A N C E
P e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y o f e l e c t r i c a l t r a d e fu n c t io n s s u c h a s th e in s t a ll a t io n , m a in t e n a n c e , o r
r e p a i r o f e q u i p m e n t f o r t h e g e n e r a t i o n , d i s t r i b u t i o n , o r u t i l i z a t i o n o f e l e c t r i c e n e r g y in a n e s t a b ­
lis h m e n t . W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o ll o w in g : I n s t a llin g o r r e p a ir in g a n y o f a v a r i e t y o f e l e c ­
t r i c a l e q u ip m e n t s u c h a s g e n e r a t o r s , t r a n s f o r m e r s , s w it c h b o a r d s , c o n t r o l l e r s , c i r c u i t b r e a k e r s ,
m o t o r s , h e a tin g u n it s , c o n d u it s y s t e m s , o r o t h e r t r a n s m i s s i o n e q u ip m e n t; w o r k in g f r o m b lu e ­
p r i n t s , d r a w i n g s , l a y o u t s , o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; l o c a t i n g a n d d i a g n o s i n g t r o u b l e in t h e e l e c t r i c a l
s y s t e m o r e q u ip m e n t; w o r k in g s ta n d a r d c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g to lo a d r e q u ir e m e n t s o f w ir in g o r
e l e c t r i c a l e q u i p m e n t ; a n d u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f e l e c t r i c i a n 's h a n d t o o l s a n d m e a s u r i n g a n d t e s t i n g
in s t r u m e n t s .
In g e n e r a l , t h e w o r k o f t h e m a i n t e n a n c e e l e c t r i c i a n r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d t r a i n i n g a n d
e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g an d e x p e r i e n c e .

E N G IN E E R , S T A T IO N A R Y
O p e r a t e s an d m a in t a in s an d m a y a ls o s u p e r v is e th e o p e r a t io n o f s t a t io n a r y e n g in e s an d
e q u ip m e n t ( m e c h a n i c a l o r e l e c t r i c a l ) t o s u p p l y t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t in w h ic h e m p l o y e d w it h p o w e r ,
h ea t, r e fr ig e r a t io n , o r a ir -c o n d it io n in g .
W ork in v o lv e s :
O p e r a t i n g a n d m a i n t a i n i n g e q u ip m e n t
s u ch a s s te a m e n g in e s , a ir c o m p r e s s o r s , g e n e r a t o r s , m o t o r s , t u r b in e s , v e n tila tin g an d r e f r i g ­
e r a t in g e q u ip m e n t, s t e a m b o i l e r s an d b o i l e r - f e d w a t e r p u m p s ; m a k in g e q u ip m e n t r e p a i r s ; an d
k e e p in g a r e c o r d o f o p e r a t io n o f m a c h in e r y , t e m p e r a t u r e , a n d fu e l c o n s u m p t io n . M a y a ls o s u ­
p e r v is e th e s e o p e r a tio n s .
H e a d o r c h i e f e n g i n e e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s e m p l o y i n g m o r e t h a n o n e
e n g in e e r a r e e x c lu d e d .




H ELPER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

B O IL E R

TRADES

A s s i s t s o n e o r m o r e w o r k e r s in th e s k il le d m a in t e n a n c e t r a d e s , b y p e r f o r m i n g s p e c i f i c
o r g e n e r a l d u t i e s o f l e s s e r s k i l l , s u c h a s k e e p i n g a w o r k e r s u p p l i e d w it h m a t e r i a l s a n d t o o l s ;
c le a n in g w o r k in g a r e a , m a c h in e , a n d e q u ip m e n t; a s s i s t i n g jo u r n e y m a n b y h o ld in g m a t e r ia l s o r
t o o ls ; an d p e r f o r m in g o t h e r u n s k ille d ta s k s a s d ir e c t e d b y jo u r n e y m a n .
T h e k in d o f w o r k t h e
h e l p e r i s p e r m i t t e d t o p e r f o r m v a r i e s f r o m t r a d e t o t r a d e : In s o m e t r a d e s t h e h e l p e r i s c o n f i n e d
t o s u p p l y i n g , l i f t i n g , a n d h o l d i n g m a t e r i a l s a n d t o o l s , a n d c l e a n i n g w o r k i n g a r e a s ; a n d in o t h e r s
h e is p e r m itte d to p e r fo r m
s p e c i a l i z e d m a c h in e o p e r a t io n s , o r p a r t s o f a t r a d e th a t a r e a ls o
p e r fo r m e d by w o r k e r s on a fu ll-t im e b a s is .

M A C H I N E -T O O L

OPERATOR,

TOOLROOM

S p e c i a l i z e s in th e o p e r a t io n o f o n e o r m o r e t y p e s o f m a c h in e t o o l s , s u c h a s j i g b o r e r s ,
c y lin d r ic a l o r s u r fa c e g r in d e r s ,
e n g i n e l a t h e s , o r m i l l i n g m a c h i n e s , in t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f
m a c h i n e - s h o p t o o l s , g a u g e s , j i g s , f i x t u r e s , o r d i e s . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : P la n n i n g
an d p e r f o r m in g d iffic u lt m a c h in in g o p e r a t io n s ; p r o c e s s in g it e m s r e q u ir in g c o m p lic a t e d s e tu p s o r
a h ig h d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ; u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s ; s e l e c t i n g f e e d s ,
s p e e d s , t o o l i n g , a n d o p e r a t io n s e q u e n c e ; a n d m a k in g n e c e s s a r y a d ju s t m e n t s d u r in g o p e r a t io n
to a c h ie v e r e q u is ite t o le r a n c e s o r d im e n s io n s .
M a y be r e q u ir e d to r e c o g n iz e w h en to o ls n eed
d r e s s i n g , t o d r e s s t o o l s , a n d t o s e l e c t p r o p e r c o o .la n t s a n d c u t t in g a n d l u b r i c a t i n g o i l s .
For
c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e s t u d y p u r p o s e s , m a c h i n e - t o o l o p e r a t o r s , t o o l r o o m , in t o o l a n d d i e j o b b i n g
s h o p s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .
M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E
P r o d u c e s r e p la c e m e n t p a r t s an d n e w p a r t s in m a k in g r e p a i r s o f m e t a l p a r t s o f m e c h a n ic a l
e q u i p m e n t o p e r a t e d in a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : I n t e r p r e t i n g w r i t t e n
i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; p la n n in g a n d l a y i n g o u t o f w o r k ; u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f m a c h i n i s t ' s

25

M A C H IN IS T , M A IN T E N A N C E — C on tin u ed

P A I N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E

h a n d t o o ls a n d p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; s e t t in g up a n d o p e r a t in g s t a n d a r d m a c h in e t o o l s ;
s h a p in g o f m e t a l p a r t s t o c l o s e t o le r a n c e s ; m a k in g s ta n d a r d s h o p c o m p u ta tio n s r e la t in g t o d im e n ­
s io n s o f w o r k , t o o lin g , fe e d s , a n d s p e e d s o f m a c h in in g ; k n o w le d g e o f th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t ie s o f
th e c o m m o n m e t a l s ; s e l e c t i n g s t a n d a r d m a t e r i a l s , p a r t s , a n d e q u ip m e n t r e q u ir e d f o r h is w o r k ;
a n d fit t in g a n d a s s e m b l i n g p a r t s in to m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t .
In g e n e r a l , t h e m a c h i n i s t ' s w o r k
n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d t r a i n i n g in m a c h i n e - s h o p p r a c t i c e u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l
a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g , a n d e x p e r i e n c e .

P a in ts a n d r e d e c o r a t e s w a ll s , w o o d w o r k , a n d f ix t u r e s o f a n e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o r k in v o lv e s
t h e f o l l o w i n g : K n o w l e d g e o f s u r f a c e p e c u l i a r i t i e s a n d t y p e s o f p a in t r e q u i r e d f o r d i f f e r e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s ; p r e p a r i n g s u r f a c e f o r p a in t in g b y r e m o v i n g o l d f i n i s h o r b y p l a c i n g p u t t y o r f i l l e r in n a i l
h o l e s a n d i n t e r s t i c e s ; a n d a p p l y i n g p a in t w it h s p r a y g u n o r b r u s h . M a y m i x c o l o r s , o i l s , w h it e
l e a d , a n d o t h e r p a in t i n g r e d i e n t s t o o b t a i n p r o p e r c o l o r o r c o n s i s t e n c y . In g e n e r a l , t h e w o r k o f t h e
m a in te n a n c e p a in te r r e q u ir e s r o u n d e d t r a in in g an d e x p e r ie n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d th r o u g h a fo r m a l
a p p r e n t ic e s h ip o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g an d e x p e r ie n c e .
P IP E F IT T E R ,

M E C H A N IC , A U T O M O T IV E

R e p a ir s a u t o m o b il e s , b u s e s , m o t o r t r u c k s , a n d t r a c t o r s o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o r k in ­
v o l v e s m q s t_ o f_ th £ _ fo lJ ^ w in g : E x a m in in g a u t o m o t iv e e q u ip m e n t t o d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ; d i s ­
a s s e m b l i n g e q u i p m e n t a n d p e r f o r m i n g r e p a i r s th a t i n v o l v e t h e u s e o f s u c h h a n d t o o l s a s w r e n c h e s ,
g a u g e s , d r i l l s , o r s p e c i a l i z e d e q u i p m e n t in d i s a s s e m b l i n g o r f i t t i n g p a r t s ; r e p l a c i n g b r o k e n o r
d e f e c t i v e p a r t s f r o m s t o c k ; g r in d in g a n d a d ju s t in g v a l v e s ; r e a s s e m b l i n g an d in s t a llin g th e v a r i o u s
a s s e m b l i e s in t h e v e h i c l e a n d m a k i n g n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s ; a n d a l i g n i n g w h e e l s , a d ju s t i n g b r a k e s
a n d l i g h t s , o r t i g h t e n i n g b o d y b o l t s . In g e n e r a l , t h e w o r k o f t h e a u t o m o t i v e m e c h a n i c r e q u i r e s
r o u n d e d t r a in i n g an d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t
tr a in in g an d e x p e r ie n c e .

m o b ile

T h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n
r e p a ir sh o p s.

M E C H A N IC ,

M A IN T E N A N C E

(M a in t e n a n c e )

does

n o t in c lu d e

m e c h a n ic s

w ho

r e p a ir

cu stom ers'

I n s t a l l s o r r e p a i r s w a t e r , s t e a m , g a s , o r o t h e r t y p e s o f p i p e a n d p i p e f i t t i n g s in a n
e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o l l o w i n g ; L a y in g ou t o f w o r k a n d m e a s u r in g t o lo c a t e
p o s i t i o n o f p i p e f r o m d r a w i n g s o r o t h e r w r i t t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; c u t t in g v a r i o u s s i z e s o f p ip e t o
c o r r e c t le n g t h s w it h c h i s e l a n d h a m m e r o r o x y a c e t y l e n e t o r c h o r p i p e - c u t t i n g m a c h i n e s ; t h r e a d i n g
p i p e w it h s t o c k s a n d d i e s ; b e n d in g p i p e b y h a n d - d r i v e n o r p o w e r - d r i v e n m a c h i n e s ; a s s e m b l i n g
p i p e w it h c o u p l i n g s a n d f a s t e n i n g p i p e ' t o h a n g e r s ; m a k i n g s t a n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o
p r e s s u r e s , f lo w , a n d s i z e o f p ip e r e q u ir e d ; a n d m a k in g s ta n d a r d t e s t s t o d e t e r m in e w h e th e r f in ­
is h e d p ip e s m e e t s p e c i f ic a t io n s .
In g e n e r a l , t h e w o r k o f t h e m a i n t e n a n c e p i p e f i t t e r r e q u i r e s
r o u n d e d t r a in in g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t
t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e . W o r k e r s p r i m a r i l y e n g a g e d in i n s t a l l i n g a n d r e p a i r i n g b u i l d i n g s a n i t a t i o n
o r h e a t in g s y s t e m s a r e e x c l u d e d .

v e h i c l e s in a u t o ­
S H E E T -M E T A L

M A IN T E N A N C E

R e p a ir s m a c h in e r y o r m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t o f a n e s t a b lis h m e n t .
W ork in v o lv e s m o s t
o f th e fo llo w in g :
E x a m in in g m a c h in e s a n d m e c h a n ic a l e q u ip m e n t t o d ia g n o s e s o u r c e o f t r o u b le ;
d i s m a n t l i n g o r p a r t l y d i s m a n t l i n g m a c h i n e s a n d p e r f o r m i n g r e p a i r s th a t m a i n l y i n v o l v e t h e u s e
o f h a n d t o o l s in s c r a p i n g a n d f i t t i n g p a r t s ; r e p l a c i n g b r o k e n o r d e f e c t i v e p a r t s w it h i t e m s o b t a i n e d
f r o m s t o c k ; o r d e r i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f a r e p l a c e m e n t p a r t b y a m a c h i n e s h o p o r s e n d i n g o f th e
m a c h in e to a m a c h in e s h o p f o r m a jo r r e p a ir s ; p r e p a r in g w r it t e n s p e c if ic a t io n s f o r m a jo r r e p a ir s
o r f o r th e p r o d u c t io n o f p a r t s o r d e r e d f r o m m a c h in e s h o p ; r e a s s e m b l in g m a c h in e s ; an d m a k in g
a l l n e c e s s a r y a d j u s t m e n t s f o r o p e r a t i o n . In g e n e r a l , t h e w o r k o f a m a i n t e n a n c e m e c h a n i c r e q u i r e s
r o u n d e d t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t
t r a in in g an d e x p e r ie n c e .
E x c lu d e d f r o m th is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r i m a r y d u tie s
i n v o lv e s e t t in g u p o r a d ju s t in g m a c h in e s .

M IL L W R IG H T
I n s t a lls n e w m a c h in e s o r h e a v y e q u ip m e n t, a n d d is m a n t le s and in s t a lls m a c h in e s o r h e a v y
e q u i p m e n t w h e n c h a n g e s in t h e p la n t l a y o u t a r e r e q u i r e d . W o r k i n v o l v e s m o s t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :
P la n n i n g a n d l a y i n g o u t o f t h e w o r k ; i n t e r p r e t i n g b l u e p r i n t s o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; u s i n g a v a r i e t y
o f h a n d to o ls a n d r ig g in g ; m a k in g s t a n d a r d s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t i n g t o s t r e s s e s , s t r e n g t h o f
m a t e r i a l s , a n d c e n t e r s o f g r a v it y ; a lig n in g a n d b a la n c in g o f e q u ip m e n t; s e l e c t i n g s ta n d a r d t o o l s ,
e q u ip m e n t , a n d p a r t s t o b e u s e d ; a n d in s t a ll in g a n d m a in t a in in g in g o o d o r d e r p o w e r t r a n s m i s s i o n
e q u i p m e n t s u c h a s d r i v e s a n d s p e e d r e d u c e r s . In g e n e r a l , t h e m i l l w r i g h t 's w o r k n o r m a l l y r e q u i r e s
a r o u n d e d t r a i n i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e in t h e t r a d e a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r
e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g and e x p e r ie n c e .

W ORKER,

M A IN T E N A N C E

F a b r i c a t e s , i n s t a l l s , a n d m a i n t a i n s in g o o d r e p a i r t h e s h e e t - m e t a l e q u i p m e n t a n d f i x t u r e s
(s u c h a s m a c h in e g u a r d s , g r e a s e p a n s , s h e lv e s , lo c k e r s , ta n k s , v e n t ila t o r s , c h u t e s , d u c t s , m e t a l
r o o f in g ) o f an e s t a b lis h m e n t . W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o ll o w in g :
P la n n i n g a n d l a y i n g o u t a l l
t y p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l m a i n t e n a n c e w o r k f r o m b l u e p r i n t s , m o d e l s , o r o t h e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ; s e t t in g
u p a n d o p e r a t i n g a l l a v a i l a b l e t y p e s o f s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k i n g m a c h i n e s ; u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f h a n d t o o ls
in c u ttin g , b e n d in g , f o r m i n g , s h a p in g , fit t in g , a n d a s s e m b l in g ; an d in s t a llin g s h e e t - m e t a l a r t i c l e s
as r e q u ir e d .
In g e n e r a l , t h e w o r k o f t h e m a i n t e n a n c e s h e e t - m e t a l w o r k e r r e q u i r e s r o u n d e d
t r a in i n g a n d e x p e r i e n c e u s u a lly a c q u ir e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p o r e q u iv a le n t tr a in in g
and e x p e r ie n c e .
TOOL

AND

D IE

M AKER

C o n s tr u c ts and r e p a ir s m a c h in e -s h o p t o o ls , g a u g e s , j ig s , fix tu r e s o r d ie s fo r fo r g in g s ,
p u n c h in g , a n d o t h e r m e t a l - f o r m i n g w o r k .
W o rk in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g :
P la n n i n g a n d
la y in g o u t o f w o r k f r o m m o d e l s , b lu e p r in t s , d r a w in g s , o r o t h e r o r a l a n d w r it t e n s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ;
u s in g a v a r i e t y o f t o o l an d d ie m a k e r 's h a n d t o o ls a n d p r e c i s i o n m e a s u r in g in s t r u m e n t s ; u n d e r ­
s ta n d in g o f th e w o r k in g p r o p e r t i e s o f c o m m o n m e t a ls an d a l l o y s ; s e t t in g up an d o p e r a t in g o f
m a c h in e t o o ls an d r e la t e d e q u ip m e n t; m a k in g n e c e s s a r y s h o p c o m p u t a t io n s r e la t in g t o d im e n s io n s
o f w o r k , s p e e d s , f e e d s , a n d t o o li n g o f m a c h in e s ; h e a t - t r e a t in g o f m e t a l p a r t s d u r in g f a b r ic a t i o n
a s w e ll a s o f fin is h e d t o o ls an d d ie s to a c h ie v e r e q u ir e d q u a lit ie s ; w o r k in g to c lo s e t o le r a n c e s ;
fit t in g an d a s s e m b l in g o f p a r t s to p r e s c r i b e d t o l e r a n c e s an d a ll o w a n c e s ; a n d s e l e c t i n g a p p r o p r ia t e
m a t e r i a l s , t o o l s , a n d p r o c e s s e s . In g e n e r a l , t h e t o o l a n d d i e m a k e r ' s w o r k r e q u i r e s a r o u n d e d
t r a i n i n g in m a c h i n e - s h o p a n d t o o l r o o m p r a c t i c e u s u a l l y a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h a f o r m a l a p p r e n t i c e s h i p
o r e q u iv a le n t t r a in in g an d e x p e r ie n c e .

sh ops

F o r c r o s s - i n d u s t r y w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s ,
a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m t h is c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

to o l

and

d ie

m ak ers

in t o o l

a n d d ie jo b b in g

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL M O VEM ENT
GUARD

AND

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L

W ATCHM EN

G u a r d . P e r f o r m s r o u t in e p o l i c e d u t ie s , e it h e r at fix e d p o s t o r o n t o u r , m a in t a in in g o r d e r ,
u s in g a r m s o r f o r c e w h e r e n e c e s s a r y . I n c lu d e s g a t e m e n w h o a r e s t a t io n e d at g a te and c h e c k
o n id e n tity o f e m p lo y e e s an d o th e r p e r s o n s e n t e r in g .
W a tch m a n .
th e ft]
JA N IT O R ,

and ille g a l

M akes

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p e r io d ic a lly

in p r o t e c t in g

p ro p e rty

a g a in st f ir e ,

en try .

PO R TE R , OR

CLEANER
ORDER

C l e a n s a n d k e e p s in a n o r d e r l y c o n d i t i o n f a c t o r y w o r k i n g a r e a s a n d w a s h r o o m s , o r
p r e m i s e s o f a n o f f i c e , a p a r t m e n t h o u s e , o r c o m m e r c i a l o r o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t . D u tie s in v o lv e
a c o m b in a t io n o f th e f o ll o w in g : S w e e p in g , m o p p in g o r s c r u b b in g , and p o lis h in g f l o o r s ; r e m o v in g
c h ip s , t r a s h , a n d o t h e r r e f u s e ; d u s tin g e q u ip m e n t , f u r n it u r e , o r f i x t u r e s ; p o lis h in g m e t a l f i x ­
t u r e s o r t r im m in g s ; p r o v id in g s u p p lie s a n d m in o r m a in te n a n c e s e r v i c e s ; an d c le a n in g la v a t o r ie s ,
s h o w e r s , a n d r e s t r o o m s . W o r k e r s w h o s p e c i a l i z e in w i n d o w w a s h in g a r e e x c l u d e d .




H A N D L IN G

A w o r k e r e m p l o y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t , s t o r e , o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t
w h o s e d u t i e s i n v o l v e o n e o r m o r e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : L o a d in g a n d u n l o a d i n g v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s a n d
m e r c h a n d is e o n o r f r o m f r e ig h t c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o t h e r t r a n s p o r t i n g d e v i c e s ; u n p a c k in g , s h e lv in g ,
o r p l a c i n g m a t e r i a l s o r m e r c h a n d i s e in p r o p e r s t o r a g e l o c a t i o n ; a n d t r a n s p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l s o r
m e r c h a n d i s e b y h a n d t r u c k , c a r , o r w h e e l b a r r o w . L o n g s h o r e m e n , w h o lo a d a n d u n l o a d s h i p s a r e
e x c lu d e d .

F IL L E R

F i l l s s h ip p i n g o r t r a n s f e r o r d e r s f o r f i n i s h e d g o o d s f r o m s t o r e d m e r c h a n d i s e in a c c o r d ­
a n c e w ith s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o n s a l e s s l i p s , c u s t o m e r s ' o r d e r s , o r o t h e r i n s t r u c t i o n s . M a y , in a d d i t i o n
t o fillin g o r d e r s an d in d ic a tin g it e m s f il le d o r o m it t e d , k e e p r e c o r d s o f o u tg o in g o r d e r s , r e q u i­
s it io n a d d itio n a l s t o c k o r r e p o r t s h o r t s u p p lie s to s u p e r v is o r , an d p e r f o r m o t h e r r e la t e d d u tie s .

26

P A C K E R , S H IP P IN G

T R U C K D R IV E R — C o n tin u ed

P r e p a r e s f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t s f o r s h i p m e n t o r s t o r a g e b y p l a c i n g t h e m in s h i p p i n g c o n ­
t a i n e r s , t h e s p e c i f i c o p e r a t i o n s p e r f o r m e d b e i n g d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e t y p e , s i z e , a n d n u m b e r
o f u n it s t o b e p a c k e d , t h e t y p e o f c o n t a i n e r e m p l o y e d , a n d m e t h o d o f s h i p m e n t . W o r k r e q u i r e s
t h e p l a c i n g o f i t e m s in s h i p p i n g c o n t a i n e r s a n d m a y i n v o l v e o n e o r m o r e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g :
K n o w l e d g e o f v a r i o u s i t e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r t o v e r i f y c o n t e n t ; s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e t y p e
a n d s i z e o f c o n t a i n e r ; i n s e r t i n g e n c l o s u r e s in c o n t a i n e r ; u s i n g e x c e l s i o r o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l t o
p r e v e n t b r e a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c l o s i n g an d s e a lin g c o n t a in e r ; an d a p p ly in g la b e l s o r e n t e r in g
id e n t ify in g d a ta o n c o n t a in e r .
P a c k e r s w ho a ls o m a k e w ood en b o x e s o r c r a t e s a re e x c lu d e d .
S H IP P IN G

AND

R E C E IV IN G

fo llo w s :

F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , t r u c k d r iv e r s a r e c la s s if ie d by s iz e and ty p e
( T r a c t o r - t r a i l e r s h o u ld b e r a t e d o n th e b a s is o f t r a i l e r c a p a c it y .)
T r u c k d r iv e r (c o m b in a t io n o f s iz e s lis t e d s e p a r a t e ly )
T r u c k d r i v e r , lig h t (u n d e r IV 2 t o n s )
T r u c k d r i v e r , m e d i u m ( I V 2 t o a n d in c l u d i n g 4 t o n s )
T r u c k d r iv e r , h e a v y (o v e r 4 to n s , t r a il e r ty p e)
T r u c k d r i v e r , h e a v y ( o v e r 4 t o n s , o t h e r th a n t r a i l e r t y p e )

CLERK
TRUCKER,

P r e p a r e s m e r c h a n d i s e f o r s h ip m e n t , o r r e c e i v e s a n d is r e s p o n s ib l e f o r in c o m i n g s h ip ­
m e n t s o f m e r c h a n d i s e o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l s . S h ip p i n g w o r k i n v o l v e s : A k n o w l e d g e o f s h ip p i n g p r o ­
c e d u r e s , p r a c t ic e s , r o u t e s , a v a ila b le m e a n s o f tr a n s p o r ta tio n , and r a te s ; an d p r e p a r in g r e c o r d s
o f t h e g o o d s s h i p p e d , m a k i n g u p b i l l s o f l a d i n g , p o s t i n g w e i g h t a n d s h ip p i n g c h a r g e s , a n d k e e p i n g
a f i l e o f s h ip p i n g r e c o r d s .
M a y d i r e c t o r a s s i s t in p r e p a r i n g th e m e r c h a n d is e f o r s h ip m e n t.
R e c e iv in g w o r k i n v o l v e s : V e r if y in g o r d ir e c t in g o t h e r s in v e r i f y in g th e c o r r e c t n e s s o f s h ip m e n ts
a g a in s t b i l l s o f la d in g , i n v o i c e s , o r o t h e r r e c o r d s ; c h e c k i n g f o r s h o r t a g e s a n d r e je c t in g d a m ­
a g e d g o o d s ; r o u t in g m e r c h a n d is e o r m a t e r i a l s to p r o p e r d e p a r t m e n t s ; and m a in ta in in g n e c e s s a r y
r e c o r d s and file s .
F or

w age

stu d y p u r p o s e s ,

w ork ers

are

c la s s ifie d

as

POW ER

O p e r a t e s a m a n u a lly c o n t r o lle d g a s o lin e - o r e le c t r i c - p o w e r e d tr u c k o r t r a c t o r to t r a n s p o r t
g o o d s a n d m a t e r i a l s o f a l l k i n d s a b o u t a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t , o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t .
F o r w a g e stu d y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e c la s s if ie d by ty p e o f t r u c k ,

as fo llo w s :

T r u c k e r , p o w e r (fo r k lift)
T r u c k e r , p o w e r ( o t h e r th a n f o r k l i f t )

W AREH O U SEM AN

fo llo w s :

R e c e iv in g c le r k
S h ip p i n g c l e r k
S h ip p i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g c l e r k
T R U C K D R IV E R
D r i v e s a t r u c k w it h i n a c i t y o r i n d u s t r i a l a r e a t o t r a n s p o r t m a t e r i a l s , m e r c h a n d i s e ,
e q u ip m e n t, o r m e n b e t w e e n v a r i o u s t y p e s o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s s u c h a s : M a n u fa c tu r in g p la n t s , fr e ig h t
d e p o t s , w a r e h o u s e s , w h o le s a le and r e t a il e s t a b lis h m e n t s , o r b e tw e e n r e t a il e s t a b lis h m e n t s and
c u s t o m e r s ' h o u s e s o r p l a c e s o f b u s i n e s s . M a y a l s o l o a d o r u n lo a d t r u c k w it h o r w it h o u t h e l p e r s ,
m a k e m i n o r m e c h a n i c a l r e p a i r s , a n d k e e p t r u c k in g o o d w o r k i n g o r d e r .
D r iv e r -s a le s m e n and
o v e r -t h e -r o a d d r iv e r s a re e x clu d e d .




o f e q u ip m e n t, a s

27

A s d i r e c t e d , p e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y o f w a r e h o u s i n g d u t ie s w h ic h r e q u i r e an u n d e r s t a n d in g
o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t 's s t o r a g e p l a n .
W o r k in v o lv e s m o s t o f th e f o ll o w in g : V e r if y in g m a t e r ia l s
( o r m e r c h a n d i s e ) a g a i n s t r e c e i v i n g d o c u m e n t s , n o t in g a n d r e p o r t i n g d i s c r e p a n c i e s a n d o b v i o u s
d a m a g e s ; r o u tin g m a t e r i a l s t o p r e s c r i b e d s t o r a g e lo c a t i o n s ; s t o r in g , s t a c k in g , o r p a lle t iz in g
m a t e r i a l s in a c c o r d a n c e w it h p r e s c r i b e d s t o r a g e m e t h o d s ; r e a r r a n g i n g a n d t a k in g i n v e n t o r y o f
s t o r e d m a t e r ia l s ; e x a m in in g s t o r e d m a t e r ia ls and r e p o r t in g d e t e r io r a t io n and d a m a g e ; r e m o v in g
m a t e r ia l fr o m
s t o r a g e a n d p r e p a r i n g it f o r s h i p m e n t .
M a y o p e r a t e h a n d o r p o w e r t r u c k s in
p e r fo r m in g w a r e h o u s in g d u tie s .
E x c l u d e w o r k e r s w h o s e p r i m a r y d u t i e s i n v o l v e s h ip p i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g w o r k ( s e e s h ip p i n g
a n d r e c e i v i n g c l e r k an d p a c k e r , s h ip p in g ), o r d e r fil lin g ( s e e o r d e r f i l l e r ) , o r o p e r a t in g p o w e r
tru ck s (s e e tr u c k e r , p o w e r ).

Available On Request
The following areas are surveyed periodically for use in administering the Service Contract Act of 1965.
available at no cost while supplies last from any of the BLS regional offices shown on the back cover.
Abilene, Tex.
Alamogordo—
Las Cruces, N. Mex.
Alaska
Albany, Ga.
Alexandria, La.
Atlantic City, N.J.
Augusta, Ga.—
S.C.
Baton Rouge, La.
Billings, Mont.
Bremerton, Wash.
Bridgeport, Norwalk, and Stamford, Conn.
Brunswick, Ga.
Cape Cod, Mass.
Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Champaign—
Urbana, 111.
Charleston, S.C.
Cheyenne, Wyo.
Clarksville, Term., and Hopkinsville, Ky.
Colorado Springs, Colo.
Columbia, S.C.
Columbu s , Ga_Ala.
Columbus, Miss.
Corpus Christi, Tex.
Dothan, Ala.
Duluth—
Superior, Minn.—
Wis.
Fayetteville, N.C.
Fitchburg—
Leominster, Mass.
Fort Smith, Ark.—
Okla.
Frederick—
Hager stown—
Chamber sburg—
Martinsburg, Md.—
Pa.— Va.
W.
Fresno, Calif.
Gadsdert-Anniston, Ala.
Goldsboro, N.C.
Grand Forks, N. Dak.

Copies of public releases are or will be

Grand Island^Hastings, Nebr.
Great Falls, Mont.
Laredo, Tex.
Las Vegas, Nev.
Logansport—
Peru, Ind.
Lower Eastern Shore, Md.—
Va.- Del.
McAllen—
Pharr—
Edinburg and Brownsville—
Harlingen—
San Benito, Tex.
Macon, Ga.
Marquette, Escanaba, and Sa'ult Ste. Marie, Mich.
Meridian, Miss.
Middlesex, Monmouth, Ocean, and
Somerset Cos., N.J.
Mobile, Ala., and Pensacola, Fla.
New Bern—
Jacksonville, N.C.
Norwich—
Groton—
New London, Conn.
Oxnard—
Simi Valley—
Ventura, Calif.
Panama City, Fla.
Pine Bluff, Ark.
Reno, Nev.
Salina, Kans.
Sacramento, Calif.
San Angelo, Tex.
Santa Barbara—
Santa Maria—
Lompoc, Calif.
Selma, Ala.
Sherman—
Denison, Tex.
Shreveport, La.
Springfield—
Chicopee—
Holyoke, Mass.—
Conn.
Tacoma, Wash.
Tucson, Ariz.
Vallejo—
Fairfield—
Napa, Calif.
Waco, Tex.
Wilmington, Del.—
N.J.—
Md.

Reports for the following surveys conducted in the prior year but since discontinued are also available:
Amarillo, Tex.
Bakersfield, Calif.
Biloxi—
Gulfport—
Pascagoula, Miss.
Crane, Ind.
El Paso, Tex.
Eugene—
Springfield, Oreg.
Fargo—
Moorhead, N. Dak.—
Minn.
Greensboro—
Winston Salem—
High Point, N.C.
Harrisburg, Pa.
Knoxville, Tenn.
* Expanded to an area wage survey in fiscal year 1974.

Melbourne—
Titusville—
Cocoa, Fla. (Brevard Co.)*
Montgomery, Ala.
Nashville, Tenn.
Northeastern Maine
Ogden, Utah
Orlando, Fla.
Portsmouth, N.H.—
Maine—
Mass.
Pueblo, Colo.
Topeka, Kans.
Yuma, Ariz.
See inside back cover.

The fourteenth annual report on salaries for accountants, auditors, chief accountants, attorneys, job analysts, directors of personnel, buyers, chemists, engineers,
engineering technicians, draftsmen, and clerical employees. Order as BLS Bulletin 1804, National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and
Clerical Pay, March 1973, $1.05 a copy, from any of the BLS regional sales offices shown on the back cover, or from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402.




Area Wage Surveys
A list of the latest available bulletins or bulletin supplements is presented below. A directory of area wage studies including more limited studies
conducted at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of the Department of Labor is available on request. Bulletins may be purchased from any
of the BLS regional offices shown on the back cover, or from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402.
Bulletin supplements may be obtained, without cost, only from BLS regional offices.
Area
Akron, Ohio, Dec. 1972---------------------------------------------Albany—
Schenectady—
Troy, N .Y., Mar. 1973 1_______
Albuquerque, N. Mex,, Mar. 1973-----------------------------Allentown—
Bethlehem—
Easton, Pa.—
N.J., May 1973__
Atlanta, Ga., May 1973____________________________ __
Austin, Tex., Dec. 1973_________________ —
___________
Baltimore, Md., Aug. 197 3___________________________
Beaumont—
Port Arthui^Orange, Tex., May 1973 1 ---Binghamton, N.Y.—
Pa., July 1973 1__________________
Birmingham, Ala., Mar. 1973 1______________________
Boise City, Idaho, Nov. 1973_________________________
Boston, Mass., Aug. 1973____________________________
Buffalo, N.Y., Oct. 1973_____________________________
Burlington, V t., Dec. 1973________ -__________________
Canton, Ohio, May 1973______________________________
Charleston, W. Va., Mar. 1973______________________
Charlotte, N.C., Jan. 1973___________________________
Chattanooga, Tenn.-Ga., Sept. 1973_________________
Chicago, 111., May 1973---------------------------------------------Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.—
Ind., Feb. 1973________________
Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1973_____ _____________________
Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 197 3___________________________
Dallas, Tex., Oct. 1973______________________________
Davenport—
Rock Island—
Moline, Iowa—
111., Feb. 1973_
Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1973_____________________________
Denver, Colo., Dec. 1972____________ _______________
Des Moines, Iowa, May 1973___________________ _____
Detroit, Mich., Mar. 1973 1_ _______________________
_
Durham, N.C., Dec. 1973 1 ____ ______ ____ ___________
Fort Lauderdale—
Hollywood and West Palm
Beach, Fla., Apr. 1973_____________________________
Fort Worth, Tex., Oct. 1973___ __ ______ ____________
Green Bay, W is., July 1973____________ ______________
Greenville, S.C., May 1973 1 ___________ _____________
Houston, Tex., Apr. 1973____________________________
Huntsville, Ala., Feb. 1973---------------------------- -----------Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 197 3_____________ ____________
Jackson, M iss., Jan. 1973___ ________________________
Jacksonville, Fla., Dec. 1973 1 _______________________
Kansas City, Mo.-Kans., Sept. 1973 1________________
Lawrence—
Haverhill, Mass.—
N.H., June 1973-----------Lexington, Ky., Nov. 1973____________________________
Little Rock—
North Little Rock, Ark., July 1973______
Los Angeles—
Long Beach and Anaheim—
Santa AnaGarden Grove, Calif., Oct. 197 3____ -______________
Louisville, Ky.—
Ind., Nov. 1973______________________
Lubbock, Tex., Mar. 1973-----------------------------------------Manchester, N.H., July 197 3___ ________ _________ Melbourne—
Titusville—
Cocoa, Fla.,

Bulletin number
and price
40 cents
55 cents
40 cents
50 cents
40 cents
F ree
Free
40 cents
55 cents
55 cents
F ree
F ree
F ree
Free
40 cents
40 cents
40 cents
F ree
50 cents
50 cents
F ree
F ree
F ree
40 cents
F ree
40 cents
40 cents
80 cents
65 cents

1775-64,
Suppl.
Suppl.
1775-86,
1775-71,
1775-48,
Suppl.
1775-44,
1795-8,
1795-4,
1775-93,
Suppl.
Suppl.

40 cents
Free
F ree
40 cents
50 cents
40 cents
F ree
40 cents
65 cents
80 cents
50 cents
F ree
F ree

Suppl.
Suppl.
1775-55,
Suppl.

Free
Free
40 cents
F ree

1795-2,




1775-36,
1775-62,
1775-52,
1775-90,
1775-79,
Suppl.
Suppl.
1775-82,
1795-1,
1775-65,
Suppl.
Suppl.
Suppl.
Suppl.
1775-73,
1775-74,
1775-39,
Suppl.
1775-88,
1775-53,
Suppl.
Suppl.
Suppl.
1775-57,
Suppl.
1775-35,
1775-72,
1775-89,
1795-9,

55 cents

D a ta o n e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p le m e n ta ry w a g e p ro v is io n s are a ls o p resen ted .

Area
Memphis, Tenn.—
Ark., Nov. 1972____________________________
Miami, Fla., Nov. 1973______________________________________
Midland and Odessa, Tex., Jan. 1973________________________
Milwaukee, W is., May 1973__________________________________
Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn., Jan. 1974_____________________
Muskegon—
Muskegon Heights, Mich., June 1973_____________
Newark and Jersey City, N.J., Jan. 1973____________________
New Haven, Conn., Jan. 1973________________________________
New Orleans, La., Jan. 1973____ ____________________________
New York, N.Y., Apr. 1973---------------------------------------------------Norfolk—
Virginia Beach—
Portsmouth and
Newport News—
Hampton, Va., Jan. 1973 1_________________
Oklahoma City, Okla., July 1973-------------------------------------------Omaha, Nebr.—
Iowa, Sept. 197 3________________________ ______
Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, N.J., June 1973_________________
Philadelphia, Pa.—
N.J., Nov. 1972________________________ .__
Phoenix, A riz., June 1973____________________ ________________
Pittsburgh, Pa., Jan. 1973 1 _________________________________
Portland, Maine, Nov. 1973 1________________________________
Portland, Oreg.—
Wash., May 1973___ , ______________________
_
Poughkeepsie—
Kingston—
Newburgh, N.Y., June 1973_ ______
_
Providence—
Warwick—
Pawtucket, R.I.—
Mass.,
May 1973____________________________________________________
Raleigh, N.C., Dec. 1973 1___________________________________
Richmond, V a., Mar. 1973_____________________ _____________
Riverside—
San Bernardino-Ontario, Calif.,
Rockford, 111., June 1973____________________________________
St. Louis, Mo.—
111., Mar. 1973 1 _____________________________
Salt Lake City, Utah, Nov. 1973_____________________________
San Antonio, Tex., May 1973________________________________
San Diego, Calif., Nov. 197 3_______________ _________________
San Francisco—
Oakland, Calif., Mar. 1973__________________
San Jose, Calif., Mar. 1973_ _________________________ _____
_
Savannah, Ga., May 1973___ ______________________________ ._
_
Scranton, Pa., July 1973 1 _____________________________ _____
Seattle—
Everett, Wash., Jan. 1973___________________________
Sioux Falls, S. Dak., Dec. 1973_________________________ ____
South Bend, Ind., Mar. 1973_________________________________
Spokane, Wash., June 1973___________________________________
Tampa—
St. Petersburg, Fla., Aug. 1973_____________________
T ole do, Ohio—
Mich., Apr. 1973__________ ___________________
Trenton, N.J., Sept. 197 3____________________________________
Washington, D.C.—
Md.—
Va., Mar. 1973---------------------------------Waterbury, Conn., Mar. 1973_______________________________
Waterloo, Iowa, Nov. 1973 1 _________________________________
Wichita, Kans., Apr. 1973------------------ ----------------------------------Worcester, Mass., May 1973____ __________ ________________
York, Pa., Feb. 1973________________________________________
Youngstown—
Warren, Ohio, Nov. 1973_______________________

Bulletin number
and price
1775-30,
Suppl.
1775-41,
1775-83,
Suppl.
1775-91,
1775-50,
1775-46,
1775-47,
1775-94,

40 cents
F ree
35 cents
40 cents
Free
50 cents
55 cents
40 cents
40 cents
50 cents

1775-51,
Suppl.
Suppl.
1775-92,
1775-45,
1775-96,
1775-67,
1795-6,
1775-87,
1775-85,

50 cents
F ree
Free
55 cents
55 cents
50 cents
75 cents
65 cents
35 cents
35 cents

1775-84, 35 cents
65 cents
1795-7,
1775-68, 40 cents
1775-60,
1775-80,
1775-69,
Suppl.
1775-78,
Suppl.
1775-81,
1775-66,
1775-77,
1795-3,
1775-56,
Suppl.
1775-54,
1775-95.
Suppl.
1775-63,
Suppl.
1775-75,
1775-58,
1795-5,
1775-70,
1775-76,
1775-59,
Suppl.

65 cents
35 cents
75 cents
F ree
35 cents
F ree
40 cents
40 cents
40 cents
55 cents
40 cents
F ree
40 cents
50 cents
F ree
40 cents
F ree
50 cents
40 cents
60 cents
40 cents
40 cents
40 cents
F ree

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

U.S. D E P A R T M E N T OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20212

LA B 441

OFFICIAL BUSINESS
PENALTY FOR PRIVATE USE $300

THIRD CLASS MAIL

B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S R E G IO N A L O F F IC E S
Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)
Connecticut
Maine
Massachusetts
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
Vermont

Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region V
8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
Chicago, III. 60606
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)
Illinois
Indiana
Michigan
Minnesota
Ohio
Wisconsin

Region VI
1100 Commerce St. Rm. 6B7
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
Arkansas
Louisiana
New Mexico
Oklahoma
Texas




New Jersey
New York
Puerto Rico
Virgin Islands

Region III
p.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 597-1154 (Area Code 215)
Delaware
District of Columbia
Maryland
Pennsylvania
Virginia
West Virginia

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)
Alabama
Florida
Georgia
Kentucky
Mississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee

Regions VII and VIII
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)
VII
VIII
Iowa
Colorado
Kansas
Montana
Missouri
North Dakota
Nebraska
South Dakota
Utah
Wyoming

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)
IX
X
Arizona
Alaska
California
Idaho
Hawaii
Oregon
Nevada
Washington