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/ - ' Area ~ v Wage Survey Bulletin 2025-48 a ; Daytona Beach, Florida, Metropolitan Area, August 1978 Preface This bulletin provides results of an August 1978 survey of occu pational earnings in the Daytona Beach, Florida, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area. The survey was made as part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' annual area wage survey program. It was conducted by the Bureau's regional office in Atlanta, Ga., under the general direction of Jerry G. Adams, Assistant Regional Commissioner for Operations. The survey could not have been accomplished without the cooperation of the many firm s whose wage and salary data provided the basis for the statistical information in this bulletin. The Bureau sincere appreciation for the cooperation received. wishes to express Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be re produced without permission of the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor Statistics and cite the name and number of this publication. Area Wage Survey Daytona Beach, Florida, Metropolitan Area, August 1978 U.S. Department of Labor Ray Marshall, Secretary Contents Bureau of Labor Statistics Janet L. Norwood Acting Commissioner Page Introduction_________________________________________ 2 November 1978 Bulletin 2025-48 T ables: A. For sale by the Superintendent of Docu ments, U S Government Printing Office, Washington. D C 20402, GPO Bookstores, or BLS Regional Offices listed on back cover Price $1 00 Make checks payable to Super intendent of Documents Earnings, all establishments; A - l . Weekly earnings of office workers__ A -2 . Weekly earnings of professional and technical w orkers______________ A -3 . Average weekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by s e x _________ A - 4. Hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers______________________________ A -5 . Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers__ A - 6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom, powerplant, m aterial movement, and custodial workers, by s e x _________ A -7 . Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted for employment shifts, for selected occupational groups________________ 3 4 4 5 5 6 7 Page Appendix A . Scope and method of su rvey_________ 9 Appendix B. Occupational descriptions___________ 13 Introduction This area is 1 of 75 in which the U.S. Department of Labor's Bureau of Labor Statistics conducts surveys of occupational earnings and related benefits. (See list of areas on inside back cover.) In each area, occupational earnings data (A -se rie s tables) are collected annually. Information on estab lishment practices and supplementary wage benefits (B -series tables) is obtained every third year. This report has no B -se r ie s tables. Each year after all individual area wage surveys have been com pleted, two summary bulletins are issued. The first brings together data for each metropolitan area surveyed; the second presents national and regional estim ates, projected from individual metropolitan area data, for all Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States, excluding Alaska and Hawaii. A major consideration in the area wage survey program is the need to describe the level and movement of wages in a variety of labor m arkets, through the analysis of (1) the level and distribution of wages by occupation, and (2) the movement of wages by occupational category and skill level. The program develops information that may be used for many purposes, including wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and assistance in determining plant location. Survey results also are used by the U.S. Depart ment of Labor to make wagd determinations under the Service Contract Act of 1965. A -se r ie s tables Tables A - 1 through A - 6 provide estimates of straight-tim e weekly or hourly earnings for workers in occupations common to a variety of manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries. For the 31 largest survey areas, tables A -8 through A - 13 provide sim ilar data for establishments employing 500 workers or more. Table A -7 provides percent changes in average hourly earnings of office clerical workers, electronic data processing workers, industrial nurses, skilled maintenance trades w orkers, and unskilled plant workers. Where possible, data are presented for all industries and for manufac turing and nonmanufacturing separately. Data are not presented for skilled maintenance workers in nonmanufacturing because the number of workers employed in this occupational group in nonmanufacturing is too sm all to warrant separate presentation. This table provides a measure of wage trends after elinimation of changes in average earnings caused by employ ment shifts among establishments as well as turnover of establishments included in survey samples. For further details, see appendix A. Appendixes Appendix A describes the methods and concepts used in the area wage survey program and provides information on the scope of the survey. Appendix B provides job descriptions used by Bureau field econo m ists to classify workers by occupation. A. E a rn in g s Table A-1. W eekly earnings of office workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1978 ^^WeeklyTarnlngs^™ (standard) NuiuUa of worker* N u m ber of w o r k e r s receivin g s tr aigh t-tim e we ekly earning s o f— 4 i Average weekly 4 $ 4 4 4 4 4 % 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 (standard) 10 0 1 10 120 130 19 0 150 160 17 0 18 0 19 0 200 210 220 230 29 0 2 50 260 280 100 O ccu p a tion and in d u str y d iv is io n 1 10 12 0 13 0 190 150 160 1 70 18 0 19U 200 210 22 0 23 0 290 25 0 260. 280 3 00 - - - 2 2 3 3 11 7 4 8 4 2 9 5 4 7 2 5 10 6 4 2 1 1 5 2 3 9 9 13 13 - 15 15 - 8 8 - 1 1 - 1 1 - 2 1 1 - - 1 i 1 3 2 9 1 1 - 2 2 1 1 - 2 1 90 Mean2 Median 2 Middle range 2 and under ALL WORKERS SECRETARIES ----------------------------------------------------MANUF ACTURIN3 ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 10<f 75 29 90.0 9 0 .0 9 0 .0 $ 1 98.00 2 09.00 1 69 .50 $ 2 00.00 2 25.50 161.00 $ $ 1 6 9 .5 0 -2 3 5 .5 0 1 8 0 .0 0 -2 3 5 .5 0 1 9 9 .5 0 -1 8 6 .0 0 SECRE TA RIES. CLASS C --------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------- 28 15 9 0.0 9 0 .0 2 09 .00 238.50 209.50 298.50 1 7 5 .0 0 -2 9 8 .5 0 2 1 9 .0 0 -2 9 8 .5 0 - SEC RE TARIES. CLASS 0 --------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------- 97 38 9 0 .0 9 0.0 3.8 5 .0 0 1 99 .00 180.00 1 85 .00 1 9 9 .5 0 -2 3 5 .5 0 1 6 1 .5 0 -2 3 5 .5 0 - - _ 2 2 - - - - - 10 7 9 3 3 3 2 2 6 5 1 1 STENOGRAPHERS ------------------------------------------------ 19 90.0 1 79.50 1 56.00 1 9 3 .0 0 -2 1 2 .5 0 - 3 - 1 - 9 2 - - 2 GENERAL ---------------------- 15 9 0 .0 1 59 .50 199.00 1 3 9 .5 0 -1 8 2 .5 0 - 3 - 1 - 9 2 - - -------------------------------------------------------------- 15 90.0 1 91 .50 139.50 1 2 3 .5 0 -1 5 9 .0 0 - - 2 5 1 - 3 3 i SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS ----------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 91 37 9 0 .0 9 0 .0 1 28 .50 125.00 1 10 .00 1 10 .00 110 . 0 0 - 1 3 5 . 0 0 110 . 0 0 - 1 2 9 . 5 0 - - “ 22 22 8 8 3 2 3 - - “ 1 1 SWITCHBOARD OPERA T O R -R E C E P TI O N I S T S NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 27 18 3 9 .5 3 9 .5 1 31 .00 129.50 130.00 1 20.00 1 2 0 .0 0 -1 9 5 .0 0 1 1 2 .5 0 -1 9 2 .0 0 2 2 _ 5 5 9 9 6 2 7 5 2 ACCOUNTING CLERKS --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 190 98 99 39.0 3 8 .5 3 9 .0 1 52 .00 1 73.00 1 92.00 1 95.00 1 65.50 139.50 1 2 5 .0 0 -1 6 6 .5 0 1 9 5 .5 0 -1 9 8 .0 0 1 1 8 .5 0 -1 5 2 .5 0 9 9 2 2 12 12 23 2 20 13 4 9 19 6 8 ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS A ------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUF A C T U R I N G ---------------------------------- 59 18 38 3 9 .5 178.00 3 9 .5 191.00 3 9. 5 168.50 160.00 1 96.50 1 53.00 1 5 0 .0 0 -1 9 5 .0 0 1 6 0 .0 0 -2 2 0 .0 0 1 9 9 .0 0 -1 7 2 .5 0 - - - 5 4 - - 5 9 1 3 ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS B ------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUF A C T U R I N G ---------------------------------- 88 28 58 38.5 38.0 3 8.5 1 37 .00 161.00 125.50 130.50 153.50 1 23.00 1 1 6 .0 0 -1 5 0 .0 0 1 9 0 .0 0 -1 8 1 .5 0 1 1 9 .0 0 -1 3 6 .5 0 9 - 2 - 12 - 18 2 9 2 9 3 12 15 KEY ENTRY OPERATORS ---------------------------------- 15 3 8.5 1 67 .00 1 69.50 1 9 0 .0 0 -1 8 9 .0 0 “ “ 2 STENOGRAPHERS. T YPI STS - “ S e e f o o t n o t e s at e n d o f t a b l e s . 3 - _ _ 1 1 1 1 - 8 8 1 1 2 2 19 14 _ _ - - - - - 1 1 1 i i - 1 - 1 2 1 - 1 - - - - - 1 2 2 - - _ - i - - - 1 1 - - _ - 1 - _ - _ _ - - 21 5 16 10 5 5 7 6 1 9 2 2 9 4 5 2 2 - 3 3 4 3 3 _ _ _ - - - 2 - - i 3 - - - - 2 9 9 5 1 1 “ - 6 1 5 2 2 - i i - 9 3 3 3 - _ _ _ 9 12 2 10 9 3 6 1 1 9 2 2 _ _ 2 2 “ 6 5 1 3 3 6 10 6 9 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 - - “ _ 3 i _ _ - _ _ - 2 _ - - - 2 Table A -2 . W eekly earnings of professional and technical workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1978 Weekly earnings* (standard) Number of woiken O ccupation and in d u stry d iv is io n Average weekly hours1 (standard) N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g st r a ig h t -t im e we ekly earning s of— * * 140 Mean2 Median 2 Middle range 2 ALL WORKERS $ 67 21 $ 39.5 40.0 252 .50 2 70 .50 2 47 .00 2 68 .00 $ $ 2 21 .50 -2 71 .50 2 4 4 .5 0 -3 0 8 .0 0 $ $ % $ s $ $ % $ S S $ i * S $ $ $ 160 170 180 190 200 210 22 0 23 0 240 250 260 2 70 280 290 300 310 32 0 3 *10 3 60 ISO 170 180 190 200 210 220 2 30 24 0 250 260 270 280 290 300 31 0 3 20 . 340 360 38 0 and under 150 DRAFTERS ----------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURES ----------------------------------------- * 150 i - i i i 6 2 4 1 - 2 1 2 1 24 3 4 1 2 2 3 - i 4 2 1 2 2 4 2 1 1 2 2 2 DRAFTERS. CLASS B ---------------------------------- 20 40.0 239 .00 2 25 .50 1 9 8 .5 0 -2 5 4 .5 0 - - i i - 4 3 - 1 1 3 2 - i - - 1 - ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS ------------------------- 46 40.0 2 81.00 3 01.00 2 1 6 .0 0 -3 46.5 0 - - - - 2 4 4 3 - 1 1 3 2 i 2 - 9 - 14 28 40.0 2 87 .00 3 14 .50 2 1 5 .0 0 -3 4 6 .5 0 - - - - ! 2 3 3 - - - 2 1 i 1 “ ~ 14 ELECTRONICS TECHNICIANS. CLASS B- S e e f o o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b l e s . Table A -3 . Average w eekly earnings of office, professional, and technical workers, by sex. in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1978 Average Se x , 5 o c c u p a t i o n , an d i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n of workers OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - Number Number W eek ly hours (standard) W eek ly earnings1 (standard) WOMEN A vera ge (m e a n 2 ) A verage (m ea n 2 ) (m ean *) Number S e x , 3 o c c u p a t i o n , a nd i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n of workers W eekly h ours1 (standard) W eekly earnings1 (standard) S e x ,3 occupation, and in d u stry d iv isio n of workers W eek ly hours (standard) W eek ly earnings1 (standard) OCCUPATIONS WOMEN— CONTINUED OFFICE OCCUPATIONS WOMEN— CONTINUED O F F IC E SECRETARIES ----------------------------------------------------MANU1 AUI UKlN'vi NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 104 75 29 40.0 40.0 40.0 $ 198 .00 2 09 .00 1 69.50 NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 41 37 40.0 1 25.00 SECR ETARIES. CLASS C --------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------- 28 15 4 0.0 40.0 2 09.00 236 .50 SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR -RE CEP TION IST SNONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 27 18 3 9 .5 3 9 .5 131 .00 1 24 .50 SECRETARIES. CLASS D --------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------- 47 38 40.0 4 0.0 1 85 .00 194 .00 ACCOUNTING CLERKS --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 131 42 89 3 9 .0 3 8 .5 39.0 148 .00 1 70 .00 137 .50 STENOGRAPHERS ------------------------------------------------ 19 40.0 1 74 .50 ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS A ------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 48 34 39.5 3 9.5 1 68 .00 1 60 .00 ACCOUNTING CLERKS. CLASS B ------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 83 28 55 3 8.5 38.0 38.5 136 .50 1 61.00 1 24 .00 STENOGRAPHERS. GENERAL ---------------------- TYPISTS -------------------------------------------------------------- 15 15 4 0.0 40.0 1 5 9 .50 1 41 .50 $ S e e f o o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b l e s . 4 $ 1 6 7 . Q0 15 PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS - MEN 47 21 4 0 .0 4 0 .0 257 .00 270 .50 B ----------------------------------- 18 4 0 .0 245 .50 TECHNICIANS ------------------------- 46 4 0.0 2 81 .00 28 4 0 .0 2 87 .00 DRAFTERS -----------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------DRAFTERS. ELECTRONICS CLASS ELECTRONICS TECHN IC IA NS. CLASS B- 2 Table A -4 . Hourly earnings of m aintenance, toolroom, and powerplant workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1978 I n f o r m a t i o n on o c c u p a t i o n a l e a r n i n g s f o r m a i n t e n a n c e , t o o l r o o m , p o w e r p l a n t w o r k e r s d i d not m e e t p u b l i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a in t h is a r e a . and Table A -5 . Hourly earnings of material movement and custodial workers in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1978 N u m ber o f w o r k e r s re c e iv in g str a igh t-tim e h ourly earnings o f— Hourly earnings 4 2 .6 0 O ccu p a tion and in dustry d iv is io n 2 .8 0 3 .0 0 3 .2 0 3 .4 0 3 .6 0 3 .8 0 it.OO 4 .2 0 4 .4 0 4 .6 0 4 .8 0 5 .0 0 5 .2 0 5 .4 0 5 .6 0 5 .8 0 6 .0 0 6 .2 0 6 .4 0 6 .6 0 3 .0 0 3 .2 0 3 .4 0 3 .6 0 3 .8 0 4 .0 0 4 .2 0 4 .4 0 4 .6 0 4 .3 0 5 .0 0 5 .2 0 5 .4 0 5 .6 0 5 .8 0 6 .0 0 6 .2 0 6 .4 0 6 .6 0 6 .8 0 under 2 .8 0 ALL WORKERS TRUCKDRIVERS --------------NONMANUFACTURING $ 3 .9 9 3 .9 0 $ 3.7 0 3.7 0 $ 3 .4 3 3 .4 3 - 4 .3 3 3 .7 5 12 12 WAREHOUSEMEN ------------------------------- 4 .4 4 3 .8 5 3 .4 0 - 4 .7 5 3 MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS 3 .9 4 4 .4 6 3 .2 5 - 4 .4 6 1 J A N I T O R S. PORTERS. AND CLEANERS ----MANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 3 .7 5 3 .6 4 3 .8 2 3.6 0 3 .6 0 3 .5 0 2 .9 5 3 .3 2 2 .8 5 - 4 .6 3 4 .1 5 4 .6 3 21 See footnotes at en d o f t a b l e s . 21 Sex, 3 o cc u p a tio n , and in d u stry d iv isio n Number of workers A vera ge (m ea n ) hourly earnings4 WAREHOUSEMEN ----------------------------------------------- See footnotes an d in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n Number of workers A verage (m e a n 2 ) hourly earnings 4 m a t e r i a l MOVEMENT and c u s t o d i a l OCCUPATIONS - MEN— CONTINUED MATERIAL MOVEMENT AND CUSTODIAL OCCUPATIONS - MEN TRUCKDRIVERS ----------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------ Sex, 3 occu pation , 32 80 22 f MATERIAL HANDLING LABORERS ------------------ 49 00 Table A -6. Average hourly earnings of maintenance, toolroom powerplant, m aterial m ovement, and custodial workers, by sex, in Daytona Beach, Fla., August 1978 4 .2 8 JA NI T O RS , PORTERS, AND CLEANERS -----MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------- 10 5 35 70 3 .7 7 3 .6 5 3 .8 3 .99 3 .9 0 at e nd o f t a b l e s . 6 Table A-7. Percent increases in average hourly earnings, adjusted for em ploym ent shifts. for selected occupational groups in Daytona Beach, Fla., for selected periods A u g u s t 1975 to A u g u s t 1976 I n d u s t r y an d o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p 5 A ll in dustries: O f f i c e c l e r i c a l _______________________________ E l e c t r o n i c data p r o c e s s in g In du strial n u r ses ___________ U n s k i l l e d pl a nt w o r k e r s A u g u s t 197 6 to A u g u s t 1977 A u g u s t 1977 to A u g u s t 197 8 (6) ( > ( > (6) 10.6 (‘ ) ( ) ( ) (6 ) 6.1 (‘ ) ( ) ( ) (6 ) (6 ) (6) (6) (6) (6 ) ( 6) (6) (6) (6) ( ) (6) (6) (6) (6) ( ) (6) (6 ) M (6) (6) (6) n (6 ) (6 ) (6 ) (6 ) M anufacturing: Industrial n u r ses .Skilled m a i n t e n a n c e t r a d e s U n s k i l l e d pl a nt w o r k e r s N on m anufactu rin g: E l e c t r o n i c da t a p r o c e s s i n g _____________________________ Industrial n u r ses U n s k i l l e d pl a n t w o r k e r s ________________________________ (6) Footnotes 3 E a r n i n g s da t a r e l a t e o n l y t o w o r k e r s w h o s e sex iden tification w a s p r o v i d e d b y the establishm ent. 4 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e an d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , and la t e s hi ft s. 5 E s t i m a t e s f o r p e r i o d s e n d in g p r i o r t o 197 6 r e l a t e t o m e n o n l y f o r s k i l l e d m a i n t e n a n c e and u n s k i l l e d pl a nt w o r k e r s . A l l o t h e r e s t i m a t e s r e l a t e t o m e n an d w o m e n . 6 D ata d o n o t m e e t p u b l i c a t i o n c r i t e r i a o r dat a n ot a v a i l a b l e . 1 S tan dard h o u r s r e f l e c t the w o r k w e e k f o r w h ich e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u l a r s t r a i g h t - t im e s a l a r i e s ( e x c l u s i v e o f p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a t r e g u l a r a n d / o r p r e m i u m r a t e s ) , a n d th e e a r n i n g s c o r r e s p o n d to th ese w e e k ly h ou r s. 2 T h e m e a n i s c o m p u t e d f o r e a c h j o b b y t o t a l in g th e e a r n i n g s o f a l l w o r k e r s a n d d i v i d i n g b y th e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s . T h e m e d i a n d e s ig n a te s po sitio n — h alf o f the w o r k e r s r e c e i v e the s a m e o r m o r e an d h a l f r e c e i v e t h e s a m e o r l e s s than, th e r a t e sh ow n. T h e m i d d l e r a n g e is d e f i n e d b y t w o r a t e s o f p a y ; a f o u r t h o f t h e w o r k e r s e a r n the s a m e o r l e s s tha n the l o w e r o f t h e s e r a t e s a n d a f o u r t h e a r n the s a m e o r m o r e t ha n t h e h i g h e r r a t e. 7 Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey and powerplant; and (4) m aterial movement and custodial. Occupational classification is based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job. Occupations selected for study are listed and described in appendix B. In each of the 75 * areas currently surveyed, the Bureau obtains 1 wages and related benefits data from representative establishments within six broad industry divisions: Manufacturing; transportation, communication, and other public utilities; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and serv ices. Government operations and the construction and extractive industries are excluded. Establishments having fewer than a prescribed number of workers are also excluded because of insufficient employment in the occupations studied. Appendix table 1 shows the number of establishments and workers estimated to be within the scope of this survey, as well as the number actually studied. Unless otherwise indicated, the earnings data following the job titles are for all industries combined. Earnings data for some of the occupations listed and described, or for some industry divisions within the scope of the survey, are not presented in the A -s e r ie s tables because either (l) employment in the occupation is too small to provide enough data to m erit presentation, or (2) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data. Separate m en's and women's earnings data are not presented when the number of workers not identified by sex is 20 percent or m ore of the men or women identified in an occupation. Earnings data not shown separately for industry divisions are included in data for all industries combined. Likewise, for occupations with m ore than one level, data are included in the overall classification when a subclassification is not shown or information to subclassify is not available. Bureau field representatives obtain data by personal visits at 3 - year intervals. In each of the two intervening years, information on employment and occupational earnings only is collected by a combination of personal visit, m ail questionnaire, and telephone interview from establishments participating in the previous survey. A sample of the establishments in the scope of the survey is selected for study prior to each personal visit survey. This sample, less estab lishments which go out of business or are no longer within the industrial scope of the survey, is retained for the following two annual surveys. In m ost ca ses, establishments new to the area are not considered in the scope of the survey until the selection of a sample for a personal visit survey. Occupational employment and earnings data are shown for full-tim e workers, i.e ., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule. Earnings data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Nonproduction bonuses are excluded, but cost-of-living allowances and incentive bonuses are included. Weekly hours for office clerical and professional and technical occupations refer to the standard workweek (rounded to the nearest half hour) for which employees receive regular straight-tim e salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates). Average weekly earnings for these occupations are rounded to the nearest half dollar. Vertical lines within the distribution of workers on some A -tables indicate a change in the size of the class intervals. The sampling procedures involve detailed stratification of all estab lishments within the scope of an individual area survey by industry and number of em ployees. From this stratified universe a probability sample is selected, with each establishment having a predetermined chance of se lection. To obtain optimum accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than sm all establishments is selected. When data are combined, each establishment is weighted according to its probability of selection so that unbiased estimates are generated. For example, if one out of four establishments is selected, it is given a weight of 4 to represent itself plus three others. An alternate of the same original probability is chosen in the same industry-size classification if data are not available from the original sample m em ber. If no suitable substitute is available, additional weight is assigned to a sample m em ber that is sim ilar to the m issing unit. These surveys m easure the level of occupational earnings in an area at a particular time. Comparisons of individual occupational averages over time may not reflect expected wage changes. The averages for individual jobs are affected by changes in wages and employment patterns. For example, proportions of workers employed by high- or low-wage firm s may change, or high-wage workers may advance to better jobs and be replaced by new workers at lower rates. Such shifts in employment could decrease an occu pational average even though most establishments in an area increase wages during the year. Changes in earnings of occupational groups, shown in table A - 7, are better indicators of wage trends than are earnings changes for individual jobs within the groups. O c c u p a t i o n s and e a r n i n g s Occupations selected for study are common to a variety of manufac turing and nonmanufacturing industries, and are of the following types: (1) Office clerical; (2) professional and technical; (3) maintenance, toolroom, 1 Included in the 75 areas are 5 studies conducted by the Bureau under contract. These areas are Akron, Ohio; Birmingham, A la.; Norfolk—Virginia Beach-Portsmouth and Newport News—Hampton, V a .- N .C .; Poughkeepsie-“-Kingston—Newburgh, N .Y . ; and Utica—Rome, N .Y. In addition, the Bureau conducts more limited area studies in approximately 100 areas at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of the U. S. Department of Labor. Average earnings reflect composite, areawide estimates. Industries and establishments differ in pay level and job staffing, and thus contribute differently to the estimates for each job. Pay averages may fail to reflect accurately the wage differential among jobs in individual establishments. 9 Average pay levels for men and women in selected occupations should not be assumed to reflect differences in pay of the sexes within individual establishments. Factors which may contribute to differences include pro gression within established rate ranges (only the rates paid incumbents are collected) and performance of specific duties within the general survey job descriptions. Job descriptions used to classify employees in these surveys usually are more generalized than those used in individual establishments and allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties performed. Electronic data processing Skilled maintenance Computer systems analysts, classes A, B, and C Computer programm ers, classes A, B, and C Computer operators, classes A, B, and C Carpenters Electricians Painters Machinists Mechanics (machinery) Mechanics (motor vehicle) Pipefitters Tool and die makers Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all estab lishments within the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed. Because occupational structures among establishments differ, estimates of occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied. These differences in occupational structure do not affect m aterially the accuracy of the earnings data. Industrial nurses Unskilled plant Registered industrial nurses Janitors, porters, and cleaners Material handling laborers Wage trends for selected occupational groups The percent increases presented in table A -7 are based on changes in average hourly earnings of men and women in establishments reporting the trend jobs in both the current and previous year (matched establishments). The data are adjusted to remove the effects on average earnings of employ ment shifts among establishments and turnover of establishments included in survey samples. The percent increases, however, are still affected by factors other than wage increases. Hirings, layoffs, and turnover may affect an establishment average for an occupation when workers are paid under plans providing a range of wage rates for individual jobs. In periods of increased hiring, for example, new employees may enter at the bottom of the range, depressing the average without a change in wage rates. The percent changes relate to wage changes between the indicated dates. When the time span between surveys is other than 12 months, annual rates are shown. (it is assumed that wages increase at a constant rate between surveys.) Percent changes for i as follows: areas in the program are computed 1. Average earnings are computed for each occupation for the 2 years being compared. The averages are derived from earnings in those establishments which are in the survey both years; it is assumed that employment remains unchanged. 2. Each occupation is assigned a weight based on its pro portionate employment in the occupational group in the base year. 3. These weights are used to compute group averages. Each occupation's average earnings (computed in step 1) is multiplied by its weight. The products are totaled to obtain a group average. 4. The ratio of group averages for 2 consecutive years is computed by dividing the average for the current year by the average for the earlier year. The result— expressed as a percent— less 100 is the percent change. Occupations used to compute wage trends are: Office clerical Office clerical— Continued Secretaries Stenographers, general Stenographers, senior Typists, classes A and B File clerks, classes A, B, and C M essengers Switchboard operators Order clerks, classes A and B Accounting clerks, classes A and B Bookkeeping-machine operators, class B Payroll clerks K e y entry o p e r a t o r s , classes A and B For a more detailed description of the method used to compute these wage trends, see "Improving Area Wage Survey Indexes, " Monthly Labor Review, January 1973, pp. 52-57. Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions Tabulations on selected establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions (B -series tables) are not presented in this bulletin. Infor mation for these tabulations is collected at 3-year, intervals. These tabu lations on minimum entrance salaries for inexperienced office w orkers; shift differentials; scheduled weekly hours and days; paid holidays; paid vacations; and health, insurance, and pension plans are presented (in the B -se r ie s tables) in previous bulletins for this area. Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers w ithin scope of survey and number studied in Daytona Beach, Fla.,1 August 1978 Industry division 2 M inim um em ploym ent in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s in s c o p e o f st u d y ALL D I V I S I O N S --------------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------------------------------------TRANSPORTATION. COMMUNICATION. AND OTHER PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 5 -----------------------------------------WHOLESALE TRADE 6 ------------------------------------------------------------RETAIL TRADE 6 -------------------------------------------------------------------FIN ANCE. INSURANCE. AND REAL EST AT E6 --------------SE R V IC E S 6 7----------------------------------------------------------------------------- N u m b er of establish m en ts W i t h in s c o p e o f st u d y 5 St u d i e d S t u d i ed Number Percent 129 50 “ 50 50 50 50 50 59 19.3 88 100 12.0 90 18 111 11 48 4 .7 9 4 14.5 94 25 75 4 .0 5 7 8 .0 3 3 5 1 23 7 12 1 .3 7 5 44 8 .9 8 3 1 .3 7 6 2 .8 3 6 7 1 46 7 15 1 .3 2 3 44 4 .3 5 8 772 1 .5 3 6 e 1 81 15 28 1 T he D aytona B ea ch Standard M etrop olita n Sta tistica l A r e a , as defined by t h e O f f i c e o f M a n a g e m e n t and B u d g e t t h r o u g h F e b r u a r y 1 9 7 4 , c o n s i s t s o f V o l u s i a County. T h e " w o r k e r s w it h i n s c o p e o f s t u d y " e s t i m a t e s sh o w n in t h is t a b l e p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f th e s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e l a b o r f o r c e i n c l u d e d in t h e s u r v e y . E s t i m a t e s a r e not in te n d e d , h o w e v e r , f o r c o m p a r i s o n w it h o t h e r e m p l o y m e n t i n d e x e s t o m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s i n c e (1) p l a n n in g o f w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s e s t a b l i s h m e n t da t a c o m p i l e d c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e o f the p a y r o l l p e r i o d s t u d i e d , and (2) s m a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m the s c o p e o f the su r v e y . 2 T h e 1972 e d i t i o n o f the S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r ia l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n . H o w e v e r , all g o v e r n m e n t o p e r a t i o n s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s c o p e o f th e s u r v e y . 3 I n c l u d e s a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w ith t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t at o r a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m lim itation. A l l o u t l e t s (w ith in th e a r e a ) o f c o m p a n i e s in i n d u s t r i e s s u c h a s t r a d e , W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s W i t h in s c o p e , o f st u d y 4 f i n a n c e , a ut o r e p a i r s e r v i c e , and m o t i o n p i c t u r e t h e a t e r s a r e c o n s i d e r e d a s one establishm ent. 4 I n c l u d e s a ll w o r k e r s in a l l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w it h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t (wi th in th e a r e a ) at o r a b o v e t h e m i n i m u m l i m i t a t i o n . 5 A b b r e v i a t e d to " p u b l i c u t i l i t i e s " in the A - s e r i e s t a b l e s . T a x i c a b s and s e r v i c e s in cid ental to w a ter tra n s p o rta tio n a r e excluded . 6 S e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f d a t a is not m a d e f o r t h is d i v i s i o n . 7 H o t e l s and m o t e l s ; l a u n d r i e s and o t h e r p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u tom obile repair, r e n t a l , and p a r k i n g ; m o t i o n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o f i t m em bership o r g a n i z a t i o n s ( e x c l u d i n g r e l i g i o u s an d c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) ; a n d e n g i n e e r i n g and architectural services. 11 Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bu reau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into approriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establish ment and from area to area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this em phasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other pur poses. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors; apprentices; and parttim e, temporary, and probationary workers. Handicapped workers whose earnings are reduced because of their handicap are also excluded. Learners, beginners, and trainees, unless specifically included in the job descriptions, are excluded. Office SECRETARY SECRETARY— Continued Assigned as a personal secretary, normally to one individual. Main tains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day activities of the supervisor. Works fairly independently receiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance. P erform s varied clerical and secretarial duties requiring a knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization, program s, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor. Exclusions— Continued e. Positions which do not fit any of the situations listed in the sections below titled "L e v e l of Supervisor, " e.g., secretary to the president of a company that employs, in all, over 5, 000 persons; f. Exclusions Trainees. Classification by Level Not all positions that are titled "se c re ta r y " possess the above char acteristics. Examples of positions which are excluded from the definition are as follows: a. Positions which do not meet the "personal" described above; Secretary jobs which meet the above characteristics are matched at one of five levels according to (a) the level of the secretary's supervisor within the company's organizational structure and, (b) the level of the secretary's responsibility. The chart following the explanations of these two factors indicates the level of the secretary for each combination of the factors. secretary concept b. Stenographers not fully trained in secretarial-type duties; c. Stenographers serving as office assistants to a group of pro fessional, technical, or managerial persons; Level of Secretary's Supervisor (LS) Secretaries should be matched at one of the four LS levels described below according to the level of the secretary's supervisor within the company organizational structure. d. A ssistan t-type positions which entail more difficult or m ore re sponsible technical, administrative, or supervisory duties which are not typical of secretarial work, e .g ., Administrative A ssist ant, or Executive Assistant; LS— 1 13 a. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational unit (e .g ., fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); or SECRETARY— Continued SECRETARY— Continued Classification by Level— Continued Classification by Level— Continued b. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional employee, administrative officer or assistant, skilled technician or expert. (NOTE: M a n y companies assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as described above, to this level of supervisory or nonsupervisory worker.) LS-2 a. Secretary to an executive or managerial person whose respon sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the definition for LS— 3, but whose organizational unit normally numbers at least several dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational segments which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or b. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc., (or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, fewer than 5 ,0 0 0 persons. LS— 3 a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or b. c. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chairman of the board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5 ,0 0 0 persons; or Secretary to the head (immediately below the officer level) over either a m ajor corporatewide functional activity (e .g ., marketing, research, operations, industrial relations, etc.) or a major geographic or organizational segment (e .g ., a regional headquar ters; a m ajor division) of a company that employs, in all, over 5, 000 but fewer than 2 5 ,0 0 0 em ployees; or d. e. L S -4 Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc., (or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, over 5, 000 persons; or Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational segment (e .g ., a middle management supervisor of an organi zational segment often involving as many as several hundred persons) of a company that em ploys, in all, over 2 5 ,0 0 0 persons. a. Secretary to the chairman of the board of president of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,0 0 0 persons; or b. c. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of the board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25, 000 persons; or Secretary to the head, immediately below the corporate officer level, of a m ajor segment or subsidiary of a company that employs, in all, over 25, 000 persons. NOTE: The term "corporate o fficer" used in the above LS definition refers to those officials who have a significant corporatewide policymaking role with regard to major company activities. The title "v ice p resid en t," though normally indicative of this role, does not in all cases identify such positions. Vice presidents whose prim ary responsibility is to act personally on individual cases or transactions (e .g ., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts; directly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate o fficers" for purposes of applying the definition. Level of Secretary's Responsibility (LR) This factor evaluates the nature of the work relationship between the secretary and the supervisor, and the extent to which the secretary is expected to exercise initiative and judgment. Secretaries should be matched at LR—1 or LR— described below according to their level of responsibility. 2 Level of Responsibility 1 (LR—1) Performs varied secretarial duties including or comparable to m ost of the following: a. Answers telephones, coming m ail. greets personal ca llers, and opens b. Answers telephone requests which have standard answers. reply to requests by sending a form letter. in May c. Reviews correspondence, memoranda, and reports prepared by others for the supervisor's signature to ensure procedural and typographical accuracy. d. Maintains supervisor's instructed. e. Types, calendar and makes takes and transcribes dictation, appointments as and files. Level of Responsibility 2 (LR— 2) Performs duties described under LR—1 and, in addition performs tasks requiring greater judgment, initiative, and knowledge of office functions including or comparable to m ost of the following: a. Screens telephone and personal ca llers, determining which can be handled by the supervisor's subordinates or other offices. b. Answers requests which require a detailed knowledge of of fice procedures or collection of information from files or other offices. May sign routine correspondence in own or supervisor's name. c. Compiles or assists in compiling periodic reports on the basis of general instructions. SECRETARY— Continued STENOGRAPHER— Continued Level of Responsibility 2 (LR—2)— Continued of the specific business operations, organization, policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in performing stenographic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as maintaining followup files; assembling material for reports, memoranda, and letters; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and routing incoming m ail; and answering routine questions, etc. d. S c h e d u l e s t e n t a t i v e a p p o in t m e n t s w ith o u t p r i o r c l e a r a n c e . As s e m b l e s n e c e s s a r y ba ck grou n d m a te ria l for s ch ed u led m e e t in g s . M a k e s a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r m e e t i n g s and c o n f e r e n c e s . e. Explains su pervisor's requirements to other employees in super v iso r's unit. (Also types, takes dictation, and files.) TRANSCRIBING-MACHINE TYPIST The following tabulation shows the level of the secretary for each LS and LR combination. Level of secretary s _____ supervisor_____ Prim ary duty is to type copy of voice recorded dictation which does not involve varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as that used in legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also type from written copy. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks. (See Stenographer definition for workers involved with shorthand dictation.) Level of secretary's responsibility ____________________________ c---------------LR—1 LR—2 TYPIST Class Class Class Class LS—1 LS— 2 LS— 3 L S -4 E D C B Class Class Class Class D C B A Uses a typewriter to make copies of various materials or to make out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May include typing of stencils, m ats, or sim ilar m aterials for use in duplicating proc e sse s. May do clerical work involving little special training, such as keeping simple records, f i l i n g records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming m ail. STENOGRAPHER Class A . P erform s one or more of the following: Typing material in final form when it involves combining material from several sources; or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language material; or planning lay out and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances. P rim ary duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe the dictation. May also type from written copy. May operate from a steno graphic pool. May occasionally transcribe from voice recordings (if primary duty is transcribing from recordings, see Transcribing-Machine Typist). N O TE ; This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a secretary normally works in a confidential relationship with only one man ager or executive and perform s more responsible and discretionary tasks as described in the secretary job definition. Class B . P erform s one or m ore of the following; Copy typing from rough or clear drafts; or routine typing of form s, insurance policies, etc.; or setting up simple standard tabulations; or copying m ore complex tables already set up and spaced properly. Stenographer, General FILE CLERK Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May maintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively routine clerical tasks. F iles, cla ssifies, and retrieves material in an established filing system . May perform clerical and manual tasks required to maintain files. Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions. Stenographer, Senior Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific research. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc. Class A . C lassifies and indexes file material such as correspond ence, reports, technical documents, etc., in an established filing system containing a number of varied subject matter files. May also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types in conjunction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file clerks. OR Class B . Sorts, codes, and files unclassified material by simple (subject matter) headings or partly classified material by finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and cro ss-referen ce aids. As requested, locates clearly identified m aterial in files and forwards material. May perform related clerical tasks required to maintain and service files. P erform s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater inde pendence and responsibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the following: Work requires a high degree of stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough working knowledge of general business and office procedure; and 15 FILE CLERK— Continued ORDER CLERK— Continued Class C . Perform s routine filing of material that has already been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classification system (e .g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numerical). As requested, locates readily available m aterial in files and forwards m aterial; and may fill out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and service files. Positions definitions: are classified into levels according to the following MESSENGER Class A . Handles orders that involve making judgments such as choosing which specific product or m aterial from the establishment's product lines will satisfy the custom er's needs, or determining the price to be quoted when pricing involves more than m erely referring to a price list or making some simple mathematical calculations. Perform s various routine duties such as running errands, operating minor office machines such as sealers or m a ile rs, opening and distributing mail, and other minor clerical work. Exclude positions that require operation of a motor vehicle as a significant duty. Class B . Handles orders involving items which have readily iden tified uses and applications. May refer to a catalog, manufacturer's manual, or sim ilar document to insure that proper item is supplied or to verify price of ordered item. ACCOUNTING CLERK SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR Performs one or more accounting clerical tasks such as posting to registers and ledgers; reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal con sistency, completeness, and mathematical accuracy of accounting documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining and verifying for clerical accuracy various types of reports, lists, calculations, posting, etc.; or preparing simple or assisting in preparing m ore complicated journal vouchers. May work in either a manual or automated accounting system . Operates a telephone switchboard or console used with a private branch exchange (PBX) system to relay incoming, outgoing, and intrasystem calls. May provide information to ca llers, record and transmit m essages, keep record of calls placed and toll charges. Besides operating a telephone switchboard or console, may also type or perform routine clerical work (typing or routine clerical work may occupy the m ajor portion of the worker's time, and is usually performed while at the switchboard or console). Chief or lead operators in establishments employing m ore than one operator are' excluded. For an operator who also acts as a receptionist, see Switchboard Operator-Receptionist. The work requires a knowledge of clerical methods and office prac tices and procedures which relates to the clerical processing and recording of transactions and accounting information. With experience, the worker typically becomes familiar with the bookkeeping and accounting term s and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a knowledge of the formal principles of bookkeeping and accounting. SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONIST Positions are classified definitions: At a single-position telephone switchboard or console, acts both as an operator— see Switchboard Operator— and as a receptionist. Recep tionist's work involves such duties as greeting visitors; determining nature of visitor's business and providing appropriate information; referring visitor to appropriate person in the organization or contacting that person by tele phone and arranging an appointment; keeping a log. of visitors. Class A . Under general supervision, perform s accounting clerical operations which require the application of experience and judgment, for example, clerically processing complicated or nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a substantial variety of prescribed accounting codes and classifications, or tracing transactions through previous ac counting actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or more class B accounting clerks. ORDER CLERK Receives written or verbal custom ers' purchase orders for material or merchandise from customers or sales people. Work typically involves some combination of the following duties: Quoting prices; determining availability of ordered items and suggesting substitutes when necessary; advising expected delivery date and method of delivery; recording order and customer information on order sheets; checking order sheets for accuracy and adequacy of information recorded; ascertaining credit rating of customer; furnishing customer with acknowledgement of receipt of order; following up to see that order is delivered by the specified date or to let customer know of a delay in delivery; maintaining order file; checking shipping invoice against original order. Class B . Under close supervision, following detailed instructions and standardized procedures, performs one or m ore routine accounting cler ical operations, such as posting to ledgers, cards, or worksheets where identification of items and locations of postings are clearly indicated; checking accuracy and completeness of standardized and repetitive records or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few prescribed accounting codes. BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter key board) to keep a record of business transactions. Exclude workers paid on a com m ission basis or whose duties in clude any of the following: Receiving orders for services rather than for material or merchandise; providing customers with consultative advice using knowledge gained from engineering or extensive technical training; empha sizing selling skills; handling m aterial or merchandise as an integral part of the job. into levels on the basis of the following Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and fam iliarity with the structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records by hand. 16 BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR— Continued KEY ENTRY OPERATOR— Continued C lass B . Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, custom ers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under machine biller), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department. Class B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under close super vision or following specific procedures or instructions, works from various standardized source documents which have been coded, and follows spec ified procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. Refers to supervisor problems arising from erroneous items or codes or missing information. MACHINE BILLER Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electrom atic typewriter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to billing operations. For wage study purposes, machine billers are classified by type of machine, as follows; Professional and Technical Billing-m achine b ille r . Uses a special billing machine (combination typing and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from custom ers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders, shipping memoranda, etc. Usually involves application of predetermined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated by machine. The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine. Analyzes business problems to formulate procedures for solving them by use of electronic data processing equipment. Develops a complete description of all specifications needed to enable programmers to prepare required digital computer program s. Work involves most of the following; Analyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and criteria required to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and types of records, files, and documents to be used; outlines actions to be performed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for presentation to management and for programming (typically this involves preparation of work and data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and participates in trial runs of new and revised system s; and recommends equipment changes to obtain m ore effective overall operations. (NOTE; W orkers performing both systems analysis and programming should be clas sified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.) COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS Bookkeeping-machine biller. Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers' bills as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the simultaneous entry of figures on customers' ledger record. The machine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical columns and computes and usually prints automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slip s. Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the manage ment or supervision of other electronic data processing employees, or sys tems analysts prim arily concerned with scientific or engineering problems. P A YR O LL CLERK For wage Operates a keypunch machine to record or verify alphabetic and/or numeric data on tabulating cards or on tape. system s analysts are classified as into levels on the basis of the following May provide functional direction to lower level who are assigned to assist. Class A . Work requires the application of experience and judgment in selecting procedures to be followed and in searching for, interpreting, selecting, or coding items to be keypunched from a variety of source docu m ents. On occasion m ay also perform some routine keypunch work. May train inexperienced keypunch operators. purposes, Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems involving all phases of systems analysis. Problems are complex because of diverse sources of input data and multiple-use require ments of output data. (For example, develops an integrated production scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in which every item of each type is automatic ally processed through the full system of records and appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.) Confers with persons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises subject-m atter personnel on the implications of new or revised systems of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if needed, for approval of major systems installations or changes and for obtaining equipment. KEY ENTRY OPERATOR Positions are classified definitions: study follows: P erform s the clerical tasks necessary to process payrolls and to maintain payroll records. W ork involves m ost of the following; Processing w orkers' time or production records; adjusting workers' records for changes in wage rates, supplementary benefits, or tax deductions; editing payroll listings against source records; tracing and correcting errors in listings; and assisting in preparation of periodic summary payroll reports. In a nonautomated payroll system , computes wages. Work may require a practical knowledge of governmental regulations, company payroll policy, or the computer system for processing payrolls. systems analysts Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on problems that are relatively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program, and operate. Problem s are of limited complexity because sources of input data are homogeneous and the output data are closely related. (For example, 17 COMPUTER SYSTEMS ANALYST, BUSINESS— Continued COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS— Continued develops system s for maintaining depositor accounts in a bank, maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory accounts in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with per sons concerned to determine the data processing problems and advises subject-m'atter personnel on the implications of the data processing systems to be applied. At this level, programming is difficult because computer equipment must be organized to produce several interrelated but diverse products from numerous and diverse data elements. A wide variety and extensive number of internal processing actions must occur. This requires such actions as development of common operations which can be reused, establishment of linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when program re quirements exceed computer storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements to form a highly integrated program. OR May provide functional direction to lower level program m ers who are assigned to assist. Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system, as described for class A . Works independently on routine assign ments and receives instruction and guidance on complex assignments. Work is reviewed for accuracy of judgment, compliance with instructions, and to insure proper alignment with the overall system . Class B. Works independently or under only general direction on relatively simple programs, or on simple segments of complex program s. Programs (or segments) usually process information to produce data in two or three varied sequences or form ats. Reports and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making minor additions to or deletions from input data which are readily available. While numerous records may be processed, the data have been refined in prior actions so that the accuracy and sequencing of data can be tested by using a fe w routine checks. Typically, the program deals with r o u t i n e recordkeeping operations. Class C . Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analy ses as assigned, usually of a single activity. Assignments are designed to develop and expand practical experience in the application of procedures and skills required for systems analysis work. For example, may assist a higher level system s analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required by programmers from information developed by the higher level analyst. OR COMPUTER PROGRAMMER, BUSINESS Works on complex programs (as described for class A) under close direction of a higher level programmer or supervisor. May assist higher level programmer by independently performing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing more difficult tasks under fairly close direction. Converts statements of business problems, typically prepared by a systems analyst, into a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problems by automatic data processing equipment. Working from charts or diagrams, the programm er develops the precise instructions which, when entered into the computer system in coded language, cause the manipu lation of data to achieve desired results. Work involves m ost of the following: Applies knowledge of computer capabilities, mathematics, logic employed by computers, and particular subject matter involved to analyze charts and diagrams of the problem to be programmed; develops sequence of program steps; writes detailed flow charts to show order in which data will be processed; converts these charts to coded instructions for machine to follow; tests and corrects program s; prepares instructions for operating personnel during production run; analyzes, reviews, and alters programs to increase operating efficiency or adapt to new requirements; maintains re cords of program development and revisions. (NOTE: W orkers performing both system s analysis and programming should be classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.) May guide or instruct lower level program m ers. Class C . Makes practical applications of programming practices and concepts usually learned in form al training courses. Assignments are designed to develop competence in the application of standard procedures to routine problems. Receives close supervision on new aspects of assign ments; and work is reviewed to verify its accuracy and conformance with required procedures. COMPUTER OPERATOR Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to process data according to operating instructions, usually prepared by a pro gram m er. Work includes most of the following; Studies instructions to determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required items (tape reels, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equipment into circuit, and starts and operates computer; makes adjustments to computer to correct operating problems and m eet special conditions; reviews errors made during operation and determines cause or refers problem to supervisor or programmer; and maintains operating records. May test and assist in correcting program. Does not include employees prim arily responsible for the manage ment or supervision of other electronic data processing employees, or pro grammers prim arily concerned with scientific and/or engineering problems. For wage study purposes, programm ers are classified as follows: Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems which require competence in all phases of programming concepts and practices. Working from diagrams and charts which identify the nature of desired results, m ajor processing steps to be accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the problem solving routine; plans the full range of programming actions needed to efficiently utilize the computer system in achieving desired end products. For wage study purposes, computer operators are classified as follows: Class A . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running programs with m ost of the following characteristics: New programs are frequently tested and introduced; scheduling requirements 18 COMPUTER OPERATOR— Continued DRAFTER— Continued are of critical importance to minimize downtime; the programs are of complex design so that identification of error source often requires a working knowledge of the total program , and alternate programs may not be available. May give direction and guidance to lower level operators. Class C . Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of drawings prepared include isom etric projections (depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning of components and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable precedents, and advice on source materials are given with initial assignments. Instructions are less complete when assignments recur. Work may be spot-checked during progress. C lass B . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running programs with m ost of the following characteristics: M ost of the programs are established production runs, typically run on a regularly recurring b a sis; there is little or no testing of new programs required; alternate program s are provided in case original program needs m ajor change or cannot be corrected within a reasonably short tim e. In common error situations, diagnoses cause and takes corrective action. This usually involves applying previously programmed corrective steps, or using standard correction techniques. D R AFTER -TRACER Copies cloth or paper include tracing large scale not plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not limited to plans prim arily consisting of straight lines and a requiring close delineation.) AND/OR OR Operates under direct supervision a computer running programs or segments of programs with the characteristics described for class A . May a ssist a higher level operator by independently performing less difficult tasks assigned, and performing difficult tasks following detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations performed. C lass C . Works on routine programs under close supervision. Is expected to develop working knowledge of the computer equipment used and ability to detect problems involved in running routine program s. Usually has received some form al training in computer operation. May assist higher level operator on complex program s. DRAFTER C lass A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having distinctive design features that differ significantly from established drafting precedents. Works in close support with the design originator, and may recommend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of each change on the details of form , function, and positional relationships of components and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory assistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator for consistency with prior engineering determinations. May either prepare drawings or direct their preparation by lower level drafters. C lass B . P erform s nonroutine and complex drafting assignments that require the application of m ost of the standardized drawing techniques regularly used. Duties typically involve such work as; Prepares working drawings of subassem blies with irregular shapes, multiple functions, and precise positional relationships between components; prepares architectural drawings for construction of a building including detail drawings of foun dations, wall sections, floor plans, and roof. Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making necessary computations to determine quantities of m aterials to be used, load capacities, strengths, stresses, etc. Receives initial instructions, requirem ents, and advice from supervisor. Completed work is checked for technical adequacy. Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items. Work is closely supervised during progress. ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN Works on various types of electronic equipment and related devices by performing one or a combination of the following: Installing, maintaining, repairing, overhauling, troubleshooting, modifying, constructing, and testing. Work requires practical application of technical knowledge of electronics principles, ability to determine malfunctions, and skill to put equipment in required operating condition. The equipment— consisting of either many different kinds of circuits or multiple repetition of the same kind of circuit— includes, but is not limited to, the following: (a) Electronic transmitting and receiving equipment (e.g., radar, radio, television, telephone, sonar, navigational aids), (b) digital and analog computers, and (c) industrial and medical measuring and controlling equipment. This classification excludes repairers of such standard electronic equipment as common office machines and household radio and television sets; production assem blers and testers; workers whose primary duty is servicing electronic test instruments; technicians who have administrative or supervisory responsibility; and drafters, designers, and professional engineers. Positions are classified definitions. into levels on the basis of the following C lass A . Applies advanced technical knowledge to solve unusually complex problems (i.e ., those that typically cannot be solved solely by refer ence to manufacturers' manuals or sim ilar documents) in working on elec tronic equipment. Examples of such problems include location and density of circuitry, electromagnetic radiation, isolating malfunctions, and frequent engineering changes. Work involves: A detailed understanding of the inter relationships of circuits; exercising independent judgment in performing such tasks as making circuit analyses, calculating wave form s, tracing relation ships in signal flow; and regularly using complex test instruments (e.g., dual trace oscilloscopes, Q -m eters, deviation m eters, pulse generators). ELECTRONICS TECHNICIAN— Continued MAINTENANCE CARPENTER— Continued Work may be reviewed by supervisor (frequently an engineer or designer) for general compliance with accepted practices. May provide technical guidance to lower level technicians. laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, m odels, or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations relating to di mensions of work; and selecting m aterials necessary for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a f o r m a l apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Class B . Applies comprehensive technical knowledge to solve com plex problems (i.e ., those that .typically can be solved solely by properly interpreting manufacturers' manuals or sim ilar documents) in working on electronic equipment. Work involves: A familiarity with the interrelation ships of circuits; and judgment in determining work sequence and in selecting tools and testing instruments, usually less complex than those used by the class A technician. Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher level technician, and work is reviewed for specific compliance with accepted practices and work assignments. May provide technical guidance to lower level technicians. C lass C . Applies working technical knowledge to perform simple or routine tasks in working on electronic equipment, following detailed instruc tions which cover virtually all procedures. Work typically involves such tasks as: Assisting higher level technicians by performing such activities as replacing components, wiring circuits, and taking test readings; repairing simple electronic equipment; and using tools and common test instruments (e.g., multim eters, audio signal generators, tube testers, oscilloscopes). Is not required to be familiar with the interrelationships of circuits. This knowledge, however, may be acquired through assignments designed to increase competence (including classroom training) so that worker can advance to higher level technician. Receives technical guidance, as required, from supervisor or higher level technician. Work is typically spot checked, but is given detailed review when new or advanced assignments are involved. REGISTERED INDUSTRIAL NURSE A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general medical direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of employees' injuries; keeping records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation or other purposes; assisting in physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety of all personnel. Nursing supervisors or head nurses in establishments employing more than one nurse are excluded. Maintenance, Toolroom, and Powerplant MAINTENANCE CARPENTER P erform s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and MAINTENANCE ELECTRICIAN Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the instal lation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equipment such as generators, transform ers, switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit system s, or other transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specifi cations; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or equip ment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electrician's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MAINTENANCE PAINTER Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an estab lishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MAINTENANCE MACHINIST Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and speci fications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of machinist's handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required for this work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist's work normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (Machinery) Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (Machinery)— Continued MILLWRIGHT obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the production of parts ordered from machine shops; reassembling machines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a machinery maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experi ence. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines. Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and installs machines or heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and laying out work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to stresses, strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; aligning and balancing equip ment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power transm ission equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the millwright's work normally requires a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. MAINTENANCE MECHANIC (Motor vehicle) Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an estab lishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Examining automotive equip ment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the various assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and aligning wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the motor vehicle maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. This classification does not include mechanics w h o tom ers' vehicles in automobile repair shops. repair MAINTENANCE TRADES HELPER A ssists one or m ore workers in the skilled maintenance trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, machine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding m aterials or tools; and per forming other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding materials and tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also performed by workers on a fu ll-tim e basis. cus M ACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR (Toolroom) Specializes in operating one or m ore than one type of machine tool (e .g ., jig borer, grinding machine, engine lathe, milling machine) to machine metal for use in making or maintaining jig s, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or nonmetallic m aterial (e .g ., plastic, plaster, rubber, glass). Work typically involves; Planning and performing difficult machining operations which require com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; setting up machine tool or tools (e .g ., install cutting tools and adjust guides, stops, working tables, and other controls to handle the size of stock to be machined; determine proper feeds, speeds, tooling, and operation sequence or select those pre scribed in drawings, blueprints, or layouts); using a variety of precision measuring instruments; making necessary adjustments during machining operation to achieve requisite dimensions to very close tolerances. May be required to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils, to recognize when tools need dressing, and to dress tools. In general, the work of a m achine-tool operator (toolroom) at the skill level called for in this classification requires extensive knowledge of machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through considerable on-the-job training and experience. MAINTENANCE PIPEFITTER Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Laying out work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machines; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether finished pipes m eet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. Workers prim arily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation or heating systems are excluded. MAINTENANCE SH E E T -M E T A L WORKER Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-m etal equipment and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establishment. Work involves m ost of the following: Planning and laying out all types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other specifi cations; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-m etal working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, forming, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-metal articles as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-metal worker requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalejfl: training and experience. For cross-in du stry wage study purposes, this classification does not include m achine-tool operators (toolroom) employed in tool and die jobbing shops. TOOL AND DIE MAKER Constructs and repairs jig s, fixtures, cutting tools, gauges, or metal dies or molds used in shaping or forming metal or ponmetallic material (e.g ., plastic, plaster, rubber, g la ss). Work typically involves: Planning and laying out work according to m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other written or oral specifications; understanding the working properties of common metals and 21 TOOL AND DIE MAKER— Continued SHIPPER AND RECEIVER alloys; selecting appropriate m aterials, tools, and processes required to complete tasks; making necessary shop computations; setting up and oper ating various machine tools and related equipment; using various tool and die m aker's handtools and precision measuring instruments; working to very close tolerances; heat-treating metal parts and finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; fitting and assembling parts to prescribed toler ances and allowances. In general, the tool and die m aker's work requires rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through formal apprenticeship or equivalent t r a i n i n g and experience. Performs clerical and physical tasks in connection with shipping goods of the establishment in which employed and receiving incoming shipments. In performing day-to-day, routine tasks, follows established guidelines. In handling unusual nonroutine problem s, receives specific guid ance from supervisor or other officials. May direct and coordinate the activities of other workers engaged in handling goods to be shipped or being received. For cross-industry wage study purposes, this classification does not include tool and die makers who (l) are employed in tool and die jobbing shops or (2) produce forging dies (die sinkers). STATIONARY ENGINEER Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and equipment (mechanical or electrical) to supply the establishment in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or airconditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and keeping a record of operation of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing m ore than one engineer are excluded. Shippers typically are responsible for m ost of the following: V er ifying that orders are accurately filled by comparing items and quantities of goods gathered for shipment against documents; insuring that shipments are properly packaged, identified with shipping information, and loaded into transporting vehicles; preparing and keeping records of goods shipped, e .g ., m anifests, bills of lading. Receivers typically are responsible for m ost of the following: Verifying the correctness of incoming shipments by comparing items and quantities unloaded against bills of lading, invoices, m anifests, storage receipts, or other records; checking for damaged goods; insuring that goods are appropriately identified for routing to departments within the establishment; preparing and keeping records of goods received. For wage stu d y purposes, workers are classified as follows: Shipper Receiver Shipper and receiver BOILER TENDER F ires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and checks water and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment. Material Movement and Custodial TRUCKDRIVER Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m aterials, merchandise, equipment, or workers between various types of establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and customers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Salesroute and over-the-road drivers are excluded. For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by type and rated capacity of truck, as follows; Truckdriver, light truck (straight truck, under IV2 tons, usually 4 wheels) Truckdriver, medium truck (straight truck, IV2 to 4 tons inclusive, usually 6 wheels) Truckdriver, heavy truck (straight truck, over 4 tons, usually 10 wheels) Truckdriver, tractor-trailer WAREHOUSEMAN As directed, performs a variety of warehousing duties which require an understanding of the establishment's storage plan. Work involves m ost of the following: Verifying m aterials (or merchandise) against receiving documents, noting and reporting discrepancies and obvious damages; routing materials to prescribed storage locations; storing, stacking, or palletizing materials in accordance with prescribed storage methods; rearranging and taking inventory of s t o r e d m aterials; examining stored m aterials and reporting deterioration and damage; removing m aterial from storage and preparing it for shipment. May operate hand or power trucks in performing warehousing duties. Exclude workers whose prim ary duties involve shipping and rece iv ing work (see Shipper and Receiver and Shipping Packer), order filling (see Order F iller), or operating power trucks (see Pow er-Truck Operator). ORDER FILLER Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, custom ers' orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and indi cating items filled or omitted, keep records of outgoing orders, requisition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties. SHIPPING PACKER Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of container SHIPPING PACKER— Continued e m p l o y e d , and m e t h o d o f s h i p m e n t W o r k r e q u i r e s the p l a c i n g o f i t e m s in s h ip p in g c o n t a i n e r s and m a y i n v o l v e o n e o r m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g : K n o w l e d g e o f v a r i o u s i t e m s o f s t o c k in o r d e r to v e r i f y c o n te n t; s e l e c t i o n o f a p p r o p r i a t e t y p e and s i z e o f c o n t a i n e r ; i n s e r t i n g e n c l o s u r e s in c o n t a i n e r ; u s i n g e x c e l s i o r o r o t h e r m a t e r i a l to p r e v e n t b r e a k a g e o r d a m a g e ; c l o s i n g and s e a l i n g c o n t a i n e r ; and a p p ly in g l a b e l s o r e n t e r i n g id e n ti fy in g da ta on c o n t a i n e r . P a c k e r s w ho also m a k e w o o d e n b o x e s o r c r a te s are ex clu d e d . GUARD— Continued vices F o r wage A w o r k e r e m p l o y e d in a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t, s t o r e , o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t w h o s e d u t i e s i n v o l v e o n e o r m o r e o f the f o l l o w i n g ; L o a d i n g and u n l o a d i n g v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s and m e r c h a n d i s e on o r f r o m f r e i g h t c a r s , t r u c k s , o r o t h e r t r a n s p o r t i n g d e v i c e s ; u np a ck in g, s h e l v i n g , o r p l a c i n g m a teria ls or m erch an dise in p r o p e r s t o r a g e l o c a t i o n ; and t r a n s p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l s o r m e r c h a n d i s e b y handtruck, c a r , o r w h e e lb a r r o w . Longshore w o r k e r s , w h o l o a d and u n l o a d s h i p s , a r e e x c l u d e d . O p era tes a m an ually con trolled ga solin e- o r e le c t r ic p ow ered truck o r t r a c t o r to t r a n s p o r t g o o d s and m a t e r i a l s o f all kin ds a b o u t a w a r e h o u s e , m a n u f a c t u r i n g p la n t, o r o t h e r e s t a b l i s h m e n t . truck, F o r w a g e s tu d y p u r p o s e s , w o r k e r s a r e c l a s s i f i e d b y ty p e o f p o w e r as f o l l o w s ; s tu d y purposes, guards are classified as ser follow s; C la ss A . E n f o r c e s r e g u l a t i o n s d e s i g n e d to p r e v e n t b r e a c h e s o f secu rity. E x e r c i s e s j u d g m e n t and u s e s d i s c r e t i o n in d e a l i n g with e m e r gen cies and s e c u r it y violation s en co u n te re d . D e te r m in e s whether fir s t r e s p o n s e s h o u ld b e to i n t e r v e n e d i r e c t l y ( a s k i n g f o r a s s i s t a n c e w hen d e e m e d n e c e s s a r y and t i m e a l l o w s ) , to k e e p s it u a t io n u n d e r s u r v e i l l a n c e , o r to r e p o r t s it u a t io n s o that it c a n b e h a n d le d b y a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r it y . D u tie s r e q u i r e s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n in g in m e t h o d s and t e c h n i q u e s o f p r o t e c t i n g s e c u r i t y a r e a s . C o m m o n l y , the g u a r d is r e q u i r e d to d e m o n s t r a t e co n tin u in g p h y s i c a l f it n e s s and p r o f i c i e n c y w ith f i r e a r m s o r o t h e r s p e c i a l w e a p o n s . M A T E R I A L H ANDLING L A B O R E R P O W E R -T R U C K O P E R A T O R G uards e m p lo y e d by e sta b lish m en ts which p r o v id e p ro te ctiv e on a c o n t r a c t b a s i s a r e i n c lu d e d in th is o c c u p a t i o n . C lass B . C a r r i e s o u t i n s t r u c t i o n s p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d to w a r d in s u r i n g that e m e r g e n c i e s and s e c u r i t y v i o l a t i o n s a r e r e a d i l y d i s c o v e r e d and r e p o r t e d to a p p r o p r i a t e a u t h o r it y . I n t e r v e n e s d i r e c t l y o n l y in situ a tio n s w h i c h r e q u i r e m i n i m a l a c t i o n to s a f e g u a r d p r o p e r t y o r p e r s o n s . D u tie s r e q u i r e m i n i m a l t r a i n i n g . C o m m o n l y , the g u a r d is not r e q u i r e d to d e m o n s t r a t e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s . M a y b e a r m e d , but g e n e r a l l y is n o t r e q u i r e d to d e m o n s t r a t e p r o f i c i e n c y in the u s e o f f i r e a r m s o r s p e c i a l w e a p o n s , J A N I T O R , P O R T E R , OR C L E A N E R F ork lift operator P o w e r - t r u c k o p e r a t o r ( o t h e r than f o r k l i f t ) GUARD P r o t e c t s p r o p e r t y f r o m theft o r da m a g e, o r p e r s o n s f r o m h a z a rd s o r i n t e r f e r e n c e . D u t i e s i n v o l v e s e r v i n g at a f i x e d p o s t , m a k i n g r o u n d s on fo o t o r by m o t o r v e h ic le , o r e s c o r t in g p e r so n s o r p r o p e rt y . M a y be dep utized to m a k e a r r e s t s . M a y a ls o h elp v is it o r s and c u s t o m e r s b y a n s w e r i n g q u e s t i o n s and g i v i n g d i r e c t i o n s . C l e a n s and k e e p s in an o r d e r l y c o n d i t i o n f a c t o r y w o r k i n g a r e a s and w a s h r o o m s , o r p r e m i s e s o f an o f f i c e , a p a r t m e n t h o u s e , o r c o m m e r c i a l o r other establish m en t. D u t i e s i n v o l v e a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the f o l l o w i n g : S w e e p i n g , m o p p i n g o r s c r u b b i n g , and p o l i s h i n g f l o o r s ; r e m o v i n g c h ip s , tr a s h , and o t h e r r e f u s e ; d u s t in g e q u ip m e n t , f u r n i t u r e , o r f i x t u r e s ; p o l i s h i n g m e t a l f i x t u r e s o r t r i m m i n g s ; p r o v i d i n g s u p p l i e s and m i n o r m a i n t e n a n c e s e r v i c e s ; and c l e a n i n g l a v a t o r i e s , s h o w e r s , and r e s t r o o m s . W o r k e r s who s p e c i a l i z e in w i n d o w w a s h i n g a r e e x c l u d e d . 23 Service Contract Act Surveys The following areas are sur veyed periodically for use in admin istering the Service Contract Act of 1965. Survey results are pub lished in releases which are availa ble, at no cost, while supplies last from any of the BLS regional offices shown on the back cover. Alaska (statewide) Albany, Ga. Alexandria—L eesville, La. Alpena— Standish— Tawas City, Mich. Ann Arbor, Mich. Atlantic City, N.J. Augusta, Ga.— S.C. Austin, Tex. Bakersfield, Calif'. Baton Rouge, La. Battle Creek, Mich. Beaumont-Port Arthui^-Orange, Tex. Beaumonb-Port Arthur— Orange and Lake Charles, Tex.— La. Biloxi— Gulfport and Pascagoula— Moss Point, M iss. Binghamton, N .Y. Birmingham, Ala. Bloomington— Vincennes, Ind. B remerton— Shelton, Wash. Brunswick, Ga. Cedar Rapids, Iowa Champaign— Urbana— Rantoul, 111. Charleston— North Charleston— Waiterboro, S.C. Charlotte— Gastonia, N.C. Cheyenne, Wyo. Clarksville— Hopkinsville, Tenn.-Ky. Colorado Springs, Colo. Columbia— Sumter, S.C. Columbus, Ga.— Ala. Columbus, M iss. Decatur, 111. Des Moines, Iowa Duluth— Superior, Minn.— is. W El Paso— Alamogordo—Las C ruces, Tex.— Mex. N. Eugene— Springfield— Medford, Or eg. Fayetteville, N.C. Fort Lauderdale— Hollywood and West Palm Beach— Boca Raton, Fla. Fort Smith, Ark.— Okla. Frederick—Hagers town— Chambersburg, Md.— Pa. Goldsboro, N.C. Grand Island— Hastings, Nebr. Guam, Territory of Harrisburg— Lebanon, Pa. Knoxville, Tenn. Laredo, Tex. Las Vegas— Tonopah, Nev. Lima, Ohio Little Rock^North Little Rock, Ark. Logansport— Peru, Ind. Lorain—Elyria, Ohio Lower Eastern Shore, Md.— a.— V Del. Macon, Ga. Madison, W is. Maine (statewide) Mansfield, Ohio McAllen— Pharn-Edinburg and B rownsville— Harlingen— San Benito, Tex. Meridian, M iss. Middlesex, Monmouth, and Ocean C os., N.J. Mobile— Pensacola—Panama City, Ala.— Fla. Montana (statewide) Nashville— Davidson, Tenn. New Bern— Jacksonville, N.C. New Hampshire (statewide) New London— Norwich, Conn.— R.I. North Dakota (statewide) Northern New York Northwest Texas Orlando, Fla. Oxnard— Simi Valley— Ventura, Calif. Peoria, 111. Phoenix, A riz. Pine Bluff, Ark. Pueblo, Colo. Puerto Rico Raleigh— Durham, N.C. Reno, Nev. Salina, Kans. Salinas— Seaside— Monterey, Calif. Sandusky, Ohio Santa Barbara— Santa Maria— Lompoc, Calif. Savannah, Ga. Selma, Ala. Shreveport, La. South Dakota (statewide) Southern Idaho Southwest Virginia Spokane, Wash. Springfield, 111. Stockton, Calif. Tacoma, Wash. Tampa— St. Petersburg, Fla. Topeka, Kans. Tucson— Douglas, Ariz. Tulsa, Okla. Upper Peninsula, Mich. Vermont (statewide) Virgin Islands of the U.S. Waco and Killeen— Temple, Tex. Waterloo— Cedar F alls, Iowa West Virginia (statewide) Wichita Falls—Lawton— Altus , T ex.— Okla. Wilmington, Del.— N.J.— Md. Y akima—Richland— Kennewick— Pendleton, Wash.— Oreg. ALSO AVAILABLE— An annual report on salaries for accountants, auditors, chief account ants, attorneys, job analysts, direc tors of personnel, buyers, chem ists, engineers, engineering technicians, drafters, an d clerical employees is available. Order as BLS B ulle tin 1980, National Survey of P ro fessional, Administrative, Technical and C lerical Pay, March 1977, $ 2.40 a copy, from any of the BLS re gional sales offices shown on the back cover, or from the Superin tendent of Documents, U.S. Govern ment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402. ■6U.S. GO VE R N M E N T PRINTING- Q E E I C E : 1978 - 640/048/82 Area Wage Surveys A list of the latest bulletins available is presented below. Bulletins may be purchased from any of the BLS regional offices shown on the back cover, or from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D .C. 20402. Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents. A directory of occupational wage surveys, covering the years 1970 through 1976, is available on request. A rea Akron, Ohio, Dec. 1977_______________________________________ Albany—Schenectady—Troy, N .Y ., Sept. 1977 -----------------------Anaheim— Santa Ana—Garden Grove, C alif., Oct. 1977______________________________________________ Atlanta, G a., May 1978 1---------------------------------------------------------B altim ore, M d ., Aug. 1977-----------------------------------------------------Billings, M ont., July 1978____________________________________ Birmingham, A la ., M ar. 1978________________________________ Boston, M a s s ., Aug. 1 9 7 8 1__________________________________ Buffalo, N .Y ., Oct. 1977 ...................................................................... Canton, Ohio, May 1978_______________________________________ Chattanooga, Tenn.—Ga., Sept. 1977 -------------------------------------Chicago, 111., May 1978________________________________________ Cincinnati, Ohio— Ky.—Ind., July 1978________________________ Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1977 1 -------------------------------------------------Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1977-----------------------------------------------------Corpus Christi, T e x ., July 1978_____________________________ D allas-F ort W orth, T e x ., Oct. 1977_________________________ Davenport—Rock Island— oline, Iowa— M 111., Feb. 1978______ Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1977 1--------------------------------------------------------Daytona Beach, F la ., Aug. 1978_____________________________ Denver—Boulder, C olo., Dec. 1977 1_________________________ Detroit, M ich., M ar. 1978____________________________________ Fresno, C alif., June 1978 1----------------------------------------------------Gainesville, F la ., Sept. 1978_________________________________ Green Bay, W is ., July 1978 *_________________________________ Greensboro— inston-Salem — W High Point, N .C ., Aug. 1978.................. ................................................................... Greenville— Spartanburg, S .C ., June 1978____________________ Hartford, Conn., M ar. 1978 1-------------------------------------------------Houston, T ex ., Apr. 1978_____________________________________ Huntsville, A la ., Feb. 1978__________________________________ Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 1977__________________________________ Jackson, M is s ., Jan. 1978____________________________________ Jacksonville, F la ., Dec. 1977________________________________ Kansas City, Mo.—K ans., Sept. 1977 -------------------------------------Los Angeles—Long Beach, C alif., Oct. 1977------------------------Louisville, Ky.—Ind., Nov. 1977 1____________________________ M em phis, Term.— rk.— is s ., Nov. 1977-----------------------------A M Bulletin number and price* 1950-70, 80 cents 1950-52, 80 cents 1950-60, 2025-28, 1950-39, 2 025 -3 8, 2025-15, 2025-43, 1950 -5 8, 2025-22, 1950 -4 4, 2025-32, 2025-39, 1950 -5 3, 1950-64, 2025-29, 1950-65, 2 0 2 5 -6 , 1950-71, 2025-48, 1950-74, 2025-11, 2025-31, 2025-45, 2025-41, $ 1.00 $1 .4 0 $1 .2 0 $1.00 80 cents $1 .5 0 $ 1 .0 0 70 cents 70 cents $1 .3 0 $ 1.10 $1 .4 0 $1.00 $1 .0 0 $ 1 .2 0 70 cents $1 .1 0 $1.00 $1.40 $ 1.20 $ 1.20 $ 1.00 $ 1.20 2025-46, 2025-30, 2025-14, 2025-23, 2 0 2 5 -4 , 1950 -5 6, 2 0 2 5 -1 , 1950-67, 1950 -5 4, 1950-61, 1950-66, 1950-63, $ 1.00 $1 .0 0 $1 .2 0 $1 .2 0 70 cents $1.00 70 cents 70 cents $1 .0 0 $ 1.20 $ 1.20 70 cents A rea M iam i, F la ., Oct. 1977....................................................................... Milwaukee, W is ., Apr. 1 9 7 8 1_______________________________ Minneapolis—St. Paul, Minn—W is ., Jan. 1978 1____________ Nassau-Suffolk, N .Y ., June 1978 1___________________________ Newark, N .J ., Jan. 1978 1____________________________________ New O rleans, L a ., Jan. 1978________________________________ New York, N .Y.— .J ., May 1978 1 N ................................................... Norfolk— Virginia Beach-Portsmouth, Va.— N .C ., May 1978_________________________ _____________________ Norfolk—Virginia Beach— Portsmouth and Newport News— Hampton, Va.— .C ., May 1978___________ N Northeast Pennsylvania, Aug. 1978__________________________ Oklahoma City, Okla., Aug. 1978____________________________ Omaha, Nebr.— Iowa, Oct. 1977 1 ____________________________ Paterson—Cliftonr-Passaic, N .J ., June1978 1________________ Philadelphia, Pa.—N .J ., Nov. 1977_______ __________________ Pittsburgh, P a., Jan. 1978_______________________ ___________ Portland, Maine, Dec. 1977............................................................ Portland, Oreg.— ash ., May 1978__________________________ W Poughkeepsie, N .Y ., June 1978 1____________________________ Poughkeepsie— Kingston— Newburgh, N .Y ., June 1978 1____ Providence— Warwick—Pawtucket, R.I.— M a ss., June 1978____________________________________________ Richmond, V a., June 1978___________________________________ St. Louis, Mo.—111., M ar. 1978_______________________________ Sacramento, C alif., Dec. 1977 1_____________________________ Saginaw, M ich., Nov. 1977----------------------------------------------------Salt Lake City— Ogden, Utah, Nov. 1977_____________________ San Antonio, T ex ., May 1978________________________________ San Diego, C alif., Nov. 19 7 7 1_______________________________ San Francisco-Oakland, C alif., M ar. 1978 1_________________ San Jose, C alif., M ar. 1978 1________________________________ Seattle— Everett, W ash., Dec. 1977__________________________ South Bend, Ind., Aug. 1978__________________________________ Toledo, Ohio— ich ., May 1978 1____________________________ M Trenton, N .J ., Sept. 1977____________________________________ Uticar-Rome, N .Y ., July 1978________________________________ Washington, D.C.— Md.— a ., M ar. 1978 1 ___________________ V Wichita, Kans., Apr. 1978___________________________________ W orcester, M a s s ., Apr. 1 9 7 8 1_____________________________ York, P a., Feb. 19 7 8 1________________________________________ Bulletin number and price* 1950-57, 2025-18, 20 2 5 -2 , 2025-33, 20 2 5 -7 , 2 0 2 5 -5 , 2025-35, $1.00 $1.40 $1.40 $1.30 $1.40 $ 1.00 $1.50 2025-20, 70 cents 2025-21, 2025-47, 2025-40, 1950-55, 2025-36, 1950-62, 20 2 5 -3 , 1950-69, 2025-25, 2025-37, 2025-42, 80 cents $1.00 $1.00 $1-10 $1.20 $1.20 $1.10 70 cents $1.00 $1.10 $1.20 2025-27, 2025-26, 2025-13, 1950-72, 1950-59, 1950-68, 2025-17, 1950-73, 2025 -1 0, 20 2 5 -9 , 1950-75, 2025-44, 2025-24, 1950-47, 2025-34, 2025-12, 2025-16, 2025-19, 20 2 5 -8 , $1.40 80 cents $1.20 $ 1.00 70 cents 80 cents 70 cents $1.10 $1.40 $1.20 80 cents $1.00 $1.20 70 cents $1.00 $1.40 80 cents $1.10 $1.10 Prices are determined by the Government Printing Office and are subject to change. Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented. Postage and Fees Paid U.S. Department of Labor U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Washington, D.C. 20212 Third Class Mail Official Business Penalty for private use, $300 Lab-441 Bureau off Labor Statistics Regional Offices Region I 1603 JFK Federal Building Government Center Boston, Mass 02203 Phone 223-6761 (Area Code 617) Region II Suite 3400 1515 Broadway New York, N Y. 10036 Phone 399-5406 (Area Code 212) Region 11 1 3535 Market Street, P O Box 13309 Philadelphia, Pa 19101 Phone: 596-1154 (AreaCode215) Region IV Suite 540 1371 Peachtree St., N.E. Atlanta, Ga. 30309 Phone 881-4418 (Area Code 404) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont New Jersey New York Puerto Rico Virgin Islands Delaware District of Columbia Maryland Pennsylvania Virginia West Virginia Alabama Florida Georgia Kentucky Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Region V Region VI Regions VII and VIII 9th Floor, 230 S. Dearborn St. Chicago, III. 60604 Phone 353-1880 (Area Code 312) Second Floor 555 Griffin Square Building Dallas, Tex. 75202 Phone: 767-69 71 (AreaCode214) Federal Office Building 911 Walnut St., 15th Flooi Kansas City, Mo 64106 Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code816) Regions IX and X 450 Golden Gate Ave Box 36017 San Francisco, Calif 94102 Phone 556-4678 (Area Code 415) Arkansas Louisiana New Mexico Oklahoma Texas VII VIII Iowa Kansas Missouri Nebraska Colorado Montana North Dakota South Dakota Utah Illinois Indiana Michigan Minnesota Ohio Wisconsin Wyoming IX Arizona California Hawaii Nevada X Alaska Idaho Oregon Washington