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COLLECTION.

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES

Region I
John F. Kennedy Federal Building
Government Center, Room 1603-B
Boston, Mass. 02203
T el.: 223-6762

Region II
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Region III
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Region IV
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Region V
219 South Dearborn St.
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Federal Office Building
Third Floor
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Mayflower Building
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450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
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T e l.: 556-4678




Area Wage Survey

The Charleston, West Virginia, Metropolitan Area




April 1968

Bulletin No. 1575-63
July 1968
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ben Burdetsky, Acting Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20 4 0 2 - Price 30 cents




P re fa c e

C o n ten ts
P age

T he B u rea u o f L ab o r S ta tis tic s p ro g ra m of annual
o c c u p a tio n a l w ag e s u r v e y s in m etro p o lita n a r e a s is d e ­
sig n e d to p r o v id e data on o cc u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s, and e s ta b ­
lish m e n t p r a c tic e s and su p p le m en ta ry w age p r o v is io n s . It
y ie ld s d e ta ile d data by s e le c t e d in d u stry d iv isio n for ea ch
o f th e a r e a s stu d ie d , fo r g eo g r a p h ic r e g io n s , and for the
U n ited S ta te s . A m a jo r co n sid e r a tio n in the p ro g ra m is
th e n eed fo r g r e a te r in s ig h t into (1 ) the m o v em en t of w a g es
by o c c u p a tio n a l c a te g o r y and s k ill le v e l, and (2 ) the s tr u c ­
tu r e and le v e l o f w a g e s am on g a r e a s and in d u stry d iv is io n s .

In tro d u ctio n _____________________________________________________________________
W age tren d s fo r s e le c te d o cc u p a tio n a l g ro u p s_____________________________

A t th e end o f ea ch s u r v e y , an in d iv id u al a rea b u l­
le tin p r e s e n ts s u r v e y r e s u lts fo r each a re a stu d ied . A fter
co m p le tio n o f a ll o f th e in d iv id u a l a rea b u lle tin s for a round
o f s u r v e y s , a tw o -p a r t su m m a ry b u lletin is is su e d . T he
f ir s t p a rt b r in g s data fo r ea ch o f the m etro p o lita n a r e a s
stu d ied into one b u lle tin . T he seco n d p art p r e se n ts in fo r ­
m a tio n w h ich h as b ee n p r o je c te d from in d iv id u al m e tr o ­
p o lita n a r e a data to r e la te to g eo g ra p h ic re g io n s and the
U n ited S ta te s .

A . O ccu p a tio n a l ea rn in g s: *
A - 1. O ffic e o cc u p a tio n s—m en and w om en _________________________
A - 2. P r o fe s s io n a l and te c h n ic a l o cc u p a tio n s—w o m e n ___________
A - 3. - O ffic e , p r o fe s s io n a l, and te c h n ic a l o cc u p a tio n s—
m en and w om en co m b in e d __________________________________
A -4 . M a in ten a n ce and p o w erp la n t o c c u p a tio n s___________________
A -5 . C u sto d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e m en t o c c u p a tio n s ____________

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B . E sta b lish m e n t p r a c tic e s and su p p le m en ta ry w ag e p r o v isio n s : *
B - l . M in im u m en tra n c e s a la r ie s fo r w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s ___
B -2 . Shift d iff e r e n tia ls ______________________________________________
B -3 . S ch ed u led w ee k ly h o u r s _______________________________________
B -4 . P aid h o lid a y s___________________________________________________
B -5 . P a id v a c a t io n s _________________________________________________
B -6 . H ea lth , in s u r a n c e , and p en sio n p la n s ______________________
B -7 . P r e m iu m p ay fo r o v e r tim e w o r k ____________________________

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12
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A p pen dix. O ccu p a tio n a l d e s c r ip tio n s _______________________________________

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T ab les:
1. E sta b lish m e n ts and w o r k e r s w ith in sc o p e o f su r v e y and
n u m b er s tu d ie d _______________________________________________________
2. In d exes o f stan d a rd w ee k ly s a la r ie s and s tr a ig h t-tim e
h ou rly ea r n in g s fo r s e le c te d o cc u p a tio n a l g r o u p s, and
p e r c e n ts o f ch an ge for s e le c te d p e r io d s __________________________

E ig h ty -s ix a r e a s c u r re n tly a r e in clu d ed in the
p r o g r a m . In ea ch a r e a , in fo r m a tio n on o ccu p a tio n a l e a r n ­
in g s is c o lle c te d a n n u a lly and on e sta b lish m e n t p r a c tic e s
and su p p le m e n ta r y w a g e p r o v isio n s b ie n n ia lly .
T h is b u lle tin p r e s e n ts r e su lts o f the su r v e y in
C h a r le s to n , W. V a. , in A p r il 1968. T he Standard M e tr o ­
p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a , a s d efin ed by the B u reau o f the
B u d g et th rou gh A p r il 1 967, c o n s is ts o f K anawha C ounty.
T h is stu dy w as co n d u cted in the B u rea u 's re g io n a l o ffic e
in N ew Y o r k , N .Y . , H e r b e r t B ie n sto c k , D ir e c to r . T he
stu d y w as u n d er th e g e n e r a l d ir e c tio n of F r e d e r ic k W.
M u e lle r , A s s is ta n t R e g io n a l D ir e c to r o f O p era tio n s.




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areas.

"'NOTE: S im ila r ta b u la tio n s a r e a v a ila b le fo r o th er
(S ee in s id e b ack c o v e r .)

A c u r r e n t re p o r t on ea r n in g s in th e C h a r lesto n a r e a
is a lso a v a ila b le fo r s e le c te d food s e r v ic e o cc u p a tio n s
(A p ril 1968). U nion s c a le s , in d ic a tiv e o f p r e v a ilin g pay
le v e ls , a r e a v a ila b le fo r s e v e n s e le c te d b u ild in g tr a d e s.

Ml

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Area W ag e Su rvey----

The Charleston, W. Va., Metropolitan Area
Introduction

T h is a r e a is 1 of 86 in w h ich the U .S . D ep a rtm en t of L a b o r's
B u reau o f L ab or S ta tis tic s co n d u cts su r v e y s o f o cc u p a tio n a l ea r n in g s
and r e la te d b e n e fits on an a re a w id e b a s is . In th is a r e a , data w e r e
o b tain ed by p e r so n a l v is it s o f B u reau fie ld e c o n o m is ts to r e p r e ­
se n ta tiv e e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in six b road in d u stry d iv isio n s: M anu ­
fa ctu rin g ; tr a n s p o r ta tio n , co m m u n ica tio n , and o th er p u blic u tilitie s ;
w h o le s a le trad e; r e ta il tra d e; fin a n ce , in su r a n c e , and r e a l esta te ; and
s e r v ic e s . M ajor in d u stry group s ex clu d ed from th e se stu d ies a r e
g o v er n m e n t o p e r a tio n s and the c o n stru ctio n and e x tr a c tiv e in d u str ie s.
E sta b lish m e n ts h a v in g fe w e r than a p r e sc r ib e d num ber o f w o r k e r s a re
o m itted b e c a u s e th ey ten d to fu rn ish in su ffic ie n t em p lo y m en t in the
o cc u p a tio n s stu d ied to w a r r a n t in c lu sio n . S ep a ra te ta b u latio n s a re
p ro v id ed for ea c h o f the b ro ad in d u stry d iv isio n s w h ich m e e t pub­
lic a tio n c r it e r ia .
T h e se s u r v e y s a r e con d ucted on a sam p le b a s is b e c a u se of
the u n n e c e s s a r y c o s t in v o lv e d in su r v e y in g a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts . To
o b tain o p tim u m a c c u r a c y a t m in im u m c o s t, a g re a te r p ro p o rtio n of
la r g e th an of s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts is stu d ied . In co m b in in g the d ata,
h o w e v e r , a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts a r e given th e ir ap p rop riate w eig h t. E s ­
tim a te s b a se d on the e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied a re p r e se n te d , th e r e fo r e ,
a s r e la tin g to a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts in the in d u stry grou p in g and a r e a ,
e x c e p t for th o se b elow the m in im u m s iz e stu d ied .

a llo w a n c e s and in c e n tiv e ea r n in g s a re in clu d ed . W here w e e k ly h ou rs
a r e r e p o r te d , as for o ffic e c le r ic a l o cc u p a tio n s, r e fe r e n c e is to the
stan d a rd w ork w eek (rou n d ed to the n e a r e s t h a lf hour) fo r w h ich e m ­
p lo y e e s r e c e iv e th e ir r e g u la r s tr a ig h t-tim e s a la r ie s (e x c lu siv e of pay
for o v e r tim e at re g u la r a n d /o r p re m iu m r a te s ). A v e ra g e w e e k ly e a r n ­
in g s fo r th e se o cc u p a tio n s h ave b een rou n ded to the n e a r e s t h alf d o lla r.
The a v e r a g e s p r e se n te d r e fle c t c o m p o s ite , a rea w id e e s t i­
m a te s . In d u str ie s and e s ta b lis h m e n ts d iffer in p ay le v e l and job
sta ffin g and, th u s, co n trib u te d iffe r e n tly to the e s tim a te s fo r ea ch job.
The p ay r e la tio n sh ip o b tain a b le fr o m the a v e r a g e s m a y fa il to r e fle c t
a c c u r a te ly the w ag e sp r ea d or d iffe r e n tia l m a in ta in ed am on g jo b s in
in d iv id u al e s ta b lis h m e n ts . S im ila r ly , d iffe r e n c e s in a v e ra g e pay
le v e ls for m en and w om en in any of the s e le c te d o cc u p a tio n s should
not be a ssu m e d to r e fle c t d iffe r e n c e s in p ay tr e a tm e n t of the s e x e s
w ith in in d iv id u al e s ta b lis h m e n ts . O ther p o s s ib le fa c to r s w h ich m ay
co n trib u te to d iffe r e n c e s in p ay for m en and w o m en in clu d e: D iffe r ­
e n c e s in p r o g r e s s io n w ith in e s ta b lis h e d ra te r a n g e s, sin c e only the
a ctu a l r a te s paid in cu m b en ts a re c o lle c te d ; and d iffe r e n c e s in s p e c ific
d u ties p e r fo r m e d , alth ough the w o r k e r s a re c la s s ifie d a p p r o p ria tely
w ith in the sa m e s u r v e y job d e s c r ip tio n . Job d e s c r ip tio n s u sed in
c la s s ify in g e m p lo y e e s in th e se s u r v e y s a re u su a lly m o re g e n e r a liz e d
than th o se u se d in in d iv id u al e s ta b lis h m e n ts and a llo w for m in or
d iffe r e n c e s am on g e s ta b lis h m e n ts in the s p e c ific d u ties p er fo rm e d .
O ccu p a tion a l em p lo y m en t e s tim a te s r e p r e s e n t the total in
a ll e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith in the sc o p e of the stu d y and not the num ber
a ctu a lly su r v e y e d . B e c a u s e of d iffe r e n c e s in o ccu p a tio n a l stru c tu re
am on g e s ta b lis h m e n ts , the e s tim a te s of o ccu p a tio n a l em p lo y m en t ob ­
ta in ed fr o m the sa m p le of e s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied s e r v e o n ly to in d icate
the r e la tiv e im p o rta n ce of the jo b s stu d ied . T h e se d iffe r e n c e s in
o ccu p a tio n a l s tr u c tu r e do not a ffe c t m a te r ia lly the a c c u r a c y of the
ea r n in g s data.
E sta b lish m e n t P r a c t ic e s and S u p p lem en ta ry W age P r o v is io n s
In form atio n is p r e se n te d (in the B - s e r ie s ta b le s) on s e le c te d
e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c tic e s and su p p le m en ta ry w ag e p r o v isio n s as th ey
r e la te to p lan t and o ffice w o r k e r s . A d m in is tr a tiv e , e x e c u tiv e , and
p r o fe s s io n a l e m p lo y e e s , and c o n str u c tio n w o r k e r s who a re u tiliz e d
as a se p a r a te w ork fo r c e a re ex c lu d e d . " P lan t w o r k er s" in clu de
w ork in g fo r e m e n and a ll n o n s u p e r v is o r y w o r k e r s (in clu d in g le a d m en and tr a in e e s ) en g a g ed in n o n o ffice fu n ctio n s. " O ffice w o rk ers"
in clu d e w ork in g s u p e r v is o r s and n o n s u p e r v iso r y w o r k e r s p erfo rm in g
c le r ic a l or r e la te d fu n ctio n s. C a fe te r ia w o r k e r s and ro u tem en a re
ex c lu d e d in m an u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s , but in clu d ed in n on m an ufactu ring
in d u s t r ie s .

O ccu p a tio n s and E a r n in g s
T he o c c u p a tio n s s e le c t e d for study a r e co m m o n to a v a r ie ty
o f m a n u fa c tu rin g and n o n m a n u factu rin g in d u str ie s, and a r e of the
fo llo w in g ty p es: (1) O ffice c le r ic a l; (2) p r o fe ss io n a l and tech n ica l;
(3) m a in te n a n c e and p ow erp la n t; and (4) c u sto d ia l and m a te r ia l m o v e ­
m en t. O ccu p a tio n a l c la s s ific a t io n is b a sed on a u n ifo rm s e t of job
d e s c r ip tio n s d e s ig n e d to tak e a cco u n t o f in te r e sta b lish m e n t v a r ia tio n
in d u tie s w ith in the sa m e jo b . The o ccu p a tio n s s e le c t e d for study
a r e lis te d and d e s c r ib e d in the appendix. The ea rn in g s data fo llo w in g
the job title s a r e fo r a ll in d u str ie s co m b in ed . E arn in gs data fo r so m e
of the o cc u p a tio n s lis te d and d e s c r ib e d , or fo r so m e in d tistry d iv is io n s
w ith in o cc u p a tio n s , a r e not p r e se n te d in the A - s e r ie s ta b le s , b e c a u se
e ith e r (1) e m p lo y m e n t in the o ccu p a tio n is too s m a ll to p ro v id e enough
data to m e r it p r e se n ta tio n , or (2) th ere is p o s s ib ility of d is c lo s u r e
of in d iv id u a l e s ta b lis h m e n t d ata.
O cc u p a tio n a l em p lo y m e n t and ea rn in g s data a r e show n for
fu ll-tim e w o r k e r s , i. e . , th o se h ired to w ork a re g u la r w e e k ly sch ed u le
in the g iv en o c c u p a tio n a l c la s s ific a tio n . E arn in gs data ex c lu d e p r e ­
m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and for w ork on w ee k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and
la te s h ifts . N o n p ro d u ctio n b o n u se s a re ex c lu d e d , but c o s t - o f - liv in g




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M in im u m en tra n c e s a la r ie s fo r w o m en o ffic e w o r k e r s (tab le
B - l ) r e la te o n ly to the e s ta b lis h m e n ts v is ite d . B e c a u s e of the o p tim u m
sa m p lin g te ch n iq u e s u se d , and the p r o b a b ility that la r g e e s ta b lis h ­
m e n ts a re m o r e lik e ly to h ave fo r m a l en tra n c e r a te s for w o r k e r s
ab o v e the s u b c le r ic a l le v e l than s m a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts , th e ta b le is
m o r e - r e p r e s e n ta tiv e of p o lic ie s in m ed iu m and la r g e e s ta b lis h m e n ts .
S h ift d iffe r e n tia l d ata (tab le B -2 ) a re lim ite d to plan t w o r k e r s
in m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u s tr ie s . T h is in fo r m a tio n is p r e se n te d both in
te r m s of (1) e s ta b lis h m e n t p o lic y , 1 p r e se n te d in te r m s of to ta l p lan t
w o r k er e m p lo y m e n t, and (2) e ffe c tiv e p r a c tic e , p r e se n te d in te r m s of
w o r k e r s a c tu a lly e m p lo y ed on the s p e c ifie d sh ift at the tim e of the
su r v e y . In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h avin g v a r ie d d iffe r e n tia ls , th e am ount
a p p lyin g to a m a jo r ity w a s u se d o r , if no am ount a p p lied to a m a jo r ity ,
th e c la s s ific a t io n " o th e r” w a s u se d . In e s ta b lis h m e n ts in w h ich so m e
la te -s h ift h o u rs a re p aid at n o r m a l r a te s , a d iffe r e n tia l w a s r e c o r d e d
o n ly if it a p p lied to a m a jo r ity of the sh ift h o u r s.
T he sch ed u le d w e e k ly h ou rs (tab le B -3 ) of a m a jo r ity of the
f i r s t - s h if t w o r k e r s in an e s ta b lis h m e n t a re ta b u lated a s ap p lyin g to
a ll of the p lan t or o ffic e w o r k e r s of that e s ta b lis h m e n t. S ch ed u led
w e e k ly h o u rs a re th o se w h ich fu ll-tim e e m p lo y e e s w e r e e x p e c te d to
w o r k , w h eth er th ey w e r e p aid for at s tr a ig h t-tim e or o v e r tim e r a te s .
P a id h o lid a y s; p aid v a c a tio n s , h ea lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n sio n
p la n s; and p re m iu m p ay for o v e r tim e w ork (ta b les B -4 th rou gh B -7 )
a re tr e a te d s ta t is tic a lly on the b a s is that th e se a re a p p lica b le to a ll
p lan t or o ffic e ,w o r k e r s if a m a jo r ity of su ch w o r k e r s a re e lig ib le or
m a y e v e n tu a lly q u a lify fo r the p r a c tic e s lis te d . S u m s of in d iv id u a l
ite m s in ta b le s B -2 th rou gh B -7 m a y not eq u a l to ta ls b e c a u s e of
rou n d in g.
D ata on p aid h o lid a y s (tab le B -4 ) a re lim ite d to data on h o li­
d ays g ra n ted a n n u a lly on a fo r m a l b a s is ; i .e ., (1) a re p ro v id ed fo r
in w r itte n fo r m , or (2) h ave b ee n e s ta b lis h e d by cu sto m . H o lid a y s
o r d in a r ily g ra n ted a re in c lu d e d ev e n though th ey m a y fa ll on a n on ­
w ork d a y and the w o r k er is not g ra n ted an o th er d ay off. T he fir s t
p a rt of the p aid h o lid a y s ta b le p r e s e n ts the n u m ber of w h o le and h a lf
h o lid a y s a c tu a lly g ra n ted . T he seco n d p art co m b in es w h o le and h a lf
h o lid a y s to show to ta l h o lid a y t im e .
T he su m m a r y of v a c a tio n p la n s (tab le B -5 ) is lim ite d to a
s ta t is tic a l m e a s u r e of v a c a tio n p r o v is io n s . It is not in ten d ed as a
m e a s u r e of the p ro p o r tio n of w o r k e r s a c tu a lly r e c e iv in g s p e c ific b e n e ­
fits . P r o v is io n s of an e s ta b lis h m e n t fo r a ll le n g th s of s e r v ic e w e r e
ta b u la ted a s ap p lyin g to a ll p lan t or o ffic e w o r k e r s of the e s t a b lis h ­
m en t, r e g a r d le s s of len g th of s e r v ic e . P r o v is io n s fo r p ay m en t on
o th er than a tim e b a s is w e r e co n v e r te d to a tim e b a s is ; fo r e x a m p le ,
a p ay m en t of 2 p e r c e n t of annual ea r n in g s w as c o n sid e r e d as the e q u iv ­
a len t of 1 w e e k 's p ay. E s tim a te s ex c lu d e v a c a tio n -s a v in g s p la n s and
th o se w h ich o ffe r " ex ten d ed ” or " sa b b a tic a l” b e n e fits b eyon d b a s ic
p la n s to w o r k e r s w ith q u a lify in g le n g th s of s e r v ic e . T y p ic a l of su ch
e x c lu s io n s a re p la n s in th e s t e e l, a lu m in u m , and can in d u s tr ie s .

D ata on h ea lth , in s u r a n c e , and p e n s io n p la n s (tab le B -6 ) in ­
clu d e th o se p lan s for w h ich the e m p lo y e r p a y s at le a s t a p a r t of the
c o s t. Su ch p la n s in clu d e th o se u n d e r w r itte n b y a c o m m e r c ia l in su r a n c e
co m p an y and th o se p ro vid ed th rou g h a u n io n fund or p aid d ir e c tly by
•the em p lo y er out of cu r re n t o p e r a tin g funds or fr o m a fund s e t a sid e
for th is p u rp o se. An e s ta b lis h m e n t w a s c o n sid e r e d to h av e a p lan
if the m a jo r ity of e m p lo y e e s w e r e e lig ib le to be c o v e r e d u n der the
p la n , e v e n if le s s than a m a jo r ity e le c te d to p a r tic ip a te b e c a u s e e m ­
p lo y e e s w er e re q u ire d to co n trib u te to w a rd the c o s t of the p la n . L e ­
g a lly re q u ire d p la n s, su ch a s w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n sa tio n , s o c ia l s e ­
c u r ity , and r a ilr o a d r e tir e m e n t w e r e e x c lu d e d .

An establishment was considered as having a policy if it met either of the fo ll o w in g
conditions: (1) Operated late shifts at the time of the survey, or (2) had formal pr ovisions c o v er i n g
late shifts. An establishment was considered as having formal provisions if it (1) had o p e ra te d la te
shifts during the 12 months prior to the survey, or (2) had provisions in written form for o p e ra ti n g
late shifts.

The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do not require employer
contributions.
An es tab li sh me nt was considered as having a formal plan if it established at least the
m i n i m u m number of days of sick leave available to each employee.
Such a plan need not be
written, but informal sick leave allowances, determined on an individual basis, were excluded.




S ic k n e ss and a cc id en t in su r a n c e is lim ite d to th at typ e of
in su r a n c e under w h ich p r e d e te r m in e d c a sh p a y m en ts a re m a d e d ir e c tly
to the in su r ed on a w e e k ly or m o n th ly b a s is d u rin g illn e s s or a c c id e n t
d is a b ility . In form atio n is p r e se n te d fo r a ll su c h p la n s to w h ich the
e m p lo y e r co n tr ib u tes. H o w e v e r, in N ew Y ork and N ew J e r s e y , w h ich
h ave en a cted te m p o r a r y d is a b ility in su r a n c e la w s w h ich r e q u ir e e m ­
p lo y e r c o n tr ib u tio n s,2 p la n s a re in c lu d e d o n ly if th e e m p lo y e r (1) co n ­
tr ib u te s m o re than is le g a lly r e q u ir e d , or (2) p r o v id e s th e e m p lo y e e
w ith b e n e fits w h ich e x c e e d the r e q u ir e m e n ts of th e la w . T a b u la tio n s
of p aid sic k le a v e p la n s a re lim ite d to fo r m a l p la n s 3 w h ich p ro v id e
fu ll p ay or a p ro p o rtio n of the w o r k e r 's p ay d u rin g a b s e n c e fr o m w ork
b e c a u s e of illn e s s . S ep a ra te ta b u la tio n s a r e p r e s e n te d a c c o r d in g to
(1) p la n s w h ich p ro v id e fu ll p ay and no w a itin g p e r io d , and (2) p la n s
w h ich p ro vid e eith e r p a r tia l p ay or a w a itin g p e r io d . In a d d itio n to
the p r e se n ta tio n of the p ro p o r tio n s of w o r k e r s w ho a r e p ro v id ed
s ic k n e s s and a cc id en t in su r a n c e or p aid s ic k le a v e , an u n d u p lica ted
to ta l is show n of w o r k e r s w ho r e c e iv e e ith e r or b oth ty p e s of b e n e fits .
C atastrop h e in su r a n c e , s o m e tim e s r e fe r r e d to as m a jo r m e d ­
ic a l in su r a n c e , in c lu d e s th o se p la n s w h ich a re d e sig n e d to p r o te c t
e m p lo y e e s in c a se of s ic k n e s s and in ju ry in v o lv in g e x p e n s e s b eyon d
the n o rm a l c o v er a g e o f h o s p ita liz a tio n , m e d ic a l, and s u r g ic a l p la n s.
M e d ica l in su ra n ce r e fe r s to p la n s p ro v id in g fo r c o m p le te or p a r tia l
p ay m en t of d o c to r s' fe e s . Such p la n s m a y be u n d e rw r itten by c o m ­
m e r c ia l in su ra n ce co m p a n ies or n o n p ro fit o r g a n iz a tio n s or th ey m a y
be paid for by the em p lo y er out of a fund s e t a sid e fo r th is p u r p o se .
T ab u la tion s of r e tir e m e n t p e n sio n p la n s a re lim ite d to th o se p la n s
that p ro v id e re g u la r p ay m en ts fo r th e r e m a in d e r of the w o r k e r 's life .
D ata on o v e r tim e p r e m iu m p ay (tab le B -7 ), the h o u rs a fter
w h ich p rem iu m pay is r e c e iv e d and the c o r r e sp o n d in g ra te of p ay , a re
p r e se n te d by d a ily and w e e k ly p r o v is io n s . D a ily o v e r tim e r e fe r s to
w ork in e x c e s s of a s p e c ifie d n u m b er of h o u rs a day r e g a r d le s s of
the num ber of h ou rs w o rk ed on o th er d ay s of the p ay p e r io d . W eek ly
o v e r tim e r e fe r s to w ork in e x c e s s of a s p e c ifie d n u m b er of h ou rs
p er w eek r e g a r d le s s of the day on w h ich it is p e r fo r m e d , the n u m b er
of h ou rs per day, or num ber of d ay s w o r k ed .

3
T a b l e 1. E s t a b l i s h m e n t s an d W o r k e r s W ith in S c o p e of S u r v e y a n d N u m b e r S tu d ie d in C h a r l e s t o n , W. V a . , 1 by M a j o r I n d u s t r y D i v i s i o n , 2 A p r i l 1968

In d u stry d ivision

M inim um
em ploym ent
in e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s in s c o p e
of s tu d y

A ll d i v i s i o n s _____________________________________

.

M a n u f a c t u r i n g _________________________________________
N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ____________________________________
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , an d
o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 5 ________________________
W h o l e s a l e t r a d e __________________________________
R e t a i l t r a d e ________________________________________
F i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e _________
S e r v i c e s 8__________________________________________

50
-

50
50
50
50
50

N u m b e r of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts
W ithin scop e of study

W ith in s c o p e
o f s tu d y 3

S tu d ie d

Studied

T o tal4
Num ber

Percent

P lan t

O ffic e
T o t a l4

122

63

3 5 ,2 0 0

100

21,000

6 000

2 9 ,7 7 0

31
91

23
40

2 0 ,3 0 0
1 4 ,9 0 0

58
42

1 2 ,9 0 0
8 , 100

2

, 900
3, 100

1 9 ,6 3 0
1 0 ,1 4 0

18

13
5
13
4
5

7, 100
1, 700
4, 500
800
800

20

2 ,8 0 0

1, 700
(6)

6 ,4 0 0
430
2, 320
450
540

20

38
7
8

5
13
2
2

( 6)

( 6)
C)

( 6)

,

( 6)

(6)

( 6)

1 T h e C h a r l e s t o n S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a , a s d e fin e d by t h e B u r e a u of th e B u d g e t th r o u g h A p r i l 1967, c o n s i s t s of K a n a w h a C o u n ty .
T h e " w o r k e r s w i th in sc o p e of stu d y "
e s t i m a t e s s h o w n in t h i s ta b l e p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y a c c u r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n of th e s i z e an d c o m p o s i t i o n of th e l a b o r f o r c e i n c lu d e d in th e s u r v e y . T h e e s t i m a t e s a r e n o t i n t e n d e d , h o w e v e r , to s e r v e
a s a b a s i s of c o m p a r i s o n w i th o t h e r e m p l o y m e n t i n d e x e s fo r th e a r e a to m e a s u r e e m p l o y m e n t t r e n d s o r l e v e l s s in c e ( 1) p la n n in g of w a g e s u r v e y s r e q u i r e s th e u s e of e s t a b l i s h m e n t d a ta c o m p ile d
c o n s i d e r a b l y in a d v a n c e of th e p a y r o l l p e r i o d s tu d ie d , and ( 2 ) s m a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m th e s c o p e of th e s u r v e y .
2 T h e 1967 e d it i o n of th e S t a n d a r d I n d u s t r i a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l w a s u s e d in c l a s s i f y i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n .
3 I n c l u d e s a ll e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h t o t a l e m p l o y m e n t a t o r a b o ve th e m i n i m u m l i m i t a t i o n .
A ll o u tl e t s ( w ith in th e a r e a ) of c o m p a n i e s in s u c h i n d u s t r i e s a s t r a d e , f i n a n c e , a u to r e p a i r s e r v i c e ,
and m o tio n p ic tu re th e a te r s a re c o n sid e re d as 1 e sta b lish m e n t.
4 I n c l u d e s e x e c u t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l , a n d o th e r w o r k e r s e x c lu d e d f r o m th e s e p a r a t e p la n t a n d o ffic e c a t e g o r i e s .
5 T a x i c a b s a n d s e r v i c e s i n c i d e n t a l to w a t e r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w e r e e x c lu d e d .
6 T h i s i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n is r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s fo r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in th e S e r i e s A t a b l e s , an d f o r " a l l
i n d u s t r i e s " in th e S e r i e s B t a b l e s . S e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n
of d a t a f o r th i s d i v i s i o n is not m a d e f o r one o r m o r e of th e fo llo w in g r e a s o n s : (1) E m p l o y m e n t in th e d i v i s i o n is to o s m a l l to p r o v i d e e n o u g h d a t a to m e r i t s e p a r a t e s tu d y , (2) th e s a m p l e w a s
not d e s i g n e d i n i t i a l l y to p e r m i t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n , (3) r e s p o n s e w a s i n s u f f i c i e n t o r i n a d e q u a t e to p e r m i t s e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n , an d (4) t h e r e is p o s s i b i l i t y of d i s c l o s u r e of in d iv id u a l
e s t a b l i s h m e n t d a ta .
7 W o r k e r s f r o m t h i s e n t i r e i n d u s t r y d i v is i o n a r e r e p r e s e n t e d in e s t i m a t e s f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " a n d " n o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g " in th e S e r i e s A t a b l e s , b u t f r o m t h e r e a l e s t a t e p o r t i o n o n ly in e s t i m a t e s
f o r " a l l i n d u s t r i e s " in th e S e r i e s B t a b l e s . S e p a r a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n of d a t a fo r t h i s d i v i s i o n is not m a d e f o r one o r m o r e of th e r e a s o n s g iv e n in f o o tn o te 6 a b o v e .
8 H o t e l s a n d m o t e l s ; l a u n d r i e s a n d o th e r p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e s ; b u s i n e s s s e r v i c e s ; a u t o m o b i l e r e p a i r , r e n t a l , a n d p a r k i n g ; m o t i o n p i c t u r e s ; n o n p r o f i t m e m b e r s h i p o r g a n i z a t i o n s (e x c lu d in g
r e l i g i o u s a n d c h a r i t a b l e o r g a n i z a t i o n s ) ; a n d e n g i n e e r i n g an d a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e r v i c e s .




A l m o s t t h r e e - f i f t h s of th e vw o rk e rs w i th in sc o p e of th e s u r v e y in th e C h a r l e s t o n a r e a
w e r e e m p l o y e d in m a n u f a c t u r i n g f i r m s . T h e fo llo w in g t a b le p r e s e n t s th e m a j o r i n d u s t r y
g r o u p s an d s p e c if ic i n d u s t r i e s a s al p e r c e n t of a ll m a n u f a c t u r i n g :
Industry groups

S p e c ific i n d u s t r i e s

C h e m i c a l s an d a ll ie d
p r o d u c t s _________________________ 59
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n e q u i p m e n t —____ 19
S to n e , c la y , a n d g l a s s
p r o d u c t s ------------------------------- ____ 6
M a c h in ery , except
5
e l e c t r i c a l -----------------------------

I n d u s t r i a l c h e m i c a l s ________ . - 56
M o to r v e h i c l e s and
e q u i p m e n t ___________________ ----- 19
F l a t g l a s s _____________________ ___ 5

T h is in f o r m a t i o n is b a s e d on e s t i m a t e s of t o ta l e m p l o y m e n t d e r i v e d f r o m u n i v e r s e
m a t e r i a l s c o m p ile d p r i o r to a c t u a l s u r v e y . P r o p o r t i o n s in v a r i o u s i n d u s t r y d iv is i o n s m a y
d if f e r f r o m p r o p o r t i o n s b a s e d on th e r e s u l t s of the s u r v e y a s s h o w n in ta b l e 1 a b o v e .

4

Wage Trends for Selected Occupational Groups

P r e s e n te d in ta b le 2 a r e in d e x e s and p e r c e n ta g e s of ch an ge
in a v e r a g e s a la r ie s o f o ffic e c le r ic a l w o r k e r s and in d u str ia l n u r s e s ,
and in a v e r a g e e a r n in g s o f s e le c te d plan t w o r k e r g r o u p s. T he in d e x e s
a r e a m e a s u r e o f w a g e s at a g iv en tim e , e x p r e s s e d a s a p e r c e n t of
w a g e s d u rin g the b a s e p e r io d (d ate of th e a r e a su r v e y co n d u cted
b etw e en J u ly I96 0 and June 1961). S u b tra ctin g 100 fr o m th e in d ex
y ie ld s th e p e r c e n ta g e ch a n ge in w a g e s fr o m the b a se p e r io d to the
d ate o f th e in d ex . T he p e r c e n ta g e s o f ch a n ge or in c r e a s e r e la te to
w a g e ch a n g e s b etw e en th e in d ic a te d d a te s . T h e se e s tim a te s a re
m e a s u r e s o f ch a n ge in a v e r a g e s fo r th e a re a ; th ey a r e not in ten d ed
to m e a s u r e a v e r a g e pay ch a n g e s in th e e s ta b lis h m e n ts in th e a r e a .
M ethod o f C om puting
E ach o f th e s e le c te d k ey o cc u p a tio n s w ith in an o cc u p a tio n a l
group w a s a s s ig n e d a w eig h t b a sed on its p ro p o r tio n a te em p lo y m en t
Office clerical (men and women):
Bookkeeping-machine operators,
class B
Clerks, accounting, classes
A and B
Clerks, file, classes
A, B, and C
Clerks, order
Clerks, payroll
Comptometer operators
Keypunch operators, classes
A and B
Office boys and girls

Table 2.

in th e o ccu p a tio n a l group . T h e se c o n sta n t w e ig h ts r e fle c t b a se y e a r
em p lo y m en ts w h e r e v e r p o s s ib le . T he a v e r a g e (m ean ) e a r n in g s fo r
ea ch o ccu p a tio n w er e m u ltip lie d by th e o c c u p a tio n a l w eig h t, and th e
p ro d u c ts for a ll o ccu p a tio n s in th e group w e r e to ta le d . T h e a g g r e g a te s
fo r 2 c o n se c u tiv e y e a r s w e r e r e la te d b y d iv id in g the a g g r e g a te fo r
th e la te r y ea r by the a g g r e g a te fo r th e e a r lie r y e a r . T he r e su lta n t
r e la tiv e , le s s 100 p e r c e n t, sh o w s th e p e r c e n ta g e ch a n g e. T he in d ex
is the p rod u ct of m u ltip ly in g the b a s e y e a r r e la tiv e (100) by th e r e la tiv e
fo r the n ext su c ce ed in g y ea r and co n tin u in g to m u ltip ly (com p ou nd )
ea ch y e a r 's r e la tiv e by the p r e v io u s y e a r 's in d e x . A v e r a g e ea r n in g s
fo r th e fo llo w in g o ccu p a tio n s w e r e u se d in co m p u tin g th e w a g e tr en d s:

Office clerical (men and women)—
Continued
Secretaries
Stenographers, general
Stenographers, senior
Switchboard operators, classes
A and B
Tabulating-machine operators,
class B
Typists, classes A and B

Skilled maintenance (men):
Carpe nters
Electricians
Machinists
Mechanics
Mechanics (automotive)
Pa inters
Pipefitters
Tool and die makers
Unskilled plant (men):
Janitors, porters, and cleaners
Laborers, material handling

Industrial nurses (men and women):
Nurses, industrial (registered)

Indexes of Standard Weekly Salaries.and Straight-Time Hourly Earnings for Selected Occupational Groups in Charleston, W. Va. ,
April 1968 and April 1967, and Percents of Change * for Selected Periods
Indexes
(April 1961=100)

Industry and occupational group
April 1968

April 1967

A ll industries:
Office clerical (men and w om en)-------Industrial nurses (men and w om en)------Skilled maintenance (men)-------------------Unskilled plant (m e n )----------------------------

120.4
123. 2
116.9
114. 7

115.6
115. 2
113.3
2 112.6

Manufacturing:
Office clerical (men and w om en)--------Industrial nurses (men and w om en)------Skilled maintenance (men)-------------------Unskilled plant (m e n )----------------------------

114.0
122.4
116.0
120.6

109. 2
114.0
112.5
116.8

Percents of change 1
April 1967
to
April 1968

4. 2
7. 0
3. 2
1 .9

4.
7.
3.
3.

4
4
1
3

April 1966
to
April 1967

April 1965
to
April 1966

April 1964
to
April 1965

1.
1.
2.
2 1.

7
7
0
4

2 .2
3 .0
2. 8
.9

1.
2.
1.
4.

2
2
7
0

2 .6
.4
2 .6
3 -. 2

1.
1.
2.
2.

0
2
1
3

3. 3
3 .0
2. 6
3 .0

.7
1. 7
1.8
4. 5

.4
1.8
2. 5
2 .2

Unless otherwise indicated, all changes are increases.
2 Revised estimate.
3 This decline largely reflects shifts in employment between high- and low-wage establishments rather than wage decreases.




April 1963
to
April 1964

April 1962
to
April 1963

April 1961
to
April 1962

April 1960
to
April 1961

2. 1
4 .6
2 .6
3. 0

4. 9
2 .4
1 .0
2 .9

0.
3.
3.
2.

3
9
3
2

1.
4.
2.
3.

1. 7
.9
.5
.7

1.
4.
3.
1.

6
4
1
4

9
6
5
0

5

F o r o ffic e c le r ic a l w o r k e r s and in d u stria l n u r s e s , the w age
tr e n d s r e la te to r e g u la r w e e k ly s a la r ie s for the n o r m a l w o rk w eek ,
e x c lu s iv e of e a r n in g s fo r o v e r tim e . F o r plant w ork er g ro u p s, th ey
m e a s u r e c h a n g e s in a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h ou rly e a r n in g s , ex clu d in g
p r e m iu m p ay fo r o v e r tim e and for w ork on w ee k en d s, h o lid a y s , and
la te s h ifts . T he p e r c e n ta g e s a re b a sed on data fo r s e le c te d k ey o c c u ­
p a tio n s and in c lu d e m o s t of the n u m e r ic a lly im p o rta n t jo b s w ith in
e a c h grou p .
L im ita tio n s of D ata
T he in d e x e s and p e r c e n ta g e s of ch an ge, a s m e a s u r e s of
ch a n ge in a r e a a v e r a g e s , a r e in flu en ced by: (1) g e n e r a l s a la r y and
w a g e c h a n g e s, (2) m e r it or o th er in c r e a s e s in pay r e c e iv e d by in d i­
v id u a l w o r k e r s w h ile in the sa m e jo b , and (3) ch a n ges in a v e r a g e
w a g e s due to ch a n g e s in the la b or fo r c e re su ltin g fr o m la b or tu r n ­
o v e r , fo r c e e x p a n s io n s , fo r c e r e d u c tio n s, and ch a n ges in the p r o p o r ­
tio n s of w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d b y e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith d iffer en t p ay le v e ls .




C h an ges in th e la b o r fo r c e can c a u se in c r e a s e s or d e c r e a s e s in the
o cc u p a tio n a l a v e r a g e s w ith ou t a ctu a l w ag e ch a n g e s. It is co n c e iv a b le
th at ev e n though a ll e s ta b lis h m e n ts in an a r e a gave w ag e in c r e a s e s ,
a v e r a g e w a g e s m a y h ave d e c lin e d b e c a u s e lo w e r -p a y in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e n te r e d the a r e a or exp an d ed th e ir w ork fo r c e s . S im ila r ly , w a g e s
m a y h ave r e m a in e d r e la tiv e ly co n sta n t, y et the a v e r a g e s fo r an a re a
m a y h ave r is e n c o n sid e r a b ly b e c a u se h ig h e r -p a y in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts
e n te r e d the a r e a .
T he u se of co n sta n t em p lo y m en t w e ig h ts e lim in a te s the e ffe c t
of ch a n g e s in th e p ro p o r tio n of w o r k e r s r e p r e se n te d in ea c h job in ­
clu d ed in the d ata. T he p e r c e n ta g e s of ch an ge r e fle c t on ly ch an ges
in a v e r a g e p ay fo r s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u r s. T h ey a re not in flu en ced by
ch a n g es in stan d a rd w ork s c h e d u le s, as su ch , or b y p re m iu m pay
fo r o v e r tim e . W h ere n e c e s s a r y , data w e r e a d ju sted to r e m o v e fro m
the in d ex es and p e r c e n ta g e s of ch an ge any s ig n ific a n t e ffe c t ca u sed
by ch a n g es in the sco p e of the su r v e y .

6

A. Occupational Earnings
Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Charleston, W. Va., April 1968)
W eekly earnings1
(standard)
Number

Average
weekly
hours1
(standard)

Number of w orkers rece;iving stra igh t-tim e w eekly earnings of —
$

$

$

$

$

S

»

$

$

%

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

%

$

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

12 0

130

140

15 0

160

17 0

18 0

55

Sex, occupation, and industry division

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

130

140

150

16 0

17 0

180

19 0

-

-

5

7

-

2

—

4

9
3

12
2

14
7

6
3

2
1

6
3

2
2

-

2

-

-

1

4

2

7

1

-

-

-

~

“

50
M ean 2

M edian 2

Middle range 2

and
under

MEN
69
21

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$
$
$
$
1 3 4 .0 0 1 3 6 .0 0 1 1 9 . 5 0 - 1 4 9 . 5 0
1 5 1 .5 0 1 4 9 .0 0 1 3 7 . 5 0 - 1 7 1 . 0 0

-

-

-

—

-

-

CLERKS, PAYROLL ---------------------------------------------

19

4 0 .0

1 2 6 .0 0

1 3 5 .0 0

1 2 0 .0 0 -1 4 3 .0 0

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

'OFFICE B O Y S ------------------------------------------------------

33

3 9 .5

7 9 .5 0

8 2 .5 0

9

1

1

1

10

6

2

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A ---------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------

6 4 .5 0 -

8 8 .0 0

2

1

~

~

'

WOMEN
BIL LE RS , MACHINE (BOOKKEEPING
MACHINE) ----------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

22
22

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

6 9 .5 0
6 9 .5 0

6 9 .5 0
6 9 .5 0

6 4 .0 0 6 4 .0 0 -

7 7 .5 0
7 7 .5 0

1
1

1
1

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B -------------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

62
54

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

7 3 .0 0
7 1 .5 0

6 4 .5 0
6 4 .5 0

6 2 .5 0 6 2 .0 0 -

8 5 .5 0
8 1 .5 0

_

_

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A ---------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

43
20
23

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 1 7 .0 0
1 2 9 .5 0
1 0 6 .5 0

1 1 9 .0 0
1 2 5 .0 0
1 1 8 .5 0

1 0 7 .0 0 -1 2 5 .0 0
1 0 8 .5 0 -1 4 9 .5 0
8 5 .0 0 - 1 2 2 .5 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B ---------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3-------------------------------

136
28
108
25

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

7 9 .5 0
9 7 .5 0
7 4 .5 0
9 7 .0 0

7 2 .0 0
9 2 .5 0
6 9 .0 0
9 3 .5 0

6 4 .0 0 - 9 0 .5 0
8 7 .5 0 - 1 0 9 .0 0
6 3 . 0 0 - 8 0 .0 0
8 0 .0 0 - 1 2 1 .0 0

CLERKS, PAYROLL ---------------------------------------------

24

3 9 .5

9 6 .0 0

9 5 .5 0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A ---------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------

25
24

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 1 3 .0 0
1 1 3 .0 0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B ---------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

102
73

3 9 .0
3 8 .0

7 6 .0 0
7 2 .0 0

7 4 .5 0
6 9 .0 0

SECRETARIES4------------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3------------------------------

24 7
119
128
84

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 2 6 .0 0
1 3 6 .0 0
1 1 6 .5 0
1 2 4 .5 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS B ---------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

42
39

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

SECRETARIES, CLASS C ---------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

39
29

SECRETARIES, CLASS 0 ---------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3------------------------------STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL ---------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------See footnotes at end of table,




~

5
5

5
5

2
2

6
6

2
2

34
32

2
2

2
2

4
4

4
4

10
6

4
2

2
2

_

_

-

-

_

3

1

_

_

2

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

-

2

7

31

-

-

-

2
-

7

31

21
2
19

7 4 .0 0 - 1 0 3 .5 0

-

-

1

3

1 1 2 .5 0 1 0 3 . 5 0 - 1 2 7 . 0 0
1 1 1 . 00 1 0 3 . 0 0 - 1 2 7 . 0 0

_

_

_

_

2

17

6

-

-

17
6

1
1

10

_

_

-

-

3
3

3
3

1
1

3
3

-

-

-

-

~

-

4
1
3
3

2
2
-

_

_

_

-

1
1

4
1
3
3

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

5
2
3

-

10

6

1
1
-

3
2
1
1

3
1
2
2

2
2
-

3

-

1

1

3

4

4

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

5
5

4
4

2
2

3
2

5
5

3
3

_

_

_

-

2
2

_

-

1
1

-

-

38
38

7
6

15
10

8
2

16
8

10
1

1
1

1
1
-

1
1
-

4
2
2
1

15
2
13
-

4
1
3
3

12
1
11
2

10
3
7
4

9
2
7
3

10
3
7
5

24
6
18
14

40
12
28
23

43
27
16
16

36
26
10
8

-

-

_

-

1
-

-

-

6
5

3
2

2
2

1
1

2
2

8
8

10
10

8
8

-

-

1
1

6
6

-

5
5

1
1

2
1

4
3

4
3

6
5

5
4

3

“

3
1
2
“

3
3

7
1
6
2

4
4
4

2
2
2

5
2
3
3

14
1
13
13

21
6
15
15

8
6
2
2

30
7

31
18

12
6

16
10

7
3

12
3

14
3

9
~

“

-

-

-

7
7

1 2 8 .0 0
1 3 9 .5 0
1 1 9 .0 0
1 2 4 .5 0

1 1 2 .5 0 -1 4 4 .0 0
1 2 6 .0 0 -1 5 1 .0 0
1 0 1 .5 0 -1 3 0 .0 0
1 1 6 .0 0 -1 3 6 .5 0

_

_

_

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
“

1 2 0 .5 0
1 2 2 .5 0

1 2 4 .5 0
1 2 7 .5 0

1 0 4 .5 0 -1 3 9 .0 0
1 1 0 .0 0 -1 3 9 .5 0

-

_

_

“

-

-

1
1

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 1 5 .5 0
1 0 8 .0 0

1 1 6 .0 0
1 1 1 .5 0

9 8 .0 0 -1 3 1 .0 0
9 2 .5 0 -1 2 3 .0 0

_

_

_

-

-

-

75
25
50
44

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 1 5 .5 0
1 2 1 .5 0
1 1 3 .0 0
1 1 5 .5 0

1 1 9 .0 0
1 2 8 .5 0
1 1 7 .0 0
1 1 8 .5 0

1 0 4 .0 0 -1 2 7 .5 0
1 1 4 .0 0 -1 3 4 .5 0
1 0 2 .0 0 -1 2 4 .0 0
1 1 0 .5 0 -1 2 5 .0 0

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
1

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

“

27 6
139

3 9 .5
3 9 .0

9 0 .5 0
8 4 .5 0

8 9 .0 0
8 5 .5 0

7 7 .5 0 -1 0 0 .5 0
6 9 .5 0 - 9 7 .5 0

_

9
9

15
14

15
14

18
11

23
9

~

~

15
7
8
6

-

“

10
6
4

12
8
4
3

-

-

1
1
-

5
1
4
“

8 5 .5 0
7 7 .0 0

6 7 .5 0 6 6 .5 0 -

-

“

23
11

42
21

3
-

1
-

-

-

5
5
-

31
27
4
4

3
3
-

2
1
l
1

-

1
1
-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

1
-

_

_

1
-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

~

~

*■
*

_

7

Table A-l. Office Occupations—Men and Women— Continued
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Charleston, W. Va., April 1968)
Weekly earnings1
( standard)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number
of
workers

Number of w orkers receiving stra igh t-tim e w eekly earnings of—

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ * * $ $

Average
weekly

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

10 0

105

11 0

115

120

$

120

$

130

$

$

140

150

$

160

$

170

$---

180

( standard)

under
55

WOMEN -

13 0

140

150

16 0

11
11

170

18 0

190

15
15

CONTINUED
$
$
$
1 1 5 .5 0 1 0 0 . 5 0 - 1 3 5 . 0 0
1 2 1 .5 0 1 0 7 . 0 0 - 1 4 0 . 0 0
9 6 .0 0 1 0 9 .0 0
1 0 1 .0 0
9 6 .5 0 1 2 2 .5 0
1 0 3 .5 0

STENOGRAPHERS* SENIOR -----------------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ----------------------------------PURLIC U T I L I T I E S 3------------------------------

94
68
26
15

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

1 1 5 .5 0
1 2 0 .5 0
1 0 2 .5 0
1 0 7 .5 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B -------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

47
43

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

6 7 .5 0
6 6 .5 0

6 2 .5 0
6 1 .5 0

5 4 .0 0 5 3 .5 0 -

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR— RECEP TIO NI STS NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

49
41

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

7 4 .0 0
7 3 .0 0

7 0 .0 0
6 9 .5 0

6 4 . DO- 8 2 .5 0
6 4 . 5 0 - 8 0 .0 0

T Y P I S T S , CLASS A -----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------

52
39

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 8 .5 0
1 0 1 .5 0

1 0 2 .0 0
1 0 6 .0 0

8 4 .5 0 9 0 .0 0 -

19 3
108
37

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

7 4 .5 0
6 9 .0 0
7 4 .0 0

7 5 .0 0
6 7 .0 0
7 0 .0 0

6 6 .0 0 6 3 .0 0 6 7 .5 0 -

T Y P I S T S , CLASS B -------------NONMANUFACTURING ------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3—

7 5 .0 0
7 0 .0 0

1
1

14

10
10

10
10

11

1 1 4 .5 0
1 1 6 .0 0
8 4 .0 0
7 1 .0 0
8 1 .5 0

1

24
21

4
4

3

1
1

7
6

14
3
3

11

47
45
20

2

2

45
7
5

3

2
15
15

4
3

3
3

10
10

15
15

25
7

1

1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w orkw eek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s (exclu sive of pay for overtim e at regular an d /or prem ium r a te s), and the earnings correspond
to these w eekly hours.
2 The m ean is computed for each job by totaling the earnings of all w ork ers and dividing by the number of w o rk ers. The median designates position— half of the em ployees surveyed receive m ore thanj
the rate shown; half rec eive le s s than the rate shown.
The middle range is defined by 2 rates of pay; a fourth of the w orkers earn le s s than the lower of these rates and a fourth earn m ore than the|
higher rate.
3 T ran sportation , com m unication, and other public u tilities.
4 M ay include w ork ers other than those presented separately.

Table A-2. Professional and Technical Occupations—Women
(Average straight-tim e w eekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, C harleston, W. V a,, A p ril 1968)
W eekly earnings1
(standard)
Number

Occupation and industry division

of

Avenge
weekly
hour,1
(ftandard)

Number of w ork ers receiving stra igh t-tim e w eekly earnings of—
(

$
80

M ean1
2

Median 2

M iddle range 2

36
32

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

$
$
$
1 3 0 .0 0 * 1 3 4 .5 0 1 2 1 . 5 0 1 3 1 .0 0 1 3 5 .0 0 1 2 2 . 5 0 -

$
90

$

$
95

$
10 0

$
105

$
110

$
115

$
120

$
12 5

130

$
135

$
140

$
145

150

155

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

13 0

135

140

145

150

155

160,

1 3 9 .0 0
1 3 9 .0 0

1
1

1
-

2
2

11
11

2
2

-

—
-

—
—

1
-

2

7
2

1
6

1

4
4

1 Standard hours refle ct the workweek for which em ployees receive their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s (exclusive of pay for overtim e at regular an d /or
and the earnings corresp ond to these weekly hours.
2 F o r definition of t e r m s , see footnote 2, table A - l .




$

$

and
under
85

NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) -----MANUFACTURING ---------------------------------------

85

1
1

1
1

prem ium

2
1

rates),

8

Table A-3. Office, Professional, and Technical Occupations—Men and Women Combined
(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for sexecced occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Charleston, W. Va. , April 1968)
Average

Occupation and industry division

Number
of
workers

Weekly
Weekly
hours 1 earnings 1
(standard] (standard)

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS

BILLERS* MACHINE {BOOKKEEPING
M ACHINE)-----------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B -------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING-------------------------------- 5 4

Average

Occupation and industry division

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS -

Number
of

Weekly
hours 1
(standard)

Weekly
earnings 1
(standard)

CONTINUED

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS -

22
22

3 9 -5
3 9 .5

$
6 9 .5 0
6 9 .5 0

OFFICE BOYS AND GIRLS-----------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING - - ---------------------------PUBLIC U T IL I T IE S ----------------------------

45
27
18
16

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .0

$
8 0 .0 0
8 5 .0 0
7 2 .0 0
7 3 .0 0

62

3 9 -0
3 9 -0

7 3 .0 0
7 1 .5 0

24 9

4 0 .0
414 0 . 0
714 0 . 0

1 2 7 .5 0
1 4 1 .0 0
1 2 0 .0 0

SECRETARIES ------------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------PUBLIC U TILITIES1 3
2 ----------------------------

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 2 6 .0 0
1 3 5 .5 0
1 1 6 .5 0
1 2 4 .5 0

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS A ------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------------

11 2

CLERKS, ACCOUNTING, CLASS B --------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING — ----------------------------PUBLIC UTILITIES ----------------------------

167
34
13 3
48

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
4 0 .0

8 5 .0 0
1 0 3 .0 0
8 0 .5 0
1 0 1 .5 0

CLERKS, PAYROLL ----------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

43
25
18

4 0 .0
4 0 .0
3 9 .5

1 0 9 .5 0
1 2 3 .5 0
8 9 .5 0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS A
MANUFACTURING ----------------------

30
29

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 1 5 .0 0
1 1 5 .0 0

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS, CLASS B
NONMANUFACTURING

102

3 9 .0
3 8 .0

7 6 .0 0
7 2 .0 0

73

SECRETARIES, CLASS B
NONMANUFACTURING -----

Average

Occupation and industry division

121
128
84
42
39

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

1 2 0 .5 0
1 2 2 .5 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS C -------------------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

39
29

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 1 5 .5 0
1 0 8 .0 0

SECRETARIES, CLASS D ------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -------------------------------PUBLIC UT ILITIE S2----------------------------

77
27
50
44

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .5
3 9 .5

1 1 6 .0 0
1 2 2 .0 0
1 1 3 .0 0
1 1 5 .5 0

STENOGRAPHERS, GENERAL
NONMANUFACTURING ----

277
140

3 9 .5
3 9 .0

9 1 .0 0
8 4 .5 0

STENOGRAPHERS, SENIOR
MANUFACTURING ---------NONMANUFACTURING —
PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 2

68
26
15

3 9 .5
4 0 .0
3 9 .0
3 9 .5

1 1 5 .5 0
1 2 0 .5 0
1 0 2 .5 0
1 0 7 .5 0

94

Number
of

W eekly
earnings 1
(standard)

CONTINUED

SWITCHBOARD OPERATORS, CLASS B -------NONMANUFACTURING ---------------------------------

47
43.

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

$
6 7 .5 0
6 6 .5 0

SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR-RECEPTIONISTSNONMANUFACTURING --------------------------------

49
41

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

7 4 .0 0
7 3 .0 0

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS B ---------------------------------------------------------

21

4 0 .0

1 1 6 .5 0

TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATORS,
CLASS C ---------------------------------------------------------

28

3 8 .0

7 7 .0 0

TYPISTS, CLASS A --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------------------

52
39

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

9 8 .5 0
1 0 1 .5 0

TYPISTS, CLASS B -------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------------PUBLIC U T IL IT IE S 2 ------------------------------------

194
10 8
37

3 9 .5
3 9 .5
3 8 .5

7 4 .5 0
6 9 .0 0
7 4 .0 0

36
32

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 3 0 .0 0
1 3 1 .0 0

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
OCCUPATIONS
NURSES, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED) -------MANUFACTURING --------------------------------------------------

1 Standard hours r efle ct the workweek for which em ployees rec eiv e their regular stra igh t-tim e sa la rie s (exclusive of pay for overtim e at regular a n d /o r p rem iu m r a te s),
correspond to these weekly hours.
2 Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
3 M ay include w orkers other than those presented sep arately.




W eekly
hours 1
(standard)

and the earnings

9

Table A-4. Maintenance and Powerplant Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for men in selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Charleston, W. Va., April 1968)
Number of w orkers receiving stra igh t-tim e hourly earnings of—

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

$

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2 .7 0

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3 .1 0

3 .2 0

3 .3 0

3 .4 0

3 .5 0

3 .6 0

3 .7 0

3 .8 0

3 .9 0

4 .0 0

4 .1 0

2 .2 0

Occupation and industry division

$

2 .2 0
T J
T
Under 2 . 1 0
$
and
2 . 1 0 under
2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2 .7 0

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3 .1 0

3 .2 0

3 .3 0

3 .4 0

3 .5 0

3 .6 0

3 .7 0

3 .8 0

3 .9 0

■
P
o
o

Hourly earnings 1
Number
of
workers

$

4 .1 0 4 .2 0

—

~

-

~

-

-

~

“

~

-

-

1
1

1

8
8

1
1

3
3

16
16

50
50

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

28
28

5
5

29
29

106
106

10

8
8

4
4

84
84

_

_

_

3
3

7
7

17
3
14
14

24

$
M ean2

Median 2

Middle range 2

CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE --------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------

158
157

$
3 .7 9
3 .8 0

$
3 .8 0
3 .7 9

$
$
3 .7 2 - 3 .9 5
3 .7 2 - 3 .9 5

E L E C TR IC IA N S , MAINTENANCE —
MANUFACTURING ---------------------------

327
327

3 .7 9
3 .7 9

3 .7 9
3 .7 9

3 .7 2 - 3 .9 4
3 .7 2 - 3 .9 4

-

ENGINEERS, STATIONARY -------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------

180
169

3 .7 1
3 .7 3

3 .6 7
3 .6 8

3 .6 2 - 3 .9 1
3 .6 3 - 3 .9 2

-

HELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRADES
MANUFACTURING ---------------------------

32
29

2 .8 2
2 .7 9

3 .1 5
2 .6 9

2 .1 9 - 3 .3 5
2 .1 8 - 3 .3 5

-

MA CHINISTS, MAINTENANCE --------MANUFACTURING --------------------------

185
171

3 .7 9
3 .7 9

3 .7 8
3 .7 8

3 .7 1 - 3 .8 9
3 .7 1 - 3 .8 9

MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE
(MAINTENANCE) ------------------------------MANUFACTURING --------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 3--------------

178
39
139
130

3 .4 2
3 .3 8
3 .4 3
3 .4 2

3 .5 0
3 .5 5
3 .4 9
3 .4 8

3 .2 8 2 .9 9 3 .3 2 3 .3 1 -

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE -----------MANUFACTURING --------------------------

464
460

3 .7 8
3 .7 9

3 .7 8
3 .7 9

3 .7 2 - 3 .9 4
3 .7 3 - 3 .9 4

-

_

1
“

-

MILLWRIGHTS --------------------------------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------

221
218

3 .7 6
3 .7 6

3 .7 6
3 .7 6

3 .7 1 - 3 .9 2
3 .7 2 - 3 .9 2

-

-

-

“

-

PA INTERS, MAINTENANCE -------------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------

121
119

3 .7 8
3 .8 2

3 .9 1
3 .9 1

3 .7 2 - 3 .9 6
3 .7 3 - 3 .9 6

2

P I P E F I T T E R S , MAINTENANCE ------MANUFACTURING ---------------------------

575
575

3 .8 2
3 .8 2

3 .8 0
3 .8 0

62
62

3 .8 5
3 .8 5

3 .8 0
3 .8 0

SHEET-METAL WORKERS, MAINTENANCE —
MANUFACTURING -------

3 .6 5
3 .7 7
3 .6 4
3 .6 4

-

-

-

“

~

~

9
9

2
2

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

—

-

-

2
2

_

-

-

-

-

3 .7 4 - 3 .9 5
3 .7 4 - 3 .9 5

-

-

-

1
1

5
4

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

~

16
4
12
12

-

-

-

-

-

-

~

“

~

~

-

-

-

-

-

~

-

3
-

-

4
4

6
6

_
-

-

-

-

-

20
20

20

~

~

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

17
17

51
51

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

2
2

25
22

68
68

38
27

39
39

1
1

2
2

18
2
16
10

53

13
13

_

5
5

_

24
24

53
50

-

-

_

_
_

-

-

-

-

-

10
10

21
21

10
7

6
6

195
195

_

201
201

_

_

-

-

114
114

_

68
68

_

_

-

13
10

3
3

15
15

29
29

68
68

_

_

-

-

9
9

47
47

222
222

_

-

_

_

-

-

29
29

_

-

14
14

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

24
24

2
2

2
2

-

2
2

-

_

-

-

11
11

~

~

-

-

-

-

4
4

-

-

-

1

"

~

~

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

“

-

138
138

-

“

-

19
19

18
18

“

-

_

_

-

_

78
78

“

-

~

-

-

~

-

2
2

_

3 .7 3 - 3 .9 5
3 .7 3 - 3 .9 5

2
2

2
2

-

“

-

“

-

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
For definition of term s, see footnote 2, table A - l .
Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




-

3
3

1
1

_

-

-

-

_
-

-

_

-

-

280
280

_

_

30
30

_

_

-

-

-

10

Table A-5. Custodial and Material Movement Occupations
(Average straight-time hourly earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis
by industry division, Charleston, W. Va. , April 1968)
H
ourly earnings1
2

Number o f workers receiving straight-tim e hourly earnings o f $
$
1 .6 0 1 .7 0

N ber
um
Occupation1 and industry division

Mean3

Median3

M
iddle range3

Under
$
and
1 . 60 under

$
1 . 80

$
1 .9 0

$
2 .0 0

$
2 .1 0

$
2 .2 0

$
2 .3 0

$
2 .4 0

$
2 .5 0

$
2 .6 0

$
2 .7 0

$
3 .0 7
3 .1 9

$
3 .4 0
3 .4 1

$
2 .8 8 2 .9 2 -

$
3 .4 5
3 .4 6

GUARDS:
MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------

51

3 .2 5

3 .4 2

3 .1 1 -

45 7
145
312
44

1 .9 9
2 .6 0
1 .7 0
2 .3 0

1 .7 1
2 .8 2
1 .6 6
2 .6 2

1 .6 4 - 2 .5 7
2 . 3 6 - 2 .8 9
1 . 6 2 - 1 .7 5
1 .7 6 - 2 .6 8

JA NI TO R S , PORTERS, AND CLEANERS
(WOMEN) -------------------------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING ------------------------------------

34
32

1 .8 4
1 .8 2

1 .8 3
1 .8 1

1 .6 7 1 .6 6 -

1 .9 6
1 .9 4

_

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING ---------------MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

21 1
107
10 4

2 .4 0
2 .7 6
2 .0 2

2 .3 9
2 .8 6
2 .1 1

2 . 1 0 - 2 .8 6
2 . 4 8 - 3 .0 3
1 .6 8 - 2 .2 5

RECEIVING CLERKS ------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------

79
68

3 .1 3
3 .3 3

3 .3 4
3 .3 5

3 .3 1 3 .3 2 -

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS ----------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------

58
35

2 .7 0
3 .1 0

2 .8 2
2 .8 8

2 . 0 8 - 2 .9 0
2 .8 3 - 3 .3 9

_

TRUCKDRIVERS5 ----------------------------------------------

MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 4-------------------------------

55 6
25 2
304
15 8

3 .0 5
3 .1 9
2 .9 3
3 .4 1

3 .2 5
3 .2 5
3 .2 6
3 .5 1

2 . 8 8 - 3 .4 9
3 . 0 9 - 3 .3 3
2 .1 8 - 3 .5 2
3 .2 5 - 3 .5 6

9
9

TRUCKDRIVERS, L I G H T (UNDER
1- 1/ 2 TONS) ------------------------------------------------

73

2 .5 5

3 .2 0

1 .6 8 -

6

3 .2 5

122
95

2 .7 8
2 .6 7

3 .0 5
2 .3 8

2 .1 7 2 .1 4 -

3 .3 3
3 .4 2

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS,
TRAILER TYPE) ------------------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------

97
38

3 .1 4
3 .1 0

3 .2 4
3 .0 5

2 .9 8 2 .7 3 -

=2SL 2 . 0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

-

-

2 .3 0

2 .4 0

2 . 5 0 J LsM i. 2 . 7 0

2
“

2
~

-

*■

-

36
36

191
5
186
3

28
3
25
13

19
3
16
~

6
6
“

11
2
9
~

13
13

3
3

6
6

7
7

_

_
-

32
32

3
1
2

4
4

4
4

9
9

-

2
-

1
1

2
-

2
-

_

_

“

15

6
1
5

_

_

-

~
22
1
21

-

81

3 .2 7

3 .4 9

3 .0 6 -

16
16

5

-

-

~

~

33
33

3 .0 8
3 .0 8

3 .2 5
3 .2 5

2 .7 2 2 .7 2 -

3 .5 3
3 .5 3

1
2
3
4
5

19
18
1
1

7
2
5
2

9
6
3
~

6
6
-

17
17
~

$
1 ....
3 .5 0 3 .6 0

i
3 .8 0

3 ?40, 3 . 5 0

3 ,6 0

3 . 8 0 . over

32
32

-

-

2 ..9 0

.0 0

3
3

5
5

_

_

~

~

1
1

-

-

13
13

5
5

-

18
18
18

5

-

7

-

-

32

-

-

6
6
6

54
53
1
1

30
30
-■

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

~

~

~

“

4

35
35

_

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

2
2

60
60

_

_

-

*

2
2

1
1

2
2

_

_

-

-

8
8

172
119
53
53

22
22
-

41
2
39
3

131
40
91
91

2
2
~

2
2
-

_

.

_

-

-

21
2
19

22
4
18

11
2
9

22
22
-

-

4
-

1
-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

18

5
-

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

3
3

28
28

1
1

12
3
9

_
-

8
8
-

12
12
-

10
10
-

3
3

-

3
3

28
28

1
1

12
9

-

7
7

-

-

-

~

_
-

5
2
3

-

_

_

39
39

_

3
3

_

-

19
19

2
2

_

_

-

-

16
10
6

8
5
3

27
15
12
3

8
8
8

-

-

~

3
3

_

8
5

3

“

37

3

1
_

-

12
9

_

_

_

_

24
3

_

61
11

~

_

30
30

_

_

“

**

5
2

2
2

2
2

_

_

_

2
2

_

2
2

_

_

6
6

6
6

6
_

_
-

4

2
2

_

-

3
3

1
_

3 *10 3 . 20 3 . 3 0

~

.

2

5

Data lim ited to m en w orkers except where otherw ise indicated.
E xcludes p rem iu m pay for overtim e and for work on weekends, h olid ays, and late sh ifts.
F or definition of t e r m s , see footnote 2, table A - l .
Tran sportation, com m unication, and other public u tilities.
Includes a ll d r iv e r s , as defined, regard less of siz e and type of truck operated.




$
3 .4 0

“

-

3 .5 5

TRUCKERS, POWER (F O R K L IF T ) ------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------

$
3 .3 0

2 .8 0

-

-

-

1
1

-

~

3 .2 8
3 .2 9

TRUCKDRIVERS, HEAVY (OVER 4 TONS,
OTHER THAN TRAILER TYP E) ----------------

$
$
3 . 10 3 . 2 0

an

3 .4 6

J AN ITO R S , PORTERS, AND CLEANERS -----MANUFACTURING ------------------------------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------PUBLIC U T I L I T I E S 4-------------------------------

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM ( 1 - 1 / 2 TO
AND INCLUDING A TONS) ----------------------NONMANUFACTURING -----------------------------------

$
3 .0 0

7

62
58

3 .3 7
3 .3 8

$
2..9 0

-

1 .7 0 .L l§0

GUARDS AND WATCHMEN -----------------------------------MANUFACTURING -------------------------------------------

$
2 .8 0

5

-

3

-

11

5

5

-

6

40

-

3
3

1
1

3
3

_

1
1

_

_

10
10

_

_

11
11

_

~

2
2

11

B. E stablishm ent Practices and Supplem entary Wage Provisions
Table B-l. Minimum Entrance Salaries for Women Office W orkers
(D istr ib u tio n of e sta b lish m e n ts studied in a ll in d u strie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by m in im u m en tran ce s a la r y fo r s e le c te d c a te g o r ie s
of in exp erien ced w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s , C h a r le sto n , W . V a ., A p r il 1968)
In exp e rie n ced ty p ists
M anufacturing
M in im u m w eekly s t r a ig h t -t im e sa la r y 1

E s ta b lis h m e n t s having a s p e c ifie d m i n i m u m ________________
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$
$

5 0 .0 0
5 2 .5 0
5 5 .0 0
5 7 .5 0
6 0 .0 0
6 2 .5 0
6 5 .0 0
6 7 .5 0
7 0 .0 0
7 2 .5 0
7 5 .0 0
7 7 .5 0
8 0 .0 0
8 2 .5 0

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $ 5 2 .5 0 _______________________________________
under $ 5 5 .0 0 _______ _____________________________
under $ 5 7 .5 0 ,----------------------------------------------------------u nder $ 6 0 .0 0 _______________________________________
u nd er $ 6 2 .5 0 _______ _____________________________
under $ 6 5 .0 0 _______________________________________
under $ 6 7 .5 0 ----------------------------------------------------------under $ 7 0 .0 0 _______________________________________
u nder $ 7 2 .5 0 _______________________________________
under $ 7 5 .0 0 _______________________________________
u nder $ 7 7 .5 0 _______________________________________
u nder $ 8 0 .0 0 _______________________________________
u nder $ 8 2 .5 0 ______________________________________ •
o v e r ________________________ ______________________

40

A ll
sch ed u les

M an ufacturing
A ll
in d u strie s

B a sed on standard w ee k ly h ours 3 of—

A ll
in du stries

A ll
sch edu les

E s ta b lis h m e n ts stu d ied _______________________________________

Other inexpeirienced c le r ic a l w o r k e r s 2
N onm an ufactu ring

A ll
schedu le s

40

N onm anufacturing

B a sed on standard w eekly h o u r s 3 of—
40

A ll
sch e d u les

40

63

23

XXX

40

XX X

63

23

XX X

40

XX X

17

9

9

8

6

29

12

10

17

11

_
1
5
1
2
2
2
1
1

_
1
1
2
2
1
-

_
1
1
2
2
1
-

_
1
4
1
1
1

_
4
1
1

1
2
1
4
7
2
1
3
2
2
1
1

_
2
1
_
2
2
2
1
-

_
_
1
_
2
2
2
1
-

1

1
_
_
_

2
1
_

2
6

2

6
1

1
1
_
_
_
1

_
_
_
1

1
1

2

2

2

-

-

2

2

2

-

E s ta b lis h m e n ts h aving no s p e c ifie d m in im u m _______________

10

3

XXX

7

XXX

14

2

XXX

12

XXX

E s ta b lis h m e n ts w hich did not e m p lo y w o r k e r s
in th is c a te g o r y --------------------------------------- -------------------------------------

36

11

XX X

25

XX X

20

9

XXX

11

XXX

T h e s e s a la r ie s r e la te to f o r m a ll y e sta b lish ed m in im u m startin g (hiring) re g u la r s t r a ig h t -t im e s a la r ie s that a re paid fo r
E x c lu d e s w o r k e r s in s u b c le r ic a l jo b s such as m e s s e n g e r or o ffic e g ir l.
D ata a r e p r e se n te d fo r a ll stand ard w ork w eek s c om b in ed, and fo r the m o s t c o m m o n stand ard w ork w eek r ep o rted .




standard w ork w eek s.

12




Table B-2. Shift Differentials
(Shift d iffe r e n tia ls of m a n u fa c tu r in g plant w o r k e r s b y type and am ount of d iffe r e n tia l,
C h a r le s to n , W . V a ., A p r il 1968)
P e r c e n t of m an u factu rin g plant w o r k e r s ---In e s t a b lis h m e n ts having f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s 1 f o r —

Shift d iffe r e n tia l

S econ d sh ift
w ork

T h ird or other
sh ift w ork

A c tu a lly woirking on—

Second sh ift

T h ir d o r o th e r
sh ift

-------------

9 8 .4

95 .5

1 6 .8

1 0 .6

W ith sh ift pay d if f e r e n t ia l__________________________

9 5 .9

9 4 .4

1 6 .0

1 0 .5

U n ifo r m cen ts (p e r h o u r ) _______________________

9 3 .8

9 3 .8

15 .3

1 0 .5

5 c e n t s ___________________________________________
6 c e n t s __________________________ ___
— —
8 c e n t s __________________ _____ ________ - _
9 c e n t s _____________________ — — ---------------10 c e n ts __________________________________________
12 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------- ----14 c e n ts ______________________________ _ ___ _
_
_
15 c e n ts ---------------------------------------------------------------16 c e n ts _______________________ _______ ______
17 c e n ts _____________________________ _ _
_ _
_
18 c e n ts_______ ________________________________
20 c e n ts ------- ---------------------- -------------- ----- _
22 c e n ts ___________________________ ________ ___
25 c e n ts----------------------------------------------------------------

1 .4
2 .9
5 .2
6 .5
2 0 .5
1 5 .2
3 4 .5
7 .5
-

1.4
-

_
.6

.2
-

T o t a l--------------------------------------------------------

-

"

1.4
.8
11.6
2 0 .5
1.0
15 .0
3 4 .5
5 .2

.5
.9

6.5
1.4
4. I
1.3
-

_

2.0

.6

.7

_ _

2.5

1.1

.7

O th e r fo r m a l p ay d iffe r e n tia l-------------W ith no sh ift p ay d i f f e r e n t i a l_________

-

-

2.3

1 In c lu d es e s t a b lis h m e n ts c u r r e n tly o p e r a tin g la te s h ift s , and e s t a b lis h m e n ts w ith f o r m a l p r o v is io n s c o v e r in g
ev en though th e y w e r e not c u r r e n tly o p e r a tin g la te s h ift s .
2 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t.

-

(1)
2

.9

-

1.7
.1
2 .6

3.9

.8
.3

•*

la te

sh ifts

13

Table B-3. Scheduled Weekly Hours
(P e r c e n t d istrib u tion of plant and o ffic e w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s by sch edu led w ee k ly h ours 1
of f i r s t - s h i f t w o r k e r s , C h a r le sto n , W . V a ., A p r il 1968)
Plant w o r k e r s

O ffice w o rk ers

W e e k ly h ou rs
A ll in d u str ie s1
2

M an ufactu ring

P ublic u t ilit ie s 3

A l l w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

Under 2>ll/ z h o u r s ___________________ _____________
3 7 V2 h o u r s ________________________________ ____ _
_
O v e r 3 7 V2 and under 4 0 h o u r s______________________
40 h o u r s ___ __________________ _ _
_ _________
O v e r 4 0 and under 45 h o u r s _
_
_________ __
45 h o u r s _______________ _____ ________________ ______ __
48 h o u r s ________ ______ ________ _____

4
1
4
85
2
2
2

2
_
97
_
1

-

1
2
3
4
5

-

100
_
-

A ll in d u s tr ie s 4

100

7
13
2
76
2
( 5)

M anufacturing

100

100

3

40

1
96
_
_

60

S ch ed u led h o u r s a r e the w ee k ly h ours w hich a m a jo r ity of the f u l l-t im e w o r k e r s w e r e ex p e cted to w o r k , w hether th e y w e r e paid fo r at s t r a ig h t -t im e or o v e r tim e
In clu d es data fo r w h o le s a le t r a d e , r etail t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v i c e s , in ad dition to th o se in d u stry d iv isio n s show n se p a r a te ly .
T r a n s p o r ta tio n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilitie s .
In clu d es data fo r w h o le s a le tr a d e ; re ta il tr a d e ; fin a n c e, in su r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te ; and s e r v i c e s , in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
L e s s than 0 .5 p e r c e n t.




Public u tilit ie s 3

_
_
_

r a te s .

14

Table B-4. Paid Holidays
(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by number of paid holidays
provided annually, Charleston, W. Va. , April 1968)

P lant w o rk e rs
Ite m

A ll w o r k e r s ____________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
p a id h o l i d a y s ______________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s p r o v i d i n g
no p a id h o l i d a y s __________________________________

All i n d u s t r i e s

O ffic e w o r k e r s
All i n d u s t r i e s 3

M an ufacturin g

M an ufacturin g

P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 1
2

100

100

100

100

100

100

96

100

100

99

100

100

1

4

P u b l ic u t i l i t i e s 2

1

N u m b e r of days
4 h o l i d a y s ----------------------------------------------------------------5 h o l i d a y s _____________________________________ !--------6 h o l i d a y s ____________________________________________
7 h o l i d a y s ____________________________________________
8 h o l i d a y s ____________________________________________
8 h o lid a y s p lu s 1 h a l f d a y -------------------------------------9 h o l i d a y s ____________________________________________
11 h o l i d a y s ___________________________________________
1 3 h o l i d a y s ___________________________________________

2
2
20
8
12

13
39
“

2

i

7
5
8
21

57
-

_
19
48
33
~

(4 )
2
17
4
18
4
48
4
2

(4 )
6
2

3

8

80
"

_
4
7
56
(4 )
34
"

T o t a l h o lid a y t i m e
13 d a y s _______________________________________________
1 1 d a y s o r m o r e ____________________________________
9 d a y s o r m o r e _____________________________________
8 V2 d a y s o r m o r e ___________________________________
8 d a y s o r m o r e _____________________________________
7 d a y s o r m o r e _____________________________________
6 d a y s o r m o r e _____________________________________
5 d a y s o r m o r e _____________________________________
4 d a y s 0 r m o r e _____________________________________

1
1
3
4

_
39
52
64
71
92
93
96

_
57
78
85
91
98
98
100

_
33
33
81
100
100
100
100

2
6

54
58
76
80
97
98
99

_
80
88

91
94
99
99

100

I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e , r e t a i l t r a d e , r e a l e s t a t e , a n d s e r v i c e s , in a d d i t i o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v is i o n s sh o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , a n d o t h e r p u b l ic u t i l i t i e s .
I n c lu d e s d a t a f o r w h o l e s a l e t r a d e ; r e t a i l t r a d e ; f i n a n c e , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e a l e s t a t e ; a n d s e r v i c e s , in a d d iti o n to t h o s e i n d u s t r y d i v i s i o n s s h o w n s e p a r a t e l y .
L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .




_

34
34
90
96
100
100
100

15

Table B-5. Paid Vacations1
(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by vacation pay
provisions, Charleston, W. V a ., April 1968)
O ffice w o rk ers

Plant w o rk ers
V a c a tio n p o lic y
A ll in d u s tr ie s 2

A ll w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------------------

M an ufactu ring

P ublic u t ilit ie s 3

A ll in d u str ie s*

M anufacturing

Public u tilit ie s 3

100

100

100

100

100

100

98
90
8
-

100
92
8
-

100
87
13
-

99
99
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

M eth od of p aym en t
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n ts p r ovid in g
p aid v a c a tio n s ------------------------------------------------------------L e n g t h -o f -t i m e p a y m e n t ------------------------------------P e r c e n ta g e p a y m e n t______________________________
O t h e r _________________________________________________
W o r k e r s in e s t a b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
no paid v a c a tio n s ____________________________________

2

A m ou n t of v a c a tio n p a y 5
A fte r 6 m on th s of s e r v ic e
U nder 1 w e e k ___________________________________________
1 w e e k ____________________________________________________
O v e r 1 and under 2 w e e k s __________________________

13
8
1

21
3

57
42

45
55

100

36
62

40
60

13
85
1

14
86
-

_

( 6)
58
2

92
2

38
61

3
97

100

16
84

7
92

2
98

4
96

_

1
97

-

A fte r 1 y e a r of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________________
2 w e e k s __________________________________________________

-

A fte r 2 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________________
2 w e e k s __________________________________________________
A fte r 3 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w ee k ____________________________________________________
2 w e e k s __________________________________________________
O v e r 2 and u nder 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------3 w e e k s __________________________________________________

-

96
4

(6)
1

(6 )

99
-

-

_
96

(6)
4

A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w e e k ____________________________________________________
2 w e e k s __________________________________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s _____________________ _
3 w e e k s __________________________________________________

3

47

13

36

_

_

28
21
52

96
4

_
12
1
35
52

19
81

(6 )

_

56
4
39

17
8
75

(6 )

_
5
20
75

_
96

(6)
4

A fte r 10 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w ee k ____________________________________________________
2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s ---------------------------------------3 w e e k s __________________________________________________
4 w e e k s __________________________________________________

3
21
1
42
32

_

-

23

(6)

39
37

_
13
(6)
87
-

A fte r 12 y e a r s of s e r v ic e
1 w eek ____________________________________________________
2 w e e k s __________________________________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s __________________________
3 w e e k s __________________________________________________
4 w e e k s __________________________________________________

S ee f o o tn o te s a t e n d of ta b l e .




3
17
2

43

32

_
12
1
35
52

-

13
-

87

(6 )
21
1
40
37

_

5

_
13

-

_

20
75

87
-

16

Table B-5. Paid Vacations1 Continued
—
(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n o f plant and o f fi c e w o r k e r s in a ll in d u s tr ie s and in in du stry d iv is io n s b y v a c a tio n p a y
p r o v is io n s , C h a r le s to n , W. V a ., A p r il 1968)

P lant w o rk e rs
V acation policy
A m ount of v acation p a y 5— Continued
A fter 15 y e a rs of se rv ic e
1 w eek. ------ ---- -------------— ------------------->2 w e e k s__ ___ _________________ _____________
3 w e e k s__________________________ ____________
O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s --------------------------------4 w e e k s------- -------------- --------------------------------A fter 20 y e a rs of se rv ic e
1 w eek---------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s_________________________________________
3 w e e k s-------------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and un der 4 w eeks - — ----------------------4 w eeks __ -----------------------------------------------------5 w eeks ___________________________ ________
A fter 25 y e a rs of se rv ic e
1 w eek—_____ — ------------------- -----------------------2 w e ek s- - — — — ----------------------------------3 w e e k s-------------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and un der 4 w e e k s_________ ______
4 w eeks ____________ ________ ____ ________
O ver 4 and under 5 w e e k s— ---------------------------5 w eeks _
___________________ __________
A fter 30 y e a rs of se rv ic e
1 w eek___________________________________________
2 w e e k s------------------------------------------------------------—
3 w eeks _ ---------------------------- ------O ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s_____________ -______ 4 w e e k s-------------------------------------------------------------5 w eeks __
— --------------------- ------- -------6 w e e k s_________________________________________
M axim um v acation av ailable
1 w eek----------------------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s-------------------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s-------------------------------------------------------------O ver 3 and un der 4 w e e k s— --------------- — ------4 w e e k s--- ------------------ --------------------------------5 w e e k s-------------------------------------------------------------6 w eeks _ — _____________________________ O ver 6 w eeks __________ _______ _____ ______

O ffice w o rk e rs
All in d u strie s4

M anufacturing

All in d u strie s 1
2

M anufacturing

3
9
49
1
37

_
3
38
1
57

_
(6)
89
11

(6)
10
49
(6)
41

_
2
18
80

_
4
90
6

3
8
32
1
22
32

_
2
37
1
8
52

(6)
2
98
-

(6)
9
20
33
37

_
2
16
8
75

4
(6)
95
-

3
8
24
5
23
36

2
25
8
8
57

(6)
2
98
-

_

(6)
9
13
1
36
(6)
39

2
3
2
14
80

3
8
23
5
23
15
21

_
2
23
8
10
23
35

(6)
2
96
2
-

(6)
9
13
1
36
8
32

2
2
2
14
15
65

3
8
23
5
23
5
30

2
23
8
10
8
50

(6)
2
96
2

(6)
9
13
1
36
3
36
(6)

2
2
2
14
5
74

_

_

Public u tilitie s 3

-

_

_

_

Public u tilitie s 3

_

4
(*)
95
-

_

4
(6)
94
2
-

.

4
(6)
94
2

_

1 Includes b a sic plans only. E xclud es plan s such as v a c a tio n -sa v in g s and those plan s w hich offer "extended" o r "sab b atical" ben efits beyond b a sic plan s to w o rk e rs w ith qualifying leng ths
of s e rv ice. Typic a l of such exclusions a re plans in the ste e l, alum inum , and can in d u strie s.
2 Includes data fo r w ho lesale tra d e , r e ta il tra d e , re a l e sta te , and se rv ic e s , in add ition to tho se in d u stry divisions shown se p a rate ly .
3 T ra n sp o rta tio n , com m unication, and oth er public u tilitie s.
4 Includes data fo r w ho lesale tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; finance, in su ran ce , and re a l e s ta te ; and se rv ic e s , in add ition to tho se in d u stry div ision s show n se p a ra te ly .
5 Includes paym ent oth er than "len gth of tim e ," such as p ercen tag e of annual earn in g s o r fla t-su m pay m en ts, converted to an equivalent tim e b a sis ; fo r e x am p le,
a pay m ent of2 p e rc e n t of
annual earn in g s w as c o n sid ered a s 1 w e ek 's pay. P e rio d s of se rv ic e w ere cho sen a rb itra r ily and do not n e c e s s a rily refle ct the individual p ro v isio n s fo r p ro g re s s io n . F o r exam ple. the chang es
in p ro p o rtio n s ind icated at 10 y e a rs ' se rv ic e include changes in p ro v isio n s o c c u rrin g betw een 5 and 10 y e a rs . E stim a te s a re cum ulative. T hus, the p ro p o rtio n elig ib le fo r 3 w eek s' pay o r
m o re a fte r 10 y e a rs includes tho se eligib le fo r 3 w eek s' pay o r m o re a fte r few er y e a rs of se rv ic e .
6 L ess than 0.5 p e rce n t.




17

Table B-6. Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans
(P erc en t of plant and o ffic e w o r k e r s in a ll in d u str ie s and in in d u stry d iv isio n s em p lo y ed in e s ta b lish m e n ts p rovidin g
h ea lth , in su r a n c e , or p en sion b e n e fits , 1 C h a r le sto n , W . V a ., A p r il 1968)
Plant w o r k e r s

O ffic e w o rk ers

T yp e of b en efit
A ll in d u strie s 1
2

M an ufactu ring

P ublic u t i li t i e s 3

A ll in d u s tr ie s 4

M an ufacturing

Public u t ilit ie s 3

100

100

100

100

100

100

L ife in s u r a n c e _____________________________________
A c c id e n ta l death and d is m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e __________________________________________
S ic k n e ss and a c cid e n t in su r a n c e or
sic k le a v e or b o th 5 _____________________________

92

100

100

95

99

100

47

44

75

50

23

83

90

99

94

91

99

94

S ic k n e s s and a c cid en t in su r a n c e ___________
Sick le a v e (fu ll pay and no
w aitin g p e r io d )_______________________________
S ick le a v e (p a r tia l pay or
w aiting p e r io d )_______________________________

74

97

57

67

96

39

15

31

45

26

83

49

62

46

38

67

11

H o sp ita liz a tio n in s u r a n c e _______________________
S u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e ________________________________
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e ________________________________
C a ta str o p h e in s u r a n c e ___________________________
R e tir e m e n t p en sio n _______________________________
No h ea lth , in su r a n c e , or p e n sio n plan-----------

93
93
84
68
82
3

100
100
95
73
97

100
100
84
83
90

97
97
92
85
89
(6 )

99
99
97
88
97

100
100
96
96
89

A ll w o r k e r s _______________________________________

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g :

20

!

(6 )

1 In clu d es th ose p lan s fo r w hich at le a st a p art of the cost is b orn e b y the e m p lo y e r , except those le g a lly r eq u ired , such as w o r k m e n 's co m p en sa tio n , s o c ia l se c u rity ,
andr a ilroad retirem en t.
2 In clu d es data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e , re ta il tra d e , r e a l e s t a t e , and s e r v ic e s , in addition to those in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
3 T r a n s p o r ta tio n , co m m u n ic a tio n , and other public u tilitie s.
4 In clu d es data fo r w h o le s a le tra d e ; r e ta il tra d e ; finance, in su r a n c e , and r e a l e sta te ; and s e r v ic e s , in addition to th ose in d u stry d iv isio n s shown s e p a r a te ly .
5 U n d up licated to ta l of w o r k e r s rec eiv in g sick leave or sic k n e s s and accid en t in su ran ce shown se p a r a te ly b elo w .
S ick le ave p lans a re lim ite d to th ose w hich d efin ite ly e sta b lish
at le a st
the m in im u m n u m b er of d a y s' pay that can be expected by each e m p lo y e e .
In fo r m a l sic k leave a llo w a n c e s d eterm in ed on an individual b a s is are ex clu d ed .
6 L e s s than 0 .5 p e r c e n t.




18

Table B-7. Premium Pay for Overtime Work
(Percent distribution of plant and office workers in all industries and in industry divisions by overtime premium pay
provisions, C harleston, W. Va. , April 1968)
Plant w o r k e r s
P r e m iu m pay p o lic y

3

O ffic e w o r k e r s

A ll in d u str ie s 1

A ll w o r k e r s ______________________________________

M an ufactu ring

P ublic u t ilit ie s 1
2
3

A ll in d u strie s

100

100

100

100

100

100

79

95

93

73

94

90

79

95

93

73

94

90

92

90

M an ufactu ring

P ublic u t ilit ie s 2

D a ily o v e r t im e at p r e m iu m rates

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts having
p r o v isio n s fo r d aily o v e r t im e p a y 4
at p r e m iu m r a t e s ---------------------------------------------------T im e and o n e -h a l f _______________________________
E ffe c tiv e a fte r :
7 V2 h o u r s --------------------------------------- ----------8 h o u r s______________________________________

1

78

2

93

-

93

1

72

2

W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts having no
p r o v isio n s fo r d aily overtimes pay
at p r e m iu m r a te s 5____________ _____________________

in

W e e k ly o v e r t im e at p r e m iu m ra tes

W o r k e r s in e s ta b lish m e n ts having
p r o v isio n s fo r w eekly o v e r t im e p a y 4
at p r e m iu m r a t e s __________________________________
T im e and o n e -h a l f _______________________________
E ffe c tiv e a fte r :
3 7 l/ z h o u r s __________________________________
40 h o u r s ____________________________________
42 h ours __________________________________
44 h o u r s __________________________________
48 h o u r s ____________________________________
W o r k e r s in e sta b lish m e n ts having no
p r o v isio n s fo r w eekly o v e r tim e pay
at p r e m iu m r a te s 5_________________________________

100
100
1
1
3
94
2

100
100
2
98
-

100
100
100
-

-

99
99

1
1

98

0
(6)

100
100
2
98

-

100
100
100
_
-

_

(6)

1 Includes data for wholesale trade, retail trade, real estate, and se rv ic e s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
2 Transportation, communication, and other public utilities.
3 Includes data for wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and se rv ic e s, in addition to those industry divisions shown separately.
4 Includes workers in establishments covered by legislative requirements regarding prem ium pay for overtim e, even though such workers actually do not work overtim e.
Graduated provisions
for premium pay are classified under the first effective premium rate.
For example, a plan calling for time and one-half after 8 and double time after 10 hours would be considered as time
and one-half after 8 hours.
Sim ilarly, a plan calling for no pay or pay at a regular rate after 35 hours and time and one-half after 40 hours would be considered as time and on e-h alf
after 40 hours.
5 Includes workers in establishments exempt from legislative requirements regarding prem ium pay for overtim e and where, as a matter of policy, overtim e is not worked.
6

L e s s th a n 0.5 p e r c e n t .




Appendix. Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field
staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles
and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This permits
the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because Of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may
differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In
applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed to exclude working supervisors;
apprentices; learners; beginners; trainees; and handicapped, part-tim e, temporary, and probationary workers.
OFFICE
BILLER, MACHINE

BILLER, MACHINE— Continued

Prepares statem ents, bills, and invoices on a machine other than
an ordinary or electrom atic typewriter. May also keep records as to
billings or shipping charges or perform other clerical work incidental to
billing operations. For wage study purposes, billers, machine, are clas­
sified by type of m achine, as follows:

columns and computes, and usually prints autom atically the debit or
credit balances. Does not involve a knowledge of bookkeeping.
Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips.
BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (Remington Rand, Elliott Fisher,
Sundstrand, Burroughs, National Cash Register, with or without a type­
writer keyboard) to keep a record of business transactions.

Biller, m achine (billing machine). Uses a special billing m a­
chine (Moon Hopkins, Elliott Fisher, Burroughs, etc. , which are
com bination typing and adding machines) to prepare bills and
invoices from customers' purchase orders, internally prepared orders,
shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of pre­
determ ined discounts and shipping charges, and entry of necessary
extensions, which may or may not be computed on the billing m a­
chine, and totals which are autom atically accum ulated by machine.
The operation usually involves a large number of carbon copies of the
bill being prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge of and
experience in basic bookkeeping principles, and fam iliarity with the
structure of the particular accounting system used. Determines proper
records and distribution of debit and credit items to be used in each
phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets,
and other records by hand
Class B. Keeps a record of one or more phases or sections of
a set of records usually requiring little knowledge of basic book­
keeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable, payroll, cus­
tomers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described
under biller, machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, in­
ventory control, etc. May check or assist in preparation of trial
balances and prepare control sheets for the accounting department.

Biller, m achine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping
m achine (Sundstrand, Elliott Fisher, Remington Rand, etc. , which
may or may no.. have typewriter keyboard) to prepare customers' bills
as part of the accounts receivable operation. Generally involves the
simultaneous entry of figures on customers' ledger record. The m a­
chine autom atically accumulates figures on a number of vertical




Note: Since the last survey in this area, the Bureau has discontinued collecting data for duplicatingm achine operators and elevator operators.

19

20

CLERK, ACCOUNTING
Class A , Under general direction of a bookkeeper or accountant,
has responsibility for keeping one or more sections of a complete set
of books or records relating to one phase of an establishment's busi­
ness transactions. Work involves posting and balancing subsidiary
ledger or ledgers such as accounts receivable or accounts payable;
exam ining and coding invoices or vouchers with proper accounting
distribution; and requires judgment and experience in making proper
assignations and allocations. May assist in preparing, adjusting, and
closing journal entries; and may direct class B accounting clerks.
Class B. Under supervision, performs one or more routine ac­
counting operations such as posting simple journal vouchers or accounts
payable vouchers, entering vouchers in voucher registers; reconciling
bank accounts; and posting subsidiary ledgers controlled by general
ledgers, or posting simple cost accounting data. This job does not
require a knowledge of accounting and bookkeeping principles but
is found in offices in which the more routine accounting work is
subdivided on a functional basis among several workers.
CLERK, FILE
Class A . In an established filing system containing a number
of varied subject m atter files, classifies and indexes file m aterial
such as correspondence, reports, technical documents, etc. May
also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types in con­
junction with the files. May lead a small group of lower level file
clerks.
Class B. Sorts, codes, and files unclassified m aterial by simple
(subject m atter) headings or partly classified m aterial by finer sub­
headings. Prepares simple related index and cross-reference aids.
As requested, locates clearly identified m aterial in files and forwards
m aterial. May perform related clerical tasks required to m aintain
and service files.
Class C. Performs routine filing of m aterial that has already
been classified or which is easily classified in a simple serial classi­
fication system (e. g ., alphabetical, chronological, or numerical).
As requested, locates readily available m aterial in files and forwards
m aterial; and may fill out withdrawal charge. Performs simple
clerical and manual tasks required to maintain and service files.




CLERK, ORDER
Receives customers' orders for m aterial or merchandise by m ail,
phone, or personally. Duties involve any combination of the following:
Quoting prices to customers; making out an order sheet listing the items
to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled.
May check with credit department to determine credit rating of customer,
acknowledge receipt of orders from customers, follow up orders to see
that they have been filled, keep file of orders received, and check shipping
invoices with original orders.
CLERK, PAYROLL
Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary
data on the payroll sheets. Duties involve: Calculating workers' earnings
based on tim e or production records; and posting calculated data on payroll
sheet, showing information such as worker's nam e, working days, tim e,
rate, deductions for insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes.
May use a calculating machine.
COMPTOMETER OPERATOR
Primary duty is to operate a Com ptom eter to perform m athe­
m atical computations. This job is not to be confused with that of statis­
tical or other type of clerk, which may involve frequent use of a Comp­
tom eter but, in which, use of this m achine is incidental to performance
of other duties.
KEYPUNCH OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or com bina­
tion keypunch machine to transcribe data from various source docu­
ments to keypunch tabulating cards. Performs same tasks as lower
level keypunch operator but, in addition, work requires application

21

KEYPUNCH OPERATOR—Continued
of coding skills and the making of some determinations, for exam ple,
locates on the source document the items to be punched; extracts
inform ation from several documents; and searches for and interprets
information on the document to determine information to be punched.
May train inexperienced operators.
Class B. Under close supervision or following specific procedures
or instructions, transcribes data from source documents to punched
cards. Operates a numerical and/or alphabetical or combination
keypunch machine to keypunch tabulating cards. May verify cards.
Working from various standardized source documents, follows specified
sequences which have been coded or prescribed in detail and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be punched.
Problems arising from erroneous items or codes, missing information,
e tc ., are referred to supervisor.
OFFICE BOY OR GIRL
Performs various routine duties such as running errands, operating
minor office machines such as sealers or mailers, opening and distributing
m ail, and other minor clerical work.
SECRETARY
Assigned as personal secretary, normally to one individual. Main­
tains a close and highly responsive relationship to the day-to-day work
activities of the supervisor. Woiks fairly independently receiving a m ini­
mum of detailed supervision and guidance. Performs varied clerical and
secretarial duties, usually including most of the following: (a) Receives
telephone calls, personal callers, and incoming m ail, answers routine
inquiries, and routes the technical inquiries to the proper persons; (b)
establishes, m aintains, and revises the supervisors files; (c) maintains the
supervisor’s calendar and makes appointments as instructed; (d) relays
messages from supervisor to subordinates; (e) reviews correspondence, m em ­
oranda, and reports prepared by others for the supervisor’s signature to
assure procedural and typographic accuracy; and (f) performs stenographic
and typing work.
May also perform other clerical and secretarial tasks of com ­
parable nature and difficulty. The work typically requires knowledge of
office routine and understanding of the organization, programs, and pro­
cedures related to the work of the supervisor.




SECRETA RY— Continue d
Exclusions
Not all positions that are titled ”secretaryM possess the above
characteristics. Examples of positions which are excluded from the def­
inition are as follows: (a) Positions which do not m eet the ’’personal"
secretary concept described above; (b) stenographers not fully trained in
secretarial type duties; (c) stenographers serving as office assistants to a
group of professional, technical, or managerial persons; (d) secretary posi­
tions in which the duties are either substantially more routine or substan­
tially more complex and responsible than those characterized in the def­
inition; and (e) assistant type positions which involve more difficult or more
responsible technical, administrative, supervisory, or specialized clerical
duties which are not typical of secretarial work.
NOTE: The term "corporate officer," used in the level definitions
following, refers to those officials who have a significant corporate-wide
policymaking role with regard to major company activities. The title
"vice president," though normally indicative of this role, does n o tin all
cases identify such positions. Vice presidents whose primary responsibility
is to act personally on individual cases or transactions (e. g ., approve or
deny individual loan or credit actions; administer individual trust accounts;
directly supervise a clerical staff) are not considered to be "corporate
officers" for purposes of applying the following level definitions.
Class A
a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a
company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer than 5,000 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than the chairman of
the board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but
fewer than 25,000 persons; or
c. Secretary to the head (im m ediately below the corporate
officer level) of a m ajor segment or subsidiary of a company that employs,
in all, over 25,000 persons.
Class B
a. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a
company that employs, in all, fewer than 100 persons; or
b. Secretary to a corporate officer (other than chairman of the
board or president) of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but fewer
than 5,000 persons; or

22

SECRETA RY—Continued

STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL—Continued

May m aintain files, keep simple records, or perform other relatively rou­
tine clerical tasks. May operate from a stenographic pool. Does not
include transcribing-machine work. (See transcribing-m achine operator.)
STENOGRAPHER, SENIOR
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a varied technical or
specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs or reports on scientific re­
search from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
d. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.
sim ilar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from written
(or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, over 5,000
copy. May also set up and maintain files, keep records, etc.
persons; or
OR
e.
Secretary to the head of a large and im portant organizational
Performs stenographic duties requiring significantly greater inde­
segment (e.g . , a middle management supervisor of an organizational seg­
pendence and responsibility than stenographers, general as evidenced
ment often involving as many as several hundred persons) of a company
by the following: Work requires high degree of stenographic speed and
that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.
accuracy; and a thorough working knowledge of general business and
Class C
office procedures and of the specific business operations, organization,
policies, procedures, files, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in per­
a. Secretary to an executive or m anagerial person whose respon­
forming stenographic duties and responsible clerical tasks such as, m ain­
sibility is not equivalent to one of the specific level situations in the def­
taining followup files; assembling m aterial for reports, memorandums,
inition for class B, but whose subordinate staff normally numbers at least
letters, e tc .; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading
several dozen employees and is usually divided into organizational segments
and routing incoming mail; and answering routine questions, etc. Does
which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level
not include transcribing-machine work.
includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or
two; or
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Class A . Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone
b. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc.
switchboard handling incoming, outgoing, intraplant or office calls. Per­
(or other equivalent level of official) that employs, in all, fewer than
forms full telephone information service or handles complex calls, such as
5,000 persons.
conference, collect, overseas, or sim ilar calls, either in addition to doing
Class D
routine work as described for switchboard operator, class B, or as a full­
tim e assignment. ("Full" telephone information service occurs when the
a. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational
establishment has varied functions that are not readily understandable for
unit (e .g ., fewer than about 25 or 30 persons); or
telephone information purposes, e.g., because of overlapping or interrelated
functions, and consequently present frequent problems as to which exten­
b. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional
sions are appropriate for calls.)
em ployee, adm inistrative officer, or assistant, skilled technician or expert.
Class B. Operates a singler or m ultiple-position telephone
(NOTE: Many companies assign stenographers, rather than secretaries as
switchboard handling incoming, outgoing, intraplant or office calls. May
described above, to this level of supervisory or nonsupervisory w orker.)
handle routine long distance calls and record tolls. May perform lim ited
STENOGRAPHER, GENERAL
telephone information service. ("Lim ited” telephone information service
occurs if the functions of the establishment serviced are readily understand­
Primary duty is to take dictation involving a normal routine vo­
able for telephone information purposes, or if the requests are routine,
cabulary from one or more persons either in shorthand or by Stenotype or
e .g ., giving extension numbers when specific names are furnished, or if
sim ilar machine; and transcribe dictation. May also type from w rit­
complex calls are referred to another operator. )
ten copy.
c. Secretary to the head (im m ediately below the officer level)
over either a m ajor corporate - wi de functional activity (e.g . , marketing,
research, operations, industrial relations, e tc .) or a m ajor geographic or
organizational segment (e .g ., a regional headquarters; a major division)
of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but fewer than 25,000
employees; or




23

SWITCHBOARD OPERA TOR-RECEPTIONIST
In addition to performing duties of operator on a single-position
or m onitor-type switchboard, acts as receptionist and may also type or
perform routine clerical woik as part of regular duties. This typing or
clerical work may take the major part of this worker*s time while at
switchboard.
TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Class A. Operates a variety of tabulating or electrical account­
ing machines, typically including such machines as the tabulator,
calculator, interpreter, collator, and others. Performs complete
reporting assignments without close supervision, and performs difficult
wiring as required. The complete reporting and tabulating assign­
ments typically involve a variety of long and complex reports which
often are of irregular or nonrecurring type requiring some planning and
sequencing of steps to be taken. As a more experienced operator,
is typically involved in training new operators in machine operations,
or partially trained operators in wiring from diagrams and operating
sequences of long and complex reports. Does not include working
supervisors performing tabulating-m achine operations and day-to-day
supervision of the work and production of a group of tabulatingmachine operators.
Class B. Operates more difficult tabulating or electrical account­
ing m achines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the
sorter, reproducer, and collator. This work is performed under specific
instructions and may include the performance of some wiring from
diagrams. The work typically involves, for exam ple, tabulations
involving a repetitive accounting exercise, a complete but small
tabulating study, or parts of a longer and more complex report. Such
reports and studies are usually of a recurring nature where the pro­
cedures are w ell established. May also include the training of new
em ployees in the basic operation of the machine.
Class C. Operates simple tabulating or electrical accounting
machines such as the sorter, reproducing punch, collator, etc. , with
specific instructions. May include simple wiring from diagrams and




TABULATING-MACHINE OPERATOR—Continued
some filing work. The work typically involves portions of a woik
unit, for exam ple, individual sorting or collating runs or repetitive
operations.
TRANSCRIBINC-MACHINE OPERATOR, GENERAL
Primary duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine
vocabulary from transcribing-machine records. May also type from written
copy and do simple clerical woik. Workers transcribing dictation involving
a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as legal briefs or reports
on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation in
shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is classified as a stenog­
rapher, general.
TYPIST
Uses a typewriter to make copies of various material or to make
out bills after calculations have been made by another person. May in­
clude typing of stencils, mats, or sim ilar materials for use in duplicating
processes. May do clerical work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filing records and reports, or sorting and dis­
tributing incoming m ail.
Class A . Performs one or more of the following: Typing m a­
terial in final form when it involves combining m aterial from several
sources or responsibility for correct spelling, syllabication, punctu­
ation, etc. , of technical or unusual words or foreign language m a­
terial; and planning layout and typing of com plicated statistical tables
to m aintain uniformity and balance in spacing. May type routine
form letters vaiying details to suit circumstances.
Class B. Performs one or more of tfTe following: Copy typing
from rough or clear drafts; routine typing of forms, insurance policies,
e tc .; and setting up simple standard tabulations, or copying more
complex tables already setup and spaced properly.

24

P R O F E S S IO N A L AND T E C H N I C A L
DRAFTSMAN— Continue d

DRAFTSMAN
Class A. Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having
distinctive design features that differ significantly from established
drafting precedents. Works in close support with the design originator,
and may recom mend minor design changes. Analyzes the effect of
each change on the details of form, function, and positional relation­
ships of components and parts. Works with a minimum of supervisory
assistance. Completed work is reviewed by design originator for con­
sistency with prior engineering determinations. May either prepare
drawings, or direct their preparation by lower level draftsmen.
Class B. Performs nonroutine and complex drafting assignments
that require the application of most of the standardized drawing tech­
niques regularly used. Duties typically involve such work as: Prepares
working drawings of subassemblies with irregular shapes, multiple
functions, and precise positional relationships between components;
prepares architectural drawings for construction of a building including
detail drawings of foundations, wall sections, floor plans, and roof.
Uses accepted formulas and manuals in making necessary computations
to determine quantities of m aterials to be used, load capacities,
strengths, stresses, etc. Receives initial instructions, requirements,
and advice from supervisor. Completed work is checked for technical
adequacy.
Class C. Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts for
engineering, construction, manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types
of drawings prepared include isom etric projections (depicting three
dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to clarify positioning
of components and convey needed information. Consolidates details
from a number of sources and adjusts or transposes scale as required.

Suggested methods of approach, applicable precedents, and advice on
source materials are given with initial assignments. Instructions are
less complete when assignments recur. Work may be spot-checked
during progress.
DRAFTSMAN-TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing
cloth or paper over drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not
include tracing lim ited to plans prim arily consisting of straight lines and
a large scale not requiring close delineation. )
and/or
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized items. Woik
is closely supervised during progress.
NURSE, INDUSTRIAL (REGISTERED)
A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general m edi­
cal direction to ill or injured employees or other persons who become ill or
suffer an accident on the premises of a factory or other establishment.
Duties involve a combination of the following: Giving first aid to the ill
or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees’ injuries; keeping
records of patients treated; preparing accident reports for compensation
or other purposes; assisting in physical exam inations and health evaluations
of applicants and employees; and planning and carrying out programs
involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant en­
vironm ent, or other activities affecting the health, welfare, and safety
of all personnel.

M A I N T E N A N C E AND P O W E R P L A N T
CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE

CARPENTER, MAINTENANCE— Continued

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and m aintain
in good repair building woodwoik and equipm ent such as bins, cribs,
counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors, stairs, casings, and trim made
of wood in an establishment. Woik involves most of the following: Plan­
ning and laying out of woik from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal
instructions using a variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools,

and standard measuring instruments; making standard shop computations
relating to dimensions of woik; and selecting m aterials necessary for the
work. In general, the woik of the m aintenance carpenter requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal ap­
prenticeship or equivalent training and experience.




25

ELECTRICIAN, MAINTENANCE

HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES— Continued

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as the in­
stallation, m aintenance, or repair of equipment for the generation, dis­
tribution, or utilization of electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of
electrical equipm ent such as generators, transformers, switchboards, con­
trollers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit systems, or other
transmission equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or
other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrical
system or equipm ent; working standard computations relating to load
requirements of wiring or electrical equipment; and using a variety of
electrician's handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In general,
the work of the m aintenance electrician requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

a worker supplied with m aterials and tools; cleaning working area, m a­
chine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding materials or tools;
and performing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind
of work the helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In
some trades the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and holding m a­
terials and tools and cleaning working areas; and in others he is permitted
to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are
also performed by workers on a full-tim e basis.

ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of
stationary engines and equipm ent (m echanical or electrical) to supply the
establishm ent in which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or
air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, "air compressors, generators, motors, turbines,
ventilating and refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed
water pumps; making equipm ent repairs; and keeping a record of operation
of m achinery, tem perature, and fuel consumption. May also supervise
these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing
more than one engineer are excluded.
FIREMAN, STATIONARY BOILER
Fires stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which
em ployed with heat, power, or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or
operates a m echanical stoker, or gas or oil burner; and checks water
and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom
equipm ent.
HELPER, MAINTENANCE TRADES
Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance trades,
by performing specific or general duties of lesser skill, such as keeping




MACHINE-TOOL OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or more types of machine
tools, such as jig borers, cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes,
or m illing machines, in the construction of machine-shop tools, gages,
jigs, fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the following: Planning
and performing difficult machining operations; processing items requiring
com plicated setups or a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of pre­
cision measuring instruments; selecting feeds, speeds, tooling, and oper­
ation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation to
achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recognize
when tools need dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants
and cutting and lubricating oils. For cross-industry wage study purposes,
m achine-tool operators, toolroom, in tool and die jobbing shops are ex­
cluded from this classification.
MACHINIST, MAINTENANCE
Produces replacem ent parts and new parts in making repairs of
m etal parts of m echanical equipment operated in an establishment. Work
involves most of the following: Interpreting written instructions and speci­
fications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of machinist’s
handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating
standard machine tools; shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making
standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds,
and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of the
common metals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment re­
quired for his work; and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical
equipment. In general, the m achinist's work normally requires a rounded
training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a formal ap­
prenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

26

MECHANIC, AUTOMOTIVE (MAINTENANCE)

OILER

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors of an es­
tablishment. Work involves most of the following: Examining automotive
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; disassembling equipm ent and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, drills, or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the vehicle
and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the auto­
motive mechanic requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts or wearing sur­
faces of mechanical equipment of an establishment.

MECHANIC, MAINTENANCE
Repairs machinery or m echanical equipment of an establishment.
Woik involves most of the following: Examining machines and m echanical
equipment to diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling
machines and performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools
in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items
obtained from stock; ordering the production of a replacem ent part by a
machine shop or sending of the machine to a machine shop for major
repairs; preparing written specifications for major repairs or for the pro­
duction of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling machines; and
making all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of
a m aintenance m echanic requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose primary
duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
MILLWRIGHT
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and
installs machines or heavy equipm ent when changes in the plant layout
are required. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying
out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a
variety of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations re­
lating to stresses, strength of m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining
and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools, equipment, and
parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power
transmission equipm ent such as drives and speed reducers. In general,
the m illw rights work normally requires a rounded training and experience
in the trade acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.




PAINTER, MAINTENANCE
Paints and redecorates walls, woodwork, and fixtures of an es­
tablishment. Work involves the following: Knowledge of surface peculi­
arities and types of paint required for different applications; preparing
surface for painting by removing old finish or by placing putty or filler
in nail holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush.
May mix colors, oils, white lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain
proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the m aintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through
a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
PIPEFITTER, MAINTENANCE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and
pipefittings in an establishment. Work involves most of the following;
Laying out of work and measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings
or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct
lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting
machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven
or power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings and fastening
pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to pressures,
flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes m eet specifications. In general, the work of the
maintenance pipefitter requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and repairing building
sanitation or heating systems are excluded.
PLUMBER, MAINTENANCE
Keeps the plumbing system of an establishm ent in good order.
Work involves: Knowledge of sanitary codes regarding installation of vents
and traps in plumbing system; installing or repairing pipes and fixtures;
and opening clogged drains with a plunger or plum ber’s snake. In general,
the work of the maintenance plumber requires rounded training and ex­
perience usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

27

SHEET-METAL WORKER, MAINTENANCE

TOOL AND DIE MAKER—Continued

Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-m etal
equipm ent and fixtures (such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves,
lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, metal roofing) of an establish­
ment. Work involves most of the following: Planning and laying out all
types of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, models, or other
specifications; setting up and operating all available types of sheet-m etal­
working machines; using a variety of handtools in cutting, bending, form­
ing, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-m etal articles
as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-m etal worker
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
TOOL AND DIE MAKER
(Die maker; jig maker; tool maker; fixture maker; gage maker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs, fixtures
or dies for forgings, punching, and other m etal-form ing work. Woik in-

volves most of the following: Planning and laying out of work from
models, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a variety of tool and die maker's handtools and precision measuring
instruments; understanding of the working properties of common metals
and alloys; setting up and operating of machine tools and related equip­
ment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions of woik,
speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heattreating of m etal parts during
fabrication as well as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qual­
ities; working to close tolerances; fitting and assembling of parts to pre­
scribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate materials,
tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die maker's work requires
a rounded training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
For cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die makers in
tool and die jobbing shops are excluded from this classification.

C U S T O D I A L AND M A T E R I A L M O V E M E N T
GUARD AND WATCHMAN

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER— Continued

Guard. Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or
on tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where necessary. Includes
gatem en who are stationed at gate and check on identity of employees
and other persons entering.

trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing
m etal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor maintenance
services; and cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. Workers who
specialize in window washing are excluded.

W atchman. Makes rounds of premises periodically in protecting
property against fire, theft, and illegal entry.

LABORER, MATERIAL HANDLING

JANITOR, PORTER, OR CLEANER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working areas
and washrooms, or premises of an office, apartment house, or com m erical
or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following:
Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips,




(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver; trucker; stockman
or stock helper; warehouseman or warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store,
or other establishment whose duties involve one or more of the following:
Loading and unloading various materials and merchandise on or from
freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage location; and trans­
porting m aterials or merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow.
Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are excluded.

28
ORDER, FILLER
(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
Fills shipping or transfer orders for finished goods from stored
merchandise in accordance with specifications on sales slips, customers'
orders, or other instructions. May, in addition to filling orders and in­
dicating items filled or om itted, keep records of outgoing orders, requi­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform
other related duties.
PACKER, SHIPPING
Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them
in shipping containers, the specific operations performed being dependent
upon the type, size, and number of units to be packed, the type of con­
tainer employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the placing of
items in shipping containers and may involve one or more of the following:
Knowledge of various items of stock in order to verify content; selection
of appropriate type and size of container; inserting enclosures in container;
using excelsior or other m aterial to prevent breakage or damage; closing
and sealing container; and applying labels or entering identifying data on
container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK
Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is responsible
for incoming shipments of merchandise or other materials. Shipping work
involves: A knowledge of shipping procedures, practices, routes, available
means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records of the goods
shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges,
and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing
the merchandise for shipment. Receiving work involves: Verifying or
directing others in verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of
lading, invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and rejecting
damaged goods; routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments;
and maintaining necessary records and files.




SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERK—Continued
For wage study purposes, workers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
TRUCKD RIVER
Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m a­
terials, merchandise, equipment, or men between various types of es­
tablishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight depots, warehouses,
wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
customers' houses or places of business. May also load or unload truck
with or without helpers, make minor m echanical repairs, and keep truck
in good working order. Driver-salesmen and over-the-road drivers are
excluded.
For wage study purposes, truckdrivers are classified by size and
type of equipment, as follows: (T ractor-trailer should be rated on the
basis of trailer capacity. )
Truckdriver (combination of sizes listed separately)
Truckdriver, light (under 1V 2 tons)
Truckdriver, medium ( 1V2 to and including 4 tons)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)
Truckdriver, heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type)
TRUCKER, POWER
Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered
truck or tractor to transport goods and materials of all kinds about a
warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of truck,
as follows:
Trucker, power (forklift)
Trucker, power (other than forklift)

Area Wage Surveys
A lis t of the la te st a vailab le b u lletin s is p resen ted below . A d ir e c to r y indicating d ates of e a r lie r stu d ies, and the p r ic e s of the bulletins is
a va ilab le on re q u e st. B u lle tin s m ay be purchased from the Superintendent of D o c u m en ts, U.S. G overn m en t P rinting O ffice, W ashington, D .C ., 20402,
or from any of the BLS re g io n a l sa le s o ffices shown on the in sid e front co v er.
A re a
A kron, Ohio, J u ly 1967 1________________________________
A lb any— c h e n e c ta d y -T r o y , N .Y ., Apr. 1967 __________
S
A lbuquerque, N. M e x ., Apr. 1968 1_____________________
A llentow n—B eth leh em —E asto n , P a .—N. J .,
F eb . 1967 ------------------------------------------------------------------------A tlanta, G a ., May 1967 __________________________________
B a ltim o r e , M d ., O ct. 1967______________________________
B eaum ont—P o r t A rthur—O ran ge, T ex., May 1967 ____
B ir m in g h a m , A la ., A pr. 1968 _________________________
B o is e C ity, Idaho, July 1967-----------------------------------------B osto n , M a s s ., Sept. 1 9 6 7 1__----------------------------------------B uffalo, N .Y ., D ec . 1967._________________________________
B u rlington, V t ., Mar. 1968____________________ __________
Canton, Ohio, A pr. 1967 ________________________________
C h a r lesto n , W. V a ., Apr. 1968 1-----------------------------------C h arlo tte, N .C ., Apr. 1 9 6 8 1 ____________________________
Chattanooga, T e n n .-G a ., Aug. 1967-----------------------------C h ica g o, 111., Apr. 1967 1 ________________________________
C in cinnati, Ohio—Ky.—Ind ., M ar. 1968 1_________________
C levela n d , O hio, Sept. 1967_____________________________
C olu m bu s, Ohio, Oct. 1 967______________________________
D a lla s , T ex ., Nov. 1967______________________________ ___

B u lletin num ber
and p rice
A rea
1530-86,
25 cen ts M ilw aukee, W is., Apr. 1967 1____________________________
1530-62,
25cen ts M inneapolis—St. P aul, Minn., Jan. 1968_________________
1 57 5-58 ,
30 cen ts M uskegon—M uskegon H e ig h ts , M ich., May 1 9 6 8 1_______
N ew ark and J e r s e y C ity, N .J ., F eb . 1 9 6 8 1 _____________
1530-53,
25 cen ts N ew H aven, Conn., Jan. 1 9 6 8 1----------------------------------------1530-71,
25 cen ts N ew O rlea n s, L a., F eb . 1968------------------------------------------1 575 -1 8,
25 cen ts New York, N .Y ., Apr. 1967 1_____________________________
1530-74,
20 cen ts N orfolk—P ortsm ou th and N ew port N ew s—
1575-59,
30 cen ts Ham pton, Va., June 1967 1______________________________
157 5-3,
20 cen ts O klahom a City, O k la ., July 1967________________________
1 575-1 3,
30 cen ts
O m aha, N eb r .-Io w a , Oct. 1 9 6 7 1_________________________
1 57 5-41 ,
30ce n ts P a te r so n -C lifto n —P a s s a ic , N .J ., May 1967 _____________
1 5 7 5 -4 8 ,
20 cen ts P hilad elp h ia, P a .—N .J ., Nov. 1967 1_____________________
1530-58,
20 cen ts P hoenix, A r i z . , Mar. 1968 1 ______________________________
1575-63,
30cen ts P ittsb u rgh , P a ., Jan. 1968-----------------------------------------------1 57 5-57 ,
30cents P ortlan d , M aine, Nov. 1967 1------------------------------------------1 57 5-7,
25 cen ts P ortlan d , O r e g .-W a sh ., May 1967 ______________________
1530-73,
30 cen ts P ro v id e n ce—Paw tucket—W arw ick, R .I.—M a s s .,
1 57 5-62 ,
30 cen ts May 1968 -----------------------------------------------------------------------157 5-14 ,
25 cen ts R aleigh , N .C ., Aug. 1967 1----------------------------------------------1 57 5-23 ,
25 cen ts R ichm ond, Va., Nov. 1 967 1--------------------------------------------1 57 5-20 ,
25 cen ts R ockford, 111., May 1967 ---------------------------------------------------

D avenp ort—R ock Island—M o lin e , Iowa—111.,
O ct. 1967_________________________________________________
D ayton, Ohio, Jan. 1968 1 — —___________________________
D e n v e r , C o lo ., D e c . 1967_* ________________________ ______
D e s M o in es, Iowa, Feb._1968 1__________________________
D etro it, M ich ., Jan. 1968 1 ______________________________
F o r t Worth, T e x ., Nov. 1 967____________________________
G reen B ay, W is ., July 1 967_____________________________
G r e e n v ille , S .C ., May 1967 _____________________________
H ouston, T e x ., June 1967 _______________________________
Indianapolis, Ind., D ec . 1967 1 __________________________

157 5-12 ,
1 57 5-51 ,
15 7 5 -3 8 ,
1 57 5-52 ,
1 57 5 -4 5 ,
1 5 75 -2 2,
157 5-5,
1530-66,
1530-85,
1 57 5-36 ,

25cen ts
30 cen ts
25 cen ts
30 cen ts
35cen ts
25 cen ts
20 cen ts
25 cen ts
25 cen ts
30 cen ts

1 57 5-49 ,
1 57 5-33 ,
1 5 75 -3 0,
1530-77,
1 5 7 5 -2 ,

30 cen ts
20 cen ts
25 cen ts
20 cen ts
25 cen ts

1 57 5-64 ,
1 5 7 5 -5 0 ,
1530-75,
157 5-1,
1 575 -3 2,
1 5 75-28,
1530-78,

30 ce n ts
30cen ts
20cen ts
20 cents
25 cen ts
25cen ts
20 cen ts

J ackson, M is s ., F eb. 1 9 6 8 1_____________________________
J a c k so n v ille, F la ., Jan. 1968-----------------------------------------K ansas C ity, M o.—K a n s ., Nov. 1967 1___________________
L aw ren ce—H a v e rh ill, M a ss .—N .H ., June 1967 ------------L ittle R ock -N orth L ittle R ock, A rk., July 1967______
L os A n g e les—Long B ea ch and A naheim —Santa A n aG arden G ro v e, C a lif., M ar. 1968 ----------------------------L o u isv ille , Ky.—In d ., Feb. 1968--------------------------------------Lubbock, T ex ., June 1967 _______________________________
M a n c h ester , N .H ., July 1967-----------------------------------------M em p h is, T e n n .- A r k ., Jan. 1 968 1---------------------------------M ia m i, F la ., D e c . 1967 1________________________________
Midland and O d e s s a , T ex ., June 1967 --------------------------

1 Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




B u lletin number
and p rice
1530-76, 30 cents
1 57 5-47 , 30 cents
1 57 5-60 , 30 cents
1 57 5-54 , 35 cents
1 575-34, 25 cents
1 57 5-46 , 30 cen ts
1530-83, 40 cents
1530-82,
1 57 5-4,

25 cents
20 cents

1 57 5-21 ,
1 53 0-67 ,
1 57 5-40 ,
1 57 5-55 ,
1 57 5-44 ,
1 575-16,
1530-79,

25 cents
25 cents
30 cents
30 cents
3 0 cents
25 cents
25 cents

1575-61,
157 5-6,
1 5 75-27,
1530-68,

30 cents
25 cents
25 cents
20 cents

St. L o u is, Mo.—111., Jan. 1 9 6 8 ------------------------------------------Salt Lake C ity, Utah, D ec. 1967--------------------------------------San Antonio, T ex ., June 1967 1 ___________________________
San B ern ardino—R iv er sid e—O ntario, C alif.,
Aug. 1 967 1------------------------------------------------------------------------San D ie g o , C a lif ., Nov. 1 967-------------------------------------------San F r a n c is c o — akland, C alif., Jan. 1968_______________
O
San J o s e , C a lif., Sept. 1 967 1 ------------------------------------------Savannah, G a ., May 1967 _________________________________
Scranton, P a . , July 1 967 1-----------------------------------------------S ea ttle—E v e re tt, W a sh ., Nov. 1 967 1_____________________

157 5-39 ,
157 5-35 ,
1530-84,

30 cents
20 cents
25 cents

157 5 -10,
1 57 5-1 9,
1 57 5 -3 7 ,
1 57 5-1 5,
1530-69,
1 5 75-9,
1 575 -2 9,

30 cents
20 cents
25 cents
25 cents
20 cents
25 cents
25 cents

Sioux F a lls , S. D a k ., Oct. 1 967 1_________________________
South Bend, Ind ., M ar. 1968 1____________________________
Sp ok ane, W a sh ., June 1967 1 -------------------------------------------T am pa—St. P e te r s b u r g , F l a ., Aug^ 1967______________ _
T o le d o , Ohio—M ic h ., Feb. 1968__________________________
T renton, N .J ., Nov. 1967------------------------------------------------W ash ington, D .C .—Md.—V a ., Sept. 1 967_________________
W a terb u ry , C on n ., A p r . 1968 1___________________________
W aterloo, Iowa, Nov. 1967________________________________
W ich ita , K a n s ., D e c . 1 967________________________________
Wore e s t e r , M a s s ., June 1967 ___________________________
York, P a ., F eb . 1968 1 -----------------------------------------------------Youngstown—W arren, O h io , Nov. 1 967 1_________________

1 57 5-1 7,
1 57 5-56 ,
1 530-80,
1 575-8,
157 5-43 ,
1 575-24,
1 575-1 1,
1 57 5-53 ,
1 57 5-26,
1 5 75-31,
1530-81,
1 57 5-42 ,
1 57 5-25,

25 cents
30 cents
25 cents
25 cents
30 cents
20 cents
25 cents
30 cents
20 cents
20 cents
25 cents
30 cents
25 cents