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BUREAU

OF

LABOR

S T A T IS T IC S

R E G IO N A L

O F F IC E S

ALASKA

Region I
1603-JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6761 (Area Code 617)

Region II
341 Ninth Ave., Rm. 1003
New York, N .Y . 10001
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region VI
Region V
1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7
8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Chicago, III. 60606
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)
Phone: 353-1880,(Area Code 312)

••




Regions V II and V III will be serviced by Kansas City.
Regions IX and X will be serviced by San Francisco.

Region III
406 Penn Square Building
1317 Filbert St.
Philadelphia, Pa. 19107
Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St. NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Regions V II and V III
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 10th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Regions IX and X
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

AREA WAGE SURVEY

B u l le t in 1 7 2 5 - 2 5
M arch

1972

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
BUR EA U OF LABOR STATIS TIC S, Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner

T h e B u rlin g to n , V e r m o n t A r e a , D e c e m b e r 1971
CONTENTS
Page

1. Introduction

T a b le s :
3.

E stablishm ents and w o rk e rs within scope of su rvey and num ber studied

A.
Tti in in vo r-

1.

Occupational earn in gs:
A - l . O ffic e occupations— en and w om en
m
A - 2 . P r o fe s s io n a l and tech n ica l occupations— en
m
A - 3 . O ffic e , p ro fe s s io n a l, and tech n ica l occupations— en and wom en com bined
m
A -4 . M aintenance and pow erplan t occupations
A - 5, C u stodial and m a te r ia l m ovem en t occupations

Appendix,

O ccupational d escrip tio n s




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402 — Price 25 cents

Preface
T h e Bureau of L a b o r S ta tistics p r o g ra m of annual occupa­
tion al w age su rveys in m etro p o lita n a rea s is designed to p ro v id e data
on occupational ea rn in gs, and establish m en t p ra c tic e s and supplem en­
ta r y w age p ro v is io n s .
It y ie ld s d eta iled data by selected industry
d iv is io n fo r each o f the a rea s studied, fo r geo gra p h ic re g io n s , and fo r
the U nited States. A m a jo r con sid era tion in the p ro g ra m is the need
fo r g r e a te r insight into (1) the m ovem en t of w ages by occupational
c a te g o ry and s k ill le v e l, and (2) the stru ctu re and le v e l o f w ages among
areas and industry d iv is io n s .
A t the end of each su rvey, an in d ivid u al a rea b u lletin p r e ­
sents the re s u lts . A ft e r com p letion o f a ll individual a rea bulletins
fo r a round o f su rv e y s , tw o sum m ary bu lletin s a re issu ed. The fir s t
b rin gs data fo r each of the m etro p o lita n a re a s studied into one bu lletin.
The second p resen ts in fo rm a tio n w hich had been p ro je c te d fr o m in ­
dividu al m etro p o lita n a re a data to r e la te to geograp h ic regio n s and the
United States.
Th e tw o sum m ary bu lletin s a re lim ite d to Standard
M e tro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a s , and, th e r e fo r e , exclude Burlington.
N in ety a rea s cu rre n tly a re included in the p ro g ra m . In each
a re a , in form a tion on occupational earn in gs is c o lle c te d annually and on
estab lish m en t p ra c tic e s and supplem entary w age p ro v is io n s b ien n ia lly.
T h is bu lletin p resen ts resu lts of the su rvey in B u rlington, V t.,
in D ecem b er 1971. T h e a re a con sists of B u rlington, E ss e x Junction,
South B u rlin gton , and W in oosk i in Chittenden County. T h is study was
conducted by the B u reau 's re g io n a l o ffic e in Boston, M a s s ., under the
g e n e ra l d ire c tio n o f P au l V . M u lkern , A s s is ta n t R egio n a l D ire c to r
fo r O peration s.




N o te :
S im ila r re p o rts a re a v a ila b le fo r oth er a re a s .
back c o v e r .)

(See inside

Union w age ra te s , in d ica tive o f p re v a ilin g pay le v e ls in
the B urlington a re a , a re also a v a ila b le fo r seven sele c te d
building tra d e s .

In tro d u c tio n
T h is a re a is 1 o f 90 in which the U.S. D epartm ent o f L a b o r 's
B ureau o f L a b o r S ta tistics conducts su rveys o f occupational earnings
and re la te d ben efits on an a rea w id e b a s is .1

the A - s e r ie s ta b les, becaus.e e ith e r ( l ) em ploym ent in the occupation is
too s m a ll to p ro v id e enough data to m e r it p resen tation , o r (2) th ere is
p o s s ib ility o f d is c lo s u re o f in d ivid u al establish m en t data. E arn in gs
data not shown se p a ra te ly fo r in du stry d ivisio n s a re included in the
o v e r a ll c la s s ific a tio n when a su b cla ssifica tio n o f s e c r e ta r ie s o r tru ck d r iv e r s is not shown o r in fo rm a tio n to su b cla ssify is not a va ila b le.

T h is bu lletin p resen ts cu rren t occupational em ploym en t and
earn in gs in form a tion obtained la r g e ly by m a il fro m the establishm ents
v is ite d by Bureau fie ld econ om ists in the la s t p revio u s su rvey fo r
occupations re p o rte d in that e a r lie r study. P e r s o n a l v is its w e re made
to nonrespondents and to those respondents rep o rtin g unusual changes
since the p revio u s su rvey.

O ccupational em ploym en t and earnings data a re shown fo r
fu ll-tim e w o r k e r s , i.e ., those h ire d to w o rk a reg u la r w e e k ly schedule.
E arn in gs data exclude p rem iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on
w eeken ds, h olid ays, and late sh ifts. Nonproduction bonuses a re e x ­
cluded, but c o s t - o f- liv in g a llow an ces and in cen tive earnings a re in ­
cluded.
W h ere w e e k ly hours a re re p o rte d , as fo r o ffic e c le r ic a l
occupations, re fe r e n c e is to the standard w ork w eek (rounded to the
n e a re s t h a lf hour) fo r w hich em p lo yees r e c e iv e th e ir re g u la r stra igh ttim e s a la rie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay fo r o v e rtim e at re g u la r and/or p r e ­
m ium ra te s ). A v e r a g e w e e k ly earnings fo r these occupations have
been rounded to the n e a re s t h a lf d o lla r.

In each a re a , data a re obtained fr o m re p re s e n ta tiv e esta b ­
lish m en ts w ithin six b road in du stry d iv is io n s : M anufacturing; tra n s ­
portation , com m unication, and other public u tilitie s ; w h o lesa le trad e;
r e ta il trad e; fin an ce, in su ran ce, and r e a l estate; and s e r v ic e s . M a jo r
indu stry groups excluded fr o m these studies a re govern m en t o p e ra ­
tions and the con stru ction and e x tra c tiv e in d u stries. E stablishm ents
having fe w e r than a p re s c r ib e d num ber o f w o rk e rs are om itted because
they tend to fu rnish in su fficien t em ploym ent in the occupations studied
to w a rra n t inclusion. Separate tabulations a re p ro vid ed fo r each of
the broad industry d ivision s which m eet pu blication c r ite r ia .

T h ese su rveys m ea su re the le v e l of occupational earnings in
an a re a at a p a rtic u la r tim e. C om p arison s o f individual occupational
a v e ra g e s o v e r tim e m ay not r e fle c t expected w age changes.
The
a v e ra g e s fo r in d ividu al jobs a re a ffe c te d by changes in w ages and
em ploym ent pattern s. F o r exam p le, p rop ortion s of w o rk e rs em ployed
by high- or lo w -w a g e fir m s m ay change o r h igh -w age w o rk e rs m ay
advance to b e tte r jobs and be re p la c e d by new w o rk e rs at lo w e r rates.
Such shifts in em ploym en t could d e c re a s e an occupational a v e ra g e even
though m ost establish m en ts in an a re a in c re a s e w ages during the y e a r.
T ren d s in earnings o f occupational grou ps, shown in table 2, a re b etter
in d ica tors o f w age trends than individual jobs within the groups.

Th ese su rveys a re conducted on a sam ple basis because of
the unn ecessary cost in vo lved in su rveyin g a ll establish m en ts.
To
obtain optim um a ccu ra cy at m inim um cost, a g r e a te r p ro p o rtio n of
la r g e than o f s m a ll establishm ents is studied. In com bining the data,
h o w ever, a ll establishm ents a re given th e ir ap p rop riate w eight. E s ­
tim a tes based on the establishm ents studied a re p resen ted , th e re fo re ,
as rela tin g to a ll establishm ents in the in du stry grouping and a rea ,
excep t fo r those b elow the m inim um s iz e studied.
O ccupations and E arn in gs
The occupations s e le c te d fo r study a re com m on to a v a r ie ty
o f m anufacturing and nonm anufacturing in d u stries, and a re o f the
fo llo w in g typ es: (1) O ffic e c le r ic a l; (2) p ro fe s s io n a l and tech n ical;
(3) m aintenance and pow erplan t; and (4) cu stod ial and m a te r ia l m o v e ­
m ent. O ccupational c la s s ific a tio n is based on a u n iform set o f job
d escrip tio n s design ed to take account o f in te r establish m en t v a ria tio n
in duties w ithin the sam e job.
The occupations sele c te d fo r study
a re lis te d and d e s c rib e d in the appendix. U nless oth erw ise indicated,
the earnings data fo llo w in g the job title s a re fo r a ll in d u stries c o m ­
bined. E arn in gs data fo r som e of the occupations lis te d and d esc rib e d ,
o r fo r som e in du stry d ivisio n s w ithin occupations, a re not p resen ted in
1
Included in the 90 areas are four studies conducted under contract with the New York State
Department of Labor. These areas are Binghamton (New York portion only) Rochester (office occupa­
tions only); Syracuse; and Utica-Rom e. In addition, the Bureau conducts more lim ited area studies in
65 areas at the request of the Employment Standards Administration of the U.S. Department of Labor.




1

Th e a v e ra g e s p resen ted r e fle c t com p osite, a reaw id e e s t i­
m ates.
In du stries and establish m en ts d iffe r in pay le v e l and job
staffin g and, thus, contribute d iffe r e n tly to the estim a tes fo r each job.
Th e pay rela tio n sh ip obtainable fr o m the a v e ra g e s m ay fa il to r e fle c t
a c c u ra te ly the w age spread o r d iffe r e n tia l m aintained among job s in
in dividu al establish m en ts. S im ila rly , d iffe re n c e s in a v e ra g e pay le v e ls
fo r m en and w om en in any o f the s e le c te d occupations should not be
assum ed to r e fle c t d iffe re n c e s in pay trea tm en t o f the sexes w ithin
in dividu al establish m en ts.
O th er p o s s ib le fa c to rs which m ay con ­
tribu te to d iffe re n c e s in pay fo r m en and w om en include: D iffe re n c e s
in p ro g r e s s io n w ithin estab lish ed rate ra n ges, since only the actual
ra tes paid incum bents a re c o lle c te d ; and d iffe re n c e s in s p e c ific duties
p e rfo rm e d , although the w o rk e rs a re c la s s ifie d a p p ro p ria te ly w ithin
the sam e su rvey job d escrip tio n . Job d escrip tion s used in c la s s ify in g

2
em p lo yees in these su rveys a re u su ally m o re g e n e ra liz e d than those
used in in d ivid u al establish m en ts and a llo w fo r m in or d iffe re n c e s
am ong estab lish m en ts in the s p e c ific duties p e rfo rm e d .
O ccu pational em p loym en t estim a tes re p re s e n t the total in a ll
establish m en ts w ithin the scope o f the study and not the number actu­
a lly su rveyed . B ecau se o f d iffe re n c e s in occupational stru ctu re among
estab lish m en ts, the estim ates o f occupational em ploym ent obtained from
the sam ple o f estab lish m en ts studied s e r v e only to indicate the r e la tiv e
im p ortan ce o f the job s studied.
T h e A d iffe re n c e s in occupational
stru ctu re do not a ffe c t m a te r ia lly the a ccu ra cy o f the earnings data.




E stab lish m en t P r a c t ic e s and Supplem entary W age P r o v is io n s

Tabulations on s e le c te d establish m en t p ra c tic e s and su pple­
m en ta ry w a ge p ro v is io n s (B - s e r ie s tab les) a re not p resen ted in this
bu lletin.
In form ation fo r these tabulations is c o lle c te d bien n ially.
T h ese tabulations on m inim um entrance s a la rie s fo r in ex p erien ced
w om en o ffic e w o r k e r s; shift d iffe r e n tia ls ; scheduled w e e k ly hours;
paid h olid ays; paid vacation s; and health, in su ran ce, and pension
plans a re p resen ted (in the B - s e r ie s ta b les) in p revio u s bu lletins
fo r this area .

3

T a b le

1.

E s t a b lis h m e n t s

and

w o rk e rs

w ith in

scope

of s u rv e y

and

n u m b e r s t u d ie d

in B u r lin g t o n , V t . , 1

b y m a j o r in d u s t r y d i v i s i o n ,2 D e c e m b e r 1 9 7 1
Minimum
employment
in establishments in scope
of study

Industry division

A ll divisions---------------------------------

Number of establishments
Within scope
of study3

Studied

-----

Manufacturing___________________________________
N onmanuf acturing_______________________________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities 5 _______ ____________
Wholesale trade 6____________________________
Retail trade 6____ ____________ _____________
Finance, insurance, and rea l estate 6 ______
Services 6 7______________ ____________________

W orkers in establishments
Within scope of study4
Studied
Number

Percen t

50

50

11.858

100

11,858

50
-

17
33

17
33

8, 000
3,858

67
33

8, 000
3, 858

50
50
50
50
50

4
2
18
5
4

4
2
18
5
4

1,040
90
1, 728
708
292

9
1
15
6
2

1, 040
90
1, 728
708
292

1 The Burlington area consists of Burlington, Essex Junction, South Burlington, and Winooski in Chittenden County. The "w orkers within scope
of study" estimates shown in this table provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor fo rc e included in the survey.
The estimates are not intended, how ever, to serve as a basis of comparison with other employment indexes fo r the area to m easure employment trends
or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires the use of establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied,
and (2) sm all establishments are excluded from the scope of the survey.
2 The 1967 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry division.
3 Includes all establishments with total employment at or above the minimum lim itation. A ll outlets (within the area) of companies in such
industries as trade, finance, auto rep air service, and motion picture theaters are considered as 1 establishment.
4 Includes a ll w orkers in a ll establishments with total employment (within the area) at or above the minimum lim itation.
5 Abbreviated to "public u tilities" in the A -s e r ie s tables. Taxicabs and services incidental to water transportation w ere excluded.
6 This industry division is represented in estimates fo r " a ll industries" and "nonmanufacturing" in the Series A tables. Separate presentation
of data for this division is not made fo r one or m ore of the following reasons: (1) Employment in the division is too sm all to provide enough data
to m erit separate study, (2) the sample was not designed initially to perm it separate presentation, (3) response was insufficient or inadequate to
perm it separate presentation, and (4) there is possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data.
7 Hotels and m otels; laundries and other personal services; business services; automobile rep air, rental, and parking; motion pictures; nonprofit
membership organizations (excluding religious and charitable organizations); and engineering and architectural services.




Alm ost three-fourths of the w orkers within scope of the survey in the Burlington
area w ere employed in manufacturing firm s, The following presents the m ajor industry
groups and specific industries as a percent of all manufacturing:
Industry groups

Specific industries

E le ctrica l equipment and
supplies______________________ 49
Ordnance and a ccessories____ 34
Printing and publishing_______
5

Electronic components and
accessories___________________ 49
Guns, how itzers, and
m ortars_____________________ _34

This information is based on estimates of total employment derived from universe
m aterials compiled p rior to actual survey. Proportions in various industry divisions may
d iffe r from proportions based on the results of the survey as shown in table 1 above.

4

A.

Occupational earnings

T a b le A-1.

O ffic e o ccu p a tio n s— men and wom en

(Average straight-time weekly hours and earnings for selected occupations studied on an area basis by industry division, Burlington, Vt., December 1971)
W eekly earnings 1
( standard)

Sex, occupation, and industry division

Number of workers receiving straight -time weekly earnings jf---t

Number
of
workers

Average
weekly
hours1
[standard)

t
70

M ean2

M edian2

*
75

$
80

s
85

S
90

$

$
95

10 0

t

*
105

n o

»
115

*
120

»
125

*
130

*
160

$
150

*
160

»
170

$
180

$
190

$
200

and
under

Middle range2

75

210

and
80

85

90

95

100

105

110

115

120

125

130

160

150

160

170

180

190

200

2 10

over

HEN
$

MESSENGERS

(OFFICE

BOYS)

$

$

3 8 .5

9 7 .0 0

1 0 2 .5 0

8 2 .5 0 - 1 1 3 .0 0

3 9 .0
3 9 .0

-----------------------

$

9 5 .5 0
9 3 .5 0

9 6 .0 0
9 2 .5 0

8 5 .5 0 - 1 1 2 .5 0
8 5 .0 0 - 1 0 5 .0 0

WOMEN

B O O K K E EP I NG - M AC HI N E

O P E RA T O R S ,
12

N ONH AN UF ACT UR ING ———————————— — —

n

16
1

R t T rU N L H

U r t K A 1U K o i

L L A jj

CLASS

1

A

KEYPUNCH OPERATORS®
N ONMANUFACTURI NG

1

B

3 8 .5

1 0 0 .5 0

3 7 .5

38
26

9 6 .5 0

1 0 1 .0 0
9 2 .5 0

8 6 .0 0 8 3 .0 0 -

1 1 5 .5 0
1 0 8 .0 0

1

, , ,

23

J

22
16

19

26
23

5

11
10

-

18

1

5

4

-

-

-

-

5

8
10
jc

I K c 1 A K Ifc o *

L L A jo

39^0

A

N ONMANUF ACT URI NG ----------------------------------

3 9 .5
3 8 .0

6

1 6 7 .5 0

167750

1 3 2 .0 0 -

1 7 1 .0 0

1 5 8 .5 0
1 8 0 .5 0

1 6 2 .5 0
1 9 0 .0 0

1 3 1 .0 0 -

2 0 7 .5 0

1 3 2 .5 0

t5

SEC RETAR IE S*

CLASS

131

—

—

66

3 9 .0

—— — ——— — —

0

—

— —

1 3 7 .5 0

W(|

3 9 .5
00

1 2 1 .5 0

135

1 0 6 .0 0 -

1 5 1 .0 0

—

16

3 7 .0

1 1 2 .0 0

17

3 9 .0

1 0 8 .0 0

1 1 8 .0 0

SWITCHBOARD O P E R A T O R - R E C E P T I O N I S T S -

B

3 9 .5

8 8 .5 0

8 9 .0 0

10

6 0 .0

1 1 7 .0 0

1 2 1 .0 0

3 9 .5
3 9 .0

1 0 9 .0 0

I T r 1 5 1o *

TYPISTS*

LLA5j

C L A SS

-

-

-

1

-

1

-

-

8

1 0 1 .0 0 -

19

1 2 6 .0 0

8 9 .0 0 - 1 2 3 .0 0

8 5 .5 0 -

9 6 .5 0

2

-

1

1

3

2

-

-

-

1

-

O P E RA T O R S ,
1 1 6 .0 0 - 1 2 8 .0 0
16

B

1 1 0 .0 0

9 6 .0 0 - 1 3 2 .5 0

—

* Workers were distributed as follows:
See footn otes at end o f ta b le s .

-

1

1 2 9 .5 0

A




-

2

1

1 1 6 .0 0 -

1 2 6 .5 0

T R ANSCR IBIN G-M ACH INE

-

1

00

GENERAL — — ------------------

N O N M A N U F a C T U R IN G

3

1

1 3 2 .5 0 - 2 3 0 .0 0

1 6 1 .0 0 - 1 9 0 .0 0

1 2 6 .0 0
1 0 9 .0 0

S TENOGRA PHERS*

1

2 at $220 to $230 and 1 at $230 to $240.

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
T a b le

A -2 .

P ro fe s s io n a l

and te c h n ic a l o c c u p a tio n s — m e n

(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t- tim e 'w e e k ly hours and ea rn in gs fo r s e le c te d occupations studied on an a r e a b a sis b y in d u stry d iv is io n , B u rlin gton , V t . , D e c e m b e r 1971)
Weekly earnings 1
( standard)
Number

S ex , occu pation , and in d u stry d iv is io n

of
workers

N u m b er o f w o rk e r s r e c e iv in g s tra ig h t -tim e w e e k ly earn in gs of—
$

Average
weekly
hour*1
(standard)

*
110

M ean2

Median2

Middle range2

i
115

t

S
120

125

130

$
13 5

S

t

140

145

$
150

155

160

$
16 5

$

$
170

17 5

t
180

$
185

and
(under
115

190

and
120

125

130

135

jjt Q — 1 45_ _ 1 5 0 _

1??

160

165 - 1 7 0

17 5

180

185

190 (o ver

HEN
$
1 3 9 .0 0
1 2 7 .5 0

$
$
$
1 3 5 .0 0 1 2 6 .5 0 - 1 5 9 .0 0
1 2 7 .5 0 1 1 9 .0 0 - 1 3 6 .0 0

1 7 0 .0 0

3 7 .5

6

1 5 2 .5 0

1

COMPUTER PROGRAM ERS,
oU bl N tob t

(/ L A b b

U

1 4 4 . 0 0 —2 1 9 . 0 0

30

H A N U rA U 1U K i n b —
—

See footn otes at end of table

"•"able A -3 .

O ffice, professional, and technical o ccu p a tio n s— men and wom en com bined

(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e w e e k ly hours and earn in gs fo r s e le c te d occu pation s stu died on an a r e a b a sis by in d u stry d iv is io n , B u rlin g to n , V t. , D e c e m b e r 1971)

Average
O ccupation and in d u stry d iv is io n

O F F IC E

Nm
u ber
of
w er*
ork

W
eekly

W
eekly
earn gs 1
in
sta d rd (stan ard
na )
d )

N m er
u b
of
w rk
o ers

A
verage

W
eekly
W
eekly
in
h u 1 eam gs 1
o r*
d )
(stan ard (stan ard
d )

OFFICE OCCUPATIONS - CONTINUED

O C C U PATIO N S|

B O O K K E E PIN G -M AC H IN E

Average
O ccupation and in du stry d iv is io n

O PE R A TO R S,
L2

*

O ccupation and in du stry d iv is io n

N m er
ub
of

W
eekly W
eekly
h u 1 eam gs 1
o rs
in
sta d rd (stan ard
na )
d )

|OFF ICE OCCUPATIONS - CONTINUED
$

$

3 9 .5
3 9 .5

$
1 2 4 .5 0
1 2 6 .5 0

1 8 0 .5 0

3 9 .0

1 0 9 .0 0

3 9 .0
3 7 .5

1 3 9 .0 0
1 2 9 .5 0

SECRETARIES] - CONTINUED]

37

3 9 .5

...

PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL
3 8 .0
3 8 .5
KEYPUNCH O P E R A T O R S ,

C LA S S

A

----------

17

KEYPUNCH O P E R A T O R S ,

C LA S S

8

----------

1 2 4 .0 0

3 9 .5

r n u m iT r o

_______

1 2 7 .0 0

40

46
14

3 9 .0
3 7 .0

1 2 1 .5 0
1 1 2 .0 0

19
7

(COMPUTER PROGRAMERS*
1 0 0 .5 0

1 7 4 .5 0
COMPUTER

MESSENGERS

(O F F I C E

BOYS AND G I R L S ) -

P U B L IC

U T IL IT IE S

-------------------

See footnotes at end of tables.




3 9 .0

9 4 .5 0

183
146

3 9 .5
4 0 .0

1 4 5 .5 0
1 5 0 .5 0

10

3 9 .0

1 4 7 .5 0

PROGRAMERS*

SWITCHBOARD 0 P E R A T 0 R - R E C E P T I0 N IS T S T R A N S C R IB IN G -M A C H IN E
CNCRAL

1 6 3 .0 0

O PERATORS,
ro

4 0 .0

-

*

30
30

4 0 .0
4 0 .0

1 6 7 .5 0
1 6 7 .5 0

6
T a b le

A -4 .

M a in te n a n c e

and

p o w e rp la n t o c c u p a tio n s

(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t- tim e h o u rly ea rn in gs fo r s e le c te d occu pation s stu died on an a re a b a sis b y in d u stry d iv is io n , B u rlin g to n , V t. , D e c e m b e r 1971)

t

dumber of workers rec eiving straight-time hourly earnings of—
t
1
i
5
$
J
t
$
*
*
t
6 .1 0

6 .2 0

6 .3 0

6 .6 0

6 .5 0

6 .6 0

6 .7 0

6 .8 0

6 .9 0

5 .0 0

5 .2 0

$
5 .3 0

t

6 .0 0

t
5 .1 0

*

3 .9 0

5 .6 0

*
5 .5 0

3 . 90 6 . 0 0

6 .1 0

6 .2 0

6 .3 0

6 .6 0

6 .5 0

6 .6 0

6 .7 0

> .8 0

6 .9 0

5 .0 0

3 ,1 9

5 ,2 0

5 ,3 9

5 .6 9

5 ,5 0

5 .6 0

H rly earn gs3
ou
in
Sex, occupation, and industry division

Nm
u ber
of
w ers
ork

$
3 .4 0

M 2 M
ean
edian2

M
iddle ran 2
ge

*
3 .5 0

$
3 .6 0

$
3 .7 0

t
3 . 80

3 ,9 9

3 .7 Q

3 .8 0

and
under
3 .5 0

t
5 .6 0

and

HEN
$
MACHINISTSt MAINTENANCE
MANUFACTURING — — — —

———————— —

$
3 *9 5

$

$
j

:
17
17

See footn otes at end o f ta b le s .




2
2

1

1

J

7

T a b le

A -5 .

C u s to d ia l

and

m a te ria l

m o v e m e n t o c c u p a tio n s

(A v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly ea rn in gs fo r s e le c te d occupations studied on an a r e a b a sis by in d u stry d iv is io n , B u rlin gto n , V t., D e c e m b e r 1971)

H rly earn gs3
ou
in

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly ea rn in gs of—
t
'
1 .7 0

Nm
u ber
S ex, occu pation , and in d u stry d iv is io n

w ers
ork

M 2 M
ean
edian2 M
iddle ran 2
ge

t
1 .8 0

*
1 .9 0

*
2 .0 0

$
2 .1 0

S
2 . 20

$
2 .3 0

*
2 .4 0

(
2 .5 0

*
2 .6 0

S
2 .7 0

t
2 .8 0

«
2 .9 0

*
3 .0 0

*
3 .1 0

t
3 .2 0

s
3 .3 0

S
3 .4 0

t
3 .5 0

$
3 .6 0

$
3 .8 0

i
4 .0 0

s
4 .2 0

1 .9 0

2 .0 0

2 .1 0

2 .2 0

2 . 30

2 .4 0

2 .5 0

2 .6 0

2 .7 0

2 .8 0

2 .9 0

3 .0 0

3 .1 0

3 .2 0

3 .3 0

3 .4 0

3 .5 0

3 .6 0

3 .8 0

4 .0 0

4 .2 0

over

-

1
1

-

-

-

1
1

1

-

20
20

1
1

4
4

-

-

6
6

5
5

-

-

*

5
5

4
3

5
3

_

-

-

-

1
1

-

and
kinder
1 .8 0

HEN
GUARDS AND WATCHMEN-- -----------MANUFACTURING -----------------

39
38

$
3 .3 3
3 .3 5

$
3 .1 9
3 .1 9

$
3 .1 4 3 .1 4 -

$
3 .7 2
3 .7 3

-

JANITORS. PORTERS, AND CLEANERS NONMANUFACTURING --------------

148
124

2 .1 7
2 .0 8

2 .0 7
2 .0 5

2 .0 1 2 .0 1 -

2 .3 4
2 .1 0

t

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING ------

17

2 .4 9

2 .1 9

1 .9 5 -

3 .1 5

2

2

-

4

1

-

-

PACKERS, SHIPPING ---------------MANUFACTURING-----------------

18
18

2 .9 4
2 .9 4

3 .0 3
3 .0 3

2 .6 8 2 .6 8 -

3 .0 8
3 .0 8

_

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

RECEIVING CLERKS ----------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------

13
9

2 .9 2
2 .7 7

2 .9 9
2 .6 9

2 .2 5 2 .2 5 -

3 .4 5
3 .3 5

-

_

_

-

-

-

“

2
1

SHIPPING CLERKS -----------------MANUFACTURING -----------------

14
10

3 .2 6
3 .4 0

3 .4 5
3 .4 8

2 .5 6 3 .1 3 -

3 .7 0
3 .7 0

-

-

TRUCKDRIVERS -------------------MANUFACTURING----------------NONMANUFACTURING --------------

26
15
11

2 .9 9
3 .0 3
2 .9 4

3 .0 4
3 .1 3
2 .9 9

2 .6 9 2 .8 5 2 .4 9 -

3 .2 3
3 .2 9
3 .0 9

TRUCKDRIVERS, LIGHT (UNDER
1-1/2 TONS) ------------------MANUFACTURING -----------------

9
7

2 .8 4
3 .0 1

3 .1 3
3 .1 5

2 .3 8 2 .8 9 -

3 .1 9
3 .1 9

TRUCKDRIVERS, MEDIUM (1-1/2 TO
AND INCLUDING A TONS) --------NONMANUFACTURING -------------TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT)------MANUFACTURING -----------------

See footn otes at end of ta b le s .




10

9
6
6

3 .1 2
3 .1 0

3 .0 5
3 .0 3

2 .8 5 2 .8 0 -

3 .5 3
3 .5 0

3 .0 3
3 .0 3

3 .2 0
3 .2 0

2 .5 9 2 .5 9 -

3 .4 8
3 .4 8

-

7

12
12

-

-

-

-

“

-

8
8

71
67

2
1

-

_

_

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

_

"

_

“

“
3
3
1
1

-

-

1

”

_

10
9

”

1

1

_

*

_

.

-

-

-

-

_

_

-

-

_

_

-

1
1

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

1

2

1

-

-

1

2

-

-

-

2
2

1
1

1
1

-

_

2
2

9
9

1
1

-

-

-

-

“

1
1

“

-

1
1

-

_

1
1

-

-

1
1

-

1

-

-

”

~

i
i

i

*

2
1

-

1
1

3
3

2
2

-

-

2
1

1
1

1
1

-

_

1

*

3
2
1

3
1

-

1

-

-

”

2
1
1

“

-

-

1
1

-

-

2
2

-

*

-

-

*

*

3
1
2

4
1
3

4
4

1
1

1
1

”

“

“

“

2
2

1
1

4
4

1
1

_

_

2
2

_

1

_

“

*

“

2
1
1

1
1

_

-

_

*

_

“

*

1
1

1
l

-

-

-

“

1

_

3
3

-

“

-

*

__

3
3

1

-

*

-

"

1
1

“

“

”

_

*

-

-

*

“

1

_

15
1

2
2

-

2
1

—
-

5
4

“

_

_

-

“

8

F o o tn o te s

1 Standard hours r e fle c t the w o rk w eek fo r which em p loyees r e c e iv e th e ir re g u la r s tra ig h t-tim e s a la rie s (e x c lu s iv e o f pay fo r o v e rtim e
at re g u la r and/or p rem iu m r a te s ), and the earnings co rresp o n d to these w e e k ly hours.
2 The m ean is com puted fo r each job by totalin g the earnings o f a ll w o rk e rs and d ividin g by the num ber o f w o rk e rs ,
The m edian
design ates p osition — h a lf of the em p loyees su rveyed r e c e iv e m o re than the rate shown; h a lf r e c e iv e le s s than the rate shown,
The m id d le
range is defin ed by 2 ra tes o f pay; a fourth o f the w o rk e rs earn le s s than the lo w e r o f these rates and a fourth earn m o re than the h igh er rate.
3 E xclu d es p rem iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w ork on w eekends, h olid ays, and late shifts.




A p p e n d ix . O c c u p a tio n a l D e s c rip tio n s
The prim ary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau's wage surveys is to assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate
occupations w orkers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and
from area to area. This perm its the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea com parability o f occupational content, the Bureau's job descriptions may d iffer significantly from those in use in
individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau's field economists are instructed
to exclude working supervisors; apprentices; learners; beginners; trainees; and handicapped, part-tim e, tem porary, and probationary workers.

O F F IC E
C LER K, ACCOUNTING— Continued

B IL L E R , MACHINE
Prepares statements, bills, and invoices on a machine other than an ordinary or electrom atic typew riter. May also keep records as to billings or shipping charges or perform other
clerica l work incidental to billing operations. F or wage study purposes, b ille rs, machine, are
classified by type of machine, as follows:

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.
Class A . Under general supervision, perform s accounting cle rica l operations which
require the application of experience and judgment, for example, cle rica lly processing cornplicated or nonrepetitive accounting transactions, selecting among a substantial va riety of
prescribed accounting codes and classifications, or tracing transactions through previous
accounting actions to determine source of discrepancies. May be assisted by one or m ore
class B accounting clerks.

B ille r, machine (billing m achine). Uses a special billing machine (combination typing
and adding machine) to prepare bills and invoices from custom ers' purchase orders, in ter­
nally prepared orders, shipping memorandums, etc. Usually involves application of p re­
determined discounts and shipping charges and entry of necessary extensions, which may or
may not be computed on the billing machine, and totals which are automatically accumulated
by machine. The operation usually involves a large number o f carbon copies of the bill being
prepared and is often done on a fanfold machine.

Class B . Under close supervision, following detailed instructions and standardized p ro­
cedures, perform s one or m ore routine accounting cle rica l operations, such as posting to
ledgers, cards, or worksheets where identification of items and locations of postings are
cle a rly indicated; checking accuracy and completeness o f standardized and repetitive records
or accounting documents; and coding documents using a few prescribed accounting codes.

B ille r, machine (bookkeeping machine). Uses a bookkeeping machine (with or without
a typew riter keyboard) to prepare custom ers' bills as part of the accounts receivable opera­
tion. Generally involves the simultaneous entry o f figures on custom ers' ledger record. The
machine automatically accumulates figures on a number of vertical columns and computes
and usually prints automatically the debit or credit balances. Does not involve a knowl­
edge of bookkeeping. Works from uniform and standard types of sales and credit slips.

CLERK, F IL E
F iles , cla ssifies, and retrieves m aterial in an established filing system. May perform
cle rica l and manual tasks required to maintain file s. Positions are classified into levels on the
basis of the following definitions.
Class A . C lassifies and indexes file m aterial such as correspondence, reports, tech­
nical documents, etc., in an established filin g system containing a number o f varied subject
m atter file s . May also file this m aterial. May keep records of various types in conjunction
with the file s. May lead a small group of low er level file clerks.

BOOKKEEPING-MACHINE OPERATOR
Operates a bookkeeping machine (with or without a typew riter keyboard) to keep a record
o f business transactions.

Class B . Sorts, codes, and file s
ings or partly classified m aterial by
cro s s-referen ce aids. As requested,
wards m aterial. May perform related

Class A . Keeps a set of records requiring a knowledge o f and experience in basic
bookkeeping principles, and fa m iliarity with the structure of the particular accounting system
used. Determines proper records and distribution of debit and credit item s to be used in each
phase of the work. May prepare consolidated reports, balance sheets, and other records
by hand.

Class C . P erform s routine filin g of m aterial that has already been classified or which
is easily classified in a simple serial classification system (e.g., alphabetical, chronological,
or num erical). As requested, locates readily available m aterial in files and forwards m a­
terial; and m ay fi l l out withdrawal charge. May perform simple clerica l and manual tasks
required to maintain and service file s.

Class B. Keeps a record of one or m ore phases or sections of a set of records usually
requiring little knowledge of basic bookkeeping. Phases or sections include accounts payable,
payroll, custom ers' accounts (not including a simple type of billing described under b iller,
machine), cost distribution, expense distribution, inventory control, etc. May check or assist
in preparation of tria l balances and prepare control sheets fo r the accounting department.

C LER K, ORDER
R eceives custom ers' orders fo r m aterial or merchandise by m ail, phone, or personally.
Duties involve any combination of the follow in g: Quoting prices to customers; making out an order
sheet listing the item s to make up the order; checking prices and quantities of items on order
sheet; and distributing order sheets to respective departments to be filled . May check with credit
department to determine credit rating o( customer, acknowledge receipt of orders from customers,
follow up orders to see that they have been filled , keep file of orders received, and check shipping
invoices with original orders.

C LER K, ACCOUNTING
P erform s one or m ore accounting cle rica l tasks such as posting to registers and ledgers;
reconciling bank accounts; verifying the internal consistency, completeness, and mathematical
accuracy of accounting documents; assigning prescribed accounting distribution codes; examining
and verifyin g for cle rica l accuracy various types of reports, lists, calculations, posting, etc.;
or preparing simple or assisting in preparing m ore complicated journal vouchers. May work
in either a manual or automated accounting system.

C LERK, P A Y R O L L

The work requires a knowledge of cle rica l methods and office practices and procedures
which relates to the c le rica l processing and recording of transactions and accounting information.
With experience, the w orker typically becomes fam iliar with the bookkeeping and accounting term s
and procedures used in the assigned work, but is not required to have a knowledge o f the form al
principles of bookkeeping and accounting.




unclassified m aterial by simple (subject m atter) head­
finer subheadings. Prepares simple related index and
locates clea rly identified m aterial in file s and fo r ­
cle rica l tasks required to maintain and service file s.

Computes wages of company employees and enters the necessary data on the payroll
sheets. Duties involve: Calculating w orkers' earnings based on tim e or production records; and
posting calculated data on payroll sheet, showing information such as w orker's name, working
days, tim e, rate, deductions fo r insurance, and total wages due. May make out paychecks and
assist paymaster in making up and distributing pay envelopes. May use a calculating machine.

NOTE: The Bureau has discontinued collecting data fo r oilers and plumbers.

9

10
CO M PTOM ETER OPERATOR

SECRETARY— Continued

P rim a ry duty is to operate a Comptometer to perform mathematical computations. This
job is not to be confused with that o f statistical or other type of clerk, which may involve fr e ­
quent use of a Comptometer but, in which, use of this machine is incidental to perform ance of
other duties.

N O TE : The term "corporate officer, " used in the lev el definitions following, refers to
those officials who have a significant corporate-w ide policymaking role with regard to m ajor
company a ctivities. The title "v ic e presiden t," though norm ally indicative of this role, does not
in all cases identify such positions. V ice presidents whose prim ary responsibility is to act p e r­
sonally on individual cases or transactions (e.g., approve or deny individual loan or credit actions;
administer individual trust accounts; directly supervise a cle rica l staff) are not considered to be
"corporate o ffic e r s " fo r purposes o f applying the following level definitions.

KEYPU NCH OPERATOR
Operates a keypunch machine to record or v e rify alphabetic and/or numeric data on
tabulating cards or on tape.
Positions are classified into lev els on the basis of the following definitions.

1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that em ploys, in
all, over 100 but few er than 5,000 persons; or

Class A . Work requires the application o f experience and judgment in selecting proce­
dures to be followed and in searching fo r, interpreting, selecting, or coding item s to be
keypunched from a va riety of source documents. On occasion m ay also perform some routine
keypunch work. May train inexperienced keypunch operators.
Class B . Work is routine and repetitive. Under close supervision o r following specific
procedures or instructions, works from various standardized source documents which have
been coded, and follows specified procedures which have been prescribed in detail and require
little or no selecting, coding, or interpreting of data to be recorded. R efers to supervisor
problems arising from erroneous item s or codes or m issing information.
MESSENGER (O ffice Boy or G irl)

2. Secretary to a corporate office r (other than the chairman of the board or president)
of a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but few er than 25,000 persons; or
3. Secretary to the head, im m ediately below the corporate o ffice r lev el, of a m ajor
segment or subsidiary o f a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.
Class B
1. Secretary to the chairman of the board or president of a company that employs, in
all, few er than 100 persons; or
2. Secretary to a corporate office r (other than the chairman of the board or president)
of a company that employs, in all, over 100 but few er than 5,000 persons; or

P e rform s various routine duties such as running errands, operating m inor office m a­
chines such as sealers or m a ile rs, opening and distributing m ail, and other m inor cle rica l work.
Exclude positions that require operation o f a m otor vehicle as a significant duty.
SE CR ETAR Y
Assigned as personal secreta ry, norm ally to one individual. Maintains a close and highly
responsive relationship to the day-to-day work of the supervisor. Works fa ir ly independently r e ­
ceiving a minimum of detailed supervision and guidance. P e rform s varied c le rica l and secretarial
duties, usually including m ost of the follow in g:
a. Receives telephone ca lls, personal ca llers, and incoming m ail, answers routine in ­
quiries, and routes technical inquiries to the proper persons;
b.

Establishes, maintains, and revises the supervisor's files;

c.

Maintains the su pervisor's calendar and makes appointments as instructed;

d.

Relays m essages from supervisor to subordinates;

e. Reviews correspondence, memorandums, and reports prepared by others for the
su pervisor's signature to assure procedural and typographic accuracy;
f.

Class A

3. Secretary to the head, im m ediately below the o ffice r le v e l, over either a m ajor
corporate-w ide functional activity (e.g., marketing, research, operations, industrial r e la ­
tions, etc.) o r a m ajor geographic or organizational segment (e.g., a regional headquarters;
a m ajor division) o f a company that employs, in all, over 5,000 but few er than 25,000
em ployees; or
4. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
of officia l) that employs, in all, over 5,000 persons; or
5. Secretary to the head of a large and important organizational segment (e.g., a middle
management supervisor of an organizational segment often involving as many as several
hundred persons) or a company that employs, in all, over 25,000 persons.
Class C
1. Secretary to an executive or m anagerial person whose responsibility is not equivalent
to one o f the specific lev el situations in the definition for class B, but whose organizational
unit norm ally numbers at least several dozen em ployees and is usually divided into organiza­
tional segments which are often, in turn, further subdivided. In some companies, this level
includes a wide range of organizational echelons; in others, only one or two; or
2. Secretary to the head of an individual plant, factory, etc. (or other equivalent level
o f officia l) that employs, in all, few er than 5,000 persons.
Class D

P erform s stenographic and typing work.

May also perform other c le rica l and secretarial tasks of comparable nature and difficulty.
The work typically requires knowledge of office routine and understanding of the organization,
program s, and procedures related to the work of the supervisor.
Exclusions
Not all positions that are titled "s e c re ta ry " possess the above characteristics.
of positions which are excluded from the definition are as follows:
a.

Positions which do not m eet the "personal"

b.

1. Secretary to the supervisor or head of a small organizational unit (e.g., few er than
about 25 or 30 persons); o£
2. Secretary to a nonsupervisory staff specialist, professional em ployee, adm inistra­
tive o ffic e r, or assistant, skilled technician or expert. (NO TE: Many companies assign
stenographers, rather than secretaries as described above, to this lev el of supervisory or
nonsupervisory w orker.)

Examples

secretary concept described above;

Stenographers not fully trained in secreta ria l type duties;

c. Stenographers serving as o ffice assistants to a group o f professional, technical, or
m anagerial persons;
d. Secretary positions in which the duties are either substantially m ore routine or sub­
stantially m ore complex and responsible than those ch aracterized in the definition;

STENOGRAPHER
P rim a ry duty is to take dictation using shorthand, and to transcribe the dictation. May
also type from w ritten copy. May operate from a stenographic pool. May occasionally transcribe
from voice recordings (if prim ary duty is transcribing from recordings, see Transcribing-M achine
O perator, General).
N O TE : This job is distinguished from that of a secretary in that a secretary norm ally
works in a confidential relationship with only one manager or executive and perform s m ore
responsible and discretionary tasks as described in the secreta ry job definition.
Stenographer, General

e. Assistant type positions which involve m ore difficult or m ore responsible tech­
nical, adm inistrative, supervisory, or specialized c le rica l duties which are not typical of
secreta ria l work.




Dictation involves a normal routine vocabulary. May maintain file s, keep simple records,
or perform other rela tiv ely routine cle rica l tasks.

11
STENOGRAPHER— Continued

TAB U LA TIN G -M A C H IN E O PERATO R (E lectric Accounting Machine Operator)— Continued

Stenographer, Senior

Positions are classified into levels on the basis of the following definitions.

Dictation involves a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as in legal briefs
or reports on scientific research. May also set up and maintain file s, keep records, etc.
OR
P erform s stenographic duties requiring significantly greater independence and respon­
sibility than stenographer, general, as evidenced by the following: Work requires a high
degree o f stenographic speed and accuracy; a thorough working knowledge of general business
and o ffice procedure; and of the specific business operations, organization, policies, proce­
dures, file s, workflow, etc. Uses this knowledge in perform ing stenographic duties and
responsible cle rica l tasks such as maintaining followup file s; assembling m aterial fo r reports,
memorandums, and letters; composing simple letters from general instructions; reading and
routing incoming m ail; and answering routine questions^ etc.
SWITCHBOARD OPERATOR
Class A . Operates a single- or m ultiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office calls. P erform s full telephone information service or handles
complex calls, such as conference, collect, overseas, or sim ilar calls, either in addition to
doing routine work as described fo r switchboard operator, class B, or as a fu ll-tim e
assignment. ("F u ll" telephone information service occurs when the establishment has varied
functions that are not readily understandable fo r telephone information purposes, e.g., because
of overlapping or interrelated functions, and consequently present frequent problems as to
which extensions are appropriate fo r ca lls.)
Class B . Operates a single- or multiple-position telephone switchboard handling incoming,
outgoing, intraplant or office calls. May handle routine long distance calls and record tolls.
May perform lim ited telephone information service. ("L im ite d " telephone information service
occurs i f the functions of the establishment serviced are readily understandable for telephone
information purposes, or i f the requests are routine, e.g., giving extension numbers when
specific names are furnished, or i f complex calls are referred to another operator.)
These classifications do not include switchboard operators in telephone companies who
assist customers in placing calls.
SWITCHBOARD OPE RATO R -RE CE PTIO N IST
In addition to perform ing duties of operator on a single-position or m onitor-type switch­
board, acts as receptionist and may also type or perform routine clerica l work as part of regular
duties. This typing or cle rica l work may take the m ajor part of this w orker's time while at
switchboard.
TAB U LATIN G -M AC H IN E OPERATOR (E lectric Accounting Machine Operator)
Operates one or a variety of machines such as the tabulator, calculator, collator, in ter­
p reter, sorter, reproducing punch, etc. Excluded from this definition are working supervisors.
A lso excluded are operators of electronic digital computers, even though they m ay also operate
EAM equipment.

Class A . P erform s complete reporting and tabulating assignments including devising
difficult control panel w iring under general supervision. Assignments typically involve a
variety of long and complex reports which often are irregu lar or nonrecurring, requiring
some planning of the nature and sequencing of operations, and the use of a variety of m a­
chines. Is typically involved in training new operators in machine operations or training
low er lev el operators in wiring from diagrams and in the operating sequences of long and
complex reports. Does not include positions in which wiring responsibility is lim ited to
selection and insertion of prew ired boards.
Class B . P erform s work according to established procedures and under specific in­
structions. Assignments typically involve complete but routine and recurring reports or parts
of la rg e r and m ore complex reports. Operates m ore difficult tabulating or electrica l ac­
counting machines such as the tabulator and calculator, in addition to the sim pler machines
used by class C operators. May be required to do some w iring from diagrams. May train
new employees in basic machine operations.
Class C. Under specific instructions, operates simple tabulating or electrical accounting
machines such as the sorter, interpreter, reproducing punch, collator, etc. Assignments
typically involve portions of a work unit, fo r example, individual sorting or collating runs,
or repetitive operations. May perform simple w iring from diagram s, and do some filin g work.
TRANSCRIBING-M ACHINE O PERATOR, G ENERAL
P rim a ry duty is to transcribe dictation involving a normal routine vocabulary from
transcribing-m achine records. May also type from written copy and do simple c le rica l work.
Workers transcribing dictation involving a varied technical or specialized vocabulary such as
legal briefs or reports on scientific research are not included. A worker who takes dictation
in shorthand or by Stenotype or sim ilar machine is classified as a stenographer.
TY P IS T
Uses a typew riter to make copies of various m aterials or to make out bills after calcula­
tions have been made by another person. May include typing of stencils, mats, or sim ilar m ate­
rials fo r use in duplicating processes. May do cle rica l work involving little special training, such
as keeping simple records, filin g records and reports, or sorting and distributing incoming m ail.
Class A . P erform s one or m ore of the following: Typing m aterial in final form when
it involves combining m aterial from several sources; or responsibility fo r correct spelling,
syllabication, punctuation, etc., of technical or unusual words or foreign language m ate­
rial; or planning layout and typing of complicated statistical tables to maintain uniformity
and balance in spacing. May type routine form letters, varying details to suit circumstances.
Class B . P erform s one or m ore of the follow in g: Copy typing from rough or clear
drafts; or routine typing of form s, insurance policies, etc.; or setting up simple standard
tabulations; or copying m ore complex tables already set up and spaced properly.

P R O F E S S IO N A L A N D T E C H N IC A L
COMPUTER OPERATOR
Monitors and operates the control console of a digital computer to process data according
to operating instructions, usually prepared by a program er. Work includes most of the follow in g:
Studies instructions to! determine equipment setup and operations; loads equipment with required
item s (tape reels, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equipment into circuit, and starts
and operates computer;; makes adjustments to computer to co rrect operating problems and m eet
special conditions;! review s e rro rs made during operation and determines cause or refers problem
to supervisor or program er; and maintains operating records. May test and assist in correcting
program .
F or wage study purposes, computer operators are classified as follows:

COMPUTER O PERATO R— Continued
of new program s required; alternate program s are provided in case original program needs
m ajor change or cannot be corrected within a reasonable tim e. In common e rro r situa­
tions, diagnoses cause and takes co rrective action. This usually involves applying previously
program ed co rrective steps, or using standard correction techniques.
OR
Operates under direct supervision a computer running program s or segments of program s
with the characteristics described fo r class A . May assist a higher lev el operator by inde­
pendently perform ing less difficult tasks assigned, and perform ing difficult tasks following
detailed instructions and with frequent review of operations perform ed.
Class C . Works on routine program s under close supervision. Is expected to develop
working knowledge o f the computer equipment used and ability to detect problems involved in
running routine program s. Usually has received some form al training in computer operation.
May assist higher le v e l operator on complex program s.

Class A . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
program s with most of the following characteristics: New program s are frequently tested
and introduced; scheduling requirements are of critica l importance to m inim ize downtime;
the program s are of complex design so that identification of e r ro r source often requires a
working knowledge of the total program , and alternate program s may not be available. May
give direction and guidance to low er lev el operators.

COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS

Class B . Operates independently, or under only general direction, a computer running
program s with most of the following characteristics: Most of the program s are established
production runs, typically run on a regu larly recurring basis; there is little or no testing

Converts statements of business problem s, typically prepared by a systems analyst, into
a sequence of detailed instructions which are required to solve the problems by automatic data
processing equipment. Working from charts or diagram s, the program er develops the precise in ­
structions which, when entered into the computer system in coded language, cause the manipulation




12
COMPUTER PROGRAMER, BUSINESS— Continued
of data to achieve desired results. Work involves most of the following: Applies knowledge of
computer capabilities, m athematics, logic employed by computers, and particular subject matter
involved to analyze charts and diagram s of the problem to be programed; develops sequence
of program steps; w rites detailed flow charts to show order in which data w ill be processed;
converts these charts to coded instructions fo r machine to follow; tests and corrects program s;
prepares instructions fo r operating personnel during production run; analyzes, review s, and alters
program s to increase operating efficien cy or adapt to new requirements; maintains records of
program development and revisions. (NOTE: Workers perform ing both systems analysis and p ro­
graming should be classified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)
Does not include em ployees p rim a rily responsible fo r the management or supervision of
other electronic data processing em ployees, or program ers p rim a rily concerned with scientific
and/or engineering problem s.
F o r wage study purposes, program ers are classified as follows:
Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems which
require competence in a ll phases of program ing concepts and practices. Working from dia­
grams and charts which identify the nature o f desired results, m ajor processing steps to be
accomplished, and the relationships between various steps of the problem solving routine;
plans the full range o f program ing actions needed to efficiently utilize the computer system
in achieving desired end products.
At this lev el, program ing is difficult because computer equipment must be organized to
produce several interrelated but diverse products from numerous and diverse data elements.
A wide va riety and extensive number o f internal processing actions must occur. This requires
such actions as development of common operations which can be reused, establishment of
linkage points between operations, adjustments to data when program requirements exceed
computer storage capacity, and substantial manipulation and resequencing of data elements
to form a highly integrated program .
May provide functional direction to low er level program ers who are assigned to assist.
Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on rela tively simple
program s, or on sim ple segments of complex program s. Program s (or segments) usually
process inform ation to produce data in two or three varied sequences or form ats. Reports
and listings are produced by refining, adapting, arraying, or making m inor additions to or
deletions from input data which are readily available. While numerous records m ay be
processed, the data have been refined in p rior actions so that the accuracy and sequencing
of data can be tested by using a few routine checks. Typ ically, the program deals with
routine record-keeping type operations.
OR
Works on com plex program s (as described fo r class A ) under close direction of a higher
level program er or supervisor. May assist higher lev el program er by independently p e r­
form ing less difficult tasks assigned, and perform ing m ore difficult tasks under fa irly close
direction.
May guide or instruct low er le v e l program ers.
Class C. Makes practical applications of program ing practices and concepts usually
learned in form al training courses. Assignm ents are designed to develop competence in the
application of standard procedures to routine problem s. Receives close supervision on new
aspects of assignments; and work is review ed to v e r ify its accuracy and conformance with
required procedures.
COMPUTER SYSTEMS A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS
Analyzes business problem s to formulate procedures fo r solving them by use of electronic
data processing equipment. Develops a complete description of all specifications needed to enable
program ers to prepare required digital computer program s. Work involves most of the follow ing:
Analyzes subject-m atter operations to be automated and identifies conditions and.criteria required
to achieve satisfactory results; specifies number and types of records, file s , and documents to
be used; outlines actions to be perform ed by personnel and computers in sufficient detail for
presentation to management and fo r programing (typically this involves preparation of work and
data flow charts); coordinates the development of test problems and participates in tria l runs of
new and revised systems; and recommends equipment changes to obtain m ore effective overall
operations. (NOTE: Workers perform ing both systems analysis and programing should be cla s­
sified as systems analysts if this is the skill used to determine their pay.)
Does not include em ployees p rim a rily responsible fo r the management or supervision
of other electronic data processing em ployees, or systems analysts p rim a rily concerned with
scientific or engineering problem s.
F or wage study purposes,

systems analysts are classified as follows:

Class A . Works independently or under only general direction on complex problems in­
volving all phases o f systems analysis. Problem s are complex because of diverse sources of
input data and m ultiple-use requirements of output data. (F o r example, develops an integrated
production scheduling, inventory control, cost analysis, and sales analysis record in which




COM PUTER SYSTEMS A N A L Y S T , BUSINESS— Continued
every item of each type is automatically processed through the full system of records and
appropriate followup actions are initiated by the computer.) Confers with persons concerned to
determine the data processing problems and advises subject-m atter personnel on the im plica­
tions of new or revised systems of data processing operations. Makes recommendations, if
needed, fo r approval of m ajor systems installations or changes and fo r obtaining equipment.
May provide functional direction to low er level systems analysts who are assigned to
assist.
Class B . Works independently or under only general direction on problems that are
rela tively uncomplicated to analyze, plan, program , and operate. Problem s are of lim ited
com plexity because sources of input data are homogeneous and the output data are closely
related. (F or example, develops systems fo r maintaining depositor accounts in a bank,
maintaining accounts receivable in a retail establishment, or maintaining inventory accounts
in a manufacturing or wholesale establishment.) Confers with persons concerned to determine
the data processing problem s and advises subject-m atter personnel on the implications of the
data processing systems to be applied.
OR
Works on a segment of a complex data processing scheme or system, as described fo r
class A . Works independently on routine assignments and receives instruction and guidance
on complex assignments. Work is review ed fo r accuracy of judgment, compliance with in­
structions, and to insure proper alinement with the ov era ll system.
Class C . Works under immediate supervision, carrying out analyses as assigned, usually
of a single activity. Assignments are designed to develop and expand practical experience
in the application of procedures and skills required for systems analysis work. For example,
may assist a higher le v e l systems analyst by preparing the detailed specifications required
by program ers from information developed by the higher lev el analyst.
DRAFTSM AN
Class A . Plans the graphic presentation of complex items having distinctive design
features that d iffer significantly from established drafting precedents. Works in close sup­
port with the design originator, and may recommend m inor design changes. Analyzes the
effect of each change on the details of form , function, and positional relationships o f com ­
ponents and parts. Works with a minimum o f supervisory assistance. Completed work is
review ed by design originator for consistency with p rior engineering determinations. May
either prepare drawings, or direct their preparation by low er level draftsmen.
Class B . P e rform s nonroutine and complex drafting assignments that require the appli­
cation o f m ost of the standardized drawing techniques regu larly used. Duties typically in ­
volve such work as: P repares working drawings of subassemblies with irregu la r shapes,
multiple functions, and precise positional relationships between components; prepares archi­
tectural drawings fo r construction of a building including detail drawingsvof foundations, wall
sections, floor plans, and roof. Uses accepted form ulas and manuals in making necessary
computations to determine quantities o f m aterials to be used, load capacities, strengths,
stresses, etc.
R eceives initial instructions, requirem ents, and advice from supervisor.
Completed work is checked for technical adequacy.
Class C . Prepares detail drawings of single units or parts fo r engineering, construction,
manufacturing, or repair purposes. Types of drawings prepared include isom etric projections
(depicting three dimensions in accurate scale) and sectional views to cla rify positioning of
components and convey needed information. Consolidates details from a number of sources
and adjusts or transposes scale as required. Suggested methods of approach, applicable
precedents, and advice on source m aterials are given with initial assignments. Instructions
are less complete when assignments recur. Work may be spot-checked during progress.
DR A FTSM A N - TRACER
Copies plans and drawings prepared by others by placing tracing cloth or paper over
drawings and tracing with pen or pencil. (Does not include tracing lim ited to plans p rim a rily
consisting of straight lines and a la rge scale not requiring close delineation.)
AND/OR
Prepares simple or repetitive drawings of easily visualized item s.
during progress.

Work :s closely supervised

ELEC TRO N IC TECHNICIAN
Works on various types of electronic equipment or systems by perform ing one or m ore
of the following operations: Modifying, installing, repairing, and overhauling. These operations
require the perform ance of m ost or all of the following tasks: Assem bling, testing, adjusting,
calibrating, tuning, and alining.
Work is nonrepetitive and requires a knowledge o f the theory and practice of electronics
pertaining to the use o f general and specialized electronic test equipment; trouble analysis; and
the operation, relationship, and alinement of electronic systems, subsystems, and circuits having
a va riety o f component parts.

13
ELECTRONIC TECHNICIAN— Continued

NURSE, IND USTRIAL (Registered )

E lectronic equipment or systems worked on typically include one or m ore of the following:
Ground, vehicle, or airborne radio communications systems, relay systems, navigation aids;
airborne or ground radar systems; radio and television transmitting or recording systems; e le c ­
tronic computers; m iss ile and spacecraft guidance and control systems; industrial and m edical
measuring, indicating and controlling devices; etc.

A registered nurse who gives nursing service under general m edical direction to ill or
injured employees or other persons who become i l l or suffer an accident on the prem ises of a
factory or other establishment. Duties involve a combination of the following; Giving firs t aid
to the ill or injured; attending to subsequent dressing of em ployees' injuries; keeping records
of patients treated; preparing accident reports fo r compensation or other purposes; assisting in
physical examinations and health evaluations of applicants and employees; and planning and c a rry ­
ing out program s involving health education, accident prevention, evaluation of plant environment,
or other activities affecting the health, w elfa re, and safety of a ll personnel. Nursing supervisors
or head nurses in establishments employing m ore than one nurse are excluded.

(Exclude production assem blers and testers, craftsm en, draftsmen, designers, engineers,
and repairm en of such standard electronic equipment as office machines, radio and television
receiving sets.)

M AIN TEN AN CE AND P O W ER P LA N T
C AR PE NTER , MAINTENANCE

MACHINIST, M AINTENANCE

P erform s the carpentry duties necessary to construct and maintain in good repair build­
ing woodwork and equipment such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors, floors,
stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishment. Work involves most of the follow ing:
Planning and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models, or verbal instructions; using a
variety of carpenter's handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instruments; mak­
ing standard shop computations relating to dimensions of work; and selecting m aterials necessary
for the work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making repairs of m etal parts of mechanical
equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves most of the following: Interpreting written
instructions and specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a variety of m achinist's
handtools and precision measuring instruments; setting up and operating standard machine tools;
shaping of m etal parts to close tolerances; making standard shop computations relating to dimen­
sions of work, tooling, feeds, and speeds of machining; knowledge of the working properties of
the common m etals; selecting standard m aterials, parts, and equipment required fo r his work;
and fitting and assembling parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist's work
norm ally requires a rounded training in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

ELE C TR IC IAN , MAINTENANCE
P erform s a variety of ele ctrica l trade functions such as the installation, maintenance, or
repair of equipment for the generation, distribution, or utilization of ele ctric energy in an estab­
lishment. Work involves most of the follow ing: Installing or repairing any of a variety of e le c ­
tric a l equipment such as generators, transform ers, switchboards, controllers, circuit break ers,
m otors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission equipment; working from blue­
prints, drawings, layouts, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electrica l
system or equipment; working standard computations relating to load requirements of wiring or
electrica l equipment; and using a variety of electricia n 's handtools and measuring and testing
instruments. In general, the work of the maintenance electrician requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
ENGINEER, STATIONARY
Operates and maintains and may also supervise the operation of stationary engines and
equipment (mechanical or e le ctrica l) to supply the establishment in which employed with power,
heat, refrigeration, or air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining equipment
such as steam engines, air com pressors, generators, m otors, turbines, ventilating and r e fr ig ­
erating equipment, steam boilers and b o iler-fed water pumps; making equipment repairs; and
keeping a record of operation of machinery, tem perature, and fuel consumption. May also su­
pervise these operations. Head or chief engineers in establishments employing m ore than one
engineer are excluded.
FIREM AN , STATIO N ARY BOILER
F ire s stationary boilers to furnish the establishment in which employed with heat, power,
or steam. Feeds fuels to fire by hand or operates a mechanical stoker, gas, or oil burner; and
checks w ater and safety valves. May clean, oil, or assist in repairing boilerroom equipment.
H E LPE R , M AINTENANCE TRADES
A ssists one or m ore w orkers in the skilled maintenance trades, by perform ing specific
or general duties of les se r skill, such as keeping a w orker supplied with m aterials and tools;
cleaning working area, machine, and equipment; assisting journeyman by holding m aterials or
tools; and perform ing other unskilled tasks as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the
helper is perm itted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some trades the helper is confined
to supplying, lifting, and holding m aterials and tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others
he is perm itted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts of a trade that are also
perform ed by workers on a fu ll-tim e basis.
M AC H INE -TO O L OPERATOR, TOOLROOM
Specializes in the operation of one or m ore types of machine tools, such as jig borers,
cylindrical or surface grinders, engine lathes, or m illing machines, in the construction of
machine-shop to o ls, gages, jig s , fixtures, or dies. Work involves most of the follow ing: Planning
and perform ing difficult machining operations; processing item s requiring complicated setups or
a high degree of accuracy; using a variety of precision measuring instruments; selecting feeds,
speeds, tooling, and operation sequence; and making necessary adjustments during operation
to achieve requisite tolerances or dimensions. May be required to recognize when tools need
dressing, to dress tools, and to select proper coolants and cutting and lubricating oils. F or
cross-industry wage study purposes, m achine-tool operators, toolroom , in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.




M ECHANIC, AUTO M O TIVE (Maintenance)
Repairs automobiles, buses, m otortrucks, and tractors of an establishment. Work in­
volves most of the follow in g: Examining automotive equipment to diagnose source of trouble; d is­
assembling equipment and perform ing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches,
gages, d rills , or specialized equipment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or
defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves; reassembling and installing the various
assem blies in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; and alining wheels, adjusting brakes
and lights, or tightening body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive mechanic requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.
This classification does not include mechanics who repair custom ers' vehicles in auto­
m obile repair shops.
MECHANIC, M AIN TEN AN CE
Repairs m achinery or mechanical equipment of an establishment. Work involves most
of the follow ing: Examining machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of trouble;
dismantling or partly dismantling machines and perform ing repairs that mainly involve the use
of handtools in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained
from stock; ordering the production of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of the
machine to a machine shop for m ajor repairs; preparing written specifications for m ajor repairs
or for the production of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling machines; and making
all necessary adjustments for operation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classification are workers whose prim ary duties
involve setting up or adjusting machines.
M ILLW RIG H T
Installs new machines or heavy equipment, and dismantles and installs machines or heavy
equipment when changes in the plant layout are required. Work involves most of the follow in g:
Planning and laying out of the work; interpreting blueprints or other specifications; using a variety
of handtools and rigging; making standard shop computations relating to stresses, strength of
m aterials, and centers of gravity; alining and balancing of equipment; selecting standard tools,
equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and maintaining in good order power transmission
equipment such as drives and speed reducers. In general, the m illw right's work norm ally requires
a rounded training and experience in the trade acquired through a form al apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
PA IN TE R , M AIN TEN AN CE
Paints and redecorates w alls, woodwork, and fixtures of an establishment. Work involves
the follow ing: Knowledge of surface peculiarities and types of paint required for different applica­
tions; preparing surface fo r painting by rem oving old finish or by placing putty or fille r in nail

14
PA IN TE R , M A IN TEN AN CE— Continued

S H E E T -M E T A L WORKER, M AINTENANCE--- Continued

holes and in terstices; and applying paint with spray gun or brush. May m ix colors, oils, white
lead, and other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or consistency. In general, the work of the
maintenance painter requires rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

up and operating all available types o f sheet-m etal working machines; using a va riety of handtools
in cutting, bending, form ing, shaping, fitting, and assembling; and installing sheet-m etal articles
as required. In general, the work of the maintenance sheet-m etal w orker requires rounded
training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.

P IP E F IT T E R , M AIN TEN AN CE
Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of pipe and pipefittings in an
establishment. Work involves most of the follow ing: Laying out of work and m easuring to locate
position of pipe from drawings or other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to
co rrect lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machines; threading
pipe with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or pow er-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop computations relating to
pressu res, flow, and size of pipe required; and making standard tests to determine whether fin ­
ished pipes m eet specifications. In general, the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. W orkers p rim a rily engaged in installing and repairing building sanitation
or heating systems are excluded.
SH E E T -M E T A L WORKER, M AIN TEN AN CE
Fabricates, installs, and maintains in good repair the sheet-m etal equipment and fixtures
(such as machine guards, grease pans, shelves, lockers, tanks, ventilators, chutes, ducts, m etal
roofing) of an establishment. Work involves most of the follow in g: Planning and laying out all
types-of sheet-m etal maintenance work from blueprints, m odels, or other specifications; setting

TO O L AND DIE M AKER
(Die maker; jig m aker; tool m aker; fixture maker; gage m aker)
Constructs and repairs machine-shop tools, gages, jigs,' fixtures or dies for forgings,
punching, and other m etal-form ing work. Work involves m ost of the follow ing: Planning and
laying out of work from m odels, blueprints, drawings, or other oral and written specifications;
using a va riety o f tool and die m aker's handtools and precision m easuring instruments; under­
standing of the working properties of common m etals and alloys; setting up and operating of
machine tools and related equipment; making necessary shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, speeds, feeds, and tooling of machines; heat-treating of m etal parts during fabrication
as w ell as of finished tools and dies to achieve required qualities; working to close tolerances;
fitting and assembling of parts to prescribed tolerances and allowances; and selecting appropriate
m aterials, tools, and processes. In general, the tool and die m ak er's work requires a rounded
training in machine-shop and toolroom practice usually acquired through a form al apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experience.
F or cross-industry wage study purposes, tool and die m akers in tool and die jobbing
shops are excluded from this classification.

C U S T O D IA L AND M A TER IA L M O VEM EN T
PACKER, SHIPPING— Continued

GUARD AND WATCHMAN
Guard. P e rform s routine police duties, either at fixed post or on tour, maintaining order,
using arms or fo rc e where necessary. Includes gatemen who are stationed at gate and check
on identity of em ployees and other persons entering.
Watchman. Makes rounds of prem ises periodically in protecting property against fir e ,
theft, and illeg a l entry.
JANITOR, PO R TE R, OR CLEAN ER
(Sweeper; charwoman; janitress)
Cleans and keeps in an ord erly condition factory working areas and washrooms, or
prem ises of an office , apartment house, or com m ercial or other establishment. Duties involve
a combination of the follow in g: Sweeping, mopping or scrubbing, and polishing flo ors; rem oving
chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing m etal fix ­
tures or trim m ings; providing supplies and m inor maintenance services; and cleaning lavatories,
showers, and restroom s. Workers who specialize in window washing are excluded.

and size of container; inserting enclosures in container; using ex celsior or other m aterial to
prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing container; and applying labels or entering
identifying data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes or crates are excluded.
SH IPPING AND RECEIVING C LER K
Prepares m erchandise fo r shipment, or receives and is responsible fo r incoming ship­
ments of m erchandise or other m aterials. Shipping work in volves: A knowledge o f shipping p ro­
cedures, practices, routes, available means of transportation, and rates; and preparing records
of the goods shipped, making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping charges, and keeping
a file of shipping records. May direct or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment.
Receiving work in volves: V erifyin g or directing others in verifyin g the correctness of shipments
against bills of lading, invoices, or other records; checking fo r shortages and rejecting dam­
aged goods; routing merchandise or m aterials to proper departments; and maintaining necessary
records and file s.
F or wage study purposes, w orkers are classified as follows:
Receiving clerk
Shipping clerk
Shipping and receivin g clerk

LABORER, M A T E R IA L HANDLING
(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker;
warehouseman or warehouse helper)

shelver; trucker;

stockman or stock helper;

TRUCKDRIVER

A w orker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing plant, store, or other establishment
whose duties involve one or m ore of the follow ing: Loading and unloading various m aterials and
merchandise on or from freigh t cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; unpacking, shelving,
or placing m aterials or merchandise in proper storage location; and transporting m aterials or
merchandise by handtruck, car, or wheelbarrow. Longshoremen, who load and unload ships are
excluded.

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport m aterials, merchandise,
equipment, or men between various types of establishments such as: Manufacturing plants, freight
depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establishments, or between retail establishments and
custom ers' houses or places o f business. May also load or unload truck with or without helpers,
make m inor mechanical rep airs, and keep truck in good working order. D river-salesm en and
over-th e-road d rivers are excluded.

ORDER F IL L E R

follows:

(Order picker; stock selector; warehouse stockman)
F ills shipping or tran sfer orders fo r finished goods from stored merchandise in accord­
ance with specifications on sales slips, custom ers' o rd ers, or other instructions. May, in addition
to fillin g orders and indicating item s fille d or omitted, keep records o f outgoing orders, requi­
sition additional stock or report short supplies to supervisor, and perform other related duties.

F or wage study purposes, tru ckdrivers are cla ssified by size and type of equipment, as
(T r a c to r -tr a ile r should be rated on the basis o f t r a ile r capacity.)
Tru ckdriver
Tru ckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,
Tru ckdriver,

(combination of sizes listed separately)
light (under l'/z tons)
medium ( 1 V2 to and including 4 tons)
heavy (over 4 tons, tra ile r type)
heavy (over 4 tons, other than tra ile r type)

TRUCKER, POWER
PACKER, SHIPPING
P repares finished products for shipment or storage by placing them in shipping con­
tainers, the specific operations perform ed being dependent upon the type, size, and number
of units to be packed, the type of container employed, and method of shipment. Work requires
the placing o f item s in shipping containers and may involve one or m ore of the follow in g:
Knowledge of various item s o f stock in order to v e rify content; selection of appropriate type

 S. G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F IC E : 1 9 7 2 —7 4 5 1 0 1 /5 0
☆ U.


Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electric-pow ered truck or tractor to transport
goods and m aterials of a ll kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or other establishment.
F or wage study purposes, workers are classified by type of truck, as follows:
Trucker, power (fo rk lift)
Tru cker, power (other than fork lift)

Area

W age

Surveys

A lis t o f the la te s t a v a ila b le b u lle tin s is p r e s e n t e d b e lo w .
A d ir e c t o r y o f a r e a w a g e stu d ie s in clu d in g m o r e lim ite d stu dies conducted at
the re q u e s t o f the E m p lo y m e n t S ta n d a rd s A d m in is t r a t io n o f the D e p a rtm e n t o f L a b o r is a v a ila b le on re q u e s t. B u lle tin s m a y be p u r c h a s e d fr o m the
S u perinten dent o f D o c u m e n ts, U .S . G o v e rn m e n t P r in t in g O ffic e , W a sh in g to n , D . C ., 20402, o r fr o m any o f the B L S r e g io n a l s a le s o ffic e s shown on
the in s id e fro n t c o v e r .

A re a

Akron, Ohio, July 1971 1
---------------------------------------Albany—
Schenectady— ro y, N .Y ., M ar. 1971 1---------T
Albuquerque, N. M ex ., M ar. 1971____________________
Allentown—
Bethlehem—
Easton, Pa.—
N.J., May 1971—
Atlanta, G a., May 1971----------------------------------------B altim ore, M d., Aug. 1971 -----------------------------------Beaumont— o r t A rthu r-O range, T ex ., May 1971 1---P
Binghamton, N .Y ., July 1971 1------------------------------Birm ingham , A la ., M ar. 1971 1 ----------------------------B oise City, Idaho, Nov. 19701________________________
Boston, M ass., Aug. 1971-------------------------------------Buffalo, N .Y ., Oct. 19701_____________________________
Burlington, V t .. Dec. 1971------------------------------------Canton, Ohio, May 1971_______________________________
Charleston, W. V a ., M ar. 1971________________________
C harlotte, N .C ., Jan. 1971_____________________________
Chattanooga, Tenn.-G a., Sept. 1971--------------------,
--Chicago, 111., June 1970-——---------------------------------Cincinnati, Ohio—
Ky.—
Ind., Feb. 1971 1-------------------Cleveland, Ohio, Sept. 1971---------------------------------Columbus, Ohio, Oct. 1971-----------------------------------D allas, T ex ., Oct. 1970 1--------------------------------------D avenport-Rock Island— oline, Iowa—
M
111.,
Feb. 1971— ___________________________________________
Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1970 1______________________________
Denver, C olo., Dec. 1970_________ ____________ ____ _
Des M oines, Iowa, May 1971__________________________
D etroit, M ich., Feb. 1971 1-----------------------------------F o rt Worth, T ex ., Oct. 1971--------------------------------G reen Bay, W is ., July 1971 ---------------------------------G reen ville, S.C., May 1971 1--------------------------------Houston, T ex ., Apr. 19711 ----------------------------------Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 1971--------------------------------Jackson, M iss., Jan. 1971 1 ___________________________
Jacksonville, F la ., Dec. 19701________________________
Kansas City, M o.-K ans., Sept. 1971 ----------------------Law rence— a verh ill, M ass.— .H ., June 1971 ---------H
N
L ittle Rock—
North L ittle Rock, A rk ., July 1971------Los Angeles—Long Beach and Anaheim—
Santa A n aGarden G rove, C a lif., M ar. 1971 1 ----------------------L o u isville, Ky.—
Ind., Nov. 1970_______________________
Lubbock, T e x ., M ar. 1971 ------------------------------------M anchester, N .H ., July 1971__________________________
Memphis, Term.—A rk ., Nov. 1970--------------------------M iam i, F la ., Nov. 1970 1...-----------------------------------Midland and Odessa, T ex ., Jan. 1971---------------------Milwaukee, W is., May 1971---------------------------- ——
Minneapolis—
St. Paul, Minn., Jan. 1971.-----------------l

B u lle t in n u m b e r
and p r ic e

1685-87,
1685-54,
1685-58,
1685-75,
1685-69,
1725-16,
1685-68,
1725-6,
1685-63,
1685-21,
1725-11,
1685-43,
1725-25.
1685-71,
1685-57,
1685-48,
1725-14,
1660-90,
1685-53,
1725-17,
1725-19,
1685-22,

40 cents
35 cents
30 cents
30 cents
40 cents
35 cents
35 cents
35 cents
40 cents
35 cents
40 cents
50 cents
25 cents
30 cents
30 cents
30 cents
30 cents
60 cents
45 cents
40 cents
30 cents
50 cents

1685-51,
1685-45,
1685-41,
1685-70,
1685-77,
1725-21,
1725-3,
1685-78,
1685-67.
1725-23,
1685-39,
1685-37,
1725-18,
1685-83,
1725-4,

30 cents
40 cents
35 cents
30 cents
50 cents
30 cents
30 cents
35 cents
‘'D cents
30 cents
35 cents
35 cents
35 cents
30 cents
30 cents

1685-66,
50 cents
1685-27, 30 cents
1685-60,
30 cents
1725-2,
30 cents
1685-30, 30 cents
1685-29, 40 cents
1685-40,
30 cents
1685-76, 35 cents
1685-44, 40 cents

Data on establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions are also presented.




A re a
M u s k e g o n —M u s k e g o n H e ig h t s , M ic h . , June 1971_______
N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y , N . J ., Jan . 1971______________
N e w H a v e n , C o n n ., Jan . 1 9 7 1 ____________________________
N e w O r le a n s , L a . , Jan . 1971 1___________________________
N e w Y o r k , N . Y . , A p r . 1971_______________________________
N o r f o lk — o r t s m o u t h and N e w p o r t N e w s —
P
H a m p to n , V a . , Jan . 1971 1 --------------------------------------O k la h o m a C it y , O k la . , J u ly 1971 1----------------------------O m a h a , N e b r . —Io w a , S ep t. 1971 1 _______________________
P a t e r s o n - C l i f t o n — a s s a i c , N . J ., June 1971___________
P
P h ila d e lp h ia , P a . —N . J ., N o v . 1970______________________
P h o e n ix , A r i z . , June 1 9 7 1 ________________________________
P it t s b u r g h , P a . , Jan. 1971 1--------------------------------------P o r t la n d , M a in e , N o v . 1971 1____________________________
P o r t la n d , O r e g . —W a s h ., M a y 1971______________________
P r o v i d e n c e — a w tu c k e t—W a r w ic k , R . I.—M a s s . ,
P
M a y 1971 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------R a le ig h , N . C . , A u g . 1971------------------------------------------R ic h m o n d , V a . , M a r . 1971----------------------------------------R o c h e s t e r , N . Y . ( o f f i c e o c c u p a tio n s o n ly ),
J u ly 1971 1 ----------------------------------------------------------------R o c k fo r d , 111., M a y 1971 -------------------------------------------St. L o u is , M o .—111., M a r . 1971 1 ______________________
S a lt L a k e C it y , U ta h , N o v . 1971___ ______________________
San A n t o n io , T e x . , M a y 1971 1___________________________
San B e r n a r d in o — i v e r s i d e — n t a r io , C a l i f . ,
R
O
D e c . 1970 1----------------------------------------------------------------San D ie g o , C a l i f . , N o v . 1 9 7 0 ___________________________ _
San F r a n c i s c o — a k la n d , C a l i f . , O c t. 1970______________
O
San J o s e , C a l i f . , A u g . 1971 1------------------------------------S ava n n a h , G a ., M a y 1971-----------------------------------------S c r a n to n , P a . , J u ly
1 9 7 1 _________________________________
S e a tt le —E v e r e t t , W a s h ., Jan . 1971 1_____________________
S io u x F a l l s , S. D a k ., D e c . 1970 1 -----------------------------South B e n d , In d ., M a r . 1971________________________ ____
S p o k a n e , W a s h ., June 1 9 7 1 _______________________________
S y r a c u s e , N . Y . , J u ly 1971 1 --------------------------------------T a m p a - S t . P e t e r s b u r g , F l a . , N o v . 1 9 7 0 _______________
T o le d o , O h io — ic h . , A p r . 1971 1________________________
M
T r e n t o n , N . J ., S ep t. 1971 -----------------------------------------U t ic a —R o m e , N . Y . , J u ly 1971 1 _____ ____________________
W a s h in g to n , D .C .—M d .—V a . , A p r . 1 9 7 1 _________________
W a t e r b u r y , C o n n ., M a r . 1971____________________________
W a t e r lo o , Io w a , N o v . 1971----------------------------------------W ic h it a , K a n s . , A p r . 1 9 7 1 ________________________________
W o r c e s t e r , M a s s . , M a y 1971 -----------------------------------Y o r k , P a . , F e b . 1971_______________________________________
Y o u n g s to w n — a r r e n , O h io , N o v . 1970__________________
W

B u lle tin n u m b e r
and p r ic e
1 6 8 5 -8 2 ,
1 6 8 5 -4 7 ,
1 6 8 5 -3 5 ,
1 6 8 5 -3 6 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 9 ,

30
40
30
40
65

c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts

1 6 8 5 -4 6 ,
1 7 2 5 -8 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 3 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 4 ,
1 6 8 5 -3 4 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 6 ,
1 6 8 5 -4 9 ,
1 7 2 5 -2 2 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 5 ,

35
35
35
35
50
30
50
35
35

c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts

1 6 8 5 -8 0 ,
1 7 2 5 -5 ,
1 6 8 5 -6 2 ,

40 c e n ts
30 c e n ts
30 c e n ts

1 7 2 5 -7 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 9 ,
1 6 8 5 -6 5 ,
1 7 2 5 -2 4 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 1 ,

35
30
50
30
35

c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts

1 6 8 5 -4 2 ,
1 6 8 5 -2 0 ,
1 6 8 5 -2 3 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 5 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 2 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 2 ,
1 6 8 5 -3 8 ,
1 6 8 5 -6 1 ,
1 6 8 5 -8 8 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 0 ,
1 6 8 5 -1 7 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 4 ,
1 7 2 5 -1 2 ,
1 7 2 5 -9 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 6 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 5 .
1 7 2 5 -2 0 ,
1 8 8 5 -6 4 ,
1 6 8 5 -7 3 ,
1 6 8 5 -5 0 ,
1 6 8 5 -2 4 ,

40
30
40
35
30
30
35
35
30
30
35
30
40
30
35
40
30
30
30
30
30
30

c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts
c e n ts

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
W ASHING TO N, D.C. 20212

FIRST CLASS MAIL
POSTAGE A N D FEES PAID

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
U .S.M A IL

O F F IC IA L BUSINESS
PENALTY FOR PR IV A TE USE, $300




V