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OF TH E

SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE
F O R T H E F I SC A L Y E A R E N D E D J U N E 30

1934
30030005362950

...
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T W E N T Y - SE C O N D

A N N U A L REPO RT
OF THE

SECRET A RY OF COM M ERCE

1934

UNITED
GOVERNM ENT

ST A T E S

PR IN T IN G

OFFICE

W A S H I N G T O N : 19 3 4

F or sa l e b y t h e S u p er i n t en d en t o f D o cu m en t s, W a sh i n g t o n , D . C .

P r i ce 20 c e n t s ( p a p er cov er )

ORGANIZATION

OP

TH E

D E PA R T M E N T

S e c r e t a r y o f C o m m er ce- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - A ssi st a n t S e c r e t a r y o f C o m m er ce- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - A ssi st a n t S e c r e t a r y o f C o m m er ce- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - S o licit o r _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __
A d m i n i st r a t i v e A ssi st a n t t o t h e S e c r e t a r y - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - C h i ef C l er k a n d S u p e r i n t e n d e n t - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - D i r e c t o r , B u r e a u o f A i r C o m m er ce- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - D i r e c t o r o f t h e C en su s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - D i r e c t o r , B u r e a u o f F o r e i g n a n d D o m e st i c C o m m er ce- - - - D i r e ct o r , N a t i o n a l B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - C o m m i ssi o n e r o f F i sh e r i e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m m i ssi o n e r o f L i g h t h o u se s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - D i r e ct o r , C o a st a n d G eo d e t i c S u r v e y - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - D i r e ct o r , B u r e a u o f N a v i g a t i o n a n d S t e a m b o a t I n sp e c t i o n .
C o m m i ssi o n e r o f P a t e n t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D i r e ct o r , U n i t e d S t a t e s S h i p p i n g B o a r d B u r e a u - - - - - - - - - - D i r e ct o r , F e d e r a l E m p l o y m e n t S t a b i l i z a t i o n O f f i ce- - - - - - - i i

D a n i e l C . R o pe r .
Jo h n D ic k in so n .
E w in g Y. M it c h el l .
So u t h T r i m b l e , J k .
Mal col m Ker u n .
E d w a r d W . L ib b ey .
E u g en e L . Vid a l .
W il l ia m L . A u st in .
C. T . M u r c h iso n .
L y m a n J. B r i g g s .
Fr a n k T. Bel l .
Ge o r g e R . P u t n a m .
R . S. P a t t o n .
J o s e ph B. W ea v er .
C o n w a y P. C o e .
J. C . P ea c o c k .
D . H . Sa w y e r .

C O N T E N T S

t

§

E x p e n d i t u r e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
vn
P u b l i c w o r k s a l l o t m e n t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
v ii
C h a n ges in o r g a n i z a t i o n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
vm
D i sc u ssi o n o f f u n c t i o n s o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
ix
E con om ic r ev iew _ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __
ix
R eci p r o ca l t r a d e p r o g r a m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
x ix
F o r e i g n a n d d o m e st i c c o m m e r c e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
x ix
A i r c o m m e r c e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
xxi
L i g h t h o u se S e r v i c e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
xxn
E n f o r c e m e n t o f n a v i g a t i o n a n d st e a m b o a t i n sp e c t i o n l a w s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
x x iv
S u r v ey in g a n d m a p p in g_____________________________________________
x x iv
F i sh e r i e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
xxvi
N a t i o n a l st a n d a r d s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ x x v i i
C en su s a c t i v i t i e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
x x ix P a t e n t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
x x ix
M er ch a n t m a r in e___________________________________________________
xxx
F o r e i g n - t r a d e z o n e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ x x x n
S t r e e t a n d h i g h w a y sa f e t y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
xxxm
B u si n e ss A d v i so r y a n d P l a n n i n g C o u n c i l _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ x x x m

R EPO RT BY B U REA U S

C h i e f C l e r k a n d Su pe r i n t e n d e n t

B u r e a u o f t h e C e n s u s — Conti nued

Page
1
1
1
4

Searching ol d popul ati on records. ..................
M achi ne tabul ati on_____________________
W ork done f or other Federal offices and out­
si de organi zati ons___________________

D i v i si on of Purchases and Sales__ —........ .

5

Census record preserv ati on--------------------

25

So l i c i t o r ’ s Of f i c e ....... - ...................................

6

Fed er a l
E m pl o y m e n t
St a b i l i z a t i o n
Of f i c e ......................... ........................................

25
26

7

U nem pl oy m ent relief and supporti ng local
studi es__________ _______________ ___
T ri al census of unem pl oy m ent__________
Cooperati on w i th the N ati onal Recovery
O ther speci al tabul ati ons________________
Publ i cati ons..................... .................. ...............

2627

Fi el d f orce..... ............... ..................................

28

Space i n the Com m erce B ui l di ng--------------A C entur y of Progress E x posi ti on.................
D i v i si on of A ccounts ------------ -----------------A ppoi ntm ent D i v i si on------------ --------- ------

B u r e a u o f A i r Co m m e r c e
O perati on on reduced budget...........................
A i r N av i gati on D i v i si o n ..................................
A i r Regul ati on D i v i si on....................................
A ppropri ati ons, personnel , and ai r nav i ga­
ti on f aci li ties---------------------------------------

9
11
13

Page'
23**
24
24

14

B u r e a u o f F o r e i g n A n d D o m est i c
Co m m e r c e

B u r e a u o f t h e Ce n s u s
I ntr oducti on. .................................... ........ ........
Fi nanci al stati sti cs of State and local gov ­
ernm ents------------------------------------------Fi nanci al stati sti cs of States and ci ti es............

17
18

W orl d dev el opm ents af f ecting the nature of
the B ureau’s w ork ---------- -----------------Pri ce m ov em ents and f iscal poli ci es--------T ari f f s, quotas, and si m i l ar restri cti v e

Q ui nquenni al census of el ectri cal i ndustr i es..
V i tal stati sti cs— ..............................................
I nsti tuti onal popul ati on------- ---------- --------A nnual r eports........................ ......................

19
19
20
20

Course of A m eri can export and i m port trade.
Sal i ent aspects of B ureau’s posi ti on and acti v ­
i ti es........ .....................—------ ---------------Contracti on of scope i n conf orm i ty w i th

M arri age and di v orce— .......................... .......
R eport on N egroes i n the U ni ted States-----Cotton and cottonseed— ........... ........ ............
M onthl y and quarterl y i ndustri al stati sti cs_.
M onthl y ......................................- ...................
Q uarterl y .......... .......................... -............... —

21
21
21
22
22
22

Services to recov ery agencies and other
G ov ernm ent uni ts.............................. : ----Ex am ples of increased vol ume and hei ght­
ened v al ue of w ork .......... ..............- ...............
Ef f orts to ai d i nternati onal com m erce--------Ex cepti onal acti v i ty i n study of f oreign-

Esti m ates of pop u l ati o n ..................................

23

Forei gn commerci al l aw s---------- ---------- 36;
Fi nance and i nv estm ent------------ -----------

17

III

29'
29
30
31

31
34
35

37

CON T EN T S

IV

B u r e a u o f F o r e i g n a n d D o m est i c C o m m e r c e —
Conti nued

E f f orts to ai d i nternati onal commerce—Con.
General regi onal i nf orm ati on on f oreign
dev el opm ents----------------------------------T he f oreign commerce serv i ce----------------Forei gn-trade stati sti cs - -- - - ..........................
E x port and i m port serv ices b y com m odi ty
di v i si ons--........................
I nf orm ati on as to actual or potenti al buy ers
abroad----- -------A cti v i ti es i n th e prom oti on of dom esti c tr ad e.
M ark eti ng research and serv i ce--------------D om estic busi ness ai ded b y com m odi ty
di v i si ons— ..........................
N ew D i v i si on of N egro A f f airs..........- ..........
W ork of B ureau’s di stri ct of fices. - ..........
Econom ic research.......................
Services respecti ng v i tal probl em s of tr ans­
por tati on-------------------------------------------Publ i cati ons of the B ureau----------------------Conclusi on............... - ..........................................

Page
38
38
39
40
42
43
43
44
45
46
46
47
48
49

N a t i o n a l B u r e a u o f St a n d a r d s
General acti v i ti es— ...............
E l ectri ci ty .................................
W ei ghts and m easures....... .
H eat and pow er.......................
O pti cs................... .................. C hem i stry .................................
M echani cs and sound---------Organi c and f ibrous materi al s.
M etal l urgy ........... .....................
C l ay and si li cate p r o d u cts.- - Sim pl if ied practi ce _ _- ........
B ui l di ng and housi ng. ........ Speci f i cati ons— .................. .
T rade standards----------------General f i nanci al statem en t- _

51
53
55
57
59
61
62
65
67
69
72
73
74
75
75

L i g h t h o u s e Ser v i c e
A ppropri ati ons-------- -----------I m prov em ents i n apparatus and equi pm entA dm i ni strati on...............
Personnel ________ _____—---------------------L ighthouse depots_____ _________________
L i ghthouse tenders.............................
L i ghtshi ps..............
O perati on and constructi on, L ighthouse
Service, f iscal y ear 1934------Progress of vessels under constructi on or
com pl eted............. - ............- ........ .............
Progress of special w ork s under construc­
ti on or com pl eted........... ...........................
General service proj ects.......................

Page
101
104
106
107
108
108
109
109
109
110
117

C o a st a n d G e o d e t i c Su r v e y
Rev iew of the y ear ........................... .............—
T he Publ i c W ork s program ______
Ci v i l W ork s proj ect......... - ...........................
Sum m ary of acti v i ti es..............................
D ev el opm ent of m ethods and i nstr um ents.
D i v i si on of C har ts_____ ___________
D i v i si on H y drography and T opography ___
D i v i si on of Geodesy . ...............- ........................
D i v i si on of T i des and C urrents____ ______
D i v i si on of T errestri al M agneti sm and
Seismology..........................................
T errestri al m agneti sm .------- -----------------Seismol ogy. ...............................................

119
120
121
122
124
126
128
130
134
136
136
138

B u r e a u o f N a v i g a t i o n a n d St ea m b o a t
I n spec t i o n

A m eri can shi ppi ng on June 30, 1934............
Saf ety of lif e at sea___ _______
Coasti ng tr ade— ..........................
Shi ppi ng commi ssi oners...................
A dm easurem ent of vessels.... ..............
L oad l i nes...... ..............................
Passenger act of 1882— ............. 1............... .......
B u r e a u o f Fi sh er i e s
N av i gati on recei pts............ .................
A dm i ni strati on—. ..........................
N ati onal pl anni ng council (of commerci al and
H
gam e f ish com m i ssi oners)--------------------77ul l s and equi pm ent stati sti cs_____________
Cooperati on w i th States------------------------78 Rei nspecti ons...........................................
M i scell aneous i nspecti ons..........................
Cooperati on w i th other Federal agenci es.......
80
Conserv ati on of w hal es------------------------81V essels i nspected and certi f icates of i nspec­
ti on
L egi sl ati on---------------------------------81 i ssued to steam and m otor vessels
and to barges.________________
Constructi on acti v i ti es------------------------------83
Certi
Stati sti cal i nv esti gati ons--------------------83 f icates w i thdraw n or ref used_________
Fi sheri es of the U ni ted States, 1932..............
83 Cargo vessels ex am i ned to carry persons i n
addi ti on to crew ...................................
M anuf actured products i n the U ni ted
N ew life preservers i nspected____________
States and A l ask a, 1932-----------------------84
M ark eti ng i nv esti gati ons---------------------------85
L if e-saving apparatus inspected at f actories.
T echnological i nv esti gati ons-----------------------85
W ork perf ormed by i nspectors i n central
of fice.................................................................
87
Biological f i shery i nv esti gati ons------------------Boil ers............ ........ .............................. ___........
Fi shery i nv esti gati ons of the A tl anti c and
M ari
Gul f States---- -----------------------88ne boi l er pl ates tested_______________
Steel bars and f orgings tested_____________
Fi shery i nv esti gati ons i n i nteri or w ater s.. .
90
Stati sti cs concerning shi ps’ personnel -..............
Fi shery i nv esti gati ons of th e Paci f i c coast
Of91
ficers li censed.........................................
and A l ask a...........................................
Resul ts of acti on agai nst li censes.....................
A qui cul tural i nv esti gati ons-------------------91
Shell f isheries i nv esti gati ons-------------------92
Ex am i nati ons f or col orbl indness__________
Pol l uti on studi es....................................
Certi
92 f icates of servi ce i ssued to abl e seam en
and to li f eboat m en..............................
93
A l ask a f isheries serv i ce____________________
A dm i ni strati on of f i shery l aw s and regu­
T ransportati on and loss of l if e.......................
Passengers
l ati ons____________________
93 carri ed___ _____________
L iv es sav ed____________________________
A l ask a sal mon hatcheri es---------------------94
Products of the f isheries-----------------------94
L iv es l ost on vessels subj ect to i nspection,
95 b y di str i cts............................................
A l ask a f ur-seal serv i ce_________________
A cci dents resul ti ng i n loss of l if e__________
General acti v i ti es--------- -------------------------95
Seal her d ___________________________
95V essels l ost...........................................
T ak e of seal sk i ns--------------------------Property
95
l o st ................................................
Sal e of seal sk i ns------ ------------------------------95 N av i gati on patrol serv i ce......... .....................
.Foxes----- ---------------------------------Prev enti
96 ng ov ercrow di ng of passenger vessels
Fur-seal sk i ns tak en b y nati v es----- -------------- 96
P a t e n t Of f i c e
Fur-seal patr ol _________
96
Propagati on and di stri buti on of f ood and
V olume of busi ness_______________________
gam e f ishes-------------------------------------96
Propagati on of commerci al species----------97
Condi ti on of w ork _____ __________________
Rescue operati ons----------------- ,...............
98
Surpl us........ .....................................
A quari um _______________
98
Cl assi f ication D i v i si on_____ ___________
B l ack B ass and A ngl ers D i v i si on_________
99
Real locati on of exam iners i n grades P-1 and
P - 2.............................................................
V essels_________________________________
100

141
142
142
143
144
144
144
144
145
147

147
147
148

150
150

150
150
150
150
151
151
152
153
153

154
156

157

152

153
154
154
155

156
156

156

159
159
160
161

160

CON T EN T S
P a t e n t Of f i c e —C onti nued

V

U n i t e d St a t es Sh i ppi n g B o a r d B u r e a u — C ont.
P a ge

T he reestabl i shm ent of abol i shed posi ti ons..
Regi strati on of attor ney s...... ............................
Paten t Office A dv i sory C om m i ttee.................
T he conf erence at L ondon. ........... ..................
Paten ts..............................
T rade m ar k s...................................
A i d to i n d u str y ............ ..............
Stati sti cs. ______
O ther detai l s of busi ness f or th e f iscal y ear ...

161
162
162
163
163
164
165
166
170

U n i t e d St a t e s Sh i ppi n g B o a r d B u r e a u
D i v i si on of L oans and Sal es.....................
D i v i si on of R egul ati on_________
D i v i si on of Shi ppi ng Research___ ________

173
176
179

D i v i si on of T r af f i c........... ...............
Sea Servi ce Secti on_________
Secti on of Publ i c I nf orm ati on...... ...........
Secretary .............................................

Pag e
179
181
181
182

M e r c h a n t F l e et C o r p o r at i o n

O rgani zati on........... ...........
D i v i si on of 0 perati ons...... ...........
D i v i si on of I nsurance....................
T reasurer................
General C om ptrol l er____________________
L egal D i v i si on____________
Stati sti cs..........................................

183
183
188
189
191
191
192

T W E N T Y - SE C O N D

ANNUAL

R E PO R T

OF T H E

SE C R E T A R Y

OF

COM M ERCE

D e pa r t m e n t
Of f i c e

o f Co m m er c e,
o f t h e Se c r e t a r y

,

Washington, November 15,193

To t h e P r e s i d e n t :
I have the honor to submit herew i th, f or transmissi on to Congress,
the Tw enty-second A nnual Report of the Secretary of Commerce,
covering the fiscal y ear ended June 30, 1934.
E X PE N D I T U R E S

T he total amount appropri ated directl y by Congress f or expendi­
ture by the D epartm ent of Commerce, duri ng the fiscal y ear 1934,
was $35,404,7754 H ow ever, at the request of the Presi dent and in
cooperation w i th the D i rector of the B udget, thi s D epartm ent agreed
to exert i ts utm ost endeavors to keep i ts normal expenditures at the
low est minimum consistent w ith proper and adequate service. I t is
grati f y i ng to report th at at the close of the fiscal y ear the total
of authorized obligations w as $28,603,509; 1 w hich is $6,801,266, or 16
percent less than the appropri ati on. T he amount expended f or the
correspondi ng acti vities duri ng the fiscal y ear 1933 w as $39,669,450.
T hi s reducti on in expenditures was effected w i thout jeopardi zi ng the
saf ety of l i f e or property at sea or in aviation and w i thout detri m ent
to trade and industry .
PU B L I C W O R K S A L L O T M E N T S

T he regul ar annual appropri ati on act f or the D epartm ent f or the
fiscal y ear 1934 di d not contain any money f or construction or
Publ i c W orks acti vities by several of the bureaus, as has been the
practi ce pri or to the fiscal y ear 1933. A l l items of thi s character
w ere omitted f rom our appropri ati ons w i th the understandi ng that
we should submit appl i cati on to the Federal Emergency A dm i ni stra­
ti on of Publ i c W ork s f or such f unds as m i ght be deemed necessary.
D uri ng the y ear the f oll ow i ng allotments w ere granted by th at
organi zati on to thi s D epartm ent and obl igated by June 30, 1934:
B ureau

A l l otm ents

Obl i gati ons
to June 30,
1934

$6,503,120
5, 620,334
2,058,803
639, 500
100,000
33,043

$3,164,855
2, 706, 548
939,159
350,994
87, 691
30,921

14,954,800

7,280,168

i D oes n o t i n cl u d e t h e B u r eau o f M i nes, w hi ch, w as t r an sf er r ed t o t h e I n t er i o r D ep ar tm en t d u r i n g t h e y ear .

V III

REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

T he unobligated balances are avail able f or expenditure duri ng the
fiscal y ear 1935, and numerous necessary repai r and constructi on
proj ects now i n process w il l be completed, and other pressi ng items
of publi c w orks w i ll be perf ormed.
I n addition, the D epartm ent received the benef it of the services of
personnel employed w ith f unds granted by the Civil W orks A dm i ni s­
trati on, and considerable essential w ork w as accomplished through
thi s means.
T he w ork perf orm ed by the vari ous bureaus under allotments f rom
these two agencies is discussed in greater detai l under the chapters
of thi s report deali ng w i th the acti vities of the respective bureaus.
CH ANGES I N

ORGANIZATION

D uri ng the year the f oll ow i ng changes af f ecting the organizati on of
the D epartm ent were accomplished:
T he B ureau of M ines was transf erred f rom the D epartm ent of
Commerce to the D epartm ent of the I nteri or by an Executive order
issued on February 22, 1934.
T hat p ar t of Executive O rder No. 6166 of June 10, 1933, w hich
provided f or the abol ition of the Federal Employment Stabil izati on
B oard and the transf er of i ts records to the Federal Emergency A d­
m i ni strati on of Publ i c W orks was revoked by an Executive order is­
sued M arch 1, 1934. T hi s subsequent order abolished the B oard, es­
tabli shed in the D epartm ent of Commerce an office to be know n as the
Federal Employment Stabi l i zati on Office and transf erred to such
office the f unctions, personnel , records, and property of the B oard.
T he above-mentioned Executive orders were issued pursuant to the
provi sions of section 1, ti tl e I I I of the act of M arch 20, 1933, enti tl ed
“ A n act to m ai ntai n the credi t of the U ni ted States Government ” ,
and became effective 61 days f rom the date of issuance.
T he D i sbursi ng Office of the D epartm ent of Commerce was trans­
f erred to the newly created D ivi si on of D isbursement of the T reasury
D epartm ent, effective M arch 1, 1934, pursuant to the provisions of
Executive Orders 6166 of June 10, 1933, 6224 of Jul y 27, 1933, and
6540 of D ecember 28, 1933.
W i th the view to obtaining closer coordinati on and increased effi­
ciency, by departm ental orders issued D ecember 11, 1933, the general
supervi si on and directi on of the bureaus of the D epartm ent con­
cerned w i th i ndustry and trade w ere grouped under one A ssistant
Secretary, and the bureaus deali ng w i th m ari ne and transportati on
acti viti es, w i th the exception of the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau, were
pl aced under the other A ssi stant Secretary. T he Shi ppi ng B oard
B ureau is being administered di rectl y by the Secretary of Commerce.
T he name of the B ureau of Standards w as changed to N ati onal
B ureau of Standards by departm ental order of A pri l 27, 1934, to
avoid conf usion w i th State, municipal, and commercial organizati ons
w hich have been desi gnated by a si m i l ar title.
T he name of the A eronautics B ranch of the D epartm ent was
changed to B ureau of A i r Commerce, effective Jul y 1, 1934. T hi s
new designation describes more accurately the duties and f unctions
of the organizati on.
T he Sea Service Section of the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau was trans­
f erred to the B ureau of N avigati on and Steamboat I nspecti on, effec­

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

IX

ti ve Jul y 1, 1934, as the activiti es of th at Section are quite sim il ar
to certain phases of the w ork of the B ureau of N avigati on and
Steamboat I nspection.
D I SC U SSI O N O F F U N C T I O N S O F T H E D E P A R T M E N T

Publ i c protecti on and saf ety claimed a l arge share of the acti viti es
and expenditures of the D epartm ent of Commerce i n 1934. Saf ety
of l i f e and property on land and sea and in the ai r are the concern
of several of the D epartm ent’s pri nci pal agencies. I n the y ear cov­
ered by thi s report some 65 percent of i ts f unds w ere devoted to the
operati on of l ighthouses and to m ari ne inspection necessary to the
saf e nav i gati on of the coastal and i nl and w aters; to the regulati on
and protecti on of ai r traffic; to the preparati on of charts, and the
protecti on of the publi c agai nst f alse w ei ghts and measures.
Regul atory acti vities of the D epartm ent include the provision and
maintenance of l i ghts on the coasts and along the shores of lakes and
ri vers, the charti ng of coastal w aters, the inspection of merchant
vessels, the inspection and licensing of commercial ai rcraf t, the en­
f orcement of laws governing m ari ne nav i gati on the promotion of
ai r commerce and civil aviation, and the establishment and m ai nte­
nance of aids to ai r navigation. These f unctions, w hile thei r chief
purpose and effect are protecti ve, are at the same time hel pf ul to
commerce, i nternal and i nternati onal .
T he D epartm ent also supplies other f orms of assistance to i ndus­
try and trade. I t cooperates w i th m anuf acturers to f aci l i tate proc­
esses; to enlarge producti on, and to improve products; to reduce
waste in the maki ng, transporti ng, and merchandising of goods, to
increase employment, and to promote trade and commerce. I t con­
serves the country ’s fisheries, an i m portant item of i ts natural re­
sources, and promotes thei r grow th; i t encourages inventi ve genius
by the issuance of patents to inventors; i t conducts the decennial
census and collects other stati sti cal i nf orm ati on of great usef ulness
to the public and to the Government itself . I t administers the acts
of Congress to encourage, develop, and create a m erchant mari ne and
to regulate carri ers by w ater engaged in the f orei gn and i nterstate
commerce of the U ni ted States. I n short, the D epartm ent’s studies
and services have grow n steadil y in value to an increasing number
of publi c and pri v ate i nsti tuti ons and activities.
ECONOM I C R E V I E W

T he fiscal y ear j ust closed w itnessed an improvement i n business
acti v i ty f oll ow ing 4 y ears of decline w hich had taken an unprece­
dented tol l f rom our nati onal income. T he ex tent of the improve­
ment in some of the m aj or economic series may be seen by ref erence
to the tabl e on page x. Each of these series reveals an increase of
substanti al proporti ons compared w i th the preceding year, despite
the f act that tem porary i nterrupti ons of the upw ard movement oc­
curred duri ng the year. T he smal lest relati ve increase indicated in
these 10 series was in electric-pow er producti on, w here the gain
amounted to almost 10 percent, and the l argest was in construction

REPORT OE T H E SECBETA K Y OF COM M ERCE

X

contracts aw arded, w hich increased by about one-hal f f rom the ex­
tremely low level of the preceding year. Of especial significance is
the gai n of approx i matel y 24 percent in- i ndustri al producti on, of 26
percent i n f actory employment, and of 43 percent in f actory pay rolls.
T here was, f urther, a considerable increase in agri cul tural income
duri ng the year, a decrease i n the number of commercial f ai l ures and
of the volume of li abi l i ti es involved, and gains in retai l sales and in
f orei gn trade.
Jul y 1933 marked the culmination of a f our-month increase in pro­
duction w i thout paral l el in the hi story of the N ation. T he Federal
Reserve B oard index of i ndustri al producti on, adjusted f or the usual
seasonal vari ati on, advanced f rom the depression low of 59 percent
of the 1923-25 monthly average in M arch 1933 to 99 percent of that
base in Jul y , a gain of 68 percent. T he m anuf acturi ng component
of thi s index advanced duri ng thi s peri od f rom 56 to 101 percent of
the 1923-25 monthly average.
M a j o r e co n o m ic i n d e x e s

[B ased upon th e cal endar years 1923-25 as 100]

Y ear ended June
30, quarter and
m onth

M anu­ M i ner­
f actur­
als
ing
pro­
pro­
duc­
duc­
ti on1
ti on 1

R ai l ­
roads,
tonmi les
f rei ght
carried

91
73
75
98
97
99
106
108
106
118
110
86
69
66
82

82
83
69
93
101
98
99
113
103
112
110
92
78
73
87

96
90
79
96
98
98
105
111
104
110
104
86
66
57
67

70
72
88
95
102
116
129
138
154
163
155
146
136
149

88
92
84
94
99
100
104
107
107
110
108
99
80
64
72

112
92
84
99
102
96
101
100
98
103
101
84
71
62
78

112
97
74
95
102
96
103
104
100
107
102
77
56
42
60

152
123
93
101
97
100
102
96
95
96
92
79
68
63
72

77
51
70
83
89
101
130
130
133
127
107
76
40
23
34

+ 18.8
+ 24.2

+ 11.5
+ 19.2

+ 1.5
+ 17.5

+ 2.1
+ 9.6

- 10.0
+ 12.5

+ 9.9
+ 25.8

+ 7.1
+ 42.9

+ 5.9
+ 14.3

- 15.0
+ 47.8

99
91
84
76
72
75
78
81
84
85
86
83

101
91
83
76
70
73
76
80
82
85
86
83

90
91
87
81
81
85
88
91
100
90
89
87

71
71
70
71
64
59
64
62
75
63
68
68

149
153
147
149
144
149
152
141
154
148
153
149

69
77
70
70
65
69
69
71
77
77
77
74

73
76
78
78
76
75
75
78
81
82
82
81

51
57
59
59
56
55
54
61
65
67
67
65

68
69
70
71
71
70
72
73
73
73
73
74

21
24
30
37
48
57
49
44
33
32
26
26

125
98
83
59
91
83

127
97
82
58
93
83

114
102
87
64
84
87

109
92
76
50
64
68

155
155
150
131
144
149

113
103
96
69
68
74

106
93
79
62
67
81

111
92
70
43
47
65

95
86
72
64
65
74

126
99
63
27
18
26

I ndus­
tri al
pro­
duc­
ti on 1

89
74
1921___ ________
74
1922__......................
98
1923____________
98
1924____________
99
1925____________
105
1926______ ____ 109
1927..___ ______
106
1928____________
118
1929____________
110
1930________ ____
87
1931____________
70
1932____________
67
1933________ ____
83
1934____________
Percentage change:
1934 f rom 1932, + 18.6
1934 f rom 1933_ + 23.9
M onthl y
trend,
f iscal y ear 1933Ju l y ____ ____
A ugust--------Septem ber .. .
O ctober ..........
N ov em ber----D ecem ber----Januar y _____
F ebr uary ____
A pri l _______
M ay -----------Ju n e...... ..........
Com pari son f inal
m onth of f iscal
y ears 1929-34:
June
June
June
June

1931____
1932-----1933____
1934 ___

1 M onthl y f igures adj usted f or seasonal v ari ati on.

Elec­
D epart­
Construc­
tri c
m ent- Factory Factory W hole­ ti on con­
pow er
store 3mploy- pay
sal e
tracts
pro­
sales, m en t 1 rolls
pri ces aw ar ded1
duc­
v al ue 1
ti on

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

XI

T hi s advance was probably in p ar t a “ natural ” cyclical upturn,
but the f orces th at were operati ng to thi s end w ere greatl y augmented
by the increase i n confidence w hich was engendered by the adv ent of
the new adm i ni strati on, together w i th the bel ief th at inf l ati onary
policies w oul d be f ollow ed, and, duri ng the l atter p ar t of the spec­
tacul ar advance, by the desire of producers to turn out as much prod­
uct as possible bef ore the N I K A effected hi gher costs of production.
A s demand was not sufficient to ¡sustain the i ni ti al pace that had
been set, declines i n i ndustri al output ensued duri ng the succeeding
4 months f oll ow ing Jul y , the adjusted index f al l i ng about 27 percent
by November. A t that time the movement was reversed and duri ng
the nex t 6 months the adjusted index of i ndustri al producti on rose
f rom 72 to 86 percent of the 1923-25 monthly average, an increase
of approxim ately one-f if th. D uri ng the f inal month of the fiscal
y ear the i ndex declined three points.
A lthough producti on and di stri buti on costs advanced duri ng the
year, the upw ard trend of acti v i ty was accompanied by an improve­
ment in prof its. A representati v e group of nearl y 500 companies
reported prof its approx i m ati ng $1,400,000,000, an increase of about
76 percent over the low total f or the preceding fiscal year.
W hi l e evidences of the progress w hich has been made are concrete
and numerous, the fiscal y ear closed w i th the capital-goods i ndustry
sti l l greatl y depressed, pri v ate construction very low, unemployment
large, and rel i ef demands mak ing a steady and severe drai n on the
nati onal budget. Further, the volume of bank loans outstandi ng, de­
spite the pl ethora of bank credi t available, remained at a very low
level. N otw i thstandi ng the l ack of uni f orm improvement through­
out the vari ous aspects of our economic li f e, the year as a whole
brought def inite gains f rom the low poi nt of the depression.
C om m od it y P r i ces M ov e H i g h er

Commodity prices advanced steadil y throughout the year, there
being only 3 months in w hich recessions occurred in the i ndex of 784
commodity prices and price series as reported by the B ureau of L abor
Stati sti cs. I n June 1933 thi s index w as at 65 percent of the 1926
average of the prices composing thi s index, and in June 1934 i t stood
at 74.6 percent of the 1926 base, an increase of about 15 percent.
A signif i cant f eature of the pri ce si tuati on f rom the beginning of
the depression unti l the index reached a low in the week ended M arch
4,1933, was the grow ing di spari ty in the pri ces of the vari ous groups
of commodities and services compared w i th thei r previous rel ati on­
ship. Raw materials, including f arm products, f el l i n price consid­
erabl y more than di d the prices of f inished products. T hi s di spari ty ,
w hich had been lessened f rom M arch to June 1933, was f urther re­
duced duri ng the y ear under review. W hil e the general w holesale
pri ce index of the B ureau of L abor Stati sti cs advanced 14 percent,
the pri ces of raw m aterials rose 20 percent and the pri ces of f arm
products 27 percent. W holesale prices of f arm products were sti ll ,
how ever, relati vely low i n June 1934, being 36.7 percent below the
1926 prices, w hile the prices of al l products other than f arm products
and f oods were 21.8 below the pri ces of the 1926 period. Subsequent
to the close of the fiscal year, the ravages of the drought resulted in a
considerable increase in the pri ces of f arm products and foods.

X I I

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

F i n a n c i a l D ev elo p m en t s

I n the field of f inance, the devaluati on of the dol l ar to 59.06 percent
of i ts f ormer gold pari ty , the conti nuati on of rel i ef to f inancial agen­
cies on a l arge scale, the renew ed confidence i n the bank i ng structure,
and the continued l i qui dati on of bank credi t were outstanding.
Parti cul arl y notable w as the assistance extended by the Reconstruc­
ti on Finance Corporati on i n the reorgani zati on or the l i qui dati on of
banks and i n strengtheni ng the capi tal structure of banks and other
f inancial organizati ons. T he Corporati on authorized 2,516 loans
aggregati ng $647,773,000 to banks and trust companies (i ncl udi ng
loans f or di stri buti on to deposi tors i n closed bank s). I n addition, i t
purchased the pref erred stock, capi tal notes, or debentures of 6,233
banks and 1 i nsurance company i n the aggregate amount of $1,049,000,000, made 958 loans to banks and trust companies (secured by
^pref erred stock) aggregati ng $22,240,000.
Confidence i n the banks w as f urther heightened by the establi sh­
m ent on June 16,1933, of the Federal D eposit I nsurance Corporation.
U pw ard of 56,000,000 accounts i n 14,170 banks were i nsured, more
than 97 percent of the depositors in these banks being insured to the
f ul l amount of thei r deposits. Four of the insured banks, w i th a
total deposi t l i abi l i ty of about $1,410,000, closed duri ng the fiscal year.
These efforts w ere suppl emented by the acti v i ty of the Farm Credi t
A dm i ni strati on i n establi shing a complete credi t system to finance
agri cul tural enterpri ses by strengtheni ng the ex i sting f arm credi t
i nsti tuti ons and by prov i di ng addi ti onal perm anent lending agencies.
D uri ng the fiscal y ear the A dm i ni strati on l ent $1,405,140,000 to
f arm ers and f arm ers’ organizations.
I n a somew hat si m i l ar manner the H ome Ow ners’ L oan Corpora­
ti on was acti ve duri ng the fiscal y ear i n m ak i ng m ortgage loans
w hi ch enabled more than 400,000 home ow ners to avoid f oreclosure
on thei r properti es, made avai lable to closed banks about $166,000,000
on f rozen assets, and to muni cipali ti es approx i matel y $90,000,000 f or
back taxes.
W i th the restorati on of confidence i n the bank i ng system by these
and other measures, the total deposits of the banks of the country
increased sharpl y , while i nterest rates were low ered, not only on prim e
commercial paper but also on loans to customers. N otw i thstandi ng
thi s l arge grow th i n deposits, the volume of outstandi ng loans of
reporti ng member banks i n 91 ci ties at the end of the fiscal y ear
decreased by $438,000,000, or 5 percent. T he decline i n loans on
securi ti es and “ all other ” loans was identi cal f or the y ear—$219,000,000 i n each instance. I nvestm ents of the banks, on the other
hand, increased $1,510,000,000 w i th all but $99,000,000 being ac­
counted f or by the increased holdings of Government securities.
Reserve bank credi t outstandi ng increased f rom $2,200,000,000 i n
Ju n e 1933 to $2,472,000,000 in June 1934. T hi s expansion resulted
f rom the large-scal e open-m arket operati ons of the system i n the
f i rst hal f of the fiscal year.
T he T reasury D epartm ent converted about $1,700,000,000 of w ar­
ti m e debt i nto obligations beari ng lower i nterest rates and issued
short-term obligations at rates as low as seven one-hundredths of 1
percent per year. T he average annual i nterest rate on the outstand­
i ng interest-beari ng debt was reduced f rom 3.35 to 3.18 percent dur-

EEPOET OF T H E SECEET A EY OF COM M EBCE

X III

i ng the fiscal year. T he gross nati onal debt rose f rom $22,539,000,000
to $27,053,000,000. T he net bal ance in the general f und at the end of
the year, however, was about $1,720,000,000 l arger than a year earli er.
General revenues increased more than a bil li on doll ars duri ng the
year, w hil e general expenditures w ere reduced by more than
$765,000,000. A gai nst the surplus thus achieved in the general B udget
there should be set $4,000,000,000 of emergency expendi tures. P ar t
of these emergency outlays represent investments that w il l be l argel y
repai d in due course. I t is i nteresti ng to note that repayments to the
Reconstruction Finance Corporati on duri ng the y ear were equival ent
to 48 percent of the amount disbursed.
U n e m p l o y m en t E ed u ce d , B u t S t i l l a M a j o r P r o b l em

D ef inite progress was made duri ng the past fiscal y ear in reabsorb­
i ng i nto gai nf ul occupations the vast arm y of unemployed w hich had
steadil y increased unti l the f inal quarter of the y ear 1932-33. I t has
been esti mated by the A meri can Federati on of L abor that about
2.300.000 more persons were employed i n June 1934 than a y ear
earl i er, and th at the total gai n i n the number employed since the
low poi nt in M arch 1933 was approx i m atel y 4,000,000. These f i gures
do not include those directl y employed under the rel i ef or w orks
program s of the Government.
Contri buti ng to the employment gains duri ng the past year w as
the program of shortening of hours under the N RA . The Civil ian
Conservation Corps af f orded a source of income f or more than
300.000 men throughout the year, and the Publi c W orks program w as
prov i di ng di rect employment f or about double th at number by the
close of the fiscal year.
T he employment gains since the low poi nt of the depression have
extended to both the durable- and the nondurable-goods industries.
T he number of w orkers employed in the durable-goods group, how ­
ever, is sti l l much lower, rel ati v e to the level of 1929 and the imme­
di atel y preceding years, than f or the nondurable-goods group.
T he m aj or employment problem, theref ore, lies in the sti mul ati on
of the durable-goods i ndustries, and thi s is recei ving i ncreasing at­
tenti on. T he ex tent to w hich such i ndustries are contri buti ng to
unempl oyment may be apprehended f rom the segregation of the
f actory-employment data by the B ureau of L abor Stati sti cs. On
the basis of the average f or the years 1923-25 as 100, employment
i n the durable-goods i ndustri es in June 1934 was 70.7, or about onef ourth less than i n the base peri od, w hil e the nondurable-goods
index stood at 92.9, or only 8 percent below th at f or the period
indicated.
I n the nonm anuf acturi ng industries, f or w hich current data are
avail abl e, employment increased in all but tw o of the groups; these
were the telephone and tel egraph, and the electri c-rail road and
motor-bus operati on and maintenance groups, w hich declined 6.9
percent and 0.6 percent, respectively. T he percentage gains f or the
y ear f or those nonm anuf acturi ng industri es covered by the B ureau of
L abor Stati sti cs’ monthly surveys varied f rom one of 3.4 percent
f or the electri c l i ght and pow er i ndustry to one-f ourth and more
f or the metall if erous m i ning and petroleum-producing i ndustries.
W i th a conti nuing l arge volume of unemployment and the exhaus­
ti on of pri v ate resources, rel i ef demands continued heavy throughout-

X IV

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

the year. A t the end of the fiscal year 3,717,000 f amili es w ere on
rel i ef roll s, and, i n addition, 513,000 single persons were receiving
reli ef , the total number of persons reaching 16,600,000, compared
w i th an estimated total of 15,282,000 i n Jul y 1933. T otal obligations
i ncurred f or rel i ef and adm i ni strati on (excl udi ng the CW A ) duri ng
the fiscal year amounted to $920,000,000.
C a sh I n co m e f r o m F a r m M a r k e t i n g s n p O n e- f o u r t h

Purchasi ng pow er in rural areas improved greatl y duri ng the year.
M aj or f actors in thi s improvement were the mark ed upw ard trend
of f arm prices and the payments made to f arm ers by the Federal
Government i n conf ormity w i th the A gri cul tural A dj ustm ent pro­
gram.
Cash income f rom f arm m ark eti ngs amounted to $5,284,000,000, an
increase of 26 percent over the total of $4,182,000,000 in the preced­
i ng fiscal year. T he increase of 45 percent i n the value of crops
w as nearl y f our times as l arge rel ati v el y as the increase f or li ve­
stock and livestock products. These f igures do not include the i n­
come f rom rental and benef it payments, w hich amounted to $310,000,000. No payments of thi s k i nd were made i n the preceding fiscal
year. T hus, total cash income f rom marketi ngs and f rom the A A A
showed an increase of one-third.
Crop producti on duri ng the calendar year 1933 was the lowest
since the early years of the century, according to the D epartm ent of
A gri cul ture index, w hich dropped to 86 percent of the pre-w ar
average f rom 105 in 1932. W hi l e p art of thi s decline resulted f rom
the operati ons of the Government’s crop-reduction program , unf av or­
able grow ing conditi ons w ere a m aj or cause. T he crop-curtail ment program di d not get into f ul l sw i ng unti l the current agri cul ­
tural year. T hi s program , together w i th the w ide-spread damage
resul ti ng f rom drought, w il l reduce the 1934 harv ests to a poi nt
f ar below the 1933 f igure. T he heavy surpl us stocks of f arm prod­
ucts have been greatl y reduced by these developments.
R a i l r o a d T r a f f ic H i g h er ;

F i n a n c i a l P o si t i o n o f C a r r i er s S t i l l D i f f i cu l t

T he increase in purchasi ng pow er resul ti ng f rom the employment
gai ns and f rom other sources was reflected, in an increase in rail w ay
business f or the f i rst ti me since 1929. T otal operati ng revenues of
class 1 rail w ays, w hich handle 95 percent of the rail w ay tonnage,
amounted to $3,310,067,000, an increase of 12 percent over the 1933
f iscal-year total , w hile net rail w ay operati ng income rose to $545,532,000, an increase of 47 percent over the 1933 figure. T he volume
of traffic shipped rose to 31,208,000 cars of revenue f rei ght origi nated,
an increase of 14 percent f or the fiscal year. T he carri ers earned 2.09
percent on thei r investment f or the fiscal year, but af ter fixed charges
w ere set aside they operated at a def icit duri ng 5 months, of w hich
4 w ere i n the f inal 6 months of the period.
T he rai l roads entered on a program of rehabi l i tati on duri ng the
fiscal year through the use of Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on f unds;
$191,089,000 was all otted f or the repai r of old equi pment, the im ­
provement of the ri ght-of -w ay, and the purchase of new equipment.
A t the close of the fiscal year the rai l roads had on order 17,813 new
f rei ght cars, compared w ith 1,205 on the same date in 1933; 40 new
steam locomotives, compared w ith 1 in 1933, and 107 new electric

REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

XV

locomotives. I n the l ast 6 months of the year they instal l ed 5,362
new f rei ght cars, 1 new steam locomotive, and 8 new electric loco­
motives.
I m portant developments included the extension of f ast f rei ght
service and the extension of pick-up and delivery service on many
lines. I n the passenger service the introducti on of high-speed,
stream-l ined, arti cul ated uni t trai ns, constructed of l i ght-w ei ght m a­
teri al , by the U nion Pacif ic and the B url i ngton was si gnif icant.
These roads and others have placed f urther orders f or si m i l ar equip­
ment. A i r conditioning w as also carri ed f orw ard. A nother develop­
ment of i nterest was the reducti on of passenger f ares i n the w est­
ern and southern di stri cts, an experim ent w hich has been accom­
panied by a substanti al increase in revenue.
C o n st r u c t i o n I n d u st r y l a g s

A l though the value of construction contracts aw arded increased by
50 percent, the construction i ndustry continued in a depressed state
throughout the fiscal year. D uri ng the calendar y ear 1933, the vol­
ume of constructi on dropped to about $3,000,000,000, an aggregate
not much more than one-f ourth of the total f or the years pri or to
1930. W hil e some improvement occurred duri ng the fiscal y ear 1934,
mainly by reason of the expenditures of the Publ i c W orks f unds, the
volume w as sti l l extremel y low.
A s the Publ i c W orks program was accelerated, construction con­
tracts aw arded showed a rapi d rise f rom A ugust through December.
Subsequentl y public aw ards declined, and, w i th pri v ate contracts con­
ti nui ng i n restri cted volume, the index of contracts aw arded receded
f rom a hi gh of 58 percent of the 1923-25 average in December to
26 percent in the f inal month of the fiscal year. T hi s l atter f igure
compares w i th an i ndex of 18 f or the f inal month of the preceding
fiscal year.
Contracts aw arded duri ng the fiscal y ear 1933-34 in the 37 States
east of the K ocky M ountai ns, according to the F. W . D odge Corpora­
tion data, amounted to $1,677,901,000, compared w i th $1,116,193,000
i n the preceding year, an increase of more than 50 percent. Publi c
W orks aw ards contributed 46 percent of the total , compared w i th 38
percent a y ear earli er. These l atter f igures do not indicate the f ul l
extent to w hich public f unds contributed to the aw ards, since, in addi ­
tion to the public w orks, these w ere used also to finance other con­
structi on projects. I n the l atter hal f of the fiscal year, f or example,
publi cly f inanced construction amounted to $571,696,000, or more
than three times the total in the preceding year. W ork pri v atel y
f inanced was valued at $282,360,000, an increase of less than 5 percent
over the preceding year.
A ctual construction operations showed a dif f erent trend through­
out the year, the number of men at w ork probably being greater dur­
i ng June than in any other month of the fiscal period. T he number
employed on projects (Federal and non-Federal ) f inanced by f unds
f rom the Publi c W orks A dm i ni strati on increased steadil y throughout
the y ear to a total of 592,000 in the f inal week of June.
Of the total of $3,700,000,000 made avai labl e f or public w orks, all
but $35,000,000 had been all ocated by the early part of the fiscal year
1931-35. Ex act data are not avail able as to the amount actuall y

XVI

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

expended, but the Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on esti mated that by
A ugust 1, 1934, about 30 percent of all allotments had been spent.
Recogni zi ng the f ai l ure of pri v ate acti v i ty to absorb the unem­
ployed norm al l y attached to the bui l di ng industry , the Federal Gov­
ernment launched a housing program in the f inal month of the fiscal
year. T hi s pl an contemplated f aci l i tati ng the flow of mortgage
credit, upon w hich pri v ate constructi on is to a l arge degree de­
pendent, and reduci ng the i nterest charges on construction loans.
R e t a i l S a l e s I m p r o v ed

R etai l trade, w hich had shown a l aggi ng tendency i n the i ni ti al
stages of recovery tow ard the close of the fiscal y ear 1932-33, made
steady progress duri ng the l ast year. T he increase i n sales was rel a­
ti vely l arge i n rural areas w here the recovery in purchasi ng pow er
was especi all y marked. T he improvement in automobile sales was
parti cul arl y pronounced duri ng the year, as is evidenced by a gain
of 57 percent i n the index of new passenger-car sales. Other leadi ng
indexes of the dol l ar volume of retai l trade show the f oll ow ing per­
centage increases over the preceding fiscal year: D epartment-store
sales, 12.4 percent; variety -store sales, 11.8 percent; chai n grocerystore sales, 3.7 percent; and rural sales of general merchandise, 30
percent. W hi l e these data ref lect price increases as w ell as increases
i n the quanti ty of goods moved, i t i s notew orthy that retai l sales were
being mai ntai ned around the turn of the year at a ti me w hen produc­
ti ve acti v i ty w as giv ing evidences of recession.
T he record of commercial insolvencies duri ng the y ear reflects the
f avorable influences of increased business acti v i ty and ri si ng prices.
W hil e hi gher costs of operati on were of f setting f actors, the record f or
the y ear shows th at the number of f ai l ures was the low est since 1920.
T he li abi l i ti es involved in commercial insolvencies showed a corre­
sponding decline.
F o r e i g n T r a d e I n c r e a se d i n B o t h V o l u m e a n d V a l u e

Forei gn trade, expanded considerabl y i n both quanti ty and value
duri ng the fiscal year. Ex ports increased 18 percent in quanti ty and
42 percent in value, i n comparison w i th the preceding fiscal year,
w hile the gains in i m ports were 20 percent and 47 percent, respec­
tively. Summary data covering the value of our f oreign trade are
given in the accompanying table.
F or eig n

t r a d e o f t h e U n i t ed , S t a t e s

[M i l l i ons of dol lars]
Y ear ended June 30—
I tem

Ex ports of U ni ted States m erchandi se.
E x ports, i ncl udi ng reex ports___
Excess of exports (+ ) or i m ports ( —):
M erchandi se_______
Gol d..................
Si l v er............................

1922-26 1927-31
(av er­
(av er­
age)
age)

1929

1931

1932

1933

1934

4,248
4,332
3, 646

4,515
4, 599
3, 795

5,284
5, 373
4,292

3,032
3,084
2,432

1,908
1,948
1,730

1,413
1,440
1,168

2,009
2,042
1,721

+ 685
+ 213
+ 14

+ 805 + 1,082
+ 65
- 155
+ 16
+ 17

+ 651
- 297
+5

+ 218
+ 714
-5

+ 272
- 264
- 27

+ 321
- 576
- 29

Percent
increase
1934
over
1933
+ 42.1
+ 41.8
+ 47.3

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

X V II

Ex ports of f inished manuf actures were 34 percent l arger in quan­
ti ty than in the preceding fiscal period. Ex ports of semimanuf ac­
tured arti cles showed about the same percentage increase as f inished
articles, w hile the increases i n crude m aterials and m anuf actured
f oodstuf f s amounted to 5 percent and 9 percent, respectively.
Ex ports of crude f oodstuf f s w ere 14 percent less in quanti ty .
T otal agri cul tural exports amounted to $787,259,000 duri ng the
year, an increase of 34 percent. T hi s gain was due mainly to ad­
vances in commodity prices, since the total volume of agri cul tural
exports declined about 2 percent. W hil e tobacco and m eat products
showed increases i n quanti ty of 18 and 3 percent, respectively,
unm anuf actured cotton, f rui ts, and grai n showed, severally, declines
of 3 percent, 3 percent, and 19 percent.
A mong the nonagri cul tural exports, i ron and steel-mill products,
passenger automobiles and motor trucks, automobile tires, copper,
and crude petroleum recorded increases in quanti ty , rangi ng f rom
157 percent f or the item f i rst mentioned to 36 percent f or crude petro­
leum. Furtherm ore, exports of machinery, advanced manuf actures
of i ron and steel, wood manuf actures, and l eather increased consider­
ably i n value. A dvances i n pri ces of lumber exports resul ted in a
decided increase in value of that commodity, although quanti ty shi p­
ments declined by 5 percent. T he decline in the value of cottoncloth ex ports was only 1 percent, notw i thstandi ng a decline of 34
percent i n the quanti ty of shi pments.
A mong the economic classes of imports, semimanuf actures recorded
an increase of 77 percent in value, crude materi al s advanced 67 per­
cent, w hile the gain in value of f inished m anuf actures and f oodstuf f s
was 28 percent and 22 percent, respectively. T i n, crude rubber,
wood pul p, and hides and skins showed increases i n quanti ty that
ranged f rom approxim ately 40 percent to 60 percent, and im ports of
wool and m ohai r were f our times as l arge as in 1932-33. Each of
these commodities showed decidedly l arger increases in value than in
quanti ty . T he quanti ty of coffee im ports increased about 9 percent,
w hil e the value declined sli ghtl y. Raw -silk imports aggregated 14
percent less in quanti ty than i n 1932-33, but the value increased 5
percent.
T he geographic di stri buti on of U ni ted States f oreign trade evi­
dences an increase of 38 percent i n exports to Europe, as compared
w ith a gai n of 46 percent f or all other continents. A dvances in the
value of shipments to northern N orth A meri ca (C anada), A si a, and
A f ri ca reached 41 percent, 53 percent, and 77 percent, respectively,
w hile the gains f or Oceania and L ati n A meri ca w ere 315 percent and
38 percent. T he increase in value of exports to A si a was influenced
by the advances in pri ces of raw cotton and by large f orei gn
purchases of i ron and steel-mill products, i ncl udi ng scrap.
I m ports f rom Europe advanced by about the same percentage as
i m ports f rom all areas outside Europe. Sharp increases in prices of
crude rubber, ti n, wool, and skins and an increase i n the quanti ty of
our purchases of each of these f our items, as well as of cane-sugar
imports f rom the Phi l i ppi ne I sl ands, accounted pri m ari l y f or the
increase of 58 percent in the val ue of total imports f rom A sia. I m9 8 2 2 3 — 34

-2

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

X V III

ports f rom L ati n N orth A merica expanded only moderatel y i n value
and, as a result, the percentage increase i n im ports f rom the whole
of L ati n A merica was smal ler than the increase f or any other great
trade region. T otal i m ports f rom South A merica increased 40
percent.
T he summary tabl e below showsi the di stri buti on of the f orei gn
trade of the country by geographic divisions and by classes of goods
f rom 1922 to date:
F o r eig n

tr ad e of

the

U n ited

S t a t e s,

b y g e o g r a p h i c d i v i si o n s
c l a sse s

and

by

econ om ic

[M i l l i ons of dol l ars]
Y ear ended June 30—
Geographi c di v i si on and economic
class

1922-26 1927-31
(aver- (av er­
age)
age)

1929

1931

1932

1933

1934

Per ­
cent
i n­
crease,
1934
over
1933

T O T A L E X PO R T S, I N C L U D I N G R E E X ­
PO R T S O F F O R E I G N M E R C H A N D I SE

To:
A l l other conti nents----------------C anada and N ew f oundl and..
L ati n A m eri ca............... ..........
Oceania_____________ _____
A f ri ca.........................................

2,253
2, 079
639
722
502
146
69

2,162
2,438
806
806
558
161
106

2,397
2, 977
999
970
686
193
129

1,523
1,561
530
512
385
64
71

944
1,004
302
252
364
39
47

722
718
198
212
240
33
34

997
1, 044
280
293
367
45
60

38.1
45.5
41.2
38.0
53.0
33.3
77.0

946
1,194
555
1,554

724
1.098
636
2,057

806
1,239
730
2,508

457
725
404
1,445

317
539
242
810

194
480
187
552

235
684
304
785

20.7
42.4
62.9
42.3

1,093
2, 554
406
965
1,045
57
80

1,145
2, 650
463
950
1,107
47
83

1,302
2,989
516
1,089
1,223
57
104

719
1,713
334
623
685
25
46

526
1,204
235
466
463
13
27

361
807
152
291
337
6
21

536
1,185
227
370
533
17
38

. 48.4
46.9
49.5
27.2
58.1
195.0
80.5

849
1,400
655
743

867
1,355
719
853

971
1, 510
849
960

591
765
453
623

460
506
296
468

384
305
196
283

E X PO R T S O F U N I T E D ST A T E S M E R ­
C H A N D I SE , B Y EC O N O M I C C L A SSES

Sem i m anuf actures------ ---------------Fi ni shed m anuf actures-----------------G E N E R A L I M PO R T S

From:
E urope---------------------------------A l l other co n ti n en ts..----- --------Canada and N ew f oundl and. _
L ati n A m eri ca------------------Oceania---------------------------A f ri ca-----------------------------B y economic classes:
Foodstuf f s______ ______ ______
R aw m ateri al s----------- ------------Sem i m anuf actures..........................
Fi ni shed m anuf actures----- -------

i
i
i
i

471
510
346
361

22.4
67.4
76.7
27.5

1 I m ports f or consum pti on begi nni ng January 1934.

I t w ill be noted by ref erence to thi s and to the preceding table
that, despite the substanti al gains duri ng the fiscal y ear j ust closed,
the total f oreign trade of the U ni ted States f or the year was less
than hal f the average val ue f or the years 1922-31.
T he low value is attri butabl e not only to the depressed economic
condi tions and the decline in pri ces throughout the w orl d but also
to the increased tari f f rates and other trade-restri cti v e measures
w hich have been imposed i n nearl y all countries.

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

X IX

R E C I PR O C A L T R A D E PR O G R A M

Outstandi ng among the acti viti es of the D epartm ent undertak en
l ast y ear was a series of studies i n connection w i th the reciprocal
trade agreement program i ni ti ated by the T rade Reciprocity A ct
si gned June 12,1934, and authori zi ng the Presi dent to promote trade
between the U ni ted States and other countries by means of reciprocal
agreements.
T he f orei gn trade of the U ni ted States, as w ell as i nternati onal
trade i n general, had sharpl y declined duri ng the l ast few years to
the poi nt w here i t became necessary that definite and aggressive
measures be tak en to arrest and reverse the ti de, i f the volume of
our f oreign commerce considered essential to the country ’s economic
w ell-being was to be recovered and maintained. T he method of pro­
cedure w hich seemed to give promise of most effective resul ts, and
the one most i n harmony w i th the practices of other countri es and
w ith general w orld trends, w as that of reducing tari f f s and relaxing
or abol ishing trade restricti ons of other types by means of reciprocal
trade agreements.
A movement in thi s directi on had already been started in the l at­
ter p art of the preceding y ear when ex pl oratory studies were begun
at the request of the D epartm ent of State, w i th a view to trade
agreements w i th a selected number of f oreign countries. H ow ever,
the Presi dent f el t i t desi rable that thi s procedure should be expedited
as much as possible so th at we should be able to cope adequately
w i th the i ncreasing number of restricti ons w hich w ere being im ­
posed by other countri es on the products of A meri can f arm s and
f actori es, and as a result of thi s desire, w hich was reflected in Con­
gress, the T rade Reciprocity A ct was passed and signed in June.
I m m ediately upon the passage of thi s act an i nterdepartm ental
organi zati on was set up at the direction of the Presi dent and under
the auspices of the D epartm ent of State to carry out the purposes
of the act. T he B ureau of Forei gn and D omestic Commerce has
had an i m portant share in the w ork of thi s organizati on, especially
in the task of prepari ng studies prel i m i nary to the negoti ati on of
trade agreements. T he studies made by the B ureau are parti cul arl y
f rom the standpoi nt of devel opi ng such proposals f or the modera­
ti on of tarif f s and other trade barri ers of other countries as m i ght
be sought in the course of negotiations.
A s the f i rst f r u i t of the general program, a hi ghl y sati sf actory
agreement w i th Cuba was signed on A ugust 24 and put i nto effect
on September 3. N egotiati ons are now pendi ng w i th several other
countries and the program w ill be expedited.
FO REI G N AND

D O M E ST I C C O M M E R C E

T he progress and the ex pandi ng usef ulness of the B ureau of
Forei gn and D omestic Commerce— f oll ow i ng certai n modif ications
of policy f or thi s service uni t— are demonstrated by the f igures f rom
v ari ed fields of B ureau activity. I t may be noted, among other
items, that the Forei gn Commerce Service registered an increase of
more than 100 percent in the “ output per man ” of report m ateri al

XX

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

desired by A meri can business ; the requests f or specific i nf ormation
on f orei gn dealers w ere approx i matel y one-thi rd greater in number
than in 1932-83 ; and the subscri pti ons to the valuabl e “ processed ”
peri odical s and stati sti cal statements issued by the B ureau increased
in some instances as much as 100 percent over the immediately pre­
cedi ng fiscal year.
T he B ureau was especially hel pf ul in prov i di ng data needed f or
the successful carry i ng out of new policies and major undertak i ngs
of the adm i ni strati on. A mong the most signi f i cant and potenti al l y
benef icial of these has been the Government’s decision to negotiate
reciprocal trade agreements w i th vari ous f orei gn countri es, i n a
manner calculated to sti m ul ate the currents of i nternati onal com­
merce and thus to enhance the w elf are of A meri can producti ve i nr
dustry. T he B ureau’s parti ci pati on i n connection w i th these agree­
ments is discussed in the preceding section of thi s report enti tl ed
“ Reciprocal T rade Program .”
T he B ureau has k ept f ul l y abreast of the flood of new nationali stic
economic and commercial l egislati on in f oreign countries duri ng
the past y ear and of the many new i nterpretati ons of older laws
and regulati ons.
A t i ncreasingly f requent i ntervals, the B ureau has released i nf or­
m ati on on the complex and rapi dl y m ul ti pl y i ng f oreign-exchange
regulati ons w hich are prov i ng so embarrassing to commerce through­
out the w orld and has made avail able many f undam ental f acts w ith
respect to the f inanci al posi tion of governments or corporati ons
abroad w hich have def aul ted—w holly or in part— on thei r obligations
to A meri can lenders and investors.
Parti cul ar attenti on has been given to the ef f ort to increase the
comprehensiveness and accuracy of the B ureau’s hi ghl y valued study
of the balance of i nternati onal payments of the U ni ted States; at
no ti me in the past have the data presented in thi s study been so
urgentl y needed as duri ng thi s l ast fiscal year, or so immediately
applicable to the consi deration of w eighty problems of our nati onal
economy. Consequently, the B ureau hopes to effect sti l l f urther i m ­
provements and expansion in thi s field of study.
T he B ureau has made special studies of A meri can branch f actori es
abroad— a problem that has been appreciably complicated by the re­
cent shi f ts in economic policy in m aj or nations.
T he experiences of f oreign countri es w i th cartels have been closely
f ollow ed and scruti nized by the experts in the B ureau, w i th a view to
enabl ing A mericans to prof it by exact know ledge of motives and
results.
T he B ureau’s correspondence and research w ork on economic events
and conditions i n the Sovi et U nion have been considerably enlarged
by reason of the reestabli shment of diplomati c relati ons betw een the
U ni ted States and that country.
T here has been extensive cooperation between the B ureau of
Forei gn and D omestic Commerce and other Government organi za­
ti ons, parti cul arl y those that have been new ly consti tuted to f urther
the cause of nati onal recovery. T he N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni s­
trati on has been aided in innumerable ways. T he help of the
B ureau’s di stri ct offices was invaluable i n carry i ng through the
“ B lue Eagl e ” drives. B ureau officials have acted as advisers to the

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

XXI

N RA at code hearings and in other ways; data on vari ous i ndustri al
“ set-ups ” have been suppl i ed; the M ark eti ng Research and Service
D ivision perf ormed i m portant tasks f or the N RA i n the early stages
of that organizati on, by handl i ng inquiries on procedure, i nsti tuti ng
code analysi s, f urni shi ng basic f acts of diverse kinds, and develop­
ing and m ai ntai ni ng m ai l i ng lists. T he B ureau has helped the
A gri cul tural A dj ustm ent A dm i ni strati on by supply ing i nf orm ati on
needed f or the program of crop-control , processi ng taxes, and rel ated
matters. A considerable amount of data rel ati v e to enterpri ses to
w hich loans were contemplated was f urni shed to the Reconstruc­
ti on Finance Corporati on. I t has likewise made many compil ations
of statisti cs, and has assisted in the draw i ng up of graphi c presen­
tati ons, f or the Office of the Speci al A dviser to the Presi dent on
Forei gn T rade.
A t the request of the Presi dent’s T ransportati on Committee, the
B ureau made an elaborate study of “ Rai lw ay and H i ghw ay T rans­
portati on A broad: Ex i sti ng Rel ationships, Recent Competitive
M easures, and Coordinati on Poli cies.”
A m aj or achievement has been the carry i ng out of the Real Prop­
erty I nv entory , designed to revive and stimulate the N ati on’s_bui l d­
ing i ndustry through the collection and dissemination of hi therto
unavail able data on housi ng conditions— especially obsolescence,
vacancies, overcrow ding, and rentals. T hi s project was f inanced by
the Ci vi l W orks A dm i ni strati on and was undertak en cooperatively
by the B ureau of Forei gn and D omestic Commerce and the B ureau
of the Census. Substanti al l y benef icial resul ts promise to f ollow
thi s gatheri ng of housing data, on 32 v i tal points, f rom 64 selected
cities.
AIR

COM M ERCE

For the advancement of pri v ate f lying, a phase of aeronautics
w hich has had l i ttl e encouragement in previous promotional projects
of the Federal Government, the B ureau of A i r Commerce duri ng
the l ast fiscal year i ni ti ated a program of development along three
l i nes: A ssistance to the i ndustry in the i ntroducti on of a saf e, si m­
ple, low -priced airpl ane; establi shment of new ai rports and i m ­
provement of existing ones; and revision of the requirements in con­
nection w ith noncommercial f l yi ng to the end that thi s ty pe of f lying
acti v i ty shall become both saf e and convenient.
I n other fields the B ureau obtained f unds f rom the Publ i c W orks
A dm i ni strati on f or the construction of nearl y 3,000 miles of new
l i ghted and radio-equipped airw ays; recommended the establi sh­
ment of a trans-A tl anti c ai rw ay by employment of ref uel i ng bases
or seadromes; investigated and conclusively tested the bl i nd l andi ng
system developed by the A rm y A i r Corps and f ound i t suitable f or
use by commercial aviation; advocated legislati on, w hich was en­
acted, to enable the B ureau to make more thorough investigati ons
of ai rcraf t accidents, to strengthen air-li ne regulati ons, and to engage
in development w ork on airplanes, engines, and accessories.
These special projects were i n addition to the regul ar f uncti ons of
ai r regul ati on and the operati on of nearl y 20,000 miles of Federal
ai rw ays. T he ordi nary activiti es of the B ureau were conducted w ith
a budget of about $5,200,000—nearl y 2y2 mill ion less than the sum

X X II

REPOET OF T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

ori gi nal l y appropri ated by Congress f or the fiscal y ear 1934. D ur­
i ng the preceding 4 years the B ureau’s expenditures f or the same
purposes had averaged more than $8,500,000. T hi s reducti on i n ex­
pendi tures was made possible by ri gi d economies in all divisions and
sections but no essential service to airmen and the public was
eliminated.
I n connection w i th the program on behalf of pri v ate f lying, the
B ureau f i rst made a survey of the potenti al m ark et f or low -priced
airplanes. Contacti ng only licensed pil ots, student pilots, and me­
chanics, i t l earned of the existence of approx i matel y 60,000 prospec­
ti v e purchasers of such a craf t. L egislati on passed i n the l ast ses­
sion of Congress authorizes the B ureau to conduct research and de­
velopment w ork on ai rcraf t, engines, and accessories, and f unds
have been made avai lable f or the purpose f rom a special appropri a­
ti on to be expended at the discretion of the Presi dent f or f urther
development of m i l i tary and civil ian aviation.
T he ai rport-constructi on program , undertak en in cooperation w i th
the Ci vi l W orks A dm i ni strati on, w as organized l ast w i nter to pro­
vi de w ork f or the unemployed. M ore than 1,000 projects were
involved. Of these about 60 percent were new l andi ng fields and
40 percent improvements of ex i sting ai rports.
Revisions of the A i r Commerce Regul ati ons governing activiti es
of noncommercial airmen reduced the procedure necessary in obtai n­
ing and renew i ng pi l ot licenses in the grades f or persons who do not
fly f or hire, and increased the pri vil eges granted by these licenses.
T he B ureau surveyed 2,700 miles of new Federal airw ays, and at
the close of the y ear w as practi cal l y ready f or constructi on w ork to
begin on the northern transconti nental route Seattle, W ash., to St.
Paul-M inneapoli s, M inn.; and on routes f rom Fargo to Pembina, N.
D ak.; New Orleans, L a., to St, L ouis, M o; T ul sa, Okla., to St. L ouis,
M o., and f rom Galveston to W aco, Tex.
A recommendation f or constructi on of an airw ay f rom N ashvil le,
Tenn., to W ashington, D . C., w as approved by the Publ i c W orks
A dm i ni strati on, af ter the close of the fiscal year.
Besides revising the requirements f or noncommercial ai rmen, the
B ureau promul gated a policy call ing f or promotional and develop­
ment w ork by aeronauti cal inspectors. A i rcraf t engineeri ng require­
ments were brought abreast of advances in aerodynamics, and the i n­
volved procedure in connection w i th submission of appli cati ons f or
approv al of ai rcraf t f or licensing was modified.
I n view of the increase i n aviation activiti es in A laska and the po­
tenti al i ti es of the i ndustry in that T erri tory , a f ull -ti me aeronautical
inspector was assigned to A laska.
L I G H T H O U SE SE R V I C E

A t the close of the fiscal y ear the total number of ai ds to nav i ga­
tion under supervision by the D epartm ent was 23,597, a net increase
of 1,088 compared w i th the previous y ear’s total , notw i thstandi ng
the discontinuance of 1,984 ai ds w hich were f ound to be no longer
necessary or w hich were replaced by more suitable types. Special
improvements designed to secure greater efficiency in the ai ds con­

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

X X III

si sted i n changi ng 92 l i ghts f rom fixed to f lashing or occulting, and
in changing the i l l um i nant of 119 l i ghts to el ectric, and th at of 41
l i ghts to acetylene. Tw o new radiobeacons were established, the
total number now being 105.
Continuous study and experim ent have been carri ed on to improve
apparatus and equipment used in the Service. T he use of electri ci ty
has been extended to include such f uncti ons as i l l um i nati on f or m aj or
and minor l i ghts, pow er supply f or f og si gnal s and radiobeacons,
l i ghti ng f or quarters, and f or ti m i ng apparatus f or signal controls.
A l i ghtshi p equipped f or remote control of all f acil ities, including
l i ght, f og signal , and radiobeacon, is about ready to be placed i n op­
erati on as an unw atched aid to nav i gati on, being the f i rst of i ts ki nd
i n thi s Service; and a completely automati c l i ght and f og signal
stati on, requi ri ng attendance only at i nf requent i ntervals, has been
designed. T est has been made of an electric siren buoy, w i th results
th at are promi si ng. Control equi pment f or synchronizing radiobeacons has been improved, and the eli minati on of interf erence w i th
radiobeacons has been l argel y effected.
T he techni cal staf f of the B ureau was reorganized by coordinati ng
all branches of the engineeri ng w ork of the Service under a chief
engineer. T he subordinate technical activiti es have been f urther
developed and systematized.
T hree new lighthouse tenders were completed duri ng the year, each
repl aci ng an old tender w orn out in serv i ce; a f ourth is under con­
structi on, and sti l l another is about to be contracted f or.
No addi ti onal l i ghtshi ps w ere constructed duri ng the year, but
tw o w ere extensively recondi tioned. T he efficiency of these ships
w ill thus be m ateri al l y increased and thei r usef ul l i f e prol onged.
Tw o l i ghtshi p stations'w ere discontinued duri ng the year, resul ti ng
in appreciable economy. Fi v e old ships now out of commission are
shortl y to be condemned and sold.
T he L i ghthouse Service made i ts contri buti on to the general ef f ort
f or i ndustri al and economic recovery by parti ci pati ng in the Federal
Publ i c W orks acti vities. A n all otm ent of approxim ately $5,620,000
was made f or thi s purpose by the Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on.
Proj ects of the L i ghthouse Service, m aking up thi s program, more
than 190 in number, were caref ul l y selected w i th a view to thei r
necessity f or the saf ety of nav igation, the preserv ati on of existing
stations" , and equipment of the Service, and, so f ar as practi cable,
w i th regard to reducti on of or economy in expense of f uture opera­
ti on and maintenance. Speci al ef forts have been made to prosecute
these w orks as rapi dl y as possible, w i th the resul t th at about one-hal f
of the all otted f unds was obl igated by June 30, 1934, notw i thstand­
i ng various obstacles encountered both in physical conditions and in
contractual requirements. F urther provision f or rel i ef of the un­
employed was undertak en through cooperation w i th the Civil
W ork s A dm i ni strati on, w hich f urni shed f unds f or labor and also
f or a porti on of the m aterials on 87 projects of mi nor improvements
f or the L i ghthouse Service, i n 14 States. T he L ighthouse Service
provided necessary supervision and inspection, together w i th much
of the m aterials and tools used f or thi s work.

X X IV

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

ENFORCEM ENT

OF N A V I G A T I O N A N D
LAW S

ST E A M BO A T

I N SP E C T I O N

D uri ng the y ear the B ureau of N avigati on and Steamboat I nspec­
ti on collected more than $1,686,000 i n revenue through tonnage duties,
nav i gati on fees, and fines, or approxim ately $47,000 in excess of col­
lections f rom si m i l ar sources duri ng the previous fiscal year.
On June 30, 1934, the m erchant marine of the U ni ted States, i n­
cluding all k inds of documented craf t, comprised 24,904 vessels of 14,861,814 gross tons, as compared w i th 24,868 vessels of 15,060,157 gross
tons on June 30, 1933. On June 30, 1934, of thi s total 3,842 vessels
of 4,606,623 gross tons w ere engaged in the f oreign trade, as compared
w i th 3,902 vessels of 4,710,169 gross tons on June 30, 1933. D uri ng
the year, 724 vessels of 66,649 gross tons w ere bui l t and documented,
and on Ju l y 1,1934, there were bui l di ng or under contract to bui l d in
A meri can shi py ards f or pri v ate owners, 53 vessels of 38,102 gross
tons.
T he above f igures of tonnage of our m erchant m ari ne i ndicate an
increase of 41 vessels, but a decrease of 198,343 gross tons.
The crews f or the merchant mari ne, excludi ng masters, numbered
approx i m atel y 181,999. O f the aggregate, 35,224 w ere serving on
the l ai d-up vessels. D uri ng the y ear there w ere shipped, reshipped,
and di scharged bef ore our shi ppi ng commissioners, 508,898 seamen
on A meri can vessels. Of thi s number, 219,306, or 80.8 percent, were
A meri can citizens. W hi l e the number of men signed on and di s­
charged by the shi ppi ng commissioner is not an indicati on of the
number of seamen in our merchant mari ne, i t is a f ai r index of the
proporti on of A mericans in the crews.
A special committee of marine experts is conducti ng a comprehen­
sive study f or the purpose of m aking recommendations f or legisla­
tion, and the revision of the rules and regulati ons, w i th the view of
prov i di ng the maximum saf eguard of l i f e and property at sea, w i th
parti cul ar ref erence to f ire and other types of disasters. Specific
recommendations w il l be submitted to the Congress shortl y af ter i t
convenes i n the nex t session.
T he D epartm ent desires to emphasize anew the importance of the
earl y rati f i cati on by the Senate of the I nternati onal Convention on
Saf ety of L i f e at Sea. T hi s convention places the U ni ted States on
a pari ty w i th the other pri nci pal m ari ti m e nati ons of the w orl d in
prom oti ng the saf ety of ships, passengers, and crews at sea. I t is also
recommended that the Congress give consideration to the extension
of the applicable porti ons of the steamboat inspection laws to the
great number of D iesel-engine-propel led ocean-going vessels; the ex­
clusion of aliens f rom our domestic fisheries, and the f urther protec­
tion of our domestic coastwise trade.
SU R V E Y I N G A N D M A P P I N G

T he w ork of the U ni ted States Coast and Geodetic Survey in
hy drography , topography , and geodetic tri angul ati on, reconnais­
sance, and level ing more than doubled that of the previous fiscal
year. T he B ureau has continued to make effective use of N ati onal
Recovery f unds, not only in the interests of human saf ety and to

REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

XXV

meet the ever-grow ing demands of the mari ner, aviator, and engi­
neer, but in the rel i ef of unemployment, f or most of the Recovery
f unds— f ul l y 70 percent— all otted to the Survey was expended as
wages.
A mong the B ureau’s accomplishments were the devisi ng of more
prof i cient surveyi ng i nstrum ents and the development of more effi­
ci ent methods. T he f athometer, used i n determi ni ng w ater depths,
based on the precise measurement of the elapsed time required f or a
sound made pn the vessel to go to the bottom and return as an echo,
was adapted to surveys i n w ater v ary i ng i n depth f rom a f ew f eet to
20 f athoms. W i th thi s new ly-devised f athom eter a survey launch
trav el i ng at 12 miles per hour w il l get 400 soundings every 20 sec­
onds, or 1 sounding every 12 inches, f urni shi ng a comprehensive
prof ile of the under-w ater conf iguration.
A eri al topography , done w i th a 5-lens camera w i th separate films
f or each lens requi ri ng the resul ti ng 5 photographs f or each exposure
to be assembled, f itted, and mounted, is bei ng superseded, w i th the
use of N ati onal Recovery f unds, by a 9-lens camera designed f or
the rays of l i ght at exposure f or al l 9 lenses to be projected onto a
si ngle film and one l arge photograph. A new camera constructed
in the W ashi ngton office successf ully makes precise negatives up to
50 inches square.
D uri ng p art of the y ear the Survey supervised the w ork of a
representati ve charged w i th the direction of geodetic surveys under
emergency rel i ef all otments in each of the 48 States engaged in sup­
pl ementi ng the country ’s geodeti c control surveys. T he resulting
data are indi spensable f or any comprehensive long-range pl anni ng
of public w orks as a means of avoiding w aste and to insure that
vari ous and w idel y separated surveys have perf ect j uncti on when
separate engineeri ng projects meet.
T he trend of earthquake i nv estigati on by the Survey has been
directed to obtai ni ng i nf orm ati on necessary f or the saving of li f e
and property f rom earthquak e damage, stress being l ai d on f unda­
mental measurements needed by engineers and architects f or the saf e
design of bui l di ngs and other structures. A n i nstrum ent convenient
f or m aking bui l di ng-v i brati on records was also designed and is now
in use.
N eed , f o r a N a t i o n a l M ap

I have been much impressed by the evidence reaching the D epart­
ment indicati ve of an urgent need f or compl eting the m appi ng of
the country. A n accurate map is indispensable to all l arge enter­
pri ses concerned w i th any considerable porti on of the earth’s surf ace.
I t is inefficient and w astef ul to undertak e any l arge devel opmental
w ork w i thout the aid of good surveys and maps.
Only about 25 percent of thi s country is adequately m apped at the
present ti m e; less in proporti on than most of the other nati ons. T hi s
si tuati on is a di rect resul t of the i ndi v i dual i sti c poli cy under w hich
our N ati on developed. T he immediate prof its to be derived f rom
short-visioned ex ploitati on were so great th at w aste and inefficiency
in thi s respect w ere tolerated. I n undertak i ng each new enterpri se,
i ndustry and commerce w ould have prof i ted immeasurably by such a
map i f i t had been avail abl e, but they were unw il l i ng to def er im ­

XXVI

EEPOB T OP T H E SECEET A EY OP COM M EECE

mediate prof i ts f or the addi ti onal ti me required to produce the map.
T hey lacked the vision to anti ci pate f uture needs.
I t is now the nati onal w il l that there must be a saner and w iser use
of the heri tage of w ealth l atent i n our soil, our streams, our f orests,
and our mi neral resources. W e must thi nk i n terms of f uture gener­
ations as well as of the present. T he map is one of the lowly and
unspectacular devices needed to accomplish th at purpose.
I ndustry and commerce have been the pri nci pal suf f erers f rom the
lack of such a map and w il l be the pri nci pal benef iciaries f rom i ts
producti on, and they w ill pay a l arge p ar t of the very considerable
cost of production. I t is, theref ore, appropri ate th at thi s D epart­
m ent should be the pioneer in seeking to bri ng the many uncorre­
l ated needs f or maps to a common f ocus so th at they can be viewed
i n thei r enti rety as a nati onal problem.
F I SH E R I E S

T he l ast fiscal y ear brought some encouragement to the commercial
fisheries i n th at there w as an increase i n pri ce duri ng most of the
period, compared w i th the same months of the preceding year. T he
catches, too, have shown a steady increase in size. T he complete
stati sti cs w ill not be avai labl e unti l l ate thi s year, but the trend was
indicated by the monthl y returns f rom the pri nci pal producing
centers.
T he need f or economy, w hich has prom pted the closure of 9 fishcul tural stations and 1 biological station, has made i t essential to
determine w here reducti ons could be made w i th the least harm to the
f isheries. I n f ish-cultural w ork, the emphasis was placed on the pro­
duction of the so-called “ sport ” fishes, as the drai n on these has grow n
w i th the increased f ishing on the p art of those not gai nf ul l y employed,
as a means of augmenting the f am i l y f ood supply. T he producti on
of 10 species of these fish was increased f rom 25 to 70 percent, w hile
the total output of all fish, by reason of closed stations and curtai l ed
operati ons at others, was decreased sli ghtl y.
One of the i m portant advances of the y ear was the f orm ati on of
the N ati onal Fi sheri es Pl anni ng Council to coordinate the activiti es
of the Federal and State departm ents. T he Commissioner of Fi sh­
eries called the meeting and set f orth the pl ans th at led to i ts f orm a­
ti on i n the l atter p art of A pri l , at St. L ouis. A l l the States are
represented in the council.
Sportsm en’s clubs and other such organizati ons di stri buted many
fish f or the B ureau and i n some cases took the f ry i n the spring,
rai sed them unti l f al l and then di stri buted them, thereby reducing
the expenses of the B ureau i n thi s respect.
Stream surveys were i naugurated by the B ureau w i th PW A
f unds in the w aters of m any of the nati onal park s and f orests, w ith
a view to determi ni ng w hat species of fish they should support, the
popul ati on already present, and the carry i ng capacity of the w aters.
D uri ng the y ear pl ans were being evolved f or the passing of the
big salmon run of the Columbia Ri v er over the dam to be bui l t at
Bonneville, Oreg.
T he tak e of f ur seals duri ng 1933 was over 54,500 and was the
l argest since the Government has tak en charge of the Pri bi l of
I sl ands. T he f ur-seal herd has increased to over 1,313,500 animals.

EEPOB T OF T H E SECEET A EY

OF COM M EBCE

X X V II

I t is proposed to operate the by product pl ant at these islands to
produce oil and meal f rom the carcasses of the seals, rather than to
perm i t them to decompose and endanger the heal th of the i nhabi ­
tants. T he pl ant was reconditi oned and equi pped w i th new ma­
chinery in 1931 but has not been operated because of the low pri ce
of oil and meal. T he prices f or these commodities have increased
and, in view of the existing i nsani tary conditions, the pl ant should
be operated.
Studi es by the technol ogi sts of the B ureau duri ng the past y ear
have indi cated the salmon w aste is capable of y i elding an oil com­
parabl e to cod-l iver oil i n vitamins A and B , and also a fish meal
of hi gh f eeding value. I t was also brought out th at sw ordf ish-liver
oil contai ns a hi gher content of vitamins A and D than hal i butl i v er oil.
W a t er P o l l u t i o n a n a t i o n a l P r o b l em

T he grow ing menace of pol luti on of natural w aters i n the U ni ted
States and i ts disastrous effects upon aquati c li f e, i ncl udi ng parti cu­
l arl y the more valuable f ood and game fishes in i nteri or w aters as
well as the shell-fisheries resources of the coastal regions, is rapi dl y
gai ni ng recogni tion as a probl em of nati onal concern. W hen com­
munities were scattered and i ndustries w ere small, the effects of
stream pol luti on were usuall y of li mited extent. A t the present
time, however, domestic sewage and i ndustri al w astes are produced
i n such great volume that i n a great many coastal and i nteri or riv ers
thei r effects are projected dow nstream through several State j uri sdi c­
tions, and the problem of control, theref ore, becomes a nati onal
rather than a local interest.
D omestic sewage may be steril ized to prev ent the spread of disease,
but when, poured i nto streams may sti l l depl ete the oxygen supply
below the l i m i t necessary to sustain li f e of fishes. T races of oil pol ­
l uti on in coastal w aters may rui n the shellfish industri es, but pol l u­
ti on must become f l agrant bef ore i t i nterf eres w i th navigation.
Si m i l arl y , natural w ater supplies heavil y laden w i th dissolved m i n­
erals or erosion si l t may actual l y be potable or may be readi l y ren­
dered suitable f or domestic use, even though they are i ncapable of
supporti ng fish or the smal ler organisms w hich become fish f ood.
Prov i si on should be made, theref ore, f or the B ureau of Fisheries
to undertake a nati onal survey of the ex tent of stream poll uti on and
its effect upon the f isheries. I n addi ti on to thi s survey, detai led field
and laboratory investigati ons should be undertak en to determine the
effects on aquati c l i f e of the various stream pol l utants, to discover
means of recoveri ng i ndustri al trade wastes, and to uti li ze valuable
organi c consti tuents of domestic sewage in order to increase fish pro­
duction. A s a resul t of such surveys and investigations, a nati onal
policy of correcting stream pol l uti on could be developed, Federal
l egislati on could be proposed as necessary, and local legislati on could
be improved.
N A T I O N A L ST A N D A K D S

T he extensive testi ng service of the N ati onal B ureau of Standards
is conducted f or all departments and bureaus of the Federal Govern­
ment. I n the past year, 146,390 tests were made. T hi s service keeps
the purchase of Government equipment and supplies on a scientific

X X V III

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

basis of proved meri t. T he l argest item tested was 5,500,000 barrels
of cement, including a l arge amount of low -heat cement f or the
B oulder D am and other Government projects.
T he B ureau made 23,629 tests f or the publ ic, all of w hich were of
such a nature that they could not w ell be made by pri v ate laboratories.
A pprox i m atel y 2,000 lots of radium and radioacti ve preparati ons f or
medical and scientif ic purposes w ere tested and certif ied, thei r total
m ark et value exceeding $1,000,000.
I n prom oti ng accuracy in standards of l ength and i n thei r intercomparison, the B ureau must keep in advance of the most exacting
needs of i ndustry . To thi s end the B ureau has constructed length
standards of f used quartz 0.1 meter long and accurate to w i thi n 1
p ar t in 2,000,000 w i th ends plane and paral l el to w i thi n 1 p art in
4,000,000. T he necessary measurements w ere made by interf erence
of l i ght waves.
hol l ow i ng up the w orl d-w ide adopti on of the standard i nterna­
ti onal tem perature scale, and to ascertain the accuracy w i th which
that standard scale is actual l y used, accurate i nternati onal compari­
sons have been made.
T he f reezi ng points of gold, silver, anti mony, and zinc w ere meas­
ured w i th three di sti nct kinds of temperature-measuring devices. The
agreement reported is w i thi n a tenth of a degree centi grade.
A s a basis f or the w orl d tabl es of the properti es of steam, f unda­
mental to the design of boilers and turbi nes, the B ureau has l ent its
ex pert cooperation in measuri ng the constants of saturated steam.
T he I nternati onal Steam T able Conf erence plans to adopt the new
i nternati onal tables based, in part, on the B ureau’s determinations.
. A s a service to the Government’s transport units, B ureau automo­
ti ve investigati ons assi st in solving m aj or problems; adapti ng f uel
to the motor and adapti ng the motor to the f uel. Car ex perts seek
good perf ormance w i th current f uels, w hile f uel experts aim to de­
velop li quid f uel suited to motors of current design.
H ig h - V o lt a g e L a b or a t or y

A high-voltage laboratory is an urgent and immediate need at
the N ati onal B ureau of Standards. T hi s laboratory is necessary to
enable the B ureau to perf orm the same service in the high-v oltage
field th at i t is now suppl y i ng in connection w ith low -voltage appa­
ratus and equipment. T here is a pressing demand f or thi s service
f rom publ i c-uti l i ty commissions and manuf acturers of equipment
used f or measuring electric pow er del ivered over hi gh-v oltage lines.
H i gh-v ol tage X -ray tubes are now on the m ark et so pow erf ul that
the radi ati on f rom one tube is equal to that of all medical radi um in
the w orld combined. These pow erf ul tubes have tremendous possi­
bi li ti es in the treatm ent of cancer, but serious i nj ury to the pati ent
may resul t i f the proper dosage i s not used. I t is im perati v e that
suitable methods be developed f or measuri ng the qual i ty and quan­
ti ty of the radi ati on f rom these tubes and f or cal i brati ng dosage
meters, si m i l ar to w hat the B ureau has al ready done f or low -voltage
X -ray s. T he present equi pment of the B ureau is w holly inadequate
f or thi s w ork. A very large w ork ing room or hal l is required f or
accurate measurements on hi gh-v oltage apparatus. Clear spaces of
at least 20 f eet all around the apparatus are needed f or insulati on
and saf ety and to avoid errors ari si ng f rom electrical charges on the

REPORT OF T H E SECEET A EY OF COM M ERCE

X X IX

w alls and ceiling. T he B ureau does not have thi s needed w orking
space, nor does i t have the equi pment necessary f or generati ng and
measuring hi gh voltages. Commercial laboratories do not possess
the equipment and f acil ities w hich are needed f or precise hi gh-v ol t­
age measurements and they have indicated great i nterest in the
proposed construction of such a laboratory by the Government.
C E N SU S A C T I V I T I E S

T he l ast fiscal y ear f ell w i thi n w hat is called by the B ureau of the
Census an intercensal period; that is, an i nterv al between two de­
cennial census periods. D uri ng such intercensal i nterv al s the B u­
reau conducts i ts small decennial, qui nquennial, and bienni al inquiries
required by law. D uri ng the l ast fiscal year the B ureau conducted
the decennial Census of Fi nanci al Stati sti cs of State and L ocal Gov­
ernments, the quinquenni al Census of El ectri cal I ndustri es, and the
biennial Census of M anuf actures, in addi ti on to i ts regul ar annual,
quarterl y , and monthly inquiries.
Because of restri cted pri nti ng f unds, ei ght of the f inal volumes of
the Fi f teenth D ecennial Census were not publ ished upon completion
of the work. Funds w ere made avai lable in the fiscal year j ust
ended to pri nt these ei ght volumes and thus to complete the record
of the l argest stati sti cal canvass ever undertaken. T he Fi f teenth D e­
cennial Census report fills 32 volumes, contai ning 31,654 pages. The
complete report is, of course, avail able f or consultation at all large
l i brari es throughout the country, at educational insti tuti ons, and in
many other places. Copies of the separate volumes, as well as of
the smal ler repri nts and reports, may be purchased f rom the Govern­
ment Pri nti ng Office.
A s a means of measuring the ravages of the depression and of ob­
tai ni ng data on w hich to base activiti es looking to economic recovery,
the Federal Civil W orks A dm i ni strati on authori zed the B ureau of the
Census to conduct the f oll ow ing projects duri ng the past y ear :
C en su s o f A m e r i ca n B u si n e ss.
C en su s o f R eco r d P r e se r v a t i o n .
R e a l P r o p e r t y I n v e n t o r y ( c o n d u ct ed f i el d c a n v a ss a n d m a c h i n e t a b u l a t i o n sp r o j ec t a ssi g n e d t o B u r e a u o f F o r e i g n a n d D o m e st i c C o m m er ce ) .
U r b a n T a x D el i n q u en cy .
U n e m p l o y m en t R e l i e f C en su s a n d su p p o r t i n g l o c a l st u d i e s
F e d e r a l E m er g en cy R e l i e f A d m i n i st r a t i o n ) .
T r i a l C en su s o f U n e m p l o y m en t

( a ssi g n e d

( a ssi g n e d

to th e

t o B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i st i c s) .

Some of these proj ects were completed w i thi n the past fiscal year
and substanti al progress was made on the remainder. The most
comprehensive of these projects was the Census of A meri can Business.
I ts results are comparable w i th those of the 1929 Census of D i stri bu­
ti on and supply a measurement of present business conditi ons com­
pared w i th 5 years ago.
PA T E N T S

N otable f eatures in the operati on of the Patent Office are the
surpl us of m onetary receipts over expenditures—the f i rst to be
reported by thi s B ureau since 1922; the checking of the decline in the
f i l ing of new appli cati ons, and a gain in the disposal of w ork, not­

XXX

B EPOET OF T H E SECEET A EY

OF COM M EECE

w i thstandi ng a considerable decrease in the technical and clerical
staf fs.
T he aggregate receipts of the Patent Office f or the year were
$4,383,468.11, exceeding expenditures by $506,683.10. T hi s total of
recei pts was much less than that f or 1932-33, but the curtai l m ent of
expenditures by upw ard of $700,000 resulted in the surplus.
T he number of appli cati ons filed duri ng the y ear w as 79,690, com­
pared w i th 79,822 i n the previous year. T hi s hal ti ng of the steady
di minuti on of new business, w hich began w ith 1929, is cause f or
encouragement and may be tak en as a sign of i ndustri al recovery.
Progress i n the disposal of appli cati ons is epitomized in these
comparati ve figures: On June 30, 1934, the number of appli cations
aw ai ti ng amendment by the appli cants, or action by the Office, was
112,576; on January 2, 1934, the total of such appli cati ons was
119,869; on February 3, 1932, i t was 180,355, and on January 2, 1931,
i t was 198,177. T he number of cases aw ai ti ng acti on by the Patent
Office was reduced f rom 49,050 to 39.226. T hi s gain was accom­
pl ished w i th a much smal ler force than th at employed in the Office
i n the previous year.
B oth f rom considerations of equity and of sound policy the D e­
partm ent has recommended the reallocation of j uni or examiners f rom
grade P- 1 to grade P-2. T hi s change is in harmony w i th previous
practi ce and w il l be not only a recogniti on of thei r services but also
a means of retai ni ng them in the w ork f or w hich they have been
trai ned at great expense to the Government.
T here was i naugurated in the course of the year a new system f or
the regi strati on of attorney s appl y i ng f or admission to practice be­
f ore the Patent Office. A s amended the rules require the appl i cants
to submit to an exami nation w hich shall determi ne thei r fitness to
perf orm the services f or w hich they are retai ned by inventors. I t is
expected that thi s procedure w i ll assure a hi gher standard among
practi ti oners bef ore the Office.
M embers of the advisory committee w hich I appointed i n June
1933, to i nf orm me w ith respect to conditi ons in the Patent Office,
have submitted many recommendations looking to the improvement
of the practi ce and procedure. T hi s committee’s usef ulness has
prom pted me to make i t a permanent body and to enlarge i ts mem­
bershi p to 15 so as to include in i t not only patent law yers but also
representati ves of i ndustri al and engineeri ng groups interested in the
Patent Office. T hei r w ork has merited the appreciati on of all those
whom they have served so unself ishly and effectively.
M ERCH ANT M A R I N E

On A ugust 10, 1933, the acti vities of the U ni ted States Shi ppi ng
B oard and M erchant Fl eet Corporati on were, by Executi ve order,
transf erred to the D epartm ent of Commerce, and the Shi ppi ng
B oard was abolished. T he B oard’s acti vities have since been carried
on in the U ni ted States Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau, under a director
who reports to the Secretary of Commerce. B y thi s reall ocati on of
f uncti ons the Government’s pri nci pal acti vities w i th respect to the
A merican merchant mari ne were coordinated under one Federal
department. Foll ow i ng thi s, the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau and M er­

REPORT OP T H E SECBETA RY OE COM M ERCE

XXXI

chant Fl eet Corporati on were reorganized, w i th the resul t that on
June 30, 1934, the pay roll s of the two uni ts showed a reducti on f or
the y ear of 128 employees, involving annual salari es and wages total ­
i ng $267,103.
D uri ng the fiscal y ear i m portant changes were i nsti tuted in the
adm i ni strati on of the shi ppi ng laws, steps taken to saf eguard the
Government’s l arge investment in shi ppi ng, and studies made look­
i ng to such changes i n the law as w ill strengthen the nati onal policy
w ith respect to the m erchant marine.
Operati ng methods and f inancial returns of carri ers holding
ocean-mail contracts have been scruti nized more caref ul l y i n order
that the public interests may not suf fer because of unw ise expendi­
ture of Federal f unds. Shipow ners indebted to the Government
f or ships purchased, or f or loans advanced f rom the construction
loan f und, have been required to meet thei r obligations to the best
of thei r abi li ty. A n i m portant f eature of thi s new f inanci al policy
developed duri ng the y ear is the requirement th at contract-hol ding
lines meet thei r current payments out of subsidies and amortize
thei r overdue obl igations w ith reasonable dispatch.
A n outstandi ng development duri ng the y ear was the decision to
exercise more vigorousl y the D epartm ent’s regul atory pow ers over
the rates, f ares, charges, and practi ces of carriers by w ater engaged
in i nterstate and f orei gn commerce. T hi s course of action, predi ­
cated upon the generall y accepted pri nci pl e th at regul ati on af fords
the most effective means of stabi li zati on, gave ri se to tw o i m portant
investigations. T he f i rst of these, ordered by the Secretary of Com­
merce on February 5, 1934, had to do w i th common carri ers i n the
intercoastal trade. T he second, ordered by the Secretary on M arch
9, 1934, sought to determine w hether conditions unf avorable to shi p­
pi ng in the f oreign trade exist as the resul t of competiti ve practices
by operators or agents of f oreign-f l ag vessels, and i f so, w hat reme­
di al acti on could be tak en by the D epartm ent under ex i sting stat­
utes. A t the close of the fiscal y ear both investigati ons were sti l l in
progress.
Some idea of the extent to w hich the B ureau’s w ork has been
enlarged by the addi ti onal regul atory acti vities i t has undertak en
may be gained f rom the statement that besides the 2 cases mentioned,
46 other cases were entered on i ts f orm al docket duri ng the fiscal
year, w hile 81 cases w ere handl ed on its i nf orm al docket. I n the
peri od covered by thi s report, 2,879 schedules of rates and charges,
1,045 agreements between carri ers and other persons subj ect to the
Shi ppi ng A ct of 1916, and 109 conf erence agreements were also
acted upon by the B ureau.
T he Secretary of Commerce, on June 20, 1934, desi gnated an i nter­
departm ental committee to make an intensi ve study of ship subsidies
and related phases of the shi ppi ng i ndustry , w i th special ref erence
to our f uture policy in the development of a strong merchant marine.
Pendi ng a determinati on of the f uture policy w i th respect to sub­
sidies and rel ated problems, no addi ti onal ocean-mail contracts were
entered i nto duri ng the fiscal year. A s a result, the B ureau is sti ll
in possession of five f orei gn-trade lines, w hich continue to be oper­
ated f or B ureau account by m anagi ng agents who receive compensa­
ti on on the basis of a sti pul ated sum per voyage.

X X X II

EEPOB T OP T H E SECEETA EY OP COM M ERCE

T he cost to the Government of vessel operati on duri ng the y ear
was $1,870,750, as compared w i th $4,634,196 f or the fiscal y ear 1933.
T he sav i ng thus accomplished was due in p art to the sale of services
operati ng f rom the G ul f of M exico, and in p ar t to reduced compen­
sati on pai d to three of the m anagi ng operators. I n thi s connection
i t is well to note th at f or the fiscal y ear 1934, as in the previous
fiscal year, no congressional appropri ati on was required f or the M er­
chant Fl eet Corporati on, the adm i ni strati v e and operati ng expenses
of w hich were met f rom i ts own unexpended balances.
A t the close of the y ear the B ureau’s l aid-up fleet numbered 234
vessels, as compared w i th 246 vessels on June 30,1933. Cost of m ai n­
tenance of these reserve vessels was reduced m ateri al l y duri ng the
year. A caref ul survey of the B ureau’s l ai d-up ships has been i nsti ­
tuted to determine w hat ul ti m ate disposi ti on shall be made of them.
I m portant adj uncts of the m erchant marine are the l arge ter­
minals over w hich the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau has juri sdicti on.
D uri ng the year the leases of three of the term i nal s were canceled
on the ground th at they had been entered i nto w i thout due adv er­
ti si ng and competitive bidding. B y giv ing everyone i nterested a
chance to bid, and by leasing the term i nal s f or a fixed sum per
annum (i nstead of on the old prof i t-shari ng basi s), the D epartm ent
is assured of rental s more nearl y commensurate w i th the value of
the properties.
F O R E I G N - T R A D E Z ONES

B y an act approved June 18, 1934, Congress provided f or “ the
establi shment, operati on, and mai ntenance of f orei gn-trade zones in
ports of entry of the U ni ted States to expedi te and encourage f orei gn
commerce and f or other purposes.” These trade zones are designed
pri m ari l y to aid our reex port and transshi pm ent trade. T hi s legis­
lati on establi shed a board consi sting of the Secretary of Commerce,
chairman, the Secretary of W ar, and the Secretary of the T reasury ,
to make rules and regulati ons and to grant the corporati ons the
priv i lege of establishing, operati ng, and m ai ntai ni ng f orei gn-trade
zones i n or adj acent to ports of entry of the U ni ted States. T he
Cabi net officers named on the board appointed al ternates consti tuti ng
an i nterdepartm ental committee w hich w i ll act f or the B oard in the
prel i m i nary investigati ons attendant upon the establishment of such
zones. T he D i rector of the B ureau of Forei gn and D omestic Com­
merce was desi gnated as al ternate f or the Secretary of Commerce.
T he B oard has issued an inf orm ati onal bull eti n, Establ i shm ent of
F oreign T rade Zones in the U ni ted States, contai ning an explanati on
of the law, and ex pl ai ni ng the economic, f inancial, and physical con­
ditions w hich are of necessity involved in the setti ng up of such
zones and in the selection of the proper sites theref or.
T he departm ents of the Government concerned w i th the adminis­
trati on of the law have f orm ul ated general rules and regulati ons to
govern the establishment and operati on of f orei gn-trade zones.
A f ter the issuance of the rul es and regulati ons, f orm al appli cati ons
f or charters w ill be received and studied by the B oard.
A nalyses of the data submitted by the appl i cants w il l be necessary
not only to inf orm the B oard, but also to advise communities of the
f inancial responsibil iti es they w i ll be required to assume in establi sh­
i ng a zone, and to assist them in apprai si ng the benefits.

EEPOET OF T H E SECEET A EY OF COM M ERCE
ST R E E T A N D H I G H W A Y

X X X III

SA F E T Y

T he Fourth N ati onal Conference on Street and H i ghw ay Saf ety ,
of w hich the Secretary of Commerce was chairman, was held in
W ashington, M ay 23 to 25, 1934. Publ i c officials and pri v ate ci ti ­
zens f rom 40 States and representi ng al l interests concerned w ith
motor traffic parti ci pated in the conference. The standards f or
traffic regul ati on w ere thoroughl y reviewed and extensively revised
f oll ow ing prel i m i nary committee study. T he U ni f orm V ehicle Code
f or adopti on by States, heretof ore in 4 acts, w as amplif ied by the
inclusion of a saf ety responsi bil ity act and by other rearrangement,
so that i t now consists of 5 acts. The study showed that the basic
pri nci pl es i ncorporated i n the 1930 editi on of the code are sti l l ap ­
pli cable in the main, but certai n revisions, parti cul arl y w i th respect
to speed, automobile l i ghti ng equi pment, and permissi ble sizes and
w eights of vehicles, appeared desirable in view of f urther experience.
Prov i si on f or peri odic inspection of motor vehicles was also added.
T he M odel M unici pal Traffic Ordinance f or cities and towns was
rearranged f or convenience and revised in harmony w i th the U ni ­
f orm V ehicle Code. T he manual of signs and m ark ers f or rural
hi ghw ays and the manual of street traffic signs, signal s, and m ark ­
ings f or municipali ti es, prepared some years ago, respectively, by
the A meri can A ssociation of State H i ghw ay Officials and the N a­
ti onal Conf erence, w ere consoli dated and amplif ied i nto a single
M anual of U ni f orm Traffic Control Devices embodying the l atest
experience.
. A. report enti tl ed “ Guides to Traffic Saf ety ” w as adopted, set­
ti ng f orth a general program f or im prov i ng conditions through ad­
m i ni strati on, study of accidents, engineering, education, enf orce­
ment and research as well as legislation.
W hi l e pressure of emergency legi slati on duri ng the l ast 2 years
has i nterf ered somew hat w i th consi deration of and legislati on on
traffic m atters by the States, i t is believed that there is more w ide­
spread appreci ati on than ever bef ore of the need f or modern uni f orm
motor-vehicle law s and that, w i th these revised standards available,
there is special opportuni ty f or progress i n uni f orm i ty in 1935, when
most of the legislatures w ill meet.
B U SI N E SS A D V I SO R Y A N D P L A N N I N G

COUNCI L

T he anti ci pati on of the D epartm ent of Commerce of obtaining
valuable assistance and cooperation f rom the members of the Business
A dvisory and Pl anni ng Council, w hen that organizati on came into
existence on June 26, 1933, has been more than realized. T hi s group,
now numberi ng 52 of the N ati on’s most representati v e and di sti n­
guished business leaders, has been unrem i tti ng in i ts ef forts to make
avail able to the D epartm ent of Commerce its seasoned judgment on
m atters v i tal l y af f ecting the D epartm ent and business, and on ques­
ti ons of a broader nature, concerned w i th Government relati onship
to commerce and industry.
T he recommendations of the council committees specif ically con­
cerned w i th the acti viti es of the D epartm ent of Commerce have been
of valuable assistance in the conduct of the D epartm ent’s af fairs

08223—34------ 3

X X X IV

REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

throughout the year. I m portant phases of the departm ental pro­
gram have come up bef ore these groups f or review and suggestions.
T he D epartm ent has had the benef it of business men’s advice on ques­
ti ons involving i ts services to business. B ef ore the i ni ti ati on of new
services or changes in the existing program have been effected, counsel
and advice was secured f rom thi s advi sory group of representati ve
business men, thus prov i di ng business w i th a di rect voice in the
af f airs of the Federal departm ent representi ng it.
I t is the desire of the D epartm ent of Commerce to f urther cooper­
ati on betw een Government and business to the f ul l est extent. I t is
f el t that the culmination and hi ghest poi nt i n thi s endeavor i s to be
f ound i n the w ork of the committees of the Business A dvisory and
Pl anni ng Council and of the council as a w hole w i th ref erence to
Federal activiti es af f ecting trade and industry . A score of small
organi zed groups w i thi n the council have devoted thei r attenti on
duri ng the past year, and are at thi s ti me conti nuing thei r efforts,
to the presentati on, through the proper channels, of the “ business
m an’s poi nt of v i ew ” on subjects of current significance. I n this
manner the caref ul judgm ent and practi cal experience of i ndustri al
leaders are uti l i zed by the Government, w hile business sees i ts views
and opinions registered in an effective manner.
T he f oll ow ing l i st of committees conveys a general idea of the
scope of the acti vities of the council and of the complex problems
w hich are being caref ul l y anal yzed and studi ed:
E x ecu t iv e.
P l a n st u d y .
P la n n in g.
D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f i n d u st r y .
S m a l l i n d u st r i e s.
F o r e i g n t r a d e.
S u b co m m i t t ee t o st u d y t h e q u est i o n
o f i m p o r t q u o t a s b y co d e a u t h o r i t i e s.
I n d u st r i a l r e l a t i o n s.
U n f a i r t r a d e p r a ct ices in p r od u ction
a n d d i st r i b u t i o n .
S t a t i st i c a l r e p o r t i n g a n d u n i f o r m a c­
co u n t i n g f o r i n d u st r y .
S e c u r i t i e s A ct .
E l i m i n a t i o n o f w a st e i n d i st r i b u t i o n .
I n st a l l a t i o n o f l a b o r - sa v i n g m a c h i n e r y .
G o v er n m en t p u r ch a se s.
B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s.
B u r e a u o f A i r C om m er ce.

D o m e st i c co m m er ce w o r k
and
th e
C en su s B u r e a u o f t h e D ep a r t m e n t .
Sh ip p in g.
P a t e n t O f fice.
C o a st a n d G eo d et i c S u r v ey .
G o v e r n m en t l e n d i n g a n d t h e e x t e n t o f
i t s co m p et i t i o n w i t h e x i st i n g o p er ­
a t i n g i n d u st r i e s.
P r i v a t e co n st r u ct i o n .
S co p e o f t h e F e d e r a l T r a d e C o m m i s­
si o n ’s a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e co n t r o l o f u n ­
f a i r t r a d e p r a ct i c es.
A m e n d m en t s o f A g r i c u l t u r a l A d j u st ­
m en t A ct .
S o c i a l l e g i sl a t i o n .
N BA .
R e v e n u e A ct .
T r a n sp o r t a t i o n .

T he w ork of but a few committees may be cited as examples of thi s
cooperative endeavor. A t present the committee on decentrali zati on
of i ndustry is w ork ing closely w i th the Federal organizati ons con­
cerned w i th the process i n order th at a statement of policy f rom i n­
dustry may be f orm ul ated and thus expedi te the Government’s w ork
of business approv al and cooperation. T he social-legislation commit­
tee is now i n constant contact w i th groups f orm ul ati ng recommenda­
ti ons f or unemployment and rel i ef legislati on in f uture congressional
sessions. Parti cul arl y hel pf ul to the stati sti cal w ork of the D epart­
ment of Commerce have been the recommendations of the committee
on stati sti cal reporti ng and uni f orm accounting f or i ndustry and those
of the committee on eli minati on of waste in di stri buti on, both of
w hich have presented the advice of those using the D epartm ent’s

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

XXXV

services, on methods of improvement and expansion. T he problem
of a coordinated transportati on system f or the N ati on is now being
vigorousl y attacked by a council committee on th at subject.
Si nce many council members are also members of other Federal ad­
visory groups, the council has developed into a body of business rep­
resentatives, a cl eari ng house and a center of coordination f or i ndus­
tri al views on governmental m atters w hich af fect business. For thi s
resul t both business and the adm i ni strati on may be gratif ied. From
i ts past record, the D epartm ent is confident of the conti nued i nv al u­
able assistance of the council.
I n view of the rem ark abl y hearty cooperation of these business
men, thei r parti ci pati on i n these i m portant conf erences at the D e­
partm ent at a time when undoubtedly thei r own af f airs must re­
quire the closest attenti on, and as they def ray thei r own expenses and
the Government has not reimbursed them in any respect, I believe
that the names of the members of the council shoul d be recorded in
thi s report.
GEN ERA L C O U N C I L M EM B ERS
M . L . B enedum , P i t t sb u r g h .
D av i d R . C ok er, H ar t sv i l l e, S. C.
K ar l T . C om pton, C am br i dge, M ass.
P . B . D av i s, Jr ., N ew Y ork C i ty .
H en r y S. D en n i so n , F r am i n g h am , M ass.
E r n est G. D r ap er , N ew Y or k C i ty .
Jo sep h H . D r y er , N ew Y or k C i ty .
R o b er t J. D u n h am , C hi cago.
G ano D u n n , N ew Y or k C i ty .
P i er r e S. d u P o n t , W i l m i n g to n , D el .
R . G. E l b er t , N ew Y ork C i ty .
Jo h n B . E l l i o t t , L os A ngel es, C al i f .
Jo h n H . F ah ey , W o r cester , M ass.
P h i l i p J. F ay , San F r an c i sc o , C al i f .
L i n c o l n F i l en e, B o sto n , M ass.
A u sti n F i n c h , T h o m asv i l l e, N . C.
R al p h E . F l an d er s, Spri ngf i el d, V t.
W al t er S. G i f f or d, N ew Y or k C i ty .
A . P. G r een sf el d er , St. L o u i s, M o.
E v er et t G. G r i ggs, T aco m a, W ash .
L ew H ah n , N ew Y or k C i ty .
H en r y I . H ar r i m an , W ash i n g to n , D . C.
W i l l i am A . H ar r i m an , N ew Y or k C i ty .
H en r y H . H ei m an n , N i l es, M i ch.
W i l l i am A . Ju l i an , C i n c i n n at i , O hi o.
H . P. K en d al l , B oston, M ass.
F r ed I . K en t, N ew Y or k C i ty .

C. F . K et t er i n g , D et r o i t , M i ch,
d e L an cey K o u n tze, N ew Y or k C i ty .
M o r r i s E . L eeds, P h i l ad el p h i a.
C. K . L ei th , M adi son, W i s.
F r ed J. L i n g h am , L o ck p o r t, N . Y .
A r t h u r W . L i t t l e, N ew Y ork C i ty .
R o b er t L . L u n d , St. L oui s, M o.
T h o m as H . M c l n n er n y , N ew Y ork C i ty .
G eorge H . M ead, D ay to n , Ohi o.
L i onel J. N oah, N ew Y ork C i ty .
Jam es H . R an d , Jr ., N ew Y ork C i ty .
Jo h n J. R ask ob, N ew Y or k C i ty .
H . R . Saf f or d, H o u sto n , T ex .
A l f r ed I *. Sl oan, Jr ., N ew Y ork C i ty .
E . T . S t an n ar d , N ew Y ork C i ty .
R o b er t D o u g l as S t u ar t , C hi cago, 111.
G er ar d Sw ope, N ew Y or k C i ty .
M y r on C. T ay l o r , N ew Y or k C i ty .
W al t er C. T eagl e, N ew Y ork C i ty .
E d m o n d C. V an D i est, C ol or ado Sp r i n g s,
Col o.
W . J. V er een, M o u l tr i e, G a.
T h o m as J. W atso n , N ew Y ork C i ty .
Si dney J. W ei nber g, N ew Y ork C i ty .
C l ay W i l l i am s, W i n sto n - Sal em , N . C.
R. E . W ood, C hi cago, 111.
W i l l i am E . W o odw ar d, N ew Y or k C i ty .

Sincerely yours,
D a n i e l C. E o pe r ,

Secretary of Commerce.

REPORT BY BU REA US
C H I E F C L E R K A N D SU PE R I N T E N D E N T

SP A C E

IN

COM M ERCE

BU IL D IN G

The m atter of space in the Commerce B ui l di ng continues to be a
problem, and shi f ti ng and readj ustm ent is constantl y necessary.
A pprox i m atel y 192,900 square f eet of office space in the bui l di ng is
now occupied by Federal agencies other than the D epartm ent of
Commerce, al though five divisions of the B ureau of Forei gn and
D omestic Commerce are located in rented quarters. Only a small
porti on of the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau is housed in the Commerce
B ui l di ng, and the complete transf er of that B ureau f rom the N avy
B ui l di ng is necessarily delayed unti l space becomes available.
A

C EN T U R Y

OE

P R O G R E SS

E X P O SI T I O N

T he U ni ted States Commission f or parti ci pati on in the Chicago
W orl d’s F ai r Centennial celebration, of w hich the Secretary of Com­
merce is a member, arranged, in accordance w i th authori ty of Con­
gress, f or the Federal Government’s parti ci pati on in the exposition
f or the second year. T he D epartm ent has reinstal led substanti al l y
the same exhibits as were on display l ast year, in w hich are depicted
the many and v ari ed f uncti ons of the several branches of the
D epartment.
D I V I SI O N

OF

ACCOUNTS

T he f oll ow ing table shows the total amount of all appropri ati ons
f or the various bureaus and services of the D epartm ent f or the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1934:

B ureau

Federal E m pl oy m ent Stabi l i zati on
Of f ice_________ _______________
B ureau of Forei gn and D om estic
B ureau of the Census............... ..........
B ureau of N av i gati on and Steam-

Paten t Of fice............ .........................

A nnual ap­
propri a­
ti on acts

F unds reappro­
N ati onal
pri ated
Recov ery
f rom
A ct al l ot­
pri or
m ents, etc.
years

Special
acts

$959,590
$2,039,303

234,000
33,043

42,889

5, 528,334
6,503,120
639,500

483
9,246
1,111

$226,860

272,800

226,860

15,016,100

28,865
28, 251
20,076
30,386

53,841

$989,519
65,000
9,700,195

$112

3,514,370
1.903.000

36,632,738

T otal

$29,929

65,000
7,660,780

1.405.000
2,056,045
9,121,100
2,205,090
1,778,850
4,197,113
1,514,300
252,500

A l l ot­
m ents by
other
depar t­
m ents

371,507

3,748,370
1,903,000
1,480,932
2,084,910
14,649,917
8,745,707
2,439,537
4,197,113
2,044, 346
252,500
52,301,046

1

2

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

D isbursements duri ng the year ended June 30, 1934, f rom appro­
pri ati ons and f rom f unds transf erred f rom other departm ents were
as f ol l ow s:
A ppropri ati on f or—
B ureau

B ureau of Forei gn" and

N . R. A .—
Commerce

D om estic

B ureau of N av i gati on and Steam boat

Federal

E m pl oy m ent Stabi l i zati on

$19,043.00
2,584,941.56
75,830.52
1, 307, 221. 02
327,012.03
392,172. 75
41,243. 69

4,747,464. 57

T otal
1932

1933

1934

$159.17

$94,378. 61

$804, 506. 87

$899, 044. 65

1,813. 63
318.14

138,738. 60
56, 756. 65

2,054, 778. 43
1, 534,722.98

2,195,330. 66
1, 591, 797. 77

198. 50
477. 37
405. 09
2,757. 85
592.05
411.39
35,006.43
146.30

33,976.13
130, 575.75
316,494. 60
79.754. 63
225,157.11
35,227.14
443,193.19
67,303.12

1, 263, 540. 83
3,852, 586.18
1, 813,379. 58
1, 659,990. 88
8, 068, 388. 87
1,131, 214. 81
4, 559,146. 46
1,283,956. 55

1,316, 758. 46
3,983,639. 30
4,715, 220.83
1,818,333.88
9, 601,359.05
1,493,865. 37
5,429,518. 83
1,392,549. 66

14.40

2,175. 36
1,958. 37

28,005. 32
298,318. 59

30,195.08
300, 276.96

42,380.32 1,625,689.26 28,352,536.35

34, 767,990.50

M I SCEL L A NEOUS RECEIPTS
O f f ice o f t l i e S e c r e t a r y :
C o p y i n g f e e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l e o f sc r a p a n d sa l v a g e d m a t e r i a l s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B u r ea u o f A ir C om m er ce:
V i o l a t i o n o f a i r - t r a f f i c r u l e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R ei m b u r se m en t s, e x c e ss c o st o v er c o n t r a c t p r i c e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G o v er n m e n t p r o p er t y l o st or
d a m a ged ___________________
S a l e o f sc r a p or sa l v a g e d m a t e r i a l s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l e o f st o r e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l e o f se r v i c e, p r o f i t s f r o m b u si n e ss o p e r a t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l e o f w o r k d o n e_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n t e r e st : E x c h a n g e a n d d i v i d en d s, i n t e r e st o n d e f er r ed c o l ­
l e c t i o n s o r p a y m e n t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Sa le o f :
E q u ip m en t _________________________________________
B u i l d i n g s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ >
_______
B u r e a u o f F o r e i g n a n d D o m e st i c C o m m er ce:
F e e s u n d er C h i n a T r a d e A c t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Sa le o f :
P h o t o d u p l i c a t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P u b l i c a t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t o r es, w a st e p a p er , r e f u se , e t c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S er v i ce , o t h e r - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - R e n t o f eq u i p m en t - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - S a l e o f G o v er n m en t p r o p er t y , eq u i p m en t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
B u r e a u o f t h e C en su s:
C o p y i n g f e e s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - W or k d o n e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
B u r e a u o f N a v i g a t i o n a n d S t e a m b o a t I n sp e c t i o n :
T on n a ge t a x ____________________________________________
T o n n a g e t a x , P h i l i p p i n e I sl a n d s ( d e c i si o n o f C o m p t r o l l e r
G en er a l , F eb . 6, 1 9 3 1 , A - 1 8 4 6 9 ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F i n e s a n d p e n a l t i e s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ( F ee s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
U n i d e n t i f i e d w a g e s a n d e f f e c t s o f A m er i ca n se a m e n - - - - - - - - C u st o m s S e r v i c e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Sa le o f :
S t o r es, w a st e p a p er , r e f u se , e t c — _ — :- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - P u b l i c a t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

$S 7. 2 5
2, 2 5 0 . 7 5
610.
520.
15 8.
1, 4 2 4 .
72.
2, 3 6 1 .
42.

00
80
35
36
05
60
00

53 . 3 2
7, 3 8 7 . 1 4
455. 50
925. 0 0
13.
7, 9 6 9 .
25.
6.
40.
266.

92
90
57
88
00
77

91. 0 0
210. 84
1, 4 3 2 , 7 3 7 . 8 2
52,284.66
28, 630. 5 0
172, 333. 0 9
7, 5 6 8 . 6 6
3, 4 4 6 . 4 5
53.11
631. 0 9

C H I E F CL ERK A ND SU PER I N T EN D EN T
B u r e a u o f N a v i g a t i o n a n d S t e a m b o a t I n sp e c t i o n — C o n t i n u ed .
R ei m b u r sem en t s, G o v er n m en t p r o p er t y l o st o r d a m a g ed ____
S a l e o f e q u i p m en t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o c e e d s f r o m w a g e s a n d e f f e c t s o f A m er i ca n se a m en , C om ­
m er ce ( d e c i si o n o f C o m p t r o l l e r G en er a l , J u n e 29 , 19 29,
A —2 7 6 6 ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
N a t i o n a l B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s : P ee s, t e st i n g _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
B u r e a u o f L i g h t h o u se s:
C o m m i ssi o n s o n t e l e p h o n e p a y st a t i o n s i n F e d e r a l b u i l d i n g s
o u t si d e o f W a sh i n g t o n , D . C _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F o r f e i t u r e s, b o n d s o f c o n t r a c t o r s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e f u n d on em p t y c o n t a i n e r s. . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R ei m b u r se m e n t o f e x p e n se s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E x c e ss c o st o v er co n t r a c t p r i c e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G o v er n m en t p r o p er t y l o st o r d a m a g e d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T r a n sp o r t a t i o n , r e i m b u r se m en t - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Sa le o f :
S cr a p a n d sa l v a g e d m a t e r i a l s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t o r e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S u b si st en ce , r e i m b u r se m en t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F i n e s a n d o t h er p e n a l t i e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P e r m i t s, p r i v i l e g e s a n d l i c e n se s, f i sh i n g a n d h u n t i n g _______
B u si n e ss c o n c e ssi o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P i p e- l i n e w a t e r r i g h t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e n t o f p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s a n d g r o u n d s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F u r l o u g h a n d co m p en sa t i o n d ed u c t i o n s a n d v a c a n c y sa v i n g s
( sp e c i a l d ep o si t a c c o u n t s) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T e l e g r a p h a n d t el ep h o n e se r v i c e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
W or k d o n e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a le o f :
E q u i p m en t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
B u i l d i n g s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
L a n d _______________________________________________
C o a st a n d G eo d et i c S u r v e y :
C o p y i n g f e e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R ei m b u r se m en t , e x p e n se s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G o v er n m en t p r o p er t y l o st , d est r o y e d , or d a m a g e d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Sa le o f :
C h a r t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M a p s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P u b l i c a t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T elep h on e a n d t el eg r a p h - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - W o r k d o n e_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l e o f eq u i p m en t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
B u r e a u o f F i sh e r i e s:
R e f u n d o n ca b l e a n d r a d i o m e ssa g e s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - :____
C o n t r a c t o r s, f o r e x c e ss c o st o v er c o n t r a c t p r i c e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l e o f f u r s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F o x sk i n s_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ,
S a l e o f sc r a p a n d sa l v a g e d m a t e r i a l s, co n d em n ed st o r e s,
w a st e p a p er , r e f u se , e t c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R ei m b u r se m en t , su b si st e n c e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l e o f st o r e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
O t h e r s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l e o f eq u i p m en t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a t e n t O f f i ce:
P a t e n t f e e s, 1 9 3 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a t e n t f e e s, 1 9 3 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
U . S. S h i p p i n g B o a r d B u r e a u :
I n t e r e st o n m o n ey s l o a n ed f r o m C o n st r u ct i o n L o a n F u n d —
C o p y i n g f e e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F u r l o u g h a n d co m p en sa t i o n d e d u c t i o n s a n d v a c a n c y sa v i n g s
( sp e c i a l d ep o si t a c c o u n t s) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F u n d s r e ce i v e d f r o m sa l e o f sh i p s, et c. , a n d d ep o si t ed f o r
c o n st r u c t i o n l o a n s u n d er se c. 11 , M er c h a n t M a r i n e A ct ,
1 9 2 0 , a s a m en d e d ( 4 5 S t a t . 6 9 0 ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

3

$3 . 5 0
35. 0 0

9 S 3 . 10
52, 2 2 9 . 3 8

66.24
71 . 2 0
347. 06
396. 80
636. 88
5, 2 5 9 . 1 0
. 76
5 , 1 1 9 . 41
7 , 1 0 8 . 04
249. 2 2
70 . 0 0
56. 0 0
5.00
85. 0 0
3, 8 9 7 . 6 7
58.02
16. 2 2
1,029.98
11, 7 6 9 . 6 6
433, 76
5, 9 1 3 . 5 2
59 3. 3 4
10. 7 7
7. 5 0
37, 411.
5, 0 8 7 .
5. 4 4 5 .
4.
3.
2, 8 0 1 .

69
59
09
24
00
52

12.56
4. 6 2
2,525.79
16, 2 3 0 . 1 3
594.
57 2.
528.
4.
90 .

54
52
65
22
90

4, 0 8 9 , 2 2 9 . 9 0
191, 012, 6 5
3, 4 4 6 , 1 7 0 . 9 2
89. 6 6
41,907.00

4 , 1 8 2 , 067. 01

EEPOET OP T H E SECEETA EY OP COM M EECE

4

B u r e a u o f M i n e s:
S a l e o f g a s f r o m h e l i u m p l a n t s, n et p r o f i t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R en t o f la n d for g r a z in g _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
M i sc e l l a n e o u s : R ei m b u r se m en t , g a so l i n e S t a t e t a x _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

$1 0, 7 2 6 . 1 2
1, 60 0. 0 0
435. 01

T o t a l , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m er ce_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

13, 85 3, 69 5. 8 4

A PPO IN T M E N T

D I V I SI O N

A t the close of the y ear the personnel of the D epartm ent numbered
14,844 (13,086 permanent and 1,758 tem porary ). Of the total num­
ber 3,997 are employed in the D i stri ct of Columbia, and 10,847 con­
sti tute the field force. The total personnel as of June 30, 1933, was
17,842 (15,864 permanent and 1,978 tem porary ) of w hich number
4,998 were employed in the D i stri ct of Columbia, and 12,844 i n the
field. T he total personnel f or the fiscal year 1934 theref ore shows a
decrease of 2,998.
T he number of employees reti red on annui ty duri ng the year under
the Ci vi l Service Reti rem ent A ct was 124— 44 by reason of age, 46 on
account of disabi li ty , and 34 by reason of i nv ol untary separati on. I n
addi ti on, 74 reti rements were effected under the 30-year provision
of the I ndependent Offices A ppropri ati on A ct, 1934. T he average
annui ty of those reti red under both acts is $928.10. U nder the L i ght­
house Service reti rem ent system 28 were reti red f or age and 56 on
account of disabi li ty , w i th an average annui ty of $1,103.93. A total
of 1,617 civili an employees have been reti red under the various
appl icable statutes to the close of June 30, 1934.
D I V I SI O N

OP

PU BL IC A T IO N S

T he f ol low i ng statem ent gives, f or the fiscal years 1933 and 1934,
the amounts avail abl e to the D epartm ent f or pri nti ng and binding,
the amounts expended, and the unused balances.
Fiscal y ear—
1933
Services other th an the Paten t Office:

Paten t Office:

1934

1 $476,000. 00
347,307. 02

2 $487,473. 85
3 471,360.75

128,692.98

16,113.10

1,300,000. 00
1, 274,639.49

950,000. 00
4 931,928.30

25,360. 51

18,071.70

1 T he appropri ati on f or pri nti ng and bi ndi ng f or 1933 w as $600,000. T hi s am ount w as reduced by the
B ureau of the B udget to $476,000.
2 T he am ount av ai l abl e duri ng 1934 i ncl uded an appropri ati on of $460,000, pl us $56,790 transf erred f rom
“ Salaries and expenses, B ureau of the Census, 1934” , and a credi t of $127.39 f or miscellaneous bl ank f orms
f urni shed to the N ati onal Recov ery A dm i ni strati on, a total of $516,917.39. From th at am ount the follow ing
sum s w ere deducted: $3,000 transf erred to the Ci vi l Service Commissi on w hen the i ssuance of the Of ficial
Register w as transf erred to t h at organi zati on, $26,377.54 transf erred to the I nteri or D epartm ent and $66
transf erred to the T reasury D epartm ent by reason of the transf er of the B ureau of M i nes and the D i sbursing
Office f rom the D epartm ent of Commerce.
3 I ncl udes actual cost of w ork del i vered and esti m ated cost of al l other w ork ordered. I ncreased rate of
charges on undel i v ered w ork ordered pri or to A pr. 1 not i ncl uded i n thi s total .
4 E sti m ated ; ex act f igures f or 1934 can n o t be gi v en u n t i l al l w ork ordered i n t h at y ear is co m pl eted and
bi l l ed.

N o t e .—I n ad d i t i o n t o am o u n ts sho w n abov e, ex p en d i tu res f or p r i n t i n g an d b i n d i n g d u r i n g 1934 f rom
f u n d s al l o tted f rom t h e em ergency organi zati ons am o u n ted t o $46,028.27.

C H I E F CL ERK A ND SU PERI N T EN D EN T

5

Receipts f rom sales of the D epartm ent’s publications f or the fiscal
year 1933 (the l atest peri od f or w hich complete data are avail able)
were $549,726.65, compared w ith $632,005.55 f or 1932. T he f oll ow ­
ing tabl e presents a comparison f or the 2 years by sell ing agencies:
Recei pts
Sales
1932
B y the Superi ntendent of D ocum ents: M i scel l aneous sales and subscri pti ons.
B y Coast and Geodetic Survey: Coast pi l ots, i nsi de route pi l ots, ti de tables,
B y Paten t Office: Speci f i cations of patents, reissues, etc., trade-m ark section
and decision leaf let of Of ficial G azette, and classif ication bul l eti ns and

D I V I SI O N

OF

P U R C H A SE S

A N D

1933

$204,922.99

$170,176. 22

56,042. 86

51,269.48

371,039.70

328, 280.95

632,005. 55

549, 726. 65

SA L E S

D uri ng the fiscal y ear 1934 there were placed 16,373 purchase
orders, w hich, i ncluding f rei ght, trav el , rent, and miscellaneous ac­
counts, involved the expenditure of $2,526,804.66. T hi s is an i n­
crease in expenditures of $1,308,728.08 over the fiscal y ear 1933.
T hrough the cooperati on of the T reasury D epartm ent, Procure­
ment D ivision, m ateri al compri sing the S. S. L ake Fairlee, valued at
$45,173.77, and tw o motor launches, machi ne tools, pl ati num , assay
equipment, and other m ateri al valued at approx i matel y $8,000 was
obtained f rom surplus stocks of other Government departm ents w i th­
out the transf er of f unds. I n thi s connection, surpl us m ateri al
valued at approx i matel y $15,200 was transf erred w i thout the ex­
change of f unds f rom thi s D epartm ent to other branches of the Gov­
ernment, the pri nci pal items being eight ai rpl ane motors val ued at
approx i m atel y $10,000.
D EPA R T M E N T

L IBR A R Y

W i th the transf er of the B ureau of M ines, approx i matel y 17,000
books were transf erred to the l i brary of the D epartm ent of the I n ­
terior. T he number of books now in the l i brary , i ncluding the
f isheries collection of 43,000 volumes, is approxim ately 208,640. D ur­
ing the year 8,344 books were catal oged and 21,019 cards added to
the card catalog. T here was an increase of 30 percent in book ci r­
culation. T he l i brary is bei ng used extensively by the emergency
organizations.
T R A FFIC

OFFICE

T he traffic office has been al ert in keeping current w i th changes in
rates f or both passengers and f rei ght, tak i ng advantage of economies
w herever possible and using transports and standard and special
rates by w ater, in addi ti on to l and-grant rai l routes, in order to
reduce transportati on costs.
I n addi ti on to regul ar D epartm ent w ork, thi s office has also as­
sisted in handl i ng passenger and f rei ght movements f or the H ome
L oan B ank B oard, the H ome Ow ners’ L oan Corporati on, and the
N ati onal Recovery A dmini strati on.

SO L I C I T O R ’S O F F I C E

D uri ng the fiscal year ended June 30, 1934, the number of f ormal
legal opinions rendered total ed 390 (a great many verbal opinions of
w hich no record is k ept w ere also rendered duri ng the y ear ); 550
contracts, total i ng $4,345,147, together w i th 70 contracts of i ndeter­
mi nate am ounts; 1,973’ leases, amounti ng to $155,123.48; 13 insurance
policies, amounti ng to $1,636,566; 63 revocable licenses, amounti ng
to $2,528; 35 deeds, amounti ng to approx i m atel y $90,000; 235 con­
tract bonds, amounti ng to $1,530,464; 83 annual bid and perf ormance
bonds; 160 official bonds, amounti ng to $1,433,000? w ere examined
(approv ed, disapproved, draf ted, redraf ted, or modif ied).
L egi slati ve m atters handled w hich concern the D epartm ent of
Commerce (draf ti ng and redraf ti ng bills, reports relati ve thereto,
etc.) numbered 160. Pow er of attorney cards, authori zi ng agents to
execute official and contract bonds f or surety companies, total ed
3,000. I n addition, approxim ately 6,000 miscellaneous matters, em­
braci ng ev ery thi ng submitted f or the advice or suggestion of the
Soli ci tor, or f or the f orm ul ati on of departm ental action, not included
in the f oregoing items, were handled by thi s office.
T he legal w ork in connection w i th the U ni ted States Shi ppi ng
B oard B ureau, w hich w ork is under the directi on of the Soli citor of
the D epartm ent, is discussed in the section of thi s report pertai ni ng
to th at B ureau.
6

FEDERAL

E M PL O Y M E N T

ST A B I L I Z A T I O N

OFFICE

T he advance pl anni ng programs of the vari ous agencies of the
Government and the D i stri ct of Columbia, covering the 6-year peri od
1936-41 have been collected, anal yzed, and summarized, as in pre­
vious years. Besides thi s study, addi ti onal m ateri al was obtained
relati ve to the Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on’s allocations f or Fed­
eral projects. T hi s office is now the pri nci pal agency w i thi n the
Government f rom w hich histori cal and current data are obtainable
covering all phases of publi c and pri v ate construction.
T he regul ar activiti es of the office have been somew hat augmented
through the creation of a subcommittee on pri v ate constructi on
under the business advisory and pl anni ng council of the D epartm ent
of Commerce. The director of thi s office has been appointed secre­
tary of the subcommittee, and the other members of the staf f are
engaged i n detai l w ork inci dent to the f uncti oni ng of the group.
T he pri m ary purpose of the subcommittee is to offer i ts suggestions
and assistance to the adm i ni strati on in f urtheri ng pri v ate building.
T hi s office is acti ng as a concentration poi nt w i thi n the Government
f or the accumulation and dissemination of perti nent data and the
draf ti ng of recommendations essential to the recovery of pri v ate
constructi on.
7

BU R E A U

OF A IR

COM M ERCE

T he A eronautics B ranch w as reorganized duri ng the y ear w i th
tw o m aj or divisions i nstead of three, i ts name w as changed to B ureau
of A i r Commerce, and i t w as put under the supervision of a D i rector
of A i r Commerce. T he position of A ssi stant Secretary of Com­
merce f or A eronautics w as changed to A ssi stant Secretary of Com­
merce, w i th authori ty extended over a number of i m portant acti v i ­
ti es of the D epartm ent. T he present A i r N av i gati on D ivision and
A i r Regul ati on D ivision have the f uncti ons f orm erl y assigned to the
A irw ays D ivision and A i r Regul ati on Service w hich preceded them.
T he duti es of the f orm er A eronauti c D evelopment Servi ce w ere
transf erred to the new divisions. Each is headed by an A ssi stant
D irector of A i r Commerce. I n addi ti on to other general supervisi on,
the D i rector of A i r Commerce supervises directl y the acti vities of
the A eronautic I nf orm ati on Section and the A dm i ni strati v e Section.
A t the close of the fiscal y ear pl ans were being made f or a D evelop­
ment Section, to be under the di rect supervision of the D irector.
T hi s is not to be a successor to the old A eronautic D evel opment Serv ­
ice, but is to be a new section organized to pursue research and
development w ork on ai rpl anes, engines, and accessories, a f uncti on
never bef ore carri ed out by the B ureau. A s i ts f i rst m aj or task the
section w il l undertak e the devel opment of a new craf t f or the pri v ate
flyer.
O PE R A T IO N

ON

REDUCED

BU D G ET

T he B ureau of A i r Commerce w as able to operate and m ai ntai n
i ts N ati on-w ide organi zati on at a hi gh degree of efficiency on a bud­
get $2,400,000 less than Congress provided f or the fiscal y ear 1934.
A ppropri ated f unds avai labl e f or ex penditure duri ng that fiscal y ear
were $5,172,500. D uri ng the l ast 4 years the B ureau has been av er­
agi ng expenditures of more than $8,500,000 annual ly.
To accomplish the reducti on noted above, the D i rector of A i r
Commerce called upon every acti v i ty under his j uri sdi cti on to engage
in thorough house cl eanings to eliminate all unnecessary duties and
practices that had accumul ated duri ng the past. Some of the meas­
ures adopted to keep the B ureau w i thi n the reduced budget were:
T he ei ght airw ays di stri cts were transf erred f rom the L i ghthouse
Service of the D epartm ent to the B ureau of A i r Commerce and re­
duced to six in number.
T he A i r N avigati on D ivision was reorganized and l i mited in
scope to operati on and maintenance of the airw ays. A l l construc­
ti on procedure w as separated f rom the D ivision and the personnel
were placed on Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on pay roll s i n connection
w i th airw ays projects f inanced by that establ ishment.
A i rw ay mechanician di stri cts were consolidated; many i nterme­
di ate l andi ng fields w ere disconti nued as being no longer necessary
9

10

EEPOB T OP T H E SECEETA EY OP COM M EECE

w i th the advent of f aster ai rcraf t; the contract f or leased ci rcuits
f or the tel ety pew ri ter communications system was reduced 25 percent
and substanti al savi ngs w ere made on rearrangem ent of the existing
circuits; pow er contract charges f or beacon l i ghts and radi o were
reduced, as w ere the cost of leases of beacon sites and emergency
l andi ng fields.
Tw o of the ni ne inspection di stri cts were consoli dated, trav el pro­
cedure was reorganized, the repai r base at B oll ing Fi el d in W ashi ng­
ton was discontinued and the D epartm ent ai rpl ane repai r w ork is
now being done more economically i n the field by pri v ate contract;
ai rcraf t, obsolete or expensive to operate, w ere replaced by new
planes less expensive to operate and maintain.
Scores of many smal ler economies, adm i ni strati v e i n character,
were effected.
T he part-ti m e operati on of l i ghts w hich had been i naugurated in
the spri ng of 1933 was discontinued f oll ow ing the appoi ntm ent of
the D i rector of A i r Commerce and thei r operati on returned to f ul l ­
ti me service.
I n addi ti on to the f oregoing and above and beyond i ts routi ne
duties, the B ureau of A i r Commerce can poi nt to the f oll ow i ng
sal i ent accomplishments duri ng the fiscal year 1934:
A . Commenced the constructi on of nearl y 3,000 miles of li ghted
and radio-equipped airw ays and modernization of ex isting equip­
ment and relocation of present airw ays w i th f unds f rom the Publi c
W orks A dm i ni strati on.
B. L aunched a campaign on behal f of pri v ate f l yi ng w hich em­
bodies these pri nci pal f eatures:
(1) U rged the need f or a volume-produced, low -priced, tw o-seated
airplane. T hi s was met w i th great enthusi asm throughout the coun­
try and the B ureau of A i r Commerce has dedicated i ts f ul l est eff orts
to the real i zati on of thi s objective, as there cannot be a natural ,
heal thy grow th i n the pri v ate f lyi ng business unti l a plane is av ai l ­
able on a volume-production basis. T hi s proj ect w ill be f urther
pursued by the new D evelopment Section to w hich ref erence is made
hereaf ter.
(2) Requested the Civil W orks A dm i ni strati on to include ai rports
and l andi ng fields and ai r mark i ngs of cities and tow ns in i ts unem­
pl oyment-reli ef program w i th the resul t that 50,000 men were given
w ork, more than 1,000 landing-f ield projects w ere undertak en, and
approx i m atel y 5,000 municipali ti es were ai r marked. Of the ai rports
and l andi ng fields, about 60 percent w ere new fields and 40 percent
improvements to ex i sti ng ai rports. A l though w ork remains to be
done on many of the fields, the Federal Emergency B el i ef A dminis­
trati on has authori zed the States to use thei r direct-w ork rel i ef f unds
f or the completion of these projects. A t the end of the fiscal year
some f our hundred additional sites were scheduled f or construction
w ork.
(3) M ade studies of the A i r Commerce Regulations as they pertai n
to noncommercial airmen and caref ul l y analyzed thei r needs and de­
sires as presented in f orm al communications and through the con­
tacts made by the field forces. T hi s resulted in a revision of the
regulati ons to the end that ow nership of a noncommercial pi l ot’s
license is now more to be desired than bef ore because of the increased
pri vi leges granted and the reducti on in troubl esome procedure here­

BU REA U OF A IR COM M ERCE

11

tof ore requi red. W ays are sti l l being sought to make f urther
improvements.
C. Recommended that PW A f unds be made avai lable to the B u­
reau of A i r Commerce f or the establishment of a trans-A tl anti c
ai rw ay by employment of ref uel i ng bases or seadromes. Ei ghty
percent of the cost of the proj ect w ould be f or l abor and as a hi gh
speed, heav i er-than-ai r service betw een Europe and the U ni ted
States is inevitabl e, and as the PW A is prov i di ng f unds f or Fed­
eral projects to f oster employment, i t is f el t that thi s is an oppor­
tuni ty f or the U ni ted States to anti ci pate by 5 or 10 years such a
real i ty and at the same time own and operate the airw ay f or the
equal use of al l nations. T he proj ect w ould be self -supporti ng, and
w ould solve the probl em of tremendous gas loads and sm al l ' pay
loads now of such concern in long-distance f lights. T he PW A now
has the m atter under consideration.
D. I nv esti gated and conclusively tested the bl i nd-l andi ng system
developed by the A rm y A i r Corps and f ound i t suitable f or use by
commercial aviation. D uri ng thi s w ork A i r Commerce B ureau test
pil ots employed a tri -m otor transport plane ancl made repeated and
unassisted landings under a hood. H eretof ore the D epartm ent of
Commerce had conducted bl i nd landings w i th a smal l trai ni ng plane,
but the real value of any system could not be demonstrated unti l
a large, heavil y loaded transport pl ane could use i t successfully.
I t is thi s ty pe of ai rcraf t that w il l be the most consi stent user of any
bl i nd-l andi ng method in order to prov i de continuous and uni nter­
rupted ai r transport service.
E. Sponsored legislati on to enable the Secretary of Commerce to
hol d public heari ngs on all serious accidents to civil ai rcraf t and to
make publ ic the causes of such accidents; to strengthen the D epart­
ment’s authori ty to provide f or minimum saf ety standards on the ai r
lines, and to engage in development w ork on ai rcraf t, engines, and
accessories. T hi s legislation was enacted in the closing days of Con­
gress and was approved by the Presi dent.
F. M ade plans f or a new D evelopment Section to engage in the
w ork on new types of ai rcraf t, engines, and accessories. T he l ast
Congress appropri ated to the Presi dent $1,000,000 to use at his di s­
cretion f or f urther development of civil and m i l i tary aviation, and
$100,000 of thi s appropri ati on has been all ocated to the use of the
D epartm ent of Commerce. T he section’s f i rst proj ect w ill be the
low -priced ai rpl ane f or pri v ate f lying, and i t w il l i nvestigate types
w hich give promise of being suitable f or th at purpose.
W hil e the f oregoing m aj or projects have been in the process of
development, the tw o main divisions into w hich the B ureau of A i r
Commerce is now divided—A i r N av igati on and A i r Regul ati on—
have been persistentl y at w ork on a m ul ti tude of detai ls looki ng to
increased efficiency and service to the public and the i ndustry .
A IR

N A V IG A T IO N

D I V I SI O N

T hi s division’s accomplishments are summarized bel ow :
Operated nearly 20,000 miles of l i ghted and radio-equipped ai r­
w ays, substanti al l y the same system as that in existence duri ng the
previous year, but w i th 30 percent less f unds.

1 2

REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

Surveyed 2,700 miles of new Federal airw ays, and constructi on
w ork is now ready to begin in most cases.
Completed the construction of the L oui svil le-I ndi anapoli s l ighted
ai rw ay.
Relocated and improved f aci l i ti es on ei ght Federal airw ays.
I ntroduced a maintenance-control procedure w hich w ill place the
operati on of the ai ds to ai r nav i gati on on a business basis and w i ll
give the D epartm ent of Commerce a reli able check on the cost of
ai rw ay maintenance, operations, and the efficiency of all equipment.
D eveloped a new method of ai rw ay construction w hereby there
w i ll be complete l andi ng f acil ities and aeronauti c radio at 50-mile
interv als. These w i ll include m i ni ature radiobeacons w i th an effec­
ti v e range of 25 miles as agai nst the 100-m; le range of the l arger
beacons w hich have developed problems of transmissi on in moun­
tainous country. T hi s method w ill be i nstall ed on the new airw ays
now being surveyed.
M odernized radi o and other aids to ai r nav i gati on throughout the
country.
I nstal l ed low er w attage lamps i n beacon l i ghts f or economy pur­
poses, af ter thorough tests demonstrated the public saf ety w ould in
no w ay be jeopardized by the change.
I nstal l ed di stant control mechanism at 39 points to enable A i r
Commerce B ureau radi o operators to be at ai rports to serve all ai r­
men and at the same ti me to operate the radi o communication sta­
ti ons and radi o range beacons which, because of thei r hi gh tow ers,
must be aw ay f rom the approaches to the fields.
I nstal l ed new type antennas f or improved radiobeacon service at
26 poi nts.
Entered upon a practi cal and theoreti cal investigati on of m ul ti ­
pl e or spl i t courses in the radi o range beacons w hich are f ound in
mountainous country. To thi s end, extensive f li ght tests were made
by B ureau experts, and 87 engineeri ng universities and colleges were
requested to cooperate in the solution of the theoreti cal aspects of the
problem.
D eveloped a method f or visual ly i nterpreti ng, on ai rcraf t i nstru­
ment boards, the radiobeacon signal s now received by airmen through
thei r headphones.
Studi ed various methods of operati ng tel ety pew ri ter machines and
otherw ise communicati ng by radi o w i th automati call y produced rec­
ords of the messages. A dopti on of some such system w ill effect
substanti al savings by el i m i nati ng tol ls f or l and wires. H ow ever,
thi s is sti l l in the experim ental stage.
I ntroduced symbols and improved the technique of tel ety pew ri ter
operators so that w eather i nf orm ati on and special messages are being
transm i tted over l and w ires along the Federal A i rw ay s System at
the mechanical l i m i t of the machines— about 40 w ords per minute
as agai nst 20 w ords i n the past.
Obtained a substanti al reducti on in charges f or leased telephone
circui ts used in the. ai rw ay s communications system.
Ex peri m ented and sti l l w orking w i th a system w hich w ill make i t
possible f or airmen to receive directi onal si gnal s and voice broadcasts
at the same ti me instead of stopping the one to get the other, as they
have to do now.

BU REA U OF A IR COM M ERCE
A IR

REG UL AT IO N

13

D I V I SI O N

T hi s D ivi si on has accomplished the f ol l ow i ng:
Contributed to the advancement of pri v ate f lying through changes
in the A i r Commerce Regul ati ons and policies; created a new ty pe
of pi l ot license know n as the “ amateur grade ” , f or w hich 25 hours
of solo f lyi ng is required; extended the v al i di ty of student licenses
f rom 1 to 2 years; extended the physical examinations f or noncom­
mercial airmen f rom 1 to 2 y ears; perm i tted the renew al of noncom­
mercial licenses by mail instead of through personal appearance be­
f ore an inspector; reduced fees f or physi cal examinations; permi tted
credi t as solo f l yi ng time f or all hours spent f l yi ng w ith an i nstructor
af ter 10 hours of actual solo w ork; and authorized pri v ate pil ots to
operate ai rcraf t carry i ng guests, executives, or employees of com­
panies by w hich they are employed, provided no payment is made
f or the transportati on, and also to demonstrate ai rcraf t in f l i ght to
prospective buyers.
Prom ul gated a policy w hich calls f or promotional and develop­
ment w ork among the aeronauti cal inspectors. I n thi s connection
the inspectors no longer confine thei r duties in the field to li censi ng
and inspection w ork, but cooperate! w i th municipal and State av i a­
tion authori ti es, help in the development of ai rports, and hold them ­
selves in readiness f or general assistance to civil aeronautics. A l ­
ready thi s policy has borne f r u i t in numerous commendations f rom
w idel y separated sources.
Revised the ai rcraf t engineeri ng requi rements to encourage manu­
f acturers to bri ng out new models and at the same time to eliminate
much troublesome procedure f or both the i ndustry and the B ureau of
A i r Commerce. T hi s “ red tape ” has di rectl y and i ndi rectl y i n­
creased the cost of m anuf acturi ng. Sufficient progress has been
made to date to enable the B ureau to eliminate these voluminous
steps in connection w i th Federal approv al of ai rcraf t designs w i th­
out af f ecting the publi c saf ety.
Establ i shed more di rect methods of Federal approv al of al tera­
ti ons and repai rs to licensed ai rcraf t to eliminate del ay and reduce
costs to the plane owner.
Segregated and enlarged the ai r-l i ne inspection service, increasing
i ts scope and efficiency, and strengthened the Federal requirements
f or air-li ne equi pment by specif ying multiengined ai rcraf t on all
lines carry i ng passengers in i nterstate commerce af ter dark . Con­
ducted inspections of all lines and prescri bed the type of equipment
to be used in day l i ght operati ons af ter tak i ng into consi deration the
condi tion of the terrai n, the average w eather conditions, and the
volume of traffic. T hus i n f lat country, single-engined ai rcraf t may
carry passengers duri ng the day l i ght hours, and in rough and moun­
tainous regions multiengined equi pment is requi red in the daytime.
Gave assistance to the T erri tory of A laska in i ts f urther develop­
ment of aviation by assigning a f ul l -ti m e D epartm ent of Commerce
aeronauti cal inspector to live there the y ear round, w i th a view
to a f ul l er cooperati on w i th the T erri tori al Government and com­
mercial and pri v ate aeronauti cal acti vities. H eretof ore, an inspector
made a v i si t to the T erri tory once or tw ice a y ear to conduct inspec­
ti ons and examinations.
98223— 34 ------ 4

REPOET OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

14

Establ i shed special rules f or ai r races and ai r meets that are con­
ducted under w ai vers of the A i r Commerce Regul ations. These are
designed to protect the spectators and to saf eguard the contesting
ai rplanes f rom interf erence by other ai rcraf t.
D ecl ared a policy w hich perm i ts passengers to si t at the controls
of a dual controlled ai rcraf t, i f i t is operated by a pi l ot licensed in
the hi gher grades and no passengers are carri ed f or hire. T hi s is
intended to enable the passenger or prospective purchaser of an
ai rcraf t to become f am i l i ar w i th the i nstruments and controls.
Reduced the number of D epartm ent inspection di stri cts f rom 9
to 8; redi stri buted the field inspectors; budgeted inspectors’ trav el ,
gasoli ne, and repai r expense; and divided the inspection division into
three separate groups— ai r line, general, and m anuf acturi ng.
A P P R O P R I A T I O N S,

P E R SO N N E L , A N D
FA C IL IT IES

A IR

N A V IG A T IO N

A tabul ati on show ing amounts th at have been appropri ated f or
the w ork of the B ureau of A i r Commerce since i t began to f uncti on
f ol l ow s:

Fi scal y ear—

A i rcraf t i n
commerce

A i r nav i ga­
ti on f acil­
i ti es

$250,000
700.000
859, 500
958.000

$300,000
3,091,500
4,659,850
5,458,620

Fi scal y ear—

T otal

$550,000
3, 791,500
5. 519,350
6,416,620

A i rcraf t i n A i r nav i ga­
acil ­
commerce ti on,f
i ti es

1931________ $1,260,830
1932................ 1,369,660
1933________ 1,000,000
1934________ 1,070,570

$7,944.000
8,992,640
7, 553,500
6, 590,210

T otal

$9,204,830
10,362, 300
8,553, 500
3 7,660, 780

■ Second def i ci ency act, f iscal y ear 1926, approv ed Ju l y 3,1926.
2 I ncl udes under A i rcraf t i n Com merce, $72,500 appropri ated by the second def iciency act of 1928 and
$85,000 appropri ated by the second def iciency act of 1929, and under A i r N av i gati on Faci l i ti es, $1,000,000
appropri ated by the second def iciency act of 1928.
..............................
x
„ . „
* H ow ev er, ex pendi tures w ere l i m i ted by Ex ecuti v e order to the f ollow ing am ounts: A i rcraf t i n Com ­
merce, $700,000; A i r N av i gati on Faci l i ti es, $4,472,500; total , $5,172,500.

Stati sti cs on personnel employed by the B ureau of A i r Commerce
on June 30, 1934, and at the same date of the preceding year, and
pai d f rom the appropri ati ons A i rcraf t in Commerce and A i r N av i ga­
ti on Faci l i ti es, f ol l ow :
June 30, 1934

June 30, 1933
I tem

D i str i ct of
Col um bi a

Fi el d

T otal

D i str i ct of
Col um bi a

Fi el d

T otal

Pai d f rom A i rcraf t i n Com m erce------Pai d f rom A i r N av i gati on F aci l i ti es.- .

135
50

133
1,715

268
1,765

119
44

97
1,490

216
1,534

T o tal ______ ____ — ...................

185

1,848

2,033

163

1,587

1,750

Besides the above, there w ere on June 30, 1934, 85 special em­
ployees on Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on projects.

B U REA U OE A IR COM M ERCE

15

A i r nav i gati on ai ds in operati on on the Federal A irw ays System
.•at the close of the fiscal y ear 1934, and at the close of the preceding
f iscal year, w ere:
I tem

A i rw ay mileage:
L i ghted.................................................................................................... .......m i l es..
L i ghted routes on day ai rw ay status (l i ghts no t operati ng)---------------do----N ew routes under sur v ey _____________________________________ do----I nterm edi ate l andi ng f i elds______________________________________num ber .
R adi o com m uni cati on stati ons--------- ----------- ----------- —................. - ........ do----Radio m ark er beacons..........................................................................................do-----

June 30,
1933

18,100
256
644
0
269
1,831
68
99
70
13,000

June 30,
1934

17,315
256
1,499
2,747
256
1,626
70
97
78
11,814

BU R E A U

OF T H E

C E N SU S

INT RO DUCT IO N

T he 32 volumes compri sing the Fi f teenth D ecennial Census Report
contain 31,654 pages and cover the subjects of populati on, including
occupations and unemployment; manuf actures, i ncluding mines and
quarries; agri cul ture, i ncluding horti cul ture, i rri gati on, and drai n­
age; and distri buti on, i ncluding wholesale and retai l trade, construc­
ti on, and hotels. T w enty -f our of these volumes w ere pri nted pri or to
Jul y 1,1933, and the remai ni ng eight volumes were made avai lable to
the public duri ng the fiscal y ear j ust closed. T o meet the demand f or
i nf orm ati on on the dif f erent subj ects covered by the complete report,
monographs, repri nts of chapters, and special reports were pri nted.
T he complete report is avai lable f or consultation in all large public
l ibrari es, at universiti es, and i n the l i brari es of many smal ler educa­
ti onal i nsti tuti ons. These volumes are also avai lable f or purchase
f rom the Superi ntendent of Documents.
D uri ng the l ast fiscal y ear the B ureau conducted i ts regul ar annual,
quarterl y , and monthly inquiries, as well as the decennial census of
Fi nanci al Stati sti cs of State and L ocal Governments, the bienni al
Census of M anuf actures, and the quinquennial Census of El ectrical
I ndustri es. Prel i m i nary or f inal reports were issued on all of these
subjects.
I n addi ti on to i ts regul ar w ork, the B ureau conducted duri ng the
l ast fiscal year the f oll ow i ng projects of the Federal Civil W orks
A dm i ni strati on :
C en su s o f A m e r i ca n B u si n e ss
C en su s o f R eco r d P r e se r v a t i o n
R e a l P r o p e r t y I n v e n t o r y ( c o n d u ct ed f i el d c a n v a ss a n d m a ch i n e t a b u l a ­
t i o n s.
P r o j e c t a ssi g n e d t o B u r e a u o f F o r e i g n a n d D o m e st i c C o m m er ce)
U r b a n T a x D eli n q u en cy
U n e m p l o y m en t R e l i e f C en su s a n d S u p p o r t i n g L o c a l S t u d i e s ( a ssi g n e d t o
t h e F e d e r a l E m er g en cy R e l i e f A d m i n i st r a t i o n )
T r i a l C en su s o f U n e m p l o y m en t ( a ssi g n e d t o B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i st i c s)

Some of these projects w ere enti rely completed w i thi n the past
fiscal year, and substanti al progress was made on the others.
FIN A N C IA L

ST A T I ST I C S O F

ST A T E

A N D

LOCAL

GOV ERNM ENTS

D uri ng the fiscal y ear j ust ended, the B ureau completed the col­
lection of statisti cs of revenues, expenditures, indebtedness, assessed
v aluation, and tax levies f or the year 1932 f or the 48 State govern­
ments and the D i stri ct of Columbia, the 3,062 counties, the 16,442
cities, towns, villages, and boroughs, the 19,978 tow nships, the 128,548
school di stricts, and the 14,572 other civil divisions, or a total of
.182,659 poli ti cal uni ts hav i ng the power to levy and collect taxes and
17

18

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

i ncur debt. Such statisti cs are collected by the B ureau every 10 yearsand have heretof ore been published under the ti tl e, “ W eal th, PublicD ebt, and T ax ati on.” T he ti tl e of the current report is “ Fi nanci al
Stati sti cs of State and L ocal Governments.” A t the close of June
separate reports of thi s census had been issued f or 46 States and
m anuscri pt had been completed f or the two rem ai ni ng State reports,,
f or a summary f or the enti re country, and f or the f inal volume.
A rrangem ents have been made to publi sh as a p ar t of thi s investi­
gati on separate State reports show ing respective law s rel ati ng to
tax ati on and revenue. Tw elve such reports had been issued at the
close of the fiscal y ear and m anuscri pt had been prepared f or 16
addi ti onal reports.
FIN A N C IA L

ST A T I ST I C S

OP

ST A T E S A N D

CITIES

T he B ureau has issued annual reports over a peri od of years pre­
senti ng detail ed f inancial data f or States, and f or cities hav i ng a
populati on of 30,000 or over. B y Executive order of June 10, 1933,.
however, the annual compilation of f inancial stati sti cs of cities is
li mited to cities hav i ng 100,000 populati on or over unti l af ter the
fiscal y ear endi ng June 30, 1935, and the State reports have been dis­
continued f or that peri od also. T he f i rst report affected by thisorder relates to the y ear 1932.
T he 1931 report on Fi nanci al Stati sti cs of States was issued duri ng
the past fiscal year, hav i ng been delayed on account of lack of pr i n t­
i ng f unds. M anuscript f or the 1931 report f or cities is at the
Pri nti ng Office.
D uri ng the past y ear reports were collected f rom cities hav i ng
100,000 populati on f or the y ear 1932, a prel i m i nary bull eti n present­
i ng the more i m portant data was issued, and m anuscri pt was sent to
the pri nter f or the f inal report.
BIE N N IA L

C E N SU S

OE

M A N U FAC T UR ES

Because of inadequacy of the f unds provided to def ray the cost of
the 1933 Census of M anuf actures, i t was necessary to reduce the num­
ber of “ special schedules ” (each adapted f or use in canvassing a
si ngle i ndustry or a smal l number of closely rel ated i ndustri es) f rom
175 to 81 and to substi tute the general schedule f or those abandoned;
to curtai l the inquiries call ing f or data on quanti ti es and values of
parti cul ar k inds of products manuf actured; to abandon practi cal l y
all inquiries in regard to m aterials consumed (except total cost) and
equipment i n use; and to use an abbreviated schedule f or canvassi ng
the relati vely uni m portant m anuf acturers in most i ndustri es (those
whose combined values of products amounted to less than 10 percent
of the total values f or the respective i ndustri es). T hi s abbreviated
schedule called merely f or data on number and compensation of offi­
cers and salari ed employees, number of wage earners employed in
M arch, June, September, and December, total wages pai d duri ng the
year, cost of materi als, f uel , etc., and total val ue of products, w ith no
break-dow n as to ki nd or quanti ty .
T he total number of returns received f rom m anuf acturi ng estab­
lishments w hich were in operati on duri ng all or any p art of 1933 was
approx i m atel y 141,000. A t the close of June, 33 prel i m i nary indus­

BU REA U OF T H E CEN SU S

19

try reports had been issued f or thi s census, leaving approx i matel y 220
such reports to be published.
Because of the lack of an adequate f und f or pri nti ng, only 48 of
the 76 f inal reports (each covering a single i ndustry or a f ew rel ated
i ndustri es) and a summary f or States, i ndustri al areas, and i ndus­
tri es, f or the 1931 Census of M anuf actures, were pri nted pri or to
June 30, 1934. T he remaining 28 reports are on press.
Q U IN Q U EN N IA L

C E N SU S

OE

EL ECTRICAL

I N D U ST R I E S

Prel i m i nary w ork in connection w i th thi s census was completed
pri or to the beginning of the l ast fiscal year. T he canvass, which
was made enti rely by mail, was also started in the preceding year and
was well advanced by Jul y 1,1933. I t was completed about December
1, 1933.
T he Census of El ectri cal I ndustri es covers the operati on of electric
l i ght and pow er pl ants, electric rail w ays, telephones, and telegraphs.
T he edi ti ng of all of the schedules, tabul ati on, preparati on of tables
f or f inal reports, and the pri nti ng of the f inal reports were all com­
pleted duri ng the fiscal y ear j ust ended. These reports ar e:
C en t r a l E l e c t r i c L i g h t & P o w e r S t a t i o n s.
E l e c t r i c R a i l w a y s a n d M o t o r - B u s O p er a t i o n s o f A f f i l i a t e s a n d S u ccesso r s. .
T e l e p h o n e s a n d T el e g r a p h s.
V IT A L

ST A T I ST I C S

M ortal i ty and bi rth statisti cs publi shed by the B ureau of the
Census f or the y ear 1933 ref lect f or the f i rst ti me returns f rom the
enti re U ni ted States, since i t was not unti l that y ear th at al l States
had been admi tted to the bi rth and death regi strati on area. A special
campaign to promote complete regi strati on in the State of Georgia
was i naugurated and completed in the l ast fiscal year, and sim il ar
campaigns w ill be i nsti tuted in other States to hold thi s w ork up
to the highest standard. T he B ureau compiles both bi rth and m or­
tal i ty stati sti cs f or H aw ai i and the V i rgi n I sl ands and m ortal i ty
statisti cs f or Puerto Rico.
T he total number of bi rths reported f or the y ear 1933 f rom the
enti re U ni ted States was 2,081,232, the bi rth rate per 1,000 popul a­
ti on being 16.6. T he deaths reported f or that same area numbered
1,342,106, the death rate being 10.7 per 1,000 populati on, w hich was
sl i ghtl y low er than the death rate f or 1932. I n 1933 there were
77,059 sti l l bi rths, the rate per 100 live bi rths being 3.7, and the
i nf ant m ortal i ty rate (deaths of i nf ants under 1 y ear of age per
1,000 live bi rths) was 58.1. T he provisional summary of bi rth,
sti l l bi rth, and i nf ant m ortal i ty statisti cs f or 1933, i ncluding data f o r
all States, was di stri buted w i dely among State regi strati on officials,
sani tary and heal th organizati ons, insurance companies, l ibrari es, and
publi c-health officials.
T he W eekly H eal th I ndex , usuall y published T hursday s, presents
f or 86 cities of 100,000 or more populati on the total number of deaths,
the death rates per 1,000 populati on, the deaths under 1 year of age,,
and i nf ant m ortal i ty rates. D ata f or these reports are obtained by
tel egraph. Si m i l arl y a 4-week summary i s issued by the B ureau
monthly show ing deaths f rom automobile accidents.

20

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

A t the close of the l ast fiscal year, the 1931 and 1932 B i rth Stati s­
ti cs Reports were i n process of pri nti ng and m anuscri pt was prac­
ti cal l y completed f or the M ortal i ty Stati sti cs Reports f or the same
years. T he pri nti ng of these volumes has been delayed in conse­
quence of the depletion of pri nti ng f unds, and i n order to offset this
conditi on, a 100-page report of M ortal i ty Stati sti cs presenti ng
selected tables f rom the volumes was pri nted and distri buted.
Because of l i mited appropri ati ons, i t was necessary to reduce the
rate of pay f or transcri pts of bi rth and death certif icates f urni shed
by State officials f rom 3 cents to 2 cents each in the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1933. I n view of thi s reduced payment, the B ureau au­
thori zed transcri bers to discontinue tem porari l y copying the data
rel ati ng to bi rthpl ace and occupation on the death certi f icates and
the data rel ati ng to occupation of parents on the bi rth certificates.
O n January 1, 1934, a restorati on of one-half of thi s pay reduction
was made, but i t is not yet possible, at the present rate of payment,
to secure data necessary to restore the tabul ati on of deaths by
nati v i ty .
I N ST I T U T I O N A L

PO PU L A T IO N

A N N U A L REPORTS

Reports on M ental Pati ents in State H ospi tal s, f or 1931 and 1932,
and on M ental D ef ectives and Epi l epti cs in State I nsti tuti ons, f or
1929 to 1932, w ere publ ished duri ng the fiscal year. The report on
Pri soners in State and Federal Pri sons and Ref ormatories, f or 1931
and 1932 is on press.
Schedules f or 1933 f or the tw o classes of i nsti tuti ons f i rst men­
tioned have been somew hat expanded as a p art of the more detail ed
decennial census of insti tuti ons, and in addi ti on data are bei ng
collected f rom pri v ate hospitals and insti tuti ons f or mental pati ents
and def ectives, as well as added i nf orm ati on concerning the cri m ­
inal l y insane. Complete returns have not been received f or these
inquiries. A l l schedules have been received, how ever, f or the 1933
report on pri soners and are in course of tabulati on.
Complete data on j udi ci al cri minal stati sti cs f or 1932 were re­
ceived and compiled f or 15 States and f or the D i stri ct of Columbia,
and tw o tables presenti ng summary stati sti cs were issued duri ng the
past fiscal y ear f or each State, as well as a summary tabl e present­
i ng percentages f or all of the States covered by the 1932 inv esti ga­
ti on. Judi ci al crim inal stati sti cs f or 1933 are now being collected
f rom 31 States and the D i stri ct of Columbia.
D E C E N N I A L R E PO R T S

The decennial census of i nsti tuti ons covers, in addi ti on to the
classes f or w hich annual statisti cs are collected, inmates of county and
municipal penal insti tuti ons, juvenile del inquents, and dependent
and neglected children. T he reports f or the county and municipal
penal i nsti tuti ons have al l been received and the tabul ati ons are
w ell under way ; over f our-f i f ths of the returns have been received
f or juvenile delinquents; and al l but 10 percent of the returns f rom
i nsti tuti ons f or dependent and neglected chil dren have been re­

BU REA U OP T H E CEN SU S

2 1

ceived. D ata f or the i nsti tuti onal popul ati on reports are collected
by mail.
M A R R IA G E

A N D

DIV ORCE

T he tabl es f or the 1932 report on m arri age and divorce were com­
pleted i n September 1933, but because of reduced all otm ent f or pr i n t­
ing they had to be revised to perm i t publi cati on i n a 30-page pam ­
phlet. Copy f or thi s report was sent to the pri nter i n October and
the pri nted report issued i n January 1934. T he collection of stati s­
tics on m arri age and divorce has been tem porari l y discontinued.
R E PO R T O N N EG R O E S I N

T H E U N IT ED

ST A T E S

T hi s is to be a special report embodying in one volume all av ai l ­
able data concerning N egroes collected by the B ureau subsequent to
the census of 1910. T hi s volume, consi sting of 20 chapters and
approxim ately 1,000 pages, w ill be based on the published reports of
the 1920 and 1930 censuses and unpubli shed census stati sti cal data
rel ati ng to the N egro. I t is to be supplemental to the volume, “ N egro
Popul ati on in the U ni ted States, 1790-1915 ” , issued by the B ureau
in 1918.
Census stati sti cs pertai ni ng to the N egro are scattered in many
di f f erent volumes, all of w hich are not easily accessible to the general
public. These data cover populati on, agri cul ture, occupations, f am ­
ilies, m ortal i ty , religion, and other subjects of general interest. I t
is the object of thi s presentati on to embody i n a si ngle comprehensive
volume the pri nci pal and most recent data rel ati ng to the social and
economic status of the N egro race in the U ni ted States as reported
at the decennial censuses of 1920 and 1930. T o all persons interested
in the study of raci al groups, parti cul arl y to educators and public
officials, i t is believed that thi s volume w ill be of great value.
W ork on the volume w as started i n M arch 1933 and was well
advanced at the end of the fiscal year. I t is expected to send thi s
to the pri nter in December 1934.
A long w i th the w ork on thi s volume, 20 press releases regardi ng
N egroes have been issued covering vari ous subjects.
COTTON

A N D

C O T T O N SE E D

T here w ere publ ished duri ng the past fiscal year, as provi ded by
law, 12 reports of cotton ginned to specified dates duri ng the ginni ng
season; monthly reports of cotton consumed and on hand and of
spindl es and spi ndle hours; monthly reports of cotton held i n i nde­
pendent warehouses, compresses, and publ ic cotton yards; monthly
reports of cottonseed received, crushed, and on hand, and cottonseed
products manuf actured, shipped out, and on hand; and monthly re­
ports of crude cottonseed oil ref ined and ref ined cottonseed oil pro­
duced and stocks of crude and refined oil at ref i ning and consuming
establi shments and i n transi t to the same.
Tw o bull eti ns were publ ished in the l ast fiscal year on thi s subject,
one at the close of the gi nni ng season show ing gi nni ng by States
and counties f rom the crop of 1933, and the other show i ng cotton

2 2

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

producti on and di stri buti on f or the year ending Jul y 31, 1933, which
contai ned revised and detai led f igures f or cotton ginned, cotton con­
sumed and on hand, cotton i mported and exported, and cottonseed
and products. Current data concerning cotton are secured f rom i n­
di v i dual ginneri es and f rom consuming and storage establishments
by 772 local special agents employed on a part-ti m e basis.
M O NT H L Y

A N D

Q UART ERL Y

I N D U ST R I A L

ST A T I ST I C S

The B ureau collects and publishes current statisti cs f or 57 i ndus­
tri es or commodities (i n addi ti on to cotton and cottonseed), 50 on a
m onthl y basis and 7 on a quarterl y basis. T he collection of monthly
statisti cs on pl umbers’ w oodw ork and quarterl y statisti cs on glues of
anim al ori gi n was disconti nued duri ng the fiscal year. A monthly
report on corsets and brassi eres and a quarterl y report on wool stocks
Avere begun. T he statisti cs f or the monthly and quarterl y reports
issued duri ng the year f or these 57 i ndustries or commodities Avere
compiled f rom returns f rom 13,222 m anuf acturers and other concerns.
T he B ureau is now publi shing current statisti cs f or the f ol l ow i ng:
M ON T H L Y
A i r - co n d i t i o n i n g eq u i p m en t
A u t o m o b i l es
A u t o m o b i l e f i n a n ci n g
B a b b i t t m et a l
B a t h r o o m a c c e sso r i e s
B o o t s, sh o e s, a n d sl i p p er s
C e l l u l o se p l a st i c p r o d u c t s
C o m m er ci a l st e e l c a st i n g s
C o n v ect i o n - t y p e r a d i a t o r s
C o r se t s a n d b r a ssi e r e s
D i st i l l a t e - o i l b u r n e r s
D o m e st i c p u m p s a n d w a t e r sy st e m s
D o m e st i c w a t e r - so f t e n i n g a p p a r a t u s
E l e c t r i c i n d u st r i a l t r u c k s a n d t r a c t o r s
F a b r i c a t e d st e e l p l a t e
F i r e - e x t i n g u i sh i n g eq u i p m en t
F loor a n d w a ll t i l e
H o si e r y
L ea t h er a n d k n it w ool glo v es a n d m it ­
t en s
M a l l e a b l e c a st i n g s
M e a su r i n g a n d d i sp e n si n g p u m p s ( g a s­
o l i n e a n d o t h er p u m p s)
M e ch a n i ca l st o k e r s
M e n ’s a n d b o y s’ c l o t h i n g cu t
M et h a n ol
O i l b u r n er s'

P a i n t , v a r n i sh , a n d l a c q u er p r o d u ct s
P a p er b oa r d
P l a st i c p a i n t s, co l d - w a t e r p a i n t s, a n d
ca l cim in es
P l u m b i n g b r a ss
P o r c e l a i n en a m el e d f l a t w a r e
P o r cel a i n p lu m b in g f ix t u r es
P r e p a r ed r o of i n g
P u b l i c - m er ch a n d i se w a r e h o u si n g
P u l v er i z e r s
P y r ox y l in - coa t ed t e x t i l e s
R a il r oa d locom ot iv es
R a n g e b o i l er s
S t eel b a r r els
S t e el b o i l er s
S t e e l f u r n i t u r e a n d f i r ep r o o f sa f e s
S t r u c t u r a l - cl a y p r o d u c t s
S u l p h u r i c a ci d
S u p er p h o sp h a t e s
T er r a c o t t a
U n d er w ea r a n d a l l i e d p r o d u c t s
V i t r e o u s- ch i n a p l u m b i n g f i x t u r e s
W h e a t g r o u n d , a n d A v h eat - m i l l i n g p r o d ­
u ct s
A V ool co n su m p t i o n
W o o l - m a ch i n er y a c t i v i t y
W or k cl o t h in g

QUA RTERL Y
A n im a i a n d v eget a b le f a t s a n d o ils
E d i b l e g el a t i n
E l e c t r i c ( m i n i n g a n d i n d u st r i a l ) l o c o ­
m ot iv es
C E N SU S

OE

E l e c t r i c a l g o o d s ( o r d e r s)
L a cq u er s ( sa l e s)
W h e a t a n d w h ea t - f l o u r st o c k s
A V ool st o ck s

AG RICUL T URE,

1935

I n January 1934 the f i rst prel i m i nary w ork Avas done on the
f orthcomi ng Census of A gri cul ture. A series of tentati v e schedules
f o r use at thi s census were prepared and developed in collaboration

b u r ea u

of

t he

c en su s

23

w i th committees of the D epartm ent of A gri cul ture, the A merican
Farm Economics A ssociation, and the Central Stati sti cal B oard,
and at the close of the fiscal year the f orm of the f inal schedule had
been agreed upon. A s stated'elsew here in thi s report, some prepara­
tory w ork f or the Census of A gri cul ture was accomplished through
the medium of Federal Civil W orks proj ects.
SP E C I A L C E N SU SE S

Special censuses were tak en duri ng September and October 1933
ti nder the supervi si on of a representati ve of the B ureau of the Cen­
sus, f or f our places i n I ndi ana, and certif icates of populati on were
issued shortl y af ter the completion of the enumerati ons.
E ST I M A T E S

OE

PO PU L A T IO N

Recent estimates of county and city populati ons, usuall y com­
puted annuall y i n intercensal years, have proved unsati sf actory , no
doubt, as a resul t of the many economic changes w hich have resulted
in an abnormal movement of the populati on. T hi s B ureau has been
doing considerable experim ental w ork i n an ef fort to arri v e at a
sound method f or computing post-censal popul ati on esti mates f or
•counties and cities. Such esti mates are required f or computi ng per
capita rates, as well as bi rth and death rates. Esti mates of popu­
lati on made annual l y f or the U ni ted States and f or the several
States are about as sati sf actory as possible w i thout an actual popul a­
ti on canvass. Esti mates, however, become less and less sati sf actory
as the 10-year intercensal peri ods advance. T he corrective of this
diff iculty is a quinquennial census of populati on. Such a census
was contemplated by the L ozier bill w hich f ai l ed of passage at the
l ast Congress. T hi s bil l was strongl y endorsed by. publi c-health
officials, economists, Government officials, and many others.
SE A R C H I N G

OLD

PO PU L A T IO N

RECORDS

D uri ng the y ear 21,169 searches of the popul ati on schedules were
made in compliance w i th requests of persons desi ring inf ormati on
to establ ish age f or annuities, citi zenship, old-age pensions, pass­
ports, record of bi rths, reti rement, w ork ing papers, school enroll ­
ment, etc., as well as f or genealogical purposes and the settl i ng of
estates. I n addi ti on 4,405 visitors consulted the records f or 1790
to 1880. T he records f or l ater years are conf idential and can be
exami ned only by sw orn employees of the B ureau.
T he enactment of old-age-pension law s in many States has i n­
creased the demand f or i nf ormation f rom the old populati on records,
pri m ari l y because of the lack of local bi rth and marri age records.
These earl y records were rapi dl y becoming m uti l ated f rom age and
constant use and, theref ore, the B ureau, under a Civil W ork s project,
had the records f or the years 1800, 1810, and 1820 photostated and
bound. These bound photostat copies, compri sing 449 volumes, are
avail abl e f or consultation by the public and the origi nal schedules
have been filed aw ay in order to preserve them.

24

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE
M AC H IN E

T ABUL AT IO N

T he machine tabul ati on w ork of the B ureau of the Census duri ng”
the past fiscal year represented the passing of 230,437,914 cards
through one machine once. These tabul ati ons were div ided between
the current inquiries of the B ureau and w ork f or other governmental
or outsi de organizations.
W ORK

DONE

EOR

O T H ER E E D E R A L OEEICES A N D
O RGANIZATIONS

O U T SI D E

T he sum of $2,614,346 was received by the B ureau of the Censusduri ng the l ast fiscal year, ei ther directl y or through transf ers of
governmental f unds, to def ray the cost of Federal Ci vil W orks A d­
m i ni strati on projects assigned to the B ureau of the Census or topay f or special tabul ati ons made f or other Federal agencies or f or
outside organizati ons or i ndividuals. T he greater part of thi s
f und covered the cost of Federal Civil W orks projects.
T H E C E N SU S O F A M E R I C A N B U SI N E SS

T hi s census was authorized and preparatory w ork commenced on
December 10, 1933. T he field canvass, w hich was started January
2, 1934,_ was completed early in A pri l . T he census includes data
on retai l and wholesale trade, and service, amusement, and hotel
establishments, f or w hich a total of 2,187,494 schedules were col­
lected, di stri buted among the inquiries as f ollows: 1,522,234 f rom
retai l ers, 163,826 f rom w holesalers, 472,163 f rom service and amuse­
ment establishments, and 29,271 f rom hotels.
T he purpose of thi s census was to obtain at the earl i est possible
date i nf orm ati on rel ati ng to business conditions throughout thecountry. For that reason prel i m i nary reports on the various subjects
covered ivere issued in mimeograph f orm as rapi dl y as the more i m ­
portant and general f eatures of the returns could be tabul ated. Theseprel i m i nary reports, the f irst of w hich was issued on M ay 24, included
f or each State and county, by subjects (w holesale, retai l , service, or
amusement establ i shments), the number of stores, sales, number of ’
f ull -ti me and part-ti m e employees separately, and salaries and wages
f or f ull -tim e and part-ti m e employees separately. A prel i m i nary
report, by States, was also published showing the number of f ul l ­
ti me and part-ti m e employees separately f or each month of the year
1933. A l l of these prel i m i nary reports had been published by theend of A ugust. T he f oll ow ing total s have been established f or the
y ear 1933: Retai l sales amounted to $25,037,225,000, wholesale sales
to $32,030,504,000, and recei pts f rom service and amusement establish­
ments to $2,760,881,000. Employment was given in that year to an
average of 2,691,310 f ull -ti me and 730,900 part-ti m e employees in re­
tai l trade, to 1,058,767 f ul l -ti me and 120,591 part-ti m e employees in
wholesale trade, and to 434,014 f ull -time and 178,663 part-ti m e em­
ployees in service and amusement establishments. These f igures do
not include propri etors and f irm members of w hom there were
1,572,588 in retai l trade, 84,971 in wholesale trade, and 503,441 in
service and amusement establishments. I n view of the f act th at no
f unds are available f or pri nti ng the f ul l report of the Census o f

BU REA U OB' T H E CEN SU S

25

A meri can Business, series of f inal reports are being issued, by kinds
•of business, in mimeograph f orm f or States and cities on all the sub­
jects covered. A l l of these reports w i ll have been completed by
December 1.
C E N SU S RECORD PR E SE R V A T I O N

T hi s proj ect was established pri m ari l y in the i nterest of preserv­
i n g old census records f or posterity. T he w ork of photostati ng and
bi ndi ng the popul ati on census returns f or the years 1800, 1810,
and 1820 is spoken of elsewhere in thi s report. O ther w ork author­
ized as a part of thi s proj ect incl uded the compili ng and pri nti ng of a
li mited number of State outl ine maps show ing minor civil divisions,
the preparati on and w ri ti ng up of enumeration di stri cts f or use i n
the canvass of the f orthcomi ng census of agri cul ture, and the al l ot­
ment to blocks of the 1930 popul ati on returns f or cities of New Y ork
‘State, subsequently tabul ated f or use of the secretary of the State of
New Y ork to serve as a basis f or redraf ti ng assembly districts.
R E A L - PR O PE R T Y

IN V EN T ORY

T hi s proj ect was assigned to the B ureau of Forei gn and D o­
mestic Commerce and covered 62 selected cities. T he canvass was
conducted by the field agents of the B ureau of the Census and the
machine tabul ati on w ork was done in the central tabul ati ng uni t
of the D epartm ent of Commerce w hich is maintained by thi s B ureau.
U RB A N

TA X

D EL IN QU EN CY

T hi s proj ect w as assigned to the B ureau of the Census w i th the
prim e object of obtaining much needed i nf orm ati on concerni ng the
ad valorem tax levies on real estate that are uncollected and usuall y
term ed “ delinquent.” T he reports of thi s proj ect covered the
amount of current tax delinquency in al l States, w i th total s on a
county basis; the amounts of both current and accumulated tax
delinquencies in cities of over 25,000 populati on; the di stri buti on
by types of property of current tax delinquency in 62 selected cities;
the legal provi sions as to tax enf orcement, parti cul arl y as to recent
changes; and the trends i n the amount of taxes that remain unpaid,
as of both penal ty date and as much as 1, 2, 3, or 4 years af ter the
date w hen f i rst due and payable. T he results of thi s census were
publi shed in mimeograph f orm.
U N E M P L O Y M E N T R E L I E F A N D SU PPO R T I N G L O C A L ST U D I E S

T hi s proj ect included the unemployment rel i ef census tabulati ons,
a study of the composition of f amili es and persons on rel i ef roll s
between specified dates, and the survey of f ormer members of the
Ci v i l i an Conservation Corps. T he studies of unemployment rel i ef
covered 3,178,089 rel i ef f amilies. Fi nal reports f or thi s i nqui ry
w ere completed on M arch 30, 1934. T he study of composition of
f amil ies and persons on rel i ef roll s was commenced M arch 10, 1934,
and w ill be completed bef ore the close of the present calendar year.
T he survey of f ormer members of the Civil ian Conservation Corps
is being made, by months, f or use of the various agencies whose
w ork is affected by thi s acti vi ty.

2 6

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE
T R I A L C E N SU S O F U N E M P L O Y M E N T

T hi s proj ect was assigned to the B ureau of L abor Stati sti cs but
the resul ts were tabul ated in thi s B ureau. I t covered unemployment
i n Springf i eld, O hi o; L ancaster, P a.; and B ri dgeport, Conn. These
tabul ati ons were commenced in M ay 1934 and have been completed.
C O O PER A T I O N W I T H

T H E N A T I O N A L R E C O V E R Y A D M I N I ST R A T I O N

A s the w ork of the N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on developed,
certai n tabulati ons f or specified industri es became necessary and
thi s B ureau was requested to assist in the f orm ul ati on of the ques­
ti onnai res used, to transm i t the schedules to the proper organi za­
tions, and to tabul ate the results w hen returned. Such tabul ati ons
have been made f or more than 30 industri es duri ng the past fiscal
year. I n addi ti on, thi s B ureau tabul ated returns of the Presi dent’s
questi onnaire sent out by the N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on in
October 1933. T hi s w ork involved the handl i ng of nearl y 1,000,000
schedules and the tabul ati on of 643,060 complete returns. T he pur­
pose of thi s survey was to ascertain the extent of increased employ­
ment and the amount of increased pay roll s resul ti ng f rom the appeal
of the Presi dent made 2 months previously to all employers of l abor.
T hi s tabul ati on was completed in December 1933.
U nder authori ty of section 8 of the act of February 14, 1903, the
Secretary of Commerce authori zed and i nstructed the D irector of the
Census to make special investigati ons and reports in cooperation w i th
the proper authori ti es desi gnated by duly approved codes established
under the N ati onal I ndustri al Recovery A ct, a suitable share of the
expense involved to be borne by such authori ti es. A ccordingl y, ar ­
rangements were made duri ng the past fiscal year f or the collection
of statisti cs, in cooperation w i th code authorities and the N ati onal
Recovery A dm i ni strati on, f or the f oll ow i ng industries:
B o o t s, sh o e s, a n d sl i p p e r s
C o r se t s a n d b r a ssi e r e s
L ea t h er a n d k n it w ool glov es
M en ’s a n d b o y s’ c l o t h i n g
OTH ER

SP E C I A L

U n d er w ea r a n d a l l i ed p r od u ct s
W o o l co n su m p t i o n
W o o l m a ch in er y a ct i v i t y
W o o l st o c k s
T ABUL AT IO NS

T he provision carri ed in the L egislati ve A ppropri ati on A ct of
1933, approved June 30, 1932, w hereby one Government bureau or
office could place orders f or w ork w ith another bureau or office, and
pay theref or, has f aci l i tated the w ork of all Government offices.
D uri ng the past fiscal y ear the B ureau of the Census has made spe­
ci al tabul ati ons f or the f oll ow i ng governmental organizati ons w hich
have not been previously menti oned herei n:
D ep a r t m en t o i C o m m er ce:
B u r e a u o f F i sh e r i e s
B u r e a u o f F o r e i g n a n d D o m e st i c C o m m er ce
D e p a r t i h e n t o f L a b o r : B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i st i c s
D e p a r t m e n t o f J u st i c e : B u r e a u o f I n v e st i g a t i o n
D ep a r t m en t o f A g r i cu l t u r e:
F o r e st S er v i ce
B u r e a u o f A g r i c u l t u r a l E co n o m i c s
F e d e r a l E m er g en cy R e l i e f A d m i n i st r a t i o n
F e d e r a l R ese r v e B o a r d ( a n d b a n k s)

BU REA U OF T H E CEN SU S

27

A g r i c u l t u r a l A d j u st m e n t A d m i n i st r a t i o n
E m e r g e n c y C o n se r v a t i o n W o r k
U n i t e d S t a t e s P u b l i c H e a l t h S e r v i ce
T h e C o n g r essi o n a l J o i n t C o m m i t t e e o n W a y s a n d M ea n s
R e c o n st r u c t i o n F i n a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n
PU BL IC A T IO N S

Tw o monographs, presenti ng detai led statisti cs and i nterpretati ons
f or the census of 1930, were pri nted duri ng the fiscal year, namely,
T ypes of Farm i ng in the U ni ted States, and A ge of the Forei gnborn W hi te Popul ati on by Country of B i rth. I n addition, the f ol ­
low ing special reports of the trade and agri cul tural commodity series
issued at th at census were published: A utomobile T rades, D i stri bu­
ti on of Grai n, Food Retai l i ng, and Cooperatives in the D i stri buti on
of A gri cul tural Commodities.
T hrough a grant of f unds f rom the I nsti tute f or Social and Re­
ligious Research, i t was possible to publi sh a T opi cal I ndex of the
Popul ati on Census Reports, 1900-1930, w hich was compiled at the
soli citation of the committee on social stati sti cs of the Social Science
Research Council. T hi s is the f i rst index of the k i nd th at has been
prepared by the B ureau of the Census.
M anuscripts were completed in the fiscal year f or the f oll ow ing
1930 census studies and press summaries presenti ng summarized
data w ere issued, but ow ing to depleted pri nti ng f unds the f ul l re­
ports have not been publ i shed: I ndi an Popul ati on in the U ni ted
States and A laska; Rati o of Chi l dren to W omen, 1930; Farm A ni ­
mals; and Frui ts and V egetables.
D uri ng the past fiscal year 1,048,348 copies of press releases were
di stri buted by the B ureau on the vari ous f eatures of the B ureau’s
w ork, and 150,792 pri nted reports (mostl y pam phl ets) were dis­
tri buted.
M ECH ANICAL

L A BO R AT O R Y

Ex peri m ental w ork w i th a view to the betterment of tabul ati ng
equi pm ent; together w i th the mai ntenance of equipment i n use, are
the chi ef f unctions of the mechanical laboratory of the B ureau. I n
thi s connection equi pment is i nterchanged to take care of uni t or add­
i ng tabulati ons. One of the uni t tabul ators was constructed on a new
design m ateri al l y i ncreasing the efficiency of the machine. D uri ng
the l ast fiscal y ear experimental w ork was done on a new addi ng
tabul ator pri nciple.
P E R SO N N E L

O F F I C E FO R C E

Number of employees.— T he perm anent office f orce at the close of
June 30, 1934, comprised 643 officials, clerks, etc.; 16 experts and
assistants in the mechanical l aboratory , and 2 special agents, mak ing
a total of 661 employees. (T here w ere also employed 129 tem porary
special agents engaged in exami ning schedules f or other Government
establishments or outside agencies f or i nf orm ati on not published in
our pri nted reports.)
A ppointments.—T he total number of appointm ents on the regul ar
rol l (i ncl udi ng reappointm ents, extensions, etc.) made f rom Jul y 1,

28

REPOET OF T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

1933, to June 30, 1934, was 261 (perm anent, 3; tem porary , 216; re­
appointm ents, 42). T here were nine changes in grade.
Separations.—T he total number of persons separated f rom the
service duri ng the fiscal y ear was 246. Of thi s number, 24 (i ncl udi ng
4 under section 213) resi gned, 19 were transf erred to other bureaus
or departments, 8 reti red on account of age or disabi li ty , 12 held
l i m i ted appointm ents w hich expired, 6 died, and the services of 177
were terminated.
Emergency appointments—-The w ork w hich the B ureau has done
since October 1933 under the recovery program f or the vari ous emer­
gency organi zations, made necessary 4,323 appointments and 3,367
separati ons to June 30, 1934.
F I E L D FO R C E

T he field f orce at the close of June 30, 1934, numbered 1,317 and
comprised a perm anent force of 6 consulting experts, 757 special
agents employed throughout the Cotton B el t to collect data f or cotton
reports show ing quanti ty of cotton ginned to specified dates, cotton
consumed, and stocks held, bale w eights, etc., and 48 local special
agents engaged in querying f or the B ureau incomplete returns of
bi rths and deaths w ithi n thei r respective areas; 17 tem porary agents
engaged in collecting data f or the f inanci al reports of States and of
ci ti es; 2 special agents employed on statisti cs of insti tuti ons and crim ­
inals; 10 special agents employed on the census of agriculture; 69
special agents employed on vi tal statisti cs; 273 special agents em­
ployed on census of manuf actures; 17 special agents employed in
cooperation w i th chambers of commerce; and 118 special agents,
w ithout compensation, employees of the Forest Service.
D uri ng the fiscal year 1,400 field employees were appointed, i nclud­
ing enumerators and special agents, and 1,074 persons were separated
f rom the rolls.
Emergency appointments.-—T here were 320 supervisors, 43 special
enumerators, and I ' l l special agents employed i n connection w i th the
field w ork f or the census of A merican business and the real property
inventory, as well as 233 special agents (employees of other services)
who served w ithout compensation. (T he enumerators employed in
the field, approx i matel y 20,000, were pai d f rom f unds supplied to the
States by the Federal Emergency Rel ief A dm i ni strati on.)
A PPR O PR IA T IO N S

D uri ng the fiscal y ear ended June 30, 1934, the B ureau w as oper­
ated under an appropri ati on f or salari es and expenses in the amount
of $1,903,000. Ex pendi tures amounti ng to $1,360,618 were made
f rom f unds assigned to the B ureau f or Federal Civil W orks A dm i n­
i strati on projects, in addi ti on to w hich the expenditure of $1,928,316
was made f or these projects by the disbursing officers i n the field in
payment of salaries of clerks and enumerators engaged on the work.

BU R E A U

W ORLD

OE FO R E IG N

D EV EL O PM E N T S

A N D

D O M E ST I C

A FFEC T IN G

T H E

COM M ERCE

N A T U R E

OF

T H E

B U R E A U ’S W O R K

I nev i tabl y the character of the w ork perf orm ed duri ng the fiscal
y ear by the B ureau of Forei gn and D omestic Commerce was deter­
mined in large measure by the sali ent economic developments
throughout the w orld. T he nature of the demand f or B ureau serv­
ices was shaped to a dom i nant degree by the signif icance of these
outstandi ng tendencies and events. I t theref ore seems essential to
give a terse outli ne of them, in order to f aci l i tate an adequate under­
standi ng of w hat the B ureau has been stri v i ng f or, and has, in part
at least, achieved. I t must be noted at the outset th at many of the
f actors w hich contributed to the conf usion and uncertai nty of i nter­
nati onal economic rel ati ons duri ng the fiscal y ear 1932—33 sti l l pre­
vail ed throughout the year.
PRI CE M OV EM ENTS A ND FISCA L POL I CI ES

T he directi on of w holesale pri ce movements i n terms of the v ari ­
ous nati onal currencies was in general inf luenced by the monetary
standards of the respective countries. I n countri es w hich adhered
to the gold standard the pri ce trend was on the whole dow nw ard—
al though there were exceptions, as, f or example, the N etherlands.
T he rise in the w holesale pri ce index in the U ni ted States was much
more pronounced than in other leadi ng paper-currency countri es,
such as the U ni ted K ingdom and Japan.
A n i m portant element i n the fiscal y ear’s general f orei gn-trade
si tuati on was the exchange v alue of the doll ar. A f ter the official
suspensi on of gold payments by the U ni ted States on A pri l 20, 1933,
the dol l ar depreciated rapi dl y duri ng several weeks, af ter w hich i t
entered upon a series of f luctuations w hich brought i ts range, unti l
the end of October, roughl y between discounts of 26 percent and 35
percent. D uri ng the succeeding months i t f l uctuated w i thi n narrow
li mits at a di scount of about 36 percent unti l i ts f orm al devaluation
on January 31, 1934.
A s a resul t of the changes attendant upon the establishment of a
new gold value of the dol l ar and the lodging of ow nership in the
T reasury of the N ati on’s m onetary gold stocks, a new pari ty was
establi shed betw een the dol l ar and f orei gn gold currencies. T he
dif ference between the new pari ty and ex i sti ng quotati ons led to an
enormous inf lux of gold, chiefly f rom France, w hich set a new
monthly record (i n both value and w ei ght) duri ng February , when
$453,000,000 of the metal entered thi s country. I n the exchange
markets actual quotati ons on the French f ranc reached the new
9 8 2 2 3 — 34-

■5

29

30

REPORT OB T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

pari ty of 6.63375 cents on M arch 21, af ter w hich gold im ports
occurred on a considerably reduced level.
A l though exchange restricti ons were somew hat relaxed in certai n
countries, the tendency was quite the contrary in others. T here
were instances in w hich the emphasis in control measures was shi f ted
f rom exchange restricti ons to i m port restricti ons.
T A R I F F S, Q U O T A S, A N D S I M I L A R R E ST R I C T I V E M E A SU R E S

T he w orl d-w ide extension of the number and complexity of i nter­
nati onal trade barri ers—characteristi c of the enti re depression
peri od— continued duri ng thi s past year. T he number of changes
in tari f f duti es, i m port quotas, and other restri cti ons abroad (each
involving f rom one to scores or even hundreds of i ndi v i dual com­
m odi ti es), as reported to and announced by thi s B ureau, was 26 per­
cent greater than in the preceding y ear and about 60 percent greater
than the norm al annual average.
Y et i t may be conf idently asserted th at probably the outstandi ng
development of the y ear was the almost uni v ersal ef f ort—l argel y
through the medium of reciprocal trade agreements—to arrest and
reduce the hi therto steadil y ti ghteni ng restri cti ons on the flow of
i nternati onal commerce. To f aci l i tate thi s movement, and to per­
m i t of prom pt adj ustm ent of controls upon f orei gn trade under the
prev ai l i ng unstabl e conditions, practi cal l y all of the l eadi ng com­
mercial nati ons have tak en action to give thei r respective executive
authori ti es increased pow er to m odi f y tari f f s and other traderestri cti ng measures in the course of the negoti ati on of reciprocal
trade agreements w i th other nati ons, or as needed to meet changing
trade conditions or control measures by other countries. T he U ni ted
States took an active p art in thi s movement by the passage of the
T rade Reciprocity A ct, approved June 12, 1934, w hich authorizes the
Presi dent to promote trade betw een the U ni ted States and other
countries by means of reciprocal agreements. T he great influence
of thi s enactment upon the acti vi ties and the objectives of the B ureau
of Forei gn and D omestic Commerce w ill be indi cated in succeeding
pages of thi s report.
C O U R SE O F A M E R I C A N E X PO R T A N D I M PO R T T RA D E

The f orei gn trade of the U ni ted States in the fiscal y ear 1934 regi s­
tered a very substanti al improvement over such trade i n the im ­
mediately preceding fiscal year. Our exports (i ncl udi ng reexports
of f oreign merchandise) w ere valued at $2,042,000,000, or 42 percent
more than in the fiscal y ear 1933, and general im ports at $1,721,000,000, an increase of 47 percent. I m portant f actors contri buti ng to the
much l arger value of trade were the depreci ati on i n doll ar exchange,
hi gher dol l ar prices, and the expansion in i ndustri al acti v i ty both
at home and abroad. T he indexes of thi s B ureau reveal that the
quanti ty of goods ex ported in the fiscal year 1934 was one-f ourth
smal ler than in the base peri od 1923-25, w hile the quanti ty of goods
imported was only one-tenth less than in the base period. V alues
of exports and imports were both about 56 percent below the average
values in the peri od 1923-25.

BU REA U OF FOREI GN A ND D OM ESTI C COM M ERCE

31

T he upw ard sw ing i n f orei gn trade as compared w i th the preced­
i ng y ear has tended natural l y to heighten “ ex port consciousness ”
throughout the N ati on and to accelerate the flow of requests f or the
ty pi cal services af f orded by the B ureau of Forei gn and D omestic
Commerce.
SA L I E N T

A SP E C T S O F

B U R E A U ’S P O S I T I O N

C O N T R A C T I O N O F SC O PE I N

C O N FO R M I T Y W I T H

A N D

A C T IV IT IES

ECON OM Y

PR O G R A M

T he reducti on in the B ureau’s appropri ati on f or the fiscal year
1934 has natural l y consti tuted a m aj or influence upon the poten­
ti al i ti es and physical scope of i ts w ork. T he amount appropri ated
f or the fiscal y ear was $3,514,370 as compared w i th $3,988,000 f or
the fiscal y ear 1933, but the amount avai labl e f or obligations f or the
fiscal y ear 1934 w as only $2,030,050, w hich does not include the legis­
l ati v e reducti on amounti ng to something over $300,000. I t became
necessary, theref ore, to disconti nue the services of 360 employees in
W ashington. Tw enty-one f oreign offices were eli minated and 107
employees in the Forei gn Commerce Service dropped, w hile in the
district-office service in the U ni ted States 10 offices were closed and
the services of 106 employees were discontinued. I n the section of
customs statisti cs in New Y ork City 56 employees had to be dropped.
I t is grati f y i ng to be able to record that many of those whose
services were discontinued i n the B ureau were employed by new
recovery agencies.
T he ori gi nal allotments f or pri nti ng the peri odical and special
publications of the B ureau w ere reduced f rom $315,500 i n 1932 and
$145,000 in 1933 to $95,000 i n 1934. Since more than $85,000 of the
amount al l otted f or the y ear had to be used f or the regul ar peri odi ­
cal publications of the B ureau, a very small amount was l ef t f or
the publ i shi ng of i m portant commercial and i ndustri al studies in
both the domestic and the f orei gn fields. Such studi es w ould be of
eminentl y practi cal hel p to A merican business at the present time.
T he B ureau of Forei gn and D omestic Commerce is essentiall y an
i nf orm ati onal and economic-research agency, and i t theref ore seems
peculi arl y v i tal that i ts f indings should be made avai lable to the
publi c in the most acceptable f orm—through the medium of pri nted
text.
SE R V I C E S T O R E C O V E R Y A G E N C I E S A N D O T H E R G O V E R N M E N T U N I T S

I n view of the cri ti cal emergency and the tremendous scope and
potency of the recovery dri ve, i t is only natural th at an outstandi ng
phase of the B ureau’s w ork should have comprised cooperation w ith
many other governmental organizati ons, parti cul arl y those newly
consti tuted f or the purpose of copi ng w i th the depression. T he B u­
reau’s general and techni cal assistance has been of indi sputabl e value
and has produced signif icant results. T he m aj or activiti es of thi s
cooperative character are i ndi cated below.
N ational Recovery A dministration.—T he assistance of the trai ned
personnel of the B ureau’s di stri ct offices and W ashi ngton staf f , w ith

32

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

thei r experience and know ledge of i ndustri al and commercial prob­
lems, has been acknow ledged by the N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni stra­
ti on as being exceedingly valuabl e. D uri ng a considerable p art of the
fiscal year, the field offices w ere engaged in handl i ng an enormous
amount of N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on w ork in the vari ous
cities throughout the country. T he B ureau’s di stri ct managers were
loaned or transf erred to the N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on f or
the field w ork in connection w i th the reemployment program. M any
of the B ureau’s division chief s w ere detai led f or v ary i ng periods to
the N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on headquarters in W ashington.
T he B ureau’s D omestic Commerce D ivi si on rendered service to the
N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on i n i ts i ni ti al activiti es—handl i ng
thousands of inquiries on procedure, developi ng and m ai ntai ni ng
lists, and i nsti tuti ng code analysi s, besides suppl y i ng basic data on
many industri es and trades. A nother division of the B ureau handled
an assignment f rom the N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on to class­
i f y all commodities, industri es, and prof essi ons in the U ni ted States,
as well as to cross-index al l trade associations i n the country relati ve
to commodity coverage. B ureau personnel parti ci pated as technical
and economic advisers in the heari ngs leadi ng up to the f orm ul ati on
of the rank i ng steel code and more than 50 other codes concerned w ith
iron, steel, and hardw are; and comparabl e service was rendered on
countless other codes. V ari ous B ureau chief s are serving as adm i n­
i strati v e members of code authorities.
Real Property Inventory .—Of m aj or proporti ons as a contri bu­
tion to the adm i ni strati on’s recovery program w as the real prop­
erty inventory w hich was undertak en by the B ureau in cooperation
w i th the Census B ureau as a Civil W orks A dm i ni strati on project.
I n November 1933 the B ureau, in anti ci pati on of the need f or basic
f acts w i th w hich to attack the housing problem, submitted to the
Federal Civil W orks A dm i ni strati on the outl ine of a pl an f or sur­
veyi ng resi denti al properti es in selected communities. T he i ntent
was to coordinate thi s necessary and i m portant study of real estate
conditi ons w i th the endeavor of the adm i ni strati on f or employment
reli ef . I t was f orm al l y approved on December 11, 1933, by the
Ci vi l W orks A dm i ni strator. T he B ureau proceeded to conduct a
survey of all dw ell ing structures in a selected group of 64 cities.
A total of several thousand w hite-col lar unemployed were thus pro­
vided w ith respectable and w orth-w hil e w ork duri ng the w inter
months.
T he proj ect as ori gi nal l y conceived included tw o phases, a census
or inventory emphasizing the physical characteri sti cs of real prop­
erty and a more intensi ve sample study of such f inancial items as
rents, value of property , mortgage status, and income of owners and
tenants.
T he degree of i nterest aroused was evidenced by the determinati on
of some 35 cities not incl uded i n the selected l i st to conduct i nde­
pendent canvasses of thei r own. Such cities were allocated a por­
ti on of the local f unds received f rom the Ci vil W orks A dm i ni stra­
ti on to conduct real -property inventori es i n thei r communities.
These cities were given technical assistance by the B ureau f or the
trai ni ng of enumerators and f or setti ng up the machi nery of the
survey. I n addition, they were supplied w i th a complete set of
schedule f orms and pri nted instructi ons required f or the work.

BU REA U OF FOREI GN A ND D OM ESTI C COM M ERCE

33

M uch of the basic data secured i n thi s survey was avail able to
provide a sound f actual basis f or pl anni ng the housing program of
the A dmini strati on.
A gricultural A djustment A dministration.— A member of thi s
B ureau’s T exti le _D ivi si on took part i n a study conducted by the
A gri cul tural A dj ustm ent A dm i ni strati on rel ati v e to the question
of a levy of a compensatory processing tax on commodities alleged
to compete w i th cotton. T hat division also af f orded hel p to the
A gri cul tural A dj ustm ent A dm i ni strati on in connection w i th “ con­
version f actors ” , draw back schedules on exports, and cotton-acreage
curtail ment. Our D ivision of Forei gn T rade Stati sti cs helped the
A gri cul tural A dj ustm ent A dm i ni strati on to obtain m ateri al neces­
sary to the adm i ni strati on of the sugar and molasses quota. Speci al
w ork f or the A gri cul tural A dj ustm ent A dm i ni strati on was per­
f ormed by the Foodstuf f s D ivision. T he M ark eti ng Research and
Service D ivision helped the A gri cul tural A dj ustm ent A dm i ni stra­
ti on to design a method f or establi shing the cost of handl i ng milk
in grocery stores. T he B ureau also gave advice in the m atter of
naval stores.
Public Works A dministration.—I n October 1933 Secretary I ckes
requested that the chief of this B ureau’s Forest Products D ivision
be loaned to the Publi c W orks A dm i ni strati on to develop the i ndus­
tri al program of subsistence homesteads; in A pri l 1934 the B ureau
official was made chief of the i ndustri al uni t of that organizati on
(w hil e at the same ti me adm i ni steri ng his w ork f or the B ureau).
T he B ureau’s T ransportati on D ivi si on suppli ed the Publi c W orks
A dm i ni strati on w ith operating-cost data relati ve to i nland w aterw ays
and steamship operations, and these f acts were util ized in i m portant
special studies. T he Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on sought the ad­
vice of the B ureau’s Chemical D ivision concerning possible shortages
of essential raw materials.
Emergency Conservation Work.—A n ex pert f rom the B ureau’s
Forest Products D ivi si on served f or a ti me as special assi stant to the
D irector of the Emergency Conservation W ork and aided in procur­
ing 300,000,000 f eet of lumber f or the camps of the Civil ian Con­
servation Corps.
Federad A lcohol Control A dministration.— By assignment of the
Presi dent, the D irector of the B ureau served as a member of this
unit, whose pri nci pal duty is to administer, in cooperation w ith i n­
dustry , the codes of f ai r competiti on covering the producti on and
sale of alcoholic beverages, except at retai l .
Petroleum A dministration.— A member of the M ineral s D ivision
staf f was loaned to the D epartm ent of the I nteri or f or several months
f or w ork incident to the acti viti es of the Petrol eum A dm i ni strati on,
charged w ith the duty of promoting conservation of the petroleum
resources of the N ation.
Office of the Special A dviser to the President on Foreign Trade.—I n accordance w i th an Executive order, the Secretary of Commerce
desi gnated the A ssi stant Secretary, together w i th the D i rector of the
B ureau of Forei gn and D omestic Commerce, f or contact w ork w ith
the Special A dviser on Forei gn T rade. A w eal th of data and sta­
ti sti cs has been f urni shed to the A dviser by the B ureau. I n com­
pliance w ith the A dv i ser’s request, the B ureau compiled inf orma-

34

REPOET OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

tion w hich w as used in the preparati on and draf ti ng of a series of
valuable charts on f orei gn trade.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation.—T he B ureau has f urnished
to the Reconstruction Finance Corporati on much data relati ve to
enterprises to w hich loans were contempl ated. For example, the
B ureau’s I ron and Steel D ivision has received f requent calls f rom
the Reconstruction Finance Corporati on f or stati sti cal and other
basic i nf orm ati on on w hich to evaluate appli cati ons f or loans. The
Forest Products D ivision gave the Reconstruction Finance Corpora­
ti on advice and techni cal data on cooperage mark ets and problems,
lumber m anuf acture, pul p and paper, and rel ated matters.
Tennessee V alley A uthority.—A n exampl e of service rendered to
the Tennessee V alley A uthori ty is a study by the Chemical D ivision
relati ve to “ Chemical i ndustries largely dependent upon cheap elec­
tri c pow er.”
F urther activiti es of the B ureau in cooperati ng w i th governmental
agencies included, among many others, the f ol l ow i ng:
Business A dvisory and Planning Council.—W hen committees of
the Council were desi gnated in June 1933, vari ous members of the
B ureau’s staf f were named as secretaries. One division chief served
on the Committee on D ecentrali zation of I ndustry , w hile another
ex pert w orked w ith the Forei gn Service Committee.
Commercial policies.— B y direction of the Presi dent, the D i rector
of the B ureau served as a member of the Executi ve Commercial
Poli cy Committee.
I nternational debts.—T he B ureau, through tw o of its division
chief s, cooperated w i th the T reasury D epartm ent in a study of i nter­
nati onal debts. Other services of im portance were rendered to th at
D epartment.
Planning Committee on M ineral Policies.—T he D i rector of the
B ureau and the chief of the M ineral s D ivision of the B ureau served
as members of the committee to undertak e a study of the mineral
resources of the U ni ted States w i th a view to establi shing a sound and
advantageous mineral policy.
Reciprocal foreign-trade agreements.— Substanti al assistance was
gi ven to the D epartm ent of State in the m atter of the Cuban Reci­
proci ty T reaty and in coll ecting data f or use i n negoti ati ons f or
reciprocal f orei gn-trade agreements.
Retail prices in W ashington.—M embers of the B ureau’s staf f coop­
erated w i th the Committee on Government Stati sti cs and the B ureau
of L abor Stati sti cs in connection w i th the emergency survey of retai l
prices in W ashington.
Strategic rate materials.—Tw o of the B ureau’s division chief s
were chosen to discuss w i th members of the staf f of the Secretary of
the N avy the cooperation th at m i ght be rendered in the preparati on
of route charts show ing the movement of strategi c raw materials.
E X A M P L E S OE I N C R E A SE D

V OLUM E A N D
W ORK

H EIG H T EN ED

V A L U E

OE

T he effective f uncti oni ng of the new B ureau policies and the
potent usef ulness of the organizati on in the A merican economic
scheme are stri k i ngl y demonstrated by certain outstandi ng advances
in the number and value of services rendered during' thi s past fiscal

BU REA U OP FOREI GN A ND D OM EST I C COM M ERCE

35

year—increases w hich w ere achieved by a staf f m ateri al l y reduced
in size and operati ng w ith greatl y lessened appropri ati ons.
F or example, duri ng the 12-month peri od ended June 30, about
five times as many visitors as i n any previ ous y ear came to the
B ureau’s Chemical D ivision in W ashington, seeking data on trade
trends and opportuni ti es f or the expansion of markets.
Subscri pti ons to the “ processed ” peri odical s and stati sti cal state­
ments of the Forest Products D ivision registered increases rangi ng
f rom 50 to 100 percent as compared w i th the f igures f or the preceding
fiscal year.
D espite the great restri cti on of f acil ities resul ti ng f rom the re­
qui rements of the Government’s economy program , an analysis of
the reports submitted duri ng the y ear by the B ureau’s offices in f or­
eign countri es shows that the “ output per man ” has more than
doubled.
I n actual volume and proved importance, the w ork perf ormed by
the T ransportati on D ivi si on has been v ery appreciably increased—
responding to the needs of the adm i ni strati on’s aggressive program
f or the rehabi l i tati on of A meri can transportati on f acili ties.
T he demands f or the services of the Commercial I ntel l i gence D i v i ­
sion (w hich suppl ies a v ari ety of v i tal f acts w i th respect to business
firms abroad) increased by no less than 30 percent over the preceding
fiscal year, and more than 250 new users of these services were added
to the rolls.
T he scope of the experim ental Forei gn L egislati ve News (issued
by the Commercial L aw s D i v i si on)—the purpose of w hich is to give
bri ef notice of “ spot-news ” legal developments abroad—has been
substanti al l y enlarged and i ts practi cal usef ulness m ateri al l y
enhanced.
T he advances above cited are, of course, merely a few vari ed
examples of the progress th at has been proved possible under the
recast and new ly defined pl ans of the B ureau.
EFFO R T S TO

A ID

E X C E PT I O N A L A C T I V I T Y I N

IN T E R N A T IO N A L

COM M ERCE

ST U D Y O F F O R E I G N - T R A D E R E ST R I C T I O N S

Each one of the unprecedented number of changes i n f orei gn tari f f
duti es and si m i l ar restricti ons w hich occurred duri ng thi s past year
necessitated caref ul study, anal ysis, and i nterpretati on f or the i nf or­
mati on and guidance of A meri can f orei gn traders, and theref ore the
w ork of the B ureau’s D ivision of Forei gn T ari f f s was proporti onatel y
greater than ever before. I n addition, extensive special studies were
made i n preparati on f or the new program of reciprocal trade agree­
ments, and in connection w i th the W orl d Economic Conf erence at
L ondon, at w hich the chief of the D ivision represented thi s D epart­
ment as techni cal adviser on tari f f s and commercial policy.
T he hi ghl y i m portant movement in the directi on of reciprocal
trade agreements between the U ni ted States and f orei gn nati ons had
already started duri ng the l atter part of the preceding fiscal year,
when thi s B ureau, at the request of the D epartm ent of State, began
ex pl oratory studi es w i th a view to possible trade agreements w i th a
selected number of countries. I mm ediately upon the passage of the

36

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

T rade Reciprocity A ct i n June 1934, the D ivision of Forei gn T ari f f s
was called upon to parti ci pate in the i nterdepartm ental organizati on
and the studies preparatory to the actual negoti ati on of such trade
agreements, i ts parti cul ar contributi on bei ng the development of pro­
posals f or moderati on in the tarif f s and rel ated trade barri ers of other
countries that are to be sought in the course of those negotiations.
T hi s reciprocity w ork w ill consti tute a m aj or acti v i ty of the D i v i ­
sion duri ng the current year and w i ll call f or m ateri al strengtheni ng
of i ts staf f , as well as the assistance of other divisions of the B ureau
and of selected members of our f orei gn service.
T he T ari f f D ivi si on cooperated even more closely than ever w ith
the D epartments of State, A gri cul ture, and T reasury , the T arif f
Commission, and other Government agencies concerned w i th f oreign
trade, parti cul arl y in connection w ith trade-agreement w ork. M ore­
over, the divi si on has been called upon f or i nf orm ati on and advice
by the Pan A meri can U nion in connection w i th vari ous conf erences
betw een the A merican Republics. I t has also cooperated closely w ith
vari ous trade associations, parti cul arl y as to the i m port quota ar­
rangements of certai n f orei gn countries.
I n addi ti on to announcements, through the usual channels, of the
substanti al l y increased number of tari f f changes throughout the
w orld, a special review of recent developments in f orei gn tari f f s and
commercial policies was published i n Commerce Reports, the B ureau’s
w eekly magazine; a parti al revision of the handbook on Forei gn
T arif f s and I m port Regul ati ons on Fresh Frui ts and V egetables was
prepared and published; a handbook on Prepari ng Shipments to
B ri ti sh Countries was sent to the pri nter, and w ork was carried
f orw ard on a sim il ar publi cati on f or conti nental Europe.
FO REIG N CO M M ERCIA L L A W S

T he fiscal y ear j ust ended has been producti ve of much new na­
ti onal i sti c economic and business legi slati on, designed to alleviate
local economic conditions, to produce a maximum of new revenue,
and to f urther (w i thout parti cul ar regard f or the effect on i nter­
nati onal trade) the economic aims and ideas of each nati on. M any
new i nterpretati ons of older laws and regulati ons have been made in
the hope of accomplishing sim il ar results. T he B ureau has theref ore
been i ntent on keeping abreast of these f oreign legal developments
and advisi ng A meri can business i nterests of the developments that
af fect them.
T he D ivi si on of Commercial L aw s has given special attenti on to
the improvement of i ts General L egal B ul l eti n (Forei gn L aw s A f ­
f ecti ng A merican B usi ness) and the I ndustri al Property B ul l eti n
(Patents, T rade M arks, Copyrights, and U nf ai r Competition under
Forei gn L aw ) as the most f easible means of disseminati ng i nf orm a­
ti on w ith the greatest economy in ti me and personnel.
Protecti on f or A mericans agai nst unf ai r competitive practi ces in
f orei gn juri sdi cti ons has been stressed. T he si mulati on abroad of
A meri can trade m ark s and designs has gone on unabated, but through
the services of the B ureau many of our m anuf acturers have been
af f orded the opportuni ty of protecting' thei r marks and other i ndus­
tri al property in f orei gn markets.

BU REA U OF FOREI GN A ND D OM ESTI C COM M ERCE

37

I n the insurance field, in one country alone, the enf orcement of
legi slati on that contemplated tax ati on on al l mari ne-i nsurance pre­
miums was w ithheld upon the basis of official representati ons made
through the A meri can Embassy on the B ureau’s i ni ti ati v e, w hile, in
another country, contempl ated increased deposi t requirements were
def erred as a resul t of si m i l ar A meri can representati ons, made thi s
ti me in conj uncti on w i th another f oreign embassy.
T he D ivision has rendered special assistance to other governmental
organizati ons in such m atters as f oreign sales taxes, f oreign corpo­
rati on laws, w orld insurance conditions, and instructi ons to the
A meri can delegates to the M ontevideo Conference.
F I N A N C E A N D I N V E ST M E N T

T he B ureau’s Fi nance and I nv estm ent D ivision gave more than
the usual amount of attenti on to its study of the balance of i nter­
nati onal payments of the U ni ted States, as a consequence of the
depreci ati on of the doll ar, the def aul ts on w ar debts due thi s Govern­
ment, and the results of investigati ons made by the Office of the Spe­
ci al A dviser to the Presi dent on Forei gn T rade and by other Gov­
ernment agencies. I n no previous year have the results of thi s study
of our balance of i nternati onal payments been put to so much prac­
ti cal use.
I t is theref ore not surpri si ng th at f rom many quarters the D i ­
vision has been strongly urged to extend i ts w ork in thi s field so as
to provide esti mates of the country ’s i nternati onal income and outgo
at least quarterl y instead of annuall y, and to make more detail ed
analyses of the studies issued by other countri es. I n a peri od in
w hich the i nternati onal exchanges are so subject to disturbance, and
w hen executive trade agreements of a reciprocal character are bei ng
negoti ated, a continuous study of our balance-of -payments posi tion
is unquestionabl y of great importance. T he D ivi si on theref ore con­
templates a considerable extension of i ts activiti es i n thi s field.
T he f requent changes in f orei gn exchange regul ati ons and thei r
increasing complexity have brought numerous inquiries f rom A m eri ­
can ex porters and investors, who have f ound i t more difficult than
ever to effect pay m ent of thei r claims on countries that control the
sale of f oreign exchange. T he Fi nance D ivi si on has issued f requent
“ releases ” to our di stri ct offices and to the press and has given an
unusual amount of space to thi s subject in i ts f ortni ghtl y Fi nanci al
N otes covering L ati n A merica and Europe, respectively.
T hi s D ivision was called upon to do a considerable amount of
research in connection w i th bank i ng and currency legislati on. _Of
special significance were the extensive studies i t made of vari ous
subjects covered in the Stock Exchange A ct.
T he increasing number of def aul ts on f orei gn loans issued in thi s
country in the peri od 1921 to 1929 has led to numerous inquiries
regardi ng the positi on of def aul ti ng governments or corporations.
The adjustment of these def aul ts—w hich now total more than $2,000,000,000, i f parti al as well as complete def aults are included-—requires
more detai led studies of the finances of f orei gn governments.

38

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE
G EN ERA L REG I O N A L I N FO R M A T I O N

O N F O R E I G N D E V E L O PM E N T S

Fi guri ng promi nentl y in the w ork of the D ivision of Regional I n ­
f orm ati on have been i ts specialized studies of i nternati onal trade
problems, the tendency of A merican i ndustry to establish branch
f actories abroad, and the experiences of f oreign countri es w i th cartels.
I n January the Senate released the D epartm ent’s second report on the
subject of A meri can m anuf acturi ng investments in f orei gn countries,
consisting of summary tables show ing the di stri buti on of branch
f actories and other f orms of direct f oreign investments. A special
report was prepared deali ng w i th the new German cartel legislati on
under the N ati onal Sociali st Government.
T he D ivision has made very elaborate stati sti cal studi es of the f or­
eign trade of a number of countries w ith w hich reciprocity negoti a­
tions are now under w ay or are to be undertak en i n the near f uture.
Several members of the divisional staf f have parti ci pated in the w ork
of prepari ng draf ts of reciprocal agreements.
One of the D iv ision’s outstandi ng contributi ons was the prepara­
ti on of the f oreign-countries section f or the f i rst issue of the W orl d
Economic Review covering the calendar year 1933. The data thus
presented have achieved w ide usef ulness.
T here has natural l y been increasing i nterest in the Russian si tua­
ti on since recogniti on, and thi s was reflected in the D ivision’s en­
hanced correspondence and research w ork on that region. T he acti v ­
ities of old and new Government organizati ons concerned w i th Soviet
m atters have involved the supply ing of much stati sti cal and other
m ateri al and f requent cooperation.
T he D iv ision’s correspondence w i th pri v ate concerns, i ndiv iduals,
and other Government offices has embraced a w ide v ari ety of subjects,
and much i m portant i nf orm ati on has been disseminated in the f orm
of special circulars, articles in Commerce Reports, and periodic
releases.
T I - I E F O R E I G N C O M M E R C E SE R V I C E

D uri ng the fiscal y ear j u st ended, a di sti nct change i n policy w ent
i nto effect in connection w ith the acti vities of the f orei gn offices of
the B ureau. A n abandonment of activiti es was effected w hich m i ght
be considered as coming properl y w i thi n the sphere of pri v ate sales
representati ves of A meri can firms. A greater emphasi s was placed
on reporti ng and other services designed pri m ari l y to promote spe­
cif ically the i nterests of A meri can f oreign trade—business conditions
i n the f orei gn markets; the competiti ve si tuati on w i th respect to
products of other countri es consumed in the m ark et in question;
parti cul ars concerning i m port restricti ons, i m port duti es, and tari f f
adm i ni strati v e regul ati ons; sales methods and credi t term s; f oreignexchange si tuati on and control. T he i nf orm ati on gathered by the
Forei gn Commerce officers and the officers of the Consular Service
is made avai labl e through 24 di stri ct offices of the B ureau of Forei gn
and D omestic Commerce located in the l eadi ng commercial cities
of the N ati on, by trade and commercial associations, and through
the many and vari ous publi cati ons of the B ureau.
A ll otments f or the B ureau’s f orei gn offices duri ng the fiscal year
1932-33 total ed $1,132,876. D uri ng the y ear j ust closed they w ere

BU REA U OP FOREI GN A ND D OM EST I C COM M ERCE

39

reduced to $542,050. T hi s resulted i n a curtai l m ent of the number
of offices f rom 53 to 32 and a reducti on of commissioned personnel
f rom 168 to 77.
T he Fi el d Service D ivision, w hich administers the f orei gn offices,
i nsti tuted a new system of analysis and evaluati on of f ield reporti ng
w hich has resul ted in a mark ed improvement in quality.
I nf orm ati on submitted to the B ureau i n the cabled and w ri tten
reports of i ts commercial attachés and trade commissioners has been
i n constant and of ten urgent demand by other branches of the Gov­
ernment, notably the D epartm ent of State, the T ari f f Commission,
and the Office of the Speci al A dviser to the Presi dent on Forei gn
T rade.
T he analyses of A meri can trade w i th f orei gn countri es, prepared
by the B ureau’s personnel abroad, have been of di rect value i n study ­
i ng bases f or possible reciprocal trade agreements. A s progress is
made in negoti ati ons of thi s sort, there w i ll be sti l l greater need
f or the cooperation of these officers.
To a greater degree than ever bef ore, business men who have
uti li zed the services of the B ureau have been given parti cul arl y
accurate and ti mely i nf orm ati on upon w hich they m i ght pl an thei r
f orei gn-trade campaigns. T hi s has been especially true w i th re­
spect to the reporti ng and i nterpretati on of f orei gn developments
connected w i th tari f f changes, i m port quotas, and exchange-control
measures.
I n keeping w ith the recogni tion of the f act that im ports into the
U ni ted States f orm an essential element in thi s N ati on’s f oreign
trade, the officers abroad have extended thei r reporti ng to include
f actors beari ng on the significance of f orei gn terri tori es as actual
or potenti al sources of commodities m arketabl e in thi s country.
Genuine hardshi p among the officers and employees of the Forei gn
Commerce Service w ere considerably m i ti gated by the passage of a
law authori zi ng appropri ati ons to meet losses sustained in conse­
quence of the appreci ati on of f orei gn currencies in thei r relati on
to the A meri can dollar. T hrough thi s legislati on, the B ureau’s
officers and employees abroad may be pai d thei r salaries and allow ­
ances in f orei gn currencies in amounts sufficient to render the buying
pow er of thei r doll ars approx i m atel y equival ent to w hat i t w ould
be i n normal times. Congress also restored the allow ances f or
quarters, l i ght, heat, and f uel (w hich had been drasti cal l y reduced
under previ ous legi sl ati on) to the 1932 level. These two measures
have done much to strengthen the morale of the Service and to
i ntensi f y its capacity f or practi cal helpf ulness.
FO R E I G N -T R A D E

ST A T I ST I C S

A number of signif icant accomplishments have been recorded by
the B ureau in the handl i ng of f orei gn-trade stati stics. I n coopera­
ti on w i th the T ari f f Commission, the T reasury D epartm ent, the D e­
partm ent of A gri cul ture, the Office of the Speci al A dviser to the
Presi dent on Forei gn T rade, and other Government agencies, special
research has been carri ed out and special compilations made, in
response to a v ari ety of v i tal needs that have arisen. A special
w eekly service recording the im ports of alcoholic beverages was

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REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

i ni ti ated f or the convenience of the T reasury D epartment. Charts
show i ng the f oreign trade of the U ni ted States (81 in num ber) and
charts portray i ng the f oreign trade of about 30 f oreign countries
(22 to a country ) were planned, the basic m ateri al was assem­
bled, and the w ork was ef fectively started. A t the close of the fiscal
year, charts f or the U ni ted States and 8 f oreign countries had been
completed.
T he D ivision of Forei gn T rade Stati sti cs completed indexes of the
volume of im ports by economic classes f or the y ear 1913 and f rom
1919 to date, sim il ar to the indexes on ex port volume completed dur­
i ng the preceding fiscal year. M onthly indexes of both exports and
i m ports f or the fiscal year 1934 have also been completed. The
D ivision continued to prepare and issue about 150 mi meographed
special monthly statements f or the use of 8,000 subscribers, as well
as 100 ty pew ri tten statements. Publ i cati on of the M onthly Sum­
mary of Forei gn Commerce has been continued, though in a some­
w hat abbreviated f orm. T he annual volume of Forei gn Commerce
and N avigati on of the U ni ted States covering the calendar year
1932 was issued, and practi cal l y all of the required stati sti cal tables
f or the 1933 volume were sent to the Pri nter bef ore the close of the
fiscal year.
I nadequacy of f unds has m ateri al l y hampered the w ork of this
D ivision. B y reason of that si tuati on, the monthly and annual
reports of exports by parcel post have been eli minated (v i ti ati ng
the stati sti cs f or certai n commodities), stati sti cs show ing exports
by States have likew ise been disconti nued, and other modif ications,
of dubious expediency, have had to be insti tuted. T he divisional
staf f has been put under such added pressure as to endanger ac­
curacy, and the checking and v eri f y i ng of documents and reports
have, of necessity, been lessened. U pon occasion, other Government
agencies have been greatl y inconvenienced by the i nabi l i ty of thi s
B ureau to provide special tabul ati ons and urgentl y needed reports
coveri ng A merican f oreign trade; they have f ound i t necessary to
send representati ves to the B ureau to prepare certain tabulati ons that
they require.
E X PO R T A N D

I M PO R T SE R V I C E S B Y

COM M OD ITY

D I V I SI O N S

N otw i thstandi ng the heightened stress w hich the B ureau’s com­
m odity divisions have recently been pl aci ng on thei r assistance, to
A merican business men in the solution of domestic problems, thei r
acti vities in aid of f oreign commerce continue to loom large. I n ­
evitably, the nature of such endeavors varies w i th the characteri sti cs
of the i ndustri es and merchandi se that come w ithi n the purview
of the several divisions. T he f oll ow ing selected examples w ill serve
to show the significance of the ex port and i m port services rendered
by the commodity divisions duri ng the fiscal y ear j ust ended.
T he A utomotive and A eronautics T rade D ivision made caref ul and
elaborate studi es of the competiti ve positi on of A merican motor cars
and other automotive products in f orei gn markets. I t studied also
the i m ported articles used by our automoti ve i ndustry. Fi gures were
obtained and di sseminated w i th respect to producti on and regi stra­
ti ons of automobiles throughout the w orld. I n many w ays the D i v i ­

BU REA U OF FOREI GN A ND D OM ESTI C COM M ERCE

41

sion’s efforts helped to sti mulate highw ay development abroad and
to encourage the greater use of A meri can methods, materials, ma­
chinery, and motor vehicles.
T he Chi ef of the B ureau’s Chemical D ivision made a personal sur­
vey of the existing conditions in the chemical i ndustry of Europe,
and subsequently, through the cooperation of the B ureau’s field serv­
ice, a comprehensive study of w orld chemical developments in 1933
and early 1934 was made avai lable to A meri can i nterests i n thi s
field.
T he El ectri cal D ivi si on has embarked upon the prel i m i nary stages
of preparati on of a m anual f or ex port managers of electri cal goods,
giv ing current characteri stics, w i ri ng regulati ons, types of plugs, and
other perti nent data f or al l f orei gn countri es; such a compilation has
long been needed but hi therto has never been made available
anywhere.
T he Foodstuf f s D ivision has carri ed out a survey of alcoholicbeverage producti on, stocks, and i m port and ex port trade, as well as
the regulati ons governing such products, f or the pri nci pal producing
and tradi ng countries of the w orld. T he B ureau’s correspondence
on thi s ti mely subject has been exceedingly heavy. A t the beginni ng
of the fiscal y ear 1934 the W ashi ngton Government had only the
scanti est i nf orm ati on on alcoholic beverages in f oreign countries, but
duri ng the y ear the B ureau has been rapi dl y bui l di ng up i ts files
unti l at the present ti me they contai n practi cal l y complete records
f or all i m portant countries.
On behalf of the pea grow ers and shi ppers i n our northw estern
States, the Foodstuf f s D ivi si on made a survey of the producti on and
trade in dry peas in the pri nci pal European countries. T he D i v i ­
sion made a survey of the m ark et f or grape juice in the F ar East: ;
made an extensive compilation of cocoa-pow der and cocoa-butter sta­
tistics; analyzed f igures on molasses; and, on behalf of the coffee
i ndustry , obtained f rom the B ureau’s M exico City office an extensive
report on the development of the coffee cooperative movement.
Because of increasing i nterest on the p ar t of the lumber i ndustry in
reciprocal-tari f f matters, the B ureau’s Forest Products D ivision has
af f orded substanti al hel p to i m porters and producers by suppl y i ng
them w ith stati sti cal data to be used in presenti ng bri ef s to the State
D epartm ent on tari f f matters.
The consi deration of certai n questions rel ati ng to the ex port trade
i n arms and muni tions of w ar brought the B ureau’s I ron and Steel
D ivi si on to the f ore. Since, f or years past, the D ivi si on had been en­
gaged in tabul ati ng data on our f oreign sales of these products, its
records came to be regarded as the pri m ary official source of i nf or­
mation on thi s business—i nf orm ati on w hich, i n f act, could hardl y
have been f ound elsewhere.
W i th the cooperation of the Forei gn T ari f f s D ivision and our f or­
eign offices, the l eather and leather-goods section was able to secure
l arger quotas f or certain types of A meri can l eather in such countri es
as France and T urkey. Signif icant services were rendered to the
T anners’ Council of A merica in connection w ith the allocation of
quotas on patent l eather exported to France. I n preparati on f or
changes in A merican f orei gn-trade policy, surveys w ere made of
l eather producti on and consumption in the i m portant l eather-produc­

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REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

i ng countri es of Europe. A n elaborate analysi s— on quanti tati v e,
price, and value bases— of A meri can l eather exports since 1920 was
published.
T he B ureau compiled, and relayed to the rubber trade, f ul l detail s
concerning the recent i nternati onal rubber regul ati on agreement,
w i th i nf orm ati on regardi ng law s m aking i t applicable in the v ari ­
ous produci ng regions. I t is expected that the B ureau w ill be i n­
creasingly relied upon f or i nf orm ati on w i th respect to developments
in thi s control plan.
U nder the gui dance of the M achinery and A gri cul tural I m pl e­
ments D ivision, a f orei gn-trade meeting was arranged f or the bui l d­
ers of machi ne tool s; i nterest in ex port trade was keenly sti mulated
thereby, and those attendi ng the gatheri ng expressed grati f i cati on at
the practi cal benef its th at accrued.
The motion-pi cture i ndustry of the U ni ted States obtains f rom
f orei gn mark ets about 30 percent of i ts gross income, and i t is
theref ore v i tal l y dependent upon thi s f orei gn business. I n recent
years i t has become increasingly difficult to hold these f orei gn m ar­
kets, because of grow ing competi tion f rom f oreign producers, f or­
eign governmental restricti ons in the f orm of quotas and contingents,
language barri ers, and the generall y depressed economic conditions
throughout the world-—and i n consequence there has arisen an
especially i nsi stent demand f or the f urni shi ng of data and di rect
amel iorative services by the B ureau’s M otion Pi cture Section and our
offices in f orei gn countri es. Such eff orts have been producti ve of
hi ghl y sati sf actory results. For example: 2 years ago A merican
companies w i thdrew f rom the m ark et i n Czechoslovakia because of
the ham peri ng restri cti ons that had been placed upon them. Our
Prague office, w orking of course through the i nstrum ental i ty of the
A meri can L egati on, and enjoying also the cooperation of one of our
trade commissioners now assigned to the B erl i n office, has been carry ­
i ng on negoti ati ons w i th Czech officials f or an early return to thi s
m ark et by the A meri can di stri butors, and i t is expected that thi s de­
sirabl e objective w ill be obtained. I n France a modif ication of the
m oti on-pi cture quota has enabled A meri can companies to operate
more f reely in thi s i m portant market, and the change may be partl y
attri buted to the earnest representati ons of our B ureau men.
T he Specialties D i vision has successf ully i ni ti ated, on behal f of
the office-equipment i ndustry , a special reporti ng service w ith respect
to the ex tent and source of f orei gn competiti on and, through the
cooperation of the i ndustry ’s I nsti tute, i t has been possible to per­
f orm more valuabl e service to thi s i ndustry than had been rendered
in the past.
T he B ureau’s office at Shanghai assisted i n the reorgani zati on of
the Shanghai L eaf Tobacco B oard of T rade and, through thi s meas­
ure, i m portant readj ustm ents of the A merican leaf -tobacco business
i n China have been effected.
IN FO RM A T IO N

A S T O A C T U A L OR PO T E N T I A L B U Y E R S A B ROA D

T he Commercial I ntel l i gence D ivision has vigorousl y continued its
w ork of gatheri ng f rom al l trade centers of the w orl d (outsi de of the
U ni ted States) authenti c i nf orm ati on relati ve to potenti al and actual
buyers of A meri can products, and of l ocating in the f orei gn markets

BU REA U OF FOREI GN A ND D OM ESTI C COM M ERCE

43

exporters of such raw m aterials as are essential to A meri can m an­
uf acturers. D uri ng thi s past y ear the pri m ary sourch of the data
thus accumulated has been the A meri can Consular Service.
T he D ivision handled more than 7,500 requests f rom A meri can
business men f or “ trade li sts ” , f or w hich fees of about $4,000 were
received. These l i sts are classified by commodities and countries, and
f rom them A meri can f oreign traders are enabled to select desi rable
di stri butors f or thei r products, or f orei gn suppl i ers of necessary
materials. B ack of each name on such a l i st is a detai led report in
the W orl d T rade D irectory file, summari zing the business set-up of
the f oreign f irm and i ts relati v e abi l i ty to handl e specific A merican
commodities. A meri can business util ized more than 25,000 of these
reports duri ng the fiscal y ear j ust ended, and the persons who
requested thei r compi lation by the B ureau pai d fees am ounti ng to
more than $6,000.
T hi s D ivision “ rated ” more than 3,000 f orei gn trade opportuni ­
ties destined to be util ized by the B ureau’s commodity divisions in ad­
vi sing A meri can traders as to the w orl d’s w ants. M ore than 170,000
pieces of mail w ere handl ed in the D ivision, i nvolv ing trade prac­
tices of buyers and sellers, changes in f orei gn credi t conditions, v ari a­
ti ons in channels of di stri buti on, and trends in buyers’ w ants and
needs. A s a service uni t, the Commercial I ntell igence D ivision is
consulted by practi cal l y every Government agency, _bei ng w idely
recognized as a valuabl e depository of source m ateri al on f orei gn
tradi ng.
Corol l ary to the specific f uncti ons of thi s D ivision is an i m portant,
i f somew hat “ intangi bl e ” , merchandising service to f orei gn traders,
by w hich the D ivision equips inexperienced traders w i th data_ and
counsel on the “ elements of ex porti ng ” , f inds new and addi ti onal
outl ets i n f oreign countries f or A meri can products, and ascertains
sources of supply f or articles required in A meri can industry . T he
D ivision advises as to proper methods of merchandising, credi t prac­
tice, and terms of payment in f orei gn countries.
I t is hoped that, duri ng the coming fiscal year, every B ureau trade
l i st made obsolete by changi ng w orld condi tions can be revised so that
current “ spot ” i nf orm ati on may be avai lable f or A meri can business,
upon demand, in every di stri ct office of the B ureau.
A C T IV IT IES IN

T H E

PR O M O T IO N

O F D O M E ST I C

T R A D E

M A R K E T I N G R E SE A R C H A N D SE R V I C E

T he B ureau uni t that is now called the M ark eti ng Research and
Service D ivision is a consoli dation of three divisions w hich pre­
viously f uncti oned i n domestic-commerce acti viti es, the M erchandis­
i ng Research, the M ark eti ng Service, and the D omestic Regional
D ivisions. T he most valuable f uncti ons of those three divisions have
been retai ned in the present organizati on. A s now set up, i t serves
as a reserv oi r of business i nf orm ati on, cost data, and f acts on trade
practices, and is a central poi nt f or the assembly of trade-association
i nf orm ati on and f or market-research acti vities. I t continues to serve
i n a general advisory capacity, on questions of distri buti on, to other
Government agencies, trade groups, and individuals. I t is also the

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REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

agency f or the promotion and di stri buti on of al l of the B ureau’s
publ icati ons and reports.
T he Retai l Credi t Survey, a semiannual report (to be placed on an
annual basis duri ng the current y ear ), continues to be one of the B u­
reau’s si gnif i cant publications. I t has recently been supplemented
by a monthly nati onal collection report, through cooperation w ith
the Federal Reserve B oard, prov i di ng a current index on the prom pt­
ness w i th w hich the public pays i ts bills.
Other reports completed and i n process of publi cati on bear upon
the perpl ex i ng and much-discussed problem of “ returned goods ” ;
w holesale conf ectioners’ operations; diff erences i n operati ng costs
w i thi n a city; and mark-dow ns, thei r causes and control.
A number of processed reports and charts have been issued deal­
i ng w i th data f rom the real -property inventory (i n cooperation
w ith the real -property inventory uni t of the B ureau), ai r condi­
ti oning, business indicators, current statisti cs, estimated retai l and
w holesale sales, costs and prof its by trade groups, commodity cost
accounting, code provi si ons, trade structures, and trade associa­
tions. A lso, three times a month, the D ivi si on issues D omestic Com­
merce, a publi cati on concerned w i th di stri buti on research and trade
promotion.
A new service was developed duri ng the y ear in the monthly
retail-sal es indexes of v ari ety stores, chai n groceries, and country
general stores, and f or new automobiles and automobile f inancing.
Pl ans f or the coming y ear contemplate an expansion of these indexes,
w hich are valuabl e i ndicators of retai l trends and i m portant guides
as to consumption.
T he M ark eti ng Research and Service D ivision has produced a
number of charts and pamphlets f or the N ati onal M anuf acturers’
A ssociation, the N ati onal A ssociation of T rade Executives, and
trade associations in general , on v i tal matters rel ated to the recovery
program. T he D i vision’s di rect services to governmental recovery
agencies are mentioned elsewhere i n thi s report.
D O M E ST I C B U SI N E SS A I D ED B Y C O M M O D I T Y D I V I SI O N S

A s al ready noted, the commodity divisions of the B ureau have
been experiencing a certai n reori entati on, and thei r services to
domestic business have been sharpl y accentuated duri ng thi s past
fiscal year. The examples of such service cover a w ide range.
T he El ectri cal D ivi si on has been f orm ul ati ng plans to publi sh the
f irst comprehensive l i st of w orld short-w ave radiophone stations.
N o such l i st is now avai lable anyw here in the w orld, and, theref ore,
the complete, dependable compi lation w hich the B ureau plans should
m ateri al l y assist the radio i ndustry in sti m ul ati ng the public interest
in all-w ave recei ving sets.
I n cooperation w i th the N ati onal Conf ecti oners A ssociation, the
Foodstuf f s D ivi si on conducted a survey of conf ectionery di stri buti on
in the U ni ted States f or the years 1932 and 1933 and collected
monthly f igures on sales of conf ectionery; thi s l atter series has be­
come one of the recognized indexes of trends in business. Quarterl y
surveys of stocks of seven pri nci pal canned-f ood items in canners’
and di stri butors’ hands were made duri ng the fiscal year, in coopéra-

BU REA U OP FOREI GN A ND D OM ESTI C COM M ERCE

45

tion w i th nati onal and regional trade associations. A t the request
of , and in cooperation w ith, the M ayonnaise I nsti tute, a survey was
made of producti on and di stri buti on of mayonnaise, salad dressing,
and rel ated products f or the years 1932 and 1933.
T he assistance of the Forest Products D ivi si on was enlisted by
numerous trade associations, i ncluding the N ati onal L umber M anu­
f acturers A ssociation, the A ssociated Cooperage I ndustri es of A m er­
ica, the A meri can Paper and Pul p A ssociation, and others w hich
have been engaged i n economic studies of the countless new prob­
lems devel opi ng duri ng the past year. T hi s D ivision also made a
study of pul p and paper consumpti on f or the U ni ted States Forest
Serv i ce; made a survey of the quanti ty of wood pul p held i n storage,
f or the above-mentioned trade associati on; and prepared a stati sti cal
report on new spri nt, f or the N ew spri nt Service B ureau.
E arl y i n the fiscal year, the L eather-Rubber-Shoe D ivision i ni ­
ti ated a series of Rubber I ndustry L etters, revi ew ing and analy zing
official data relati ve to prof i ts and losses, producti on and prospects,
employment, m anuf acturi ng costs, and use of materi al s in the do­
mestic industry . N ot only have these bull eti ns proved hel pf ul in
the preparati on of codes, but they have been in conti nuing demand
by research specialists.
_T he chief of the M otion Pi cture Section of the Speci al ties D i v i ­
sion assisted in the reshapi ng of the objectives of the T heater
Equi pment Suppl y D eal ers A ssociation and the T heater Equi pment
M anuf acturers A ssociation, w i th a view to heightened efficiency in
operati on and more hel pf ul cooperation w i th governmental agencies.
A n i m portant study made by the T exti le D ivision deals w ith
domestic flax producti on, preparati on, and uti l i zati on f or paper
and f abrics. T he D epartm ent of A gri cul ture is assisti ng in the
producti on program and the B ureau of Standards in certai n phases
of uti li zati on. T exti le schools, a number of paper and texti le
laboratories, and others are cooperating. T he Chief of the Texti le
D ivision is handl i ng the prel i m i nary arrangem ents f or a compre­
hensive investigati on of the tex ti l e mil l-vill age si tuati on w hich is
about to be launched by an educational i nsti tuti on w i th the sup­
port of the T exti le Foundati on. A thoroughgoi ng study of the
producti on and m ark eti ng of sil k and rayon goods w i ll soon be pub­
lished, and in i ts preparati on thi s B ureau has been cooperati ng w ith
the N ati onal Federati on of T extil es, the T exti le Foundati on, and
H arv ard U niv ersity.
N E W D I V I SI O N O F N E G R O A F F A I R S

I n September 1933 the Secretary of Commerce called together
a conf erence of 10 N egro leaders to advise w i th him on the action
that m i ght best be taken by the Federal Government to advance
the economic l i f e of the A meri can N egro, by sti m ul ati ng N egro
business and enhancing the N egro consumer’s purchasi ng power.
T he resul t of thi s conf erence was the establishment in thi s B ureau,
on November 1, 1933, of a N egro A f f airs D ivision.
T hi s D ivi si on has prepared a very usef ul bi bl i ography on N egro
business. I t has f urni shed to inquirers occupational statisti cs, data
on retai l distri buti on, and i nf orm ati on on N egro commercial activi9 8 2 2 3 — 34 ------- 6

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REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

ti es of varied types rangi ng f rom hotels to i nsurance companies and
f rom aeronautics to motion-pi cture enterpri ses. T he chief has served
as chai rm an of the subcommittee on labor of the i nterdepartm ental
group concerned w i th the special problems of Negroes. I n many
instances the D ivi si on has acted as li aison betw een N egro business
and vari ous governmental agencies— as, f or example, in the case of
the ef f ort by the N ati onal N egro Business L eague to make arrange­
ments f or loans to N egro business enterpri ses. A series of public
addresses by the A dv i ser on N egro A f f airs has been exceptionally
w ell received.
W ORK

OF

B U R E A U ’S

D I ST R I C T

O FFICES

T he outstandi ng f eature of the w ork of the B ureau’s di stri ct offi­
ces duri ng the past fiscal y ear was the assistance given to the
N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on, parti cul arl y duri ng the f i rst 6
months. I n view of the urgent nature of th at organi zati on’s re­
quirements, i t became necessary to subordinate tem porari l y the cus­
tom ary acti vities of the B ureau’s offices. T he district-off ice man­
agers and numerous members of thei r staf fs were f url oughed to the
N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on, and i n many instances temporary
office quarters and equipment were supplied to th at agency.
A s quickl y as possible, how ever, successful ef f orts w ere made by
the B ureau to resume the usual district-off ice w ork. Separate office
space was obtained by the N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on, and
the B ureau appointed acti ng di stri ct managers, under whose direc­
tion the regul ar routi ne was tak en up again. Close cooperation w i th
local chambers of commerce and numerous civic and trade organi ­
zati ons has been resumed to the f ul l est possible extent. Persi stent
i nterest in and demand f or the B ureau’s services, despite the con­
tinuance of certai n adverse business conditions, has been stri k i ngl y
evidenced by the great number of commercial inquiries handled, the
trade l etters w ri tten, and the v isitors seeking trade inf orm ati on.
ECONOM IC

R E SE A R C H

T he increased emphasis upon the importance of f actual data rel ­
ati v e to i ndustry , commerce, and finance has tended to augment the
significance of the w ork of the D ivi si on of Economic Research dur­
ing the past fiscal year.
T he Survey of C urrent Business, contai ning more than 2,100 series
of basic economic statisti cs and summaries of leadi ng economic
trends, was f urni shed monthly, together w i th a supplement each
week, to Government officials and to 5,600 subscribers. T he data
thus provided served as a hi ghl y valued means of guidance to Gov­
ernm ent agencies and to business men. For the second successive
y ear, lack of pri nti ng f unds has prevented the publi cati on of the
A nnual Supplement of the Survey.
I n addi ti on to the current reports made through the Survey, the
D ivision has also f urni shed a w eekly summary of business condi­
tions, to Government officials and to the district'of fices of the B ureau
of Forei gn and D omestic Commerce, and a w eekly review of domes­
ti c business condi tions to the press and to some 1,000 pri v ate
subscribers.

BU REA U OF FOREI GN A ND D OM ESTI C COM M ERCE

47

I n order to f ill the need f or a yearly review of economic develop­
ments and trends, f orm erl y provided by the two volumes of the
Commerce Y earbook, the W orl d Economic Review , 1933, was pre­
pared and publi shed. Par t I pertai ns to the U ni ted States and p ar t
I I to f orei gn countri es, the f orm er hav i ng been prepared in the
D ivi si on of Economic Research and the l atter in the D ivision of
Regi onal I nf orm ati on. T he response to thi s volume has been so
f avorable that provision has been made to publi sh a si m i l ar volume
annuall y.
I n M arch 1933 the D ivi si on completed, w i th some assistance f rom
the N ati onal B ureau of Economic Research, a study of the income
of the people of the U ni ted States f or the 4 years 1929 to 1932, w hich
was publi shed as Senate D ocument 124, N ati onal I ncome, 1929-32.
T hi s study has evoked such keen and w idespread i nterest that plans
have been made to continue thi s w ork and to make annual reports
w i th respect to the volume of income and its di stri buti on among the
di f f erent economic groups, as in the present study, and to provide
a f urther “ breakdow n ” of the income by States.
I n accordance w ith a recommendation of the Business A dvisory
and Pl anni ng Council of the D epartm ent of Commerce (f oll ow ing
the submission of the proj ect by the T w enti eth Century Fund, I n c.),
the D ivi si on of Economic Research has undertak en a study of the
long-term debts of the i ndi v iduals, f irms, and Government uni ts in
the U ni ted States f rom 1913 to date, i ncluding data w i th respect to
the ti me the debts were i ncurred, the i nterest rates specified, and
the experience in regard to the pay m ent of i nterest and pri nci pal
w hen due and concerning def aul ts and adjustments. I t is planned
that thi s study shall be completed duri ng the next fiscal year and
that si m i l ar data shall be compiled currentl y in subsequent years.
Other studi es of a stati sti cal nature, deali ng w i th v i tal aspects
of economic developments, are in process of f ormulation, but the
extent to w hich addi ti onal w ork is undertak en is l i mited by the
budget of the D ivision, w hich is only sl i ghtl y above the substan­
ti al l y reduced level of 1933-34.
F or a peri od of nearl y 2 months at the close of the fiscal year,
the D ivision loaned the services of one of i ts experts to the Speci al
A dviser to the Presi dent on Forei gn T rade f or the purpose of out­
l i ni ng the w ork w hich the vari ous Government departm ents w i ll be
asked to do i n prepari ng data f or the A dviser.
SE R V I C E S

R E SP E C T I N G

V IT A E

PR O BL EM S

OE

T R A N SP O R T A T I O N

T he governmental agencies deali ng specif ically w i th the transport
problem achieved mark ed improvement of the si tuati on duri ng the
year.
T he T ransportati on D ivision of thi s B ureau cooperated w i th the
Coordinator of T ransportati on and the N ati onal Recovery A dm i n­
i strati on in thei r ef forts to bri ng the ex i sting transport structure
w i thi n the lines of current economic progress.
D uri ng the year, the “ T ri ni ty Riv er, Texas, study ” , to determi ne
the economic justi f icati on f o r the expenditure of $50,000,000 to $70,000,000 f or the proposed improvement of the T ri ni ty Ri v er was com­

48

REPOET OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

pl eted and submitted to the Chi ef of Engi neers, U ni ted States
A rmy. A somew hat more extensive study on the proposed w ater­
w ay f rom Cumberl and Sound, Georgi a-Fl ori da, to the M ississippi
was completed and submitted to the Chi ef of Engi neers; thi s study
involved the practi cabi l i ty of constructi ng a ship and barge canal
across Fl ori da at a cost of f rom $150,000,000 to $200,000,000. B oth
studi es were made in cooperation w i th the B oard of Rivers and
H arbors, W ar D epartment.
T he T ransportati on D ivi si on prepared economic and shi ppi ng
data relati ve to the proposed G reat L akes-St. L aw rence Seaw ay, the
m ateri al being i ncorporated in Senate D ocument No. 116, enti tl ed
“ Survey of the G reat L akes-St. L aw rence Seaw ay and Pow er Pr o j ­
ect.” T he D ivision cooperated w i th the D epartm ent of State in
draf ti ng recommendations relati ve to the w i thdraw al of the coast­
wise shi ppi ng laws f rom one of the island possessions of thi s country,
and also in study i ng the effect of a shi ppi ng bi l l proposed by a
f orei gn Government w hich w ould reserve to that country certain
coastwise shipping. I n cooperation w i th the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau
of thi s D epartm ent, the D ivi si on publ ished a bul l eti n on Commercial
and State-A i ded Shi p Scrappi ng, as w ell as a pam phl et contai ning
statements of recent developments in State aid to shipping.
D uri ng the y ear thi s D ivision prepared a report enti tl ed “ R ai l ­
w ay and H i ghw ay T ransportati on A broad: A Study of Ex i sti ng
Rel ati onships, Recent Competiti ve M easures, and Coordinati on
Policies.” T hi s was undertak en at the request of the secretary of
the Presi dent’s T ransportati on Committee to determine w hat is
being done in f orei gn countri es in connection w i th problems sim il ar
to those ex i sti ng in the U ni ted States. T hi s very extensive hand­
book is now in process of publ ication. The D ivi si on is prepari ng two
addi ti onal studies, one covering the development and operati on of
rai l and highw ay rate structures i n f oreign countri es, and the other
pertai ni ng to vari ous f orms of tax ati on of highw ay transport serv­
ices and the taxes appl y i ng to the f uel used by these vehicles. I n
addition, the D ivision i ni ti ated action looki ng tow ard the disposal
of surpl us_rai l w ay equipment to be used in the rehabi l i tati on of
Chinese railw ays.
One of the i m portant f uncti ons of the D ivi si on f or the next fiscal
y ear w ill be i n connection w i th the adm i ni strati on of the recently
enacted law perm i tti ng the establ ishment of Forei gn T rade Zones
in ports of entry i n the U ni ted States. T he D irector of the B ureau
w i ll serve as chairman of the i nterdepartm ental committee w hich w ill
act f or the board in adm i ni steri ng thi s law . and the acti ng chief of
the T ransportati on D ivi si on w il l serve as executive secretary of the
committee. A l l research and adm i ni strati v e w ork in connection w ith
the preparati on of inf orm ati onal data and the handl i ng of publ i ca­
tions w ill be perf ormed in the Division.
PU BL IC A T IO N S

OF

T H E

BU R EA U

T he drasti c cut in the al lotm ent of f unds f or pri nti ng necessitated
a substanti al curtai l m ent duri ng the past y ear in the number of
special reports publi shed by the B ureau, and the size of the peri odical
publications was reduced. A mong the most i m portant of the f oreignbusiness reports handl ed by the Edi tori al D ivi si on were those on

BU REA U OF FOREI GN A ND D OM ESTI C COM M ERCE

. 49

Sources of Forei gn Credi t I nf orm ati on, W orl d Chemical D evelop­
ments, and Rai lw ay and H i ghw ay T ransportati on A broad, while the
publications in the field of domestic commerce included, among others,
the monographs on W holesale D ruggi sts’ Operations, Costs, Sales,
and Prof i ts in the Retai l D rug Store (both these studi es hav i ng been
made in cooperation w i th the N ati onal D rug Store Survey Com­
m i ttee), and the Retai l Credi t Survey.
C O N C L U SI O N

W hil e the f unds al lotted to the B ureau f or 1934-35 are approx i ­
mately on the same reduced and economical basis as the appropri a­
ti ons f or the previous fiscal year, every ef f ort has been made to bri ng
about the necessary readjustm ents and at the same ti me meet the
increased demands that have been made upon the organization.
The B ureau is the cleari ng house of i nf orm ati on on f oreign trade,
recei ving reports f rom practi cal l y every p ar t of the w orld, ei ther
f rom i ts own f orei gn service men or f rom consular officers. T he
reciprocal trade agreements now in process of study and negoti ati on
w ith f oreign countries should be a potent and practi cal f actor in
stay i ng the trend tow ard commercial nati onali sm and isolation so
evident in the recent p ast; they should provide a strong stimulus to
A meri can f oreign trade and lead to a f reer flow of merchandise be­
tw een many countries of the w orld. The B ureau has devoted and
w il l continue to devote i ts every eff ort to a successful consummation
of these treati es in cooperati on w ith other Government departments.
I n the field of domestic commerce the B ureau has cooperated dur­
i ng the past y ear to the f ull est possible extent w i th the various recov­
ery units. Possessing data and i nf orm ati on not avai lable elsewhere,
i t has been in a posi tion to assist effectively in many directions, and
duri ng the coming year i t looks f orw ard to continued parti ci pati on
in the nati onal recovery program w ith all the resources at its com­
mand.
Ful l y conscious of its obligations to A merican business men, the
B ureau w ill continue to put f orth every ef f ort to f uncti on effectively
as a service uni t in the interest of f oreign and domestic business.
W i th our own country tak i ng the lead in removing w orld-trade
barri ers, i t is hoped th at the ef f orts to render practi cal service along
these lines w il l soon be converted into actual accomplishment.

N A T I O N A L B U R E A U OF ST A N D A R D S

G ENER AL

A C T IV IT IES

Finances and personnel.—T he appropri ati on f or the B ureau f or
1932 was $2,749,570; f or 1933, $2,257,280. T hi s reduction was met
by drasti c economies in operati on and an 8-day f url ough f or all
employees, w ithout a f orced reducti on of the staf f . T he appropri a­
ti on f or the y ear j ust closed (1934) was $2,056,045, but of thi s sum
$691,180 was impounded in conf ormance w i th the economy program ,
leavi ng $1,364,865 avail able f or expenditure. W i th f unds reduced
to one-half of the 1932 appropri ati on, the only recourse was a f arreachi ng reducti on of a trai ned staf f . One-thi rd of the staf f was
separated f rom the service in Jul y 1933 and an 8-day f url ough i m ­
posed on all rem ai ni ng employees. T he regul ar staf f at the close of
the fiscal year numbered 668 employees. I n addi ti on, 53 research
associates supported by nati onal engineering societies and trade asso­
ciati ons were engaged on techni cal problems of mutual i nterest to
the Government and to industry .
Testing.—T he organic act of the B ureau provides th at tests f or
the N ati onal and State Governments shall be made w ithout charge.
T he great volume of thi s w ork, parti cul arl y the testi ng of supplies
f or the Federal Government, has taxed the B ureau’s resources to the
l i m i t in recent years. W i th the l i mited appropri ati ons now av ai l ­
able, i t has been necessary to abandon or curtai l i m portant inv esti ga­
ti ons i n order to conduct the Government testing. T hi s i m portant
service w ould have broken dow n except f or the provisions of the
Economy A ct perm i tti ng the transf er of f unds f rom Government
departm ents w hen avail able to cover the cost of certai n tests.
V isiting committee.—T he present members of thi s committee are
Gano D unn, Charles L . Reese, M orris E. L eeds, and K arl T. Comp­
ton. T he members of the v i si ti ng committee have also served as
members of the Business A dvisory and Pl anni ng Council of the
D epartm ent of Commerce, and have devoted much time to the study
of the organizati on, f uncti ons, and needs of the B ureau.
I nternational relations.— T he I nternati onal Committee on W ei ghts
and M easures held i ts regul ar biennial meeting in Pari s, September
26 to October 11, 1933. The General Conf erence on W eights and
M easures (convened only once in 6 y ears) met at the same time.
T w enty-nine of the 32 member nati ons were represented. T he dele­
gates of the U ni ted States were Prof . A . E. K ennel ly, of H arv ard
U ni v ersi ty , and D r. T heodore M arri ner, counselor of the A merican
Embassy in Pari s. T he f oll ow i ng m atters w ere considered by the
General Conf erence:
T h er m a l ex p a n si o n o f p r o t o t y p e m e t e r s: N e w d e t e r m i n a t i o n s h a v e sh o w n t h e
o l d v a l u e s t o b e sl i g h t l y i n er r o r . T h e o l d c e r t i f i c a t e s w er e, t h e r e f o r e, ca n ce l e d

51

52

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

a n d n e w o n e s i ssu e d .
T h e f i n d i n g s a r e i n a cco r d w i t h m ea su r e m e n t s m a d e
p r e v i o u sl y a t t h e N a t i o n a l B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s.
D e f i n i t i o n o f t h e m et er i n w a v e l e n g t h s o f l i g h t : T h e B r i t i sh d e l e g a t e p r o­
p o sed t h a t t h e u n i t o f l e n g t h b e d ef i n ed i n t er m s o f l i g h t w a v e s, i n st e a d o f t h e
p r e se n t p r o t o t y p e m et er .
F u r t h e r st u d y o f t h e q u e st i o n w a s r e co m m en d ed b y
t h e co n f er en ce.
I n t e r n a t i o n a l sc a l e o f t e m p e r a t u r e : T h e g e n e r a l c o n f e r e n c e a cc ep t e d so m e co r ­
r e c t i o n s t o t h e t e x t d ef i n i n g t h e t em p e r a t u r e sca l e, b u t d eci d ed t o co n v o k e a n
i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f er en ce o n t h e r m o m e t r y b ef o r e a d o p t i n g t h e t em p e r a t u r e sc a l e
a s d ef i n i t i v e.
A d v i so r y co m m i t t e e o n p h o t o m e t r y : T h e c o n f e r e n c e a p p r o v ed t h e o r g a n i z a ­
t i o n o f a n e w c o m m i t t e e t o a d v i se t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m m i t t e e on W e i g h t s
a n d M e a su r e s o n su ch su b j e c t s a s p h o t o m e t r i c st a n d a r d s a n d sy st e m s o f
m ea su r e m en t .
E st a b l i sh m e n t o f a st a n d a r d o f l i g h t : T h e co n f e r e n c e l e f t t h e f o r m u l a t i o n
o f sp e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r a b l a ck - b o d y st a n d a r d o f l i g h t i n t h e h a n d s o f t h e newa d v i so r y co m m i t t e e on p h o t o m e t r y , t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m m i t t e e o n W e i g h t s a n d
M e a su r e s t o f i x t h e sp e c i f i c a t i o n s a t so m e su i t a b l e t i m e a f t e r r e c e i v i n g t h e
r e co m m en d a t i o n s o f t h e a d v i so r y co m m i t t e e.
S u b st i t u t i o n o f a b so l u t e e l e c t r i c a l u n i t s f o r t h e p r e se n t i n t e r n a t i o n a l u n i t s:
T h e d a t e f o r t h e p r o v i si o n a l e st a b l i sh m e n t o f t h e r a t i o b e t w e e n ea c h i n t e r ­
n a t i o n a l u n i t a n d t h e co r r e sp o n d i n g a b so l u t e u n i t w a s p o st p o n ed u n t i l 19 3 5 .
T h e co n f e r e n c e d e l e g a t e d t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m m i t t e e o n W e i g h t s a n d
M ea su r e s t h e p o w e r t o f i x t h e se r a t i o s a n d t o d eci d e u p o n t h e e x a c t d a t e f o r
t h e a d o p t i o n o f t h e n e w u n i t s.
J u r i sd i c t i o n o v e r e l e c t r i c a l u n i t s : T h e c o n f er en ce a d o p t ed a r e so l u t i o n d e c l a r ­
i n g i t se l f t h e l e g a l su c c e sso r t o t h e L o n d o n C o n f er en ce on E l e c t r i c a l U n i t s
( 1 9 0 8 ) a n d d el e g a t e d t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o m m i t t e e on W e i g h t s a n d M ea su r es
f u l l p o w e r s t o c h a n g e t h e sp e c i f i c a t i o n s a d o p t ed b y t h a t c o n f e r e n c e w h en
n ece ssa r y .

A s will be seen f rom the f oregoing, the general conference deal t
only w ith organi zati on and general principles to be f ollowed in estab­
li shi ng i nternati onal standards. T he detai led w ork is being done
by the I nternati onal Committee on W eights and M easures through
i ts advisory committees and the I nternati onal B ureau of W ei ghts
and M easures, in coll aboration w i th the nati onal standardi zi ng
laboratories.
U tility commission engineers.—T he tw el f th annual conf erence of
State uti l i ty commission engineers was hel d at the B ureau on M ay
31 and June 1. T he f oll ow ing papers and discussions were presented:
Customer and consumption data—residenti al custom ers; load f actor
in relati on to rates; use of indexes or cost transl ators in appraisals;
cost of el ectri cal distri buti on; the taxicab situati on; economies and
improvements in rural telephone service; publ i c-uti l i ty accidents,
causes and prev enti on; and butane and propane gases.
Federal Fire Council.—Fi re-hazard surveys were made of munic­
ipal hospi tals, and penal , correctional, and w elf are insti tuti ons in the
D i stri ct of Columbia. T he M anual of Fi re L oss Prev enti on was
prepared f or publ ication.
A merican Standards A ssociation.— U nder arrangements w i th thi s
association, the valuable w ork of the bui l di ng and plumbing code
committees, w hich was drasti cal l y curtai l ed through lack of f unds,
w ill be continued w ith the cooperation of the B ureau under the pro­
cedure of thi s association. W ork rel ati ng to saf ety codes has been
eff ectively carried on under A meri can Standards A ssociation pro­
cedure f or many years. The rapi dl y grow ing interest in commercial
standards, developed by m utual agreement of m anuf acturers, di s­
tri butors, and consumers w ill be supported both by the association
and thi s B ureau, using a si m i l ar procedure, w i th each organizati on

N A TI ON A L BU REA U OF STA NDA RDS

53

responsible f or the projects assigned to it. To f aci l i tate thi s w ork,
three members of the A merican Standards A ssociation staf f are now
located at the Bureau.
Federal Specifications B oard.— T hi s B oard, of w hich the D irector
of the N ati onal B ureau of Standards is ex-officio chairman, has pro­
mulgated a total of 879 standard purchase specif ications f or the
use of Federal departm ents and agencies.
EL ECTRICIT Y

M easurement of electrical units.— Substanti al progress has been
made in determining the absolute values of the electri cal uni ts, and
a paper on the determinati on of the ampere has been published. The
measurements so f ar made give as the most probable v al ue:
1 N. B. S. i nternati onal ampere = 0.999928 absolute ampere.
A l arge number of measurements have been made to determi ne
the absolute value of the N. B. S. ohm; the data obtained have not
yet been completely analyzed, but the resul t indi cated is 1 N. B. S.
ohm = 1.00046 absolute ohms.
Standards of electrical resistance.— A n investigati on has been
made of alloys of gol d and chromi um and of gold, chromium, and
cobalt, w hich give exceptional promise f or use in high-v alued stand­
ards of resistance. T he eighteen 1-ohm mangani n coils of improved
design constructed l ast y ear f or i nternati onal comparisons have ap­
parentl y mai ntai ned thei r values well w ithin one part i n a million.
Stand,ards of electromotive force.— T he B ureau’s W eston normal
cells of improved construction have justif ied the expectation of better
perf ormance as regards constancy and portabi l i ty A small group
of cells representi ng the B ureau’s pri m ary standard of electromotive
f orce was prepared f or the I nternati onal B ureau of W eights and
M easures at Sevres. A n anal ysis of records f or the past 14 years
hav i ng indicated a sl ight decrease in el ectromotive f orce of the
B ureau’s pri m ary ref erence group, a correction amounti ng to fivemil li onths of a v olt was made September 19, 1933.
M agnetic testing and research.-—A method f or preci se comparison
of m utual inductors used as standards in magnetic testi ng was de­
veloped. Tw o methods f or testi ng at low inductions w i th al ternati ng
currents w ere investigated and the condi tions necessary f or obtaining
reproducible resul ts were determi ned. A thermomagnetic investi­
gati on on the effect of prolonged tem peri ng at 100° C and of aging
at room tem perature of a quenched high-carbon steel was completed.
V arious arrangem ents of coils f or produci ng a uni f orm magnetic
field throughout a long cyli ndrical volume, such as that trav ersed by
the beam of a cathode-ray osci ll ograph, have been studied theoreti ­
cal ly and the results confirmed by experi ment.
Photometry and illurrdnation.—M ore than 2,500,000 incandescent
lamps were inspected and nearl y 4,000 lamps were li f e-tested f or
Federal departm ents. Over 300 standardi zed lamps were supplied
to State uni v ersi ty laboratories and lamp makers. Speci al groups
of standard lamps w ere cali brated f or comparison w i th those of the
N ati onal Physical L aboratory of G reat B ri ti an and the El ectrotech­
nical L aboratory of Japan. A n exhaustive i nv estigati on was made
of colored glasses f or ai rpl ane signal l i ghts f or the N avy D epartm ent;

54

REPOET OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

and tests w ere carri ed out on ai rw ay beacons using dif f erent lamps,
cover glasses, and aux i l i ary reflectors, f or the B ureau of A i r Com­
merce, D epartm ent of Commerce.
B attery research.— I n cooperation w i th the N avy D epartm ent ex­
peri m ental batteries were constructed and operated to test (1) v ari ­
ous alloys as materi al s f or gri ds of posi tive plates; (2) theories of
capacity in rel ati on to pl ate thickness; (3) change in electromotive
f orce w ith changi ng acid concentrati on and temperature. M easure­
ments of the quanti ty of acid consumed per Faraday duri ng dis­
charge gave results agreeing w ith the theoreti cal value to w i thi n 0.1
percent. D eterminations of the resi sti v i ty of sul phuri c acid solu­
ti ons betw een + 30° and —40° C were completed. O perati ng char­
acteristics of several types of batteri es on f lashing l i ghts are being
studied f or the B ureau of L ighthouses.
Standards of radio frequency.— T he rel i abi l i ty of the pri m ary
standard w as increased hy i m prov i ng the voltage regul ati on and other
elements of control. A number of dif f erent low f requencies of ex­
treme accuracy w ere deri ved f rom thi s standard f or use i n various
B ureau projects. A star t was made on the transmissi on by radi o of
10,000-kilocycle signals in addi ti on to the 5,000-kilocycle transm i s­
sions now maintained. T hi s standard f requency service is w idely
used throughout the U ni ted States to control broadcast frequencies.
T he service has also been reported as avai lable at times in A laska,
the Canal Zone, and H aw aii .
Transmission of radio leaves.— A n experim ental study was made
of the transmissi on uti l i ty of the f requencies used f or broadcasti ng.
T he law s were determined f or the v ary i ng propagati on of these
waves f rom day to ni ght, and summer to w i nter, f or dif f erent di s­
tances and f requencies. T he effects of ground waves and sky waves
were determined. T he sky waves were f ound to pl ay a f ar more
i m portant role in di stant daytime reception than previously sup­
posed. M easurements were made throughout the y ear on the hei ght
and ionizati on of the conducting layers i n the upper atmosphere
w hich are responsible f or long-distance radi o transmissi on. The
resul ts constitute the most complete body of data in existence on
thi s subject. From i t were deduced the roles played by reflection
and ref racti on, the relati v e effects of ul trav i ol et l i ght, electrons, and
heavy ions.
Telephone engineering service.—N umerous telephone service sur­
veys were made f or the Procurem ent D ivision of the T reasury D e­
partm ent to determine w here economies could be effected in new
and remodeled Federal buil di ngs. A t the request of the B ureau of
Pri sons, D epartm ent of Justi ce, detai led specif ications were prepared
f or i nteri or telephone systems, w i th superposed fire alarm, w atch,
and other special f eatures.
Saf ety codes.—A 1934 edition of the electri cal code combining
accident-prevention and f i re-prevention f eatures was prepared f or
the State of Oregon. A ssistance was given in rev i si ng the electrical
codes of New Jersey and W isconsin. W ork has continued on rev i ­
sion of saf ety codes f or elevators, f or paper and pul p mi lls, f or
head, eye, and l ung protection, and on acci dent stati stics.
Corrosion of pipe lines.— T entati v e f ormulas have been developed
to represent the rel ati on betw een maximum depth of pi tti ng by cor­
rosion and the l ength of exposure i n dif f erent soils, as well as the

N A T I ON A L B U REA U OF STA NDA RDS

55

rel ati on w hich depth of pi ts f ound in sample pipe have to the
maxi mum penetrati on to be expected on pipe lines i n si m i l ar soil.
T he rol e of soil aci di ty i n underground corrosion has been deter­
mined. A bout 3,000 specimens of f errous and nonf errous pipe m a­
teri al s and pipe coati ngs have been removed f rom 64 test sites f or
laboratory examination. N ine papers deal ing w i th soil corrosion
have been publi shed in outside periodical s and one in the B ureau’s
Journal of Research.
W EIG H T S A N D

M E A SU R E S

Theodolite circles.— Seventeen precision theodoli te circles were
successf ully constructed and cali brated f or the U ni ted States Coast
and Geodetic Survey. These circles have no errors i n excess of 2
seconds of arc, and the average error of graduati on is less than 1
second of arc. T hey are reported to be more accurate than those
f orm erl y in use, w hich were graduated abroad.
Standardization of geodetic tapes and wires.— Four 24-meter i n­
v ar w ires belonging to the I nternati onal B ureau of W eights and
M easures were measured. These wires are being sent to nati onal
standardi zi ng laboratories to enable the cooperati ng countries to
arri v e at a common basis f or geodetic measurements, and have also
been measured i n France, Engl and, Canada, and Germany. T he re­
sults so f ar obtained in the vari ous laboratori es are in very sati sf ac­
tory agreement.
Supplementary petroleum-oil tables.— D uri ng the past 10 years
practi cal l y al l cal culations of temperature-volume corrections f or
petroleum oils sold i n the U ni ted States have been based on the
tables contained i n B ureau of Standards Ci rcul ar No. 154 and i ts
supplement. To meet the need that has developed f or a w ider
densi ty range than th at covered by the ori gi nal tables, tw o new
group coefficients have been added— one f or very heavy and one f or
very l i ght oils. T he supplement has been revised and w ill be re­
issued af ter a review by the B ureau of M ines, A meri can Petrol eum
I nsti tute, and the A meri can Society f or T esti ng M aterials.
Test of master tapes.—T he many Ci vil W orks A dm i ni strati on
State surveying projects carri ed out under the directi on of the
U ni ted States Coast and Geodetic Survey required the testi ng of
a l arge number of steel tapes to serve as masters. These were tested
and certif ied by the B ureau.
Watches.—T he i nvestigati on of the comparative perf ormance of
w atches hav i ng the usual cut bimetalli c balance wheels and steel
•hairsprings and those hav i ng uncut monometallic balance wheels
and el i nv ar hai rspri ngs was completed. T he new assembly pro­
duces increased uni f orm i ty of rate over the tem perature range to
w hich a w atch is ordi nari l y subjected, and practi cal l y eliminates
the effects of magnetism. No mark ed dif f erence was f ound i n the
suscepti bil ity to posi tion or isochronism adjustment.
V olumetric apparatus and hydrometers.—M ore than 10,000 pieces
of glass volumetric apparatus and hydrometers w ere tested duri ng
the year. N earl y 95 percent of thi s apparatus met the test require­
ments f ull y. W i th the exception of di l uti on pipettes f or haemacytometers, practi cal l y all of thi s apparatus was made in the U ni ted

56

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

States and is much superi or to that received a few years ago w hen
much of i t was imported.
Thermal expansion.— D ata have been obtained on the therm al ex­
pansion of single crystals of anti mony, w i th various ori entati ons,
and an investigati on of the therm al expansion of copper-berylli um
alloys is now under way. Papers on the therm al expansion of columbium, thori um, and beari ng bronzes w ere published, and a paper
on graphi te and carbon is now i n press.
Cooperative dental research.—Good progress w as made in deter­
m i ni ng the physical properti es of dental m aterials and in the develop­
m ent of purchase specif ications f or such materi als. I n thi s w ork the
B ureau has had the f ul l cooperation of tw o research associates
assigned to the B ureau by the A merican D ental A ssociation, as well
as a representati ve of the B ureau of M edicine and Surgery, U ni ted
States N avy.
Special attenti on has been given to dental cements, vulcani tes, and
vulcani te substitutes, and to the development of an accelerated tarni sh
test f or dental alloys of low precious-metal content; also to the de­
velopment and standardi zati on of testi ng equipment f or dental ma­
terials. A group of about 150 practi ci ng dentists, scattered through­
out the country, are cooperati ng w ith the B ureau and the A merican
D ental A ssociation in thi s work.
Identification.-—W ork on questioned documents, bullets, and f ire­
arms, in cooperati on w i th the D ivision of I nv esti gati on, D epartm ent
of Justi ce, and w i th certai n other Federal agencies has been con­
tinued. A ssistance was given in cases involving extorti on, k i dnap­
ing, thef t of money orders, raised checks, f orgeries, stolen securi ­
ties, f alse contract, threateni ng l etters, etc.
Certification of limit gages.—T here was an increase of about 45
percent over the previ ous y ear in the number of gages, micrometers,
pol ariscope tubes, and penetrati on needles submitted f or test and
certif ication.
Test methods.—A n improved method of measuri ng the thread angle
of small tapered ri ng gages by the use of copper amal gam was de­
veloped, and improvements were made in the i nterf erom eter used in
the measurement of gage blocks by the use of k ry pton as a l i ght
source.
Cooperative orifice-meter tests.—T he j oi nt committee on orifice co­
efficients of the A merican Gas A ssociation and the A merican Society
of M echanical Engi neers w ill use equati ons proposed and developed
by thi s B ureau as a basis f or prepari ng new orifice-coefficient tables
f or use in commercial measurements of w ater, steam, and gases.
T he equations represent the resul ts of extended tests and measure­
ments in w hich the B ureau has parti ci pated.
Scales.— Each of the 19 master rai l w ay -track scales in the U ni ted
States was tested duri ng the year, 1 of these being tested twice. I n
the case of 8 scales, no adjustments or other modif ications w ere neces­
sary, the w eighi ng perf orm ance being w i thi n the adj ustm ent tol er­
ances of approx i m atel y 0.01 percent. A l l scales were f ound to be
w i thi n the maintenance tolerances of approx i matel y 0.02 percent.
T he numeri cal mean of the maximum percent errors on f inal test is
approx i m atel y 0.006 percent.
T here w ere also tested 1,309 commerci al-track scales located on
111 rai l road lines in 36 States, and the D i stri ct of Columbia, the

N A TI ON A L BU REA U OF STA NDA RDS

57

l argest number ever tested by the B ureau in a year. The percentage
of scales f ound correct w as 77.9, this f igure being 2.7 percent lower
than l ast year. T hi s is the f i rst year since 1922 that thi s f igure has
f ai l ed to show an increase over the f igure f or the preceding year.
T he percentage of rail road-ow ned scales f ound correct increased,
but the f igure f or i ndustry-ow ned scales f ell off sharply . T he average
error of all scales w as 0.17 percent. Corrective adjustments were
made on 83 scales, the average error on these scales being thus re­
duced f rom 0.28 to 0.08 percent.
Si x ty rail w ay-track-scale test-w eight cars were standardi zed on the
B ureau master track scale at Cleari ng, 111. I n addi ti on, 45 testw eight cars were w eighed in the field in connection w ith the opera­
ti on of the B ureau’s testi ng equipments.
On account of decreased appropri ati ons mine scales were tested
onl y on urgent request. T hi rty out of f orty -ei ght scales of thi s class
tested, or 62.5 percent, were f ound to be correct w i thi n the prescribed
tolerance of 0.4 percent. A lso an inspector was assigned to the State
of K entucky f or the trai ni ng of State inspectors in charge of two
mine-scale equipments w hich the State was putti ng into service.
H EA T

A N D

PO W E R

Effects of aging on clinical thermometers.—Sev eral gross of f reshly
m anuf actured clinical thermometers have been received through the
courtesy of tw o of the l arger m anuf acturers f or use in traci ng the
changes w hich may occur in the properti es of these i nstruments w ith
time, starti ng f rom the day of manuf acture.
Scale of color tem/pera;tv/re.—A n absolute scale of color tem pera­
ture, based on the color of radi ati on f rom black bodies immersed in
f reezi ng pl ati num , rhodium, and iri di um , has been established and
is now in use.
Freezing point of rhodium.—The tem perature of f reezi ng rhodium,
i n vacuo, has been determined as 1,966° C. w ith an accuracy of
± 3° C.
Photometric standards f or tungsten lamps.—A method has been
devised and appl i ed to practi ce of deriv ing tungsten f ilament photo­
metric standards f rom the basic carbon-f i lament standards.
Properties of steam.—-The experim ental part of the w ork on prop­
erti es of saturated ivater and steam was v i rtual l y completed. This
consisted of measurements of v apor pressure and calorimetric meas­
urements w hich, together, suffice to determi ne all the quanti ti es given
in a steam table under the headi ng “ Properti es of saturated steam.”
Saturated vapors.—A n empirical f orm ul a of w ide generali ty has
been developed, w hich expresses specific volume in terms of the vapor
pressure and the specific volume of the liquid. Two empirical con­
stants are involved, one of w hich i s the same f or all substances ex­
amined, while the other varies but l i ttl e f or dif f erent substances.
H eats of combustion.— A complete redeterm i nati on of the heats of
combustion of tw o lots of benzoic acid gave results in agreement
w i thi n 0.01 percent and in agreement w i th the most reliable of other
determi nati ons w ithi n a f ew hundredths of 1 percent. D eterm i na­
ti ons of the heat of combustion of rubber and of rubber-sul phur

58

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

compounds were of sufficient accuracy to lead to reli able val ues f or
the heat of combination of rubber and sul phur.
Temperature control .—T he method of tem perature control used
f or radio-f requency standards has been adapted f or use i n tw o
bridges f or resistance thermometry and f or control l i ng the tem pera­
ture of standard cells. T he results are better than previously ob­
tai ned w i th oil baths, and the new equi pment is much simpl er and
cleaner and has the addi ti onal advantage th at the constant tem ­
perature is mai ntai ned continuously.
Thermal conductivities of metals.—A pparatus and methods have
been devised f or the rapi d and moderately accurate determ i nati on of
the therm al conducti vity of metals.
A ir cleaners.— T hrough the cooperation of several divisions of the
B ureau, a sati sf actory method of testi ng the efficiency of air-cleaning
devices f or buil dings has been developed and appli ed to the rati ng
of such devices f or Federal purchases.
L ow-temperature thermometry .— Progress was made i n the setting
up of a tem perature scale f or the range —259° to —190° C. T he
construction and assembling of the helium-gas thermometer, to be
used as a pri m ary standard, is nearl y completed. Pl ati num -resi st­
ance thermometers and hydrogen-v apor-pressure thermometers,
w hich are to be used as standards f or the cali bration of other ther­
mometers, are bei ng inv esti gated f or thei r reli abil ity.
V apor pressure of heavy hydrogen.—The, v apor pressures of solid
and li quid deuterium were measured. From these data i ts f reezi ng
and boil ing points and i ts l atent heats w ere deduced.
Fi re resistance.-—Structural steel columns encased i n gypsum 2
to 3 inches thi ck supported w ork i ng loads f or 2y2 to 1 hours in the
standard f urnace test, w hereas f ai l ure occurred w i thi n y2 hour w i th­
out f ire protecti ve coverings. A comprehensive series of tests w ith
roll ed shapes and round bars at temperatures up to 945° C. was
completed, the slenderness rati o (1/ r ) f or the bars being in the range
20 to 150.
Cigarettes as fire causes.— Tests made under caref ul l y controll ed
condi tions w i th l i ghted cigarettes on grass and f orest floor materials
show that the f ire hazard is greatl y decreased when a cigarette paper
ti p % to 1 inch long is appli ed in course of m anuf acture over the
end th at is discarded.
Phenomena of combustion.— T he spati al speed of flame i n mixtures
of carbon monoxide, oxygen, and w ater v apor was measured at con­
stant volume over a w ide range of concentrations. T he bubble
method has been sati sf actori l y ref ined and is now being used to
measure flame speeds.
Psychrometric charts.— Charts f or the rapi d and precise ev al ua­
tion of hum i di ty f rom psychrometric observations were issued earl y
in the year. T hi s publi cati on w i ll be supplemented shortl y by
psychrometric charts f or hi gh and low pressures w hich cover the
ranges of tem perature, pressure, and hum i di ty over w hich the
psychrometer can be used to advantage.
D etonation rating of aviation fuels.— T o ascertain w hether the
test method adopted f or f i nding the octane numbers of motor f uels
is di rectl y applicable to aviation f uels, the B ureau and several co­
operati ng engine manuf acturers are comparing the perf ormance of'
ty pi cal aviation f uels in f ull -scal e ai rcraf t engines.

N A TI ON A L B U R EA t' OP STA NDA RDS

59

Carburetor icing.—A study lias been made of the influence of f uel
v ol ati l i ty and atmospheri c conditions on the f orm ati on of ice i n ai r­
craf t engine carburetors. T he results can be used to predi ct the
danger zone f or any parti cul ar engine and f uel.
L ubricants f or use at extreme pressure.—A testi ng machine and
test procedure devised duri ng the previous y ear have both been re­
vised and perf ected to a poi nt w here reliable tests can be made to
determine the l i m i ti ng gear tooth pressure under w hich various
l ubri cants w il l prev ent abrasion and scori ng of the metal surf aces.
V apor lock .—A study was completed of conditi ons under w hich
f uels vapori ze in the automotive f uel f eed system and i nterf ere w i th
engine operati on. T he results poi nt the w ay to practi cal solutions
of thi s difficulty.
O PT I C S

Standard wave lengths.-—I nterf erence measurements in the f i rst
spectra of the noble gases have been repeated and extended. M ost
of the lines have been f ound reproducible to one p ar t i n 50 mil li on
and consequently can be recommended as standards f or spectroscopic
and metrologi cal measurements.
End gages.—T he B ureau has f inished a number of f used quartz
decimeter end gages w i th ends plane, paral l el , and correct in l ength
to w ithin one p ar t in 2 mi llion. For purposes of i nternati onal stand­
ardi zati on of l ength measurements, these gages w i ll be measured by
means of standard wave lengths of l i ght, then two each w i ll be sent
to the leadi ng nati onal standardi zi ng laboratories f or si m i l ar meas­
urement.
Spectrum analysis.—To develop spectrographi c methods of m ak ­
ing quanti tati v e chemical analyses, the parti al spectra of vari ous
prepared mix tures have been studied. New descripti ons of spectra
have been completed f or columbium and tantal um , and the ul tr a­
violet spectra of i ron and chromium have been remeasured. A nal ­
yses of spectral structures have been completed f or the second spec­
trum of haf ni um , and extended f or the f i rst tw o spectra of columbium
and chromium.
U ltraviolet radiometry .—A n instrum ent consi sting of a balanced
vacuum tube amplif ier and a special ul trav i ol et sensitive photoelec­
tri c cell was developed f or determi ni ng the solar spectral energy
curve in the w ave-length range below 3,200 angstroms.
Photometer f or diffusing media.—Equi pm ent has been developed
by w hich the reflective and transmissi ve properti es of dif f using
medi a may be measured. I t provides f or measurement at any de­
sired angle of view, w i th i l l um i nati on uni di recti onal or completely
diff used, and ei ther homogeneous or heterogeneous i n wave length.
M easurement of opacity .— Sources of error i n the measurement
of opacity of thi n samples, such as paper, by the contrast-rati o
method, have been investigated both theoreti call y and ex peri ­
mentally. Opal glass standards of opacity have been developed f or
checking meters f or the opaci ty of paper.
L,ens testing.—A l l lenses f or ai rpl ane m appi ng used by the A rmy
and N avy or on Government projects must be rigorously tested by
the B ureau. M ore than 100 were tested f or di storti on and other
properti es on an apparatus especially designed and constructed f or
the purpose.

6 0

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

Photographic sensitometry.—Results of a study of the i nterna­
ti onal standard sensitometri c developer p-aminophenol (f o r nega­
ti ve m ateri al s) were published.
Radium and radioactive materials.-—N earl y 1,700 radioactive
preparati ons, hav i ng a radi um content of about 16 grams and
m ark et value of $1,000,000, were tested duri ng the year. A n i nstru­
ment consi sting of a portable ionization chamber w i th vacuum tube
ampl if i er was developed f or locati ng lost radi um preparati ons. A
continuously visible indi cati on as the chamber nears the prepara­
ti on makes thi s i nstrum ent both more accurate and more rapi d than
equipment avai lable heretof ore.
X -rays.—A method was successf ully developed f or specif ying the
qual i ty of radi ati on f urni shed bjr the various types of X -ray excita­
ti on potenti al s used in therapeuti c w ork. T hi s specif ication is based
on the complete copper (or al um i num ) absorpti on curve of the
radi ati on and is expressed by the equival ent constant exci tation
potenti al and the equival ent i ni ti al f i l trati on. A greement was
reached between the X -ray standardi zi ng laboratories of Engl and,
France, Germany, and thi s country, establi shing the same stand­
ardi zi ng procedure in connection w i th X -ray measurements used
by the medical prof ession.
Gaging^ equipment.— On request of the Secretary of the T reasury,
a prel i m i nary survey was made of the gagi ng equipment in use
i n the U ni ted States Customs Service f or the determinati on of the
volume of i m ported l i quid products, such as molasses, sirups, dis­
ti l l ed spi ri ts, wines, etc.
Polarization of raw sugars.—A study of the errors in the testi ng
of raw sugars and alli ed products due to clari f ication w i th basic
lead acetate has been conducted. T entati v e specif ications have been
devised f or the dry basic lead 'acetate reagent. Several hundred
comparati ve _analyses were made on dif f erent raw sugars, usi ng
di f f erent basic lead acetates as clarif iers.
Sugar colorimetry.—A simple apparatus f or the measurement of
color in sugar solutions has been developed, w hich consists of a
D uboscq colorimeter, a set of three glass pl ates cal i brated in terms
of transmission f or definite wave lengths to serve as photometric
standards, special color f ilters, and an ordi nary incandescent source.
Preparation of xylose.— Several hundred pounds of xylose residues
were puri f ied in the levulose pl ant, by treatm ent w i th basic lead ace­
tate, y i el di ng nearl y 200 pounds of an excellent grade of xylose.
Photochemical changes in window glasses.— Ex posure of sodalime-silica glasses to l i ght was f ound to low er or raise, as the case
may be, the transmissi on of the glass to an equili bri um value which
varies w ith the wave l ength of the i rradi ati ng energy.
Standards f or index of refraction.— Consi deri ng a peri od covered
by the l ast 75 years, a stati sti cal correlati on has been f ound between
publ ished ref racti v i ti es of dry ai r (under standard conditions) and
solar acti v i ty as evidenced by sun-spot numbers. T hi s indi cates the
existence of small periodic v ari ati ons in the ref racti v e index of ai r
w here previ ousl y a hi gh degree of uni f orm i ty has been assumed in
correcting^ standard wave lengths measured in ai r to vacuum values.
Expansivity of glass.—T he expansiv ity of certai n borosilicate
glasses is f ound to depend on the tem perature of the anneali ng treat­

N A TI ON A L B U REA U OF STA NDA RDS

6 1

ment. Si m i l ar tests on some other glasses in common use, but not
belonging to the borosilicate group, have not disclosed comparabl e
effects of heat treatm ent on the expansiv ity.
C H E M I ST R Y

Isotopic f ractionation of water.— A pref erenti al selection of the
heavier isotope of hydrogen has been f ound to occur duri ng the
synthesis of organic compounds by a grow ing w illow tree. Sl i ght
diff erences i n isotopic composition of samples of w ater f rom the
D ead Sea, G reat Sal t L ake, the ocean, and the w ater of cry stal l i za­
ti on of nati ve borax have been detected by precise measurements
of densities. U pon el ectrolysis of w ater, the isotopes of oxygen as
well as hydrogen have been shown to f racti onate.
Thermochemistry.— A ccurate measurement has been made of the
heats of combustion of ethane, propane, normal butane, and normal
pentane. The new values are f rom 0.85 to 1.26 percent hi gher than
w hat have been the usuall y accepted “ best ” values f or these therm o­
chemical constants. T ables of the heats of f orm ati on and of com­
bustion of all the normal al i phati c hydrocarbons and alcohols have
been compiled. A simple cal orimeter f or measuri ng heats of f usion
was developed and used to obtain data on some li quid hydrocarbons.
Contributi ons to the subject of the energies of the atomic li nkages in
the normal paraff in hydrocarbons and alcohols have been made.
Constituents of petroleum .—A ddi ti onal hydrocarbons have been
isol ated f rom the naphtha f racti on of petroleum and w ork has been
started on the l ubri cati ng oil f racti on.
Rubber hydrocarbon.— T he investigati on on rubber hydrocarbon
was continued, and i m portant results were obtained. Prof . George
L . Clark , U ni v ersi ty of I l l i noi s, collaborated by m aking X -ray
studies of unvulcanized and vulcani zed samples prepared here. T he
stress-strai n relati ons of sol, gel, and total rubber, vulcani zed, in
dif f erent w ays, were determined.
Gas cell materials.—W ork was continued f or the N avy D epartment
on materials f or making the gas cells of airships. One type of mate­
ri al th at can be made in any desired quanti ty appears very promising.
Platinum, metals.—The development of an accurate method f or the
separati on of rutheni um f rom the remai ni ng metals marked the com­
pleti on of the group of analy tical methods w hich perm i t the stri ctl y
quanti tati v e separati on of any two of the six metals of the pl ati num
group.
Coatings on steel.— T hi s B ureau cooperated w i th the A merican
El ectropl aters’ Society and the A merican Society f or T esti ng M ate­
ri al s in exposure tests and l aboratory studies of chromium-plated
steel. T he results of 2 y ears’ exposure show th at the thickness of
the nickel and copper base coati ngs is the most i m portant f actor. A
base coat at least 0.001 inch thi ck is desirable f or outdoor exposure.
A layer of copper in the base coat is detri m ental in thi n coati ngs but
not in thi ck er coatings. T he f inal layer of chromi um improves the
appearance and resistance to tarni sh, but does not add much to the
protecti on against corrosion of the steel. Cadmium coati ngs are
i nf eri or to zinc in a severe i ndustri al atmosphere.
Pure metals.—A method f or the purif ication of crude gal l i um has
been developed, and there has been prepared a quanti ty of galli um
i)8223__34____7

6 2

REPOST OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

contai ning as the only i mpurities spectrographic traces of calcium',,
magnesium, and iron.
Standards f or gas service.—T he preparati on of the new ci rcul ar on
standards f or gas service w as completed. T he ci rcul ar is intended as
a guide to good practi ce in the f uel-gas i ndustry and as a source o f
techni cal inf ormation to public officials and others.
Gas appliance attachments.—A B ureau circular, enti tl ed “ Cautions'
.Regarding Gas A ppli ance A ttachments ” , was published i n an abbre­
v iated f orm in one of the household j ournal s and has aroused
unusual popul ar interest.
Gas analysis.—Research on methods of gas analysi s has included a
quanti tati v e study of numerous sources of error w hich affect the usual
methods of analysis, a comparison of several methods of combustion
employed in anal y ti cal w ork, and the development of improved appa­
ratus f or the determinati on of dissolved gas.
A sphalt roofing materials.—A method of quanti tati v e determ i na­
ti on of entrapped ai r i n bituminous products has been developed..
T he “ degree of fineness f actor ” (rati o of bul k i ng w eight and specific
grav i ty ) indicates the bahav i or of mineral fillers f or asphalt. T he
oil absorpti on is proporti onal to the fineness f actor. I t has been di s­
covered that asphal ts on exposure to l i ght develop w ater-soluble
(hy groscopic) products.
M ethods of analysis.—R api d methods have been developed f or the
determinati on of alumi num, alkal ine earths, and alkal ies in f eldspars
that are graded under Commercial Standard CS 23-30. I n the chem­
ical requirements f or certain nonf errous metals, Federal specif ications
state th at the amount of al uminum shall be “ none.” For the testi ng
of such m aterials there has been developed a method w hereby as l i ttl e
as 0.0001 percent of al uminum can be detected or determined.
Testing.—T he chemical testi ng of a great v ari ety of m aterials f or
vari ous branches of the Government has been unusuall y heavy. I n
connection w i th the testi ng of pai nts, investigati ons have been made
to improve various pai nts, f or example, i nternati onal orange pai nt
f or airw ays and w hite traffic pai nt f or highw ays. _ W ork has been
continued on accelerated w eathering tests and physical tests of v ari ­
ous types of paints. W henever possible thi s ty pe of testi ng has been
substi tuted f or composition requirements.
A nalytical reagent chemicals.—T he cooperative w ork w i th the
A merican Chemical Society was continued. I t involved, as usual,
the cri ti cal study of many methods f or esti mati ng small amounts of
im puri ti es in anal y ti cal reagent chemicals. O utstandi ng projects
w ere: D evelopment of a method f or determi ni ng small amounts of
w ater i n ether, revision in all published specif ications of the test f or
ni trates, revision of the test f or i ron in phosphoric acid and phosphate
salts.
M ECH ANICS

A N D

SO U N D

Testing instrvments and appliances.—A pprox i m atel y 850 engineer­
ing instruments w ere cali brated duri ng the past year. Tests were
made f or the T reasury D epartm ent to develop beer-meteri ng i nstru­
ments of suitable accuracy f or revenue-collection purposes. Per ­
f ormance tests were made of a number of types of thermostati c
valves f or use in heati ng i nstal l ati ons in Government buildings. A p­

N A TI ON A L BU REA U OE STA NDA RDS

63

proxim ately 100 items of f i re-exti nguishing equipment, rangi ng f rom
hand extinguishers to complete systems, were investigated and tested
f or the Government departments, pri nci pal l y f or the B ureau of N av i ­
gati on and Steamboat I nspecti on as a basis f or approv al f or use on
vessels. T he investigati on of the accuracy and rel i abi l i ty of auto­
matic postage meteri ng devices f or the Post Office D epartm ent w as
continued through the present fiscal year; 21 tests of thi s nature were,
made.
A c o u st i c p r o p e r t i e s o f b u i l d i n g m a t e r i a l s . —T he services of the
B ureau are conti nuall y in requisition by other departm ents of the
Government w hich have bui l di ng w ork on hand, notabl y in the con­
structi on of new Federal courthouses. Publ i c i nterest in the reduc­
ti on of noise continues and advice and tests of m ateri al f or thi s
purpose are f requentl y requested.
A b so l u t e m e a su r e m e n t o f s o u n d i n t e n s i t y . —W ork of thi s character
is required as a basis f or the measurement of the acoustic properti es
of bui l di ng m aterials and in the cali bration of microphones and
loudspeakers f or publi c-address systems and sound pictures. I t is
to be regretted that thi s w ork must be suspended f or the ensuing
y ear f or f inancial reasons.
A b so l u t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f g r a v i t y a t W a s h i n g t o n . — T hi s proj ect
was undertak en at the request of the Coast and Geodetic Surv ey /
but the result w il l be usef ul also to the B ureau in al l probl ems
i nvolving absolute f orce measurements, such as the determinati on of
the ampere in absolute measure. Reversible pendul ums of f used
silica, carry i ng paral l el planes, are being used in these measurements.
A i r c r a f t - i n s t r u m e n t d e v e l o p m e n t s. —A vibrometer f or measuri ng’
the ampli tude of v i brati on of the instrum ent panel on ai rcraf t, an
oil -quanti ty gage of the pneumatic type, an angle-of -attack i ndi ­
cator f or the U . S. S. M a c o n , a control-stick f orce indi cator, a
superheat meter of the resistance type, and five electri cal-resistance
thermometers w ere designed and constructed f or the B ureau of
A eronautics of the N avy D epartm ent. Chapters on altimeters and
air-speed indicators were prepared f or the N avy I nstrum ent H and­
book. Considerable progress was made in investigati ons on the per­
f ormance of directi onal gyroscopes, magnetic compasses, and l ubri ­
cants f or fine mechanisms. A report on the measurement of al ti tude
in bl i nd f lying has been completed f or the N ati onal A dv i sory Com­
mittee f or A eronautics.
M e r c u r i a l b a r o m e t e r . —A Fuess m ercuri al barometer has been mod­
ified so that the vacuum above the mercury column can be both
controlled and measured. T he barom eter is f or use as a standard
in measuri ng atmospheri c pressure.
V i b r a t i o n s o f a i r c r a f t p r o p e l l e r s . — T hi s investi gati on has been
continued using new equipment f or producing vibrations. Com­
puted and measured stresses show good agreement. Fai l ures pro­
duced in propell ers on the apparatus check w i th these stresses.
Prel i m i nary ground tests of an i nstrum ent designed to detect dan­
gerous vibrati ons of propel l ers duri ng f li ght have been made i n
cooperation w ith the N ati onal A dvisory Committee f or A eronautics.
A descri pti on of the i nstrum ent was publi shed i n the Journal of
Research.
M e a s u r e m e n t o f t u r b u l e n c e . — W o r k has been conti nued on the de­
velopment of portable equipment. Tw o possibi li ties are being inv es­

64

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

ti gated: (1) Portabl e hot w ire apparatus; and (2) pressure drop
measurements on a sphere cal i brated by means of the present appa­
ratus.
Computation of ai r flow.— Two papers deali ng w i th theoreti cal
computati on of boundary layer ai r how have been prepared f or
publ i cati on as T echnical Reports of the N ati onal A dvisory Com­
mi ttee f or A eronauti cs.
A erodynamical characteristics of automobiles.—Papers concerning
thi s subject have been publi shed i n the Journal of Research and the
Journal of the Society of A utomotive Engineers.
Optical strain gage.—These gages mounted on v i brati ng ai rpl ane
propel l ers are subjected to such l arge i nerti al f orces that the elastic
strai n of the gages is not negli gible, necessi tating a double set of
readi ngs to determine the strai n in the propell er. Special l i ght­
w ei ght gages and ri gi d knif e-edges have reduced thi s effect so that
i n most cases i t is negligible and only one readi ng is now necessary.
F l at steel-plate floor.—I n cooperation w i th the A meri can I nsti tute
of Steel Construction, a f l at steel-plate floor of 18 f eet span was
tested to determine i ts strength and w hether i t behaved as a uni t
under load. T he floor was bui l t of 4-i nch steel I -beams and steel
plates, 24 inches w ide and %-i nch thick, w i th continuous manual
welds j oi ni ng the pl ates to the I -beams. T he measured stresses and
the measured deflections were i n substanti al agreement w i th values
computed by the ordi nary theory of beams. T he results have been
publi shed i n the Journal of Research.
M iscellaneous testing.— Specimens of diverse structural parts sub­
m i tted by the B ureau of A eronautics of the N avy, f or chemical,
metal l urgi cal , and mechanical tests duri ng the past y ear have i n­
cl uded : Engi ne mounts, cyli nder heads, bomb racks, stabi li zer spars,
w ire ropes f or arresti ng gear, ti e rods and ti e-rod terminals, anchor
bolts, w elded j oi nts, and numerous specimens of sheet and tube.
T ests of construction m ateri al s were also made f or the T reasury
D epartm ent, Post Office D epartm ent, W ar D epartm ent, the Panam a
Canal, and the H i ghw ay L aboratory of the D i stri ct of Columbia.
N ational H ydraulic L aboratory.— T hi s laboratory is now in active
operati on, w i th seven problems under investigati on. These are:
Physics of plumbing systems, conducted f or the subcommittee on
pl um bi ng of the U ni ted States D epartm ent of Commerce; pressure
losses at pi pe bends, f or the U ni ted States B ureau of Recl amation;
rel ati v e scouri ng effects of clear and muddy w ater on a ri v er bed of
fine sand, f or the U ni ted States B ureau of Reclamation; tw o projects
on the transportati on of sediment by f lowing w ater, f or the U ni ted
States Geological Survey and the U ni ted States Corps of Engi neers;
a study of di visors f or measuri ng the run-of f and eroded soil f rom
agri cul tural test plots, f or the Soil Erosi on Service of the U ni ted
States D epartm ent of the I nteri or. A n i nvestigati on of the charac­
teri sti cs of deep-well current meters has been completed f or the
U ni ted States Geological Survey.
T hree reports on current hy draul i c research and a report describ­
i ng the hy draul i c l aboratories in the U ni ted States have been pre­
pared and have had w ide di stri buti on among the i nterested services
of the Federal and State Governments and the hy draul i c laboratori es
in the U ni ted States and abroad.

N A T I ON A L BU B BA U OB STA NDA RDS
O RG ANIC

A N D

FIBR O U S

65

M A T ER IA L S

Wool textiles.-—Q uanti tati v e data on the system w ool-sulphuri c
aci d-w ater under conditions si m i l ar to those in the soaking, dry i ng,
and balli ng of wool in the carbonization process were obtained in
cooperation w i th the A meri can A ssociation of T exti le Chemists and
Col orists and the T exti le Foundati on, I nc. These data provide the
i ndustry w i th a basis f or the effective study of mill problems rel ati ng
to thi s process. D uri ng thi s w ork a new method f or determi ni ng the
acti on of various chemicals upon wool was developed.
Woven f abric underwear.— T he dimensions of woven f abri c under­
w ear Avere studied in cooperation w i th the UnderA vear I nsti tute.
B ased on thi s w ork, the i nsti tute adopted standard mi nimum meas­
urements f or men’s, boys’, and chi l dren’s woven f abri c underA vear
Avhich w ere then i ncorporated i n the code f or thi s i ndustry .
H osiery.—T he B ureau has cooperated w i th the General Federa­
tion of W omen’s Clubs and Avith the N ati onal A ssociation of H osi ery
M anuf acturers in the development of standards f or hosiery. A spec­
if ication based upon the use of a testi ng machine designed by the
B ureau was adopted tentati v el y by the f ederation.
Carpets.-—W ear of carpets of know n constructi ons Avith and Avithout underl ay s w as studi ed w i th the ai d of the carpet A vear-testing
machine developed at the B ureau. T he durabi l i ty of a carpet was
f ound to be m ateri al l y increased by increase in densi ty or hei ght of
pile and by the use of underl ays.
Standardization of papers.-—I n order to secure better regi ster of
successive color pri nts in l i thographi c pri nti ng, another series of
commercial experimental pri nti ngs Avas made. T he papers pri nted
were made by f our dif f erent manuf acturers according to specifica­
ti ons developed f rom previ ous pri nti ngs and laboratory tests. E x ­
cell ent regi ster w as obtained w i th the standardi zed papers.
Specif ications were developed f or B rai l l e paper to be used in
L i brary of Congress publi cati ons f or the bli nd. T he qual i ty stand­
ards Avere established by l aboratory tests of commercial papers,
pri nti ng of experim ental papers, and test readings of the pri nts by
bl i nd readers.
Tests of redeemed paper currency showed that bil ls contai ni ng an
increased amount of cotton fiber had sati sf actory Avearing quali ty.
T hi s confirmed a previous f i nding based on experim ental paper made
i n the B ureau’s mill.
Paper-making materials.-—A series of papers was made in the
B ureau’s mil l i n a study of the influence of sizing m ateri al s and
paper-m ak i ng operati ons on the stabi l i ty of papers made f rom the
various grades of rag fibers. A s f ound Avith other fibers, the stabi l i ty
of the papers Avas proporti onal to the puri ty of the fibers and the
amount of acid present. Study of the use of starch f rom sAveetpotato culls, a Avaste product, f or beater sizing paper indicated that
f or thi s purpose i t is equal to the best commercial starches f rom other
materi als.
M easuring the pH of leather.—A method was developed f or de­
term i ni ng the pH of leathers by measuring the pH of w ater ex­
tracts. Ef f ects of ti me of soaking, amount of sample used, tem pera­
ture, grease content, method of prepari ng sample, and f i l teri ng the

66

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

ex tract were studi ed. Comparisons made w i th the hydrogen and
gl ass electrodes showed the l atter to be more sati sf actory f rom the
view point of speed and rel i abi l i ty of results. A si ngle pH measure­
m ent by thi s method is considered to give a sati sf actory measure of
the harm f ul acidi ty i n sole leather.
Structure of collagen.— T he equival ent w eight of collagen, as de­
term i ned in dil ute aci d solutions, is not a true equival ent w eight. I n
hydrochlori c-aci d solutions above about 0.2 N concentration, a def in­
i te amount of acid reacts w i th the strongly basic ni trogen groups
and a v ary i ng amount w ith the less basic groups.
Floor coverings.—D uri ng the past y ear a specif ication f or asphal t
ti l e has been prepared and put into use. A def inite rel ati on between
ti m e and depth of i ndentati on w here a load acts upon a sphere
pressi ng i nto the test specimen was discovered. T he tw o constants
i n the equati on representi ng this rel ati on give i m portant i nf orm a­
ti on about the properti es of plastic materi als.
K raf t and soda pulp from cornstalks.— Considerable w ork has been
done on thi s project on a semicommercial scale and f ai r grades of
paper have been made in the B ureau’s paper mill.
Sw\eetpotato-starch sizing f or textiles.—A n arti cle has been pub­
li shed on thi s sizing and i ts properties. I ts sui tabi l i ty f or y arns and
f abri cs is under study in a semicommercial texti le mil l at A uburn,
A l a.
Furf ural demvatives.— F urf ural and derivatives are made f rom
f arm wastes. T hey can be analyzed quanti tati v el y and rapi dl y by a
bromi ne method described in two published articles.
Uses f or xylose sugar from farm wastes.—-Samples of purif ied
xylose have been sent to i ndustri al and medical laboratori es. A l ­
though incomplete, the w ork so f ar shows no injuri ous effects ari si ng
f rom xylose eaten by diabetics.

M easurement of ionization constants of organic acids from farm
wastes.—A n article has been prepared describing the methods, equip­

ment, equations, and data f or calculati ng the ionization constants of
maloni c acid. A special constant-tem perature room w ith electric
shi el di ng has been bui l t f or accurate e. m. f . and conducti vity measure­
ments. A spectrophotometer has been suitably arranged f or such pH
measurements w ith indicators by a member of the B ureau of Pl ant
I ndustry in cooperati on w ith thi s B ureau.
Thermodynamics of rubber.— M easurements of change of volume
w i th tem perature indicate that unvulcanized rubber may ex ist in
at least f our f orms, and vulcanized rubber in at least two f orms. The
resul ts of the i nvestigati on ,have been correlated w i th measurements
of the heat capacity and the electri cal properti es of rubber, and also
w i th its behavior on stretchi ng.
Rubber stretching.— M easurements of the change of volume of
rubber on stretchi ng indicate that thi s change is not instantaneous
but that i t is an exponenti al f uncti on of the time. U nder some ci r­
cumstances the volume of stretched rubber may decrease as much as
2 or 3 percent and may requi re several hours or days to become
practi cal l y constant.

N A T I ON A L BU K EA U OF STA NDA RDS

67

M ETALL URG Y

U nder-water corrosion of iron.—Factors af f ecting the reproduci ­
bi l i ty of l aboratory tests—that is, velocity of flow, surf ace oxide films,
etc.—have been studied and a prel i m i nary report published. L argescale tests are in progress on various f errous materi al s in pipe f orm.
W eathering of light structural alloys.— Results of 5 y ears’ atmos­
pheri c exposure of al uminum alloys, pl ai n and coated, in tropi cal
mari ne, northern marine, and i nland locations have been published.
Si m i l ar tests of magnesium alloys have been completed. Exposure
tests of all recently developed aluminum alloys are under way.
A nodic treatment of aluminum.— Processes f or protecti ng al u­
minum alloys by anodic oxidati on have been studied and several new
ones developed." M eans f or increasing the usef ul li f e of solutions
now used in such processes have been studied.
Spring materials.—I n cooperation w ith A merican Society of
M echanical Engi neers and Engi neeri ng Foundati on a comprehensive
resume of spri ng m aterials has been under w ay duri ng the year. I n
addi ti on to the i ntri nsi c properti es of the materials, f actors w hich
influence thei r usef ulness as springs are considered.
Copper-base nonferrous ingot metals.—T he cooperative study w ith
the N on-Ferrous I ngot M etals I nsti tute has continued w i th the ul ti ­
mate aim of establi shing a basic classif ication of these m aterials f or
specifications.. V ery comprehensive f oundry studies were carri ed out
on red brass (85 Cu, 5 Pb, 5 Zn, '5 Sn) to establish the effect of
i m puri ti es, remelting, and other f oundry vari ables w hich influence
the metal.
W ear-resistance of metals.— Study of the w ear-resistance of steel
has continued and a report was issued on the influence of surf ace
oxi de films. I n an atmosphere f ree f rom oxygen, the rate of w earing,
i n metal-to-metal contact, w as of ten very high. T he presence of a
surf ace oxide film of ten decreased the rate of w ear decidedly although
thi s was rel ated to the character of the steel as determi ned by heattreatm ent received.
Quality of carbon tool steels.—These steels of the same nominal
composi tion of ten dif f er decidedly in quali ty, “ body ” , or “ ti mbre.”
A study of the underl y i ng reasons has been concerned chief ly w ith
the correlati on of critical quenching rates, depth of hardeni ng, and
grai n size at the i nstant of quenching to the critical rate.
Creep of metals.— Observation has been continued on pure silver
single-crystal bars maintained at 400° C. f or the greater part of the
year. The data clearly show the influence of crystall ine orientati on
and loading method on creep rate. Some study of the effect of low
tem peratures has been carri ed out.
Engineering uses f or silver.—W i th the cooperation and f inancial
support of A meri can si lver producers, a survey has been started of
potenti al i ndustri al appli cati ons of silver in addition to w ell -estab­
li shed ones.
Phosphorus and sulphur in steel.— Cooperative w ork w ith a j oi nt
research committee of technical organizations has continued and two

68

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

reports have been publ i shed: Ef f ect of Phosphorus on L ow Carbon
Steel and Ef f ect of Sul phur on Forgi ng Steels.
Rail steel.— Tensile tests covering the range 20° to 600° C. have
corroborated previous indicati ons that “ secondai'y bri ttl eness ” in
rai l steel appears at somew hat lower temperatures w i th very slow
l oadi ng rates. Study has been made of the diff erence in residual
i nternal stresses in rai l s according to the rate of cooling.
W ire f or bridge cables.— Stati c tensi le loading of heat-treated w ire
and of cold-draw n w ire looped over a curved support has shown that
cold-draw n w ire assumes the curv ature of the support more quickly
and more closely than heat-treated w ire, a f act in agreement w ith
previous l aboratory tests. Fl uctuati ng tensi le l oading of si m i l ar
specimens has shown cold-draw n w ire to have di sti nctl y hi gher
endurance. T he smoother unpi tted surf ace of cold-draw n w ire,
demonstrated metall ographicall y, evi dentl y is closely rel ated to thi s
diff erence.
W elding of steel.— I n connection w i th the wide use of w elding in
naval constructi on, extended m etall ographic studi es have been made
of structural changes resul ti ng f rom w el ding various kinds of steels.
Gases in metals.—T he increasing i ndustri al importance of thi s sub­
j ect prompted cooperati ve study w i th the A meri can I nsti tute of
M ining and M etall urgical Engi neers to determine the accuracy of
oxygen determinati ons on steel. A bout 30 laboratori es, domestic and
f oreign, are cooperati ng in the anal ysis of ei ght chosen heats of steel.
A greement on methods of oxygen determinati on is essential bef ore
progress can be made as to i ts real significance in steel.
Pure iron.— Small ingots of i ron of unusuall y hi gh puri ty have
been prepared by a method developed at the B ureau. A treati se
on the properti es of pure i ron based on existing technical l i terature
(ov er 1,000 techni cal arti cl es) is nearly complete.
Foundry molding sands.— On the basis of testi ng methods f or
ev al uati ng molding sands developed at the B ureau, purchase specifi­
cati ons f or 13 molding sands w ere prepared f or the W ashington
N aval Gun Factory . M uch study was devoted to developing a
suitable method f or determ i ni ng the clay substance, or bond, in
molding sands.
Castability of aluminum.—T he f actors af f ecting the castabil ity
or the runni ng properti es in a sand mold of molten al uminum were
the subject of much study. U nder proper f oundry conditi ons, tem ­
perature appears the most potent f actor, al though some diff erence
between grades of aluminum was observed.
H igh-strength cast iron.— A report is now avail able shoAving the
magni tude of the benef icial effect of superheati ng pri or to casti ng
of certai n grades of iron. A t the request of A meri can Foundry men’s A ssoci ation and A meri can Society f or T esti ng M ateri als,
study is being devoted to the casti ng of a more sati sf actory arbi ­
trati on bar, f or cast iron.
Preece test f or zinc coatings.— A study was completed on this
w idely misused test f or galvanized steel. Condi tions responsible
f or misleading results have been clarif ied and the necessary precau­
tions in testi ng set f orth in the publ ished report.

N A T I ON A L BU REA U OF STA NDA RDS
CLAY

A N D

SI L I C A T E

69

PR O D U C T S

Effect of 'particle size in whiteware.—A completed study of v ari a­
ti ons in parti cl e size of f l i nt and f el dspar poi nts to the possi bil ity
of v i tri f y i ng commercial ceramic w are w i thout the use of aux i l i ary
fluxes at tem peratures signif i cantly low er than are now required in
the industry .
Physical properties of some commercial A merican china clays.—
A meri can kaol ins were f ound to contain smal ler amounts of f luxing
consti tuents than the Engl i sh clays, but by proper selection of do­
mestic m aterials almost complete substi tuti on was possible in the
average w hitew are body. Some red-burni ng Ohio clays were studied
and f ound to be mix tures of clay, quartz, mica, and other minerals
contai ni ng iron, lime, and magnesia. T he i ron compounds are re­
sponsible f or the red colors when heated, and together w i th the lime
and magnesi a cause the clays to v i tri f y at relati vely low tem pera­
tures.
Glassy phase in ceramic materials.— I n the burni ng of clay w are
glasses are produced which determine, to a l arge extent, the prop­
erti es of the ware. V arious glasses have been made at the B ureau
and certain of thei r physical properti es have been determined, so
that clay w are hav i ng the characteri sti cs desirabl e f or any given
service can be produced more readily.
Physical properties of glass.—I n conti nuing its w ork on the phy si ­
cal properti es of finished glasses, the B ureau has measured the
therm al expansion of 50 experimental glasses of the soda-lime-silica
series in the range f rom room tem perature to thei r sof tening points.
Equati ons were derived f or computi ng the critical tem peratures and
sof teni ng points of these glasses.
A nalysis of glass.—A new method f or determining the amount of
boric aci d in glass was developed. I t depends on the relati ve solu­
bi l i ty of bori c oxide in ether and in w ater. T he method is much
si m pl er than those in common use and is equall y accurate.
_Relative solubility of glass.—A method f or determining the rel a­
ti v e solubil ity of glass in alkal ine or acid solutions is being devel­
oped. The i nterf erence of l i ght is used to measure the amount of
glass dissolved, instead of the usual loss-in-w eight method. T he
chief adv antage of the new method is that the results are independ­
ent of the area of the sample used.
Production of optical glass.— Fi f ty -three pots of opti cal glass,
embraci ng five di f f erent kinds, were made. From a p ar t of these
23,821 molded and annealed blanks f or opti cal elements w eighing
5,552 pounds were made f or the N avy D epartm ent. A n improvement
in the qual i ty of the l i ght bari um crow n was made by sti rri ng i t w ith
a w ater-cooled iron rod instead of the ordi nary cl ay thimble.
Fundamental properties of cement.— T he studies of the f unda­
mental properti es of cement have been continued w i th parti cul ar
ref erence to the cement-w ater systems. T he reaction of w ater on the
anhydrous calcium silicates has been determined and w ork is in
progress on the effect of bori c oxide on the f orm ati on of portl andcement clinker.
T he Calcium Chlori de A ssociation f ellow ship conti nued i ts studies
along tw o l i nes: T he effect of calcium chl oride on the calcium alumi-

70

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

nates, and the effect of calcium chloride on cements and concretes
duri ng the peri od immediately af ter pouri ng. A paper has been
publ ished on p art of thi s w ork. Speci al calori meters, designed at
the B ureau, have been used in testi ng low -heat cements f or B oulder
D am and f or determining the effect of both parti al hy drati on and
curi ng tem perature on the resul ti ng heat of hy drati on of cement.
A study of commercial masonry cements was undertak en because
of the dearth of inf ormati on on these i m portant materi als. T he
composition and properti es of the cements w ere f ound to v ary be­
tw een wide limi ts. For example, the w eight of the dry cements
vari ed f rom 39.7 to 89.7 pounds per cubic f oot; the strength of 28day m ortar f rom 5 to 3,650 pounds per square inch. I t was f ound
that absorpti on cri teri a of the m ortars and the compressive strength
f urni shed a good esti mate of thei r durabi l i ty w hen subjected to
f reezi ng and thaw i ng cycles.
A study of commercial hi gh earl y strength cements f urnished
data on : T he heat generated duri ng isothermal hardeni ng and the
effect of such hardeni ng on compressive strength ; the effect of stori ng
duri ng early ages at hi gher than room tem perature on strength and
volume changes; the effect of f reezi ng and thaw i ng cycles, and
f reezi ng, thaw i ng, and dry i ng cycles upon strength and volume;
and the rel ati on between physical properti es and chemical composi­
ti on, and physical properti es and fineness of grindi ng.
T he B ureau is try i ng to f ind i f i t is possible to produce by pre­
hy drati on a cement hav i ng a low heat of hardeni ng and hi gh
sulphate resistance that w ill be as sati sf actory as the special cements
now being used. T he results so f ar indicate that thi s can be accom­
plished. I t appears that any cement, regardless of i ts composition,
can, by the i ntroducti on of 1 to 5 percent of w ater duri ng gri ndi ng,
be given the sought-f or properties.
Studi es of the Portl and Cement A ssociation Fell ow ship have
included investigati ons on: (1) T he heats of hy drati on of cements
and cement compounds, (2) the chemical reactions of hy drati on of
the cement compounds, (3) the effect of composition on the volume
changes and resistance to attack of alk al i w aters, and (4) some
effects of active sil ica as an admi x ture i n portl and cement. D ata
obtained by the Fell ow ship have been submitted to the committee
on cement of the A meri can Society f or T esti ng M ateri al s f or use
in prepari ng specif ications f or cements of low heats of hy drati on
and hi gh resistance to sulphate attack.
T he cement-testing laboratory, together w ith the branch l abora­
tori es at N ortham pton, Pa., D enver, Colo., San Francisco and Riverdale, Cal if ., have tested approx i m atel y 5,500,000 barrel s of cement
f or the Government, an increase of 50 percent over the previous
year, the increase representi ng very l argel y cement f or the B oul der
D am.
T he Cement Ref erence L aboratory , a cooperative proj ect of the
N ati onal B ureau of Standards and the A meri can Society f or T est­
ing M ateri als, completed the thi r d tour of inspection among cement
laboratories throughout the country and made substanti al progress
on the f ourth tour. T he B ureau of Publ i c Roads continues to
require the Ref erence L aboratory inspection of l aboratori es w hich
make acceptance tests of cement f or Federal ai d proj ects. Progress
has been made in the problem of standardi zi ng the turbi di m eter f or

N A TI ON A L BU REA U OF STA NDA RDS

71

subsieve fineness tests of cement and a standard sample was pre­
pared f or use w ith this instrument. T he laboratory cooperated w i th
the A meri can Society f or T esti ng M ateri als cement committee i n
tests and studies of a proposed method f or plastic m ortar compres­
sion strength tests of portl and cement.
V ibrated concrete.—A machine has been specially designed to ai d
in study i ng the effect of v i brati ng concrete i nto the f orm. I t has
been f ound that, f or dry mixes, the ex tent of v i brati on that pro­
duces opti mum density w i ll in general produce the greatest strength.
I t has also been noted that mixes in w hich the m ortar is approx i ­
mately 1.05 times the voids in the coarse aggregate have a minimum
segregation due to vibrati on.
A ggregates f or cinder concrete building units.— T he strengths of
cinder concretes were f ound to decrease and the volume changes to
increase w i th an increase in the amount of f inely divided combustible
m atter in the cinders. Specimens cured f or 8 hours in steam under
a pressure of 125 pounds per square inch were as 1strong at 2 days
as those aged 28 days i n moist ai r at 70° F. unless the cinders con­
tai ned l arge amounts of unsound particles. V olume changes of
specimens steam cured were about one-hal f as large as those cured
at normal ai r temperature.
Hinges.-—Seven reinf orced-concrete hinges of the M esnager ty pe,
tested f or the B ureau of Y ards and Docks of the N avy D epartm ent,
showed sati sf actory strength f or the i ntended use and resistance to
flexure w hich could be considered as negligible. T he results i ndicate
th at these hinges may be used advantageously in some types of reinf orced-concrete structures, such as arches.
B rick masonry.—M ortar j oi nts in bri ck masonry were f ound to be
strongest i f bricks of low absorpti on were set dry and those of
moderate or hi gh rates of absorpti on were w etted bef ore setting.
T he leakage through brick masonry of w ater under a low head w as
least w hen the masonry was bui l t w ith impermeable bricks set dry
or w i th absorptive bricks set wet. T he bond of m ortar to bri ck
usual l y was most complete and the leakage through the masonry
usuall y w as least w i th mortars of good trow eli ng properties.
Design of brick and hoUou)\-tile extrusion machines.—Results of
the completed i nvestigati on showed th at a si ngle w ing auger and
10-inch spacer in combination w ith a die of 3° taper resulted i n
maximum output of hollow ti l e per uni t of pow er consumed. T he
maxi mum and mi ni mum die lengths f or producti on of a sati sf actory
ti l e were 6 and 4 inches, respectively.
W ear of dies f or extruding plastic clay.—D eterminations of the
w ear resistances of 21 m aterials used f or dies gave w ear-resi stance
coefficients v ary i ng f rom 3.22 f or sof t brass to 1,673 f or a cobaltchromium-tungsten alloy. T he w ear resistance of nitrif ied steel de­
creased i rregul arl y w i th depth w hile that of porcelain decreased
asymtotically.
Study of refractories.—I n m anuf acturi ng fire bri ck the clay is ex­
truded through a die, one result of w hich is that the properti es of
the brick are not the same in the l ongi tudi nal and transv erse di rec­
tions, and may dif f er even at two points in the same cross section.
T hi s v ari ati on in physical properti es is undesi rable and f requentl y
results in f ai l ures in service. A s a f i rst step in the development of

72

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

a brick hav i ng more uni f orm properties, the B ureau is determining
j ust w hat these diff erences amount to in bri ck now on the market,
.tension tests f or elasti city and strength at room tem perature show
v ari ati ons as hi gh as 65 percent i n elasti city and 60 percent in
strength, depending upon w hether the test specimens are cut lenof hWise or crosswise. T he change i n dimensions of fire brick under
^ 4.. j
on" Peri °ds at sl i ghtl y el evated temperatures is also beinostudied.
&
T herm al expansion is an i m portant property in rel ati on to service
l i e of ref ractori es, and this is being studied over a w ide range of
tem perature. T he total l i near therm al expansion has been f ound
to bear a direct rel ati on to the percentage increase in modulus of
elasti ci ty in bendi ng. A si m i l ar rel ati on holds true w i th respect to
sili ca content, but in both cases the rel ati on is true only when the
m ateri a1 has not been heated to excessively hi gh temperatures w hich
w ould tend to convert the silica into a glass.
V itreous enamels.— I n the case of enameled metalw are, the dif f er­
ence between the therm al expansi on of the enamel and that of the
base metal sometimes causes difficulties, so that the B ureau has
devoted considerable ti me to a study of the subject, in the i nterest of
a more uni f orm l y sati sf actory product.
?íx thIi stresses developed in vitreous enamel coati ngs i ndi ­
cated that (1) stresses set up at temperatures above the cri ti cal tem ­
perature of an enamel are l argel y removed by y i elding of the enamel
111
C0(d mg and may be completely removed by f oll ow ing a
predetermi ned cooling schedule; (2) stresses set up below the critical
tem perature are proporti onal to the dif f erential contracti on between
the enamel and the metal base; (3) the stresses produced in any given
enamel may be increased or decreased by causi ng the enamel coatin»
to cool somew hat more slow ly or more quickly than the metal; and
(4) increased^ severi ty of the f iring treatm ent f or a given enamel
aff ects stress m a w ay w hich indicates that the expansiv ity of the
enamel is low ered.
. L ime.—-A n investigati on is being made of the effect of particlesize di stri buti on of hy drated lime upon the other properti es of thi s
m aterial. A n investigati on was completed of the reaction between
lime solutions and diatomaceous silica, silica gel, and other f orms
of silica.
B uilding stones.— T he study of w ear resistance of 215 samples of
natural -stone f looring has been completed. I n the study of domestic
grani tes 82 samples have been collected f rom the more i m portant
produci ng di stri cts of 14 States. D eterminations of compressive
strength, absorption, densi ty, and porosity have been completed on
65 samples. T he B ureau has cooperated w i th the N ati onal Park
Service in studies of methods and m aterials f or repai ri ng the W ash­
i ngton M onument. T he i nv estigati on of test methods f or durabi l i ty
of stone has been continued.
SI M P L I F I E D

PR A C T IC E

Simplified Practice Recommendations.—A total of 153 Simplif ied
Practi ce Recommendations have been f orm al l y approved, of which
149 are avail able in pri nted f orm. Four simplif ication projects were
completed and prepared f or publication.

N A T I ON A L B U REA U OP STA NDA RDS

73

Revisions and reaffirmations.— Twelve ex i sting Si mpli f ied Practi ce
Recommendations were review ed by thei r respective standi ng com­
mittees. Of these, 6 were reaffirmed w i thout change and 6 w ere re­
vised. The w ork of review ing 14 other simpli f ication program s was
started.
New 'projects.—Fi f teen proposals f or new Si mpli f ied Practi ce Rec­
ommendations were brought bef ore the B ureau. Some of these are
quite new, others are earl i er proposals w hi ch have been renew ed,
w hil e sti l l others aw ai t f urther acti on by the proponent groups. I n
a number of the approved N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on codes,
i ndustry has indicated i ts i ntenti on to develop Si mpli f ied Practi ce
Recommendations f or thei r products. Other approved N ati onal Re­
covery A dm i ni strati on codes contain specific ref erences to the active
Simplif ied Practi ce Recommendations, and, in a f ew cases, the rec­
ommendations are i ncorporated in the codes verbatim.
Use of simplified invoice form.—The rai l roads commenced a survey
of thei r business practices to determine the degree of conf ormance
w ith acti ve Si mpli f ied Practi ce Recommendations, w ith a view to i n­
creasi ng adherence. A lso, the rai l roads are requesting th at invoices
covering al l materi al s purchased by them be made on the simplif ied
invoice f orm, w hich is included in Si mpli f ied Practi ce Recommenda­
ti on R37-28.
A pproval of simplified lines i n trade literature.— Current editi ons
of catal ogs and trade l i terature show th at i ndustry continues to ad­
vocate adherence to these programs. College and uni v ersi ty f acul ­
ties and students ali ke conti nue to seek current data rel ati v e to si m­
plif ied practi ce as an element of i ndustri al management. Several
textbooks and handbooks, and one encyclopedia, issued duri ng the
year, contain specific ref erences to the B ureau’s cooperation w ith
i ndustry in devel opi ng Simplif ied Practi ce Recommendations.
BU IL D IN G

A N D

H O U SI N G

On June 30, 1933, as p art of the economy program , the staf f of the
D ivi si on of B ui l di ng and H ousi ng, w hich had consisted of 36 per­
sons, was reduced to 2 members. F or a li mited ti me addi ti onal per­
sonnel was assigned f rom the Civil W ork s A dm i ni strati on. A ssist­
ance w as given to the N ati onal Pl anni ng B oard on problems of city
and regional pl anni ng and zoning; to the H ousi ng D ivision of the
Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on, the D ivision of Subsistence H ome­
steads, and the Tennessee V alley A uthori ty in the sol uti on of bui l d­
ing and housing probl em s; to the H ome L oan B ank B oard, the Publi c
W orks A dm i ni strati on, and the N ati onal Emergency Council in thei r
home-modernizing programs; to the Real Property U ni t of the B u­
reau of Forei gn and D omestic Commerce, the Federal Emergency
Rel ief A dm i ni strati on, the Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on, the Com­
mittee on Government Stati sti cs and I nf orm ati on Services, and the
Central Stati sti cal B oard i n suppl y i ng stati sti cs rel ati ng to real
estate and housi ng; to the Executi ve Council in i ts program of co­
ordi nati on of Government agencies and acti vities rel ati ng to housi ng;
and to the N ati onal Emergency Council in the preparati on of the
nati onal housing bil l and the i ni ti ati on of the w ork of the Federal
H ousi ng A dm i ni strati on.

74

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE
SP E C I F I C A T I O N S

Facilitating ; the use of specifications.—T he li sts of sources of sup­
pl y of commodities have been augmented by 3,338 separate requests
f or l i sti ng f rom m anuf acturers w il li ng to certi f y to compliance w ith
32 Federal specifications, thereby increasing the total number of lists
and requests to more than 400 and 20,000, respectively. Several of
the early Federal specifications, and the li sts rel ati ng thereto, have
been consolidated. A l l of the completed li sts have been brought up
to date, so that they may be uti li zed most effectively in connection
w i th the index of Federal specifications issued as part of the Federal
Standard Stock Catalog.
Services to consmners, governmental and- nongovernmental.—T he
i nf orm ati on service rel ati ng to the identif ication of commodities com­
pl y i ng w i th the requi rements of nati onal l y recognized specifications
has been expanded to care f or the greatl y increased i nterest being
show n by producers, di stri butors, and consumers in the qual i ty of
goods purchased and sold. T he qual i ty guaranteei ng label ing plan,
w hich serves to i denti f y both the f irm or association issxiing the guar­
anty and the nati onal l y recognized specif ication w hich the commodity
is guaranteed to meet, is now w i dely recognized as the best solution
to the problem of m ark eti ng stapl e products—not specialties.
T he city of New Y ork reports'that effective use is being made of
the detai led comparison carri ed out by the B ureau of 1,800 com­
m odity specif ications used by the city w i th the correspondi ng speci­
f ications of the Federal Specif ications B oard and other nati onal
agencies. D i rectl y traceable to the services rendered to New Y ork
C i ty is the request f rom the State purchasi ng agent of New H am p­
shi re f or aid in sol ving the State’s purchasi ng problems. T he Gov­
ernor of New H am pshi re has placed a representati ve at the B ureau
to make a study of nati onal l y recognized specifications.
Ef f ective service has been rendered to the Consumers’ A dvisory
B oard in revi ew ing al l proposed codes of f ai r competiti on to insure
the inserti on therei n of proper ref erences to qual i ty standards to
saf eguard the consumer’s interest. For 499 of the 831 codes and
supplements reviewed f or the Consumers’ A dvisory B oard, there
w ere located specif ications f orm ul ated or sponsored by 186 separate
agencies. T o these specifications 3,112 i ndi v i dual ref erences were
suggested. Ref erences to the requirements of existing standards or
to the creati on of committees to f ormul ate standards were included
i n 129 of the 543 codes and supplements that had received official
approv al up to and i ncluding June 30, 1934. Of the 76 ref erences
i n the approved codes and supplements to definite ex i sting standards
or to desi gnated agencies to cooperate in the preparati on of stand­
ards, 35 were to the N ati onal B ureau of Standards.
Coordination of sizes of building materials.— A s the resul t of a
request transf erred f rom the B ureau of Forei gn and D omestic Com­
merce, a prel i m i nary survey has been made of sizes of m anuf actured
and stocked bui l di ng materi als. T he object is to coordinate the sizes
of the separate materials so as to involve the mi nimum of alteration
When uti li zed in structures w here economy in materials and labor
are deci ding f actors. T he proj ect has received the endorsement of
the executive committee of the A meri can I nsti tute of A rchitects and
the officers of vari ous bui l di ng materials trade associations.

N A TI ON A L BU REA U OP STA NDA RDS

75

For the convenience of agencies of the Federal Government and
other consuming organizati ons i t is planned to compile lists of m anu­
f acturers desirous of suppl y i ng m aterials sui tably dimensioned in
accordance w i th the coordinati on plan. Promises of cooperation
have been received f rom the f ol low i ng F ederal agencies : Division
of Subsistence H omesteads, D epartm ent of the I nteri or; Federal
Emergency A dm i ni strati on of Publ i c W orks; Construction D ivision,
Q uarterm aster Corps, W ar D epartment; Construction Service, V et­
erans’ A dm i ni strati on; B ureau of Y ards and Docks, N avy D epart­
ment; B ureau of A gri cul tural Engi neeri ng, D epartm ent of A gri cul ­
ture; L and Pl anni ng and H ousi ng D ivision, Tennessee V alley
A uthori ty .
T RADE

ST A N D A R D S

Commercial standards.— A t the close of the year there were 95
active projects f or the establishment of commercial standards. Co­
operati on w i th the respective industri es at thei r request resulted in
the acceptance of commercial standards f or wood shingles; wool
bl ankets (suppl em ent) ; gage blanks ; m ark i ng of gold-f illed and
roll ed-gold pl ate articles other than w atchcases; interchangeable
ground-glass joints, stopcocks, and stoppers; domestic burners f or
Pennsy l v ani a anthraci te; and bi nder’s board. Twenty-five prel i m ­
i nary and six general conf erences were held to pave the way f or the
establi shment of standards of qual i ty f or m ark i ng gold-f illed and
roll ed-gol d pl ate articles other than w atchcases; hospi tal and i nsti ­
tuti onal mattresses; domestic burners f or Pennsy l v ani a anthraci te;
bathi ng suits; sweaters; interchangeable ground-glass joints, stop­
cocks, and stoppers; asphal t floor ti le; bi nder’s board; berets, k ni tted
cuffs, and bottoms; w omen’s f ull -f ashioned hosiery; wool blankets;
ophthalm ic lenses ; f uel oils ; and cotton garments. Six pri nted edi­
ti ons of establ ished commercial standards were made available, and
one supplement was issued.
G ENER AL

FIN A N C IA L

ST A T E M E N T

D uri ng the fiscal year 1934 the B ureau expended and accounted f or
f unds aggregati ng $1,364,865, exclusive of $363,653.99 received by
transf er and reimbursement f rom other D epartments f or special
researches, and $100,000 received under the N ati onal I ndustri al Re­
covery A ct f or renovati on of buil dings. T he amounts and objects of
each appropri ati on f or the past fiscal year, together w ith disburse­
ments, liabil iti es, and balance f or each appropri ati on, are shown m
the f oll ow ing table :

76

REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE
D i sb u r sem en t s, l i a b i l i t i es, et c ., 1934, 1933, an d 1932 ap p r o p r i at i o n s-

Appropriations
1934
Sal ari es.............................................. ..........
E q u i p m en t...... .....................
_IIIIIIIH "
General expenses........................... I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
I m prov em ent and care of groundsI -I I I
T esti ng structural m ateri al s____
T esti ng m achi nes...................... ...............
M etal l urgi cal research____ _____
I nv esti gati on of opti cal gl ass.......... I
Standard m ater i al s.......................................
I nv esti gati on of tex ti l es........ .......... " "
Sugar standardi zati on........... ............ ....................
Gage standardi zati on....... ............... .
........... .
H i gh tem perature i nv esti gati on.
............. " "
T esti ng rai l road-track , m i ne, and other scal es”
I nv esti gati on of f ire-resisti ng properti es
T esti ng m i scellaneous m ateri al s..............
I nv esti gati on of publ i c-uti l i ty standards
Radio research.........................
I ndustr i al research...............
Sound i nv esti gati on........................ I I I I I I I I I I I I
I nv esti gati on of cl ay products______
Color standardi zati on
......... ........... ” 11111
I nv esti gati on of radi oacti v e substances " and
X - r ay ................................................ ........
Standardi zati on m echani cal appl i ances
Standardi zati on of equi pm ent...................." " I I !
I nv esti gati on of autom oti v e e n g i n e s . I I .........
U ti l i zati on of w aste products f rom the l and
I nv esti gati on of dental m ateri al s..........
H y draul i c l aboratory research..............
A ppropri ati ons transf erred f rom other depart­
m ents w hi ch are av ai l abl e f or the current year:
A i rcraf t in commerce....... .........
A i r nav i gati on f acil iti es............I I I I I I I .........
N ati onal I ndustri al Recovery A ct 1933-35"
A ppropri ati ons transf erred f rom other depart­
m ents under the provi si ons of the l egislati ve
act approv ed June 30, 1932: W ork i ng f u n d ....
T otal 1934..................
T otal 1933................................ .................................
T otal 1932................................ ....................
A u w u u m

T otal appro­
pri ati on 1

D i sburse­
m ents

$600,000. 00
80,000. 00
1 65, 068. 96
11,220. 00
3325, 984. 45
<42,127. 37
* 46,170.00
21, 500. 00
8,900.00
e49,683. 25
771, 630.00
37,000.00
7,000.00
50,000. 00
* 23, 857. 35
851,163. 75
M 85,123.11
69,000. 00
“ 128,875.00
128, 497. 29
37,000. 00
11,100.00

$568,118. 27
51, 529.11
42, 840. 72
6,592. 78
198,079.00
25,867. 77
28, 269.86
13,124. 44
5, 066.39
32,326.45
46, 707. 65
23,184. 06
4,147.31
29, 653. 63
14, 912. 69
34,810. 08
40,348. 83
42, 683.88
48,860. 49
5, 250. 99
22,455.10
6, 587.38

21, 500.00
1337, 966. 32
» 149,442. 88
is 41,109. 00
38,700. 00
6, 500.00
40,000. 00
5,000. 00
29, 600. 00
100,000.00

L iabil i ti es

174.13
150.09
152. 80
900. 42
2,122. 82
91,65
3,879.54
500.03
358. 24
367. 64

$31,881.73
24, 247.87
21,071.11
4,291. 4 3
118,021.51
15,555.7917, 468. 73
8,316. 74
3,465.3a
17,342.8a
23,639. 69
13,815. 94
2, 678. 56
20,196. 28
8,791.86
15,453. 26
42,651. 46
26,224. 4 7
76,134.97
2, 746. 27
14,186. 66
4,144. 9&

12,874.19
23, 824. 57
41, 652. 53
26,804. 76
23,983. 97
3, 974. 53
25,329. 63

667. 30
1,335. 04
375. 74
1,346. 03
2. 75
81.80
7.17

7,985. 51
12,806. 71
107,414. 61
12,958. 21
14, 713. 28
2,443. 67
14,663.20

4, 767. 42
28, 619. 52
73, 200. 84

200. 00
745. 73
14,. 489. 42

32. 58
234. 75
12,309.74

$4, 223.02
1,157.13
335.79
9,883.94
703. 81
431.41
58.82
368.31
14. 00
1,282. 66

214,855. 26

198,099.08

5,773.83

10,982.35

>«2, 515,573. 99
2,710, 739. 23
3,298,551. 63

1, 754, 547. 92
2,412,400. 29
3,124,857.09

52,181. 06
33. 51

17708,845. 01
298,305.43
173,694. 54

i c i u i j J u i O C l i i C i i l S it-L I U U a U S I C r S ‘ e C 61V <

f ootnotes:
2$1,068.96.
3$70,984.45.
* $672.37.

«$3,183.23.
>«$2,313.11.
7 $2,500.
» $8,875.
*$517.35
12$597.29.
, »$14,163.75.
13$966.32.
A lso a transf er w as m ade to the Procurem ent D i v i si on of $4 , 1 2 5 .

JJ

$69U 80. d

B alance

’

ddi tI

0f re™.burse™ents pending not included in these figures.

14$1,067.88.
« $7,109.

t0 unobl teated bal ances, i m pounded am ounts and adm i ni strati v e sav i ngs total ed

BUREAU

O F F I SH E R I E S

T he f i shing industry , i n common w ith most other i ndustries, has
suf fered severely duri ng the past f ew years. T he fiscal y ear 1934 has
shown, at least in many of the i m portant produci ng centers, a tend­
ency tow ard recovery. B etter prices have prevail ed duri ng most of
the months of the y ear, and these better prices have been accom­
panied by increased catches. W hil e sti l l f ar below normal, the up­
w ard trend is very encouragi ng.
T he fisheries of the U ni ted States and A laska, w hich are prose­
cuted on the hi gh seas and in the terri tori al w aters of the A tl anti c
and Pacif ic Oceans and in the Gul f of M exico and thei r adjacent
w aters, as well as in the Great L akes and i n i nteri or w aters i n 1932,.
the l atest calendar year f or w hich complete data are avail able, gave
employment to about 116,000 persons as commercial fishermen, and
thei r catch in the same y ear aggregated 2,614,000,000 pounds, valued
at $54,800,000 to the fishermen, representi ng a decrease of 1 percent
in quanti ty and 29 percent i n value as compared w i th the catch and
i ts value in the preceding year.
T here w ere decreases in most of the groups of prepared products
thus the output of canned f ishery products w hich amounted to 416,062,000 pounds, valued at $43,149,000, showed a decrease of 18 per­
cent in quanti ty and 31 percent in val ue as compared w i th the prev i ­
ous year. B yproducts valued at $12,466,000 decreased 25 percent in
value, and f rozen products, w hich amounted to 92,472,000 pounds and
estimated to be valued at $7,000,000, decreased 18 percent i n volume.
T he producti on of f resh and f rozen packaged fish (not i ncl udi ng
shell f ish) in the calendar y ear 1932 amounted to 51,976,000 pounds,
valued at $5,741,000. D ata on the output of cured f ishery products
were not collected f or the y ear 1932, but i n 1931 the producti on
amounted to 98,969,000 pounds, valued at $12,364,000.
I m ports of f ishery products f or consumpti on in the calendar y ear
1932 were valued at $29,566,000, w hich is 31 percent less than in the
previous year, w hile exports of domestic f ishery products were valued
at $7,808,000, or 33 percent less than i n 1931.
N A T IO N A L

PL A N N IN G
C O U N C I L (O P C O M M E R C I A L
P I S H C O M M I SSI O N E R S)

A N D

GAM E

For many years, in f act ever since the inception of f ishery w ork,
there has been a lack of coordinati on betw een the various organi za­
ti ons engaged i n thi s service. T he Federal Government and the v ari ­
ous States have all pursued thei r respective ways. T hey have coop­
erated i t is true, but in a sort of haphazard w ay, uni ti ng on proj ects
that concerned them both f or the time being.
9 S 22 3 — 3 4 ------ 8

78

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

T hi s haphazard method was especially noticeable in the fish pl ant­
ing ef f orts of the vari ous agencies and resulted in considerable w ast­
age of fish, ef fort, and money. Requests f or fish w ere received by
both the State and Federal departments and were f illed by the
agency recei ving the request, w ithout regard to w hat had been done
or w as going to be done by the other agency concerned. T he results
w ere that of ten the two agencies pl anted dif f erent species of fish in
the same w aters and these dif f erent species m i ght be antagoni stic to
each other. I n the actual pl anti ng of these fish more time and money
have been spent than necessary. T he Federal Government has sent
i ts trucks to w aters that could have been better and more cheaply
served by the State and vice versa.
W i th the advent of poll uti on problems, stream-survey w ork, and
stream-i mprovement programs, the need f or coordination of ef fort
became even more apparent. Rivers know no State lines, nor do
the fish in them. T he w ork to be successful must embrace ri v er
systems regardless of State boundaries. T his, then, w ould require
caref ul pl anni ng and direction.
Commissioner Beil, theref ore, called a meeting of State game and
fish officials in St. L oui s on A pri l 23, 1934, and l ai d bef ore them a
pl an to coordi nate the acti vities of the vari ous States and the Fed­
eral Government i n all thei r activiti es concerning fish. T hi s led to
the f orm ati on of the N ati onal Pl anni ng Council of Commercial and
Game Fi sh Commissioners. T hrough thi s council i t is expected to
establi sh unif ied program s that w i ll bri ng about a saving i n money
and y et actuall y accomplish more f or the f isheries than under the
old system.
T he council di vi ded the country into five zones, groupi ng together
those States w ith si m i l ar problems and conditions. Each zone w ill
hold meetings every 3 months or of tener to consider the problems
of that zone, and the whole council w i ll meet once a year f or general
consi deration of the whole situati on.
C O O PE R A T I O N

W IT H

ST A T E S

M any of the cooperative rel ati onships f or fish culture are a conti nu­
ation of those ex i sting in previous years. A mong the new er de­
velopments is an arrangem ent w hereby the B ureau’s N orthv i l l e
(M i ch.) stati on incubated trout f or assignment to the States of
I ndi ana and Ohio in conf ormity w i th the program of those States
to develop trout fishing. U pon the closure of the Federal hatchery
at Grand L ake Stream, M aine, the State Fi sh and Game D epart­
ment was prevail ed upon to take over i ts operati on and al l ot the
B ureau a li mited number of land-locked salmon eggs. T he resources
of the State and Federal hatcheries, located at Pu t in B ay, Ohio,
were pooled, w i th the resul t that the operations w ith w hitef ish and
w i th pi ke perch were conducted at a m ateri al saving to both agencies.
T he State of Georgi a undertook to di stri bute fish f rom the B ureau’s
L ake Park station, f i ll ing both State and Federal applications. A t
Rochester, N. Y ., the cooperative arrangem ent w i th the city and the
M onroe County Park B oard w as continued, and there was placed
m operati on a f irst-class trout hatchery, the acti viti es of w hich were
supervised by the B ureau, w hile the costs of construction were met by

B U REA U OF FI SH ER I ES

79

the local community. A t W al hal l a, S. C., the unif ied eff orts of the
B ureau, local sportsmen, and the authori ti es m charge of the Civ il ­
i an Conservation Corps activiti es resul ted i n the establi shment ox
splendi d reari ng ponds, in w hich a considerable number ot trout to r
local w aters are being grow n.
.
T he maintenance of cooperative reari ng ponds by pri v ate sports­
men’s organizati ons to be stocked w i th fish f urni shed f rom f ederal
hatcheri es has been conducted on a somew hat restri cted scale, th e
B ureau w ill continue to cooperate w i th such groups who are desirous
of accepting part of the responsi bil ity f or the producti on of l arger
fish f or stocking thei r local w aters. M ore caref ul scruti ny must be
given how ever, to the locations avai lable, the resources of the organ­
ization, and other perti nent detail s in view of the more l i mited scope
of the B ureau’s activities.
. .
.
x , ,
,
Cooperati ve investigati ons of the nutri ti onal requi rements of trout
carri ed on j oi ntl y by the New Y ork Conservation D epartm ent, Cor­
nell U ni v ersi tv , and the B ureau of Fisheries at Cortl and, JN. x .,
have been continued duri ng the past year, and a series of monthly
arti cl es concerning modern hatchery practices has been issued tor
the use of fish culturi sts.
.
...
. ,
Cooperati ve trout investigati ons m the State of Cal i f orni a, because
of the li beral support af f orded by that State, have been conducted
w i thout curtail ment. Ecol ogi cal studies of both coastal and hi gh
Si erran streams have been undertak en on a large scale to determine
the capacity of vari ous w aters i n sustaining fish l i f e m rel ati on to the
f ood supply- T hree stream-survey parti es were maintained i n the
field duri ng the past summer on Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on f unds,
and great progress has been made i n obtai ni ng the necessary tacts
upon w hich to base more adequate stocking policies f or the w aters
of thi s State.
^
0, ,
, T
I n the technological w ork of the B ureau many State agencies have
cooperated i n extendi ng thei r f aci l i ti es f or the prosecution of these
studies. State universi ties, hospitals, agri cul tural experim ent sta­
ti ons, and other State i nsti tuti ons of research have contri buted per­
sonnel and l aboratori es i n vari ous projects. Especiall y has thi s been
true in the nutri ti on studies. A mong the State i nsti tuti ons cooperat­
ing in thi s w ork are the South Caroli na Food Research Commission
and State M edical College, Charleston, S. C .; the M assachusetts State
A gri cul tural College, A mherst, M ass. ; the Ohio State A gri cul tural
Ex peri m ent Stati on, W ooster, Ohio ; the New Y ork State College of
A gri cul ture, Cornell U ni versity, I thaca, N. Y .; W ashi ngton State
College and A gri cul tural Ex peri m ent Stati on, Pul l m an, W ash. , the
U ni v ersi tv of W ashington, Seattle, W ash.; and the U ni v ersi ty of
M ary l and, College Park , M d. I n addi ti on to cooperation in nutri ­
ti on investigations, the members of the staf f of the M assachusetts
State College rendered valuable aid to the technological staf f of the
B ureau’s l aboratory at Gloucester, M ass. I n tests of f i shing gear
w ith respect to measurement of mesh size of nets, cooperation has
been received f rom the States borderi ng on the G reat Bakes.
I n certai n m ark eti ng investi gations, i ncl udi ng the studi es ot the
oradi ng of fish, the States of V i rgi ni a, N orth Caroli na, M assachu­
setts, M ary l and, and New Jersey ei ther cooperated acti vely or gave
valuable aid in some f orm.

80

REPOET OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

I n the annual surveys of the fisheries of the Great L akes and
Pacif ic Coast States such exceptional cooperation has been obtained
f rom State f ishery agencies in recent years that i t has been only
necessary f or agents of the B ureau to conduct f ragm entary surveys
to supplement the data avail able. Recently the States of M aryland
and V i rgi ni a have adopted very complete stati sti cal programs w hich
not only al levi ate the w ork of our agents but also produce more
accurate data.
C O O PE R A T I O N

W IT H

OTH ER

FED ER A L

AGENCIES

T he coordinati ng bill , passed duri ng the l ast session of Congress,
calls upon Government B ureaus whose acti viti es affect w il dli f e,
including the B ureau of Reclamation and the B ureau of I ndi an
A f f ai rs, to consult w ith the B ureau of Fisheri es and/ or the B ureau
of Biological Survey w henever w il dli f e may be affected by activiti es
of the two f orm er organi zations.
I n response to this legislati on, the B ureau of Reclamation of the
D epartm ent of I nteri or has j ust issued general i nstructi ons to its
field officers w hich provide that storage areas f or i rri gati on or pow er
shall be administered as f ar as possible to avoid detri m ent to fish
and birds, and that w hen ponded w aters are to be low ered to a point
adversel y af f ecting fish and game, officials in charge shall noti f y
State and Federal authori ti es in charge of the protecti on of fish
and game in advance.
T he B ureau of Bi ologi cal Survey has administered its l and­
purchasi ng program in the U pper M i ssi ssi ppi Ref uge so as to aff ord
assistance to the B ureau’s acti viti es. I n thi s purchasi ng program
the Bi ological Survey has endeavored to meet the wishes of the
B ureau by acquiring tracts w ithi n the ref uge w hich can be used
f or f ish-cultural purposes. I n the case of the N ati onal Park Service
aside f rom stri ctl y f ish-cultural w ork in stocking park w aters, the*
B ureau has been requested to give f urther assistance by conducting
a survey of the w aters of the G reat Smoky M ountai n N ati onal
Park , to develop i nf orm ati on as to f ood conditions, sui tabi l i ty of
di f f erent species, stocking policies, etc., i n that area si m i l ar to the
data being w orked out in the w estern parks.
W i th f unds received f rom the W ar D epartm ent, Corps of En«nneers, to carry on the cooperative investigati on at B onnevi lle on
the Columbia River, studies are being made as to how the fish should
be passed over the dam, both as mature upstream m i grants and
young dow nstream m i grants. T he problem is the most difficult one
or i ts k i nd y et encountered since the use of devices used successf ully
at other clams has not been f ound enti rel y applicable at Bonneville
because of the much greater hei ght of the dam.
,-i
B ureau also receives extremely val uable cooperation f rom
the Engi neer Corps m i ts studies of poll uti on in the M i ssissippi
Ri v er system. _ I n thi s w ork a f loating laboratory is used, set up in
a f ormer Engi neers’ quarterboat. D uri ng the summer w ork ing season f or several years past thi s boat has been moved f rom place to
place by the Engi neers ri v er tugs.
F
Tim B ureau of A gri cul tural Economics collects i nf orm ati on on
cold-storage holdings of fish m the U ni ted States. The B ureau of

BU REA U OP FI SH ER I ES

8 1

Fisheries suppl ies th at B ureau w i th v i tal economic inf ormation.
I n the collection of stati sti cal data, the cooperation of the B ureau
of the Census, the B ureau of Forei gn and D omestic Commerce,
the U nited States T ari f f Commission, and others is of considerable
value to thi s B ureau.
I n the technological field the B ureau has w orked f rom time to
ti me in cooperation w i th practi cal l y every scientif ic or technical
agency of the Federal Government. One example of thi s is the
cooperati on w i th the N avy D epartm ent i n developing chemical
preservatives f or mari ne rope and cordage. O ther examples are the
cooperation w ith the B ureaus of A nim al I ndustry , D ai ry I ndustry ,
Biological Survey, Pl ant I ndustry , Food and D rug A dm i ni strati on,
and Chemistry and Soils in extendi ng the uses of f ishery products
in human, ani mal, and pl ant nutri ti on.
D uri ng 1933, various new and emergency agencies of the Federal
Government made considerable use of the f aci l i ti es of the D ivi si on
of Fi shery I ndustri es, i ncl udi ng i ts technical , m ark eti ng, and sta­
ti sti cal reports and the know ledge and experience of i ts personnel.
Such cooperation was rendered to the N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni s­
trati on, the A gri cul tural A dj ustm ent A dm i ni strati on, the Federal
Emergency Rel ief A dm i ni strati on, the Federal Surpl us Rel ief Cor­
porati on, the Reconstruction Finance Corporati on, and others. M em­
bers of the B ureau’s staf f w ere detail ed f i rst to the A gri cul tural
A dj ustm ent A dm i ni strati on and l ater to the N ati onal Recovery
A dm i ni strati on to supervise and assist i n the f orm ul ati on of f ishery
codes of f ai r competiti on under the N ati onal I ndustri al Recovery
A ct.
C O N SE R V A T I O N

OF

W H A L ES

The M ul ti l ateral Convention f or the Regul ati on of W hal i ng agreed
to by the economic committee of the Council of the L eague of
N ati ons on September 24, 1931, yet aw ai ts the si gnature of the
U ni ted K ingdom of G reat B ri tai n and N orthern I rel and to make
the convention effective. T he conventi on has been rati f i ed by the
f oll ow ing nati ons: U ni ted States, Ju l y 7, 1932; N orw ay, Jul y 18,
1932; U nion of South A f ri ca, January 11, 1933; Sw itzerl and, Feb­
ruary 16, 1933; and M exico, M arch 13, 1933. I n addi ti on to these
ratif i cations, the f oll ow ing have signif ied adherence to the conven­
ti on: N i caragua on A pri l 30, 1932; Sudan, A pri l 13, 1932; M onaco,
Ju n e 17, 1932; B razil , N ovember 21, 1932; and Egy pt, January
25, 1933.
L E G I SL A T I O N

Several pieces of legislati on af f ecting f ishery m atters and the
B ureau of Fisheri es were enacted duri ng the l ast session of the
Sev enty -thi rd Congress. A bri ef statement w i th respect to the more
i m portant legi slati on enacted follows:
Publi c, No. 166, approved A pri l 16, 1934, amends sections 3 and 4
of an act of Congress enti tl ed “ A n act f or the protecti on and regul a­
ti on of the fisheries of A laska ” , approved June 26, 1906, as amended
by the act of Congress approved June 6, 1924. T he effect of these
amendments is to perm i t commercial f ishing f or k i ng salmon in the

82

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

Y ukon and K uskokw im Rivers by nati ve I ndi ans and bona fide w hite
i nhabi tants under such restricti ons as may be prescribed by the Sec­
retary of Commerce. H eretof ore all commercial f ishing has been
prohi bi ted in these riv ers and w ithi n 500 y ards of thei r mouths.
Publi c, No. 372, approved June 16, 1934, repeal s all acts and parts
of acts m ak i ng i t unl aw f ul to k i l l sea lions in the w aters of the
T erri tory of A laska, and in substance provides th at sea lions may be
kil led in the w aters of A laska only in accordance w i th rules and
regulati ons prescribed by the Secretary of Commerce. The regul a­
ti ons w hich have been promul gated pursuant to the provisions of
thi s act provide that sea lions may be kil led by natives f or f ood or
clothing, by miners or explorers when in need of food, or by anyone
i n the necessary protecti on of property , or w hile such animals are
destroying salmon and other food fish.
Publi c, No. 447, approved June 21, 1934, authorizes an appropri a­
tion of $500,000 f or the preparati on of plans, specifications, and f or
the construction and equipment of a fisheries research vessel to be
maintained and operated under the supervision of the Secretary of
Commerce. No appropri ati on, however, has as yet been made.
Publi c, No. 464, approved June 25, 1934, authorizes the f ormati on
of associations of producers of aquatic products. T hi s act extends
to the producers of aquati c products the same privil eges w hich have
been extended to producers of agri cul tural products by the act of
February 18, 1922 (42 Stat. 388). I n other w ords, i t permits the
producers of aquatic products to f orm associations f or the purpose
of collectively producing, m ark eti ng, and harv esti ng aquatic products.
Publi c Resolution No. 19, approved A pri l 16, 1934, extends to the
w hali ng and f ishing i ndustries the same benefits granted under section
11 of the M erchant M arine A ct of 1920, as amended. T hi s act pro­
vides f or loans f or the constructi on, outf i tting, equipment, recon­
di ti oning, remodeling, and improvement of vessels engaged in the
w hali ng and f ishing i ndustri es and is administered by the U ni ted
States Shi ppi ng B oard Bureau.
Publi c, No. 120, approved M arch 10, 1934, provides f or the estab­
lishment of fish and game sanctuaries, subject to certai n restricti ons
and l im itati ons, and provides that the Secretari es of A gri cul ture and
Commerce shal l execute the provisions of the act, and authorizes them
to make all needf ul rules and regulati ons f or the adm i ni strati on of
such fish and game sanctuari es or ref uges as may be established pur­
suant to the provisions of the act.
Publi c, No. 121, approved M arch 10, 1934, commonly know n as the
“ Federal Coordinati on A c t ” , has f or i ts purpose the conservation
of w il dli f e—fish and game.
Publi c, No. 417, approved June 19, 1934, provides f or loans f or
the purpose of f inanci ng the producti on, storage, handl i ng, packing,
processing, carry i ng, and/ or orderly m ark eti ng of fish of A merican
f isheries and/ or products thereof . T hi s act is being administered
by the Reconstruction Finance Corporation.
Publi c, No._ 381, approved June 18, 1934, authorizes production
credit associations to make loans to oyster planters. T hi s act is bein<>administered by the Farm Credi t A dmini strati on.

BU REA U OE FI SH EB I ES
C O N ST R U C T I O N

83

A C T IV IT IES

Constructi on and improvements at the Federal hatcheri es were
conducted through the medium of allotments received f rom the
Publi c W orks A dm i ni strati on and through parti ci pati on in the Civil
W orks program duri ng the w inter. D uri ng the year there became
avail able outri ght allotments total i ng $281,500. These grants f rom
the Emergency Publ i c W orks f unds provided $150,000 f or addi ti onal
construction at five hatcheri es w hi ch were only parti al l y completed.
These hatcheries, authori zed by the act of M ay 21,1930 (46 Stat. 371),
are located in A labama, I ndi ana, Pennsylv ani a, Texas, and W est
V i rgi ni a. A t the close of the y ear all of these hatcheri es had been
pl aced on a produci ng basis, al though several of them were not f ul l y
completed. T he balance of the al lotments, amounti ng to $131,500
was apporti oned among 29 dif f erent hatcheri es f or the purpose of
reconditioning and repai rs. On the incepti on of the Civil W orks
program in November, there was approved a grant of a maximum
of 2,440 men w ith an all otment of $85,175 f or materials and expenses
other than labor. These f orces were assigned to projects of improve­
ment, enlargement, and reconditioning at 40 dif f erent hatcheries, and
reari ng units. T he maximum number of men employed at any one
time was 2,269. B y v i rtue of the outri ght cash al lotments, and the
allocation of labor, the hatchery system as regards buil dings, w ater
supply, and all physical f eatures was brought to a hi gher state of
repai r and efficiency than has exi sted f or a great many years.
ST A T I ST I C A L

I N V E ST I G A T I O N S

FI SH ERI ES OF T H E U N I TED STA TES, 19 32

New England, States.—D uri ng the calendar year 1932 the commer­
cial fisheries of M aine, New H am pshi re, M assachusetts, Rhode I sl and,,
and Connecticut employed 16,580 fishermen. T hei r catch amounted
to 480 521,000 pounds, val ued at $14,001,000— a decrease of 10 percent
in volume and 28 percent in value as compared w i th the catch in 1931.
I n addi ti on there was a producti on of 229,000 bushels of seed oysters,
valued at $120,000. L andi ngs of fish by A merican f ishing vessels at
B oston and Gloucester, M ass., and Portl and, M aine, amounted to
252,334,000 pounds as landed, valued at $6,084,000— a decrease of 4
percent in quanti ty and 34 percent in val ue as compared w i th the
preceding year.
M iddle A tlantic States.—T he commercial fisheries of New Y ork,.
New Jersey , Pennsylv ani a, and D el aw are in 1932 gave employment
to 9,155 fishermen. T hei r catch amounted to 141,221,000 pounds,,
valued at $4,654,000— a decrease of 7 percent i n volume and 36 percent
i n value as compared w i th 1931. I n addition, there was a producti on
of 1,332,000 bushels of seed oysters, valued at $481,000. L andi ngs of
fish at New Y ork City and Groton, Conn., amounted to 35,602,000
pounds or 31 percent less than in 1931. On the H udson Ri v er the
shad f ishery was conducted by 274 f ishermen who caught 530,000
pounds of shad valued at $51,000—an increase of 28 percent in volume
and 2 percent in value over 1931.

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REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

Chesapeake B ay States.— I n the calendar y ear 1932 the commercial
fisheries of M ary l and and V i rgi ni a employed 21,084 fishermen. T hei r
catch amounted to 359,007.000 pounds, valued at $5,905,000—an i n­
crease of 26 percent in volume, but a decrease of 18 percent in value
as compared w ith the previous year. I n addition there was a produc­
ti on of 1,475,000 bushels of seed" oysters, valued at $159,000. T he shad
and alew if e fisheries of the Potomac Riv er were prosecuted by 703
fishermen who caught 2,264,000 pounds of shad, valued at $173,000
and 6,845,000 pounds of alewives, valued at $24,000, representi ng an
increase of 10 percent in the catch of shad, but a decrease of 7 percent
i n the catch of alewives.
South A tlantic and Gulf States.—D uri ng the calendar year 1932
the commercial fisheries of N orth Caroli na, South Carolina, Georgia,
Fl ori da, A labama, M ississippi, L oui si ana, and Texas employed 21,560
fishermen. T hei r catch amounted to 299,917,000 pounds, val ued at
•$6,428,000— an increase of 4 percent in volume, but a decrease of 20
percent in value as compared w ith the previous year. I n addition,
there was a producti on of 40,000 bushels of seed oysters val ued at
$ 8 ,000.

Pacific Coast States.—-The commercial fisheries of W ashington,
•Oregon, and Cal i f orni a i n the calendar y ear 1932 employed 17,900
fishermen. T hei r catch amounted to 560,828,000 pounds, valued at
$9,484,000— a decrease of 6 percent in quanti ty and 30 percent in
value as compared w ith 1931. T he total catch of hal i but by the
U ni ted States and Canadian vessels amounted to 43,458,000 pounds,
valued at $1,740,000—-an increase of 1 percent in quanti ty , but a
•decrease of 39 percent in value as compared w ith the preceding year.
Bake States. D uri ng the cal endar year 1932 the L ake f isheries
(L ak es Ontari o, Eri e, H uron, M ichigan, and Superi or, and N amakan
and Rai ny L akes, and L ake of the W oods of the U ni ted States and
Canada) produced 110,675,000 pounds of f ishery products. Of the
total , the U ni ted States accounted f or 83,744,000 pounds, valued at
$4,332,000— a decrease of 9 percent in quanti ty and 28 percent in
value as compared w i th the U ni ted States catch in the previous year.
T he L ake fisheries i n the U ni ted States gave employment to 6 900
f ishermen in 1932.
M ississippi River and tributaries.— No survey was made of the
fisheries of the M i ssi ssi ppi Ri v er and tri butari es f or the year 1932.
I n 1931 these fisheries gave employment to 15,900 fishermen, and
■their catch amounted to 82,382,000 pounds, valued at $2,897,000.
M A NUFA CTURED PRODUCTS I N T H E U N I TED STATES A ND A L A SK A , 1932

Fresh and frozen packaged fish.— T he producti on of f resh and
f rozen packaged fish in the cal endar y ear 1932 amounted to 51,976,000
pounds, valued at $5,741,000. T he most i m portant species packaged
was haddock, w hich alone amounted to 33,401,000 pounds, valued
at $3,357,000. Stati sti cs of producti on of f resh and f rozen packaged
shellf ish were not obtained f or 1932.
&
Frozen products.— T he producti on of f rozen f isherv products in
1932 amounted to 92,472,000 pounds, esti mated to be valued at about
$7,000,000. T he volume of the producti on was 18 percent less than
m 1931. T he more i m portant products f rozen w ith respect to volume
w ere mackerel, ground fish, salmon, w hiting, and shellfish.

BU REA U OF FI SH ER I ES

85

Cured products.— Stati sti cs of the producti on of cured f ishery
products were not obtained f or the year 1932, but in 1931 the output
amounted to 98,969,000 pounds, valued at $12,364,000.
Canned products.— Canned f ishery products produced in 1932
amounted to 416,062,000 pounds, valued at $43,749,000— a decrease of
18 percent in quanti ty and 31 percent in value as compared w i th
1931. Canned salmon amounted to 283,631,000 pounds, valued at
$26,460,000 ; other i m portant products were tuna and tunal i k e fishes,
sardi nes, shri mp, clam products, and oysters.
Byproducts.—D uri ng the calendar year 1931 the value of produc­
ti on of f ishery byproducts amounted to $12,466,000—a decrease of
25 percent as compared w i th the preceding year. I m portant prod­
ucts in thi s group were marine animal oils and meals and aquatic
shell products.
M AR K ET IN G

I N V E ST I G A T I O N S

The shrimp industry.— A survey of the shrim p i ndustry of the
South A tl anti c and G ul f States, w hich i n 1932 produced 96,000,000
pounds, valued at $2,700,000 to the f ishermen, points out the advisa­
bi l i ty of study of conservation measures, technological development,
and improved business methods, and includes much data on the eco­
nomic aspects of this i ndustry .
Standardization or grading fish and fishery products.—A t the re­
quest of vari ous States, members of the i ndustry , and others i nter­
ested i n the fisheries, the B ureau has continued i ts study of the possi­
bil iti es f or establi shing and appl y i ng v ol untary m ark eti ng grades or
standards f or f ishery products.
T ECH NO L O G ICAL

I N V E ST I G A T I O N S

Technological investigations include studies of methods of m anu­
f acture, preservati on, storage, and m ark eti ng of both the pri m ary
products of the fisheries f or f ood and the byproducts f or animal
nutri ti on; biochemical tests to determi ne the f ood value of these
products ; the development of f i shing gear ; and experiments in pre­
pari ng chemical treatm ents to f ishing nets to lengthen thei r usef ul ­
ness. These investigati ons have involved the appl i cati on of the sci­
ences of chemistry, engineering, bacteriology, and general technology
to the solution of the problems ari sing. T he accomplishments of theB ureau’s technological staf f , duri ng recent years, have resulted in
notable contributi ons of outstandi ng value to both A merican fisheriesand A meri can agriculture. A mong these achievements is the discov­
ery of ample domestic sources of vitami n-beari ng fish oils f or both
human and ani mal nutri ti on. These fish oils, rich in vitamins, such
as hal i but li ver, cod liver, swordfish liver, sardine, salmon, and many
others, are absolutely essenti al to the mai ntenance of a hi gh standard
of nutri ti on among our people and are of economic necessity to the
A meri can f arm er in rai si ng f urther f ood f or our nati onal dietary.
Other accomplishments duri ng the past y ear by the technological staf f
of di rect economic value to the f ishery i ndustries are the development
of chemical preservatives f or l engthening the usef ul l i f e of f ishing
nets and gear, the discovery of i m portant f acts concerning the pecul­
i arl y valuabl e food properti es of f ishery products as one of our great

;86

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

basic food industries, the development of better methods f or m anu­
f acturi ng fish meal f or use by the agri cul tural i ndustry , and the
discovery of better methods f or the preserv ati on and handl i ng of
vari ous products of the fisheries.
Preservation of fishery products f or food.— These studies have con­
si sted of the development of improved methods f or handl i ng f resh
and f rozen fish, improvements in the smoking of fish, methods of
canning fish in the home, and the bacteriol ogy of fish preservati on
and storage. Technologists of the B ureau have developed an el ectro­
metric method f or the determinati on of the relati ve f reshness of fish
flesh. T hey have f ound that, in order to produce smoked fish of uni ­
f orml y hi gh quali ty, the f actors af f ecting the quali ty of smoked fish,
such as temperature, hum idity, volume of smoke, etc., must be con­
trol led. Fi nnan hacldie of uni f orml y hi gh quali ty were produced
experimentall y. M ethods of home canni ng fish are being w orked out.
T he changes caused by the acti on of bacteri a are closely related to
the chemical changes which accompany enzyme acti on in the fish
flesh. A ttem pts are bei ng made to correlate the vari ous stages of
spoilage w i th the bacteria count in each of these stages. T hi s has
included studies of the bacteriol ogy of the vari ous experimental
methods of fish preservati on described above.
Preservation of fishery "byproducts.— Studi es on the improved
m anuf acture of fishmeal f rom nonoily fish w aste demonstrated that
by caref ul control of dri er operati on thi s type of m ateri al can be
converted i nto a very high-grade meal by a si ngle dry i ng operation,
w i thout experiencing appreci able diff iculty f rom glue f ormati on.
M ateri al so produced has a parti cul ar advantage as a f eedstuf f in
that i t possesses considerable v i tam i n G potency. T he effect of
dry i ng time and tem perature of dry i ng on various f actors inf luenc­
i ng the nutri ti v e value of fishmeal was determined and addi ti onal
i nf orm ati on was obtained on the relati ve importance of such f actors.
D ata obtained f rom the exami nati on of a large number of haddockli ver oil samples indicated that oil prepared f rom livers taken f rom
fish caught duri ng the summer months, especially on Georges B ank,
w ill occasionally have an iodine number w hich w ill exceed the m ax i ­
mum upper l i m i t prescribed f or cod-liver oil in the U ni ted States
Pharmacopoeia.
A t the present time, large quanti ti es of salmon waste are not bei ng
util ized. T hi s m ateri al is capable of y i elding an oil comparable to
-cod-liver oil in vitamins A and D , and a f ishmeal of hi gh f eeding
value. I n order to assist in increasing the uti l i zati on of salmon
w aste and to improve the product now m anuf actured, technologists
were assigned to the Pacif ic coast to conduct research on thi s prob­
lem. The resul ts to date, w hile only of a prel i m i nary nature, indicate
the possi bi li ty of considerable improvement in the w aste-util ization
problem of the salmon fishery.
Studies on the oil extractable f rom the livers of swordf ish taken
off the New Engl and coast show that this oil is an even ri cher source
•of vitamins A and D than hal i but-l i v er oil. T hi s is an extremely
i m portant discovery.
One method of i ncreasing the usef ulness of fish oils is to increase
thei r keepi ng qual iti es. _ Studies are being carri ed on w i th the use
-of anti ox i dants or i nhi bitors f or the purpose of preventi ng excessive
oxidati on and rancidity.

BU REA U OF FI SH ER I ES

87

N utritive value of fishei'y 'products.—I t has been f ound that a diet
of oysters and mil k not only perm i ts normal blood f ormati on but
also good grow th, reproducti on, and l actati on in l aboratory animals.
Ex peri m ents i n w hich w hite rats have received diets f or a peri od of
12 months w hich are many times richer in copper than any oysters
f ound on the m ark et reveal that when the element is f ed in conjunc­
ti on w i th oysters a smal ler quanti ty of the m etal is stored in the
l i v er than w hen f ed w ith the stock di et alone. T he toxi ci ty of the
copper contai ned in m ark et oysters should, theref ore, give very l i ttl e
concern.
Other nutri ti on studies have revealed the relati vely hi gh vitamin
content of vari ous fish oils, such as sw ordf ish-liver oil, oils f rom
salmon cannery tri mmings, salmon eggs, salmon livers, and other
miscellaneous fish oils.
Development and improvements of -fishing gear.— T he mesh size
of nets determines the kinds and numbers of undersized and im ma­
ture fish w hich w il l be perm i tted to escape f rom the commercial f ish­
ermen in the interests of conservation. Technologists of thi s B ureau
and of the B ureau of Standards have made a study of devices to
enable the conservation authori ti es of the States to establish and
appl y uni f orm enf orcement of regulati ons pertai ni ng to the mesh
sizes of nets.
For many years methods have been studied f or chemically treati ng
nets in order to prolong thei r usef ul li f e. I n addi ti on to recom­
mendations f or treati ng these nets w ith toxic dyes as suggested in
previous annual reports, i t has been f ound, duri ng the past year,
th at chrome tanni ng of the cotton netti ng gives excellent results and
that, w here bacteri al acti on on nets is not serious, an improved
method of cutchi ng tw ine produces good service. I n all cases, better
results are obtained by covering the treated nets, in addi ti on to one
of the above treatments, w i th a good grade of tar, properl y applied.
M ercury compounds are valuable in checking weed and other mari ne
grow ths on nets exposed in w aters f or v ary i ng lengths of time.
BI O L O G IC A L

F I SH E R Y

I N V E ST I G A T I O N S

K educed appropri ati ons made i t necessary to curtai l drasti cal l y
scientif ic investigati ons on the main problems of the nati onal f isher­
ies. I n spite of a smal ler staf f , diminished l aboratory f acil ities, and
low ered operati ng f unds, a reorgani zati on made i t possible to carry
on the most essential lines of research. Funds f urni shed by the
Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on enabled the undertak i ng of i m portant
lines of i nv estigati on w hich had previ ously received l i ttl e attenti on.
I nv esti gati ons of the commercial fisheries are concerned w i th the
changes in abundance of the f ood fishes of the N orth and M iddle
A tl anti c areas and w ith the correction of abuses in the commercial
fisheries of the Great L akes. T he shrim p f ishery of the South A t­
l anti c and Gul f has also been studied w i th the aim of discovering
and prev enti ng depl etion of the suppl y ; and the salmon and herri ng
fisheries of A laska are undergoing scientif ic anal ysi s as a basis f or
thei r regulati on. A qui cul tural investigati ons include studies on the
improvement of hatchery techni que f or both cold- and w arm-w ater
fishes and the pl anni ng of rati onal stocki ng policies in i nteri or

88

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

w aters. Shellf ishery investigati ons have been directed tow ard i m ­
prov i ng the qual i ty of the oysters in the N orth and M iddle A tl anti c
section and tow ard increasing the producti on by cul tural methods in
the South and on the Pacif ic coast.
W i th f unds received f rom the Publ i c W orks and Ci vil W orks
A dm i ni strati ons studies were made on f resh- and salt-w ater poll u­
ti on; the f orm ati on of a rati onal stocking policy f or our nati onal
park s and f orests was undertak en, as w ell as studi es of fish pro­
tective devices to be used i n connection w i th certai n physical devel­
opments al ong the i m portant f ishing rivers.
FI SH ERY I NV ESTIGA TION'S OF T H E A TL A NTIC AND GUL F STATES

T he haddock catch, w hich has been decli ning steadil y since the
peak y ear of 1929, showed signs of recovery in 1933 w hen the total
landi ngs at m aj or f ishing ports reached 138,000,000 pounds. T hi s
was about equal to the catch in 1932 but f ar short of the 243,000,000
pounds landed in 1929. T he term i nati on of the dow nw ard trend
came l argel y as the resul t of the improved f ishery on the banks off
the N ova Scotian coast, w hich approx i matel y counterbal anced a
moderate decline on Georges B ank and South Channel. On the
l atter banks, w hich normall y suppl y the m aj or p ar t of our haddock
catch, the abundance of marketabl e haddock duri ng the spri ng and
summer of 1933 was consi derably less than duri ng the correspondi nopart of the previ ous year, but in the f al l and w i nter was raised by
the inf lux i nto the commercial catch of fish of the 1931 class w hich
then were reaching marketabl e size. H ow ever, the average level
f or the enti re y ear was considerabl y less than in 1932 and was p r i ­
m ari l y responsible f or the decline in the catch f rom thi s area. On
the banks off the N ova Scotian coast haddock of the relati vely nu­
merous 1929-year class reached marketabl e size in the summer and
f al l of 1933 and caused a great increase in the catch. T hi s was the
same y ear group w hich caused the improved catch on Georges B ank
m 1932, but due to the dif f erence in grow th rate the haddock of thi s
class di d not reach commercial size on the Nova Scoti an banks unti l
more than a y ear l ater.
T he prospects are good f or a somew hat improved yield in 1934.
T he average abundance on Georges B ank shoul d be about the same
or possibly somew hat less than in 1933, depending on the 1931 class.
T he extent of this class cannot be determined at present ow ing to the
lack of f acil ities f or w ork at sea w hich makes i t impossible to obtain
any good measure of the magnitude of a y ear class unti l i t has been
m the f ishery f or about a year. T he yield (catch per traw l er day )
on the banks off the N ova Scotian coast w i ll be much greater duri nothe spri ng and summer of 1934 than duri ng the pervious year but
should be somew hat less in the late f al l and w i nter.
A t the present time the study of the haddock f ishery has revealed
the m aj or causes of the f luctuations in the abundance of haddock on
the banks. I n addition, the experiments w i th savings gear have dem­
onstrated that the use of the correct mesh i n the otter traw l s w ill
reduce the present destruction of mi llions of undersized haddock
to about one-f if th the present amount, a saving that w i ll contribute
di rectl y to the success of the commercial catch in l ater years. H ow ­

B U REA U OP FI SH ER I ES

89

ever, the m aj or objectives sti l l lie ahead; the accurate evaluation of
the f actors causi ng good or poor f ishing seasons w hich w ill enable us
to f orecast any i m portant increases or decreases in the haddock catch;
and the accurate determinati on of grow th rates, m ortal i ty rates, and
m i grati on, w hich w il l enable us to determi ne the mi nimum size below
w hich i t is economically w astef ul to capture haddock. T hi s i nf or­
mati on is vi tal f or the i ntel l i gent exploitati on of this resource. I ts
attai nm ent depends on the av ai l abi l i ty of f acil ities f or w ork at sea
involving the study of abundance and m ortal i ty of haddock below
commercial size and the study of migrati ons.
T he regul ar spri ng predicti on of abundance of mackerel f or the
1934 season was issued by the B ureau near the beginning of the sea­
son. A t that time i t appeared th at the abundance w ould be nearly
the same as in the previous season and w ould have provided a catch
approx i m ati ng 54,000,000 pounds i f exploitati on had been normal.
T hi s amount being in excess of the probable m ark et demand, the
industry , under authori ty provided by i ts Code of F ai r Competition,
curtai l ed i ts mackerel s e i n i n g acti vities. I n thi s manner the results
of scientif ic research have been usef ul to the i ndustry . T he trend
tow ard planned exploi tati on renders more urgent the need f or ad­
vances in scientif ic know ledge of thi s fishery. B adl y needed inves­
ti gati ons of the reasons f or v ari ati ons in the rate of annual decline
of the several year classes and v ari ati ons in thei r seasonal appearance
i n di f f erent areas have had to be def erred because of the lack of means
f or thei r pursui t.
I nvesti gati ons of the shore f isheries of the M iddl e A tl anti c States
were continued on a greatl y reduced scale. I t was necessary to
abandon several series of field observations bef ore conclusive results
w ere secured, thereby dim ini shi ng the value of the results obtained
through f unds expended on these observations in previous years.
Results of taggi ng experiments have demonstrated that certai n of
the more i m portant species m i grate extensively over the enti re con­
ti nental shelf between M assachusetts and N orth Caroli na, hence can­
not be protected effectively by uncoordinated regulati ons of i ndi v i d­
ual States. Since the w i nter traw l f ishery is conducted outside the
j uri sdi cti on of the States, the conti nued grow th of thi s f ishery adds
greatl y to the difficulties of protecti on under the present system of
i ndependent legi sl ati on by the several States.
Because of the i nterstate and ex traterri tori al nature of the fishery,
the responsibil ity f or securing knowledge essential f or the conserva­
ti on of thi s i m portant natural resource is clearly Federal. T here is
a w idespread demand on the p art of commercial f ishermen and an­
gl ers in the M iddle A tl anti c States f or resumpti on and extension of
the scientif ic studies necessary to provide a sound basis f or f orm ul a­
ti on of a wise conservation policy.
The shri m p investigati ons conducted by the B ureau in cooperation
w ith the States of L ouisiana, Texas, and Georgi a have continued the
field w ork throughout the enti re range of the commercial shri mp
fishery w ith various modif ications to meet the special needs of the
problem. D ef inite evidences have been gathered w hich show that
the shrim p migrate. The nature and extent of thei r migrati ons are
now being studi ed by means of populati on and racial analyses, and
prel i m i nary m ark i ng experiments are under way.

90

REPOET OP T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

I chthyological studi es of the South A tl anti c and Gul f coasts have
included a conti nuati on of taxonomical exami nati ons and revisions of
the flounders, gobies, cypri nodonts, and other species. T he f resh­
w ater fishes of the State of M ississippi also were studied and a report
was submitted to the recently established State game and fish com­
mission as an aid in f orm ul ati ng more effective law s of conservation..
T he ichthyol ogical studies included, also, a survey of the f resh-w ater
streams and lakes of Puerto Rico, carried on in cooperation w ith the
I nsul ar D epartm ent of A gri cul ture and Commerce, the object of the
investigati on being the determinati on of the present status of the f ish­
eries and the possibil iti es of f uture cul tural operations either of
indi genous or introduced species.
FI SH ERY INV ESTI GA TI ONS I N I NTERI OR WA TERS

Ow ing to the severe curtai l m ent of f unds all field w ork has been
discontinued on the Great L akes, and the staf f has devoted i ts f ul l
time to the analysi s of the many fisheries data that have been col­
lected duri ng the past years but w hich have not yet been compiled
in f inal f orm f or publi cati on. One i m portant phase of the work
that is showing promi sing results is the detai led study of the sta­
tisti cs of the commercial fisheries of L ake H uron f or the 5-year
period 1929—33. T hi s study has made avail able not only complete
data on f luctuations in the total f i shing intensi ty and in the yield
of each commercial species f or each of the 6 stati sti cal districts' into
w hich L ake H uron has been divided but includes also a precise
tabul ati on of the f ishing ef f ort actual l y exerted f or the capture of
each of the 8 most i m portant species of the commercial catch. T hi s
tabul ati on of f i shing ef f ort f or each i ndi v i dual species (necessary
since identi cal types of gear are employed in completely disti nct
f i sheri es), together w ith the eliminati on of the effect of the dif f erent
f i shing times (ni ghts out) of the same types of gear in dif f erent
geographical regions, has made possible an accurate determinati on
of f luctuations in abundance, as measured in terms of yield per uni t
ef fort, not attai nabl e through less ref ined methods of procedure.
The practi cal value of the methods employed has been demon­
strated clearly in the study of the rapi d depleti on of the stock that
has resulted f rom the use of the deep trap net f or the capture of
whitefish.
A nother i m portant phase of the Great L akes w ork involves the
study of the l i f e histories of the more i m portant species of com­
mercial fishes. These studies on the three species of pike perches
(sauger, and yellow and blue pike perch) and the yellow perch are
rapi dl y neari ng completion and prel i m i nary reports have already
been publi shed. ^ On the basis of thi s w ork, recommendations are
made to the various State conservation departm ents on proper size
li mits, closed season, size of mesh in nets, and other regul atory
measures. A s a result of these studies i t was also possible to submi t
to the N ati onal Recovery A dm i ni strati on many basic data to show
the need of the inclusion of certai n uni f orm conservation measures
m the Great L akes Fisheri es Code.
A m anuscri pt was recently completed f or publi cati on on the a»e
and grow th of the cisco of certai n i nl and lakes of northeastern
W isconsin, a study made possible by the cooperation of the W iscon­
sin Geological and N atural H i story Survey.

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91

FI SH ERY INV ESTI GA TI ON OF T H E PA CIFIC COAST AND ALASKA

T he staf f of the B ureau’s Seattle (W ash.) laboratory has continued
i ts investigati ons of the salmon and herri ng populati ons of A laska
and the Pacif ic coast. These investigati ons, although confined to
definite localities, have as thei r goal the determinati on of the causes
responsible f or the f luctuations in the abundance of the salmon and
herri ng so that provisions may be made f or permanent and pro­
ductive fisheries throughout the enti re region.
T he red-sal mon runs in B ri stol B ay and the K arl uk , Chignik, and
Copper Rivers were observed and i nf orm ati on concerning them col­
lected. T he results f rom the studies of the red-salmon runs in the
past i ndicate that the m ortal i ty of the young in the streams and lakes
is to a great extent responsible f or the wide f luctuations in the
abundance of these salmon. I n view of these f indings an attem pt
is being made to determine some of the causes responsible f or this
m ortal i ty in the K arl uk Ri v er system.
T he studies deal ing w ith the homing i nsti nct and age at m aturi ty
of the pi nk salmon have been submitted in a report w hich is being
publi shed by the B ureau. Observations of the pink-sal mon runs in
southeastern A laska w ere continued f or the purpose of determining
the causal f actors responsible f or the f luctuations in the ti me of
appearance and abundance of these runs.
A report has been submitted show ing areas i nhabi ted by each of
the pri nci pal herri ng races i n southeastern A laska. T hi s i nf orm a­
tion w ill be of great value in segregati ng the catch statisti cs so that
the abundance of each race may be determined separately and the
intensi ty of the f ishing regul ated accordingly.
The stati sti cal study of the sockeye-salmon f ishery in Puget Sound
has been continued and is demonstrating that severe overfishing
eventuall y w il l destroy the sockeye-salmon runs in the Fraser River
w hich v i rtual l y support thi s fishery. A n attem pt is bei ng made to
compile a f ormal report of this study w i thi n the next y ear so as to
provide a basis f or the regul ati on of this f ishery in order to restore
i t to i ts f ormer abundance.
T he coho salmon that f requent the w aters of the Pacif ic Coast
States and Puget Sound provi de the basis f or a large sport f ishery
as well as the commercial f ishery in thi s region. D uri ng the past
y ear the B ureau has undertak en a study of the f luctuations in the
abundance of these fish f or the purpose of recommending measures
that w ill provide f or a permanent supply of the coho salmon, both
f or commercial and recreati onal purposes.
A QUI CUL TURA L INV ESTI GA TI ONS

T he investigations .in the i nterest of improved f ish-cul tural prac­
tices have recently beep expanded to include field studi es deal ing
w i th problems w hich are of v i tal concern to any program of fisheries
management. U nder an all otm ent f rom the Publ i c W orks A dm i n­
i strati on, stream survey and improvement w ork has been carri ed on
in the nati onal f orests and park s in 15 States. T he purpose of the
survey is to supply i nf orm ati on on the streams and lakes of the
publi c domai n f or the development of a scientif ic stocking program.

92

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

U nder such a program fish w ill be pl anted w here they w ill do the
most good and the mistakes i nherent in the old haphazard system of
pl anti ng avoided.
T he stream-i mprovement w ork has been undertak en in coopera­
ti on w i th the Forest Service. U nder thi s arrangem ent the B ureau,
has planned and supervised the w ork w hich has been done w i th l abor
f urni shed by the Civil ian Conservation Corps.
I nv esti gati ons of means of im proving hatchery practices and pro­
viding better control of fish diseases have been continued. B reeding
experi ments w i th brook trout have been so successf ul in developing
superior strai ns of fish that the w ork has been extended to include
rainbow and brow n trout.
SjHEL L FISHERIES I NV ESTIGA TION

The vari ous problems of the oyster i ndustry were studied i n
M assachusetts, Connecticut, N orth Carol ina, Fl ori da, L oui si ana, and
W ashington. I n cooperati on w i th the Connecticut Shellf isheries
Commission, the B ureau continued observations on the grow th, f at­
teni ng, and seasonal changes i n the nutri ti v e value of oysters f rom
the experimental f arm near M i l f ord, Conn. I n New H av en H arbor,
w here dredgi ng operations in the channel threatened the oyster bot­
toms, a series of analyses of the w ater was made f or the State au­
thori ti es and the amount of si l t in the w ater and i ts rate of settl i ng
w ere determi ned.
I n N orth Caroli na the B ureau’s experts w orked out the plans of
restocking the depl eted oyster bottoms and supervised pl anti ng op­
erati ons carri ed out by the State.
T he development of new oil fields i n the inshore w aters of the
G ul f of M exico creates a new difficulty to the oyster i ndustry . A
question has ari sen as to w hat extent the oil in the sea w ater may
af f ect the oyster bottoms in the vicinity of the oil wells. T hi s diffi­
cul t probl em has been studied in the field and experim entall y under
controlled laboratory conditions at B eauf ort, N. C., W oods H ole,
M ass., and W ashington, D . C. I t has been f ound that the presence
of crude oil in the w ater decreases the rate of f eeding of the oyster
and adversel y affects the propagati on of diatoms w hich are used by
the oyster as food.
A disease of oysters caused by a protozoan parasite, w hich may
have_ been responsible f or the m ortal i ty of oysters observed in
previous years in certai n sections of the coast, was studied at Beau¿t : ^h e investigati on has not been completed, but several phases
of the l i f e hi story of the microorgani sm have been revealed.
On the Pacif ic coast studies of the cycles of setti ng of the oyster
l arv ae proved of great value to the oystermen who arranged thei r
pl anti ng operations i n accordance w i th the i nf orm ati on and advice
suppli ed by the B ureau’s l aboratory at Olympia, W ash
PO L L U T I O N

ST U D I E S

, N ew methods f or the biological assay of poll uted w aters have been
developed and put into practi cal operati on at the field stations at
Columbia, M o., F o r t W orth, Tex., and aboard the f loating laboratory,

B U REA U OF FI SH ER I ES

93

quarterboat 348. These methods perm i t more detai led and more
rapi d determinati ons of the effects of the vari ous stream pol l utants
not only on fish but on the basic f ish-f ood organisms as well under
conditions ex i sting in the pol luted w aters. A systematic study of
the effects of effluents of various i ndustri al operati ons and of munici­
pal sewage is being made w i th a view to suppl y i ng standardi zed data
concerning both the actual and relati v e toxicity of these effluents to
fish and fish food. A s a part of thi s w ork, a comprehensive study of
the toxicity of ammonia, w hich is one of the chief break-dow n prod­
ucts of municipal sewage and one of the pri nci pal effluents f rom gas
f actories, to fish and fish-food organisms under stream conditions, has
been completed.
I t has been shown by some of the w ork now completed that certain
types of i ndustri al and municipal wastes can be uti li zed to increase
the pl ank ton content of natural w aters w hen these w astes are prop­
erly dil uted and separated f rom noxious and toxic wastes. A s a basis
f or plans to conserve these substances, w hich can be util ized in the
producti on of fish food in i nl and w aters, biological assays of the
fish-food values of various w astes are in progress.
L ong-time experi ments deali ng w i th the effects of erosion si l t on
f resh-w ater mussels have been completed at the F o r t W orth sub­
station. These experiments have def initely established the f act that
even very small quanti ti es of erosion si l t are hi ghl y detri m ental
or f atal to the pri nci pal commercial species of f resh-w ater mussels.
Other long-time experiments on the surv i v al and grow th of f resh­
w ater mussels under conditions of stream pol l uti on are in progress
at F o r t W orth.
A L A SK A

F I SH E R I E S SE R V I C E

A DM I NI STRA TI ON OF FI SH ERY LA WS A ND REGUL A TIONS

I n general, the B ureau continued the program f ollow ed in pre­
vious years f or the conservation of the fisheries of A laska, although
reduced f unds made i t necessary to curtai l some phases of the
work. T he Commissioner of Fi sheri es visited al l i m portant f ishing
di stri cts in the summer and held heari ngs at about 20 places, giv i ng
all i nterested persons f ul l opportuni ty to express thei r views.
K estri ctions on commercial f i shing w ere modif ied duri ng the sea­
son as changi ng conditions w arranted, and revised regulati ons were
issued on D ecember 21, 1933, to be effective in 1934. Ex cept f or the
closure of addi ti onal trap sites, most of the changes relaxed existing
prohibi ti ons, the purpose being to spread employment w herever
possible w i thout i m pai ri ng the f uture suppl y of fish.
A patrol of the f i shing grounds was mai ntai ned to assure enf orce­
ment of the law s and regulati ons. One hundred and thi rty -one
stream guards and special employees were engaged f or v ary i ng
peri ods in thi s protecti ve w ork, under the directi on of 12 regul ar
employees of the B ureau. M any of these guards f urni shed thei r
own launches and were stationed at the mouths of salmon streams
to prev ent poaching i n closed areas. F ourteen B ureau vessels,
manned by 53 persons, and 2 chartered vessels w i th 2 men patrol l ed
the l arger bodies of w ater. .
••
;vo; s ; ¡ i
9 8 2 2 3 — 34------ 9

94

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

Fi v e w eirs f or counting the escapement of spaw ning salmon were
operated in 1933, chiefly in local iti es w here i m portant biological
studies of the salmon have been i n progress f or several years.
T hrough an all otm ent of $6,000 by the Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on
f or the purpose, arrangem ents were made f or the operati on of 11
salmon-counting w eirs i n A laska i n 1934. A n all otm ent of $20,000
of Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on f unds was used in reconditi oning
and repai ri ng the B ureau’s A l ask a vessels.
Consi derable w ork w as accomplished in the Ci vil W orks A dm i ni s­
trati on proj ect of im prov i ng natural propagati on conditi ons in
southeast A laska by the removal of log jams and other obstructions
that blocked the passage of salmon to the spaw ning beds. T hree
regul ar employees of the B ureau supervised the w ork, w hich gave
employment to approx i m atel y 200 persons f or v ary i ng periods.
N otw i thstandi ng severe w eather duri ng part of the w inter, the w ork
was carri ed f orw ard throughout the f i rst 4 months of 1934. I n that
time 468 salmon streams were cleared f or a distance of 621 miles,
and more than 100 miles of trai l w ere cut to assi st stream guards
in m aking surveys of the spaw ning beds.
T he destructi on of predatory trout i n i m portant red-sal mon ri vers
tri butary to B ri stol B ay was carri ed on under an appropri ati on of
$15,000 by the T erri tori al l egislature in 1933, to be expended the
next bienni um f or bounty on these enemies of salmon.
A LA SK A SA L M ON HA TCHERIES

A f ter the li berati on of salmon f ry and f ingerli ngs that w ere reared
at M cD onald L ake and A f ognak f rom eggs collected in 1932, the
operati on of the Government’s hatcheri es at those places was di s­
continued. One pri v atel y owned hatchery, operated under the pro­
visions of the A laska fisheries act of June 26, 1906, collected 20,650,000 red-salmon eggs in 1933, f rom w hich 20,030,000 f ry were produced
and l iberated in A laska w aters.
PRODUCTS OF T H E FI SH ERI ES

A lthough the quanti ty of f ishery products i n A laska in 1933 Avas
sl i ghtl y less than in the preceding year, there was a marked i m ­
provement in value, w hich Avas of m ateri al benef it to the fishermen,
Several pl ants were reopened and employment Avas given to a l arger
number of people than in 1932.
Sal mon products comprised about 76 percent in quanti ty and 92
percent in value of the total output of the A laska f isheries in 1933.
N inety-f ive percent of the salmon producti on consisted of canned
salmon, the pack amounti ng to 5,226,000 cases, or 250,829,000 pounds,
valued at $28,376,000. A s compared w ith the pack f or 1932, the
output of canned salmon showed a decrease of one-half of 1 percent
in quanti ty but an increase of nearl y 31 percent in value. T he num­
ber of canneries operated increased f rom 87 in 1932 to 91 i n 1933.
T he total output of A l ask a f ishery products i n 1933 was 346,480,000 pounds, valued at $32,127,000, as compared w i th an average
of 373,624,000 pounds, valued at $40,329,000, f or the 5-year period
f rom 1928 to 1932, inclusive. T he value of the 1933 catch to the

BU REA U OF FI SH ER I ES

95

f ishermen was approx i matel y $9,089,000, or about $2,118,000 more
than in the preceding year. T here were 21,695 persons employed
in the vari ous branches of the i ndustry , as agai nst 20,122 in 1932.
A L A SK A

F U R - SE A L

SE R V I C E

GENERA L A CTI V I TIES

T he Pri bi l of I sl ands f ur-seal herd has increased steadil y under
Government management, and i n 1933 the k i l l i ng of surpl us males
was the l argest f or any y ear since 1889. A bout 80 percent of the
skins obtained on St. Paul I sl and were taken by the stri ppi ng
process, w hich necessitates removal of the blubber bef ore curing.
Seali ng operations were under the directi on of a staf f of regul ar
employees and were perf orm ed by Pri bi l of I sl ands natives and by
approx i matel y 60 natives brought f rom the A l euti an I sl ands f or the
acti ve seali ng season. T he w ork of blubbering the sealskins was
done by employees of the Fouke F u r Co., in accordance w i th the
provi si ons of the f ur-seal contract.
I n addi ti on to the general repai rs and upkeep of buil dings and
equipment, three new. houses f or nati ves were erected on-St. Paul
I sl and, and the boat w ays at E ast L andi ng were completed. T here
was also some extension of improved roads to f aci l i tate the haul i ng
of sealskins f rom the k i l l i ng grounds to the curing pl ant.
Cooperati ve assistance was rendered by the N avy D epartm ent in
detai l i ng the U . S. S. V ega to transport the annual supplies to the
Pri bi l of I sl ands and to bri ng out the season’s tak e of sealskins,
and by the U ni ted States Coast Guard in m ai ntai ni ng a patrol f or
the protecti on of the f ur seals.
For the f i rst ti me since the f ur-seal treaty of 1911 became effec­
tive, the Government of the D omini on of Canada i n 1933 elected
to take delivery of i ts share of the sealskins tak en at the Pri bi l of
I sl ands, instead of 15 percent of the net proceeds of sale. T he
skins accordingl y were deli vered to a representati v e of th at Govern­
ment at Seattle in A ugust 1933.
SEAL HERD

T he computed number of animals in the Pri bi l of I sl ands f urseal herd on A ugust 10, 1933, was 1,313,568, an increase of 98,607,
or 8.08 percent over the correspondi ng f igure f or the previous year.
TA K E OF SEA L SK I NS

I n the cal endar year 1933 there were taken on the Pri bi l of I sl ands
54,550 f ur-seal skins, of w hich 44,448 were f rom St. Paul I sl and
and 10,102 f rom St. George I sl and. T hi s was an increase of 5,214
over the total tak e i n 1932.
SALE OF SEA L SK I NS

Tw o publ ic aucti on sales of f ur-seal skins tak en on the Pri bi l of
I sl ands were held at St. L ouis, M o., in the fiscal year 1934. On
A ugust 28, 1933, there were sold 18,047 black dyed, 6,192 logwood-

96

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

brow n dyed, and 237 miscellaneous skins f or a gross sum of
$469,761.50.
A t the second sale, held on A pri l 30, 1934, 17,617 black dyed,
10,039 logw ood-brown dyed, and 445 miscellaneous skins w ere sold
f or $575,041.25. A t the same ti me 170 raw -salted Japanese f ur-seal
skins that had been al l otted to the U ni ted States as i ts share of
skins tak en on Robben I sl and in 1933 w ere sold f or $467.50.
Special sales of Pri bi l of I sl ands sealskins authorized by the Sec­
retary of Commerce in the fiscal year 1934 consisted of 432 black
dyed, 25 logw ood-brow n dyed, 120 saf ari -brow n dyed, and 13 exhibi­
ti on skins, at a total of $13,590.44.
FOXES

B lue-f ox herds are mai ntai ned on St. Paul and St. George I sl ands,
w here they roam at l arge and ordi nari l y f ind an abundance of
natural f ood. Prepared rati ons are f ed them duri ng the w inter, at
w hich time the animals are trapped f or thei r pel ts and f or m ark i ng
and releasing f or breeding stock.
T he 1933-34 season’s take of f ox skins consisted of 214 blue and 23
w hi te skins f rom St. Paul I sl and and 700 blue and 2 w hite skins f rom
St. George I sl and, a total of 939. T hi rty -f iv e f oxes on St. Paul
I sl and and 192 on St. George I sl and were mark ed and released f or
breeding.
I n the fiscal y ear 1934 there were sold at public aucti on 1,119 blue
and 22 w hi te f ox skins th at had been taken on the Pri bi l of I sl ands
in the 1932-33 season. T he blue pel ts brought $36,297, and the w hite
pelts $496, a total of $36,793.
FUR-SEA L SK I N S TA K EN BY NA TIV ES

U nder the provisions of the N orth Pacif ic Seali ng Convention of
1911, I ndi ans of the U ni ted States and Canada i n 1933 took 2,076
f ur-seal skins, w hich were duly authenticated by officials of the re­
spective Governments. Of these skins, 63 w ere taken by I ndi ans of
southeast A laska, 29 by I ndi ans of W ashington, and 1,984 by I ndi ans
of B ri ti sh Columbia.
FUR-SEA L PATROL

A patrol f or the protecti on of the f ur seals duri ng thei r northw ard
m i grati on and w hile at the Pri bi l of I sl ands was maintained by the
U ni ted States Coast Guard, w hich detail ed six vessels to thi s work.
Tw o vessels of the B ureau also parti ci pated in the patrol — one at
N eah B ay, W ash., and one in southeast A l aska.
PR O PA G A T IO N

A N D

D I ST R I B U T I O N

OF

FO O D

A N D

GAM E

F I SH E S

T he requirements f or economy were met by the complete closure
of ni ne f ish-cultural stations, and by operati ng practi cal l y al l the
rem ai ni ng establishments on a sharpi y restri cted basis. A s a conse­
quence, the output of fish and eggs decreased almost 4,000,000.000 in
compari son w ith the producti on of the previous year. T he 1934 out­
put comprised 3,258,131,200, in comparison w i th the 7,202,155,000 of
the previ ous year, or a reducti on of more than one-half . T he com-

BU REA U OF FI SH ER I ES

97

mercial fisheries are to a l arge extent supported by natural reproduc­
ti on, hence emphasis was placed upon the propagati on and di stri bu­
ti on of those f orms w hich are required to m ai ntai n good f ishing in
the publ ic domain, and in all publi c w aters of the i nteri or sections.
Consequently, there was an actual increase in the producti on of 10
vari eti es of game fish, w hich incl uded all the game trout and the
largemouth and smal lmouth bass, as well as gray l i ng. The increases
ranged f rom less than 25 to over 70 percent.
A f urther modif ication required by curtai l m ent of appropri ati ons
involved a change in the system of distri buti on. T he delivery of fish
grati s to appl i cants was stri ctl y li mited, and the bulk of the output
desti ned f or i nteri or w aters was received directl y by the appl i cants
at the hatcheri es at no expense to the Government, I t is grati f y i ng
to report that there was in general a f avorable response to this change,
and the w hol e-hearted cooperation of sportsmen’s clubs and i ndi ­
vi duals was very evident.
T he yi eld of f ingerli ngs, consisting of fish several inches in l ength
up to adul t size, was considerably reduced, droppi ng to 126,368,200,
a reducti on of over 50,000,000 under the 1933 figures. T hi s was
l argel y ow ing to the f act that the salvage operations on the upper
M i ssi ssi ppi Éi v er, f rom w hich a large number of f ingerl ing fish are
secured, were greatl y restricted. I t may be f urther pointed out that
w hile there was of necessity a tremendous drop in the producti on of
the Federal hatcheri es, there was no indicati on of a sl ackening in the
demand f or fish, parti cul arl y f or game varieties. Several f orms such
as the cisco and pollock, w hich have been handl ed in previous years,
were not propagated in 1934.
pr o pa g a t i o n o f

c o mmer c ia l

s pe c i e s

M arine species, A tlantic coast.— Only two hatcheri es propagated
these f orms duri ng the year, the establi shment at Gloucester being
one of those w hich was closed on account of the shortage of f unds.
A s a consequence the producti on of these vari eti es was considerably
reduced. T he percentage of mari ne commercial f orms in the total
output was 66.5 percent as compared w i th the normal proporti on of
approx i matel y 85 percent. T he acti vities of the stations at W oods
H ole, M ass., and B oothbay H arbor, M aine, were greatl y circum­
scribed, the f ormer being responsible f or the greater share of the
output of cod, haddock, and flounder.
Pacijic salmon.—B oth salmon hatcheri es in A laska were on an
inactive basis; consequently, there was a reducti on in all species of
Pacif ic salmon except the steelhead v ari ety . T he number of sockeye
salmon produced was less than 50 percent of that i n previous years.
A pprox i m atel y normal conditi ons prevail ed at the other Pacif ic coast
hatcheri es at w hich these f orms are propagated.
A nadromous species, A tlantic coast.—H ere, too, there was a notice­
able reduction i n the output of shad, A tl anti c salmon, and yellow
perch. I t was impossible to obtain any A tl anti c salmon eggs w hat­
ever in exchange w i th the Canadian Government, and the l i mited
di stri buti on of thi s species consisted of f ingerli ngs hel d over f rom
the previous year.

98

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

T he Edenton (N . C.) station was successful i n securing an i n­
creased number of shad, but thi s gain was offset by a sharp reduction
of operati ons on the Potomac River. T he run of shad was greatl y
reduced f or reasons w hich have not been f ul l y determi ned, but ai’e
ascribed to the severe w inter. No ef f ort was made to propagate
yellow perch on the Potomac K iver, but scattered producti on was
obtained f rom other hatcheries. No gl ut herri ng were handl ed at all.
Commercial species, interior w aters.—T he closure of all the com­
mercial hatcheri es on L ake M ichigan was responsible f or a negl igi ble
producti on of w hitef ish and lake trout. No attem pt was made to
secure eggs of the cisco or lake herri ng. W hil e the D ul uth (M i nn.)
stati on was in operati on i t was possible to secure only a li mited
number of eggs. T he Cape V incent (N . Y .) station, as has been
the case f or the l ast several years, was unable to secure any w orth­
w hile number of eggs of the commercial species, and theref ore con­
centrated i ts activiti es on game f orms. W i th the pike perch, how ­
ever, cooperative acti vities w i th the State of Ohio at Pu t in B ay
yielded a record collection of eggs, y i elding an output of 836,000,000
f ry . T he eggs were incubated at both the State and B ureau’s
hatcheries.
RESCUE OPERATIONS

Reducti on of the appropri ati on f or fisheries w ork in the U pper
M ississippi W i l d L i f e Ref uge to negl igi ble proporti ons made i t
impossible to carry on the rescue or salvage of fish to the extent f ol ­
lowed under normal conditions. Fi sh become trapped in landlocked
sloughs upon recession of the w ater throughout a l arge part of this
ref uge. Seining crews are sent out to salvage them and return them
to open w aters. L ack of f inancial resources f or the support of a
normal number of crews reduced the number of rescued fish in 1934
to 22,643,000, in comparison w ith a normal collection of over 50,000,000. Controlled semiartif i ci al ponds w i thi n the ref uge were oper­
ated, how ever, to produce a sati sf actory yield of bass. Some rescue
w ork was carri ed on in the vicinity of the Fai rport (V a.) station.
A Q U A R IU M

*

T he aquarium located under the main lobby in the D epartm ent of
Commerce B ui l di ng is becoming increasingly popular. I t has been
visited by many organizati ons such as Boy Scout troops and biology
classes, as well as miscellaneous students and the general public.
A t the close of the y ear there were on di splay 1,533 fish, com­
pri si ng 62 varieties, and 107 aquatic ani mals of 6 varieties. D uri ng
the year a stock of chinook salmon, hatched in the aquarium, has
been reared; and there is now on hand a very creditable display of
this species, comparati vely l i ttl e know n in the East. Over one-half
mill ion trout, salmon, w hitefish, perch, and shad eggs were displayed
and hatched in the model hatchi ng apparatus mai ntai ned f or demon­
strati on purposes. T hi s acti vity, together w i th a model f ishway,
has been a source of great interest.
T he staf f of the aquarium has been called on f requentl y f or expert
advice in problems rel ati ng to the maintenance of home aquaria,

BU REA U OF FI SH ER I ES

99

ornamental fish pools, etc. The reserve tank s in the aquarium have
been uti li zed f or the tem porary hol di ng of game fish destined f or
di stri buti on and pl anti ng in nearby w aters.
BL A CK

B A SS

A N D

ANG L ERS

D I V I SI O N

I n cooperation w i th State fish and game authorities the blackbass law has been reasonably well enf orced i n most of the States
w here bl ack bass are f ound in numbers. T hrough the uni ted efforts
of all interested, i ncluding the angl ers, commercial fishermen, shi p­
pers and conservation organizati ons, a great deal has been accom­
pli shed. T he w ork of the D ivision has been m ateri al l y enlarged to
include a service f or the angler i n connection w i th m atters pertai ni ng
to fish and f ishing, such as i nf orm ati on i n regard to law s, kinds of
tackl e and baits to use, w here certai n species are to be f ound, etc.
T here are 3 persons regul arl y employed i n the D ivision, as­
sisted by f rom 90 to 103 deputy black-bass law inspectors, who are
State officials recei vi ng no sal ary f rom the Federal Government but
who f uncti on under the supervision and directi on of the Chief of
the D ivision.
B ut 5 State legi slatures met in regul ar session in 1934, in w hich
needed black-bass l egislati on could be obtained, and progress was
made in 3 of these. A large amount of educational w ork was done
i n the States w here f urther legal protecti on is needed and w here legis­
l atures w ill be in session in 1935.
T here have been i ll egal shipments of black bass made in vari ous
sections of the country. A number of seizures of bass have been
made and turned over to charitabl e i nsti tuti ons. I l l egal shipments
between M ississippi and A rkansas, I l l i noi s and M issouri, and M ary ­
land and Pennsy l v ani a were f ormerl y of f requent occurrence but
have been reduced to a minimum by the acti vities of the State
officials in cooperation w i th the field officers of the D i vision, pri n ­
cipal ly through w arnings and a l arge number of seizures under
State laws. Considerable diff iculty has been had in ref erence to
shi pments f rom Tennessee to M i ssi ssi ppi and M issouri, w hich have
not yet been enti rel y control led. Shipm ents f rom Fl ori da, and
shipments into I ndi ana, have caused some troubl e but have been
taken care of, but amendments to the law s of these two States must
be made bef ore thi s si tuati on can be considered sati sf actory.
T he educational p ar t of the w ork, impressi ng upon those interested,
the provi si ons of the Federal law and the necessity of f urther pro­
tecti ng our valuable black bass, has been successf ully continued
through publi cati on in the dai l y press, sporti ng magazines, and by
radi o talks.
Fi shery Ci rcul ar No. 9, contai ning the game-f ish laws, the blackbass law in f ul l , the progress in black-bass legislati on, and the aims
and recommendations of the B ureau in connection w i th the adminis­
trati on of the law, was revised and republi shed as Fi shery Ci rcul ar
No. 16. (Copies of thi s ci rcul ar may be procured f rom the Super­
i ntendent of D ocuments, Government Pri nti ng Office, W ashington,
D. C., at 5 cents each.) A tabul ati on of the f ishing licenses issued
by the States and the revenue theref rom was assembled and publi shed
f or the f i rst time. V ari ous other l eaf lets were prepared and released,

100

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

covering such subjects as part-ti m e licenses, sales of black bass, l i st
of books on angli ng, necessity of returni ng smal l fish to w ater, etc.,
f or al l of w hich there is a constant demand.
M arkets i n the pri nci pal l arge cities in Central and Eastern
States have been regul arl y inspected by the field officers f or il legal
black-bass shipments, and investigati ons of reports of violations have
been made when required. I n connection w i th investigations, the
f ield officers have attended and addressed a great number of gather­
ings of anglers, sportsmen, conservationists, and others, on the sub­
j ect of the Federal black-bass law and the necessity f or gi v i ng these
valuable game fish more adequate legal protection.
V E SSE L S

T he A lbatross I I f ormerly used by the B ureau in i ts offshore f ish­
ery investigati ons was returned to the N avy D epartm ent duri ng the
fiscal year. T hi s was done f or tw o reasons: F i rst, the vessel was
very old and not well adapted f or the B ureau’s w ork and, second
because of reduced f unds the B ureau was unable to continue i t in
operation.
T he steamer Shearw ater was engaged i n the usual f ish-cultural
w ork at the Put in B ay (O hi o) stati on duri ng the f al l and spri ng
months.
T he motor vessel Fulm ar was turned over to the D ivision of Con­
servati on of the State of Ohio f or i ts use i n f ish-cultural operations
under a revocable license prov i di ng f or i ts maintenance and opera­
tion by the licensee and also prov i di ng that the licensee w ould
f urni sh the B ureau w i th such vessel service as required in connection
w i th i ts operati ons at the Pu t in B ay (O hi o) station.
T he Pelican was used in connection w i th f ishery investigati ons off
the coast of M aine, and also i n f ish-cultural w ork at the Boothbay
H arbor (M ai ne) station.
Fi f teen vessels of the A laska service crui sed about 123,000 nauti cal
miles in the fiscal y ear 1934, as compared w i th 132,700 nauti cal miles
in the previous year. T he Penguin covered approx i matel y 28,000
miles, the Crane 15,900 miles, and the B rant and Teal each 11,400
miles.
T he Penguin served as tender f or the Pri bi l of I sl ands, w ith base at
U nalaska. Fi v e round tri ps w ere made to Seattle duri ng the year to
transport personnel and perishable and emergency supplies.
Of the vessels that engaged in fisheries protecti ve w ork, the A wklet,
M urre, Petrol , and W idgeon, were employed i n southeast A l aska.
T he Crane and Teal were in the A laska Peni nsul a regi on and on Cook
I nl et, respectively, unti l about the middle of A ugust, and l ater as­
sisted w i th the patrol and stream inspection in southeast A l aska.
T he Blue W ing and Red W ing were in the K odi ak -A f ognak area,
the K ittiw ahe on Pri nce W i l l i am Sound, the I bis at Chignik, the
Eider in the A laska Peninsula di stri ct, the Scoter on B ri stol Bay,
and the Coot on the Y ukon River.
T he B rant was used in general supervisory w ork, chief ly in south­
east A laska, although one tr i p was made to the w estw ard as f ar as
B ri stol B ay. I t was engaged also f or a short ti me in the f ur-seal
patrol off N eah B ay, W ash., reli eving the Eider in that duty tow ard
the end of A pri l . T he Teal patrol l ed w aters in the vici ni ty of Sitka,

B U REA U OP FI SH ER I ES

101

A laska, f or the protecti on of the f ur-seal herd duri ng i ts northw ard
m i grati on. T he A uldet and Scoter parti ci pated in the Civil W orks
A dm i ni strati on proj ect of cleari ng salmon streams in southeast
A laska of log jams and other obstructions that blocked the passage
of salmon to the spaw ning grounds.
T hrough an all otment by the Publi c W orks A dm i ni strati on, the
Pengmn•, Eider , Crane, B rant , M urre, K ittiw ake, 2Teal, and Scoter
were recondi tioned at Seattl e duri ng the w i nter.
A PPR O PR IA T IO N S

A ppropri ati ons f or the B ureau f or the fiscal year aggregated
$1,778,850, as f ollows:
S a l a r i e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M i sc e l l a n e o u s e x p e n se s:
A d m i n i st r a t i o n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o p a g a t i o n o f f o o d f i sh e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M a i n t en a n c e o f v e sse l s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n q u i r y r e sp e c t i n g f o o d f i sh e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F i sh e r y I n d u st r i e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o t e c t i n g sp o n g e f i sh e r i e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o t e c t i n g se a l a n d sa l m o n f i sh e r i e s o f A l a sk a - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - U p p er M i ssi ssi p p i W i l d L i f e a n d F i sh R e f u g e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n f o r c e m e n t o f b l a ck - b a ss l a w _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

$160, 400

T ota l_____________________________________________________

1, 7 7 8 , 8 5 0

3, 0 0 0 ‘
80 1, 7 5 5
200, 0 0 0
17 3, 0 0 0
78 , 0 0 0
2, 7 5 0
340,000
6, 8 3 5
13,110

L I G H T H O U SE SE R V I C E
V ari ous items of special w orks were acti vely in progress duri ng
the year, i ncl udi ng new aids necessary f or the saf ety of navigation,
the preserv ati on of existing stations, and the equipment of the
Service. These w orks were made possible by allotments of f unds
by the Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on, amounti ng to $5,620,334, and
strenuous eff orts w ere employed to push the projects to completion
as rapi dl y as possible. T he m aj or projects, incl udi ng about 150
separate items, are covered in more detai l under the headi ng “ Prog­
ress of special w orks under construction or completed.”
D uri ng the l ast w inter, the L i ghthouse Service contributed i ts
share in the all evi ation of economic distress by prov i di ng w ork f or
the unemployed, im proving li ghthouse property in vari ous locations
through the Civil W orks A dm i ni strati on, that organizati on f urni sh­
i ng the f unds f or the labor and some of the f unds f or materi als.
I n general, the w ork comprised improvements w hich, though desi r­
able, w ould not have been practi cable to carry out under normal
conditions f rom L i ghthouse Service f unds at thi s time, and included
such projects as paving, gradi ng, and repai ri ng roadw ays, cutti ng
and burni ng underbrush, clearing trees f rom ranges, pai nti ng, re­
pai ri ng, etc. Ei ghty -seven projects of thi s nature scattered through­
out 14 States were submitted to the Federal A dm i ni strator, of w hich
62 were approved. A s the w ork reached i ts maximum, 565 men were
under employment, and much w ork of def inite value to the Service
was accomplished.
No appropri ati ons f or special w orks f or the L i ghthouse Service
were made by Congress' i n connection w i th maintenance appropri a­
tions f or the fiscal year 1934, but vari ous projects were prosecuted
and expenditures were made duri ng the y ear f rom balances rem ai n­
ing f rom special appropri ati ons f or public w orks i n the L i ghthouse
Service made by Congress in pri or years.
I n the operati on of the Service, 23,597 ai ds to nav i gati on were
maintained as of June 30, 1934, thi s number bei ng a net increase
of 1,088 over the previous year. T here were 1,984 ai ds disconti nued
duri ng the year as being no longer necessary or as hav i ng been
replaced by more suitabl e aids.
I mprovements i n aids were conti nued duri ng the year; 92 l i ghts
were changed f rom fixed to f lashing or occulting, and the i l l um i nant
was changed to el ectri c f or 119 l i ghts and to acetylene f or 41 li ghts.
Tw o new radiobeacons w ere established, increasing the total number
to 105.
103

104

REPOET OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE
IM PR O V E M E N T S

IN

A PPA R A T U S

A N D

E Q U IPM E N T

T he use of electricity has been greatl y extended. These uses i n­
clude il l umi nati on f or m aj or and mi nor l i ghts, pow er supply f or
fog- signal s and radiobeacons, l i ghti ng f or quarters, ti m i ng appa­
ratus f or signal controls, etc. M any m aj or coast l i ghts have been
changed to electric, in all cases accompanied by savi ngs in operati ng
costs. M inor oil l i ghts are being rapi dl y replaced by minor electric
l i ghts of much greater adaptabi l i ty , hi gher pow er, and requi ri ng
less maintenance. For m aj or l i ghts the use of 36-inch lens revolvi ng
beacons has been extended to several new stati ons. For mi nor l i ghts
improvements have been made to f lashing mechanisms, lamp
changers, and lanterns. A new ty pe of 200 mm ty pe of l antern
adaptabl e to varied needs and to any f lashing mechanisms has been
developed. I mprovements in lamps include precise f ocusing ar ­
rangements, bases adaptabl e to tw o kinds of socket support, and
f ilaments adapted to lenses specially designed f or the units. Con­
siderabl e progress has been made in the w ay of standardi zati on
of voltages and lamps w hich w ill reflect economy in operation. The
use of photo cell control has been greatl y extended and improve­
ments in relays effected so as to insure continued f uncti oni ng of
the l i ght in event of f ai l ure of the device. Tw o w ell-developed con­
trol uni ts of thi s ty pe are now commercially avail able.
Radi obeacon transm i tters of a new design embodying many i m ­
provements and of a uni t type adaptabl e to three or more pow er
rati ngs have been developed and a considerable number are now
under construction. These w ill replace units of obsolete design and
poor f requency stabi l i ty . T here has been continued improvement in
control equipment f or synchronizati on of radiobeacons. M ethods
of caref ul l y m oni tori ng radiobeacon operati on have been extended
to all di stri cts and standard design of equipment f or such purposes
made available.
I nv esti gati on of possibil ities in uti l i zi ng remote control by radio
has continued. A n extended test of engine rel i abi l i ty under such
control was made and actual operati on of a remote station continued.
A l i ghtshi p has been equipped f or remote control of al l f acili ties,
i ncluding l i ght, f og signal , and radiobeacon, and is about ready to be
placed in service as an unw atched aid. A stati on is to be si mi l arl y
equipped.
Telephones are now instal l ed at 322 attended l i ght stati ons, i n­
cluding instal l ati ons by the L i ghthouse Service, the Coast Guard,
and pri v ate i nstall ations by the keepers. Radi otelephone communi­
cati on has been i nstall ed at 19 l i ght stations as a means of rapi d
communicati on in emergencies, including the remotest tw o stations
in A laska, Cape Sari chef and Scotch Cap. One tender has also been
equipped w i th radiotelephone communication, and si m i l ar i nstal l a­
tions are being made on three other tenders.
T he radiobeacon system has been rendered more effective through
eli minati on of some interf erence f rom airw ays stati ons, secured
through cooperation between the A i r Commerce B ureau and the
L i ghthouse Service. A f urther test has been made on the A tl anti c
coast of the use of mobile radiobeacons to avoid collision between
vessels.

L I G H T H O U SE SERV ICE

105

I nv esti gati ons are being made of problems of the service in radio
and el ectri cal m atters and to establish approved practi ce and ade­
quate specifications f or the purchase and use of such materi al.
T he design of a completely automatic l i ght- and f og-signal station
w ith attendance contemplated only at considerable i ntervals has
been completed, and a tri al w i ll be made soon. I n addition to the
automati c f uncti on of the l i ght and the battery -chargi ng uni ts in
accord w ith need, a device w ill be included f or operati ng the air
compressors and f og signal automati call y as the need may be i ndi ­
cated by the condi tion of the atmosphere over a testi ng range. The
results w il l be of much importance to the Service.
New structures being erected under the Publ i c W orks program are
recei ving adequate archi tectural study w ith a view to obtai ni ng di g­
nif ied and simple buil dings but adapted to actual use and enduri ng
as to style and construction. T he cooperati on of the Commission of
Fi ne A rts has been secured in passing on designs w hich w ill be car­
ried out at ei ght di f f erent locations.
Studi es are in progress in cooperati on w i th the B ureau of Stand­
ards of various types of batteries f or use w i th mi nor electric li ghts.
T he results w ill be of great importance in the extended use of thi s
equipment. Service tests are being made in many district's.
Ex tended observation and record of buoy perf ormance under v ari ­
ous condi tions is under w ay, the results of w hich w i ll be used as the
basis of improvement i n design w here shown to be needed. A new
ty pe of steel w i nter mark er f or buoy stati ons is being tri ed out.
Conversion of Pi ntsch gas buoys to acetylene has been practi cal l y
completed throughout the Service.
A n electri c-siren buoy has been tested w i th promi sing results.
F urther test to f ind a suitabl e horn is being made.
T he test of disti ncti ve buoy characteri sti cs has been conti nued
w i th sati sf actory results. A ri v er channel of great importance has
been equipped w i th disti ncti ve quick-f lashing buoy l i ghts to m ark all
turns, and the improvement has been f av orabl y reported on by
mari ners.
A n i nstal l ati on has been made of synchronized range l i ghts per­
m i tti ng the use of f lashing characteri sti cs w i th positive synchronism
of the two f or greatest value to the user.
T he use of automatic l i ghts of reduced candiepow er at stations
closed f or the w inter has been extended. T he stati on characteristi c
is shown f or such extended ti me as necessary to serve all navigation.
M uch equipment at depots to f aci l i tate the w ork of the Service
has been provided, incl udi ng truck s and portabl e hoi sti ng equip­
ment, also w elding equipment.
Fol l ow i ng the acqui si tion of ri ghts to m anuf acture the diaphone
f og signal , i ts use has been w idely extended. T he cost is only about
30 percent of that f orm erl y paid. I n many di stri cts the old steam
f og si gnals have been almost w holly replaced by hi gh pow er com­
pressed ai r signals of the quick starti ng type. A testi ng station
w here accurate comparison can be made of the relati v e value of
various types of signals under v ary i ng conditions is in process of
erection.
W i th the advent of good roads in most sections, there has been
extended the use of l i ght truck s in conducti ng the w ork of the

1 0 6

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

Service at considerable saving i n cost and ti me of tenders. F u r ­
ther use is i ndicated, since the economical groupi ng of unw atched
l i ghts f or periodi c attendance is thereby greatl y f aci l i tated.
A D M I N I ST R A T I O N

A ppropri ati ons f or the maintenance of the L i ghthouse Service
totaled $9,122,100 f or the fiscal y ear 1934. T here was all otted by
the Publ i c W orks A dm i ni strati on $5,620,334 f or special works.
T here w ere also all otted f rom the D epartm ent appropri ati ons f or
pri nti ng and binding, $23,200, and f or conti ngent expenses, $4,000.
T here was received and deposited i n the T reasury the f oll ow ing:
From sale of Government property , $18,060.16; rent of buil dings,
etc., $3,983.67; f orf ei tures by contractors, $291.44; reimbursement
f or property destroyed or damaged $8,219.54; w ork done f or pri v ate
interests, $13,688.89; commissions received on telephones. $21.08;
total , $42,264.78.
M odif ication was made in the organizati on of the technical staf f of
the B ureau, w ith a view to more effective conduct of the engineeri ng
w ork of the L i ghthouse Service. A l l branches of the engineering
w ork of the Service have been coordi nated under a Chief Engi neer,
L ighthouse Service, in the B ureau in W ashington.
T he suboffice of the L ighthouse Service at Cincinnati , Ohio, was
discontinued on September 1, 1933, and the w ork transf erred to the
office of the superi ntendent of li ghthouses, f if teenth di stri ct, at St.
L ouis, M o.
I tem s of special legi slati on af f ecting the L ighthouse Service made
by the Sev enty -thi rd Congress, second session, incl uded the transf er
of B lack Bock, Conn., l ighthouse reservati on to the city of B ri dge­
port, Conn., f or use as a publ ic park ; the transf er of the unused
l ighthouse reservation and buil dings at Eri e, Pa., to the city of Eri e
f or publ i c-park purposes; the transf er of a porti on of the A melia
I sl and, Fl a., l i ghthouse reservation, f or a consi deration, to the city
of Fernandi na, Fl a.; and the transf er of a porti on of the Y aquina
Bay, Or eg., li ghthouse reservati on to the State of Oregon f or public
highw ay and park purposes. T he same session of Congress also pro­
vided f or the acquisiti on of a site f or a li ghthouse depot under a 99year lease f rom the board of commissioners of the port of New
Orleans, and the erection of w harves, docks, and other structures
thereon.
A storm, of hurri cane f orce, accompanied by hi gh ti des and heavy
seas, w hich occurred A ugust 22 to 24, 1933, did considerable damage
to li ghthouse property al ong the middle A tl anti c coast and Chesa­
peake Bay. E i ght attended lighthouses and several unattended
minor l i ghts suffered damages—some serious. V al uable stores and
equipment at the Portsm outh L i ghthouse D epot were damaged.
D iamond Shoal L i ghtshi p was dragged off stati on but di d not suffer
any serious damage. T he small boats and superstructure of the
W i nter Q uarter Shoal L i ghtshi p, V a., were badly damaged, but the
vessel was able to m ai ntai n i ts stati on. D uri ng a hurri cane, Sep­
tember 15 and 16, 1933, the D iamond Shoal L i ghtshi p, w hich oc­
cupies one of the most exposed stations in the w orld, was dragged
f rom her stati on. T he vessel survi ved the storm, and the captai n and

L I G H T H O U SE SEBV ICE

107

crew of the l i ghtshi p w ere commended by Presi dent Roosevelt f or
brav ery and a hi gh order of seamanship in bri ngi ng thei r vessel
through the hurricane.
D uri ng the week of D ecember 17 to 24, 1933, the enti re Pacific
N orthw est was visited by a succession of gales accompanied by ex­
treme hi gh ti des along the coast, but actual damage to lighthouse
property was remarkably l i ght, except at New D ungeness L i ght
Stati on w here the tram w ay to the w harf w as parti al l y destroyed,
and serious erosion to the sand spi t and the w recking of the station
launch occurred»
L i ghtshi p No. 117, occupying the N antuck et Shoal s Stati on, was
collided w ith by the steamship Olympic on M ay 15, 1934, in a dense
f og, and sank on stati on w i th the loss of seven members of its crew.
B oats f rom the Olympic were immediately put over, and 7 of the 11
officers and crew who were aboard the l i ghtshi p were picked up;
3 of those picked up died the same day of injuries. T he vessel was
a f irst-class l i ghtshi p, bui l t in 1930. I t had D iesel electric propulsion
and modern types of signal ing equi pment w hich were duly operating.
Severe ice conditions duri ng February 1934, along the enti re N orth
A tl anti c coast f rom M aine to V i rgi ni a, caused considerable difficul­
ties in the mai ntenance of the buoyage system and also resulted i n
damage to a number of mi nor lights.
Fi v e Fi nger L i ght Stati on, A laska, was destroyed by fire Decem­
ber 8, 1933. T he crew of the tender Cedar, w hich was off the l i ght
stati on l andi ng supplies, and the stati on keepers were able to save
the boathouse and the carpenter shop, but the tow er and dw elli ng
and the radiobeacon bui l di ng were destroyed.
P E R SO N N E L

D uri ng the fiscal y ear there was a net decrease of 279 i n the per­
sonnel of the Service. T he number of posi tions of li ghtk eeper was
reduced by 75; the personnel on vessels was reduced by 120; and the
number of l i ght attendants and part-ti m e lam pl i ghters was reduced
by 175, the l atter decrease being clue to assigning l arger groups of
ai ds to the care of i ndi v i dual employees. T here was an increase
of 116 in the technical, clerical, and field construction f orces, but
most of thi s increase is tem porary and is due to the vari ous publi c
w orks in progress. T he total number of persons employed as of
June 30, 1934, was 5,167, i ncluding 1,175 lightkeepers and assistants;
1,815 officers and crews of l i ghtshi ps and tenders; 109 B ureau officers,
engineers and draf tsm en, di stri ct superi ntendents, and techni cal
assistants; 174 clerks, messengers, j ani tors, and office l aborers; 103
depot keepers and assistants, i ncluding l aborers; 1,200 l ampli ghters,
laborers, etc., mostly part-ti m e employees; and 591 field f orce em­
ployed on construction and repai r w ork.
I n addi ti on to thei r regul ar duti es a number of employees rendered
ai d to those in distress. D uri ng the fiscal y ear about 85 instances
of saving l i f e and property or renderi ng other valuable aid were re­
ported, many of these acts hav i ng been perf orm ed at great personal
ri sk, and i n some cases, being considered especially meri torious, the
employees were commended by the Secretary of Commerce.

1 0 8

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE
L I G H T H O U SE

D EPO T S

M any depots are in process of improvement at the present time
under the Publi c W orks program and some new depots are to be
established.
A t Portl and, M aine, slips have been dredged, retai ni ng w alls con­
structed and f illed, shop buil ding completed, concrete pav i ng well
under way, and a combined depot and office buil ding placed under
contract. Steps are being taken to establish another depot in the
f i rst di stri ct i n lieu of th at at B ear I sl and.
T he depots at Chelsea and W oods H ole, M ass., and B ri stol ,
R. I ., in the second di stri ct, have been improved by dredgi ng of slips,
construction of sheet pile revetments, pav i ng of surf aces, and added
buildings.
A t Staten I sl and, N. Y ., a m ateri al extension has been made to the
w harf f acil ities by the construction of a concrete and ti mber section
75 by 324 f eet in size.
A t Charleston, S. C., an office bui l di ng to be erected on the depot
grounds has been designed and placed under contract, and at K ey
W est, and Egm ont K ey, Fl a., extensive improvements have been
made. T he old navy buil dings at Ivey W est, tak en over by the L i ght­
house Service, have been adapted to i ts needs.
I n the ei ghth di stri ct new buil dings have been erected at M obile,
A la., and Galveston, Tex., and a site has been acqui red f or a new
depot at New Orleans, L a. W ork at the l atter poi nt in the construc­
tion of w harf and buil dings w i ll be started soon.
A new depot, i ncl udi ng w harf , dw elling, and storage bui l di ng is
under construction at L os A ngeles, Cal if ., and improvements to the
w harf at the Y erba Buena L ighthouse D epot, San Francisco, Cal if .,
are under way. T he depots at T ongue Poi nt, Oreg., and Seattle,
W ash., are undergoing improvements to retai ni ng w alls, etc.
A t H onolulu, T erri tory of H aw ai i , the present L ighthouse depot
f alls in the w ay of dredgi ng improvements by the U ni ted States
Engi neers and new structures are to be erected at another point
w hich w il l be sati sf actory . M inor improvements have been made at
the depot in San Juan, Puerto Rico.
T he depot at Buff alo, N. Y ., has been improved by completion
of the shop bui l di ng and an extension to w al l of moori ng basi n has
been authori zed. I mprovements at D etroi t, M ich., consist essentially
of added equipment, and at M ilw aukee, W is., a new bui l di ng has been
erected. The St. M arys Ri v er L ighthouse depot on Sugar I sl and
has been moved to a leased site at Saul t Ste. M arie pendi ng acquisi­
tion of a suitable site w here i t can more adequately serve lighthouse
vessels.
A considerable amount of new equipment f or depots has been
provided and the efficiency of thi s i m portant item in the w ork of the
Service w ill 1)6 much increased by the improvements now completed,
or under way.
1
L I G H T H O U SE

T ENDERS

A t the end of the year, 58 tenders w ere in commission, including
2 l ai d up m reserve. Tw enty-nine of the tenders in commission are
f itted w i th di recti on f inders and 33 have radi o communication.

L I G H T H O U SE SERV ICE

109

T he f oll ow ing tenders have been extensively overhaul ed duri ng
the year: Camellia, Willow, Cedar, M anzanita, and Hibiscus.
T he f oll ow ing were the number of tenders on June 30 of the years
specified, om i tti ng vessels not hav i ng regul ar crew s: 1910, 51; 1920,
55; 1930, 55; 1934, 58.
One new tender, the D ahlia, was completed and placed in commis­
sion, replacing the small tender Thistle. T he tender Hemlock was
practi cal l y completed at the end of the fiscal year to replace the
tender Fern.
One tender, the Tamarack , to replace the Clover, is being con­
structed under contract. Pl ans and specif ications have been com­
pl eted f or the Jasmine to replace the Cosmos in the ei ghth di stri ct.
A rrangem ents have been practi cal l y completed f or changi ng the
tenders Oak, H aw thorn, A nemone, and Hibiscus f rom coal to oil
burni ng; converti ng the tender Camellia f rom steam to D iesel drive;
i nstal l i ng oil -burning boilers on the Crocus; and the electrif ication
of the aux i l i ary machi nery on the tender Palmetto.
Pl ans and specifications w ere prepared and bids invited f or the
construction of the new tender Rhododendron, a small tender f or
duty on the Columbia River, seventeenth di stri ct, to replace the

L arch.

T he f oll ow ing tenders were sold on the dates named: A zalea,
D ecember 13, 1933; Woodbine, October 20, 1933; Ma-ple, October 29,
1933; I ri s, June 21, 1934; Thistle, A pri l 4, 1934; Y erba B uena,
D ecember 1933; B irch , September 8,1932. These vessels w ere beyond
economical repai r.
L I G H T SH I P S

A t the close of the y ear l i ghtshi ps were mai ntai ned on 35 stati ons,
and 49 l i ghtshi ps were in commission, of w hich 9 w ere regul ar rel i ef
ships and 5 were in reserve.
L i ghtshi ps No. 86 and No. 87 have been reconditioned. T he recon­
di ti oni ng of l i ghtshi ps No. 78, No. 81, No. 90, No. 88, No. S3, and No.
102 is now underw ay. L i ghtshi p No. 95 is to be transf erred to the
A tl anti c coast and reconditi oned. I t is expected that li ghtshi ps No.
10, No. 4-7, No. 69, No. 41, and No. 39 w ill be condemned and sold
duri ng the nex t year, being beyond economical repai r.
N antuck et l i ghtshi p No. 117 was lost through collision on M ay 15,
1934.
O PE R A T IO N

A N D

C O N ST R U C T I O N , L I G H T H O U S E
Y E A R 1934

SE R V I C E ,

F I SC A L

PROGRESS OP VESSELS UNDER CONSTRUCTION OR COM PLETED
T en d er
“ D a h l i a .” — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 .
T h i s t e n d e r w a s co m p l et ed
d u r i n g t h e f i sc a l y e a r a n d w a s p l a ce d i n c o m m i ssi o n i n t h e e l e v e n t h d i st r i c t
f o r se r v i c e o n t h e D e t r o i t a n d S t . C l a i r R i v e r s a n d L a k e S t . C la ir .
T e n d e r “ L i l a c ." — S e e a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 .
T h i s t e n d e r w a s co m p l et e d d u r ­
i n g t h e y e a r a n d w a s p l a ce d i n co m m i ssi o n i n t h e f o u r t h d i st r i c t f o r se r v i c e
on t h e D el a w a r e R i v er a n d B a y .
T e n d e r “ H e m l o - k .” — S e e a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 .
T h i s t en d e r w a s p r a c t i c a l l y
co m p l e t ed a t t h e en d o f t h e f i sca l y ea r .
T en d er
“ T a m a r a c k .” — T h i s t en d e r , f o r se r v i c e o n t h e S t . M a r y s R i v er ,
e l e v e n t h d i st r i c t , t o r e p l a ce t h e t e n d e r G l o v e r , i s b ei n g b u i l t u n d er co n t r a c t

0822: 1— 34------ 10

110

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

o f D ec em b e r 11, 1 9 33, b y t b e M a n i t o w o c S h i p b u i l d i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , M a n i t o w o c,
W i s. , a t a c o st o f $ 2 3 3 , 9 1 7 .
T h e t e n d e r i s a si n g l e - scr e w D i e se l el ect r i cp r o p el l e d v e sse l .
O n J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , t h e v e sse l w a s 2 6 p e r c e n t co m p l et ed .

PROGRESS OF SPECIA L WORK S TINDER CONSTRUCTION OR COM PLETED
P o r t l a n d L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , M a i n e . — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 1 0 2 , a n d
p r ev i o u s r e p o r t s.
T h e f o l l o w i n g w o r k w a s co m p l e t ed d u r i n g t h e f i sc a l y e a r
1 9 3 4 : T h e r e m a i n d er o f t h e m a t e r i a l f r o m si t e o f se r v i c e b u i l d i n g h a s b een
e x c a v a t e d a n d p l a ced i n m a i n w h a r f i n cl o su r e.
F o u r - i n ch st o n e w a s p l a ce d
o v er e n t i r e w h a r f a n d p i er s.
T o t a l co st , $ 1 0 , 1 7 5 .
A 40- b y 10 0- f o o t 2- st o r y
b r i ck a n d c o n cr et e sh o p b u i l d i n g w a s co n st r u ct ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 3 2 , 6 9 7 .
T he
sh e e t p i l i n g o f w h a r f w a s p a i n t ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 9 2 3 .
L i g h t a n d p ow er l i n es
w er e e x t e n d e d t o p i er s.
T o t a l co st , $ 1 , 2 5 6 .
A st e e l sh ed 3 0 b y 1 8 0 b y 1 6
f ee t w a s b u ilt.
T o t a l co st , $ 1 0 , 0 1 3 .
T h e f o l l o w i n g w o r k i s u n d er co n st r u c­
t i o n : R e i n f o r c e d co n c r e t e d eck o n t w o p i er s, c h a i n p l a t f o r m , a n d r o a d w a y s;
w r o u g h t i r o n a n d c h a i n l i n k f e n c e a r o u n d d ep o t p r o p e r t y ; f i v e d o l p h i n s a t
j u n c t i o n o f 10 0 - f o o t ch a n n e l ; c o n t r a c t b ei n g p r e p a r e d f o r b u i l d i n g a t w ost o r y - a n d - b a sem en t se r v i c e b u i l d i n g .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 34, $ 2 9 7 , 6 6 7 .
W h i t e h e a d , M a i n e . — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 10 2.
T h i s p r o j e c t co m ­
p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 1 , 3 5 3 .
A d d i t i o n a l a l l o t m e n t s m a d e f o r i n st a l l a t i o n o f
e l e c t r i c l i g h t s i n t o w e r a n d d w e l l i n g s.
P r o j e c t co m p l et e d .
T o t a l co st , $6 , 8 5 5 .
T e n a n t s H a r b o r , M a i n e . — E st a b l i sh l i g h t e d b el l b u o y a n d d i sc o n t i n u e l i g h t
st a t i o n .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $5 , 9 86 .
W i n t e r H a r b o r , M a i n e . — E st a b l i sh l i g h t e d b e l l b u o y o f f st a t i o n a n d d i sc o n ­
t i n u e l i g h t st a t i o n .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $5 , 9 86 .
S p r in g P o in t L ed g e, M a in e.— P la ce a p p r ox im a t ely 1,262 t o n s o f r ip r a p a r ou n d
t o w er .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 5 , 8 6 9 .
W l i a l e b a c k , M a i n e . — D e p o si t
r ip r a p .
C o n t r a ct i n B u r e a u f o r a p p r o v a l .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $4.
S p r i n g P o i n t L e d g e a n d P o r t l a n d B r e a k w a t e r , M a i n e . — E l e c t r i f y st a t i o n s,
P o r t l a n d B r e a k w a t e r t o b e o p er a t e d b y r e m o t e co n t r o l f r o m S p r i n g P o i n t
L ed g e.
P r o j e c t p r a c t i c a l l y co m p l et ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $6 , 1 23 .
W e st Q u o d d y H e a d , M a i n e . — C h a n g e f o g si g n a l f r o m st e a m w h i st l e t o a i r
d i a p h o n e.
W o r k u n d er w a y .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $ 5 , 5 7 6 .
S o u t h w e st H a r b o r , M a i n e . — C o n st r u c t n e w
d ep o t t o r e p l a ce t h e p r esen t
i so l a t e d d ep o t o n B e a r I sl a n d .
N e g o t i a t i o n s f o r a n a c c e p t a b l e si t e a r e i n
p r o g r e ss a n d n e a r i n g co m p l et i o n .
C h e l se a L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , M a ss. — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 1 0 2 .
T he
b u l k h e a d , d r e d g i n g , a n d b a ck f i l l i n co n n ec t i o n w i t h t h e w e st sl i p h a v e n o w
b een co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 4 5 , 6 8 7 .
C o n t r a c t h a s b ee n a w a r d e d f o r t h e
co n st r u c t i o n o f a st e e l sh e e t p i l e b u l k h ea d a l o n g t h e si d e o f t h e e a st sl i p a n d
a c r o ss t h e i n n e r en d o f t h e sl i p .
T h e a n ch o r sy st e m i s i n p l a ce, a n d d r i v i n g
o f t h e st e e l sh e e t p i l i n g h a s b een st a r t e d .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 8 , 5 1 0 .
T he
e n t i r e a r e a p u r ch a sed i n 1 9 3 2 w a s g r a d ed a n d co v e r e d w i t h a r e i n f o r ce d
c o n cr et e p a v e m e n t f o r b u o y st o r a g e .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 2 , 1 0 0 .
A b l a c k sm i t h sh o p , 4 8 b y 7 2 f e e t , w a s er ec t e d o n t h e d ep o t a r e a r e c e n t l y
a cq u i r ed .
A 15- t o n t r a v e l i n g cr a n e w a s a l so p r o v i d ed .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 9 , 5 2 1 .
A w o o d f r a m e st o r e h o u se, 5 0 b y 8 0 f e e t , t w o st o r i e s h i g h ,
w a s er ec t e d o n t h e n e w a r e a t o b e u sed f o r t h e st o r a g e o f b o a t s.
P r o j ect
co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $6 , 2 2 2 .
W o o d s H o l e D e p o t , M a ss. — R em o v e b o u l d er s a n d e a se t h e c u r v e a t t h e en ­
t r a n ce t o L i t t l e H a r b or .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st . $ 1 9 , 2 4 5 .
A la r ge p ar t
o f t h e o l d w o o d en w h a r f a l o n g t h e e a st f a c e o f t h e d ep o t p r o p er t y w a s r eb u i l t .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 2 , 7 8 9.
B r i s t o l L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , R . I . — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 19 3 3 , p a g e 10 2, a n d p r e­
v i o u s r e p o r t s. E r e c t b r i ck v en e e r k eep er ’s d w e l l i n g . P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T ota l
co st , $ 6 , 5 3 0 .
A n a r e a 3 6 f e e t i n w i d t h o n t h e si d e s a n d 5 0 f e e t i n w i d t h a l o n g
t h e f a c e o f t h e w h a r f w a s d r e d g ed t o a d ep t h o f 1 6 f e e t b el o w m ea n l o w w a t e r .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $5 , 1 1 1 .
C o h a sse t ' H a r b o r a n d W i n t h r o p M i n o r L i g h t s, M a ss. — R eb u i l d st r u c t u r e s a t
f o u r si t e s i n t h i s h a r b o r .
T h e f o u r - p i l e w o o d e n st r u c t u r e s w e r e r e m o v ed a n d
r ep l a ce d b y i n t e r l o c k i n g st e e l sh e e t p i l i n g c y l i n d e r s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 2 f e e t i n
d i a m et e r .
T h ese c y l i n d e r s w er e f i l l ed w i t h g r a v e l ex c e p t a co n cr et e d eck 2 f e e t
t h i c k p r o v i d i n g a b a se f o r a n 18- f o o t t o w er .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st ,
$ 8 , 200 .

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111

C a p e C o d C a n a l , M a ss. — R e v i se a i d s a t a p p r o a ch es.
O r d er s p l a ce d f o r l i g h t ­
i n g eq u i p m en t .
A c t u a l c o n st r u c t i o n a w a i t i n g p r o g r e ss o f W a r D e p a r t m e n t
i m p r o v e m e n t s i n ch a n n e l s.
H u d s o n R i v e r , N . Y . — P l a c e r i p r a p a t P e e k sk i l l , D u c k I sl a n d ,
S t o ck p o r t
M i d d l e G r ou n d , a n d L a m p m a n I - I ill L i g h t s.
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st ,

$ 10,022.

G r e e n s L e d g e , N . Y . — P l a c e r i p r a p t o st r e n g t h e n a n d p r o t e c t f o u n d a t i o n a n d
c o n st r u c t b r e a k w a t e r t o p r o t e c t b o a t l a n d i n g .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st ,
$12, 237.
H u d so n R i v e r L i g h t s, N . Y .— P l a c e r i p r a p a r o u n d f o u n d a t i o n s a t T a r r y t o w n ,
R o ck l a n d L a k e, E so p u s M e a d o w s, a n d H u d so n C i t y L i g h t S t a t i o n s, N . Y .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed . T o t a l co st , $9 , 0 82 .
S t a t e n I sl a n d L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , N . Y . — E x t e n d so u t h w h a r f a t G en er a l L i g h t ­
h o u se D e p o t 3 2 4 f e e t . P r o j e c t co m p l et ed . T o t a l co st , $ 4 3 , 8 8 4 .
R a r i t a n B a g L i g h t s, N . Y . — P l a c e a d d i t i o n a l r i p r a p a r o u n d f o u n d a t i o n s a t
R a r i t a n B a y L i g h t s 1, 3, 4, 5, 5A , R a r i t a n R i v e r 1, a n d A r t h u r K i l l s 6. P r o j e c t
co m p l e t ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 1 , 5 8 3.
W e st B a n k , N . Y . — P l a c e r i p r a p a r o u n d t h i s st a t i o n a n d c o n st r u c t b r ea k w a t e r
f o r t h e p r o t ec t i o n o f b o a t l a n d i n g .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $8 , 8 73 .
S a g H a r b o r , N . Y . — P l a c e r i p r a p f o r C ed a r I sl a n d a n d S a g H a r b o r L i g h t 3.
E r e c t t w o t o w e r s, w i t h n e c e ssa r y a c e t y l e n e a p p a r a t u s.
W i l l b e co m p l et ed
A u g u st 30, 19 3 4 .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 0 , 7 4 7.
N e w L o n d o n , C o n n . — P l a c e r i p r a p t o p r o t ec t f o u n d a t i o n s a n d b o a t l a n d i n g s
a t R a c e R o ck , L i t t l e G u l l I sl a n d , O r i en t P o i n t , a n d L a t i m e r R e e f L i g h t S t a t i o n s.
I t i s ex p e c t e d t h a t t h i s p r o j e c t w i l l b e co m p l et ed b y A u g u st 13 , 1 9 3 4 .
C o st t o
J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $4 , 5 31 .
S o u t h i c e st L e d g e a n d F a l k n e r I sl a n d , C o n n . — P l a c e r i p r a p p r o t e c t i o n t o
f o u n d a t i o n s a n d b o a t l a n d i n g s.
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 34, $1 1.
R a r i t a n R i v e r t o A r t h u r K i l l , N . J . — E st a b l i sh cu t - of f ch a n n e l l i g h t s 1 a n d 2,
i n st a l l r i p r a p f o r f o u n d a t i o n s, a n d e st a b l i sh f o u r b u o y s. B i d s h a v e b een i n v i t e d
f o r r ip r a p .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 19 3 4 , $1 0.
B r a n d y w i n e S h o a l , D el.- — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 10 3.
P r o j e c t co m ­
p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $5 , 2 98 .
D e l a w a r e R i v e r a n d B a y , N . J . — M a r k p o i n t s in D el a w a r e R i v er a n d B a y
b e t w e e n T r en t o n , N . J ., a n d t h e sea , a n d e st a b l i sh W h i t e H i l l R a n g e o n N ew b o l d I sl a n d , N . J .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 4 1 , 0 0 4 .
E l b o w o f C r o ss L e d g e L i g h t , D e l a w a r e B a y , N . J . — R e p a i r ca i sso n .
I n st a l l
st e e l b e l t a r o u n d ca i sso n . W o r k p r a c t i c a l l y co m p l et ed .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 19 3 4 ,
$14,758.
F i s h e r P o i n t , D e l a w a r e R i v e r , e t c . — E st a b l i sh f i v e r a n g e l i g h t s.
P r elim in a r y
w o r k on p r o j e c t co m p l et e d ; t w o c o n t r a c t s n e g o t i a t e d a n d o n e a p p r o v ed .
C o st
t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $6 , 1 66 .
H o b o k e n l A g h t st a t i o n , N . C . — C o n st r u c t w h a r f , st o r e h o u se , b u l k h ea d s, b u o y
sk i d s, a n d d r ed g e b o a t sl i p .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
C o n t r a ct a w a r d ed f o r n ew
d w ellin g.
M o t o r b o a t f o r st a t i o n n e a r i n g co m p l et i o n .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 ,
$21,194.
C a p e H a t t e r a s, N . C . — M o v e l i g h t t o n e w l o c a t i o n .
F a b r i c a t e d st e e l t o w e r 1 5 0
f e e t h i g h a n d i l l u m i n a t i n g a p p a r a t u s h a v e b een p u r ch a se d .
N e w si t e b ei n g
a cq u ir ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $4 , 6 59 .
F o g si g n a l t e st i n g st a t i o n , V i r gi n i a , . - — A su i t a b l e si t e h a s b een se l e c t e d o n t h e
C a p e H e n r y L i g h t h o u se r e se r v a t i o n a n d p l a n s a r e i n c o u r se o f p r ep a r a t i o n .
P o r t sm o u t h L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , V a . — E n l a r g e a n d i m p r o v e d ep ot .
S ite h a s
b e e n p u r ch a sed , p i l i n g a n d l u m b er d el i v er e d , a n d w o r k st a r t ed .
C o st t o
J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 4 4 , 5 6 4 .
R eb u i l d b u l k h e a d s a n d d r ed g e.
A l l w o r k co m p l et e d
e x c e p t d r ed g i n g .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 6 . 8 0 3 .
Y or k
R i v e r , V a . — E st a b l i sh
a i d s.
S t e e l st r u c t u r e e st a b l i sh e d a n d l i g h t
i n co m m i ssi o n .
B u o y s h a v e b een or d er ed .
P r o j e c t su b st a n t i a l l y co m p l et ed .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 9 , 3 9 2 .
H o g I s l a n d a n d C a p e C h a r l e s, V a . — C o n t r a ct h a s b een a w a r d ed f o r h e a t ­
i n g a n d p l u m b i n g sy st e m s i n f o u r d w e l l i n g s. C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 1 , 7 5 0 .
C r o a t a n S o u n d , N . C . — I m p r o v e i l l u m i n a t i n g a p p a r a t u s.
T h e ap p ar atu s h as
b e e n o r d er ed .
P r o j e c t 2 0 p er c en t co m p l et ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $2 , 7 93 .
C h e sa p e a k e B a i t , M d . — I m p r o v e l i g h t s a n d f o g si g n a l s.
T h e illu m in a tin g
a p p a r a t u s h a s b een o r d er ed . C o st t o .T une 30, 19 3 4 , $6 , 530 .
C h e sa p e a k e B a y , V a . — I m p r o v e l i g h t s a n d f o g si g n a l s.
T h e illu m in a tin g
a p p a r a t u s h a s b een o r d er ed . C o st t o J u n e 30, 19 3 4 , $ 4 , 3 3 6 .

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a n d m o d e r n i z e sh o p s.
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 19 3 4 , $3 , 0 25 .
F i f t h d i st r i c t st o r m d a m a g e s. — R eb u i l d a n d r e p a i r 5 9 m i n o r l i g h t s a n d m a k e
e x t e n si v e r e p a i r s t o 9 l i g h t st a t i o n s.
P r o j e c t su b st a n t i a l l y co m p l et ed .
C o st t o
J u n e 30, 1 9 34, $ 7 4 , 7 0 8 .
C h a r l e st o n H a r b o r a n d C o o p e r R i v e r L i g h t s, S . C . — S e e a n n u a l r ep o r t , 19 3 3 ,
p a g e 103.
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 0 , 9 4 9.
I n t r a c o a s t a l w a t e r w a y , F l o r i d a . — E st a b l i sh a u t o m a t i c p r i m a r y b a t t e r y e l e c t r i c
l i g h t s.
I l l u m i n a t i n g a p p a r a t u s, l o w d i sc h a r g e t y p e st o r a g e b a t t e r i e s, a n d m a ­
t e r i a l s o f c o n st r u c t i o n h a v e b een p u r ch a se d a n d d el i v er e d .
C o st t o J u n e 30,
1 9 3 4 , $4 , 067 .
C h a r l e st o n d e p o t o f f i ce b u i l d i n g , S o u t h C a r o l i n a . — P l a n s a n d sp ec i f i ca t i o n s
f o r a 2- st o r y b r i ck b u i l d i n g , 4 6 b y 7 4 f e e t , h a v e b een co m p l et ed a n d b i d s w er e
o p en ed o n J u n e 2 2 , 1 9 3 4 .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 5 5 6 .
L i g h t e d b u o y s, s i x t h l i g h t h o u se d i st r i c t . — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 19 3 3 , p a g e 10 3.
T h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e b u o y s w e r e d e l i v e r e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r a n d h a v e b een
e st a b l i sh ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 19 3 4 , $3 4 , 7 3 0 .
S m i t h S h o a l , F l a . — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 10 3.
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 8 , 3 7 2.
P u n t a R a sa R a n g e L i g h t s, F l a . — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 10 3.
P r oj ect
co m p l et e d .
T o t a l co st , $8 , 3 0 8 .
T e n n e sse e R e e f L i g h t , F l a . — S e e a n n u a l r ep o r t , 19 3 3 , p a g e 10 3.
P r o j ect
co m p l et ed . T o t a l co st , $ 1 5 , 6 9 1 .
T am pa B a y
( M u l l e t K e y S h o a l L i g h t s ) , F l a — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 19 3 3 ,
p a g e 10 3. P r o j e c t co m p l et ed . T o t a l co st , $8 , 6 95 .
C o sg r o v e S h o a l L i g h t , F l a . — E st a b l i sh l i g h t o n sk e l e t o n i r o n t o w er .
M et a l
w o r k u n d er co n t r a ct .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $5 , 388 .
P u l a sk i S h o a l L i g h t , F l a . — E st a b l i sh l i g h t o n sk el e t o n i r o n t o w er .
M et a l w o r k
u n d er co n t r a ct .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $5 , 2 9 2 .
M i a m i H a r b o r L i g h t h o u se , F l a . — C o n t r a c t l e t f o r n i n e g a l v a n i z e d I r on p i p e
t o w e r s f o r l i g h t s. C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $5 5.
K e y W e st D e p o t , F l a .— M a k e r e p a i r s a n d i m p r o v em en t s t o n ew l y a cq u i r ed
q u a r t e r s.
C o n cr e e a n d i r o n f en ce , f l o or i n w o r k sh o p , st e e l w i n d o w sa sh e s i n
w o r k sh o p , w o r k o f r e su r f a c i n g g r o u n d s, r em o v a l o f g a n t r y cr a n e , a n d r e p a i r s
t o b u i l d i n g s co m p l et e d . C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 8 , 2 4 7 .
M i a m i t o C a p e S a b l e , F l a . — E st a b l i sh 3 4 m i n o r e l e c t r i c p r i m a r y c e l l l i g h t s.
A l l m a t e r i a l s on h a n d a n d w o r k u n d er w a y .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $ 2 , 9 2 4 .
H i l l sb o r o B a y a n d T a m p a B a y , F l a . — I m p r o v e a n d ch a n g e a i d s i n ch a n n el s.
I r o n w o r k f o r si x st r u c t u r e s u n d er co n t r a ct .
L i gh t ed b u oy a n d i l l u m i n a t i n g
a p p a r a t u s h a v e b een r e q u i si t i o n e d f r o m G en e r a l D ep o t .
W o r k co n t i n g e n t on
n e c e ssa r y d r ed g i n g .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 19 3 4 , $1 5.
E f f m o n t K e y L i g h t S t a t i o n . P í o — R ec o n st r u c t w h a r f a n d r e p a i r b u i l d i n g s.
P l a n s h a v e b een co m p l et ed a n d a p p r o v ed i n r e a d i n e ss f o r b i d s.
M o b i l e L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , A l a . — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 1 0 3 .
A d d i­
t i o n a l f i l l w a s p l a ce d w i t h i n t h e b u l k h ea d .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st
$1, 086. 61.
P o r t sm o u t h

L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , V a . — I n st a l l m a ch i n e r y

B i d s a r e b ei n g i n v i t e d .

I m p r o v e m e n t s t o l i g h t st a t i o n s, e i g h t h
P a ss W e st J e t t y ) .— R e q u i si t i o n m a d e o n

d i st r i c t

( T im b a lier

B ay

and

Sou th

t h i r d d i st r i c t f o r b u o y a g e f o r T i m ­
b a lier B a y .
O r d er p l a ce d f o r r i p r a p .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 0 , 4 5 8 .
M ob ile
L i g h t h o u se
D ep ot ,
A l a . — R e c o n st r u c t
b u i l d i n g s.
T h r ee b u il d in gs
er ec t e d .
A w a i t i n g se t t l e m e n t o f f i l l p l a ce d i n si d e a n d o u t si d e b u i l d i n g s
O t h er i m p r o v em en t s u n d er w a y .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 4 9 , 2 7 0 .
I n t r a c o a st a l w a t e r w a y , N e w
O r l e a n s t o S a b i n e , T e x . — R e c o n st r u c t l i g h t s.
E st a b l i sh si n g l e - p i l e a n d t h r ee- p i l e st r u c t u r e s t o m a r k d r ed g ed ch a n n e l .
M a­
t e r i a l s a ssem b l e d .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $ 7 , 1 2 5 .
M i n o r l i g h t s, e i g h t h d i st r i c t . — R e v i se sy st e m o f m i n o r l i g h t s, a s f o l l o w s:
S a b i n e t o G a l v e st o n , B r a z o s- S a n t i a g o , G a l v e st o n t o C o r p u s C h r i st i , a n d A r a n ­
sa s P a ss.
P r a c t i ca l l y a l l m a t er i a l s on h a n d .
R e q u i si t i o n m a d e o n G en er a l
D e p o t f o r i l l u m i n a t i n g a p p a r a t u s.
E r e c t i o n o f l i g h t s p r a c t i c a l l y co m p l et ed
e x c e p t w h e r e n e c e ssa r y t o a w a i t co m p l e t i o n o f d r e d g i n g o p e r a t i o n s o f U n i t e d
S t a t e s E n g i n ee r s.
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 6 , 9 2 5 .
H o u st o n
C h a n n e l , T e x . — M o v e e i g h t l i g h t s.
M a t e r i a l s a ssem b l ed .
W or k
5 0 p er c en t co m p l et ed .
R em a i n d e r w i l l b e a cc o m p l i sh e d w h e n U n i t e d S t a t e s
E n g i n e e r s co m p l e t e d r ed g i n g .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $8 , 5 3 2 .
G a l v e st o n D e p o t S t o r e h o u se , T e x . — C o n st r u ct b r i ck
st o r e h o u se .
B u ild in g
e r ec t e d a n d st e p s t a k e n t o co m p l e t e o t h e r i m p r o v em en t s.
P r o j e c t 8 0 p er c en t
co m p l et ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 7 , 7 3 4.

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113

N e w O r l e a n s L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , L a . — C o n g r essi o n a l a u t h o r i t y f o r t h e l e a se o f
a su i t a b l e si t e w a s en a ct e d l a t e i n t h e se ssi o n , a n d t h e e x e c u t i o n o f l e a se i s
n o w i n p r o g r e ss p r e l i m i n a r y t o t h e er e c t i o n o f w h a r f a n d d ep o t b u i l d i n g s.
T e n t a t i v e p l a n s o f st r u ct u r e h a v e b een com p i l ed .
S t . A n d r e w s B a y , F l a . — E st a b l i sh l i g h t s.
A ll m a t er i a l s on h a n d ex cep t i l l u ­
m i n a t i n g a p p a r a t u s r e q u i si t i o n e d f r o m t h i r d d i st r i c t .
S t r u ct u r e for m a in l ig h t
er ec t e d .
O t h er l i g h t w i l l b e er e c t e d w h e n U n i t e d S t a t e s E n g i n e e r s co m p l e t e
d r ed g i n g .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $6 , 1 85 .
C u M t s G a p , L a . — L a y w i l l o w m a t t r e ss, st o n e p r o t ec t i o n , et c., a n d m o v e b u i l d ­
in g.
W o r k co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $3 , 5 0 0 .
G a l v e st o n J e t t y , T e x . — D e p o si t r i p r a p a n d c o n st r u c t b o a t l a n d i n g .
B id s
so l i c i t e d .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $3 1.
G u l f p o r t , M i ss. — E r e c t ch a n n e l r a n g e l i g h t s.
W o r k p r a c t i c a l l y co m p l et ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $4, 907 .
S a b in e- N ech es C a n a l,
T e x . — R e v i se a i d s.
M a t e r i a l s a sse m b l e d a n d b i d s
so l i c i t e d f o r c o n st r u ct i o n .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 3 , 8 2 1 .
E i g h t h d i st r i c t st o r m d a m a g e s. — R e p a i r B r a z o s- S a n t i a g o st a t i o n , T ex . , M a t ­
a g o r d a st a t i o n , T e x . , T u r t l e C o v e C h a n n el R a n g e R e a r L i g h t , a n d A r a n sa s
P a ss S p u r D i k e L i g h t 2.
R e p a i r s co m p l e t ed a t B r a z o s- S a n t i a g o a n d A r a n sa s
P a ss a n d u n d er w a y a t o t h er st a t i o n s.
L i g h t e d w h i st l e b u o y r e q u i si t i o n e d f r o m
G en e r a l D ep o t .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $9 , 2 43 .
S a b i n e P a s s O u t e r R a n g e L i g h t s, L a . — E st a b l i sh l i g h t s.
P r a ct ica lly a ll m a ­
t e r i a l s a sse m b l e d .
B i d s so l i c i t e d f o r d r i v i n g p i l es.
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 19 3 4 ,
$4 , 0 6 7 .
S a n J u a n L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , P . R . — C o n st r u ct of f i ce a n d st o r e h o u se .
S ee
a n n u a l r ep or t , 1933, p a g e 103.
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 7 , 0 9 2 .
C a p e S a n J u a n , P . R . — R e st o r e a n d i m p r o v e l i g h t st a t i o n .
W ood w or k a n d
p l a st e r i n g r e n e w ed .
E l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g p r o v i d ed .
A f o u r - p a n el r e v o l v i n g l e n s
h a s b een i n st a l l e d i n p l a c e o f l e n s d est r o y e d b y h u r r i c a n e .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 6 , 3 9 9 .
E a st C h a r i t y S h o a l , N . Y .— E st a b l i sh u n a t t e n d e d l i g h t o n su b m a r i n e si t e.
C o n t r a c t a w a r d e d f o r t i m b er cr i b a n d c o n cr et e su p e r st r u c t u r e f o u n d a t i o n , a n d
r i p r a p p r o t ec t i o n .
S i t e su r v e y e d ; p r e p a r a t o r y w o r k i n p r o g r e ss.
C o st t o
J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $ 3 9 1 .
B u f f a l o L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , N . Y . — A n a d d i t i o n t o t h e m a ch i n e sh o p w a s co n ­
st r u c t e d o f t i l e w a l l s a n d st ee l - f r a m e c o n st r u ct i o n .
T h e sh o p h a s a l so b een
co m p l e t el y m o d e r n i z ed .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 l.
C o n st r u ct
p r o t e c t i o n p i e r a t e n t r a n c e t o sl i p a n d co m p l e t e y a r d g r a d i n g , et c .
P la n s and
sp e c i f i c a t i o n s a p p r o v ed f o r p r o t e c t i o n p i er .
Y a r d g r a d i n g , et c. , co m p l et ed .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 7 , 0 0 4 .
O sw e g o , N . Y .— - See a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 1 0 4 .
E r ec t st e e l l i g h t h o u se
su p e r st r u ct u r e. W o r k u n d er w a y . L i g h t on e a st b r e a k w a t e r co m p l et ed .
F ou n ­
d a t i o n f o r k eep er ’s d w e l l i n g co m p l et e d .
S i t e se cu r ed f o r b o a t h o u se .
C o st t o
J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $ 3 5 , 2 2 2.
C a p e V i n c e n t , N . Y . — C o n st r u c t st e e l sh eet - p i l e w h a r f a n d b o a t sl i p , b a ck f i l l
w h a r f , p l a ce co n cr et e t o p , d r e d g i n g a s r eq u i r ed .
M o v e a n d r e m o d el b o a t h o u se .
A d d i t i o n a l l a n d p u r ch a se d .
P l a n s a n d sp ec i f i ca t i o n s a p p r o v ed .
B i d s i n v i t ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $6 , 5 61 .
L i g h t - st a t i o n q u a r t e r s, t e n t h d i st r i c t . — C o n st r u ct t w o - f a m i l y k e e p e r s’ d w e l l ­
i n g , b o a t h o u se , a n d sl i p a t F a i r p o r t , O h io, a n d p r o v i d e b o a t h o u se s a n d sl i p s a t
A sh t a b u l a a n d L o r a i n , O h io.
C o n t r a c t a w a r d ed f o r b o a t sl i p a t F a i r p o r t a n d
L or a in .
S i t e se cu r e d f o r F a i r p o r t d w e l l i n g ; p l a n s a n d sp ec i f i ca t i o n s a p p r o v ed ,
a w a i t i n g a p p r ov a l t i t l e.
S i t e se cu r e d f o r A sh t a b u l a b o a t h o u se a n d s l i p ; t i t l e
b e i n g ex a m i n ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $6 2 3 .
M a u m e e B a y R a n g e s, O h io.- — R eb u i l d a b o u t 5 5 l i n e a l f e e t c o n cr et e p i er .
C on ­
t r a c t a w a r d ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $2.
T h i r t y M i l e P o i n t , N . Y . — E st a b l i sh f o g si g n a l .
C o n t r a ct a w a r d ed f o r b r i ck
f o g - si g n a l h o u se a n d a d d i t i o n t o k e e p e r s’ d w e l l i n g .
T y p e F d ia p h on e a n d m a ­
c h i n e r y p u r ch a sed .
S h o r e p r o t e c t i o n a l so t o b e p r o v i d ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 ,
1 9 3 4 , $5 , 5 98 .
S o d u s H a r b o r a n d S t . L a w r e n c e R i v e r , N . Y . — R e v i se a i d s.
C o n t r a c t s a w a r d ed
f o r con cr et e- b l o ck f o u n d a t i o n s f o r t w o m i n o r l i g h t s i n S t . L a w r e n c e R i v er .
S t e e l t o w e r s p u r ch a se d a n d o t h e r a p p a r a t u s b ei n g a sse m b l e d .
S o d u s ch a n g es
c o n t i n g e n t o n U n i t e d S t a t e s E n g i n e e r w o r k , n o t y e t a cco m p l i sh e d .
C o st t o
J u n e 30, 19 3 4 , $5 7 6 .

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R e v i si o n o f a i d s, t e n t h d i st r i c t . — R e l o c a t e b r ea k w a t e r l i g h t s, n e c e ssi t a t e d b y
U n i t e d S t a t e s E n g i n e e r h a r b o r i m p r o v em en t s.
A t C o n n ea u t a n d H u r o n , p o w e r
h o u se s a n d co n t r o l st a t i o n s h a v e b een co m p l et ed .
T o w er s, d i a p h o n es, a n d other eq u i p m en t .
C o m p l e t i o n o f w o r k co n t i n g e n t on w o r k b ei n g d o n e b y U n i t e d S t a t e s
E n g i n ee r s.
C o st t o J u n e 30. 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 5 , 1 4 1 .
M o n r o e , M i c h . — E st a b l i sh r a n g e l i g h t s a n d f o u r l i g h t e d b u o y s.
R a n ge lig h t
t o w e r s a n d b u o y b o d i es p u r ch a sed a n d d el i v er e d .
B a l a n c e m a t e r i a l b ei n g a s­
sem b l ed .
E st a b l i sh m e n t o f b u o y co n t i n g e n t on d r ed g i n g o p er a t i o n s b y U n i t e d
S t a t e s E n g i n e e r s.
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $2 , 7 01 .
M a u m e e B a y , O h io.— P r o v i d e li g h t ed a n d u n l i g h t ed b u oy s f o r l a k ew a r d e x ­
t e n si o n o f M a u m ee S t r a i g h t C h a n n e l .
A l l b u o y s d el i v e r e d .
B a l a n c e eq u i p m en t
o r d er ed .
E st a b l i sh m e n t c o n t i n g e n t u p o n co m p l e t i o n ch a n n el . C o st t o J u n e 3 0 ,
1934, $6, 758.
S o u t h B u f f a l o , N . Y . — E l e c t r i f y st a t i o n a n d i m p r o v e f o g si g n a l .
T y p e P tw ot o n e d i a p h o n e, m o t o r - d r i v en co m p r esso r s, a n d su b m a r i n e ca b l e c o n n ect i n g w i t h
co m m er ci a l p o w er l i n e s o n sh o r e h a v e b een i n st a l l e d .
W o r k n e a r l y co m p l et ed .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 34, $ 1 0 , 4 2 5.
C l e v e l a n d a n d T o l e d o , O h i o . — P r o v i d e r a d i o b ea co n a t C l ev el a n d , a n d r e p l a c e
o b so l e t e f o g - si g n a l eq u i p m en t a t T o l ed o , r a d i o p h o n e i n st a l l a t i o n t o M a u m ee
R a n g e s a n d M a n h a t t a n R a n g e s t o b e p r o v i d ed .
M o st o f t h e eq u i p m en t h a s b een
d e l i v e r e d a t st a t i o n , a w a i t i n g i n st a l l a t i o n .
C o st t o J u n e 30', 1 9 34, $7 , 7 0 9 .
W y a n d o t t e , M i c h . — S e e a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 10 4.
T h e k eep er s’ d w e l l i n g
a n d b o a t h o u se h a v e b een b u i l t .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 2 0 , 9 6 0 .
P o r t A u st i n R e e f , M i c h . — R e p l a c e b r i ck a n d t i m b er f a c i n g w i t h c o n cr et e.
F a c i n g h a s b een st r i p p ed f r o m f i v e si d e s o f t h e o ct a g o n a l p i er , a n d f l a sh p l a t i n g
a n d b a ck - u p c o n cr et e p l a ce d on f o u r si d es.
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 34, $ 1 2 , 4 2 9 .
D u l u t h - S u p e r i o r H a r b o r , M i n n , a n d W i s. — R ea r r a n g e a i d s.
W o r k c o m p r i se s
t h e e st a b l i sh m e n t o f r a n g e l i g h t s o n p er m a n en t st r u c t u r e s a n d p r o v i d es l i g h t e d
b u o y s t o r e p l a ce t e m p o r a r y p i l e st r u ct u r es.
W o r k b eg u n o n 7 c i r c u l a r st e e l
sh e e t p i l i n g p i er st r u ct u r es.
F a b r i ca t i o n o f 3 2 ga s b u oy s a n d r eb u il d in g b u oy
d o ck a t S u p er i o r E n t r y , W i s. , p r a c t i c a l l y co m p l et ed .
E r ect i on o f 3 r ea r r a n g e
t o w e r s o n l a n d si t e s co m p l et ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 19 3 4 , $8 2 , 2 3 4 .
S p e c t a c l e R e e f , M i c h . — R ep a i r f o u n d a t i o n p i er .
W o r k o n r e p a i r s t o t h e co n ­
cr e t e p i e r st a r t e d d u r i n g t h e m o n t h o f J u n e.
T h e r e p a i r s a r e t o c o n si st o f
d r i v i n g a p r o t ec t i o n w a l l o f i n t e r l o c k i n g sl i e e t - st c e l p i l i n g c l o se u p a g a i n st
t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e p i e r t o b e r e p a i r e d a n d f i l l i n g i n t h e u n d er m i n ed p o r t i o n s
w i t h t r e m l e c o n cr et e a n d g r o u t .
T h e w o r k i s 1 0 p er c en t co m p l et e.
C o st t o
J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 6 , 0 6 2 .
S t . C l a i r F l a t s R a n g e , M i c h . — R e a r r a n g e a i d s.
P l a n s a n d su r v e y s a r e u n d e r
p r ep a r a t i o n .
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $8 6.
S t . M a r y s R i v e r B e a c o n s, M i c h . — R e p l a c e P i n t sc h l i g h t i n g eq u i p m en t w i t h
a cet y len e.
A l l eq u i p m en t i s u n d er p u r ch a se , m u ch o f w h i c h h a s n o t b een
r e ce i v ed .
E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n o f W i n t e r P o i n t R a n g e u n d er w a y .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 ,
1934, $27, 265.
A sh l a n d H a r b o r , W i s. — R ea r r a n g e a i d s.
S i x g a s b u o y s a n d 2 0 sp e c i a l st e e l
u n l i g h t e d b u o y s p u r ch a se d . T w o a d d i t i o n a l g a s b u o y s u n d er p u r ch a se. P r o j e c t
su b st a n t i a l l y co m p l et ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 19 3 4 , $5 , 6 9 0 .
H a r b o r B e a c h , M ich .- — E l e c t r i f y st a t i o n a n d i n st a l l r a d i o b ea c o n .
A ll m a t e­
r i a l s d el i v er e d . C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 2 , 0 9 8 .
R e p l a c e st e a m f o g si g n a l s, e l e v e n t h d i st r i c t . — - See a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e
10 4.
A t C r i sp P o i n t , M i ch ., a 6- i n ch si r e n w a s i n st a l l e d .
A t P o r t A u st i n R e e f ,
M i ch ., a t y p e F d i a p h o n e, a n d a t F o r t G r a t i o t , M i ch ., a n e l e c t r i c o sc i l l a t o r .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 8 , 8 5 0 .
P o i n t I r o q u o i s, M i c h . — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 10 4.
P r o j e c t co m ­
p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 8 , 3 6 8 .
N o r t h M a n i t o u S h o a l , M i c h . — C o n st r u c t f i x ed st r u c t u r e t o r e p l a ce N o r t h
M a n i t o u L i g h t sh i p .
C o n t r a c t s h a v e b een l e t a n d t h e e n t i r e p r o j ec t i s 5 0
p er cen t co m p l et ed . C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $ 7 5 , 3 9 9 .
P c sh t i g o R e e f , W i s. — C o n st r u ct f i x ed st r u c t u r e t o r e p l a ce P e sh t i g o L i g h t sh i p .
P l a n s a n d sp ec i f i ca t i o n s a r e i n p r e p a r a t i o n .
S t e e l p i l i n g h a s b een p u r ch a sed .
T h e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f l i g h t sh i p N o . 7 5 t o se r v e a s a r a d i o r e m o t e co n t r o l l ed a n d
a u t o m a t i c l i g h t sh i p t o m a r k t h i s st a t i o n t em p o r a r i l y , p en d i n g t h e co m p l e t i o n
o f t h e p i e r st a t i o n , i s w e l l a d v a n c ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $2 , 5 0 2 .
M i n n e a p o l i s S h o a l , M i c h . — C o n st r u c t f i x ed st r u c t u r e t o r e p l a c e E l e v e n - F o o t
S h o a l L i g h t sh i p .
P l a n s a n d sp ec i f i ca t i o n s co m p l et ed a n d so m e m a t e r i a l s f u r ­
n i sh e d b y G o v er n m en t , p u r ch a sed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 5 , 2 5 1 .

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G r a y s R e e f , M i c h . — C o n st r u c t f i x ed st r u c t u r e t o r e p l a ce G r a y s R e e f L i g h t sh i p .
V a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s f u r n i sh e d b y G o v er n m en t u n d er p u r ch a se .
C o st t o J u n e 30 ,
1 9 34, $ 1 5 , 2 4 5 .
C a l u m e t H a r b o r , I I I . — ' C o n st r u ct d w e l l i n g s f o r f o u r k eep er s a t n e w si t e .
T he
e n t i r e p r o j ec t i s 7 5 p e r c en t co m p l et e d .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 4 , 7 7 1 .
C a l u m e t H a r b o r B r e a k w a t e r L i g h t s, I I I . — P r e p a r e p l a n s a n d sp e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r
t w o n e w l i g h t s t o b e er ec t e d o n t h e e x t e n si o n t o t h e b r e a k w a t e r .
C o st t o
J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $1.
M a n i t o w o c , W i s. — C o n st r u c t k e e p e r s’ d w e l l i n g s.
D w e l l i n g f o r t h r e e k ee p er s
u n d er w a y .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 4 , 3 4 3 .
G r e e n B a y C h a n n e l , W i s. — E st a b l i sh n e w a i d s.
P l a n s a n d sp ec i f i ca t i o n s a r e
i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i g h t a n d f o g si g n a l st r u c t u r e o n su b m a r i n e si t e t o m a r k t h e
e n t r a n c e t o G r een B a y , W i s.
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $1 1 9 .
E l e c t r i f y a n d i m p r o v e l i g h t st a t i o n s, t w e l f t h d i st r i c t . — P l a n s a n d sp ec i f i ca t i o n s
i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r eq u i p m en t a t S o u t h H a v e n a n d B i g S a b l e , M i ch .
C o st t o
J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 2 , 6 5 0 .
M i l w a u k e e L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , W i s. — C o n st r u c t st o r e h o u se .
C on t r a ct s h a v e
b een l e t a n d p r o j e c t 9 5 p er c en t co m p l e t e f o r c o n st r u c t i o n o f a st o r e h o u se 4 8
b y 9 0 f e e t , o f st e e l a n d m a so n r y .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 3 , 4 4 0 .
G r o sse p o i n t , I I I . — E l e c t r i f y st a t i o n , d i sc o n t i n u e f o g si g n a l a n d m a k e st a t i o n
a u t o m a t i c.
W o r k p r a c t i c a l l y co m p l et e .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 2 , 0 9 1 . 9 7 .
S o u t h F o x I sl a n d , M i c h . — C o n st r u c t n e w t o w e r t o r e p l a c e o l d b r i ck t o w er .
P l a n s a n d sp e c i f i c a t i o n s i n p r e p a r a t i o n .
T o w e r f r o m a n a b a n d o n e d c o a st st a ­
t i o n b e i n g d i sm a n t l e d f o r u se.
C o st t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $5 8 4 .
I n d i a n a H a r b o r , I n d . — E st a b l i sh n e w l i g h t a n d f o g si g n a l o n b r e a k w a t e r
e x t e n si o n .
P l a n s a n d sp e c i f i c a t i o n s a r e i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r p r o v i d i n g a l i g h t
a n d f o g si g n a l a t t h e o u t e r en d o f t h e e a st b r e a k w a t e r w h i c h i t i s p r o p o sed
sh a l l b e e x t e n d e d n o r t h e r l y 2 , 3 0 0 f e e t .
T o w e r u n d er co n t r a ct .
C o st t o J u n e
30 , 1 9 3 4 , $4.
P o r t W a sh i n g t o n , W i s. — E st a b l i sh l i g h t a n d f o g si g n a l .
P l a n s a n d sp ec i f i ca ­
t i o n s a r e i n p r ep a r a t i o n f o r c o n st r u c t i n g a l i g h t a n d f o g si g n a l o n t h e en d
o f t h e p r o p o sed n e w b r e a k w a t e r .
T o w e r u n d er co n t r a c t .
C o st t o J u n e 30,
1934, $1, 341.
E st a b l i s h M i ssi ssi p p i R i v e r b u o y s. — A b o u t 9 9 0 b u o y s w i t h m o o r i n g eq u i p m en t
h a v e b een p u r ch a se d f o r t h e M i ssi ssi p p i R i v e r a n d t r i b u t a r i e s.
C o st t o J u n e
30, 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 1 , 2 9 3 .
E st a b l i s h O h i o R i v e r l i g h t s a n d p r o v i d e b u o y r e p l a c e m e n t s. — 1 2 0 l i g h t e d
b u o y s w i t h l a n t e r n s a n d d r y - c el l p a ck s h a v e b een p u r ch a sed .
A l so 1 3 2 m a r i n e
b ea co n l a n t e r n s h a v e b een o r d er ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 7 , 2 3 2 .
T r e e P o i n t , A l a sk a . — R eb u i l d l i g h t a n d f o g si g n a l b u i l d i n g .
E x ca v a t ion for
a r e i n f o r c e d co n c r e t e st r u c t u r e w a s m a d e d u r i n g N o v em b er 19 3 3 .
A c t u a l co n ­
st r u c t i o n st a r t e d i n A p r i l 1 9 3 4 ; b a se m en t , f i r st f l oor , a n d r o o f h a v e b een p o u r ed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 2 5 , 2 0 8 .
S e n t i n e l I sl a n d , A l a sk a . — R e b u i l d l i g h t a n d f o g - si g n a l b u i l d i n g .
E x ca v a t ion
f o r a n e w r e i n f o r ce d - c o n cr e t e st r u c t u r e w a s m a d e d u r i n g 1 9 3 3 .
M a t er ia ls
p u r ch a sed .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 2 , 3 1 4 .
C a p e H i n c l i i n b r o o k , A l a sk a . — S e e A n n u a l R ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 1 0 5 .
T h is p r oj ­
e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 9 1 , 7 9 3 .
E st a b l i s h m i n o r a u t o m a t i c a i d s, A l a sk a . — M a t e r i a l s h a v e b ee n p u r ch a sed f o r
8 o f t h e 9 a u t h o r i z e d a i d s.
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 1 , 5 2 7 .
E st a b l i sh W r a n g e l l N a r r o w s a i d s, A l a sk a . — M a t e r i a l s h a v e b ee n p u r ch a se d
f o r m i n o r a i d s, i n c l u d i n g b u o y s i n W r a n g e l l N a r r o w s.
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 ,
$2 , 8 6 0 .
R e c o n st r u c t F i v e F i n g e r I sl a n d L i g h t S t a t i o n , A l a sk a . — P l a n s f o r t h e r e ­
p l a c e m e n t o f st r u c t u r e s a t t h i s st a t i o n w h i c h w e r e d e st r o y e d b y f i r e i n D e c e m ­
b e r 1 9 3 3 a r e u n d er w a y .
S o m e eq u i p m en t h a s b een o r d er ed .
D e sd e m o n a S a n d s, O r eg . — S ee A n n u a l R ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 1 0 5 .
C o n st r u ct
p o w er sh ed f o r h o u si n g t r a n sf o r m e r s a n d st a n d - b y g en er a t o r .
S u b m a r i n e ca b l e
f o r t r a n sm i t t i n g p o w er t o t h e l i g h t st a t i o n d e l i v e r e d on si t e a n d p o w er sh ed
co n st r u ct ed .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $5 , 6 23 .
N e w D u n g e n e ss, W a sh . — S ee A n n u a l R ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 1 0 4 .
E lect r if ica t ion
o f st a t i o n co m p l et ed , co v e r i n g co n st r u c t i o n o f t r a n sf o r m e r h o u se a n d i n st a l l a ­
t i o n o f eq u i p m en t .
W o o d p i l e b u l k h e a d a n d g r o i n a l so i n st a l l e d t o st o p er o si o n .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 3 , 1 0 0 .
B r o w n s P o i n t , W a sh . — S e e a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 1 0 4 .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $5 , 8 6 8 .

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REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

L i g h t e d , b u o y s, O r e g o n a n d W a sh i n g t o n . — S ev en l i g h t e d b u o y s r e q u i si t i o n e d
f r o m t h i r d d i st r i c t .
B u o y s t o b e i n st a l l e d a l o n g c o a st o f O r ego n a n d W a sh ­
in gt on .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $2 4 5 .
P u g e t S o u n d , W a sh . - — E st a b l i sh a u t o m a t i c l i g h t s a n d si g n a l s.
C o n st r u ct i o n o f
n e w l i g h t st r u c t u r e s f o r m i n o r l i g h t s a t D a v i d so n R ock , P u f f i n I sl a n d S h o a l ,
W a t er m a n P o i n t , a n d L e o R e e f co m p l et ed . A i d s t o n a v i g a t i o n i m p r o v ed i n a p ­
p r o a ch t o B r em er t o n , W a sh . , i n cl u d i n g e st a b l i sh m e n t o f l i g h t e d b u o y a t B a i n b r i d g e R e e f ; a d d i t i o n a l h o r n a t O r ch a r d P o i n t ; ech o b o a r d a t O r ch a r d R o c k s;
i m p r o v ed si g n a l a t W a t e r m a n P o i n t ; a n d f o g si g n a l a n d i m p r o v ed e l e c t r i c l i g h t
a t P o i n t H er r o n .
P l a n s co m p l et ed a n d e a r l y co n st r u ct i o n o f l i g h t - a n d f ogsi g n a l st a t i o n t o b e u n d er t a k en a t W a a d a h I sl a n d a n d C a t t l e P o i n t .
B id s
i n v i t e d f o r co n st r u ct i o n o f l i g h t st r u c t u r e a t P o i n t D ef i a n ce, W a sh .
C o st t o
J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 8 , 5 1 8 .
G a p e A r a g o , O r eg . — R ec o n st r u c t t o w er , et c.
C o n st r u ct i o n o f r e i n f o r ce d co n ­
c r et e t o w e r a n d f o g - si g n a l b u i l d i n g co m p l et e d a n d eq u i p m en t i n st a l l e d .
P r o j ec t
co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $9 , 2 13 .
C a p e F l a t t e r y , W a sh . — C o n st r u c t k eep er s’ d w e l l i n g .
C o n t r a ct a w a r d ed f o r
c o n st r u c t i o n o f n ew d o u b l e d w e l l i n g .
P r a c t i c a l l y a l l m a t e r i a l s h a v e b een d e l i v ­
er ed a n d b u i l d i n g i s a b o u t 6 0 p er cen t co m p l et ed . C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 34, $6 , 6 93 .
E l e c t r i f y l i g h t st a t i o n s, se v e n t e e n t h d i st r i c t . — A t D o f f l em y er P o i n t n e w r e ­
i n f o r ce d co n cr et e l i g h t - a n d f o g - si g n a l b u i l d i n g s co n st r u ct ed .
F ogh or n a n d
st a n d - b y eq u i p m en t i n st a l l e d a n d p l a ce d i n o p er a t i o n .
A t Y a q u in a H ea d el ec­
t r i f i c a t i o n o f l i g h t st a t i o n co m p l et ed , i n c l u d i n g st a n d - b y eq u i p m en t .
A t W il­
l a m e t t e R i v er b a t t er y - o p er a t ed l i g h t e st a b l i sh e d .
C 0 2 f o g b e l l h a s b een r e q u i ­
si t i o n ed .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $7 , 808 .
N o r t h H e a d , W a sh . — T h e n ew r o a d c o n n e c t i n g t h e l i g h t st a t i o n w i t h c o u n t y
h i g h w a y n o w u n d er co n st r u ct i o n . C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 2 , 5 9 8 .
C o a st l i g h t s, O r e g o n . — E l e c t r i f y st a t i o n s.
W or k o f el ec t r i f y i n g I l e c e t a H ea d ,
U m p q u a R i v er , a n d C a p e M ea r es L i g h t S t a t i o n s i s w e l l u n d er w a y .
C o n cr et e
p o w e r sh e d s h a v e b een c o n st r u ct ed a t I - I ecet a H e a d a n d U m p q u a R i v er . E q u i p ­
m en t o r d er ed f o r a l l t h r ee st a t i o n s.
I n st a l l a t i o n o f eq u i p m en t a n d w i r i n g o f
t o w e r s a n d b u i l d i n g s u n d e r w a y a t H e c e t a H e a d a n d U m p q u a R i v er .
C o st t o
J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $ 2 , 1 0 4 .
C o n v e r t o i l l i g h t s t o se m i a u t o m a t i c , O r e g o n S o u n d s, O r eg . — D u r i n g t h e y ea r ,
t w e n t y - o n e 90- a n d e i g h t 1 2 0 - m i l l i m e t e r e l e c t r i c l a n t e r n s w er e i n st a l l e d i n C oos
B a y , U m p q u a R i v er , Y a q u i n a B a y , T i l l a m o o k B a y , a n d C o l u m b i a R i v e r , O r eg.
T h r e e r a n g e r e f l ect o r l a n t e r n s w er e i n st a l l e d i n C o o s B a y a n d Y a q u i n a B a y ,
O r eg .
T h r e e 9 0 - m i l l i m et e r l a n t e r n s w e r e i n st a l l e d on t h e W i l l a m e t t e R i v er .
O r eg.
O n e 15 0- m i l l i m e t e r l a n t e r n w a s i n st a l l e d o n t h e C o l u m b i a R i v er .
C o st
t o J u n e 30, 19 3 4 , $6 , 3 11 .
T o n g u e P o i n t L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , O r eg . — C o n st r u c t w h a r f .
C o n st r u c t i o n o f
n ew w o o d - p i l e w h a r f w a s st a r t e d A p r i l 1, 1 9 3 4 , a n d i s n o w n e a r i n g co m p l et i o n .
E l e c t r i c se r v i c e, w a t e r , a n d a i r l i n e s a r e n o w b ei n g i n st a l l e d .
C o st t o J u n e 30,
1 9 3 4 , $8 , 9 08 .
H u m b o l d t B a y F o g S i g n a l S t a t i o n , C a l i f . — S e e a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 10 6.
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed . T o t a l co st , $5 , 995 .
I m p r o v e l i g h t st a t i o n s, e i g h t e e n t h d i st r i c t . — A t S a n L u i s O b isp o, C a l i f . , n ew
t i m b er w h a r f co n st r u ct ed , e x t e n d i n g 1 2 0 f e e t b ey o n d en d o f o l d w h a r f ; o l d
st e a m h o i st r ep l a ce d b y g a so l i n e - e n g i n e- d r i v e n h o i st .
T o t a l co st , $ 7 , 0 0 8 .
At
Y er b a B u en a , C a l i f . , t h e f o g si g n a l ch a n g ed f r o m st e a m w h i st l e t o d o u b l e t y p e C
d i a p h o n e si g n a l w i t h e l e c t r i c si r e n st a n d - b y . W i r i n g o f q u a r t e r s r e m o d el ed a n d
l i g h t ch a n g ed f r o m f i x ed w h i t e t o f l a sh i n g w h i t e .
T o t a l co st , $5 , 5 52 .
Y e r b a B u e n a L i g h t h o u se D e p o t , C a l i f . — E x t e n d w h a r f .
W h a r f ex t en d ed 90
f e e t t o p r o v i d e a d d i t i o n a l b er t h i n g sp a c e f o r t en d e r s a n d b u o y st o r a g e .
C r ane
t r a c k e x t e n d e d t o o u t e r en d o f w h a r f f o r h a n d l i n g a n d st o r a g e o f b u o y s.
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed . T o t a l co st , $1 3 , 0 1 9 .
L o s A n g e l e s D e p o t , C a l i f . — C o n st r u c t w h a r f , w a r e h o u se , et c.
T i m b er p i l e
w h a r f w a s co n st r u ct ed .
A l l t i m b er s cr eo so t e d e x c e p t d eck j o i st s a n d p l a n k i n g .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 2 3 , 1 7 1 .
A w a r e h o u se w a s c o n st r u ct ed f o r
st o r a g e o f m i sc e l l a n e o u s eq u i p m en t a n d su p p l i e s.
W a r e h o u se i s o f on e- st o r y ,
r ei n f o r ce d - co n cr e t e c o n st r u c t i o n w i t h p r o v i si o n f o r of f ices, b l a c k sm i t h sh op , et c.
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $1 8 , 9 0 0 .
C o n t r a ct s l e t f o r co n st r u ct i o n o f f en ce
a n d r o a d w a y s.
C o n t r a ct f o r k e e p e r s’ d w e l l i n g i n p r e p a r a t i o n . C o st t o J u n e 30,
19 3 4 , $ 5 8 , 7 5 1.
S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a I sl a n d s. — E st a b l i sh
a d d i t i o n a l a i d s.
S ev en 3 7 5 - m i l l i ­
m et er a c e t y l e n e l i g h t s e st a b l i sh e d .
E a c h l i g h t i s m o u n t e d o n sm a l l t i m b er

L I G H T H O U SE SERV ICE

117

st r u ct u r e, h o u si n g
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .

a d o u b l e b a n k o f a cc u m u l a t o r s t o r e d u ce m a i n t en a n ce.
T o t a l co st , $9 , 3 7 6 .
P u n t a G o r d a , C a l i f . — C o n st r u ct r o a d s.
F i e l d su r v e y c o m p l e t ed ; p l a n s a n d
sp e c i f i c a t i o n s co m p l et ed .
P r o j e c t a d v e r t i se d f o r b i d s.
C o st t o J u n e 30, 19 3 4 ,

$ 3 03 5.
d i st r i c t . — R e q u i si t i o n su b m i t t e d t o t h i r d d i st r i c t
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 19 3 4 , $ 9 , 3 0 5 .
S a n J o a q u i n R i v e r , C a l i f . — E st a b l i sh a i d s.
S t r u ct u r es er ect ed a n d f iv e l i g h t s
e st a b l i sh e d .
T em p o r a r y b u o y s e st a b l i sh e d p e n d i n g r e c e i p t o f m a t e r i a l r e q u i ­
si t i o n e d f r o m t h i r d d i st r i c t .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 2 , 4 2 6 .
E a s t B r o t h e r I sl a n d , C a l i f . — I m p r o v e f o g si g n a l , et c.
W o r k p r a c t i c a l l y co m ­
p l e t e d ; n e w si g n a l a n d e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n l e n s i n c o m m i ssi o n ; st a n d - b y f o g si g n a l
o sc i l l a t o r a n d g e n e r a t o r i n st a l l e d .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 0 , 6 2 0 .
S a n D i e g o , L o n g B e a c h , a n d L o s A n g e l e s H a r b o r s, C a l i f . — A d d i t i o n a l a i d s
r e n d er ed n e c e ssa r y b y W a r D e p a r t m e n t i m p r o v em en t s.
M a t e r i a l s a n d eq u i p ­
m en t o r d er ed .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 19 3 4 , $ 1 , 5 9 5 . 6 7 .
A d d i t i o n a l b u o y s, e i g h t e e n t h

f o r b u o y s a n d f i t t i n g s.

I m p r ove
B lu ff an d

fog

si g n a l s,

eigh t een th

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S a n L u i s O b i sp o L i g h t S t a t i o n s ) . — P l a n s a n d

electr ifica tion

of

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sp e c i f i c a t i o n s p r ep a r ed
p u r c h a se o f eq u i p m en t

f o r w o r k a t T a b l e B l u f f L i g h t S t a t i o n ; p r o p o sa l s f o r
b e i n g i ssu e d .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $3 , 0 00 .
C a l i f o r n i a H a r b o r s a i d s. — E st a b l i sh a i d s t o m a r k n e w r i v e r a n d h a r b o r i m ­
p r o v em en t s.
L i g h t s e st a b l i sh e d i n u p p er S a n F r a n c i sc o B a y ; t e m p o r a r y b u o y s
e st a b l i sh e d i n L o s A n g e l e s H a r b o r .
P l a n s p r e p a r e d f o r l i g h t a n d f o g si g n a l
o n L o s A n g el es- L o n g B e a c h B r e a k w a t e r .
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 1 3 , 2 8 9 .
C a p e K u m u k a h i , H a w a i i . — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 19 3 3 , p a g e 1 0 6 .
A ga lv a n iz ed
st r u c t u r a l st e e l t o w er , 1 1 0 f e e t h i g h , a n d a co r r u g a t ed a sb e st o s p o w e r h o u se
w e r e er ec t e d .
T h e p r o j ec t i n cl u d ed t h e i n st a l l a t i o n o f t w o 36- i n ch a i r w a y s
b ea co n s, t h r e e en g i n e- g en er a t o r u n i t s, a n d e l e c t r i c a l w o r k co n n ec t ed t h e r e w i t h .
P r o j e c t co m p l et ed .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 0 , 1 3 5 .
B a r b e r s P o i n t , H a w a i i . — S ee a n n u a l r ep o r t , 1 9 3 3 , p a g e 10 6.
T h e g r o u n d s w er e
i m p r o v ed .
G a so l i n e d r i v e n en g i n e- g en er a t o r u n i t s w e r e i n st a l l e d a n d st a t i o n
el e c t r i f i e d t h r o u g h o u t .
P r o j e c t co m p l et e d .
T o t a l co st , $ 1 9 , 3 0 4 .
R e p a i r d e p o t s a n d st a t i o n s , H a w a i i . — A t K a l a e , o l d st r u c t u r a l st e e l t o w e r
a n d p o w e r h o u se r e n e w e d ; t e l e p h o n e p o l e l i n e i s a l so t o b e co n st r u ct ed .
At
M a k a p u u a t el e p h o n e p o l e l i n e w a s co m p l et ed .
T w o a u t o m a t i c 5- k i l o w a t t
e n g i n e g e n e r a t o r s a n d n e c e ssa r y eq u i p m en t f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e r a d i o b ea co n
w e r e p u r c h a se d a n d t h e w o r k o f i n st a l l i n g i s i n p r o g r ess.
A t M o l o k a i t h r ee
f u l l y a u t o m a t i c 2- k i l o w a t t e n g i n e g e n e r a t o r s a n d eq u i p m en t w e r e p u r ch a se d
f o r e l e c t r i f y i n g t h e l i g h t s.
P l a n s a n d sp e c i f i c a t i o n s c o v e r i n g t h e i n st a l l a t i o n
a r e co m p l et ed .
A t S a n d I sl a n d B u o y D ep o t , w o r k o f m o v i n g st o r e s t o n e w
si t e h a s b een co m p l et e d . P l a n s a n d sp e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r m a r i n e r a i l w a y , b o a t ca r ,
sh ed , et c. , co m p l et ed .
A t N a w i l i w i l i , n e w w a t e r p i p e l i n e h a s b een co m p l et ed .
A t el e p h o n e p o l e l i n e w i l l b e co m p l et ed d u r i n g cu r r e n t y ea r .
A t N a k a lele
er e c t i o n o f n e w w o o d en t o w e r h a s b ee n co m p l et ed .
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 ,
$9 , 9 5 6 .
H a w a i i , m i n o r a i d s a n d b u o y s. — E st a b l i sh t h r e e l i g h t e d b u o y s t o r e p l a ce
sm a l l e r b u o y s u n su i t a b l e f o r l o c a t i o n s i n t h e op en sea .
B u o y s a n d a p p e n d a g es
w e r e o r d er ed b y r e q u i si t i o n o n t h e t h i r d d i st r i c t .
R e- m a r k i m p r o v e d e n t r a n c e
ch a n n e l t o H o n o l u l u H a r b o r .
P l a n s a n d sp e c i f i c a t i o n s h a v e b een co m p l et e d
f o r n e w r a n g e st r u c t u r e s a n d f o r 1 e l e c t r i c a n d 1 a c e t y l e n e l i g h t .
L i gh t ed
b u o y t o r e p l a c e p r e se n t ca n b u o y a t B l o n d e R e e f B u o y h a s b een o r d er ed .
E st a b l i sh a c e t y l e n e l i g h t on a 30 - f o o t w o o d e n t o w e r a t K a u n a P o i n t .
S ite
h a s b een a cq u i r ed a n d o r d er p l a ce d f o r i l l u m i n a t i n g ^ a p p a r a t u s.
E st a b l i sh
a c e t y l e n e l i g h t o n a 40 - f o o t w o o d e n t o w e r a t P a l a o a P o i n t , i n st a l l d er r i ck , a n d
i m p r o v e t h e si t e .
E st a b l i sh 2 r a n g e l i g h t s, a b r e a k w a t e r l i g h t , a n d 5 w o o d e n
b u o y s, m a d e n e c e ssa r y b y h a r b o r i m p r o v em en t s t o b e a cc o m p l i sh e d b y t h e
U n i t ed S t a t es E n g i n eer s i n P o r t A ll en H a r b or .
I l l u m i n a t i n g a p p a r a t u s, b u o y s,
a n d a p p e n d a g es h a v e b een o r d er ed b y r e q u i si t i o n u p o n t h e t h i r d d i st r i c t .
C o st
t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $3 , 0 0 0 .

GENERA L SERVICE PROJECTS
B u o y s t o r e p l a c e st a t i o n s a n d v e sse l s. — W o r k u n d er t h i s p r o j e c t
c a r r i e d o u t a t 6 d i st r i c t s, i n c l u d i n g t h e r e p l a ce m e n t o f 2 l i g h t sh i p s.

J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , $ 3 , 0 1 9 . 6 4 .

i s b ei n g
C o st t o

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REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

A u t o m a t i c a p p a r a t u s f o r m a j o r l i g h t s. — I m p r o v em en t o f m a j o r l i g h t s t h r o u g h
i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a u t o m a t i c eq u i p m en t ch i e f l y e l e c t r i c a l i s u n d e r w a y i n se v en
d i st r i c t s.
C o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 6 , 9 0 0 . 3 8 .
A u t o m a t i c a p p a r a t u s f o r m i n o r l i g h t s. — M i n o r l i g h t s o f t y p e s r e q u i r i n g
m a n u a l a t t e n d a n c e a r e b ei n g e l i m i n a t e d a n d a u t o m a t i c a p p a r a t u s su b st i t u t e d
i n si x d i st r i c t s u n d er t h i s p r o j e ct .
T o t a l c o st t o J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 , $6 , 0 7 0 . 4 6 .
I m p r o v e m e n t o f f o g si g n a l s a t st a t i o n s . — T h i s w o r k i n c l u d e s t h e su b st i t u t i o n
o f m o r e p o w e r f u l co m p r e ssed a i r si g n a l s, i m p r o v ed co m p r e ssi n g m a ch i n er y ,
c o n t r o l a p p a r a t u s a t st a t i o n s i n f i v e d i st r i c t s.
C o st t o J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 , $ 5 , 3 4 1 . 7 9 .
I m p r o v i n g r a d i o h e a c o n s a t st a t i o n s. — T h i s p r o j ec t w h i c h i n c l u d e s t h e m o d ­
e r n i z a t i o n o f r a d i o t r a n sm i t t i n g eq u i p m en t a t so m e 1 1 st a t i o n s, t o g e t h e r w i t h
i m p r o v ed co n t r o l eq u i p m en t a t v a r i o u s st a t i o n s, i s w e l l u n d er w a y a n d d e l i v e r y
o f t r a n sm i t t e r s i s a b o u t t o b e st a r t e d . A l l w o r k h a s b een p l a ce d u n d er co n t r a c t
o r i s co v e r e d b y b i d s p en d i n g .

C O A ST A N D

R EV IEW

GEODETIC

OE

T H E

SU R V E Y

Y EA R

T he fiscal y ear 1934 has been one of unprecedented acti v i ty f or
the Coast and Geodetic Survey. T he uni f orm , moderate programs
of w ork, w hich are the ideal f or an agency charged w i th the gradual
perf orm ance of l arge tasks, were drasti cal l y disturbed by the de­
pression. Curtail ments of normal activiti es were accompanied by
assi gnments of large special projects under the Government’s emer­
gency programs, w i th the net resul t that the volume of B ureau
acti v i ty has f ar exceeded th at of any previ ous y ear of its history.
T he B ureau’s regul ar appropri ati on f or 1932, w hich may be re­
garded as normal, was $3,075,933. T hat f or 1934 was $2,205,090,
a reducti on of 28 percent. A t vari ous times duri ng the y ear the
B ureau received Publi c W orks all otments total i ng $6,503,120 f or a
seri es of projects of field w ork, the f i rst of w hich began in the f al l
of 1933 and all of w hich w i ll term i nate in the spri ng or early summer
of 1935; in other w ords, substanti al l y a i y 2-year program of field
w ork di vided about equall y between the 2 fiscal years. I n addition,
duri ng the w i nter the Survey carri ed on a Civil W orks A dm i ni stra­
ti on program of local control surveys on w hich, at the peak, 10,288
persons were employed, being pai d directl y by that A dmini strati on.
I n short, w hen the program was at i ts hei ght l ast w inter, the
Surv ey , w hich normall y spends about $3,000,000 a y ear and employs
some 1,300 persons, was spending at the rate of over $20,000,000 a
y ear and empl oying some 12,000 tem porary persons addi ti onal to its
regul ar permanent force.
These concurrent reductions and expansions of the w ork neces­
sari l y overlapped. To i l l ustrate, in the f uncti on of prov i di ng ade­
quate charts f or the mariner, some operati ons were l argel y curtai l ed,
w hil e others were even more largely expanded. These apparent
contradi cti ons would mi slead anyone who di d not real ize the pri nci ­
ple on w hich they were based. Since a m aj or purpose of the Publi c
W ork s money all otted to the B ureau was to relieve unemployment,
i ts appl i cati on was li mited to projects w hich w ould af f ord a m ax i ­
mum of such relief . T he goal w hich was v ol untari l y set f or the
B ureau was that approxim ately 70 percent of the money spent should
be pai d out directl y as wages.
Operations w hich could not make thi s contributi on to the rel i ef
of unempl oyment were curtail ed. Of these, the pri nci pal ones were
those carri ed on by the B ureau’s sea-going ships. One ship was laid
up throughout the year, and the w orking seasons of others were
shortened. D uri ng the peri ods of operati on, the personnel of all
ships was supplemented by empl oyment of men pai d f rom Publi c
W orks f unds.
119

120

EEPOET OF T H E SECBETA BY OF COM M EECE
T H E PU BL I C WORK S PROGRAM

D etail ed report on the Publ i c W orks projects must aw ait thei r
completion, but a bri ef prel i m i nary report at thi s ti me is appro­
pri ate.
T he sum of $3,210,148 of Publ i c W orks money was spent duri ng
1934. T hi s ex penditure contributed to the f oll ow ing extent in re­
l ieving the depressi on:
1. Jobs were given to 3,125 dif f erent persons in need of relief .
T hi s number includes some turn-over, of w hich, how ever, there has
been very li ttl e. Ful l -ti m e employment lias been runni ng at the
rate of 2,300 to 2,500 persons per month.
2. T he men employed were l argel y of the w hite-col lar class, f or
w hom the probl em of rel i ef has been a parti cul arl y difficult one.
Tw enty-nine percent of the total were graduate engineers, and 59
percent were men of college trai ni ng. Only a small percentage of
these men were employed on prof essi onal w ork. A great m aj ori ty
of them were used in the various subprof essional capaciti es of sur­
veying w ork, such as rodmen, chainmen, and truck dri vers. T hus
the personnel of the surveying parti es has been of exceptionally hi gh
cali ber. I n addition, they were gratef ul f or the rel i ef and enthu­
siasti c about the w ork. T he practi cal resul t of these f actors is that
in spite of the emergency character of the program , w orth-w hi le
projects are being carri ed on at substanti al l y the same uni t costs as
those w hich prev ai l in our si m i l ar normal operations.
3. T he pay is moderate, rangi ng f rom $85 a month f or hands to
$150 a month f or an engi neer operati ng an instrum ent and in charge
of a uni t of the w ork under di rect supervision. T he basis on w hich
the pay scale was fixed was to give the men a decent wage, y et one
sufficiently modest so th at each man alw ays w ould have an incentive
to get off the Federal pay roll as quickly as possible.
4. T he w ork was w i deiy di stri buted over the rural di stri cts of each
State. T he operati ng expenses of the parti es, w hich consti tuted about
12 percent of thei r total cost, and the subsistence expenses w hich the
men pai d out of thei r own salaries, were spent locally in the small
communities and contributed m ateri al l y to reli eving local stagnati on.
I n return f or these expenditures, the’publ ic w i ll receive the f ollow ­
ing perm anent benef i ts:
1. A survey of the i ntracoastal w aterw ay, extendi ng along the
A tl anti c and Gul f coasts and of all commercially i m portant tri bu­
tari es thereto. The Federal Government is spending many millions
of dol l ars to improve the natural w aterw ays of these regi ons; and
when the project, w hich is now approachi ng completion, is f inished,
small craf t w ill be able to go all the way f rom New Y ork to K ey
W est, and f rom A palachi cola, Fl a,, to Corpus Chri sti , Tex., w ithout
hav i ng to enter unshel tered ocean w aters. Charts to guide m ariners
through these w aterw ays are essential to thei r effective use, and
sl i ghtl y less than hal f of the Publ i c W orks money is being devoted to
field surveys required f or the producti on of such charts.
2. A l i ttl e less than hal f the money is being used to expedite prog­
ress on the program of control surveys (tri angul ati on and l ev el i ng),
w hich the B ureau has been carry i ng on at an inadequate rate f or
many years. These surveys are essential to the m appi ng of the coun­

COA ST A ND GEODETI C SURV EY

121

try and to every extension of engineering projects requi ri ng accurate
know ledge of the hori zontal and vertical relati onships betw een points
on the earth’s surf ace. T hey are to such engi neeri ng operations w hat
the steel f ramew ork is to a l arge bui l di ng—they give f orm and
strength and ri gi di ty to the whole structure. T he nati onal demand
f or w ork of thi s character recently has been unusuall y large, and i t is
i n response to such demand that the w ork is being expedited.
3. A small sum is being devoted to studies of earth movements at
the central regions of an earthquake and to the response of buildings,
bridges, dams, and sim il ar structures to such movements. T hi s un­
dertak i ng is a part of a l arger non-Federal ef f ort to saf eguard li f e
and property by l earni ng how to design such structures so that they
w il l resist the earthquake stresses.
4. T i dal and current surveys were made in a number of i m portant
w aterw ays w here the resul ti ng data were urgentl y needed by mariners
and engineers.
5. Survey ships and observatories have been reconditioned.
6. T he Survey is a f irm believer i n the pri nci pl e of constantly
stri v i ng to develop new i nstruments and equi pment w hereby better
results can be obtained at reduced costs. I ts goal has been to m ai n­
tai n close and constant contact w i th progress in science and its
appli cati ons, and to appropri ate f or i ts own use any detai l w hich
can be uti li zed to advantage f or thi s purpose. T he unemployment
si tuati on enabled i t to secure the services of hal f a dozen men, each
a specialist along some parti cul ar line, and through those services
to develop certain instruments and equipment whose subsequent use
w ill save the Government hundreds of thousands of dollars. The
need f or brev i ty denies to these achievements the space w hich thei r
im portance meri ts. T here may be mentioned, how ever, the shoalw ater f athometer, the preci sion photol i thographi c camera, the 9-lens
aeri al camera and accompanying recti f y i ng and other equipment,
and a machine f or draw i ng projections.
Fi nal l y , i t is i m portant to note that all field w ork was devoted
to projects w i th w hich the B ureau is charged by law and has been
carry i ng on under the regul ar annual appropri ati ons. Use of the
Publ i c W orks money f or such purposes means th at equival ent
amounts need not be included in the regul ar appropri ati ons hereaf ter
made.
CI V I L WORK S PROJECT

L ate in the f al l , the Civil W orks A dm i ni strati on asked the Coast
and Geodetic Survey to undertak e a program of local control sur­
veys, supplemental to the regul ar Federal project. I t asked that
15,000 men be tak en on f or thi s project, as a part of its program
to provide w i nter w ork f or 4,000,000 persons.
T he B ureau was rel uctant to undertak e such a project, because
i t had a lively appreci ati on of the impossi bili ty of getti ng results
at low uni t costs. Fi nal l y persuaded, however, that the emergency
justi f i ed inefficiencies w hich i t w ould not normall y have sanctioned,
i t undertook the proj ect.
W i thi n l i ttl e more than a month af ter the f inal w ord came to go
ahead, some 10,000 men had been recruited, organized into units
of 7 to 10 men each, equi pped w ith borrow ed or rented instruments,

122

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

suppli ed w ith transportati on procured on the same basis, trai ned*
and set to w ork.
T hi s was no small achievement. T he pri nci pal credi t f or i t be­
longs to the 48 men whom the Survey caref ul l y selected, one foxeach State, and asked, as a contri buti on to the w elf are of less
f ortunate members of thei r prof essions, to organize and di rect the
w ork in his State. W hil e l ack of space precl udes a detail ed report
on the project, no repoi't on the B ureau’s w ork f or the year w ould
be complete w i thout a ti ’ibute of appreci ati on to these men who*
f aced w i th unusual difficulties, gave unspari ngl y of themselves, at
only nominal compensation, to make the projects successful. W i th­
out exception, they did remarkably well.
SUM M A RY OP A CTIV ITIES

A fleet of 12 surveying vessels carri ed on hy drographi c w ork d u r ­
ing the year—the Gilbert, I iydrographer , L ydonia, M ikawe, N atoma,
and Oceanographer on the A tl anti c coast, and the Discoverer, Ex ­
plorer, Guide, Pioneer , Surveyor , and W estdahl on the Pacif ic and
A laskan coasts. N i nety-three smal ler craf t, mostly leased f or tem ­
porary use, also were used by these vessels and by a l arge number of
parti es engaged in coastal surveys and operati ng f rom bases on shore.
Surveys in the Phi l i ppi ne I sl ands were continued by one ship, the
Fathomer , provided by the insul ar government. T he Pathf inder
f ormerl y operated by the Federal Government in the islands was l ai d
up duri ng the y ear f or lack of f unds.
Some thi rty -tw o m aj or parti es (w i th a number of subparti es) w ere
engaged in most States in geodetic tri angul ati on, base-line measure­
ments, reconnaissance f or tri angul ati on, and grav i ty and astronomic
observations.
D etail s of these acti vities and of the B ureau’s ti de, current, m ag­
netic, and seismologic w ork are given elsewhere in thi s report.
Fi el d stations were maintained at Boston, New Y ork, New Orleans,
San Francisco, Seattl e, H onolulu, and M anil a; handl i ng these areas
in supervisory matters, f urni shi ng di rect i nf orm ati on as to charti ng
needs, and suppl y i ng the publ ic w ith nauti cal inf ormation. O pera­
ti ons in the Phi l i ppi ne I sl ands were supervised by the M anil a stati on.
The W ashington office of the B ureau received f rom these m any
sources of supply a l arge amount of basic field data w hich w ere
subjected to the vari ous processes, including the compilation and
pri nti ng of nauti cal charts and ai rw ay maps, required to make the
inf ormati on obtained avail abl e f or public use.
T here were received in the l i brary and archives, 213 hy drographi c
and 228 topographi c sheets, each representi ng new B ureau surveys.
Other additions were 1,112 bl uepri nts (mostl y surveys by A rmy engi ­
neers), 2,410 maps, 2,141 charts, 14,613 field, office, and observatory
records, 198 negatives, 404 pri nts, 118 l antern slides, 1,064 books, and
4,303 periodical s.
The files contai n many early maps, compiled sketches, and charts
not made by thi s Service. W i th the use of recovery f unds, they are
being thoroughl y repai red by a map researcher, to make them more
readi l y usable.

COA ST A ND GEODETI C SURV EY

123

A total of 2,691 employees was serving the B ureau on June 30,1934,
shown in the tabl e f ollow ing, compared w i th 2,024 in 1933 and 1,422
i n 1932:
Ci vi l i an

Staf f s

Regul ar appropri ati ons:

Com­
m i s­
sioned

U nclassif ied
Classi ­
f ied

L abor­
Seam en H ands
ers

14
157

236
73

4

171

309

4

Publ i c W ork s f unds:

Staf f total s

i 620

i 62

620

62

214
138

1,173

352
171

661

4

620

W ash­
i ngton

254
254
214

T otal
Fi el d

912

254
912

912

1,166

1,311

214
1,311

1,173

214

1,311

1,525

1,235

468

2,223

2, 691

i I ncl udes 40 ci v i l i an empl oy ees on d u ty at the M ani l a f ield stati on and 50 m em bers of the crew of the
hi p F at h o m er , pai d by the i nsul ar gov ernm ent b u t under the j uri sdi cti on of thi s B ureau.

T he regul ar annual appropri ati ons f or the year, total i ng $2,205,090,
were suppl emented by an all otment of $35,000 f rom “ A i r N avi gation
Faci l i ti es, 1934 ” , and $6,503,120 f rom the appropri ati on “ N ati onal
I ndustri al Recovery, 1933-35 ” , making avail abl e a sum total i ng
$8,743,210.
Ex pendi tures duri ng the year ended June 30, 1934, total ed $4,588,394.42, di stri buted among the various appropri ati ons as f ol l ow s:
S a l a r i e s, 1 9 3 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a r t y e x p en se s, 1 9 3 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - G e n e r a l e x p en se s, 1 9 3 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - P a r t y e x p en se s, 19 3 3 , em e r g en cy c o n st r u c t i o n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - P a y a n d a l l o w a n c e s, co m m i ssi o n ed of f icer s, 1 9 3 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - P a y , of f i cer s a n d m en , v e sse l s, 1 9 3 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - R e p a i r s o f v e sse l s, 1 9 3 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A i r n a v i g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s, 1 9 3 3 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - :- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - S a l a r i e s, 1 9 3 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a r t y e x p en se s, 1 9 3 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - G en er a l e x p en se s, 1 9 3 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - P a y a n d a l l o w a n c e s, co m m i ssi o n ed of f icer s, 1 9 3 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - P a y , o f f i cer s a n d m en , v e sse l s, 1 9 8 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e p a i r s o f v e sse l s, 1 9 3 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - A i r n a v i g a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - T o p o g r a p h i c su r v e y o f U n i t e d S t a t e s, c o n t r i b u t i o n s- - - - - - - - - - - - - W o r k i n g f u n d , D ep a r t m e n t o f C o m m er ce- - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - C h i ca g o W o r l d ’s P a i r C e n t e n n i a l C el e b r a t i o n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - S eco n d p o l a r y e a r p r o g r a m ( S t a t e t r a n sf e r t o C o m m er ce D e p a r t ­
m en t ), 1932- 34- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ,
N a t i o n a l I n d u st r i a l R ec o v er y , 1 9 3 3 - 3 5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - S p e c i a l d e p o si t s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - T ota l_________________________________________________

$21.25
23, 0 7 1 . 4 0
1, 4 5 0 . 9 7
223, 414. 62
51 , 1 2 8 . 09
13, 04 2. 8 5
2, 6 4 7 . 57
899. 93
460, 710. 88
29 9, 5 6 1 . 1 6
19, 98 0. 2 1
5 2 2 , 8 9 0 1. 8 7
3 6 8 , 73 4. 8 2
50, 6 9 7 . 3 2
29, 3 7 6 . 1 5
14 1. 4 9
24 3. 5 9
61 4. 5 1
6, 27 4. 4 4
2, 51 2, 6 8 7 . 2 1
805. 0 9
1 4, 58 8, 3 9 4 . 4 2

1 T h i s sum w i l l be i n c r eased by o u t st an d i n g v o u ch er s, co v er i n g ex p en d i t u r es by f i el d
p ar t i es an d o t h er s, n o t y et r ecei v ed i n t h e of f i ce f o r set tl em en t .

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

124

Collections on account of the sale of nauti cal charts and other pub­
lications, deposited in the T reasury D epartm ent to the account of
miscellaneous receipts, total ed $72,621.50, as compared w i th $51,269.48
duri ng the preceding year, an increase of nearl y 42 percent.
T he f ol low i ng report shows the amount of w ork done in connection
w i th certai n activiti es duri ng the present and 1933 fiscal years, com­
pared w i th that of the previous 4 fiscal years.
T ri angul ati on
Y ear groups

H y drog­
r aphy

T opog­
r aphy

Soundings

M i l es
o f sh o r e
line

Fi rst
order

Second
order

Coast­
al

M i l es

M i l es

M i l es

1929
....................................................................................
846, 517
1,726
1,200
85
__________ __________
1930
780,049__________
2, 273
1,430
1931..._____ _________
782,044
2,472
2,895
1932.................................
767,322
1,959
3,400
T otal ___ ____ ___
1933
1934

M i l es

2,155
885
2,720
5,950

Second
order

M i l es

M i l es

N u m b er

1,290
727
5,737
5,945

156
1,555

13
7

35

3,356

11,710

13, 699

1,711

55

....................................................................................
1,387,027
4,407
3,625
__________
2,520, 406 14,877
7,440
1,080

2,476
1,969

4,350
8,810

11,324
16,153

2,940
28, 670

148
118

4,445

13,160

27,477

31,610

266

3, 907,433

8,430

878
863
812
803

F i rst
order

G rav ­
i ty
obser­
v a­
ti ons

85

T otal ____ ______

3,175,932

L ev el i ng
Recon­
nai s­
sance

19, 284

8, 925

11,065

1,080

DEV EL OPM ENT OF M ETHODS A ND I NSTRU M ENTS

A bri ef comparison of the results of old and modern methods of
deep-sea hy drography is indicati ve of the degree of recent advances
in hy drographi c surv eying f or chart construction.
A sounding in 20,000 f eet of w ater w ith w ire required about an
nour, duri ng w hich the vessel had to be stopped. T hi s same sound­
i ng today i s made in a l i ttl e over 8 seconds by means of an echo­
sounding apparatus, w i th the vessel at f ul l speed. B y old methods
the vessel’s positi on was approx i m ated by dead reckoni ng, w hile
coday i t is determined accurately by radi o-acoustic rangi ng.
B y the modern method a bomb composed of a smal l quanti ty of
T N T , ti med to explode w hen i t has sunk about 100 f eet, is dropped
overboard w here i t i s desired to obtain the shi p’s position. A
chronograph on the survey vessel receives electrically f rom i ts hy dro­
phone, and records graphi cal l y , the impul se f rom the explosion.
T he subaqueous sound wave also trav el s at know n velocity to hy dro­
phones at tw o or more suitably located stations near the shore,
w here the v i brati ons set up cause an electrical impulse to trav el
through^ amplif iers to a thy ratron in a' tem porary radi o station on
shore. T he actuati on of the thy ratron at each shore station causes
the radio transm i tter automati call y to send out a signal at the exact
i nstant of the arri v al of the sound wave, the radio signal s f rom
w hich are received by the survey vessel’s radi o receiver and trans­
m i tted to the chronograph, where the ti me of receipt of each is
graphi cal l y recorded on the same tape w hich ti med the explosion’s
impulse. Since radio transmissi on may be considered instantaneous
f or these distances, the elapsed times indicated on the tape are those
required f or the sound wave to trav el by the w ater f rom the ship

COA ST A ND GEOD ETIC SU RV EY

125

to each shore station. These time i nterv al s can be measured f rom
the chronograph tape to one one-hundredth of a second, f rom w hich
the distances f rom the shore stations are then computed and the
position of the survey ship readi l y and accurately determined. On
one occasion the sound w ave f rom an explosion carri ed through a
distance of 206 miles, and distances of 75 to 100 miles are not
uncommon.
I n connection w i th experim ental w ork on the velocity and the path
of sound i n sea w ater f or use in radio acoustic rangi ng, developed by
thi s B ureau on off shore hy drographi c surveyi ng, the personnel on the
shi p Pioneer , off the coast of southern Cal i f orni a, developed a deepsea hydrophone w hich was used successf ully to a depth of 5,100 f eet.
T hi s i nstrum ent is unique i n design, in that i t can w i thstand the
enormous pressure at any great depth, al though bui l t w i th a keenly
sensitive di aphragm .
T he f athom eter is based on the precise measurement of the el apsed
ti me required f or a sound made on the vessel to go to the bottom and
return as an echo, and w hile of inestimable value i n hy drographi c
surv eying f rom about 15 f athoms to abysmal ocean depths, i t is not
adapted to shoal-w ater surveys.
D uri ng the past y ear a new ty pe of f athom eter was developed f or
sounding by echo in depths f rom a f ew f eet to 20 f athoms. Since
the veloci ty of sound in sea w ater is about 4,800 f eet per second, some
idea may be had of the almost unbelievable accuracy of the ti me ele­
ment i n thi s new ly developed instrum ent, w hich must measure the
el apsed ti me f or the sound to trav el , f or example, a depth of 3 f eet
to the bottom and return, a total distance of but 6 f eet, requi ri ng only
0.0012 of a second f or the round tri p. A s the i nstrum ent is designed
to measure thi s depth w i thi n one-tenth of a f oot, i ts accuracy of
measurement of thi s el apsed ti me must be w i thi n 0.00004 of a second.
W hen sounding in depths of 5 f athom s w i th the hand lead, i t is
possible f or the sounding boat to trav el at a speed of about 4 miles
per hour and to get one sounding every 20 seconds, or every 135 f eet
over the bottom. W i th the shall ow -w ater f athom eter i t w il l be
possible to trav el at a speed of at least 12 miles per hour and to get
400 soundings every 20 seconds, or every 12 inches over the bottom,
f urni shi ng a most complete prof ile of the bottom.
T he I nstrum ent D ivision was required to procure and reconditi on
l arger quanti ti es of equipment, much of a special nature, and f urni sh
i nstrum ents as needed, so th at field w ork could be tak en up as
prom ptl y as parti es w ere organized.
Ex peri m ents continued w i th the producti on of more sati sf actory
m ateri al f or theodoli te precision-graduated circles; in lessening the
cost of constructi ng precision level rods; in reducing the cost of
contai ners and shi ppi ng charges on stati on marks, now used by the
hundreds of thousands; in the apparatus f or obtaining subsurf ace
samples of sea w ater, making i t more positive and prom pt in acti on;
i n the timepiece of the portabl e ti de gage, by eli m i nati ng lost m oti on;
and in connection w i th the development of equipment f or seismologi cal studies, especi all y the strong-moti on apparatus, of value to
engi neers and architects.
9 8 2 2 3 — 34------- 11

126

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

T opography by aeri al phototopographic ethods is now being done
w i th 5-lens cameras. W i th recovery f unds, designs have been pre­
pared f or a 9-lens camera f or thi s w ork, bids f or the construction
of w hich were sent to m anuf acturers. I nstead of separate films f or
each lens as now required f or the 5-lens camera and the resul ti ng
5 photographs f or each exposure assembled, f i tted, and mounted,
the proposed 9-lens camera is designed f or the ray s of l i ght at ex­
posure f rom all 9 lenses projected to a single film, resul ti ng i n
one 35 by 35 inch photograph. A t a f li ght hei ght of about 13,750
f eet, f or a scale of 1 to 20,000, thi s single photograph covers a f li ght
stri p 11 miles w ide, reducing to one-thi rd the number of photographs
now necessary. From present estimates, i t w il l decrease the cost of
control by about 50 percent and the total cost of phototopographi c
m appi ng by about 40 percent.
W i th a new camera the B ureau’s ori gi nal topographi c and hydrographi c surveys are now copied to exact scale. A s a resul t of thi s
accuracy, field surveyors check measurements of the data shown and
revise directl y on them changes since the previous survey, eli minati ng
considerable dupl i cati on of surveys f orm erl y needed to determi ne
exactly w hat changes have occurred between surveys of dif f erent
dates. Other processes are also simplified. A n aux i l i ary copyboard
and a reversi ng m i rror in connection w i th the camera lens f urni sh
reverse copies, valuable in chart producti on details.
A new upri ght w hi rl er w as i nstal l ed f or use in coati ng the process
al uminum pl ates w i th albumen solution, repl aci ng a w orn-out hori ­
zontal -type w hirler. Because of its upri ght position, a smal l amount
of coati ng fluid caref ul ly poured on the center of the pl ate is spread
uni f orm l y by the revolving motion, the speed being stepped-up f rom
slow motion f or spreadi ng to a f ast speed f or dry i ng, the l atter proc­
ess being aided by el ectri c-heati ng coils. T he new machine gives
a better coated surf ace w i th less w aste of m aterials and ti me is not
lost in cl eani ng up a heavil y gummed machine.
I t is no longer necessary f or hy drographi c uni ts f i rst to prepare
an outl ine draw i ng bef ore any soundings can be made in areas cut
by the vari ous meanderi ngs of numerous w aterw ays. A pri nt is now
made i n the W ashi ngton office f rom an ai r phototopographic compi­
lati on pl ate on transparent celluloid in silver w hite ink, on w hich v er­
mil ion pow der is dusted w hile wet. B urnished dow n on special
paper, an exact dupli cate of the topographi c f eatures is obtained,
i ncl udi ng projecti on lines, control poi nts, and shore-line, el i m i nati ng
not only f ormer laborious- detai ls of transf erri ng f rom the topo­
graphi c sheet and checking the accuracy of thi s transf er but suppl y ­
i ng more data, w i th a saving of ti me i n the field.
D I V I SI O N

OE

CH ARTS

A total of 294,000 copies of nauti cal charts was pri nted duri ng the
year. Tw elve new nauti cal charts were published, and 154 revised
edi ti ons reissued. T he issue of charts and rel ated nauti cal publ i ca­
ti ons and commerce ai rw ay maps exceeded th at of the preceding
fiscal, year, as shown i n the f oll ow i ng tabul ati on of these products
issued duri ng the l ast 5 years by the W ashington office.

COA ST A ND GEODETI C SURV EY

I tem s

I ntracoastal Pi l ots____ ______ __________ _______
Commerce ai rw ay m aps____ ____________ _____

127

1934

1933

1932

1931

i 267,924
7,046
1,027
32,503
701
47,685

216,936
4,116
1,399
31, 609
958
29,369

249,311
5,825
2,255
49,014
635
19,402

259,862
6, 480
1,909
50,306
1,784
17,468

1930
258, 286
7,651
2,208
42, 737
326
2 12,004

1 N ot i ncl udi ng 5,892 issued by M ani l a office,
a Prev i ousl y di stri buted by A eronauti cs B ranch.

Ev er al ert to improvements in charts in the i nterests of simpli f i­
cation, the f oll ow ing changes were i naugurated duri ng the y ear :
T he note ref erri ng to the uni t of soundi ngs shown was enlarged
to catch the eye more readi l y ; prom i nent l i ghts, including li ghted
buoys, were emphasized by a yellow spot; the locations of radi o­
beacons and radiocompass stations are brought out by a purpl e
ci rcl e; the l andm ark symbol was enlarged and the i denti f y i ng ref er­
ence to the l andm ark made clearer; the use of the sand symbol
between the low -w ater line and the 18-f oot curve is suppl anted in
certai n charts by a blue-color ti nt; and roads and streets on certain
charts are being indicated by single lines.
T he great expansion in field surveys by the B ureau and State
organizati ons coll aborating i n the control netw ork placed a heavy
burden on the C hart D ivision in the reproducti on of prel i m i nary
basic data. T hi s was parti cul arl y true in the photograph l aboratory
because of the special consi deration requested in the speedy deli very
of the m ateri al when i t reached that poi nt in the office.
Frequent requests are received by the B ureau f rom organizati ons
or i ndi viduals f or photographi c copies of ori gi nal hy drographi c
and topographi c surveys. Such hy drographi c surveys are used by
geologists in the study of submarine f ormati ons; by i nsti tuti ons en­
gaged in oceanographi c research; and as evidence in adm i ral ty cases.
Copies of topographi c surveys are used by civil departm ents in
pl anni ng and development; by i ndi viduals in regi steri ng property ;
by l and courts; and in law suits over property boundaries. B oth
types of surveys are used in beach erosion and poll uti on studies.
T he A i r Commerce A ct of 1926 directs the Secretary of Commerce
to f oster ai r nav i gati on, chart the airw ays, and provide maps f or
saf e navigation. U nder thi s responsibil ity thi s office compiles, f li ght
checks, and publishes the ai r maps of the B ureau of A i r Commerce.
Twenty-f ive sectional airw ay maps are now avail able of the 87
w hich w ill cover the U ni ted States. Seven new sectional maps were
publi shed and 35 new editi ons and 8 stri p maps revised. To suppl e­
ment these sectional maps pending the completion of the enti re
project, maps of routes along airw ays w i ll continue to be published.
Revisions of these maps to include new or changed conditions con­
sti tute a conti nui ng ef fort. D uri ng the past y ear the New Y ork map
was pri nted three times, the Chicago map three times, and the L os
A ngeles map f our times.

128

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE
D I V I SI O N

OF

H Y D R O G R A PH Y

A N D

T O PO G R A PH Y

A mark ed increase in hy drographi c w ork has resulted f rom the
use of recovery f unds. Besides the all eviati on of unemployment by
di rect wages to the men employed, the B ureau was able to accom­
pli sh many long-delayed ori gi nal and revisional surveys. A mong
others, present charts around the islands off the southern Cal i f orni a
coast are based on surveys of a prel i m i nary nature. T he N avy re­
quested fleet anchorage charts of these areas, and these surveys have
now been made and the anchorage charts w il l soon be constructed.
Cal i f orni ans have long urged the adequate charti ng of the Sacra­
mento and San Joaqui n Rivers and of the hi ghl y developed agri cul ­
tural areas compri sing thei r deltas. T he addi ti onal f unds perm i tted
the completion of the hy drographi c surveys of these ri v ers and thei r
numerous tri butari es and a phototopographi c survey of the 1,200
square miles of the deltas, and charts show ing i ts resul ts are in
process.
T he off shore surveys betw een San Francisco B ay entrance and San
N icolas I sl and, a distance of 300 miles, w hich w ere also extended 90
miles off the coast, beyond the 2,000-f athom contour, were completed
duri ng the fiscal year. T he surveying of thi s unf ini shed 23,000-squaremile area by the Pioneer and Guide completed the main surveys
along the enti re Pacif ic coast line f rom Juan de Fuca Strai t to the
M exican border.
T he survey of the A l euti an chai n of islands in A l ask a w as started
in the spri ng of 1934 by the ships Surveyor and Discoverer. W ork
was started at U ni m ak Pass on a survey of thi s chain extendi ng f or
900 miles f rom the A laskan coast almost to the coast of Siberia. Ow ­
i ng to the short surv eying season i n thi s hi gh l ati tude, several y ears
w ill be required f or i ts completion, but w hen the survey is f inished
and the results charted, trans-Pacif ic vessels bound f or the Ori ent w ill
be able to f ollow the great circle track to the northw ard of the
A leuti ans and considerabl y shorten the passage.
On the A tl anti c coast there w ere accomplished, w i th the addi ti onal
f unds, revision surveys of the i nl and w aterw ays of the A tl anti c and
Gul f coasts. T he surveys of a l arge p ar t of these areas had not been
revised since the Ci vil W ar, and the greater p ar t of the l arge area
consti tuti ng the L oui si ana deltas had never been surveyed, because of
i ts almost impenetrable character and the difficulties attendant w i th
old ground methods. W i th the modern aeri al phototopographic
methods 3,000 square miles of coastal L oui si ana and M i ssi ssi ppi were
surveyed duri ng the l atter hal f of the fiscal year and the results com­
pi led on 1: 20,000-scale sheets.
To bri ng obsolete charts up to date, 21 survey parti es, composed of
about 600 men, w ork ing f rom shore bases, w ere engaged the enti re
year on surveys of the i ntracoastal w aterw ays f rom Boston to Corpus
Chri sti . I t is anti ci pated th at bef ore another y ear has passed modern
surveys w ill be avai lable f or charti ng accurately and adequatel y the
i nl and w aterw ays al ong the enti re A tl anti c and Gul f coasts.
A nother undertak i ng completed was the topographi c survey of the
enti re south shore of L ong I sl and and the complete hy drographi c
survey of the w aterw ays along H empstead B ay to M ontauk Poi nt,
accomplished between M arch and N ovember of 1933. W i th the view

COA ST A ND GEODETI C SU RV EY

129

to hav i ng a covering chart issued bef ore the 1934 y achti ng season,
there w as a concentrati on of ef f ort on field surveys, revisions, check­
i ng of beacon locations, and f oll ow -up of new ly-dredged channels.
C hart No. 578, “ I nl and W aters— Shinnecock B ay to Great South
B ay ” , appeared June 30, about 14 months af ter the field w ork started.
Bevision surveys, less extensive but much needed projects, were made
i n vari ous other areas.
A Publi c W orks al lotm ent of $184,200 was made to the B ureau f or
reconditioning the survey fleet. Contracts were aw arded shipyards
under competitive bids f or reconditioning the Explorer , Discoverer,
Surveyor , Pioneer , and Guide in Seattle, and the L ydonia and Ocean­
ographer at N orf olk.
Seven 75-f oot patrol boats w ere transf erred f rom the Coast Guard,
and contracts f or al terati ons to f it them f or survey w ork were
aw arded vari ous shi pyards on the A tl anti c and Gul f coasts.
T he f oll ow ing tabl e shows the w ork done by the D ivision of H y ­
drography and T opography duri ng the year ended June 30, 1934:
H y d ro g rap h y ,

to p o g rap h y ,

an d

c o astal

H y drography
L ocal i ty

Portl and

to

Penobscot

B ay,

B oston and Cape Cod, M ass___
C onnecti cut R i v er to Ri k ers I sl ands, Conn, and N . Y ..............
H em pstead B ay to M ontauk
Poi nt, L ong I sl and, N . Y ____
V i ci ni ty N ew Y ork C i ty , N . Y .
R ari tan R i v er to M anasquan
I nl et, N . J__________________
Chesapeak e B ay , M d ..................
Ocean C i ty to Chincoteague, M d.

Sound­
i ng li nes

A rea

M i l es

Sq. m i .

1,476

97

trian g u latio n

T opography

Soundi ngs Shore
li ne

N u m b er

37,229

M i l es

A rea

L ength
of
scheme

Sq. m i .

M i l es

67

19

90
64

A rea

Geo­
graphi c
posi­
tions

S g . m i . N u m b er

1,112
775

197
88

1,770

101

105, 291

413

142

81

288

414

6,683

343

234,525

297

78

51

212

152

1,173

450
16
65

22
44

110
174

143
135

3
47

5
110

69
106

153
2,868

8
153

6,165
104, 456

50
240

6,836

3,892

72,659

61

167

700

273

15,480

593

557, 621

5,388

2,073

86

167

206

2,373
6,840

231
804

107,436
238, 572

37
5,015

2
2,914

121
333

740
3,560

195
291

6,896
6,390

5,681
555

102,469
189,166

196
552

103
306

94
247

430
1,380

94
177

23,631

13, 298

234,622

508

273

125

555

198

1,416

680

171, 663

162

317

77
1,297

4
140

2,409
37,715

54
222

22
224

163
33

356
33

297
77

2, 273
5,196
6, 111

15, 420
1,590
977

7,104
58, 620
76, 277

20
127
180

18
151
164

37
92
21

120
3,061
48

75
27
43

W i l m i ngton to Sav annah, N . C.,
Charl eston to Fernandi na, S. C.,
Ga., and F l a . . ........... ................
Po r t Ev ergl ades to A l li gator
Reef, F l a.............. ........ ...............
M i ssi ssi ppi D el ta, M iss, and L a..
V ermi l li on B ay to Gal veston
B ay , L a. and T ex .---------------G al v eston to Corpus Chri sti , T ex .
M exi can border to M onterey
B ay , Cali f ...................................
Sacram ento and San Joaqui n,
Calif
H ood Canal and Puget Sound,
W ash .......... ........... ........ ........ Revi ll agigedo Channel , A l ask a.. .
Gul f of A l ask a and A l euti an I sl ands, A l ask a----------------------Pri nce W i l l i am Sound, A l ask a.. .
K odi ak I sl and, A l ask a------------B alabac I sl and, east coast L uzon,
P. I _______________________

Coastal tri angul ati on

60

12, 279

5,187

176,407

115

388

48

423

58

T o tal ............... ...................... 110,045

49, 754

2, 520,406

14,877

7,725

1,969

14,359

3,375

130

REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

I t is noted that over 2,500,000 recorded soundings w ere made
i n hy drographi c surveys, w hereas duri ng a normal year about 700,000 are made. T opographi c and hy drographi c field sheets received
f rom the field were 424, as compared w ith 181 in 1933 and 164 in
1932. Since some addi ti onal f unds were made avai lable in the
previous fiscal year, the comparati vely large number of field sheets
received in 1934 is of surveys made partl y in the f ormer year. T he
increased output f rom recovery f unds w ill be ref lected in the fiscal
year 1935.
T he use of the ai rpl ane and aeri al camera i n topographi c w ork is
being steadil y increased. Base maps of coastal areas are being
made and the topography shown on nauti cal charts is being brought
up to date by thi s method, w hich makes possible surveying eco­
nomical ly the almost impenetrable swamps and i ntri cate w ater­
w ays of our South A tl anti c States, a l arge part of w hich was i m ­
practi cable by the old ground methods. D uri ng thi s fiscal year such
surveys w ere made along the Connecticut coast, the enti re south
shore of L ong I sl and, the outer coasts of M ary l and and V i rgi ni a,
the coasts of N orth and South Caroli na, the Georgia coast, the
M ississippi D elta and w estw ard along the L oui siana coast, the Texas
coast between Galveston and Corpus Chri sti , i n Cal i f orni a f rom
the M exican border to L os A ngeles, and also the deltas of the San
Joaqui n and Sacramento Rivers. I n al l, about 7,000 square miles
were so surveyed duri ng the y ear and the data compiled i nto base
maps.
T he Coast Pi l ot is a publi cati on w hich f urnishes the m ari ner a
w ide v ari ety of i nf orm ati on w hich cannot be shown on the charts,
gi v i ng a complete descri pti on of the coast and w aterw ays and i n­
numerabl e data regardi ng all the ports of the U ni ted States and
possessions. T hey are of inestimabl e value to the nav i gator, especially
to strangers. The 14 Coast Pi l ot volumes are k ept current by an­
nual supplements and revisions, based on field examinations. D ur­
i ng the past year examinations were made of the coasts of Cal i ­
f orni a, Oregon, and W ashington, and f ield exami nati on was made
of the New Jersey i nl and w aterw ays.
A l though the Coast and Geodetic Survey f or adm i ni strati v e pur­
poses is a centrali zed bureau, i n order to keep i n touch w i th the
publi c served and to have more di rect i nf orm ati on as to the chart­
i ng needs and the requi rements f or surveys over the vast area cov­
ered, field stati ons are m ai ntai ned in the' U ni ted States at Seattle,
San Francisco, New Orleans, New Y ork, and Boston. T he 56,000
calls f or i nf orm ati on made on these stations duri ng the y ear are
i ndicati ve of thei r usef ulness to the publ ic in suppl y i ng i nf orm a­
tion, aside f rom thei r necessity in keeping the B ureau inf ormed.
D I V I SI O N

OF

G E O D E SY

The past y ear has been notable f rom the standpoi nt of geodetic
w ork in the field and office. W i th emergency f unds added to the
annual appropri ati on, there were extended in the U ni ted States
8,520 miles of f irst- and second-order tri angul ati on and 44,823 miles
of f irst- and second-order leveling. A l though thi s f ar exceeds the
accomplishments f or any si m i l ar y ear of i ts history, the w ork was
held to the usual hi gh standard of accuracy.

COA ST A N D GEOD ETIC SU RV EY

131

T here has been a decided increase i n the i nterest shown by F ed­
eral and State officials in the control surveys. Such surveys are
indispensable f or any comprehensive long-range pl anni ng of public
w orks, as a means of conservi ng and developi ng natural resources
by efficient and economical methods.
T he increased appl i cati on of hi gh-grade control surveys to nearly
al l engineeri ng operati ons and to many scientif ic problems is grati f y ­
ing. I t is recognized th at they are essential f or the completion of
the topographi c map of the U ni ted States and f or all large-scal e
surveying projects; the results of these surveys^ are of the utm ost
value in i rri gati on, drainage, flood control, highw ay, and other
engineering problems, and i n the establishment and perpetuati on
of State, county, city, and pri v ate property boundari es ; i n the deter­
minati on of the size and shape of the earth; i n f urni shi ng know l­
edge of the densi ty of the earth’s crust, _usef ul in the search f or
oil -beari ng strata and bodies of ore; and i n determi ni ng the ex tent
of the hori zontal and v erti cal movements of the earth’s crust in
regi ons subject to earthquakes.
Control surveys consist of determi ni ng the l ati tudes and l ongi­
tudes of monumented stations and the distances and directions be­
tw een them, and of the accurate determinati on of the elevations of
bench marks. T hey make i t possible f or vari ous and w i dely sep­
arated surveys to have perf ect juncti on w hen the projects meet.
A n outstandi ng piece of f ieldw ork duri ng the y ear w as the com­
pleti on of f i rst-order tri angul ati on f rom St. A ugustine to M iami and
f rom N aples to Por t I ngl i s, Fl a., and f rom Po r t St. Joe, Fl a., to
M obile, A la. T hese arcs -were among the long-delayed needs f or
coordi nati ng a l arge number of less accurate surveys of various_ dates
and extent, required immediately f or charti ng purposes. Si m i l ar
arcs of less ex tent were completed along the D el aw are Riv er and B ay
and along the low er M i ssi ssi ppi Riv er f rom New Orl eans to B uras,
and f rom the ri v er w estw ard to T hi bodaux, L a. A nother i m portant
arc w as extended f rom Pi ttsburgh, Pa., w estw ard to the M ississippi
River.
A t the request of the Tennessee V alley A uthori ty , both tri angul a­
ti on and level ing w ere extended in the Tennessee Ri v er B asin, w i th
the tri angul ati on more than hal f completed and the level ing being
practi cal l y completed to the 25-mile i nterv al s by the end of the year.
A ddi ti onal tri angul ati on w as extended in the vicinity of New Y ork
City f or the complete coordinati on of a number of dif f erent proj ects.
T he arc f rom N ew port B each to San B ernardi no, Cal if ., w as en­
ti rel y reobserved f or the purpose of mak ing studi es of any hori zontal
movements in the earth’s crust as the resul t of the L ong B each earth­
quake of 1933. T hi s w ork was done ori gi nal l y i n 1928 as part of the
program of ex tendi ng tri angul ati on into regions of seismic acti vity.
Fi rst-order level ing was also extended in the San Jose, Cal if ., area
at the request of engineers and scientists, to study the effect of recent
settlement of the earth’s crust i n that region.
T he B ureau has cooperated w i th numerous Federal and pri v ate
organizati ons in the extension of control w ork in many areas duri ng
the past year. T here was the usual cooperation w i th the U ni ted
States Geological Survey in the extension of arcs of tri angul ati on
and lines of level ing to meet i ts needs f or control in areas i n w hich

EEPOET OF T H E SECEET A EY OF COM M EECE

132

topography is being executed. Stati ons and lookout tow ers of the
U ni ted States Forestry Service i n Oregon, Texas, and New M exico,
w ere also determi ned.
T he State of N orth Carol i na contributed $27,500 tow ard a 2-year
program f or pri ori ty in the extension of tri angul ati on and level ing
to the 50-mile spacing w i thi n th at State. T hi s w ork was completed
w i th the exception of the publi cati on of the resul ts, now i n process.
Fi rst- and second-order tri angul ati on, base-line measurements, re­
connaissance, and level ing acti viti es, together w i th grav i ty observa­
tions, w ere carri ed on in vari ous other areas. T he f oll ow ing state­
m ent itemizes the w ork done by the D ivision of Geodesy duri ng the
y ear ended June 30, 1934 :
G eo d etic

trian g u latio n ,

h ase

l i n es,

rec o n n ai ssan c e,

lev elin g ,

an d

g rav ity

o b serv atio n s

L ength of
scheme

L ocal i ty

A rea

Ogal lala to

Sharon

Spri ngs,

Russel l Spri ngs to Perry ton,
I ny ok ern to San B ernardi no,
Calif _________ ____ ________
T onapah to L as V egas, N ev ...
V i ci ni ty N ew Y ork C i ty , N . Y .
and-N . J _________ _____ ____
Chesapeake B ay , M d .................
H erm ann to L onoke, M o. and
A r k _______ ____ ____ _____
C harl otte to A ugusta, N . C.,
S. C., and Ga............ ......... .
L ouisvi l l e to N ashv i l le, K y .
and T enn............ ......................
N ashv i l l e to Cori nth, T enn.
and M i ss............. .....................
N ew berry to Georgetow n, S. C._
D unnel l on to N apl es, F l a_____
L as Cruces to Belén, Ñ . M ex ___
L as V egas to N i l and, N ev . and
Cal i f ...........................................
L angtry to H ot W el ls, T ex ........
H ot W el ls to E l Paso, T ex ____
L ordsburg to G rand Juncti on,
N . M ex., A riz., U tah, and
Colo______________ ______
St. A ugusti ne to M i am i , F l a__
Crow l ey to Ruston, L a_______
M cI nty r e to M obi l e, Fl a. and
A l a.................. ............. ..............

Length of Area
scheme

T R I A N GU L A T I O N , FI R ST OR D ER—
c o n ti n u ed

TRIANGULATION, FIRST ORDER

M oy ock to W el don to K i nston,
N . 0 . and V a_____________
W ashi ngton to Pam l i co Sound,
N . C _______________ _____
N ew port to Core Sound, N . C__.
A shev il le to M ur phy , N . C ___
D el aw are R i v er, Ñ . j ., Pa., and
D el ....... ...................................
L aram i e to Pocatel l o, W yo. and
I daho..................... ........ ............
U ni ontow n to W el l sboro, P a . . .
N ew port B each northeastw ard
(reobserv ati ons), Cali f ______
B ri stol to Charl eston, T enn.,
V a., K y ., and W . V a...............
K l am ath Fal l s to B end, Oreg—
Pri nev i l l e to B urns, Oreg...........
W ashi ngton to Freel and, D . C.
and M d .................. ..................
W ashi ngton to Greenvi ll e, Pa.,
W . V a., and Ohi o.....................
M ur do to N o r th Pl atte, S.D ak .

Locality

M iles

180

Sq

. m i.

1,620

85
25
80

1,360
215
1,800

100

1,200

390
185

12 870
2,220

45

720

130
125
100

Niland to Calexico to Yuma,
Calif, and A riz____ ___ _
Hot Wells to Santa Rosa, Tex.
and N . Mex........................
Union City to Quincy, Ind. and

111............. ...................................

Sq . m i .
M i l es

130

1,950

265

3,710

295
45

2,850
400

270

2,970

3.120
3, 375
2,600

Havana to Jacksonville, 111........
Hartshorne to Lawrence, Okla,
and Kans.......... ..................
Topeka to Nebraska City,
Kans. and N ebr........... .......
James River to Washington,
Va., M d., and D . C.............
Johannesburg to Bishop (Owens
Valley), Calif....... ...............
Hanna to Rosebud, Wyo. and
M ont.................... .............

285

4,845

95

850

Total.............................

7,440

127,750

255

3,060

TR I A N GU L A T I O N , SECON D ORD ER

185

2,960

3,650

1,950

Winchester to Lynchburg, V a...
Smithville to Huntsville, Tenn.

215

150

95

1,045

165

1,980

140
240

2,380
4,080

30
40

150
400

245

2,940

130

1,300

175

1,925

140
145
205
180

1, 540
1,450
2, 460
5,400

160
305

110

2,560
3,050
2,460

540
320
160

26,400
2,560
1,440

235

2,115

New Orleans to Buras to Houma, L a...............................
Lebanon to Florence, Tenn. and
Ala......... .......... .
LaFayette to Bristol, Ga. and
Tenn___ ____ ____ ____
Boone to Bluefield, N. C.,
Tenn., Va., and W. V a.........
Clarksville to Corinth, Tenn.
and M iss............................
Saulsbury to Süerton, Tenu......
Total......... .......... ........

110

1,100

135

1,215

110

2,200

115

690

130

1,430

245

2,940

95

950

160
25

1,280
200

1,080

12,185

B A SE L I N E , FI RST ORD ER

Lewellen, Nebr_______ ___ _

6.8

B A SE L I N E , SECON D ORD ER

Oceanside, Calif......................

2.8

RECON N A I SSA N CE, FI RST ORD ER
TRI A N GU L A TI ON

Newark to Quincy, Ohio, Ind.,
and 111.............................. I .
Washington to Freeland, D . C.
and M d..............................

425

4,410

95

850

COA ST A ND GEOD ETIC SURV EY
_

G eo d etic

trian g u latio n ,

b ase

l i n es,

rec o n n ai ssan c e,

133

lev elin g ,

an d

g rav ity *

o b s e r v a t i o n s — C on t i n u ed

L ocal i ty

L ength of
scheme

A rea

t r i a n g u l a t i o n —conti nued

L ocal i ty

LEVELING

M i l es

160
55

Sq. m i .

2,720
600

185

2,960

30
100

150
2,600

430
160
190
160

5,170
4,320
3,700
1,440

255
125

4,335
1,250

360
140

3,860
1,400

140

2,380

400
55

6,640
500

120

1,200

130
145
305
110

1,300
1,450
3,050
2,460

265

3,710

375

6,630

320

2,560

120

1, 200

270

2,970

170
50

1,700
600

F i rst
order

Second
order

M i l es

M i l es

D es M oi nes to A ntoni to,
N . M ex. and Colo_____ ____
G rand C any on to B oul der,
A ri z., and U tah ........ ...............
Cri sf ield to E l k ton, M d . . . ........
A shl and to Ophei m , M o n t____
A l m a to M cA l l i ster, W i s_____
B l ai r to Sioux C i ty to A dri an,
N ebr., I ow a, and M i n n _____
T ow anda to Owego, Pa. and
N . Y _____________________
N ew Freedom to L ebanon, P a„

A rea

M i l es

Sq. m i.

T otal __________

210
290
170
1,070
700
660
70

1,410
500
230
30
1,430
1,580
830
1,390
290
190
680
40
310
940
1,230
960
260
180
345

150

2,730

135
190
220
220

3,375
1,520
3, 300
2, 640

140

1,540

20
50
----- 1------6,970
_____

200
500
93,920

RECONNAISSANCE, S E C O N D
ORDER TRIANGULATION
C hri sti ansburg to B eatty v i l l e,
V a., W . V a., and K y____........
Penni ngton G ap to H unti ngton, V a., K y ., and W . V a___
W i nchester to L y nchburg, V a._
Sm i th v i l l e to H untsv i l l e, T enn.
and A l a . . ................................
Fl orence to L ebanon, A la. and
T enn ...........................................
Cl ark sv i l l e to C ori nth, T enn.
and M i ss...............................
N ew Orl eans to B uras to
H oum a, L a..............................
Saul sbury to Pri nceton, T enn.
and K y .......................................
Paducah to M arti n, K y . and
T enn..........................................
U ni on C i ty to L a Fay ette,
T enn. and G a__................ .......
L a F ay ette to B ri stol , Ga. and
T enn ............................. .............
B oone to B l uef i el d, N . C.,
T enn., V a., and W . V a...........
T otal ....................................

L ocal i ty

l ev el in g

160
570
25
710
580
730
250
890
360
970
50
250
18
20

N ew H am pshi re.......................

L ength of
schem e

RECONNAISSANCE, FIRST ORDER
TRIANGULACION—conti nued

RECON N A I SSA N CE, FI RST ORD ER

H ar di n to M i ssouri Ri v er,
M o n t..........................................
B rook sv i l l e to L ex i ngton, K y __ _
M urdo to N or th Pl atte, S. D .
and N ebr .............. . ...................
V i ci ni ty N ew Y ork C i ty , N . Y .
and N . J.....................................
Pri nev i l l e to B urns, O r eg..........
H erm ann to M onroe, M o., A rk .,
and L a----------------------------117th M eri di an, N e v . . ...............
Ow ens V al l ey, Cali f ....................
R uston to Crow l ey, L a...............
A shl and to H anna, M ont, and
W y o............................................
H av ana to Bellevi ll e, 111..............
W y k of f to H erm ann, M i nn.,
I ow a, and M o _____________
C hesapeak e B ay , M d ..................
I ny ok ern to San B ernardi no,
Cal i f ........................ - .................
T onopah to N i l and, N ev . and
Cali f ...........................................
N i l and to Calexico, C al i f ............
San D iego to Y um a, Calif , and
A ri z.................... .......................
C harl otte to A ugusta, N . C.,
S. C., and Q a--------------------N ew berry to Georgetow n, S. C._
L angtry to H ot W el ls, T ex ........
H ot W el l s to E l Paso, T ex -----H ot W el l s to Santa Rosa, T ex.
and N . M ex ........... ...................
Col orado R i v er, A ri z., Calif .,
and N ev .....................................
St. A ugusti ne to M i am i , Fl a.
(r ev i si o n ).,.................................
C atesby to A nthony , Okl a.
and K ans_________ _______
H artshorne to L aw rence, Okl a.
and K ans....................................
T opek a to B l ai r, K ans. and
N eb r ...........................................
Potom ac R i v er, M d. and V a._ .

L ocal i ty

—c o n ti n u ed

N ew Jei sey ....... .
N ew M exico___
N ew Y ork ......... .
N or th C arol i naN or th D ak ota- ..
Ohio.....................
O k l ahom a...........
Oregon................
Pennsy l v ani a—
South C arol i na..
South D ak ota. . .
T ennessee...........
T ex as...................
U t ah ....................
V erm ont______
V i rgi ni a..............
W ashi ngton.......
W est V i r gi ni a-..
W i sconsi n...........
W y om i ng...........
T o tal -

200

2,700

140
215

1,960
3,650

95

1,045

130

1,430

160

1,280

115

690

155

1,550

50

450

240

2,400

245

2,940

95

950

1,840

21,045

F i rst
order

Second
order

M i l es

M i l es

40
820
270
70
410
90
780
60
140

1,050

120

890
660

30
600
290

110

80
270
520
610
1,740
1,750
135

805
660
1,440
3,730
1,150
15
1,180
480
820

970

460

16,153

28,670

134

REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

G eo d etic

trian g u latio n ,

b ase

l i n es,

rec o n n ai ssan c e,

lev elin g ,

an d

g rav ity

o b s e r v a t i o n s — C on t i n u ed

A cti v i ty

Stati ons

M i l es

A cti v i ty

SU M M A R Y

su m m a r y

T ri angul ati on:
F i rst o r d e r ___ ________
Second order___________
B ase line:
F i rst order.......... .............
Second order___________
Reconnaissance:
F i rst order tr i angul ati on..
Second order tri angul ati on

7,440
1,080

Stati ons

M i l es

—conti nued

L eveling:
G rav i ty observ ati ons 1.............

6 .8
2 .8

118
118

16,153
28,670
62,162.6

6,970
1,840

> G r av i ty observ ati ons w ere m ade i n Colorado, C onnecti cut, Fl ori da, K ansas, M ontana, N ebrask a.
Ohio, T ex as, W y om i ng, and H aw ai i .

Spl endi d progress was made in the office computati on and adj ust­
ment of the resul ts obtained f rom field observations. T he computa­
ti on and adj ustm ent of 21 arcs of f i rst-order and 38 arcs of secondand thi rd-order tri angul ati on were completed, w i th computations of
17 arcs of f i rst-order and 14 arcs of second- and thi rd-order tri angu­
l ati on in progress.
Computati ons and adjustments of the level ing results were k ept as
current as possible, consi deri ng the great mass of field data received.
I nf orm ati on concerning descripti ons and elevations of bench marks
f or 153 lines of levels were di stri buted to engineers and surveyors in
the areas covered and manuscri pts prepared f or 6 tri angul ati on and 5
level ing publ ications. T he geographic posi tions of 30,000 tri angul a­
ti on stati ons were prepared f or ready di stri buti on. M anuscri pt f or
the publi cati on T ri angul ati on A long the M i ssi ssi ppi Ri v er f rom
Cai ro, 111., to H eadw aters, M inn., -was sent to the Chief of E ngi ­
neers, U ni ted States A rmy. Prepared by personnel detai led to the
W ashi ngton office by the Chief of Engi neers, i t covers data f or 2,900
tri angul ati on and trav erse points.
D I V I SI O N

OE

T IDES

A N D

CURRENT S

D uri ng the past y ear there has been an increase in accomplishments
i n every field of acti v i ty covered by the D ivision of T ides and C ur­
rents, made possible by the al lotm ent of recovery f unds in addition
to the regul ar appropri ati on.
D uri ng the year, 32 pri m ary ti de stations w ere in operati on : 18 on
the A tl anti c coast, 4 on the Gul f coast, 7 on the Pacif ic coast, 2 in
A laska, and 1 in the H aw ai i an I sl ands. Twelve of these stations
w ere conducted on a cooperative basis, to reduce operati ng costs, w ith
the aid of the f oll ow ing agencies : T he A rmy Engi neers at Southport,
N. C., M iami B each and M ayport, Fl a., arid M obile, A l a.; the N avy
D epartm ent at N ew port, R. I ., A nnapoli s, M d., Portsm outh, N. H .,
H am pton Roads, V a., and San Diego, Cal if .; the W oods H ole Ocean­
ographic I nsti tute at W oods H ol e, M ass.; the H arbor D epartm ent
at L os A ngeles, Cal if . ; and the Surveyor of the T erri tory of H aw ai i
at H onolulu.
A number of secondary stati ons were operated f or periods of a
month or more to solve special problems and to secure f ul l er know l­

COA ST A ND GEODETI C SU RV EY

135

edge of ti des al ong the coasts. D uri ng the year, 58 such stati ons
were occupied, cooperative stations being operated by the A rm y
Engi neers at F or t W orden, W ash., the U ni v ersi ty of W ashi ngton at
Fri day H arbor, W ash., the Bi ological Besearch B ureau at B ermuda,
the W ashi ngton Suburban Sani tary D i stri ct at B ladensburg, M d.,
and the Cal i f orni a State authori ti es at Santa M onica, Cal if .
I n addi ti on to the f ieldw ork f al l i ng di rectl y w i thi n the purview of
thi s D ivi si on, ti de observations made by the D ivision of H y drography
and T opography are tabul ated and reduced in thi s D ivision. The
expanded program of hy drographi c w ork has brought about heavy
increases in the office w ork, as observations at approxim ately 375 ti de
stations made in connection w i th the y ear’s hy drographi c surveys
were tabul ated and reduced in the D i vi si on, and the datum planes
derived and rel ated to local bench marks. A s i l l ustrati ng the D i v i ­
sion’s expanded acti vities, 433 secondary ti de stations were occupied,
compared w i th 281 duri ng the year previous.
From the various ti de data received the Survey issues in advance
y earl y ti de tables, f or in modern commerce, w i th i ts deep:d r af t ves­
sels moving on exacting schedules, i t is a prim e necessity to know the
times and heights of the hi gh and low w aters. Commencing w i th the
calendar year 1934 the three volumes of ti de tables were consolidated
i nto tw o under the ti tl es T i de Tables, A tl anti c Ocean, and T i de
Tables, Pacif ic Ocean and I ndi an Ocean. T hey give dai l y predi c­
ti ons of the hi gh and low w aters f or 97 of the more i m portant ports
and harbors of the w orld, and carry data w hich perm i t predicti ons at
some 3,900 secondary stations. A lthough there has been a constant
grow th in the i nf orm ati on f urni shed by these tables, due to demands
of the N avy and m erchant mari ne, i t has been possible to supply the
added i nf orm ati on w i th but l i ttl e addi ti onal w ork by the organi za­
ti on of i nternati onal exchanges of predictions. A t the present time
predicti ons are exchanged as f ollows: Engl and, 21 stati ons; Ger­
many, 6 stati ons; France, 4 stations; Canada, 5 stati ons; and I ndi a,
5 stations.
A nother field acti v ity of the D ivi si on relates to special ti dal sur­
veys. V ari ous sections of our coasts have been lacki ng precise ti dal
i nf orm ati on w hich i n the m aj ori ty of cases is deri ved as a by product
of hy drographi c surveys. To remedy thi s si tuati on in the interests
of nav i gati on and engineering, special ti dal surveys are conducted.
T hi s ty pe of survey is a relati vely recent development, necessitating
a coordinated pl an of operations to make possible the determinati on
of mean values f rom rel ati v el y short periods of observations. D uri ng
the y ear such a survey was completed f or the coast of Oregon and f or
the Gul f coast of Fl ori da.
A nnual current tables are issued as nav i gati onal aids, giv i ng i n­
f orm ati on w i th regard to the times and velocities of the ti dal cur­
rents. T hey give dai l y predicti ons of the current f or 23 of the more
i m portant N orth A meri can w aterw ays and f or one in the Phi l i ppi ne
I sl ands, and f urni sh data w hich perm i t predicti ons to be made f or
1,300 other stations.
I n regard to currents, the pri m ary field acti vity consists of surveys
of i m portant harbors and w aterw ays to bri ng out in detai l the f ea­
tures of the current movement, a m atter of prim e importance to nav i ­
gati on and harbor engi neering. T he specialized technique developed

136

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

has made the survey the recognized authori ty in thi s m atter and
requests f or such surveys are received constantl y. D uri ng the year
the w aterw ays of the St. Johns and Sav annah Rivers were covered
by such surveys. V aluable cooperation was rendered by the A rmy
engineers of the Sav annah and Jacksonv i l l e di stri cts, the l atter office
l oaning the tugboat Fulton f or thi s w ork.
Requests were received duri ng the y ear f rom vari ous scientif ic and
research organizati ons and expedi ti ons f or the loan of ti dal i nstru­
ments. T he L ouise A . B oyd expedition to Greenl and was supplied
w ith gages, the records f rom w hich have been received and tabul ated,
and the B y rd second A ntarcti c expedition was f urni shed w i th a port­
able ti de gage and deep-sea thermometers f or observations at L i ttl e
A merica.
D I V I SI O N

OP

T E R R E ST R I A L

M A G N E T I SM

A N D

SE I SM O L O G Y

A side f rom expenditures under the regul ar appropri ati on and that
f or the I nternati onal Pol ar Y ear, Publ i c W orks f unds perm i tted
addi ti onal needed magnetic and seismological observations, im por­
tant repai rs to buil dings and the i nstal l ati on and operati on of addi ­
ti onal strong-moti on seismographs.
T he extension of the strong-moti on program has had an i m portant
beari ng on all Publ i c W orks projects i n Cal if ornia. T hi s program
involved the construction of buil dings, bridges, dams, and other
structures, in the desi gn of w hich resi stance to earthquakes is now a
recognized f actor.
A ctive cooperation w i th State civil w orks organizati ons has re­
sulted in securi ng reports on the present conditi on of some 400 mag­
netic stations and decl i nati on observations, w i th compass decli­
nometer observations at some old stations.
T E R R E ST R I A L M A G N E T I SM

T he earth’s magneti sm continuousl y changes i n a complicated m an­
ner, so th at the f uture cannot be predicted f rom the past. Observa­
ti ons i n the U ni ted States are made at 5-year i nterv al s at about 175
places f or i nf orm ati on regardi ng these changes and i n thi s way i t
becomes possible to keep current the observations made at some
6,000 places.
T he poi nts w here these observations w ere made, i ncl udi ng the
determinati on of the true directi on of one or more objects f rom the
poi nt of observation, are know n as “ magneti c stati ons ” and are
usuall y mark ed in some perm anent manner, as w i th a concrete monu­
ment. M agneti c stations w here observations are made at regul ar
i nterv al s to determine changes are know n as “ repeat stati ons.” Ob­
servati ons w ere made duri ng the y ear chiefly at repeat stations in
the extreme southern and w estern ti ers of States. T here has been a
conti nuati on of the policy of using tri angul ati on stations as magnetic
stati ons, thus substi tuti ng stations i n the open country f or those here­
tof ore established in cities and tow ns w hich are subject to many
di sturbi ng and destructi ve f orces.
Observations of decli nati on were continued along the coasts to
assure proper values on nauti cal charts and, especially in A laska, to
define areas w here the magnetic compass is affected by magnetic

COA ST A N D GEOD ETIC SU BV EY

137

deposits. I n a number of cases old stations have been replaced to
meet the needs of local surveyors.
M agnetic observations were carri ed on in the f oll ow ing States
duri ng the fiscal y ear ended June 30, 1934:

State

Com pl ete
observ ati ons Obser­
v a­
at repeat
ti ons
stati ons
f or dec­
l i na­
ti on
Old A dded
2
3
9
3
1
1
1
5
1
2
1

N ew H am pshi re-----

2
1

3

23
3
45
4
3

2
1

2
2

T otal

25
6
57
7
1
4
1
7
1
5
1
4
4
1

State

N ew Y ork --------- . .
Phi l i ppi ne I sl an d s...
Puerto R i c o ............
South D ak ota_____

Com pl ete
observ ati ons Obser­
v a­
at repeat
ti ons T otal
stati ons
f or dec­
l i na­
ti on
Old A dded
1
3

2
1

4

1
2

3
6
2
12
15
1
2
3
3
8
4

13

118

183

1
1
2
1
3
3
2
52

2
2
11
15
2

T he five magnetic observatories continued thei r f uncti on of record­
i ng the day-by-day changes in the earth’s magnetism, those at San
Juan, Puerto Rico ; Si tk a, A laska ; and H onolulu, H aw ai i , carry i ng
on thi s w ork as thei r pri nci pal f unction. T he Cheltenham, M d., sta­
ti on also carri ed on a standardi zati on and comparison of field i nstru­
ments, and at Tucson, A riz., measurements w ere made of atmos­
pheric electri city and earth currents, rel ated to magnetism and to
tel egraph and cable transmissi on, w i th the cooperation of the Car­
negie I nsti tuti on of W ashi ngton and the M ountai n States T elegraph
& T elephone Co.
T he v ari ati on bui l di ng at Cheltenham was saved by replacing the
f oundati on and tak i ng special anti term i te precautions. T he mai nte­
nance of routi ne observations duri ng the period of bui l di ng repai rs
was made possible through the cooperation of the departm ent of ter­
restri al magnetism of the Carnegi e I nsti tuti on of W ashington. A L a
Cour m agnetograph was loaned and instal l ed in the compari son and
test bui l di ng, prov i di ng a continuous record duri ng the ti me w hen
the other i nstrum ents w ere too disturbed to give a sati sf actory
record.
T he Second Pol ar Y ear of scientif ic observations i n the polar
regions and elsew here throughout the earth was successful, and was
brought to a close at the ti me scheduled f or the northern hemisphere
on A ugust 31, 1933. T hi s appl i ed to most of the activiti es of the
Coll ege-Fairbanks station, w here many cooperative efforts were car­
ri ed on w i th thi s B ureau in adm i ni strati v e charge. T he w ork i n­
cl uded measurements in terrestri al magnetism, atmospheri c elec­
tri ci ty , earth currents, aurora, radi o transmissi on, and rel ated fields,
carri ed on by the cooperation of the N av al Research L aboratory,
Si gnal Corps', Rockef eller Foundati on, Carnegi e I nsti tuti on of W ash­
ington, and A laska A gri cul tural College and School of M ines. I n
addi ti on, a broad program of meteorological i nv estigati on was car­

138

REPORT OF TTI R SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

ried on by the W eather B ureau. W i th the close of the regul ar period,
observations in terrestri al magnetism and in earth currents were con­
ti nued unti l M arch 31, 1934, by the B ureau at the request of the
I nternati onal Pol ar Y ear Commission. A uroral w ork and radi o
i nv estigati on also conti nued under other auspices.
T here is an i ncreasing demand f or and dependence upon the
B ureau’s accumulated i nf orm ati on regardi ng the change of the mag­
neti c decli nation w i th lapse of ti me in retraci ng lines of old magnetic
surveys, in some cases as much as 200 years ago.
Current magnetic observatory records are used in connection w ith
the exami nation of geological f ormati ons by magneti c methods in the
search f or oil and minerals. T hey are also i n demand by Federal
and commercial agencies study i ng the rel ati on of magnetism to radio
transmission difficulties. M agnetic i nf orm ati on f or the dai l y broad­
cast of phenomena af f ecting radi o transmissi on, carri ed on at the re­
quest of the I nternati onal Scientific Radi o U nion, w as f urni shed f rom
Tucson unti l D ecember 31, 1933, and thereaf ter f rom Chel tenham.
SE I SM O L O G Y

T he trend of the B ureau’s earthquak e investigati ons was directed
tow ard obtaining i nf orm ati on necessary f or the saving of li f e and
property f rom earthquake damage. W hil e thi s has many aspects,
stress was l ai d on f undam ental measurements needed by engineers
and architects f or the saf e design of buil dings and other structures.
T he w ork is all i nterrel ated and coordinated w i th th at of other or­
ganizati ons to f orm an effective attack on earthquak e problems.
T he w ork includes the immediate location of every m aj or earth­
quake, no m atter w here i t may occur; the collection of i nstrum ental
and noni nstrum ental i nf orm ati on regardi ng all earthquakes i n or
near the U ni ted States or the regions under i ts juri sdi cti on; the
measurement of strong earth motions, especially in Cal i f orni a; and
the i nvestigati on, j ust started at the close of the fiscal year, of bui l d­
ing vibrati ons and other f actors rel ati ng to resistance of buil dings
and other structures to earthquake stresses.
T hrough cooperati on of many seismological stati ons, the Jesui t
Seismological A ssociation, and Science News Service of W ashington,
D . C., prom pt determinati on of earthquake location is made. Forty tw o epicenters were located duri ng the year. I nf orm ati on regard­
i ng all earthquakes occurring i n or near the U ni ted States or the
regions under i ts j uri sdi cti on w as obtai ned by i nstrum ental and non­
i nstrum ental means. I nstrum ental i nf orm ati on comes f rom the seis­
mological stati ons of the Survey at San Juan, Puerto Rico; Tucson,
A ri z. ; U k i ah, Cal if . ; and Si tk a, A laska ; f rom the cooperatively oper­
ated stations at Columbia, S. C. ; Chicago, 111. ; Bozeman, M ont., and
H onolulu, H aw ai i , and reports f rom a number of other stations.
N oninstrumental i nf orm ati on is obtai ned f rom the reports of many
volunteer observers and through questi onnaires di stri buted immedi­
atel y af ter an earthquake. I n the case of Paci f ic Coast States, the
w ork is di vided between the San Francisco field stati on and the
W ashi ngton office. T he i nf orm ati on is published annual ly.
A ddi ti onal strong-moti on instal l ati ons w ere made of 11 i nstru­
m ents at 10 places, bri ngi ng the total to 42 in 33 cities. T en addi ­

COA ST A N D GEOD ETIC SU RV EY

139

ti onal instruments w ere constructed i ncorporati ng improvements
added to previous i nstall ations.
T w enty-tw o records were obtained f or six earthquakes. These
were caref ul l y analyzed, in a manner w hich obtained al l possible
i nf orm ati on f rom them. Some of these instruments were placed at
top and bottom of buil dings, thereby i ntroduci ng a problem w hich
required addi ti onal w ork f or solution.
A ccordi ngly, tow ard the close of the year a program was i naugu­
rated as a result of an all otm ent of Publ i c W orks f unds requested by
Cal i f orni a scientists, engineers, and archi tects. T hi s incl uded meas­
urement of vibrati ons of buil dings and other structures and of the
ground, as well as the collection of other inf orm ati on, all i ntended to
make the program more definitely applicable to securing i nf orm a­
ti on needed f or better design. A n i nstrum ent convenient f or m aking
bui l di ng v i brati on records was designed and by the close of the year
observations had been made in hi gh buil di ngs, on tal l tanks, dams,
and bridges.
I n addi ti on to publi cati on of the results of these investigati ons to
date, there were issued li sts of the pri nci pal earthquake epicenters
of the w orl d f or a 30-year peri od, and a l i st of destructi ve and near­
destructi ve Cal i f orni a earthquakes. I nv esti gati ons of ti dal waves
were also made.
B y means of a shaking table at the B ureau of Standards and by
cooperative acti on of the two B ureaus, valuable tests w ere made of
the characteri sti cs of several types of seismometers in regul ar use.
T i l tm eters i nstall ed duri ng the previous y ear were k ept in opera­
ti on at the U ni v ersi ty of Cal i f orni a at Berkeley, through the coopera­
tion of that i nsti tuti on, f or the purpose of determi ni ng possible ti l ti ng
of the surf ace stratum ; i nf orm ati on w hich m i ght give indicati on of
an im pending earthquake.

BU REA U

OF N A V IG A T IO N A N D
I N SP E C T I O N

A M ER IC A N

SH I P P I N G

ON

JU N E

ST E A M B O A T

30,

1934

On June 30, 1934, the m erchant m ari ne of the U ni ted States, i n­
cluding al l kinds of documented craf t, comprised 24,904 vessels of
14,861,834 gross tons, as compared w i th 24,868 vessels of 15,060,157
gross tons on June 30, 1933. On June 30, 1934, of thi s total , there
were 3,842 vessels of 4,606,623 gross tons engaged i n the f oreign trade,
as compared w i th 3,902 vessels of 4,710,169 gross tons on June 30,
1933. Foll ow i ng is an analysis of the ow nership of documented
tonnage compared w i th a y ear ago:
T otal

W ood

Steel
Ow nershi p and date

N um ­
ber

Gross ton­
nage

N um ­
ber

Pri v ate ow nershi p (5 net tons and o v er ):
Ju l y 1, 1933...............................................
Ju l y 1, 1934 ______________ ____ ___
U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard Bureau:

4,741
4,785

11,581,188
11,477,453

19,923
19,921

204
198

1,154,956
1,123, 794

T otal , 1933............................................
T otal j 1934_____________________

4,945
4,983

12,736,144
12,601,247

19,923
19,921

Gross ton­
nage

2,324,013
2,260,587

2,324,013
2,260,587

N um ­
ber

Gross ton­
nage

24,664
24,706

13,905,201
13,738,040

204
198

1,154,956
1,123,794

24,868
24,904

15,060,157
14,861,834

Of these totals, 3,842 vessels of 4,606,623 gross tons were engaged
i n the f orei gn trade and 21,062 vessels of 10,255,211 gross tons in
the coasting trade.
Si nce June 1, 1921, w hen our tonnage in the f oreign trade reached
i ts greatest volume, 11,077,398 gross tons, there has been a gradual
decline, unti l June 30, 1934, i t amounted to only 4,606,623 gross,
tons, a f al l i ng off of 6,470,775 gross tons. T he decrease i n the for-;
eign trade tonnage is due pri nci pal l y to the scrappi ng of l arge ves­
sels w hi ch belonged to the Shi ppi ng B oard and to changes f rom
f orei gn to coasti ng trade because of greater opportuni ti es i n that
service.
Since June 1, 1921, the coasting trade tonnage, exclusive of the
trade on the G reat L akes, has increased 3,870,992 gross tons.
D uri ng the year, 724 vessels of 66,649 gross tons were bui l t and
documented, and on Ju l y 1, 1934, there w ere bui l di ng or under
contract to bui l d in our shi py ards f or pri v ate shi pow ners 53 ves­
sels of 38,102 gross tons. T he correspondi ng f igures f or 1933 were
642 vessels of 190,803 gross tons bui l t and 60 vessels of 34,846 gross
tons under contract to build.
T he new tonnage includes 5 steel steamers of 14,044 gross tons,
of w hich 2 are engaged in the f rei ght service, 2 i n dredging, and 1
as a f erry . These f igures include only steel steam vessels of 1,000
gross tons and over.
98223— 34-

-12

141

142

REPOET OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

On June 30, 1934, the l ai d-up tonnage of the U ni ted States aggre­
gated 2,551 vessels of 3,125,138 gross tons, as against 2,655 vessels
of 4,146,539 gross tons on June 30, 1933.
D etail s of the w orl d’s l aid-up tonnage, classif ication of A meri can
vessels by size, service, and pow er, and of vessels launched and
under constructi on may be f ound in M erchant M arine Stati sti cs f or
1934, a publi cati on prepared by thi s office.
SA F E T Y

OP L IFE

AT

SE A

T he necessity f or addi ti onal legislati on af f ecting saf ety of li f e
and property at sea is becoming more apparent as loss of l i f e and
damage to ships demonstrate that a closer supervision of the traffic
out of our ports to the sea is essential.
A recommendation is renew ed th at there be urged the earl y r ati ­
f ication of the I nternati onal Convention on Saf ety of L i f e at Sea,
signed i n L ondon M ay 31, 1929, and already rati f i ed by all of the
pri nci pal m ari ti m e nati ons of the w orld, the U ni ted States bei ng
the outstandi ng exception. T hi s Convention extends to the most
advanced construction of the hull , protecti on agai nst fire, and l i f e­
saving equipment. T he U ni ted States was l argel y i nstrum ental in
the f ram i ng of the Conventi on under the advice of its leadi ng mari ne
and Government experts, technical assistants, owners, operators, and
bui l ders of ships. I ts provisions consti tute a mark ed advance i n re­
ducing the hazard of ocean transportati on.
T he inadequacy of our law s i n regard to the inspection of vessels
dri ven by internal-combusti on engines requires attenti on. The
steamboat inspection law s w ere passed l ong bef ore internal-combus­
ti on engines were i n use and were specifically made applicable to
steam, sail , and unri gged vessels. L i ttl e j uri sdi cti on over i nternal combustion-engine vessels now exists, and i t is doubtf ul i f , under the
law, the B ureau could require a single li f eboat on such a vessel.
T he use of D iesel engines on l arge sea-going ships is increasing. T he
need of l egislati on adequately covering thei r inspection and equip­
m ent is so obvious that the m atter should be given consideration in
any recommendations made to Congress at the coming session. I n
the consi deration of such l egislati on i t should be borne i n mi nd that
there are in the U ni ted States approx i m atel y 500,000 smal l vessels
operati ng on shel tered w aters w here perhaps a detai led inspection
w ould not be necessary. For thi s reason, i t possibly m i ght be deemed
advisable to restri ct the appl i cati on of the addi ti onal legislati on to
vessels of a fixed tonnage operati ng on w aters w here the ri sk to
l i f e and property is present.
I n connection w i th the l arge number of smal l vessels, f urther pro­
vision should be made in the case of such vessels carry i ng passengens f or hi re th at the operator should be licensed af ter an exami na­
ti on by the steamboat inspectors.
C O A ST I N G

T RADE

I t is again suggested th at consi deration be given to the f urther
restri cti on of our coastwise trade, hav i ng special ref erence to the
transportati on of passengers. Forei gn vessels tak i ng passengers
out of our ports may return them to the same port w i thout v iolati ng
the ex i sti ng law. T hi s is a di rect invasi on of our domestic trade.

B U REA U OP N A V I GA T I ON A N D STEA M BOA T I N SPEC T I O N

143

A passenger may proceed f rom San Francisco on a f orei gn vessel
w ith a through ti ck et to New Y ork and evade the provisions of our
law by l andi ng in Cuba, f or instance, and tak i ng another vessel of
the same line to his desti nati on i n New Y ork.
I t w oul d seem th at there should be af f orded the transportati on of
passengers i n our coastwise trade the same protecti on th at Congress
has deemed proper to extend in the case of transportati on of m er­
chandise. I t is difficult f or A merican vessels to compete successf ully
w i th f orei gn vessels i n the domestic trade because of the diff erence
of our law s and the conditi ons governing f orei gn vessels on the hi gh
seas.
SH I P P I N G

C O M M I SSI O N E R S

D uri ng the y ear 508,898 seamen were shipped, reshipped, and dis­
charged bef ore our shi ppi ng commissioners, as compared w ith 476,615 the y ear bef ore. The average cost to the Government per man
w as 22 cents, a decrease of 4 cents per man over like costs l ast year.
Collectors of customs acti ng at ports w here shi ppi ng commissioner
offices have not been established, shipped and discharged duri ng the
y ear 27,084 officers and men, as compared w i th 20,438 the previous
year.
Of the 271,252 men shipped bef ore shi ppi ng commissioners, 164,365
were nati v e A mericans, and 54,941 w ere natural i zed A mericans;
219,306 i n al l, or 80.8 percent.
I n addi ti on to these numbers there w ere shipped in f orei gn ports
in the f orei gn trade f or the round voyage, many seamen who do not
appear bef ore our shi ppi ng commissioners. These numbers are not
included i n the above figures.
T he f oll ow i ng table shows the aggregate w ork and salaries of the
shi ppi ng service f or the past 15 y ears:

Y ear

Seamen
shi pped,
reshi p­
ped,
and di s­
charged

Salaries

A verage
cost per
m an

1920
1921
1922
1923
1924_______ _____ _
1925______ ______
1926
1927_____________

628,980
650,840
541,952
538,755
555, 633
552,124
534,493
561,061

$89,949
99,646
92,318
94.476
94.476
123, 726
123,183
122,398

$0.13
.15
.17
.17
.17
.22
.23
.22

Y ear

1928................ .........
1929_____________
1930.................... ......
1931...........................
1932................ ..........
1933........... ...............
1934.........- .......... ...

Seamen
shi pped,
reshi p­
ped,
and dis­
charged

Salaries

547,732
627,392
650,673
589,901
515,051
476,615
508,898

$123,961
139,454
147,873
152,003
158,616
124,305
114,442

A verage
cost per
m an

$0.23
.22
.23
.26
.31
.26
.22

T he shi ppi ng commissioner service f urnishes the medium through
w hich vol uminous law s f or the protecti on, w elf are, and disci pli ne
of A meri can seamen are ef fectuated. I n order that no advantage
may be tak en of the seaman and also th at he may understand his
responsibli ties, hi s contract of employment is supervised by our
shi ppi ng commissioners and w here there are any unusual provisions
because of the nature of the voyage or of the cargo carri ed, those
provisions are explai ned to him in detai l.
A ny disputes w hich may arise duri ng the voyage may be arbi ­
trated bef ore the shi ppi ng commissioner w i thout cost to the seaman

144

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

and w i thout delay. U nder the law the shi ppi ng commissioner’s
decision is f inal as to the f acts.
For the benef it of dependents the shi ppi ng commissioner issues
al lotm ent notes payable to such dependents f rom the seaman’s wages
as earned. I n case of death of the seaman his wages and effects are
tak en care of by the shi ppi ng commissioner.
T hi s is a benef icent service as i t insures to the seamen the benef its
of the laws w hich Congress has passed in thei r behalf .
A D M E A SU R E M E N T

O E V E SSE L S

T he measurement of vessels through the m ari ne divisions of the
customhouses proceeded throughout the y ear w i th the usual acti vity ;
1,144 vessels aggregati ng 132,486 gross tons were admeasured dur­
i ng the y ear f or documentati on. I n addition, 390 vessels of 612,660
gross tons were remeasured f or change of tonnage.
T he admeasurement of vessels under our law s as af f ecting the ton­
nage of vessels transi ti ng the Panam a Canal has been under special
consideration. Diff iculties w hi ch have ari sen i n some of the m ari ­
ti me ports of other nati ons also have emphasized thè advisabil ity
of the adopti on by the m ari ti m e nati ons of the w orl d of an i nter­
nati onal admeasurement system.
LOAD

L IN ES

T he i m portant w ork of f i xi ng the line to w hich a vessel may be
loaded w i th saf ety has proceeded ef fectively ; 14,654 inspections were
made at the time of clearance and but 25 violations of the law, tech­
nical or otherw ise, were discovered and remedied.
D uri ng the y ear 151 load-li ne certi f icates on the i nternati onal
f orm were issued to our vessels to conf orm w i th the i nternati onal
load-li ne convention. T he agreement w i th Canada w i th a view
to the exemption of vessels f rom the requi rements of the load line
w hile nav i gati ng sheltered w aters on the northw est coast of the
U ni ted States has been completed and is now in effect.
P A SSE N G E R

ACT

OF

1882

T he enf orcement of thi s law through the marine divisions of the
customhouses has af fected 1,029 voyages i nvolv ing 170,171 steerage
passengers. T he purpose of the act is to provide f or the w elf are,
heal th conditions, f ood, separati on of the sexes, and care in case of
sickness of f uture citizens of our country.
N A V IG A T IO N

R E C E IPT S

D uri ng the y ear the B ureau has collected through tonnage duties,
nav i gati on fees, and nav i gati on fines $1,686,149.45, a su m consideri
ably in excess of the cost of adm i ni strati on of the B ureau.
T he f oll ow ing tabl e shows these collections i n detai l :
June 30—
1934._______ ______________ ____
1933.......................... ......... ...............
1917.................................. ....................... .

T onnage duti es N av i gati on fees
$1,483,161.11
1,418,774.87
1, 393,743.16

$172,093.30
169,121. 32
159,808.03

N av i gati on
f ines
$30,895.04
51,498.98
49,962.37

T otal

$1,686,149.45
1, 639, 395.17
1,603, 513.56

145

B U REA U OP N A V I GA TI ON A N D STEA M BOA T I N SPEC T I O N
A D M I N I ST R A T I O N

M iscell aneous
1

6

N um beri ng act

3

L oad l i ne act

U nl adi ng

of

6
9

C hange
m aster

1
25

N am e on vessel

E n tr y and cl ear­
ance

Passenger act

Enrol l m ent and
license

A nchorage and
St. M a r y s
Ri v er rul es

Seamen’s act

Su r r en d er ed
license

M otorboat law s

T otal

H eadquarters port

Steam boat l aw s

The general w ork of the superintendence of the commercial m ari ne
and merchant seamen vested in thi s B ureau by i ts organic act has
proceeded along regul arl y establ ished lines. T he i nterpretati on and
adm i ni strati on of the nav i gati on and steamboat-i nspection laws, cov­
eri ng documentation, inspection of hulls, boilers, and equipment, ex­
am i nati on and li censing of officers, certif ication of able seamen and
li f eboat men, Shi p M ortgage A ct, entry and clearance of vessels,
movement of vessels, w elf are of seamen, admeasurement, load line,
adj udi cati on of penal ti es, collection of fees, tonnage tax , etc., and
the compi lation of Federal stati sti cs of the merchant mari ne, have
been carri ed f orw ard.
I n the enf orcement of the rules and regul ati ons governing the
movement of vessels i n the St. M arys River, patrol of the course dur­
i ng regattas and marine parades i ncl udi ng the i nternati onal cup races,
the B ureau is indebted to the Coast Guard Service w hich operated in
i ts usual efficient manner under the rules and regulati ons of thi s
D epartm ent.
D uri ng the y ear 5,812 violations of the nav i gati on law s were consid­
ered i n connection w i th the m i ti gati on or remission of the penal ties
i ncurred. T he f oll ow i ng table shows the enf orcement of such law s by
customs di stri cts and the law s violated :

T o tal ......... -

374
205
100
94
77
12
110
85
4
33
80
2
41
167
4
15
6
133
519
1,733
65
35
202
27
34
32
45
12
108
3
10
4
14
143
11
69
340
790
69

46
24
1
2

261
46
65
74

2
5
3

1
41
9
1
5
24
1
3
29
2
1

53
4
303
104 1,169
6
16
27
3
36
5
3
9
3
6
6
10
6
3
62
3
8
2
1
11
9
5
31
42
59
297
8
13

5,807

367 2,685

15
7
10
1
1

12
51
16
1
9
7
13
23
2
2

4

1

2
3
1
3

12
4

2

3
12

1

1

1
1

4
4
13

3
1
2

22
13
84
4

4
17

1
2

1

8

2

2
2

5

1

1
6

30

3

27
26

2
3

9
1
38
39
144
19

1

70
7
16
11
18

7

3

1

6

2
4

6

1

4
4

43
25
10
17
12
31
5

3

3

5
26
1
3
11
1
3
12
138
179
7
8
79
2
4
9

2

3
44

3
38
3
6
51
82
38

2
2
10
23
1
15
87
283
4

784

2

2

6
4
26
11

6
1

2
3

18
1
3
29
27

18

6
7
25

1
6
1

13
1

3
1

5

114

135

228

45

31

1

2

5

30

25 1,105

1
12
1
1
1
2
19
75
5
1
12
16
13
3
3
1

10
2
42
31
251

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

146

T he f oll ow i ng tabl e shows the number of violations of law reported
to the D epartm ent by the vari ous branches of the Federal service
engaged i n the enf orcement of the nav i gati on l aw s:
H eadquarters port

B al ti m ore..................
B o st o n .............. .......
B ri dgepor t................
B uf f al o............ ..........
Charl eston________
Chi cago__________
Cl ev el and________
D etr oi t............ .........
D u l u th __________
G al v eston_____ . . .
H onol ul u_________
I ndi anapol i s........ .
Juneau_______ ____
L os A ngel es_______
L oui sv i l l e_________
M em phi s................. .
M i l w auk ee...............
M obi l e___________
N ew Orl eans......... .
N ew Y o r k ...............
N or f ol k .................
O gdensburg_______
Ph i l ad el p h i a...........
Pi ttsbur gh ................
Port A r thur __ ____
Portl and, M ai ne___
Portl and, Oreg.........
Prov i dence_______
Rochester___ _____
St. A l bans...... ..........
St. L oui s_________
San A ntoni o........ .
San D iego________
San Franci sco..........
San Ju an ..... .......... .
Sav annah_________
Seattl e___________
T am pa.......................
W i l m i ngton..... ........
T o t al ...........

T otal

374
205
100
94
77
12
110
85
4
33
80
9
41
167
4
15
6
133
519
1, 733
65
35
202
27
34
32
45
12
108
3
10
4
14
143
11
69
340
790
69
5,807

K il­
k en n y

T arra­
gon

E al a

S i w ash

P sy c h e

Coast
G uard

341
80
53

6

60

1

L ocal
i nspec­
tors

C us­
tom s

N av i ga­
ti on i n­
spectors

15

45

11

34

12

73

60
429
25

1,414

21
34

14

"
38

3
32
102

-

45
7

12

261

55
21

321

503

460

16
1,494

241

361

116

■-

39
2,194

117

BU K EA U OP N A V I GA TI ON A ND STEA M BOA T I N SPEC T I O N
H U L L S

A N D

E Q U IPM E N T

147

ST A T I ST I C S

M I SCEL L A NEOUS I NSPECTIONS
[Statem ent of steam vessels granted l etters of approv al of designs of boi lers, engi nes, and other operati ng
m achi nery i nspected under an act of Congress approv ed June 9, 1910, w hi ch vessel s are not inspected
annual l y , onl y 1 i nspecti on bei ng m ade f or l etter of approval ; hul l s of U ni ted States G ov ernm ent
vessels inspected; and boil ers i n or f or U ni ted States G ov ernm ent steam ers and bui l di ngs, and f or other
U ni ted States gov ernm ental purposes]
Steam v es­
Gov ­ Gov­
sels granted ern­
ern­
l etters of
m ent m ent
approv al
L ocal i nspecti on di stri ct
ves­
boi l ­
(port)
sels
ers
i n­
i n­
G
ross
N um ­
spect­
spect­
ton­
ber
ed
ed
nage
San Franci sco, Calif ........

10

s A ngeles, Cali f ...........
r tl and, Oreg________
w Y ork , N . Y ______
bany , N . Y .._ .........

7

Phi l adel phi a, Pa _____
N orf ol k, V a _ ____ . . .
B alti m ore, M d _ _ .........
Charl eston, S. C _______
Jacksonvi l l e, F l a . . . ........
Sav annah, G a_________
St. L ouis, M o ..................

1
58
1 5,673

1
2

1
1

59
25
44
52
118
23
9
57
84
188
63
11
42
189
88
53
4
19
32
39

1

Pi ttsburgh, P a________
Ci nci nnati , Ohio ...........

Steam v es­
Gov­ Gov­
sels granted ern­
ern­
l etters of
m
ent m ent
approv al
L ocal i nspection di stri ct
v es­ boil­
(port)
sels
ers
i n­
i n­
G
ross
N um ­
spect­
spect­
ton­
ber
ed
ed
nage
3
1
2

2

Buf f alo, N . Y _________

355

1
11
4
3
2
37
2

2
T otal , 1934
T otal , 1933.’. .............. .......

68
54
119

37

56
9
37
6
10
13
33
22
5
11
9
198
81
126
3
12
28
3

6 6,123
3 ' 113

89
91

2,208
2,161

+ 3 +6,010

_o

- 47

REI NSPECTI ONS

L ocal i nspection
di str i ct (port)

N ew Y ork , N . Y ___
A l bany , N . Y _____
N orf ol k, V a_______

Steam M otor
Barges, T otal
ves­
ves­
etc.
sels
sels
1,108
37
14
923
43
13
171
62
52
32
9
15
89
7
9
94
40

Poi nt Pl easant, W .
V a.........................-

179
15
8
275
27
70
76
5
4
9
71
3
6
17
5

10

3
6

3

2

1,290
52
22
1,204
70
83
247
70
56
9
103
9
15
92
15
26
99
50

2
4
24

2
4
24

9

9

L ocal i nspecti on
di stri ct (port)

Steam M otor
Barges, T otal
v es­
v es­
etc.
sels
sels
70
41
14
34
25
21
9
12
44
14
12
117
4
4
3
4
53
2

35
2
47
16
2
1
5
44
9

T otal , 1934___ 3,241
T otal , 1933.................. 2,588

1,001
920

33
29

4,275
3,537

I ncrease........... + 653

+ 81

+4

+ 738

G rand H av en, M i ch.

Buf f alo, N . Y ........ .

16
8
8
4
24
2
14
3

86
49
14
42
25
25
33
12
46
49
14
178
23
6
4
9
97
11

*>•
V ESSEL S I N SPECT ED A ND CERT I FI CA T ES OF I N SPECT I ON I SSU ED TO STEA M A ND M OTOR V ESSEL S A ND TO BA RGES
Cer

t if ic a t es

of

In

spe c t io n

I

ssu ed

by

D

ist r ic t s

L ocal di stri ct

Steam vessels

N um ­
ber

Portl and, Oreg_____________
N ew Y ork, N . Y ___________

N orf olk, V a________________

Fi f th

E i g h th ............................... ........

D etroi t, M i ch............................

269
12
81
69
1,045
71
27
197
143
265
18
25
22
61
27
147
4
16
24
36
17
22
39
30
55
26
25
82

M otor vessels

Passenger
barges

Seagoing
barges

T otal

T otal
N um ­
ber

Gross N um ­
tonnage ber

Gross
tonnage

Gross ton­ N um ­ Gross N um ­ Gross N um ­ Gross N um ­ Gross ton­
nage
ber tonnage ber tonnage ber tonnage ber
nage
1,000,782
26,616
358,779
145,188
2,147,176
20, 756
5 ,192
423^507
188,050
863,136
3l ' 939
60! 613
65,053
17' 287
5,024
384, 590
7,465
12,505
6' 325
55,549
3,929
7,464
9,055
6,339
13! 519
8,706
6! 046
225,757

117 76,607
841
9
29 24,425
1,954
16
189 199,099
19
8,230
35
1,647
73 135,170
113 13,122
112 35,124
2, 29 7
47
4 ,337
73
8
421
932
25
1,049
33
19
3,860
25
767
1,660
20
18
1,126
11
4,197
994
7
8
486
288
7
4
184
12
878
184
5
5
115
9 18,461

1

103

1
1

538
465

1

126

1

141

7
Ï
1
102
1
3
48
64
9
1
3

16
2
4
1

1
1

294
320

1

109

394
21
434
111
981
77
108, 637 1,337
1,041
91
3,689
65
318
43,436
321
83,027
7,206
386
522
66
4,855
101
30
86
61
182
15,925
1,877
31
36
46
3,763
48
739
24
30
46
35
68
31
31
91
22,574

1,100,066
27,457
383,638
148,661
2,455,377
30,027
10,528
602,113
284,325
905,466
34, 758
69,805
65,474
18,219
6, 214
404,375
10,109
14,165
11,214
60,485
4,923
7,950
9,343
6,817
14, 717
8,890
6,270
244, 218

278,779
39
433
296,632
42
21
4
35,158
115
2
19,491
79
123 2,374, 789 1,460
91
65
318
321
386
66
2
8,390
103
30
86
61
102,367
13
195
2
1,106
33
36
46
48
24
30
46
35
68
31
31
2, 622
2
93

1,378,845
324,089
418,796
168,152
4,830,166
30,027
10, 528
602,113
284,325
905,466
34, 758
78,195
65,474
18,219
6, 214
506,742
11,215
14,165
11,214
60,485
4,923
7,950
9,343
6,817
14,717
8,890
6,270
246,840

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

Forei gn pas­
senger steam
and m otor
vessels

D om estic vessels

Superv i si ng di stri ct

oo

T enth.

E l ev enth.

72
40
18
19
56
18
157
161
22
79
180
108
99
7
19
143
8
4
3

Total, 1934____________ 4,058
Total, 1933.............. — ................ 3,903

219,728
138,506
28,804
18,131
171,764
19,064
715,278
552,294
16,742
359,203
425,324
417,020
382.780
16,927
81,171
371,668
7,963
367
1,138

s

14,616

5
7
9
7
2

471
262
3,158
'210
2,057

17
6
31
12
24
5
14
60

2,179
1,464
2,298
16,961
1, 550
'383
820
15,519

25
7

1,980
272

10,050,219 1,292 602,655
8,954,614 1,264 602,836

Increase (+ ) or decrease (—). . + 155 + 1,095,605
V essel

13

I

Paci f i c coast_______ _________________________ _________

579
2,047
'302
724
Gulf coast......... ...................................... .......... ........................ ........ 406
T otal , 1934____________ __________________________ 4,058

n spe c t e d

1,912,501
4,288,783
77,369
2,465,271
1,306,295

+ 28

- 181

, By

Geo

2

233

5
1

5,961
945

16
16

9,235
10,319
- 1,084

g r a ph ic

263 121,598
767 411,440
106
5,110
75 42,878
81 21,629

2
2
4

10,050,219 1,292 602,655

D

85
40
23
26
65
25
159
163
39
85
220
140
129
12
34
208
8
32
10

234,344
138,506
29,275
18,393
174,922
19,274
717,335
552, 527
18,921
360, 667
444,408
462,037
390, 252
17,310
84,295
391.001
7,963
6,785
1,410

301 353,120 5,667
276 312,395 5,495

11,015,229
9, 880,164

4
19
6

10,825
27, 111
5,922

1
5

2,304
3; 814

3

4,438

+ 25 + 40, 725 + 208 + 1,135,065

1, 111

4

12,752

8
7
1
16

14,758
2,570
461
94,709

9

49,972

26

160, 524

4

4,034

234,344
138,506
29,275
19,504
174,922
32,026
717, 335
567,285
21,491
361,128
539,117
462,037
390, 252
67, 282
84,295
551, 525
7,963
6,785
5,444

285 3,460, 225 5,952 14,475,454
296 3,609,218 5, 755 13,489,382
- 11 -148,993 + 197

+ 986,072

96
794,618
957
149 2,536, 624 3,219
412
24
34,274
825
16
94,709
539

2,861, 599
7,512,155
83,343
2,542, 656
1,475,701

iv isio n s

6

641
591
864
233
6,906

17 32, 241
861
254 274,717 3,070
412
801
30 46,162
523

2,066,981
4,975,531
83,343
2,508,382
1,380,992

16

9,235

301 353,120 5,667

11,015,229

2

2

85
40
23
28
65
29
159
171
46
86
236
140
129
21
34
234
8
32
14

285 3,460, 225 5,952 14,475,454

B U B EA U OF N A V I GA TI ON A N D STEA M BOA T I N SPEC T I O N

N i nth.

Chicago, 111________ ____
Duluth, M inn......................
Grand Haven, M ich.............
M arquette, M ich.................
Milwaukee, Wis_____ ____
Port Huron, M ich..... ...........
Cleveland, Ohio______ ___
Buffalo, N. Y ....... ...............
Oswego, N. Y .... ..................
Toledo, Ohio.......................
New Orleans, L a____ ____
Galveston, Tex__________
Mobile, A la................... .....
San Juan, P. R __________
Tampa, Fla...... ............ .......
Seattle, Wash.......................
Hoquiam, "Wash..... ..............
Juneau, Alaska....... .............
St. Michael, Alaska...............

149

150

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE
CERTIFICA TES W I THDRA W N OR REFUSED

V e sse l s f r o m w h i c h c e r t i f i c a t e s o f i n sp e c t i o n w e r e w i t h d r a w n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
V e sse l s r e f u se d c e r t i f i c a t e s o f i n sp e c t i o n :
D o m e st i c st e a m v e sse l s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D o m e st i c v e sse l s p r o p el l e d b y g a s, f l u i d , n a p h t h a , o r e l e c t r i c m o t o r ___
D o m e st i c se a - g o i n g b a r g es o f 1 0 0 g r o ss t o n s o r o v e r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F o r e i g n st e a m v e sse l s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

7
56
4
2
4

T ota l___________________________________________________________

73

CARGO VESSELS EX A M I NED TO CARRY PERSONS I N A DDITION TO CREW

D uri ng the year ended June 30, 1934, 1,293 cargo vessels were ex­
amined to carry persons i n addi ti on to crew, under the provisions of
the act of Congress approved June 5, 1920.
N EW L I FE PRESERVERS I NSPECTED
K i nd

I nspected

Passed

Rejected

B lock cork___________ _______ _____ ______ ________
B alsa bl ock ....... ................. ..............................
K apok _____________ _____________

118,117
6,470
2,643

118,023
6,446
2,631

94
24
12

T otal , 1934.................... .....................................
T otal , 1933.......... ........ ........... ........ ...............

127,230
101,921

127,100
101, 579

130
342

+ 25,309

+ 25,521

- 212

L I F E - SA V I N G A PPA R A T U S I N SPE C T E D
K i nd

I nspected

N ew cork -ri ng life buoy s....................................... ....................... ..........
N ew l i f eboats.............. ................................................................... .
N ew life r af ts....................................... .
N ew boat dav i ts.................................................................................

W ORK

PE R F O R M E D

A T FA CT O RI ES

B Y I N SPE C T O R S I N

5,188
'748
277
143
76
36

CEN T RA L

Passed
5,188
744
277
143
76
36

Rejected

4

O FFICE

V e sse l s i n c l i n e d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e i n sp e c t i o n s o f v e sse l s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

142
97

BO IL ERS
B o i l e r s i n sp e c t e d :
S t e e l ( r i v e t e d p l a t e s) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I r o n ( r i v e t e d p l a t e s) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P ip e- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

8,275
34
2, 6 0 6

T ota l- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

10 , 9 1 5

B o iler s f ou n d d ef ect iv e:
G a v e w a y u n d er h y d r o st a t i c p r essu r e :
S t e e l ( r i v e t e d p l a t e s) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P ip e- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

166
4

T ota l- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

170

BU REA U OE N A V I GA TI ON A N D STEA M BOA T I N SPEC T I O N

151

B o i l e r s f o u n d d e f e c t i v e — C o n t i n u ed .
D e f e c t i v e f r o m o t h e r c a u se s:
S t e e l ( r i v e t e d p l a t e s) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P ip e_ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ _

1,381
113

T ota l___________________________________________________

1,494

B o i l e r s co n d em n ed f r o m f u r t h e r u se _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D e f e c t s i n b o il er s' a n d a t t a c h m e n t s:
S h e e t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
H e a d s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - S t e a m a n d m u d d r u m s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - F l u e s a n d t u b e s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - S t e a m p i p e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t a y b o l t s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B r a c e s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - O t h er p a r t s - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

17
784
269
56
69 , 8 2 0
373
17,938
563
8, 3 2 7

T ot a l_______________________________________________________

98,130

M A RI N E BOILER PL A TES TESTED
Pl ates rej ected because of I nspected by assi st­
an t i nspector at —

T ensi l e Surf ace
strength def ect

L i ght
gage

H eav y
gage

L am i ­
nati on

1

I ncrease(+ )or
decrease ( —).

2
7

3
3

-5

:

2
4
5

I n­
A c­
spected cepted

17

19

3

1

20
1

1

30
12

736
359

706
347

+3

+1

+ 19

—1

+ 18

+ 377

+ 359

1

+i

R e­
j ected

1

3

2

2
T otal , 1934....
T otal , 1933................

E l on­
gati on

519
65
60
19
73

1

3

L ost

T otal

517
61
55
19
54

STEEL BARS A ND FORGINGS TESTED
Sam pl es of
bars

Sam pl es of
f orgings

B ars

Forgings

T ested b y assi stant i nspector at—
T ested

Buf f al o, N . Y .........................................

R e­
j ected

T ested

R e­
j ected

A c­
cepted

R e­
j ected

A c­
cepted

28
4
8
4

8

116
120
116
6

2

44

8

358

2

R e­
j ected

REPOET OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

152

ST A T I ST I C S

CO NCERNING

SH I P S’ P E R SO N N E L

Steam
vessels

Steam and motor vessels
'Ö

Mates

Local district

o

gl
J! P.

ft
co
co

<3

a
c3
o
O
S3

s
San Francisco, Calif.
Los Angeles, Calif...

350
23
105

New York, N. Y___ 1,036
Albany, N. Y ____
69
New Haven, Conn..
2CT
145
Baltimore, M d___
Charleston, S. C__
Jacksonville, Fla___
Boston, Mass____
Portland, Maine__

Point Pleasant, W.
V a.......... . .........

Buffalo, N. Y ........
New Orleans, L a...

St. Michael, Alaska.

163
26
66

252
14
81
23
530
1
2
145
21
109
8
53
9
2

48
7
168 156
14
38
7
22
29
64
20
43
16
9
20
13
28
18
8
5
54
9
41
1
20
18
11
43
38
4
53
1
54
15
191
67
220
64
113
34
54
3
8
34
13
88
155
2
6
18
16
8

rS
O

a
a1
1—

1h2 qjo
g ft

ä
fu

54
2
14
46
12
2
6
20
1
2
4
41
2
10
4
4
4
5
8
11
9
9
24
20
6
1

1
23
1
5
1
48
7
4
1

CO
t-4

103
37
9
17
17
15
6
12
5
26
14
13
4
8
4
4
15
10
12
10
7
10
7
26
12
13
19
5
28
18
73
53
6
21
35
13
22
3
1
2
2
1

flCD

.2
o

m

9
1
3

tD
o>
.3
‘So

1 364
18
81
5
72
4
8 1,193
9
97
18
2
7 211
15 129
18 191
31
4
48
6
25
82
19
1 171
5
20
33
1
53
3
47
18
17
32
20
1
45
26
1
2
4
4

3
2
3
3
3

7

1

40
9
5
3
1
8
2
4
1

16
97
54
30
30
14
63
55
119
119
23
33
234
79
81
6
33
132
8
14
7

Motor
vessels

Sail vessels
of over 700
gross tons

03

£
2
S.S
+3bfl
Ö
9
03■»
.25”03
8*3
fCO
t CO
T 3 1>

co
CD

a

395
24
95
54
730
6
6
120
49
110
8
68
21
19
8
145
12
13
16
22
9
4
6
4
21
7
4
43
39
19
22
5
43
46
91
55
11
17
145
64
38
8
24
100
4
4
2

co

<3

U
o

03

a

o3

<3
ft
O

'S)
3
W

163 663
10 134
65 392
30 202
361 1,288
17
35
18 138
99 607
41 355
70 476
7
88
59 480
9
71
22 269
4 117
49 343
14 134
36 230
9 146
12 155
10
47
1
83
1
75
5
49
5
96
3
42
1
9
20
33
1
4

16
15
15
7
69
33
29
9
31
74
3
31
2

a
.*s
¿
‘3
o

CO

©

-t-a
CO
C3

a

25
2
10
3
49

2
1

2
6
2
3
2
7
3

1

15
9

2

12
3

73
92
265
82
70
56
27
105
75
113
78
305
269
136
39
266
310
33
272
32

15
1
2
1

1

9
5
6

1
1

Masters of bargesof over 100
gross tons

OFFICERS L ICENSED

'S
o

Eh

2,278'
226
840
457
5, 344
283
217
1,363
’ 726
1,176
181
801
163
509
171
1 1,074
254
353
338
314
123
135
155
110
227
126
116
328
438
120
175
111
252
187
463
380
169
175
1,148
1
650
410
80
1
405
933
66
363
55

412
325

731
655

196 4,308 2,756 1,522 9,413
210 5,257 2,052 1,445 10,395

192
267

9
7

3 24,968
4 26,088

Increase (+ )
or decrease
(- > -------- -450 +405 +87

+76

-14 -949 +704 +77 -982

-75

+2

- 1 -1,120

Total, 1934__ 3,653 1,773
Total, 1933______ 4,103 1, 368

B U REA U OP N A V I GA TI ON A ND STEA M BOA T I N SPEC T I O N

153

RESULTS OE A CTI ON A GA I NST L ICENSES
L
L
L
L
V

i c e n se s su sp e n d ed _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
92
i c e n se s r e v o k e d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
10
i c e n se s r e f u se d - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 164
i c e n se s c a n c e l e d - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 33
iola t ion s of th e la w :
C a se s i n v e st i g a t e d - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1, 2 0 3
950
C a se s d i sm i sse d - - - - - - - - - - - - - - C a se s r ep o r t ed t o d i st r i c t a t t o r n e y s a n d c h i e f of f i cer s o f c u st o m s____
126
N u m b e r o f a p p e a l s f r o m d ec i si o n s o f l o c a l b o a r d s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26
2
D e c i si o n s o f l o c a l b o a r d s r e v er se d b y su p e r v i si n g i n sp e c t o r s- - - - - - - D e c i si o n s o f l o c a l b o a r d s m o d i f i ed b y su p e r v i si n g i n sp e c t o r s- - - - - - - 8
D e c i si o n s o f l o c a l b o a r d s su st a i n e d b y su p e r v i si n g i n sp e c t o r s- - - - - - - 16

ex a m in a t io n s f o r

c o l o r b l in d n ess

D uri ng the year ended June 30, 1934, 7,041 appl i cants f or ori gi nal
licenses and f or renew als of licenses were examined f or visual def ects,
49 of whom were f ound colorblind, or had other visual def ects, and
w ere rejected, and 6,992 w ere passed. A s compared w i th the previous
year, these f igures show an increase of 227 i n the number examined
and of 225 in the number passed.
c er t if i c a t es o f ser v ic e issu ed t o a b l e sea m e n a n d t o l if eb o a t

Abl

Issued by—

Applica­
tions re­
ceived

Applica­
tions re­
jected

e

Se a m e n

Certifi­
cates
issued

Issued by—

Applica­
tions re­
ceived

Applica­
tions re­
jected

Certifi­
cates
issued

INSPECTION DISTRICT—con.

I N SPECT I ON
D I STRI CT

■San Franci sco,
Calif________ _
Honolulu, Hawaii..
Los Angeles, Calif..
Portland, Oreg---New York, N. Y ..
Albany, N. Y ----New Haven, Conn.
Philadelphia, Pa...
Norfolk, Va......... .
Baltimore, M d---Charleston, S. O—
Jacksonville, Fla...
Savannah, Ga___
Boston, M ass........
Bangor, M aine......
New London,Conn.
Portland, M aine...
Providence, R. I ...
Detroit, M ich.
Chicago, 111—
Duluth, Minn

m en

402
171
302
79
872
4
8
292
147
442
19
161
287
17
12
45
104
146
126
84

28
14
46
16
41
33
7
43
4
4
8
18
5
16
19
9
2

374
157
256
63
831
4
8
259
140
399
15
157
57
269
17
12
40
88
127
117
82

G rand H av en,
M ich________
M arquette, Mich__
Milwaukee, Wis__
Port Huron, M ich.
Cleveland, Ohio.-Buffalo, N. Y ____

25
35
19
1
4
6
1
6
1

Juneau, Alaska__

24
35
91
68
318
213
5
99
173
94
112
20
45
248
9
26

8

18
32
91
43
283
194
4
95
167
93
106
19
45
232
9
18

Total, 1934_
Total, 1933...... .

5,365
4,125

444
276

4,921
3,849

1,240

168

1,072

Toledo, Ohio...... .
New Orleans, L a...
Galveston, Tex__
Mobile, Ala..........
San Juan, P. R__
Seattle, Wash........

Increase___

6
3

16

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

154

CERTIFICA TES OF SERVICE I SSUED TO ABLE SEA M EN A ND TO L IFEBOA T

men —continued
L i f eb o a t M en

Issued by—
Local inspectors of
vessels:
San Francisco,
Calif...............
Honolulu, Hawaii.
Los Angeles, Calif.
Portland, Oreg...
New York, N. Y .
Albany, N. Y __
Philadelphia, Pa.
Baltimore, M d~Charleston, S.C..
Jacksonville, Fla.
Savannah, Ga—
Boston, Mass__
Bangor, M aine...
N ew London,
Portland, Maine.
Providence, R. I .
Detroit, Mich__
Grand

Haven,

M arquette, Mich.
Milwaukee, Wis.
Port Huron, Mich.
Cleveland, Ohio.
Buffalo, N. Y __
New Orleans, La.
Galveston, T ex ..
San Juan, P. R._.
Seattle, Wash__
Hoquiam, Wash.
Juneau, A laska...

Applica­
tions re­
ceived

97
329
582
26
2,343
12
37
21
147
2
194
61
514
18

Applica­
tions re­
jected

67
81
872

4

Certifi­
cates
issued

97
262
501
26
1,471
12
37
21
147
2
194
57
514
18

51
41
146
54
9

51
41
146
54
9

1
1
10
2
18
10
12
184
16
27
2
23
2,540
20
140

1
1
10
2
18
10
12
183
16
27
2
23
794
20
116

1

1,746
24

T R A N SP O R T A T I O N

Applica- Applications re- tions received
jected

Issued by—
Local inspectors of
vessels—Con.
St. Michael, AlasTotal by local inspecNavy Department:
Navy yards:
New York, N. Y .
Portsmouth, Va._
Receiving station,
Philadelphia,
Pa___ _____
U. S. Coast Guard,
Treasury DepartCoast and Geodetic
Survey, Depart­
ment of ComBureau of Lighthouses, Depart­
ment of ComM assach u setts
nautical school
ship N a n t u c k e t ...
California nautical
school ship C al New York State
Merchant M a­
rine Academy__
Total, 1934...
Total, 1933...........

A N D

L O SS

OP

Certificates
issued

3

3

7,693

2,795

4,898

92
93

11
13

81
80

164

5

159

5,917

2,132

3,785

199

66

133

823

229

594

48

2

46

60
72
15,161
10,086
5,075

60
5,253
3,098
2,155

72
9,908
6,988
2,920

L IFE

PA SSENGERS CARRIED

D uri ng the fiscal y ear 238,489,718 passengers were carri ed on vessels
that are required by law to report the number of passengers carried.
D i v i di ng thi s number by 69, the total number of passengers lost,
shows that 3,456,372 passengers w ere carried f or each one lost.
L IV ES SAVED

D uri ng the year 114 lives w ere di rectl y saved by means of the l i f e­
saving appliances required by law.

B U B EA U OF N A V I GA TI ON A ND STEA M BOA T I N SPEC T I O N

155

L IV ES LOST ON VESSELS SUBJECT TO I N SPECTI ON , BY DISTRICTS
First
Cause

Fire: Nonpassenger steamers________________
Explosion, escape of steam,
etc.: N onpassenger
steamers______ ___
Sinking:
Passenger steamers......
Nonpassenger steamers.
Wreck: Passenger steamers.
Accidental drowning:
Passenger steamers___
Nonpassenger steamers.
Suicide:
Passenger steamers......
Nonpassenger steamers.
Miscellaneous:
Passenger steamers___
Nonpassenger steamers.

Second

Third

2

2
4

1

1
5

5
3
1

i

1
2

14

1
1

9

1
2

13

3
1

8
2

2
14

3

3

17

4

1

6

2

25

Grand total..........
Last year__ ___ ______

28
14

11
48

19
89

29
27

Increase (+ ) or decrease (—).... ........ +14

-37

-70

+2

5

Seventh

Eighth

1
2
2

1

3
5

2
1

2

11
3
4
-1

1

2

1

4

16

2

+5

+2

Ninth

1

+2

Tenth

2

-2

3

-3

Eleventh

+i
Total

PasPasPasPasPassen- Crew sen- Crew sen- Crew sen- Crew sen- Crew sen- Crew
gers
gers
gers
gers
gers
gers

3

2
1
1

Total:
Passenger steamers________
Nonpassenger
steamers____

2

Grand total_____
Last year____________

2
5

Increase (+ ) or decrease (—) ...............

Sixth

1

27

Fire: Nonpassenger steamers___ ______ ____ _
Explosion, escape of steam,
etc.: Nonpassenger steamers_______________
Sinking:
Passenger steamers___
Nonpassenger steamers.
Wreck: Passenger steamers.
Accidental drowning:
Passenger steamers___
Nonpassenger steamers.
Suicide:
Passenger steamers___
Nonpassenger steamers.
Miscellaneous:
Passenger steamers......
Nonpassenger steamers.

Fifth

PasPasPasPasPassen- Crew sen- Crew sen- Crew sen- Crew sen- Crew sen- Crew
gers
gers
gers
gers
gers
gers

Total:
P a ss e n g e r
steamers___
Nonpassenger
steamers___

Cause

Fourth

4
1
3

-3

1

34

1

24

7

34

1

4

1

2

4

5

2
1

2

4

4
2

4
9

4
2

+2

-5

+2

66
4

4
1
+i

12

25
72

4
2

2
3

13
14

6
2

4
2

69
130

97
120

+2

-1

-1

+4

+2

-61

-23

REPOBT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

156

T he total number of lives lost f rom al l causes, passengers and
crew, was 166, a decrease of 84 f rom the previous year. Of the lives
lost, 145 w ere f rom suicide, accidental drow ning, and other causes
beyond the pow er of the Service to prevent, leavi ng a loss of 21
f ai rl y chargeabl e to such accidents as fire, sinking, explosion, and
wreck.
A CCIDENTS RESUL TI NG I N LOSS OF L I FE

T he total number of accidents resul ti ng in loss of li f e duri ng the
past y ear was 147.
VESSELS LOST
S t e a m v e sse l s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - M o t o r v e sse l s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B a r g e s, e t c - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - T ota l- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

25
J®
"
56

PROPERTY LOST
B y e x p l o si o n o r a c c i d e n t a l e sc a p e o f st e a m
B y w r eck or f o u n d er - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B y c o l l i si o n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B y f i r e- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - B y sn a g s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - F r o m m i sc e l l a n e o u s c a u se s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

$21,166
1, 0 9 2 , 4 6 1
2, 0 7 7 , 0 9 6
59 4, 7 9 3
274, 46 4
2, 5 5 7 , 8 4 9
6, 6 1 7 , 8 2 9

T ota l
N A V I G A T I O N P A T R O L SE R V I C E

On the w aters of the U ni ted States subject to Federal control,
there are betw een three and f our hundred thousand smal l motor
vessels transporti ng mil li ons of persons annuall y. Congress has
provided f or the saf ety of thi s nav i gati on through the equipment
of such vessels w i th l i f e-savi ng devices, and i n the enf orcement of
th at law the B ureau has operated five inspection vessels covering
the w aters of the A tl anti c and Gul f coasts, and a p art of the G reat
L akes. T hese vessels also supervise the fleets of oyster and f ishing
vessels to gain assurance th at the crews receive thei r w ages, have
proper quarters, f ood, and the treatm ent to w hich they are enti tl ed
by law.
.
T hrough the imposition of fines, penal ti es, and f orf ei tures, this
service is i n considerable p ar t self -sustaining, and through coopera­
ti on w i th motor-boat owners, associations, y acht clubs, etc., a reason­
able compliance of the law is m ai ntai ned w i thout the imposition of
unnecessary hardshi p.
Of the 5,807 violations of the law reported, 8,019 were discovered
by the B ureau’s patrol boats. Record of the w ork of these vessels
how ever, is better shown by the f act th at duri ng the y ear they made
19,307 inspections.
T he f oll ow i ng is a comparative statement of cases of violations of
the nav i gati on laws' 1930-34:

B U REA U OF N A V I GA TI ON A N D STEA M BOA T I N SPEC T I O N
Port

1930 1931 1932 1933 1934

Baltimore..................
Bridgeport—...............

D etroi t.....................

Los Angeles.............. .

746
441
182
43
68
49
172
234
30
32
32
12
58
336
8
35
26
76
217
951
2
448

PR EV EN T IN G

Port

157

1930 1931 1932 1933 1934

584
509
163
83
49
37
167
185
27
39
15
4
47
400
9
48
9
95
187
828

471 485 374
693 250 205
63 165 100
24 21 94
52 45 77
24 123 12
180 83 110
191 174 85
20
3
4
65 15 33
35 68 80
4
2
2
71 52 41
237 278 167
4
15 49
54 87 15
2 28
6
269 171 133
937 755 519
5892,598 1,733
5
228 214 335 65

36 28
1
568 611
9
23

9

35

498

103 47
75 86 37
41 170
9
4
&
1Ô
2 11
16
9 14
22 30
327 232
10
105 91 90 84 69
336 581
977 928 1,037 1 688 790
218 196 116 37 69
7,417 7,187 8,062 9,152 5,807

OV ERCROW DING

OE P A SSE N G E R

V E SSE L S

U nder the law , the certif icates of inspection of vessels specif y the
number of passengers they may carry w i th saf ety. T o prev ent the
tak i ng on of passengers in excess of the number so fixed, the B ureau
employs approx i m atel y 49 inspectors who count such passengers and
w hen the l i m i t has been reached, prev ent addi ti onal persons f rom
going on board.
D uri ng the y ear 4,314,211 passengers going on excursion boats
w ere so counted. T he f oll ow ing tabl e shows these counts by
nav i gati on and customs services.
Navigation
Port

Customs

Total

Counts Passengers Counts Passengers Counts Passengers

Seattle___ _____________________
Total, 1934 ............. ................... Total j 1933....................... -......... -

1,809

562,312

1,680
201
273
134

535,881
260,105
322,502
23,405

152

9,461

156
4
98
23
427
268
5,225
5, 768

585
23,321
6,248

1,809
238
1,185
1,811
234
295
134
17
10
152
800
102
84
156
4
98
24
830
640

562,312
207, 718
543,854
588,172
282, 604
342,532
23,405
2,384
10,112
9,461
1,527, 293
26, 227
51,993
18, 627
1, 291
19,858
10, 858
45, 988
39,522

2,494,555
2,172,988

8,623
9,346

4,314,211
3,979,064

238
1,185
131
33
22

207,718
543,854
52,291
22,499
20,030

17
10

2,384
10,112

18, 627
1,291
19,858
10, 273
22, 667
33, 274

800
102
84

1,527, 293
26,227
51,993

Ï
403
372

1,819, 656
1,806, 096

3,398
3,578

On 127 occasions i t became necessary f or the inspectors to prevent
addi ti onal passengers f rom going on board. T hi s involved the saf ety
of 92,986 passengers. T here was a m ateri al decrease in the number
of these shut-off s as compared w i th the year bef ore, al though there
was an increase in the number of passengers carri ed.
982 2 3 -

34 -

-13

EEPOET OP T H E SECEETA EY OF COM M ERCE

158

T he f oll ow i ng tabl e shows i n detai l by ports these shut-offs:
July 1933
Port

1

June 1934

6
30

1
850
8 13,005

2

3,454

1 2,280
5 16,700

2

1,301

1
1

1,520
489

25

4,376

I

250

6

6,764

32 18,626

335

isTt

Total........ .

September 1933

Total

Passen­
Passen­
Passen­
Passen­
Counts Passen­
gers Counts gers Counts gers Counts gers Counts gers
4 3,400
8 12', 438
3 6,850
7 3,775

Seattle...................

August 1933

14

4,686

790

1

998

59 29,077

30 38,519

6 Ï4, Ö66

5
18
3
10
5
6
1
26
21
1
31

4,250
28,897
6,850
7,356
16,700
14,000
335
5,896
6,664
250
1,788

127

92,986

PA T E N T OFFICE

V O L UM E

O F B U SI N E SS

A grand total of 19,690 appli cati ons was filed, compared w ith
79,822 the preceding year, a diff erence of only 132 cases. T he m ai n­
tenance of the volume of new business at substanti al l y the same level
as that of the preceding y ear is not w i thout its encouraging aspects,
consi deri ng the steady and severe decline recorded in the preceding
several years, commencing w i th the peri od of depression.
T he total of new patent appli cati ons filed w i th fees was 56,095, a
decrease of 3,313 f rom the fiscal year 1933, when 59,408 appli cations
w ere received. T he sl i ght recession in patent appl i cati ons was more
than counterbal anced by the f il ing of 16,317 trade-m ark appli cations,
w hich is an increase of 3,616 over the total of the preceding year.
T he increased acti v i ty in the T rade M ark D ivi si on was undoubtedly
due to the repeal of the ei ghteenth amendment, as the appli cations
included an abnormall y l arge proporti on of trade marks rel ati ng to
beer, w hisky, gin, wines, and other alcoholic beverages.
CONDITION

OF

W ORK

T he w ork in all clerical divisions is current. T he D esign D ivision
is only 1 month behind. Of the 65 exami ning divisions there are
now only 2 over 4 months behind in the w ork as compared w i th 25
divisions in that conditi on a y ear ago; 17 addi ti onal divisions have
moved f rom the 4-month to the 3-month peri od, and 23 more di v i ­
sions are now w i thi n the 4-month period.
D uri ng the y ear the number of patent appli cati ons aw ai ti ng action
was reduced f rom 49,050 to 39,226, a decrease of over 20 percent.
Encouragi ng though thi s may sound, a decrease in the number of
appli cati ons aw ai ti ng acti on does not represent progress unless i t be
accompanied by an increase in the number of cases w hich have been
f inally disposed of and cleared f rom the active records. Obviously
the mere transf er of a case f rom the “ aw ai ti ng acti on ” status to the
“ aw ai ti ng amendment ” status does not necessarily indi cate in i tsel f
an advancement in the prosecution or an improvement in the condi­
ti on of the w ork in the office. M ore sati sf acti on is derived f rom the
f act that, as revealed by a complete inventory of cases in the Patent
Office, the number of cases f i nally disposed of greatl y exceeded the
number received. D uri ng the f i rst 6 months of 1934, 31,745 appli ca­
ti ons were received, and w ithin the same peri od 10,501 appli cati ons
were abandoned and 26,260 were passed to issue. T hus, 5,016 more
cases were f inal ly disposed of than were received by the Office duri ng
th at period. A ccording to the i nventory of June 30,1934, there were
112,576 appli cati ons aw ai ti ng amendment by the appl i cant or action
159

160

REPORT OF T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

by the Office as compared w i th 119,869 on January 2,1934, 180,355 on
February 3, 1932, and 198,177 on January 2, 1931.
T hi s impressive improvement i n the conditi on of the w ork of the
Office, considered either f rom the standpoi nt of the number of appl i ­
cati ons aw ai ti ng acti on or the number of cases w hich remain to be
disposed of, has been accomplished w i th a greatl y depleted personnel.
T here have been vacant 1 posi tion on the B oard of A ppeal s, 1 in the
law exami ners’ group, 35 i n the exami ning corps, 54 in the clerical
f orce, and 19 in the copy-pul lers f orce, a total of 110 v acant positions.
SU R P L U S

For the f i rst ti me since 1922, and l argel y as the resul t of drasti c
economy measures, the l ast fiscal y ear brought a surplus to the Patent
Office, the actual recei pts being $506,683.10 in excess of expenditures.
Receipts f or the y ear f rom all sources total ed $4,383,468.11. T he
total expenditures were $3,876,785.01. W hi l e the recei pts were low er
than those of the previous year, expenditures were reduced by more
than $700,000.
T he income of the Office is derived f rom a l i mited class of our
citizens, the inventors, who are required by statute to accompany
thei r appli cati ons f or patents w i th fees designed pri m ari l y to cover
the cost of operati ng the B ureau. W i thi n the past 15 years the fees
in patent appli cati ons have been successively increased f rom $15 to
$20, f rom $20 to $25, and f inally, in 1932, f rom $25 to $30 as basic
fees. T he fees in trade-m ark appli cati ons were increased 33V3 per­
cent in June 1930. These increased fees, consti tuti ng a severe burden
on inventors, were justif ied w hen enacted, as they can only be justif ied
today, as a means of prov i di ng sufficient revenue to enable the Office
to render that hi gh character of service demanded by inventors and
i ndustry ; to perf orm the w ork efficiently and prom ptl y by enl argi ng
the personnel to cope w ith the volume of business; and to increase
salaries to the poi nt w here the trai ned and experienced examiner is
induced to remain in the service. T he hi gher fees were not imposed
w i th the thought of creati ng an addi ti onal source of general revenue
f or the T reasury .
I n the l ast annual report of thi s Office ref erence was made to the
demand f or a reducti on in Patent Office fees as a measure of rel i ef
to distressed i nventors who are unabl e to pay the hi gh fees now
required f or patent protection. I f the fees deposited by the inventors
exceed the amount required to operate the Patent Office effectively,
the fees should be reduced as a measure of reli ef . On the other hand,
to the extent required by the Patent Office i n the proper perf ormance
of i ts duti es, the recei pts should be made avai lable to meet the
expenses of operation.
A f ai r anal ysis of conditions i n the Patent Office indicates that,
w hile i t w ill probably operate w i th a surplus, the appropri ati ons f or
the fiscal year 1935 are insufficient to meet urgent requirements, and
th at i ts service to the publ ic and i ts i nternal w ork w il l not be up to
the desired standard.
C L A SSI F I C A T I O N

D I V I SI O N

T he conditions in the Patent Office have now reached a poi nt w here
i t is no longer merely desirable, i t is essential, to establi sh and m ai n­

PA T EN T OPPI OE

161

tai n an adequate classification division to carry out the act of June 10,
1898, and the program of classif ication announced i n 1912 by the Pres­
i dent’s Committee on Economy and Efficiency. I t is esti mated that
proper and adequate classif ication of the arts in the Patent Office
w ould increase the efficiency of the examiners by not less than 10 per­
cent, m ateri al l y lessen the cost of exami nation, and attach to f uture
patents a greater degree of v ali dity.
T he Commissioner of Patents is expressl y charged by statute w i th
the duty of revising and perf ecti ng classification of patents and pub­
lications. T hi s duty is not now being f ul l y perf orm ed because of i n­
sufficient appropri ati ons to provide f or classif ication personnel. The
acute need f or modern, scientif ic, and accurate classification of the
patents and l i terature has been recognized w i thi n the past y ear by the
Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary ’s Patent Office A dvisory Com­
mittee, the B ureau of the B udget, and the Congress. I t is theref ore
urgentl y recommended that sufficient f unds be appropri ated to re­
bui l d the Classif ication D ivision to at least the size of the 1914-18 av­
erage, when 20 examiners and a correspondi ngly sized cl erical f orce
were devoted to thi s w ork.
BE ALLOCATION

OP

E X A M IN E E S

IN

G BADES

P-1

A N D

P-2

T he j uni or examiners in the Patent Office have presented to the D e­
partm ent a f ormal peti ti on f or reall ocati on f rom grade P- 1 to grade
P-2, in the course of w hich they have described the hardshi ps under
w hich they are w orking and accurately set f orth the inequity of thei r
present classif ication. A ssuming the D epartm ent to be sympathetic
tow ard the proposed reall ocations, i t is recommended that appropri ­
ate steps be taken not only to effectuate them but to provide addi ti onal
congressional f unds to meet the added annual sal ary obligation.
T H E

B E E ST A B L I SH M E N T

O P A B O L I SH E D

P O SI T I O N S

T he severe restricti ons imposed on sal ary expenditures have f orced
the Patent Office to abolish approxim ately 109 positions f or the years
1934 and 1935, i ncl udi ng 37 examiners, 58 clerks, and 14 copy pullers.
T he reduced f orce is insufficient to handle the w ork and the office can
no longer continue to provide the excellent and efficient service to
w hich i ndustry and i nventors have become accustomed and f or w hich
the l atter are taxed. A t least p art of the abolished posi tions should
be reestabli shed. T hi s is especially urged, as the number of patent
appli cati ons appears to be now def initely on the increase.
W hil e cl erks and stenographers have been shi f ted f rom one di v i ­
sion to another to meet the emergency, conti nued resignati ons and
unfilled vacancies have made i t extremel y difficult f or the avai lable
personnel to handle the w ork. T he producti ve w ork of the examiners
is seriously i nterf ered w i th i f stenographers and clerks are not av ai l ­
able to perf orm essential duties.
W i thi n the l ast several years, three addi ti onal divisions were
created, the B oard of Superv i sors' was established, additions were
made to the B oard of A ppeal s, and reorganizati ons effected in the
I nterf erence D ivision and the proof -readi ng section of the I ssue
D ivision. These new divisions and sections required the transf er of

162

EEPOET OF T H E SECEET A EY OF COM M EECE

15 stenographers previ ously employed to assi st in keepi ng the w ork
current in the exami ning divisions.
I t is recommended that a sufficient number of the abolished posi­
ti ons i n the exami ning and clerical corps be reestabl ished to meet
absolute requirements.
On June 30, 1934, there w ere numerous i m portant key positions
vacant in the Patent Office, i ncl udi ng 4 pri m ary examiners, 1 law
examiner, 2 assi stant chief s i n the exami ning divisions, and the Chief
of the M ail D ivision. These v acant key posi tions should be filled.
R E G I ST R A T I O N

OF

ATT O RNEY S

A new and improved system f or the regi strati on of attorneys to
practi ce bef ore the Patent Office has been introduced. Rul e 17 was
amended to require an appl i cant f or admission to practi ce to demon­
strate by examination that he is possessed of the necessary scientif ic
and legal qual if i cations “ to enable him to render i nventors valuabl e
service and is otherw ise competent to advise and assist them in the
presentati on and prosecution of thei r appli cati ons bef ore the Patent
Office.” T he exami nati ons w il l be held under the auspices of the
Civil Service Commission. B y thoroughl y exami ning the qualif ica­
ti ons of an attorney bef ore regi strati on, i t is hoped that a hi gher
standard among the practi ti oners bef ore thi s Office w i ll be obtained.
T he f i rst exami nation f or attorneys w il l be held on September 27,
1934, in about 600 cities of conti nental U ni ted States, A laska, H aw ai i ,
Canal Zone, and Puerto Rico. M ore than 100 appl i cants have si gni ­
fied thei r i ntenti on of tak i ng the f i rst exami nati on under the new
regi strati on system.
PA T EN T

OFFICE

A D V I SO R Y

COM M IT T EE

T he special committee appoi nted by the Secretary of Commerce
duri ng the summer of 1933 to study conditions in the Patent Office
continues i ts labors and has off ered numerous recommendations f or
im prov i ng the practi ce and procedure. So valuable have been the
contri buti ons of thi s committee to the publi c service that consi dera­
ti on is being gi ven to converti ng the committee i nto a permanent
advisory body. W i th thi s i n view, i t w as decided to enlarge the
committee to 15, to adopt the pri nci pl e of a rotati ng membership
and to include, in addi ti on to patent law yers, representati ves f rom
the m anuf acturi ng and engi neeri ng groups. T he f ol low i ng new men
have accepted i nv i tati on to serve on the com m i ttee: W i l l i am J. B el k­
nap, Esq., D etroi t, M ich.; H arl ow M . D avis, Esq., B oston, M ass.;
Carl D. K elly, Chicago, 111.; H . B. Spal di ng, New Y ork, N. Y .; and
Frank l i n E. H ardy , Esq., Pi ttsburgh, Pa. Tw o of these are i ndus­
tri al i sts w hereas the remai ni ng three are members of the patent bar.
A thi rd group w i ll be added to the committee in approxim ately 6
months af ter the appoi ntment of the second group. A f ter attai ni ng
i ts f ul l membership, the committee w ill be rotated every 6 months
by the w i thdraw al of the five oldest members and the appointm ent
of a correspondi ng number of new members.
Since i ts creati on the committee has met i n W ashi ngton on an
average of once a month, and each of i ts sessions has lasted f rom
2 to 3 days. Too much cannot be sai d in prai se of these public-

PA T EN T OEEI CE

163

spi ri ted men who, not onl y w i thout compensation but at considerable
expense to themselves, have served on thi s committee and have given
so generously of thei r time, energy, and talents.
T H E

CONFERENCE

AT

LONDON

T he I nternati onal U nion f or the Protecti on of I ndustri al Property
hel d i ts si x th amendatory conf erence i n L ondon beginning M ay 1,
1934, and completed i ts deliberati ons by the signing of a revised con­
venti on of June 2, 1934. U nder Presi denti al commission the Com­
missi oner of Patents was selected as chai rm an of the A meri can
delegation, of w hich the other members w ere H on. Thomas Ew i ng,
f orm er Commissioner of Patents, and John A . D ienner, Esq., of the
Chicago bar. T he A meri can del egation also included as techni cal
advisers F r i tz von Briesen, Esq., of New Y ork , N. Y .; Robert F.
W hi tehead, law examiner in the Patent Office; and John J. D arby,
Esq., W ashington, D . C. D el egations f rom 46 nati ons were present
;at the conference, i ncluding 34 members of the i nternati onal union
and 12 nonadheri ng countri es i nv i ted to parti ci pate but w i thout
voti ng pri vi leges.
I n many respects the L ondon conference may properl y be regarded
as one of the most successful conferences of the i nternati onal union.
I t is believed that, when rati f i ed by thi s and other adheri ng nations,
these l atest amendments to the convention w il l resul t in substanti al
and l asti ng benef it to the i nventors and m anuf acturers in thi s
•country.
T he L ondon convention, in i ts main provisions, f ollow s l argel y the
tex t of the convention signed at T he H ague in 1925, except f or the
f oll ow ing notable modif ications:
PA T EN T S

A rti cl e 1. T he def inition of i ndustri al property has been rew ritten
to make clearer th at there are included in thi s term processed agri ­
cul tural products such as beer, f lour, etc. (par. 3).
A rti cl e 4. Ref erence to the reservati on of thi rd-party ri ghts has
been deleted f rom the fh-st paragraph. T he thi rd paragraph, B,
has been amended to provide ex pl i ci tl y th at thi rd-party ri ghts and
ri ghts of personal possession shall not ari se out of any acts done
duri ng the pri ori ty period.
Prov i si on has been made f or the recognition of the f il ing of an
appli cati on f or patent, trade mark , design, or i ndustri al model under
any i nternati onal arrangem ent as gi v i ng rise to ri ghts or pri ori ty
in countries of the union not parti es to such arrangem ent. T hi s
provision was included in the convention i n order to avoid loss of
pri ori ty ri ghts because such appli cati ons are f iled in an i nterna­
ti onal bureau and not i n a country of the union. T he A meri can
delegation supported thi s amendment af ter hav i ng made cl ear i ts
i nterpretati on thereof as not excl uding the ri ght of the U ni ted
States to demand a certif icate f rom the government of the appl i ­
cant’s nati onal i ty or residence th at such an i nternati onal deposi t is
the f ul l equival ent of a deposi t in such country. I n supporti ng the
amendment, at least nine other countri es adopted the A meri can
i nterpretati on.

164

EEPO ET OP T H E SECEET A EY OP COM M EECE

T he ri ght to file an appl i cati on under the convention w i th the bene­
f i t of pri ori ty based on more than one earl i er appl i cati on has been
more clearly defined (par. F and new par. G ); and i t is expressl y
prov i ded (par. H ) th at to obtai n the benef it of pri ori ty f or an i n­
vention, the ori gi nal appl i cati on need merel y disclose the invention
and need not contain claims thereto.
A rti cl e 4 bis. A new subparagraph, 5, has been added to prov i de
th at i f an appl i cati on f or patent is filed w i th a claim of pri ori ty
based on an appl i cati on in another country, the patent granted shal l
have the same term as i f i t had been filed w i thout clai m of pri ori ty .
A rti cl e 4. ter. T hi s new arti cl e gives the inventor the ri ght to
have his name mentioned i n patents taken out on his inventi ons.
A rti cl e 5. T hi s arti cl e has been amended (par. A - 4) to provide
th at in case of f ai l ure to w ork the invention, no compulsory license
may be demanded w i thi n the 3 years f oll ow ing the grant of the
patent and th at the patent may not be decl ared inv al i d f or f ai l ure to
w ork or other abuse of monopoly except upon appli cati on made not
earl i er than 2 years af ter the grant of the f i rst compulsory license.
T hi s provision is made equal ly applicable to uti l i ty models (par .
A - 5).
Prov i si on is made (par. D ) that recognition of a patent ri ght is
not f orf ei ted by f ai l ure to place upon the patented arti cl e a notice
th at the same is covered by patent.
t r ade ma r k s

A rti cl e 5._ U se of a trade m ark in a f orm sl i ghtl y dif f erent f rom
th at i n w hich i t i s ori gi nal l y registered, prov i ded the disti ncti ve
character is not changed, w il l not i nv al i date the regi strati on or
diminish the protecti on af f orded (par. C -2).
T he simultaneous use of the same m ark i n one country by i ndus­
tri al or commercial establishments regarded as j oi nt owners of the
mark , according to the law of the country w here protecti on is cl aimed,
shall not prev ent regi strati on or in any w ay dim inish the protec­
ti on of such m ark in any country of the union provided i ts use
does not deceive the publi c and is not contrary to the public i nterest
(par. C - 3).
A rti cl e 6. A n appl i cati on f or regi strati on of a trade m ark in a
f orei gn country cannot be ref used merely because the appl i cati on
presents the m ark i n a f orm sl i ghtl y dif f erent f rom the f orm in which
i t is registered in the country of ori gi n, provided the disti ncti ve
character of the m ark is retai ned (par. B - 2).
I f a trade m ark has once been registered in the country of ori gi n
and then in one or more other countri es of the union, the ri ght to
such trade m ark i n such other countri es shall be independent of the
ri ght to such m ark in the country of ori gi n provided such trade
m ark is in conf ormity w i th the law of the country of i m portati on
(par. D ).
A rti cl e 6 quater. T hi s new arti cle provides th at w here, in con­
f orm i ty w i th the legi slati on of the country of the union, an assign­
m ent of a trade m ark is v al i d only i f at the same ti me there is a
transf er of the enterpri se or goodw ill to w hich the m ark relates, i t
w il l suffice, i n order th at the v al i di ty of the transf er be adm i tted,

PA T EN T OFFI CE

165

th at the p ar t of the enterpri se or business goodw ill i n the country
w here the transf er is made be transf erred to the purchaser w i th the
exclusive ri ght to m anuf acture or sell therei n products under the
assigned m ark ; i t being provided, however, th at no such assi gnment
need be regarded as v al i d i f the public w ould be deceived thereby,
especiall y as to origi n of the goods to w hich the assigned m ark is ap­
pli ed or the substanti al qual i ty of such goods.
A ID

TO

I N D U ST R Y

T he Patent Office has continued to advance the exami nati on of a
patent appl i cati on and to expedite i ts prosecution w henever i t has
appeared th at the patent w i ll cause the employment of men and the
investment of idle capital. V erif ied reports filed in thi s Office f rom
ti m e to ti me prove that the practi ce has accomplished i ts purpose,
and has resulted in the investment of a substanti al amount of capi ­
tal and the creati on of numerous posi tions to reduce the rank s of
the unemployed.
Fol l ow i ng is an appendi x gi v i ng the usual stati sti cal i nf ormation.

A PPE N D I X

ST A T I ST I C S
A p p lica tion s r eceiv ed

W ith
A
A
A

d u r in g

t h e f i sc a l y e a r

en d ed

J u n e 30, 1 93

1

f e e s:
p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p a t e n t s f o r i n v e n t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
p p l i c a t i o n s f o r p a t e n t s f o r d e si g n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e i ssu e s o f p a t e n t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

56,095
3, 811
457
- - - - - - - - - 60, 3 6 3
A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e g i st r a t i o n o f t r a d e m a r k s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 21 16 , 3 1 7
A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e g i st r a t i o n o f l a b e l s a n d p r i n t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
2, 6 8 7
- - - - - - - - - 19 , 004
T ota l,

w ith

f e e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

W ith ou t f e e s:
A p p lica t i on s f o r i n v en t i o n s ( a c t M ar . 3, 1 8 8 3 ) __________
A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e i ssu e ( a c t M a r . 3, 1 8 8 3 ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e i ssu e ( r u l e 1 7 0 ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T ot a l,
G r and

w ith ou t

79, 3 6 7

318
3
2

f e e s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

323

tota l- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

79 , 6 9 0

A p p lica tion s fo r

p a ten ts for

Y ea r

en d ed J u n e 3 0 — •
1925
________________ 7 7 ,926
1926
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 8 0 , 6 8 2
1927
_________________84,511
________________ 8 8 , 4 8 2
1928
1 9 2 9 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 87 , 0 3 9

A p p lica tion s for

p a t e n t s,

in v en tio n s w it h

Y ea r en d ed J u n e 3 0 — C o n t i n u ed .
1930
________________ 9 1 , 4 3 0
1931
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 84, 0 9 7
1932
________________ 73,465
1933
________________ 5 9 , 4 0 8
1934
________________ 5 6 , 0 9 5

i n c l u d i n g r e i ssu e s, d e si g n s,
p r i n t s, w i t h f e e s

Y ea r

en d ed J u n e 3 0 —
1925
_______________
________________
1926
1927
___________
1928
________________
1929 ____________________

103,591
110,080
113,783
116,844
114,496

fees

t r a d e m a r k s,

l a b e l s,

and

Y ea r en d ed J u n e 3 0 — C o n t i n u ed .
1930
________________ 1 1 7 , 5 6 9
1 9 3 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 106, 7 1 7
1932- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 93 , 8 5 9
1933
_______________
79,469
1034- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 79,367

P a t en t a p p lica tion s a w a itin g a ction

J u n e 30—
1925___________________
1926___________________
1927
- - - - - - - - - - - - ,_____
1928- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1929- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1

44 , 5 5 6
43, 765
64, 6 4 6
10 6, 575
103,236

J u n e 3 0 — C o n t i n u ed .
1930
------------------1931
- - - - - - - - ,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1932
------------------1933
------------------1934
-------------------

I n c l u d i n g ap p l i c at i o n s i n w h i ch f ees w er e r ef u n d ed an d t r an sf er r ed .

2Includes 2,211 applications for renewal of trade-mark registrations.
166

119,597
92,203
76 , 7 2 3
49 , 0 5 0
39 , 226-

PA T EN T OFFI CE
P a t en t s icit h h eld

167

a n d p a t e n t s ex p ir ed

1933

1934

14,072
23,448
42,328
345
4,108

L etters patent w i thhel d f or nonpay m ent of f inal f ees..................... ........... ...........
A ppl i cati ons al l ow ed aw ai ti ng pay m ent of f i nal f ees.................. ......... ....................
A ppl i cati ons i n w hi ch issue of p aten t has been def erred under sec. 4885 Rev. Stat.
A ppl i cati ons i n process of issue.....................................................................................

10,342
22,675
39,213
366
3.537

P a t e n t s g r a n t e d a n d t r a d e m a r k s, l a b e l s, a n d p r i n t s r e g i st e r e d

L etters p at en t ...
Pl an t patents__
D esi gn patents. .
Reissue patents..
T rade m ar k s___
L ab el s................
Pr i n t s..................
T otal ..

1930

1931

1932

1933

49,599

44,317

2, 598
374
13,897
1,610
723

3,089
400
12,437
1,787
678

52,572
17
2,728
392
10,901
1,492
483

50,766
52
2,934
375
8.909
1,458
479

48,523
30
2,419
343
10,139
1,635
535

68,801

62,708

6 8 , 585

64,973

63,624

S t a t e m e n t o f r e c e i p t s a n d e a r n i n g s f o r t h e f i sc a l y e a r

1934

en d ed J u n e 30, 1934

U n e a r n e d b a l a n c e a t c l o se o f b u si n e ss J u n e SO, 1 9 3 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o l l e c t i o n s d u r i n g f i sc a l y e a r en d ed J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

$177, 663. 86
4, 2 2 9 , 9 8 7 . 4 0

T o t a l _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e f u n d m e n t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

4,407,651.26
24,183.15

N e t c o l l e c t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

4,383,468.11

E A I tN I N G S

I n v e n t i o n s, f i r st f e e s_
E x t r a c l a i m s____
R e i ssu e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D e si g n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D e si g n e x t e n si o n s- - - - T r a d e- m a r k s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
L a b e l s a n d p r i n t s___

$1,679,700.00
33 , 08 6. 0 0
13 , 6 2 0 . 0 0
40,140. 00
17 , 7 1 5 , 0 0
24 0, 3 7 5 . 0 0
12 , 3 3 6 . 0 0

T ota l- - - - - - - - - - F i n a l f e e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E x t r a c l a i m s____

$1 , 4 3 1 , 7 8 0 . OO
29, 2 3 6 . 0 0

$2, 0 3 6 , 9 7 2 . 0 0

T ot a l____________________________________
1 , 4 6 1 , 0 1 6 . 00
A p p e a l s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
$42,
84 5. 0 0
O p p o si t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ,_______
8, 8 0 0 . 0 0
D i sc l a i m e r s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1,
940. 00
650. 00
R e v i v a l s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - — _____ 5,

j.

T o t a l__________________ t ___________________
P r i n t e d co p i es, e t c - - - - - - - - - - - - - —
$331,
83 1. 3 5
P h o t o p r i n t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1 0 , 0 1 9 . 50
5 3 . 1 4 7 . 55
P h o t o st a t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M a n u sc r i p t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 —
89 ,
948.85
C er t i f i e d p r i n t e d co p i es, e t c _ _ _ _ _ _ _
6,171. 00
R ec o r d i n g a r t i c l e s o f i n co r p o r a t i o n —
821.00
R e g i st r a t i o n
o f a t t o r n e y s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1,
600. 00

59 , 2 3 5 . 0 0

T o t a l _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ |_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D r a w i n g s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ l_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A ssi g n m e n t s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

4 9 3 , 53 9. 2 5
16 , 2 5 8 . 4 5
130, 0 0 3 . 1 0

T o t a l e a r n i n g s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
U n e a r n ed b a l a n c e J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - N et

r e c e i p t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

4,197,023.80
186, 444, 31
4, 3 8 3 , 4 6 8 . 1 1

168

REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE
E x p e n d i t u r e s, f i sc a l y e a r

e n d e d J u n e 3 0 , 193 I f

S a la r ies
_
P u b l i c u se o f i n v e n t i o n s a n d d e f e n d i n g su i t s
P h otolith ogr a p h in g :
C u r r en t i ssu e , b l a ck a n d w h i t e _
_
■C u r r en t i ssu e , co l o r
__
_
_
R ep r o d u c t i o n
P h ot ogr a p h ic p r in t i n g
P h o t o st a t su p p l i e s
__
__
_

_

$2, 7 6 1 , 4 7 2 . 7 4
286. 53

_

$6 7, 22 0. 7 5
6,688.50
3 1 , 4 0 4 76
1 2 , 596. 2 9
3 3 , 4S 6.30

T ota l _
P r i n t in g a n d b in d in g:
S p e ci f i c a t i o n s
I n d ex es
O f f i ci a l G a z et t e

151, 396. 6 0
$777 902 97
9, 5 5 5 . 4 8
1 0 3 , 34 4. 2 8

T ota l
_
M i sc e l l a n e o u s
_ ,_
F u r n i t u r e a n d f i l i n g c a se s
C o n t i n g en t e x p e n se s, i n c l u d i n g l i b r a r y st o ck

8 9 0 , 80 2. 7 3
4 1 , 1 2 5 . 57
5, 2 9 3 . 6 8
26 , 4 0 7 . 1 6

T ota l

3 , 8 7 6 , 785. 0 1
R eceip t s

and

E x p en d itu r es

R e c e i p t s f r o m a l l so u r c es_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ $ 4 ; 3 5 3 , 4 6 8 . 1 1
E x p e n d i t u r e s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 3 , 876, 7 8 5 . 0 1
S u r p l u s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - R e c e i p t s f r o m sa l e o f O f f i ci a l G a z e t t e a n d o t h e r p u b l i c a t i o n s
( S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

506, 6 8 3 . 1 0
65,000.00

C o m p a r a t i v e st a t e m e n t

June 30
1925___________ _________ ______
1926.............. .........................
1927___ ____ _________ _____
1928..................................... .
1929__________________ _
1930_____ _________________
1931....................... ...............
1932........................... ............
1933..........................................
1934___________________

Recei pts

E x pendi tures

$3,271,253. 89
3,457, 774. 53
3, 524,155. 55
3, 705,338. 31
3,783,481.65
4,096,825. 43
4,565,377.08
1 4,487, 508. 78
1 4,423,563.18
1 4,383,468.11

$3,775,476.97
3,857,952.11
3, 769, 604. 03
3,839, 771. 66
4,391,860.16
4, 552,685.41
4,832,277.96
5,314,851. 59
4,588, 585.02
3,876,785.01

D ef i ci t
$504, 223. 08
400,177. 58
245,448.48
134,433. 35
608,378. 51
455,859. 98
266,900.88
827,342.81
165,021.84

Surpl us

$506,683. 10

1 T hi s does not i ncl ude the am ount recei ved by the Superi ntendent of D ocum ents f or the Of ficial G azette
and other publ i cati ons.
C o m p a r a t i v e st a t e m e n t

o f ex p en d itu r es u n d er

Appropriation
Salaries______________
Public use of inventions, etc............ .......
Photolithographing...... ...............................
Printing arid binding.......... ...............
Miscellaneous printing and binding...........
Furniture and filing cases___ ____
Contingent expenses, including library stock____
Total............................. ............................. .

se p a r a t e a p p r o p r i a t i o n s

1933

1934

$3,032,802. 58 $2,761,472. 74
5.00
286. 53
233,377,13
151,396.60
1, 239,909.85
890,802. 73
45,156. 01
41,125. 57
12,475. 70
5, 293.68
24,858. 75
26,407.16
4,588,585.02

3,876, 785. 01

169

PA T EN T OFFI CE
L itiga ted

e a se s

A t t LCX1 L .

I n t er f er en ces d ecl a r ed - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2 , 3 5 6
I n t e r f e r e n c e s d i sp o se d o f b ef o r e f i n a l h e a r i n g - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1, 7 3 2
I n t e r f e r e n c e s d i sp o sed o f a f t e r f i n a l h e a r i n g - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 216
I n t e r f e r e n c e s a w a i t i n g d e c i si o n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 144
T r a d e- m a r k :
I n t e r f e r e n c e s d e cl a r e d - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 215
O p p o si t i o n s i n st i t u t e d - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 873
C a n c e l l a t i o n s i n st i t u t e d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
140
I n t e r f e r e n c e s d i sp o sed o f b e f o r e f i n a l h e a r i n g - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 636
241
I n t e r f e r e n c e s d i sp o sed o f a f t e r f i n a l h e a r i n g - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - I n t e r f e r e n c e s a w a i t i n g d e c i si o n - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 37
B e f o r e t h e B o a r d o f A p p ea l s:
A p p e a l s i n e x p a r t e c a se s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 2, 3 9 5
A p p e a l s i n i n t e r f e r e n c e c a s e s:
119
P r i o r i t i e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M o t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
187
-----306
— - - - - - 2, 7 0 1
E x p a r t e a p p e a l s d i sp o se d o f _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2, 3 0 4
A p p e a l s i n i n t e r f e r e n c e c a se s d i sp o se d o f :
P r i o r i t i e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
154
M o t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
217
371
2, 6 7 5
E x p a r t e c a se s a w a i t i n g a c t i o n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 , 1 6 3
I n t e r f e r e n c e c a se s a w a i t i n g a c t i o n :
P r i o r i t i e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
35
M o t i o n s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - 51
■- - - - - - - - -

86
1, 2 4 9

O l d est e x p a r t e c a se a w a i t i n g a ct i o n , J u n e 4, 1 9 3 4 .
O l d est i n t e r f e r e n c e c a se a w a i t i n g a ct i o n , A p r . 25 , 1 9 34.
T o t h e C o m m i ssi o n e r :
A p p e a l s i n t r a d e- m a r k i n t e r f e r e n c e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A p p ea l s i n t r a d e- m a r k o p p o si t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A p p ea l s i n t r a d e- m a r k c a n c e l l a t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A p p ea l s i n e x p a r t e t r a d e- m a r k c a se s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n t e r l o c u t o r y a p p e a l s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

1
55
10
32
20
------

118
P e t i t i o n s t o C o m m i ssi o n e r :
E x p a r t e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7, 7 6 3
I n t e r p a r t e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
162
- - - - - - 7, 9 2 5
8,043
C a se s d i sp o sed o f b y C o m m i ssi o n e r :
A p p e a l s i n t r a d e- m a r k i n t e r f e r e n c e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A p p e a l s i n t r a d e- m a r k o p p o si t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A p p ea l s i n t r a d e- m a r k c a n c e l l a t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A p p ea l s i n e x p a r t e t r a d e m a r k s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n t e r l o c u t o r y a p p e a l s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

1
47
9
2.9
20
-- - - - - - -

106
P e t i t i o n s d i sp o sed o f :
E x p a r t e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7, 7 1 0
I n t e r p a r t e s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 159
■- - - - - - - 7, 8 6 9
7, 9 7 5
N o t i c e s o f a p p e a l s t o U n i t e d S t a t e s C o u r t o f C u st o m s a n d P a t e n t
A p p e a l s:
I n e x p a r t e c a se s ( i n c l u d i n g 4 t r a d e m a r k s) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n i n t e r p a r t e s c a se s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n t r a d e- m a r k o p p o si t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n t r a d e- m a r k c a n c e l l a t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n d esi g n a p p l i c a t i o n s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n t r a d e- m a r k i n t e r f e r e n c e s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T o S u p r e m e C ou r t , D i st r i c t o f C o l u m b i a , i n e q u i t y su i t s.

123
49
12
6
7
1
198
67

170

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE
O T H ER , D E T A I L S OP B U SI N E SS PO R

T H E

F I SC A L

Y EA R

A s t o t h e v o l u m e o f b u si n ess, t h e O f f ice r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r 6 0 , 3 6 3 a p p l i ­
c a t i o n s f o r p a t e n t s, r e i ssu e s a n d d e si g n s; 1 4 , 1 0 6 t r a d e- m a r k a p p l i c a t i o n s a n d
2 ,2 1 1 a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r r e n e w a l o f t r a d e- m a r k r e g i st r a t i o n s; a n d 2 , 6 8 7 l a b e l a n d
p r i n t a p p l i c a t i o n s; 2 0 4 , 7 6 6 a m en d m en t s t o p a t e n t a p p l i c a t i o n s, 5 , 6 9 1 a m en d ­
m en t s t o d esi g n a p p l i c a t i o n s, a n d 1 6 , 2 5 1 a m e n d m e n t s t o t r a d e- m a r k , l a b el , a n d
p r i n t a p p l i ca t i o n s.
T h e n u m b e r o f l e t t e r s c o n st i t u t i n g t h e m i sc e l l a n e o u s co r r esp o n d en ce r e ce i v ed
a n d i n d ex ed w a s 403, 902.
I n a d d it io n , 34 , 1 3 4 l e t t er s w er e r et u r n ed w i t h
in for m a t ion .
T h e n u m b er o f p r i n t e d c o p i e s o f p a t e n t s so l d w a s 3 , 2 4 8 , 5 9 3 ; 1 , 3 6 9 , 5 5 0 co p i e s
o f p a t e n t s w e r e sh i p p ed t o f o r e i g n g o v er n m e n t s a n d 8 1 6 , 9 8 8 c o p i e s f u r n i sh e d
p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s.
T h e t o t a l n u m b er o f co p i e s o f p a t e n t s f u r n i sh e d w a s 5 , 8 8 2 , 0 9 2 ,
i n c l u d i n g t h o se f o r O f f ice u se a n d f o r o t h e r d ep a r t m en t s.
T h e O f f ice r e c e i v e d f o r r e co r d 3 8 , 9 2 9 d ee d s o f a ssi g n m e n t .
T h e D r a f t i n g D i v i si o n m a d e 6 9 6 d r a w i n g s f o r i n v en t o r s, a n d co r r e ct ed 1 2 , 2 0 6
d r a w i n g s o n r e q u est o f i n v e n t o r s; 1 0 9 , 1 7 1 sh e e t s o f d r a w i n g s w e r e i n sp ect ed ,
a n d 1 5 , 4 9 8 l e t t e r s a n sw er e d .
T y p e w r i t t e n co p i e s o f 3 , 0 9 0 , 2 0 0 w o r d s w e r e f u r n i sh e d a t 1 0 c e n t s p er h u n ­
d r ed w o r d s.
T h e O f f ice ce r t i f i e d t o 1 2 , 1 7 1 m a n u sc r i p t co p i e s, a n d f u r n i sh e d
5 , 4 2 8 m i sc e l l a n e o u s ce r t i f i e d co p i es. T h e O f f ice a l so f u r n i sh e d 3 8 1 , 7 5 5 p h o t o st a t
c o p i e s o f m a n u sc r i p t p a g e s; 3 6 , 8 0 3 p h o t o g r a p h i c co p i es, a n d 2 6 9 , 5 5 3 p h o t o st a t
co p i e s o f p u b l i c a t i o n s a n d f o r e i g n p a t e n t s, f o r s a l e ; 2 5 , 9 9 3 p h o t o st a t - m a n u sc r i p t
p a g e s; 8 9 ce r t i f i e d m a n u scr i p t c o p i e s a n d 8 , 3 2 5 p h o t o st a t co p i e s f o r G o v er n m e n t
d ep a r t m e n t s, w i t h o u t c h a r g e ; 2 9 , 8 6 6 p h o t o st a t a n d 9 , 1 5 3 p h o t o g r a p h i c co p i e s
f o r u se o f t h e P a t e n t O f f i ce; 1 4 , 3 2 9 p h o t o st a t c o p i e s f o r sa l e t h r o u g h p h o t o ­
p r i n t se ct i o n , a n d 1 9 5 p h o t o st a t s f o r O f f ice u se ; a l so 6 7 , 6 3 3 p h o t o st a t s f o r a s• si g n m en t s, g r a n t s, a n d d i sc l a i m e r s f o r o f f i ci a l u se ; i n a l l , 7 9 7 , 6 4 9 p h o t o st a t a n d
4 5 , 9 5 6 p h o t o g r a p h i c co p i es.

U N I T E D ST A T E S SH I P P I N G

BO ARD BU R E A U

B y Executi ve order dated June 10, 1933, the U ni ted States Shi p­
pi ng B oard was abolished, effective A ugust 9, 1933, and i ts acti vities,
i ncl udi ng those over and in respect to the U ni ted States Shi ppi ng
B oard M erchant Fl eet Corporati on, were transf erred to the D epart­
m ent of Commerce,
A t the same ti me the U ni ted States Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau, in
charge of an A dvisory Committee of three members, was created
to perf orm the w ork f orm erl y carri ed on by the Shi ppi ng B oard when
i t f uncti oned as an independent body. T he B ureau is charged w ith
the maintenance and development of the A meri can merchant marine,
the regul ati on of carri ers by w ater i n i nterstate and f orei gn com­
merce, and (through the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on) w ith the
adm i ni strati on of the m ari ne insurance f und, the operati on of Gov­
ernm ent lines and terminals, and the custody of the Government’s
l ai d-up fleet.
On January 10,1934, the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau was placed under
a D i rector w ho reports di rectl y to the Secretary of Commerce. A
thorough study of the organi zati on was thereupon undertaken, and
on A pri l 14, 1934, many i m portant changes, involving a redesigna­
tion of adm i ni strati v e uni ts and a real i gnm ent of f uncti ons, were put
i nto effect. A t the close of the fiscal y ear the B ureau’s pri nci pal
acti vities w ere carri ed on in the f oll ow i ng divisions and sections :
D ivision of L oans and Sales, D ivision of Regul ati on, D ivision of
Shi ppi ng Research, D ivision of Traffic, Sea Service Section (since
transf erred to the B ureau of N avigati on and Steamboat I nspecti on),
and the Section of Publ i c I nf orm ati on. T he w ork of the M erchant
Fl eet Corporati on w as carri ed on in the D ivision of Operations, the
D ivision of I nsurance, the L egal D ivision, and in the offices of the
Secretary, General Comptroll er, and T reasurer. T he Secretary, Gen­
eral Comptroll er, T reasurer, and legal staf f of the Fl eet Corporati on
perf orm sim il ar f uncti ons f or the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau. _
I n addi ti on to the reorganizati on outl ined above, many i m portant
changes in adm i ni strati v e policy w ere i naugurated duri ng the l atter
hal f of the year, w i th the m aj or purpose of i ntroduci ng a more busi­
nesslike adm i ni strati on of the law s rel ati ng to the A merican mer­
chant marine. T he Government’s v ast investment i n shi ppi ng,
coupled w i th the Federal subsidies pai d f or the mai ntenance of essen­
ti al services, placed upon the D epartm ent the obli gation to scruti nize
the finances, operati ng methods, and business practices of A mericanf lag lines, especially of those lines w hich w ere indebted to the Gov­
ernm ent f or ships purchased or f or constructi on loans.
I n conf ormity w ith thi s changed adm i ni strati v e policy, debtor
shi pow ners w ere required to amortize past-due accounts w i th reason­
able dispatch and to l i qui date current obl igati ons as prom ptl y as
possible, closer control being establ ished over the disbursements and
moneys received by the shi pow ners f rom operati ons and f rom the
171

172

REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OE COM M ERCE

Government under ocean-mail contracts. A committee on f inance
was set up w i thi n the B ureau to administer the j oi nt accounts estab­
li shed w i th debtor shi pow ners and to report to the D i rector on f inan­
cial m atters involving m ortgagors and other debtors and on re­
l ated probl ems assigned to i t f rom ti me to ti me f or anal ysi s and
recommendation.
I t is believed th at the new policy, by i ntroduci ng better business
methods, has tended to strengthen the f inancial status of debtor shi p­
ow ner, and at the same ti me i t has saf eguarded the public i nterest by
bri ngi ng about more prom pt settlement of outstandi ng accounts.
W i th i ts i ntroducti on of fiscal ref orms, the B ureau duri ng the y ear
made w ider use of the regul atory pow ers invested in the Secretary
of Commerce over the rates, f ares, charges, and practi ces of carri ers
by w ater. H ere agai n the object was a dual one—to stabil ize and
strengthen the i ndustry itself , and at the same ti me protect the
interests of the shi ppi ng and trav el i ng public.
I l l M arch 1934, at the request of the Secretary of Commerce,
the D i rector of the B ureau submitted a series of recommendations
f or changes in the ship-subsidy policy l ai d dow n by the M erchant
M arine A ct of 1928. A mong other thi ngs, the D i rector recommended
th at the present system of l i nk i ng subsidies w i th the carry i ng 0f
ocean mail should be abandoned, and in lieu thereof specific Sub­
sidies should be granted f or the maintenance of essenti al services
I t w as f urther recommended th at subsidy contracts, based as at
present on bui l di ng and operati ng dif f erentials, should be suf ficiently
f lexible to perm i t of equitable revision as changes i n competitive
conditions occurred. On June 20, 1934, the Secretary appointed an
I nterdepartm ental Committee on Shi ppi ng Poli cy to make a more
intensi ve study of the subject.
T he B ureau has suppli ed the committee w i th f actual data and
ex pert advice, and i ts recommendations f or new l egislati on af f ecting
the m erchant m ari ne w i ll be w orked out i n cooperation w i th, and
w ill cl ear through, the Committee on Shi ppi ng Pol icy.
D uri ng the y ear the A meri can m erchant mari ne, in common
w i th many other industries, continued to f eel the effects of the unprecedented f all ing-oif in i nternati onal commerce, due in part to
the w orl d-w ide depression, and in p art to the impositi on of arti f i cial
trade barri ers by v i rtual l y all of the great maritim e nations. Sub*
normal business condi tions throughout the w orl d have, in turn, sti m ­
ul ated the w ide-spread use of governmental subsidies to shipping,,
w i th the object not onl y of enabli ng shipow ners to w eather the
economic storm, but to assi st them in modernizing thei r fleets agai nst
a revival of i nternati onal trade.
&
I t is obvious that w i th the return of normal conditi ons on the
w orl d s trade routes, the chief benef iciaries w i ll be those countri es
whose merchant marines occupy strong competiti ve positions. The
w ork of the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau duri ng the past fiscal year
can be summarized by stati ng that the B ureau, acti ng i n coopera­
ti on w i th A merican shipow ners, has exerted every ef f ort to improve
the operati ng efficiency and f inancial standi ng of the A merican
merchant marine.
I n the f oll ow ing pages w ill be f ound bri ef reports, covering the
hscal year 1934, of the various divisions and sections of the Shi ppi ng
B oard B ureau and M erchant Fl eet Corporati on

U N I T ED STA TES SH I PPI N G BOA RD BU REA U
D I V I SI O N

OP DO ANS A N D

173

SA L E S

T he D ivision of L oans and Sales was f ormed duri ng the year by
the consol idation of the f orm er B ureau of Construction and Finance
and the Shi p Sales D ivision.
T he w ork of the D ivision of L oans and Sales included the ad­
m i ni strati on of the construction loan f und and the anal ysis of pro­
posals f or the purchase of m erchant ships owned by the Government
and controlled by the D epartm ent of Commerce. I nci dent to these
duties, the D ivi si on apprai sed the value of m erchant vessels and
studied the merits of dif f erent types of ships f or vari ous services.
O ther w ork of the D ivision incl uded the determ i nati on of shi p­
bui l di ng cost dif f erentials; the exami nati on of plans and specifica­
ti ons to ascertain w hether certai n vessels met the requirements l ai d
down by the N avy D epartm ent f or naval auxi li ari es; the determ i na­
tion of speed, tonnage, and cost of vessels operati ng in ocean mail
contract and other services; the supervision of the dieselization pro­
gram of the B ureau; and studies of the possi bil ity of standardi zi ng
ship designs, and of extendi ng the w ork of the A meri can M arine
Standards Committee.
Gonstruction-loan firnd.—From the incepti on of the constructionloan f und to June 30, 1934, inclusive, there have been authori zed
loans to 35 steamship companies f or the construction of 58 new ves­
sels and f or the conversion and/ or reconditioning of 40 vessels.
These authorized loans total $148,074,537.41, of w hich $147,605,809.41
had been advanced by June 30, 1934, leavi ng a balance of $468,728
to be advanced in the f uture. L oans outstandi ng on June 30, 1934,
total ed $120,719,056.38.
T he f inanci al acti vities of the construction-loan f und duri ng the
fiscal year 1934, and the di stri buti on of the total f und at the close of
the year, are shown by the f oll ow ing statem ent:
C a sh a n d a p p r o p r i a t i o n b a l a n c e, J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 3 , a s sh o w n i n
se v e n t e e n t h a n n u a l r e p o r t - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - $ 1 5 , 3 6 3 , 7 6 3 . 0 2
D e p o si t s ( l u r i n g f i sc a l y e a r 1 9 3 4 :
S a l e s r e ce i p t s, f i sca l y e a r 1 9 3 3 , t r a n sf e r r e d
a f t e r J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
$775, 000. 0 0
S a l e s r e ce i p t s, f i sca l y e a r 1 9 3 4 , t r a n sf e r r e d
b ef o r e J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3,407,067.01
1 0 , 71 7, 6 9 8 . 4 3
L o a n r e p a y m e n t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T ota l

d e p o si t s_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

14, 899, 7 6 5 . 4 4

A d v a n ce s on l o a n s d u r i n g f i sca l y e a r 1 9 3 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

3 0 , 2 6 3 , 52 8. 4 6
482, 584. 84

C a sh a n d a p p r o p r i a t i o n b a l a n ces, J u n e 30 , 1 9 3 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

29, 7 8 0 , 9 4 3 . 62

D i st r i b u t i o n o f t o t a l f u n d a t J u n e SO, 1934

L o a n s:
T o t a l a m o u n t a d v a n ced f r o m i n c e p t i o n o f
f u n d t o J u n e 30, 1 9 3 4 , i n c l u si v e - - - - - - - - $ 1 4 7 , 60 5, 8 0 9 . 4 1
T o t a l r ep a y m en t s of lo a n s t o d a t e- - - - - - - 26 , 8 8 6 , 7 5 3 . 0 3
O u t st a n d i n g l o a n s, J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A d v a n c e s t o D i e se l f u n d - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - C a sh a n d a p p r o p r i a t i o n b a l a n ces, a s a b o v e - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

1 2 0 , 71 9, 05 6. 3 8
9, 50 0, 00 0. 0 0
29, 7 8 0 , 9 4 3 . 62

T o t a l co n st r u ct i o n - l o a n f u n d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

160,000, 00 0.00

88223—34——14

174

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

D uri ng the fiscal y ear appli cati ons f or loans in aid of the construc­
ti on of new vessels were received and acted on as f ol l ow s:
N orthland T ransportation Co.— On Jul y 81, 1933, the Shi ppi ng
B oard approved a loan i n an amount not to exceed $350,000 to ai d in
the constructi on and equi pment of one combination passenger and
cargo motor ship to be operated betw een Seattl e and A laskan ports
via certai n Canadi an ports. Foll ow i ng a review of thi s case bef ore
the D epartm ent, the Secretary authorized a loan to the company in
an amount not to exceed $333,712.50. T he company had not started
constructi on of the vessel nor made appl i cati on f or any p art of the
loan bef ore the close of the fiscal year.
Gulf Pacific M ail L ine, L td.—-Under a loan agreement executed
December 28, 1932, there remained on Jul y 1, 1933, a balance of
$47,600.84 to be advanced on a total authori zed loan of $106,016 in
ai d of reconditioning the steamship Point L obos, such bal ance to be
advanced on completion and acceptance of the improved equipment
i nstall ed in connection w i th the main propul sive pl ant. U nder
agreement of February 9, 1934, the Secretary of Commerce released
the steamship Point Fermín f rom the bl ank et mortgage securing
loans covering the steamships Point A ncha and Point L obos, and the
amount of the loan on the steamship Point Lobos was reduced by the
amount of $47,600.84.
W aterman Steamship Corporation—B econstruction, recondition­
ing, and improvements on the steamships A foundria, M aiden Creek ,
and K enowis, f or w hich loans were authorized pri or to the past fiscal
year, were completed duri ng the y ear and the loans authorized were
accordi ngl y made in the f ol low i ng amounts: A foundria, $131,248;
M aiden Creek, $120,000; and K enowis, $182,736.
A ppl i cati on was made duri ng the y ear f or loans to be used i n re­
conditioning and i mproving tw o other vessels owned by thi s corpora­
tion, viz, the steamships A ntinous and H astings. Fav orabl e acti on
on thi s appl i cati on was tak en shortl y af ter the close of the fiscal year.
Cherokee-Seminole Steamship Corporation.— On June 22,1933, the
Shi ppi ng B oard approved loans to thi s corporati on to aid in the i n­
stal l ati on of ref ri gerati on in the steamships Cherokee and Seminole
and addi ti onal ref ri gerati on in the steamship A lgonquin, and to cover
also the i nstal l ati on of a conveyor system i n each of the vessels f or
the handl i ng of small -package cargo. These loans were not to exceed
$52,500 f or the A lgonquin or $75,000 f or each of the other tw o vessels.
T he appl i cant canceled appl i cati on f or these loans bef ore execution of
the loan agreements, presumably f or the reason that the corporati on’s
increased earni ngs made a loan unnecessary.

Proposed A tlantic-Pacific T ransport Corporation, represented by
A ngelo Conti.—A prel i m i nary appli cati on was made A pri l 9,1934, on

behal f of a corporati on to be f ormed (to be know n as the “ A tl anti cPacif ic T ransport Corporati on ” ), f or a loan to aid in the construction
of five ref ri gerated ships to engage in the f r ui t and vegetable produce
trade between the Pacif ic and A tl anti c coasts. T he cost of the ves­
sels was estimated at $12,000,000 and they were designed f or a speed
of 18 knots. Protests received f rom a number of operators of
ships engaged i n trade between the tw o coasts were communicated to
the appli cant. A publi c heari ng was set f or October 2, 1934, and
upon the f indi ngs i t w il l be determined w hether such a l oan should be

U N I T ED STA TES SH I PPI N G BOA RD B U REA U

175

recommended. Pl ans and specif ications f or the proposed ships were
examined by the N avy D epartm ent and the D ivision.
Equator Tuna Fishing Corporation, represented hy Capt. H enry
A nderson.—A ppl i cati on has been made f or a loan of undefined
amount but to equal three-f ourths of the cost to aid i n the construc­
ti on of one or tw o f i shing vessels, pl ans and specifications f or w hich
have been passed as generall y sati sf actory by both the N avy D epart­
ment and the D ivision. B ids f or construction, opened by the appl i ­
cant on June 15, 1934, ranged f rom $481,500 f or 1 vessel and $912,000
f or 2 vessels to $549,000 f or 1 vessel and $1,075,000 f or 2 vessels. A t
the close of the fiscal year the appli cati on was being held i n abeyance
pendi ng f urther organizati on and f inancial arrangements by the
appl i cant.
Sales of vessels.— Sales and deliveries were made of 3 cargo vessels
of a total deadw eight tonnage of 16,750, and of 2 barges and a motorsai l i ng launch. D eliveries of vessels incl uded i n sales agreements
ef fected duri ng the previ ous fiscal y ear aggregated 17 vessels of a
total dead-w eight tonnage of 147,392. N i ne of these vessels were de­
li vered to the Boston I ron & M etal Co. f or scrappi ng under agree­
ment dated November 5, 1932, w hich covered 124 ships. A l l tol d, 39
ships have been delivered to the Boston I ron & M etal Co., although
no deliveries have been made subsequent to A ugust 25,1933. T he re­
m ai ni ng ei ght vessels involved in sales agreements effected duri ng the
fiscal y ear 1933 were del ivered to the Dykes B ros.-Ripley Steamship
Co., I nc. T hi s agreement was dated February 17, 1933, and involved
52 ships, of w hich 43 have been delivered. No deliveries have been
made subsequent to September 16, 1933.
Revaluation of Government-owned merchant vessels—I n the proc­
ess of consoli dating constructi on-loan and ship-sales_ acti vities, i t was
determined th at the method used by the f ormer Shi p Sales D ivision
f or determining the book or asset value of Government-ow ned vessels
was not such as to give proper results and, on recommendation, ap­
proved by the D i rector of the B ureau, a method was evolved to gov­
ern the procedure i n produci ng a corrected val uati on as of the end of
the fiscal year. T hi s method involved the use of the apprai sed values
determined i n 1923 f or each vessel by the Central Fl eet Survey
Committee appointed by the f ormer United^ States Shi ppi ng B oard
in M arch 1923; the determinati on of a resi dual or scrap value f or
each vessel; the deducti on of depreciati on charges at dif f erent rates,
according to the age of the vessels; and the ascertainment and deduc­
ti on of the esti mated cost of repai rs, drydocking, and surveys due on
each vessel. T he purpose of the v aluation was to establi sh a corrected
book value f or the asset accounts of the Government and to serve as
ref erence data in consi dering proposals f or the purchase of ships.
T he values thus determined may or may not approxim ate the prices
f or w hich vessels of correspondi ng ty pe and class are being sold in
the open m ark et, as the l atter f luctuate w i th the demand f or ships to
carry on the w orl d’s trade and they are not theref ore to be considered
as sales prices. H ow ever, they f urni sh reliable cri teri a f or determi n­
ing w hen the asset value of the ships has diminished to a poi nt w here
expense f or maintenance and repai rs w ould no longer be justif ied.
Shipbuilding-cost dif ferentials—A nti ci pati ng th at reliable data on
thi s subj ect w oul d be required i n connection w i th recommendations

176

EEPOB T OP T H E SECEET A EY OP COM M EI I CE

f or f urther ship-subsidy legislati on, a comparati vely simple method
was outl ined by the D ivi si on f or the purpose of ascertaining, w i th a
reasonable degree of accuracy, the diff erence i n shi pbui l di ng costs as
between domestic and f orei gn shipyards.
T he method contemplated the si multaneous ascertainment here and
abroad of prev ai l i ng prices f or selected representati ve m aterials (de­
fined as to quanti ti es, grades, and essential characteri sti cs) and the
prev ai l i ng hourl y wages f or representati ve shi pbui l di ng trades and
occupations in certain defined proporti ons. A prel i m i nary draf t o f
the method was w i dely ci rcularized f or critical comment and has been
generall y endorsed as to pri nciple. A committee was appoi nted by
the N ati onal Council of A meri can Shi pbui lders f or research among
the records of A meri can shi py ards f or data to v eri f y or correct the
f actors proposed in the method and to study the subj ect in coopera­
ti on w i th the D ivision. A t the close of the fiscal year sufficient prog­
ress had been made to indicate that the subject w ould be sati sf actori l y
concluded at an earl y date.
_Standardized types of ships.—U nder the supervision of the D i v i ­
sion there was undertak en duri ng the y ear a study of the desi rable
characteristi cs of cargo ships, ref ri gerator ships, tank ers, and com­
bi nati on cargo and passenger ships. T he study embraced one size of
vessel i n each class, but i t is planned to extend the study to include at
least one addi ti onal size of each class. Consi derati on w as given in
thi s study to the possible need of such vessels as nav al auxil iaries in.
the event of a nati onal emergency.
Dieselization program.—D uri ng the fiscal year acti vities in connec­
ti on w i th the D iesel program consisted in the investigati on and cor­
rection of def ects developed duri ng the continued operati on of the
vessels converted f rom steam to D iesel propulsion. T hi s was carri ed
on by a small staf f of experts i n cooperation w i th the engine buil ders.
T he main items of w ork previously undertak en and completed duri ng
the y ear were the renew al on the vessels Galveston, Oldham, and
West Grama of the lower cyli nder heads, main columns, cyli nder
li ners, and pistons. Of the ori gi nal f und of $25,000,000 authori zed
f or thi s program the total sum of $23,665,000 has been made av ai l ­
able. Ex pendi tures f or the several D iesel program s have total ed
$23,468,194.81, leaving an unexpended balance of $196,805.19 av ai l ­
able f or such purposes.
D I V I SI O N

OF

REG UL AT IO N

D uri ng the y ear the division continued to adm i ni ster the regul a­
tory provi si ons of the Shi ppi ng A ct, 1916, the M erchant M arine A ct,
1920, and the I ntercoastal Shi ppi ng A ct, 1933. Section 22 of the
Shi ppi ng A ct, 1916, conf ers authori ty f or investigati ons concerning
the law f ulness of carri ers’ acts under that statute, and inquiries i nto
alleged vi olations of sections 14, 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 thereof con­
tinued to consti tute an i m portant p ar t of the D iv ision’s w ork.
Formal doclcet.—Tha number of cases on the f ormal docket duri ng
the fiscal y ear total ed 48, of w hich 24 were disposed of , w hile 12 were
heard but not f i nally decided. T he rem ai ni ng 12 were not reached
f or heari ng duri ng the peri od covered by thi s report. Of the f ormal
docket cases, 2 deserve special mention because of thei r outstandi ng
importance.
°

U N I T ED STA TES SH I PPI N G BOA RD BU REA U

177

T he f i rst of these was an i nvestigati on, ordered by the Secretary
o f Commerce on February 5,1934, into the policies, practices, services,
and charges of common carri ers by w ater i n intercoastal commerce
.subject to the I ntercoastal Shi ppi ng A ct, 1933. T he investigati on i n­
volved, among other m atters, the law f ulness and effect of the pooling
of revenue by intercoastal carri ers; the classification of vessels and
lines f or rate-maki ng purposes; absorptions of term i nal and l ine-haul
charges; port equali zation; pri v ate contracts betw een carri ers and
shi ppers; the perf ormance of transportati on services, or services in
connecti on therew i th, w i thout proper tari f f authori ty ; and the nonperf ormance of services w hich by proper tari f f provisions the carriers
hold themselves out to perf orm. Sixty-tw o carri ers were named re­
spondents in the Secretary ’s order. H eari ngs were held on the
A tl anti c, Gulf , and Pacif ic coasts. A t the end of the fiscal y ear thi s
proceeding was sti l l in progress.
T he other outstandi ng case among the f orm al proceedings con­
ducted by the D ivision duri ng the fiscal year was an investigati on
ordered by the Secretary on M arch 9,1934, to determine w hether con­
di ti ons unf avorable to shi ppi ng in f orei gn trade exist as a resul t of
the competiti ve methods and practices employed by owners, opera­
tors, agents, or masters of vessels of f orei gn countries, and w hat
rul es and regulati ons should be made under authori ty of section 19
of the M erchant M arine A ct, 1920, to adj ust or meet such conditions
i f f ound to exist. From i nf orm ati on bef ore the D epartm ent i t ap­
peared that on many trade routes in the f oreign commerce of the
U ni ted States such owners, operators, agents, or masters were habi tu­
all y making drasti c and destructive cuts in the rates established
by f rei ght conferences under the j uri sdi cti on of the D epartm ent, and
otherw ise resorti ng to alleged unf ai r competitive methods and prac­
tices, resul ti ng i n condi tions detri m ental to the commerce of the
U ni ted States. A t the close of the fiscal year the investigati on was
sti l l i n progress. H eari ngs w ere held i n New Y ork , New Orleans,
and San Francisco.
I nf orm al docket.— On i ts i nf orm al docket the D ivision endeavors
to compose dif f erences between shippers, carri ers, and others through
correspondence or i nf orm al conference. D uri ng the fiscal y ear 81
cases were handl ed on thi s docket. A t the end of the fiscal y ear 13
of these aw ai ted disposition.
Special docket.—D uri ng the fiscal y ear 33 appli cati ons by subject
carri ers f or authori ty to make ref unds or waive collection of under­
charges w ere filed. U nder a special procedure i naugurated subse­
quent to the passage of the I ntercoastal Shi ppi ng A ct, such appl i ca­
ti ons are handl ed on a special reparati on docket. Of the 33 appl i ca­
ti ons filed, 19 w ere denied f or f ai l ure to show a violati on of law, 3
were granted, and, at the end of the fiscal year, 11 w ere pending. A s
i n the case of i nf orm al complaints, adverse acti on on the special
docket does not preclude the subsequent submission of the issues f or
decision by the f il ing of a f orm al complaint under section 22 of the
Shi ppi ng A ct, 1916.
Tariffs.—D uri ng the fiscal y ear 2,879 schedules of rates and charges
covering transportati on by w ater in i nterstate commerce were filed
pursuant to statutory requi rements and were submitted to examina­
tion by the D ivision’s T ari f f Section. F i f ty of these schedules were

178

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

rejected f or f ai l ure to comply w ith the law or the D epartm ent’s tari f f
rules and regulati ons. I n addi ti on, 19 i ndi v i dual pages of loose-leaf
tari f f s were rejected. I n 6 instances tari f f s w ere suspended. Twelve
requests th at schedules be suspended were denied. Tw o hundred and
si xty-seven requests f or special permi ssi on to depart f rom notice
requirements of the statute or requi rements of the tari f f rules and
regulati ons were received, of w hich 212 were granted.
Tw o motions were filed by San Francisco B ay w harf i ngers and
other Cal i f orni a i nterests asking f or an order of the D epartm ent
requi ri ng the w i thdraw al and cancelati on of various tarif f s w hich
accorded to Sacramento the same intercoastal rates as appli ed to and
f rom San Francisco and other poi nts on San Franci sco B ay. T he
law f ulness of appl y i ng such rates to Sacramento was at the same
ti me at issue on the f ormal docket. A f ter oral argum ent thereon
the motions were denied w i thout prejudice to the D epartm ent’s de­
ci sion in the f orm al case ref erred to.
A greements.— Section 15 of the Shi ppi ng A ct, 1916, requires th at
agreements betw een carri ers or other persons subject to that act, or
any modif ications or cancelations thereof , be filed w i th the D epart­
ment, and makes i t unl aw f ul f or any such agreements, modif ications,
or cancelati ons to be carri ed out i n w hole or i n p ar t w i thout the
D epartm ent’s approval. T he D epartm ent is authorized to di sap­
prove any agreement, modif ication, or cancelation w hich i t finds to
be unj ustl y di scri m i natory or unf ai r, or w hich operates to the detri ­
ment of the commerce of the U ni ted States, or w hich is in violati on
of the Shi ppi ng A ct.
D uri ng the past fiscal y ear 1,045 of these agreements, or modif ica­
ti ons or cancelati ons thereof , were submitted f or consideration. I n
approx i m atel y 60 percent of these cases, the D ivision, by correspond­
ence, procured the removal of objectional f eatures pri or to f ormal
acti on by the D epartm ent. Seven hundred and f if ty-seven agree­
ments, modif ications, or cancelations thereof were approved duri ng
the y ear ; 3 w ere f orm al l y disapproved. I n 113 instances the agree­
ments were not filed in proper f orm, and the parti es were so notif ied
and instructed as to the proper f orm.
I ncl uded i n the agreements i n effect as of June 30, 1934, w ere 109
conf erence agreements, under w hich carri ers operati ng in the same
trades coordinate thei r traffic acti viti es. These agreements in most
instances require the parti es to m ai ntai n agreed rates and conditi ons
f or or in connection w i th the transportati on of cargo or passengers,
as the case may be, between the ports covered. T o shippers and trav ­
elers they tend to give an assurance of stable rates and equali ty of
treatm ent, and to carri ers an assurance th at competiti on w il l be
mai ntai ned upon a f ai r basis.
Public file.—A public tari f f room was maintained duri ng the year.
A s prom ptl y as possible af ter recei pt thereof , al l tari f f s, agreements,
and f orm al pleadi ngs were made avai lable f or public inspection.
These files were consulted dail y by shippers, carri ers, representati ves
of the press, and others.
Committee on regulation.— D uri ng the y ear a committee on regu­
lati on was appointed to expedite regul atory decisions. A l l recom­
mendations of the D ivision of Regul ati on f or f ormal acti on by the
D epartm ent are reviewed by thi s committee bef ore submission to the

U N I T ED STA TES SH I PPI N G BOA RD B U REA U

179

D i rector and the Secretary of Commerce. T he B ureau’s regul atory
w ork has been greatl y expedited by thi s committee, w hich meets
daily.
D I V I SI O N

OE

SH I P P I N G

R E SE A R C H

T hi s D ivision continued to compile stati sti cs on the transportati on
of cargo (i n tons of 2,240 pounds) and passengers between U ni ted
States and f orei gn ports, and i nf orm ati on regardi ng the ow nership,
operati on, and general characteri sti cs of vessels of 1,000 gross tons
and over throughout the w orld; conducted studies of ocean trade
routes, operati ng cost dif f erenti als betw een A merican and f oreignf lag vessels, and other special studi es as w ere required f rom ti me to
time.
T he D ivision’s records i ndicate th at duri ng the l ast fiscal y ear
3,731 vessels of the w orld fleet parti ci pated i n our w ater-borne trade,
m aking nearl y 43,000 entrances and clearances at 158 U ni ted States
ports and carry i ng over 58,000,000 tons of cargo and 1,500,000 passen­
gers; 1,183 f orei gn ports of origi n and desti nati on were involved in
these movements.
T he D ivision’s files now include data pertai ni ng to the w ater-borne
f orei gn commerce of the U ni ted States duri ng a peri od of 13 years,
and cover transacti ons at 351 domestic ports, 432 ports i n U ni ted
States possessions, and 2,869 f orei gn ports, a total of 3,652 w orl d
ports. D uri ng this peri od (1921-33) 2,056 products were transported
in the w ater-borne commerce of the U ni ted States. T he total volume
of these commodities exceeded 1,060,000,000 cargo tons and thei r
value was nearl y 85 bil li on dollars.
D uri ng the fiscal y ear the D ivision prepared 30 peri odical reports,
copies of w hich w ere issued to Government officials and organizati ons,
transportati on companies, f inancial , i ndustri al , educational, and
other insti tuti ons. T he D ivi si on also compiled 126 special reports,
34 of w hich were f or the use of the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau and 33
f or other Government departm ents. T he remai ni ng 59 special com­
pi l ati ons were prepared f or commercial and port organizati ons,
transportati on companies, periodical publications, and educational
i nsti tuti ons.
I ncomi ng data to the D ivision f or the fiscal year 1934 comprised
nearl y 85,000 i ndi v i dual reports received f rom vessel operators, col­
lectors of customs, and others.
D I V I SI O N

OE

T RAFEIC

T hi s D ivi si on, f orm erl y a p ar t of the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on,
is now a D ivi si on of the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau and handles traffic
m atters not only f or the B ureau but f or the M erchant Fl eet Cor­
porati on also.
Some idea of the w ork of the D ivision i n developing traffic not
only f or the B ureau’s five rem ai ni ng lines but f or the pri v atel y owned
A meri can merchant marine, may be obtai ned f rom the f oll ow i ng
acti vities of the D ivi si on duri ng the peri od covered by thi s report:
Shipments of cargo to China.—T hrough the i nstrum ental i ty of the
D ivision of Traffic, cooperati ng w i th other governmental agencies
and representati ves of the Chinese Government, A meri can cargo lines

180

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

operati ng f rom Pacif ic coast ports secured the trans-Pacif ic move­
ment of approx i m atel y 140,000 tons of w heat and flour, involving
f rei ght revenues of $525,000. U nder si m i l ar circumstances A merican-f iag services i n the Gulf of M exico secured the movement of some
60.000 bales of cotton to Shanghai , w i th revenue exceeding $100,000.
. L iquor quotas.—W hen the l i quor-im port quotas were f i rst appor­
tioned, compl aints w ere received by the B ureau f rom a number of
A meri can carri ers to the effect that shipments were moving excl u­
si vely via f orei gn-f lag lines. Cooperati ng w i th the Federal A lcohol
Control A dm i ni strati on, the Traffic D ivi si on was i nstrum ental in
hav i ng a clause inserted in appli cati on blanks f or f uture shi pments,
w hereby A merican-f l ag services were assured of reasonable parti ci pa­
tion in the movement of thi s cargo, w hich is carri ed at attracti v e rates.
Egyptian cotton.—T hrough the i nstrum ental i ty of the D ivision, a
season’s contract was closed f or the movement of Egy pti an cotton
to New Y ork and Boston. Tw o A merican-f l ag lines w ere benef ited
by thi s arrangement, w hich involved 50,000 bales, w i th steamship
revenues approx i m ati ng $175,000.
Swedish wood pulp.—D uri ng the y ear an A merican-f lag line ap­
peal ed to the B ureau f or assistance in securing a share of the large
w ood-pulp movement f rom Sweden, w hich had been closed by a
Sw edish syndicate i n f av or of German and Sw edish steamers and
to the exclusion of A meri can ships. A s a resul t of negoti ati ons w ith
agents of the Sw edish syndicate in thi s country, the Shi ppi ng B oard
B ureau, through the Traf fic D ivision, was able to secure f or the
A meri can line a share of the contract amounti ng to f rom 40,000 to
60.000 tons, invol v i ng f rei ght revenues approx i m ati ng $250,000.
Increased revenue in shipments.—T he five lines sti l l being oper­
ated f or Government account showed an increase in revenue of over
$2,500,000 f or the fiscal year 1934, although w i th f our less sailings.
T hi s increase in revenue was due to sl i ghtl y increased rates and to
an increase i n the volume of cargo carri ed both in and out. A s a
resul t of the increase in revenue, m ateri al reductions have been made
i n the amount of the lump sums per voyage pai d to m anagi ng opera­
tors. F urther increase in cargo movement is expected duri ng the
coming y ear f or practi cal l y all remai ni ng lines.
Pooling agreements.—Revi sion of conf erence agreements in several
of the trades in w hich A merican-f lag lines w ere interested was de­
layed aw ai ti ng the results of placi ng the whole shi ppi ng i ndustry
under a shi ppi ng code. H ow ever, as a resul t of the delay i n per­
f ecti ng a code the dif f erent conf erences again began w orking on
pl ans to rati onali ze tonnage and f orm pool ing agreements. T he B u­
reau continued i ts endeavors to encourage and assist A merican-f lag
lines in thei r negoti ati ons f or such agreements.
A merican lines’ share of shipments.— T he passage, duri ng the
Sev enty -thi rd Congress, of the f oll ow ing j oi nt resol ution w i ll prove
of great assistance to A merican-f lag l i nes:
T h a t i t i s t h e se n se o f C o n g r ess t h a t i n a n y l o a n s m a d e b y t h e R e c o n st r u c t i o n
F i n a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n or a n y o t h e r i n st r u m e n t a l i t y o f t h e G o v er n m en t t o f o st e r
t h e e x p o r t i n g o f a g r i c u l t u r a l o r o t h e r p r o d u c t s, p r o v i si o n sh a l l b e m a d e t h a t
su ch p r o d u c t s sh a l l b e ca r r i ed e x c l u si v e l y i n v e sse l s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s, u n l e ss,
a s t o a n y o r a l l o f su ch p r o d u c t s, t h e S h i p p i n g B o a r d B u r e a u , a f t e r i n v e st i g a ­
t i o n , sh a l l c e r t i f y t o t h e R e c o n st r u c t i o n F i n a n c e C o r p o r a t i o n o r a n y o t h e r i n ­
st r u m e n t a l i t y o f t h e G o v er n m en t t h a t v e sse l s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e n o t
a v a i l a b l e i n su f f i c i en t n u m b er s, o r i n su f f i ci en t t o n n a g e ca p a c i t y , o r on n e c e s­
sa r y sa i l i n g sc h e d u l e , o r a t r e a so n a b l e r a t e s.

U N I T ED STA TES SH I PPI N G BOA RD BU REA U

181

I t is expected th at w i th thi s resoluti on in effect considerable cargo
th at has moved on f orei gn-f lag carri ers, or that has been div ided w ith
A merican-f l ag lines, w il l in the f uture move exclusively v i a A mericanf lag ships.
SE A

SE R V I C E

SE C T I O N

D uri ng the fiscal y ear the Sea Service Section, through i ts 12 field
offices, placed 25,423 officers and men in vari ous rati ngs aboard ship,
97.7 percent of whom were A meri can citizens.^ On Jul y 1, 1934, the
section was transf erred to the B ureau of N av igati on and Steamboat
I nspecti on.
_
.
One of the pri nci pal objectives of the Sea Service Section duri ng
the year w as the m anni ng of A meri can ships w i th A merican crews.
Because of a decrease i n employment opportuni ti es through layingup of ships f or lack of cargo, special ef f ort was made to secure av ai l ­
able empl oyment f or citizen officers and seamen. T he percentage of
A meri cans among the placements by the Sea Service Section f or the
fiscal y ear is the best mark thus f ar attai ned. A l though all place­
ments aboard A meri can vessels were not made through the Sea Serv ­
ice Section, i t inf luenced more f avorable consi deration f or citizens by
others engagi ng shipboard labor.
T here was a decrease in deck-boy placements by the section m order
to provide more w ork on A meri can ships f or idle seamen.
SE C T I O N O F P U B L I C

INFO RM AT IO N

Cooperati on w i th the Secretary of W ar in the study of ports and
port f acil ities, required by section 8 of the M erchant M arine A ct of
1920, was continued duri ng the fiscal year. T he f oll ow i ng port
studies were publ ished and di stri buted:
P o r t S e r i e s N o . 1 2 : S a n F r a n ci sco , O a k l a n d , B e r k e l e y , R i ch m o n d , u p p er
S a n F r a n c i sc o B a y , S a n t a C r u z , a n d M o n t er ey , C a l i f .
P o r t S e r i e s N o. 1 4 : P o r t A r t h u r , S a b i n e, B e a u m o n t , a n d O r a n g e, T ex .
P o r t S er i es N o. 1 6 : B a l t i m o r e, M d.
P o r t S e r i e s N o. 2 0 : T h e p o r t o f N e w Y or k .

T he f oll ow ing reports were completed and sent to the Publ i c
P r i n t er :
P o r t S e r i e s N o . 9 : C h a r l est o n , S. C . ; a n d W i l m i n g t o n , N . C .
P o r t S e r i e s N o. 2 2 : T h e P a n a m a C a n a l a n d i t s p o r t s.
P o r t S e r i e s N o. 2 4 : T h e p o r t s o f n o r t h e r n N e w E n g l a n d .
M i sc e l l a n e o u s S e r i e s N o. 1 : P o r t a n d t e r m i n a l c h a r g e s a t U n i t e d S t a t e s
p o r t s.

T he f oll ow i ng report was in progress at the close of the fiscal y ear :
Po r t Series No. 15: T he ports of N orf ol k, Portsm outh, and N ew port
News, Y a.
.
'.
,
T he f orei gn port studies conducted by the section were continued,
throughout the year, -with the resul t th at i ts f orei gn port i nf orm a­
ti on, probably the most complete i n the w orl d, was k ept up to date.
I n addi ti on to answ eri ng i ndi v i dual inquiries regardi ng f orei gn-port
condi tions, rates, and practices, tw o m aj or studies of harbor f acil ities
i n 88 ports of Central and South A merica, M exico, and the W est
I ndi es, together w i th a l i st of steamshi p lines serving these areas,
w ere completed at the request of the Pan A meri can U nion ±or us®
at the Pan A meri can Commercial Conf erence scheduled to be hel d
i n Buenos A ires in M arch 1935.

182

REPORT OE T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

I nv esti gati ons were completed duri ng the y ear f or the N ati onal
Recovery A dm i ni strati on, the Federal Pow er Commission, the Pub­
l i c W orks A dm i ni strati on, the U ni ted States T ari f f Commission, and
other governmental agencies.
SE C R E T A R Y

T he A ssi stant to D i rector of the B ureau serves also as secretary
of the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on, and the j oi nt office is the central
adm i ni strati v e office of the B ureau and the Corporati on.
I n addi ti on to these adm i ni strati v e f unctions, the office perf orms
special assignments, i ncl udi ng the m aking of investigati ons and rec­
ommendations pertai ni ng to sales to aliens of vessels documented
under the law s of the U ni ted States, and the surrender of mari ne
documents of vessels covered by pref erred mortgages.
Sales to aliens and transf er of registry.—D uri ng the past fiscal
y ear 55 vessels w i th a gross tonnage of i 00,614 w ere approved f or
sale to aliens w ith the pri vi lege of transf erri ng to f oreign regi stry .
These vessels were ei ther smal l yachts considered not essential in
the development of the A meri can m erchant marine or l arger vessels
of such age and obsolescence as to be uneconomical to operate as uni ts
i n the m erchant marine. M any of the l arger obsolescent vessels had
become surplus to operati ng fleets and had been previously replaced
by new ly constructed modern vessels. Of the 55 vessels, 52 were
specifically enumerated f or transf er to f oreign regi stry as f ollows:
B ri ti sh 8, 455 gross tons; Canadian 9, 881 gross tons; Colombian 1,
5,378 gross tons; D utch 2, 99 gross tons; Estoni an 1, 1,138 gross
tons; French 1, 60 gross tons; H onduran 2, 62 gross tons; I tal i an 3,
14,169 gross tons; Japanese 9, 48,704 gross tons; M exican 11, 6,318
gross tons; Panam ani an 1, 117 gross tons; Russian 2, 852 gross tons;
V enezuelan 2, 4,364 gross tons. D uri ng the year approv al was
granted to issue mortgages to aliens on nine vessels documented
under the law s of the U ni ted States. T hree charters of A merican
vessels to aliens w ere also approved.
Surrender of marine documents.—D uring the fiscal y ear ended
June 30,1934, the approval required by section 30, subsection O (a ),
M erchant M arine A ct, 1920, cited as the Shi p M ortgage A ct, author­
i zi ng the surrender of the m ari ne documents of vessels documented
under the law s of the U ni ted States, was granted f or 40 vessels. T he
surrenders of the documents were occasioned by the change of home
port, change of ow nershi p, or change of name of the vessels involved.
I n granti ng approvals, positi ve conditions were imposed th at the
vessels be concurrently redocumented under the laws of the U ni ted
States and proper endorsements made to preserve the status of al l
pref erred mortgages recorded agai nst each of said vessels.

M ER C H A N T F L E E T C O R PO R A T I O N
ORGANIZATION

N umerous changes in the officers and board of trustees of the M er­
chant Fl eet Corporati on took place duri ng the fiscal year. T he j oi nt
office of presi dent of the corporati on and chai rm an of the board of
trustees w as vacated on A ugust 9, 1933, by the resignati on of E. E.
Crowley.
A t the annual meeting of the stockholders on A pri l 17, 1934, the
f oll ow i ng trustees w ere elected f or the ensuing y ear :
O t t o P r a e g e r ( v i c e c h a i r m a n ) , S o u t h T r i m b l e, J r . , J a m e s C r a i g
H u n t i n g t o n T . M or se, F . G . F r i e se r , L . D . S t a v er , a n d C . D . G i b b on s.

P ea co ck ,

On June 21, 1934, Jam es Crai g Peacock w as elected presi dent of
the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on and chairman of the board of
trustees.
A t the close of the fiscal y ear the officers of the M erchant Fl eet
Corporati on were as f ollows:
P r e si d e n t a n d c h a i r m a n o f t h e b o a r d o f t r u st e e s- - - - - - - - J a m e s C r a i g P ea c o ck .
V i c e ch a i r m a n o f t h e b o a r d o f t r u st e e s- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - O t t o P r a eg er .
S e n i o r v i c e p r e si d e n t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ A d m i r a l H . I . C on e.
V i c e p r e si d e n t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ T . M . W o o d w a r d .
S ecr et a r y
____ ___
___ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S . D . S ch el l .
T r e a su r e r __ 1 ___ 1 ” _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C . D . G ib b on s.
G e n e r a l co m p t r o l l e r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ L . H . S t a v er .
D I V I SI O N

OF

O PER A T IO N S

I n the reorgani zati on w hich took place duri ng the y ear the D i v i ­
sion of Operations was created and charged w i th the general adm i n­
i strati on of all activiti es pertai ni ng to the maintenance and operati on
of the physical properti es of the B ureau and M erchant Fl eet Corpo­
rati on. T he f ol low i ng sections are under i ts juri sdi cti on: M ai nte­
nance and Beserve Fleet, Suppl ies, D i sabi l i ty and V essel Personnel,
and T ermi nals and B eal Estate.
Vessel operations.— T he M erchant Fl eet Corporati on conti nued
the operati on of i ts rem ai ni ng services on the basis of minimum
sai l ings adopted i n the fiscal y ear 1932, and duri ng the y ear 5 lines
w ere mai ntai ned by 4 m anagi ng operators under the “ Operati ng
A greement A , 1930.'” T here were 190 voyage terminati ons agai nst a
total of 352 term i nati ons duri ng the fiscal y ear 1933. T he enti re
reducti on was due to the sale of Gul f port services i n 1933. I t was
necessary, how ever, to perm i t the purchaser of these services to carry
out, under the operati ng agreement, 11 voyages w i th vessels w hich
have been w ithheld f rom del ivery by the D epartm ent under the sales
agreement, and these voyage term i nati ons are included i n the total
of 190.
T he 5 lines have been operated w ith a total of 38 cargo vessels
at a cost of $1,870,750 to the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on, exclusive
183

184

EEPOET OE T H E SECEET A EY OF COM M EBCE

of adm i ni strati v e expense. T he cost of operati on f or 1933 was $4,634,196. T hi s reducti on of $2,763,446 resulted f rom the discontin­
uance of the Gul f services under Government operati on and low er
lump-sum compensation pai d to 3 of the 4 m anagi ng operators.
T he B ureau’s rem ai ni ng lines, operated on the basis of a sti pul ated
sum per voyage by f our m anagi ng operators, are as f ol l ow s:
Service
A m eri ca-France L i ne..... ............................. ...............
A m eri can H am pton Roads L i ne (Y ank ee L i ne Serv i ce).
Oriole L i ne__ _________ ____ ___
A m eri can Pi oneer L i ne............... ........ ..............
A m eri can Republ i cs L i ne________________

Shi ps
8

4
10
11

M anagi ng operator
Cosm opol i tan Shi ppi ng Co., I nc.
j southgate-N el son Corporati on.
Roosevel t Steam shi p Co., I nc.
C. H . Sprague & Son, I nc.

T hrough close supervision of the operations of the lines under the
lump-sum agreement, compensation to the m anagi ng operators was
reduced to a basis more nearl y in line w ith the current f inanci al re­
sults and sti l l allow ing a reasonable prof it to the m anagi ng operator.
I n one case the rate, on an annual basis, was reduced f rom $446,600 to
$348,000, a decrease of $98,600; i n another case, f rom $324,000 to $252,000, a decrease of $72,000; i n the thi rd, f rom $770,000 to $240,000, a.
total decrease f or thi s line of $530,000 a year.
A t the reduced rates the total cost of continuing these five services
per annum amounts to $1,334,000, as compared w i th the yearly rate of
$2,034,600 in effect at the end of the fiscal year 1933. Continued close
supervision is being exercised and, should improved conditi ons
w arrant f urther adjustments, they w ill be effected.
I nv esti gati ons w ere started in the l ast hal f of the fiscal year look­
i ng to consoli dation or rearrangem ent of services in the N orth A tl anti c-European trades. A s a resul t of these investigati ons, recom­
mendati ons w il l be made w hich i t is f el t w i ll be of benef it both to the
Government and to the pri v ate operati on of our merchant-marine
services i n thi s trade terri tory .
Expense of inactive vessels was reduced f rom $170,503 f or 1933 to
$40,294 f or the fiscal y ear 1934. T he greater p art of thi s ex penditure
was i ncurred in connection w i th the reconditioning of D iesel vessels
by the engine builders.
A dm i ni strati v e expense chargeable to operations was also reduced
f rom $681,605 i n 1933 to $337,725 in 1934.
D uri ng the fiscal y ear 2 cargo vessels and 3 salvage tugs were under
bare-boat charter. One cargo vessel w as chartered duri ng the y ear
and redelivered. C harter net earnings total ed $7,353.21.
T he total operati ng loss, i ncl udi ng net prof it f rom the operati on
and maintenance of term i nal s and real estate, as well as the expense
of employees assigned to the U ni ted States Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau,
of the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on f or the fiscal y ear 1934 was ap­
prox i m atel y $2,200,000, as compared w i th a loss of approxim ately
$5,387,000 f or the fiscal y ear 1933, or a reducti on of $3,187,000. Shi p­
pi ng condi tions duri ng the f i rst hal f of the fiscal y ear 1934 conti nued
unsati sf actory , and w hile certai n improvements were noted duri ng
the second hal f , the improvement is to a great ex tent offset by
increased costs of operation.

U N I T ED STA T ES SH I PPI N G BOA RD BU REA U

185

M aintenance and Reserve Fleet Section—D uri ng the y ear reserve
f leet and maintenance and repai r activiti es were combined in one sec­
ti on, and as a resul t many adm i ni strati v e economies have been
effected.
T here were 246 vessels in the reserve fleet at the beginning of the
fiscal year 1934 and 234 at the end of the year. T he cost of m ai n­
tai ni ng these vessels was $165,870, agai nst a cost of $246,985 f or the
fiscal y ear 1933. I n addi ti on to thi s expense, w hich was appli cable
to li qui dati on authorization, an outlay of approx i matel y $432,000
of expenses was i ncurred duri ng the fiscal y ear 1934, pri nci pal l y f or
adm i ni strati v e expenses throughout the organization.
D uri ng the y ear the inspection of vessels under mortgage, and of
those under operati ng or charter contracts, was carri ed on under this
section. T here were 422 conditi on surveys made of mortgaged ves­
sels and 69 of operated and chartered vessels.
A rrangem ents were also concluded w i th the B ureau of N avigati on
and Steamboat I nspecti on w hereby conditi on surveys were made of
mortgaged vessels and of active B ureau vessels at the ti me they were
put through annual inspection.
M ai ntenance and repai r materi al s valued at $58,238.56 w ere re­
leased f or issue to m anagi ng operators and $17,299.35 f or emergency
purposes by purchasers of Shi ppi ng B oard tonnage. I n order that
the repai r-m ateri al stocks w ould not be greatl y depleted, materials
valued at $46,296 were purchased or reconditi oned as replacements
f or those sold.
Supplies Section.—M anaging operators are required to make thei r
own purchases f or the vessels w hich they are operati ng. T he Fl eet
Corporati on’s acti vities are confined to purchasing, storing, and di s­
tri buti ng materi als, supplies and equi pment f or replacement on shi p­
board and f or term i nal s and offices of the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau
and M erchant Fl eet Corporati on. D uri ng the past year, purchase
orders w ere issued amounti ng to $195,096.42, of w hich $82,491.74
represented purchases made by the W ashington office, i ncl udi ng the
purchase of maintenance and repai r materi al s menti oned above.
Sales of equi pment and m ateri al s were made to m anagi ng operators,
purchasers of vessels, and others in an approx i m ate amount of
$87,000, incl udi ng the releases of maintenance and repai r m ateri al
menti oned above.
On November 14, 1933, a policy was adopted w hereby all w are­
house stocks are to be held f or possible f uture emergency operations
or unti l a decision i s made as to the disposi ti on of vessels under the
control of the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on. _ I t w as f urther decided
to reapprai se al l m ateri al s and equipment i n the w arehouses as of
June 30, 1934, and the esti mated value was determined to be

1200,000.

$ ,

.

.

.

D isability and Vessel Personnel Section.— T hi s Section continued

to act in an advisory capacity on nauti cal problems and submitted 27
w ri tten opinions to the I nsurance and L egal D ivisions duri ng the
year.
I n order to protect the i nterests of the Government m the nav i ga­
ti on of Shi ppi ng B oard vessels, f orm 7007, I nstructi ons to masters
and officers of U ni ted States Shi ppi ng B oard vessels, was reissued
to m anagi ng operators. Tw enty-one masters and tw enty-one chief

186

B EPOET OB' T H E SECEET A EY OF COM M ERCE

engineers w ere approved f or appointm ent, af ter they had been se­
lected by the m anagi ng operators. Other licensed officers were sus­
pended or rei nstated on the Fl eet Corporati on’s recommendation^
Twelve m aj or disabi l i ty cases were investigated.
Terminals and Real Estate Section.,— I t was decided duri ng the fis­
cal y ear 1934 that al l leases of term i nal s under the j uri sdi cti on of the
Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau w hich had been, entered into w i thout due
adv erti si ng and competiti ve bi ddi ng should be canceled and that such
properti es should be leased f or a stated sum per annum instead of on
a prof i t-shari ng basis. I t was f urther decided that lessees should as­
sume the expense of ordi nary repai rs, but that ex traordi nary repai rs
or betterments be made by the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on.
A ccordingly, the leases f or the term i nal s at Boston, Phi l adel phi a,
and N orf ol k were canceled, effective A ugust 2, 1934, and inv i tati ons
issued f or bids f or new leases.
B oston T erm i nal : T hi s property was leased to the Boston T i de­
w ater T ermi nal , I nc., effective October 15, 1932, at a rental of 20
percent of the gross revenue derived f rom the use and operati on of
the property , w ith a minimum yearly guarantee of $27,500. T he
sum of $38,265.64 accrued to the B ureau f rom Jul y 1, 1933, to June
30, 1934. M aintenance, reconditioning, etc., by the B ureau amounted
to $30,077.58 f or the same period, leavi ng a net revenue to the Gov­
ernment of $8,188.06.
T hi s lease was canceled, effective A ugust 2, 1934. T he property
was advertised and bids received and opened on June 11, 1934, on the
basis of a fixed annual rental of not less than $40,000. T he lease was
aw arded to the hi gh bidder, Pi ers Operati ng Co., of B oston, M ass.,
at an annual rental of $65,711 f or a peri od of 5 years f rom A ugust
3, 1934.
H oboken T ermi nal: T hi s term i nal w as operated directl y by the
M erchant Fl eet Corporati on unti l A ugust 31,1933. D uri ng the fiscal
y ear the property w as adverti sed f or lease, but the only bid received
was considered unsati sf actory . A s the resul t of negoti ati ons w ith
the bidder, an off er w as accepted on Jul y 12, 1933, and lease was
entered into w ith the N orth A tl anti c T erm i nal Service, I nc., f or a
peri od of 5 years, effective September 1, 1933, at a rental of 50 per­
cent of the gross revenue, w i th a minimum guarantee of $90,000 f or
the f i rst year and $100,000 f or each of the succeeding 4 years.
Revenue accrued to the Government duri ng the peri od f rom Jul y 1
to A ugust 31, 1933, in the amount of $13,148.87, and f or the peri od
September 1, 1933, to June 30, 1934, $38,235.18, a total of $51,384.05.
Ex pendi tures f or mai ntenance, reconditi oni ng, etc., by the B ureau
amounted to $131,898.72, resul ti ng in a net loss of $80,514.67. The
large expenditure was pri nci pal l y f or dredging, carri ed out pri or to
the commencement of the lease oil September 1, 1933.
B rooklyn T erm i nal : T hi s term i nal was operated by the A tl anti c
T i dew ater T ermi nals under lease w hich expired D ecember 1, 1933, at
a rental of 55 percent of the gross recei pts, w i th the minimum
guarantee of $160,000 per annum.
U nder date of D ecember 12, 1933, an agreement w as entered i nto
w ith the A tl anti c T i dew ater T ermi nals under w hich they continued
to operate the property unti l such time as a new lease could be
negotiated. T hi s agreement prov i ded f or a rental of 55 percent of
the gross revenue, w i th a minimum of $144,000 a year.

U N I T ED STA TES SH I PPI N G BOA BD BU REA U

187

U nder date of A ugust 16, 1933, the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on
leased Pi er No. 3 of thi s term i nal to the Steamship Faci l i ti es Cor­
porati on (N orth German L l oy d), effective D ecember 1, 1933, and to
end at m i dni ght on December 31, 1936, at an annual rental of
$144,000.
T he enti re property , Pi er No. 3 and Pi er No. 4, was advertised f or
lease and bids covering use and occupancy of same w ere received
and opened on October 16, 1933, but since the hi ghest bi d received
called f or a minimum annual rental of but $135,000, all bids were
rejected and the property w as again advertised. B ids were i nv i ted
f or the operati on of the enti re property (Pi er No. 3 and Pi er No. 4)
or f or the operati on of Pi er No. 3 only.
U nder date of D ecember 22, 1933, bids were again opened, on a
basis of a percentage of the gross revenue w i th a minimum annual
guarantee of $150,000. T he f oll ow i ng bids were recei v ed:
Pi er No. 3 and Pi er No. 4 ($150,000 g u ar an ty ): Pi ers, I nc.,
56 percent of gross; A tl anti c T i dew ater T ermi nals, 50
percent of gross (y earl y m i ni m um )_________________$151,000
Pi er No. 3 only:
Pi ers, I nc., 51 percent of gross (y ear l y )----------------20,000
N orth A tl anti c T erm i nal Service, I nc., 70 percent of
gross (y ear l y )_______________________________
10,000
A n al ternate bi d was submitted by the A tl anti c T i dew ater T er­
minals to renew lease covering the enti re property f or a 5-year
peri od, on a basis of 55 percent of gross revenue, w i th a minimum
guarantee of $144,000.
T he lease was aw arded to Pi ers, I nc., and si gned on February 15,
1934, covering operati on of Pi er No. 3 and Pi er No. 4, at a rental of
56 percent of the gross revenue deri ved f rom use and operation, w ith
a mi ni mum annual guarantee of $150,000.
Revenue accrued to the Government f or the fiscal y ear amounted
to $154,497.35. M aintenance, reconditioning costs, etc., duri ng the
same peri od amounted to $1,527.73, leavi ng a net revenue to the
Government of $152,969.62.
Phi l adel phi a T erm i nal : T hi s term i nal w as leased to the M er­
chants’ W arehouse Co., effective Jul y 1, 1931, at a rental of 25 per­
cent of the gross revenue derived f rom operati on of the property ,
w ith a minimum guaranty of $125,000 per annum.
Revenue accruing to the B ureau duri ng the fiscal y ear amounted
to $137,935.77. M aintenance, reconditioning, etc., by the B ureau
duri ng the same peri od amounted to $8,575.87, l eavi ng a net revenue
to the Government of $129,359.90.
On February 1, 1934, the lease w i th the M erchants’ W arehouse
Co. was canceled, effective A ugust 2, 1934. T he property was sub­
sequentl y advertised f or lease on the basis of a fixed annual rental
of not less than $140,000.
L ease was aw arded to Phi l adel phi a Pi ers, I nc., the hi gh bidder,
at an annual rental of $162,500, f or a peri od of five years f rom
A ugust 3, 1934.
N orf ol k T erm i nal : T hi s term i nal has been leased to the N orf ol k
T i dew ater T ermi nals, I nc., at a rental of 18 percent of the gross
revenue, w i th a minimum guaranty of $75,000 per annum. T he lease
also provided f or the reimbursement to1the B ureau of $83,333.33, f or

188

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

improvements previously made by the B ureau at the rate of $10,000
per year.
Revenue accruing to the B ureau duri ng the fiscal year amounted
to $87,624.81. M aintenance, reconditioning costs, etc., duri ng the
same peri od aggregated $85,097.99, l eavi ng a net revenue to the Gov­
ernm ent of $2,526.82.
U nder date of February 1, 1934, the lease w i th the N orf ol k T i de­
w ater T ermi nals, I nc., was canceled, effective A ugust 2, 1934, and
the property was adverti sed f or lease, on the basis of a fixed annual
rental of not less than $110,000. L ease w as aw arded to* N orf ol k
T i dew ater T ermi nals, I nc., the hi gh bidder, at an annual rental of
$160,000, f or a peri od of 5 years f rom A ugust 3, 1934.
Charleston T erm i nal : T hi s term i nal is under lease to the Por t
U ti l i ti es Commission of Charleston f or a term of 5 years f rom M arch
1,1931. Revenue accruing to the B ureau f or the fiscal year amounted
to $30,529.43. Reconditioni ng costs, etc., duri ng the same peri od
amounted to $10,072.46, leavi ng a net prof i t of $20,456.97 to the
Government. T he property is i n such poor physical conditi on that
substanti al repai rs w ill have to be made in the near f uture.
Craney I sl and f uel stati on: L ease of the Fl eet Corporati on’s f ueloil stati on at Craney I sl and, N orf ol k, V a., to the Pennsy l v ani a
Shi ppi ng Co. was continued f or another y ear f rom M ay 1, 1934, at
a rental of $500 per year. T hi s property is subleased to the V i rgi ni a
T ank Storage Co., a subsidiary of the lessee. A pprox i m atel y $80,000
was expended by the lessee duri ng the f i rst y ear f or improvements
to the property .
45 B roadw ay, New Y ork City: U nder the provisions of Executive
order dated June 10, 1933, the custody, mai ntenance, and operation
of 45 B roadw ay, New Y ork City, w as transf erred to the D epart­
m ent of the I nteri or, effective February 1, 1934. T he net operati ng
cost of the property f rom Jul y 1, 1933, to January 31, 1934, was
$18,928.38. T he transf er w i l l save the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on
approx i m atel y $25,000 a year.
D I V I SI O N

OF

I N SU R A N C E

U nder authori ty of the M erchant M arine A ct, 1928, the M erchant
Fl eet Corporati on, as directed by the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau, has
continued to m ai ntai n and adm i ni ster the general insurance f und
w hich is used to insure, i n whole or i n part, the Government’s legal
or equitable i nterest in vessel tonnage.
T he B ureau, through the I nsurance D ivi si on, has conti nued to
encourage the pl aci ng of hul l i nsurance in the A merican commercial
m ark et and has rendered assistance to ow ners of vessels purchased
f rom the Government, as w ell as owners of vessels constructed or
recondi tioned w i th the ai d of the B ureau’s construction loan f und,
by accepti ng i n the insurance f und (1) the excess of the capacity
of the w orl d mark et; (2) insurance not exceeding the mortgage debt,
in cases w here the shipow ner is unable to obtain sati sf actory rates in
the A meri can market. I n some cases the use of the f oreign m ark et
has been approved under special circumstances.
A s at June 30, 1934, the total coverage i n the general insurance
f und amounted to $36,927,171, of w hich $21,631,821 appl i ed to 99
pri v atel y owned A merican-f lag vessels and $15,295,350 represented
insurance on 50 vessels operated i n Fl eet Corporati on services. T he

U N I T ED STA TES SH I PPI N G BOA RD B U REA U

189

total amount of insurance w as $17,076,604 less than the amount
covered at the beginning of the fiscal year.
From the date of the creati on of the general insurance f und on
January 1,1930, to June 30,1934, premiums earned on policies, i nter­
est, and miscellaneous earnings total ed $10,056,589, w hich includes
$1,070,065, premiums earned on A merican pri v atel y owned vessels
f rom A ugust 2, 1928, to December 31, 1929; claims pai d on such
policies and adm i ni strati v e expenses amounted to $9,221,303. Pay ­
ments total i ng $2,647,413 were also made duri ng thi s peri od in settle­
ment of old claims w hich arose on vessels covered in the marine
insurance reserve w hich w as accumulated bef ore the present f und
w as established.
U nsettl ed claims on policies issued by the f und and on policies
f orm erl y covered by the m ari ne insurance reserve are esti mated to
total $1,958,140 at June 30, 1934. A ssuming that these claims are
settled f or thi s esti mated amount, the unobli gated balance of the
general insurance f und at June 30, 1934, w ould be $4,996,491, w hich
is less by $119,509 than the unobl i gated balance at the end of the
fiscal y ear 1933.
T he exami nati on of commercial policies f urni shed by ow ners of
vessels m ortgaged to the Government has continued to be an i m ­
portant acti vity. These policies total ed $543,000,000.
Commercial protecti on and indemni ty insurance f urni shed by op­
erators of Government vessels in the amount of $32,296,500 was also
examined. Policies covering f ire, w orkmen’s compensation and gen­
eral l i abi l i ty submitted by lessees of Government pi er properti es and
also automobile l i abi l i ty insurance f or the M erchant Fl eet Corpora­
ti on, total i ng approx i matel y $10,000,000, were examined. A bout
170 cases of personal i nj ury of employees of the Fl eet Corporati on
w ere handl ed w i th the U ni ted States Employees’ Compensation
Commission.
T he settlement of protecti on and i ndemnity claims w hich arose
pri or to Jul y 1, 1929, w hen the U ni ted States Protecti on and I n ­
demnity A gency, I nc., was sold, has progressed f avorably . D uri ng
the y ear 151 claims w ere settled f or approx i m atel y $133,945, and on
June 30, 1934, there were 113 pendi ng claims, total i ng $3,802,302,
i ncluding a number of claims revived by the amendment to the
Sui ts i n A dm i ral ty A ct of June 30, 1932.
T R E A SU R E R

T he treasurer’s office of the U ni ted States Shi ppi ng B oard M er­
chant Fl eet Corporati on handl es receipts and disbursements, both f or
the U ni ted States Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau and the M erchant Fl eet
Corporati on. I n the fiscal y ear 1934, the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau
had a total appropri ati on of $310,000, of w hich $196,605.56 was
obl igated, and $191,200.96 was disbursed duri ng the year.
N o appropri ati on f rom the U ni ted States T reasury was made f or
adm i ni strati v e and operati ng expenses of the M erchant Fl eet Cor­
porati on i n the fiscal y ear 1934, but the use of unexpended balances
of f unds on hand at the begi nni ng of that y ear and operati ng re­
ceipts duri ng the year, w as authori zed. A bri ef statement f or the
several active f unds mai ntai ned duri ng the fiscal year 1934 by the
M erchant Fl eet Corporati on f ollows:
9 82 23 — 34 ------ 15

190

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

I tem

Openi ng bal ­
ance

O perati ng f und ................... ...................... $11,092,055.94
280,133.40
106,323. 29
7,534,603.87

N et recei pts

N et di sburse­
m ents

$827,919.60
5,906,304.78
2 2,574,660.36

i

$4,671,610.95
83,328.21
55
1,431,233.04

2 5 ,540,078.

Cl osi ng b al ­
ance
$7,248,364.59
196,805.19
472,549.52
8,678,031.19

1 I ncl udes $3,407,067.01 transf erred to constructi on l oan f und.
2 I ncl udes $1,525,000 of l i qui dati on recei pts transf erred to i nsurance f und.

Collections.— T he collection of current and inactive accounts re­
ceivable of the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on is an i m portant acti vity
of the treasurer’s office. D uri ng the fiscal year 2,310 current invoices
total i ng approx i matel y $1,800,000 and insurance premiums total i ng
about $1,200,000 were collected and 134 inactive accounts, amounting
to $1,774,000, were collected, settled, or adjusted.
Collections of pri nci pal payments on secured accounts due the
Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau and M erchant Fl eet Corporati on total ed
$15,507,778.27, of w hich $10,670,097.59 appl i ed to construction loan
notes and $4,564,288.50 to ship sales securities. T he sum of $4,541,523.77 was collected as i nterest on notes and other securiti es, of
w hich $3,444,847.13 appl i ed to construction loan notes. T he amount
collected on pri nci pal and interest on ship sales notes w as appl i ed to
the constructi on loan f und, insurance f und, and to the pay ment of
l i qui dati ng expenses, w hil e collections of i nterest on constructi on
loans were deposited as miscellaneous recei pts, U ni ted States
T reasury .
Securities.—Due to these heavy collections and to the f act th at few
new construction loans or ship sales deliveries were made, the f ace
value of notes and other securities held f or the B ureau and/ or M er­
chant Fl eet Corporati on dropped f rom approxim ately $163,300,000 at
Jul y 1, 1933, to about $148,500,000, at the end of the fiscal year.
T he f ace value of notes and bonds held as coll ateral security f or
vari ous f orms of agreements, f or bank deposits and i n lieu of surety
bonds, dropped f rom $2,039,000 to $807,500, due to the complete set­
tlement in cash of the obli gations of two companies and to the closing
of one bank account.
H oming properties.— Conveyances of three properti es at Brooklaw n, N. J., to the B rooklaw n H ousi ng Corporati on were made dur­
i ng the year, leaving 54 properti es to be conveyed to that corporati on,
pursuant to the terms of the sales agreements.
For a number of years the disposition of seven improved properti es
i n Camden, N. J., has been delayed by i nabi l i ty to deliver insurable
ti tles. T hi s obstacle has now been removed, however, and i t is hoped
th at these and five other properti es at the same location may be dis­
posed of to advantage when m ark et conditions f or such properti es
improve.
One piece of improved property in the city of Phi l adel phi a was
acquired by f oreclosure duri ng the year.
Joi nt account activities.— T he di sbursing organi zati on of the M er­
chant Fl eet Corporati on has assisted in the adm i ni strati on of j oi nt
bank accounts that have been entered i nto by the f ormer Shi ppi ng
B oard and continued by the Secretary of Commerce w i th purchasers
of vessels and w i th borrow ers f rom the construction loan f und, who

U N I T ED STA TES SH I PPI N G BOA RD BU REA U

191

have been unable to meet thei r obligations w hen due. T he treasurer
since A pri l 6, 1934, has served as a member of the committee on
finance i n handl i ng j oi nt account m atters and other specially assigned
f inancial questions of the B ureau and M erchant Fl eet Corporati on.
G ENER AL

C O M PT R O L L E R

T he General Comptroll er’s office continued i ts w ork of i nternal
accounti ng and audi ti ng f or the B ureau, settl i ng and disposi ng of
m anagi ng operators’ and other accounts, and prepari ng data f or the
def ense and prosecution of claims, domestic and i nternati onal .
D uri ng the fiscal y ear the General Comptroll er was made respon­
sible f or the preparati on of certai n stati sti cal reports f orm erl y com­
pi l ed by the D ivision of Operati ons. T he Office also effected an im ­
proved and more complete control of both “ line ” and “ corporate ”
accounts of m anagi ng operators and of the operati on of the B ureau’s
term i nal properti es; mai ntai ned a close supervi si on of the fiscal
acti viti es of deli nquent debtors w orking under “ j oi nt account ” agree­
ments ; prepared data f or use i n ef fecting reducti ons of “ lump-sum ”
operati ng compensation; and handl ed special w ork f or the Senate
committee i nv esti gati ng ocean- and ai r-m ai l contracts.
T o a greater ex tent than in the past the executives of the B ureau
and M erchant Fl eet Corporati on util ized the resources of the General
Com ptrol l er’s Office in consi dering m atters of policy, the provisions
of proposed contracts, etc. T he resul ti ng increased volume of w ork
duri ng the y ear necessitated an increase of approx i matel y 20 percent
i n personnel.
LEGAL

D I V I SI O N

T he L egal D ivision serves both the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau and
the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on. A l l the adm i ni strati on of the D i v i ­
sion’s activiti es are under the directi on of the Soli citor of the D epart­
ment of Commerce, through whom all the legal w ork is handled.
L itigation .-—On Jul y 1, 1933, 670 cases, in w hich the U ni ted States
or the M erchant Fl eet Corporati on w ere parti es pl ai nti f f or def end­
ant, w ere pendi ng in the vari ous tri al and appell ate courts i n this
and in f orei gn countries. T hese cases involved the total sum of
$61,688,317.31, and were of varied character— at law, i n equity, in
adm i ral ty , bankruptcies, and receiverships. D uri ng the fiscal year
250 of these cases were disposed of by tri al s, dismissals, and compro­
mise settlements. N inety-tw o new acti ons were brought duri ng the
year, so that on June 30, 1934, there w ere pendi ng 512 cases involv­
i ng $61,190,027.33.
Six ty-six of these cases, i nvolving $833,456.34, w ere in f orei gn
countries. These cases were handl ed by f oreign attorneys under the
control of the W ashington office, although they were immediately
supervised by the legal representati ve in L ondon.
A t the close of the fiscal year there w ere 446 cases, i nvolving $60,356,570.99, pendi ng in the courts of thi s country. O f thi s number 19
were pendi ng in the Court of Claims of the U ni ted States; 29 were
bankruptcies and recei v ershi ps; 106 were at law or i n equity actions
in State or Federal courts; 163, i nvolving cargo damage or personal
i nj ury , and 129, invol vi ng collisions, salvage, general and parti cul ar
average, etc., were in courts of adm i ral ty . Practi cal l y al l of these

192

EEPOET OP T H E SECEET A EY OP COM M EECE

were acti vel y l i ti gated, every ef f ort hav i ng been made duri ng the year
to dispose of the dorm ant cases.
I n addi ti on to the above cases, the law yers attached to the New
Y ork office handl ed al l publi c vessel cases in th at j uri sdi cti on in
w hich other departm ents of the Government were interested. On
June 30, 1934, there were 122 cases of thi s character, involving
$3,707,253.11, on the New Y ork docket.
T here have been 80 cases tri ed or appeals argued duri ng the year,
i nvolving $3,658,512, and of thi s number 42 were enti rel y successful.
Parti al success was obtained in 5 cases and i n 26 cases there were
adverse judgments. Seven cases were aw ai ti ng decision at the close
of the fiscal year.
One of the most i m portant cases tri ed duri ng the y ear w as the
sui t of the B al ti more M ail Steamship Co. agai nst the U ni ted States,
i n the U ni ted States D i stri ct Court of M ary l and, in w hich the Gov­
ernm ent was successful. W hil e the amount involved was only $10,000, thi s was a test case, involving the proper i nterpretati on of sec­
ti on 301, M erchant M arine A ct, 1928, as to the rate of i nterest the
Government should receive on the construction loans authorized by
that act.
Contracts, opinions, and claims.—A l l l egal i nstruments, including
contracts, mortgages, bonds, bil ls of sale, deeds, notes, and miscel­
laneous agreements w ere prepared by the D ivi si on, as well as agree­
ments and other instruments i n connection w i th constructi on loan
and ship sales matters. M any miscellaneous contracts f or supplies
and leases were draf ted and approved. I n addition, claims not i n
l i ti gati on, incl udi ng the detai ls of the investigati on, conf erences w ith
I nsurance D ivision officials, underw ri ters, etc., have had the atten­
ti on of the D ivision.
On June 30, 1934, claims not in l i ti gati on total ed 144, involving
$81,059,040.75.
ST A T I ST I C S

D ue to l i m i tati ons of space, a f ew of the stati sti cal statements
heretof ore i ncorporated in the annual reports of the Shi ppi ng B oard
w il l be omitted f rom thi s report, but w i ll be f urni shed in mimeo­
graphed f orm to those m ak i ng appl i cati on in w ri ti ng to the D i rector
of the Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau, D epartm ent of Commerce, W ash­
ington, D . C.

S u m m a r i z e d c o n so l i d at ed c ash st at em en t , b y a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , f o r t h e f i sc a l y e a r en d ed J u n e 3 0 , 1934-

U ni ted States Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau
T otal

U nex pended bal ance as at June 30, 1933.,........................—------ ------- ---------------

$40,612,939.63

R B ___
R C ___

Sales:

R J.
R L -R M . . ..

$38,139. 20
$310,000. 00

310,000.00
4,931,225. 64
68,136.58
4,989,362.22

$16,138,763. 02

________

44,879.69
581,241.47
O ther receipts:
I nsurance prem i um s--------------- --------------------------------------------------Recovered di sbursem ents:

T ransf er of f unds! ------- ------ --- -------- ------------------------ ----------- ------------

130.11

3,448,556.31

6,122,157.77

130.11

3,448,556. 31

166,720. 56
36,004. 50
3,139. 28
197,580.50
43,790.87
16,959.55
396.15
3,838. 65
10,933,603.10
51,296.52
67,941.34
723.34
11,521,994.36
23, 569,635. 51
6 , 021,924.46
70, 204,499.50

8 .75
2,808.15

10,615,407.59

722.60

926.00

722. 60
722.60

926.00

2,816.90

10, 615,407. 59

926.00

312,947.01

39,065. 20

312,947.01

14,063,963. 90
3,407,067. 01
33,609,793.93

7,063.41

29,834. 00

BU R EA U

D iesel i zati on expense_____ . . . ____________ ______ - ________ _____

1,044,500.15
3,912,187. 20
1,165,470.42

BO A R D

RD D __
RD E .
R D G ...
R D H -.
R D J__
R D L ...
R D O .._
R D S ...
RD T—
RD U —
R D V -_
R D X ..

$29,834.00

SH I P P I N G

R.F
RH

$6,340.81

ST A T E S

R A ___

Receipts:

Chicago
W orl d’s Fai r Salaries and Sal aries and Sal aries and C onstructi on
Centenni al expenses 1932 expenses 1933 expenses 1934
l oan f und
Cel ebrati on

UNIT ED

C apti on

Code

S u m m a r i z e d c o n so l i d at ed c ash st at em en t , b y a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , f o r t h e f i s c a l y e a r en d ed J u n e 8 0 , 1 9 3 4 —

C onti nued

CO

U ni ted States Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau
Code

$1,054.07
85,004.33
86,058.40
1,756,860.87
46,702.54
140,482.93
997,562. 68
13,726. 73

SE C R E T A R Y

T otal constructi on, repai rs, and/ or better m ents..........
Operati ons outgo—V essels:
Operati on of vessels ex pense........... ...................................
V essel r epai rs______________ _________ - .......... ...........
.
Protecti on and i ndem ni ty i nsurance expense and losses.
M ari ne i nsurance expense and l osses---------------- ------M ari ne i nsurance prem i um s— .......................................

TH E

D I _ -

D i sbursements:
Constructi on, repai rs, and/ or betterm ents:
.
Real estate and/ or equi pm ent--------------------------------D i esel i zati on ex pense..................................... - ....................

Chicago
W orl d’s Fai r Sal ari es and Sal aries and Sal aries and C onstructi on
Centennial expenses 1932 expenses 1933 expenses 1934 l oan f und
Celebrati on

OP

DD.
D E._
DG.
DH.

T otal

2,955,335.75

L ai d-up vessels ex pense--------------- ------ ------------- - ........ .
Real -estate operati on and r ental ex pense-------------- ----------

202,476. 01
290,466. 00

D O ..
D S-.
D T _.

O ther di sbursements:
W arehouse stores........................................... .....................
A ppropri ati ons returned to U . S. T reasury ......................
M i scell aneous di sbursem ents......... .................. ........... .

14,782.11
2,749,841. 52
610,627. 64

$29,831.46

$33,646. 62

$33,220.71

T otal other di sbursem ents----------------------------------

3,375,251.27

29,831.46

33,646. 62

33, 220. 71

General adm i ni strati v e expense:
A dm i ni strati v e sal ari es........ ............................................
Other general ex pense.............. ..........................................

1, 296,046.70
223, 547.12

$5,031.01

2.54

5,418.58

167,246. 61
26,001. 25

T otal general adm i ni strati v e ex pense............................

1.519,593.82

5,031.01

2. 54

5,418.58

193, 247.86

11, 000.00

11.49
1,452.19
140. 65

$434,984. 00
434,984. 00

COM M ERCE

D RB .
D R C ..
D R F ..
D R J- .

Ref unded receipts:
..
Sales of vessels, tugs, and/ or barges...................................
Sales of assets other th an vessels, tugs, and/ or b ar g es...
Operati on of vessels rev enue...............................................
I nterest earned.................................................. ....................

OP

T otal operati ons outgo—V essel s.....................................
D J- .
D L ..

DU__
DV—

R E PO R T

D C.
D X -----

C apti on

D R L —_
D E M ..

3,809,702.93
139,926.89

M i scel l aneous recei pts..
I nsurance pr em i um s.. _

3,962,234.15

T otal ref unded recei pts..
T otal di sbursem ents............. .........
T ransf ers of f unds___________________
U nex pended bal ance as at June 30, 1934.

5,031. 01

5l! 79b 159. 64

2,032. 40

70,204,499. 50

7,063. 41

29,834. 00

29,834. 00

39,065. 20

39,065. 20

3,448, 556. 31

101. 31

3,448, 556. 31

226,569.88

3,883,540.31

86,377.13

29, 726, 253. 62

312,947.01

33,609,793. 93
UNIT ED

G rand to tal .

12,391,415.40

101. 31

U ni ted States Shi ppi ng B oard M erchant Fl eet Corporati on

HA ­

f und,
1931-33

L i qui dati on
f und, 1934

RD H R D J._
RD L —

I nsurance
f und

$280,133.40 $5,000,000.00 $7, 534, 603. 87

Receipts:
A ppropri ati ons-...................................
Sales:
Sales of vessels, tugs, and/ or barges---------------------Sales of assets other th an vessels, tugs, and/ or barges.

Operati on of vessels rev enue----------------Real estate operati on and rental rev enue.
O ther receipts:
I nterest earned---------M i scell aneous recei pts.
.
I nsurance p r em i u m s...
T otal other recei pts.

RD D .
R D E -.
RD G—

Repossessed
shi ps and
trade routes

$920,424.38 $4,010,801.26
56' 116. 58
2 , 020.00
922,444.38

4,066,917.84

77,555.62

843,991. 61

21,842.98
40. 00
1,165,470.42

77,555.62

843,991. 61

1,187,353.40

581,241.47

”
463,460. 78
564,570. 72

BU R E A U

R J- .
RL .
RM .

I n suspense

$11,092,055.94 $386,746. 00 $106,323.29

T otal sal es.
R F-.
R Ï Ï -.

D ieseli zati on f und

BO A R D

RB .
RC.

appropri a­
ti on

SH I P P I N G

U nex pended bal ance as at June 30, 1933.

Sales recei pts
O perati ng
f und

ST A T E S

Capti on

Code

Recovered di sbursements:
Operati on of vessels ex pense----V essel repai rs and betterm ents.
losses______________________ _______
M ari ne i nsurance expense and losses........
L ai d-up vessels expense------ ---------------Real estate operati on and r ental expense..

47, 596.18
16,959.55

CO

Oi

S u m m a r i z e d c o n so l i d at ed c ash st at em en t , b y a p p r o p r i a t i o n s , f o r t h e f i sc al y e a r en d ed J u n e 3 0 , 1 9 3 4 —

Conti nued

U ni ted States Shi ppi ng B oard M erchant Fl eet Corporati on
Code

O perati ng
f und

$396.15
3,838.65
318,195.51
51,084.44
63,484. 59

$203.33
$723.34

853, 598.42

T otal recei pts________________ _____
T ransf er of f unds_________________________________

2,044,290.30
1,081, 216.78

81. 000. 000. 00 84. 910. 909 45
6,406.82

14,217, 563. 02 $386,746. 00 $106,323.29

1, 000,000.00 4,917,316.27

723.34

47,799.51

723.34

1,235,152.91
1,527,233.85

280,856.74 $5, 000, 000. 00 10,296,990. 63

58,825.10

27,233.30

D H ___
D I ____

Operati ons outgo—V essels:
Operati on of vessel s expense....... __............. . ...........
V essel repai rs_________ ________________ _
Protecti on and i ndem ni ty i nsurance expense and
losses_____ _________________________________
M ari ne i nsurance expense and l osses____________
M ari ne i nsurance prem i um s____________________

D J____
D L ___

L ai d-up vessels ex pense__________ _________________
Real -estate operati on and r ental ex pense_________

T otal operati ons outgo—V essels_____________

1,756,860.87
46, 702. 54
140; 482.93
45, 612. 36
13, 726.73

*

2,003, 385.43

951,950.32
951,950.32

202,476. 01
290,466. 00
>'

'

1..........

COM M ERCE

27, 233.30

T otal constructi on, repai rs, and/ or betterm ents__

OP

1,054.07
57, 771.03

SE C R E T A R Y

T otal recovered di sbursem ents________________

D isbursem ents:
C onstructi on, repai rs, and/ or betterm ents:
D C ___
Real estate and/ or equi pm ent___________________
D X ----D iesel i zati on expense____________________ ____ _

D D ----D E ___
D G ___

I nsurance
f und

TH E

Recei pts—Conti nued.
Recovered di sbursm ents—Conti nued.
W arehouse stores_____________________________
A ppropri ati ons r eturned to U . S. T reasury ________
..
M i scell aneous di sbursem ents__________________ _
A dm i ni strati v e sal ari es_______ _________ ___ ___
Other general expense_________ ___________ ____
D i esel i zati on expense__________________________

Repossessed
shi ps and
trade routes

OP

RDO___
R D S—
RD T.
R D U ...
RDV ___
RD X

D iesel iza­
ti on f und

R E PO R T

Sales recei pts
1923 cl ai ms L iqui dati on
appropri a­
f und,
ti on
1931-33
L i qui dati on
f und, 1934 I n suspense

Capti on

O ther di sbursem ents:

DTI
D V .......

O ther general expense________ ____ ____________ -

6,000. 00

2,833,757.81

6,000. 00

3,810.67
3,810.67

1,079,817.95
129,191.31

48,982.14
57,902.43

1, 209,009.26

106,884.57

R ef unded receipts:
Sales of assets other than vessels," tugs, and/ or barges.

11,000.00
11.49

139,926.89
11,011.49

362, 638.15

380,746.00

14, 217,563.02

386,746. 00

6,000.00

41,301.01
65,022.28

592,472.76
407, 527. 24

106,323.29 1,000,000.00

139,926.89

11, Oil. 49
4,906,304.78

27,233.30
56,818.25
196,805.19

1,202,572.45
416,386.99
8,678, 031.19

5,000, 000.00

4,917,316.27

280,856.74

5,000,000.00 10,296,990.63

SH I P P I N G

6,960, 557.76
8,640.67
7, 248,364. 59

ST A T E S

1,452.19
140. 65
361,045.31

UNITED

DRB___
D RC_._
D RF___
D RJ —
D RL —
D R M ._

General adm i ni strati v e expense:

14,782.11
2,649,332.06
169, 643.64

BO A R D
BU R EA U
I— ‘

CO

-a

REPORT OP T H E SECRETA RY OP COM M ERCE

198

B alan ce

sh eet

as

at

Ju n e

30,

1934

A SSET S
A - l - 1 Cash and unrequi si ti oned appropri ati ons av ai l abl e f or general purposes................... $7,720,914.11
A - l - 2 Cash and unrequi si ti oned appropri ati ons av ai l abl e f or operati on of vessels tak en
back f rom purchasers----- ------ ----------- ---------- ------ ------------------------ --- ------5,000,000.00
A - l - 3 Cash, i nsurance f und, M erchant M ari ne A ct, 1928............ ................. ......... ........ ........
8,678,031.19
A -2
Cash, av ai l abl e f or settl em ent of claim s, appropri ati on act, f iscal y ear 1923________
380,746.00
A -3
Cash and unrequi si ti oned appropri ati ons, U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard B ur eau..................
88,409.53
A -4
C onstructi on l oan and di esel izati on f unds------------- -------------------- ---------- --------- 150,696,805.19
A -5
A ccounts recei v abl e....................................................................................$23,069,139.20
L ess: A ccounts pay abl e.............................................
$330,177.99
C l ai m of f sets___________
15,609,154.53
Reserv e f or doubtf ul or uncol l ecti bl e ac­
c o u n t s....................................... .................. 6,170,347.25
------------------ 22,109,679.77
959,459.43
A -6
A ccounts recei v abl e due i nsurance f und, M erchant M ari ne A ct, 1928___________
231, 248.65
A -7
N otes and mortgages recei v abl e and securi ti es..................................... $1,447,006.42
L ess reserv e for doubtf ul or uncol l ecti bl e n o tes............................
179,894.03
1,267,112. 39
A -8
Stores and suppl i es, reserv e f l eets.......................................................................................
153, 792.71
A -9
V essels, equi pm ent and m ater i al s.....................................................................................
691,786.36
A -10 L and, structures, and equi pm ent f or sa l e...___ ___________ _______ __________
50,696. 66
A -ll
Surpl us suppl i es and m ateri al s...........................................................................................
500, 635.90
A -12 A ccounts and notes recei v abl e f or shi p sal es..................., ........ ............$23,432,638.01
L ess reserve f or uncol l ecti bl e accounts and notes...........................
1,844,178.79
------------------- 21,588,459.22
A -13 Real estate, ground-rent estate, and equi pm ent....................................... ...................... 12,201,961.20
A -14 E sti m ated recoverabl e v al ue of cl ai m s i n f avor of U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard......................
179,399.38
A -15 Fl eet (at apprai sal v al ue)__________ _____ _____________ ____ ________________ 36,230,617.00
A -16 D ef erred accounts and com m i tm ent charges.....................................................................
273,976.41
T otal ............................................................................................................................. 246,894,051.33.
L IA B IL IT IES
L -l

A ccounts pay abl e and uncl ai m ed w ages.................................................
L ess recei vabl e of f sets.........................................................................

$1,725,131.52
180,177.99

L -2

D eposi ts on sales and other contracts not consum m ated..................
L ess recei vabl e of f sets.........................................................................

212,079.59
150,000.00

L -3
L -4
L -5
L -6
L -7
L -8-1
L—
8—2
L -8-3

C om m i tm ents (other than di esel i zati on)..----------- -------- ------ ---Reserv e f or protecti on and i ndem ni ty i nsurance claims and losses.
Reserv e f or operati ng cl ai m s______ __________________ ____ _
D iesel i zati on com m i tm ents and accounts pay abl e__ ____ ______
Reserv e f or cl ai ms settl em ents and accounts pay abl e.......... ............
Reserve, i nsurance f und, M erchant M ari ne A ct, 1928__________
A ccounts pay abl e, i nsurance f und, M erchant M ari ne A ct, 1928._.
U nearned prem i um s, i nsurance f und, M erchant M ari ne A ct, 1928.
Reserve f or operati on of vessels tak en back f rom purchasers_____
N et w orth as at Juno 30, 1934.............................................................
T otal .

Sc h e d u l

e

1. — C a s h

1, 514,953.53
62,079. 59
726,557. 68
2,813, 322. 39
2, 574,000.92:
48,183.67
380,746. 00
3, 201, 558.12
325,294. 59
357,427. 13
5,000,000. OO
229,859,927. 71.
246,894,051.33

an d

u n req u isi ti o n ed
p u rp o ses as

ap p ro p riatio n s

at Ju n e

av ailab le

fo r

g en eral

30, 1934

C ash av ai l ab l e f o r g en er al p u r p o ses, bef or e ad j u st m en t — c ash i n U . S.
T r easu r y , i n b an k s, an d i n t r a n si t to d ep o si to r i es______________________ $9, 231, 191. 66
U n r eq u i si t i o n ed ap p r o p r i at i o n s, U . S. Sh i p p i n g B o ar d B u r eau , 193 4 ______
14, 658. 77
P l u s—
A m o u n t t o be t r an sf er r ed f r o m d i esel i z at i o n f u n d su b seq u en t t o Ju n e
30, 1934, r ep r esen t i n g r ei m b u r sem en t of n et d i esel i z ati o n ch ar g es
d i sb u r sed f r o m o p er at i n g f u n d _____________________________________
63. 68
L ess—
A m o u n t t o be t r an sf er r ed f r o m o p er at i n g f u n d su b seq u en t to Ju n e
30, 1934, r ep r esen t i n g ex cess o f sal es r ec ei p t s o v er l i q u i d at i o n ex ­
p en se r eq u i r em en t s an d am o u n t t r an sf er r ed on. Ju n e 28, 1934, to
t h e c o n st r u c t i o n l o an f u n d _______________________________________
T o t al ex cess sal es r ec ei p t s, f i scal y ear 193 4 _________ $4, 932, 067. 01
L ess am o u n t t r an sf er r ed t o u n r eq u i si t i o n ed f u n d s,
U . S. T r easu r y c o n st r u c t i o n l o an f u n d , Ju n e 28,
1 9 3 4 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 3, 407, 067. 01

9, 245, 914. 11

1, 525,000. 00

1, 525, 000. 00
T o t al c ash an d u n r eq u i si t i o n ed ap p r o p r i at i o n s av ai l ab l e f o r g en er al
p u r p o ses as a t Ju n e 30, 1934__________________________________

7, 720, 914. 11

U N I T ED STA T ES SH I PPI N G BOA RD B U REA U

Schedul e 2.— R e c o n c i l i a t i o n
a s sh o w n

by

th e

o f c ash

an d

b al an c e sh eet w i th

u n req u isitio n ed

tr e a su r e r 's

c ash

199

ap p ro p riatio n

an d

b alan ces

ap p ro p riatio n

state­

m en t as a t Ju n e 30, 1934

T o t al c ash an d u n r eq u i si t i o n ed ap p r o p r i at i o n b al an c es p er t r easu r er ’s
st at em en t , Ju n e 30, 1934------------------------- -------------------------------------------- $51, 7 9 1 ,1 5 9 . 64
B al an c e sh eet ap p l i c at i o n of t h e abov e t o t a l :
C ash an d u n r eq u i si t i o n ed ap p r o p r i at i o n s av ai l ab l e
f o r g en er al p u r p o ses-------------------------------------------- $7, 720, 914. 11
O p er at i n g f u n d ________________ $ 7 ,1 2 5 , 036. 85
L i q u i d at i o n f u n d , f i scal y ear
1932 ______________________
13,
613. 21
L i q u i d at i o n f u n d , f i scal y ear
51,
409. 07
193 3 ______________________
L i q u i d at i o n f u n d , f i scal y ear
1934 ______________________
407,
527. 24
E n g i n eer i n g an d d ev el opm ent
p r o g r am - ____________________
123,
327. 74
7, 720, 9 1 4 . 1 1

T o t al

5, 000, 000. 00
C ash, o p er at i n g co n ti n g en ci es f u n d ------------------------I n su r an c e f u n d . M er c h an t M ar i n e A ct, 1928------------- 8, 678, 031. 19
C l ai m s f u n d : F u n d estab l i sh ed by F l eet C o r p o r ati o n
380, 746. 00
ap p r o p r i at i o n ac t f o r t h e f i scal y ear 192 3 ------------U . S. Sh i p p i n g B o ar d B u r eau , 1934, cash an d ap p r o ­
86, 376. 83
p r i at i o n b al an c e----------------------------------------------------C hi cago W o r l d ’s F a i r C en ten n i al C el eb r ati o n , 1933
2, 032. 40
an d 1934, cash an d ap p r o p r i at i o n b al an c e----------.30
Sp eci al dep o si t. Sy m bol 80051-------------------------------A m o u n t set asi d e f o r c o n st r u c t i o n l o an f u n d as au ­
th o r i z ed by sec. 11 of t h e M er c h an t M ar i n e A ct
o f 1920, an d am en d m en t t h er et o ap p r o v ed M ar . 4,
192 7 ___ ____________________________________________ 29, 726, 253. 62
A m o u n t est ab l i sh ed as a f u n d f o r t h e d i esel i z ati o n
196, 805. 19
o f v essel s________________________ _____________ —
T o tal cash an d u n r eq u i si t i o n ed ap p r o p r i at i o n s p er b al an ce sh eet
o f Ju n e 30, 1934_____________________________________________

Schedul e 3.—

G a sh a n d u n r e q u i s i t i o n e d
th e

T J. S . S h i p p i n g

B o ard

51. 791, 159. 64

a p p r o p r i a ti o n s a v a i l a b l e f o r ex p en ses o f
B u reau

as a t Ju n e 30, 1934

Cash:
A v ai l abl e f or salaries and expenses, f iscal y ear 1934........................................
A v ai l abl e f or pr i nti ng and bi ndi ng, f iscal y ear 1934- - - - - - ---------------------A v ai l abl e f or Chicago W orl d’s F ai r C entenni al Cel ebrati on, 1933 and 1934.
Special deposi ts, sy m bol 80051......... ........ ........................................ - .................
T otal cash________________ ______ _______________ —
U nrequi si ti oned appropri ati ons:
Sal aries and expenses, f iscal y ear 1934..................................... .
Pri nti ng and bi ndi ng, f iscal y ear 1934-----------------------------Chicago W orl d’s Fai r C entenni al Celebrati on, 1933 and 1934.

$34,573.02
4,232.11
1,516.96
.30
..................$40,322.39
$44,571.70
3,000.00
515.44

T otal unrequi si ti oned appropri ati ons.

48,087.14

T otal cash and unrequi si ti oned appropri ati ons, U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau

88,409.53

M em orandum only:
, „
.
. . . Tt o
A t the close of busi ness A ug. 9,1933, the total of unrequi si ti oned appropri ati ons of th e U . S.
Shi ppi ng B oard, am ounted to $354,305.32 of w hi ch th e f ollow ing di sposi ti on w as made:
(1) A m ount transf erred to the D epar tm ent of Com m erce............ ........ ............................. 255,318.97
(2) A m ount tak en ov er by U . S. T reasury as follows:
U nex pended bal ance, sal ari es and expenses, f iscal y ear 1932...................$29,292.62
U nex pended bal ance, sal ari es and expenses, f iscal y ear 1933--------- 31,047.15
U nex pended bal ance, salaries and expenses, Ju l y 1 to A ug. 9, 1933, i n­
cl usiv e - ______ _________________ ____ ____ ___ ___ _______ _ — o*i 44o. *1
U nex pended bal ance, pr i nti ng and bi ndi ng, f iscal y ear 1932...................
538.84
U nex pended bal ance, pr i nti ng and bi ndi ng, f iscal y ear 1933..... ...........
5,659.53 ^ ^ ^
354,305.32
T he am ount ref lected b y thi s schedul e is the bal ance av ai l abl e as of June 30, 1934, of (1) am ount tr ans­
f erred to the D epartm ent of Com merce.
v
J
Tr « m
T he U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau has no control over (2) am ounts tak en over b y the U . S. T reasury ,
as al l transacti ons thereof are handl ed by the General A ccounti ng Of fice. A m em orandum record of these’
transacti ons is k ept b y the special di sbursi ng cl erk of the U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard B ureau, and thi s record
ref l ects t h at as of June 30, 1934, there is a bal ance rem ai ni ng of $90,062.41, of w hi ch $29,831.46 representi ng
bal ances of the 1932 appropri ati ons w il l be credi ted to sai d appropri ati ons; and $60,230.95 is av ai l abl e l o r
any ex pendi tures i ncurred f or the U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard f or the peri od Ju l y 1,1932, to A ug. 9,1933, i ncl usi v e.

I tem

Ori gi nal appro­
pri ati on

$42, 262,116.41

1, 1 934

R eturned to U . S.
T reasury surpl us
or reappropri ated

$769,692. 33

$41,492,424.08

3,742,681,792.68

96,867,720.46

3,645,814,072. 22

10,000. 00
300,000. 00

310,000. 00

310,000. 00

5,000,000. 00

5,000, 000. 00

5,000,000. 00

T otal f or f iscal y ear ended June 30, 1934.............. ........................................

5,310,000.00

5,000,000.00

310,000. 00

310,000.00

COM M ERCE

10,000. 00
300, 000.00

$3,604, 321,648.14

OF

T otal f or f iscal y ear pri or to Ju l y 1, 1933....... ............ .............. .

5,000, 000. 00

SE C R E T A R Y

• 2,1 3 8 ,2 4 0 .0 0
3,604,321,648.14

T otal f or U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard M erchant F l eet C orporati on________

T H E

24,988,318.55

96,098,028.13

T otal f or U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard___ _________ ____________________

$41,492,424.08

167,353,882.30
38, 254,184.90

3,700,419,676.27

U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard M erchant Fl eet Corporati on:
A ct of June 16, 1933:
Operati on of tr ade li nes, ex purchasers (ex pendi tures on approv al of Presi ­
dent of the U ni ted States)
_____ ____ ____ ______

U . S. Shi ppi ng
B oard M erchant
Fl eet Corporati on

50,000,000.00
3,325,863,502.39

T otal U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard M erchant Fl eet C orporati on______ ________

For f iscal y ear ended June 30, 1934:
Ü . S. Shi ppi ng Board:
A ct of June 16, 1933:
Pri nti ng and bi ndi ng___ __________ _________________
A ll other ex penses_________________

U . S. Shi ppi ng
B oard

OP

U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard M erchant F l eet Corporati on:
A ct of Sept. 7,1916, perm anent f und____________ ______ _____ ____ ______
50.000.
000.00
A cts of June Î 5, 1917, to June 12, 1922, em ergency shi ppi ng f u n d _____________ 3,363,553,000.00
37,689,497.61
A cts of Feb. 13, 1923; June 7, 1924; M ar. 3, 1925; A pr. 22, 1926; Feb. 11, 1927;
M ay 16, 1928; Feb. 20, 1929; A pr. 19, 1930; Feb. 23, 1931; and June 30, 1932,
current m ai ntenance and operati ons_____ ____________
167,354,250.00
367.70
A ct of June 12,1922, claims dam age charges and m i scellaneous adj ustm ents__
50.000.
000.00 11,745,815.10
A cts of A pr. 17,1917, and Ju l y 1,1918, nati onal securi ty and def ense (Presi denti al
al l otm ents)________________________________ _______________________
29,512,426.27
4,524,107. 72
A cts of A pr. 22, 1926; Feb. 11, 1927; M ay 16, 1928; Feb. 20, 1929; A pr. 19, 1930;
Feb. 23, 1931; and June 30, 1932, operati on of tr ade li nes, ex purchasers (ex­
pendi tures on approv al of Presi dent of the U ni ted States)____ _________
40.000.
000.00 40,000,000. 00
R eturned to U . S. T reasury as requi red by act of Congress June 30,1932 (Publ i c
2,138,240. 00

N et appropri ­
ati on

R E PO R T

For f iscal y ear ended pri or to Jul y 1, 1933:
U . S. Shi ppi ng Board:
A cts of Sept. 7,1916: June 12,1917; Ju l y 1,1918; Ju l y 19,1919; June 3,1920; M ar.
4,1921; June 16, 1921; June 12, 1922; Feb. 13, 1923; June 7, 1924; M ar. 3, 1925;
A pr. 22, 1926; Feb. 11, 1927; M ay 16, 1928; Feb. 20, 1929; A pr. 19, 1930; Feb.
23, 1931, and June 30, 1932............ ...........................................................................

i n c e p ti o n to J u l y

200

G r o ss a p p r o p r i a t i o n s a n d a l l o t m e n t s f r o m

F or f iscal y ear endi ng June 30, 1935:
U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard Bureau:
A ct of A pr. 7, 1934:

U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard M erchant F l eet Corporation:
A ct of A pr. 7, 1934:
Operati on of trade li nes, ex purchasers (ex pendi tures on approv al of Presi-

Gross appropri ati ons and al l otm ents............................ ................ .............

219, 216.00

219,216.00

219, 216.00

5,000, 000. 00

5,000, 000.00

5,000,000.00

5,000, 000. 00

5, 219,216.00

5,219, 216.00
101,867,720.46

3,651,343, 288.22

5,000,000. 00

42,021,640.08

3,609,321,648.14

1L oss.
N o t e — I n addi ti on to th e returns to the U . S. T reasury , as i ndi cated abov e, th e U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard M erchant Fl eet Corporati on returned to th e U . S. T reasur y th e f ollow ing

SH I P P I N G

as requi red by acts of Congress: 1. A ct of M ar. 20, 1933 (Publ i c N o. 2, 73d Cong.), $6,071.62 f or transf er to the D epar tm ent of the I nteri or to bal ance th e operati ng budget of
the bui l di ng, 45 B roadw ay , N ew Y ork Ci ty; 2. A ct of June 16,1933 (Publ i c N o. 78, 73d Cong.), $2,600,000 f or transf er to the Post Of fice D epar tm ent f or m eeti ng th e cost of f oreign
m ai l contracts.

ST A T E S

3,753,211,008.68

219,216.00

UNITED

T otal f or U . S. Shi ppi ng B oard M erchant Fl eet C orporati on________

219,216.00

BO A BD
BU E EA U

to
o

REPOET OE T H E SECRETA RY OF COM M ERCE

2 0 2

E stim ated

o p e r a t i n g pro-f it a n d

l o s s f i s c a l g e a r 193Jf

[A m ounts show n i n i tal i cs represent losses]

I tem

N um ber
of ter m i ­
nati ons

E sti ­
m ated
rev enue

E sti m ated
voyage
ex pense

I n su r ­
ance

T otal ex­
pense

Prof i t or
loss

$1,870,750.00 $ 1 , 8 7 0 , 7 5 0 . 0 0
$1,870, 750.00
190
6, 601.63
1 1 $13,954.84
$6,601.63
7,353. 21
191 13, 954.84 1,870, 750. 00

6,601.63 1,877, 351.63
40,294.05

1, 8 6 3 , 3 9 6 . 7 9
40 ,2 94. 05

337, 725. 02
312,464. 54

33 7, 72 5. 02

605, 202. 34
191 619,157.18

2,567,835.24

1 ,9 4 8 ,6 7 8 .0 6

A dm i ni strati v e expense opera-

A dm i ni strati v e expense, em pl oy ­
ees assi gned to U . S. Shi ppi ng
T otal ....................................

292,737.80

249,871. 26

249,871.26

2,817,706. 50

2 ,1 9 8 ,5 4 9 .3 2

i N um ber of vessel s at end of f iscal y ear.

O

\