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SPECIAL
COLLECTIONS

T H IR T E E N T H A N N U A L R E P O R T
OF

T H E SECRETARY O F CO M M ERCE
FOR

THE

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30, 1925

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T H IR T E E N T H A N N U A L R E P O R T

OF THE

SEC R ETA R Y O F COM M ERCE

1925

PR IC E 20 CENTS
Sold only by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office
Washington, D. C.
W ASHINGTON
GOVERNM ENT PR IN T IN G OFFICE
1925

O R G A N IZ A T IO N O F T H E D E P A R T M E N T
[N o v em b er 2 , 1 9 2 5 ]

S e c r e t a r y o f C o m m e r c e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ H e r be r t H o o v e r .
A s s is t a n t S e c r e t a r y o f C o m m e r c e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ J . W a l t e r D r a k e .
S o li c i t o r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
St e p h e n B . D a v i s .
C h ie f C le r k a n d S u p e r in t e n d e n t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ E d w a r d W . Di u b e y .
D is b u r s in g C le r k _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____ C h a r l e s E. H o l s t e r .
C h ie f , A p p o in t m e n t D iv is io n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ C l i f f o r d H a s t i n g s .
C h ie f , D iv is i o n o f P u b l ic a t io n s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ T h o m a s F . Mc K e o n .
C h ie f , D iv is i o n o f S u p p lie s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ R a l ph B. B r o n s o n .
D ir e c t o r o f t h e C e n s u s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ W i l l i a m M. S t e u a r t .
D ir e c t o r , B u r e a u o f F o r e ig n a n d D o m e s t ic C o m m e r c e — J u l i u s K l e i n .
D ir e c t o r , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Ge o r o e K . B u r g e s s .
C o m m is s io n e r o f F is h e r ie s _________________________

H e n r y O’Ma l l e y .

C o m m is s io n e r o f L ig h t h o u s e s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Ge o r g e R . P u t n a m .
D ir e c t o r , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ E . L e s t e r J o n e s .
C o m m is s io n e r o f N a v ig a t io n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D a v i d B . Ca r s o n .
S u j> e r v isin g I n s p e c t o r G e n e r a l, S te a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n
S e r v ic e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Ge o r g e U i i l e r .
C o m m is s io n e r o f P a t e n t s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ T h o m a s E. R o be r t s o n .
D ir e c t o r , B u r e a u o f M in e s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S c o t t T u r n e r .

n

C O N T E N T S
Pag«
In tr o d u c to r y s ta te m e n t_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

1

P a r t I.—PROGRESS IN E LIM INATION OF W ASTE

E li m in a t i o n o f w a s t e in r a il w a y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I m p r o v e m e n t o f o u r in la n d w a t e r w a y s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M is s is s ip p i R iv e r s y s t e m _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G r e at L a k e s to th e o c e a n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G r e a t V a lle y o f C a l if o r n i a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o lo r a d o R iv e r _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E lim in a t i o n o f w a s t e t h r o u g h e n la r g e d e le c t r i f ic a t io n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t a t i s t i c s a s a f o r c e in t h e e lim in a t i o n o f w a s t e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E lim in a t io n o f w a s t e in p r o c e s s e s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E li m in a t io n o f w a s t e in t h e c o n s t r u c t io n in d u s t r ie s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e d u c t io n in s e a s o n a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e in d u s t r y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E s t a b li s h in g s t a n d a r d s o f g r a d e s a n d q u a lit y in t h e lu m b e r i n d u s t r y D o c u m e n ta tio n _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
T e s t s o f b u i ld in g m a t e r ia ls _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S im p lif ic a t io n o f d im e n s io n s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M u n ic ip a l b u ild in g a n d p lu m b in g c o d e s a n d z o n in g o r d in a n c e s _ _ _ _ _ _
D e v e lo p m e n t o f c o n s t r u c t io n s t a t i s t i c s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
H o m e - o w n e r s ’ p r o b le m s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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E lim in a t in g w a s t e b y s im p lif ie d p r a c t i c e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S p e c if ic a t io n s a n d b u s in e s s d o c u m e n t a t io n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E li m in a t i o n o f w a s t e in d i s t r i b u t i o n _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E li m in a t i o n o f w a s t e in f is h e r ie s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t r e e t a n d h ig h w a y s a f e t y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

It)
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24
27
28

P a r t II.— ECONOMIC REV IEW

In d u str y ________________________________________________________

30

C o n s tr u c tio n _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _

31

A g r i c u lt u r e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T r a n s p o r ta tio n _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
O cean s h ip p in g _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
B a n k i n g a n d f in a n c e a t h o m e a n d in f o r e ig n t r a d e - - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- -

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F o r e ig n t r a d e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

38

P a r t III.—L EG ISLA TIVE RECOMMENDATIONS

A d e q u a t e b u ild in g f o r d e p a r t m e n t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F e d e r a l t a x e s o n A m e r ic a n s r e s id e n t a b r o a d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F e e s c h a r g e d fo r p a ssp o r ts _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e v is i o n o f t h e n a v ig a t io n l a w s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
B u r e a u o f F o r e ig n a n d D o m e s t ic C o m m e r c e - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- B u r e a u o f t h e C e n s u s - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- S t e a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v ic e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
B u r e a u o f N a v ig a t io n - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -

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L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -

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m

CONTENTS

IV

P a r t IV.—CONDENSED R EPO RTS OF BUREAUS

Unge
Ad m in is t r a t iv e D iv is io n s o f t h e Of f ic e
o f t h e S e c r e t a r y ...................................
C o o p e ra tio n w ith F e d e ra l ag en cies— ........
G o v e rn m e n t-o w n e d b u ild in g for th e de­
p a r tm e n t.................................................
D isb u rs in g office- . ........................................
A p p ro p ria tio n s a n d e x p e n d itu re s.............
A p p o in tm e n t d iv is io n ..................................
D iv isio n of p u b lic a tio n s ...............................
C e n tra liz a tio n of su p e rv is io n ....................
E x p e n d itu re s in 1925 a n d a p p ro p ria tio n s
for 1926.....................................................
Sales of d e p a r tm e n t's p u b lic a tio n s.........
D iv isio n of s u p p lie s ......................................
P u rc h a s e s ....................................................
R e al e s ta te ..................................................
C o n tra c ts a n d a d ju s tm e n ts .......................
T ra ffic office...................................................
D e p a r tm e n t l i b r a r y ......................................
W o rk of th e S o lic ito r's office........................
M isce llan eo us s ta tis tic s .................................
T a b le 1 —T o ta l a p p ro p ria tio n s , 1925.......
T a b le 2.—Ite m iz e d d isb u rse m e n ts, 1925..
T a b le 3.—T re a s u ry w a rra n ts , 1925...........
T a b le 4.—E x p e n d itu re s , 1925...............
T a b le 5.—M isce llan eo us re c e ip ts, 1925. __
T a b le 6.—U n e x p e n d e d ba lan ces, 1925---T a b le 7.—S u m m a ry of u n e x p e n d e d b a l­
an ce s, 1917-1925.................................... . .
T a b le 8.— P e rso n n e l, 1925..........................
T a b le 9.—C h a n g e s in pe rso nn el, 1925----T a b le 10.—L ea v e of absen ce , c a le n d a r
y e a r 1924..................................................
T a b le 11.— P r in tin g a n d b in d in g ..............
T a b le 1 2 — Sales of p u b lic a tio n s................
T a b le
13.—D e p a r tm e n ta l sh ip m e n ts ,
1925...........................................................

Bu r e a u

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48

of t he

C e n s u s —C o n tin u e d .

Office force—C o n tin u e d .
S e p a ra tio n s..............................................
T ra n s fe rs w ith in b u r e a u ............................
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s for c h an ge s in cen su s
la w s ..................
In d u s tr ia l a n d b u sin e ss s ta tis tic s .............
C o tto n .........................................................
Stock s of le af to b a c c o ............................
M a rria g e a n d d iv o rc e ........................

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I n tro d u c tio n a n d s u m m a r y ..........................
C e n su s of a g r ic u ltu re .....................................
C e n su s of m a n u fa c tu re s ................................
V ita l s ta tis tic s ................................................
B ir th s a n d d e a th s .....................................
M a rria g e a n d d iv o r c e ............ ..................
I n s titu tio n a l p o p u la tio n ...............................
F in a n c ia l s ta tis tic s of S ta te a n d c ity g ov ­
e r n m e n ts ..................
M e th o d of co lle c tio n ..................................
P u b lic a tio n of th e s ta tis tic s .......................
W e a lth , p u b lic d e b t, a n d ta x a tio n ..............
S u rv e y of C u r r e n t B u s in e s s ...........
S ta tistic s of tob ac co , c o tto n , a n d l e a t h e r . . .
T o b a c c o ...... .................................................
C o tto n .................................................
L e a th e r ........................................................
C o llectio n of in d u s tria l a n d b u sin e ss d a t a . .
C o o p e ra tio n in s ta tis tic a l w o r k ....................
E s tim a te s of p o p u la tio n ................................
C e n su s re c o rd s...............................................
T a b u la tin g m a c h i n e s ..................................
E c o n o m ic s..........................................
Office foree.....................................................
N u m b e r of em p lo y e e s................................
A p p o in tm e n ts ............................................
P ro m o tio n s.................................................

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o f F o r e ig n a n d D o me s t ic C o m ­
m e r c e ..........................................................

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Bu r e a u
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C e n s u s ................................

of t he

Page
Bu r e a u

O versea s field s ta f f ........................................
G en e ra l c h a ra c te ristic s of w o r k ................
A c h ie v e m e n ts of r e p re se n ta tiv e s in
E u ro p e , A frica, a n d C a n a d a ..................
F ie ld re p re se n ta tiv e s in th e F a r E a s t ___
A c tiv itie s of field re p re se n ta tiv e s in
L a tin A m e ric a .........................................
R e g io na l w o rk a t W a s h in g to n .....................
C o m m o d ity d iv isio n s.......................................
F u n c tio n s a n d services co m m o n to all
c o m m o d ity d iv isio n s.................................
A g ric u ltu ra l im p le m e n ts d iv is io n ............
A u to m o tiv e d iv isio n ............ ........................
C h e m ic a l d iv isio n ......................................
C oa l d iv isio n ......... ..................................
E le c tric a l e q u ip m e n t d iv is io n _____ ____
F oo dstu ffs d iv isio n ....... ...........................
H id e a n d le a th e r d iv is io n ._____ ______
In d u s tr ia l m a c h in e ry d iv isio n ..................
I ro n a n d ste el d iv isio n ..................................
L u m b e r d iv isio n ...........................................
M in e ra ls d iv isio n .............................
P a p e r d iv isio n _________
R u b b e r d iv isio n .........................................
Sho e a n d le a th e r m a n u fa c tu re s d iv is io n ..
S p ec ia ltie s d iv isio n .......................................
T e x tile d iv is io n .............................................
T ra n s p o rta tio n d iv isio n ...............................
T ec h n ic a l d iv isio n s..........................................
D iv isio n of foreign ta r iff s ..........................
D iv isio n of com m ercia l la w s.....................
F in a n c e a n d in v e s tm e n t d iv is io n ............
D iv isio n of sta tis tic a l re se a rc h ....................
D iv isio n of s ta tis tic s .....................................
C om m e rc ia l in te llig en ce d iv isio n ................
D o m e stic co m m erce d iv is io n ..........................
A d m in is tr a tiv e d iv isio n s.................................
E d ito ria l d iv is io n ..........................................
D iv isio n of co rre sp o nd en ce a n d d is tr ib u ­
ti o n ..............................................
D is tr ic t a n d co o p e ra tiv e offices...................
F o re ig n se rv ic e d iv is io n .............................
C o o p e ra tio n w ith o th e r d e p a r tm e n ts ..........
S ta n d a rd iz a tio n w o rk ...............................
R e c o m m e n d a tio n s...................

Bu r

ea u of

St a n d a r d s .....................................

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Ill
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128

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132

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G en eral a c tiv itie s .............................................
134
N a tio n a l Screw T h re a d C o m m issio n .......
135
F e d e ra l S p ec ific a tio n s B o a rd .......................
135
N a tio n a l D ire c to ry of C o m m o d ity S peci­
fic a tio n s..........................................................
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T re a tis e o n sp e c ific a tio n s..............................
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H o u se h o ld sp e cific atio n s..................................
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V

CONTENTS

Page

P age

Bu r e a u

of

V isitin g c o m m itte e ........................................
A d v iso ry c o m m itte e s....................................
R e se arch a s s o c ia te s .,....................................
S im p lifie d p ra c tic e ......................... - ..............
B u ild in g a n d h o u sin g ...................................
W e ig h ts a n d m e a su re s..................................
E le c tric ity ......................................................
H e a t a n d p o w e r.......................................
O p tic s..............................................................
C h e m is try ......................................................
M e c h a n ic s a n d s o u n d ...................................
S tru c tu r a l, e n g in ee rin g, a n d m isce llane o us
m a te ria ls .....................................................
M e ta llu rg y .......................- .............................
C e ra m ic s.........................................................
T h e office....................................... - ..............
O p e ra tio n a n d c o n s tru c tio n ..........................
G en eral re c o m m e n d a tio n s............................
P o w e r p la n t................................................
A d d itio n to b u r e a u g ro u n d s .....................
M a s te r tra c k sc a le .....................................
M e d ic a l a i d .................................................
C a re of b u ild in g s ..............................
T ra n sfe r of m a in te n a n c e of b u r e a u ’s
b u ild in g s..................................................
E x h ib its .....................................................- '
W eig hin g a n d m e a su rin g d e v ic e s.............
C lin ic a l th e rm o m e te rs...............................
P a te n ts ........................................................
B ra n c h la b o ra to rie s....................................

Bu r e a u

Co a s t

St a n d a r d s —C o n tin u e d .

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ie s ......................... : ........

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F ish -c u ltu ra l a c tiv itie s .................................
B iological in v e s tig a tio n s...............................
R e la tio n s w ith th e fish ery in d u s tr ie s ..........
A las k a fisheries..............................................
A la sk a fur-seal se rv ic e ................ - ................

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177

L ig h t h o u s e Se r v ic e ......................................

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of

F is h e r

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152

M o re im p o r ta n t a c tiv itie s of th e L ig h th o u se
Serv ice d u rin g th e y e a r..............................
A id s to n a v ig a tio n .........................................
E n g in e e rin g c o n s tru c tio n ..............................
I m p ro v e m e n ts in a p p a r a tu s a n d e q u ip ­
m e n t............................................................
A d m in is tr a tio n ..............................................
P e rso n n e l................ - .....................................
C o st-k e ep in g s y s te m a n d r e s u lts .................
L ig h th o u s e d e p o ts ........................... - ...........
V essels of th e L ig h th o u s e S erv ic e ................
R e p la c e m e n t of v e sse ls..............................
L ig h th o u s e te n d e r s .....................................
L ig h ts h ip s ...................................................

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H y d ro g ra p h ic a n d to p o g ra p h ic surveys ---and

G e o d e t ic Su r

vey

A tla n tic a n d G u lf c o a s ts....................
P ac ific c o a s t................................................
A la s k a ............................................ - ...........
O u tly in g po ssessio n s.....................................
W o rk in p ro gress a t th e e n d of th e fiscal
y e a r .............................................................
I m p o rta n c e of in s tr u m e n t w o rk ......................
G e o d e tic w o rk a c c o m p lish e d ...........................
T e m p le A c t s u rv e y s .........................................
R e d u c tio n of field re c o rd s................................
M a g n e tic a n d seism ological w o r k ...................
M a g n e tic su rv e y of A la s k a ............................
S eism o lo g y ........................................................
T id e a n d c u r re n t o b se rv a tio n s.......... ............
T h e D eiaw a ro B a y c u r re n t a n d tid a l s u r­
v e y ...............................................................
C u r r e n t su rv e y , s o u th e a s te rn A la s k a ---In v e s tig a tio n of G u lf s tr e a m ........................
C o o p e ra tio n w ith o th e r agencies in tid e
a n d c u r re n t w o r k .......................................
D iv isio n of a c c o u n ts.............................
C h a rts a n d p u b lic a tio n s...............................
L eg isla tio n n e e d e d ....................................
A d d itio n a l ve sse ls...........................................
S a n ita tio n of b u ild in g s - ................... - ..........

Bu r e a u

188
188
188
188
189
189
190
190
191
192
192
193
194
194
194
195
195
195
196
196
197
198
198
199

N a v ig a t io n ...................................

209

N a v ig a tio n la w s................................................
L o ad lin e ...........................................................
R e o rg a n iz a tio n of m a ritim e b u re a u s a n d
a c t i v i t i e s . . .....................................................
R a d io se rv ic e................... * ..............................
E n fo rc e m e n t of n a v ig a tio n l a w s ....................
S h ip p in g co m m issio n e rs..................................
P re v e n tin g o v orcro w d in g of p assen g er
vessels.............................................................
Pa ss en ge r a c t of 1882........................................
N a v ig a tio n re c e ip ts..........................................
N a v ig a tio n a p p ro p ria tio n s..............................
P u b lic a tio n s......................................................

201
201

of

St e a m b o a t I n s pe c t io n Se r

201
202
204
204
205
205
205
206
206

v ic e ......................

207

In c lin in g te s ts ...................................................
L e g isla tio n ..............................................
R e classific atio n .................................................
P e rso n n e l..........................................
S ta tis tic s ............................................................

207

P a t e n t Of f ic e ....................................................

208
208

20
209

210

R e c o m m e n d a tio n s....................................... -

211

I n t e r Am e r ic a n H ig h C o m m is s io n ............

212

T H IR T E E N T H A N N U A L R E P O R T
OF THE

SECRETARY
D e pa r

OF

COMMERCE

t men t of

O f f ic e

Co m m e r c e ,
Sec r et a r y ,

of t h e

W a s h in g to n , N o v e m b e r 2, 1925.
T o t h e P r e s id e n t :
I have th e ho nor to su b m it h erew ith fo r tran sm issio n to C ongress
th e T h irte e n th A n n u a l R e p o rt o f th e S e c re ta ry o f Com m erce, in
fo u r p a rts , as fo llow s:
I . P ro g re ss in th e elim in atio n of in d u s tria l waste.
I I . Econom ic review.
I I I . L eg isla tiv e recom m endations.
IV . C ondensed re p o rts o f bureaus.
T h e P a te n t Office w as tra n s fe rre d by E x ecu tiv e o rd e r fro m th e
D e p a rtm e n t o f th e In te rio r to th e D e p a rtm e n t o f Com m erce on
A p ril 1, 1925, an d a b rie f review of its activ itie s is in c o rp o ra te d
in th is re p o rt. T h e B u re a u o f M ines w as sim ila rly tra n s fe rre d
fro m th e D e p a rtm e n t o f th e In te rio r to th e D e p a rtm e n t o f C om ­
m erce on J u ly 1, 1925. A s th a t was th e first d ay of th e new fiscal
y e a r, th e re p o rt o f th e b u reau fo r th e y e ar un d er review w ill be
m ade th ro u g h th e S e c re ta ry of th e In te rio r.
Y o u rs fa ith fu lly ,
H er ber t H o over ,
S e c r e ta r y o f C om m erce.
1

P a r t I .— P R O G R E S S IN

E L IM IN A T IO N

O F W ASTE

[B y H e r b e r t H o o v e r , S ec re ta ry of Com m erce]

G re a t prog ress has been m ade d u rin g th e y e ar in th e n a tio n a l
m ovem ent fo r elim in atio n o f in d u stria l waste. T h e D e p a rtm e n t
of Com m erce, in co n tin uatio n of its w ork of th e p a st five years, has
devoted m uch o f its activities to th is end.
W h ile vario us divisions of th e d e p a rtm e n t have been activ ely a id ­
in g in th e cam pa ig n in m any specific directio ns, it m ust be borne in
m in d th a t th e whole p ro g ram is one fu n d am en tally to stim u la te
action am ong in dustries, trad es, and consum ers them selves. I t is
obviously n o t th e fu nc tio n of G overnm ent to m anage business, b u t
to in v estig ate economic questions, to survey econom ic phenom ena
an d p o in t o u t th e rem edy fo r economic fa ilu re or th e ro ad to p ro g ­
ress, to inspix’e an d assist cooperative action, a n d to stim u la te forces
to these ends—surely all these are w ell w ith in th e p ro p e r field o f
p u blic service.
I t seems w o rth w hile a t all tim es to re ite ra te th e fu n d a m e n tal ■
pu rp oses of th is cam paign. T h e p h ilosop hy th a t u n d erlies it h as
b u t one p u rp o se ; th a t is, to m a in ta in A m erican sta n d a rd s of liv in g
fo r b oth w orkers and farm ers, an d to place p ro d u ctio n on a m ore
stab le foo ting . T h e h ig h sta n d a rd s of liv in g enjoyed by th e A m e ri­
can people a re th e re su lt o f stead ily m ou n tin g p e r c a p ita p ro d u c tiv ity .
T h ere is only one w ay to fu rth e r advance these stan d a rd s, an d th a t is
by im p ro ved m ethods an d processes, by th e elim in atio n o f waste in
m a te ria ls a n d m otion in o u r p ro d u ctio n an d d istrib u tio n system .
J u s t as 20 ye ars ago we u n d erto o k natio n -w id e conservation o f o u r
n a tu ra l resources, so we m ust to -d ay even m ore vig orously su stain
th is cam pa ig n o f b e tte r natio n -w id e u tiliz a tio n o f our in d u s tria l
resources a n d effort. M ore especially is th is th e case in view o f
th e m any com plex forces w hich have arisen from th e w ar, an d
p a rtic u la rly th e difficulty o f m a in ta in in g o u r situ a tio n as a g a in st th e
com petition o f a w orld o f low er s ta n d a rd s overseas.
T h e te rm “ elim in atio n of w aste ” is subject to some objection as
c a rry in g th e im p licatio n of in d iv id u a l o r w illfu l waste. I n th e sense
used in these discussions elim in atio n of w aste re fe rs w holly to those
w astes w hich can be elim in ate d solely by cooperative action in th e
com m unity. T he y do n o t re fe r to any single p ro du cer, fo r in th e
m a tte rs here discussed he is in d iv id u a lly helpless to effect them .
N or do th ey im p ly an y lessening of fa ir com petition or an y in frin g e ­
m e n t of th e re s tra in t o f tra d e laws. I n fact, th e m ost casual in2

R E P O R T OF T H E SE C RE T A R Y O F C O M M E R C E

3

v e stig atio n of th e w ork in pro g ress w ill show th a t its accom plish­
m ent establishes m ore h e alth y com p etition . I t p ro te cts an d p re ­
serves th e sm aller u n its in th e business w orld. I t s resu lts are an
asset alike to w orker, fa rm e r, consum er, an d business m an.
I t m ay be w o rth w hile re p e a tin g th e m a jo r d irectio n s of th is effort
as th e y w ere o utlin ed by th e d e p a rtm e n t a t th e b eg in n in g of th is
u n d e rta k in g fo u r ye ars ago.
1. E lim in a tio n of w aste in ra ilw a y tra n s p o rta tio n by th e p ro ­
vision of adequate fa c ilitie s a n d b e tte r m ethods.
2. V ig oro us im provem ent of o u r n a tu ra l in te rio r w a ter channels
fo r ch eape r tra n s p o rta tio n of bulk com m odities.
3. E n la rg e d electrification of th e co u n try fo r th e sav in g in fuel,
effort, and labor.
4. R ed uc tio n of th e perio d ic waves of unem plo ym ent due to th e
booms an d slum ps of th e “ business cycle.”
5. Im p ro v ed sta tistic a l service as to th e p ro d u ctio n , d istrib u tio n ,
stocks, an d prices of com m odities, both dom estic a n d fo reig n , as a
c o n trib u tio n to th e elim in atio n o f h a z a rd in business and th e re fo re
o f w aste fu l speculation.
6. R ed u ctio n o f seasonal em plo ym ent in co n stru ctio n a n d o th er
in d u strie s, a n d in te rm itte n t em ploy m ent in such in d u strie s as b itu ­
m inous coal.
7. R edu ction of w aste in m a n u fa c tu re an d d istrib u tio n th ro u g h
th e estab lish m en t of g ra d es, sta n d a rd s o f q u a lity , dim ensions an d
p erfo rm an c e in non style artic le s of com m erce; th ro u g h the sim p li­
fication in dim ensions of m any a rticle s of m a n u fa ctu re, an d th e re ­
duc tio n o f un necessary v a rie tie s; th ro u g h m ore u n ifo rm business
docum ents such as specifications, b ills o f la d in g , w arehouse re ­
ceipts, etc.
8. D evelopm ent o f scientific in d u stria l an d economic research as
th e fo u n d a tio n o f genuine lab o r-sav in g devices, b e tte r processes, an d
sound er m ethods.
9. D evelopm ent o f cooperativ e m a rk e tin g an d b e tte r te rm in a l f a ­
cilities in a g ric u ltu ra l p ro d u c ts in o rd e r to reduce th e w aste in a g ri­
c u ltu ra l d istrib u tio n .
10. S tim u la tio n of com m ercial a rb itra tio n in o rd e r to elim in ate
th e w astes o f litig a tio n .
11. R ed uctio n of th e w aste a risin g fro m in d u s tria l s trife betw een
em plo yers an d em ployees.
W h a t th e co u n try as a w hole h as accom plished d u rin g th e p a st
five ye ars in in creased n a tio n a l efficiency in these directio ns is im ­
possible o f m easurem ent. N or does th e D e p a rtm e n t o f Com m erce
la y claim to c re d it fo r th e g re a t pro gress th a t has been m ade, save
as we m ay have help ed to oi’ganize a definite p ublic m ovem ent. T h a t
6 6 5 4 8 — 2 5 - - -- - - 2

4

R E P O R T O F T H E SECRETA RY OF C O M M E R C E

m ovem ent is th e re su lt o f a realizatio n b y every g ro u p —business
men, in d u s tria l leaders, engineers, an d w orkers—of th e fu n d a m e n tal
im po rtan ce of th is business o f w aste elim in atio n. In a d d itio n to
elim in atio n of w aste we have h a d th e benefit of notable advances in
science, im p ro vem ent in m ethods of m anagem ent, an d p ro h ib itio n.
T h a n k s to elim in atio n o f w aste and these o th e r c o n trib u tin g fac­
to rs, we can as a N atio n show one o f th e m ost asto n ish in g tra n s fo r­
m atio ns in economic h isto ry , th e epitom e of w hich lies in th e follow ­
in g table from th e D e p artm en t of L ab o r :
Mo v e m e n t o f W a g e s a n d P r i c e s , 1920-192-1
[1913=100)
W age
ra te s

Y ear

1920.........................................................................................................................................
1921.........................................................................................................................................
1922.........................................................................................................................................
1923.........................................................................................................................................
1924.........................................................................................................................................

P ric e s 1

226
147
14»
154
156

199
205
193
211
228

* A ve rage w ho lesale price s of all c o m m o d itie s.

W h ile wages a re h ig h e r th a n in 1920, wholesale prices are low er.
W e have th u s th e h ig h est re al wage in ou r h isto ry , a n d we hav e h a d
th re e y ears o f rem ark able price sta b ility , w hich has reduced specula­
tio n in com m odities to a m inim um . W e can h old th a t s ta b ility i f
we avoid speculation.
A com parison w ith sim ila r B ritis h indexes gives s trik in g ev i­
dence th a t these resu lts are p ecu liar to th e U n ite d States.
Index Nu

mber s

of

Wa

ges

a nd

Pr

ic e s

, Gr

ea t

Br

it a in

,

1920-1924

[1913= 1001

Y ear

1920........................................................................ .....................................................
1921.................................................................................................................
1922.....................................................................................................
1923...................................................................................................
1924...................................................................................................

W age
ra te s

230

P ric es 1

200

283
181
156

170

174

1 A ve rage w holesale price s of all c o m m od itie s.

T h e a c tiv ity o f th e D e p a rtm e n t o f Com m erce in th is field o f w aste
elim in atio n is in d icated by th e fa c t th a t since th e w ork was launched
on a la rg e scale in 1921 some 900 g ro u p conferences have been h e ld ,
p ra c tic a lly all a t th e request o f th e in d u strie s them selves, an d 22H
com m ittees are now a t w ork on variou s phases of th e p ro g ram .

R E P O R T O F T H E SECRE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

5

Som e idea of th e pro g ress th a t is b ein g m ad e on a n a tio n a l scale
m ay be glean ed fro m th e fo llo w in g condensed statem en ts b y d e p a rt­
m e n t officials in touch w ith differen t fields of a c tiv ity :
E L IM IN A T IO N

OF

W A STE

IN

R A IL W A Y

T R A N S P O R T A T IO N

[B y E u g e n e S. G r e g g , C hief, T r a n s p o r ta tio n D ivision ]

One o f th e m ost im p o rta n t co n trib u tio n s to th e elim in atio n of
n a tio n a l w aste has been th e re m a rk a b le im pro vem en t in ra ilw a y
tra n s p o rta tio n d u rin g th e p a st five years.
T h e first fa c to r in th a t im provem ent w as th e pro vision of ad e ­
q u a te tra n s p o rta tio n itself. T h e p erio dic car shortages of m any
y e a rs p a st have p ra c tica lly d isap p eare d , alth o u g h th e to nnage loaded
h as increased m ore th a n 25 p e r cen t since 1921. T h e w aste im posed
on c a rrie rs and pub lic in those perio d s of sh o rtag es in tra n s p o rta tio n
w as f a r la rg e r th a n is com m only supposed. T h e dera n g em en t of
p ro d u ctio n and em ploy m ent in all in d u strie s, th e w id enin g u f prices
betw een p ro d u cer an d consum er, due to rep eate d stric tu re s in tra n s ­
p o rt w hich created g lu t in su p p ly an d scarc ity in consum ption,
am o unted to h u n d re d s o f m illio ns an n u ally .
Som e ve ry im p o rta n t econom ic effects have resu lted fro m fu ll,
p ro m p t, an d reliable d eliv ery o f goods. T h e necessity fo r c a rry in g
la rg e stocks as a p ro tectio n a g a in st tra n s p o rta tio n fa ilu re has larg ely
d isap p e a re d , and in consequence th e c a p ita l re q u ired in th e N a tio n ’s
d istrib u tio n has been consid erably reduced. Scarcely a single re ta il
house is to -d ay c a rry in g as la rg e stocks in p ro p o rtio n to tu rn o v e r as
fo rm erly . W h ile one effect h a s been to b urd en th e m a n u fa c tu re r
w ith “ sh o rt o rd e rs,” nevertheless th e ch an ge h as been h ig h ly bene­
ficial, fo r it has g re a tly lessened th e likelih ood and d a n g e r o f price
fluctuations.
A second im provem ent, aside from d ire c t increase in facilities,
h as been th e very g re a t a n d fu n d a m e n ta l increase in efficiency of
o p era tio n . Since 1921 th e av erag e w eekly c ar loadin gs hav e increased
fro m 693,533 to 986,475, th e num ber of m iles p e r car p e r d a y from
22.4 to 26.9, th e average tra in lo a d fro m 656 to 731 tons. T h e traffic
is b ein g c a rrie d w ith re la tiv e ly less em ployees, th e ton-m iles h a n ­
dle d p e r em ployee being 221,203 in 1924 as a g a in st 182,477 in 1921.
T h is fine accom plishm ent of th e ra ilw a y m an ag ers h as been d is­
tin c tly aid ed by th e larg e m easures o f cooperation w ith sh ip p ers
establishe d by th e ra ilw a y s th ro u g h effective reg io n al com m ittees.
T h e re have been m an y o th e r savings in tra n s p o rta tio n d u rin g th e
p a s t few ye ars in ad d itio n to those accom plished in th e o p eratio n
o f th e c arrie rs. B e tte r p a ck in g h as been a n im p o rta n t fa c to r in
th e 48 p e r cen t decrease in ra ilro a d claim s betw een 1921 an d 1924, a
decrease of fro m a p p ro x im a te ly 92 to 48 m illio n dollars. S ta n d a rd -

6

R E PO R T O F T H E SECRE TA RY O F C O M M E R CE

i z a t i o n o f th e fo rm s used in associated in d u strie s of tra n s p o rta ­
tio n has also h a d its effect in redu cin g th e d istrib u tio n costs. Special
stud ies have been m ade by th e d e p a rtm e n t d u rin g th e p a st y e ar in
th e h a n d lin g of c ertain classes of fre ig h t. T h e w o rk in g ou t o f th e
suggestions a rriv e d a t by these special studies has been a c o n trib u t­
in g fa c to r to th e lessening of te rm in a l delay in lo ad in g an d u n lo a d ­
in g fre ig h t, an d to th e m ore ra p id m ovem ent o f carlo ad a n d lessth a n -c arlo ad m erchandise.
T h e re are m any problem s yet to be solved in tra n s p o rta tio n ,
n o ta b ly th e co o rdin atio n of ra ilw a y a n d w a te r fa cilitie s an d th e
w o rk in g out of th e economic re la tio n betw een m o to r tru c k and lessth a n -c arlo ad ra ilw a y d istrib u tio n . F u r th e r stu d y in dom estic p a c k ­
in g a n d efficiency in te rm in a l lo ad in g an d u n lo a d in g o f railw ay cars
w ill b rin g good results. O u r te rm in a l facilitie s fo r h a n d lin g p e rish ­
ables (n o t w holly a ra ilw a y question) m u st be g re a tly im proved.
T h e asto n ish in g g ro w th in consum ption o f f r u it a n d vegetables h as
created difficulties in te rm in a l d is trib u tio n w hich very g re a tly in ­
crease d istrib u tio n costs an d create g re a t w astes in these com m odi­
ties th ro u g h de terio ratio n . T h e cost a t th e te rm in a l m a rk e ts be­
tw een th e do or of th e car and th e door of th e re ta il store o fte n ex­
ceeds th e e n tire freig h t.
IM P R O V E M E N T O F O U R IN L A N D W A T E R W A Y S
[B y P a l i , S. Cl a pp , Special A s s is ta n t]

T h e D e p a rtm e n t o f Com m erce has given continu ed a tte n tio n to th e
vig orous im prov em en t o f our in la n d w aterw ay s fo r ch eaper tra n s ­
p o rta tio n o f b u lk com m odities; also, to th e fu lle r u tiliz a tio n o f th e
w a ter resources o f our riv e rs fo r all pu rp oses—n a v ig atio n , ir r ig a ­
tio n, and pow er— an d has pointed ou t th e benefits of sto rage in en­
ha ncem ent of these values an d in overcom ing d a n g e r fro m floods.
A ll these im p ro vem ents lead to elim in atio n s o f w aste in fuel an d
lab or, reduced tra n s p o rta tio n costs, an d increased n atio n a l efficiency.
M IS S IS S IP P I RIV ER SY STE M

S h ifts o f p ro fo u n d im portance in th e re la tiv e adv an ta g es o f
differen t p a rts o f th e co u n try w ith resp ect to tra n s p o rta tio n hav e re ­
su lted from th e w ar. T h e necessary advances in ra il ra te s fro m
the M ississippi V alley S ta te s to th e A tla n tic seaboard hav e d is­
to rte d economic re la tio n sh ip o f th a t a re a to th e re st of th e coun­
tr y a n d th e w orld. Because ocean ra te s are p ra c tic a lly u p o n a p re ­
w ar basis, th e ope nin g of th e P a n a m a C an al has giv en th e eastern
seaboard com p etitive adv an tages over th e M ississippi V alley in th e
su p p ly o f m a n u fa ctu red goods and a g ric u ltu ra l p ro d u c ts m ov ing

R E PO R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

7

betw een th e A tla n tic a n d Pacific seaboards. These d is to rtio n s are
one o f th e fu n d a m e n tal difficulties o f th e g re a t a g ric u ltu ra l h e a rt of
th e U n ite d S ta te s ly in g betw een th e A p p a la c h ia n an d R ocky M oun­
tain s.
I n consequence o f th is, it is o f th e utm o st im p o rta n c e th a t we
accom plish th e earliest possible com pletion of th e M ississip pi sys­
tem o f w aterw ay s in o rd e r th a t ch eaper w ater-b o rn e traffic in p r i­
m a ry an d b u lk goods w ith in th is g re a t m id-w est a rea an d in its
egress to th e sea m ay c o n trib u te to resto re its economic re la tio n sh ip s
to th e re st o f th e cou ntry . T h is can be accom plished w ith o u t h a rm to
o u r g re a t ra ilw a y system s, th e g ro w th o f whose traffic w ith increas­
in g p o p u la tio n w ill in any event ta x th e ir pow ers.
T h e fo rm u la tio n of a com prehensive p la n u rg in g ra p id develop­
m en t of th e M ississippi Vallejo stream s in to a com pleted system of
tru n k an d la te ra l w aterw ay s w as m ade by S e cre tary H oov er in an
ad d re ss a t K an sas C ity , in O ctober, 1925.
G REA T L A K E S TO T H E O CE AN

Som e pro g ress h a s been m ade to w a rd th e u ltim a te fo u n d a tio n of
th e p ro je c t to open a ro u te betw een th e G re a t L akes a n d th e ocean,
th u s ena b lin g deep-sea vessels to p e n e tra te th e in te rio r o f th e
c o u n try , w ith g re a t ad v an ta g e s to o u r fa rm e rs, o u r m a n u fa ctu rers,
a n d p a rtic u la rly th e w h o le .o f th e people in th e 18 S ta te s a d jacen t
to th e Lakes.
N eg o tiatio n s w ere in itia te d w ith C a n a d a in 1922, a t th e request
o f S e c re ta ry H oov er, fo r a co nsideratio n o f th e im p ro v em en t of th e
S t. L aw rence R iv e r fro m L ake O n ta rio to M on treal, p ro v id in g n o t
only can alizatio n fo r deep-sea n a v ig a tio n to th e L akes, b u t the
developm ent of la rg e q u an titie s o f electrical pow er. N a tio n al com ­
m issions w ere created in both C an ad a a n d th is co u n try . T h e St.
L aw rence Com m ission o f th e U n ite d S tates, u n d e r th e c h a irm a n ­
sh ip of S e c re tary H o ov er, com prises C h arles L . A llen , W illia m C.
B re ed , C harles P . C ra ig , Ja m e s F . D avid son, S te p h en B. D avis,
J a m e s P . G oodrich, Ja m e s R. H o w ard , an d Ja m e s P . N oonan.
T h is com m ission h as h eld several m eeting s d u rin g th e year. A jo in t
e n g in eerin g b o a rd , u n d e r an a p p ro p ria tio n by th e la st C ongress of
$275,000, also an a p p ro p ria tio n by C an ad a, is activ ely a t w ork on
th e en g in ee rin g aspects a n d w ill re p o rt early n e x t year. C o n cu rre n t
w ith th is, th e D e p a rtm e n t o f Com m erce h as in process a critic a l
econom ic stu d y o f th e effects an d benefits o f th is g re a t pro ject.
T h e resu lts o f these studies, w ith th e x-eports o f th e engineers, w ill
be I'eviewed by th e com m ission, a n d its final recom m endations p re ­
p a re d fo r th e co nside ratio n of th e country.

8

R E P O R T OE T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

A risin g o u t o f these studies. C ongress has also a p p ro p ria te d a
sum o f m oney fo r th e stu d y o f an alte rn ativ e ro u te fro m th e G re at
L akes across New Y o rk State.
Irresp e ctiv e of th e route selected, th e re is u rg e n t need of both
C an ad a an d ourselves fo r th e reg u la tio n of th e levels of th e L akes
by w orks a t th e fo o t of L ake E rie , th ereby p ro v id in g g re a te r d e p th s
fo r n a v ig atio n , th e low ered levels o f w hich (in th e m ain due to
clim atic con ditio ns) have im posed g re a t w astes upon L ak e sh ip p in g .
GREAT V A L L EY OF C A L IF O R N IA

S tu d ies by th e D e p a rtm e n t o f Com m erce in to fu lle r u tiliz a tio n of
w ater resources fo r irrig a tio n , pow er, n av ig atio n , an d flood contro l
have been m ade in connection w ith th e riv ers o f th e G re a t V alley
o f C alifo rn ia , in vo lv in g th e Sacram en to a n d S an J o a q u in R ivers.
T h e need o f b e tte r o rg an iz atio n to w a rd th e fu ll developm ent of
these stream s, fo r th e ir coord inate use by all in terests, was sum ­
m arized in an address by S e cre tary H oo ve r in Sacram ento , C alif.,
in J u n e , 1925.
COLORADO RIVER

T h e developm ent o f th is g re a t w ater resource h a v in g been re ­
ta rd e d fo r y ears by th e in te rsta te conflict over w ater rig h ts, a com ­
m ission was created, re p re se n tin g th e seven S ta te s involved, un d er
th e c h airm an sh ip of th e Se cre tary o f Com m erce fo r th e purpo se
of re ach in g an agreem ent in th e m a tte r. T h e C olorado R iv e r com ­
p a c t se ttlin g these in te rsta te rig h ts was signed a t S a n ta F e, N. Mex.,
N ovem ber 24, 1922. T h e com pact has n o t y e t been ratified by all
o f th e S ta te s involved, an d in consequence th e developm ent o f th e
riv e r continues to be h eld up.
E L IM IN A T IO N

O F W A STE THRO UG H

ENLARGED

E L E C T R IF IC A T IO N

[B y P a u l S. C l a p p , Special A s s is ta n t]

D u rin g th e p a st five years th e re h as been a no table advance in th e
electrification o f th e co u n try an d in th e g eneratio n a n d d is trib u tio n
o f pow er. T h is is b ein g accom plished n o t only w ith an enorm ous
sav in g in fu el but w ith la rg e increases in p ro d u c tiv ity , reduc tio n
o f physical effort an d labor, an d added co m fo rt in th e home. Since
1920 lo n g strid e s fo rw a rd have been ta k e n in th e developm ent of
w id esp read electrical pow er system s, w hich are increasin gly becom ­
in g th e enorm ous reserv oirs o f m obile an d reliable pow er fo r all
purp oses, upon w hich in such la rg e m easure our n a tio n a l pro g ress
depends.
T h e a d v en t of lo ng-distance tran sm issio n and its sequence, th e
p ro d u ctio n of pow er upon a la rg e scale in m ore economical p la n ts
a t m ost ad v an tageou s p o in ts, is h av in g a fa r-re a c h in g influence.

R E P O R T O F T H E SE C RE T A R Y O F C O M M E R C E

9

O u r electrical g e n e ra tin g cap acity increased fro m 14,280,000 kilo ­
w a tts in 1920 to over 23,000,000 k ilo w a tts in 1925, an increase o f
60 p e r cent. T h is has been effected p rin c ip a lly in la rg e efficient
u n its con cen trated in c arefu lly o p erated c en tral p la n ts, w ith g ra d u a l
e lim in atio n of w astefu l sm aller p la n ts. A t th e sam e tim e th e de­
velopm ent o f w a ter pow ers connected to electrical system s has
been p a rtic u la rly active. O f th e to ta l of 8,300,000 horsepow er now
developed a n d connected to these system s, 2,500,000 horsepow er, or
30 p e r cent, has been set to w ork in th is period.
In te rc o n n e ctio n of po w er p la n ts, h y d ro an d steam , has ra p id ly
pro gressed , e n ab lin g m axim um u tiliz a tio n of each w ith la rg e econo­
m ies in po w er p ro d u c tio n an d d istrib u tio n . F a c to ry steam p la n ts
a re b ein g replaced w ith electrical pow er, th e in creased in d u stria l
lo ad d u rin g th e d ay b ein g su p p lied from th e sam e equ ip m ent as th e
n ig h t lo ad o f cities. T h e c a p ita l invested in idle or u n derlo aded
eq uip m ent h as been effectively reduced. W a te r pow ers fo rm erly
too fa r rem oved fro m th e m a rk e t are now b ein g developed a n d p u t
to w ork. T h e stea d ily in creasin g base load up o n la rg e economical
c en tral p la n ts an d th e s h ift fro m sm all electrical or in d u stria l p la n ts
has resu lted in g re a t sav ing s in fuel. T h e consum ption of coal or
i t s equ iv alen t by electrical p la n ts h as been decreased from 3.2 pounds
p e r k ilo w a tt-h o u r as th e av erag e req u ired in 1919 to 2.2 poun ds in
1924, a to ta l sav in g in th is perio d of over 50,000,000 tons. T o th is
can be’ ad d ed th e sav in g o f some 6,000,000 to ns fro m th e w ater
pow er p u t in to o p era tio n , m a k in g a to ta l of 56,000,000 tons saved.
T h e cost of pow er has been m a in ta in ed a t p re -w a r levels, th e la rg e
economies in p ro d u c tio n an d d is trib u tio n offsetting th e rise in labor
an d m a te ria l costs.
I n in d u stry , th e re have been la rg e increases in th e pow er ap p lied ,
an d in th e s h ift to w a rd electrification, th e source of su p p ly increas­
in g ly becom ing th e intercon nected system s. I n 1919, 55 p e r cent
o f th e to ta l p rim a ry pow er in facto ries w as a p p lie d e lectrically ; th is
has increased to 70 p e r cent. B etw een 1919 an d 1923, pow er used in
in d u s try in creased fro m 29,300,000 to 33,000,000 h o rsepow er; local
in sta lla tio n s of boilers a n d engines rem ained sta tio n a ry , th e to tal
increase b ein g in electrical drive. T h is enorm ous an d effective
a p p lic atio n of po w er by o u r w orkm en has increased his p ro d u c tiv e ­
ness beyond an y o th e r c o u n try ; it h as enabled us to m a in ta in wage
levels and to reduce th e b u rd en o f h u m an toil.
T h e in terconnected electrical system s now stan d read y to fu rn ish
th e necessary pow er su pp lies fo r electrificatio n of tra n s p o rta tio n ,
th e accom plishm ent o f w hich w ill increase c a rry in g c ap acity of
p re sen t chan nels, give ad ded co m fo rt in tra v e l, an d fu r th e r reduce
consum ption of fuel. T e rm in al electrification h a s a lre ad y given

10

R E PO R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

g re a t relief from congestion a t te rm in a ls and ad ded m uch to p ro p ­
e rty values.
T h e nu m ber of homes w ired fo r electrical service h as increased
from 5,700,000 in 1920 to over 12,000,000, g re a tly ex ten d in g th e
adv an ta g es of electricity , relievin g hom e m akers o f m any irksom e
task s, an d ad d in g im m easu rably to hom e com fort. T h e a d a p ta tio n
of electric pow er to th e fa rm is ra p id ly e x p an d in g an d is being given
in creasin g a tte n tio n .
S T A T IS T IC S

AS A F O R C E

IN

THE

E L IM IN A T IO N

O F W A STE

[B y W. M. S t e u a b t , D i r e c t o r o f t l i e C e n s u s ]

T h ere has been a g re a t extension an d im p ro vem ent in business
statistics d u rin g th e p a st five years. A d istin c tly new a ttitu d e an d
basis o f th o u g h t upon th e question o f th e enorm ous w aste due to
pe rio d ic suspension o f pro du ctio n and em ploym ent was developed
th ro u g h th e exhaustiv e research by th e com m ittee on unem p loy ­
m ent an d th e business cycle, ap p o in te d by th e S e cre tary of Com ­
merce in 1922, and com prisin g Owen D. Y ou ng (c h a irm a n ), Jo sep h
H . D efrees, M ary V an K leek, M atth ew W oll, C larence M. W ooley,
and E d w a rd E y re H u n t (se cre ta ry ).
T h is com m ittee’s re p o rt pointed out th a t depressions an d slum ps
were th e reactio n from th e waste, ex trav ag an ce, and overp ro ductio n
d u rin g booms, an d th a t th e re d u ctio n of boom perio ds w as the p o in t
fo r a ttack . In th is field th e com m ittee suggested th a t th e m ost im ­
p o rta n t co n trib u tio n to solution lay in a b e tte r u n d e rsta n d in g by th e
business w orld o f th e dan g ers in h eren t in these boom periods, and
o f th e signals o f th e ir appro ach . T h is very u n d e rsta n d in g , it was
fe lt, would b rin g autom atic reactio n in th e business com m un ity w hich
w ould la rg ely cure th e evil.
In th is direction th e com m ittee stro n g ly su p p o rte d th e views of
th e d e p a rtm e n t th a t an adequate objective statistic a l service as to
p ro d u c tio n , consum ption, stocks, and prices of com m odities, to g eth er
w ith in fo rm atio n al service upon economic cu rre n ts a t home and
abro ad, w as th e first requisite. T h ey also p o in ted o u t th e d esira­
b ility of dire ct check upon overspeculation th ro u g h credit m anage­
m ent by th e F e d e ra l Reserve B o ard , and also th e im portan ce of a
reserve o f constructio n a n d equipm ent in th e la rg e in d u strie s and
in gov ern m ental and public w orks w hich could be used to stim u la te
a c tiv ity a t any in dicatio n o f slacke nin g em ploym ent. A side from
th e ir c o n trib u tio n to stab ilizatio n o f th e business cycle, statistics
and economic in fo rm atio n have a p ro fo u n d day -to -d ay im portance
in th e elim in atio n o f w aste in all o f our in d u stry an d commerce.

R E P O R T O P T H E SEC RE T A R Y O F C O M M E R C E

11

W ith th e pu rp ose of p u ttin g statistic s to w ork, th e d ep art m ent,
th ro u g h th e B u re au o f th e Census, in a u g u ra te d th e m o nthly Su rv ey
o f C u rre n t B usiness in 1921, a n d h as been b u ild in g u p th a t p u b li­
cation ever since, w ith th e aim o f collecting all th is ty p e of in fo r­
m atio n and m ak in g it p ro m p tly av ailable to th e business com m unity.
A t th e same tim e th e census o f m a n u fa ctu res w as reorg anized to
p o in t it m ore d ire c tly to these purposes. T h e d e p a rtm e n t h as also
developed a la rg e in fo rm a tio n a l service th ro u g h Com m erce R ep o rts,
issued w eekly, an d th e Com m erce Y earbook, issued an n u ally , to ­
g e th e r w ith num erous special re p o rts o f p a rtic u la r in te re st to differ­
e n t in d u strie s a n d trad es. These services reflect th e concentratio n of
th e va st collection of d a ta fro m in d iv id u a l in d u strie s an d tra d e s, a
considerable p a r t of w hich has been recru ited by th e tra d e s
them selves.
I t has lo ng been th e view of th e d e p a rtm e n t th a t th e fu n ctio n
of th e F e d e ra l G ov ern m ent should be to pro v id e, th ro u g h th e
B u reau of th e C ensus an d o th e r branches, th e basic d a ta as to p o p u ­
la tio n , occu pation, p ro d u ctio n , etc., in o rd e r th a t accurate fo u n d a ­
tions should be p e rio d ic a l^ cre ate d upon w hich in te rm e d ia te c u r­
re n t statistic s an d surv eys m ig h t be conducted by th e in d u strie s and
tra d e s, a n d fu r th e r th a t th e G ov ern m ent could re n d e r a valuable
service by su m m arizin g th e re su lts of c u rre n t tra d e statistic s so th a t
th e y should be av ailable to m em bers o f o th e r tra d e s an d to th e
public.
T h e re h as been h esitatio n in m any tra d e s a t u n d e rta k in g th is larg e
area of effort because of th e lack o f c la rity in in te rp re ta tio n of th e
S h e rm a n A ct. These m a tte rs w ere clarified, how ever, by decisions
w hich th e S up rem e C o u rt han d ed dow n J u n e 11, 1925, in th e m aple
flooring a n d cem ent cases. These decisions su p p o rte d th e economic
necessity of accurate s ta tistic a l surveys, recognized th e ir co n trib u ­
tio n to th e p ub lic w elfare, a n d held th a t in them selves such statistics
c o n stitu ted no in frin g e m e n t o f th e law . T hese decisions in no w ay
re la x th e re stric tio n s upo n co nspiracy to contro l p ric e an d d is trib u ­
tion.
T h e im p o rtan ce o f statistic s as a c o n trib u tio n to th e elim in atio n
of w aste can be sh o rtly sum m arized. In fo rm a tio n as to th e d is tri­
bu tio n o f p o p u la tio n , its c h arac te r, a n d occu pation, an d as to in ­
d u s tria l cap acity , p ro d u ctio n , stocks, an d d istrib u tio n , is v ita l to
econom y in th e d is trib u tio n tra d e s a n d to ju d g m e n t on increase
in p la n t capa city a n d p ro du ctio n. T h e whole system of pro duc tio n
an d d istrib u tio n is im p ro ved ju s t in th e degree th a t su p p ly an d de­
m and can be rig h tly a d ju sted . U n d e rp ro d u c tio n creates scarcity
and speculation ; ov erp ro du ctio n creates losses, suspension o f in ­
d u stry , an d unem ploym ent. B o th v io lently affect p rice an d w iden

12

R E PO R T O F T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

th e m a rg in in d istrib u tio n . In d u s try is no lon ge r local in its p ro ­
du ctio n an d d is trib u tio n , and th e fu n d a m e n ta l fa c ts m u st be d e te r­
m ined fo r the co u n try as a whole an d o ften fo r th e w hole w orld.
T h e re fo re know ledge as to p ro duc tiv e cap acity , volum e o f p ro d u c­
tio n, stocks, com m odities, an d c u rre n t consum ption of every in d u s­
tr y is v ita l if we are to have stab le in d u stry an d stab le profits w ith ­
ou t un d u e m a rg in s an d speculation. P u b lic in fo rm atio n as to these
tilin g s is necessary to safeg u a rd both th e consum er an d prod ucer.
A g ric u ltu re shares these benefits w ith all o th e r in d u strie s. I n fact,
no in d u stry so m uch requires th e com pilation o f such statistic s as
does a g ric u ltu re , fo r th e m any m illion u n its o f pro d u ctio n are less
able to a d ju d g e these cu rren ts th a n th e la rg e r u n its o f o th er in d u s­
tr y w ith th e ir la rg e r contacts.
E L IM IN A T IO N

O F W A S T E IN P R O C E S S E S

[ B y G e o r g e K. B u r g e s s , D i r e c t o r , B u re a u o f S ta n d a rd s ]

I n cooperation w ith th e in d u strie s of th e co u n try th e B u re au of
S ta n d a rd s is assistin g in th e g re a t pro blem of elim in a tin g w astes,
w hich like all m a jo r problem s depends fo r its solu tio n u p o n m ore
fu n d a m e n tal, scientific, an d technical data. A s a re su lt of th e equip ­
m en t b u ilt u p d u rin g th e w ar th e bu re au to -d ay possesses th e g re a t­
est phy sics an d research la b o ra to ry in th e w orld. W h ile th e p re ­
w ar activ itie s of th e bu reau w ere m ain ly d irected a t th e d e te rm in a ­
tio n o f ph ysical s ta n d a rd s an d co nstants, it seemed d esirable th a t
o u r in d u stria l system should n o t lose th e g re a t values t h a t could be
ob tain ed from th e w id er use o f these lab o rato rie s in research in to
th e elim in atio n of w aste in in d u s tria l processes, w here such research
d id no t conflict w ith th a t carrie d on by th e in d u strie s them selves.
M ore p a rtic u la rly does th is a p p ly to in d u strie s com prised of g re a t
n um bers of sm all m a n u fa ctu rers, none o f w hom can afford to estab ­
lish th e la b o ra to ry and research staff necessary fo r co nsid eratio n of
bro ad problem s.
T h e re has, th erefo re, been developed a la rg e am o u n t o f research
w ork of th is c h arac te r in cooperatio n w ith com m ittees o f th e differ­
e n t in d u strie s, an d th is w ork is stead ily ex p andin g. T h ro u g h these
researches w ays an d m eans have been fo u n d fo r th e b e tte r u tiliz a ­
tio n of o u r raw m ate rials, fo r cheape nin g an d im p ro v in g th e q u a l­
ity of m a n u fa ctu red articles, an d fo r tu rn in g to useful purp oses
b y -p ro d u cts of in d u s tria l p la n ts. R ecent pro g ress in th is field of
w aste elim in atio n m ay be illu stra te d b y th e ex perim en ts in chrom e
ta n n in g fo r shoe soles, w hich increases th e tim e o f w ear ; th e studies
o f c ra zin g of p o tte ry , w hich cuts dow n seconds; an d th e d e m o n stra ­
tio n o f th e p ra c tic a b ility o f th e com m ercial p ro d u c tio n of levulose,
w hich m ay re su lt in a new A m erican in d u stry .

R E P O R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

13

V a rio u s in d u strie s have cooperated w ith th e b u re a u in research
designed to effect la rg e sav ing s in m a n u fa c tu rin g , a n d especially
b y s ta tio n in g a t th e bu re au research associates w o rk in g on fu n d a ­
m en tal problem s. T hese research associates now nu m ber 63, as
a g a in st 29 la st year. F o r exam ple, th e P o rtla n d C em ent A ssocia­
tio n has 8 m en here w o rk in g on a jo in t p ro g ra m o f fa r-rea c h in g
im p o rtan ce in th e developm ent of o u r know ledge of w h a t has in
recen t ye ars become one o f ou r m ost w idely used m a te ria ls o f con­
s tru c tio n .
E L IM IN A T IO N OF W A STE IN T H E C ON STRU CTION IN D U STR IES
i[By G e o r g e K. B u r g e s s , D irec to r, B u re a u o f S ta n d a r d s ; J o h n M. G r i e s , C hief, D ivision
of B uild in g a n d H o u sin g ; Ka y M. H u d s o n , C hief, D ivisio n of Sim plified P r a c tic e ; an d
A x e l H. Ox h o l m , Chief, L u m b er D iv isio n ]

C o n struction ra n k s am ong th e m ost im p o rta n t of a ll o u r g re a t
in d u strie s, n o t only because of its volum e of about $6,000,000,000
an n u ally , bu t because it bears p ecu liar re la tio n sh ip s to th e whole
econom ic fab ric. T h e in d u strie s d ep en d en t up on it fo r th e disposal
•of th e ir p ro d u cts— lum ber, steel, cem ent, b rick , as well as tra n s p o rta ­
tio n , etc.—are so nu m erou s an d fo rm so la rg e a section o f o u r n atio n a l
economic stru c tu re t h a t th e ebb an d flow of con stru ctio n a c tiv ity
has a d o m in an t effect up on th e e n tire pro blem o f p ro sp e rity and
depression.
T heo re tically , if th e con stru ctio n in d u strie s could concen trate th e ir
a c tiv itie s in tim es o f slack en in g d em an d fo r consum able goods, we
m ig h t stab ilize o u r e n tire business fa b ric. A lth o u g h th is th eoretical
p o ssib ility o f com plete econom ic co n tro l is n o t p ra c tic a lly feasible,
m u ch can be co n trib u te d th ro u g h th e stim u la tio n of public w orks—
F e d e ra l, S ta te , a n d m u n ic ip al— an d o f o th e r ty p es o f b u ild in g an d
re p a ir w ork so as to stre n g th e n em plo ym ent in tim es when o th er
tra d e s a re slack. T h e developm ent o f b e tte r statistic s on co nstruc­
tio n has, fu rth e rm o re , m ade it possible to keep th e volum e o f con­
stru c tio n w ith in reasonable lim its a t tim es of peak a ctiv ity in g en eral
business (as ex p lain ed m ore fu lly in th e section on “ S ta tistic s ” ).
I n th e m ore im m ediate a n d m easu rable problem o f elim in atio n of
d ire c t w aste in th e in d u stry th e re has been g re a t progress. Such
m a jo r w astes have arisen fro m :
1. T h e seasonal c h a ra c te r of th e in d u stry .
2. Insufficient s ta n d a rd s as to grades, q u a lity , an d business docu­
m entatio n.
3. U nnecessary o r uneconom ical v a rie ty in dim ensions o f b u ild in g
m a te ria ls.
4. T h e confused state of m u nicip al b u ild in g reg u la tio n s an d la ck
•of “ zon in g ” in cities.

14

R E P O R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

5. L ack o f adequate statistic s as to volum e a n d c h a ra c te r o f con­
stru c tio n , b u ild in g costs, pro d u ctio n , stocks, an d consum ptio n o f
b u ild in g m ate rials, etc.
6. U neconom ical p u rc h a sin g m etho ds w ith p a rtic u la r reference to
specifications and tru e requirem ents o f consum ers.
R E D U C T IO N I N

SEA SO N A L C H A R A C T ER OF T H E IN D U STR Y '

I n J u n e , 1923, th e S e c re ta ry o f Com m erce a p p o in te d a com m ittee
on seasonal o p e ra tio n in th e co n stru ctio n in d u strie s.1 T h is com­
m ittee recom m ended an exhaustiv e in v estig atio n by th e d e p a rtm e n t
in to th e fu n d am en tals w hich un d erlie th e seasonal c h a ra c te r o f th e
in d u stry . F o llo w in g th e d etailed stu d y , it concluded th a t u n d e r
th e im prov ed m ethods o f con stru ctio n an d th e clim atic conditions o f
m ost o f th e co u n try , constructio n could proceed as econom ically an d
effectivel}’- in w in te r as in su m m er; th a t an extension of th e active
b u ild in g season w ould give ste a d ie r em ploym ent o f m en an d equip ­
m ent, both in construction an d th e m a te ria l tra d e s ; a n d th a t coop­
e ra tio n in each lo cality by those concerned w ith co n stru ctio n could
do m uch to u tiliz e la b o r an d tra n s p o rta tio n facilitie s m ore effec­
tiv e ly th ro u g h o u t th e year. C o n tracto rs, real-estate m en, b u ild in g m a te ria l m a n u fa ctu rers, labor, an d o th e r g ro u p s re p re sen te d on th e
com m ittee accord ing ly u n ite d in fu rth e rin g th e o rg an iz atio n o f local
com m ittees to p la n and encourage b e tte r-d istrib u te d construction.
T h e b e tte r u n d e rsta n d in g o f th e pro blem b ro u g h t a b o u t by th e
com m ittee’s re p o rt, and th e cooperative activ itie s in m any localities,
have a lre ad y h a d a m ark ed effect. A c tiv ity of a la rg e n u m b er of
c o n tra cto rs on op era tio n s th ro u g h o u t th e co u n try averag ed ab ou t
a th ird g re a te r d u rin g th e th re e w in te r m o n th s o f 1924 th a n in
prev io u s years. T h e fa r-re a c h in g p ra c tic a l effect o f such develop­
m ents h as been d em o n strated d u rin g th e p a s t y ear, w hen th e to ta l
am o u n t o f co n stru ctio n reached a value o f m ore th a n $6,000,000,000,
th e h ig h e st in o u r h isto ry . L a rg e b u ild in g p ro g ra m s have in th e
p a s t u su ally m e an t ra p id ly m o u n tin g costs of co nstructio n. I n th is
case, how ever, th e re w as a g re a te r eq u alizatio n of b u ild in g a c tiv ity
th ro u g h o u t th e 12 m onth s, an d as a re su lt th e enorm ous co n stru ctio n
1 E r n e s t T . T rig g , P h ila d e lp h ia , P a ., c h a irm a n , e x -p re sid e n t N a tio n a l P a in t, Oil
a n d V arn ish A s s o c ia tio n ; J o h n W. B lo d ge tt, G ra n d R ap id s, M ich., p re s id e n t N a tio n a l
L um be r M a n u fa c tu re rs ' A s s o c ia tio n ; H . R. D aniel, New Y ork, N. Y., a s s is ta n t to th e
p re sid e n t, S. W. S tr a u s & C o .; J o h n D onlin, W ash in g to n , D. C., p re s id e n t B u ild in g
T ra d e s D e p a rtm e n t, A m erican F e d e ra tio n o f L a b o r ; L. F . E p pich , D enver, Colo., p re s id e n t
N a tio n a l A sso ciation o f R eal E s ta te B o a rd s ; A. P. G reen sfeld er, S t. L o u is, Mo., A s­
so ciated G eneral C o n tra c to rs o f A m e ric a ; Jo h n M. G rles, W ash in g to n , D. C., ch ie f o f
th e division o f b u ild in g a n d h ou sing , D e p a rtm e n t o f C om m erce; J a y A. H ouse, C lev e­
la n d , Ohio, p re s id e n t G u a rd ia n S av in g s & T r u s t C o .; O tto T . M allery , P h ila d e lp h ia , P a.,
fo rm er m em ber o f th e P e n n sy lv a n ia S ta te I n d u s tr ia l C om m ission ; R u do lp h P. M iller,
N ew Y ork, N. Y., p re s id e n t B u ild in g Officials’ C o n fe re n ce; J a m e s P. N oonan, W ash in g to n ,
I). C. p re s id e n t In te r n a tio n a l B ro th erh o o d of E le c tric a l W o r k e r s ; W illiam S ta n le y
P a rk e r, B o sto n, M ass., vice p re s id e n t A m eric an I n s tit u te o f A r c h ite c ts ; E d w ard K vra
H u n t, se c re ta ry .

R E PO R T OF T H E SEC RE T A R Y OF C O M M E R C E

15

p ro g ra m was executed w ith no m ark ed labor sh o rtag e or serious p re s­
sure upo n th e b u ild in g m a te ria l, m a n u fa c tu rin g , or tra n s p o rta tio n in ­
dustries. T h e prices of m ost b u ild in g m ate rials, in fact, a ctu ally
decreased.
E S T A B L IS H IN G

STANDARDS

OF

GRADES

AND

Q U A L IT Y

IN

THE

LU M BER

IN D U S T R Y

L u m b er is o u r m ost w idely used con stru ctio n m ate rial, an d th e
g ra d u a l decrease in o u r fo rest resources dem ands a t once b e tte r
u tilizatio n . R efo re sta tio n , even if s ta rte d on a la rg e scale to-day,
w ould n o t b rin g re su lts fo r m any years to come. H ow ever, th e
■elimination o f w aste in th e m a n u fa ctu re, d istrib u tio n , and con­
su m p tio n of wood w ill give im m ediate relief.
LTnder th e c en tral com m ittee on lum ber s ta n d a rd s,2 a p p o in te d by
th e S e c re ta ry of Com m erce in J u ly , 1922, “ A m erican lum ber s ta n d ­
a rd s ” have been w orked o u t a n d ratified by th e th re e an n u al con­
ferences of lu m be r m a n u fa ctu rers, dealers, a n d consum ers called
by th e d e p artm en t. A t th e same tim e pro g ress is being m ade in
th e g ra d e m a rk in g o f lum ber. T h e savings in consum ption of wood,
th ro u g h b e tte r g u a ra n tee s of q u ality , m ore stab le m a n u fa ctu re, and
m ore econom ical d is trib u tio n a re a lre ad y very large.
D O C U M E N T A T IO N

T h ro u g h th e com m ittee sponsored by th e S e c re tary of Commerce,
re p re se n tin g co n tra cto rs associations, arch itec ts, engineers, railw ay s,
p u b lic officials, and o th e r la rg e con stru ctio n users, sta n d a rd con­
stru ctio n co n tra ct fo rm s have been d ra w n up w hich afford b etter
assurance to b oth c o n tra cto r an d ow ner, an d w hich should elim in ate
m uch o f th e area o f possible disp u te and create a m ore u n ifo rm
basis fo r com petitive action.
A n u m b er o f th e local g ro u p s, re p re se n tin g all elem ents connected
w ith constructio n, in c lu d in g ow ners an d p ublic officials, w hich
hav e been fo rm ed alon g th e g en eral lines encouraged by the d e p a rt­
m ent, have in stitu te d m easures to cut down excessive expenses in ­
volved in th e ta k in g o f estim ates a n d bids fro m num erous con­
tra c to rs an d subcontractors. T h ey have also so ug ht to elim inate th e
causes o f d isp u tes by efforts to define m ore clearly th e condition s
u n d e r w hich vario us g ro u p s o rd in a rily fu n ctio n , w ith a view to
s im p lify in g business tran sactio n s.
2 T h e perso nn el of th e F ir s t C e n tra l C om m ittee on L um b er S ta n d a rd s , a p p o in ted J u ly
22, 1922, w as a s fo llo w s: J o h n W. B lo d g ett, ch a irm a n ; p re sid e n t. N atio n al L um ber
M a n u f a c tu re r s ’ A sso ciation ; W. E. H aw ley, A m erican R ailw ay A sso ciatio n ; D w ig h t
H in ck ley , p re sid e n t, N ation al-A m erican W ho lesale Ia im b er D ealers, se c re ta ry ; J o h n E.
L lo yd, p re s id e n t N a tio n a l R e ta il L um ber D ea lers A sso ciation ; S ulliv an W. Jo n es , A m erican
I n s titu te o f A rc h ite c ts a n d A ssociated G eneral C o n tra c to rs o f A m e ric a ; J o h n II. K irby,
p re s id e n t, S o u th ern P in e A sso ciatio n ; E. E. P ars o n ag e, p re sid e n t. A ssociation o f Wood
U sin g In d u s trie s ; W. L. S au n d ers , N a tio n a l H ardw o od L um ber A sso ciation.

16

R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E
T E S T S .O F B U IL D IN G M A T E R IA L S

S tu dies of th e p ro p e rtie s an d use o f b u ild in g m a te ria ls, w hich havebeen c a rrie d o u t by th e B u re au of S ta n d a rd s as ra p id ly as fu n d s have
p e rm itte d , have p ro ve d o f in creasin g value d u rin g th e p a st fo u r
y ears of larg e b u ild in g pro g ram s. M any o f th e results have been
em bodied in th e recom m en dations o f th e b u ild in g code committee..
D irectly an d in d ire c tly th e fa c ts learned fro m th e tests have been
used by b u ild ers th ro u g h o u t th e co u n try , who have been en deavorin g
to m eet th e la rg e dem ands fo r dw ellings w ith in ran g e o f th e incom e
o f th e m a jo rity of th e people.
S IM P L IF IC A T IO N OF D IM E N S IO N S

Sim plificatio n o f dim ensions o f b u ild in g m a te ria ls has been c a r­
rie d out in a g re a t num b er of branches o f th e in d u stry . C om m ittees
have been ap p o in te d by th e S e cre tary of Com m erce on request o f
th e in d u s tria l associations covering b rick , steel, roofing, slate, lum ber,
etc., and in each case th e consum ing tra d e or th e consum ing public
th ro u g h some p u blic agency has been rep re se n te d in th e delib era ­
tio n s an d conclusions o f these com m ittees.
T h e m ajo r sim plification s reached in th is m an n er include th e
elim in atio n o f 60 p e r cent o f varieties in softw ood y a rd lu m b er an d
s tru c tu ra l tim bers, th e e sta b lish m en t o f one s ta n d a rd size of common
b rick in place of 44 sizes, 19 ty pes an d sizes of hollow b u ild in g tile
in ste ad o f 36, 11 cross-sectional sizes o f re in fo rc in g b ars instead o f
40, an d so on th ro u g h th e 25 item s e n te rin g d ire c tly o r in d ire c tly
in to b u ild in g an d co nstruction .34
T h e benefits to th e hom e b u ild er, th e arch itect, th e m a te ria lsu p p ly dealer, an d th e m a n u fa c tu re r are reflected in g re a te r ease
of p ro curem ent, b e tte r service, b e tte r values, an d in some in sta n ces
low er prices. C o nsidering th e c u rre n t h ig h d em an d fo r b u ild in g
m a te ria ls an d th e ir re la tiv e av ailab ility , i t is obvious th a t sim plifi­
cation is e x p ed itin g p ro d u ctio n , sh ip m en t, an d assem bling o r in ­
sta lla tio n , w ith consequent sav in g to all concerned.
M U N I C I P A L B U IL D IN G A N D P L U M B IN G

CODES A N D Z O N IN G O R D IN A N C E S

I n M ay, 1921, th e S e cre tary of Com m erce ap p o in te d a com m ittee
on b u ild in g codes * w hich m ade exhaustiv e stu dies of ex istin g build8 D e ta ils o f th e se sim p lificatio n s a r e giv en in th e ta b le on pp. 20-22.
4 Ir a II. W oolson, c h a irm a n , New York, N. Y., co n su ltin g eng in ee r, N a tio n a l B oard of
F ir e U n d e rw r ite rs ; E dw in H . B ro w n , M in neapo lis, M inn ., se c re ta ry , A m erican I n s tit u te
of A r c h ite c ts ; W illiam K . H a tt, L a fa y e tte , In d ., p ro fesso r o f civil en g in ee rin g , P u rd u e
U n iv e rs ity ; A lb e rt K ah n, D e tro it, M ich., fellow , A m erican I n s titu te o f A rc h ite c ts ;
R udolph P. M iller, New Y ork, N. Y., ex -s u p e rin te n d e n t o f b u ild in g s ; J o h n A. N ew lin.
M adison, W is., in ch arg e sec tion of tim b er m echanics, F o re s t P ro d u c ts L a b o ra to ry ,

R E PO R T O P T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

17

in g codes, conducted scientific tests, an d g o t in touch w ith m ore th a n
a th o u san d engineers, arch itec ts, co n tracto rs, public officials, tra d e
association executives, a n d oth ers in te re sted in its field of w ork.
W ith th is b ro a d b ack groun d th e com m ittee was able to p re p a re a
num b er of re p o rts w hich have been accepted as a u th o rita tiv e and
have been u tilized w idely in progressive revision of obsolete re q u ire­
m ents in differen t cities. A d o p tio n of the recom m endations of th is
com m ittee p e rm its sav ing s of 10 to 20 p e r cent in th e constructio n of
b rick w alls, in s ta lla tio n o f p lu m b in g system s and o th e r elem ents of
sm all houses, com pared w ith costs u n d e r m any of th e codes w hich
have been replaced. A t th e sam e tim e safety is assured an d sound,
dura b le con stru ctio n is encouraged. T h e subjects covered by the
com m ittee’s re p o rts include “ llecom m ended m inim um requirem ents
fo r sm all d w elling co n stru ctio n ,” “ P lu m b in g in sm all dw ellings and
sim ila r b u ild in g s,” “ M aso nry w all co nstruction ,” an d “ M inim um
live loads allow able in design of stru c tu re s.” T hese have been utilized
in fra m in g m u n icip al code pro visions in S ta te s as w idely sep ara te d
as C a lifo rn ia a n d M assachusetts, L o u isian a an d M innesota, and
G eorg ia an d M ontana.
A n adviso ry com m ittee on z o n in g 6 was also a p p o in te d by th e Sec­
re ta ry o f Com m erce in 1921 to deal w ith a n o th e r aspect o f m u nicip al
b u ild in g reg ulatio ns. T h e sta n d a rd S ta te zoning e n ab lin g act w hich
th is com m ittee p re p a re d has been used w holly or in p a r t by 17
S ta te s,6 a fa c t w hich bears eloquent te stim o n y to th e value a n d fa rreach in g scope of th e com m ittee’s w ork in th is field. T h e nu m ber o f
zoned m un ic ip alities in th e U n ite d S ta te s has increased to ab ou t 360
from a to ta l of less th a n 50 a t th e tim e th e com m ittee w as form ed.
A s a re su lt several m illion a d d itio n a l hom e ow ners have b e tte r p ro ­
tection fo r th e ir equity in th e ir p ro p e rty . T h e zoning o rdinances
U n ited S ta te s D e p a rtm e n t of A g ric u ltu re ; Jo se ph It. W orce ster, B oston, M ass., m em ber,
A m erican Society o f C ivil E n g in e e r s ; a n d F ra n k P. C a rtw rig h t, te ch n ical se c re ta ry .
Su bc om m ittee on p lu m bing co d es: G eorge C. W hip ple (died, Nov. 28, 1 9 2 4 ), ch a irm a n ,
C am bridge, M ass., p ro fesso r o f s a n ita r y en gin ee rin g , H a rv a rd U n iv e rs ity ; H a r r y Y.
C arso n, B irm in g h am , A la., m em ber, A m erican Iro n a n d Ste el I n s t i t u t e ; W illiam C.
G roeniger, Colum bus, Ohio, m em ber, A m erican So ciety of S a n ita ry E n g in e e rin g ; T h o m as
F. H an ley , C hicago, 111., ch a irm a n , sta n d a rd iz a tio n com m ittee, N atio n al A ssociation o f
M a s te r P lu m b e rs ; A. E. H an sen , New Y ork, N. Y., m em ber, A m erican Society o f S a n ita ry
E n g in ee rin g .
BT h e m em bers o f th is co m m ittee w ere a s fo llo w s: C h a rle s B. B all, C hicago, 111., sec re ­
ta r y -tr e a s u re r , c ity p la n n in g div isio n, A m erican So ciety o f C ivil E n g in e e r s ; E d w a rd
M. Basvsett, New Y ork, N. Y., counsel, zo nin g co m m ittee o f New Y o r k ; A lfred
B ettm an , C in cin n ati, Ohio, d ire c to r, n a tio n a l co n feren ce on city p la n n in g ; Irv in g
B. H ie tt, T oledo, Ohio, ex -p re side nt, N atio n al A sso ciatio n of Iteal E s ta te B o a rd s ; J o h n
Ilild er, W ashing to n, D. C., m an ag e r, civic d ev elo pm ent d e p a rtm e n t, C ham ber o f Com m erce
of th e U nited S ta te s ; J . H orace M cF arla n d , H a rrisb u rg , P a ., ex.-president, A m eric an C ivic
A sso c ia tio n ; F re d e ric k L aw O lm sted, B rook line, M ass., ex -p re sid en t, A m erican C ity P la n ­
n in g I n s t i t u t e ; ex-presid en t, A m erican Society of L an d sc ap e A rc h ite c ts ; an d L aw ren ce
C eiller, New York, N. Y., s e c re ta ry a n d d ire c to r, N atio n al H o usin g A sso ciatio n .
6 A rizo na, C olorado, D ela w are, Id ah o , Illin o is, Iow a, N evada, New H am p sh ire, New
Je rse y , N o rth C aro lin a, N o rth D ak o ta, O klahom a, P e n n sy lv a n ia , R h od e Is la n d , S o u th
C aro lin a, U ta h , an d W yom ing.

18

R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

are h e lp in g to safeg u a rd th e houses o f these fam ilies fro m w anton
in tru sio n by uses of la n d w hich are best gro u p ed a p a r t fro m homes.
R ep o rts indicate th a t zonin g ord inances have been h e lp fu l in
cities th ro u g h o u t th e co u n try in av o id in g th e b lig h tin g o f d istric ts
an d the unnecessary s c ra p p in g o f b u ild in g s a n d costly public u tili­
ties th a t are still serviceable. T h e ra z in g o f a single block of d w ell­
ings an d th e s c ra p p in g o f u tility connections unsuited fo r altered
occupancy usually involved a d estructio n of $100,000 or m ore w orth
o f p ro p e rty , de p en d in g on th e num ber and c h arac te r of houses.
W here th e scale o f such op eratio n s is reduced by a good zoning
ordin ance th e an n u al savings, even in a city of m od erate size, are
very considerable.
D E V E L O P M E N T OF C O N ST R U C T IO N ST A T IST IC S

T h e w ork of th e d e p a rtm e n t in collecting and p u b lish in g statistics
re la tin g to construction a c tiv ity an d b u ild in g m a te ria ls has been of
g re a t p ra c tic a l value. I t has helped to m ake possible a change in
th e p re v a ilin g a ttitu d e o f th e in d u stry a n d o f b u ild in g ow ners. I n
th e sp rin g of 1923, fo r exam ple, w hen th e le ttin g s o f co n tracts were
e x tra o rd in a rily larg e, fe ars were expressed th a t an in flatio n ary
boom m ig h t resu lt. T h e d e p a rtm e n t w as able to p o in t o u t in a
p ub lic statem en t th a t th e resources of th e in d u stry w ould u n d o u b t­
edly be fu lly occupied fo r several m onths. T h e re p o rt o f th e com ­
m ittee on business cycles an d unem plo ym ent, a p p e a rin g sh o rtly
a fte rw a rd s, gave g re a t em phasis to th e p o in t th a t u n d e r such c ir­
cum stances it is b e tte r fo r ow ners to w ait u n til men a n d m ate ria ls
are available th a n to bid recklessly fo r th e first place in line. A s
a re su lt no real crisis developed, and th e in d u stry has continued to
o p era te a t a ve ry h ig h an d e x tra o rd in a rily even ra te of a ctiv ity
w ith com parative stead iness in b u ild in g costs.
h o m e -o w n e r s ’ pr o b l e m s

Im p o rta n t prog ress in th e science o f sm all-house construction
h as been m ade as a re su lt o f th e w ork o f B e tte r H om es in A m erica.
T h is o rg a n iz atio n fo r public service is su p p o rte d by public c o n tri­
b u tio ns an d is u n d e r th e d irectio n of th e S e c re ta ry of Com m erce
as presid en t. O th e r d e p artm en tal officials p a rtic ip a te in its affairs.
A m o n g th e th ousan ds o f v o lu n ta ry local B e tte r H om es com m ittees—
“ B e tte r H om es W e e k ” was observed in m ore th a n 2,000 com m uni­
ties la st M ay— a la rg e num ber have bu ilt, fu rn ish e d , an d equipped
de m o n stratio n houses w ith th e object of developing a b e tte r u tiliz a ­
tion o f fu n d s fo r household ex pend itures. T h e re su lt has been to
evolve conveniently a rra n g e d , a ttra c tiv e houses o f good q u a lity
w ith th e p ro p o rtio n a te e x p en d itu re fo r differen t item s well su ited
for fam ilies o f average an d low er incomes.

R E P O E T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

19

F in a n c in g th e hom e ow ner o f a sm all hom e is in re a lity one o f
th e g re a t problem s o f th e construction in d u stry , an d th e d e p a rtm e n t
has endeavored to a id th e best classes of hom e-financing agencies
th ro u g h its pub lications. T h e im p o rtan ce o f sav in g as a p re lim i­
n a ry to hom e ow nership has been em phasized in th e booklet H ow to
O w n Y o u r H om e, o f w hich ab out 300,000 copies have been sold.
A ll these activ itie s have co n trib u te d to a g re a ter, stea d ie r, an d m ore
d isc rim in a tin g dem and fo r im p ro v ed dw ellings.
T h e follow ing table shows th e g ro w th in hom e b u ild in g :
R e s id e n t ia l C o n s t r u c t io n C o n t r a c t s i n 27 N o r t h e a s t e r n S t a t e s

Year ended June 30—

1920..................................................................................................................
1921..................................................................................................................
1922..................................................................................................................
1923..................................................................................................................
1924..................................................................................................................
1925..................................................................................................................

Total
Ratio (per
residential
cent) of
construc­ residential
to total
tion
contracts
construc­
in millions
tion
contracts
of dollars
874
579
1,199
1,477
1,783
1,904

27.8
28.1
40.1
42.3
47.9
45.5

E L IM IN A T IN G W A STE BY S IM P L IF IE D PRA CTICE
[B y R a y M. H u d s o n , C hief, D ivisio n o f Sim plified P ra c tic e ]

Sim plified p ractice m eans th e redu ctio n of v a rie ty in sizes, dim en­
sions, an d im m a te ria l difference of ev ery d ay com m odities. I t s p u r­
pose is to elim in ate w aste, decrease cost, an d increase values in p ro ­
ductio n, d is trib u tio n , an d consum ption. I t has n o th in g to do w ith
style prob lem s or m a tte rs o f in d iv id u a l creation.
T h e m eth od is th a t up on request of a given in d u s try a survey is
m ade of th e v a ria tio n s an d th e m a jo r uses.7 A conference is called
n o t only o f th e pro d u cers b u t o f th e d istrib u te rs an d consum ers o f
th is given com m odity, a n d unnecessary sizes a n d g rad es are
elim inated.
A dherence is p u re ly v o lu n ta ry , b u t is su p p o rte d by th e w idespread
d is trib u tio n of th e recom m end ations, a n d by th e consistent efforts
on th e p a r t of th e acceptors of th e recom m endations to focus public
a tte n tio n on th e a d v an ta g es of b u y in g a n d u sin g th e sim plified lines.
7 T h e d e p a rtm e n t lias th e fine a ss ista n c e o f a p la n n in g co m m ittee c o m p risin g : B. H .
A ckles, p re s id e n t, N a tio n a l S upp ly an d M ach in ery D is trib u to rs ’ A sso ciatio n , D e tro it,
M ic h .; W. L . C h an dler, s e c re ta ry , N a tio n a l A sso ciation of P u rc h a s in g A g ents, New York,
N. Y . ; E. W. M cCullough, m an ag e r, d e p a rtm e n t o f m a n u fa c tu re , C ham ber of C om m erce
of th e U nited S ta te s , W ashing to n, D. C .; I>. W. W allace, ex ecu tive se c re ta ry , A m erican
E n g in e e rin g C ouncil, W as h in g to n , D. C . ; A. W. Shaw , p re sid e n t, A. W. Shaw Co., C hi­
cago, 111.; A. A, Stev enson , vice-p re sid en t in c h a rg e o f m a n u fa c tu re , S ta n d a rd S teel
W orks Co., P h ila d e lp h ia , P a . ; a n d B rig . Gen. H . C. S m ith e r, C h ief C o o rd in ato r, B u re au
o f th e B ud ge t, W a sh in g to n , D. C.

R E P O R T O F T H E SEC R ET A R Y OF C O M M E R C E

20

T h e effects of sim plified practice a re (a) to fa c ilita te m ass p ro ­
ductio n th ro u g h co ncen tratio n on few er v arieties, and th u s decrease
cost o f m a n u fa c tu re : ( b ) to focus dem and on specific varieties, en­
ab lin g m a n u fa c tu re rs to prod uce fo r stock in otherw ise du ll seasons,
and th u s p e rm it m ore re g u la r use o f both lab o r and p la n t; an d ( c )
to stim u la te tu rn o v e r of stocks, and th ro u g h assured dem and as well
as deliv ery w hen w an ted , o p erate on sm aller stock investm ent.
Since th is cooperative service w as in a u g u ra te d over 50 sim plifica­
tio n s have been achieved by th e in d u strie s an d tra d e s concerned, re ­
s u ltin g in an average redu ctio n in v a rie tie s of 73 p e r cent. A m ong
these elim in atio ns of needless v a rie ty 21 a p p ly to p ro d u c ts o f iro n
an d steel an d o th er m e ta ls; 8 to lum ber, p a p e r, an d o th e r pro d u cts
de riv ed fro m w ood; 17 to clay, cem ent, glass, and o th e r p ro d u c ts
o f a m in era l n a tu re ; 4 to te x tile s; a n d 2 oth ers to com m ercial docu­
m ents such as w arehouse receipts.
T h e an n u al value o f m a n u fa c tu re d goods affected by these sim plifi­
cation s ru n s well over $2,000,000,000. I n e ig h t ty p ic a l cases leaders
in th e fields covered have estim ated p o te n tia l sav ing s fro m sim plifi­
cations, as fo llow s: P a v in g b rick , $1,000,000; sheet steel, $2,400,000;
steel re in fo rc in g bars, $4,500,000; w arehouse fo rm s, $5,000,000; ran g e
boilers, $5,500,000; b u ild e rs’ h a rd w a re , $10,000,000; in q u iry , p urchase
o rd e r, an d invoice form s, $15,000,000; an d lum ber as h ig h as
$ 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

T h e d etails of these sim plification s are given in th e follow ing
ta b le :
R e s u l t s o p S i m p l i f i e d P r a c t ic e , J a n u a r t , 1 9 2 1 , t o O c t o b e r , 1 9 2 5

Commodity fields

IR O N , S T E E I.,

AND

Number Number
Number Per cent
elimi­
retained reduction
nated

o f sizes o r

varieties
in use

T H E IR PR O D U C T S

M etal la th ..............................................................................
Files and rasps........................................................................
Woven-wire fencing.................................................... ...........

Sheet steel..............................................................................
Eaves trough and conductor p ip e ...........................................
Terneplate..............................................................................
Steel lockers............................................................................

125
1,351
552
2,072
130
120
66
665
1,500
40
1,819
21
9
65

101
855
483
1,934
. 117
106
42
314
660
29
1,556
48

24
496
69
138
13
14
24
351
840
11
263
16
7
17

Tacks and nails, packing weights.............................................
Shovels, spades, and scoops............................................. .......

428
423
4,460

247
302
4,076

181
121
384

Rauge boilers..........................................................................
Forged tools.......................................................................... .
Plow bolts..............................................................................

5
2

81
63
86
94
90
88
64
47
44
73
86
24
22

74
35
58
71
92

R E P O R T OF T H E SEC R ET A R Y OF C O M M E R C E

21

R e s u l t s o f S i m p l i f i e d P r a c t ic e , J a n u a r y , 1 9 2 1 , t o O c t o b e r , 19 2 5 — C o n t in u e d

C o m m o d ity fields

ir o n , s t e e l , a n d

THEIR

N um ber
ofsizes or
v a rie tie s
in u se

N um ber
e lim i­
n a te d

N um ber
re ta in e d

P er cent
re d u c tio n

33

32

1

97

34

33

1

97

44

43

1

98

78

76

2

97

78

76

2

97

94

p r o d u c t s —c o n tin u e d

H o s p ita l be ds:
W id th s ........................................................................................

STONE, CLAY, GLASS, AND MINERAL PRODUCTS
66

62

4

37

36

1

97

38

37

1

98

44

43

1

98

36

17

19

47

98

50

48

51

251

226

25

90

115

91

24

80

84

14

11

3

79

700

540

160

77

668

491

177

73

700

687

113

84

700

587

113

84

49

40

9

82

88

79

9

90

14

6

8

43

10

5

5

50

7 1 5 ,2 0 0

459, 400

2 5 5 ,8 0 0

64

W OO D, PA PE R , ETC.

GO

Paper sheet sizes:
4
1
3
244

184

60

76

29

28

1

97

77

Tissue paper:
13

10

3

21

15

6

72

6, 280

1 ,5 8 0

4 ,7 0 0

26

78

74

4

95

TEXTILES
78

74

4

95

78

06

12

85

19

9

10

47

460

366

94

80

MISCELLANEOUS

Builders' hardware:
26
71

Pain t and varnish brushes......................................................

94

1 ,1 1 4

1 ,0 4 2

72

4 ,0 7 6

2 ,3 1 8

1 ,7 5 8

57

480

342

138

71

22

R E PO R T OP T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

R e s u l t s o f S i m p l i f i e d P r a c t ic e , J a n u a r y , 1 9 2 1 , t o O c t o b e r , 192 5 — C o n t in u e d

Commodity fields

Number
of sizes or
varieties
in use

Number Numbcr
nated

Per cent
reduction

DOCUM ENTS
.......................'

15
1

......................
.......................

1

1

1

D u rin g th e p a st y e ar th e re has been w id er re cognition given to
established sim plificatio ns; an in creasin g degree o f adherence to
such recom m endations by m a n u fa c tu re rs, d istrib u te rs, a n d con­
sum ers; definite evidence of m o n eta ry savings re su ltin g ; and an
in creasin g n um be r o f requests fro m in d u strie s to th e division fo r
cooperation.
A dherence to sim plified practice recom m endations by th e ir o rig ­
in al acceptors has been swelled by th e ad o ptio n of th e recom m enda­
tio n s by m any w ho w ere outside th e o rig in a l concerns represented .
A recen t ex am in atio n shows th a t 1,200 tra d e u n its have in dorsed
33 recom m endations. These include 57 p ro duc er, 86 d istrib u te r, and
255 consum er associations. A ctin g in d e p en d e n tly o f tra d e associa­
tion s in th e ir respective fields, 386 in d iv id u a l m a n u fa ctu rers, 238
d istrib u te rs, an d over 200 consum ers have ad o p ted an d are resp ect­
in g sim plified practice m ethods w hich have been established.
T y p ic a l o f in cre asin g adherence is th e re p o rt of th e p av in g b rick in d u stry w hich, p rio r to sim plification in 1921, d e a lt in 66
v arieties o f p a v in g bricks an d h a d 80 p e r cen t o f its p ro d u c tio n in
11 of those 66 varieties. I n 1924 th is in d u s try h a d 88 p e r cent in
th e 5 sim plified varieties. S im ila rly th e steel-b arrel m a n u fa c tu re rs
in th e first five m o nths o f 1925 prod uced 84 p e r cen t of th e ir
2,126,352 b a rre ls in sim plified sizes a n d only 16 p e r cen t in obsolete
an d n o n sta n d a rd sizes.
T h e d ire c t sav ing s possible th ro u g h sim plification are s trik in g ly
illu stra te d in th e re p o rt of th e sta n d in g com m ittee concerned w ith
th e sim plification o f steel re in fo rc in g bars, w hich s ta te s:
W h e r e a s m a n y o f o u r w a r e h o u s e s w e r e b e in g c o m p e lle d t o c a r r y s o m e 16 t o
2 0 d if fe r e n t s iz e s w e h a v e n o w r e d u c e d t o 11 s iz e s . A b o u t 6 0 0 ,0 0 0 t o n s o f
r e in f o r c in g b a r s a r e s o ld a n n u a lly in t h e U n it e d S t a t e s . D e a le r s u n d e r t h e
o ld a r r a n g e m e n t c a r r ie d in id le s t o c k b e t w e e n 1 5 0 ,0 0 0 a n d 2 0 0 ,0 0 0 t o n s . W it h
t h e 1 1 s im p lif ie d s iz e s i t i s o u r j u d g m e n t t h a t t h is b u s in e s s c a n b e m o r e effi­
c ie n t ly h a n d le d w it h a s t o c k o f a b o u t 7 5 ,0 0 0 t o n s . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e r e d u c ­
t io n in s iz e s t o b e c a r r ie d m e a n s a s a v in g in id le s t o c k o f a p p r o x im a t e ly
1 0 0 .0 0 0 t o n s , w h ic h a t a n a v e r a g e c o s t o f a b o u t $4 5 p e r t o n m e a n s a s a v in g in
c a p i t a l in v e s t m e n t o f $ 4 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 f o r t h e I n d u s tr y .

R E PO R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

23

T h e A ssociated M etal L a th M a n u fac tu re rs, in connection w ith th e
sim plification of m etal la th , s ta te :
I t is s a f e t o s a y t h a t t h e n o r m a l q u a n t it y o f e lim in a t e d s t y le s o f m e t a l la t h
f o r m e r ly c a r r ie d in d e a l e r s ’ s t o c k r e p r e s e n t e d a n in v e s t m e n t o f $ 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
w h ic h t h e y d o n o t n o w h a v e t o c a r r y . T h e s p a c e o c c u p ie d b y t il ls q u a n t i t y o f
la t h , t h e a c c o u n t in g f o r it , t h e g e n e r a l t r o u b le in m a i n t a in i n g la r g e r t h a n
n e c e s s a r y s t o c k s w o u ld a ls o r u n u p in t o h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f d o lla r s in
y e a r ly s a v in g s .

D eclines in prices to th e consum er fo r m any o f these com m odities
a re a lre ad y in evidence.
S u b sta n tia l pro g ress has been m ade by th e A m erican M arine
S ta n d a rd s C om m ittee in th e sim plification o f p ractice in th e con­
s tru c tio n a n d equ ip m ent of ship s. Som e 20 sta n d a rd s have been
ag reed upon a n d m ore th a n 100 oth ers are in p ro g ress o f develop­
m ent. O ve r 260 v aried in te re sts in th e m a rin e an d rela ted fields are
c o o p eratin g in th is com m ittee.
S P E C IF IC A T IO N S A N D

B U S IN E S S

D O C U M E N T A T IO N

{By Ge o r g e K. B u r g e s s , D irecto r, B u re au of S tan da rd s,, a n d Ad d a ms S. Mc Al l is t e r ,
S en io r E n g in e e r]

W a r experience ta u g h t us th a t one o f th e g re a t unnecessary
w astes o f pu blic fu n d s arose fro m fa u lty specifications. F o u r years
ag o a division w as established in th e B u re au o f S ta n d a rd s to d e ­
velop sta n d a rd specifications, an d a lre ad y a g re a t deal has been
accom plished in th a t directio n. T h e F e d e ra l Specifications B o ard ,
a n in te rd e p a rtm e n ta l agency, h as now covered over 300 g ro u p s of
item s p u rcha sed by th e G overnm ent. T h is has requ ired in ve stig atio n
in to ph y sical qu alities an d m a n u fa c tu rin g practice, to g e th e r w ith th e
d e term in a tio n of tests to be a p p lie d in inspection. Specifications in
every case have been su b m itte d to c o o p eratin g re p re se n ta tiv es o f
in d u stry in o rd e r th a t th e y m ay be certain o f th e ir p ra c tica l c h a r­
acte r. M any S ta te and public in stitu tio n a l p u rc h a sin g agencies are
now u sin g F e d e ra l specifications to g e th e r w ith a considerable n u m ­
ber o f in d u stria l buyers. T h is has a lre ad y resulted in larg e econo­
mies in G ov ern m ent purchases.
T h e ad o p tio n o f m ore u n ifo rm specifications, fo rm u la te d by co­
op era tio n between pro d u cers a n d consum ers, tends to elim in ate
w aste by ( a ) m ore positive com petitive action, ( b ) m ore reliable
sta n d a rd s as to q u a lity and service, ( c ) m ore u n ifo rm dem ands
upon m a n u fa ctu rers, ( d ) increased o p p o rtu n ity to m a n u fa c tu re to
stock, re su ltin g in m ore re g u la r em p loy m ent of p la n t an d labor,
( e ) g re a te r econom y to th e consum ers, an d ( / ) g re a te r assurance of
re lia b ility in service.
I n response to a dem and fro m p riv a te p u rc h a sin g ag en ts th ro u g h ­
o u t the c o u n try , th e S e cre tary of C omm erce org anized a special

24

R E P O R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

adviso ry bo ard o f official rep re sen ta tiv es o f associations v ita lly
in te re sted in specificatio ns8 to consider th e w hole question of p u r ­
chase specifications as used in com m erce an d in d u stry . U n d e r th e
d irectio n o f th is bo ard th e bu re au has com piled a N a tio n al D ire c to ry
o f C om m odity Specifications c o n ta in in g references to 27,000 item s
re la tin g to 6,600 com m odities w hich w ill serve th e b u y in g agencies
of th e cou ntry as a guid e in secu rin g th e best developed specifications.
S av in g s sim ila r to those w hich can be effected th ro u g h th e sim ­
plification of specifications an d th e num ber an d sizes o f articles can
also be obtained by re d u cin g th e n um ber and com plexity o f docu­
m ents needed in a business tra n sac tio n . T h e d e p a rtm e n t has aid ed
business in te re sts to stan d a rd iz e th e form s of w arehouse docum ents
an d receipts an d is w o rk in g w ith special com m ittees of w arehouse­
m en, sh ip p ers, ba nkers, a n d tra n s p o rta tio n agencies to sta n d a rd iz e
th e term s an d conditions on such docum ents. I f stan d a rd iz e d term s
can be ag reed upo n, g re a t savings w ill re su lt in th e red uc tio n of de­
lays in c a rry in g on business, th e elim in atio n o f unnecessary tra d e
d ispu tes, an d an increased usefulness o f such docum ents as c re d it
in stru m en ts.
A tre n d to w a rd sim plification o f docum ents is also visible in
tra n s p o rta tio n . C ongress, in th e tra n s p o rta tio n act, 1920, called
upon th e In te rs ta te Com m erce Com m ission to devise a u n ifo rm
th ro u g h e x p o rt bill of la d in g to s im p lify th e traffic aspects of e x p o rt
tran sactio n s. T h is m ovem ent is in line w ith action o f th e le ad in g
cominei’cial cou ntries in fo rm u la tin g u n ifo rm rules fo r th e c a rria g e
o f goods by sea. T h e d e p a rtm e n t has aid ed th e business com m un ity
to a p p re cia te th e value o f these efforts by m a k in g carefu l an alyses
of th e u n ifo rm th ro u g h e x p o rt b ill of la d in g a n d th e rules fo r th e
c arria g e o f goods by sea. T h e sim plification of th e te rm s a n d con­
d itio n s s u rro u n d in g a tra n sac tio n prom otes m u tu a l u n d e rs ta n d in g
between tra d e rs an d stim u la te s commerce.
E L IM IN A T IO N OF W A S T E IN D IS T R IB U T IO N
[B y J u l iu s K l e in , D irecto r, B u reau o f F o re ig n a n d D om estic Com m erce, a n d A. BL
On t h a n k , C hief, D o m estic C om m erce D ivision ]

T h e D e p a rtm e n t of Com m erce h as c o n trib u te d d ire c tly to th e
elim in atio n o f w aste in dom estic d istrib u tio n th ro u g h its w ork alo ng
lin es o f sim plification a n d sta n d a rd iz a tio n . A t th e sam e tim e th e re
8 A m erican E le c tric R ailw ay A ssoc ia tio n , A m erican E n g in e e rin g S ta n d a r d s C om m ittee,
A m erican H o sp ital A sso ciatio n , A m erican H o tel A sso ciation , A m eric an So ciety fo r T e stin g
M a te ria ls, A ssociated B u sin ess P a p e rs ( I n c .) , A sso ciates fo r G o v ern m en t Serv ice ( I n c .) ,
C h am ber of C om m erce o f th e U n ited S ta te s, N a tio n a l A sso ciatio n o f P u rc h a s in g A g en ts,
N atio n al C onference o f B usin es s P a p e r E d ito rs, N a tio n a l C onference o f G o v ern m en tal
P u rc h a s in g A g ents, N a tio n a l E le c tric L ig h t A sso ciatio n , a n d th e Society o f A uto m o tiv e
E ng in ee rs.

R E PO R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

25

have been o th e r no table accom plishm ents in th e field o f d istrib u tio n .
D u rin g th e p a st five y ears th e re h as been a s tro n g ten den cy to w a rd
th e establishm ent o f o rg an iz atio n s fo r econom ic in v estig atio n in th is
directio n su p p o rte d by th e tra d e s them selves. Im p o r ta n t am ong
these are th e research bu reau s of th e N atio n al W holesale D ru g g ists’
A ssociation, N atio n al R etail D ry G oods A ssociation, N a tio n al R e­
search B u re au , R e ta ile rs’ N a tio n al C ouncil, A m erican A ssociation of
A d v e rtisin g A gencies, A ssociation o f N a tio n al A d v e rtisers, and
N atio n al P a in t a n d V a rn ish A ssociation.
I n ad d itio n , th e tra d e s have given d ire c t a n d in d ire c t su p p o rt to
th e establishm ent a n d m ain tenance of th e H a rv a rd , N o rth w estern ,
S ta n fo rd , a n d o th er schools of business a d m in istra tio n an d th e ir
research bureaus. F u rth e rm o re , th e re has been a n o tab le increase
in em ploym ent by in d iv id u a l d istrib u tio n concerns o f th e ir own
economic ex p erts to revise th e ir m ethods a n d d irect th e ir w ork to ­
w ard e lim in a tin g w astefu l practices.
A n o th e r o u tsta n d in g developm ent is th e g ro w th o f th e fa rm e rs’
cooperative idea, th e c ard in al objective of w hich is to reduce w astes. ,
no t only in p ro d u ctio n b u t especially in th e m ethods of d istrib u tio n ,
th ereby c u ttin g dow n th e sp re ad betw een p ro d u c e r a n d consum er.
T h e p a st effort has la rg e ly been a process o f g e ttin g experience by
tria l and e rro r a n d th e g ra d u a l discovery o f w h a t to do and w h at no t
to do as well as d e term in in g w h a t fa c ilitie s w ere necessary in suc­
cessfully c a rry in g on. W ith th is b a ck g ro u n d o f accum ulated ex­
perience, it is in ev itab le th a t th e cooperative idea should be con­
sta n tly increased an d we have now en tered a co nstructive p erio d of
sound developm ent alo ng th is line.
T h e g ro w th of chain stores, m ail-o rd er houses, an d o th er sim ila r *
agencies has h a d a tendency to w a rd p ro m o tin g h ig h e r efficiency
am ong th e in d iv id u a l w holesalers an d re ta ile rs by s tim u la tin g them
to a d o p t th e m ost p ra c tic a l an d efficient m ethods o f these com peting
agencies. T he y have an im p o rta n t p a r t in th e d istrib u tio n of cer­
ta in classes of sta n d a rd articles w here little service is dem anded.
I t is reasonable to expect th a t th e scientific m ethods used by these
variou s chain and m ail-o rd er houses should g ra d u a lly suggest th e m ­
selves to th e in d ep en d en t o u tlets w ho are p e rfo rm in g a differen t ty p e
of service in th e la rg e field o f d istrib u tio n , p a rtic u la rly w here a n a ly ­
sis an d business p rin c ip le s are show n to be ad v an tageous over chance
and rule o f thum b.
I n recogn ition o f th e trem end ou s prob lem s an d difficulties in ­
volved in dom estic d istrib u tio n , th e D e p a rtm e n t of C om m erce has
given active su p p o rt and cooperation to th e tra d e s by th e develop­
m ent of th e division of dom estic commerce. I t s a id h as been e x ­
pressed th ro u g h in v estig atio n s w hich could n o t be easily c arrie d on

I

26

R E P O R T O P T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

by th e tra d e s them selves, an d has included analyses o f th e m ark ets
fo r certa in com m odities, th e m ovem ents o f perishables, an d th e
c a rry in g on o f reg io n al com m ercial surveys.
T h e com m odity studies have, in a n u m b e r o f instances, been th e
m eans of a id in g p ro d u cers to find th e w eak spot in th e m a rk e tin g
of th e ir p a rtic u la r p ro d u c t an d in su g g estin g new fields and m ethods.
A s a re su lt of these stu dies m any m a n u fa c tu re rs are now ta b u la tin g
an d a n aly z in g th e relativ e efficiency o f th e ir m ethods o f d is trib u tio n
in va rio u s sections, an d th is has enabled them to b u ild u p stre n g th in
p oo rly served d istric ts an d to elim in ate superfluous sales effort in
u n pro fitable areas. V ery g ra tify in g resu lts have th u s been achieved
in such lines as electrical goods, sa n ita ry w are, p a in ts an d varnishes,
an d p ro g ress is being m ade in o th e r lines. T h e usefulness of these
in v estig atio n s has by no m eans been confined to these pai’tic u la r
w ares, b u t has on th e c o n tra ry been extended to m a n u fa c tu re rs an d
m erch an ts a n d m any oth ers th ro u g h th e h e lp fu l exam ples th u s
afforded.
T h ro u g h th e series o f regio nal m a rk e t surveys, th e d e p a rtm e n t
aim s to give th e in d u stria l a n d com m ercial in te re sts a basis fo r a
b e tte r u n d e rsta n d in g o f th e v ario u s economic areas in th e co untry .
E a c h reg io n al surv ey p re sen ts a com posite p ic tu re o f th e e n tire
a re a p red ic ate d up on its n a tu ra l resources, in d u strie s, geo g rap h y ,
p o p u la tio n , economic an d social m ovem ents an d expressions, an d p a r ­
tic u la rly th e basic fa c to rs affecting commei'ce w ith in th e area.
Su ch surveys fo rm a basis fo r specialized com m odity in v estig atio n s
w hich, com bined, enable th e m e rc h an t an d m a n u fa c tu re r to develop
m ethods le ad in g to m ore in te llig e n t an d intensified sales effort.
R egio nal analyses disclose discrepancies betw een sales ex p en d itu res
a n d p o te n tialities. F o llo w in g th e m a k in g o f th e first survey, th a t
o f th e P h ila d e lp h ia ai-ea, a n u m b e r o f concerns w ere p ro m p te d to
revise o r m o d ify th e ir m a rk e tin g m ethods in th a t section. T his,
an d th e survey o f th e so u th ea st co m p risin g F lo rid a , A labam a,
G eorgia, easte rn Tennessee, a n d th e C arolin as, h as em phasized th e
need fo r th e com pletion o f th e prop osed series o f reg io n al surveys
em b racin g th e e n tire U n ite d States.
A fte r p re lim in a ry discussion betw een business lead ers an d th e
S e cre tary o f Com m erce, i t w as ag reed th a t th e U n ite d S ta te s C h am ­
b er o f Com m erce should sponsor a n atio n a l d istrib u tio n c o n fe r­
ence, an d th is conference w as called in D ecem ber, 1924. T h is con­
ference h as been responsible fo r a g re a t increase in in te re st on
th e p a r t o f th e business com m unity in the whole subject of elim in a­
tio n o f w aste in d istrib u tio n . M em bers o f th e d e p a rtm e n t a re ac­
tiv ely serv in g, to g e th e r w ith im p o rta n t re p re se n ta tiv es o f tra d e s,
up on p ra c tica lly all com m ittees ap p o in te d by th a t conference, an d
th e re p o rts o f these com m ittees, w hich are now in p re p a ra tio n , should

R E P O R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

27

form an im p o rta n t co n trib u tio n to th e w hole problem o f w aste
elim in atio n in d istrib u tio n an d th e red u ctio n o f m a rg in betw een
pro d u cer an d consum er.
E L IM IN A T IO N

O F W A S T E IN F IS H E R IE S

[ B y H e n r y O’Ma l l e y , C o m m is s io n e r o f F i s h e r i e s ]

S a v in g of w aste in o u r fisheries is p ro g ressin g along tw o lin es:
(1) C o op eration w ith S ta te an d local officials and p u blic-spirited
in d iv id u a ls and org an iz atio n s to stop overfishing an d to stim u late
p ro p a g a tio n ; (2) elim in atio n of w astefu l m ethods an d processes in
th e vario us branches o f th e in d u stry . T h e fo rm er, being m ore in the
n a tu re of conservation, is d ealt w ith in th e a n n u a l re p o rt of th e
C om m issioner of Fisheries. O f th e d irect w aste elim in atio n s tw o
or th re e exam ples m ay suffice to show w h a t th e B u re au of F ish eries
is doing alon g th is line.
A s a re s u lt o f its in v estig atio n s of th e crab in d u stry of C hesa­
peake B ay in 1924, th e b u reau was able to d em onstrate average losses
of 50 p e r cent of crabs p u rc h ase d fo r th e sh ed d er floats, to ta lin g
in excess of 1,000,000 pounds. W ith th e exercise of p ro p e r contro l
over th e condition o f th e crabs w hich th e b uyers w ill accept, such
losses m ay be reduced to about 20 p e r c e n t.. A s a re su lt o f p resen t­
in g th e fa c ts to th e M ary la n d S ta te Com m ission a n d fisherm en,
m a te ria l im p ro v em en t h as been effected, a n d i t is expected th a t,
final re tu rn s w ill show a sav in g o f 500,000 pou nd s th is season.
R ecent in ve stig atio ns o f th e bureau in dicate th a t th e by-p ro d u ct
equip m ent in fisheries is so inefficient th a t in th e m enhaden in d u stry
alone n itro gen ous m a te ria ls w hich now escape in th e press liquors
w ill a g g re g ate about 20,000 tons, valued a t $1,000,000 p er annum .
P ro g re ss is b ein g m ade in developin g m eans fo r th e recovery of
th is m a te ria l w hereby it is expected to salvage th e g re a te r p a r t of
it. I n m any of th e m a rk e ts o f th e la rg e r cities, fish dealers p a y to
have th e fish c u ttin g s h au led aw ay. I n one m ark et, in w hich a
single firm has discard ed about 2 to ns p e r day, a m ethod o f c arin g
fo r th is waste has been developed w hich is expected to yield a profit
on its use in place o f an ex p en d itu re fo r haulage. I n th e fisheries
fo r cod an d re la ted species, th ousan ds o f tons of c u ttin g s a re w asted
each y e ar because of a lack o f a satisfa c to ry m ethod o f h a n d lin g
m a te ria l so ric h in glue, w ith o u t rem o ving th e glue as such. T h is
problem is b ein g stu died an d it is believed th a t its solution is n e a r
at hand. I t is estim ated th a t in th e fishery b y -p ro d u ct field alone
sav ing s in excess of $2,000,000 p e r an n u m m ay be expected.
T h ro u g h th e b u re a u ’s developm ent o f copper oleate as a n e t
preservativ e, it is estim ated th a t by its use th e life o f m uch o f th e
6 6 5 4 8 — 2 5 ------ 3

28

R E PO R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

n e ttin g has been doubled. T h e to ta l value of all fishing g e ar exceeds
$14,000,000, an d m uch of th e n e ttin g used w ith th is g e ar la sts only
a single season. T o offset th e h ig h e r cost o f copper oleate as com ­
p a re d w ith o th e r p reservativ es, th e bu re au is now e x p erim en tin g
w ith o th e r com pounds of cop per and com b inations w ith o th e r p re ­
servativ es to low er th e cost o f th e p reserv ativ es used.
S T R E E T A N D H IG H W A Y SA F E T Y
[B y A. B. Ba r b e r , D irecto r, N atio n al C o nference on S tr e e t a n d H ig h w ay S a fe ty ]

T h e m o u n tin g curve of h um an, m a te ria l, and financial losses due
to stre et an d hig h w ay accidents, m ore p a rtic u la rly those in volv in g
m o to r vehicles, is one of th e m ost conspicuous exam ples o f w aste in
m odern A m erican life. F o r considerably m ore th a n a y e ar th e D e­
p a rtm e n t o f Com m erce has c arrie d fo rw a rd a series o f in vestig atio ns
o f th e problem s involved.
A s th is re p o rt is being w ritte n th e C om m ittee on S ta tistic s h as re ­
p o rte d th a t th e w astage in hu m an life an d p hysical losses is co n tin u ­
in g to increase. T h e C om m ittee on M etro p o lita n Traffic F a c ilitie s
h as fo un d th a t in a d d itio n to th e economic loss o f m ore th a n $600,000,000 due to d estructio n o f life a n d p ro p e rty , th e re is a m uch
g re a te r financial loss due to th e inadequacy o f traffic facilitie s,
a m o u n tin g to n o t less th a n $2,000,000,000 a ye ar, o r n e a rly $20 fo r
every m an, w om an, an d child in th e co un try . I n a d d itio n to its
h u m a n ita ria n stim ulus, th is w ork h as g re a t im portan ce as a p a r t
o f th e ge neral p ro g ra m fo r th e elim in atio n o f waste.
I n th e s p rin g o f 1924 th e A m erican A utom obile A ssociation,
A m erican E le c tric R ailw ay A ssociation, A m erican M u tu al A lli­
ance, A m erican R ailw ay A ssociation, C ham ber o f Com m erce o f th e
U n ite d S ta te s, N a tio n al A ssociation of T ax icab O w ners, N atio n al
A utom obile C ham ber o f Com m erce, N a tio n al B u reau of C asu alty an d
S u re ty U n d e rw rite rs, an d N a tio n al S a fe ty C ouncil w ere in v ited by
th e S e c re ta ry o f C om m erce to cooperate in th e in vestig atio n. E ig h t
com m ittees were created, consistin g o f re p re se n ta tiv e m en fro m all
p a rts o f th e c o u n try , in c lu d in g officials as well as represe n ta tiv es o f
th e c o o p eratin g associations, to re p o rt on th e fo llow in g phases of
th e p ro b le m : S ta tistic s, traffic contro l, constructio n and eng in eer­
ing, city p la n n in g an d zoning, insurance, education, th e m o to r ve­
hicle, an d p u blic relatio ns. T h e re p o rts, com pleted in N ovem ber,
1924, ou tlin ed th e problem s involved an d includ ed m any rem edial
suggestions.
I n D ecem ber, 1924, th e S e c re ta ry o f Com m erce called a general
conference of re p re sen ta tiv es o f a ll o rg an iz atio n s w hich by reason
o f th e ir cha racte ristics are or should be in terested in a reductio n of

R E P O R T O F T H E SECRETA RY O F C O M M E R C E

29

the stre et a n d h ig h w a y accident rate . T h is conference w as a tten d ed
by a p p ro x im a te ly 600 delegates, re p re se n tin g ra ilro a d s, insurance
com panies, stre e t ra ilw ay s, autom obile m a n u fa ctu rers, oi'ganized
commerce a n d in d u stry , tax ic ab com panies, safety councils, S ta te
highwa}r officials and m o tor-vehicle com m issioners, local police and
traffic a d m in istra to rs, orga nized labor, org anized m otorists, w om en’s
an d w elfare o rg an iz atio n s, engineer’s, educators, a n d th e general
public.
T h e e ig h t com m ittee re p o rts were presen ted to th e conference,
w hich in tu rn ad o p ted a consolidated re p o rt em bod ying an im p o rt­
ant series o f recom m en dations fo r S ta te legislatio n, stre et an d h ig h ­
w ay reg ulatio ns, suggestions fo r cooperative w ork, a n d a p ro g ram
o f fu tu re activities. T h e conference also ad o p ted resolution s p ro ­
v id in g fo r a second conference to be held a fte r a p p ro x im a te ly one
year, fo r a jo in t com m ittee to c a rry on th e w ork, and fo r a com m ittee
to pro m o te th e ad o p tio n o f th e recom m endations of th e first con­
ference.
E a rly in th e cale n d a r y e a r 1925, w ith th e cooperation of th e same
n a tio n a l orga n iz atio n s, a n d w ith th e a d d itio n o f th e N a tio n al R e­
search C ouncil, six com m ittees w ere a p p o in te d by th e S e cre tary of
Com m erce to c a rry on fu r th e r th e w ork o f in v estig atio n .
T he N a tio n al C onference on S tre e t a n d H ig h w a y S a fe ty is n a tio n ­
w ide in its scope. I t s p urpose, how ever, is to secure resu lts th ro u g h
stim u la tio n o f S ta te an d local action. I t s activ itie s hav e assisted in
focusing w id esp read p u b lic a tte n tio n on th e autom obile accident
problem , and in cry stallizin g opinion on rem edial m easures w hich
should bear definite results. A b e g in n in g h as been m ade of the
a p p lic atio n o f these m easures by S ta te le gislatu res, a n d an im p o rta n t
influence has been m an ifested in re g a rd to m u n icip al re g u la tio n and
o rg anized com m un ity effort.

P a rt I ï .— E C O N O M IC

R E V IE W

T a k in g th e N atio n a t larg e, th e o u tsta n d in g fe a tu re s o f the fiscal
y e ar were th e h ig h ra te of p ro d u c tio n , consum ption, an d e x p o rts;
h ig h real w ages; th e absence of an y consequential u n em plo ym ent;
co ntin ue d g ro w in g efficiency in m anage m ent and la b o r; continued
ex pansio n in a p p lic atio n o f scientific discovery in such fields as elec­
tric pow er an d lig h t, th e gas engine, a n d radio. T h e re w ere in d u s­
tria l patche s w here p ro g ress lagged, as in th e New E n g la n d te x tile
in d u s try , v ariou s sections o f th e a g ric u ltu ra l in d u stry , a n d th e b itu ­
m ino us coal in d u stry . N evertheless, th e sta n d a rd of liv in g of th e
co u n try as a w hole was th e h ig h e st in ou r h isto ry , an d th e re fo re th e
h ig h e st in all h isto ry . O u r g re a test concern m u st be to m a in ta in th e
p re sen t h ig h level of p ro d u c tio n and savings w ith o u t an o rg y of
sp ecu latio n an d u ltim a te collapse.
Som e of th e m ore o u tsta n d in g fe a tu re s of th e economic pro gress
o f th e y e ar a re m ore fu lly covered in th e fo llow in g p a r a g r a p h s :
IN D U S T R Y

T h e g en eral co ndition o f m a n u fa c tu rin g an d tra d e d u rin g th e
p a st th re e y ears is in d ic ated by th e follo w ing ta b le s :
T a b l e I.— Ma j o r E c o n o m ic I n d e x e s
BASED U PO N C A LE N D A R Y EA R 1919 AS 100
Years ended June 30—
1923
Volume of business (quantities, not value) :

Electric-power production.............................
Building contracts let, square feet..................
Factory em ploym ent....................................
Value of sales:
Mail-order houses.........................................
Wholesale trado............................................
30

........................ 1
___________ I
....................... |
........................|

116
116 i
117 !
109 1

.......................

107 !

1924

.......................

77

115
128
122
110
148
108
81

.......................
...... ................ !
........................ I
........................ :

118 1
152
91
80

125
173
100
82

I

1925

118
124
120
110
158
111
82
126
194

110
83

R E P O R T OP T H E SEC R ET A R Y OF C O M M E R C E

31

T a b l e I.— M a j o r E c o n o m ic I n d e x e s — C o n tin u e d
B A SE D U P O N C A L E N D A R Y EA R 1913 AS 100
Years ended June 30—
1923
Wholesale prices:

Chemicals and drugs........................................................................
House-furnishing goods.....................................................................
Retail prices:
General cost of living......... ..............................................................

1924

1925

156
139
142
193
220
139
188
129
181
122

150
140
143
175
141
182
129
178
116

155
153
153
189
169
130
174
133
171
124

143
169

146
171

150
172

m

A la rg e volum e o f new construction a n d a fu rth e r expan sion of
autom obile p ro d u c tio n w ere th e ch ief fe a tu re s o f th e in d u stria l
situatio n. C o n tracts le t fo r com m ercial an d in d u stria l b u ild in g s
showed an especially la rg e increase d u rin g th e first h a lf of 1925.
T he to ta l m a n u fa c tu rin g o u tp u t w as also la rg e r, an d th e re was a
slig h t increase in th e n um ber o f fa c to ry em ployees. P ro d u c tio n o f
m inerals and fo rest p ro d u cts, on th e o th e r h an d , was som ew hat
sm aller th a n in 1923-24, a lth o u g h m uch la rg e r th a n in o th e r postw ar
years.
Ite ta il tra d e in creased d u rin g 1924-25 an d w as la rg e r th a n in
any prev io u s y e ar on record. T h e expansion o f m ail-o rd er sales
am ounted to 10 p e r cent, as a ' re su lt o f im proved b u y in g pow er
am ong th e fa rm p o p u la tio n , caused by th e fa c t th a t prices o f fa rm
p ro d u cts an d foods advanced 9 an d 7 p e r cent, respectively, as
com pared w ith decreases in th e w holesale prices o f m ost o th e r com ­
m odities. A s a re su lt of h ig h e r food prices, th e cost o f liv in g lias
shown a slig h t increase.
C O N S T R U C T IO N

T he g re a test volum e o f con stru ctio n ope ra tio n s on record, re p re ­
sen ting a to ta l in vestm ent of m ore th a n $6,000,000,000, was carrie d
out u n d er th e m ost n o te w o rth y circum stances. B u ild in g -c o st in ­
dexes declined pe rc ep tib ly d u rin g th e execution o f th is trem endous
p ro g ram . T h is was possible because th e constructio n in d u s try and
b u ild in g ow ners responded to th e m ovem ent fo r stab ilizatio n o rg a n ­
ized by th e in d u stry w ith the cooperation o f th is d e p a rtm e n t fo r th e
purp ose o f keepin g th e in d u s try em ployed m ore activ ely th ro u g h o u t
th e ye ar, instead of allo w in g it to o perate a t only a frac tio n of its

82

R E P O R T O F T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

cap acity d u rin g m ost m onths. T h ere was p ra c tic a lly none o f the
obvious an d gross inefficiency an d w aste w hich has usually accom ­
p an ied b u ild in g “ b o o m s” in th e p ast, a n d th e in d u stry continues
in a h e alth y co nd ition read y to m eet co n tin u in g dem ands upon it.
B u ild in g a c tiv ity w as well d istrib u te d th ro u g h o u t th e differen t
regions o f th e co u n try , an d th ere was a p p a re n tly an increased con­
sum ptio n of b u ild in g m ate ria ls on farm s.
E x p e n d itu re s fo r construction a c tiv ity find th e ir w ay into a
h ig h ly diversified g ro u p o f in du stries. I n th is case a considerable
p a r t of th e a c tiv ity in scores o f m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u strie s, as well as
in lu m b erin g , m etal m in in g , an d ra ilw a y tra n s p o rta tio n , was due
to th e h ig h ra te o f constructio n o f th e p a st fiscal year. T he im m e­
d ia te dem and fo r constru ction at a given tim e is ex trem ely sensitive
an d liab le to v a ria tio n . H ence it is a m a tte r o f g re a t concern th a t
th is in d u stry , th e g re a test balance wheel in o u r economic system ,
should ru n in fine a d ju stm en t to ou r o th e r economic needs.
T h e construction accom plished w as fo r th e m ost p a r t w ell cal­
cu lated to m eet th e p e rm a n en t and g ro w in g needs of th e N ation.
T h e re was no rem in d er of th e e x tra v a g a n t ad d itio n s to p ro ductiv e
c ap acity o f th e boom y e ar 1920, w hen in d u s tria l p la n ts were
en larg ed ou t o f all p ro p o rtio n to reasonable needs, an d w ith b u t
little reference to effecting economies in pro d u ctio n . I n th a t year
only 22 p e r cen t o f all con stru ctio n w as fo r re sid en tial purposes,
w hile in th e p a st fiscal y e ar m ore th a n 46 p e r cent w ent in to homes.
T h e re was also a reco rd -b re ak in g ex pansio n in public w orks and
u tility developm ent.
A lth o u g h some in stances m ay be claim ed o f ex p en d itu res not
ju stified by c u rre n t needs, th e sum sp en t fo r construction fo r the
m ost p a r t rep re se n te d n o t only a keepin g pace w ith th e needs of
e x p a n d in g po p u la tio n , b u t also a su b sta n tia l b e tte rin g o f th e coun­
t r y ’s ho using and com m ercial facilities. T h e a d d itio n s to com m er­
cial a n d p u blic p la n t an d tra n s p o rta tio n all te n d to raise liv in g
sta n d a rd s a n d prom ote e lim in atio n of w aste in o u r com m ercial and
in d u s tria l life. O u r n atio n a l sav ing s are accu m u latin g a t an u n ­
p a ra lleled rate , a n d it is especially desirable to have th em invested
now in dom estic p e rm a n en t c a p ita l im provem ents w hich co ntribute
d ire c tly to th e w ell-being o f o u r people. F o r by such devotion of our
saving s we both encourage t h r i f t a n d raise th e sta n d a rd o f living.
T h e ho using sh ortage a risin g fro m th e w ar has n o t y e t been
su b sta n tia lly relieved fo r th e low er income g ro u p s, a n d one o f the
g re a t task s ahead of th e co u n try is to organize th is field so th a t
new hom es m ay be reaso nably financed an d ow ned p re p o n d e ra n tly
th ro u g h th e t h r i f t o f th e in d iv id u a l fam ilies who occupy them .
T h e b e tte r o rg an iz atio n o f th e “ second m o rtg a g e ” onto a m ore
reasonable basis is one o f th e o u tsta n d in g factors.

R E P O R T OF T H E SEC R ET A R Y OF C O M M E R C E

33

T a b l e I I . — Co n s t r u c t io n S t a t is t ic s
BASED UPON CALENDAR YEAR 1919 AS 100
Years ended June 30—
1923

Contracts awarded, volume in square feet of floor space...........................

1924

135
107
152
117

1925

143
108
157
121

162
111
178
121

200
182

198
174

P R IC E IN D E X E S B ASED ON C A L E N D A R Y EA R 1913 AS 100
Frame-house materials (D epartm ent of Commerce retail index)...............
Wholesale building material prices (D epartm ent of Labor)......................

198
188

A G R IC U L T U R E

A dvances in prices o f a g ric u ltu ra l com m odities, to g e th e r w ith
a la rg e volum e o f pro d u ctio n an d m a rk e tin g , caused th e fa rm in ­
come to reach a g re a te r to ta l in th e crop y e ar 1924-25 th a n in any
y e ar since 1920-21. P ric e advances w ere very pronoim ced in th e
case o f th e va rio u s g ra in s. M any w eak spots continue, b u t th e gen­
era l situ a tio n is m uch im proved. T h e prices of fa rm p ro d u cts as a
whole have now p ra c tic a lly reached th e level of th e g en eral average
fo r all com m odities, th e wholesale price of fa rm p ro d u cts being 53
p e r cent above p re -w ar, w hile th e av erag e o f all com m odities is 55
p er cent above pre-w ar.
Septem be r forecasts in dic ate th a t th e a g g re g ate o u tp u t of all
crops d u rin g th e p re sen t y e ar w ill be abo ut 6 p e r cen t sm aller th a n
la st year, b u t th is w ill pro b ab ly n o t adversely affect fa rm com­
m unities since it has been ju s t about offset by advances in a g ri­
cu ltu ra l prices. T h e w h eat crop th is y e ar is abo ut one-fifth sm aller
th a n la st y ear, an d th e p o ta to crop is th e sm allest since 1919, w hereas
p ro d u ctio n of corn, b arley , a n d cotton has increased. P rices o f all
kin ds o f m eat anim als, d a iry p ro d u cts, a n d potatoes on O ctober 1,
1925, were su b sta n tia lly h ig h e r th a n a y e a r e arlier, b u t prices fo r all
g ra in s except w h eat were low er. A s a re su lt o f th e successive rises
in th e prices of cotton, g ra in s, a n d an im al p ro d u c ts d u rin g th e p ast
th ree y ears th e a g ric u ltu ra l in d u stry has now reached a b e tte r
ad ju stm en t w ith o th er in d u strie s th a n a t an y tim e since th e w ar.
T R A N S P O R T A T IO N

G re a te r traffic was h an d led d u rin g th e fiscal y e a r 1925 th a n ever
before in o u r ra ilro a d h isto ry . O u r ra ilro a d fa c ilitie s pro ved equal
to th e heavy dem and placed up on them , an d th is traffic was han d led
n o t only w ith p ra c tic a lly no car sh o rtag e b u t also w ith g re a te r speed
th a n in previou s years. T h e h ig h ly successful o p era tio n o f o u r r a il­
roads d u rin g th e la st fiscal y e ar reflects th e g re a te st c re d it upon the
efforts of th e m anage rs an d em ployees, aided by th e cooperatio n of

34

R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

th e sh ip p ers and receivers of fre ig h t. T h e regio nal advisory boards,
com m ittees of sh ip p ers an d receivers o f m erchandise w hich have
now been fo rm ed th ro u g h o u t th e U n ite d State s, have been an im p o r­
ta n t fa c to r in e n ab lin g th e ra ilro a d s to care fo r in creasin g traffic
and at th e sam e tim e reduce delays in lo a d in g an d u n lo a d in g fre ig h t.
T h e steady increase in ra tio s of car an d tra in lo adings represents a
g re a t c o n trib u tio n to efficiency.
C ar sh o rtag e an d delays o f traffic in tra n s it te n d to increase com ­
m od ity prices fo r th e consum er and to reduce th e income o f th e
produ cers, an d a t th e sam e tim e im p a ir th e c a rry in g capacity o f th e
ra ilro a d s. E conom ic losses a risin g fro m these costs have been
la rg ely m inim ized. E x ten sio n s o f te rm in a ls and th e problem of
ra te a d ju stm en ts are still before us. T h e problem s of ra ilro a d con­
so lid atio ns are y et to be solved. Im p ro v em e n t in ra ilro a d finances
an d services is de pendent upon th e solution o f these problem s.
T h a t tra n s p o rta tio n fa cilitie s shall keep pace w ith th e dem ands upon
them is necessary fo r o u r econom ic sta b ility .
T h e follow ing tables show th e essential item s in o u r tra n s p o rta tio n
situ a tio n as com pared wdth th e th re e previo us fiscal y ears :
T a b l e I I I . —R a il r o a d O pe r a t io n s
Years ended June 30—
1922

1923

Freight, ton mileage (millions).....................
431,035
351,536
Average weekly car loadings........................
782,000
908,000
Carloads of all commodities.......................... 40,657, 50-1 47, 192, 796
N et tons per train .......................................
704
656
N et tons per loaded car................................
26.8
27.7
Average dady car surplus............................
272, 756
36,399
Average daily car shortage...........................
2,410
74, 689
Bad-order cars:
241,218
Average for year....................................
339,369
N um ber at end of year..........................
190,411
324,583
Bad-order locomotives:
16,089
Average for year....................................
15, 764
N um ber at end of year...........................
14,412
11,450
N um ber of employees.................................. 1,643,000
1,770,000
6,104,274
Total operating revenues (1,000 dollars)........ 5, 508,169
873,777
N et operating Income (1,000 dollars)............
818,345

Per cent
change,
1924 to
1925

1924

1925

436, 737
942,000
48, 991, 763
706
27.2
187,554
4, 793

437,328
955,000
49,638,148
731
27.0
252, 410
295

+0.1
+1.4
+1.3
+3.5
- .7
+34.6
-9 3 .8

170,546
194,869

194,519
198, 468

+ 14.1
+1.8

10,838
11,034
1,850,000
6,120,646
924,674

11,514
10,917
1, 765,169
6,009, 956
1,033,852

+ .6
-1 .1
- 4 .6
- 1 .8
+10.6

Calendar years—
1921
N um ber of locomotives:
Installed..................................................................
R etired....................................................................
In service end of year...............................................
N um ber of freight cars:
Installed..................................................................
R etired....................................................................
In service end of year...............................................

1922

1923

1924

1,330
1,130
64,019

1,226
1,682
64,512

4,360
3,746
64,948

2,775
2,524
65,006

63, 406
69,245
2, 344, 780

105,394
126,471
2,332, 286

232,060
213, 789
2, 345,591

155,178
117, 727
2,348, 676

N o t e .—Ce r ta in of th e a b o v e ite m s re la te o n ly to C lass I ro a d s w h ic h , h o w ev er, in c lu d e a b o u t 98
p e r c e n t of th e to ta l.

R E PO R T OP T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

35

O C E A N S H IP P IN G

T h e percen tage of th e volum e o f o u r oversea fo reig n tra d e carrie d
in A m erican sh ip s increased 1 p e r cen t d u rin g th e c ale n d ar year
1924, fro m 40 to 41. P riv a te ly ow ned A m erican vessels in 1924
gain ed tw o p o in ts over 1923, c a rry in g 29 p e r cent, w hile S h ip p in g
B o ard vessels tra n sp o rte d 12 p e r cen t as com pared w ith 13 in 1923.
T h e A m erican seagoing m e rc h an t fleet, 500 gross to ns a n d over,
to ta le d 12,250,000 gro ss tons a t th e b e g in n in g o f 1925, a decline of
538,000 gross tons d u rin g th e y e ar 1924, w hich represents la rg e ly th e
to nn age of vessels scrap pe d. F o r th is an d o th e r reasons id le A m e r­
ican to nn age declined s lig h tly d u rin g th e y e ar ended J u n e 30, 1925,
w hile th e id le to n n ag e o f o th e r coun tries increased. I n general,
A m erican tra d e w as ad equ ately served d u rin g th e year. Some
p ro gress w as m ade in tra n s fe rrin g G overnm ent-ow ned sh ip s to p r i ­
vate com panies.
B A N K IN G A N D F IN A N C E A T H O M E A N D IN

F O R E IG N T R A D E

T h e b a n k ers’ figures a t th e end of th e y e ar in dic ate a h ig h degree
of s ta b ility in a p erio d o f fa irly su b sta n tia l p ro sp e rity . A ll b a n k ­
in g o pe ratio ns consistently k e p t pace w ith th e increases in p ro d u c ­
tion, em ploym ent, and prices d u rin g th e year. R edisco unts a t th e
F e d e ra l’reserve ba nk s increased from $350,000,000 to $455,000,000,
p a rtly because of th is increased business a ctiv ity an d p a rtly because
of th e recen t n et outflow of gold. R ates on prim e com m ercial p a p e r
were stead y a t 3% and 4 p e r cent d u rin g J u n e , 1925, show in g a
slig h t increase fo r th e y ear, w hile th e F e d e ra l reserve discount rates
a t New Y o rk rem ained a t 3% p e r cent, th e sam e as one y e ar before,
alth o u g h th e yield on sh o rt-te rm T re a su ry ob lig atio ns in creased
from 2% to 2% p e r cen t a n d p rim e b a n k ers’ acceptances from 2 ys
to 3% p e r cent. These changes all reflected th e in creasin g dem ands
by th e business w orld upon th e su p p ly of loanable capital.
T h e to ta l volum e of m oney in circu latio n on J u ly 1, 1925, was
$4,734,230,000, w hich was only $21,000,000 less th a n one y ear before,
bu t th e re was a no table s h ift to c irc u la tio n o f gold an d gold certifi­
cates, th e la tte r h a v in g increased by $233,000,000, w ith corresp ond ­
in g decreases in notes. T h is process of p u ttin g gold and gold cer­
tificates in to circ u latio n , to g e th e r w ith th e considerable volum e of
n et gold e x p o rts d u rin g th e y ear, has m ade fo r m o n etary s ta b ility
and m inim ized th e d an g ers from inflation th re a ten e d by s u p e r­
a b u n d a n t gold holdings.
P e rh a p s th e m ost en co u rag in g fe a tu re o f th e period was th e
pro gress m ade th ro u g h o u t th e w orld in the sta b iliza tio n of m o netary
system s. T h e s e ttin g u p o f th e m ach in ery o f th e D aw es p la n in
G erm any, in A u g u st, 1924, was a h e lp fu l b e g in n in g in th is direc6 6 5 4 8 — 2 5 ------ 4

36

R E P O R T OP T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

tion. T h e i'eorganized R eichsbank com m enced th e issuance of new
cu rren cy based up o n gold to replace th e old in convertib le currency.
O n A p ril 29, 1925, G re a t B rita in an d th e N eth erlan d s sim u lta n e ­
ously resum ed specie p aym en ts, an d th is exam ple w as im m ediately
follow ed by New Z ealand, C an ad a, th e U nio n of S outh A fric a , an d
th e D u tc h E a s t In d ie s. These fav o ra b le developm ents h a d a lre ad y
been preceded in A p ril, 1924, by Sw eden’s re tu rn to th e g old s ta n d ­
a rd an d th e estab lish m en t o f sound cu rren cy conditions in such
cou ntries as S w itz e rla n d , A u stria , an d C zechoslovakia. T h e coun­
trie s of L a tin A m erica w hich a re n o t a lre ad y on a gold sta n d a rd
have m ade m ark ed p ro gress to w a rd sound m o n etary conditions an d
stab le exchange.
T h e pro g ress in th e reestablishm ent of th e gold sta n d a rd is o f in ­
calculable im portanc e to in te rn a tio n a l tra d e , w hich h as been so
severely ha m pered by th e u n c e rta in ty re su ltin g fro m exchange fluc­
tu atio n s. T h e volum e of th e w o rld ’s to ta l in te rn a tio n a l tra d e , c o u n t­
in g b o th im p o rts a n d ex p o rts, now a g g re g ate s abo ut $50,000,000,000.
T h e g re a t bu lk —m ore th a n tw o -th ird s— of th is to ta l represents th e
fo reig n tra d e o f th e U n ite d State s, G re a t B rita in , th e B ritis h D o­
m inions, an d th e o th e r countries whose currencies a re stab ilized in
re la tio n to gold. T h e fo reig n tra d e o f those countries th a t have
lo n g been on a silver basis m ig h t w ell be in clu ded w ith these goldsta n d a rd n atio ns, in w hich case i t a p p e a rs th a t th e fin ancing of an
ov erw helm ing p ro p o rtio n o f th e w o rld ’s tra d e w ill h en cefo rth be
done on a m etallic m o n eta ry basis com parable to th a t o f before
th e w ar.
I n th is w ork of sta b iliz in g th e w o rld ’s currencies th e U n ite d
S ta te s has been of g re a t assistance to th e o th e r n atio n s th ro u g h th e
g ra n tin g o f sta b iliza tio n cre d its by o u r bank s an d th e flo tatio n of
loans in o u r security m ark et. T h e gross volum e o f fo reig n secu ri­
ties p u b licly offered in th is co u n try d u rin g th e fiscal y e a r ended
J u n e 30, 1925, am ounted to $1,382,000,000, of w hich $292,000,000
were re fu n d in g issues an d $1,090,000,000 w ere new c ap ital. T h is
rep re se n ts an increase o f $640,000,000 in new c a p ita l over th e p re ­
ced in g fiscal year. E u ro p e received m ore th a n h a lf o f th e to ta l new
c a p ita l, w ith bo rro w in g s a m o u n tin g to $655,000,000, of w hich
$594,000,000 w ere fo r th e account of G overnm ents a n d en terp rises
en jo y in g a g ov ern m ental g u a ra n tee w hile only about $62,000,000
w ere borrow ed b y p riv a te enterp rises. C an a d a cam e second in
volum e o f new c ap ital, w ith borro w in g s am o u n tin g to $197,000,000,
a n d L a tin A m erica came th ird , w ith $182,000,000, w hile A sia received
only $24,000,000.
I n ad d itio n to these flotations, th e F e d e ra l R eserve B a n k of New
Y ork an d a New Y o rk b an k in g sy nd icate ex ten ded cre d its am o u n t­
in g to $300,000,000 to th e B an k of E n g la n d and th e B ritis h tre a su ry ,

R E PO R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

37

respectively, to in su re th e successful stab ilizatio n o f th e p o und
sterlin g . T h e th re e I ta lia n bank s o f issue obtain ed a $50,000,000
revolving c re d it fo r exchan ge sta b iliza tio n an d th e D an ish G ove rn ­
m ent received a $40,000,000 lo an fo r a sim ila r pu rp ose. N um erous
less im p o rta n t b a n k ers’ cre d its w ere also extended.
T h is increase in fo reig n lo an flotations in New Y o rk can p a rtia lly
be accounted fo r by an easy m oney m ark et.
D u rin g th e la tte r p a r t o f th e fiscal y e a r th e em bargo on fo reig n
loans in L ondo n, w hich was ad o p ted to in su re th e s ta b ility of th e
pou nd ste rlin g in connection w ith th e re tu rn to th e gold sta n d a rd ,
served to d iv e rt some lo ans to New Y o rk w hich otherw ise m ig h t
have been floated in L ondon. T h e to ta l fo reig n loans floated in
L ondon, ex clu d in g re fu n d in g issues, d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar ended
J u n e 30, 1925, an d in clu d in g colonial an d dom inion borrow ings,
am ounted to only abo ut £96,823,800 ($471,193,023 a t p a r o f ex ­
ch an g e ), or less th a n h a lf o f th e volum e o f such loans sold in th e
U n ited States.
T h e reve rsal of th e gold m ovem ent was an o th er extrem ely im p o r­
ta n t developm ent d u rin g th e year. I t was th e first y e ar since 1919
d u rin g w hich gold ex p o rts from th e U n ite d S ta te s exceeded gold
im p o rts to th e U n ite d States. T o tal im p o rts d u rin g th e year
am ounted to $134,000,000 and to ta l exp orts am ounted to $249,000,000,
leaving a su rp lu s of ex p o rts of $115,000,000, w hereas th e re h a d been
a su rp lu s o f im p o rts o f $407,000,000 d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar ended
J u n e 30, 1924.
T h e change began in D ecem ber, 1924, when th e re was a su rp lu s of
gold ex p o rts of ap p ro x im a te ly $29,000,000. A ll th e subsequent
m onths of th e fiscal y e ar showed a su rp lu s o f exports. F a c to rs con­
trib u tin g to th is developm ent were (1) th e w ith d ra w a l in gold by
th e new R eiehsbank of G erm any o f a larg e p a rt of th e proceeds of
th e $110,000,000 D aw es p la n loan to th e G erm an G ov ernm ent floated
h e re ; (2) th e prem iu m on th e A u stra lia n pound, w hich gave a f u r ­
th e r im petus to th e outv Tarcl m ovem ent of gold, inasm uch as it
became m ore profitab le to ship gold to th a t c o u n try th a n to purchase
bills o f exchange (th is is p a rtly because of th e th ree-corn ered n a tu re
of New Y o rk exchange tra n sac tio n s on A u stra lia , m ost o f w hich
are consum m ated th ro u g h L o n d o n ) ; (3) la rg e gold ship m ents to
In d ia , th e re su lt of a g ric u ltu ra l p ro sp e rity , th e cheapness o f th is
m etal in te rm s of o th e r com m odities. I n o th e r w ords, gold o rn a ­
m ents were o b tain able in I n d ia a t b a rg a in prices.
F in a lly , m ention should be m ade of th e d e b t-fu n d in g settlem ents
between ou r G ov ern m ent an d th e G overnm ents of F in la n d , P o la n d ,
H u n g a ry , L ith u a n ia , C zechoslovakia, and B elgiu m as e n co u rag in g
facto rs all p o in tin g to th e pro g ress m ade by th e w o rld in recoverin g
from th e G re a t W ar.

38

R E PO R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R CE
F O R E IG N T R A D E

E x p o rts an d im p o rts both showed su b sta n tia l increases in the
fiscal year. T h e excess of m erchandise ex p o rts am ounted to $1,041,000,000, w hich was la rg e r th a n in e ith e r o f th e two p reced in g years.
T h ere was also an excess of gold e x p o rts to ta lin g $115,000,000, in
c o n tra st w ith excesses o f im p o rts in m ost o th e r recen t years. T he
balance o f exp orts of m erchandise an d gold has been la rg e ly covered
by A m erican loans to fo reig n countries. T h e follow ing table shows
changes in th e value of tra d e an d tra d e balances com pared w ith
p re -w ar an d recent y e a r s :
T a b l e IV.— F o r e ig n T r a d e o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s
fin millions of dollars]
Per cent change,
1925 from—

Years ended June 3b—
1910—1914
Exports, merchandise..............................
Imports, merchandise..............................
Excess of exports (+ ) or of imports ( —):
Merchandise......................................
Gold..................................................
Silver................................................
Merchandise, gold, and silver combined..............................................

1923

1924

1925

1910-1914

1924

2,166
1,689

3,957
3, 781

4,312
3, 554

4,865
3, 824

+124.6
+126. 4

+12.8
+7.6

+477
+18
+20

+176
-235
-9

+758
-407
+19

+1,040
-115
-3 7

+102. 2

+37.3

+515

-6 8

+370

+1,192

+131.7

+222.6

E x p o rts o f dom estic m erchandise increased $554,000,000 d u rin g
1924-25, an d tw o -th ird s of th is increase occurred am ong th e u n ­
m a n u fa ctu red pro ducts. E x p o rts o f cru de foodstuffs reached a
value over tw ice as la rg e as in 1923-24, since th e coincidence of
la rg e crops o f b read g ra in s in th is co u n try w ith sm all crops in
E u ro p e resulted in la rg e r g ra in ship m ents fro m th e U n ite d S ta te s
a t h ig h e r prices. E x p o rts o f m an u fa ctu res, w hich are less affected
by changes in su p p ly an d dem and th a n crud e foodstuffs an d m ate ­
ria ls, increased 8 p er cent, co n tin u in g an u p w a rd tre n d w hich has
been in evidence fo r m any years.
T h e ga in in im p o rts, w hich to ta le d $270,000,000, was confined
la rg ely to c ru d e m aterials. Im p o rts of th is class were 19 p er cent
la rg e r th a n in the previo us y e ar as a re su lt o f th e in creased a c tiv ity
o f o u r m a n u fa c tu rin g in dustries.
O u r fo reig n tra d e w ith all contin ents except A sia increased in
value d u rin g 1924-25. E x p o rts to S o u th A m erica were 28 p e r cent
la rg e r th a n in 1923-24 as a re su lt o f increased ex p o rts o f m a n u fa c ­
tu res, w hile ex p o rts to E u ro p e increased 21 p e r cent due to la rg e r
shipm ents o f g ra in and cotton. A decline occurred in ou r exports
to Asia, in consequence of in te rn a l d istu rb ances in C h in a, and less-

R E P O R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

39

ened dem and fro m J a p a n fo r m a te ria ls to replace earth q u ak e
dam age. Im p o rts fro m all continents except N o rth A m erica in ­
creased in value, an d th e decline fo r th is con tin ent m ay be ascribed
en tire ly to th e low er pric e o f sugar.
C hanges in th e volum e of fo reig n tra d e d u rin g th e p a st fo u r
ye ars as com pared w ith 1913 are shown in th e follow ing table fo r
some of th e le ad in g com m ercial n a tio n s:
T a iii .e V.—Va l u e o f F o r e ig n T r a d e A d j u s t e d t o 1 9 1 3 P r ic k L e v e l s
BASED U PON C A L E N D A R Y EA R 1913 AS 100
Years ended June 30—
1922
105
75
86

1923
116
86
94

1921
122
90
109

1
1 Not available for 1922, 1923, and 1924, on account of currency fluctuation.

A s com pared w ith 1913, th e value of o u r tra d e w ith A sia increased
244 p er cent, an d th a t w ith O ceania an d S o u th A m erica 230 an d 130
p er cent, respectively.
A t least some p a r t of th e expan sion o f o u r fo reig n tra d e in recent
ye ars m ay fa irly be a ttrib u te d to th e increased a c tiv ity of the
D e p a rtm e n t of Com m erce. T h e steady g ro w th of o u r service in th e
pro m otion o f overseas tra d e is in d ic ated by th e fa c t th a t th e num b er
o f dem ands fo r services fro m ex p o rters, m erchan ts, bankers, and
oth ers in terested in fo reig n tra d e increased 75 p e r cent d u rin g th e
p a st y e ar an d were about ten tim es as m any as in 1921. A s an illu s­
tra tio n of th e re su lts ob tained th ro u g h these services it m ay be noted
th a t 175 firm s to w hich th e d e p a rtm e n t ren d ered m a te ria l assistance
d u rin g 1925 ob ta in ed business w hich reached a to ta l value of $73,000,000. T h e num be r o f firm s c u rre n tly receivin g fo re ig n -tra d e service
from th e d e p a rtm e n t is now ab out 18,500.

P a r t I I I .— L E G I S L A T I V E

R E C O M M E N D A T IO N S

T he law requ ires th a t th e S e cre tary of Com m erce sh all include
in his an n u al re p o rt “ such recom m endations as he shall deem neces­
sary fo r th e effective perfo rm an ce o f th e duties and purp oses of th e
d e p a rtm e n t.” I n accordance w ith th is requirem ent, the follow ing
recom m endations are s u b m itte d :
A D E Q U A T E B U IL D IN G FO R D E P A R T M E N T

P a s t an n u al re p o rts have directed a tte n tio n to th e p ressing need
o f an adequate G overnm ent-ow ned b u ild in g to house th e activities
o f th is d ep artm en t. T h e necessity of im m ediate action in th is
m a tte r can n o t be too stro n g ly urg ed. T h e d e p a rtm e n t is scattered
th ro u g h bu ild in gs, of w hich one is a com posite of seven old houses.
T h e lease on th e m ain b u ild in g expires in less th a n fo u r years and
th e ow ners have declined to give th e d e p a rtm e n t an optio n fo r
fu r th e r renew al a t th e sam e re n ta l. T e m p o ra ry w ar b uild in gs
occupied are a m enace to h ealth an d th e fire h a z a rd to costly records
is enorm ous.
Since th e la st a n n u al re p o rt th e B u re au o f M ines and th e P a te n t
Office have been tra n s fe rre d fro m th e D e p a rtm e n t o f th e In te rio r
to th is d e p artm en t. T h e P a te n t Office is housed in a n a n tiq u a te d
b u ild in g u tte rly un fit fo r its requirem ents, an d re p re se n tin g a serious
fire h a z a rd to p a te n t record s w hich a re irreplaceab le. I t costs
several th o u san d d o llars m ore to o p era te th e office th a n w ould be
required in an adequate b u ild in g . O w ing to th e crow ded condi­
tio n of th e m ain b u ild in g th e B u reau o f M ines h as been com pelled
to re m ain in its In te rio r D e p a rtm e n t q u arters.
T h e sca tte rin g o f th e bu reau s only ten d s to im p a ir th e efficiency
o f th e w ork, an d is costly an d incon venient to th e public. I n th e
in te re st of sound econom y a n d good a d m in istra tio n , all fu nc tio ns,
exclusive o f th e B u re au o f S ta n d a rd s, should be housed in one
G overnm ent-ow ned b u ild in g , la rg e enough to p ro v id e fo r p re sen t
activ itie s an d allow fo r fu tu re expansion.
FEDERAL

TAXES

ON

A M E R IC A N S R E S ID E N T

ABROAD

T h e U n ite d S ta te s is th e only im p o rta n t n a tio n w hich imposes
dom estic ta x a tio n upon th e earn ed incom e o f its citizens resident
ab ro ad en gaged in th e expan sion of commerce. W h ile pro vision is
m ade fo r de duction o f fo reign taxes, th is has real effect only in
h ig h ly ta x ed countries, an d does n o t afford adequ ate re lie f in those
40

R E PO R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

41

areas w here we need exp ansion m ost, as in L a tin A m erica an d th e
F a r E a st. O th e r countries have given com plete relief in th is p a r ­
tic u la r and o u r n a tio n a ls are th u s placed a t g re a t d isad v an tag e.
W e shall have n e ith e r a stap le e x p o rt in m a n u fa ctu red goods,
n o r a successful m erc h an t m arin e so long as th e d is trib u tio n of
A m erican goods rests in th e h a n d s o f o th er natio ns. T h e m a rk e t­
in g o f o u r goods ab ro ad is a m a tte r of a b ility an d zeal in re p re ­
sen tatio n as well as of com petitive prices. T h e effect o f increased
ta x atio n from th e w ar, w hich o u r c o u n try alone ap p lies to earned
incomes o f citizens abroa d, tends to driv e th em ou t of th e fro n t line
o f commerce. L eg islatio n should be enacted to relieve o u r n atio na ls
from th is burden. T h is suggestion is no t m ade to include re tu rn s
on fo reign investm ents of residents or of n o n resid en ts o r to relieve
e x p atriates, b u t solely to place th ose engaged in a d v an cin g A m erican
tra d e ab ro ad up o n te rm s o f eq u ality w ith th e ir com petitors.
FE E S CHARGED FOR PASSPO R TS

T he fees now ch arg ed fo r p assp o rts and visas are irksom e a n d p ro ­
vocative of resen tm ent abroad. T h is is reflected in re ta lia to ry
m easures th a t h a n d ic a p A m erican m erch an ts and tra v e lin g salesmen
in fo reig n countries. T h e fees should be ra d ic a lly reduced an d
fo rm alities th o ro u g h ly revised a n d sim plified. I t is re a ssu rin g to
note th a t prog ress is being m ade in th is d irectio n th ro u g h th e S ta te
D epartm en t.
R E V IS IO N

O F T H E N A V IG A T IO N L A W S

A s noted in m y a n n u a l re p o rt a y e a r ago, th e n a v ig a tio n laws
are b a d ly in need o f revision. U n d e r acts of C ongress p ro v id in g
fo r recom m endations in th is respect, a la rg e am oun t of w ork has
been done, a n d it h a d been hoped th a t a com plete plan of revision,
b rin g in g in to ha rm o n y a n d c la rity th e various provisions, would be
ready fo r subm ission a t th e la st session. T h e com pletion of th is
w ork has, however, been delayed. I t is o f th e g re a te st im p o rtan ce
to th e s h ip p in g public, to th e officials whose d u ty it is to enforce
n av ig atio n law s, an d to those actu ally engaged in th e in d u stry th a t
the codification of these law s be no lon ger delayed.
T h e follo w ing item s of legislation are recom m ended fo r th e various
bureaus co n ce rn e d :
B U R E A U O F F O R E IG N A N D D O M E S T IC C O M M E R C E

F o r th e B u re au o f F o reig n a n d D om estic Com m erce le gislation
is needed to m ake possible a fu rth e r ex pansio n a n d system atization
o f th e field services— th e d is tric t offices in th e U n ite d S ta te s a n d th e
foreign-service posts—in o rd e r th a t th e re m ay be an even m ore

42

B E P O B T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

th o ro u g h , com prehensive g a th e rin g o f com m ercial facts abro ad , and
a m ore in tim ate , effective d istrib u tio n of them in th is country . O nly
in th is w ay can ou r e x p o rters be assured of a genuinely secure and
p erm an en t position in th e w o rld ’s m arkets.
Less th a n 10 p e r cen t o f th e to ta l fu n d s of th e bureau are su p ­
p o rted by p e rm a n en t legislation , th e re m a in in g p o rtio n h av in g been
b u ilt u p y e a r by y e ar th ro u g h a p p ro p ria tio n s devoted la rg e ly to
th e fo reig n service. T h is g ro w th h as been in process fo r m ore th a n
12 y ears an d every stag e has been subjected to c arefu l tr ia l and
th e closest scru tin y by selected congressional com m ittees an d in te r­
ested tra d e o rg anizatio ns. T h e service has su rv iv ed th is perio d of
tria l. L egislatio n is th e re fo re needed to p ro v id e s ta tu to ry w a rra n t
fo r such an o rg anizatio n.
T h e inadequacies o f th e $4 p er diem tra v e l expense allow ance
are too e v id en t to require arg u m en t. T h e staff of th is bu re au m a in ­
ta in s its value to th e business com m un ity la rg e ly th ro u g h a mobile,
active service, th e first p re re q u isite of w hich is a considerable am o unt
o f in d iv id u a l tra v e l, especially in v arious tra d e m ark ets. F o r years
th is has m ean t a severe financial p e n a lty on every m em ber o f th e
staff an d some corrective of such gross in ju stice is im p era tiv ely
necessary. T h is is also tru e o f th e o th e r bu reaus in th e d ep artm en t.
B U R E A U O F T H E C EN SU S

W ith a view to av o id in g d u p licatio n , it is recom m ended th a t the
collection o f statistics concernin g th e q u a n titie s of le a f tobacco held
by certain classes o f m a n u fa c tu re rs and dealers be tra n s fe rre d from
th e B u re au of th e Census to th e B u re au o f In te rn a l Revenue. I f
th is tra n s fe r be n o t m ade, it is recom m ended th a t th e p resen t law
u n d e r w hich th e B u reau o f th e Census collects leaf-tobacco statistics
be so am ended th a t th e affidavits to th e re p o rts be accepted when
m ade before postm asters.
T h a t th e act of A u g u st 7, 1916, concerning cotton consum ed in the
m a n u fa c tu re o f guncotto n a n d o th e r explosives, be repealed , since
th is in fo rm atio n , o rig in a lly desirable on account o f w ar conditions,
is no long er im p o rtan t. T h e N avy D e p a rtm e n t requested th e discon­
tin u an ce o f th e pu b licatio n o f these d a ta d u rin g th e w ar.
T h a t th e act o f M arch 3, 1919, p ro v id in g fo r th e collection of
statistic s of th e pro d u cts of m a n u fa c tu rin g in d u strie s every second
y e ar, be am ended so as to auth o rize th e collection an d publicatio n
o f statistic s o f c u rre n t p ro d u ctio n , consum ption, stocks, ship m ents,
ord ers, receipts, an d sales fo r com m odities used an d pro duced in
m a n u fa ctu rin g .

R E PO R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY OF CO M M E R CE

43

S T E A M B O A T IN S P E C T IO N S E R V IC E

A m endm ent o f sections 4433 an d 4418 o f th e R evised S ta tu te s in
re g a rd to th e w o rk in g an d h y d ro sta tic pressure o f boilers, so as to
enable th e service to m odernize th e rules and re g u la tio n s cover­
in g these m atters.
T h a t section 4404 of th e R evised S ta tu te s be so am ended as to
include th e su p erv isin g inspectors in th e classified civil service, and
th a t th e nu m ber o f su p erv isin g inspectors be decreased fro m 11 to 10.
B U R E A U O F N A V IG A T IO N

T he tra n s fe r fro m th e T re a su ry D e p a rtm e n t to th e D e p a rtm e n t
o f Commerce o f th e staff o f officers engaged in m easu rin g to nn age
o f vessels has been a p p ro v ed by b o th d e p artm en ts an d is essential
to th e u n ifo rm a p p lic atio n o f o u r adm easurem ent law s an d re g u la ­
tions, so as to p re v en t d iscrim in atio n a g a in st A m erican vessels and
to b rin g ou r adm easurem ent system u p to th e sta n d a rd of o th er m a ri­
tim e nations. T h is w ork should be p e rfo rm ed by men selected
because of th e ir technical know ledge o f sh ip a rc h itec tu re a n d a d ­
m easurem ent an d w ith th e tra in in g to solve th e m ath em atical p ro b ­
lems often involved.
I t is im p e ra tiv e to th e w elfare o f o u r m erc h an t m arin e th a t legis­
latio n be enacted estab lish in g load lines, su b sta n tia lly sim ila r to
th a t o f th e E u ro p e a n m aritim e pow ers. In th e absence o f such a
law o u r c a rg o -ca rry in g steam ers are allow ed to clear fro m m any
foreig n p o rts solely as an act o f courtesy an d n o t as a m a tte r of
rig h t.
L IG H T H O U S E S E R V IC E

Pro v isio n o f m edical re lie f fo r lig h t keepers a t rem ote station s
inaccessible to P u b lic H e a lth Service ho sp itals and extension of
P u b lic H e a lth Service tre a tm e n t to em ployees on lig h th o u se vessels.
A u th o riz a tio n o f th e p ay m en t of claim s of lig h th o u se em ployees
for losses o f person al p ro p e rty in cid ent to th e ir work.
E xtensio n to ligh th ouse em ployees of priv ileg es now accorded to
sim ilar services resp ectin g th e purchase o f com m issary su pp lies and
tra n sp o rta tio n . •

P a r t I V .— C O N D E N S E D R E P O R T S O F B U R E A U S

A D M IN IS T R A T IV E D IV IS IO N S O F T H E O F F IC E O F T H E
SECRETARY

D e pa r t m e n t
O f f ic e o f

o f Co m m e r c e ,
t h e C h i e f Cl e r k ,
W a s h in g to n , J u l y 1 , 1925.

H on. H e r b e r t H o o v e r ,
S e c r e ta r y o f G om m erce.
D e a r M r . S e c r e t a r y : I n response to yo u r request I fu rn ish th e
follow in g condensed re p o rt of th e w o rk o f th e v arious divisions of
th e S e c re ta ry ’s office d u rin g th e p a st y e a r:
These divisions, in a d d itio n to th e im m ediate offices o f th e Sec­
re ta ry an d A ssista n t S ecretary , consist o f th e office o f th e solicitor,
th e chief clerk an d su p erin ten d e n t, th e d isb u rsin g office, th e d iv i­
sion o f ap p o in tm en ts, th e division o f p u b licatio n s, th e d ire c to r o f
pu rcha ses a n d sales, th e division o f supplies, th e stock an d sh ip p in g
section, th e traffic m anager, th e d e p a rtm e n t lib ra ry , th e te le g rap h
office, telepho ne exchange, th e m o to r equipm ent, an d th e d e p a rtm e n t
garage.
T h e ta k in g over o f th e P a te n t Office a n d th e B u re au o f M ines,
to g e th e r w ith th e ev er-in creasin g w ork o f th e d e p artm en t, h as its
reflection th ro u g h o u t th e vario us divisions of th e S e c re ta ry ’s office,
w hich have lo n g been un d erm an n ed , a n d h as ad ded g re a tly to th e ir
w ork. A s in fo rm er years, in a d d itio n to m uch overtim e w ork i t h as
been necessary to call up on several o f th e bu reau s o f th e d e p a rtm e n t
fo r h e lp in th e w ay of d etails w hich th e y could ill afford to spare.
T h is is a very u n sa tisfa c to ry a rra n g e m e n t an d does n o t afford th e
sta b ility w hich should exist am ong th e personnel, n o r does i t p e r­
m it th e m ost efficient a d m in istra tio n . T h e w ork o f th e v arious
division s is la rg e ly specialized a n d best resu lts can only be ob­
ta in e d th ro u g h th e m edium of a stab le personnel n o t subject to
freq u e n t change. T h e rem edy lies in an adequate personnel fo r th e
office o f th e S ecre tary , w hich fo r several y ears we have endeavored
to obtain.
C O O P E R A T IO N W IT H F E D E R A L A G E N C IE S

D u rin g th e y e a r th e d e p artm en t, th ro u g h th e divisions of the
S e c re ta ry ’s office, h as assisted in effecting economies a n d im p ro ved
m ethods of a d m in istra tio n th ro u g h o u t th e G overnm ent service by
44

D IV ISIO N S OF T H E SE C R E T A R Y ’S O FF IC E

45

re p re se n ta tio n up o n m any c o o rd in a tin g b oard s an d com m ittees.
T h e ch ief clerk is cha irm an o f th e A sso ciation o f C hief C lerks of
th e E x ecutiv e D e p a rtm e n ts; m em ber, executive com m ittee, B o ard
o f Sim plified Office P ro c e d u re ; ch airm an , subcom m ittee on form s,
B o ard of Sim plified Office Procedui'e. T he chief of th e a p p o in t­
m ent division served on a la rg e num ber o f com m ittees. H e is
p re sid en t o f th e A p p o in tm e n t C le rk s’ A ssociation (com posed of p e r­
sonnel officials o f d e p artm en ts an d in d ep en d en t establishm ents) ;
c h airm an of th e d e p a rtm e n ta l C lassification B o ard an d acts as
classification officer fo r th e d e p artm en t. T h e chief o f th e division
o f pu blicatio ns rep re se n te d th e d e p a rtm e n t on several com m ittees
as d id th e d ire c to r o f pu rchases an d sales, th e d isb u rsin g clerk, and
th e traffic m anager.
G O V E R N M E N T -O W N E D B U IL D IN G

FOR TH E DEPAR TM EN T

A tte n tio n is a g a in in v ited to th e im p era tiv e need fo r a G ove rn ­
m ent-owned b u ild in g fo r th e d e p artm en t. A s has been rep eate d ly
sta ted , th e d e p a rtm e n t has lo ng ago outg ro w n its p re sen t q u a rte rs,
a n d good, efficient, an d econom ical a d m in istra tio n can n o t be h ad
w ith th e bureaus sep ara te d fro m th e m ain b u ild in g as tKeymow are.
T he d e p a rtm e n t is now in th e second y e ar o f a final five-year lease,
w hich exp ires J u n e 30, 1929, an d th e ow ners have declined a re ­
new al a t th e p re sen t re n ta l, $65,500 a y ear, plu s $1,400 fo r the re n t
o f th e w ater-cooling system .
Since its occupancy o f th e C om m erce B u ild in g to J u n e 30, 1925,
the G ov ern m ent has expended $776,180.07 in re n t, in clu d in g th e
w ater-cooling system , an d a t th e e x p ira tio n of th e presen t lease
J u n e 30,1929, th e am o u n t w ill to ta l $1,043,780.07.
I f at th e e x p ira tio n o f th e p re sen t lease it becomes necessary to
occupy ren te d q u a rte rs th e d e p a rtm e n t w ill be co n fro n te d w ith a
serious problem . To o b ta in a b u ild in g su itable fo r th e d e p a rt­
m en t’s needs a t the p re sen t re n ta l is beyond th e ra n g e of p ro b a ­
bility . T h e rem ain in g tim e befo re th e e x p ira tio n o f th e lease is
fa r too s h o rt to lon ge r d e fe r th e p ro ject, an d in o rd e r th a t the
d e p a rtm e n t m ay n o t h e w ith o u t a hom e im m ediate steps le ad in g to
the erection of a b u ild in g a d ap te d to th e needs of th e d e p artm en t
should be un d ertak en .
DISBU RSING O F F IC E
A P P R O P R IA T IO N S A ND E X P E N D IT U R E S

T h é item ized statem en t o f th e disbursem ents from th e co n tin g en t
fu n d of th e d e p a rtm e n t an d th e a p p ro p ria tio n fo r “ G eneral ex­
penses, B u re au of S ta n d a rd s ,” fo r th e fiscal y e ar ended J u n e 30,
1925, required to be su b m itte d to C ongress by section 193 of th e
Revised S ta tu te s of th e U n ite d S ta te s; th e item ized sta tem e n t of
ex p en d itu res u n d er all a p p ro p ria tio n s fo r p ro p a g a tio n o f food fishes
d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar ended J u n e 30, 1925, re qu ired by th e act of
C ongress app ro v ed M arch 3, 1887 (24 S ta t. 523) ; a statem en t show ­
ing tra v e l on official business by officers an d em ployees (o th e r th a n
special agents, inspectors, an d em ployees who, m th e d isch arg e of
th e ir re g u la r duties, are required to tra v e l c o n sta n tly ) fro m W ash-

46

R E PO R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

in g to n to po in ts outside o f the D is tric t o f C olum bia d u rin g th e fiscal
y e a r ended d u n e 30, 1925, as req u ired by th e act of C ongress a p ­
pro ved M ay 22, 1908 (35 S ta t. 2 4 4 ); and a statem en t show in g ty p e ­
w riters, a d d in g m achines, etc., exchang ed by th is d e p a rtm e n t d u rin g
th e fiscal y e a r ended J u n e 30, 1925, as required by section 5 of th e
act of M arch 4, 1915 (38 S ta t. 1161), w ill be tra n sm itte d to th e
C ongress in th e usual form .
T a b le 1, page 51, shows th e to ta l am o u n t o f all a p p ro p ria tio n s fo r
th e vario us bu reaus and services o f th e D e p a rtm e n t of Com m erce
fo r th e fiscal y e a r ended J u n e 30,1925.
D isbursem ents by th e au th o rized d isb u rsin g officers o f th e d e p a rt­
m ent d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar ended J u n e 30, 1925, a rra n g e d acco rd in g
to item s o f a p p ro p ria tio n , are show n in T ab le 2, pag e 52.
W a rra n ts d ra w n on th e T re a su re r of th e U n ite d S ta te s to satisfy
accounts settled by th e G eneral A cco untin g Office d u rin g th e fiscal
y e a r ended J u n e 30, 1925, classified accord ing to item s o f a p p ro p ria ­
tio n, are show n in T able 3, page 58.
A sta tem e n t of th e ex p en d itu res d u rin g th e fiscal y e a r ended J u n e
30, 1925, on account of all a p p ro p ria tio n s u n d er th e co ntro l o f th e
d e p artm en t, g iv in g th e to ta l am oun t expended by each b ureau, is
show n in T a b le 4, pag e 62.
M iscellaneous receipts are shown in T able 5, pag e 62.
U n ex pend ed balances of a p p ro p ria tio n s tu rn e d in to th e su rp lu s
fu n d J u n e 30, 1925, are shown in T ab le 6, pag e 63.
A statem en t show in g unused am ounts o f a p p ro p ria tio n s tu rn e d
back into th e T re a su ry d u rin g th e la st nine years is shown in T able
7, page 65.
A P P O IN T M E N T D IV IS IO N

T h e fiscal y e ar 1925 has been a record y e ar fo r developm ent in
connection w ith personnel a d m in istra tio n . A num b er of facto rs
have c o n trib u te d to th is co n d itio n :
(1) T h e w ork of c a rry in g out th e pro visions of th e classification
act on J u ly 1, 1924, delayed, as sta ted in th e la st p reced in g re p o rt,
was not e n tire ly com pleted fo r several m on ths, alth o u g h th e essen­
tia ls w ere accom plished in tim e to obviate any in te rru p tio n of
service o r de lay in th e p ay m en t of th e personnel. T h e in itia tio n of
th is w ork inv olved 3,391 changes. T h e system h a v in g been esta b ­
lished, a stead y stream of new allocations by reason o f change of
duties, new ap p o in tm en ts, a n d reallocation s, a g g re g a tin g over 1,600
fo r th e fiscal ye ar, called fo r co nstant atten tio n .
(2) C lassification necessarily b rin g s in its tr a in ap p ea ls o f em ­
ployees from th e allo cation s assigned, w hich d u rin g th e year
am ou nted to 275 subm itted, 223 o f w hich have been acted upon p rio r
to th e end of th e fiscal year. T h is does n o t include ap p ea ls sub­
m itte d by em ployees of th e P a te n t Office an d th e B u reau of M ines
p rio r to th e ir tra n s fe r to th is d e p a rtm e n t, to ta lin g 66, action on 47
o f w hich w as effected subsequent to th e tra n sfe r.
(3) A d d itio n a l requests fo r p erio dic statem en ts and su pp lem en ­
ta ry de tailed e x p la n a to ry statem en ts called fo r by o th e r F e d e ra l
agencies in connection w ith economy policies, an d fo r o th e r m irposes.

D IV ISIO N S OF T H E SE C R E T A R Y ’S O FF IC E

47

(4)
A d d itio n s to th e personnel by th e tra n s fe r of o rg an iz atio n s
fro m th e D e p a rtm e n t of th e In te rio r, as fo llo w s:
A p ril 1, 1925, u n d e r a u th o rity of th e E x ecutiv e o rd e r of M arch
17, 1925, th e P a te n t Oilice, in vo lv in g a p p ro x im a te ly 1,254 personnel.
J u ly 1, 1925, u n d e r a u th o rity of th e E x ecutiv e o rd e r of J u n e 4,
1925. a section of th e G eological Su rv ey an d p ra c tic a lly all th e
B u re au o f M ines, in c lu d in g th e helium p ro d u ctio n p la n ts u n d e r th e
ju risd ic tio n of th e N avy D e p a rtm e n t th e tra n s fe r of w hich h ad p re ­
viously been au th o rized by th e act app ro v ed M arch 3, 1925, to th e
B u re au of M ines. T h is ad d itio n inv olved 971 employees.
In sp ite of an SO p e r cen t ad d itio n to th e personn el of th e division
d u rin g th e fiscal y e a r a n d occasional assistance rende red by te m ­
p o ra ry de tails from o th er sections of th e d e p artm en t, th e w ork has
m ain ta in ed a c o n sta n t ab n o rm al pressu re an d only by c u rta ilin g
leave an d v o lu n ta ry overtim e w ork on th e p a r t o f th e em ployees has
congestion been avoided. C ram p ed q u a rte rs and th e im p ra c tic a b ility
o f a needed extension a d d to th e difficulties.
T able No. 8, p ag e 66, shows by bu reau , sex, an d n a tu re of a p p o in t­
m ent sta tu s th e stre n g th of th e personn el a t th e com m encem ent of
the p re sen t fiscal year. A n et increase is in d ic a te d of n early 38 p er
cent over th a t last rep o rte d , la rg e ly by tra n s fe rs fro m th e In te rio r
D e p artm en t previou sly re fe rre d to. T h is increase carries w ith it
augm ented w ork in connection w ith personnel changes, w hich
shows over 58 p e r cent increase to th e end of th e fiscal y e ar as in d i­
cated by th e an alysis giv en in T ab le 9, page 66.
T able 10, page 68, su m m ariz in g by bureau th e am ount of leave
w ith p ay tak en d u rin g the c ale n d ar y e ar 1924 by th e em ployees shows
a slig h t reduc tio n in the average o f such absences (34.39 as com pared
w ith 34.69) fo r th e c ale n d ar y e ar 1923.
In sp ite of criticism w hich m ig h t in dicate otherw ise, th e effort to
im prove th e m orale an d s ta n d a rd of th e personn el of th e F e d e ra l serv­
ice, in itia te d by th e enactm ent o f th e classification act of 1923, has
resu lted in a b etterm en t generally . T h ere are doubtless m any in ­
equalities to be leveled, bu t it is questionable w h eth er th ey are th e
fa u lt of th e system or of th e basis on w hich in itia te d an d of re stric ­
tion s subsequently im posed. T h e classification act presupposes th a t
efficiency ra tin g s shou ld be an essential com ponent p a r t o f th e system .
H a d efficiency been u tilized as a basis fo r d e te rm in in g th e sala ry
of em ployees in th e several classification g rad es, th e re su lt would
have been m ore sa tisfa c to ry , b u t in th e absence o f efficiency ra tin g s
th e com pensation in th e g ra d e w as based upon sala ries u n d er th e
m ore or less inadequa te p rio r system . U n d e r th e pro m otion policy
adopted by th e d e p a rtm e n t th is w ill in tim e be overcome, b u t several
y ears o f o p e ra tio n w ill be necessary.
Renew ed efforts on th e p a r t of th e frien d s o f F e d e ra l em ployees to
secure th e enactm ent of legislation lib era lizin g th e civil-service re tire ­
m ent act have not m et w ith success. I t is Imped th a t b e tte r results
will be ob tained from th e com ing session o f C ongress to increase, th e
m axim um allow ance, to auth orize a service retire m en t, an d in o th er
respects to re c tify th e ge n erally accepted deficiencies of th e c u rre n t
system . D u rin g th e fiscal y e a r u n d e r consideratio n 28 em ployees
were re tire d u n d e r th e pro visio ns of th e a c t o f M ay 22, 1920, th e
average a n n u ity being $618.51.

48

R E PO R T OF T H E SECRETA RY OF C O M M E R C E
D IV IS IO N

OF P U B L IC A T IO N S

C E N T R A L IZ A T IO N O F SU PE R V ISIO N

C oincident w ith th e tra n s fe r of th e P a te n t Office an d th e B u re au
of M ines to th e D e p a rtm e n t o f Com m erce, th e division o f p u b lic a ­
tion s assum ed g en eral supervision of th e p rin tin g and b in d in g fo r
those services an d th e condu ct of all such business to be tra n sac te d
w ith th e G ov ernm ent P r in tin g Office. D etailed records in connection
w ith a p p ro p ria tio n s, ex p en d itu res, requisitions, pro g ress of w o rk ,
etc., w ill be m a in ta in ed in th a t division. T h is added w ork has in ­
creased con siderably th e d u ties an d resp on sib ilities of th e d iv isio n of
pu blicatio ns. T h e am oun ts tra n s fe rre d to th e D e p a rtm e n t of C om ­
m erce fro m a p p ro p ria tio n s fo r p rin tin g and b in d in g m ade to th e I n ­
te rio r D e p a rtm e n t fo r th e fiscal years 1924, 1925, an d 1926 w ere:
P a te n t Office— 1925, $370,366.64; 1926, $880,000. B u re au o f M ines—
1924, $1,558.84; 1925, $26,784.92; 1926, $70,870.
E X P E N D IT U R E S I N

10 2 5

A ND A P P R O P R IA T IO N S FOR 1 9 2 0

T ab le 11, page 68, shows ex p en d itu res fo r p rin tin g an d b in d in g
d u rin g th e fiscal y e a r 1925 an d th e allo tm ents m ade of th e a p p ro p ria ­
tion s ava ilab le fo r 1926.
SALES OF d e p a r t m e n t ’s PUBLICATIONS

D istrib u tio n of th e d e p a rtm e n t’s pub licatio n s on a sales basis con­
tin u es to increase. D u rin g 19241 th e receip ts am o unted to $138,640.27, as com pared w ith $127,525.34 in 1923 an d $97,684.70 in 1921,
T able 12, page 69, p resen ts figures fo r th e fiscal years 1922. 1923, an d
1924.
D IV IS IO N

O F S U P P L IE S

T h e fo llow in g is a b rie f re p o rt of th e w ork u n d e rta k en a n d ac­
com plished by th e division o f su pplies alo ng th e line o f sim plifica­
tion, co ordina tio n, re la tiv e to purchases, sales, an d co n tracts, d u rin g
th e fiscal y e ar ended Ju n e 30, 1925.
PU R C H A S E S

T h is office ha s, as w as done d u rin g th e fiscal y ears 1923 a n d 1924,
m a in ta in e d d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar 1925 th e cen tralized in fo rm a tio n
p e rta in in g to th e d e p a rtm e n t’s su rp lu s p ro p e rty , an d h as acted on all
pro posals fo r supplies an d m a te ria ls e m an a tin g in its field services,
in a d d itio n to h a n d lin g such pro p o sals in o b ta in in g clearance th ro u g h
th e G en eral S u p p ly C om m ittee, an d re tu rn in g them to th e issuin g
office.
T h ro u g h th e cooperation o f th e C h ie f C o o rd in a to r’s Office o f th e
B u re au o i th e B u d g et, th is office secured, w ith o u t tra n s fe r o f fu n d s,
office equipm ent, clo th in g, m echanical supplies, etc., valu ed a t a p ­
p ro x im ate ly $40,000 fo r differen t b u re au s o f th e d e p artm en t.
1 S ta te m e n ts sh ow ing sales by th e S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D ocu m ents fo r 1925 a r e n o t y et
ava ilab le.

D IV IS IO N S OF T H E SE C R E T A R Y ’S O F F IC E

40

T he gross ex p en d itu res on th e 10,634 purchase o rd e rs issued and
th e fre ig h t, tra v e l, a n d m iscellaneous accounts h an d led by th is office
am ounted to $813,722.82.
Below is ta b u la tio n show ing th e increase a n d decrease in th e
requisitions, orders, etc., betw een th e fiscal y ears 1924 an d 1925,
w hich is an in d ic atio n of th e v a ria tio n of all branches of th e d iv i­
sion’s w ork betw een th e tw o y e a r s :

Proposals for services, supplies, and equipm ent.......................
Invitations to bid on services, supplies, and equipm ent............

1924

1925

6,063
1,904
7,379
10,302
8,203
10,673
2,779

6,040
1,810
6,469
10,634
9,562
10,499
3,037

Increase

Decrease

P e r cent

P e r cent

3.22
16.0

0.37
4.9
12.0
1.6

9 .2 8

T h e above w ork necessitated 148 days 4 h ours an d 45 m inu tes of
overtim e w ork.
REAL

E ST A TE

T h e real-estate record fo r th e d e p a rtm e n t fo r th e fiscal y e a r 1926,
covering leases, is n o t com plete, as a n um ber of leases have n o t y et
been su b m itted by th e bureaus. F ro m th e in fo rm a tio n now on
h an d it has been d eterm in ed th a t th e re w ill be an increase of a p ­
p ro x im ate ly $2,413.50 over th e fiscal y e ar 1925, on th e leases w hich
have so f a r been cleared th ro u g h th is office, said increase being due
p rin c ip a lly to th e need fo r g re a te r space necessary to efficiently con­
d u ct th e field business o f th e d ep artm en t.
In c lu d in g th e y e arly increase o f re n ta ls since th e o rg a n iz atio n of
th e F e d e ra l R eal E s ta te B o ard in 1921, a t w hich tim e a red uc tio n
in th e d e p a rtm e n t’s re n ta ls o f $20,000 was effected, due to th e gro w th
of th e d e p a rtm e n t’s activities, th e sav ing s fo r th e c u rre n t fiscal
y ear fo r th e sam e activ ities over th e ex p en d itu res fo r th e fiscal year
1922 w ill be a p p ro x im a te ly $8,962.50.
CONTRACTS

AND

A D JU ST M E N T S

T h e in te rd e p a rtm e n ta l bo ard o f co n tracts an d ad ju stm en ts has
te n ta tiv ely ad o p ted an d re fe rre d to th e D irecto r, B u reau of th e
B udget, th e con stru ctio n c o n tra ct a n d su p p ly c o n tra c t h as been
p ra c tic a lly com pleted b u t final recom m en dation on sam e is being
held in abeyance p e n d in g action by th e B u re au o f th e B u d g e t on
th e construction c o n tra ct form .
T h e b o ard is now con siderin g criticism s received on th e propo sed
co n tract law an d are revisin g same. I t is believed th a t th is law will
be com pleted fo r a second co nsid eratio n by th e d e p artm en ts w ith in
the n e ar fu tu re .
T R A F F IC O F F IC E

T h e traffic office h as contin ued d u rin g th e p a s t y e a r to dem on­
s tra te its w o rth a n d ju s tify its existence. Some of its o u tsta n d in g

50

R E PO RT O F T H E SECRE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

accom plishm ents consisted of savings by fo rw a rd in g shipm ents via
U n ite d S ta te s tra n s p o r ts ; consolid atio n of vario u s less th a n carload
shipm ents in to carlo ad s an d secu rin g special ra te s ; o b ta in in g con­
tra c t ra te s fro m intei'coastal lines an d vario us c a rrie rs; h a v in g sh ip ­
m ents fro m th e A tla n tic seaboard to th e Pacifiic coast m ade subject
to th e g en eral c o n tra ct G ov ern m ent r a te ; o b ta in in g reductio ns in
c a rrie rs’ bills th ro u g h changes in classification; sav ing s by p u rc h a s­
in g f. o. b. p o in t of o rig in , th ere b y o b ta in in g la n d -g ra n t deduc­
tio n s; consolid atio n of ex p o rt ship m ents, an d th e sto rin g of vessels
an d field tru c k s w ith o u t cost. A detailed statem en t covering sh ip ­
m ents d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar 1925 is show n in T able 13, page 69.
D E P A R T M E N T L IB R A R Y

T h e d e p a rtm e n t lib ra ry is th e c e n tra l dep o sito ry w here all books,
periodicals, and p rin te d m a tte r are recorded. I t is a c learin g house
by w hich the in fo rm atio n is m ade re ad ily accessible. T h e d etail w ork
is to collect, catalogue, a n d p ro p e rly classify all m a te ria l b e a rin g on
th e w ork o f th e bureaus o r offices to w hich it gives service. Books
w hen no t in use are on th e lib ra ry shelves, an d w hen in use th e lib ra ry
lias a p ro p e r charg e fo r them , show ing w here th ey m ay be found.
T ra d e jo u rn a ls o r official perio dicals received in th e lib ra ry are
recorded an d ro u te d to divisions interested .
T h e en larg ed activ ities of th e d e p a rtm e n t have reacted on the
lib ra ry an d th e dem ands have increased accord ingly . T h e follo w ing
figures w ill give some idea of th e y e a r’s accom plishm ents, b u t th ey
necessarily can not show th e efficient assistance ren d ered research
w ork ers or th e sp lend id s p irit w hich a n im a ted th e service. T o ta l n u m ­
ber o f books in th e lib ra ry on J u n e 30, 1925, was over 117,000; to ta l
nu m be r o f books an d p a m p h le ts ad ded d u rin g th e year, 7,850; 3,715
books w ere cata lo g u ed : 117.483 cards of new accessions were ad ded to
th e c a ta lo g u e ; 6,473 books an d p am p h le ts w ere collated a n d p re p a re d
fo r th e b in d e ry ; 623 books were sent to th e b in d e ry ; 2,013 books were
d iscard ed : 2,919 letters an d p ost card s w ere w ritte n fo r books o r in
ackn ow ledgm ent o f th e ir receipt. T h e c ircu latio n o f books in th e
Com m erce B u ild in g am ounted to 17,717; 2,629 books w ere borrow ed
from th e L ib ra ry of C ongress an d o th er lib ra rie s ; 1,825 tra d e , tech ­
nical, a n d scientific perio dicals, in c lu d in g 84 d a ily p ap ers and 61
fo reig n gazettes, were c u rre n tly received, recorded, an d ro u te d to
2,356 in d iv id u a ls or divisions. A p p ro x im a te ly 1,000 research w o rk ­
ers from o th er G overnm ent d e p artm en ts used th e lib rary .
T h e g re a te st care is p ra c tice d in th e selection o f books an d an in ­
te llig e n t estim ate is m ade o f th e economic value o f each book as
b e a rin g on th e w ork before it is ad d ed to th e lib ra ry ; b u t in sp ite of
th is, one o f th e g re a te st h a n d ic a p s to efficiency is th e lack o f ade­
quate space, both fo r shelving , fo r w o rk in g q u a rte rs, an d fo r re fe r­
ence purposes. A t presen t th e assistan ts have to w ork a t th e side of
the stack room and m any unnecessary steps are ta k en in o rd e r th a t
they m ay consult th e catalogue a n d o th e r tools on w hich th e ir w ork
depends. T h e reference room is crow ded and th e space fo r shelving
w holly inadequate.

D IV IS IO N S O F T H E SE C R E T A R Y ’S O FF IC E

51

W O RK OF T H E SO L IC IT O R ’S O FFIC E

D u rin g th e fiscal y e a r ended J u n e 30, 1925, 132 co ntracts, to ta lin g
$1,203,407.12, to g eth er w ith 9 c o n tracts of in d ete rm in ate am o u n ts;
141 leases a m o u n tin g to $610,130.98; 26 revocable licenses am ountin g
to $5,373; 2 in su rance policies a m o u n tin g to $355,500; 18 deeds
in vo lv in g th e sum o f $380,749.74; 91 c o n tra ct bonds a m o u n tin g to
$542,811; 90 official bonds a m o u n tin g to $577,000 w ere exam ined
(appro ved, disap p ro v ed , d ra fte d , re d ra fte d , or m odified).
T h e nu m b er o f legal opinio ns ren d ered , fo rm al an d in fo rm al
(m em o ra n d u m ), to ta le d 140 (a g re a t m an y verbal opinio ns of w hich
no record is k e p t) were also ren d ered d u rin g th e y e a r; legislative
m atters h and led w hich concern th e D e p a rtm e n t o f Com m erce ( d r a f t­
in g and re d ra ftin g o f bills, re p o rts rela tiv e th ereto , etc.) num bered 5.
P o w er-o f-a tto rn ey cards, a u th o riz in g ag en ts to execute official an d
c o n tract bonds fo r su re ty com panies, to ta le d 3,257. I n ad d itio n ,
10,494 m iscellaneous m a tte rs, em b racin g e v e ry th in g su b m itte d fo r
the advice o r suggestion o f th e solicitor, or fo r th e fo rm u la tio n of
d e p artm en tal action, no t in cluded in th e foreg oing item s, were
hand led by th is office.
M IS C E L L A N E O U S S T A T IS T IC S

T a b l e 1.— T o ta l a p p r o p r ia tio n s , 1925

Annual
appropria­
tion acts

Bureau

Executive
order of
M ay 17,
1925

Deficiency
act

$524,380.00
Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce........ 2.713.177.00 $122,126.00
30,000.00
5.317.470.00
Steamboat Inspection Serv105.160.00
884,870.00
»434,809.38
66, 700.00
Bureau of Standards........... 1.775.700.00
178.477.00
152.944.00
Coast and Geodetic Survey.. 2.217.900.00
Bureau of Lighthouses____ 8,288,700. IX) 1,199,080.00
197,080. 00
1.200.965.00

Allot­
Claims ments by
for
other de­
damages
part­
ments

T o ta l

$524,380.00

_

2,835,303. 00
5.347.470.00

$855,245. 09
370,306. 04

1.050.030.00
501,509.38
$152,750.00 2.106.987.00
2,371,347.34
$503.34
9,490.870. 39
2,490.39
1,398,045. 00
855,245. 09
945,366.64

T otal......................... 23,833,091.38 2,212,767.00 1,225,612.33

2,993.73 152,750.00 27,427,214.44

Printing and Binding.........

475,000.00

iöö, ÖÖÖ. ÖÖ

_______

Bureau

Allotments
to other de­
partments

Office of the Secretary..................................... t ........ ^..........
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce...... .....................
Bureau of the Census....................................... I $162,500.00
Steamboat Inspection Service.......................... !...................
Bureau of Navigation....................................._•...... .............
Bureau of Standards........................................ j ...................
Coast and Geodetic Survey.............................1
5,858.00
Bureau of Lighthouses.................................... |
5,565.00
Bureau of Fisheries.......................................... i ...................
P a ten t. O ffice....................................................... i.....................

Printing and B inding...................................... }...................
Total..

163,923.00

1 Includes $2,186.38 permanent indefinite appropriations.

Transferred
to retirement
fund

$4,131.21
40,419.36 !
48,761.34
21.743.00
9,315. 42
55.308.00
12,478. 03 !
11,715.51
13.300.00
125.00 i
217,290.87

$4,131.
40,419.
201,261.
21,743.
9,315.
55,308.
18,336.
17,280.
13,300.
125.
381,219.

994.57

52

R E P O R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E
Ta bl e
BY

2 .— I t e m i z e d

D IS B U R S IN G

CLERK,

d is b u r s e m e n ts , 1925

DEPARTM ENT

OF

COM M ERCE

Office of th e S e c re ta ry :
C ontingent expenses, D ep artm en t of Commerce, 1923_____
C onting en t expenses, D ep artm en t of Commerce, 1924____
C ontingent expenses, D ep artm en t of Commerce, 1925____
R ent, D ep artm en t of Commerce, 1924_________________
R ent, D ep artm en t of Commerce, 1925_________________
S alarie s, office of th e S ecretary , 1924___________________
Salaries, office of th e S ecretary , 1925___________________
Salaries, office of th e S ecretary , 1925-26________________

$972. 93
44, 062. 23
185, 676. 59
11, 241. 66
62,016. 63
6, 758.92
205, 824.11
850. 00

T o t a l ___________________________________________

517,403. 07

B u r e a u o f F o r e ig n a n d D o m e s t ic C o m m e r c e :
C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m p ilin g f o r e ig n t r a d e s t a t is t ic s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m p ilin g f o r e ig n t r a d e s t a t is t ic s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D ir e c t o r y o f f o r e ig n b u y e r s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D ir e c t o r y o f f o r e ig n b u y e r s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D i s t r i c t a n d c o o p e r a t iv e o ffice s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D i s t r i c t a n d c o o p e r a t iv e o ffice s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n f o r c e m e n t o f C h in a t r a d e a c t , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n f o r c e m e n t o f C h in a t r a d e a c t, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E x p o r t in d u s t r ie s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E x p o r t in d u s t r ie s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t in g s o u r c e s o f c r u d e ru b b e r , 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t in g s o u r c e s o f c r u d e ru b b e r , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f f o r e ig n t r a d e r e s t r ic t i o n s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f f o r e ig n t r a d e r e s t r ic t i o n s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _
P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e,
1924____
P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _
P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , in t h e F a r E a s t , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , in t h e F a r E a s t , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , S o u t h a n d C e n t r a l A m e r ic a , 1 9 2 4 ____
P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , S o u t h a n d C e n t r a l A m e r ic a , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _
R a w m a t e r ia l in v e s t ig a t i o n s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R a w m a t e r ia l in v e s t i g a t io n s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r i e s , F o r e ig n a n d D o m e s t ic C o m m e r c e , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r i e s , F o r e ig n a n d D o m e s t ic C o m m e r c e , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T r a n s p o r t a t io n o f f a m il ie s a n d e f f e c t s o f o ffic e r s a n d e m ­
p lo y e e s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

T o ta l___________________________________________
B u rea u of S ta n d ard s :
A dvisory com m ittee fo r A eronautics (tra n s fe r to B ureau
of S ta n d ard s, a c t of Jan . 5, 1923), 1924______________
A dvisory C om m ittee fo r A eronautics '(tra n sfe r to B ureau
of S ta n d ard s, a c t of M ay 28, 1924), 1925______________
A ir Service, A rm y (W ar tra n s fe r to B u re au of S ta n d ard s,
act of M ay 21, 1920), 1924________________________
A ir Service, A rm y (W a r tra n s fe r to B u rea u of S ta n d ard s,
a c t of Ja n . 5, 1923), 1924__________________________
A ir Service, A rm y (W a r tra n s fe r to B u re au of S ta n d ard s,
a c t of M ay 21, 1920), 1925_________________________
A ir Service, A rm y (W a r tra n s fe r to B u re au of S ta n d ard s,
a c t of M ay 28, 1924), 1925__________________________
A rm am ent of fortificatio ns (W a r tra n s fe r to B u re au of
S ta n d ard s, a c t of M ay 28, 1924), 1925----------------------A u tom atic rifles (W a r tra n s f e r), 1923-24_______________

1. 00
266. 71
3 1 5 . 90
9 5 1 . 95
0 1 7 .1 2
2 6 5 . 22
8, O il . 60
9 ,9 4 7 .7 4
1 8 5 , 757. 96
7 2 5 . 95
13, 4 0 9 .9 3
2 1 , 2 1 8 . 44
5 3 3 , 7 6 3 . 74
1 1 ,0 9 2 .0 2
6 5 ,9 2 7 . 45
7 9 9 .1 7
2 2 , 8 5 4 .9 3
. 91
14, 5 9 4 .3 2
5 7 , 2 9 4 . 84
3, 8 9 3 . 70
106, 730. 43
7 ,7 6 2 . 6 8
1 2 3 , 8 1 7 . 28
3 ,0 5 1 . 4 2
3 7 , 3 3 0 . 55
9 ,4 2 0 . 90
2 4 7 , 4 2 7 .1 2
11,
16,
15,
298,

5 0 .3 0

1, 826, 701.28

693.47
26, 532. 07
1,896.39
1,529.46
968.00
5,087. 51
847.18
380.25

DIV ISIO N'S OF T H E SE C R E T A R Y ’S O FF IC E
B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s — C o n tin u e d .
A u t o m a t ic r ifle s ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
a c t o f M a y 2 1 , 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 1 - 2 5 -----------------------------------A u t o m o t iv e p o w e r p la n t s , 1 9 2 1 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- A v ia t io n , N a v y ( N a v y t r a n s f e r t o C o m m e r c e, a c t o f M a y 21,
1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -A v ia t io n , N a v y ( N a v y t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
a c t o f M a y 21, 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 4 --------------------------------------A v ia t io n , N a v y ( N a v y t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
a c t o f J a n . 5, 1 9 2 3 ) , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- A v ia t io n , N a v y ( N a v y t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
a c t o f M a y 28. 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 5 -------- - -------------------------------C lo t h in g a n d e q u ip a g e ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o C o m m e r c e, a c t o f
M a y 2 1 , 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - C o lo r s t a n d a r d iz a t io n , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- C o lo r s t a n d a r d iz a t io n , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- C o n f e r e n c e o n o il p o llu t io n o f n a v ig a b le w a t e r s ( S t a t e t r a n s ­
f e r t o B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a r. 4, 1 9 2 5 ) , 1 9 2 5 - 2 6 C o n s t r u c tio n a n d r e p a ir , B u r e a u o f C o n s t r u c tio n a n d R e ­
p a ir ( N a v y t r a n s f e r ) , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- C o n s t r u c tio n a n d r e p a ir , B u r e a u o f C o n s t r u c tio n a n d R e ­
p a ir ( N a v v t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y
21. 1 9 2 0 ) , ' 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 --------------------C o n s t r u c tio n a n d r e p a ir , B u r e a u o f C o n s t r u c tio n a n d R e ­
p a ir ( N a v v t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y
28, 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n g in e e r in g , B u r e a u o f E n g in e e r in g ( N a v y t r a n s f e r to
C o m m e r c e, a c t o f M a y 2 1 , 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -E n g in e e r in g , B u r e a u o f E n g in e e r in g ( N a v y t r a n s f e r t o C o m ­
m e r c e , a c t o f J a n . 5, 1 9 2 3 ) , 1 9 2 4 --------- - --------------------E q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -E q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E x p e r im e n t s , O r d n a n c e ( N a v y t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u .o f S t a n d ­
a r d s , a c t o f J a n . 5, 1 9 2 3 ) , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -E x p o r t I n d u s t r ie s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e ( t r a n s f e r to
B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 28, 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 5 -----------F ie ld a r t i lle r y , a r m a m e n t ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S t a n d ­
a r d s , a c t o f M a y 2 1 , 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 4 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- F ie ld a r t i lle r y , a r m a m e n t ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S t a n d ­
a r d s , a c t o f M a y 28, 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -G a u g e s t a n d a r d iz a t io n , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G a u g e s t a n d a r d iz a t io n , 1 9 2 5 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s . B u r e a u o f E n to m o lo g y
( A g r ic u lt u r e
t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 2 8 , 1 9 2 4 ) ,
1 9 2 5 ______________________________________________
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e ( t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u
o f S t a n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 2 8 , 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 5 ------------------H ig h - t e m p e r a t u r e in v e s t ig a t i o n s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
H ig h - t e m p e r a t u r e in v e s t ig a t i o n s , 1 9 2 5 ----------------------------Im p rovem en t an d c a r e o f grou n d s, 1924_________________
Im p rov em en t an d ca re o f g ro u n d s, 1925_________________
I n c id e n t a l e x p e n s e s o f t h e A r m y ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o C o m ­
m erce, a c t o f M ay 21, 1 9 2 0 ), 1923_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n c id e n t a l e x p e n s e s o f t h e A r m y ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u
o f S t a n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 28, 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n d u s t r ia l r e se a r c h , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
in d u s t r ia l r e se a r c h , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n d u s t r ia l r e s e a r c h , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f a u t o m o t iv e e n g in e s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f c la y p r o d u c ts , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f c la y p r o d u c t s, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f f ir e - r e s is t in g p r o p e r t ie s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ I n v e s t ig a t io n o f f ir e - r e s is t in g p r o p e r t ie s, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1

53

$546. 00
2, 069. 70
793. 55
10, 818.05
795. 28
28, 074.16
2, 244. 76
989. 97
8,416. 85
113. 75
485. 22
1, 809.58
8, 708. 20
119. 14
4. 06
558. 91
14, 995. 25
54, 015. 55
50. 87
4,469.08
823. 87
922. 84
2, 429. 05
38,350.15
4, 367. 41
1, 921. 37
60. 66
9, 326.14
22, 450. 32
879. 22
9, 069.13
1,002. 25
10,623. 26
12,352. 92
8,645. 26
10,029. 27
10, 353. 05
158, 079. 40
30, 220. 58
1, 979. 85
27, 211. 78
946. 45
26,004. 62

54

R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s — C o n tin u e d .
I n v e s t i g a t io n o f m in e s c a le s a n d c a r s, 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t i g a t io n o f m in e s c a le s a n d c a r s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t i g a t io n o f o p t ic a l g la s s , 1 9 2 4 - -- -- -- - ------------------------I n v e s t i g a t io n o f o p t ic a l g la s s , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -I n v e s t i g a t io n o f p u b lic u t il it y s t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f p u b lic u t i l i t y s t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 5 ------------------I n v e s t i g a t io n o f r a d io a c t i v e s u b s t a n c e s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t i g a t io n o f r a d io a c t iv e s u b s t a n c e s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f t e x t il e s , e tc ., 1 9 2 4 --------------------------------I n v e s t i g a t io n o f t e x t il e s , e t c ., 1 9 2 5 --------------------------------L a n d , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 5 -2 G - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- M a n u f a c t u r e o f a r m s ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s ,
a c t o f M a y 2S, 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- M e t a llu r g ic a l r e s e a r c h , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - M e ta llu r g ic a l r e s e a r c h , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - M in e r a l m in in g in v e s t i g a t i o n s , B u r e a u o f M in e s ( I n t e r io r
t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 2 8 , 1 9 2 4 ) ,
1 9 2 5 ______________________________________________
O rd n an ce and ord n an ce sto re s, B u r e au o f O rd n an ce (N a v y
t r a n s f e r t o C o m m e r c e, a c t o f M a y 2 1 , 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -O rd n an ce and ord n an ce sto r e s, B u r ea u o f O rd n an ce (N a v y
t r a n s f e r t o C o m m e r c e, A c t o f M a y 2 1 , 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
O r d n a n c e a n d o r d n a n c e s t o r e s , B u r e a u o f O r d n a n c e (N avyt r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f J a n . 5, 1 9 2 3 ) ,
1 9 2 4 ____________________________________________
O rd n an ce an d o rd n a n c e sto re s, B u r e au o f O rd n an ce (N a v y
tr a n sfe r to B u r e a u o f S ta n d a rd s, a c t o f M ay 21, 1 9 2 0 ),
1925 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
O r d n a n c e s t o r e s , a m m u n it io n ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f
S ta n d a rd s, a ct o f M ay 21, 1 9 2 0 ), 1 9 2 3 -2 4 _____________
O r d n a n c e s t o r e s , a m m u n it io n ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f
S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f J a n . 5, 1 9 2 3 ) , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
O r d n a n c e s t o r e s , a m m u n itio n ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f
S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 2 8 , 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 5 - 2 6 ---------------------P a r t y e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y ( t r a n s f e r t o
B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 2 1 , 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a r t y e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e t ic S u r v e y ( t r a n s f e r t o
B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 2 1 , 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a r t y e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y ( t r a n s f e r to
B u r ea u o f S ta n d a r d s, a c t o f J a n . 5 ,1 9 2 3 ) , 1924_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R a d io r e s e a r c h , 1 9 2 4 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ----------------R a d io r e s e a r c h , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
R e p la c e m e n t o f a lt it u d e c h a m b e r s . 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R o p e in v e s t i g a t io n , 1 9 2 4 ------------ - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ------ ----R o p e in v e s t ig a t io n , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r ie s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ i_
S a la r ie s . 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -S ig n a l S e r v ic e o f t h e A r m y ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f
S t a n d a r d s , a c t o f J a n . 5, 1 9 2 3 ) , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S ig n a l S e r v ic e o f t h e A r m y ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f
S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 28, 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S o u n d in v e s t ig a t io n , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S o u n d in v e s t i g a t io n , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t a n d a r d iz a t io n o f e q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t a n d a r d iz a t io n o f e q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S ta n d a r d iz a t io n o f e q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t a n d a r d iz in g m e c h a n ic a l a p p lia n c e s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t a n d a r d iz in g m e c h a n ic a l a p p lia n c e s , 1 9 2 5 ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t a n d a r d m a t e r ia ls , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S ta n d a r d m a t e r ia ls , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S u b s is t e n c e o f t h e A r m y ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o C o m m e r c e, a c t o f
M ay 21, 1 9 2 0 ), 1923_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S u g a r s t a n d a r d iz a t io n , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
S u g a r s t a n d a r d iz a t io n , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T a n k s ( W a r t r a n s f e r to B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y
2 1 , 1920)", 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

.$194. 89
11, 552. 07
953. 77
22, 457. 71
8, 955.15
91,155.06
1, 70S. 52
10, 014. 84
3,160. 81
23, 563. 38
173,117.00
759. 80
3, 656. 69
37, 522. 67
4, 245. 65
21.20

1,179. 93
1, 207.10
7, 969. 85
585.17
129. 19
286.00
1,211.87
1, 753. 38
369. 28
3,293. 38
42.300.10
57, 773. 42
5, 252.16
6,968. 20
15, 096. OS
464, 020. 87
33. 00
3, 381. 40
266. 67
5,311. 90
3, 5S3. 26
5 , 19S. 64
94, 599. 22
2, 895.26
27, 625. 93
1, 200. 80
9,203. 38
4, 733. 29
4. 307. 25
36, 539. 81
1,146. 07

D IV IS IO N S OF T H E SE C R E T A R Y ’S O F F IC E
B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s — C o n tin u e d .
T e s t in g m a c h in e s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ i_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T e s t i n g m a c h in e s , 1 9 2 5 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -T e s t i n g m is c e lla n e o u s m a t e r ia ls , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T e s t i n g m is c e lla n e o u s m a t e r ia ls , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T e s t in g r a ilr o a d s c a le s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T e s t i n g r a ilr o a d s c a le s , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - T e s t i n g s t r u c t u r a l m a t e r ia ls , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- T e s t in g s t r u c t u r a l m a t e r ia ls , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
W a s h in g t o n - A la s k a m ili t a r y c a b le a n d t e le g r a p h s y s t e m
( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 28,
1 9 2 4 ), 1 9 2 5 -2 6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T o ta l_____________________________________________
S t e a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v i c e :
C le r k h ir e , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C le r k h ir e , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 4 ----------------------- --------------------C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r ie s , o ffice o f S u p e r v is in g I n s p e c t o r G e n e r a l, 1 9 2 4 -------S a la r ie s , o ffice o f S u p e r v is in g I n s p e c t o r G e n e r a l, 1 9 2 5 -------S a la r ie s , S t e a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - S a la r ie s , S t e a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 ------ - -----------S a la r ie s , S t e a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - T o ta l_____________________________________________
B u reau o f N a v ig a tio n :
A d m e a s u r e m e n t o f v e s s e ls , 1 9 2 4 ------ -- -- -- -- -- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- A d m e a s u r e m e n t o f v e s s e ls , 1 9 2 5 -------- - ----- - ----------- -— - - - C le r k h ir e , s h ip p in g s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -C le r k h ir e , s h ip p in g s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 5 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , s h ip p in g s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 ---------------------C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , s h ip p in g s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 5 ---------------------E n fo r c e m e n t o f n a v ig a t io n la w s , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -----------------E n f o r c e m e n t o f n a v ig a t io n la w s , 1 9 2 5 -------- .---------- '--------E n fo r c e m e n t o f w ir e le s s c o m m u n ic a t io n la w s , 1 9 2 4 -----------E n f o r c e m e n t o f w ir e le s s c o m m u n ic a tio n la w s , 1 9 2 5 ------ :—
I n s t r u m e n t s f o r c o u n t in g p a s s e n g e r s , 1 9 2 5 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - - —
P r e v e n t in g o v e r c r o w d in g o f p a s s e n g e r v e s s e ls , 1 9 2 4 -----------P r e v e n t in g o v e r c r o w d in g o f p a s s e n g e r v e s s e ls , 1 9 2 5 - -------- S a la r ie s , B u r e a u o f N a v ig a t io n , 1 9 2 4 ----------------------------S a la r ie s , B u r e a u o f N a v ig a t io n , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -S a la r ie s , s h ip p in g s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- S a la r ie s , s h ip p in g s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- T o ta l_____________________________________________
B u reau o f F is h e r ie s :
F is h e r ie s o f A la s k a . 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- F is h - r e s c u e s t a t i o n , M is s is s ip p i R iv e r , 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- F is h - r e s c u e s t a t i o n , M is s is s ip p i R iv e r , 1 9 2 5 — ~ - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- I n v e s t ig a t in g d a m a g e s t o f is h e r ie s - - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , 19 2 3 -2 4 -----------------------------------M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 -----------------------------------M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- P a y , o fficers a n d c r e w o f v e s s e ls , A la s k a f i s h e r ie s s e r v ic e ,
1924 _____________________________________________
P a y , o ffic e r s a n d c r e w o f v e s s e ls , A la s k a f is h e r ie s s e r v ic e .
1925 _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f is h e r ie s o f A la s k a , 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 —
P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f i s h e r ie s o f A la s k a . 1 9 2 4 -------P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f is h e r ie s o f A la s k a , 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 -----

55

$2, 7S9. 77
32, S 2 4 .11
2 ,1 2 2 . 7 9
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19, 273. 00
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91. 81
3, 6 1 6 .1 1
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7 8 ,1 4 1 . 7 4
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176, 9 9 5 . 9 0
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97, 979. 9 2

56

R E P O R T O P T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

B u r e a u o f F is h e r ie s — C o n tin u e d .
P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f is h e r ie s o f A la s k a , 1 0 2 5 - -- -- -- -- -S a la r i e s , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -S a l a r ie s , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -T o ta l_____________________________________________
B u r e a u o f th e C e n s u s :
C e n s u s o f a g r ic u lt u r e , 1 9 2 5 - 2 0 --------------------------------------C o lle c tin g s t a t is t ic s , 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -C o lle c tin g s t a t is t ic s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o lle c tin g s t a t is t ic s , 192 5 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -S a l a r ie s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r i e s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T a b u la t in g m a c h in e s, 19 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- T a b u la t in g m a c h in e s , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- T a b u la t in g m a c h in e s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T o ta l_____________________________________________
B u r e a u o f L ig h t h o u s e s :
A id s to n a v ig a t io n , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P o in t V in c e n t e L ig h t S t a t io n , C a lif _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T e n d e r f o r t h ir d lig h t h o u s e d is t r ic t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
V e s s e ls f o r L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h th o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r ie s , B u r e a u o f L ig h th o u s e s , 1 9 2 4 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- S a la r ie s , B u r e a u o f L ig h th o u s e s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l a r ie s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -S a l a r ie s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e . 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -T o ta l_____________________________________________
P a t e n t O f f ic e :
A d d it io n a l e m p lo y e e s , 1 9 2 4 -2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , P a t e n t O ffice, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F u r n it u r e a n d f ilin g c a s e s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P h o t o lit h o g r a p h in g , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r in t in g a n d b in d in g , P a t e n t O ffice, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P u b lic u s e o f in v e n t io n s a n d d e f e n d in g s u it s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
K e n t a n d s t o r a g e o f P a t e n t O ffice m o d e ls , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S c ie n tif ic lib r a r y , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S c ie n tif ic lib r a r y , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S c ie n tif ic lib r a r y , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l a r ie s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t a t io n e r y , P a t e n t O ffice, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

$34, 400. 92
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T o t a l - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

8 4 6 ,1 9 5 . 75

M is c e lla n e o u s :
I n c r e a s e o f c o m p e n s a t io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 3 _
I n c r e a s e o f c o m p e n s a tio n , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 4 _
P r in t i n g a n d b in d in g . D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _
P r in t i n g a n d b in d in g , D e p a r tm e n t o f C o m m e r c e. 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _
P r in t in g a n d b in d in g , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _

1 1 .3 3
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3 5 8 , 740. 7 6

T o t a l - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

5 7 7 , 5 9 5 . 56

G r a n d t o t a l - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- 1 1 , 2 6 8 .1 5 3 .1 9
BY

D IS B U R S IN G

O F F IC E R S , L IG H T H O U S E

S E R V IC E

A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , A la s k a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , C a lu m e t H a r b o r , 111_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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D IV IS IO N S OF T H E SE C R E T A R Y ’S O F F IC E

57

$1 , 8 6 6 . 2 2
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , C o n n e a u t H a r b o r , O h io - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -713. 69
A id s to n a v ig a t io n , C o q u ille R iv e r , O r e g - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , C h e sa p e a k e B a y , M d. a n d V a ------------------907. 52
18,194. 83
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , D e la w a r e B a y E n t r a n c e - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 11, 331. 98
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , F lo r id a c o a s t s - - - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - 309, 467. 33
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -A id s to n a v ig a t io n , R a r it a n B a y a n d c o n n e c t e d w a t e r s , N . Y . a n d
77. 50
N . J ___________________________________________________
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , S t. J o h n s R iv e r , F l a -------------------------------2, 590. 89
350. 06
D e t r o it L ig h t h o u s e D e p o t . M ic h - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- 6, 663. 46
D e t r o it R iv e r lig h t s , M ic h - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - 40, 627. 57
C a p e C h a r le s L ig h t V e s s e l, V a - - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- P o in t B o r in q u e n L ig h t S t a t io n , P . I t - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 371. 59
56, 244. 30
P o in t V in c e n t e L ig h t S t a t io n , C a li f - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- 7, 943. 44
S a b in e P a s s J e t t y L ig h t S t a t io n , T e x -----------------------------------634. 44
S a n d I s la n d L ig h t S t a t io n , A la - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -S p e c t a c le R e e f L ig h t S t a t io n , M ic h --------------------------------------5, 531. 43
R e p a ir in g a n d r e b u ild in g a i d s t o n a v ig a t io n , A t l a n t ic c o a s t ____
1. 522. 50
R e p a ir in g a n d r e b u ild in g a id s t o n a v ig a t io n , G u lf o f M e x ic o ___
4, S35. 03
R e p a ir in g a n d r e b u ild in g a i d s t o n a v ig a t io n , s e v e n t h a n d e ig h t h
5, 642. 20
lig h t h o u s e d is t r ic t s - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -R e p a ir in g a n d r e b u ild in g a id s t o n a v ig a t io n , s e v e n t h lig h t h o u s e
5, 246. 80
d is t r ic t , 1 9 2 2 - 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R ip r a p p r o t e c tio n f o r lig h t s t a t io n s , t h ir d lig h t h o u s e d is t r ic t ___
4, 291. 07
T e n d e r f o r t h ir d lig h t h o u s e d is t r ic t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1, 677. 49
V e s s e ls f o r L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3, 490. 94
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L i g h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- 1, 397. 79
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 - _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
487, 553. 79
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 3, 606, 700. 76
S a la r ie s , k e e p e r s o f lig h t h o u s e s , 1 9 2 3 -----------------------------------15.17
S a la r ie s , k e e p e r s o f lig h t h o u s e s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
34, 648. 99
S a la r ie s , k e e p e r s o f lig h t h o u s e s , 1 9 2 5 ------------------------------------ 1, 632.370. 06
S a la r ie s , lig h t h o u s e v e s s e ls , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
51, 397. 59
S a la r ie s , li g h t h o u s e v e s s e ls , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - - . 2,138,189. 84
S a la r ie s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
4, 261. 90
S a la r ie s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e . 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
500, 888. 81
R e tir e d p a y , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
2, 723. 60
R e tir e d p a y , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
119, 970. 52
I n c r e a s e o f c o m p e n s a t io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _
4. 66
I n c r e a s e o f c o m p e n s a t io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _
27, 829. 92
T o tn l_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _

9,102,141. 58

B Y D I S B U R S I N G A G E N T , C O A S T A N D G E O D E T IC S U R V E Y

G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M a in t e n a n c e , B u r e a u o f Y a r d s a n d D o c k s ( N a v y t r a n s f e r to
C om m e rc e), 1924_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a r t y e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a r t y e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a r t y e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a y a n d a llo w a n c e s , c o m m is s io n e d o fficers, C o a s t a n d G e o d e t ic
Survey, 1923_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a y a n d a llo w a n c e s , c o m m is s io n e d o fficers, C o a st a n d G e o d e t ic
Survey, 1924_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ _
P a y a n d a llo w a n c e s , c o m m is s io n e d o fficers, C o a s t a n d G e o d e t ic
Survey, 1925_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a y , e t c ., o ffic e r s a n d m en , v e s s e ls , C o a s t S u r v e y , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a y , e tc ., o fficers a n d m e n , v e s s e ls , C o a st S u r v e y , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _
P a y , e tc ., o fficers a n d m e n , v e s s e ls , C o a s t S u r v e y , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e p a ir s o f v e s s e ls , C o a s t S u r v e y , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e p a ir s o f v e s s e ls , C o a s t S u r v e y , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l a r ie s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

$52. 56
7. 882. 86
57, 387. 60
572.17
38.20
111, 850. 58
441, 664. 23
200.40
49,186. 04
413, 902. 05
123.18
98,571.28
501,603.69
3, 983. 78
51,296. 82
69.34

R E PO R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

58

S a la r ie s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 3 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -I n c r e a s e o f c o m p e n s a t io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _

$ 3 7 7 , 7(!8. 51
17, 5 6 4 . 73

T o t a l _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 ,1 3 3 , 7 1 8 . 02
BY

S P E C IA L

D IS B U R S IN G

A GENTS,

BUREAU

OF

THE

CEN SUS

C e n s u s o f a g r ic u lt u r e , B u r e a u o f t h e C e n s u s , 1 9 2 5 - 2 6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ $ 2 ,1 5 5 , 4 0 6 . 97
BY

C O M M E R C IA L

AGENTS

OF

THE

DEPARTM ENT

IN V E S T IG A T IN G

TRADE

C O N D IT IO N S

ABR OA D

C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D is t r ic t a n d c o o p e r a t iv e o ffice s e r v ic e . 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n fo r c e m e n t o f t h e C h in a t r a d e a c t, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E x p o r t in d u s t r ie s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 5 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- I n v e s t ig a t i n g s o u r c e s o f c r u d e ru b b e r , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o m o tin g c o m m e r c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o m o tin g c o m m e r c e in t h e F a r E a s t , 1 9 2 5 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , S o u t h a n d C e n t r a l A m e r ic a , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r ie s , B u r e a u o f F o r e ig n a n d D o m e s t ic C o m m e r c e , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _
T r a n s p o r t a t io n o f f a m il ie s a n d e f f e c t s o f o ffic e r s a n d e m p lo y e e s ,
1925 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T r a n s p o r t a t io n a n d in t e r m e n t o f r e m a in s o f o fficers a n d e m ­
p lo y e e s , 1 9 2 5 __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _
T o ta l_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
BY

S P E C IA L

D IS B U R S IN G

A G EN TS,

BUREAU

OF

$ 2 1 7 , 8 8 2 .4 3
3 ,2 8 8 . 72
1 ,9 4 5 .8 6
12, 6 2 0 . 66
15, 8 5 9 . 27
1 9 ,4 5 4 .7 4
3 0 6 , 4 3 2 . 93
1 0 4 , 4 7 8 . 58
9 5 , 5 6 1 . 92
6 2 5 . 00
12, 5 8 4 .3 7
4 6 . 07
7 9 0 , 7 4 4 . 55

F IS H E R IE S

M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , B u r e a u o f F is h e r ie s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s . B u r e a u o f F is h e r ie s . 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F is h e r ie s o f A la s k a , 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a y , o ffic e r s a n d c r e w o f v e s s e ls . A la s k a F is h e r ie s S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 P a y , o fficers a n d c r e w o f v e s s e ls , A la s k a F is h e r ie s S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 5 .
P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f is h e r ie s o f A la s k a , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f is h e r ie s o f A la s k a , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n c r e a s e o f c o m p e n s a t io n . D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _
T o ta l_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _

$ 2 , 0 7 8 . 62
1 4 ,8 8 5 .8 8
9 ,5 3 5 .5 7
2 ,1 5 9 .9 9
25, 4 7 3 . 3 4
5, 8 4 9 . 93
69. 9 2 0 . 04
5 3 3 . 34
130, 4 3 6 . 71

T a b l e 3 . — T r e a s u r y w a r r a n t s , 1925

O ffice o f t h e S e c r e t a r y :
C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _
C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _

$1, 5 1 0 .1 6
3, 0 9 9 . 96

T o ta l______________________________________________

4 , 6 1 0 .1 2

B u r e a u o f F o r e ig n a n d D o m e s t ic C o m m e r c e :
C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m p ilin g f o r e ig n t r a d e s t a t is t ic s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m p ilin g f o r e i g n t r a d e s t a t is t ic s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D ir e c t o r y o f f o r e ig n b u y e r s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D i s t r i c t a n d c o o p e r a t iv e o ffice s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D is t r ic t a n d c o o p e r a t iv e o ffice s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n f o r c e m e n t o f C h in a t r a d e a c t, 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n f o r c e m e n t o f C h in a t r a d e a c t , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E x p o r t in d u s t r ie s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E x p o r t in d u s t r ie s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t in g s o u r c e s o f c r u d e ru b b e r , 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t in g s o u r c e s o f c r u d e ru b b e r , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

SO. 1 6
2, 3 1 2 . 2 9
3, 605. 25
1 6 3 .9 9
363. 26
162. 62
1, 6 0 4 . 84
3, 3 9 9 . 7 4
4 8 9 .1 9
1. 5 7 6 . 30
5, 9 2 9 . 4 8
1 5 ,5 8 4 .1 9
6, 702. 2 3
2, 2 6 9 . 94

D IV IS IO N S OF T H E SE C R E T A R Y ’S O F F IC E

59

B ureau of Foreig n an d Domestic Commerce— Continued.
In v estig atio n of foreign tra d e re stric tio n s, 1925_______ :___
$529. 71
Prom oting commerce, D ep artm en t of Commerce, 1923_____
12. 50
4, 036. 03
Prom oting commerce, D ep artm en t of Commerce, 1924_____
Prom oting commerce, D ep artm en t of Commerce, 1925_____
10, 577. 06
Prom oting commerce in th e F a r E ast, 1923______________
70. 40
1,634.69
Prom oting com m erce in the F a r E ast, 1924_______________
Prom oting com m erce in th e F a r E ast, 1925________________
2,906.63
561. 42
P rom oting commerce, Sou th and C en tra l Am erica, 1924___
Prom oting com m ere, South an d C en tra l Am erica, 1925_____
4,123. 07
R aw m a te ria l investigations, 1924----------------------------------5,413.94
R aw m ateria l investigations, 1925----------------------------------1,56S.40
T ra n sp o rtatio n of fam ilies an d effects of officers an d em ­
ployees, 1924______________________________________
504.56
T ra n sp o rtatio n of fam ilies an d effects of officers an d em ­
ployees, 1925______________________________________
10, 867. 27
Certified claim s—
10. 91
Prom oting com m erce, D ep artm en t of Commerce, 1922_
Prom oting commerce, South an d C en tra l America, 1921_
49. 38
T o ta l______________________________ _________

87,109. 45

B ureau o f S ta n d a r d s:
A d v is o r y C o m m itt e e f o r A e r o n a u t ic s ( t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f
S t a n d a r d s , a c t Of J a n . 5, 1 9 2 3 ) , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1 3 1 .6 0
A d v is o r y C o m m it te e f o r A e r o n a u t ic s ( t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f
S ta n d a rd s, a c t o f M ay 28, 1 9 2 4 ), 192 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
7 4 .5 6
A ir S e r v ic e , A r m y ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
8 .2 5
a c t o f J a n . 5. 1 9 2 3 ) , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A u t o m o t iv e p o w e r p la n ts , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
72. 92
A v ia t io n , N a v y ( N a v y t r a n s f e r to B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , a c t
o f M ay 21, 1 9 2 0 ), 1924_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
6 5 .6 6
A v ia t io n , N a v y ( N a v y t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
a c t o f J a n . 5, 1 9 2 3 ) , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
8 7 .8 6
A v ia t io n , N a v y ( N a v y t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
a c t o f M a y 28, 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 5 .......... .......................................
3 6 .3 2
C o lo r s t a n d a r d iz a t io n ,
1925_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
4 5 . 86
E q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
110. 0 0
E q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
5, 0 3 4 . 50
E q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 29. 40
G a u g e s t a n d a r d iz a t io n , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
179. 24
G a u g e s t a n d a r d iz a t io n , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :____
124. 21
3 4 . 24
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3, 0 1 0 . 43
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ x _ _ _ _ _ _
3, 2 6 6 . 97
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , B u r e a u o f E n t o m o lo g y ( A g r ic u lt u r e t r a n s ­
f e r t o B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 2 8 , 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 5 ___
1 0 2 .3 4
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L i g h t h o u s e S e r v ic e ( t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f
S ta n d a r d s, a c t o f M ay 28, 1 9 2 4 ), 192 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
5 .6 3
I lig h - t e m p e r a t u r e in v e s t i g a t i o n s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
9 3 . 27
I n c id e n t a l e x p e n s e s o f t h e A r m y ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o C o m m e r c e,
a c t o f M a y 21, 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1 9 7 .0 6
I n c id e n t a l e x p e n s e s o f t h e A r m y ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f
S t a n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 2S, 1 9 2 4 ) , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
2 3 .7 8
I n d u s t r ia l r e se a r c h , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
4 2 6 . 93
I n d u s t r ia l r e s e a r c h , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1 ,1 8 4 . 3 9
I n d u s t r ia l r e s e a r c h , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1, 8 5 9 . 3 0
I n v e s t i g a t io n .o f a u t o m o t iv e e n g in e s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
7 5 1 . 88
I n v e s t i g a t io n o f c la y p r o d u c ts , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
50. 28
I n v e s t i g a t io n o f c la y p r o d u c t s, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
2 1 7 . 20
I n v e s t ig a t i o n o f f ir e - r e s is t in g p r o p e r t ie s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
3. 75
I n v e s t i g a t io n o f f ir e - r e s is t in g p r o p e r t ie s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
131. 41
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f m in e s c a le s a n d c a r s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1 8 1 .1 4
I n v e s t i g a t io n o f m in e s c a le s a n d c a r s, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1 5 0 .4 3
I n v e s t i g a t io n o f o p t ic a l g la s s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
6 2 .1 6
I n v e s t i g a t io n o f p u b lic - u t ilit y s t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
12. 73
I n v e s t i g a t io n o f p u b lic - u t ilit y s t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
1, 3 3 7 . 21
6 6 5 4 8 — 25----- 5

60

R E PO R T OF T H E SECRETA RY OF C O M M E R C E

B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s — C o n tin u e d .
I n v e s t ig a t i o n o f p u b lic - u t ilit y s t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t i o n o f r a d io a c t iv e s u b s t a n c e s , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - I n v e s t ig a t i o n o f r a d io a c t i v e s u b s t a n c e s , 1 9 2 5 -------------------I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t e x t il e s , e tc ., 1 9 2 4 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- I n v e s t ig a t io n o f t e x t il e s , e tc ., 1 9 2 5 ---------------------------------M e t a llu r g ic a l r e s e a r c h , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- M e t a llu r g ic a l r e s e a r c h , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
O rd n an ce an d o r d n a n c e sto re s, B u r e a u o f O rd n an ce (N a v y
t r a n s f e r t o C o m m e r c e, a c t o f M a y 21, 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 4 -----------O r d n a n c e s t o r e s , a m m u n it io n ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f
S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 21, 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a r t y e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y ( t r a n s f e r t o B u ­
r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , a c t o f M a y 21, 1 9 2 0 ) , 1 9 2 4 ---------------P a r t y e x p e n s e s , C o a st a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y ( t r a n s f e r t o B u ­
r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f J a n . 5, 1 9 2 3 ) , 1 9 2 4 ------------------R a d io r e se a r c h , 1 9 2 4 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -R a d io r e se a r c h , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - R e p la c e m e n t o f a lt it u d e c h a m b e r s , 1 9 2 4 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- R o p e in v e s t ig a t io n , 1 9 2 4 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -S ig n a l S e r v ic e o f t h e A r m y ( W a r t r a n s f e r t o B u r e a u o f
S ta n d a r d s , a c t o f J a n . 5, 1 9 2 3 ) , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t a n d a r d iz a t io n o f e q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 3 ------------------------------ —
S t a n d a r d iz a t io n o f e q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 4 --------------------------------S t a n d a r d iz a t io n o f e q u ip m e n t , 1 9 2 5 --------------------------------S t a n d a r d iz in g m e c h a n ic a l a p p lia n c e s , 1 9 2 4 ----------------------S t a n d a r d iz in g m e c h a n ic a l a p p lia n c e s , 1 9 2 5 ----------------------S t a n d a r d m a t e r ia ls , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - S ta n d a r d m a t e r ia ls , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - T e s t in g m a c h in e s, 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - T e s t in g m a c h in e s , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - T e s t in g m is c e lla n e o u s m a t e r ia ls , 1 9 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -T e s t in g m is c e lla n e o u s m a t e r ia ls , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - --

T estin g ra ilro a d scales, 1924--------------------------------------T estin g ra ilro a d scales, 1925-------------------------------------T estin g s tru c tu ra l m ateria ls, 1924--------------------------------T estin g s tru c tu ra l m ateria ls, 1925--------------------------------W ashington-A laska m ilitary cable an d telegrap h system
(W ar, tra n s fe r to B urea u of S ta n d ard s, a c t of May 28,
1924), 1925-26____________________________________
Certified claim s—
In d u stria l research, 1922--------------------------------------S ta n d ard izin g m echanical appliances, 1921-----------------

$ 1 ,1 3 4 .
13.
09.
OS.
211.
100.
518.

91
95 04
10
55 |
31
02

2 7 2 . 70
1 2 .2 7
5 5 .5 9
243.
44.
333.
2, 4 2 8 .
68.

S6 I
70
07
76
28 ;

13. 77
6 2 . 00
1, 4 9 5 . 89
2, 8 1 3 . 5S )
155. 93
47. 74
4. 63
20. 9 3
15. 00
1 2 1 .1 7 |
124. 23 j
230. 79 a

617. 70
2,431.45
2, 397. 33
3, 639. 83
38.85
517. 29
263.00

—

T o ta l________________________________________
B u re au of N av ig atio n :
A dm easurem ent of vessels, 1924----------------------------------A dm easurem ent o f vessels, 1925----------------------------------C lerk hire, shipping service, 1925---------------------------------C onting en t expenses, shipping service, 1924---------------------C ontingent expenses, shipping service, 1925---------------------E n forcem ent of nav ig ation law s, 1924----------------------------E n forcem ent of n avigatio n law s, 1925----------------------------E n forcem ent of w ireless com m unication law s, 1924------------E nforcem en t of w ireless com m unication law s, 1925------------P re v en tin g overcrow ding of passenger vessels, 1924----------P re v en tin g overcrow ding of passenger vessels, 1925----------R efund ing moneys erroneously received an d covered in to the
T r e a s u r y ________________________________________
R efund ing p en alties or charges erroneou sly ex acted ----------Certified claim s—
E n forcem ent of nav ig ation law s, 1922----------------------P re v en tin g overcrow ding of passenger vessels, 1920-----T o t a l___________________________ - ____________________

39, 750. 93
20.15
500. 57
8.12
10. 87
11. 50
292. 55
458. 70
2, 215. 03
5, 678. 90
56. 30
911. 92
871. 90
1,314. 48
2. 55
1. 39
1 2 ,3 5 4 . 9 3

D IV IS IO N S O F T H E SE C R E T A R Y ’S O F F IC E
S t e a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v i c e :
C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 3 ---------------------------------------------C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 4 ---------------------------------------------C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- T o ta l______________________________________________
B u rea u o f F is h e r ie s :
F is h - r e s c u e s t a t i o n , M is s i s s i p p i H ir e r , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F is h e r ie s o f A la s k a , 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- I n v e s t ig a t in g d a m a g e s t o f i s h e r ie s - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- . M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 4 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 5 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f is h e r ie s o f A la s k a , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f is h e r ie s o f A la s k a ,
1924_
P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f is h e r ie s o f A la s k a ,
1925__
P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f is h e r ie s o f A la s k a , 1 9 2 3 - 2 4 ____
P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f is h e r ie s o f A la s k a , 1 9 2 4 - 2 5 ____
C e r t if ie d c la im s —
M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 1 --------- 1------------------------M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , 1 9 2 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T o ta l___________________________________________
B u r ea u o f th e C en su s :
C e n s u s o f a g r ic u lt u r e , 1 9 2 5 - 2 6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o lle c tin g s t a t is t ic s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o lle c tin g s t a t is t ic s , 1 9 2 5 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - T a b u la t in g m a c h in e s , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T a b u la t in g m a c h in e s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C e r tifie d c la im s — E x p e n s e s o f t h e F o u r t e e n t h C e n s u s , 1 9 2 0 192 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T o ta l______________________________________________
C o a s t a n d G e o d e t ic S u r v e y :
G eneral ex p en ses, 1923_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
G eneral ex p en ses, 1924_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
G eneral ex p en ses, 1925_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
P a r ty e x p en ses, 1923_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a r ty e x p e n se s, 1924_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a r ty e x p e n se s, 1925_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a y a n d a llo w a n c e s , c o m m is s io n e d o ffic e r s, 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a y , e tc ., o ffic e r s a n d m e n , v e s s e ls , C o a st S u r v e y , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _
P a y , e t c ., o fficers a n d m e n , v e s s e ls , C o a s t S u r v e y , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _
R e p a ir s o f v e s s e ls , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e p a ir s o f v e s s e ls , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C e r tifie d C la im s —
P a r ty ex p en ses, 1922_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __
P a y a n d a llo w a n c e s , c o m m is s io n e d officers, 1 9 2 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a y a n d a ll o w a n c e s , c o m m is s io n e d o fficers, 1 9 2 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T o t a l _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ :_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
B u r e a u o f L ig h t h o u s e s :
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n ,
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n ,
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n ,
A id s t o n a v i g a t io n ,
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n ,
A id s to n a v ig a t io n ,
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n ,

A la s k a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D e la w a r e B a y e n t r a n c e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F lo r id a c o a s t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o q u ille R iv e r , O r e g _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P e a r l H a r b o r , H a w a ii _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t. J o h n s R iv e r , F l a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

61

$52. 78
7 ,4 1 7 .9 1
2 3 ,2 1 2 . 6 0
3 0 , 6 8 3 . 29

15,
40,
2,
1,
6,

10.
669.
293.
4.
661.
789.
758.
7.
837.
7S8.
239.
293.

60
53
51
70
08
41
37
60
55
34
89
63

. 45
70. 2 8
69, 4 2 4 .9 4

6, 561.
5 ,4 7 8 .
6 ,4 5 9 .
1.
2.

63
51
97
SO
24

799. 39
1 9 ,3 0 3 . 63

2 3 . 78
220. 3 4
632. 33
60. 6 9
1 0 ,9 3 4 .1 2
1 7 ,3 5 6 . 3 4
5 3 .3 3
3 4 2 .1 7
1 ,1 3 8 .1 6
4 1 .1 1
4 ,5 3 1 . 9 8
3 8 1 .1 7
77. 0 3
24. 0 0
35, 816. 5 3

1 0 .0 0
2 8 5 . 27
1 ,1 3 0 . 41
23. 85
. 82
264. 5 5
9 ,9 0 4 .3 7

R E P O R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

62

B u r e a u o f L ig h t h o u s e s — C o n tin u e d .
D e t r o it R iv e r l i g h t s - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - P o in t B o r in q u e n L ig h t S t a t io n , P . R _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P o i n t V in c e n t e L ig h t S t a t io n , C a lif _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a b in e P a s s J e t t y L ig h t S t a t io n , T e x _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S p e c t a c le R e e f L i g h t S t a t io n , M ic h _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C a p e C h a r le s L ig h t V e s s e l, V a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e p a ir in g a n d r e b u ild in g a id s t o n a v ig a t io n , G u lf o f M e x ic o _
R e p a ir in g a n d r e b u ild in g a id s t o n a v ig a t io n , s e v e n t h a n d e ig h t h
lig h t h o u s e d i s t r i c t s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T e n d e r f o r t h ir d lig h t h o u s e d i s t r ic t _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
V e s s e ls f o r L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L i g h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e ,1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l a r ie s , L i g h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l a r ie s , lig h t h o u s e v e s s e ls , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r ie s , lig h t h o u s e v e s s e ls , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C e r tifie d c la im s — G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 192 2 ..

$ 1 7 . 89
12. 87
103. 67
75. 76
10. 28
109. 96
2 0 .1 0
494. 6 8
7 7 .1 4
36, 0 6 4 . 35
9 7 7 , 40
4 3 ,4 6 7 . 50
5 1 ,1 1 6 . 85
7 2 .1 5
7 . 39
137. 64
75. 79

T o t a l -------------------------- - ------------------------------------------

144, 4 7 2 . 75

P a t e n t O f fic e :
P u b lic u s e o f in v e n t io n s a n d d e f e n d in g s u it s , 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l a r ie s , P a t e n t O ffice, 1 9 2 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S c ie n t if ic lib r a r y , 1 9 2 4 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

90. 58
1 5 .1 1
1 7 .5 0

T o ta l______________________________________________

1 2 3 .1 9

M is c e ll a n e o u s :
I n c r e a s e o f c o m p e n s a t io n D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 3 ___
J u d g m e n ts , U n it e d S t a t e s c o u r ts , B u r e a u o f F is h e r ie s _ _ _ _ _ _
C la im s f o r d a m a g e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C la im s f o r d a m a g e s , B u r e a u o f L ig h t h o u s e s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

8. 00
7 ,5 7 8 . 90
4 S 7 .3 9
2, 3 4 7 . 77

T o t a l - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- -

1 0 ,4 2 2 . 06

G rand

to ta l_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _

454, 0 7 1 . 82

T a b l e 4.— E x p e n d itu r e s , 1925
By disbursing By special dis­ By General
clerk of the
bursing agents Accounting
department
of department
Office

Bureau

Bureau of the Census...................................
Coast and Geodetic Survey..........................
Bureau of Fisheries............. .........................
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. .
Bureau of Lighthouses..................................
Bureau of Navigation....................................
Bureau of Standards....................................
8team boat Inspection Service.......................

$538,006.69
2,641,131.88
41.350.92
1, 223,060. 59
2,029,303.71
292,317. 58
510,677. 56
2,172, 770. 73
973,337.78
846,195. 75

T otal..................................................

11,268,153.19

$2,155, 406.97
2,133,718.02
130,436. 71
790,744. 55
9,102,141. 58

14,312,447.83

Total

$4,610.12
19,303. 63
36,303.92
77,003.84
87,109. 45
146, 828. 52
12,354. 93
39, 750. 93
3 0 , 683. 29
123.19

$542,616.81
4, 815,842. 48
2,211,372.86
1, 430, 501.14
2, 907,157.71
9, 541, 287. 68
523,032.49
2, 212, 521. 66
1,004,021.07
846,318. 94

454,071.82

26.034,672.84

T a b l e 5 . — M is c e lla n e o u s r e c e i p ts , 1925

C o a s t a n d G e o d e t ic S u r v e y : S a le o f c h a r t s , p u b lic a t io n s , o ld
p r o p e r t y , e t c - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- B u r e a u o f t h e C e n s u s : S a le o f p u b lic a t io n s , e t c _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
B u r e a u o f F is h e r ie s :
S a le o f f u r - s e a l s k in s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a le o f f o x s k i n s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

$ 5 0 ,9 6 2 .2 2
5 2 2 . 00
2 0 8 ,1 5 7 . 42
128, 0 4 5 .0 6

D IV ISIO N S OF T H E SE C R E T A R Y 'S O F F IC E
B u r e a u o f F is h e r ie s — C o n tin u e d .

Sale of o tter sk in s--------------------------------------------------Sale of live foxes----------------------------------------------------Meals fu rn ish ed employees a t isolated sta tio n s----------------Sale of seal oil--------------------------------------------------------Sale of old prop erty , etc------------------------------------------B ureau of S ta n d a rd s:
Sale of w a ste p ap e r------------------------------------------------Sale of old pro pe rty , etc----------------------- --------------------T est f e e s _________________________________________
S t e a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v ic e : S a le o f o ld p r o p e r ty ---------------B u r e a u o f L ig h t h o u s e s :
S a le o f o ld p r o p e r t y , e t c - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -

R eim bursem ent fo r loss and dam age to G overnm ent p ro p e rty .
Sale of em pty oil ca ns---------------------------------------------R e im b u r se m e n t s b y p r i v a t e c o n c e r n s f o r w o r k d o n e ------------

R e n ta ls ----------------------------------------------------------------M is c e lla n e o u s r e f u n d s - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

B ureau of Foreig n an d Domestic Comm erce:
P h o to static w ork done---------------------------------------------R egistration fees, etc., C hina tra d e a c t-------------------------M is c e lla n e o u s

r e f u n d s - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --

Office of th e S e c re ta ry :
Iteim bursm ent fo r dam age to G overnm ent p ro p e rty ---------Fees fo r certificates as to au th en ticity of sig n atu res of the
Com missioner of P a te n ts as provided fo r in 37 S ta t. 497—
B ureau of N a v ig a tio n :
T onnage d u ties------------------------------------------------------N a v ig a t io n

f e e s - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - --

N av igation fines____________________________________
R eim bursem ent fo r dam age to G overnm ent p ro p e rty ---------P a te n t Office: P a te n t fees, etc-----------------------------------------T otal

63
.$969. 41
8 , 100 . 00

2, 583. 42
210. 36
4, 615. 25
131. 90
254. 32
98, 583. 47
78.19
123, 337.39
5, 803. 94
322.10
5,351.77
9,125. 23
324. 05
40. 87
600. 00
758. 05
14. 50
26. 75
1, 813, 755. 66
216, 878. 77
61,028.34
2. 38
881,514. 21
3, 622. 7 5 7 .1 5

Ta bl e 6.— U n e x p e n d e d

b a la n c e s , 1925

S a la r ie s , O ffice o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f C o m m e r c e,, 1 9 2 2 ---------------S a la r ie s , O ffice o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 3 ---------------I n c r e a s e o f c o m p e n s a tio n , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 1 9 -------I n c r e a s e o f c o m p e n s a t io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 192(1-------I n c r e a s e o f c o m p e n s a t io n , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 2 -------I n c r e a s e o f c o m p e n s a tio n , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 3 -------C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 1 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 1 6 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- P r in t in g a n d b in d in g , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r ie s , B u r e a u o f C e n s u s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o lle c tin g s t a t is t ic s , B u r e a u o f C e n s u s , 1 9 1 5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o lle c t in g S t a t is t ic s , B u r e a u o f C e n s u s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E x p e n se s o f th e F o u r te e n th C en su s, 1 9 20 -1 9 2 2 ______________
T a b u la t in g m a c h in e s, B u r e a u o f t h e C e n s u s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r ie s , B u r e a u o f F o r e ig n a n d D o m e s t ic C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 3 ___
C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 1 9 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1921_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m m e r c ia l a t t a c h é s . D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o m p ilin g f o r e ig n t r a d e s t a t is t ic s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e,
1923_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n f o r c e m e n t o f C h in a t r a d e a c t , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E x p o r t in d u s t r ie s , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 1 4 ._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 1 8 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 1 9 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

$0. 81
5, 882. 79

. 10

2. 24
2 0 .0 0

52, 252. 98
.2 0

.45
1,180. 47
0, 900. 23
21,032.51
1 .0 0

110, 585. 97
.5 0
1, 309. 29
0. 302. 71
62. 40
835.19
19. 00
352.19
220. 08
3,140. 24
5, 347. 00
9, 385. 72
13. 40
4.1 7
125. 00

64

R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 0 --------------P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 1 ------------P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 2 ------------P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , D e p a r t m e n t o f C o m m e r c e, 1 9 2 3 ------------P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e , S o u t h a n d C e n t r a l A m e r ic a , 1 9 1 8 - - -- - -- - -- P r o m o tin g c o m m e r c e , S o u t h a n d C e n t r a l A m e r ic a , 1 9 2 0 - - -- - -- - -- P r o m o tin g c o m m e r c e , S o u t h a n d C e n t r a l A m e r ic a , 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -P r o m o t in g c o m m e r c e in t h e F a r E a s t , 1 9 2 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r o m o t in g C o m m e r c e in t h e F a r E a s t , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r i e s , o ffice o f S u p e r v is in g I n s p e c t o r G e n e r a l, S t e a m b o a t I n ­
s p e c tio n S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - S a la r i e s , S t e a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C le r k h ir e , S t e a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , S t e a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 1 -------C o n t in g e n t e x p e n s e s , S t e a m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _
S a la r i e s , B u r e a u o f N a v ig a t io n , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a l a r ie s , s h ip p in g s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- C le r k h ir e , s h ip p in g s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
C o n tin g e n t e x p e n s e s , s h ip p in g s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A d m e a s u r e m e n t o f v e s s e ls , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P r e v e n t i n g o v e r c r o w d in g o f p a s s e n g e r v e s s e ls , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n f o r c e m e n t o f n a v ig a t io n la w s , 1 9 2 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n fo r c e m e n t o f n a v ig a t io n la w s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n f o r c e m e n t o f w ir e l e s s c o m m u n ic a tio n la w s , 1 9 2 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E n f o r c e m e n t o f w ir e le s s c o m m u n ic a tio n la w s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r i e s , P a t e n t O ffice, 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F u r n i t u r e a n d f ilin g c a s e s , P a t e n t O ffice, 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n t e r n a t io n a l p r o te c tio n o f in d u s t r ia l p r o p e r t y , P a t e n t O ffice,
1923__________________________________________________
P h o t o lit h o g r a p h in g , P a t e n t O ffice, 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P u b lic u s e o f in v e n t io n s a n d d e f e n d in g s u it s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
R e n t a n d s t o r a g e o f P a t e n t O ffice m o d e ls , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S c ie n t if ic lib r a r y , P a t e n t O ffice, 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r i e s , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
E q u ip m e n t , B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Im p r o v em e n t an d c ar e o f grou n d s, B u r e au o f S tan d a r d s, 1 9 2 3 C o lo r s t a n d a r d iz a t io n , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1923:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
G a u g e s t a n d a r d iz a t io n , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
H ig h t e m p e r a t u r e in v e s t ig a t i o n s , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 __
I n d u s t r ia l r e s e a r c h , B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n d u s t r ia l r e s e a r c h , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n d u s t r ia l r e s e a r c h , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c la y p r o d u c ts , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f f ir e - r e s is t in g p r o p e r t ie s , B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
1923_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f m in e s c a le s a n d c a r s, B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
1923_ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f o p t ic a l g la s s , B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 --------I n v e s t ig a t io n o f p u b lic - u t ilit y s t a n d a r d s , B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
1923_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f r a d io a c t i v e s u b s t a n c e s , B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
1923_ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _
I n v e s t ig a t io n o f t e x t il e s , e t c ., B u r e n u o f S t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _
M e t a llu r g ic a l r e se a r c h , B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- R a d io r e s e a r c h , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S o u n d in v e s t ig a t i o n , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S t a n d a r d iz a t io n o f e q u ip m e n t , B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _
S t a n d a r d iz in g m e c h a n ic a l a p p lia n c e s , B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s ,
1923__________________________________________________
S t a n d a r d m a t e r ia ls , B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S u g a r s t a n d a r d iz a t io n , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T e s t in g m a c h in e s , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T e s t in g m is c e lla n e o u s m a t e r ia ls , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 ___

$518.9S
3, 421. 35
791. 82
5, 697.16
2.89

.05

10, 309. 20
2. 45
10, S98. 69
231. 79
11, 463. 65
1, 843. 59
.50
20, 579. 78
497.11
2, 906. 72
2, 711.77
2.05
61.48
261. 64
6.13
214. 69
10.63
1, 202. 24
38,077.17
105. 51
1, 700. 00
9, 273. 7S
182. 64
700. 00
053. SI
15,141.08
6, 433. 60
4, 557. 90
1,650. 59
2 2 1 . 02

3, 538. 72
531. 65
1. 50
16.00
1,017.10
1,117. 73
647.00
5,199. 71
2, 236. 55
643. 76
550.75
2,838. 44
214. 98
310.03
118. 98
7, S53. 73
899. 50
623.82
1,018. 69
2. 783.10
1, 991. 23

D IV IS IO N S O F T H E S E C R E T A R Y 'S O F F IC E

65
$ 2 ,3 8 1 . 94
10. 3 5

T e s t in g r a ilr o a d s c a le s , e t c ., B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -T e s t in g r a ilr o a d s c a le s , e tc ., B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s , 1 9 2 2 - -- -- -- -- -T e s t i n g s t r u c t u r a l m a t e r ia ls , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 1 9 -------T e s t in g s t r u c t u r a l m a t e r ia ls , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 0 -------T e s t in g s t r u c t u r a l m a t e r ia ls , B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s , 1 9 2 3 ----- —
P a y a n d a ll o w a n c e s , c o m m is s io n e d o fficers, C o a s t a n d G e o d e t ic
S u r v e y , 1 9 2 1 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - P a y a n d a llo w a n c e s , c o m m is s io n e d o fficers, C o a s t a n d G e o d e t ic
S u r v e y , 1 9 2 2 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- P a y a n d a ll o w a n c e s , c o m m is s io n e d o fficers, C o a s t a n d G e o d e t ic
S u r v e y , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- S a la r ie s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 3 ----------------------------P a r t y e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e t ic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 1 ------------------P a r t y e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 3 ------------------G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 3 ---------------P a y , e t c ., o f o ffic e r s a n d m e n , v e s s e ls , C o a s t S u r v e y , 1 9 2 3 -------R e p a ir s o f v e s s e ls , C o a s t S u r v e y , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -A lt e r a t io n s t o m in e s w e e p e r s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y ,
192 2 —23 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A lt e r a t io n s t o m in e s w e e p e r s , C o a s t a n d G e o d e t ic S u r v e y , 1 9 2 3 S a la r ie s , B u r e a u o f L ig h t h o u s e s , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -R e tir e d p a y , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L i g h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 0 -------------------------G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 1 -------------------------G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 2 -------------------------G e n e r a l e x p e n s e s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 -------------------------S a la r ie s , k e e p e r s o f lig h t h o u s e s , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -S a la r ie s , lig h t h o u s e v e s s e ls , 1 9 2 3 - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- S a la r ie s , L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 -------------------------------------R ip r a p p r o t e c tio n f o r lig h t s t a t io n s , t h ir d lig h t h o u s e d is t r ic t —
R e p a ir in g a n d r e b u ild in g a i d s t o n a v i g a t i o n , s e v e n t h lig h t h o u s e
d is t r ic t , 1 9 2 2 a n d 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , R a r i t a n B a y a n d c o n n e c t e d w a t e r s , N . Y.
a n d N . J - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- S a b in e P a s s J e t t y L ig h t S t a t io n , T e x - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , C o n n e a u t H a r b o r , O h io -------------------------S p e c t a c le R e e f L ig h t S t a t io n , M ic h - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , C o q u ille R iv e r , O r e g - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , A la s k a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
A id s t o n a v ig a t io n , P e a r l H a r b o r , H a w a ii _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P o in t B o r in q u e n L ig h t S t a t io n , P . R -----------------------------------S a la r ie s , B u r e a u o f F is h e r ie s , 1 9 2 1 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r ie s , B u r e a u o f F is h e r ie s , 1 9 2 2 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
S a la r ie s , B u r e a u o f F is h e r ie s , 1 9 2 3 - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- M is c e lla n e o u s e x p e n s e s , B u r e a u o f F is h e r ie s , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
P a y , o fficers a n d c r e w o f v e s s e ls , A la s k a f is h e r ie s s e r v ic e , 1 9 2 3 —
P r o t e c t in g s e a l a n d s a lm o n f is h e r ie s o f A la s k a , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F is h h a t c h e r y , D u lu t h , M in n ., 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F is h h a tc h e r y , G lo u c e s t e r , M a ss., 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
F is h h a t c h e r y , Y e s B a y , A la s k a , 1 9 2 3 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

June
June
June
June
June
June

30,
30,
30,
30,
30,
30.

1917.
1918.
1919.
1920.
1921.
1922.

.7 5
1 1 ,1 2 0 . 4 0
3 6 .0 0
154. 05
1 1 0 ,3 5 1 . 73
12, 9 8 0 . 28
.5 0

6 9 ,3 1 2 . 06
2, 6 3 7 .3 2
9 2 ,6 7 4 . 3 4
4, 7 0 4 .2 0
1 ,9 1 1 . 7 4
2 ,5 1 2 . 91
789. 91
2, 7 0 5 .1 9
3. 20
7 .2 7
92S. 10
7 3 ,0 3 5 .3 5
3 3 , 672. 91
1 2 2 ,9 6 1 .2 9
4 ,1 9 9 .4 9
3 2 8 . 46
2, 6 0 2 . 57
405. 30
7 8 0 .0 9
4 3 3 . 33
5 .1 3
4 0 .0 3
3 2 1 .1 6
1 3 .0 6
5 6 3 .4 6
2 .0 3
2 1 .0 0

31.
2.
1.
2.

7 5 9 . 73
894. 36
765. 68
531. 01
1 .1 4
8. 64
062. 89

1, 0 0 5 ,9 0 9 . 02

T o ta l
Ta bl e

.7 0

7 .— S u m m a r y o f u n e x p e n d e d

$177, 995. 27
149, 0 0 9 . 51
. 4 7 6 ,0 4 5 .1 0
1 ,1 4 9 , 303. 2 8
4, 0 4 2 , 4 3 4 . 3 8
546, 4 4 0 . 71

b a la n c e s , 11)17-1925

J u n e 3 0 , 1923.
J u n e 30, 1924.
J u n e 3 0 , 1925.

$ 7 3 0 , 3 9 7 . 27
1 ,0 7 2 , 835. 5 8
1, 0 0 5 ,9 0 9 . 02

T o t a l— .

9, 3 5 0 , 4 3 0 .1 2

R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

66

T a b l e 8.— P e r s o n n e l, 1025

Bureau

Total perma­
nent and
temporary

Perm anent

Temporary

In D is­
trict of
In
Co- I field
lumbia i

In Dis- ;
trict of j In
field
Co­
lumbia :

Office of the Secretary.................................
Bureau of the Census............ . ................... .
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
Bureau of Standards...................................
Bureau of Fisheries.................................... .
Bureau of Lighthouses............................... .
Coast and Geodetic Survey.........................
Bureau of Navigation................................ .
Steamboat Inspection Service......................
Patent Office..............................................
Bureau of Mines 1.......................................

125
712
596
715
74
44
197
50
15
1, 224
215

712
535
34
336
5,503
734
176
343

T otal.................................................

3,967

9,079

Grand
total
Male

Female

41

79
1,283
643
677
583
5,451
959
188
306
910
815

46
1,404
502
91
34
307
33
52
52
318
156

125
2,687
1,145
768
617
5,758
992
240
358
1,228
971

643

11,894

2,995

14,889

107

1,156
13

1

7
207

12

211

57
12

706
1,200

1 Under the provisions of the act approved M ar. 3,1925, the helium production plants of the N avy D epart­
m ent were transferred to the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Mines, and at the same time under the terms of
the Executive order of June 4, 1925, a part of the functions of the Geological Survey, with the personnel
connected therewith and the larger p art of the personnel of the Bureau of Mines, were transferred from
the Departm ent of the Interior to the Departm ent of Commerce July 1, 1925. This addition included
53 employees from the helium production plants, 859 from the Bureau of Mines proper, and 59 em­
ployees from the Geological Survey, aggregating a total of 971.*
T a b l e 9 . — C h a n g e s i n p e r s o n n e l, 1925

A ppointm ents1
Permanent
Bureau

Competitive

—
Unclassified

Excepted

Temporary

Total

!
D istrict
District
District
¡District
of Co­ Field of Co­ Field of Co­ Fie ld ; of Co­ Field of Co­ Field
lumbia
lumbia
lumbia
lumbia
lumbia

Bureau of Foreign and Do-

Coast and Geodetic S u rv ey ...
T otal............. ..............
Grand total..................

6

36
201
131
88
12
3
28
32
4
1,273
1,808
2,274

40
3
55
274
39
35
20

31
6

466

44

1

154

4
o __________
59 ! 1,362
131
53
2
12
5
15
23

2
3 ........
2 1

40
38
5

1

33
9

_____
137
IÏÔ
213

10 !
5

2
76 j 1,493

1,118
12
3
34
104
34
4
1,309

2,802

46
1,69-4

o
1,177

204
135
17
3
63
41
4
1,275
3,482

105
8
103
383
64
97
24
ï, 961

5,443

* Includes appointments of the following character: Presidential; by selection from civil-service certifi­
cate; under Executive order; to excepted positions; by reason of transfer within the department, or from
other departments or independent establishments; and by reinstatement.

DIVISIONS OP T H E SECRETARY’S OFFICE

67

T a b l e 9 .— C h a n g e s in p e r s o n n e l, 192S — C o n tin u e d
Separations *
From permanent positions
Bureau

Competitive

Excepted

Unclassified

From
temporary
positions

Total

Dis­
Dis­
Dis­
Dis­
Dis­
trict
trict
trict
trict
trict
of Co­ Field of Co­ Field of Co­ Field of Co­ Field of Co­ Field
lumbia
lumbia
lumbia
lumbia
lumbia
Office of the Secretary............
Bureau of Foreign and Do**

Coast and Geodetic S u rv e y ...
Steamboat Inspection Service.
Patent Office.........................
T otal...........................
Grand to ta l..................

41
91

2
1

262

95
147
7
1
16
8
8
45

37
2
65
265
9
37
25

24

31

3

5
5
9
6

459

440

30

5
328

109

1
6

34
34
2

2
1
14
5

29
5

131

442

.......

89Í

269

86

17
7
22
97
7
31
1

5

:::::::
56

641

400

823

48
682

750

9
48

39

8
50

26

1,200

1,450

l,i265

2,650

Other changes

Bureau

Promotions
District
of Columbia

Field

Office of th e S ec re ta ry .................
B u reau of th e C e n su s..................
B u reau of F oreign a n d D o m e stic
C om m erce................................
B u reau of S ta n d a r d s...................
B u reau of F ish eries.....................
B u reau of L ig h th o u se s................
C oast a nd G eo d etic S u r v e y ........
B ureau of N a v ig a t io n .................
S tea m b o a t In sp ec tio n S e r v ic e __
B u reau of P a t e n ts .......................

92
273

0
11

189
185
55
47
12
55
18
250

T o t a l..................................

1,176

Reductions

Miscellaneous
changes 1

All changes

District
District
District
of Co- Field of Co- Field of Columbia
lum bia
lumbia

6

2

240
3
124
553
26
93
42

5
3
16
6

13

.......

1

1,092

38

1

1
81
1
1

50
378
172
189
4
13
18
12

99

836

Field

Grand
Total

14

236
3,033

0
1,954

236
4,987

37
37
23
04
13
27
14

724
699
101
57
136
128
30
1,588

480
57
345
1, 449
143
297
106

1,204
756
446
1,506
279
425
136
1,588

229

6,732

4,831

11,563

* In clu d es sep a ra tio n s b y reason o f resig n a tio n , d isc o n tin u a n c e , retire m en t, r em o v a l, d e a th , transfer
iTshm ents ^e p a r tm e n t' an(* transfer from t h e d e p a r tm e n t t o oth er d e p a r tm e n ts or in d e p e n d e n t e sta b -

*Includes reappointments by reason of chango of station, name, designation; extensions of temporary
appointments, and temporary promotions and reductions.

6 6 5 4 8 — 2 5 ------ 6

68

R E PO R T OF T P IE SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E
T a b l e 1 0 . — L e a v e o f a b se n c e , c a le n d a r y e a r 1924

Bureau

N um ­
ber of
em­
ployees

Annual leave

Sick leave

Days

Aver. age

Days

Total leave

Aver­
age

Days

Average for
1923

Aver­
age

Office of the Secretary......................
Bureau of the C ensus......................
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce....................................
Bureau of Standards........................
Bureau of Fisheries..........................
Bureau of Lighthouses.....................
Coast and Geodetic Survey...............
Bureau of Navigation.......................
Steamboat Inspection Service...........

104
728

2,852
21,160

27.42
29.07

690
5,467

6.63
7.51

3,542
26, 627

34.05
36.58

33.35
37.15

445
642
54
35
176
37
13

12,323
17,880
1,456
1,043
5,063
1,024
375

27.69
27.85
26. 96
29.80
28. 77
27.68
28.85

3,050
2,886
316
259
733
165
85

6.86
4. 50
5.85
7.40
4. 16
4.45
6.63

15,373
20,766
1,772
1,302
5,796
1,189
460

34. 55
32.35
32.81
37. 20
32. 93
32.13
35.38

33.54
33.09
33.82
37. 24
34.61
32.86
32.36

Total and average..................

2,234

63,176

28.28

13,651

6.11

76,827

34. 39

34. 69

Ta bl e 11.— P r i n t in g

a n d b in d in g

Bureau, office, or service
S erv ices o th er th a n t h e P a t en t O ffice a n d t h e B u r e a u of M in es:
Office of t h e Secretary (S ecretary, A s sista n t S ecretary, solicito r, ch ief
clerk, a n d d iv isio n of p u b lic a tio n s ).........................................................
A p p o in tm e n t d iv isio n ..........................................................................
D isb u r sin g o ffice.................................................. . ..............................
D iv isio n o f s u p p lie s ............................................... ........... . ................ .
B u r e a u of t h e C e n s u s .............................. . .................................................
C o a st an d G eo d etic S u r v e y .......................................................................
B u r e a u o f F ish e r ie s....................................................................................
B u r e a u of F oreign an d D o m e st ic C om m e rc e .............................................
B u r e a u o f L ig h t h o u se s...............................................................................
L ig h th o u se Serv c e ...............................................................................
B u r e a u of N a v ig a tio n .................................................................................
S h ip p in g a n d R a d io S e r v ic e s...............................................................
B u r e a u of S ta n d a r d s...................................................................................
O ffice of t h e S u p e rv isin g In sp ec to r G en eral, S te a m b o a t In sp e c tio n
S e r v ic e .......... ...... .............. ............ ................... . ................. . ........... ......
S te a m b o a t In sp e c tio n S e r v ic e .............................................................
C u sto m s S e r v ic e .........................................................................................
R e se r v e .......................................................................................................

T otal..................................................... ; ................................... I
Patent Office:
Specifications, Official Gazette, etc.
Miscellaneous................................
Reserve.........................................
T otal................................................................................................
Bureau of Mines:
Publications......................................................................................
Miscellaneous........................... .......................................................... !
Reserve............................................................................................... I
Publication of reports of investigations of lignite coals and peat (Public
680, 68th Cong.)........................ _•............. „.......... .............................
T o t a l......................... .
T o ta l for d e p a r tm en t..

Expendi­
tures, 1925 »

$14,006.72
929. 93
399. 61
1,392. 78
137,026.62
44,254.16
18,462.15
214,142. 75
17.698.80
6,117.41
29,150. 79
7,429.40
54.002.81
1,144.99
12,473.71 ;
8,958.64
7,408.73

Allotments,
1926

$16,500. 00
900.00
600.00
1.500.00
112, 000.00

40.000.
17.000. 00
181, 000. 00
17,500. 00
7.000.
27.000.
8.500.00
40.000.
1.500.00
14,500.00
8.500.00
6. 000.

575,000.00

500,000.00

905,000.00 i
70,000.00 i

810,000. 00
69,200.00
800.00

975,000.00 !;

880,000.00

40.000.
10. 000.

00*53,370.00
;
00 *i 10,900.00
600. 00
6 , 0 0 0 .0 0

50,000.00 ;

70,870.00

1,600,000.00 i 1,450,870.00

1 Estimated (June 30, 1925); exact figures for 1925 can not be given until all work ordered in th at year
is completed and billed. Expenditures wil 1approximate the amounts available.
* Includes $16,370 transferred from the appropriation for printing and binding for the Geological Survey.
* Includes $1,000 transferred from the appropriation for printing and binding for the Geological Survey.

D IV IS IO N S O F T H E SEC RE TA RY S O F F IC E

69

T a b l e 1 2 .— S a le s o f p u b lic a tio n s

Copies
Sales

1922

By Superintendent of Documents:

By Coast and Geodetic Survey:
Coast pilots, inside route pilots,
tide tables, current tables, and

Receipts
1924

1923

1922

1923

1924

227,428
739,808

283,941
858, 054

530,463
970,254

$40,348.13
34, 788.17

$40, 258.83
38, 293. 50

$55, 691. 87
34,147.73

967, 236

1,141,995

1, 500,717

75.136.30

78,552.33

89,839. 60

48,973.01

48,800. 67

40.075.30
115,211.60

127,525.34 | 138,640.27

N o t e .—Tho 1924 receipts from sales of publications Issued by tho Patent Office and the Bureau of Mines,
which bureaus were recently transferred to the Departm ent of Commerce, amounted to $283,754.87 for the
Patent Office and $11,838.15 for tho Bureau of Mines.

Ta bl e

1 3 .—

D e p a r t m e n ta l s h ip m e n t s , 1925

N U M B E R OF SH IPM E N T S
Less
carloads Carloads

Bureau
Coast and Geodetic Survey..................................................

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.........................

Total ton­
nage in
pounds

Total

833
1,137
5,006
1,040
1,020
113
40
24
4

16
12
221
34
4

849
1,149
5,227
1,074
1,024
113
40
24
4

1,350,738
1,339,321
17,124,884
2,620, 675
390,126
95,462
38,013
6,770
126

9,217

287

9,504

22,966,115

D E T A IL S OF S H IPM E N T S
N umber and method of movement

Weight in pounds

Bureau
Freight

Express

Nc>t on bi 1 of lading
On bill
of
Parcel lading,
post freight,
1 T tl
and Freight Express Parcel
post
10tB1
express
757
1,112
2,437
1,021
'679

9
1
37
21
15

4
8
17
32
24

79
28
2, 736

2

6
1

1

10

104
39
23
2

54,932

6,174

86

Coast and Geodetic Survey....... 1,320,552
Chief Clerk.............................. 1,322, 267
Bureau of Lighthouses.............. 17,041,377
2,518,392
Bureau of Standards.................
' 36i; 442
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce.............................
90,118
31, 413
3; 018
Steamboat Inspection Service...

27,357
16,655
34, 243
102,283
26,264

2,829
399
49, 264

6,334
3,600
3, 752
' 116

10

T otal............................... 22,691, 579

219,604

2,420

1

306

92
37
2, 790
53
345

1

1

9
1
1
2

93

3,151

3,330

No t e .—In addition there wore handled, principally by the Bureau of Standards, 23,900 shipments, th e
charges on which were not paid by the department, total tonnage, 940,000 pounds; sleeping, parlor car, an d
steamship reservations, 3,353; routing orders for carload obtained from Federal Traffic Board, 196; routing
orders for carload issued by traffic manager, 91; routings furnished for less carload by traffic manager, 2,176;
freight and express bills audited, 5,625; tracers, freight, 60; claims, freight and express, 14; refunds, passen­
ger, 85; proposals considered, 425; passenger fares quoted, 2,718; itineraries furnished, 447; freight and
express rates quoted, 1,325; tickets purchased, 1,371; oxport shipments made since January 1, 1925, 74.¿a ^

V ery tru ly yours,

E . W . L ibbe y ,
C h ie f C le rk a n d S u p e r in te n d e n t.

B U R E A U O F T H E C E N SU S

D e pa r t m e n t o f Co m m e r c e ,
B u r e a u o f t h e Ce n s u s ,
W a s h in g to n , J u l y 1 ,1 9 2 5 .

H on. H e r b e r t H o o v e r ,
S e c r e ta r y o f C o m m erce.
D e ^ M r . S e c r e t a r y : I n response to y o u r request I fu rn ish the
follo w ing condensed re p o rt u p o n th e w ork of th is bu reau d u rin g the
p a st y e a r :
IN T R O D U C T IO N A N D SU M M A R Y

D u rin g th e p a st fiscal y e ar th e B u re au of th e Census w as excep­
tio n a lly active.
I t gave em ploym ent— in a la rg e p ro p o rtio n of cases te m p o ra ry —
to 27,259 persons, in clu d in g 24,878 te m p o ra ry field em ployees fo r the
census o f ag ricu ltu re .
I t collected d etailed re p o rts concern in g a g ric u ltu re from about
6,400,000 fa rm s, a n d com piled th e p rin c ip a l d a ta an d p u blished p re ­
lim in a ry figures fo r 476 counties an d fo r th re e S tates, re p re se n tin g a
to ta l of abou t 803,000 farm s.
I t com piled statistic s of m a n u fa ctu res, in c lu d in g fo rest pro ducts,
I from d a ta collected a t th e b ie nn ial census fo r 1923, covering 350 in ­
du strie s ; issued m ore th a n 400 p re lim in a ry sum m aries fo r in du stries,
S tates, a n d citie s; an d p re p a re d fo r p u b licatio n , in b u lle tin fo rm , 57
re p o rts p re sen tin g statistic s fo r 142 o f th e le ad in g in d u strie s o f the
country.
I t collected 2,000,685 certificates of b irth s a n d 1,191,301 certificates
I o f death s, co n tain in g a ll th e d e ta il available an d requii’ed by law, and
c a rrie d on its re g u la r a n n u al com p ilatio ns of b irth an d d eath s ta tis ­
tics an d its w eekly p u b lic a tio n o f d e a th statistic s fo r la rg e cities.
I t issued re p o rts g iv in g detailed statistic s re la tin g to th e 1,129,045
m a rria g e s an d 148,815 divorces record ed fo r th e c ale n d ar y e ar 1922
( an d th e 1,224,373 m a rria g e s a n d 165,226 divorces recorded fo r 1923.
A t th e close of th e fiscal year, 846,766 m a rria g e s an d 161,642 divorces
h a d been re p o rte d fo r th e cale n d a r y e ar 1924.
I t has com piled an d p ublished—
A n n u a l d e t a ile d s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e f in a n c ia l t r a n s a c t io n s o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t s o f
a ll S t a t e s a n d o f a ll c it ie s h a v in g 3 0 ,0 0 0 in h a b i t a n t s o r m o re.
■
T h e m o n t h ly S u r v e y o f C u r r e n t B u s in e s s , g iv i n g s t a t i s t i c s o f p r o d u c t io n ,
1 s t o c k s , o r d e r s , p r ic e s , tr a d e , e tc ., f o r p r a c t i c a lly a ll “ k e y ” in d u s t r ie s o f th e
I cou n try.
M o n t h ly r e p o r t s c o n c e r n in g p r o d u c tio n , c o n s u m p t io n , a n d s t o c k s , f r o m d a t a
c o lle c t e d f r o m a p p r o x im a t e ly 2 7 ,0 0 0 m a n u f a c t u r e r s r e p r e s e n t in g t h e le a d in g i n ­
d u s t r ie s o f t h e c o u n t r y .

1

S e m ia n n u a l r e p o r t s o n p r o d u c tio n , c o n s u m p t io n , s a le s , a n d s t o c k s o f s u l­
p h u r ic a c id a n d a c id p h o s p h a t e in t h e f e r t il iz e r in d u s t r y .
S e m ia n n u a l r e p o r t s r e la t in g t o p a in t a n d v a r n is h p r o d u c tio n .
70

B U R E A U OF T H E C E N S U S

71

Q u a r t e r ly r e p o r t s c o v e r in g t h e p r o d u c tio n o f g lu e s o f a n im a t o r ig in a n d
e d ib le g e la t in .
A n a n n u a l r e p o r t o n t h e p r o d u c tio n o f li g h t in g e q u ip m e n t ( 1 9 2 4 ) .
A n a n n u a l r e p o r t o n c o n s t a n t - p o t e n t ia l t r a n s f o r m e r s ( 1 9 2 4 ) .
A n a n n u a l r e p o r t o n t h e c o n s u m p t io n o f v e g e t a b l e t a n n i n g m a t e r ia l s
(1 9 2 3 ).
A n n u a l r e p o r ts o n f o r e s t p r o d u c t s, n a m e ly , t u r p e n t in e a n d r o s in ( 1 9 2 4 ) ;
p u lp -w o o d c o n s u m p t io n a n d w o o d - p u lp p r o d u c tio n ( 1 9 2 4 ) ; a n d lu m b e r c u t o f
769 id e n t ic a l m ill s ( 1 9 2 3 a n d 1 9 2 4 ) .
R e p o r t s s h o w in g t h e q u a n t i t i e s o f c o t t o n g in n e d t o s p e c if ie d d a t e s b y I S ,6 5 6
g in n e r s , is s u e d 12 t im e s d u r in g t h e g in n in g s e a s o n .
M o n th ly r e p o r t s o n t h e c o n s u m p t io n o f c o t to n a n d o n s t o c k s h e ld a t m ills
a n d in p u b lic s t o r a g e t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y .
M o n th ly r e p o r ts s h o w in g t h e n u m b e r s o f s p in n in g s p in d le s a n d a c t i v e s p in d le
h o u r s f o r t h e c o t t o n m ill s in t h e U n it e d S t a t e s .
M o n th ly r e p o r t s o f c o tt o n s e e d r e c e iv e d , c r u s h e d , a n d o n h a n d , a n d c o t t o n ­
se e d p r o d u c ts m a n u fa c tu r e d , s h ip p e d o u t , a n d o n h a n d .
T w o a n n u a l b u ll e t in s o n c o t t o n — o n e in t h e s p r in g o n c o t to n p r o d u c t io n ,
th e o t h e r in t h e f a l l o n t h e s u p p ly a n d d is t r ib u t io n o f c o t to n .
D e c e n n ia l r e p o r t s ( f o r 1 9 2 2 - 2 3 ) o n a lm s h o u s e s ; in s t it u t io n s f o r t h e c a r e
o f c h ild r e n a n d d e p e n d e n t a d u lt s ; h o s p it a l s f o r t h e m e n t a lly d is e a s e d , t h e
f e e b le - m in d e d , a n d e p ile p t ic s ; p r is o n s ; a n d h o s p it a ls a n d d is p e n s a r ie s .
A n n u a l a n d q u a r t e r ly r e p o r t s s h o w in g s t o c k s o f le a f t o b a c c o h e ld b y m a n u ­
f a c t u r e r s a n d d e a le r s.
A n n u a l a n d q u a r t e r ly r e p o r t s o n p r o d u c tio n , c o n s u m p t io n , a n d s t o c k s o f
a n im a l a n d v e g e t a b le f a t s a n d o ils .
Q u in q u e n n ia l r e p o r t s ( f o r 1 9 2 2 ) f o r a c o m p le t e c e n s u s o f e le c t r i c a l in d u s ­
tr ie s, c o v e r in g c e n t r a l e l e c t r ic lig h t a n d p o w e r s t a t i o n s , e l e c t r ic r a ilw a y s ,
t e le p h o n e s , a n d t e le g r a p h s .
F iv e m o n o g r a p h s , p r e p a r e d b y s p e c ia l w r it e r s , a n a ly z i n g a n d in t e r p r e t in g
t h e c e n s u s s t a t i s t i c s s o n s t o b r in g o u t f u l l y t h e ir s o c io lo g ic a l a n d e c o n o m ic
s ig n if ic a n c e .

T h e b ureau, in cooperatio n w ith th e G eological S urvey, m ade a
survey of th e com m ercial stocks of a n th ra c ite an d bitu m in o u s coal
to ascertain th e co nd ition of th e coal su p p ly fo r th e m on th s of J u n e ,
J u ly , an d A u g u st, 1924.
I t carrie d on ne go tiatio n s w ith associations of m a n u fa ctu rers,
boards of tra d e , cham bers of com m erce, an d city and S ta te g o v ern ­
m ents, w ith th e view o f secu rin g u n ifo rm ity in th e fo rm of th e
questionnaires used in collecting s ta tistic a l d a ta a n d e lim in atin g
d u p licatio n of inquiries.
I t also c arrie d on n eg o tiatio n s w ith relig io us o rg an iz atio n s in
p re p a ra tio n fo r th e decennial census o f relig io u s bodies.
I t held conferences w ith persons in te re sted in th e fo rth co m in g
census of w a ter tra n s p o rta tio n , to discuss th e item s to be includ ed
in th e schedules used.
I t has a rra n g e d fo r th e pu b licatio n , as of J u ly 1, 1925, a n d a n ­
n ually th e re a fte r, o f a re g iste r of officials in th e G ov ern m ent service.
I t supervised special censuses of p o p u la tio n in fo u r cities and
tow ns h av in g an a g g re g ate p o p u la tio n of 1,216,381, th e expense of
th is w ork being borne by th e local au th o rities.
I t estim ated th e p o p u la tio n of th e U n ite d S ta te s as a whole, an d
of th e S tates, th e counties, a n d th e cities h av in g 8,000 or m ore in ­
h ab itan ts.
I t k e p t records of th e changes in nam es a n d bou n d aries of cities
and o th er p o litic a l subdivisions o f counties, and o f th e in c o rp o ra ­
tion o f new m un ic ip alities an d th e fo rm atio n o f new counties.
I t was in com m unication, e ith e r perso n ally or by correspondence,
w ith th e officials of 14 S ta te governm ents concernin g th e ta k in g

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R E PO R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

o f m id-decennial censuses of p o p u la tio n ; also w ith th e officials of
11 cities, h av in g an ag g re g ate p o p u la tio n of 2,500,000, w ith reg ard
to p o p u latio n censuses to be supervised by officials o f th e bureau.
I t com piled fro m census schedules an d su p p lied to 264 o rg a n iz a ­
tio n s and in d iv id u a ls special in fo rm a tio n concerning in d u strie s or
localities fo r w hich th e desired d a ta were n o t show n in th e p rin te d
census reports.
I t m ade 69 special ta b u la tio n s of d etailed d a ta fo r outside o rg a n ­
izations an d in div id ua ls. (T h is w ork w as done by persons n o t re g u ­
la rly em ployed by th e Census B u re au , th e ir com pensation being paid
by th e o rg an iz atio n s a n d in d iv id u a ls fo r w hom th e ta b u la tio n s were
m ade. )
T h e b u reau a rra n g e d fo r o r assisted in th e m ak in g o f 3,568
searches o f old census records in o rd e r to establish p ro o f of age for
pension re tire m e n t or fo r w o rk in g p a p ers, to o b ta in in fo rm atio n
needed fo r th e settlem ent of estates or local controversies, to estab­
lish citizenship fo r p assports, o r to establish genealogical con­
nections.
I t ta b u la te d d a ta concernin g th e n um ber of v a ca n t houses and
liv in g a p a rtm e n ts in th e D is tric t of C olum bia.
I ts m echanical ta b u la tio n w ork com prised th e p u n c h in g of
43,287,342 cards, th e so rtin g of these cards, a n d th e ta b u la tio n of
th e d a ta th ereon, th e to ta l num ber o f ope ra tio n s b ein g equivalent
to th e p assin g of 198,234,273 c ard s th ro u g h one m achine once.
T h e bu re au p a rtic ip a te d in 27 special a n d fo rm a l conferences and
in num erous in fo rm al ones held fo r th e purpose of im p ro v in g its
sta tistic a l w ork o r of effecting economies.
D u rin g th e fiscal y e a r th e b u re au issued 140 re p o rts, m o nographs,
b u lletin s, a n d m iscellaneous p u b licatio n s h a v in g a to ta l of 13,010
pages, a n d a t th e close of th e y e ar w ork w as in pro g ress a t th e
p rin tin g office on 52 re p o rts an d o th e r pub licatio n s w ith a to ta l of
3,736 pages.
I t issued 1,660 press announcem ents, w ith a to ta l ed ition of
4,005,117, su m m arizin g th e p rin c ip a l sta tistic s com piled fro m its
v arious inq uiries, and in a d d itio n sent ou t a p p ro x im a te ly 3,335,000
pieces of m ail m atter.
I t m ailed 430,750 c ircu lars a d v ertisin g 59 Census B u re au p u b lic a ­
tion s fo r sale by th e S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D ocum ents.
O n J u n e 30 th e re w ere in use by th e B u re au of th e Census 2,042
p u n c h in g , calcu latin g , ad d in g , so rtin g , ta b u la tin g , an d n u m bering
m achines a n d 737 ty p ew rite rs.
C E N S U S O F A G R IC U L T U R E

T h e o u tsta n d in g w ork o f th e bu re au d u rin g th e y e ar w as th e
census o f ag ric u ltu re , ta k e n as o f J a n u a ry 1, 1925. T h e enum eratio n
o f th e fa rm s w as com pleted, an d th e office w ork in cid en t to th e p u b li­
catio n o f th e statistic s h a d been begun before th e close o f th e fiscal
year.
T h is is th e first m id -d ecen nial census ta k e n u n d e r th e act of
M arch 3, 1919. I t re q u ire d th e a p p o in tm e n t an d in stru c tio n of 204
supervisors, abo ut 23,945 enum erators, an d 2,131 clerks fo r w ork in
th e offices o f th e superviso rs a n d in W ash in g to n . T h is te m p o ra ry
force o f 26,280 em ployees w as su pp lem en ted by d etails fro m th e

BUREAU OF T H E CEN SU S

73

re g u la r s ta tu to ry roll. T h e to ta l n um ber of ap p o in tm en ts and
details was 26,423.
T h e object of th is census is to show th e a ctu al co nd ition of a g ric u l­
tu re d u rin g a selected y e ar (1924.). T h e enu m eratio n w as m ade d u r­
in g th e late fa ll of 1924 a n d th e w in te r, w hen fa rm w ork, as a rule,
was n o t pressing , an d th e fa rm e rs could find th e tim e to act as
enum erators if th ey desired to do so. T he p ay w as fixed at a ra te
th a t enabled each e n u m erato r to e arn a f a ir com pensation fo r his
work. T h is w as th e first tim e in th e h isto ry of A m erican census
ta k in g th a t a special effort w as m ade to secure th e services of p e r­
sons identified w ith a g ric u ltu re in ta k in g a fa rm census. T h e p re si­
dents of S ta te a g ric u ltu ra l colleges recom m ended su itable persons
to act as supervisors. F o re st ra n g e rs of th e D e p a rtm e n t of A g ric u l­
tu re enum erated th e fa rm s in th e v ic in ity of fo rest reserves, em ­
ployees of th e B u re au of R eclam atio n canvassed those on irrig a tio n
projects, and In d ia n agen ts collected th e d a ta fo r farm s on In d ia n
reservations. B y securing th e cooperation of those v arious agencies
an d by o th er economies a n e t sav in g o f ap p ro x im a te ly $500,000 w as
m ade in th e cost of th e en u m eratio n as com pared w ith th a t of 1920.
I n m any d istric ts it w as difficult to o b ta in a sufficient num be r o f
com petent m en to serve as enum erators. A lth o u g h th e census was
p rim a rily fo r th e benefit o f a g ric u ltu ra l in terests, a considerable
num b er o f fa rm e rs declined to answ er th e in q u iries u n til th e y w ere
th re aten ed w ith pro secutio n u n d e r th e penal pro visio ns of th e law.
These difficulties a n d th e acco m p an yin g delays re ta rd e d th e canvass
in some States. T h e m ost serious delay, however, w as due to th e
inclemency o f th e w in te r w eather. T h e pro lo ng ed snow storm s in
th e n o rth e rn a n d w estern S ta te s a n d th e heav y ra in s in th e S o u th
m ade it im possible fo r th e en u m erato rs to cover th e ir d istric ts as
ra p id ly as h a d been a n tic ip ate d . I n some cases th e fa rm e rs h a d
finished th e ir y e a r’s w ork a n d le ft th e fa rm fo r th e w in te r before th e
visit of th e enu m erato r, an d in such cases considerable tim e was con­
sum ed in fin ding th e fa rm e rs, o r o th e r persons com petent to su p p ly
th e in fo rm atio n , an d secu rin g th e retu rn s.
F o r these reasons th e re w ere some d istric ts fo r w hich th e final
re tu rn s did n o t reach th e bureau u n til a fte r J u ly 1, 1925, alth o u g h
in a m a jo rity o f th e d istric ts th e en u m eratio n w as com pleted before
th e close of F e b ru a ry .
I n o rd er th a t th e resu lts o f th is census m ig h t be pub lish ed as
quickly as possible, a rra n g em en ts w ere m ade fo r th e su perv iso rs to
send in th e re tu rn s, cou nty by county , as ra p id ly as th e canvass was
finished. T h e office w ork o f e d itin g a n d ta b u la tin g was org anized
to proceed w ith th e co un ty as a u n it, a n d th e p u b licatio n o f th e
statistics was begun on M arch 10, 1925, w hen su m m ary figures fo r
two counties in C alifo rn ia a n d one in M aine w ere giv en to th e press.
T he sum m aries fo r o th e r counties follow ed ra p id ly , and by J u n e 30
th ey h ad been issued fo r 476 counties, in clu d in g all counties in th re e
States. I t is hop ed th a t th e to ta ls fo r th e U n ite d S ta te s can be p u b ­
lished before th e close of th e p re sen t c ale n d ar year. T h e statistic s
have been m ade p u b lic a t m uen e a rlie r d ates th a n ever before, th u s
establishing an o th er record in census w ork.
Specializing on a census o f a g ric u ltu re h as enabled th e b u re au to
give m ore c arefu l a tte n tio n to local conditio ns an d practices. S ta te
com m issioners o f a g ric u ltu re a n d local ag en ts hav e been consu lted

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R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

m ore freely th a n a t any p rio r census. T h is has m ade possible th e
detection an d correction of erroneous re p o rts, an d has th e re fo re re ­
su lted in an increase in th e accuracy of th e statistics. T h e census is,
how ever, by no m eans p erfect. I t is th e exception to find a fa rm e r
w ho keeps a system atic record o f his a n n u al tran sactio n s, an d th e
in fo rm atio n he gives th e e n u m erato r is, th ere fo re , necessarily based
on his recollection of acreage p la n te d , yield, am oun ts o f livestock
p ro d u cts, etc., and his estim ate o f th e value o f his fa rm an d equip ­
m ent.
I n o rd e r to o b ta in in fo rm atio n u rg e n tly requested by th e D e p a rt­
m ent o f A g ric u ltu re and by associations an d in d iv id u a ls in terested
in fa rm statistics, th e 1925 fa rm schedule w as m ade fa irly com pre­
hensive, alth o u g h it co ntained less th a n o n e-h alf as m a n y questions
as th e schedule used a t th e decennial census of 1920. A num b er of
special in q u iries w ere carrie d , in c lu d in g questions on some subjects
no t covered a t an y p rio r census.
T hese in q u iries w ere c arrie d on th e schedule because it w ould
req u ire very little a d d itio n a l tim e fo r th e en u m erato rs to o b ta in th e
answ ers, b u t th e ir inclusion h as resu lted in an increase in th e cost of
th e ta b u la tio n an d o th e r office w ork. T h e ta b u la tio n s a re m ade by
th e p u n c h -c ard system , a n d it w as fo u n d th a t th e a p p ro p ria tio n w as
no t sufficient to p e rm it th e p u n c h in g o f card s fo r th e answ ers to all
th e inqu iries. T h e in q u iries to be covered by t h e ’first ta b u la tio n
were c arefu lly selected. T h e re rem ain a nu m ber o f im p o rta n t sub­
jects, such as fa rm expenses, debts, cooperative m a rk e tin g , fa rm
facilities, fa rm p o p u la tio n , sheep, wool, an im als slau g h tere d on
fa rm s, an d p o u ltry p ro d u cts, fo r w hich it w ill be im possible to
ta b u la te th e d a ta unless an a d d itio n a l a p p ro p ria tio n is m ade.
T h e D e p a rtm e n t o f A g ric u ltu re u n d e rsta n d s th is condition, a n d
generously offered to po stpo ne o r aban don c e rta in of its ow n w ork
p ro v id ed th e fu n d s av ailable fo r such w ork could be tra n s fe rre d a n d
used fo r th e com pletion of th e census ta b u la tio n , b u t th e C om p ­
tro lle r G eneral has ru le d th a t such a tra n s fe r of fu n d s can n o t be
m ade.
CENSUS OF M ANUFACTURES

T h e nu m ber of schedules collected a t th e recent b ie nnial census
o f m an u fa ctu res, w hich covered in d u s tria l o p e ra tio n s d u rin g th e
c ale n d ar y e ar 1923, was ap p ro x im a te ly 196,000. I t was, how ever,
necessary to m ake a h a lf m illio n requests fo r th e re tu rn o f these
schedules. B y th e m ost extensive use o f th e m ails only about 100,000
schedules w ere obtained, le av in g n e a rly as la rg e a n um ber to be
collected by ag en ts in th e field. O f th e schedules received by m ail,
ap p ro x im a te ly 50 p e r cen t w ere co rrect or could be corrected in th e
office, th e re m a in d er being so incom plete as to necessitate th e ir re ­
tu rn to th e m a n u fa c tu re rs fo r fu lle r in fo rm atio n . I n connection
w ith th e com pletion and correction of th e re tu rn s received by m ail,
it was necessary to send a p p ro x im a te ly 100,000 le tte rs o f in q u iry
to in d iv id u al m a n u fa ctu rers. T h is lack of care in th e p re p a ra tio n o f
th e census schedules results in increased cost an d delays th e p re p a ra ­
tion of th e d a ta fo r tab u latio n s.
A n im p o rta n t ph ase of th e m an u fa ctu res w ork, an d one w hich
dem ands m uch fo re th o u g h t a n d tim e, is th e p re p a ra tio n of th e

B U R E A U OF T H E C E N S U S

75

vario us schedules o f in q u iry . In o rd e r th a t th e tta ta g a th ered m ay
be of th e g re a te st possible value to in d iv id u a l m a n u fa ctu rers and
in d u stria l orga n iz atio n s, th e schedules to be used a t each census m ust
be c arefu lly revised in th e lig h t o f im p o rta n t in d u stria l changes
and developm ents. T h is involves a g re a t deal o f correspondence.
One o f th e im p o rta n t changes in th e schedules fo r 1923 consisted
in th e inclusion, in com pliance w ith u rg e n t requests, o f in qu iries
in re g a rd to pow er em ployed an d fu el consum ed, no such in q u iries
h a v in g been carrie d on th e schedules fo r 1921.
T h e in sisten t de m and is m ade fo r m ore a n d m ore d etail as to
k in d s an d q u a n titie s o f m a n u fa ctu red p ro duc ts, b u t th e diversifi­
cation o f A m erican in d u stry ren d ers it difficult to su p p ly th e in fo r­
m atio n desired. F o r exam ple, th e bu reau is asked to com pile sta ­
tistics re g a rd in g th e m a n u fa ctu re of kitchen utensils. Such articles
are m ade in a n u m b er of in d u stries, a n d p a rtic u la rly in th e “ alu m i­
num m a n u fa c tu re ” an d “ stam ped an d enam eled w are ” in du stries.
M oreover, kitch en utensils are m ade to some ex ten t as m in o r p ro d ­
ucts by estab lishm en ts en gaged p rim a rily in o th e r lines o f m an u ­
factu re. T h u s it is necessary to m ake extensive research in to th e
census re p o rts in o rd e r to com ply w ith requests o f th is n atu re .
A t th e b ie nn ial census fo r 1923, in com pliance w ith in sistent de­
m ands, th e b u re au em ployed a special schedule callin g fo r d a ta as
to th e k in d s a n d q u a n titie s o f m a te ria ls used in th e bak ery in d u stry .
P r io r to th e p u b licatio n of th e sta tistic s com piled from these d a ta it
h ad been assum ed th a t 65 p er cent of th e to ta l o f w h eat flour con­
sum ed in th e U n ite d S ta te s w as used by bakeries an d 35 p er cent by
homes, hotels, re sta u ra n ts, etc. T h e census statistics, how ever,
revealed th e reverse o f th is condition, th e bakeries h av in g re p o rted
a p p ro x im a te ly 35 p e r cent o f th e to ta l consum ption, le av in g 65 p e r
cent as th e p ro p o rtio n consum ed in homes, hotels, re sta u ra n ts, etc.
T h e p re lim in a ry w ork of th e census fo r 1925, consistin g p rin c ip a lly
of th e p re p a ra tio n of lists of m a n u fa ctu rers, was begun befo re th e
close o f th e fiscal year. I n ta k in g th is census th e b u reau w ill em ploy
th e m ethods of cooperation in a u g u ra te d a t th e census fo r 1923.
B usiness and in d u stry ge n erally are in terested in th e m an u fa ctu res
statistics. T h e ir a ttitu d e is en tire ly different fro m w h a t it was
two decades ago. A t th a t tim e m a n u fa c tu re rs w ere a p p a re n tly in d if­
fe re n t to th e value of statistic s show ing th e a c tiv ity in th e ir re ­
spective in d u strie s, b u t now th e re is a general realizatio n o f th e need
o f such in fo rm atio n , a n d a co n tin u ally in creasin g p ro p o rtio n o f the
m an u fa ctu rers are m ak in g th e ir re p o rts by m ail, th u s re n d e rin g it
unnecessary to send special ag en ts to collect th e data.
V IT A L S T A T IS T IC S

Births and deaths.— One of th e m ost im p o rta n t o f th e m any s ta tis ­
tical inq uiries conducted by th e G ov ern m ent is th e Census B u ­
re a u ’s collection of d a ta in re g a rd to b irth s a n d deaths. F o r deaths,
these d a ta have been collected a n n u ally since 1900, w hen th e “ re g is­
tra tio n a re a ” w as com posed of 10 S ta te s, th e D is tric t of C olum bia,
and n e a rly 200 re g istra tio n cities in n o n re g istra tio n States. B irth
statistics have been collected an d com piled by th e bureau a n n u ally
since 1915, w hen 10 S ta te s an d th e D is tric t o f C olum bia composed
th e b irth -re g istra tio n area. T h e tw o re g istra tio n areas have been

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P.F P O R T O F T U F. SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

ex tend ed fro m tim e to tim e u n til th e fo rm er now em braces 41 S tates,
th e D is tric t o f C olum bia, th e T e rrito ry o f H a w a ii, a n d 14 cities
in n o n re g istra tio n S ta te s, a n d th e la tte r com prises 34 S ta te s and
th e D istric t o f C olum bia. T h e p ro p o rtio n w hich th e p o p u la tio n
o f th e d e a th -re g istra tio n a re a fo rm s o f th e to ta l p o p u la tio n o f th e
U n ite d S ta te s has increased fro m 41 p e r cent in 1900 to 92 p e r cent
in 1925, a n d th e co rresp o n d in g p ro p o rtio n fo r th e b irth -re g istra tio n
a rea has in creased fro m 31 p e r cent in 1915 to 76 p e r cent in 1925.
T h e ap p ro a ch o f these percen tages to w a rd th e 100 m a rk gives an
in creasin g significance to th e b irth rate s an d d e ath ra te s com puted
fro m y ear to year. T h e excess o f b irth s over d eath s in th e b irth re g istra tio n area is m ore th a n 1 p e r cent p e r annu m , w hich w a rra n ts
th e conclusion th a t th e n a tu ra l increase o f th e p o p u la tio n o f the
U n ite d S ta te s is now well above a m illion a year. (T h is does n o t,
o f course, include th e increase due d ire c tly to im m ig ratio n .)
Sp ecial a tte n tio n is called to th e fa c t th a t th e ra p id extension of
th e b irth -re g istra tio n a re a m akes it possible to presen t, fo r a con­
tin u a lly in creasin g p o rtio n o f th e c o u n try , accu rate b irth rates,
accurate in fa n t m o rta lity ra te s, an d accurate death ra te s fro m
p u e rp e ra l causes.
T h e an n u al m o rta lity statistic s give th e num ber o f d eath s from
each cause in each lo cality , a n d th u s m ake it possible to m easure
th e to ll exacted by each cause of d e ath fro m y e ar to year. Such
figures serve as th e fo u n d a tio n o f pub lic-h ealth w ork. T h ey in d i­
cate to th e p u blic-h ealth officer th e m ost p ro m isin g d irectio n fo r th e
ex p en d itu re o f fu n d s a p p ro p ria te d fo r such w ork, an d th e y clearly
show w h a t degrees o f success have a tte n d ed th e cam paig ns fo r b e tte r
h e alth in fo rm er years. T h e declines in th e in fa n t-m o rta lity ra te
and in th e d eath ra te s fro m ty p h o id fever, d ip h th e ria , tuberculosis,
an d m a n y o th e r diseases afford s trik in g p ro o f of th e success o f
fo rm e r cam paigns, b u t one views w ith concern th e co n tin u ally
in o u n tin g ra te s from cancer an d h e a rt diseases.
M o rta lity statistic s m easure n o t o nly th e rava ges o f disease bu t
also th e fa ta litie s fro m accidents. H ere, too, th e d eclin in g death
ra te s fo r m ost fo rm s o f accidents are encouraging, th e p rin c ip a l
exception being th e increase in th e ra te fo r m otor-vehicle fa ta litie s.
B eliev in g th a t th e freq u e n t p resen ta tio n o f sta tistic a l in fo rm atio n
re g a rd in g m otor-vehicle fa ta litie s w ill be a fa c to r in b rin g in g about
a g re a te r degree o f safety on th e public hig hw ays, th e B u reau of
th e Census is now p u b lish in g every fo u r weeks te le g rap h ic re tu rn s
of such fa ta litie s fro m cities of 100,000 p o p u la tio n or m ore, an d is
en d eav o rin g to collect d a ta w hich w ill p e rm it the publicatio n a n ­
n u a lly o f tw o sets of d e ath rate s fro m m otor-vehicle accidents— one
re fe rrin g to th e nu m b er o f d eath s re p o rte d fro m each locality , re ­
g ard le ss o f w here th e accidents occu rred, and th e o th e r re p re se n tin g
th e nu m ber o f d eath s due to accidents in each locality, re g ard le ss of
w here th e d eath s occurred. T h e collection of these im p o rta n t d a ta
is being m ade possible by th e h e a rty cooperation o f S ta te , city , and
local officials everyw here.
M arriage and divorce.— S ta tistic s o f m arria g es, b irth s, an d d eath s
con stitu te w h at are g en erally know n as “ v ita l sta tistic s.” D efinite
provision has been m ade b y law fo r th e collection o f d a ta on b irth s

B U R E A U OF T H E C E N S U S

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and deaths. T h is w ork h as now been in pro g ress fo r m ore th a n 20
years. I t covers th e m a jo rity o f th e S ta te s an d is a p p ro a ch in g a
degree of accuracy th a t com pares fa v o ra b ly w ith th a t show n by
sta tistic a l w ork in th e sam e field in o th er countries. D a ta on m a r­
riag e an d divorce have n o t been collected w ith th e sam e re g u la rity .
T h ere have been v a ry in g perio ds of in term issio n in th e w ork, and
the resu lts do n o t su p p ly a satisfa c to ry continuous picture.
M a rria g e an d divorce are social facts of fu n d a m e n tal im portan ce,
an d statistic s re g a rd in g th em are o f g re a t value considered m erely as
a c o n trib u tio n to o u r know ledge of social conditions an d tendencies
in th e U n ite d States. W e need to know w h a t th e m a rria g e ra te is in
th e U n ited S ta te s, how it com pares w ith th e ra te s of o th e r countries,
w hether it is in creasing or decreasing, w h eth er th e re is a tendency to
d efe r m a rria g e , a n d how it is affected by economic conditions. I t
has been said th a t th e m a rria g e ra te is th e b aro m eter of p ro sp e rity ,
and statistic s show th a t m a rria g e s increase as a i'esult of “ peace
a fte r w ar, abun dance a fte r d e a rth , h ig h w ages a fte r w a n t o f em ploy­
m ent, an d specu latio n a fte r la n g u id en terp rise.”
I believe it to be o f equal or even g re a te r im p o rtan ce th a t we m ake
an n u al com pilatio ns o f statistic s in re g a rd to th e prevalence o f
divorce. T h e h ig h a n d ra p id ly ris in g divorce ra te in th is country is
g en erally re g a rd ed as a g re a t evil. W e o u g h t to know th e e x te n t to
w hich th is evil p re v ails in th e several S ta te s a n d to ascertain , so fa r
as possible, th e fa c ts re g a rd in g th e causes o f it.
I t is ve ry im p o rta n t th a t all m a rria g e s should be adequately and
p ro p e rly registered. I t is n o t proposed, however, th a t th e Census
B u re au should tak e charg e o f m a rria g e re g istra tio n . T h a t is a m a t­
te r w hich w ill be le ft in th e h a n d s of th e S ta te a n d local au th o rities.
N evertheless, re g u la r requests com ing fro m th e F e d e ra l G overnm ent
fo r d a ta re g a rd in g m a rria g e s w ill, beyond question, te n d to prom ote
an d im prove re g istra tio n by local au th o rities, ju s t as th e collection of
b irth a n d d e a th d a ta has pro m o ted a n d im proved th e re g istra tio n of
b irth s an d deaths. T h is w ill be an in cid en tal b u t im p o rta n t benefit
re su ltin g fro m th e re g u la r collection o f th e data.
T h e d a ta on th is su bject should be collected by th e S ta te s and
com piled by th e Census B u re au fo r th e e n tire co u n try . Such an
a rra n g e m e n t w ould lead to m ore satisfa c to ry resu lts an d w ould
reduce th e cost o f th e w ork. T h is is being recognized b y an increas­
in g nu m be r of S ta te officials. T h e d a ta fo r 1924 fo r both m a rria g e
and divorce w ere com piled fro m th e records o f 11 S ta te s an d th e
D is tric t of C olum bia, an d fo r m a rria g e only from th e records of 16
a d d itio n a l States.
IN S T IT U T IO N A L P O P U L A T IO N

T h e statistic s re la tin g to in stitu tio n a l p o p u la tio n show th e n u m ­
bers of inm ates, p a tie n ts, or persons tre a te d , an d o th er in fo rm a tio n
in re g a rd to in stitu tio n s fo r th e m en ta lly diseased, feeble-m inded,
epileptics, and ju v enile d elin q u en ts; alm shouses, prisons, re fo rm a ­
to rias, ja ils, an d w orkh ouses; in stitu tio n s and societies fo r th e care
an d pro te ctio n o f c h ild re n ; d a y nu rseries, hum ane societies, ch il­
d re n ’s pro tectiv e agencies, hom es fo r c rip p le d child re n , and in s titu ­
tions fo r th e care of a d u lts; an d ho sp itals, san ato riu m s, an d d isp en ­

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78

saries. T h e in q u iry covered th e y e ar 1922 fo r c e rta in in stitu tio n s
an d th e early p a r t o f 1923 fo r others.
T h e sum m ary sta tistic s fo r all these in stitu tio n s w ere published in
th e s p rin g an d fa ll of 1924. T h e w ork d u rin g th e p a st fiscal y e a r
consisted in th e p re p a ra tio n of th e tab le s a n d te x t fo r th e final re ­
p o rts. T h e m a n u sc rip t fo r all these re p o rts w as finished before J u ly
1, an d some o f them have a lread y been p rin te d and d istrib u te d .
F IN A N C IA L

ST A T IST IC S

OF

STATE

AND

C IT Y

GOVERNM ENTS

U n fo rtu n a te ly , th e fin ancial re p o rts o f th e S ta te an d c ity g o v ern ­
m ents are n o t p re p a re d in a u n ifo rm m ann er. I t is im possible to
o b ta in fro m th e an n u al re p o rts o f these gov ernm ents d a ta th a t w ill
m ake possible exact com parisons o f th e ex p en d itu res fo r th e sam e
objects in differen t com m unities, a n d in some instances th e to ta l
am oun ts de riv ed fro m ta x a tio n are n o t shown. I t is essential, th e re ­
fore, th a t th e d a ta be assem bled by some c en tral office.
T h e an n u al re p o rts of th e B u re au of th e Census p re sen t statistic s
as n early accurate and as com p arab le as it h as been feasible to com ­
pile fro m th e records o f th e S ta te s a n d th e cities. T h e p rin c ip a l
subjects covered a re : (1) T o ta l an d p e r c ap ita receipts fro m reve­
nues an d from th e p rin c ip a l classes th e re o f; (2) to ta l an d p e r cap ita
p ay m en ts fo r o p era tio n an d m ainten ance, in te re st on debt, and o u t­
la y s; (3) to ta l a n d p e r c a p ita ind ebtedness ; (4) assessed v a lu atio n of
p ro p e rty , ta x levies, rates, an d m ethods of assessm ent; an d (o) d is­
cussion of S ta te an d m un ic ip al acco u n tin g te rm in olo gy, in stru c tio n s
fo r u n ifo rm classification of accounts, an d k in d re d subjects.
T hese re p o rts p ro v id e in fo rm atio n in re g a rd to th e financial a d ­
m in istra tio n of th e governm ents of th e S ta te s a n d o f th e cities h a v ­
in g 30,000 p o p u la tio n or m ore, reflect th e ir fin ancial condition, serve
as a g u id e to th e officials in p la n n in g fu tu re op era tio n s and in ex ­
te n d in g or c u rta ilin g fu n ctio n s or a c tiv itie s; su p p ly assistance to
officials w ho a re ch arg ed w ith resp onsib ilities in c id e n t to th e ad m in is­
tra tio n o f th e go vernm ents, a n d enable th e p ublic to ju d g e in tellif ently o f th e fidelity, efficiency, an d economy p racticed by th e ir ofcials. In s titu tio n s of le a rn in g are in tro d u c in g these re p o rts as
branches of th e ir cu rricula.
Method of collection.—I t is necessary to send th e agen ts of th e
b u re au to m ost of th e S ta te c a p ita ls a n d to th e cities to collect these
d a ta on a n accurate a n d co m parable basis. I n th e cases of some
S ta te s an d cities th e an n u al re p o rts of th e financial officers co n tain
a la rg e p ro p o rtio n of th e re q u ired d a ta , an d fro m these re p o rts
schedules are com piled in th e bu re au , so f a r as possible, th ere b y
elim in a tin g th e a d d itio n a l cost o f m a in ta in in g ag en ts in th e field.
U n fo rtu n a te ly , how ever, m any o f these p rin te d re p o rts a re n o t a v a il­
able u n til several m on ths a fte r th e close o f th e fiscal 3 rear, an d i f
th e b u re au aw aited th e ir pu b licatio n its statistic s w ould be of value
only fro m a h isto ric a l stan d p o in t. A n o th e r serious d ra w b ack to
de p en d in g en tire ly on th e p rin te d re p o rts o f th e S ta te s an d cities
is th a t such re p o rts do n o t p resen t th e d a ta in com p arable form .
T h e N atio n al A ssociation of C om p tro llers an d A cco u n tin g Offi­
cers a t its convention in 1923 ado pted a resolu tio n to th e effect th a t
com p arable statistic s could be com piled accu rately and im p a rtia lly
only by tra in e d ag en ts o f th e bureau.

B U K E A U OF T H E C E N S U S

79

T h ro u g h th e coo peration of S ta te an d city officials, a n d th e use,
so f a r as p racticable, of th e p rin te d re p o rts of th e S ta te s an d cities,
th e cost of th e field w ork is being reduced each year.
Publication of the statistics.—T h e field w ork fo r 1924 w as begun in
F e b ru a ry , 1925. T h e schedules a re checked a n d ta b u la te d p ro m p tly
a f te r th e ir receipt, a n d sum m aries o f th e p rin c ip a l statistic s are
published. A fte r in d iv id u a l sum m aries have been released fo r th e
48 S ta te s an d th e 248 cities h av in g m ore th a n 30,000 in h a b ita n ts, a
sum m ary fo r all S ta te s and one fo r all cities w ill be p re p a re d and
pub lished. T hese final sum m aries, w hich w ill be m ade available to
th e p u blic in a co m parativ ely sh o rt tim e a fte r th e com pletion o f
th e ta b u la tio n fo r th e la st S ta te an d th e la st city , w ill in m any
cases m eet fu lly th e requ irem ents of persons w ho have occasion to
use th e b u re a u ’s fin ancial statistic s o f S ta te s an d cities. T h e com ­
p lete re p o rts p resen t, of course, m ore th o ro u g h com parisons of th e
figures fo r th e S ta te s an d cities. T h e sum m ary figures show th e
g en eral tre n d in re g a rd to th e in creasin g cost of governm ent, b u t
th e d etailed figures in th e com plete re p o rts b rin g o u t clearly th e
am ou nts of th e increases in ta x a tio n , in th e several classes o f ex­
p en d itu re s, and in indebtedness.
W E A L T H , P U B L IC D E B T , A N D T A X A T IO N

T h is decennial in v estig atio n , w hich covered th e y e ar 1922, was
com pleted p rio r to J u ly 1, 1924, an d th e final re p o rts w ere p rin te d
before th e close of th e c ale n d ar y e ar 1924. T h e m ore im p o rta n t of
th e statistics, how ever, h ad been m ade available to th e public th ro u g h
press sum m aries a n d b u lletin s issued d u rin g 1923. T h e final re p o rts,
five in num ber, a re as fo llow s: P u b lic D ebt, Assessed V a lu atio n a n d
T a x Levies, T axes Collected, D ig e st of S ta te L aw s R e la tin g to T a x a ­
tio n an d R evenue, an d E stim a te d N atio n al W ealth .
S U R V E Y O F C U R R E N T B U S IN E S S

T h e Su rv ey of C u rre n t B usiness is a m o n th ly p u b licatio n whose
p urpo se is to su p p ly to business m en th e c u rre n t basic statistic s in
im p o rta n t lines o f in d u s tria l an d com m ercial activ ity . T hese s ta ­
tistics as a ru le show m o n th ly tran sactio n s, b u t in a few cases th ey
a re based on d a ta collected q u a rte rly or sem iannu ally . T h is p u b li­
catio n has su p p lied a genuine need. C om m ents of subscribers show
th a t th e statistic s on m ore th a n a th o u san d d ifferent business m ove­
m ents w hich are presented in th e Su rv ey are being used by business
m en to ascertain th e exact sta tu s of affairs in th e ir ow n an d o th er
in d u strie s, as well as in business in general, and th a t th ro u g h th e ir
possession of these fa c ts th e y are enabled to p la n in te llig e n tly th e ir
policies w ith respect to sales, p ro d u ctio n , purchases, stock, a n d
financing. B usiness as a w hole is, m ore a n d m ore, lo oking to c u rre n t
in d u stria l fa c ts fo r guidance, an d th e la rg e increase in th e num b er
of sta tistic a l in q u iries u n d e rta k e n d u rin g th e p a st few years, b o th
by th e G overnm ent, on th e in itia tiv e o f in d u stria l an d tra d e associa­
tions, an d by th e associations them selves, in o rd e r to p ro v id e such
d a ta fo r executive ju d g m e n t, is in itse lf evidence of th e ir usefulness.
C onsiderable changes in th e size and m ake-up of th e Su rv ey w ere
m ade w ith in th e fiscal year. I t was necessary to m ake a m aterial

[

j

;
j
*

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R E P O R T O F T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

red u ctio n in its size because of th e sm allness of th e a p p ro p ria tio n
allow ed fo r p rin tin g . T h e sm aller m o n th ly editions, w hich had
prev io u sly contain ed about 60 pages, w ere c u t dow n to 48 pages, and
th e la rg e r editio ns w ere reduced fro m about 240 pages to about 160
pa g es an d th e ir pe rio d of issue chan ged from q u a rte rly to sem i­
an n u ally . These reductio ns in size entailed a com plete re a rra n g e ­
m ent of m a te ria l, w hich consisted o f th e elim in atio n of m ost of the
re la tiv e num bers, th e d ro p p in g o f statistic s on fo reig n conditions,
th e reference o f th e re a d e r to previou s issues fo r c e rta in basic m a ­
te ria l in stead of re p e atin g it in th e tab u la tio n s, th e om ission of
ta b u la r m a tte r in th e te x t, th e conden sation an d com b ination of
m in o r item s, an d th e elim in atio n of d u p lic a te p rin tin g s of th e same
item s.
B y these ex pedien ts i t h as been possible to m ake a reduc tio n of
n e a rly 40 p e r cen t in th e a n n u al cost o f p rin tin g th e Survey. In
th e face of th is necessity fo r re tre n c h m en t in p rin tin g i t has been
h ig h ly desirable from tim e to tim e to include new statistic a l m aterial
fo r th e sake of p re sen tin g business condition s com pletely alon g cer­
ta in lines. T h e space fo r such new m a te ria l has been p ro v id ed by
th e above-m entioned reduction s, an d a t th e p resen t tim e th e Su rv ey
is p u blishe d in a m uch m ore com pact fo rm th a n in previou s years.
D u rin g th e la st fiscal y e a r c e rta in tra d e associations, in c lu d in g th e
K n it Goods A ssociation of A m erica an d th e R efra cto rie s M an u fac­
tu re rs ’ A ssociation, gave up th e ir s ta tistic a l activ itie s in fa v o r of
in q u iries w hich w ould cover la rg e r p ro p o rtio n s of th e in d u strie s,
to be conducted by th e Census B u reau .
S u m m aries o f th e figures collected fo r th e Survey are also sent
out each week to th e n ew spap ers in th e fo rm o f press releases, w hich
are w idely published by th e d a ily p a p e rs as well as by tra d e jo u rn als.
S T A T IST IC S O F TO BA C C O . C O T T O N , A N D L E A T H E R

T h e acts o f C ongress a p p ro v ed A p ril 30, 1912, A u g u st 7, 1916,
J u n e 5, 1920, A p ril 2, 1924, a n d M ay 3, 1924, p ro v id ed fo r th e col­
lection o f d a ta in re g a rd to tobacco, cotton, an d leather. I n com­
plia n ce w ith these law s, an d in th e endeavor to fu rn ish statistics
th a t w ill be o f g re a te r value to th e pro d u cers an d consumer’s of th e
com m odities m entioned , th e re have been b u ilt up in th e bureau
ve ry com prehensive lists o f establishm ents in th e several in du stries.
Tobacco.—T h e tobacco statistic s show th e q u a n tity o f each ty p e of
le a f tobacco held by reg istered dealers an d by c ertain classes of
m a n u fa c tu re rs com ing w ith in th e scope o f th e law , to g e th e r w ith
th e q u a n titie s held in bonded m a n u fa c tu rin g w arehouses a n d in
U n ite d S ta te s bonded w arehouses. T h e statistic s re la te to th e 1st of
J a n u a ry , A p ril, J u ly , an d O ctober. These p re lim in a ry re p o rts are
assem bled in th e an n u al b u lletin , w hich also presen ts p e rtin e n t
statistic s re la tiv e to th e tobacco in d u stry th a t have been pu blished
by o th e r bureaus and org an ization s.
Cotton.—T h e collection o f d a ta fo r th e cotton in d u stry h as been in
pro g ress fo r 23 years, re p o rts on cotton gin ne d h av in g been a u th o r­
ized by th e act o f M arch 6, 1902, estab lish in g th e p e rm a n en t Census
Office. T h is in d u stry affects d ire c tly an d in d irec tly so la rg e a p ro ­
p o rtio n o f th e p o p u la tio n o f th e U n ited S ta te s th a t it is p rob able th e
cotto n re p o rts a re scrutin ized m ore c a re fu lly th a n a re those fo r any

B U R E A U OF T H E C E N S U S

81

o th er of th e “key ” p rodu cts. E v e ry p recau tio n is th e re fo re being
ta k en by th e b ureau to v e rify th e figures. E ach g in n er is req u ired to
re p o rt th e q u a n tity of cotto n gin n ed by him p rio r to each o f th e
dates specified in th e law. I n a d d itio n , a t th e end of th e g in n in g
season each g in n e r is called upon to m ake an in d ependent re p o rt,
d ire c t to th e W a sh in g to n office, o f th e to ta l q u a n tity o f cotton ginned
d u rin g th e e n tire season. T h e re p o rts collected b y th e agen ts and
those o btain ed d ire c t fro m th e g in n ers are th en com pared an d
checked in o rd e r to v e rify th e p ro d u ctio n statistics.
E a c h cotton-consum ing estab lishm en t re p o rts m o n th ly th e num ber
o f bales consum ed d u rin g th e m o nth an d th e num ber held in stock a t
th e close o f th e m onth. A t th e close o f th e cotton y e ar these re p o rts
are sum m arized an d sent to th e establishm ent fo r verification. A
sim ila r p ractice is follow ed in v e rify in g th e re p o rts on cotton in
public sto rage an d those from cottonseed-oil m ills an d cotton-oil
refineries an d consum ing establishm ents. T h is m etho d p e rm its th e
m ak in g o f an y necessary corrections in th e re p o rts fo r th e several
m o nths, and such revisions are c a rrie d in th e final figures w hich
a p p e a r in th e an n u al bulletin.
Leather.—T h e several associations connected w ith th e le ath er in d u s­
tries have fro m tim e to tim e p etitio n ed th e bureau fo r fu rth e r d etail
concernin g classes o f hides ta n n ed , k in d s of le ath er produced, and
q u a n titie s of th e v ariou s le a th e r pro du cts. T o collect th e in fo rm a ­
tio n req u ired , th e b u reau uses 12 sep ara te schedules, co n tain in g a
to ta l o f 533 item s. E ach of th e approxim ate!}' 4,500 establishm ents
engaged in th e le a th e r in d u strie s is requ ired to m ake m o n th ly re p o rts
d u rin g th e ye ar, an d some estab lishm en ts re tu rn m ore th a n one
schedule each m onth. T h e to ta l num ber o f re p o rts received d u rin g
th e y e ar is a p p ro x im a te ly 55,000. T h e assem bling, checking, and
p u b licatio n of so g re a t an am oun t o f technical d e ta il is a w ork of
very considerable m ag n itu d e, w hich requires th e services o f a n u m ­
ber o f em ployees h a v in g e x p ert know ledge of th e le a th e r indu stries.
C O L L E C T IO N O F IN D U S T R IA L A N D B U S IN E S S D A T A

A t th e close o f th e fiscal y e a r 103 tra d e a n d in d u stria l associa­
tion s w ere su p p ly in g th e bu re au w ith re g u la r sta tistic a l re p o rts fo r
pu b licatio n in tliie S u rv ey of C u rre n t Business. T h e d a ta in these
re p o rts w ere collected by th e associations d ire c tly fro m th e sep arate
estab lishm en ts a n d w ere sent to th e b u re au fo r p ublicatio n. I n every
case th e p u b licatio n is g en eral, th e in fo rm a tio n being m ade available
to all persons irresp ectiv e o f th e ir in te re sts or in d u stria l affiliations.
I n cases w here th e association does n o t re p re se n t or is n o t able to se­
cure re p o rts fro m a re p re se n ta tiv e nu m ber o f estab lishm ents, th e
b u reau supp lem en ts th e w ork o f th e association by collecting d a ta
fro m those estab lishm en ts th a t fa il to re p o rt th ro u g h it. T h is is an
en tire ly new d e p a rtu re in th e census -work, an d I believe it is th e
rig h t m eth od of procedure. In d u s tria l a n d business statistic s are
accurate a n d reflect ex istin g co nd ition s tru ly only w hen those who
su p p ly th e d a ta are in sy m p ath y w ith th e w ork an d cooperate w ill­
in g ly an d freely in c a rry in g it on. A feelin g o f confidence in th e
w ork of th e bureau an d a w illing ness to su p p ly th e d a ta a re essential.
F o r th is reaso n I have been carefu l, befo re u n d e rta k in g a new
in q u iry , to m ake a p re lim in a ry survey in o rd e r to ascertain w h eth er

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R E PO R T OP T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

th e m a n u fa c tu re rs, dealers, a n d oth ers concerned w a n t th e b u reau to
assem ble an d p u blish th e statistics, an d w h eth er th ey w ill su p p ly
th e d a ta p ro m p tly .
T h e c o n sta n t em plo ym ent of a la rg e force of field ag en ts to collect
th e o rig in al d a ta requ ired in th e extensive an d ra p id ly ex p an d in g
w ork o t th e b u reau w ould req u ire a m uch la rg e r a n n u al a p p ro p ria ­
tio n th a n is now g ra n te d , and I am by no m eans satisfied th a t such
a m ethod of pro cedu re w ould be wise. T h e m ost econom ical and
p ra c tica l m ethod o f collecting th e m a te ria l is by m ail. T h e success
of th is m ethod , how ever, depen ds up o n th e p ro m ptn ess o f th e replies.
I t is freq u en tly necessary to send several requests fo r replies to a
qu estio nnaire, b u t it is ho ped th a t in tim e th is indifference w ill be
corrected an d th e fu ll and com plete cooperatio n of th e in d u strie s
w ill be secured, so th a t th e bureau w ill be able to c a rry on its field
w ork still m ore econom ically an d sa tisfa c to rily .
B y th e m ethods described th e b u reau collects d a ta a n n u ally or a t
m ore freq u en t in te rv a ls fo r 45 d istin c t in quiries, covering in d etail
76 differen t p ro d u c ts m a n u fa c tu re d by 50,292 establishm ents.
W h ile th is w ork is being extended a n d p u t on a m ore satisfa c to ry
basis, p e rp le x in g problem s are c o n tin u a lly arisin g . T h e conditions
a tte n d in g th e collection o f th e statistic s fo r wool illu s tra te a n u m ­
b er of these. E stim a te s o f th e an n u al p ro d u c tio n of wool a re p re ­
p a re d by th e D e p a rtm e n t o f A g ric u ltu re , an d th e a ctu al pro d u ctio n
is re p o rte d every fifth y e a r in connection w ith th e census of a g ric u l­
tu re . T h e m o n th ly consu m p tion a n d th e stocks in th e te x tile m ills
a re re p o rte d to th e D e p a rtm e n t of Com m erce, a n d sta tistic s of th e
stocks he ld by dealers are com piled by th e D e p a rtm e n t o f A g ric u l­
tu re . T h u s in o rd e r to o b ta in fu ll in fo rm a tio n in re g a rd to wool
p ro d u c tio n , consum ptio n, a n d stocks, i t is necessary to b rin g to ­
g e th e r a n d harm onize th e d a ta o btain ed from these vario us sources.
T h e pro d u cers contend th a t, w hereas th e statistic s o f p ro d u c tio n
a re su b sta n tia lly com plete, th e re a re a num ber of im p o rta n t m a n u ­
fa c tu re rs an d dealers w ho refu se to su p p ly th e d a ta on consum ptio n
a n d stocks. I t is tru e th a t th e a ttitu d e o f some, if n o t all, o f these
m a n u fa c tu re rs an d dealers is th a t th ey a p p recia te th e value of
statistic s o f th is ch arac te r, b u t w ill no t su p p ly th e d a ta on w hich
th e y are based unless th e re is a d ire c t pro vision o f F e d e ra l law re ­
q u irin g all m a n u fa c tu re rs and dealers to do so. T h e wool g ro w ers’
associations are now a d v o catin g th e passage o f such a law. Special
law s of th is c h a ra c te r a lre ad y p ro v id e fo r th e com pilatio n o f d e ­
ta ile d sta tistic s covering cotton, le ath er, an d o th e r p ro ducts. T h e
pe rfo rm an ce o f th is w ork in two o r m ore d e p artm en ts is confu sin g
a n d costly. I t w ould enhance th e value o f th e statistics, reduce ex ­
pense, a n d m in im ize th e difficulties of a d m in istra tio n if all th e w ork
w ere done in one d ep artm en t.
C O O P E R A T IO N IN S T A T IS T IC A L W O R K

F o r some ye ars th e B u re au of th e C ensus has been endeavorin g
to c u ltiv a te coo peration am ong th e F e d e ra l an d o th e r agencies in
c h arg e o f sta tistic a l w ork. T h e in d u s tria l a n d tra d e o rg an iz atio n s
th a t fo r m any y ears have been collecting d a ta fo r th e ir respective
in d u strie s have, w ith ra re exceptions, m ade cooperative arran g e-

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83

m ents w ith th e bu re au w hich have gone f a r to w a rd e lim in a tin g u n ­
necessary calls u p o n business fo r s ta tistic a l in fo rm a tio n ; a n d d u r­
in g th e p a st fiscal y e ar th e bu re au has en tered in to cooperative a r ­
rangem en ts w ith S ta te an d city gov ernm ents an d o th e r local g o v ern ­
m ental o rg an iz atio n s to a g re a te r e x ten t th a n ever before. These
arran g em en ts have been o f m u tu a l ad v an ta g e, an d th e s p irit of
cooperation th u s engendered has been increased by th e w illingness
of th e C ensus B u re au to assist both p riv a te an d pu blic o rg a n iz a ­
tions by m ak in g special tab u la tio n s. T h e b u re a u ’s m ethod o f p u b ­
lish in g p re lim in a ry su m m ary sta tistic s in press-release fo rm as
ra p id ly as th e y can be ta b u la te d h as also gone f a r to w a rd sa tisfy in g
th e dem and fo r p ro m p t in fo rm atio n w hich fo rm erly was m et la rg ely
by p riv a te org anizatio ns.
E ST IM A T E S OF PO P U L A T IO N

T h e need of an en um eratio n of th e p o p u la tio n a t m ore freq u e n t
in te rv a ls th a n once in 10 y ears was re fe rre d to in m y an n u al re p o rt
fo r th e fiscal y e ar 1924. I also described th e m ethod of estim atin g,
fo r th e in tercen sal ye ars, th e p o p u la tio n o f th e U n ite d S ta te s, th e
S tates, th e p rin c ip a l cities, an d some of th e sm aller p o litical sub­
divisions. T h e com m ittee o f sta tistic ia n s w hich has th is m a tte r
un d er con sideration recom m ends th a t th e estim ate of th e p o p u la ­
tio n fo r th e U n ite d S ta te s as a w hole be based upon th e statistic s
of b irth s, de aths, im m ig ratio n , an d em ig ra tio n , a n d th e estim ates
fo r 1926 a n d subsequent y ears w ill be p re p a re d by th is m ethod.
T h ere are no d a ta , how ever, concernin g in te rs ta te or in te rc ity m i­
g ra tio n , o r m ig ra tio n fro m ru r a l to u rb a n d istric ts, so th a t it is
im possible to estim ate th e p o p u la tio n of th e State s, cities, an d coun­
ties by th e new m ethod. U n d e r these conditions i t is very im p o r­
ta n t th a t a census of th e p o p u la tio n of th e e n tire U n ite d S ta te s be
taken every fifth year. I n th e absence of such an a rra n g em en t th e
bureau has been coo peratin g, so f a r as possible, w ith th e g overn ­
m ents o f th e e ig h t S ta te s— F lo rid a , Io w a, K an sas, M assachusetts,
New Y o rk , R hode Isla n d , S o u th D ak o ta, an d W yo m in g— in w hich
such a census is taken.
C ity governm ents have been encouraged to take special censuses
of p o p u la tio n u n d e r th e supervision o f a re p re se n ta tiv e o f th e bu­
reau. Such censuses have been ta k en since 1920 by F a irb u ry and
Sycam ore, 111.; H ig h P o in t, G reensboro, H endersonville, and M ount
A iry , N. C .; F a irfie ld , A la .; Beckley, W . V a .; and D e tro it, M ich.
CENSUS RECORDS

These records co ntain th e nam e and o th e r in fo rm atio n (sex, age,
n a tio n a lity , etc.) concernin g every in d iv id u a l as enum erated a t each
census fro m 1850 to 1920. F ro m 1790 to a n d in c lu d in g the census
of 1840, th e nam e o f th e h ead of th e fa m ily only w as recorded,
to g eth er w ith th e nu m ber o f persons in each fa m ily shown by cer­
ta in age g ro u p s an d by sex. T h e records fo r some of th e censuses
a re incom plete because o f loss or p a rtia l destru ctio n by fire an d
w ater. T h e e n tire collection now consists o f 15,050 volum es and
some m illions of schedules th a t are n o t bound b u t are w ra p p ed in
9,161 packages. I t contains inv alu able records o f the p o pulatio n

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R E P O R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

o f th e counties, cities, tow nsh ip s, etc., since the fo u n d a tio n o f the
G overnm ent.
T here are o th e r records o f g re a t value in th e files of th e bureau.
I f destroyed, none of them could be replaced. A ll o f th is in v a lu ­
able m a te ria l is stored in one of th e te m p o ra ry w ar bu ild in gs. T he
only fire pro tectio n is an au to m atic sp rin k lin g system , w hich if p u t
in to action w ould be about as d estru ctiv e to th e records as fire
w ould be.
T h e nam es o f th e heads of fam ilies enum erated a t th e census of
1790 have been listed an d p rin te d , to g e th e r w ith such d a ta as were
recorded in re g a rd to th e nu m be r, sex, an d age of o th er persons
enu m erated. (A s a lre ad y ex p lain ed , th e nam es of persons o th er
th a n heads of fam ilies w ere n o t rep o rte d a t th a t census.) I recom ­
m end, th ere fo re , th a t th e 27 volumes co n tain in g th e schedules of
1790 be tu rn e d over to th e L ib ra ry of C ongress o r th e Sm ith so n ian
In s titu tio n , w here th ey can be p u t on disp la y as records of g reat
h isto ric a l value.
T A B U L A T IN G M A C H IN E S

A t th e end of th e y ear th e re were in th e bureau 2,042 punching,
calcu latin g , ad d in g , so rtin g , nu m b erin g , and ta b u la tin g m achines.
T he la rg e u n its o f th is equipm ent, nam ely, th e electric so rtin g and
ta b u la tin g m achines, w ere invented, developed, and co nstru cted in
th e m echanical la b o ra to ry o f th is b u reau to m eet th e p ecu liar re ­
quirem ents of th e sta tistic a l w ork of th e census.
A nu m b er o f th e m achines used in th e p o p u la tio n w ork a t th e la st
census have now been converted in to a d d in g ta b u la to rs (m achines
w hich ta b u la te an d ad d num b ers in ste ad o f m erely ta lly in g u n its)
in o rd e r to m ake them su itab le fo r o th e r classes ox w ork, an d it is
pro bable th a t oth ers w ill be so chan ged to m eet th e in creased re ­
q uirem ents in th e field. F o r th is pu rp ose, an d also in o rd e r to have
sufficient eq uipm ent fo r th e n e x t decennial census, w ork should be
begun a t once on th e reconstructio n of a d d itio n a l so rtin g an d ta b u ­
la tin g m achines. B ecause of th e accuracy a n d care necessary in th e
construction o f c ertain p a rts o f these m achines, it is advisable to
have th em m ade in th e b u re a u ’s m echanical la b o ra to ry , b u t th e w ork
in th e la b o ra to ry should be supplem en ted by th e m a n u fa ctu re of
certain castings a n d p a rts on con tract.
E C O N O M IE S

T he de m and fo r fa cts concernin g in d u s tria l an d social conditions
is co n stan tly b ro ad en in g an d becom ing m ore insistent. T o satisfy
th is dem and, a t least in p a rt, a n d a t th e sam e tim e to continue to
o p e ra te th e bu re au w ith in th e a p p ro p ria tio n s, it has been necessary
to economize in every b ra n ch of th e w ork. T h e sav in g o f a p p ro x i­
m ately $500,000 in th e cost o f th e a g ric u ltu ra l canvass, a lre a d y r e ­
fe rre d to (see “ Census o f a g ric u ltu re ” ), is w o rth y o f p a rtic u la r
m ention in th is connection. Some o f th e changes suggested in m y
re p o rt fo r 1924 as necessary in o rd e r to m eet e x istin g conditions
have been p u t in to effect. A c tin g on th e advice o f persons fa m ilia r
w ith th e req uirem ents in th e v ario u s fields, a jud icio us selection of
th e fa c ts to be rep o rte d has been m ade. C ertain in quiries have been

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85

c u rta ile d a n d o th e rs extended. T h e n e t re su lt has been to broaden
the w ork in m any respects. I t should be recognized, how ever, th a t
the w ork o f the b u reau ten d s con tin u ally to increase w ith th e n o rm al
g ro w th of p o p u la tio n an d in d u stry . I n o rd er th a t th is n a tu ra l,
norm al, an d reasonable increase m ay be m ain ta in ed , co rresp ondin g
increases in a p p ro p ria tio n s w ill be absolutely necessary. T h e a n ­
nual a p p ro p ria tio n fo r th e c u rre n t expenses of th e bu re au was,
how ever, $110,210 less fo r the fiscal y e ar 1925 th a n fo r th e fiscal
y ear 1923.
O FFIC E FO R C E

Number of employees.— T he office force a t th e close of Ju n e 30, 1925.
com prised 689 officials, clerks, etc., 18 e x p erts and assistan ts in th e
m echanical la b o ra to ry , 16 special agents, an d 1,056 te m p o ra ry em ­
ployees (523 of w hom w ere o p erativ es p a id on a piece-price basis)
engaged in th e w ork o f th e census o f a g ric u ltu re .
Appointments.— T h e to ta l num ber of ap p o in tm en ts (in clu d in g re a p ­
pointm ents, pro m otions, an d all o th e r changes in sta tu s except sep a­
ratio ns, bu t n o t in clu d in g a p p o in tm e n ts fo r te m p o ra ry w ork on th e
census o f a g ric u ltu re , 1925) m ade fro m J u ly 1, 1924, to J u n e 30,
1925, w as 1,672, o f w hich num ber 756 w ere ap p o in tm en ts of clerks,
872 of operatives, and 44 of subclerical employees.
Promotions.— D u rin g the fiscal y e a r 217 prom otion s were m ade, th e
m a jo rity of th e increases a m o u n tin g to only $60 p e r annum . M uch
still rem ains to be done in th e w ay of re a d ju stm en t o f salaries, b u t
la rg e r a p p ro p ria tio n s w ill, o f course, be necessary before any in ­
creases th a t will m a te ria lly benefit th e em ployees can be made.
Separations.—T h e to ta l n um ber of persons sep ara te d from th e
service fro m J u ly 1, 1924, to J u ly 1, 1925, w as 279. O f th is num ber
239 resigned, 16 w ere tra n s fe rre d to o th er bu reaus or d ep artm en ts,
6 w ere re tire d w ith an n u itie s on account o f age o r d isab ility , 8 died,
4 held lim ited a p p o in tm e n ts w hich exp ired, and 6 w ere sep arated by
the te rm in a tio n o f th e ir services w ith o u t prejud ice.
Transfers w ithin bureau.— I n previou s re p o rts I have re fe rre d to a
condition w hich exists in th is b u reau a n d w hich I believe has no
p arallel elsew here in th e G overnm ent service, nam ely , th e continu al
tra n s fe r of em ployees fro m one of th e m ain divisions to an o th er an d
from one class of w ork to a n o th e r w ith in a division. I n fa c t, the
m a jo rity of th e census positions do no t c a rry definite and u n c h an g ­
in g duties, and th e value of th e em ployees depen ds la rg e ly on th e ir
v e rsa tility an d ab ility to ta k e up one class o f w ork a fte r another.
I t is im possible to m ake any estim ate o f th e changes in duties
w ith in th e sam e division — th ey w ould doubtless n u m b er in the
h u n d re d s—b u t th e records show th e tra n s fe r of 485 em ployees from
one m ain division to a n o th e r d u rin g th e p a st fiscal year. T n is m eans
th a t th e em ployees are freq u e n tly assigned te m p o ra rily to a h ig h er
or a low er g ra d e o f w ork. T hose assigned to th e h ig h e r gra d es of
w ork ap p eal fo r changes in th e ir classification g rades, b u t in view
of th e ir te m p o ra ry assig nm ents an d th e a p p ro p ria tio n s av ailable it
is not alw ays p racticab le to m ake such changes. T h e b u reau is,
th ere fo re , en co u n te rin g considerable difficulty in d e alin g w ith a p ­
peals. as well as in h a n d lin g th e efficiency ra tin g s of em ployees
whose d u ties and im m ediate superviso rs are con tin u ally chan ging.

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R E PO R T OP T H E SECRETA RY OP C O M M E R CE
R E C O M M E N D A T IO N S FO R C H A N G E S IN C E N SU S L A W S

Industrial and business statistics.—T h e value of statistic s concerning
th e p ro d u ctio n , consum ptio n, an d stocks of com m odities is now g en ­
e ra lly recognized, and th e re is a con tin u ally in creasin g dem and fo r
such statistics. I th e re fo re renew th e recom m endation m ade in my
re p o rt fo r 1924 th a t specific legislation be enacted a u th o riz in g th e ir
collection an d com pilation.
Cotton.—T h e re is a contin ued dem and fo r in fo rm atio n concerning
th e q u a n titie s of th e several g rad es of cotton held in th e U n ited
S ta te s and elsew here, a n d I th e re fo re renew m y recom m endation fo r
le gislation p ro v id in g fo r th e g ra d in g an d sta p lin g of cotton. I also
I’enew m y recom m endation fo r th e rep eal o f th e act of A u g u st 7,1916,
p ro v id in g fo r th e collection an d p u b lic a tio n of statistic s o f raw an d
p re p a re d cotton and lin te rs, cotton w aste, an d h u ll fiber consum ed in
th e m a n u fa c tu re o f guncotto n an d o th er explosives an d o f absorbent
an d m edicated cotton.
Stocks of leaf tobacco.— I have freq u en tly recom m ended th a t th e act
o f C ongress app ro v ed A p ril 30, 1912, be am ended so as to tra n s fe r
to th e B u re au of In te rn a l R evenue th e w ork of collecting an d p u b ­
lish in g statistic s o f stocks o f le a f tobacco.
M arriage and divorce.— S ta tistic s of m a rria g e a n d divorce fo rm an
im p o rta n t p a rt o f th e v ita l statistic s o f th e U n ite d S ta te s an d th e ir
value is very ge n erally recognized. I recom m end th e en actm en t of
a law p ro v id in g th a t such statistic s sh all be collected a n n u ally and
sh all be pu blished in connection w ith those fo r b irth s an d d eath s now
com piled by th e B u re au of th e Census.
V ery tru ly yours,
W . M. S t e u a r t ,
D ire c to r o f th e C ensus.

B U R E A U O F F O R E IG N A N D D O M E S T IC C O M M E R C E

Bu r ea u

of

D e pa r t m e n t o f Co m m e r c e ,
F o r e ig n a n d D o m e s t ic C o m m e r c e ,
W a s h in ffto n , J u l y 1 , 1925.

lio n . H e r b er t H o o v er ,

S e c r e ta ry o f C o m m erce.

D e a r M r . S e c r e t a r y : I n response to y o u r request I fu rn ish th e
follow ing condensed re p o rt up o n th e w ork of th e b u reau d u rin g th e
fiscal y e a r ended J une 30, 1925:
T h e o u tsta n d in g fe a tu re o f th e record is th e really trem endous
advance in th e volum e o f services w hich th e b u re a u fu rn ish e d in
response to th e requests o f A m erican business m en. T h e to ta l fo r
th e fiscal y e a r ju s t ended w as in excess of 2,000,000, th e exact figure
being 2,091,250. A s com pared w ith th e y e ar im m ediately preced ing ,
th e g a in in th e n u m b er o f in d iv id u a l services p e rfo rm ed w as m ore
th a n 850,000. A n d th e re is every reason to believe th a t, in dollarsand-cents resu lts p e r in q u iry answ ered, th e service has been m ore
p ra c tica l, m ore efficacious, th a n ever before. I t has been directed
w ith th e pu rp o se o f a u g m en tin g a n d fa c ilita tin g th e sale of A m e r­
ican m erch andise in all th e reg io ns o f th e w orld. Specific facts
fro m a g re a t v a rie ty of sources show th a t th is object h as been m ost
am ply a tta in e d . T h e recog nition accorded to th e w ork of th e
bureau is strik in g ly illu stra te d b y th e fa c t th a t, in a th ree-y ear
p erio d, th e n um be r of business m en h a v in g recourse to its facilities
has reg istered a fo u rfo ld increase.
G re a te r sy stem atizatio n h a s been in tro d u ced in every b ra n ch of
th e service. T h e re h as been a d istin c t “ tig h te n in g up ” all alon g
th e lin e— a con cen tratio n on essentials an d an elim in atio n o f m e th ­
ods th a t seemed rela tiv ely ill-ad a p te d to th e p a rtic u la r aim s in view.
Im p o rta n t economies have been b ro u g h t to bear. T w o exam ples
w ill serve to illu s tra te th is tendency. I n th e im p o rta n t w ork of
d is trib u tin g special circu lars, a th o ro u g h g o in g revisio n o f th e m a il­
in g lists a n d th e in tro d u c tio n o f o th e r economies have b ro u g h t about
a 280 p e r cen t increase in service w ith only a slig h t increase in th e
num b er o f sheets m im eographed. I n th e S ta tis tic a l A b stra c t o f th e
U n ite d S ta te s th e n u m b er or pages h as been reduced about one-sixth,
but, by va rio u s m ethods o f condensation, th e n um ber o f statistical
item s shown has been m a te ria lly in creased; th e average num b er of
item s show n p e r page has been increased by one -th ird . T h e re has
been a c o n sta n t effort to u tiliz e th e b u re a u ’s a p p ro p ria tio n s to th e
g re a te st possible ad v an ta g e, an d , by m ore a d ro it an d precise m e th ­
ods of o p eratio n , to m ake th em c o n trib u te m ore d ire c tly a n d sub­
sta n tia lly to th e volum e o f A m erican com m erce an d th e p ro fits
accru in g th ere fro m .
T en new offices o f th e bureau ab ro ad and tw o new d is tric t offices
and fo u r new cooperativ e offices in th is co u n try have been opened
87

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R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

d u rin g th e p a s t fiscal year. A new p h ase o f a c tiv ity is exem plified
in th e tw o ex haustiv e stu dies of dom estic reg io n al m ark ets—the
P h ila d e lp h ia an d A tla n ta areas— w hich have been com pleted. A
series o f bu lletin s designed to im prove re ta il tra d e p ractices has been
issued—th is, too, being a d e p a rtu re fo r ou r o rg an iz atio n . A
“ sta n d a rd iz a tio n section ” w as established a t W a sh in g to n to p e r­
fo rm w ork in connection w ith u n ifo rm ity o f specifications. These
a n d o th e r fe a tu re s o f th e b u re a u ’s recent efforts are described in th e
follow in g pages.
T h e re have been m any s trik in g testim onials, d u rin g th e p a s t fiscal
ye ar, to th e actu al concrete resu lts accom plished by th e b u re au ’s
efforts. F o r exam ple, th e b u reau k e p t a record, from J a n u a ry 1 to
M ay 6, 1925, o f th e am ounts o f business v o lu n ta rily rep o rted by v a ri­
ous concerns an d ex p licitly a ttrib u te d by them to one b ra n c h or
an o th er o f th e b u re a u ’s org an iz atio n . O nly 59 firm s ou t of the
22,000 c u rre n tly served by th e b u reau are represen ted on th is list,
y et th e sum of th e business th a t th ey ascribe to th e b u reau is $4,866,296.72. O th e r o u tsta n d in g instances o f dollars-and-cen ts services to
A m erican business w ill be fou nd th ro u g h o u t succeeding sections of
th is re p o rt.
O V ER SEA S F IE L D

STAFF

G E N E R A L C H A R A C T E R IS T IC S O F

W ORK

E a c h of th e 40 fo reig n offices p re p a res perio dic an d special re p o rts
on tra d e to p ic s; su pplies in fo rm a tio n an d advice in response to spe­
cific in qu iries by le tte r; satisfies th e req u irem en ts o f those who call
in person fo r tra d e d a ta o r fo r g u id a n ce ; conducts such in v estig a­
tion s as seem tim ely an d a p p ro p ria te u n d e r existin g economic con­
d itio n s; a d ju sts com m ercial d isp u tes betw een fo reig n officials and
firm s on th e one h a n d an d A m erican firm s on th e o th e r; a rb itra te s
difficulties w here such service is re q u e ste d ; w arn s of any illeg itim ate
phases o f fo reig n com petition o r an y possibly d iscrim in a to ry p ro ­
p osals; an d , in g en eral, c o n sta n tly fa c ilita te s such contacts an d con­
nections as w ill re su lt in increased sales of A m erican m erchandise—
w h eth er fa b ric a te d goods, fa rm p ro d u cts, or o th e r raw m aterials.
A C H IE V E M E N T S

OF

R E P R E SE N T A T IV E S

IN

EUROPE,

A F R IC A ,

AND

CANADA

T h e activ itie s of th e b u re a u ’s L o ndon office have stead ily ex:
p an d ed d u rin g th e y e ar in response to in creasin g in quiries from
A m erican business. A m ore inclusive a n d in tim a te contact has been
established w ith B ritis h com m ercial, financial, an d in d u s tria l in te r­
ests, an d fa cilitie s have been im proved fo r p la cin g in fo rm a tio n a t
th e disposal of in qu irers. V isits to th e vario us in d u s tria l a n d com­
m ercial centers o f th e U n ite d K in g d o m have fa c ilita te d th e g a th e r­
in g o f first-h an d in fo rm atio n on m a rk e t condition s a n d economic
developm ents.
T he services ren d ered b y th e L o ndon office have shown a m arked
increase. T h e nu m ber of in qu iries answ ered d u rin g th e y e ar in ­
creased 35 p e r cent over 1924, a n d th e 1,444 v isito rs who called at
th e office d u rin g 1924-25 represented an increase of m ore th a n 50

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89

per cent over th e previou s year. M any of these v is ito rs were
A m erican business m en, an d th e L o ndon office has been p a rtic u la rly
active in p la cin g its fa cilitie s a t th e disposal of these callers. A
to ta l of 390 re p o rts, in clu d in g c arefu l a n d th o ro u g h surveys of m a r­
ket an d tra d e conditio ns in th e U n ite d K in g d o m , were m ade w ith
a view to p ro m o tin g th e sale o f A m erican pro du cts. Specific serv­
ices to A m erican business in te re sts have in cluded tra d e -m a rk p ro ­
tection, th e ad ju stm en t of p a te n t discrepancies, an d th e location o f
suitable agents.
A m ong th e m a rk e t surveys p re p a re d in th e L ondon office were
several stud ies o f conditions affecting lead in g A m erican e x p o rt com ­
m odities. I n a d d itio n to these m a rk e t analyses, a la rg e num be r of
financial, g en eral economic, and m iscellaneous re p o rts have been
p re p a re d , o f w hich th e fo llow in g are ty p ic a l : “ B ritis h financial
conditions in 1924
“ B ritis h wool tra d e in 1924
“A m erican lum ­
ber shipm ents in B ritis h p o rts.” T h e cable service from th e L o ndon
office now includes a sem iannu al survey of th e positio n of A m erican
goods in th e B ritis h m ark et.
T h e o u tp u t of th e P a ris office has m a te ria lly increased. T h is office
has received d u rin g th e y e ar an e x tra o rd in a rily la rg e nu m ber of
callers w ho have, in m any cases, been p u t in touch w ith local “ con­
ta c ts ” fro m w hom th e y obtain ed d a ta or w ith whom th ey m ay es­
ta b lish business connections. A m o ng th e m ore im p o rta n t services
by th e P a ris office d u rin g th e y e a r w as th a t of k eep in g A m erican
business in fo rm ed co ncern in g th e p ro g ress of th e n eg otiatio ns fo r
a com m ercial tre a ty betw een F ra n c e a n d G erm any. M ate ria l assist­
ance w as also given in re p o rtin g in advance th e pro je cted changes
in th e F re n c h ta riff. D isputes a ris in g o u t of tra d e -m a rk abuses were
in m any cases a d ju ste d by th is office. A m erican re p re sen ta tio n a t
an im p o rta n t in te rn a tio n a l fa ir w as a rra n g e d in collaboration w ith
the A m erican C ham ber of Com m erce in Fran ce. T h e re p o rts from
the P a ris office includ ed m a tte r on th e m a rk e t fo r candles and
paraffin, sales o f A m erican autom obiles, th e m a n u fa c tu re a n d sale
of to ile t p re p a ra tio n s in F ra n e e , th e n a v a l stores in d u stry , th e sta tu s
of th e F ren c h m e ta llu rg ic al in d u stry , an d w age a n d labor condition s
in F ran ce. A nu m ber of re p o rts w ere also m ade upon v arious m a r­
ket cond ition s an d o p p o rtu n itie s in S w itzerlan d . N otes on special
developm ents in F re n c n in d u s try w ere also subm itted, g iv in g in fo r­
m atio n re g a rd in g cond ition s n o t otherw ise covered ; such notes,
a v erag in g tw o pages in le n g th , num bered a b o u t 800.
T h e co ntin ue d im provem ent of th e econom ic situ a tio n of I ta ly
d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar offered an o p p o rtu n ity fo r th e expan sion of
A m erican tra d e , a n d th e office of th e com m ercial a tta ch é a t Home
took fu ll a d v an ta g e of th is developm ent. M uch valuable in fo rm a ­
tio n w ith re g a rd to th e possibilities of th e m a rk e t w as fu rn ish e d
to A m erican ex p o rters, an d advice w as given re g a rd in g th e m ost
effective selling m ethods an d te rm s of paym ent. S u itab le re p re ­
sentatives were fou nd fo r a v a rie ty o f A m erican prod ucts. A n elec­
tric pow er association was m ade aw are of th e adv an ta g es of th e use
of wood pipe , re su ltin g in an in q u iry in vo lv in g $300,000 w o rth of
A m erican m an u fa ctu res. A w'ar co n tract w as settled to th e a d v a n ­
tage of a n A m erican firm by th e p a y m en t of $6,500, fo llow in g re p re ­
sen tatio ns m ade by th e com m ercial attache. M ore th a n 100 special
re p o rts have been su b m itted on subjects affecting A m erican trad e.

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T he service of th e office has been ex ten ded by th e a p p o in tm e n t of
an a d d itio n a l tra d e com m issioner, w ith h e ad q u a rte rs a t Home, who
re p o rts on all foodstuffs developm ents in th e M ed iterran ean area.
A w ide acq ua in tance am ong persons in S p a in com petent to re p ­
resen t A m erican e x p o rters m ade th e services of th e com m ercial
a tta ch é a t M ad rid p a rtic u la rly effective. P ro fitab le m ark ets were
foun d fo r goods fro m th e U nited States. T h e sale o f an A m erican
tra ile r a t a p rice 40 p e r cent above th a t a t w hich th e ow ner had
been w illin g to sacrifice it, coupled w ith an o rd er fo r a n a d d itio n al
num b er of these articles, is an instance of such activities. A n assist­
a n t tra d e com m issioner in th e M ad rid office m ade p ersonally a con­
nection between a rep resen ta tiv e o f a New Y o rk C ity electric com­
p an y an d a S p an ish electric com pany, fo llow in g w hich th e A m erican
firm secured an o rd er fo r $50,000 w o rth of ra d io su pp lies m o nthly
fo r a pe rio d of a y e ar or m ore. T re a ty nego tiatio n s betw een th e
U n ite d S ta te s an d S p a in w ere follow ed closely an d re p o rte d in
d etail th ro u g h th e b u reau an d d ire c tly to A m erican business.
D u rin g th e fiscal y e ar th e M ad rid office fo rw a rd e d to th e bureau
84 special rep o rts.
T o w ard th e end of th e fiscal y e ar th e staff of th e B russels office
was increased by th e ap p o in tm e n t of a n a d d itio n a l tra d e com m is­
sioner, assigned to re p o rt on condition s affecting th e tobacco tra d e
in th e w hole of E u ro p e. M on th ly sum m aries of g en eral condition s
in B elgium no t only w ere contin ued as a p a r t of th e m a te ria l re g u ­
la rly p u blishe d by th is bureau, b u t w ere re g a rd ed as a u th o rita tiv e
by th e B elg ian G overnm ent and w ere pub lish ed in th e offici al R evue
du T ra v a il. D evelopm ents in each im p o rta n t B elg ian in d u s try w ere
c arefu lly observed and re p o rte d upon w eekly fo r th e benefit of
A m erican business men. T h e office was especially active in len d in g
its a id to A m erican business m en w ho called p ersonally fo r advice in
e n te rin g th e B elg ian m a rk e t or in m a in ta in in g th e ir tra d e connec­
tion s there.
T h e num b er o f callers a t T h e H a g u e office seeking help in th e p ro ­
m otion o f sales of U n ite d S ta te s p ro d u c ts increased steadily. S p e­
cial re p o rts w ritte n by th is office covered a wide ran g e of topics,
g iv in g valu ab le in fo rm a tio n on p a rt-p a y m e n t contracts, th e im p o r­
tance of G erm any in th e N e th erlan d s coal tra d e , th e to ile t-p re p a ra ­
tio n in d u s try an d m ark et, th e m a rk e t fo r candles an d paraffin w ax,
th e o rg a n iz atio n of th e D u tc h foreig n-exch ange m ark et, bus tra n s ­
p o rta tio n in th e N eth erlan d s, and th e im p o rtan ce o f in la n d w a te r­
ways.
A m ark ed increase in A m erican e x p o rts an d credits to G erm an y
occurred upo n th e go in g in to effect o f th e D aw es p la n e a rly in th e
fiscal y e ar 1924-25. I n th is th e B e rlin office p a rtic ip a te d b y re n d e r­
in g in v alu ab le service to A m erican business and b a n k in g interests.
M illions of d o llars of new business was secured by th e establishm ent
of a g re a t nu m ber o f new connections fo r ou r ex p o rters, a fte r
th o ro u g h surveys o f m a rk e t possibilities an d m ethods a n d th e p re p a ­
ra tio n o f lists o f th e m ost desirab le G erm an agents. T h e re p o rts on
c u rre n t changes, in clu d in g th e new ta x a tio n pla n , th e rev alo rizatio n
plan fo r p a p er-m a rk debts, th e abolition o f fo rm er financial re s tric ­
tion, an d o th e r m easures have enabled A m erican business m en to ta k e
p ro m p t a d v an ta g e of possibilities in c u rre n t developm ents. T he

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91

definite lim its placed upon A m erican im p o rts into G erm an y by the
im p o rt license system were given close a tte n tio n , m ak in g possible sales
of autom obiles, office appliances, canned foodstuffs, etc., a m o u n tin g
to an increase exceeding $15,000,000. T h e num ber o f m a jo r re p o rts
su b m itted by th e B e rlin office increased fro m 86 in th e fiscal y e ar
1924 to 135 in 1925, w hile economic a n d tra d e notes m o unted from
345 to 555.
A b ra n ch of th e B e rlin office was established in H a m b u rg , G e r­
m any, in O ctober, 1924, in c h arg e o f a tra d e com m issioner, and th e
staff was increased by th e ad d itio n of an a ssista n t tra d e com m is­
sioner in Ju n e , 1925. T h is office h as specialized in foodstuffs, m ore
p a rtic u la rly m eats an d fa ts, concerning w hich th e tra d e com m issioner
sent in w eekly m a rk e t re p o rts by cable from Novem ber to A p ril,
covering G erm any, E n g la n d , th e N eth erlan d s, B elgiu m , and D en­
m ark. H e also sen t in pe rio d ic al re p o rts bjr m ail on m eats, fats, and
foodstuffs covering all of E urop e. O n these subjects an d m any
oth ers he m ade special re p o rts an d answ ered m any in q u iries from
the tra d e . M ost o f h is tim e w as sp en t in th e w ork of tra d e p ro m o ­
tion, especially in m eats a n d fa ts in G erm any, E n g la n d , a n d o th er
countries covered by his re p o rts. I n p a rtic u la r, he aid ed A m erican
packers in o b ta in in g suitable ag en ts an d also in m a tte rs re la tin g to
the enforcem ent of th e new B ritis h re g u la tio n s on food preservatives.
T h e V ienna office, in connection w ith th e several larg e A u stria n
loans th a t have been placed in th e U n ited S ta te s d u rin g th e y ear, has
aided bankers an d n e g o tia to rs w ith in fo rm atio n on economic condi­
tion s o f th e co u n try an d its several S ta te s and m unicip alities, and
has b ro u g h t them in touch w ith A u stria n officials, bankers, an d busi­
ness men. I t lias answ ered m any in q u iries fro m A m erican busi­
ness men, especially ex p o rters, w ith reference to th e A u stria n m a r­
ket fo r th e ir goods, its p e cu liar requirem ents, its com m ercial laws
and usages; has secured ag en ts fo r several A m erican m akes of a u to ­
mobiles an d fo r differen t lines of foodstuffs, fiber, petro leum p ro d ­
ucts, shoe polish, an d m any o th e r m a n u fa ctu red a rtic le s; has shielded
A m erican business m en in some cases from losses on b ad checks, an d
has o btain ed p erm its fo r im p o rta tio n of th e ir goods. I t has b ro u g h t
about a satisfa c to ry ad ju stm en t of a co m p lain t of im p ro p er delivery
of A m erican m ach in ery w hich th re aten ed th e prestig e o f A m erican
m achine m an u fa ctu res in A u stria . I t has induced the A u stria n
G overnm ent to relax its re stric tio n s on th e im p o rt of A m erican
autom obiles an d to rem ove a t least one re g u la tio n th a t prevented
A m erican autom obiles in bond from being e x h ib ited to prospective
purchasers. I t assisted in closing an in itia l sale of $25,000 w o rth
of special A m erican office ap p lian ces to the F e d e ra l R ailw ays. T he
special re p o rts fro m th e V ien n a office included such subjects as G ov­
ern m ent finance, fo reign tra d e , com m ercial laws, conditions in v a ri­
ous in d u strie s a n d trad es, an d th e m a rk e t fo r num erous A m erican
products.
T h e office a t P ra g u e , C zechoslovakia, has been successful, in a
difficult situ a tio n , in o b ta in in g p e rm its fo r im p o rtatio n of A m erican
goods, p a rtic u la rly in th e case o f autom obiles, ra d io sets., and sm all
tracto rs. I t has ob tained fav o rab le ru lin g s as to ta riff du ties, p a r ­
tic u la rly up on electrical ap p lian ces an d autom obiles, an d has a n ­
swered m any inqu iries, besides a id in g v isitin g A m ericans w ith in6 6 5 4 8 — 2 5 ------ 7

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fo rm atio n as to th e p re v a ilin g economic an d m a rk e tin g conditions
in Czechoslovakia. Su itab le ag en ts were located fo r m any lines of
goods, p a rtic u la rly m etals, autom obiles, m achinery, rad io sets, co t­
ton , and au to m atic lig h tin g devices, an d in one case th e activ ities of
th e office aided m a te ria lly in b rin g in g about th e sale of 10 auto m o­
biles. As a re su lt of th e assistance rendered by th e office, an A m e ri­
can tobacco firm received a co n tra ct to fu rn ish a la rg e q u a n tity of
tobacco to Czechoslovakia. Im p o rta n t service w as ren d ered to
A m erican firm s in th e satisfa c to ry a d ju stm e n t o f a num b er of tra d e
difficulties w ith C zechoslovak concerns. D u rin g th e y e ar 50 special
re p o rts, 184 economic and tra d e notes, 35 tra d e o p p o rtu n ities, an d 55
cablegram s, in clu d in g 12 m o n th ly economic cablegram s, have been
su bm itted by th e P ra g u e office. T h e special re p o rts included th e
follow ing su bjects: N atio n al and m u nicip al finance, th e prices and
m ark ets fo r num erou s com m odities, fo reign tra d e , vario us in dustries,
com m ercial treaties, an d com m ercial an d b an k in g laws.
T h e b u re a u ’s office a t W arsa w , P o la n d , b ro u g h t to a successful
conclusion th e n eg otiatio ns fo r th e in sta llatio n of a la rg e ra d io p la n t
by an A m erican co rp o ra tio n , an d has assisted an o th er firm in be­
g in n in g w ork on a la rg e co n tra ct fo r w ater su p p ly in fo u r P olish
cities. A ssistance was given in th e sale of A m erican g ra in , an d two
la rg e claim s ag ain st P o lish te x tile m ills w ere sa tisfa c to rily ad ju sted
th ro u g h th e in te rv en tio n o f th e office. A num ber o f d ire c t sales by
A m erican firms w ere accom plished th ro u g h th e m ediatio n o f th e
com m ercial attach é. T h e W arsa w office sent in 73 special re p o rts, in
a d d itio n to th e usual weekly re p o rts an d economic an d tra d e notes.
T h e P o lish m a rk e t fo r in d iv id u a l A m erican com m odities w as cov­
ered in these re p o rts, as well as th e situ a tio n in th e le ad in g P o lish
in d u stries, P o lish fo reign tra d e , crops, tre a tie s betw een th e P olish
and o th e r governm ents, and th e in te rn a tio n a l fa ir at Posnan. A
special re p o rt d e a lt w ith th e law s re la tin g to applicatio n fo r p aten ts
and re g istra tio n of designs and tra d e -m a rk s in Po land.
T h e te rrito ry of th e office a t R ig a , L a tv ia , now com prises L a tv ia ,
E sth o n ia , a n d 'L ith u a n ia , a new office h a v in g been opened d u rin g th e
y e ar in F in la n d . “ C o n tact w ork ” co n stitu ted th e g re a te r p o rtio n
o f th e activ ities of th e office. A ssistance w as rend ered to th e L a t­
vian G ov ernm ent in connection w ith its five-year reconstru ctio n
plan. N um erous conferences w ere likew ise held w ith th e G ove rn ­
m ent officials of th e o th er tw o B altic States. M uch tim e was devoted
to th e p re p a ra tio n o f re p o rts on B a ltic fiscal affairs and also on
conditio ns in R ussia. Special efforts w ere m ade by th e office to in ­
tro du ce new lines of A m erican m erchandise, p a rtic u la rly ra d io
equipm ent. T he office has also endeavored, w ith considerable suc­
cess, to ex ten d th e sale of established lines o f com m odities, especially
autom obiles. T h e office was in stru m e n ta l in b rin g in g several in v est­
m en t o p p o rtu n itie s to th e a tte n tio n o f A m erican bankers.
T h e te rrito ry covered by th e C openhagen office was reduced to
D e n m ark an d N orw ay by th e tra n s fe r of Sw eden to th e new Sto ck ­
holm office. P a rtic u la r a tte n tio n was devoted to th e p re p a ra tio n o f
m a jo r re p o rts on D an ish an d N orw egian finances, banks, a n d im ­
p o rta n t foreig n-exch ange developm ents. T h e num b er of A m erican
callers was m uch la rg e r th a n d u rin g th e p revio us year, an d much

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tim e an d effort were devoted to assistin g them in fo rm in g contacts
or o b ta in in g in fo rm atio n . T h e com m ercial a tta ch é m ade several
trip s o f in v e stig atio n in N orw ay a n d Sw eden, in te rv ie w in g tra d e
contacts, G overnm ent officials, a n d A m erican G overnm ent re p re se n t­
atives. T h e office aided th e T re a su ry by fu rn ish in g com plete and
d etailed in fo rm a tio n on th e affairs o f th e Issu e B a n k of th e fo rm er
D a n ish W est In dies. Special a tte n tio n w as giv en to th e m a tte r of
assistin g A m erican autom otive m a n u fa c tu re rs in ex ten d in g sales in
D e n m ark an d N orw ay. Several tra d e disp u tes w ere h an d led by th e
office, an d settlem en t was effected to th e satisfactio n of th e p a rtie s
involved. A la rg e am oun t of research w ork w as required to answ er
num erou s g en eral inq uiries em an a tin g fro m both official an d p riv a te
sources.
T h e b u re a u ’s office a t Stockholm , Sw eden, was opened O ctober 1.
1924, and “ con tact w ork ” h as been a m a jo r necessity th ere. I t has
been one of th e p rin c ip a l endeav ors of th is office to secure able re p ­
resen ta tiv es fo r A m erican firm s, an d th e efforts m ade in th is d irec­
tio n have been p ro d u c tiv e of excellent results. T h ro u g h th e in te r­
vention of th e Stockholm office a la rg e sh ip m en t of apples, refu sed
by th e o rig in al consignee, w as disposed of w ith a sav in g of tim e
an d m oney to th e A m erican sh ip p er. Im p o rta n t in fo rm atio n has
been fu rn ish e d to v ariou s com m odity divisions of th e b u reau a t
W ash in g to n . T im ely a n d valuable tra d e notes on Sw edish develop­
m ents were p re p a re a . T h e office was in stru m e n ta l in p re v e n tin g a
la rg e increase in th e im p o rt d u ty on A m erican films. A ssistance was
giv en to th e U n ite d S ta te s S h ip p in g B o ard in securin g ou tg o in g
cargo to th e U n ite d States.
T h e H elsin g fo rs office, opened Septem ber 10, 1924, fu rn ish ed the
bureau w ith d irect a n d detailed re p o rts on economic conditions and
tendencies in F in la n d , as well as on m a rk e t possibilities fo r specific
com m odities. T h e contact w ork was u n usually extensive fo r a new
office. A p p ro x im a te ly 30 agency a n d purchase m a tte rs betw een
A m erican an d F in n ish firm s w ere d ire c tly han d led , o u t o f w hich
m ore th a n $20,000 w orth o f business h as a lre ad y resulted, accordin g
to a conservative estim ate based on in q u iry am ong th e firm's in F in ­
la n d concerned in th e tran sactio n s. I n a d d itio n , th e re were several
agency a rra n g em en ts p e n d in g a t th e close of th e fiscal year.
N um erous claim s o f A m erican cred ito rs have been ad ju sted or
b ro u g h t n e arer to settlem en t by th e B u ch a re st office d u rin g th e p a st
year. A m erican in te re sts affected by th e m o rato riu m a g ain st fo reign
credito rs, o r by th e new m in in g law , have b een .aid ed . Special a t­
te n tio n was given to a n analy sis of th e R u m a n ia n m a rk e t fro m th e
A m erican p o in t of view, th e resu lts being em bodied in tw o special
rep o rts. A n o th e r in v estig atio n d e a lt w ith th e im p o rta tio n of w heat
by R u m a n ia an d a fo u rth w ith tobacco pro d u ctio n . E x ten siv e re ­
p o rts w ere p re p a red on “ T h e new R u m an ian im p o rt ta riff,”
“A g ra ria n re fo rm in R u m a n ia ,” “ T h e R u m an ian bu d g et,” an d
“ T h e n a tio n a liza tio n of th e petro leum in d u s try ,” an d perio d ic al re ­
p o rts were also p re p a re d on p etro leum , a g ric u ltu re , an d lum ber.
T h e tra d e com m issioner in c h arg e of th e C o n stan tin o p le office has
kep t A m erican business m en well acqu ainted w ith th e s h iftin g eco­
nom ic situ atio n in T u rk ey , an d by personal con tact has ren d ered

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valuable assistance to A m erican concerns v isitin g C on stantin op le.
T h e C o n stan tin o p le office has p a id p a rtic u la r a tte n tio n to th e ta riff
situ atio n in T u rk e y and also to th e in tro d u ctio n of A m erican m o­
tio n -p ictu re films. T h is office h as also aid ed th e A m erican H ig h
Com m ission to a very su b sta n tial extent. A tte n tio n w as given to
th e a d ju stm e n t of tra d e disp u tes a n d old accounts. T h e suboffice at
S m yrna rep o rted exhaustiv ely on th e fig an d ra isin in d u stry . T h e
C on stan tin o p le office has su b m itted a nu m ber of special rep o rts,
am ong w hich are “ T h e economic policy of th e new T u rk ish R e­
p u b lic,” “ P a rt-p a y m e n t co n tracts in T u rk e y ,” “ O rg a n iz atio n of th e
T u rk ish exchange m a rk e t,” an d “ In d u s try and tra d e in to ile t p re p ­
a ra tio n s in T u rk e y .”
T h e office a t A th ens, Greece, has k e p t A m erican business in close
tou ch w ith condition s an d has re p o rte d re g u la rly on th e tw o p r in ­
cip al e x p o rt in d u strie s of Greece— c u rra n ts and tobacco. M em bers
of th e staff have v isited eastern Pelopo nnesu s an d w estern T h rac e
to o b ta in first-h an d in fo rm atio n on g en eral conditions, an d Volo
and C av alla to in v estig ate tobacco m an ip u la tio n . A t C av alla sub­
s ta n tia l assistance w as given th e re p re se n ta tiv es of A m erican com ­
panies th ere , w ho buy th e b e tte r g ra d e of tobacco fo r e x p o rt to th e
U n ite d States. T h e A th en s office ren d ered im p o rta n t services in
connection w ith th e secu rin g of a la rg e w aterw o rk s c o n tra ct by an
A m erican concern. T h is single c o n tra ct am oun ts to several m illions
of do llars. A n im p o rta n t fu n c tio n of th e A th e n s office h as been
to assist in th e collection of A m erican claim s an d th e ad ju stm en t
of overdue accounts. A m ong th e special re p o rts sent in d u rin g th e
y e a r w ere “ M a rk e t o f N axos em ery,” “ H ig h w a y situ a tio n in
G reece,” “ G reek m a rk e t fo r fa rm m ach in ery ,” “ G reek f u r tra d e ,”
a n d “ G reek o rg an iz atio n of fo reig n exchange.”
T h e b u re a u ’s office a t A le x a n d ria , E g y p t, w as opened in J a n u a ry ,
1924, an d p io ne er w ork has n a tu ra lly co n stitu ted its m a jo r effort.
A m erican business has been k e p t in close touch w ith th e situ a tio n
as re g a rd s cotton, th is being th e ch ief e x p o rt p ro d u c t of E g y p t.
T h e office has also been p a in sta k in g in its efforts to in fo rm A m erican
concerns re g a rd in g th e s h iftin g conditions affecting cotton piece
oods. A m erican re p re se n ta tiv es v isitin g E g y p t have been assisted
y th e tra d e com m issioner in charge. A m on g th e special re p o rts
w ere “ E g y p tia n m a rk e t fo r to ile t p re p a ra tio n s,” “ E g y p tia n shoe
in d u s try an d tra d e ,” “ T ren d s in E g y p tia n cotton piece-goods de­
m ands,” an d “ C o m p etitiv e fa c to rs in tra d e of E g y p t.”
T h e w ork o f th e Jo h a n n e sb u rg office h as reflected a g ro w in g in ­
te re st in th e S o u th A fric a n m a rk e t on th e p a r t of A m erican ex ­
p o rte rs an d m a n u fa ctu rers. T h e office h as answ ered 489 in q u iries
fro m A m erican ex p o rte rs d u rin g th e years, a n d in m any in stances
has secured su itab le ag en ts fo r A m erican firm s w hich, because of
th e ir u n fa m ilia rity w ith th e m a rk e tin g m eth ods cu sto m ary in th e
U n io n of S o u th A frica , w ere freq u e n tly d ep en d en t upon th e recom ­
m endation s o f th e J o h a n n e sb u rg office. A s a single exam ple o f th e
ty p e o f concrete service ren d ered by th e office, i t m ay be m entioned
th a t th e tra d e com m issioner perso n ally m ade a S o u th A fric a n con­
nection fo r an A m erican calculatin g-m achin e com pany, th ro u g h
w hich an in itia l o rd e r o f $1,650 w as im m ediately placed w ith th e

f

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A m erican concern, w ith s tro n g in d ic atio n s of u ltim a te business in
considerable volum e. T h e tra d e com m issioner has devoted p a rtic u ­
la r a tte n tio n to ta riff m atters, an d , in th is connection, w as in s tru ­
m ental in p ro c u rin g a m odification of “ a n tid u m p in g ” ru lin g s
a g a in st A m erican p ro du cts. A m erican goods a re well re g a rd ed in
S outh A fric a n m ark ets, an d th e J o h a n n e sb u rg office has devoted
special a tte n tio n to su b m ittin g a com prehensive m a rk e t analysis
s e ttin g fo rth th e o p p o rtu n itie s o f in te re st to A m erican exporters.
T o m eet th e g ro w in g needs of A m erican business m en, th e bureau
opened an office a t O tta w a, C an ada , O ctob er 1, 1924. I t h as k e p t
th e A m erican business com m un ity in close touch w ith th e m a jo r
phases of th e in d u stria l developm ent an d com m ercial tre n d s of th e
D om inion. A n im p o rta n t p a r t of th e w ork of th e O tta w a office
has been th e answ erin g of in q u iries fro m A m erican firm s interested
in th e C an ad ia n m ark et. D u rin g th e nine m o nth s of op eratio n
up to th e end of th e fiscal year, n e arly 1,700 le tte rs w ere w ritte n
to outside firm s an d 1,610 in fo rm atio n al le tte rs w ere addressed to
th e bureau. In q u irie s received fro m A m erican e x p o rte rs covered
a w ide ran g e of subjects, in clu d in g th e m ark ets fo r te xtiles, radio
a p p a ra tu s, crops, school equipm ent, scales, and a d v ertisin g novel­
ties. T h e office h as closely follow ed p en d in g tra d e agreem ents, m a t­
te rs re la tin g to th e sales ta x , and custom s regulatio ns. I t has f u r ­
nished p ro m p t an d th o ro u g h re p o rts on crop conditions, an d these
have been o f g re a t benefit to A m erican in terests. I n a num b er of
instances agency arra n g em en ts w ere concluded on b e h a lf o f U n ited
S ta te s firm s, m any o p p o rtu n ities fo r th e sale of A m erican com ­
m od ities w ere m ade available, a n d active steps w ere ta k e n to assist
m a n u fa c tu re rs in dispo sing of th e ir p ro d u cts to ad v an tag e. T he
tra d e com m issioner a t O tta w a was in stru m e n ta l in fa c ilita tin g th e
purcha se in th e U n ite d S ta te s of $300,000 w o rth o f b u ild in g m ate­
ria l by a .life in su ran ce com pany a t O ttaw a. H e also a rra n g e d fo r
a C an a d ia n agency to re p re se n t a N ew Y o rk C ity novelty com pany,
re su ltin g in sales of m ore th a n $100,000 w ith in a com p arativ ely sh o rt
perio d. A s c h a ra c te ristic o f w h a t can be done even by a new ly
established office of th e bu re au , an experience of th e O tta w a office
m ay be cited. T h e office circ u larized 272 C an a d ia n m erc h an ts, to
ascertain w h eth er th e y w ere co nsiderin g th e h a n d lin g o f ad d itio n a l
A m erican agencies. R ep lies w ere received fro m 106 firm s (re p re ­
sen ting 39 p e r cent o f th e n um ber a d d re ssed ), o f w hom 86 w anted
e ith e r to re p re se n t a d d itio n a l A m erican m a n u fa c tu re rs or to buy
A m erican goods o u trig h t.
F I E I.D R E P R E S E N T A T I V E S I N

T H E EAR EAST

T h e p re p a ra tio n o f m a te ria l fo r th e revised C om m ercial H a n d ­
book of C h in a, w hich w ill be issued d u rin g th e com ing fiscal year,
constitu ted one o f th e p rin c ip a l activ itie s o f th e b u re a u ’s office a t
P ek in g . T h e re p re sen ta tiv es m charge w ere also co n stan tly engaged
in assistin g a n d a d v isin g th e A m erican L eg atio n in h a n d lin g th e
details o f A m erican claim s a g a in st th e Chinese G overnm ent. Close
contact w as m a in ta in ed w ith th e business com m unities an d A m erican
cham bers o f commerce a t T ien tsin , M ukden, H a rb in , a n d H ankow .

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C a re fu l s tu d y was devoted to financial m a tte rs o f th e Chinese G ov­
ern m ent an d to ra ilw a y affairs. A s a d irect re su lt of th e assistance
given by th e P e k in g office to an A m erican a g ric u ltu ra l im plem ents
com pany, th a t firm booked an in itia l o rd e r w ith Gen. F e n g YuH sian g , special com m issioner fo r th e N o rth w est T e rrito ry em bracing
M ongolia an d Chinese T u rk esta n , fo r tw o ro ad tra c to rs, one fa rm
tra c to r, a th re sh in g outfit, one rake, tw o g ra in d rills, tw o tra ile rs,
th re e plow s, tw o m ow ing m achines, and tw o disk h arro w s. T h is was
o n ly one exam ple of th e concrete service rendered fo r th e benefit o f
A m e ric an in terests.
T h e S h a n g h a i office k e p t in close contact w ith th e 285 A m erican
firms in th a t te rrito ry , as well as w ith th e fo reig n an d n ativ e firms
h a n d lin g A m erican agencies. Specific assistance on th e p a r t o f th is
office resulted in th e actu al p la cin g o f o rd ers w ith A m erican firms
to ta lin g u p w a rd o f $100,000. In one instance a m a n u fa c tu re r was
saved a c ertain loss o f ap p ro x im a te ly $14,000 th ro u g h th e p ro m p t
action of th e b u re a u ’s S h a n g h a i office. T h e m em bers o f th e S h a n g ­
hai staff p re p a red 130 special re p o rts on tra d e an d economic subjects.
T h e office a t C an ton , C hina, was opened Septem ber 1, 1924, a n d th e
tra d e com m issioner in charge has been very active in fu rth e rin g
A m erican tra d e in terests in H o n g k o n g an d C anton.
T h e o u tsta n d in g fe a tu re of th e w ork of th e T okyo office has been
th e larg e nu m ber o f special re p o rts an d replies to questio nnaires
th a t were com pleted d u rin g th e year. A new w eekly cable service
on g en eral economic condition s was in a u g u ra ted , and the office sub­
m itte d , in ad d itio n , weekly cable re p o rts on lum ber, rice, a n d cotton
textiles. T h ro u g h use of a new special code th e m o nthly cable
service was exp an de d an d im proved. A n especially significant
f hase o f th e w ork a t T okyo h as been in p ro te c tin g A m erican firm s
rom tra d e -m a rk in frin g em en ts. T h ro u g h its p ro m p t cable advices
concernin g contem plated in frin g em en ts it has been enabled to save
A m erican firm s, in m any instances, fro m em barrassm ent an d e x ­
pense. T h e T okyo office also has ren d ered valuable service in th e
ad ju stm en t o f tra d e d isp u tes a ris in g fro m a la rg e num be r o f claim s
th a t grew ou t o f th e e arth q u ak e, a n d it h as been in stru m e n ta l in th e
p la cin g o f m any A m erican agencies w ith Ja p a n e se firms.
T h ro u g h th e dire ct efforts o f th e b u re a u ’s A u stra lia n o rg a n iz a ­
tio n , m any new A m erican agencies were established in th e C om m on­
w ealth. A s an in stance o f do llars-and -cen ts service, an A m erican
firm m a n u fa c tu rin g p la y e r pianos an d m usic ro lls was able, w ith
th e assistance an d advice of th e A m erican tra d e com m issioner, to
secure an o rd e r a m o u n tin g to $25,000, a n d a fu rth e r o rd e r o f $100,000
is in view. M any letters o f in tro d u ctio n were issued to A u stra lia n
business m en a n d G overnm ent officials co n tem p latin g visits to th e
U n ite d S tates. A m erican salesm en an d re p re se n ta tiv es w ere alm ost
d a ily callers a t th e office, a n d w ere placed in tou ch w ith A u stra lia n
business houses an d G overnm ent p u rc h a sin g agents. A m o ng th e
m any re p o rts p re p a re d by th e M elbourne office d u rin g th e y ear were
“ M ark et in A u stra lia fo r to ile t p re p a ra tio n s,” “ M arket fo r ru b b er
specialties,” “ N av al stores,” “ T ra v e le rs’ g uid e to A u stra lia ,” “ T r a v ­
elers’ g uide to New Z ealand,” “ A u stra lia n electric-su p p ly system ,”
“ S u rv ey o f A u stra lia n autom otive tra d e ,” etc. A new office w as

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opened by th e b u reau a t Sy dn ey on J u ly 1, 1925, w hich, w ith th e
office a t M elbourne, w ill be able to cover th e A u stra lia n an d New
Z ealand areas in a th o ro u g h m anner.
T h e scarcity of A m erican agencies in I n d ia com pelled th e b u re a u ’s
representativ es in th a t c o u n try to spend a considerable p a rt of th e ir
tim e d u rin g th e p a st y e ar in in v e stig a tin g m a rk e t possibilities and
seeking o u t su itab le sales o u tlets fo r A m erican goods. A num b er
of new connections riiade have been m ore th a n satisfa cto ry . A m ong
concrete resu lts d ire c tly a ttrib u ta b le to th e b u re a u ’s activities m ay
be m ention ed an o rd e r fo r a ir com pressors a m o u n tin g to $15,000 and
one fo r a w ell-know n A m erican sp ecialty to th e value of $10,000.
Success w as a tta in e d in h a v in g A m erican branches re g istered and
placed in p o sition to do business w ith th e p u rc h a sin g d e p artm en ts of
th e In d ia n G overnm ent. A m o ng th e special re p o rts su b m itte d to th e
bureau, p a rtic u la r m ention should be m ade of “A d v e rtisin g in
In d ia ,” “ M ark et fo r electric fa n s,” “ M ark et fo r jew elry ,” “ M ark et
fo r to ile t requ isites,” “A uto m otiv e m a rk e t review , “A lcohol,” “ C om ­
m ercial tra v e le rs’ g u id e,” “ N av al stores in In d ia .” T h e w ide p u b ­
licity giv en these stu dies aroused g re a t in te re st in th e In d ia n
m arket.
T h e w o rk o f th e b u re a u ’s office a t B a ta v ia , J a v a , d u rin g th e first
h a lf of th e fiscal y e ar was la rg e ly devoted to a stu d y of th e general
o rg a n iz a tio n of pub lic a n d p riv a te business in th e D u tc h E a s t In d ie s
an d of th e fu n d a m e n tal condition s up on w hich th ey rest. T he tra d e
com m isioner developed contacts w ith G overnm ent, ban k in g , an d com ­
m ercial in te re sts an d p re p a re d re p o rts on finance an d th e m ore im ­
p o rta n t in d u strie s an d com m odities. U pon recom m endations of th e
tra d e com m issioner A m erican firm s placed a num ber of successful
agencies, an d one firm gave to an A m erican concern a c o n tra ct of a
value of $25,000. V ario u s tra d e com plain ts were in vestig ated an d
sa tisfa c to rily settled.
Special re p o rts su b m itted by th e M an ila office covered, am ong
o th ers, th e follo w ing su bjects: “ C o n struction p la n s in th e P h ilip p in e
Isla n d s,” “A u to m otiv e census,” “ R eo rg an iz atio n of th e P h ilip p in e
B an k ,” “ Steam sh ip services betw een th e P h ilip p in e s a n d th e U n ited
S ta te s,” a n d “ T h e developm ent o f ra d io te le p h o n y .” M ate ria l fo r
th e Com m erce Y earboo k was revised, an d , by special request, a bus­
iness review of th e islands fo r 1924 was p re p a re d fo r a d irecto ry .
T h e assistan t tra d e com m issioner (in c h arg e) took an active p a r t in
local business affairs a n d m ade a to u r o f th e so u th ern islands o f th e
arch ip elag o d u rin g th e la tte r p a r t o f th e y e ar to acq u ain t him self
w ith th e possibilities fo r th e ir in d u s tria l developm ent. T h e w ork of
th e M an ila office w as considerably lig h te n ed by cooperatio n on the
g a rt of th e officials o f th e in su la r governm ent, or th e A m erican
ham b er o f Com m erce, an d , m ost especially, of th e G o vern or G en­
e ra l’s office, w hich m ade it a policy to co n fer w ith th e b u re a u ’s re p ­
resen tativ e in all tra d e m atters.
A C T IV IT IE S O F F IE L D R E P R E S E N T A T IV E S I N

L A T IN

A M E R IC A

O n a nu m be r of occasions th e office o f th e bu reau a t B uenos A ires
has assisted A m erican firm s in o b ta in in g valuable co n tracts and has

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b ro u g h t abo ut fav o ra b le decisions fo r sh ip p ers on ta riff ru lin g s
an d o th er custom s m a tte rs such as identificatio n of m erchandise and
tim e fo r p re sen ta tio n of docum ents. L a rg e ly th ro u g h th e efforts
of th is office an A m erican m a n u fa c tu re r w as enabled to secure a
c o n tra ct from th e m u n ic ip a lity o f B uenos A ires fo r th e sale of a u to ­
m otive eq uipm ent valued a t abo ut h a lf a m illion do llars. A ssistance
was rende red th e A rg e n tin e rep resen ta tiv e of an A m erican steel co r­
p o ra tio n in securin g ord ers fo r g alv an ized steèl sheets a m o u n tin g
to m ore th a n $4,500,000. I n an o th er in stance a m a n u fa c tu re rs
ag en t, ap p o in te d th ro u g h th e B uenos A ires office as represe n ta tiv e
o f la rg e A m erican tex tile m ills, re p o rte d sales to ta lin g $60,000 in tw o
m onths. T h e com m ercial a tta ch é h as ta k en an active p a r t in a r ­
ra n g in g de tails fo r th e P a n A m erican H ig h w a y s C onference to be
held in O ctober, 1925. T h ro u g h close re la tio n s w ith m u n icip al and
G ove rn m ent officials, he has been in a p o sition to re n d e r g re a t service
to A m erican com m ercial tra v e lers and th e ir houses. V alu ab le an d
tim ely in fo rm a tio n relativ e to financial an d economic pro je cts in
A rg e n tin a h as been m ade av ailable to A m erican investors.
T he office a t R io de J a n e iro gave m uch a tte n tio n to a stu d y of
th e coffee m a rk e t and w as able to re n d e r valuable assistance to m em ­
bers of th e A m erican coffee tra d e in th e p rice em ergency. T h e office
aided num erous A m erican e x p o rters in p ro te c tin g th e ir tra d e -m a rk s
an d p a te n ts, w hile it help ed oth ers by o b ta in in g fo r th em responsible
ag en ts and rep re sen ta tiv es in B ra zil. T h e satisfa c to ry settlem ent
of va rio u s com m ercial dispu tes betw een A m erican a n d B ra z ilia n
firm s was am icably consum m ated th ro u g h th e d ire c t in te rv e n tio n
of th e com m ercial attach é an d h is assistants. V alu ab le o rd ers w ere
o btain ed by A m erican e x p o rters as a d ire c t re su lt of contacts m ade
w ith th e help of th e R io office. C o n stru ctiv e aid was given th e
re p re se n ta tiv e of an A m erican c o n tra c tin g com pany in its efforts to
o b ta in c o n tracts fo r extension of th e w a ter system s in Sao P a u lo
and pu blic w orks in o th e r p a rts of th e R epublic.
T h e office a t Sao P a u lo , B ra zil, am ong its o th e r services, gave con­
crete assistance to an A m erican autom obile firm an d to a la rg e m a n u ­
fa c tu re r o f A m erican th re sh in g m achines by m a k in g contacts fo r
th em in Sao P au lo . T h ro u g h its influence a p re lim in a ry o rd e r fo r
electric stam p in g m ach in ery w as placed in th e U n ite d S tates, despite
low er G erm an bids. Close co operatio n w as m a in ta in ed w ith th e
A m erican C ham ber of C om m erce; th e tra d e com m issioner w as a p ­
p o in te d c h airm an of th e com m erce com m ittee o f th a t o rg an iz atio n ,
an d , w hile a c tin g in th a t cap acity , was enabled to do considerable
w ork in c re atin g a g re a te r in te re st in A m erican a g ric u ltu ra l m a ­
chinery. In v e stig atio n s fo r A m erican bank ers o f ra ilw a y b u ild in g
schemes a n d o f a propo sed im pro vem en t in th e Sao P a u lo w atersu p p ly system w ere c a rrie d ou t, a n d th e b u re au w as k e p t in touch
a t all tim es w ith economic developm ents in th e Sao P a u lo d istric t.
A m on g o th e r activ itie s of th e office o f value to A m erican business
m ay be m ention ed th e ad ju stm en t o f claim s a n d th e in v estig atio n of
m a rk e ts fo r specific articles.
A m on g th e o u tsta n d in g resu lts influenced by th e d ire c t services o f
th e b u re a u ’s office a t S an tia g o , C hile, have been th e sale o f a p p ro x i­

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m ately $25,000 w o rth of autom obiles a n d $12,000 w o rth of auto m o­
bile accessories, $7,000 w o rth of ra d io equipm ent, $5,000 w o rth o f
rice, $5,000 w o rth o f m usical in stru m e n ts, a n d some $11,000 w o rth
of business in o th e r lines, in c lu d in g re frig e ra tin g m ach in ery , toys,
scales, b atteries, pistons, vario us k in d s o f te xtiles, electrical devices,
an d pencils. T h e p la cin g of o rd ers fo r ta n n in g equipm ent to ta lin g
m ore th a n $10,000 resulted fro m contacts m ade betw een a S an tiag o
ta n n e r an d A m erican m a n u fa ctu rers. T h e office b ro u g h t about th e
pay m en t o f sum s in excess of $6,000 in th e a d ju stm e n t of claim s an d
liq u id a tio n of accounts held a g a in st local firm s an d in d iv id u a ls by
A m ericans. T h e frie n d ly offices of th e S a n tia g o staff were extended
in th e settlem ent of nu m erou s tra d e d isp u tes an d in th e securin g of
valuable re p re se n ta tio n s fo r A m erican exp orters. A id w as given
to A m erican m a n u fa c tu re rs in th e m a tte r of p ro te ctio n fo r th e ir
tra d e -m a rk s in C hile an d in difficulties experienced in custom house
clearances. T h e com m ercial a tta ch e m ade a trip th ro u g h n o rth e rn
C hile an d B o liv ia in A p ril, e n ab lin g him to give first-h an d in fo rm a ­
tio n to th e bu re au concernin g tra d e conditio ns in those regions,
p a rtic u la rly th e activ itie s o f com petito rs of th e U n ite d S ta te s an d
o p p o rtu n itie s fo r in creasin g A m erican tra d e . A n a ssista n t tra d e
com m issioner visited th e a g ric u ltu ra l regio ns o f so u th ern C hile an d
rep o rte d on conditio ns there.
T h e office a t L im a, P e ru , h as been very active in in fo rm in g th e
A m erican business pu blic, th ro u g h re p o rts to th e b ureau, o f tra d e
an d econom ic developm ents, especially w ith reference to th e possi­
bilities of p ro m o tin g A m erican sales. O n a g re a t n u m b er of occa­
sions he lp a n d g u id ance have been given to A m erican travelers,
p a rtic u la rly as re g a rd s th e prov ision s of th e com m ercial tra v e le rs’
tre a ty betw een th e U n ite d S ta te s a n d P e ru , and close cooperation
has been m ain ta in ed w ith A m erican business firm s located in th a t
country. C oncrete re su lts have been o btain ed in a d ju stin g claim s
and differences a risin g fro m purchases o f A m erican com m odities,
w hile m uch valuable assistance has been given to A m erican firm s in
cases of tra d e -m a rk p ira c y a n d in recovery on o verp aym en ts of
custom s duties. In fo rm a tio n fu rn ish e d by th e office led to th e p u r­
chase, by a la rg e in d u s tria l co rp o ra tio n o f Ilo , P e ru , o f A m erican
canning m ach in ery an d equ ipm ent to th e value o f $10,500. A u th o ri­
zation w as secured from th e P e ru v ia n G ov ern m ent fo r im p o rtatio n s
o f A m erican shoes in to so u th ern P e ru , a regio n in w hich such im ­
p o rta tio n is otherw ise p ro h ib ited , re su ltin g in th e sale o f h u n d re d s
of p a irs of A m erican shoes.
T h o u g h th e b u re a u ’s office a t B o gota, C olom bia, h ad an unusually
sm all staff, th e w ork it has done has been o f excep tional value.
T he le tte rs an d re p o rts su b m itte d have k e p t th e b u reau constantly
in form ed re g a rd in g condition s in C olom bia a t a tim e when th a t
coun try is o f p a rtic u la r in te re st because o f its a c tiv ity in ra ilro a d
building. T h is office was co n tin u ally in touch w ith th e representativ es
of vario us A m erican firm s who w ere in C olom bia fo r th e purpo se
of secu rin g co n tracts from th e G ov ern m ent fo r ra ilro a d equipm ent
and m a te ria l, a n d ren d ered su b sta n tia l assistance to them in ob­
ta in in g such contracts. I n one in stance it w as la rg e ly th ro u g h the
efforts of th e B ogota office th a t a rep resen ta tiv e of an A m erican
6 6 5 4 8 — 2 5 ------ 8

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R E PO R T O F T H E SECRE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

com pany su p p ly in g s tru c tu ra l steel secured a c o n tract am o u n tin g
to $100,000 w ith in a week a fte r h is a rriv a l in B ogota. P ro b ab ly
th e m ost o u tsta n d in g fe a tu re o f th e y e ar was th e success o f th e com ­
m ercial a tta ch é in g e ttin g th e A n tio q u ia coffee grow ers to ta k e steps
to p re v en t th e m isb ra n d in g of “A n tio q u ia ” a n d “ M edellin ” coffee.
I t is estim ated th a t th e correctio n o f th is m isb ra n d in g w ill save th e
A m erican bu yers of coffee m ore th a n h a lf a m illion d o llars a year.
M ate ria l assistance was also given to m any A m erican m a n u fa ctu rers
by replies to tra d e in qu iries covering a w ide ran g e o f subjects. T he
office was also used by th e tra v e lin g rep re sen ta tiv es o f A m erican
firm s as a valuable source o f reliable in fo rm atio n .
E a rly in th e y e ar an office o f th e b u reau w as established in M onte­
video, U ru g u a y . A g re a t deal o f tim e has necessarily been ta k en up
in o rg an iz in g th e office, m a k in g contacts, and becom ing fa m ilia r
w ith th e field th ro u g h tra v e l, b u t th e tra d e com m issioner has, n ev er­
theless, been able to re n d e r valuable services to A m erican firm s,
p a rtic u la rly in p la cin g agencies, a d ju stin g tra d e disputes, and a d ­
vising as to o p p o rtu n ities fo r new business.
T h e propo sed ta riff changes in C uba have received th e carefu l
a tte n tio n an d stu d y o f th e H a b a n a office and have been m ade th e
subject of several extensive re p o rts. T h e staff has w orked in close
coo peratio n w ith th e A m erican C ham ber o f Com m erce in th is m a t­
ter. Several changes an d m odifications in fa v o r of A m erican in te r­
ests were m ade by th e C uban a u th o ritie s ; one in p a rtic u la r, re la tin g
to th e th re a d count on textiles, w as of considerable benefit to those
in terested in su p p ly in g th e C uban te x tile m ark et. A la rg e num b er
o f re p o rts on specific com m odities w ere su bm itted by the office and
dissem in ated to A m erican business m en by th e bureau. T h e new
pu blic-w ork s p ro je c t h as received close a tte n tio n , details have been
fu rn ish e d , and a co ntin ued close w atch w ill be k e p t as th e p la n
m aterializes and th e p o ssibility o f new business opens up fo r A m e ri­
can su p p lie rs o f th e necessary m ate rials. T h e labor situ a tio n , and
especially th e ra ilro a d problem , w ith its re la tio n to th e d istrib u tio n
of m erchandise, continu ed to receive th e a tte n tio n o f th e office an d
was m ade th e subject o f several re p o rts an d sh o rte r m em oranda.
T h e office received an d replied to m ore th a n 350 in qu iries from
A m erican business firm s on a g re a t v a rie ty o f subjects and was of
concrete assistance in th e establishm ent of new business an d th e ex ­
tension o f ex istin g lines. A n um ber o f tra d e d isp u tes and claim s
were ad ju sted , one o f these in v o lv in g th e successful reso lu tio n o f th e
claim of an A m erican com pany to th e e x te n t of $11,000. T h e office
was also in stru m e n ta l in p ro te c tin g th e in te re sts o f A m erican su p ­
p lie rs o f cottonseed oil fo r use in b re ad m aking.
B y reason of im proved tra d e conditions an d th e w id esp read in ­
te re st m an ifested by A m erican m a n u fa c tu re rs in M exico, th e w ork
o f th e M exico C ity office w as un u su ally heav y d u rin g th e y e ar an d
it was able to re n d e r very su b sta n tia l assistance to A m erican firm s
an d in du stries. D u rin g th e y e a r th e office received n e a rly 2,000
callers (th e g re a te r nu m ber being A m erican business m en v isitin g
M ex ico), assisted in th e settlem ent o f tra d e disputes, answ ered m any
tra d e inq uiries on a variety o f subjects, a n d aid ed A m erican m an u ­
fa c tu re rs an d e x p o rters in num erou s o th e r ways. T h is office gave

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m a te ria l aid to a la rg e A m erican in d u s tria l p la n t th a t establishe d a
bran ch fa c to ry in M exico C ity , assistin g it in selecting a suitablesite an d in securin g ra il ra te s fo r its pro d u ct. T h e com m ercial
a tta ch e w orked in collaboration w ith th e A m erican com m issioner o f
a g ric u ltu re in M exico C ity an d succeeded in b rin g in g about th e
ra isin g of th e q u a ra n tin e a g a in st T exas cattle w hich allow ed m any
th o u san d sta rv in g c attle to be sent fro m th a t S ta te in to M exico fo r
grazin g . T h e office ob tain ed a suspension of th e o rd e r re q u irin g
consular fees to be levied on catalogu e prices, a n d it was also suc­
cessful in securin g a rev ersal o f th e ru lin g h o ld in g th a t ag en ts of
A m erican houses in M exico sellin g on a com m ission basis were liable
fo r th e p ay m en t o f th e M exican incom e ta x on th e business done in
Mexico. Close an d sa tisfa c to ry cooperation w as m a in ta in ed w ith
th e em bassy an d consulate general, an d th e re w ere m ost cord ial re ­
la tio ns w ith th e A m erican C ham ber of Com m erce in M exico C ity.
E a rly in th e fiscal y e a r an office o f th e b u re au w as established in
San J u a n , P . It., u n d e r a tra d e com m issioner who a sh o rt tim e be­
fo re sp en t several m o n th s in th e isla n d m a k in g a tra d e survey an d
collecting m a te ria l fo r a handboo k. I n its fu n ctio n s it p a rta k e s of
the cha racte ristics o f bo th a fo reig n an d a d istric t office. A larg e
num b er o f W o rld T ra d e D irecto ry re p o rts have been sub m itted, fill­
ing a lo n g -felt w an t, as prev io u sly little in fo rm a tio n on P o rto R ican
firms had been available in th e bureau. W o rk on th e P o rto Rico
ha ndboo k has been continued. B esides su b m ittin g num erous m ark et
surveys an d re p o rts, w hich th e b u re au has pu blished to th e tra d e ,
th e San J u a n office w rote m ore th a n 1,000 tra d e letters to in d iv id u als
and firm s in th e U n ited S ta te s in response to in quiries addressed to
it. I t has also ren d ered concrete assistance to a n um ber of A m e ri­
can firm s in th e p la cin g o f agencies an d in a d ju stin g tra d e claim s
and disputes. A clerk in th e San J u a n office, a fte r a v isit to the
V irg in Isla n d s, su b m itted a com prehensive re p o rt on th e p rin c ip a l
business houses an d on g en eral tra d e an d economic conditions in
those islands.
H a v in g established field offices in C uba an d P o rto Rico, th e bu re au
fe lt th e necessity of ta k in g steps to b u ild u p its files o f in fo rm atio n
on th e o th e r W est In d ie s, an d m ore p a rtic u la rly th e lesser islands,
w here con su lar offices are few. T h e a g g re g ate of o u r tra d e w ith
these islands is larg e, an d in recen t years th ey have been (lie field of
keen a c tiv ity on th e p a r t o f fo reig n com petitors. I t w as th e re fo re
de term ined to send a re p re se n ta tiv e o f th e bureau to tra v e l th ro u g h
th is region , to re p o rt on tra d e a n d econom ic conditions, a n d to esta b ­
lish in fo rm a tio n a l contacts. Since O ctober 1, 1924, he h as covered
th e B ah am as, Ja m a ic a , H a iti, th e D om inican R epublic, a n d th e
V irg in and L eew ard Isla n d s. H is tr ip has stim u la te d considerable in ­
tere st on th e p a r t of A m erican ex p o rters, and th e bu reau is receiving
an in creasin g nu m ber o f in qu iries fro m firm s d esirin g his assistance
in ex ten d in g th e ir business. T h e tra d e com m issioner has sent in
re p o rts o f an economic an d com m odity n a tu re , th e la tte r h av in g to
do p rin c ip a lly w ith local in du stries. H e has collected q u an titie s of
m aterial fo r use in p re p a rin g p u b licatio ns concerning th e islands
and fo r th e in fo rm atio n al files an d has m ade a nu m ber of valuable
contacts, fro m w hich in fo rm atio n can be secured from tim e to tim e

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R E PO R T OF T H E SEC R ET A R Y OF C O M M E R C E

u n til th e area shall be p e rm a n en tly covered by some c en tral office.
H e has been in stru m e n ta l in p la cin g a n um ber of agencies fo r
A m erican firm s an d in the a d ju stm e n t of tra d e com p laints an d d is­
putes. Ho h a s also cooperated w ith th e A m erican C ham ber of
C om m erce in H a iti to th e m u tu a l benefit o f th a t body an d th e bureau.
R E G IO N A L W O R K A T W A S H IN G T O N

A s in previous years, all th e reg io n al divisions o f th e b u reau
have m a in ta in ed re g u la r sections in Com m erce R e p o rts; have p re ­
p a re d fo r th a t m ag azine m o n th ly review s o f conditio ns in th e ir re ­
spective te rrito rie s, on th e basis o f cabled re p o rts fro m th e b u ­
re a u ’s fo reig n re p re se n ta tiv e s; have supervised, in g en eral, th e
w ork o f those re p re se n ta tiv e s; have p re p a re d an d d istrib u te d con­
fiden tial c irc u la rs; have dissem inated d a ta th ro u g h com m ercial
bodies, tra d e jo u rn a ls, and n ew sp ap ers; have conducted a g re a t
volume o f correspondence an d aided m any v isito rs; a n d have ex am ­
ined an d u tilized a m ass o f m a te ria l a p p e a rin g in fo reig n p u b lic a ­
tions. A ssistance has been given to com m odity divisions w ith re ­
spect to num erous bro ad com m ercial problem s.
T h e E u ro p e a n division w as cre ate d on J u ly 15, 1924, by th e con­
so lid atio n of th e W estern E u ro p e a n division an d th e E a s te rn E u ­
rop ean an d L ev an tin e division, th e chief o f th e W este rn E u ro p ea n
div isio n c o n tin u in g as ch ief of th e E u ro p ea n division. T h e area
covered by th is division now includes all of E u ro p e, all of A fric a ,
th e N ear an d M idd le E a s t to and in c lu d in g T u rk e y a n d P e rsia , and
th e D om inion of C anad a.
A m o ng th e m ore im p o rta n t tra d e in fo rm a tio n b u lletin s pu blished
d u rin g th e ye ar, th e one on T h e R e p a ra tio n P ro b lem was p a rtic u ­
la rly well received. S tu d ies of th e G ov ern m ent finances of F ran c e ,
G reece, and T u rk e y w ere also p ublished in th is fo rm , an d tw o bu lle­
tin s on A fric a n areas w ere issued. T h e E u ro p ea n division p a rtic i­
p a te d esp ecially in th e D aw es re p o rt n u m b er of Com m erce R ep o rts,
A u g u st 18, 1924, w hich w as p u blished im m ediately before th e a p ­
p licatio n o f th e D aw es p la n , an d in th e C an a d ia n n um ber o f S e p ­
tem ber 2, 1924, th e p u b licatio n of w hich was a p p ro x im a te ly sim u l­
taneous w ith th e o p ening of th e b u re a u ’s office at O ttaw a. Special
a rticle s in Com m erce R ep o rts d u rin g th e y e a r in cluded “A na ly sis
of G erm an gold balance sheets,” “ R econ stru ctio n of d ev astated areas
in F ra n c e ,” G erm an in d u s tria l debentu res,” an d “ B ritis h e m ig ra ­
tio n and in d u s try .” O n A u g u st 11, 1924, a w eekly c irc u la r series,
“ E u ro p ea n economic and tra d e developm ents,” was in a u g u ra te d fo r
d istrib u tio n to th e e n tire m a ilin g list of th e division, an d since D e­
cem ber 8, 1924, th is service has also been in c o rp o ra te d as a special
section in C omm erce R ep o rts. A m on g th e special c irc u la rs p re p a re d
in th e division d u rin g th e y e ar were “ G erm an b a n k in g d u rin g 1924,”
“ C ontinu ed expansion o f fo reig n tra d e in F ra n c e ,” “ I ta ly ’s fa v o r­
able economic po sitio n a t th e end o f 1924,” and “ T h e econom ic
g ro w th of P a le stin e.”
T he division has contin ued to su p p ly th e D e p a rtm e n t o f S ta te
and the F e d e ra l R eserve B o ard w ith copies of articles fo r Com m erce
R ep o rts based upon the m o n th ly economic cab legram s received
from fo reig n offices in E u ro p e, C an ad a, an d A frica , an d has given

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p riv a te c ircu latio n to a nu m ber of confidential c irc u la rs based upon
sim ila r sources.
T h ro u g h its advisor)' com m ittee— consisting of tw o bankers, th re e
m a n u fa ctu rers, a n d an econom ist—an d th ro u g h cham bers o f com ­
m erce an d tra d e associations, th e div isio n has k e p t itse lf well in ­
fo rm ed co ncern in g th e c h arac te r of in fo rm atio n on E u ro p e in w hich
A m erican business is m ost in terested .
A side fro m its a d m in istra tiv e duties, th e w ork of th e f a r easte rn
division has been la rg e ly devoted to th e p re p a ra tio n o f o rig in a l m a ­
te ria l on econom ic m a tte rs p e rta in in g to th e F a r E a s t an d to th e
revision an d p re p a ra tio n o f th e re p o rts received from field officers
fo r dissem in atio n to th e A m erican business w orld th ro u g h th e v a ­
rious chan nels o f pub licatio n. A m o ng th e special efforts p u t fo rth
by th e b u re a u ’s staff a t W a sh in g to n have been five speeches de­
livered by th e a ctin g ch ief a t business g a th e rin g s a n d over the rad io ;
revision o f 750,000 w ords o f m an u sc rip t o f th e C om m ercial H a n d ­
book o f C h in a ; revision o f m a n u sc rip t o f 150,000 w ords an d p re p a ­
ra tio n o f m aps fo r th e C om m ercial T ra v e le rs’ G uide to th e F a r E a s t;
tra d e in fo rm a tio n b u lle tin on C h an g in g F a c to rs in C h in a ’s
Econom ic L ife ; e ig h t special c ircu lars on tra d e w ith C h in a ; tw o
special c irc u la rs on “ H o te ls of th e F a r E a s t ” and “ T h e com m er­
cial tra v e le rs’ itin e ra ry o f th e F a r E a s t ” ; 10 special artic le s on
A m erica’s tra d e w ith vario us f a r e aste rn co u n trie s; an d th e 6
m o n th s’ tr ip o f in v estig atio n an d inspection o f F a r E a ste rn offices
by th e c h ie f o f th e division.
I n a d d itio n to these a re th e special activ itie s o f th e several regional
sections. A m on g th e o u tsta n d in g th in g s accom plished by th e In d ia A u stra lia section w ere a special I n d ia nu m ber of Com m erce R e­
p o rts ; a tra d e in fo rm atio n b u lletin , In d ia as a M ark et fo r A m erican
G oods; a n d e ig h t special c irc u la rs on In d ia n , H a w a iia n , a n d A u s­
tra lia n m ark ets. T h is section p ublished d u rin g th e y e a r 150 tra d e
notes, 50 special articles, 10-articles specially p re p a re d fo r th e press,
and p re p a re d or revised m on o g rap h s on A u stra lia , T h e T re n d s o f
O rie n ta l T ra d e , an d A naly sis o f th e S o u th Sea Isla n d T ra d e fo r
p riv a te business concerns.
T h e J a p a n -C h in a section p re p a re d 31 special artic le s fo r C om ­
m erce R ep o rts, 60 tra d e notes an d s h o rt articles, 30 press sta te ­
m ents, and 4 special a rtic le s fo r new sp ap er p u blicatio n, in a d d itio n
to its o th e r ro u tin e w ork. T h e J a p a n section o f th e C om m ercial
T ra v e le rs’ G uide to th e F a r E a s t w as com pletely revised a n d re ­
w ritten . C h a rts an d g ra p h s w ere p re p a re d to r use a t v ario u s tra d e
g a th erin g s. In tro d u c tio n s w ere w ritte n to th e J a p a n and C h in a
sections of both th e C om m erce Y earbook and th e C om m ercial
T ra v e le rs’ G uide.
I n ad d itio n to th e usual re p o rts and special articles, in clu d in g
m any fo r ne w sp ap er p u b licatio n , th e so u th eastern A sia section com ­
pletely rew ro te th e m a te ria l fo r th e C om m ercial T ra v e le rs’ G uide
on B ritish M alaya, th e D u tc h E a s t In d ie s, a n d In d o -C h in a.
W ith a view to b e tte r a d m in istra tio n an d g re a te r efficiency in its
w ork, th e L a tin A m erican division was reorg anized e a rly in th e
fiscal year. A s a re su lt i t h as been able to ren d er m ore a n d b e tte r
service w ith o u t in creasin g its staff. A side from th e usu al ro u tin e

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R E PO RT OF T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

in th e collection an d dissem inatio n of in fo rm atio n b earin g on tra d e
and economic conditions in its te rrito ry , th e div isio n has giv en its
a tte n tio n to num erou s e x tra o rd in a ry condition s or events h a v in g a
b earin g on tra d e . E x am p les of these a re : L ab o r trou bles in C uba
and M exico; th e difficulties o f A m erican consum ers w ith respect to
coffee fro m B ra zil, fibers fro m M exico, an d molasses fro m C ub a;
p o rt congestion a t R io de J a n e iro an d Santo s, B ra z il; com m ercial
difficulties incid ent to unpreced ented ra in s in th e a rid regions of
P e ru and E cu ad o r, an d h u rrica n e s in th e W est In d ie s ; th e re o r­
g a n iz a tio n of th e C hilean N itra te A ssociatio n; colonization schemes
in S o u th A m erica, etc.
D u rin g th e y e ar 356 articles p re p a re d in th e div isio n w ere p u b ­
lished in Com m erce R eports. T h irte e n tra d e in fo rm a tio n b ulletin s
p re p a re d in th e division h ad been pu blished o r w ere in th e course
o f pu b licatio n a t th e close o f th e year, am ong th em being a d etailed
review of th e tra d e o f th e U n ited S ta te s w ith L a tin A m erica in
1924 an d studies o f several countries as m ark ets fo r A m erican goods,
th e regions so covered being M exico, C en tral A m erica, C uba, and
th e o th e r W est In d ie s, C olom bia, V enezuela, th e A m azon V alley,
B olivia, and Chile. A t th e close o f th e y e ar m a te ria l is being col­
lected fo r sim ila r bu lletin s to cover th e rem ain d er of th e region.
T h e p u b licatio n o f th e weekly m im eograph ed news b u lle tin , L a tin
A m erica a t a G lance, has been contin ued, a m o u n tin g to some 200
pages in th e 52 num bers. Special c irc u la rs w ere issued to th e n u m ­
ber o f 25, covering such subjects as tra d e and economic condition s in
C hile, C uba, H o n d u ra s, an d P a ra g u a y , fo reig n tra d e o f th e D utch
W est In d ie s, tra d e com petitio n in C olom bia, a tra d e survey of
B ra zil, p er cap ita p u rc h a sin g pow er o f L a tin A m erica, th e ro u tin g
o f com m ercial tra v e lers th ro u g h L a tin A m erican countries, an d
liv in g and office-operating expenses in com m ercial centers o f LatiD
A m erica.
C onsiderable w ork was done in b rin g in g up to d ate th e statistics
in th e m an u sc rip t of th e C om m ercial and In d u s tria l H a n d b o o k of
P e ru . T h is was m ade necessary by th e fa c t th a t, fo r a long tim e
a fte r th e p re p a ra tio n o f th e m a n u sc rip t, fu n d s w ere n o t available
fo r its p u blicatio n. O ne o f th e la rg e st single u n d e rta k in g s o f th e
division d u rin g th e y ear, w ith respect to p u b licatio n s, h as been th e
revision o f th e C om m ercial T ra v e le rs’ G uide to L a tin A m erica,
w hich has ju s t been com pleted.
C O M M O D IT Y D IV IS IO N S
F U N C T IO N S A N D

SERV ICES C O M M O N T O A L L C O M M O D I T Y D I V I S I O N S

T h e com m odity divisions b rin g th e bu reau into d ire c t a n d v ita l
co n tact w ith p ro d u cers in te re sted in fo reig n commerce. T h ey are
co n sta n tly in touch w ith th e ir respective tra d e s, p ro v id in g fo r each
a h ig h ly specialized service w hich satisfies its ow n p ecu liar and
c h arac te ristic needs. E ssen tial d a ta a re quickly collected an d d is­
sem inated. E a c h o f th e division s has a th o ro u g h acquaintance w ith
th e technical phases of th e in d u stry , w ith its practices a n d problem s,
a n d w ith th e executives w ho d ire c t its operatio ns.

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A n im p o rta n t fe a tu re o f th e w ork o f these com m odity divisions is
th e ir cooperation w ith m ore th a n 60 com m ittees o f tra d e associations
o r o th e r represe n ta tiv es of A m erican in d u stry . Such com m ittees
act fo r a whole in d u stry in la y in g o u t o r p u ttin g th ro u g h p ro g ram s
th a t prom ise to be ad v an ta g eo u s; th ey sum m arize fo r the d e p a rtm e n t
th e opin ion o f an in d u stry ; an d th ey enable us to m ake in fo rm atio n
available in th e m ost effective and concretely usefu l ways.
A very beneficial phase o f a c tiv ity is th e send in g ou t of d a ta on
F o re ig n T ra d e O p p o rtu n itie s—th is d a ta passin g th ro u g h th e com­
m o d ity divisions. T h e value o f th is w ork m ay be clearly dem on­
s tra te d by citin g a single instance. A check-up on th e resu lts o f the
F o reig n T ra d e O p p o rtu n itiis on foodstuffs th a t w ere published d u r­
in g th e first h a lf of th e fiscal y e ar showed some really e x tra o rd in a ry
results. D u rin g th a t perio d th e re w ere p ublished 484 foodstuffs
o p p o rtu n itie s fro m 65 fo reig n countries. R equests fro m A m erican
firm s in all p a rts o f th e co u n try fo r th is in fo rm a tio n averaged 6
p er tra d e o p p o rtu n ity published. B usiness secured by A m erican
firm s has been re p o rte d to th ■ am oun t of $1,898,789.06 f o r th e h a lf
year, an av erag e o f $3,928.12 p er foodstuffs tra d e o p p o rtu n ity p u b ­
lished, a n d of $79,116.21 p e r firm o f those o b ta in in g an d re p o rtin g
th is business.
A s in p a st years, each o f th e com m odity divisions h as supplied
m a te ria l fo r a special section in Com m erce R ep o rts, h as d istrib u te d
num erous special circulars, an d has also p re p a re d que stionn aires to
be answ ered by G overnm ent rep re sen ta tiv es abroad. T h e com m odity,
like th e reg io nal, division s have aid ed in th e p re p a ra tio n of m a­
te ria l fo r th e Com m erce Y earbook. D istin ctiv e w ork accom plished
by each division is described in th e in d iv id u a l sections th a t follow.
A G R IC U L T U R A L I M P L E M E N T S D IV IS IO N

A c o n sta n tly in c r asin g in te re st in fo reig n tra d e has been shown
by m em bers o r th e im plem ent in d u stry . A s a result o f th e efforts of
the b u re a u ’s a g ric u ltu ra l im p lem ents division, one larg e firm placed
a rep resen ta tiv e in In d ia , an d in one instance a n o rd er of $40,000
has been re p o rte d in consequence o f th is activ ity , w ith excell n t
prospects fo r th e fu tu re . T h e division has also assisted in securing
agencies fo r A m erican engines in J a p a n , p um ps in E g y p t, tra c to rs
in A u stra lia , an d o th e r com m odities in vario us countries. A s in
the p a st, th e division m a in ta in ed its p rin c ip a l co n tact w ith th e N a ­
tio n a l A ssociation o f F a rm E q u ip m en t M a n u fa c tu re rs and s tre n g th ­
ened a n d extended its contacts w ith in d iv id u a l firms.
T h e division com pleted th e surveys on fo reig n m ark ets fo r tra c to rs,
w hich aroused m uch in te re st an d resu lted in m any cases in b rin g in g
A m erican m a n u fa c tu re rs and fo reig n d istrib u te rs to g e th e r th ro u g h
the assistance o f th e division. S u rv ys on in cubato rs an d brooders
and on law n m owers were also com pleted, an d the in fo rm atio n was
d istrib u te d th ro u g h special circulars. A surv ey of fo reig n m ark ets
fo r internal-co m bu stion engines was n e arin g com pletion at th e end of
the y e a r; 63 special circu lars on th is subject w ere d istrib u te d . In
all, 202 special c ircu lars were published d u rin g th e y e ar covering
tlies surveys and also such subjects as “ T h e d a iry in d u s try in

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R E PO R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

A rg e n tin a ,” “ M ark et fo r an im a l-d ra w n vehicles in P o rto R ico,”
“ M ark et fo r d a iry eq uipm ent in G re at B rita in ,” “ M ark et fo r m ilk ­
in g m achines in Sw eden,” an d “ P u rch a se of cotton im plem ents in
B ra z il.”
M im eographed c ircu lars have been issued each m o nth g iv in g de­
ta iled figures on e x p o rts o f im plem ents. A series o f im plem en t and
tra c to r notes has been issued irre g u la rly . T h e 189 tra d e o p p o rtu n i­
ties p ub lished by th e div isio n included, besides general inq uiries fo r
a g ric u ltu ra l im p lem ents, m any open in gs fo r specific articles such
as tra c to rs, engines, pum ps, w indm ills, in cubato rs an d brooders, cot­
ton im plem ents, an d d a iry equipm ent.
A rtic le s co n trib u te d by th e division to C om m erce R ep o rts included
a d etailed an alysis o f ex p o rts o f im plem ents fro m th e U n ite d S ta te s
fo r th e cale n d a r y e a r 1924 an d stu dies o f th e im plem ent m ark ets of
C an ada , In d ia , A rg e n tin a , A u stria , B u lg a ria , C zechoslovakia, C hile,
P o la n d , H u n g a ry , Y ugoslavia, M exico, a n d Ita ly . A discussion of
th e exp orts, w ith a ta b le show ing th e to ta ls ex p o rte d to each co u n try ,
w as issued in a m im eographe d circ u lar, fo r w hich th e re was a keen
dem and. M ate ria l was p re p a re d fo r a m o n o g ra p h on a g ric u ltu ra l
im plem ents a n d equipm ent in A rg e n tin a . A t th e close o f th e fiscal
y e a r th e div isio n w as b e g in n in g to receive fro m th e field service
replies to a q u estio n n aire on fo reig n m ark ets fo r sp ra y in g an d d u st­
in g equipm ent. A q u estio nnaire covering m a rk e ts fo r th re sh ers is
now b ein g p re p ared .
A U T O M O T IV E D IV IS IO N

T o o btain d ire c t in fo rm a tio n on fo reig n com petition th e c h ie f of
th e autom otive division visited nin e E u ro p e a n countries, in sp ectin g
p la n ts, a tte n d in g exhibitio ns, a n d in te rv ie w in g officials, m a n u fa c ­
tu re rs, a n d dealers. A s a re su lt valuable in fo rm a tio n has been m ade
av ailable fo r A m erican interests. D ire c t contacts w ith A m erican
■manufacturers by rep resen tativ es of th e division in creased th e o p p o r­
tu n itie s fo r th e g iv in g o f valuable sales aid an d th e re n d e rin g of
o th e r services. M em bers o f th e div isio n have p a rtic ip a te d in the
P a n A m erican R oad C ongress, th e N a tio n al C onference on S tre e t
a n d H ig h w a y S a fe ty , num erous conferences w ith tra d e com m ittees
on fo reig n ta riffs an d discrim in atio n s, m eeting s w ith th e T a riff C om ­
m ission, th e reception to m em bers o f th e M exican autom otive dele­
g atio n , a g a th e rin g o f th e A u to m o tiv e E q u ip m en t A ssociation, and
m eetings o f th e div isio n o f sim plified practice. C onferences have
been held w ith officials o f th e N a tio n al A utom ob ile C ham ber o f C om ­
merce, th e M o to r an d Accessory M a n u fa c tu re rs’ A ssociation, th e
N atio n al A ssociation o f E n g in e an d B o a t M a n u fac tu re rs, a n d th e
M oto r Cycle a n d A llied T ra d e s A ssociation. Special in fo rm atio n
has been fu rn ish e d vario us legislative and executive d e p a rtm e n ts on
ex p o rtatio n s, im p o rta tio n s, ta riff re stric tio n s (in co llabo ration w ith
th e ta riff d iv isio n ), labor, consum ption o f m a te ria l, use o f m o to r
cars, etc. T h e division has org anized m eetin gs on e x p o rt tra d e and
on re a rra n g e m e n t a n d im p ro v em en t of e x p o rt statistics.
T h e division b ro u g h t a b o u t a sta n d a rd iz a tio n in th e re p o rts o f th e
G ov ern m ent’s fo reig n rep re sen ta tiv es w ith respect to autom otive
m a tte rs, secu rin g b e tte r statistic a l in fo rm a tio n o f fo reig n m a n u fa c ­
tu re , sale, an d d istrib u tio n .

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T h e special p u b licatio ns p re p a re d an d issued by th e division d u r­
in g th e y e ar in cluded W o rld A uto m otiv e Census o f 1924; G lossary
o f A u to m o tiv e T erm s a n d In s tru c tio n s to E x p o rte rs ; A utom otive
E x p o rts an d Im p o rts o f P rin c ip a l M a n u fa c tu rin g C ountries ; m o n th ly ,
q u a rte rly , sem iannual, an d an n u al an alysis of ex p o rts, U n ite d S ta te s
an d C a n a d a ; g uide ou tlin e fo r fo re ig n offices o f th e G ov ern m en t;
exh ib its of lite ra tu re o f E u ro p e a n m a n u fa c tu re rs of sm all c a rs;
q ue stio nn aire on m otor-bu s tra n s p o rta tio n a b ro a d ; re p rin ts of spe­
cially com piled artic le s on “A utom obile ta riffs a n d taxes in fo reig n
c o u n trie s ” an d “A u to m o tiv e ex p o rts fo r 1924.”
I n A u g u st, 1924, th e div isio n in itia te d th e policy o f confining its
co n trib u tio n s to Com m erce R ep o rts to g en eral a rticle s an d reviews,
a rra n g in g th a t item s of special autom otive tra d e in te re st be issued
in a w eekly “A utom otive M a rk e t News B u lle tin ” an d in special
circulars. T h e “ F o re ig n T ra d e M anu al ” w as fu r th e r im p ro ved ,
fe a tu re s w ere add ed , e x p o rte rs’ req u irem en ts w ere a n tic ip a te d , an d
th e su b scrip tio n list was su b sta n tia lly increased.
A c tu al sales b ro u g h t a b o u t (w h o lly o r in p a r t) th ro u g h th e efforts
o f th e division were nu m erou s d u rin g th e fiscal y e a r ju s t p ast. T h e y
in clu de d 156 accounts opened by a New Y o rk autom otive firm solely
fro m nam es su p p lied by th e b u re au (th is p a rtic u la r case dates from
“ th e early m on th s o f 1923” ) ; $408,057 w o rth of tru c k s an d flushers
p u rchased by th e city of B uenos A ires (a id given by th e division, in
co llabo ration w ith th e office o f the com m ercial a tta ch é in A rg e n tin a ) ;
an d pu rcha ses to ta lin g $6,000 by a firm in M edan, S u m atra.
C H E M IC A L D IV IS IO N

T h e b u ild in g u p o f in fo rm a tio n a l m a te ria l a n d th e estab lish in g of
basic refe re n ce files have gone on continu ously in th e chem ical d iv i­
sion, th e contacts w ith in d u s try have been en larg ed a n d m ade m ore
in tim a te , an d th e division is p la y in g a m uch m ore im p o rta n t p a r t in
th e economic life o f th e chem ical in d u stry . A n exam ple o f th is
fa c t is afforded b y th e resu lts o f th e d iv isio n ’s service on C hin a
wood oil, in a u g u ra te d a y e ar previously. T h e in d u s try is on record
as s ta tin g th a t th e d iv isio n ’s activ itie s in th is respect are account­
able fo r lower a n d m ore u n ifo rm prices o f th is essential raw m a­
te ria l a n d th a t th e re su ltin g sav in g has ru n into m illio ns of dollars.
T h e division has established a p re d e te rm in ed o u tline o f special
articles covering th e chem ical tra d e in fo reig n countries, a p p e a rin g
in sequence in Com m erce R ep o rts. T h e w eekly chem ical bu lletin
has been m a in ta in ed a n d im proved. S ev en ty -fo u r special circu lars
were issued; one of these outlin ed in d e ta il th e m a n u fa c tu re o f
sy n th etic m eth yl alcohol in G erm any, callin g th e a tte n tio n o f th e
A m erican w ood-chem ical in d u s try to a developm ent o f th e g re a te st
significance.
T ra d e in fo rm atio n b u lletin s in cluded T h e F re n c h D yestuffs I n ­
d u s try ; T h e N itro g en S itu a tio n in E u ro p e a n C o u n trie s; Q u in in e
P ro d u c tio n an d M a rk e tin g ; F e rtiliz e rs : P ro d u ctio n , C onsum ption ,
and T ra d e in V ario us F o reig n C o u n trie s; P a in ts , Pig m en ts, and
V arn ish es in th e W est In d ie s ; W o rld T ra d e in T o ilet P re p a ra tio n s :
P a r t 1, E u ro p e. T h e re was a com prehensive survey o f th e dom estic
d istrib u tio n o f p a in ts an d varnishes.

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T h e chem ical division collaborated w ith o th e r divisions in such
studies as th a t o f the w orld tra d e in chrom ite an d o f th e c o al-tar dye
situ a tio n in th e c a lf-le ath e r ta n n in g in d u stry in th e U n ite d S tates
an d Europe.. T h e div isio n cooperated in th e a p p lic atio n o f sim ­
plified practice in th e p a in t an d v a rn ish an d d ru g in d u stries. F o r
th e na val-stores in d u stry a series o f special sta tistic a l and new s­
re p o rtin g services w as a rra n g ed . A n extensive survey on p otash
has been u n d e r w ay d u rin g th e g re a te r p a r t o f th e year.
T h e nu m ber o f statem en ts o f A m erican chem ical im p o rts issued by
th e bu reau w as increased fro m 4 to 20 an d of e x p o rts fro m 11 to 17.
A n im p o rta n t developm ent was th e establishm ent an d first m eet­
in g o f th e chem ical adv isory com m ittee, a liaison betw een th e bureau
an d th e chem ical in d u stry .
A m o ng m any exam ples of d ire c t tra d e prom otion th e re m ay be
cited th e sale of several lots o f A m erican in d u s tria l chem icals to
G erm an in terests, as w ell as th e establishm ent by th e chem ical d iv i­
sion of sources of su p p ly fo r m any raw m ate ria ls u rg e n tly needed
in th is co un try . One New Y o rk chem ical c o rp o ra tio n estim ates
th a t it h as o btain ed $50,000 w o rth o f fo reig n o rd ers in consequence
(d irec tly o r in d ire c tly ) of services ren d ered by th e bureau.
C O A L D IV IS IO N

T h e w ork o f th e coal division increased m a te ria lly d u rin g th e
fiscal ye ar, th e nu m b er of special c irc u la rs issued being m ore th a n
fo u r tim es as m any as in th e p reced in g y e ar an d th e correspondence
being n e a rly 50 p e r cent g re a te r th a n in 1923-24. T h e w ork of
m a in ta in in g c u rre n t sta tistic a l tables covering dom estic p ro du ctio n,
d is trib u tio n , an d prices, ocean fre ig h t ra te s, an d th e pro d u ctio n , im ­
p o rts, ex p o rts, an d prices o f coals in fo reig n cou ntries has been con­
tin u e d and enlarg ed . Sp ecial confiden tial in fo rm a tio n concerning
fo reig n tra d e o p p o rtu n ities is d istrib u te d to 266 firm s an d in d i­
vidu als. Tw o m o nth ly re p o rts, go in g to 450 persons, a re issued
re g u la rly , one g iv in g a g en eral survey o f conditions in th e coal tra d e
o f th e U n ite d S ta te s an d th e o th e r a sum m ary of th e ex p o rt coal
situ atio n .
T h e p re p a ra tio n o f m a te ria l fo r th e pub licatio n of a coal e x ­
p o rte rs ’ m an u al has been p ra c tic a lly com pleted. U n d e r th e c h a ir­
m an sh ip o f th e c h ie f o f th e coal division th e re w as fo rm ed a com ­
m ittee com posed o f re p re se n ta tiv es fro m tho se branches o f th e
G overnm ent in te re sted in th e coal in d u s try (th e G eological S urvey,
th e B u re au of M ines, th e L a b o r D e p a rtm e n t’s B u reau o f S ta tistic s,
th e B u re au o f th e Census, a n d th e coal division of th is b u re a u ) to
m ake a stu d y o f th e statistics re la tin g to th e in d u stry now b ein g
collected by th e F e d e ra l G ov ernm ent and to su bm it recom m enda­
tio ns as to th e d a ta th a t it w ould be desirab le to o b ta in in th e fu tu re
in o rd e r to prom ote the in te re sts o f th e public, th e G overnm ent, and
th e coal in d u stry . T h is com m ittee m ade a th o ro u g h stu d y of th e
w hole situ a tio n an d su b m itted its re p o rt to th e S e cre tary o f Com ­
merce.
T h e ch ief o f th e coal division has m ade, fo r th e S e c re ta ry of
Com m erce, a stu d y o f th e possible a d m in istra tiv e changes required

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109

fo r th e best service to th e in d u s try a n d th e public in fittin g in to th e
d e p a rtm e n t’s o rg a n iz atio n th e fu n ctio n s o f th e B u reau o f M ines,
now tra n s fe rre d to th e D e p a rtm e n t of Commerce.
E L E C T R IC A L

E Q U IP M E N T

D IV IS IO N

T h e electrical equ ip m ent division has devoted a g re a t deal of
effort to th e m a in ta in in g o f u p -to -d ate in fo rm atio n on ra d io m a rk e t
possib ilities, g o v ern m en tal re stric tio n s, a n d b ro a d c astin g service
in all cou ntries o f th e w orld, th is b ein g a very essential service be­
cause o f th e prono unced a c tiv ity in th e ra d io field an d th e conse­
quent flood o r in qu iries com ing to th e bu reau . A g re a t n um ber of
m im eog raph ed c irc u lars w ere issued d ire c tly to m a n u fa c tu re rs of
rad io equipm ent, besides m a te ria l su p p lied to th e tra d e an d general
press.
A w orld survey o f electric w irin g practices a n d o f th e m a rk e t fo r
A m erican p ro d u cts in th is class w as com pleted d u rin g th e y e a r, and
detailed fa cts w ere dissem inated to th e in d u stry . W id e circulation
was giv en to a series o f re p o rts on th e a p p lic atio n o f electricity
to a g ric u ltu re in those fo reig n co u n tries w here re al w ork has been
done alo ng th a t line.
In cooperation w ith the division o f fo reig n tariffs, th e re was
u n d e rta k en th e p re p a ra tio n o f a series of studies o f th e d u ties im ­
posed by certa in fo reig n coun tries on a long list o f specific electrical
p ro d u c ts; a re p o rt has been issued fo r A u stra lia , an d m a te ria l fo r
A rg e n tin a a n d In d ia h as been p re p a re d fo r checking by th e ta riff
division.
T h ro u g h o u t th e y e ar th e div isio n re g u la rly k e p t up to date its
d ire c to ry o f c en tral statio n s, p re p a rin g , a t th e sam e tim e, condensed
lists fo r c ertain cou ntries fo r loan to m a n u fa ctu rers. T h e division
continued to adv ertise a n d sell, th ro u g h th e C hicago an d New Y o rk
d istric t offices o f th e b ureau, sets o f specifications fo r electrical
equipm ent being b o ug ht by the E le c tric ity Com m ission of the S ta te
o f V ictoria, A u stra lia . Specifications were h an d led also fo r p ro j­
ects in va rio u s countries th ro u g h o u t th e w o rld , such as E g y p t,
U ru g u a y , an d th e C om m onw ealth o f A u stra lia .
T h e division respon ded to a considerably in creased num be r of
requests fo r recom m endations as to m ark ets fo r specific lines, advice
on sales policies in differen t countries, an d personal suggestions as
to fo reig n rep re sen ta tiv es a n d th e like. I n a num be r o t instances
the division has placed A m erican e n g in eerin g firm s in touch w ith
la rg e constructio n pro je cts ab ro ad an d has w orked closely w ith
o rg an iz atio n s in te re sted in b id d in g on such w ork.
T h e chief of the division sp en t fo u r an d o n e-h alf m on ths on a trip
th ro u g h V enezuela, C olom bia, C en tral A m erica, an d M exico, as a
re su lt o f w hich m uch definite in fo rm a tio n is b ein g m ade available
to A m erican m a n u fa c tu re rs re g a rd in g th e kin d s o f electrical p ro d ­
ucts th a t can be sold, fo reig n com petition, re la tiv e sales efficiency
of dealers, an d o th e r m erc h an d isin g d a ta .
T h e concrete value o f th e b u re a u ’s services to th e electrical in ­
d u stry is atte ste d b y th e fa c t th a t vario u s firm s have w ritte n in ,
s ta tin g th a t th e y consider its efforts responsible fo r fo reig n sales
am o un tin g, respectively, to $30,000, $7,000, $10,000, $5,000, etc.

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R E PO R T OF T i l E SECRE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E
FO O D STU FFS D IV IS IO N

An increase of 65 p e r cent in th e ou tg o in g correspondence m arked
th e w ork of th e foodstuffs division d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar ju s t p ast,
in d ic a tin g a very su b sta n tia l g ro w th in th is b ran ch o f th e b u re a u ’s
service.
T w o new specialists were ap p o in te d fo r service abroad, one w ith
h e a d q u a rte rs a t H a m b u rg , G erm any, who covers th e fo reig n s itu a ­
tio n as re g a rd s m eats, fa ts, oils, an d liv esto ck ; an d th e o th e r w ith
h ead q u a rte rs a t B russels, B elgium , w ho re p o rts on th e tobacco
m ark ets of E u ro p e. T hese m en spend abo ut h a lf th e ir tim e v isitin g
th e im p o rta n t m a rk e tin g centers, to g et first-h an d in fo rm a tio n ,
w hich, w ith th a t fu rn ish e d by th e o th e r tw o foodstuffs specialists
in E u ro p e, is passed on, th ro u g h th e division a t W ash in g to n , to
A m erican in terests.
T h e w orld survey of a g ric u ltu ra l p ro d u cts u n d e rta k en in 1923 h a s
show n ra p id developm ent d u rin g th e p a st fiscal y e ar in th e publicatio n
o f th e follow ing b u lle tin s: M ark etin g C an a d ia n W heat, R elatio n B e­
tw een V alue a n d V olum e o f A g ric u ltu ra l E x p o rts, M ark etin g C otton
fo r E x p o rt, In te rn a tio n a l T ra d e in R aw S ilk , In te rn a tio n a l T ra d e in
M in o r F ib e rs, In te rn a tio n a l T ra d e in W ool, In te rn a tio n a l T ra d e in
C otton , M ark etin g of A m erican M eat P ro d u c ts in E x p o rt T ra d e ,
In te rn a tio n a l T ra d e in W h ea t a n d F lo u r, an d Seasonal A spects of
W h ea t E x p o rtin g . O th e r b ulletin s issued by th is division have in ­
c lu d ed : T h e C hinese M ark et fo r A m erican Fo odstuffs a n d T he
C uban M ark et fo r A m erican Foodstuffs (b u lletin s covering o th e r
im p o rta n t tra d e areas are now b ein g p r e p a r e d ) ; In te rn a tio n a l T ra d e
in L e a f an d M an u fac tu re d T ob acco; Tobacco T ra d e o f th e S c a n d i­
n a v ia n C o u n trie s; Tobacco T ra d e o f S p a in , P o rtu g a l, a n d th e
C an a ry Is la n d s; M ark ets fo r C anned F o o d s in th e W estern H e m i­
sp h ere; W o rld T ra d e in C ann ed Sa lm o n ; M ark et fo r N o n in to x ic atin g
B ev erages in L a tin A m e ric a ; M ark ets fo r F lo u r in C en tral A m e ric a ;
th ree b ulletin s of a series on F o reig n M arkets fo r C onfectio nery,
covering (1) L a tin A m erica, (2) th e F a r E a st, an d (3) E u ro p e ,
C an ad a, th e N ear E a st, an d A frica .
T h e re h as been a ra p id expansion in th e vario us sections of th e
in fo rm a tio n a l statem en t e n title d “ F ood stu ffs ’R o un d th e W o rld ,
w hich is sent to ne w spapers, tra d e p ap ers, business concerns, tra d e
associations, an d in d iv id u als. E ig h t sections a re now issued w eekly,
sem im onthly, or m o nthly, as th e case dem ands.
D u rin g th e p a st y e a r considerable stress has been la id on th e
developm ent of in fo rm atio n on th e m in o r com m odities, such as d a iry
p ro d u cts, fru its, vegetables, an d tro jiical prod ucts.
H ID E A N D L E A T H E R D IV IS IO N

T he re was an increase of 115 p e r cen t in th e n um ber of special
a n d confiden tial c ircu lars d istrib u te d d u rin g th e y e a r by th e h id e
a n d le a th e r division o f th e b ureau, b ein g in d ic ativ e o f a m ark ed
g ro w th in th e volume of all phases of th e w ork an d in th e p ra ctical
assistance afforded to th e in d u stry .
T h e division assisted in th e securin g o f a g re a t m any new agencies
an d d irect orders. T rad e -in fo rm a tio n b ulletin s pu blished in cluded

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W o rld T ra d e in C hrom ite and T h e Q uebracho In d u s try , th e la tte r
of w hich has a lre ad y h a d a fa r-re a c h in g influence. M uch tim e was
sp en t in c o n trib u tin g to th e S enate docum ent e n title d “ T h e C a lf
L e a th e r In d u s try .” Special re p o rts w ere m ade to th e fo u r m a jo r
g ro u p s o f th e in d u s try re la tiv e to w orld m ark ets fo r sole leather,
side u p p e r le ath er, calf an d k ip u p p e r leather, an d goat a n d kid
u p p e r leather. A new fe a tu re of th e sta tistic a l service was th e p u b ­
licatio n o f c h a rts show ing, a t a glance, the com plete situ a tio n in
th e c attle-leath er, c a lf-u p p e r, g o a t an d kid , an d sheep and lam b in ­
d u strie s. T h e rein d eer in d u stry of A la sk a has received considerable
a tte n tio n fro m th e sta n d p o in t of th e fu tu re su p p ly of rein de er skins
fo r th e A m erican in d u stry . A dvice has been given on m ethods of
take-off, g ra d in g , an d m erc h an d isin g , an d in terest on th e p a rt of
th e ta n n in g in d u stry h as been stim ulated. I n cooperation w ith th e
c alf-u p p e r-le a th e r g ro u p some detailed surveys of fo reig n m ark ets
w ere p re p a re d an d d istrib u te d .
T h e division has w orked w ith v ario u s branches of th e W a r D e­
p a rtm e n t th ro u g h o u t th e year. T h ro u g h th e cooperation o f the
Q u a rte rm a ste r C orps m uch p re lim in a ry w ork w as done in p la n n in g
le ath er pro cu rem en t in tim e of n a tio n a l em ergency. I n conjunction
w ith th e C hem ical W a rfa re Service th e pro cu rem en t of special
le ath er fo r gas m asks was a rra n g e d . Scores of pe rsonal advisory
conferences were held in th e field w ith concerns re la tin g to th e ir
in d iv id u a l fo re ig n -tra d e problem s. T h ro u g h th e cooperation of
th e B u reau o f S ta n d a rd s th e re su lts of analyses o f fo reign le ath er
a n d o f new ta n n in g m a te ria ls w ere placed in circulation. T h ro u g h
th e e x p e rt adv isors on ta n n in g m a te ria ls several pro je cts are being
stu d ie d fo r th e g ro w in g of vegetable ta n n in g m a te ria ls in stra teg ic
a n d accessible areas.
IN D U S T R IA L

M A C H IN E R Y

D IV ISIO N

One o f th e activ itie s of th e in d u stria l m achinery division has
been th a t of m ak in g available to A m erican in te re sts th e im p o rta n t
in fo rm atio n g a th ered by th e ch ief o f th e div isio n d u rin g a to u r of
in v estig atio n of th e E u ro p ea n m ark ets. Sp ecial in te re st has been
show n in th e G erm an m a rk e t, w hich is now re g a in in g a good deal
o f its fo rm er sta tu s as a field fo r th e sale of A m erican m achinery.
T h e division has also m ade special stu dies re g a rd in g th e m achinery
possibilities in va rio u s o th e r fo reig n countries, th e effect o f E u ro ­
pean com petition on th e m ach in ery tra d e of th is co u n try , and b usi­
ness practices a p p ro p ria te in connection w ith th e sale of m achin ery
in fo reig n co u n trie s; these have a p p a re n tly p ro ved o f g re a t value
to A m ericans in te re sted in e x p o rtin g m echanical equipm ent.
M any A m erican m ach in ery m a n u fa c tu re rs have been given as­
sistance in th e h a n d lin g of th e ir e x p o rt problem s, especially in find­
ing b e tte r channels in all fo reig n m ark ets fo r th e disposition of th e ir
pro du cts. T h e re have been a la rg e n u m b er o f requests fo r in fo rm a ­
tio n as to th e law s o f fo reig n countries co n tro llin g th e constru ction
an d in sta llatio n of steam boilers, and th e d iv isio n ’s file of such d a ta
has been in co n stan t dem and.

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R E PO R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

T h e re has been m uch w ork w ith re g a rd to P a n A m erican h ig h ­
way m a tte rs, especially in connection w ith th e delegatio n re p re se n t­
in g 19 L a tin A m erican R epublics w hich visited th e U n ite d S ta te s
to stu d y A m erican m ethods o f ro ad constructio n, th e equip m ent
em ployed, etc. T h e division has also h an d led m a tte rs h a v in g to do
w ith construction pro je cts of vario us so rts in fo reig n countries, re ­
p o rtin g th e p a rtic u la rs to in terested A m erican m a n u fa ctu rers. A
series o f tra d e in fo rm atio n bulletin s a n d m im eograp hed c ircu lars
have been issued describ in g ice-m aking an d cold-storage p la n ts in
v ariou s p a rts of th e w orld, in an effort to p ro v id e a com plete p ic tu re
o f these fa c ilitie s fo r all A m ericans in te re sted in re frig e ra te d p ro d ­
ucts an d th e ir tra n sp o rta tio n .
T h e c h a ra c te r o f th e concrete re su lts obtained by business men
th ro u g h th e efforts of th e division m ay be illu stra te d by a single
instance. A firm o f engine b u ild ers w rites th a t th e ir e x p o rt busi­
ness has been n early doubled th ro u g h th e help of th e bureau. T hey
estim ate th e business th u s obtained a t about $60,000 an d say th a t
th e re p e a t business th a t th ey w ill receive th is y e ar fro m these ac­
counts w ill easily equal or su rp ass th a t am ount.
IR O N

AND

STEEL

D IV ISIO N

T h e nu m ber o f services ren d ered by th e bu re au and its d is tric t
offices w ith respect to all o f th e com m odities h an d led by th e iro nsteel-h ard w are division m ore th a n doubled in th e p a st fiscal y e ar as
com pared w ith th e p reced in g one. In q u irie s concerning h a rd w are,
a class of com m odities w hich was tra n s fe rre d to th e sphere of th is
d iv isio n ’s activ itie s in M ay, 1924, accounted in la rg e m easure fo r
th is rem ark ab le gain . H a rd w a re item s com prise a t least h a lf of th e
requests addressed to th e division now.
E a rly in th e y e ar an ad v iso ry com m ittee was org anized am ong
m a n u fa c tu re rs of a diversified line of h a rd w a re who are actively
engaged in e x p o rt trad e. T h is com m ittee, co m p risin g 14 e x p o rtin g
officials an d th e ch ief o f th e division, has m et several tim es an d h as
afforded im p o rta n t aid in th e solution o f h a rd w a re problem s.
A m o ng th e new services in a u g u ra te d d u rin g th e y e ar th e fo l­
lo w in g m ay be c ite d : (1) S tu d ies w ere m ade of th e tra d e in m etal
la th , alloy steel b ars, horseshoes an d horseshoe nails, c a rd clo th in g ,
wood screws, an d o th er steel specialties, a n d th e results w ere d is­
trib u te d in m im eographed fo rm am ong th e m a n u fa c tu re rs concerned.
(2) T h e w o rld ’s le ad in g m ark ets fo r iro n an d steel pro d u cts w ere
analyzed fo r exp orters. (3) G ra p h s a n d c h a rts were m ade to show
th e w o rld ’s pro d u ctio n of p ig iro n an d in g o t steel by countries, an d
th e position of th e U n ited S ta te s in respect to e x p o rts o f iron and
steel in com parison w ith th e perfo rm an ces o f o th e r steel-p ro d u cin g
countries. (4) A biw eekly h a rd w a re bu lletin , in c lu d in g p e rtin e n t
item s b e arin g on fo reig n m a rk e tin g possibilities, com petitive p rice
in fo rm atio n , construction p ro jects o f p a rtic u la r im portan ce invo lv­
in g th e use o f h a rd w are, etc., has been given re g u la rly to th e h a rd ­
w are tra d e . (5) Sp ecial confidential surveys w ere issued tre a tin g
a t considerable le n g th of subjects o f p a rtic u la r in te re st to th e h a r d ­
w are-ex p o rtin g trad e.

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O utlines were p re p a re d fo r th e d irectio n o f th e fo reig n re p re ­
sen tativ es of th e bu reau in th e ir in v estig atio n s of subjects o f v ital
in te re st to A m erican m a n u fa c tu re rs o f iron , steel, and h ard w are.
These includ ed surveys on cast-iron pip e, alloy an d tool steels, sh o r­
in g devices used in concrete b u ild in g constructio n, d e ra ilin g devices,
tool g rin d e rs, abrasiv e g ra in s, cast alum in um w are, b u ild e rs’ h a rd ­
w are, w a te r filters, fly screens, ex pansio n u n its, v a u lt doors, oilp ressu re stoves, re s ta u ra n t a n d ho tel equipm ent, broom s, h ay fo rk s,
and o th e r h a rd w are items.
T ra d e in fo rm atio n bu lletin s issued by th e division have included
I t a l y ’s F o reig n T ra d e in Iro n and Steel. A u stria n Iro n an d Steel
In d u s try an d T ra d e , C an ad ia n Iro n an d Steel In d u s try , and W o rld
T ra d e in C hrom ite. Special circu lars w ere p re p a re d to th e num b er
of 116.
LUM BER

D IV IS IO N

A n o u tsta n d in g a c tiv ity on th e p a r t of th e lu m ber division was
th e conclusion o f th e E u ro p e a n field in v estig atio n an d th e p re p a ra ­
tio n of m a jo r re p o rts on th e m a rk e ts fo r A m erican lum ber in th e
N eth erlan d s, F ran c e , B elgiu m , an d S w itz e rla n d ; these re p o rts have
been accorded w arm p ra ise by th e in d u stry . T h e division a rra n g e d
fo r special lum be r service in n o rth w estern E u ro p e fo r th e purpo se
of g a th e rin g u p -to -d ate m a rk e t re p o rts, checking u p on claim s, preE a rin g tra d e lists an d sales in fo rm atio n , etc.; th is service w ill be
eaded by a lum be r tra d e com m issioner, who w ill s ta r t fo r E u ro p e
early in th e new fiscal year.
In te rn a tio n a l lu m b er statistic s were p re p a re d in th e fo rm o f d is­
trib u tio n m aps and c h arts, em phasis b ein g la id on the A m erican
lum ber e x p o rt t r a d e ; m ore th a n 15,000 copies o f each c h a rt and m ap
were d istrib u te d . A n ed ucatio nal cam p aig n in fa v o r o f g ra d e m a rk ­
in g o f lum ber w as conducted on th e basis o f p erso n al in v estig atio n
in fo reig n countries w here g ra d e m a rk in g is p ra c tice d ; various a r ti­
cles on th e subject have been p re p a re d fo r th e press, in a d d itio n to
a b u lletin , of w hich 54,000 copies were o rd ere d before it was issued.
S e cre tary H o o v e r’s N atio n al C om m ittee on W ood U tiliz a tio n has
m ade use o f th e services of th e lum be r div isio n to a considerable
extent. T h e division has s ta rte d th e com pilation o f a b ib lio g rap h y
covering w ood-u tilizatio n d a ta in th is co un try . A field survey in th e
U n ite d S ta te s has been conducted to d eterm in e th e uses or shortle n g th lu m ber in b u ild in g an d o th e r construction. Special in v esti­
g a tio n has also been m ade in re g a rd to g a n g saw in g o f lum ber w ith
p a rtic u la r reference to th e u tiliz a tio n o f to p lo g s ; a survey of fo reign
conditions s u rro u n d in g th e g a n g saw in g o f lu m ber has been m ade in
th is connection.
T h e connecting o f A m erican ex p o rte rs w ith fo reig n agen ts has
been of m a jo r im p ortance. T h e division has a record of m ore th a n
50 successful agencies w hich it has a rra n g e d a n d estim ates th a t m ore
th a n $50,000 has been saved to A m erican e x p o rte rs by th is a c tiv ity
alone.
In several in stances th e lum ber division has w arn ed A m erican ex ­
p o rte rs a g a in st unsound concerns ab ro ad , e n ab lin g th e e x p o rte rs to
take necessary precau tio ns th ro u g h c re d it in surance o r otherw ise.

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R E PO RT OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

In one instance m ore th a n $100,000 was saved. T h e division is also
in fo rm in g A m erican e x p o rte rs o f th e s ta n d in g o f prospectiv e fo r­
eign custom ers before an y deals have been consum m ated.
T h ro u g h a recip ro cal a rra n g e m e n t th e lum ber division obtain s
confidential in fo rm atio n fro m fo reig n countries re g a rd in g e x p o rt of
lu m ber an d m a rk e t prices. T h ro u g h th e assistance of th e U n ited
S ta te s G ov ern m ent field officers a special surv ey has been m ade in
re g a rd to fo reig n m ark ets fo r plyw ood, veneer, poles, cigar-bo x m a ­
te ria l, a n d ra ilro a d ties. I n a d d itio n th e division has c a rrie d on th e
p ro g ra m la id dow n w hen it was established, covering g en eral collec­
tio n and dissem inatio n o f fo re ig n -tra d e in fo rm atio n . A side fro m
its weekly c o n trib u tio n to Com m erce R ep o rts it has released once a
week a lu m b er press service e n title d “ L um ber th e W o rld O ver.”
T h e n u m b er o f special c ircu lars sent to lum b er firm s d u rin g th e fiscal
y e a r w as 271. These c ircu lars are d istrib u te d th ro u g h 90 special
m ailin g lists a v erag in g 300 firm s each. T h e Pacific coast h as been
covered by special lum ber-new s service d istrib u te d th ro u g h o u r d is ­
tr i c t offices. P u b lica tio n s issued include th e L um ber M ark et in th e
N e th erlan d s (233 p a g es), th e L u m b er In d u s try of C hile, a n d a tra d e
in fo rm atio n bu lletin on th e P h ilip p in e L u m b er In d u s try .
T h e division h as re o rg an iz ed a n d e n la rg ed its ex p o rt advisory
com m ittee, w hich consists o f 47 m em bers, la rg e ly a p p o in te d by v a ri­
ous lum b er associations c o o p eratin g w ith th e division.
T h e p ra c tica l d o llars-an d -cen ts value o f th e d iv isio n ’s services m ay
be illu stra te d by c itin g only two exam ples ou t o f m any— th a t o f a
firm in th e N o rth w est w hich cre d its to th e b u re a u ’s efforts $287,332
w o rth o f fo reig n business ob tain ed , say in g “ W e a re in debted to y o u r
office fo r th is connection, a n d it w as th ro u g h y o u r sp le n d id cooperatio n th a t th is business has been secured ” ; an d an o th er concern in
th e sam e region, w hich a ttrib u te d $16,106 w o rth o f business in
E u ro p e to the activ itie s o f th e bureau.
M IN E R A L S

D IV IS IO N

T h e m in erals div isio n w as o rg an ized a t th e b e g in n in g o f th e fiscal
y e a r (J u ly 1, 1924) to ta k e over th e w ork fo rm erly h an d led by th e
petro leum division a n d th e m in era ls section of th e iro n an d "steel
division. T h is change was m ade in th e in te re st o f m ore efficient a d ­
m in istra tio n . T h e new division has han d led in fo rm atio n re la tin g
to th e pro m o tion o f fo reig n tra d e in petro leum p ro d u cts an d in th e
variou s n o n fe rro u s m etal an d m in e ra l g ro u p s o f com m odities.
T h e division in a u g u ra te d a weekly m im eographe d circu lar, “ F o r ­
e ig n T ra d e N otes,’-’ covering item s o f in te re st to th e petro leum tra d e
an d to the m in eral in d u s try on a lte rn a te weeks ; th is h a s reduced
a p p re cia b ly th e ro utine correspondence. T h e re h as also been
in itia te d a m o n th ly cem ent b u lletin , g iv in g detailed sta tistic s of th e
cem ent im p o rt an d e x p o rt tra d e . A q u a rte rly re p o rt h as been issued
on fo reig n gasoline prices, covering all th e p rin c ip a l w orld m ark ets.
Sev era l sen es o f special c ircu lars have been contin ued d u rin g th e
y ear, rep resen ta tiv e subjects b ein g “ M exican petro leum ex p o rts an d
p ro d u ctio n ,” “ T h e C uracao petro leum in d u s try ,” “ V enezuelan p e ­
tro leum e x p o rts,” etc. O th e r c ircu lars covered th e non fe rro u s-m eta l

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in d u stry of A u stria , “ P la tin u m in C olom bia,” “ T h e G erm an copper
m a rk e t,” etc.
A q u estio nn aire w as issued to th e b u re a u ’s fo reig n offices fo r d a ta
on th e m a rk e t fo r paraffin w ax an d can dles; 29 replies have been
received and published as special circulars. T ra d e -in fo rm a tio n b u l­
letins were pu blished on P etro leu m in B ra z il a n d on th e P etro leu m
In d u s try of R ussia. A bu lletin on th e P etro leu m T ra d e o f C hin a
was also p re p a red , to be p rin te d a fte r th e close of th e fiscal year.
T he petro leum section began a series o f wTo rld surveys o f th e tra d e
in in d iv id u a l com m odities, th e first of these being th e m o n o g rap h
on W o rld T ra d e in G asoline. O th e r bulle tin s fo r w hich m a te ria l
has been p re p a re d include W o rld T ra d e in L ead, A lu m in um T ra d e
of th e W o rld , an d T h e D iam o nd In d u s try .
T h e chief of th e m in erals division has served on th e technical
com m ittee o f th e O il C onservation B o ard , an d th e division has done
a very considerable am oun t of w ork in th a t connection.
PAPER

D IV IS IO N

M any concerns m a n u fa c tu rin g flat p a p ers as well as p a p e r
specialties, such as d rin k in g cups, p a p e r dishes, boxes of all sorts,
cores, papeteries, envelopes, etc., w ere actively aided by th e p a p e r d i­
vision in fin ding fo reig n m a rk e ts fo r th e ir prod ucts. T h ey were
constantly k e p t in fo rm ed as to changes in m a rk e t conditions, tra d e
custom s, an d o th e r p a rtic u la rs. C ond ition s affecting o u r p rin c ip a l
co m petito rs w ere fa v o ra b le to th e expan sion of A m erican tra d e in
th is line.
T h e division began a d etailed in v estig atio n of m ark ets abroad fo r
p rin tin g m ach in ery a n d accessories, as wrell as fo r p rin tin g in k s;
p a rt o f th e results h av e been m ade available fo r persons interested
in th e e x p o rta tio n of these articles. I n a d d itio n , a com prehensive
survey of th e p u lp a n d p a p e r resources, pro d u ctio n , and tra d e of
each of th e w o rld ’s p a p e r-p ro d u c in g co u n tries was b eg u n ; some of
th e resu lts o f th is survey have likew ise been pu blished, alth ough
it w ill not be com pleted fo r several m onths.
Closer contacts have been established w ith th e F o re st Service and
th e B u reau of S ta n d a rd s in an endeavor to su p plem en t th e sources
of in fo rm atio n available to concerns a n d in d iv id u a ls w ith special or
technical problem s to solve.
A n um ber o f concerns ju s t e n terin g ex p o rt m ark ets were effec­
tiv ely aid ed by th e division, w hich in v estig ate d possible m ark ets
fo r th e ir p ro d u c ts an d help ed th em to m ake suitable connections
abroad. A m ong these was one com pany, w hich h as developed a
$10,000 business alm ost solely th ro u g h th e b u re a u ’s services; by th a t
m eans an o rd er fo r 600,000 fiber spoons was obtained from one con­
cern in L o ndo n alone, w ith th e po ssibility of ad d itio n a l o rd ers in
th e n e ar fu tu re . Tw o o th e r A m erican firm s a ttrib u te to th e b u re a u ’s
efforts fo reig n business am o u n tin g to $30,000 a n d $10,000, respec­
tively. S till an o th er firm w rite s:
T h r o u g h t h e k in d c o o p e r a t io n o f t h e B u r e a u o f F o r e ig n a n d D o m e s t ic
C o m m e r c e w e w e r e a b le to e s ta b lis h t h r e e n e w a g e n c i e s ; t h e u l t i m a t e
v a lu e o f t h e s e c o n n e c t io n s c a n n o t b e e x p r e s s e d in t e r m s o f d o lla r s a n d c e n t s ,
b u t w e f e e l c o n f id e n t t h a t w it h in t h e n e x t f e w y e a r s i t w il l a m o u n t t o a p ­
p r o x im a t e ly $ 5 0 ,0 0 0 .

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R E PO R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

W ide d istrib u tio n am ong p a p e r e x p o rte rs has been given to a
G lossary o f P a p e r T erm s, p re p a re d by th e p a p e r division, defi­
nite ly fixing th e ta riff classification of p ra c tica lly a ll p a p e r item s
e n terin g into A m erican e x p o rt an d im p o rt tra d e .
E igh ty -five special c ircu lars w ere released by th e division, a n d a
new service in th e fo rm of a weekly news le tte r to th e tra d e was
in stitu te d . In these le tte rs have a p p ea re d 382 item s o f im m ediate
in te re st to th e tra d e . A ll of these have also a p p ea re d in tra d e m a g ­
azines an d new spapers.
RUBBER

D IV IS IO N

Im p o rta n t w ork on crude ru b b er, p a rtic u la rly in connection w ith
the survey of th e possibilities of developing th e ru b b e r p la n ta tio n
in d u stry in th e P h ilip p in e Isla n d s or in L a tin A m erica, was con­
tin u ed in th e cru de ru b b e r section o f th e ru b b e r division d u rin g th e
p ast fiscal year. A n im p o rta n t an d very com prehensive re p o rt on
T h e P la n ta tio n R u b b er In d u s try in th e M idd le E a s t w as published
in m o nog raph form . O th e r re p o rts w hich w ere p re p a re d , a n d w hich
w ill come fro m th e press early in th e new fiscal y ear, w ere P o ssib ili­
ties fo r P a r a R u b b er P ro d u c tio n in th e P h ilip p in e Isla n d s a n d R u b ­
ber P ro d u ctio n in th e A m azon V alley. A fo u rth re p o rt, covering
the possibilities in the countries o f th e C arib bean region , is being
w orked u p in th e division.
T h e ru b b e r pro d u cts section o f th e div isio n in itia te d new services
in a d d itio n to c o n tin u in g an d e x te n d in g its re g u la r p ro g ra m of su p ­
p ly in g basic an d c u rre n t in fo rm atio n re g a rd in g e x p o rt m ark ets fo r
ru b b e r pro d u cts to A m erican ex po rters.
Since th e d iv isio n’s series of ex p o rt handbooks o f basic in fo rm a ­
tio n affecting th e im p o rta tio n o f ru b b e r goods in all fo reig n countries
were in need of a g en eral revision it w as decided to convert th em into
a set o f fo u r loose-leaf m anuals, an d th e necessary w ork w as la rg ely
accom plished d u rin g th e year. T h e ex p o rt m anual fo r ru b b e r-tire
expo rters, c o n ta in in g 400 pages o f basic in fo rm a tio n on 100 te r r i­
tories, was com pleted an d issued. T h e m an u al fo r exporters of
ru b b er fo otw are a n d c lo th in g was p ra c tic a lly re a d y fo r d istrib u tio n
a t th e end o f th e fiscal y ear, w hile th e volum e fo r ex p o rte rs o f
m echanical ru b b e r goods h a d been m ore th a n h a lf w ritten .
T h e series of ta riff circu lars issued by th is division in collaboration
w ith th e division o f fo reig n tariffs, show ing ta riff ra te s ap plicable
to ru b b e r goods im p o rted in to all countries, has been com pleted a n d
issued in th e fo rm o f a loose-leaf m anual.
T h e m ost im p o rta n t new service u n d e rta k en was th e com pilation
o f sem iann ual re p o rts show ing stocks o f autom obile tire s in hands
of dealers th ro u g h o u t th e U n ite d States. S urveys w ere m ade as of
O ctober 1, 1924, and A p ril 1, 1925, th e re su lts o f w hich, covering
27,000 an d 35,000 dealers, respectively, were p ro m p tly released to
th e tra d e an d w ere sta ted by m a n u fa c tu re rs to be o f g re a t benefit
in h e lp in g them to p la n pro ductio n schedules.
T h e sta tistic a l services of th e division w ere ex p an d ed th ro u g h the
assistance o f th e R u b b er A ssociation of A m erica (In c .), by th e p u r ­
chase o f m o nthly official statistic s covering B ritis h an d F re n c h ex ­
p o rts of autom obile tire s an d ru b b e r footw ear. S im ila r C an ad ia n

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statistics w ere secured th ro u g h th e b u re a u ’s O tta w a office an d Ita lia n
tire-e x p o rt sta tistic s (q u a rte rly ) th ro u g h th e Home office. T h e
m o nthly statistic s are released re g u la rly th ro u g h special circulars,
com parativ e statem en ts of tire e x p o rts fro m all p ro d u c in g countries
to all fo reig n m a rk e ts being released q u a rte rly . T h e re g u la r s ta tis ­
tical s e r v i c e s of th e div ision , in c lu d in g the p re p a ra tio n an d d is trib u ­
tion of m o nthly statistic s o f U n ite d S ta te s e x p o rts o f ru b b er goods
of all classes, has also been continued in cooperation w ith th e s ta tis ­
tic a l division.
Special cam paig ns to increase A m erican ex p o rt tra d e in ru bbe r
beltin g, ru b b er heels and soles, an d ru b b e r specialties were u n d e r­
taken d u rin g th e y e a r ; d a ta on fo reig n m ark ets have been issued in
the fo rm of special circulars. T h e to ta l num ber o f circu lars issued
by th e division was 401, as com pared w ith 313 in th e fiscal y e ar 1924,
168 in 1923, an d 52 in 1922. T h e a ssista n t ch ief o f th e division has
p re p ared , in connection w ith th e b e ltin g cam pa ig n, a re p o rt on
T h e In te rn a tio n a l T ra d e in M achin ery B eltin g , w hich is being p u b ­
lished as T ra d e P ro m o tio n Series No. 22.
I n A p ril, 1925, th e ch ief o f th e division s ta rte d on a personal
in vestig atio n of ru b b er-g ro w in g possibilities in H a iti, an d in the
course o f his jo u rn e y review ed the m ark ets fo r ru b b e r p ro d u cts in
B ritish , D utch, an d F re n c h G u iana, an d th e isla n d of T rin id a d , re ­
tu rn in g J u n e 10.
Com m erce R ep o rts has carrie d re g u la r m onthly , sem iannual, and
a n n u al review s an d in te rp re ta tio n s o f A m erican e x p o rt statistics,
w hile o th e r re p re se n ta tiv e a rticle s co n trib u te d to th e m agazine in ­
clude “ T re n d in in te rn a tio n a l tra d e in autom obile tire s ,” “ A m erican
rubber-heel in d u stry a n d ex p o rt tra d e ,” “ P ro d u ctio n a n d use o f re ­
claim ed ru b b e r,” etc.
T h e , division has been successful in find in g ag en ts fo r several
ru bber m a n u fa c tu re rs th ro u g h th e m edium of th e b u re a u ’s fo reig n
offices.
SH O E

AND

LEATHER

M ANUFACTURES

D IV IS IO N

T he ra p id advance in th e w ork of th e shoe a n d le ath er m an u fa c­
tu re s division is illu stra te d by th e fa c t th a t th e correspondence d u r­
in g th e la st six m o nth s of th e y e a r showed an increase of 136 p er
cent over th e volum e fo r th e first six m onths. C u rre n t in fo rm atio n
re g a rd in g fo reig n m ark ets fo r boots an d shoes and leath er m an u fa c­
tu re d goods has been dissem in ated to th e in d u strie s thi-ough 135
m im eo graphed special c irc u la rs and tra d e in fo rm a tio n bulletins.
M onthly p re sen ta tio n s a n d in te rp re ta tio n s of im p o rt an d ex p o rt
statistics an d dig ests o f re p o rts received from com m ercial attaches,
tra d e com m issioners, an d consuls co ncern in g th e m a rk e ts in vario us
countries fo r fo otw ear an d allied com m odities have been published
in Com m erce R eports.
M any o p p o rtu n itie s to sell le a th e r m a n u fa ctu red goods in fo reig n
countries have been b ro u g h t to th e a tte n tio n of m a n u fa c tu re rs and
ex porters. T h e division, in cooperation w ith th e ru b b e r division,
has been m a k in g a w orld survey o f m ark ets fo r A m erican belting.
A w orld surv ey of m ark ets fo r shoe polishes was u n d e rta k e n ; th is
is now com pleted, an d th e d a ta w ill soon be issued in th e fo rm of

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R E PO R T OP T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

a tra d e in fo rm atio n bu lletin . F o r th e In te rd e p a rtm e n ta l C om m ittee
on In d e x N um bers th e division o btain ed com plete in fo rm a tio n from
th e boot and shoe in d u stry re g a rd in g th e nu m ber o f w o rk in g days p er
ann um a n d the nu m b er of p ro duc tiv e h ours o p era ted p e r day.
T he division has been c o o p eratin g w ith th e division o f dom estic
commerce in a survey of p riso n in d u strie s in th e ir rela tio n to outside
in dustries. I t has m ain ta in ed close contact w ith o th e r official and
semiofficial bodies in W ash in g to n , w ith com m ittees o f nin e tra d e o r­
g an izatio n s an d w ith in d iv id u a l m an u factu rers.
S P E C IA L T IE S D IV IS IO N

T h e specialties division of the bu re au handles about 20 m a jo r
g ro u p s o f com m odities, some of th e le ad in g ones b ein g business
equipm en t, fu rn itu re , ceram ics, sa n ita ry w are, m usical m erchandise,
jew elry, s p o rtin g goods, m otion pictures, p h o to g ra p h ic goods, toys,
a n d p rofessional an d scientific in stru m en ts. I t has contacts w ith
tra d e associations re p re se n tin g d istin c t g ro ups, as well as w ith in d i­
v id ua l m a n u fa ctu rers. A sav in g to a la rg e num b er o f ex p o rte rs
has resulted because th e division was able to show them b e tte r w ays
o f c a rry in g on th e ir fo reig n business, te stin g ou t m ark ets, and
p la n n in g th e ir ex p o rt p ro g ram s m ore efficiently. A s a direct, re su lt
o f th is m erch an d isin g an d sales service, 15 specialty m a n u fa c tu re rs
increased th e ir fo reig n sales d u rin g 1924 anyw here fro m $700 to
$75,000. T h e to ta l increase in sales fo r these 15 m a n u fa ctu rers,
who are only a few of those served in th e sam e w ay, am ounted to
$229,890. A n o th e r exam ple o f service w as in the case of a firm in
th e F a r E a s t w hich desired to purchase m od ern hotel e q u ip m e n t;
th is concern w as p u t in touch w ith A m erican m a n u fa ctu rers, w ith
the re su lt th a t, a fte r a personal v isit by two m em bers of th e firm,
o rd e rs were placed in th is co u n try w hich th ey state w ill am o u n t to
ab ou t $85,000.
T ra d e in fo rm atio n bulletin s issued by th e specialties division d u r­
in g th e y e ar included P o stw a r C onditio ns in th e G erm an T oy I n ­
d u stry , E a r E a ste rn M ark et fo r S p o rtin g an d A th le tic Goods, A d ­
v e rtisin g in In d ia , an d M ark ets fo r A th le tic Goods in A fric a and
th e N ear E ast. In ad d itio n to these m a jo r surveys, 73 c irc u lars
were issued on m a rk e t condition s affecting specialty p ro d u cts a n d
m ore th a n 250 re p o rts w ere fu rn ish e d fo r p u b licatio n in tra d e jo u r­
n als and new spapers.
A surv ey covering e x p o rts of all classes o f office ap pliances an d
su pp lies fo r th e 12-year perio d 1913-1924, inclusive, w as com pleted
in th e s p rin g o f 1925. B rie f m a rk e t surveys covering p o rta b le ty p e ­
w rite rs, soda fo u n ta in s, an d o th er special item s have been com pleted
an d w ill p ro b ab ly be m ade av ailable in th e fo rm o f special circulars.
Su rv ey s on fu rn itu re and jew elry are now in course o f p re p a ra ­
tio n by th e division. A d d itio n a l stu dies th a t are being p lanned
cover profession al a n d scientific in stru m en ts, business equipm ent,
m usical in stru m en ts, m otion p ictu res, a n d o th e r m a jo r g ro u p s com ­
in g w ith in th e sphere of a c tiv ity o f th e specialties division.
T he dom estic san itary -w are in v estig atio n w ill soon be com pleted ;
th is covers p lu m b in g supplies as well. T h e re p o rt w ill analyze th e

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u rb a n an d ru ra l m ark ets o f S ta te s in th is co u n try , d e alin g w ith th e ir
rela tiv e consum ing capa city as in dicated by vario us ge neral featu res.
T h e survey of fo reig n a d v ertisin g m edia and m ethods (m entio ned
in la st j'e a r’s re p o rt) has been p ra c tic a lly com pleted. T h e m ass of
d a ta received from consular officers ab ro ad has been carefu lly stu died
w ith th e object o f m ak in g it conven iently available to m an u factu rers,
m erchants, a d v ertisin g agencies, an d oth ers in te re sted in fo reign
pub licity . T h e re p o rts on p a rtic u la r new spapers, m agazines, and
tra d e jo u rn a ls ab ro ad w ere ta b u la te d on cards, an d d u p licate sets
of these cards have been fu rn ish e d to every d is tric t office of the.
bureau. C irc u la rs have been issued on a d v ertisin g condition s in
B elgium , A u stra lia , G re at B rita in , F ran c e , an d th e U n io n o f Sou th
A fric a , an d o th ers are to follow . C lients of th e bureau who have
ta k en ad v an ta g e o f th is a d v e rtisin g -d a ta service have considered it
to be an o u tsta n d in g achievem ent.
I n A p ril, 1925, a special section w as established to deal w ith
m otion pictures. Close contacts have been established w ith the
M otion P ic tu re P ro d u ce rs and D istrib u to rs o f A m erica (In c .).
A n ad v iso ry com m ittee cooperates w ith th e D e p a rtm e n t of Com ­
m erce in its w ork alo ng th is line. S im ila r contacts have been estab­
lished w ith th e In d e p e n d e n t M otion P ic tu re A ssociation.
O th e r tra d e o rg a n iz atio n s w ith w hich th e division m a in ta in s close
contact include th e N atio n al A ssociation o f Office A p p lian ce M an u­
fa c tu re rs, th e T o y M a n u fa c tu re rs of th e U n ite d S ta te s, th e M usic
In d u strie s C ham ber o f Com m erce, th e N atio n al A ssociation of B u t­
ton M a n u fac tu re rs, an d oth ers.
T E X T IL E D IV IS IO N

T h e te x tile div isio n o f th e b u re au h as cooperated w ith various
branches o f th e G overnm ent, especially th e W a r a n d N avy D e p a rt­
m ents an d th e V e teran s’ B u re au , in devising specifications fo r th e ir
tex tile pu rchases w hich w ill m eet th e requirem ents of th e G ove rn ­
m ent and at th e same tim e, by b rin g in g G overnm ent specifications
m ore in line w ith com m ercial sta n d a rd s, p e rm it fre e r com petition
fro m th e tra d e . O ne phase o f th is w ork has to do w ith fast-color
khaki. T h e tex tile division, th e division of sim plified p ractice, and
th e B u re au o f S ta n d a rd s have all co n trib u te d a g reat deal to w a rd
th e final ad o ptio n o f sta n d a rd sizes in th e hosiery an d u n d erw ear
trad es. C o o p eratin g w ith o th e r in te re sts th e division has w orked
to p re v e n t u n fa ir com petition by prison -m ade tex tile s w ith pro d u cts
of le g itim ate m a n u fa ctu rers.
D u rin g th e fiscal y e a r 1925 about 315,000 copies o f re g u la r and
58,000 copies o f special te x tile b u lletin s w ere m ailed out, as com ­
p are d w ith 260,000 an d 150,000, respectively, d u rin g 1923-24. R eg u ­
la r b u lletin s d ealin g w ith raw cotton, cotton goods, wool an d wool
m an u fa ctu res, b ristles, an d h a ir nets are issued weekly, w hile those
on cotto n g rey-clo th prices, th e y a rn tra d e , a n d k n it goods are p u b ­
lished abou t once a m onth . Special statistics, com piled by th e d i­
vision of statistic s an d d istrib u te d by th e te x tile division, on im p o rts
th ro u g h specified custom s d istric ts, include those on cotton cloth by
com m ercial classifications, c ertain classes of wool fab ric s, an d raw

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wool—th e first tw o b ein g m o n th ly an d th e last-n am ed weekly.
A bo ut 80,000 copies o f these stat istics w ere sent ou t d u rin g th e fiscal
y ear 1925. T h e te x tile division also issued tw o tra d e in fo rm atio n
bu lletin s—M a rk e tin g C otto n fo r E x p o rt an d C otton-G oods M arket
in th e N eth erlan d s E a st Ind ies.
A ctu al do llars-and -cen ts resu lts a ttrib u ta b le to th e activities of th e
b u reau in th e tex tile field are num erous a n d im p o rta n t. T h e division
sen t a d v ertisin g lite ra tu re o f an A m erican hosiery firm to th e b u ­
re a u ’s re p re sen ta tiv es in v ario u s L a tin A m erican co u n trie s: th e
com m ercial attach e at Buenos A ires o btain ed an agen t fo r th e A m eri­
can firm , an d th e agen t re p o rte d th a t in two m on ths he sold $60,000
w o rth o f hosiery fo r th e com pany. I n cooperation w ith th e b u re a u ’s
rep re sen ta tiv e in W arsa w , th e te x tile division in stitu te d n eg o tiatio ns
fo r th e fu n d in g of debts to th e am ount of abo ut $300,000 ow ing to
A m erican houses by P o lish spinn ers. T h e W arsaw office a n d th e
te x tile division in fo rm ed an A m erican firm th a t th e P o lish G ove rn ­
m en t desired to pu rchase p arach utes, an d at p re sen t th e re are p ro s­
pects th a t th is firm w ill secure an o rd e r fo r 600 parach utes. T h e
d iv isio n’s rep resen ta tiv e in L ondon ren d ered considerable assistance
to th is sam e firm in connection w ith th e recent sale o f 2,200 p a ra ­
chutes, w o rth a p p ro x im a te ly $1,000,000, to th e B ritis h A ir M in istry.
A n o th e r firm w rite s to th e tex tile div isio n s ta tin g th a t th e am ount
of business w hich i t d id la st y e ar as th e re su lt o f th e b u re au ’s
services can be placed a t “ over $150,000.” F ro m still an o th er firm
th is sta tem e n t com es:
W e r e c e iv e d a p p r o x im a t e ly § 3 0 ,0 0 0 to § 3 5 ,0 0 0 w o r th o f e x p o r t b u s in e s s
d u r in g t h e p a s t y e a r a s a r e s u lt o f t h e s e r v ic e s r e n d e r e d b y t h e B u r e a u o f
F o r e ig n a n d D o m e s t i c C o m m e r c e.
T R A N SP O R T A T IO N

D IV IS IO N

T h e issuance o f th e m anual on P a c k in g fo r F o reig n M ark ets
m arked one o f th e im p o rta n t achievem ents of th e tra n sp o rta tio n
division d u rin g th e p a st year. T h e in v estig atio n whose resu lts a re
em bodied in th is book h a d been requested by th e C om m ittee on th e
M erch an t M arin e an d F ish e rie s of th e H ouse of R ep resentatives.
T he pu blicatio n m et w ith im m ediate success an d m ore th a n 2,000
copies w ere sold th e first m onth a fte r its release. A special survey
requested by th e a g ric u ltu ra l in te re sts in th e fa r W estern S tates
was com pleted d u rin g th e y e a r an d th e fin dings w ere m ade av ailable
in a m o n o g ra p h en titled T ra n s p o rta tio n o f Pacific C oast P e ris h ­
ables.” T h e survey o f railw ay s o f L a tin A m erica, requested by
le ad in g railw ay -e q u ip m en t com panies, w as p a rtly com pleted d u rin g
th e year, and th e first volum e, R ailw ay s o f C en tral A m erica a n d th e
W est In d ie s, w as pu blished. T h e second volum e, on R ailw ay s o f
M exico, is in th e h a n d s of th e p r in te r ; th e m a n u scrip t o f th e th ir d ,
on A rg en tin e railw ay s, has been tu rn e d over to th e e d ito ria l d iv i­
sio n; and considerable w ork has been done on th e fo u rth volum e,
w hich w ill cover th e o th er S o u th A m erican countries.
Seve ral new in ve stig atio ns of m a jo r im po rtan ce were in a u g u ra te d
d u rin g th e ye ar. A stu d y o f th e economic aspects of th e G re a t L ak esS t. L aw rence w aterw ay s p ro ject was starte d . I n connection w ith
th e A m erican R ailw ay A ssociation, an in vestigation o f th e w astes in.

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121

tra n s p o rta tio n in th is co u n try was begun. A survey o f m o to r ro ads
of L a tin A m erica was u n d ertak en fo r th e P a n A m erican H ig h w a y
Com m ission an d fo r th e A m erican delegates to th e P a n A m erican
C onference on M otor R oads to be held in B uenos A ires th e la tte r
p a rt o f 1925.
T h e ch ief of th e tra n s p o rta tio n division sp en t th re e m o nth s at
the beg in n in g of th e fiscal y e ar in E u ro p e stu d y in g tra n s p o rta tio n
conditions. I n th e la tte r p a r t o f th e fiscal y e ar he m ade a sim ilar
survey in th e W est In d ie s an d th e n o rth e rn p a r t o f S o u th A m erica.
T h e ch ief o f th e com m unications section was ap p o in te d secre ta ry of
the A m erican delegation to th e first P a n A m erican C onference on
E lec tric a l C om m unications, held in M exico C ity th e la tte r p a r t o f
1924. T h e division p re p a re d a statem en t on th e re g u la tio n of a erial
n av ig atio n , w hich w as presented by th e d e p a rtm e n t to th e congres­
sional com m ittees co nside rin g th is subject. A ssistance w as given to
th e P o st Office D e p a rtm e n t in th e revision o f th e ra te s on fo reign
m ails an d parcel post.
P u b lica tio n s com piled an d issued by th e division, in a d d itio n to
those m entioned above, included T h e M erchandise W arehouse in D is­
trib u tio n , S h ip p in g of th e W est and E a s t C oasts o f S o u th A m erica,
th e U n ifo rm T h ro u g h E x p o rt B ill o f L a d in g , a n d F re ig h t F o rw a rd ­
in g in th e U n ited S ta te s an d A b ro ad .
T E C H N IC A L D IV IS IO N S
D IV IS IO N

OF

F O R E IG N

T A R IF F S

T h e fa cilitie s o f th e div isio n o f fo reig n tariffs have been severely
ta x ed by th e w ork o f a sc e rta in in g , in te rp re tin g , a n d com m u nicating
to A m erican business m en th e developm ents in th is field d u rin g the
p a st fiscal ye ar, in w hich n e a rly 40 co un tries have revised extensively
th e ir custom s ta riffs a n d re la ted m easures of tra d e control. T h ro u g h
th e cooperation o f th is G o v ern m en t’s re p re sen ta tiv es in fo reig n
fields, th e div isio n has, in m an y cases, been th e first to b ro a d c ast in
th e U n ite d S ta te s th e fu ll official sto ry of a ta riff chan ge o r a tre a ty
n eg o tiatio n in a fo reig n c o u n try of p a rtic u la r in te re st to A m erican
trad ers.
T h e n u m b er o f in q u iries th a t th e ta riff division han d led by m ail
from W a sh in g to n d u rin g th e fiscal y e a r 1925 to ta le d 8,845, an in ­
crease o f m ore th a n 2,000 over tw o years ago an d m ore th a n double
th e volum e o f such in qu iries fo u r years ago. M ost o f th e replies
call fo r consid erable research an d are usually accom panied b y spe­
cially p re p a re d statem ents o r m em orand a on p a rtic u la r situation s.
T h e above figures do n o t include th e 1,200 prob lem s p re sen te d p e r­
sonally by v isito rs to th e div isio n or th e 1,300 in qu iries h a n d le d by
telephone.
B esides th e re g u la r announcem ents in Com m erce R ep o rts of news
item s o f fo reig n ta riff a n d tre a ty developm ents, w hich occupied 160
pages d u rin g th e p a s t y ear, general situ atio n s were m ade th e subject
of special c irc u la rs o r artic le s in Com m erce R ep orts. T h e ir ran g e
is in d ic ated by such title s as “ P ro tec tiv e m ovem ent in B ritis h In d ia ,”
“ C an a d ia n ta riff policy an d A m erican tra d e ,” “ T h e A rg e n tin e
m erchandise-identification law ,” “ T h e 26 p e r cent re p a ra tio n s levy.”

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R E PO R T OP T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

Concise in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g th e duties an d o th e r conditions of
adm ission of A m erican autom obiles in to th e p rin c ip a l fo reig n coun­
tries was p re p a re d fo r dissem inatio n as p a r t of th e loose-leaf A u to ­
m otive M anual. I n cooperatio n w ith th e electrical div isio n a s ta rt
was m ade to w a rd th e p re p a ra tio n o f com prehensive ta riff stu dies on
th e adm ission o f electrical goods in to th e p rin c ip a l fo reig n m arkets.
F o r special occasions in tensive studies w ere m ade o f a g re a t variety
o f problem s connected w ith th e ta riffs an d com m ercial policies of
fo reig n countries, such as fo reig n ta riffs on A m erican w h eat and
flour, fo re ig n license re stric tio n s on c ertain m an u fa ctu res, foreig n
p ro tectiv e m easures fo r dye in du stries, fo reig n p ro h ib itio n s on food­
stuffs w ith p a rtic u la r in g re d ie n ts, an d fo reig n a n tid u m p in g laws.
T h e d iv isio n h as been p a rtic u la rly active d u rin g th e p a st y e a r in
th e qu iet advance d issem in atio n of notices of im p en d in g ta riff re ­
visions an d changes abroa d, e n ab lin g ex p o rte rs both to a rra n g e th e ir
sh ip m en ts in accordance w ith pro spective changes an d to in itia te
efforts to m od erate p a rtic u la r ta riff advances or new restrictio n s
before th e m easures h a d been definitely passed or m ade effective.
P a rtic u la rly num erou s have been th e instances w here th e D e p a rt­
m en t of Com m erce w as called upon to a id in solving or m itig a tin g
custom s difficulties in w hich A m erican goods fo und them selves in
fo reig n countries. T h is in cluded such ty p es o f service as securin g
th e lif tin g by a p a rtic u la r fo reig n co u n try of th e im p o rt re stric tio n s
upon A m erican m edicinal com pounds, upon d isp ro v in g c ertain alle­
g a tio n s; assistin g in secu rin g im p o rt licenses fo r p a rtic u la r sh ip ­
m ents in to c ertain cou ntries w here such im p o rtatio n s a re possible
on ly u n d e r in d iv id u a l p e rm it; secu rin g th e release of a n A m erican
sh ip m en t held in a fo reig n p o rt fo r some do cu m en tary irre g u la rity
o r sim ila r custom s in fra c tio n (a n d o fte n effecting also th e w aiver of
th e custom s fine in v o lv e d ); securin g th e adm ission o f p a rtic u la r
lines o f goods u n d e r m ore fav o ra b le ta riff classification an d conse­
qu en tly a low er ra te of d u ty . T h e to ta l savings to A m erican con­
cerns fro m such services, w hile n o t easily calculable, w ould unques­
tio n a b ly reach ve ry considerable am ounts.
D IV IS IO N

O F C O M M E R C IA L L A W S

T h e division o f com m ercial law s collects, com piles, an d dissem i­
na tes in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g fo reig n com m ercial law s, regu latio ns,
an d taxes (n o t ta riffs) affecting A m erican com m erce; advises and
assists in th e am icable ad ju stm en t o f tra d e d is p u te s; dissem inates
in fo rm atio n concernin g p reventable losses o r in ju ry to A m erican ex­
p o rte rs and m erchants, an d ren d ers every possible p ra c tic a l assist­
ance to A m erican e x p o rte rs and th e ir counsel in connection w ith
these an d allied techn ical problem s. I n th e fields o f law , insurance,
etc., th e div isio n has b u ilt u p a staff o f ad v iso ry ex p erts, w hich is
b ein g c o n sta n tly a u g m en ted ; m any persons o f n a tio n a l re p u ta tio n
in th e ir p a rtic u la r lines have g la d ly consented to serve th e division
in th is capacity. V aluable aid has been given by th e field officers
o f th e bu reau an d by m em bers o f th e C on su lar Service.
In q u irie s an d answ ers in volving legal problem s have increased
about 25 p e r cent d u rin g th e p a st fiscal year. These in quiries cover
th e e n tire ran g e of com m ercial law and touch all th e countries of
th e w orld. T h ey have become in cre asin g ly technical an d th e p ro b ­
lem s presen ted m ore in tric a te .

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123

D u rin g the y e a r th e c ircu lars issued on fo reig n legal subjects n u m ­
bered 65, d e alin g w ith such m a tte rs as G ov ernm ent c o n tra ct re q u ire ­
m ents, ta x a tio n in C hile. G erm any, Ita ly , F ree C ity o f D an zig , an d
G re at B rita in , and special com pany laws affecting business in G u a te ­
m ala, Costa R ica, M exico, A u stria , an d L atv ia .
E leven tra d e in fo rm atio n b ulletin s were published. T y p ic a l
am ong these a re : Ita lia n T a x R eform s, T a x a tio n of Securities in
E u ro p e, L ia b ility o f O cean C a rrie rs fo r C argo D am age o r Loss. New
P olish N egotiable In stru m e n ts L aw . I n a d d itio n a series of bu lle­
tin s d e alin g w ith “ T ra d in g U n d e r th e L aw s (of vario u s fo reig n
c o u n trie s)” was in s titu te d : e v en tu ally th is series w ill be extended to
cover all th e com m ercially im p o rta n t countries o f th e w orld. T r a d ­
ing U n d e r th e L aw s o f C uba an d T ra d in g U n d e r th e L aw s o f B ra zil
were th e first o f th is series. T h e extensive dem and fo r these bu lle­
tin s bears testim ony to th e ir value.
A m o n th ly circ u la r is issued u n d er th e title of “ C om parative law
series,” c o n ta in in g th e te x t of vario us law s an d o th e r technical m a ­
te ria l too volum inous fo r pu b licatio n in Com m erce R eports. T h e
dem and fo r th is is larg e an d co n sta n tly increasing.
T h e special c ircu lars o f th e division are d istrib u te d to a re g u la r
m ailin g list o f a p p ro x im a te ly 1,500 in d iv id u als an d firms. T h is
num b er is considerably augm ented by d ire c t requests fo r specific
bulletins and circulars.
D u rin g th e year, by m eans o f in quiries, research, an d questio n­
naires addressed to field represe n ta tiv es a n d oth ers, m uch valuable
in fo rm atio n covering th e law s o f th e w orld on m any subjects was
obtained and m ade read y fo r im m ediate reference. A m ong those
subjects are the law s of insurance, of bookkeeping, statem ents, and
records, an d of p a rtia l paym ents, in sta llm en t co n tracts, etc.
T h e division has also revised an d b ro u g h t up to date its list o f
fo reign atto rn eys. Nam es o f reliable atto rn ey s fo r p ra c tica lly every
large city in th e w orld are now on file in th e division.
P ra c tic a l advice has freq u en tly been given as to th e best m ethod
of a tte m p tin g to collect overdue accounts abroad. T ra d e disputes
a risin g from questions of q u a n tity , q u a lity , term s, etc., and o th er
m isu n d erstan d in g s are co n stan tly being ad ju sted th ro u g h th e in te r­
vention o f th e division. W ith th e assistance of fo reig n re p re se n ta ­
tives o f th e G overnm ent, in m ost cases, th e division has successfully
in tervened in m ore th a n 400 tra d e d isp u tes d u rin g th e year, not
only sav in g th o u san d s of do llars fo r A m erican e x p o rte rs b u t in
m any cases p re serv in g a n d in creasin g th e good w ill o f th e fo reig n
bu yer to w a rd A m erican commerce. A s a re su lt o f such a d ju s t­
m ents th e division has been in stru m e n ta l in a id in g settlem ent and
fa c ilita tin g th e collection o f accounts in th e a g g re g ate of m any
tho usan ds of dollars.
T he p a te n t and tra d e -m a rk section is now a p a rt of th is division.
T h a t its field is c o n sta n tly ex p an d in g is show n by th e nu m ber an d
n a tu re of th e in q u iries addressed to it. M ore th a n 1,200 answ ers to
in quiries in vo lv in g specific problem s—m any o f them d ealin g w ith
th e law s o f several countries-—w ere sent ou t d u rin g th e p a st year.
T h is sectio n’s w ork in p re v e n tin g th e p ira tin g o f tra d e -m a rk s and
in d e alin g w ith u n fa ir com p etition has been of g re a t value to
A m erican commerce.
66548—25—

9

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R E P O R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E
F IN A N C E

AND

IN V E S T M E N T

D IV IS IO N

T h e e x tra o rd in a rily la rg e volum e o f fo reig n securities issued in
th is co u n try d u rin g th e p a s t fiscal y e a r h a s re su lted in a m arked
increase in th e nu m ber of requests fro m in vestm en t b an k ers a n d
oth ers fo r d etailed in fo rm a tio n on th e p u blic finances of v a rio u s
fo reig n countries, provinces, a n d m unicip alities. T h e division of
finance an d in ve stm en t has rende red, in th is connection, d irect p ra c ­
tic a l service of g re a t value.
T h e div isio n has pu shed th e p re p a ra tio n o f b u lletin s an d m ono­
g ra p h s on th e pu blic finances of fo reig n countries. I n th e L a tin
A m erican series th e re have been issued com prehensive stu dies of th e
finances of C hile an d B olivia, w hile a s im ila r stu d y covering P e ru
is in course of p re p a ra tio n . I n th e f a r easte rn series a d etailed
stu d y of th e p u b lic debt, budg et, b a n k in g , cu rrency, an d exchange
of C h in a was com pleted d u rin g th e y ear, th is re p o rt b ein g o f special
tim eliness in view o f th e previo us lack o f a u th en tic d a ta and by
reason of th e fo rth co m in g in te rn a tio n a l conferences on th e C hinese
financial situ atio n .
M uch of th e basic in fo rm a tio n contain ed in these studies h as been
k e p t up to d ate th ro u g h th e pu b licatio n , in Com m erce R ep o rts a n d
in m im eographed circu lars, of c u rre n t d a ta on budgets, p u b lic
debt, etc.
T h e division began d u rin g th e y e ar th e pub licatio n o f th re e series
o f m im eog raph ed circu lars, issued a t in te rv a ls of about tw o weeks,
e n title d “ E u ro p e a n F in a n c ia l N otes,” “ L a tin A m erican F in a n c ia l
N otes,” an d “ F a r E a s te rn F in a n c ia l N otes.” I t is g ra tify in g to
re p o rt th a t these c irc u la rs are read , clip p ed , an d filed in th e le ad in g
b an k s an d b an k in g houses. T h e g en eral series of m im eographed
c irc u la rs has been contin ued fo r th e p u b licatio n o f lo n g er re p o rts
on special subjects. T h e c ircu lars on th e b a n k in g situ a tio n in
N orw ay a n d D en m ark have been fa v o ra b ly com m ented up o n fo r
th e ir tim eliness an d accuracy.
F o r th e confidential use o f th e W o rld W a r D ebt F u n d in g C om m is­
sion, th e div isio n p re p a re d exh au stiv e stu dies o f th e c h a ra c te r,
objects, etc., of th e w ar-tim e an d p o stw ar advances o f ou r G o v ern ­
m ent to several o f th e le ad in g E u ro p ea n G overnm ents. I n th is an d
in o th e r w ays th e division has rendered special service to th e D e b t
Com m ission.
W id e com m ent in th e d a ily press an d in financial an d econom ic
jo u rn a ls has been accorded to th e d iv isio n ’s stu dies o f o u r in creasin g
fo reig n loans and investm ents, o u r to u rists ’ ex p en d itu res ab ro ad , o u r
im m ig ra n ts’ rem ittances, a n d o th e r so-called inv isible item s in o u r
in te rn a tio n a l tra d e position.
T h e division has collected a g re a t m ass o f m a te ria l h a v in g to do
w ith th e m echanics of fo reig n ex chang e; th is w ill be digested an d
assem bled fo r p u b licatio n in th e n e ar fu tu re.
D IV IS IO N

OF

S T A T IS T IC A L

RESEARCH

T h e m ost im p o rta n t w ork o f th is division was, as hereto fo re, th e
assem bling an d coo rd in atio n o f th e S ta tistic a l A b stra c t o f th e U n ite d
S ta te s a n d th e Com m erce Y earbook, in v o lv in g th e e n tire p re p a ra ­

F O R E IG N A N D D O M E ST IC C O M M E R C E

125

tio n o f a la rg e p ro p o rtio n of th e la tte r publicatio n. T h e second
(1923) issue of th e yearbook h a d a sale of about 9,000 copies—th re e
tim es th a t of th e first issue. T h e 1924 issue w as com pleted m uch
e a rlie r th a n previou s issues, advance copies being delivered on J u ly
1, 1925, an d a la rg e ly increased sale is a n tic ip ate d . W ith th e issue
of th e S ta tistic a l A b stra c t fo r 1924, th e th o ro u g h g o in g revision th a t
has been u n d e r w ay d u rin g th e la st th re e y ears w as finally com ­
p le te d ; th e d a ta have been a rra n g e d in b rie fe r an d, a t th e sam e tim e,
m ore clear an d convenient form .
B u lle tin s w ere p re p a re d a n aly z in g extensively th e fo reig n tra d e
o f th e U n ite d S ta te s by cale n d a r y ears an d by fiscal years, an d sum ­
m a riz in g th e tra d e statistic s of a ll th e p rin c ip a l countries of th e
w orld. I t has also, in consultatio n w ith th e div isio n of statistics,
devised v ariou s condensations an d revisions of th e c u rre n t m o nth ly
an d a n n u a l sta tistic a l p u b licatio ns of th e bu reau show in g th e fo reig n
tra d e o f th e U n ite d S ta te s in detail.
D u rin g th e y e ar a ge og ra p h ic section was established u n d e r th e
charge of a tra in e d e x p e rt w ith a view to b u ild in g up th e m ap re ­
sources of th e b ureau, sta n d a rd iz in g a n d im p ro v in g th e m aps p re ­
p a re d by th e bu reau itse lf fo r pub licatio n or o th e r use, and a id in g
in th e ge og ra p h ic in te rp re ta tio n o f dom estic an d in te rn a tio n a l tra d e
an d in d u stry . T h e division continued its dire ctio n o f th e g ra p h ic a l
p re sen ta tio n o f statistic a l m a te ria l th ro u g h o u t the bureau. A tra n s ­
la tio n section w as o rg an ized w ith a view to in creasin g th e service
of th e division to o th e r divisions o f th e b u reau an d o th e r G o v ern ­
m en t offices in h a n d lin g m a te ria l fro m fo reig n languages.
T h e division con tin ued to fu rn ish to num erous corresp ondents d a ta
re g a rd in g th e tra d e o f fo reig n coun tries an d m any o th e r subjects
n o t fa llin g stric tly w ith in th e field o f any com m odity o r regio nal
division. N um erous co m pilatio ns of th e tra d e o f fo reig n countries
by com m odities a n d ge og ra p h ical regions have been m ade fo r o th er
divisions o f th is b ureau, an d aid h as been given to a ll division s in
o b ta in in g a n d ta b u la tin g o th e r sta tistic a l d a ta fro m b o th fo reig n
and dom estic sources.
D IV IS IO N

OF

S T A T IS T IC S

T h e statistic a l division com piles statem en ts o f im p o rts, exports,
vessels en tered and cleared, an d o th e r statistic s o f th e tra d e o f the
U n ite d S ta te s w ith fo reig n countries an d noncontiguo us te rrito rie s,
fro m m o n th ly an d q u a rte rly re p o rts ta b u la ted m echanically in th e
section of custom s sta tistic s a t New Y o rk fro m im p o rt e n trie s and
e x p o rt d eclaratio n s fo rw a rd e d fro m th e vario u s custom houses. T h e
division p re p a res th e statistic a l tables pu blished in th e M onthly S um ­
m a ry a n d th e an n u al re p o rt on F o re ig n Com m erce a n d N av ig atio n ,
issues re g u la tio n s a n d in stru c tio n s re g a rd in g th e sta tistic a l re p o rts,
p re p a re s th e classification of im p o rts an d e x p o rts fo r th e guid an ce
of collectors o f custom s, an d h andles correspondence an d in q u iries
re la tin g to U n ite d S ta te s fo re ig n -tra d e statistics.
A new re p o rt was issued show in g q u a n titie s an d values of articles
ex p o rted fro m each S ta te in th is co u n try d u rin g th e c ale n d ar y e ar
1924. T h is re p o rt h as been com piled in com pliance w ith th e longexpressed dem and fro m m a n u fa c tu rin g , business, an d a g ric u ltu ra l
in te re sts fo r in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g e x p o rts o rig in a tin g in th e d iffer­

126

R E PO R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

ent States. I t is n o t possible to trace ex p o rted com m odities back to
th e S ta te w here th ey were o rig in ally pro duced, b u t th e e x p o rts have
been credited to th e place o f o rig in a l ship m ent, as shown on th e sh ip ­
p e r’s e x p o rt de claratio n.
F o r th e in fo rm atio n o f packing-house and sto ck -ra isin g interests,
a new re p o rt has been issued show in g w eekly ex p o rts of bacon, ham s,
shoulders, la rd , and pickled pork. W eekly re p o rts are now published
covering ex p o rts of g ra in s an d flou r; e x p o rts o f p o rk p ro d u c ts; im ­
p o rts o f raw wool into B oston, P h ila d e lp h ia , an d New Y o rk ; and
im p o rts o f w heat from C anada.
A b o u t 250 special statem en ts are issued each m o nth show ing ex ­
p o rts and im p o rts of p rin c ip a l selected com m odities in com plete
d etail by countries an d custom s d is tric ts ; these are d istrib u te d in
m im eog raph ed form to a m a ilin g lis t o f m ore th a n 18,000 addresses.
In q u iries answ ered by th e division of statistic s increased from 11,130
in the fiscal y e ar 1924 to 12,105 in 1925, o f w hich 7,693 were letters
and th e re m a in d er personal an d telephon e calls.
I n response to requests fro m dom estic w oolen-goods m a n u fa c ­
tu re rs, spècial m d n th lÿ re p o rts have been issued show ing im p o rts of
wool cloths an d dress goods a t six p rin c ip a l p o rts, by kin ds and
tra d e design ation s. Special re p o rts of im p o rts of cotton cloths into
five p rin c ip a l p o rts by specified tra d e desig na tio ns are issued fo r
the. in fo rm atio n o f cotton m a n u fa ctu rers.
I n Order to keep w ith in th e a llo tte d p rin tin g a p p ro p ria tio n s, th e
“ p rin c ip a l c o u n trie s ” were om itte d in th e im p o rt an d ex p o rt s ta te ­
m ents published in the M onthly S u m m ary fo r O ctober an d N ovem ­
ber. 1924. T h is om ission caused m any com p laints, an d p u b licatio n
of the “ co u n try ” figures was resum ed fo r D ecem ber an d succeeding
m on th s, a fte r C ongress h a d g ra n te d increased a p p ro p ria tio n s fo r
p rin tin g .
C O M M E R C IA L

IN T E L L IG E N C E

D IV IS IO N

T he p rim a ry pu rpo se of th e com m ercial intelligence division is
to b rin g th e fo reig n bu y er a n d th e dom estic seller to g e th e r fo r th e
sale of A m erican pro du cts. I ts m ost notable constru ctive w ork
d u rin g the p a st fiscal y e ar h as been th e developm ent of th e D irecto ry
of F o reig n B uyers, the 57,700 new re p o rts ad ded d u rin g th e year
b rin g in g th e to ta l nu m be r of re p o rts on file u p to 200,000. In view
of th e co n sta n tly c h an g in g conditions of th e w o rld ’s tra d e , m uch
revision has been necessary to keep th is d ire c to ry u p to date.
T h e re p o rts m entioned (com m only know n as W o rld T ra d e D i­
recto ry o r sales in fo rm atio n re p o rts) are in dem and because th ey give
a com plete p ictu re of th e business an d im portance of a fo reign
buy er, o r. if an ag en t, his d e sira b ility to re p re se n t A m erican firms.
D u rin g the fiscal y e ar ju st ended requests w ere received fo r 49,082
de tailed re p o rts on in d iv id u a l fo reign firm s, as com pared w ith
28,451 requests d u rin g th e p reced in g year.
I n o rd e r to su p p ly m a n u fa c tu re rs a n d e x p o rte rs w ith com plete
an d u p -to -d ate in fo rm atio n rela tiv e to prospective fo reig n buyers
fo r th e ir com m odities, 1,595 new an d revised com m odity lists of
im p o rters and dealers were com piled, m im eographed, an d m ade
available d u rin g th e y e a r; th is represents an increase o f 751 over
1923-24.

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127

T h e requests fo r com m odity tra d e lists reached th e un preced ented
to ta l o f 687,159. W ith th e active co op eratio n o f th e C on sular Service
and th e assistance ren d ered by com m ercial attach és a n d tra d e com ­
m issioners. th is division has developed a com prehensive index of
dealers an d bu yers o f p ra c tic a lly every com m odity e n terin g into
in te rn a tio n a l tra d e .
T h ere has been an increased dem an d, on th e p a rt of ex p o rters, fo r
assistance in selecting fo reig n sales agents. I n m any cases th e selec­
tio n of prospective ag en ts fro m m a te ria l on file in th e division has
enabled ex p o rte rs to m ake desirable an d w o rth-w hile connections
w ithou t go in g to th e expense o f send in g a personal rep resentativ e
abroad.
T h e division h as fu r th e r developed an d im proved its confidential
service o f re p o rtin g to A m erican b an k s h a v in g fo reig n d ep artm en ts
th e in fo rm a tio n received fro m th e field re la tiv e to firm s th a t fa il,
become b a n k ru p t, go in to liq u id a tio n , etc.
A n o th e r o u tsta n d in g fe a tu re o f th e w ork w as th e p u b licatio n of
a tra d e in fo rm a tio n bu lletin covering sources o f fo reign c re d it
in fo rm atio n . T h is con tain s th e nam es of banks a n d . m ercan tile
agencies in the U n ite d S ta te s an d fo reig n countries th a t are in a p o ­
sitio n to fu rn ish d a ta w ith resp ect to th e s ta n d in g o f firm s located
abroad.
D O M E S T IC C O M M E R C E D IV IS IO N

T h e nu m ber of replies by th e b u re a u ’s dom estic commerce division
to requests fo r specialized in fo rm atio n showed an increase of 100 p er
cent d u rin g the p a st fiscal year, as com pared w ith the y e ar 1926- 24.
A series o f bu lletin s designed to im prove fe ta il tra d e p ra c tic e s1was
u n d e rta k en , six of w hich hav e been published an d d istrib u te d ,
nam ely, B u d g e ta ry C o n tro l in R e ta il Store M anagem ent. Retail
S to re L ocatio n. M easu rin g a R etail M ark et, R etail Store P la n n in g ,
E d u catio n of a R e ta il Sales F o rce, an d C ooperative R etail A d v e r­
tisin g . I t is no tew o rth y th a t requests w ere received fo r m ore th a n
60,000 copies o f th e first o f these bulle tin s a n d th a t th e su p p ly of
an o th er w as ex hausted w ith in tw o weeks. F o u r m ore stu dies w hich
wi 11 com plete th is series are e ith e r read y or in course of p re p a ratio n .
W ho lesalers’ and m a n u fa c tu re rs’ tra d e practices have also come in
fo r consid eratio n. A b u lle tin s e ttin g fo rth th e best m ethods of ro u t­
in g salesm en was p re p a re d a n d pu blished as P la n n in g Salesm en’s
T e rrito rie s. I t w ill be follow ed by oth ers in th e field of sales m a n ­
agem ent as fu n d s become available.
O n the basis o f requests from vario u s tra d e s, a n d in collaboration
w ith th e a p p ro p ria te com m odity d iv isio ns of th e b ureau, several
studies of dom estic m a rk e t possibilities have been issued. T he first,
D om estic M arket P ossib ilities fo r E le c tric a l M erch and isin g L ines,
was an in itia l a tte m p t to d em onstrate th e d ifferin g values of re ­
gion al m a rk e ts in th e U n ite d States. U sin g several carefu lly chosen
facto rs of sales volume an d in clin atio n , an an alysis was m ad e o f the
m a rk e ta b ility o f these com m odities by States. A second .in th is scries
tre a ts th e Dom estic M arkets fo r P a in ts, an d V arn ishes, and a th ird
stu d y on D om estic M ark ets fo r S a n ita ry W are a n d P lu m b in g S u p ­
plies is n e a rin g com pletion. A m ore g en eral m a rk e tin g stu d y , T he
M erchandise W arehouse in D istrib u tio n , has been published, and

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R E P O R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

th re e oth ers, C oal P ro d u cts, M ethods of P a c k in g fo r D om estic S h ip ­
m ent, and M ark ets fo r F e rtiliz e rs, are alm ost read y.
A stu d y of wholesale tra d e areas in th e gro cery tra d e is w ell u n d e r
way. T h is is th e first a tte m p t to d ifferen tiate betw een p o litical d i­
visions an d n a tu ra l com m ercial tra d e areas, an d it is th e re fo re o f a
fu n d a m e n ta l n a tu re . T h ere has been in a u g u ra te d an im p o rta n t in ­
v estig atio n in to th e n um be r an d resu lts of agencies en gaged in com­
m ercial re searc h ; th is w ill yield fo r th e first tim e an in v en to ry of
p ro je cts com pleted a n d p la n n ed in th is field. C onsiderable w ork has
been done to revise an d m ake c u rre n t th e b u re a u ’s d ire c to ry of C om ­
m ercial an d In d u s tria l O rg an izatio n s.
T h e ch ief w ork of th e division, how ever, has been th e com pletion
o f tw o exhaustiv e surveys of dom estic regio nal m ark ets, b o th of
w hich w ill a p p e a r in p rin t a t an e a rly date. T hese studies of th e
P h ila d e lp h ia an d A tla n ta m a rk e tin g areas are th e re su lt o f extensive
field w ork and intensive sta tistic a l an d general research in th e office.
T h e ir aim is to presen t a com plete and d etailed p ic tu re of th e re ­
sources, economic ba ck g ro u n d an d activities, channels of m a rk e tin g ,
p u rc h a sin g 'p o w e r an d h ab its, an d th e effects of excess or deficiency
in pro d u cts of th e regio n u n d e r consideration . T h ey have been
ju d g e d by tra d e in te re sts to be of e x tra o rd in a ry value to dom estic
tra d e in e v a lu a tin g m ark ets a n d in a d d in g to c u rre n t know ledge of
m a rk e tin g . I t is p la n n ed to conduct a t least six sim ila r surveys d u r­
in g th e com ing y e a r and to keep th e d a ta c u rre n t by th e estab lish ­
m ent o f a regiona l re p o rtin g service.
T h e d iv isio n’s staff has c o n sta n tly endeav ored to m a in ta in an d a d d
to th e tra d e contacts th a t have been established. R ep resen tatio n on
th e N atio n al D istrib u tio n C onference a n d th e N a tio n al C onference
on S tre e t a n d H ig h w a y S a fe ty is also k eep in g th e div isio n in close
to uch w ith th e w ork o f those bodies.
A D M IN IS T R A T IV E D IV IS IO N S
E D I T O R IA L

D IV IS IO N

D u rin g th e p a s t fiscal y e ar th e e d ito ria l division was called upon
to handle, in one w ay o r an o th er, n e arly 45,000 re p o rts fro m th e
fo re ig n re p re se n ta tiv es o f th e G overnm ent. Com m erce R ep orts,
th e w eekly m agazine issued by th e b u reau fo r th e benefit o f business
men, was edited and published a lo n g m uch th e sam e lines as in th e
previou s ye ar. T h e F o re ig n T ra d e O p p o rtu n itie s p ublishe d n u m ­
bered 4,909, as com pared w ith 3,846 in th e p reced in g year, an increase
o f 28 p e r cent.
A d e p a rtu re in connection w ith th e w ork o f th e division was th e
p la c in g o f all tra d e in fo rm atio n bulle tin s on a sales basis a t a u n i­
fo rm price of 10 cents each. F o rm e rly th e public atio n s o f th is
p a rtic u la r class h ad been issued in th e fo rm o f supplem ents to
C om m erce R ep o rts an d h a d been d istrib u te d free to selected lists o f
in d iv id u a ls an d firms. T hese bulletin s have become an in creasin gly
im p o rta n t fa c to r in th e pub licatio n w ork o f th e bureau.
T h e Com m erce Y earbook, 1924, p re se n tin g a concise a n d g ra p h ic
p ic tu re o f th e w o rld ’s in d u s try a n d commerce, w ith sp ecial reference
to th e U n ite d S ta te s, w as an o u tsta n d in g p u b licatio n e d ited d u rin g
th e year.

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129

I t proved necessary d u rin g th e p re sen t c ale n d ar y e a r to discon­
tin u e th e p u b licatio n of th e supplem ents to Com m erce R ep o rts
co m p risin g th e economic an d tra d e review s of fo reign countries
contained in th e an n u al re p o rts of consular officers. T h is action
was due p rin c ip a lly to th e sh o rtag e o f p rin tin g fund s. T h e in ­
sufficiency of th e p rin tin g a p p ro p ria tio n s fo r th e b u re au continues
to be a pro blem of th e utm o st g ra v ity an d one th a t is h a m p erin g
th e w ork o f th e org an iz atio n . M uch m ore am ple a p p ro p ria tio n s
are needed to enable th e b u re a u ’s pu b licatio n w ork to fun ctio n
norm ally .
T h e to ta l nu m ber o f p rin te d pages ed ited in th e bu re au d u rin g
th e fiscal y e ar 1925 was 14,239, a slig h t increase over th e 14,036
sent to th e p rin te r d u rin g th e p re ced in g year. T h e num b er of
special c ircu lars edite d in th e e d ito ria l division was about 2,900,
th e to ta l nu m ber of pages in these c ircu lars being ap p ro x im ate ly
7,500.
D IV IS IO N

OF

CO RRESPONDENCE

AND

D IS T R IB U T IO N

T h is division com prises tw o d istin c t sections, correspondence and
d is trib u tio n .
I n th e correspondence section th e incom ing correspondence is
ro u ted to th e a p p ro x im a te ly 50 sep ara te u n its in th e bu re au and
o u tg o in g correspondence is review ed fro m th e sta n d p o in t of s ta te ­
m ents o f fa c t, adherence to b u reau an d d e p a rtm e n ta l policy, com ­
pliance w ith a d m in istra tiv e ru les a n d reg u la tio n s, ty p o g ra p h ic a l a p ­
pearan ce a n d fo rm , in a d d itio n to th e b ro a d e r facto rs necessarily
e n te rin g in to a v a rie d correspondence of th e volum e carrie d on by
th is bu reau. T h is division also carries on a la rg e correspondence of
its own in re la tio n to a v a rie ty of subjects, h av in g answ ered about
15T00 in qu iries by m ail d u rin g th e fiscal year.
R ecords k e p t in th is division show th e nu m ber of com m ercial
services ren d ered by th e b u reau in W ash in g to n an d its d is tric t and
cooperative offices. T hese services to ta le d 2,091,250 in th e fiscal
y e ar 1925, as com pared w ith 1,236,326 in 1924, 972,702 in 1923, and
589,533 in 1922. T h e 1925 to ta l show s an increase o f 69 p e r cent
over 1924.
R equests received d u rin g th e y e a r fo r in fo rm atio n reserved from
F o re ig n T ra d e O p p o rtu n ity announcem ents to ta le d 446,865, as com ­
p a re d w ith 345,784 in 1924, 332,131 in 1923, an d 127,385 in 1922.
C o ntin ued in te re st in tra d e lists issued by th e bureau is evidenced
by th e to ta l nu m ber o f requests received fo r such m a te ria l, 687,159
tra d e lists h av in g been asked fo r in th e fiscal y ear 1925, as com pared
w ith 417,195 in 1924, 181,049 in 1923, and 71,900 in 1922. T h e to ta l
n u m b er o f tra d e lists d istrib u te d in 1925 was abo ut 1,103,900, re p re ­
sen tin g 1,577 sep a ra te lists.
T h e nu m be r o f copies o f confidential and special c ircu lars sen t
o u t d u rin g th e y e ar to ta le d 3,713,800, co m p risin g 3,668 sep ara te
statem en ts, as com pared w ith ap p ro x im a te ly 3,100,000 co m p risin g
2,227 statem en ts in 1924, 1,000,000 in vo lv in g 1,100 sep a ra te s ta te ­
m ents in 1923, and 350,000 covering 744 statem ents in 1922. T he
n u m b er o f envelopes addressed or in d iv id u a ls served increased 280
p e r cent in 1924-25, as com pared w ith th e preced in g year.

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R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

T h e correspondence division m ain ta in s a g ro u p o f reserve stenog­
ra p h e rs and ty p ists w ho are available up o n reque st fo r w ork in o th er
u n its of the bu reau. T h is service has developed into a tra in in g school
fro m w hich vacancies o ccu rrin g elsewhere are filled ; ap p ro x im a te ly
25 such tra n sfe rs w ere effected d u rin g th e fiscal year.
A s in th e p ast, th e d is trib u tio n section has m ain ta in ed m a ilin g
lists fo r th e d istrib u tio n o f p u b licatio n s an d c irc u la rs an d has su p e r­
vised th e m echanical an d physical details connected w ith th e E x ­
p o rte rs ’ In d ex .
D IS T R IC T A N D C O O P E R A T IV E O F F IC E S

T h e bureau established, d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar ju s t p ast, tw o new
d istric t offices, one a t D e tro it, M ich., an d th e o th er at P o rtla n d ,
O reg., an d fo u r cooperative offices, at Jacksonv ille, F la ., O range,
Tex.. H ousto n, Tex., an d Des M oines. Iow a.
T h e nu m ber o f services ren d ered by th e d is tric t offices increased
fro m 967,620 d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar 1924 to 1,826,381 in 1925. T here
were 440,670 T ra d e O p p o rtu n itie s d istrib u te d by th e d is tric t offices
d u rin g 1925, as com pared w ith 343,511 d u rin g 1924 a n d 687,159
tra d e lists d is trib u te d .a s com pared w ith 416,000 d u rin g th e p reced ­
in g year.
T h e increase in th e n u m b er of services re n d e red by th e New Y o rk
d istric t office has been m ost re m ark able. T h is office alone perfo rm ed
1,191,562 services fo r business m en d u rin g th e fiscal y ear 1925, a n in ­
crease of more th a n 100 p e r cent over th e 572,997 th a t were recorded
d u rin g th e p re ced in g fiscal year. T h e le tte rs received fro m firms
in the New Y o rk d is tric t showed an increase of over 23 p er cent.
T h e to ta l n um be r o f persons v isitin g all th e d is tric t offices fo r com­
m ercial assistance d u rin g th e p ast fiscal y e ar w as 61,996.
T h e D e tro it d istric t office w as opened J u ly 1, 1924, and th e need
fo r it has been conclusively dem o n strated by the e x te n t to w hich its
services have been utilized by th e business in te re sts o f M ichigan.
T h e inqu iries have increased from 40 d u rin g th e first week in J u ly
to ap p ro x im ate ly 700 fo r the la st week in J u n e . T he P o rtla n d office
w as opened on M ay 15. 1925, an d is m eetin g w ith en th u siastic su p ­
p o rt a n d encouragem ent. T h e P o rtla n d C ham ber o f Com m erce has
p ro v id ed space fo r th e b u reau 's office u n til such tim e as p erm an en t
q u a rte rs are available an d has cooperated very closely w ith th e d is­
tric t m a n ag e r ever since h is a rriv a l there.
F O R E IG N SE R V IC E D IV IS IO N

N ine h u n d re d a n d tw enty -on e pouches o f m ail w ere received in
th e fo reign service division d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar and rou ted to th e
v ario u s div isio n s o f th e bureau. I n a d d itio n to th e pouches, w hich
a rriv e every few days, h a lf a dozen o r m ore packag es o f open m ail
a rriv e every d ay from those offices th a t do no t have th e pouch serv­
ice. C opies o f a ll com m unications betw een th e b u reau an d its field
offices, in clu d in g w eekly re p o rts an d econom ic a n d tra d e notes, were
retain ed in th is division fo r the in fo rm a tio n o f o th er d e p artm en ts
of th e G overnm ent.
T h e p ractice was continued o f a rra n g in g itin e ra rie s f o r field re p ­
resen tativ es w hom it w as considered desirable to hav e v isit the

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a nd

d o m e s t ic

c o mmer c e

131

vario us d is tric t an d cooperative offices of the bureau fo r th e purpo se
o f c o n fe rrin g w ith local business m en. T h e budgets o f th e field
offices w ere c arefu lly su perv ised an d am ended fro m tim e to tim e to
m eet unforeseen exigencies of the com m ercial-attache and tra d e com m issioner service. T hree h u n d re d and sev enty -fou r le tte rs o f
in tro d u ctio n to th è field offices were issued d u rin g th e y e ar to business
m en who were go in g abroad.
D u rin g th e p a st fiscal y e a r 10 new offices w ere established abro ad
and 11 com m ercial attach és, 5 assistan t com m ercial attachés, 15 tra d e
com m issioners, 27 assistan t tra d e com m issioners, an d 4 A m erican
clerks were ap p o in te d to foreig n posts. S e p a ra tio n s fro m th e fo reig n
service due to resig n atio n s and tra n s fe r to W a sh in g to n included 3
com m ercial a tta c h é s,TO tra d e com m issioners. 5 assistan t tra d e com ­
m issioners, 3 special agents, an d 6 A m erican clerks.
C om m unications of all k in d s betw een th e bu re au and o u r fo reig n
offices, and vice versa, passed th ro u g h th e review in g section, in w hich
a record was k e p t of all th e re p o rts an d letters from each o f th e
fo reig n offices to th e bureau and th e am oun t of w ork each fo reig n
office an d each fo reig n rep resen ta tiv e w as doing. D u rin g th e y ear
768 special re p o rts, 0.259 economic and tra d e notes, 23,182 in fo rm a ­
tio n a l letters, and 13,085 le tte rs to be fo rw a rd e d to outside firm s
w ere sent to th e b u reau b y its 41 -foreign offices an d passed th ro u g h
th e review in g section, a g ra n d to ta l o f 43,294 as com pared w ith
29,920 la st year. T h e vario us divisions sent to the re view in g section
to be fo rw a rd e d to th e fo reig n offices 51,065 le tte rs and com m unica­
tion s o f all kin ds. T h ere were also 1,400 q uestio nnaires sent, out to
th e fo reig n offices, o rig in a tin g in th e vario us divisions of th e bureau.
O f re p o rts and le tte rs received bv th e bu re au fro m its fo reign
offices, th e follo w ing is th e average per office fo r th e fiscal y ear
1924-25: Special re p o rts, 19: economic and tra d e notes, 153; letters
to b ureau, 565; le tte rs to outside p a rtie s, 319; answ ers to qu estion ­
naires, 34; tra d e o p p o rtu n ities, 21.
A to ta l o f 6,497 cableg ram s w ere tra n sm itte d between th e field
offices an d th e bu reau d u rin g th e fiscal y e a r ended J u n e 30, 1925. as
co m p ared w ith 5,754 fo r th e previo us y e a r, 4,200 fo r 1923, an d 3,127
fo r 1922.
T he practice of send in g " charge ” cablegram s on b e h alf of p riv a te
firm s and in d iv id u a ls has proven to be a quick an d reliable m eans of
o b ta in in g up -to -d ate in fo rm atio n . T h is service is constantly being
m ade use o f by A m erican business.
C O O P E R A T IO N W IT H

OTHER DEPARTM ENTS

T he fiscal y e ar 1924-25 has w itnessed decided p ro g ress in th e
W orking o u t of harm oniou s rela tio n s between th is bureau an d th e
D e p artm en t o f S ta te , chiefly as a re su lt o f th e E x ecutiv e ' o rd e r of
A p ril 5, 1924, and th e w ork done in in a u g u ra tin g a system in th e
liaison office w hereby an acc u ra te record is k e p t o f all consular re­
p o rts received an d first-h an d com m ents a re secured fro m the
reg io nal, com m odity, an d technical divisions desig nated to take
action on them . D etailed com m ents hav e been fu rn ish e d to consular
officers on th e q u a lity a n d dispositio n o f each one o f th e ir re p o rts
d u rin g th e p a st y ear, w ith m ost g ra tify in g results.
66548-

25-

10

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R E P O R T O F T H E SEC RE T A R Y OF C O M M E R C E

T he percen tage of consular re p o rts on w hich no action w as taken
has fallen from 27 in 1923-24 to 5.7 in 1924-25; th is is in d icativ e of
a m uch b e tte r u n d e rsta n d in g , on th e p a rt of consular officers, o f ju st
w h a t k in d o f m a te ria l is useful to th is bureau. T h e percentage of
consular re p o rts given special d is trib u tio n shows a n increase fro m
11 to 14.6.
T h e D e p a rtm e n t of S ta te has ta k en occasion to express its a p p re ­
ciatio n o f th e records k e p t by th e b u re a u ’s liaison office w ith re g a rd
to th e action ta k en on consular re p o rts an d states th a t these records
a re of g re a t assistance in g ra d in g th e w ork o f th e consular offices.
T h e D e p a rtm e n t o f S ta te h as likew ise expressed its g ra tifica tio n a t
th e w ork of o u r liaison office in su p p ly in g consular officers w ith
c lip p in g s fro m th e press a n d fro m tra d e jo u rn a ls a n d w ith special
c irc u la rs g iv in g th e te x ts o f th e ir re p o rts as th e y are m ade av ailable
fo r A m erican business men.
T h e system o f sen d in g consular officers questionnaires c arefu lly
review ed by th e b u re a u ’s q u estio nnaire com m ittee continues to fu n c ­
tio n w ith h ig h ly satisfa c to ry resu lts. D u rin g th e y e ar 948 qu estion ­
n a ire s w ere sent to consular officers.
T h e practice o f sen d in g to th e liaison officers o f all d e p a rtm e n ts
o f th e G overnm ent a weekly lis t of re p o rts from th e b u re a u ’s re p re ­
sentativ es has been m a in ta in ed , a n d re p o rts w hich th e y request are
m ade available to them . I t is believed th a t th is p ractice has g re a tly
in creased th e usefulness o f th is bureau to o th e r d e p artm en ts of th e
G overnm ent.
T h ere has been a noticeable increase of late in th e n um ber o f con­
suls v isitin g th is bu reau . A rra n g e m e n ts hav e been m ade w ith th e
liaison officer o f th e S ta te D e p a rtm e n t fo r th e class of consular officers
now receivin g in stru ctio n s a t th e S ta te D e p a rtm e n t to m ake a p e r­
sonally conducted visit to th e bureau in gro u p s of fo u r or five for
th e p urpo se of fo rm in g a clear p ic tu re of th e m an n er in w hich con­
su la r re p o rts a re h an d led by th is bu reau an d g a th e rin g in fo rm atio n
re g a rd in g the activ itie s of th e com m odity, technical, an d reg io n al
divisions.
S T A N D A R D IZ A T IO N

W ORK

P u rs u in g its jo in t aid w ith th e B u reau of S ta n d a rd s in th e p re p a ­
ra tio n o f a p re lim in a ry p ro g ra m fo r th e F ir s t P a n A m erican C o n fe r­
ence on U n ifo rm ity of Specifications a n d in th e fo rm u la tio n and
effectuation o f p la n s fo r th is w ork, th e b u re au sen t a delegate to th is
conference, w hich was held in L im a, P e ru , D ecem ber 23, 1924, to
J a n u a r y 6, 1925. F o llo w in g th e conference a section "was org anized
to p ro v id e fo r c o n tin u ity o f th e work.
In accordance w ith detailed p la n s fo rm u lated an d app ro v ed b y an
adv isory b o ard com posed of re p re se n ta tiv e s of 14 n a tio n a l o rg a n iz a ­
tions, th e B u re au of F o reig n an d D om estic C om m erce cooperated
w ith th e B u reau o f S ta n d a rd s in th e pu b licatio n of a D ic tio n a ry o f
Specifications.
R E C O M M E N D A T IO N S

T h e fo llo w in g are, in m y opinion, th e essential needs o f th e B u re au
of F o reig n a n d D om estic C om m erce:
1.
A de quate legislation to place th e fo reig n service of th e d e p a rt­
m en t on a p erm an en t basis.

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133

2. A d d itio n a l d is tric t offices in some o f th e m ore im p o rta n t in d u s­
tria l centers of th e U n ite d S ta te s, so th a t th e b u re a u ’s h ig h ly p e rish ­
able com m odity (com m ercial in telligence) m ay be d istrib u te d m ore
ra p id ly to those firms w hich m ake use of it in b u ild in g up th e ir e x p o rt
trade.
3. In cre ased a p p ro p ria tio n fo r th e w ork o f th e dom estic com ­
merce division, in o rd er to m ake a d d itio n a l surveys of dom estic
regional m ark ets, w hich are b ein g dem anded by business o rg a n iz a ­
tions an d in d iv id u als.
4. L eg isla tio n a u th o riz in g th e b u re au to send ex p erts an d exh ib its
to tra d e conventions an d to ch arge fees fo r th e en ro llm en t on th e
E x p o rte rs ’ In d e x , as well as legislation a u th o riz in g th e d e p a rtm e n t
to p e rm it th e fo reig n offices to subscribe, in advance, to new spapers
and perio dicals, so essential to th e w ork of th e bureau.
5. A d d itio n a l offices in fo reig n countries, especially in those coun­
tries w here in ad eq u ate com m unication facilities m ake th e e sta b lish ­
m ent of b ra n ch offices a necessity.
6. L a rg e r a p p ro p ria tio n s to p e rm it th e assig nm ent to com m odity
divisions of ex p erts in p a rtic u la r com m odities fo rm in g a considerable
share o f o u r y e a rly fo reig n tra d e .
7. M ore am ple p rin tin g a p p ro p ria tio n s.
V ery tru ly you rs,
J u n iu s K l e i n , D irector.

BU REA U O F STANDARDS

D e pa r

t m e n t o f Co m m e r c e .
B u r e a u o f St a n d a r d s ,

W a s h in g to n , J u l y 1 ,1 9 2 5 .
H on. H e r b e r t H o o v e r ,
S e c r e ta r y o f C om m erce.
D e a r M r . S e c r e t a r y : I n response to y o u r request I fu rn ish th e
fo llo w in g condensed re p o rt upon th e w ork of the b u re au d u rin g th e
p a st y e a r :
G E N E R A L A C T IV IT IE S

T h e developm ent of the w ork o f th e B u re au o f S ta n d a rd s should,
in m y opin ion , keep pace w ith th e g ro w th and in creasin g v a rie ty and
scope o f th e N a tio n ’s activities. “ T he w orld to -d ay is ru le d by
p h ysical science, a n d business, w hich, in th e v a st p ro p o rtio n s in ­
d u stry an d commerce h av e now a tta in e d , is itse lf th e ch ild of p h y si­
cal science.” (B ry ce’s S o u th A m erica.)
T h e b u re a u ’s w ork in science an d technology is a ll fo r th e public
w elfare. I t is a g re a t service b u re au w hich increases th e w ealth
and pro d u ctiv e c ap acity o f th e N atio n, reduces fire losses, as well as
h a za rd s, in tra d e an d tra n s p o rta tio n , m a in ta in s and raises s ta n d a rd s
in in d u stry , im proves condition s affecting safety , service, and s ta ­
b ility an d fa ir de alings in tra d e , fu rn ish e s a hom ogeneous staff an d
a lre ad y eq u ip p ed lab o ra to ries fo r use in tim es of stress, serves as
a te stin g a n d research la b o ra to ry fo r o th e r G overnm ent d e p a rt­
m ents, cooperates w ith them and w ith in d u stria l an d tra d e o rg a n i­
zations in fo rm u la tin g com m odity a n d e n g in eerin g specifications,
an d p re v e n ts litig a tio n costs by a c tin g as a cou rt o f a p p ea l on m any
technical questions.
A m o ng th e activ itie s th a t could be extend ed w ith g re a t ad v an ta g e
an d sav ing s to th e co u n try are th e sim plification an d housing p ro b ­
lem s; m ore adequate fa c ilitie s fo r te stin g in stru m e n ts of precision
fo r m a n u fa c tu re rs an d u sers; d e te rm in a tio n o f fu n d a m e n ta l p h y si­
cal an d chem ical constants o f im p o rtan ce in m an y lines o f in d u stry
an d e n g in ee rin g ; ex p erim en tal research as re la ted to sta n d a rd s of
m easurem ents, q u a lity of m a te ria ls, te stin g m ethods, and p e rfo rm ­
ance o f m ach in es; an d th e ex p erim en tal d a ta needed in re la tio n to
u n ifo rm ity o f p ractice, esp ecially fo r public u tilitie s an d th e re g u ­
la tio n o f autom otive traffic.
T he fa c to r o f fo reig n com petition should n o t be lost s ig h t o f in
co nside rin g th e role o f th e b u reau in th e p ro g ra m o f n a tio n a l
economy. N ineteen n atio n s now have s ta n d a rd iz in g bodies an d
th e ir im press on com m erce is b e g in n in g to be felt. C e rta in o th e r
gov ernm ents, such as E n g la n d , w hile c u rta ilin g all o th e r expenses,
are in creasin g by la rg e am ounts th e ir a p p ro p ria tio n s fo r scientific
134

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135

and tech n ical research a n d ex ten d in g th e ir p la n ts a n d b u ild in g
new labo rato ries.
T h e v isitin g com m ittee sta te s:
T h e w o r ld Is p r e s u m a b ly n o w e n t e r in g u p o n a p e r io d o f in t e n s e a g g r e s s iv e
in t e r n a t io n a l c o m p e t it io n in a ll m a t t e r s r e l a t in g t o t h e a r t s a n d in d u s t r ie s .
I f , w it h o u r r e la t iv e ly h ig h s t a n d a r d s o f liv in g a n d c o n s e q u e n t ly h ig h
w a g e s c a le s , w e a r e t o h o ld o u r o w n in t h is c o m p e t it io n w e c a n n o t a f fo r d
t o h a n d ic a p o u r s e lv e s w it h a n y la c k o f f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e s t u d y o f p r o b le m s o f
b a s ic s c ie n t if ic a n d in d u s t r ia l im p o r ta n c e , f a c i l i t i e s w it h w h ic h m a n y o f o u t
c o m p e tit o r s a r e n o w p r o v id e d in d e g r e e f a r b e t t e r t h a n a r e w e.
T h e p la c e o f s u c h a la b o r a t o r y c a n n o t b e t a k e n b y a n y p r iv a t e .in s t it u t io n
o r o r g a n iz a t io n . N o p r iv a t e in t e r e s t c o u ld b e e x p e c t e d t o m a in t a in in d e f in it e ly
a n a t io n a l v ie w p o in t o r t o p r e s e r v e a t a ll t i m e s a p r o p e r ly b a la n c e d r e g a r d fd r
t h e in t e r e s t s o f a ll t h e p e o p le .
A g a in , t h e U n it e d S t a t e s ; G o v e r n m e n t i s in i t s e l f t h e la r g e s t b u s in e s s e n t e r ­
p r is e in t h e w o r ld , a n d i t s e x e c u t iv e o ffic e r s s h o u ld h a v e a t t h e ir d is p o s a l, a n d
in t h e f u l l e s t d e g r e e , e x p e r t a d v ic e a n d a id o n a ll m a t t e r s o f a s c ie n t if ic a n d
t e c h n ic a l n a t u r e w h ic h c o n c e r n i t s w e lf a r e .'
n a t io n a l

SCREW THREAD COMMISSION

T h is com m ission, o rg an ized by act o f C ongress in 1918 arid com ­
posed of re p re sen ta tiv es from th e D e p artm en ts of W a r, N avy, and
C om m erce; th e Society o f A utom o tiv e E n g in e e rs; arid th e A m erican
Society of M echanical E n g in e e rs,,w ith th e d ire c to r o f th e b u reau as
eg officio chairm an , lias issued th e p a st y e ar a second report., b rin g ­
in g th e m a tte rs in th e first re p o rt o f 1921 u p to d até and in c lu d in g
nçw m a te ria l re la tin g to th re a d in g tools, tool shapes, ta p dim ensions,
ta p d rill sizes, screw th re a d s o f special sizes, fire-nose couplings, and
wood screws.
T h e life o f th e com m ission expires by law in 1927, and in view o f
th e success o f th e com m ission a rid ' th e 'hiafty ' th i n g s 'in its' field Still
needin g atte n tio n , it is, stro n g ly recom m ended th a t th e life o f the
com m ission he ex ten ded ind efinitely. T h is is p a rtic u la rly désirable
also fo r th e reason th a t its fin dings a re m a n d ato ry 1 on th e G overn­
m ent d e p artm en ts an d fro m th e pre em in en t po sitio n th e com m ission
has secured in in d u stry .
FEDERAL

S P E C IF IC A T IO N S BOARD

T h e F e d e ra l Specifications B o ard is one of several co o rd in atin g
b oard s o f th e F e d e ra l G overnm ent w hich fu n ctio n u n d e r th e C hief
C o o rd in ato r, who in tu rn is responsible to th e D ire cto r o f th e B ureau
of th e B u dg et. T he ch airm an ex officio o f th is bo ard is th e D ire cto r
of th e B u re au o f S ta n d a rd s an d th e vice c h airm an an d technical
secretary is a m em ber o f th e b u re a u ’s staff.
T h e bo ard is com posed of one re p re se n ta tiv e 'fro m each executive
d e p artm en t and ind epend ent estab lish m en t w hich purchases supplies
u n d e r specifications.
T h e bo ard now has 72 technical com m ittees w o rk in g on gro u p s of
re la te d item s an d specifications, these technical com m ittees being
composed o f ex p erts officially desig nated by th e rep resen tativ es of
th e vario us d e p artm en ts o f the G overnm ent. T h e B ureau of S ta n d ­
ard s takes a very active p a rt in th e w ork of alm ost all o f these tech­
nical com m ittees an d th e c h airm an sh ip s o f 2G o f these com m ittees
are held by B u re au o f S ta n d a rd s experts.

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R E P O R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

I n connection w ith th e developm ent an d fo rm u la tio n of U n ited
S ta te s G ov ernm ent m aster specifications a g re a t deal of research
w ork has been done by th e bu reau . T h e board has officially p ro m u l­
g a te d 316 m aster specifications as G overnm ent sta n d a rd s.
T h e p re p a ra tio n and use of m aster com m odity specifications fo r
th e e n tire F e d e ra l G overnm ent is an essential step in th e economy
w hich re su lts in th e purchase o f m a te ria ls in la rg e qu an tities. I n
no field o f G overnm ent o p era tio n was th e re g re a te r need fo r con­
stru c tiv e w ork th a n in th e field o f purchase stan d a rd s. I n th e case
o f c ertain m ate ria ls a n d su pplies th e re w ere slig h t v a ria tio n s in
specifications of th e differen t d e p artm en ts an d estab lishm ents, th e
special an d p ecu liar requirem en ts o f w hich m ean t d e p a rtu re from
sta n d a rd com m ercial practice, w hich in tu rn necessitated special
fa b ric a tio n , w hich alw ays involves g re a te r cost.
I t is in ten d ed th a t even tu ally all G ov ern m ent purchases w ill be
based on co rrect s ta n d a rd s o f q u a lity an d practice. O u r specifica­
tio n s w ill th en m eet th e needs o f th e G ov ern m ent as to u n ifo rm ity
an d w ill avoid d u p licatio n o f effort on th e p a r t o f th e G overn m ent
a n d in d u stry .
N A T IO N A L

D IR E C T O R Y

O F C O M M O D IT Y

S P E C IF IC A T IO N S

D u rin g th e la st y e a r th e w ork on th e p re p a ra tio n o f th e N atio n al
D irecto ry o f C om m o dity Specifications w as com pleted an d th is p u b ­
lic a tio n w ill soon be read y fo r d is trib u tio n . T h e issuance o f such
in fo rm a tio n h as been possible only th ro u g h th e active cooperation
o f th e G overnm ent d e p artm en ts, th e S ta te an d m unicip al g overn ­
m en ts a n d in d ep en d en t estab lishm ents, p u blic u tilitie s, th e te ch nical
societies an d tra d e associations, a n d th e le ad in g in d u s tria l o rg a n i­
zations.
T h e d ire c to ry contains a classified list o f a p p ro x im a te ly 27,000
e x istin g specifications, covering over 6,000 com m odities, a n d th is
p u b licatio n w ill be fo u n d very usefu l in connection w ith purchases.
T R E A T IS E O N S P E C IF IC A T IO N S

W o rk is now u n d e r w ay on a tre a tise on specifications w hich w ill
deal w ith th e selection, use, a n d lim ita tio n s o f com m odity specifica­
tio n s a n d te stin g m ethods. A n an alysis of m a te ria l available shows
th a t a w ell-rounded tre a tise can be p re p a re d . Such m a te ria l as we
now have on h a n d has been obtained fro m th e A m erican E n g in e e rin g
S ta n d a rd s C om m ittee, th e A m erican In s titu te o f A rc h itects, th e
A m erican Society fo r T e stin g M aterials, a n d th e N a tio n al A ssocia­
tio n of P u rc h a sin g A gents.
H O U S E H O L D S P E C IF IC A T IO N S

W o rk has been s ta rte d on a p u b licatio n to aid th e housew ife in
th e selection an d pu rchase o f com m odities fo r th e home. A n a n a ly ­
sis of th e m a te ria l on h a n d shows th a t w ith c ertain very im p o rta n t
exceptions m ost of th e specifications fo r household com m odities have
been p re p a re d by and fo r th e use o f “ ex p erts.” H ow ever, it is
believed th a t th is m a te ria l can be w orked u p in such m a n n er th a t
th e housew ife can m ake use of it w hen m ak in g h e r purchases.

B U R E A U O P STANDARDS

137

V IS IT IN G C O M M IT T E E

T h is com m ittee, established by law “ to visit th e bu re au a t least
once a y e ar and re p o rt to th e S e c re ta ry upon th e efficiency o f its
scientific w ork an d th e co ndition of its eq uip m ent,” is com posed of
M essrs. S. W . S tra tto n , W . D. B a n c ro ft, A. Sw asey, W . F . D u ra n d ,
and G ano D u nn . T h e com m ittee m et tw ice a t th e b ureau, once w ith
th e D ire c to r of th e B u re au o f th e B u d g et, an d on D ecem ber 22, 1924,
issued a com prehensive p rin te d re p o rt on th e activ ities of th e bu reau
(M isc. Pu bs, o f B. of S. No. 6 3 ), em phasizin g th e need of th e
co u n try fo r extension of th e b u re a u ’s activ itie s in scientific a n d
in d u stria l research an d th e urgency o f fu rth e r in cre asin g its fa c ili­
ties to m eet th e ever-in creasing dem ands fo r te stin g services both fo r
th e G overnm ent and th e p u b lic ; an d callin g a tte n tio n to th e evident
a d v an ta g es to th e G ov ern m ent th a t w ould accrue if th e specifica­
tio n w ork o f th e bu reau could be expand ed.
A D V IS O R Y C O M M IT T E E S

M uch of "the b u re a u ’s scientific and technical w ork o f in te re st to
A m erican in d u stry is m ap p ed o u t by th e aid of advisory com m ittees
re p re se n tin g in d u stry . T h e re are some 80 o f these com m ittees com ­
posed o f leaders in th e ir respective fields, w hich m eet, as occasion
requires, a t th e bu reau fo r con su ltatio n w ith o u r staff. I n th is w ay
th e b u reau is k e p t in close co n tact w ith th e needs o f in d u stry , an d
m any o f these com m ittees have been very h e lp fu l in a id in g us to
o rie n t o u r w ork so as to m ake it m ost effective.
L ikew ise, m any m em bers o f th e b u re a u ’s staff a re officers o f the
n a tio n a l scientific a n d technical societies. F o r instance, th e chief
of th e electrical division is p re sid e n t of th e Illu m in a tin g E n g in e e r­
in g Society and th e chief o f th e ra d io section is p re sid en t o f th e
In s titu te of R ad io E n gineers.
R E S E A R C H A S S O C IA T E S

T h e n u m b er o f research associates statio n ed a t th e bu re au by
tra d e , technical, an d scientific associations a t w o rk on fu n d am en tal
problem s o f in te re st to in d u stry has increased th e p a st y e a r fro m 29
to 63, re p re se n tin g 48 in d u stria l o r scientific g ro u p s a n d an ex p en d i­
tu re a t th e bu re au by th em o f over $250,000. These cooperative
arra n g em en ts are w o rk in g o u t v ery sa tisfa c to rily , an d th e findings
o f in v estig atio n s so c a rrie d on are in all cases m ade available to
th e public th ro u g h p u b licatio n o f th e results.
S IM P L I F IE D P R A C T IC E

T h e close o f th is fiscal y e ar m ark s an im p o rta n t change in th e
h isto ry o f a nu m ber o f im p o rta n t A m erican in d u strie s, an d th e
m ovem ent fo r elim in atio n o f seldom -used varieties o f com m odities
has grow n considerably in scope, w ith th e re su lt th a t la rg e savings
have accrued to m a n u fa ctu rers, d istrib u te rs, a n d users in these
vario us fields.

138

R E P O R T OP T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

U p to th e p re sen t tim e th e follo w ing sim plified p ractice recom ­
m end atio ns have been accepted by th e re p re se n ta tiv es o f th e ind us­
tries concerned an d have been p rin te d : 1, P a v in g b ric k ; 2, bedsteads,
sp rin g s, an d m attre sses; 3, m etal la th ; 4, a s p h a lt; a* hotel chin aw a re ;
C, files a n d ra s p s; 7, face an d common b ric k ( c l a y ) ; 8, ra n g e boilers
an d expan sion ta n k s; 9, w oven-w ire fe n c in g ; 10, m ilk bottles a n d
cap s; 11, bed b la n k ets; 12, hollow b u ild in g tile ; 13, s tru c tu ra l s la te ;
14, roofing s la te ; 15, black boa rd s la te ; 16, lu m b e r; 17, fo rg ed to o ls;
18, b u ild e rs’ h a rd w a re ; 19, asbestos p a p e r and m illb o a rd ;: 20, steel
b a rre ls and d ru m s; 21. brass la v ato ry an d sink tr a p s ; 22, p a p e r;
23, plow b o lts; 24, h o s p ita l b e d s; 25, steel re in fo rc in g b a rs; 26, hotw ater sto ra g e ta n k s ; 27, cotton d u c k ; 28, sheet steel; 29, eaves tro u g h
an d condu ctor p ip e ; 30, to rn e p la te ; 31, loaded sh ells; 32, concrete
b u ild in g u n its ; 33, c afete ria an d lunch-room c h in aw a re ; 34, steel
lo ck ers; a n d 35, m illin g cu tters.
T h e follow ing recom m endations are now in process o f acceptance:
W arehouse fo rm s, com m ercial purchase form s, sand -lim e brick,
d in in g -ca r ch in aw are, ho sp ital chin aw are, boxed elastic w ebbing,
p a p e r bags, a n d p a in t an d v a rn ish brushes.
S urveys o f e x istin g varieties a re in process fo r th e follow in g in ­
d u strie s: B ra k e lin ing s, license pla te s a n d b ra c k e ts,, pisto n rin g s,
s p a rk plugs, ta p e r ro ller b earin gs, tires, p o p p e t valves, seeds, shovels,
d ro p -fo rg e d w renches, ta ck s a n d nails, sheet-m etal w are, b ath ro om
fix tu re s ,'ste rlin g silv erw are, f r u it an d vegetable cause b rig h t-w ire
goods, pocket knives, m achine knives, m ops, y a rn , boxboard fo r
set-up and fo ld in g boxes, bolt and n u t contain ers, com m ercial
baskets, f r u it an d vegetable crates, m i 11w ork, hard w ood lum ber,
b in d er b oa rd , office desks and tables, pow er boilers, wood u tiliz a tio n ,
wood handles, plyw ood, poles, d rills an d ream ers, electric la m p s, ele­
vated steel ta n k s, glass sidew alks an d sk y lig h ts, g rin d in g w7heels,
lock w asher and n u t locks, ta p s a n d dies, tissue p a p e r, b ank checks,
alum in um w are, an d clay prod ucts.
T he A m erican m arin e s ta n d a rd s com m ittee, wrhich is being op era ted
as a u n it o f th e division of sim plified p ractice, h as m ade su b sta n tia l
pro g ress d u rin g th e y e a r in estab lish in g an active p ro g ra m fo r th is
org an iz atio n . A nu m ber o f sta n d a rd s have a lre ad y been adopted,
and these w ill soon be in shape fo r p rin tin g . M any m ore are u n d e r
co nsid eratio n w ith p ro m isin g pro spects o f fru itio n d u rin g th e
com ing year. M oral su p p o rt o f th e o rg a n iz atio n is in d icated by
enro llm ent o f 265 v aried in te re sts in th e m arin e an d allied fields in
its m em bership.
D u rin g th e ye ar, 23 sim plified-p ractice recom m endations w ere de­
veloped an d a c c e p te d ; 150 new fields req u este d th e cooperation of th e
division in connection w ith a sim plification p ro g ra m ; 50 pro je cts
(com m odities) have developed to th e p o in t w here th ere is reasonable
ex p ectatio n of th e ir com pletion in to sim plified-p ractice recom m enda­
tio n s ;^ :! articles were p re p a red on th e subject of sim plification by
th e m em bers of th e staff fo r p rin tin g in outside publications.

B U R E A U O F STANDARDS

139

L ead ers in nine of th e im p o rta n t in d u strie s coop eratin g w ith th e
division have estim ated th e ir a n n u al sav in g s th ro u g h th e ad o p tio n
of sim plification to be as fo llo w s:
. Varieties reduced
Field
(MS ? V■y

f.l Jr I'O-O.-I» ‘TOi ‘y UVIlii UV: •

iiT ii

r. h r S i ' i ' j t i 'l

From—
66
1,819
40
3.500
130

Paving b r ic k ..! ...............................................................................
Sheet steel----- — —----- — ................................. •-•......... l —>-----Range boilers......................... ............................................ ....... .....
Builders’ hardware:
R,eeogniz.ed fin ishes.-..- - - - - - ............ -....... ................... . .........
Lumber ( y a r d s i z e s j . - l . - . ------ ¡.,........... .-per cent..
Plow bolts—.............................. ......... ........ ............. - ....................

To-

•

0)
( ’)

4.500 :
100
1.500

Estimated
.annual
savings

4
263
11
18
13

$1,000,000
2,400,000
4, 500, 00Q
5, 000', 000
6,500,000.

40
840

10,000,000
15,000,000
250,000,000
200, 000

0)

203,600,000
* Reduced 26 pef cent.'

2 Reduced 71 per cent.

I t is very difficult fo r an y in d u stry to estim ate th e n e t an n u al
sav ing th ro u g h th e a p p lic atio n of sim plified-p ractice recom m enda­
tions. H ow ever, th e bureau confidently believes an a d d itio n a l 50 p e r
cent above th e am oun t shown would be m ore th a n conservative in
estim atin g th e ne t an n u al savings in th e o th e r in d u strie s represented
bv th e 34 o th er sim plified-p ractice Recommendations a lread y in effect.
B U IL D IN G A N D H O U S IN G

T h e w ork o f th e div isio n of b u ild in g and housing on b u ild in g
codes, city zoning, statistics, and service fo r home ow ners w as con­
tin u e d fro m th e previou s y e a r w ith sp len d id cooperation fro m in d u s­
try , civic o rg an iz atio n s, a n d local and S ta te gov ernm ent officials.
These g ro u p s and oth ers in terested in co nstruction , housing, and
civic im pro v em en t have helped to m ake th e resu lts of th e d iv isio n ’s
w ork o f m axim um benefit th ro u g h o u t th e en tire country .
T h e build ing -code com m ittee, w hich consists o f n a tio n a lly know n
pro fessio n al ex p erts, p u blished its reports-, R ecom m ended M inim um
R eq uirem en ts fo r M asonry W a ll C onstru ction an d M inim um Live
L o ads A llow able fo r Use in D esign o f B u ild in g s. These re p o rts
were com pleted a fte r co nsu ltatio n w ith arch itec ts, engineers, lire
chiefs, b u ild in g inspectors, co n tracto rs, b u ild in g -m aterial m an u fa c­
tu re rs; a n d w ith nu m erou s o rg a n iz atio n s re p re se n tin g these .groups.
In c o rp o ra tio n o f these recom m endations by m u n ic ip alities in their,
h u ild in g codes w ill, it is believed, prom ote m ore economical co n stru c­
tio n , a t th e sam e tim e in su rin g am ple safety . T hey em body th e
re su lts o f research and canv assing o f op in io n, w hich m akes them o f
d ire c t value in th e design o f a la rg e p ro p o rtio n o f th e b u ild in g s
erected in th e U n ite d S ta te s each year.
T h e use in at least 15 S ta te s of th e d e p a rtm e n t’s sta n d a rd S ta te
zoning ena b lin g act d ra fte d by its adv isory com m ittee on city p la n ­
n in g a n d zonin g has been: m ost effective in g u id in g th e zoning mov^-;
m ent along a sound legal channel and has obviated th e need fo r th e
d u p licatio n o f legal research by legislative bodies, T h e advisory
com m ittee p re p a re d a p a m p h le t c o m p arin g th e use, h eig h t, an d a re a

140

R E P O R T O F T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

re g u la tio n s of th e zonin g ord inances in 16 selected cities and a book­
let on th e usefulness of city p la n n in g in fa c ilita tin g traffic, enco urag­
in g m ore c arefu l u tiliz a tio n of ex p en d itu res fo r stre e t an d public
w orks co nstruction , and developing home sites a t low cost. D ra ftin g
of a s ta n d a rd S ta te act p e rm ittin g m u n ic ip alities to create city p la n
com m issions w as commenced.
D r i f t i n g of a sta n d a rd S ta te m echanics’ lien act w hich w ould be
considered f a ir by all in te re sts a n d be suitable fo r ad o p tio n by th e
S ta te s w as u n d e rta k en a t th e u rg e n t request o f several rep re sen ta tiv e
n a tio n a l o rg anizatio ns. A v o lu n ta ry com m ittee o f n atio n a lly know n
m en, re p re se n tin g co n tracto rs, labor, m a te ria l m en, financing agen­
cies, real estate, architects, engineers, an d th e N a tio n al C onference
of C om m issioners on U n ifo rm S ta te L aw s, is actively a t work.
T h e div isio n gave su b sta n tia l aid to B e tte r H om es in A m erica in
th e p re p a ra tio n o f p am phlets, in o b ta in in g cooperation fro m various
agencies, a n d in o th e r ways. T h is o rg a n iz atio n w orks closely w ith
o th e r G ov ernm ent d e p artm en ts an d num erou s n atio n a l bodies. I t
assists several h u n d re d v o lu n ta ry local com m ittees who conduct
better-hom es d em o n stratio n s th a t aim to pre sen t w ell-balanced
homes, in w hich th e value o f th e house, th e lot, an d th e fu rn ish in g s
an d eq u ip m en t are well p ro p o rtio n ed , an d from w hich fam ilies can
o b ta in suggestions fo r im p ro v in g th e ir homes an d lessening house­
w ork w ith th e least possible expense. T h e w ork centers about the
problem s o f fam ilies in the low er and m edium income group s.
P re lim in a ry studies o f condition s re la tin g to hom e financing, in ­
clu d in g some field w ork, were m ade. T h ey showed th a t it is common
fo r home seekers to face m ost disad v an ta g eo u s fin ancing conditions,
especially in bo rro w in g m ore th a n 40 to 60 p e r cent o f th e value of
th e hom e. D iscounts, fees, bonuses, com m issions, or o th e r charges
o ften ad d several h u n d re d d o lla rs to th e cost o f a m od erately p riced
house, an d a re a p p a re n tly e n tire ly ou t o f line w ith th e risk s in ­
volved to lenders in th is class o f loans as a whole. T h e situ a tio n
differs in com m unities acco rd in g to th e e x istin g financial stru c tu re ,
S ta te laws re la tin g to m ortgag es, conveyances, and title s, an d to
financial in stitu tio n s, local in d u strie s, a n d o th e r variab le factors.
A n u m b er o f com m unities have w orked ou t fa irly satisfa c to ry solu­
tio ns, and it is believed th a t if th e fa cts could be m ade av ailable
upon w hich to base sound endeavors, su b sta n tia l efforts w ould be
m ade to im prove conditions by in d iv id u als, b u ild in g -m a te ria l m a n u ­
fa c tu re rs, an d oth ers especially in te re sted in m a in ta in in g a h ig h
volum e o f resid en tial construction.
S ta tistic a l w ork o f th e division included o b ta in in g m o n th ly prices
fo r 24 b u ild in g -m a te ria l item s as p a id by c o n tracto rs in about 50
cities. T hese prices w ere issued re g u la rly a n d re p u b lish ed b y a
nu m be r o f tra d e papers. T h e figures so o btain ed are used in com ­
p ilin g in dex nu m be rs o f th e price of m a te ria ls fo r sm all fra m e an d
b ric k houses. C u rre n t statistic s on b u ild in g a ctiv ity , b u ild in g costs,
and p ro d u ctio n , consum ption, a n d stocks on h a n d o f th e p rin c ip a l
b u ild in g m a te ria ls were p rin te d m o n th ly in th e S u rv ey o f C u rre n t
B usiness and in Com m erce R ep orts. In q u irie s fo r such statistics
have come to th e division fro m all branches o f th e b u ild in g an d
m a te ria l in d u strie s, a p p ra isa l com panies, ra ilw ay s, F e d e ra l, S ta te ,
an d local governm ent agencies, lib raries, and ed ucatio nal in stitu tio n s.

B U R E A U O F STANDARDS

141

W o rk on seasonal o p era tio n in th e constructio n in d u strie s in cluded
pu b licatio n o f a 216-page volum e, a p a m p h le t on w eathe r a n d con­
stru c tio n , an d sh o rte r articles. L e a d in g n a tio n a l o rg an iz atio n s o f
b u ild in g -m a te ria l prod ucers, co n tracto rs, a n d o th e r in te re sts were
represented on th e com m ittee o f th e P re s id e n t’s C onference on U n ­
em plo ym ent th a t w orked w ith th is div isio n on th e subject. These
bodies, as w ell as local g ro u p s in m any cities, have cooperated in
efforts to d istrib u te b u ild in g activ ities m ore evenly th ro u g h o u t th e
y ear, to th e end th a t h u n d re d s of th o u san d s o f m en in th e b u ild in g
tra d e s an d m a te ria l-p ro d u c in g in d u strie s m ay have stead ie r em plo y­
m ent, an d th a t traffic dem ands on ra ilro a d s a n d g en eral business con­
d itio n s m ay be b e tte r stab ilized.
W E IG H T S A N D M E A SU R E S

Seve ral ye ars ago an in v estig atio n o f d e n ta l am alg am s was c a r­
rie d ou t by th e bu re au , a n d th e resu lts o btain ed have proven o f such
value to th e d e n ta l professio n a n d to th e p u blic th a t w ork in th e
field o f d e n ta l m ate ria ls is being co ntin ued by a n in v estig atio n o f
in lay s of precious m etal alloys. T h e p urp ose o f th e in v estig atio n
is to im prove th e q u a lity an d perm anence o f d e n tal re sto ra tio n s by
a w iser choice o f m a te ria ls a n d by th e selection o f th e m ost a p p ro ­
p ria te m echanical m an ip u la tio n an d h e a t tre a tm e n t possible fo r th e
m a te ria ls chosen. T w o p a p ers d e scrib in g th e resu lts so fa r obtain ed
ap p eare d in th e J o u rn a l o f th e A m erican D e n ta l A ssociation fo r
M ay, 1925.
A new in stru m e n t based upon th e p rin c ip le of th e in terferen ce o f
lig h t waves was designed an d co nstructed fo r use in te stin g heemacy­
tom eters (blood corpuscle co u n tin g ch am b e rs). T h e in stru m e n t
has been given a th o ro u g h test, an d th e re su lts show th a t th e ac­
curacy ob tain ed by its use is fro m five to te n tim es th a t h ereto fo re
o btain ed by th e use o f a m icrom eter a p p a ra tu s. F u rth e rm o re , the
tim e req u ired to com plete th e sam e am o u n t of w ork w ith th e new
in stru m e n t is fro m o n e -fo u rth to one-fifth th a t previo usly required.
D u rin g th e p a st y e ar a larg e nu m ber o f in v a r tapes, such as
are used by th e U n ite d S ta te s C oast a n d G eodetic S urvey , were
stan d a rd iz e d a t th e b ureau, and abo ut 25 were also g ra d u a te d . T he
g ra d u a tio n s w ere placed on th e ta p es w ith such precision th a t th e
actu al e rro r in th e to ta l le n g th o f th e ta p es was in m any cases less
th a n 1 p a r t in 1,000,000. I n th e sta n d a rd iz a tio n of these ta p es th e
le n g th values o btain ed w ere accurate to 1 p a r t in fro m 5,000,000 to
10,000,000. T h e re p e ate d s ta n d a rd iz a tio n o f several ta p es of d if ­
fe re n t ages showed th a t ta p es m ade from 10 to 15 y ears ago are
p ra c tic a lly co n sta n t in le n g th , w hile in th e case o f in v a r m a n u ­
fa c tu re d w ith in th e p a s t few y ears lack o f dim ensional sta b ility is
a source of some u n certain ty .
T h e w ork o f te stin g ra ilro a d tra c k scales an d m aster scales was
activ ely continu ed d u rin g th e y e a r; 18 m aster scales were te sted
and a d ju sted , and 898 com m ercial tra c k scales were tested , corrective
a d ju stm en ts also being m ade on 79 o f these scales. T h irty -fiv e
ra ilro a d te st cars w ere calib rated . T h e nu m ber o f te sts exceeds
th a t h ereto fo re m ade in an y y e a r except la st year.
D em ands fo r th e services o f field equip m ent are becom ing m ore
u rg e n t. L a st y e a r it w as pointed o u t th a t concentratio n upon te st­

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R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

in g w ork necessarily re qu ired th e neglect of o th e r essential duties.
W h ile som ew hat m ore pro gress in these lin es was m ade th is y e ar
th a n last, cond ition s in th is respect are still very u n satisfa cto ry .
A statistic a l an alysis o f th e results of th e field -testing w ork d u rin g
th e p a st y e a r shows continu ed im provem ent in revenue freig h t-w eig h ­
in g conditions. F o r instance, 65.2 p er cent o f a ll scales tested passed
th e to lerance o f .0.20 p e r cent. T h is is th e best figure obtained since
th e in a u g u ra tio n o f th is w ork in 1914, a n d is to be com pared w ith
56.9 p er cent la st y e a r,:th e best figure h e re to fo re recorded. A n o th e r
figure th a t show s conclusively th e re su lt of sustained, effort to im ­
prove freig h t-w eig h in g cp n d itio n slsT h o m ean n um erical e rro r of all
ra ilro ad -o w n ed scales tested in th e w estern d is tric t, nam ely, 0.19 p er
cent, w hich figure is inside th e to lerance an d is th e m ean o i 323 tests.
T he bu re au feels th is to be a real achievem ent. M oreover, th e m ean
nu m erical e rro r of all scales tested th ro u g h o u t th e co u n try w as only
0.27 p e r cent, a figure h o t very g re a tly outside th e tolerance, and very
m a te ria lly b e tte r th a n any figure h ereto fo re obtained, as is dem on­
s tra te d by c itin g th e sim ila r figures in 1924, 1923, an d 1922, nam ely,
0.36. 0.38, and m ore th a n 0.63 p er cent, respectively.
In c lu d e d am ong th e scales m entioned above w ere 82 tra c k scaleé
used fo r w eig hing g ra in . O f these 35, or 42.7 p e r cent, passed tlíé
special g ra in scale tolerance, nam ely, 0.10 p er cent of th e ap p lied
load. C orrectiv e ad ju stm en ts were m ade on 20 o f th e 47 scales th a t
fa ile d to com ply w ith th is tolerance. A d ju stm e n t service on th is
class o f scales is pro v id ed in all cases w here th e condition o f th e scale
w a rra n ts i t . I t is to be re g re tte d th a t th e b u re a u ’s facilitie s do no t
p e rm it g iv in g an am ount of a tte n tio n to th e m a tte r o f w eig hin g g ra in
com m ensurate w ith its im p ortance.
C irc u la r 199, Specifications fo r H a n d -O p e ra te d G ra in H o p p e r
Scales, was p u b lish ed d u rin g th e year..
T h e .b u re a u h as assisted th e A m erican P etro leu m In s titu te a n d th e
N atio n al Screw T h re a d Com m ission in th e establishm ent of a s ta n d ­
a rd fo r oil-well casing th re a d s by m easuring an d c e rtify in g m aster
p lu g a n d rin g gauges fo r th e sta n d a rd sizes of casing adopted by th e
in stitu te . These gauges w ill be assem bled in sets, one fo r each o f th e
fo u r p rin c ip a l oil regions, and .a m aster set w ill be deposited a t th e
b u re au to serve fo r checking th e reg io n al m asters from tim e to tim e.
E v e n tu a lly , we hope, u n ifo rm ity and com plete in te rc h an g e a b ility o f
casin g th re a d s w ill p re v a il th ro u g h o u t th e e n tire co untry . T h is
s ta n d a rd iz a tio n w ill increase th e safety of th re a d ed jo in ts in well
casing, an d w ill g re a tly reduce th e loss fro m fa ilu re of jo in ts. Since
th e yalue o f th e casing in a single well m ay be from $50,000 to
$75.000, it is ev id en t th a t an y step w hich reduces th e loss o f casing
w ill be of g re a t economic im p ortance.
O f th e 10,000 pieces o f g ra d u a te d glassw are su b m itte d fo r test
d u rin g th e y ear, 87 p er cent passed the test a n d received the b u re a u ’s1
precision stam p. T h is is th e h ig he st percentage th a t h a s been a p ­
p ro ve d in any y e a r since th e b e g in n in g o f th is w ork.
In th e la st a n n u al re p o rt m ention w as m ade o f th e N atio n al S ta n d ­
a rd P etro leu m O il T ables, w hich h a d ju s t been pub lished by th e b u ­
reau. These tables have come in to v ery g en eral use in th e petro leum oil in d u stry . D u rin g the p a st y e a r need developed fo r a sh o rt, con­
venient correction table fo r re d u cin g oil volum es to th e s ta n d a rd tern-

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143

p e ra tu re of 60° F . A n ab rid g e d ta b le h as acco rd in g ly been p re ­
p are d , w hich has been app ro v ed by th e A m erican P etro leu m I n s ti­
tu te , th e A m erican Society fo r T e stin g M aterials, th e B u re a u of
¡Mines, a n d th e B u reau o f S ta n d a rd s. T h is table is n o t in te n d ed to
replace th e m ore com plete table co ntain ed in C irc u la r 154, w hich is
re g a rd ed as official, b u t ra th e r to su p p lem en t it, an d esp ecially to
replace th e va rio u s ab rid g ed tables a n d ap p ro x im a te correction fa c ­
to rs h ereto fo re em ployed in th e oil in d u stry .
T h e eig h te en th m eeting o f th e N atio n al C onference on W e ig h ts
a n d M easures, a body com posed of officials fro m all p a rts of th e coun­
tr y and devoted to th e p rocurem ent o f u n ifo rm ity in w eig hts an d
m easures re g u la tio n , w as held in M ay an d was very successful. A
code o f specifications a n d tolerances fo r vehicle ta n k s w as adopted,
th is su p erse d in g a te n ta tiv e code ad o p ted tw o y ears ago. Specifica­
tions a n d tolerances fo r ta x im e te rs w ere te n ta tiv e ly ad o pted, an d a
com plete m ethod of test fo r these in stru m en ts was developed. T o le r­
ances fo r loaves of b re ad were also adopted. These are designed
fo r use in th e en fo rcem ent of e x istin g sta n d a rd -w e ig h t b re ad laws,
a n d fo r in c o rp o ra tio n in bills h e re a fte r in tro d u ced in vo lv in g th is
p rin cip le , w hich is m a k in g g re a t head w ay th ro u g h o u t th e country.
T he p ro p e r m etho d of th e sale o f ice cream , a subject w hich has
caused a ll those in te re sted m uch concern in recen t y ears, was given
c a re fu l atte n tio n , an d fu ll o p p o rtu n ity w as afforded to th e m a n u ­
fa c tu re r, the re ta ile r, a n d th e official to e x p la in th e m a tte r in detailfro m th e ir different view points. A special com m ittee will stu d y
th e whole subject d u rin g th e n e x t y e a r a n d re p o rt back a plan fo r
co nsid eratio n a t th e ne x t m eeting. T h e su bject o f th e p ro p e r a p ­
p a ra tu s an d m ethods fo r th e te st o f h eav y-cápacity ¿calles was con­
sid ered am ong m any o th e r tim ely subjects o f im portance.
T h e field w ork in connection w ith th e research on orifice m eters fo r
th e m easu rem ent of n a tu ra l gas in la rg e q u an tities, as well as th e
co m p u tatio n s necessary to reduce th e observed d a ta to a com parable
basis, have been com pleted, a n d th e d a ta show th a t a v ery w ide range
of conditions has been covered. T h e an alysis of th e results neces­
sary to th e fo rm u latio n of conclusions fro m th e research is now well
u n d er way.
A very sim ple schem e, in v o lv in g on th e average less th a n tw o
w eig hin gs p e r w eig ht an d n o t re q u irin g th e use o f su b stitu tio n or
tra n sp o sitio n m ethods of w eigh in g, has been com pleted an d w ill
s h o rtly be published. I t is fe lt th a t th is sim plification w ill have
th e effect of stim u la tin g m any persons to c alib rate th e ir w eights
w ho fo rm erly have n o t done so, w hich w ill be follow ed bv an
increase in th e general accuracy of la b o ra to ry w eig hts an d w eighing.
I n ad d itio n to th e test o f w atches, clocks, and chronom eters, th e
bu re au cooperates w ith th e H orolo gical In s titu te of A m erica in th e
ex am in atio n of a p p lic a n ts fo r certificatio n as ju n io r w atchm akers,
certified w atchm akers, a n d certified horologists. T hese ex am in a ­
tion s consist of a w ritte n te st an d a p ra c tic a l d em o n stratio n o f
a b ility to re p a ir a dam aged watch. A fte r re p a ir by th e c an d id ate
th e w atch is exam ined by a com m ittee of e x p e rt w atchm akers an d
is tested by th e bureau fo r p erfo rm an c e as to tim e-keeping qualities.
Service tests on a w ide v a rie ty of sto p-w atches w ere carrie d ou t
to de term in e b oth th e ir accuracy a n d d u ra b ility . T h e resu lts showed

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R E PO R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

a w ide rang e of perform an ce. Some of th e w atches fa ile d a fte r a
sm all nu m ber o f o p eratio n cycles, consistin g o f s ta rtin g , sto p p in g ,
and re tu rn to zero, w hile o th ers co ntin ued to o p era te sa tisfa c to rily
th ro u g h several th o u san d cycles. T h e best p e rfo rm an ce w as 14,700
cycles before fa ilu re .
E L E C T R IC IT Y

E lec tric a l m easurem ents are th eo retically based upon m echanical
forces a n d dim ensions, b u t on account o f th e difficulty of fixing th e
u n its accu rately th e p ra c tic a l basis is an in te rn a tio n a l agreem ent on
electrical stan d a rd s. I t is now know n th a t th e in te rn a tio n a l elec­
tric a l u n its are n o t exactly in agreem ent w ith th e m echanical ones.
T h e b u re au has in pro g ress several pro je cts w hich a re in te n d ed to
give b etter values fo r th e electrical u n its a n d a t th e sam e tim e to
sim p lify th e process of checking u p these values on a s tric tly correct
basis. F a ir prog ress has been m ade d u rin g th e y e ar on th e a p p a ­
ra tu s fo r d e te rm in in g th e value o f th e ohm an d th e h e n ry in abso­
lu te u n its, an d ex p erim en tal w ork on sta n d a rd cells, by w hich th e
accepted value of th e v o lt is m a in ta in ed , h as been revived a fte r a
lapse o f several years.
T h e extension of accu rate m easu rem ents to keep pace w ith develop­
m e n t in pow er tran sm issio n has ta x e d th e resources o f th e bureau.
B y refinin g th e m ethods previously used, th e calib ratio n o f voltage
tr a n s f o r m e r s is being carrie d up to 100,000 volts. A n absolute elec­
tro m ete r w hich w ill m easure up to 350,000 volts is now re a d y fo r
assem bly. A ccu rate tests of resistance sta n d a rd s used fo r m easure­
m e n t of c u rre n t have been extended to 10,000 am peres on d ire c t c u r­
re n t, an d tu b u la r oil-cooled sta n d a rd s fo r tests of c u rre n t tra n s ­
fo rm ers a t 5,000 am peres have been designed.
Special a tte n tio n has been given to th e possible developm ent of
ru b b e r com pounds suitable fo r subm arin e cable in su latio n , a n d some
have been fo u n d w hich are b e tte r th a n g u tta -p e rc h a in electrical
erties. T o sim ulate deep-sea condition s a p p a ra tu s has been inS
jd fo r m ak in g electrical m easu rem ents on w ires u n d e r h y d ro ­
sta tic pressures u p to 10,000 pou nd s p e r square inch.
D ry cells, sto ra g e b atteries, a n d cau stic soda p rim a ry b a tte rie s
used fo r ra ilw a y sig n alin g have all received m uch a tte n tio n d u rin g
th e year. T h e pe rfo rm an ce of all th e im p o rta n t ty pes of railw ay
b a tte rie s has been d eterm in ed, both at o rd in a ry tem p eratu res an d a t
th e freezin g p o in t, as a basis fo r specifications in p re p a ra tio n jo in tly
b y th e A m erican R ailw ay A ssociation, th e b a tte ry m a n u fa ctu rers,
and th e bureau. Effects of im p u ritie s in sto ra g e-b atte ry electrolytes
a n d th e p ro p e rtie s o f several “ p a te n t ” electrolytes have been th o r­
o u ghly stu died. T he results have been used both as a basis fo r
specifications fo r acid and in published w arn in g s w idely circulated
to p ro te ct th e pub lic from fra u d . D ry cells re p re se n tin g th e p ro d ­
uct of 23 m a n u fa c tu re rs have been te sted fo r th e in fo rm a tio n o f th e
m a n u fa c tu re rs an d o f G ov ern m ent p u rc h a sin g officers.
D u rin g th e y e ar over 1,500,000 electric lam p s pu rchased by th e
G overnm ent were inspected by th e b u re a u ; 3,194 sam ples w ere p u t
th ro u g h a life te st to determ in e w he th er th e lam p s supplied were
acceptable and to o b ta in d a ta necessary fo r revision o f th e stan d a rd
specifications. Sections o f a c irc u la r on stre et lig h tin g were p u b ­

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lished an d tests on new stre et u n its fo r th e D is tric t o f C olum bia
were m ade. S tu d ies o f autom obile h ead lam ps w ere actively con­
tin ue d, an d assistance on th e h e a d lig h t problem was given to con­
gressional com m ittees, th e D is tric t d ire c to r of traffic, an d a num be r
of S ta te s, especially O regon, w hich has m ade all a p p ro v a ls o f h e ad ­
lam ps subject to bu reau tests.
M ethods of m ak in g m ore accu rate m easurem ents o f frequency and
m eans fo r g e ttin g these m easurem ents in to actu al use have been
th e m ost im p o rta n t ta sk s in th e field o f ra d io com m unication. A c­
curacy was m a te ria lly im proved by using a sim ple ha rm o n ic a m p li­
fier to step u p fro m audio to ra d io frequencies, an d by step p in g down
from v ery h ig h frequencies fo r w hich th e wave le n g th s were
m easured d ire c tly on a p a ra lle l w ire system . S ta n d a rd frequency
signals covering th e ran g e fro m 125 to 6,000 kilocycles were tra n s ­
m itted fro m th e bu re au an d fro m L e la n d S ta n fo rd U n iv e rsity a t
ad v ertised tim es, m easurem ents on m any statio n s w ere m ade a t
th e b ureau, frequency in d ic a to rs w ere c alib rated fo r h ig h -g rad e
statio ns, an d lists of sta n d a rd frequency statio n s w ere published
perio dically . Im p ro v ed frequency m eters w ere developed, a n d a
num b er o f q u a rtz p la te oscillators w ere p re p a re d fo r use in in te r­
la b o ra to ry , an d especially in te rn a tio n a l, com parisons of frequency
scales. A w ide v a rie ty o f cooperative in v estig atio n s h as been kept
up, p a rtic u la rly observation s of fa d in g a n d o th e r v a ria tio n s of sig ­
nals, a n d developm ent o f special equip m ent, such as direction
finders, fo r o th e r branches o f th e G overnm ent. A p preciab le p ro g ­
ress h as been m ade to w a rd th e sta n d a rd iz a tio n o f some ra d io a p ­
p a ra tu s, esp ecially electron tubes.
T h e surv ey of G ov ernm ent telephon e service, c arrie d on fo r th e
p a st tw o ye ars u n d e r th e auspices o f th e B u re au of th e B u d g et, has
been continued an d im p o rta n t a d d itio n a l econom ies have been ac­
com plished both in th e D is tric t o f C olum bia and in th e field services.
Special assistance has been given to th e V e te ran s’ B u re au in choos­
in g th e telephone eq u ip m ent fo r several h o spitals, and to th e N avy D e­
p a rtm e n t in te stin g o u t fire-control equipm ent. A t th e close o f the
y e a r th e telephone e n g in eerin g staff is la rg e ly en gaged in p re p a ra ­
tio n of th e technical phases of th e G o v ern m en t’s defense in a p a te n t
su it a risin g out o f w a r use o f telephone eq u ip m ent an d in volv in g a
possible cost of several m illions o f d o llars to th e G overnm ent.
A technologic p a p e r has been p re p a re d su m m arizin g th e b u re a u ’s
conclusions on m ethods o f te stin g to d eterm in e w hen dam age is
o c cu rrin g by electrolysis. T h is re p re sen ts th e resu lts o f m any y e ars’
w ork in field surveys, an d several m on ths have been sp en t in d is­
cussions w ith rep re sen ta tiv es of th e different u tility in te re sts in ­
volved, in o rd er to m ake th is p a p e r accord w ith th e ir experience, in
so f a r as is possible. A p ro g ress re p o rt covering th e first sets o f
corrosion sam ples (iro n p ip e ) d u g u p fro m differen t soils has been
issued th ro u g h th e A m erican F o u n d ry m e n ’s A ssociation. T h e sam ­
ples have been carefu lly stu d ie d by m any m a n u fa ctu rers a n d users
o f pipe.
Since m agnetic m easurem ents seem to prom ise th e only p racticable
m ethod of te stin g steel rope in service, efforts have been continued
to avoid th e difficulties w hich have h ith e rto p rev en ted th e actu al

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R E P O R T O F T H E SEC R ET A R Y O F C O M M E R C E

use o f th is a p p a re n tly sim ple m ethod. N um erous experim en ts have
been carrie d ou t to d eterm in e th e effects o f tension in th e w ires, of
w ear, and o f rep eated stresses. These stu dies o f th e in d iv id u al
w ires have now been c a rrie d f a r enoug h to p e rm it th e choice of
co nditio ns o f m agn etic m easurem ent w hich w ill give re a lly signifi­
c a n t re su lts on th e assem bled rope.
M od em sa fe ty codes are e n g in eerin g s ta n d a rd s coverin g constru c­
tion and o p era tio n of eq uipm ent in v arious ind ustries. T h ey are
larg ely fo rm u la ted th ro u g h com m ittees in w hich m akers a n d users
o f equ ip m ent as well as re g u la to ry bodies are represented. T h e
bu reau is spo nsor fo r nine o f these codes, several of w hich cover
th e m ost h azard ou s o f o u r in dustries, T h e m ost im p o rta n t is the
N atio n al E lec tric a l S a fe ty Code, o f w hich th e fo u rth ed itio n lias
been in p re p a ra tio n fo r the p ast tw o years. T he first p a r t o f th is
revised code is in press, an d o th er p a rts a w ait only d etails of a rra n g e ­
m e n t an d co m putatio n of some tables of eng in eerin g data. T h e
E le v a to r S a fe ty Code is in course o f p rin tin g , th e A ero n au tical
S a fe ty Code is ready fo r p u b licatio n as soon as fo rm alities o f a p ­
p ro v a l by th e Society of A uto m otiv e E n g in eers an d th e A m erican
E n g in e e rin g S ta n d a rd s C om m ittee a re com pleted, th e Code of
C olors fo r Traffic S ig n a ls is com pleted a n d likew ise aw aits only
fo rm al ap p ro v a l, w hile th a t p a r t of th e L ig h tn in g Code d ealin g
w ith p ro tectio n o f persons a n d b u ild in g s is p ra c tica lly com pleted.
H EAT AND POW ER

B y jo in t reso lu tio n (P u b lic Res. 65, 67th C o n g .), th e P re sid e n t
o f th e U n ited S ta te s w as requested to call a conference of m a ritim e
n a tio n s to consider the a d o p tio n o f effective m eans fo r p rev en tin g
th e po llu tio n o f n avigab le w aters by oil. In th is connection, th e
B u re au o f S ta n d a rd s w as requested to u n d e rta k e th e in v estig atio n
o f the c h a ra c te r of o il-w ater m ix tu res an d the developm ent o f oilw ater sep a ra to rs designed fo r use on vessels on th e h ig h seas. T he
p e rfo rm an ce o f sh ip b o ard se p a ra to rs u n d e r actu a l o p e ra tin g condi­
tion s a t sea has been s tu d ie d and th e resu lts th u s fa r indicate, th a t
g ra v ity sep a ra to rs w ill be th e m ost sa tisfa c to ry type, to a d o p t fo r
g en eral use. Su ch se p a ra to rs m ay be expected to remove fro m 95
to 99 p e r cent o f th e fuel oil p re sen t in th e b a lla st w ater on sh ip ­
board.
G aseous explosions or explosive gaseons reactio ns have th e ir m ost
general a p p licatio n in th e developm ent o f pow er in autom otive
engines. A study of th e phenom ena of explosive g a s com bustion has
been in p ro g ress an d very im p o rta n t new facts have been developed.
T h e in cre asin g dem and fo r econom y in c e n tra l pow er statio n o u t­
p u t h as led to th e incre ased use o f m uch h ig h e r steam pressures and
te m p eratu res. A s a re su lt pew an d m ore reliable e n g in eerin g d a ta
on p ro p e rtie s of w ater a n d steam are dem anded. T h e b u reau has
been c a rry in g fo rw a rd p a rt o f a cooperative research p ro g ra m for
th e developm ent o f these d a ta a n d has developed m ethods a n d
eq u ip m en t w hich w ill yield resu lts com parable to those obtained fo r
am m onia, w hich are th e m ost accurate d a ta o f th e kin d ex tan t.
Se g er cones are used th ro u g h o u t th e ceram ic in d u strie s to gauge
th e firin g o f k iln s an d to in dicate th e m a tu rin g o f clay w are. T h e re

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is an in sistent ap p eal from ceram ists fo r ad eq ua te s ta n d a rd iz a tio n
of Seger cones. T h e s ta n d a rd iz a tio n in p ro g ress involves n o t only
te m p e ratu re m easurem ents b u t accurate co ntro l of ra te of te m p e ra ­
tu re rise and o f th e gaseous atm osphere su rro u n d in g th e cones. T h e
w ork is well advanced an d re su lts w ill be available to th e ceram ic
in d u stry in th e ne x t few m onths.
T h e bureau h as equ ipm ent fo r te stin g th e perfo rm an ce of a irc ra ft
engines at all altitu d es. T h e p ro b a b ility of in creasin g dem ands fo r
such pe rfo rm an ce tests in cid en t to th e d evelop m nt o f com m ercial
av iatio n led to th e developm ent o f a sim plified ty p e of te st of th is
kin d w hich can be p e rfo rm ed w ith o u t th e elab o rate eq uip m ent of
th e B u re au of S ta n d a rd s, a n d m ay serve th e same purp ose w here the
h ig h e st precision is n o t needed. T h e resu lts have been published.
L a b o ra to ry o pe ratio ns re q u irin g th e use o f stirre d liq uid s a t low
te m p e ratu re are a source of extrem e personal h a z a rd due to the
flam m able c h arac te r o f th e liq u id s com m only used. A series of
nonflam m able liquid m ix tu res has been developed w hich can be
used fo r th is pu rpo se w ith o u t d a n g er an d can be kep t a n d han d led
in th e o rd in a ry way.
In fo rm a tio n on problem s re la tin g to tra n s fe r of h e a t th ro u g h
m a te ria ls ra n g in g fro m in su la ted w alls to condenser tubes h as been
requested by a very w ide ra n g e o f interest,s¡ T o m eet such dem and
th is phase o f th e w ork has been given special a tte n tio n . M easure­
m ents of h e a t tra n s fe rs th ro u g h a w ide v a rie ty o f in su la tin g a n d
b u ild in g m a te ria ls have been determ in ed an d resu lts m ade available.
Some tim e ago it was d eterm in ed by th e bureau, in cooperation
w ith th e N atio n al A utom obile C h am b er o f Com m erce, th e A m erican
P etro leu m In s titu te , and th e Society o f A u to m o tiv e E ngin eers, th a t
th e economic lim itatio n on th e use of h eav ier and hence less ex pen­
sive m o to r fuels was fixed by th e tendency o f these fuels to con­
ta m in a te crank-case oils and cause h a rd sta rtin g . B o th these lim i­
ta tio n s have been in v estig ated an d th e m ain fa c ts re g a rd in g th e
fo rm e r have a lre ad y been published. T h e s ta rtin g problem is still
u n d e r in v estig atio n and ex p erim en tal pro cedu re has been developed.
T h e fo rm u latio n of b u ild in g codes, p a rtic u la rly as re g a rd s fire
p ro tectio n, requ ires fu r th e r in fo rm atio n as to th e behav io r o f s tru c ­
tu ra l m a te ria ls w hen heated. T ests o f th e m echanical stre n g th o f
v ario u s s tru c tu ra l steel an d cast-iron shap es have been conducted
u n d e r vario us co nd ition s o f te m p e ra tu re an d load.
'Lhe resistance of roofing m ate ria ls to ig n itio n u n d e r fire condi­
tion s has also been in v estig ated. N e ith er in v e stig atio n is as y et com ­
pleted.
I n secu rin g in te rn a tio n a l agreem ent as to sta n d a rd s o f te m p e ra ­
tu re , some sim ple an d p ra c tica l m ethod o f sp ecify in g tem p eratu res
below 0° C. h as been needed. A sim ple m odification o f th e fo rm u la
used a t h ig h e r te m p e ratu res has been fo u n d w hich m akes it possible
to define, w ith adeq uate accu racy an d sim p licity , te m p e ratu res down
to - 1 9 0 ° C.
In te rp re ta tio n of ex istin g d a ta on th e a b ility o f stru c tu re s to w ith ­
stan d fire conditions rests upon in ad eq u ate know ledge of w h at in ­
te n sity an d d u ra tio n o f fire m ay be expected in any specified ty p e of
b u ild in g occupancy. T ests have been m ade on a sm all scale sim u la t­
in g b u ild in g fire conditio ns fo r several classes of occupancies.
E q u ip m e n t is now being in stalled w hich w ill m ake it possible to e x ­

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R E PO R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

tend these stud ies to include a m uch w ider v a rie ty of b u ild in g condi­
tion s on a la rg e r scale of dim ensions.
M easurem ents o f th e specific heats of a la rg e num be r of oils have
led to th e ge n eralizatio n th a t th e specific h eat of an oil can be
in fe rre d to an accuracy o f a few p e r cent fro m a know ledge o f its
o rig in an d its density, a t le ast fo r th e te m p e ratu re ran g e u p to
100° C., an d possibly fo r m uch h ig h e r te m p eratu res. T h e results are
being p re p a re d fo r publication.
In connection w ith th e fo rm u la tio n of a S a fe ty Code fo r A uto m o­
bile B ra k es and B ra k e T e stin g th e sto p p in g a b ility of about 500
cars, in clu d in g tru ck s an d busses, has been m easured. T hese m eas­
urem ents were o btain ed fro m cars in o rd in a ry service in several
cities, and from the d a ta th u s o btain ed te n ta tiv e requirem en ts fo r
sto p p in g distances have been ad o p ted by a com m ittee w hich is p re ­
p a rin g th e above-m entioned code. O ne of th e resu lts o f th is w ork
lias been th e p re p a ra tio n o f a re p o rt e n title d “ T h e M axim um P o s­
sible D eceleration o f an A utom obile,” w hich discusses th e various
facto rs involved.
A n o th e r fa c to r closely rela ted to h ig h w a y safety is th e reaction
tim e o f th e d riv e r. M easurem ents w ere m ade of th e reactio n tim es
o f m ore th a n 50 d riv e rs over a wdde ran g e o f conditions, a n d values
o f from 0.3 second to m ore th a n 1.0 second were ob tain ed , th e
average b ein g s lig h tly over 0.5 second.
O P T IC S

A n im pression of th e m ag n itu d e o f th e co nstructiv e activ itie s of
th e op tics div isio n can p e rh a p s best be given by th e statem en t th a t
46 m an u sc rip ts w ere su b m itted an d a p p ro v e d fo r p u b lic a tio n in
bu reau, scientific, an d technical pap ers.
R ecent prog ress in d e te rm in in g th e stru c tu re s o f vario us spectra
h as led to a general law describ in g th e so-called sensitive lines w hich
serve in m a k in g q u a n tita tiv e chem ical analyses fo r im p u ritie s, th e
presence o f w hich m ay e n tire ly escape detection by o rd in a ry chem i­
cal m ethods. T h e em p iric al d a ta and th is law have been a p p lie d
d u rin g th e p a st y e ar in th e classification of some com plex spectra,
w hile in o th e r cases w here th e d a ta are u n c erta in o r lack in g, th e y are
being d eterm in ed from sp ectral stru c tu re s deriv ed from abso rp tio n
spectra, and th e effect o f a m agnetic field on th e sp ectral lines. T h is
in v estig atio n is p u ttin g spectrochem ical an alysis on a firm physical
fo u n d a tio n a n d a t th e sam e tim e fu rn ish e s new in fo rm atio n on
atom ic stru c tu re , th e m echanism o f ra d ia tio n , an d th e in te rp re ta tio n
o f m any a stro p h y sical phenom ena.
T h e design and construction of im proved a p p a ra tu s has been com­
pleted th is y ear, bv m eans o f w hich ra p id an d accurate m easurem ents
m ay be m ade o f (1) sp ectral tran sm issio n betw een 100 a n d 0.01 p e r
c e n t; (2) sp ec tra l reflection u n d e r conditio ns o f diffuse illu m in a ­
tio n ; (3 ) d o m in an t wave le n g th a n d p u rity w ith precision sta n d a rd
w hite lig h t; and (4) in te g ra l tran sm issio n an d reflection. T h e
in stru m en ts, w hich have been th o ro u g h ly tested, p ro ved h ig h ly sa tis­
fa c to ry an d are now in contin u al use fo r ro u tin e te stin g a n d re ­
search.
T h e values of relativ e v isib ility o f th e different sp ectral colors
recom m ended in B u re au o f S ta n d a rd s Scientific P a p e r No. 475 w ere

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149

adop ted by th e In te rn a tio n a l C om m ission on Illu m in a tio n , m eetin g
a t G eneva in J u ly . 1924, an d also by th e A m erican Illu m in a tin g
E n g in e e rin g Society.
To stu d y th e erosion in 30-caliber service rifle an d m achine-gun
b arrels, it has been th e p ractice to saw th e b a rre l lengthw ise. B y
th is m ethod th e p ro gress o f th e erosion in a single b a rre l can no t be
stu died , b u t only th e final condition a fte r a prescrib ed firin g p ro ­
g ram .
T o obviate th is lim ita tio n , a cam era has been designed fo r
p h o to g ra p h in g th e in te rio r su rface o f th e b arrel. T h is consists of a
periscope of u n it m agnificatio n an d sm all enough to p e rm it e n try
into th e bore of th e rifle. T h e periscope pro je cts an im age o f a sm ail
p o rtio n of th e bore on a s trip o f m o tio n -p ictu re film, and th e b a rre l
to be p h o to g ra p h e d is slowly d ra w n along th e periscope, th e film be­
in g m oved a t such a ra te th a t th e re is no re la tiv e m otion betw een th e
im age an d film. T h e in stru m e n t is also excellently a d ap te d fo r a
visual ex am in atio n of th e in te rio r of th e barrel.
T h e in dex of re fra c tio n o f a liq u id can be re a d ily m easured, an d
th e v a rie ty o f im p o rta n t uses to w hich such a d e te rm in a tio n m ay be
p u t as a contro l m easurem ent in in d u stria l processes is being ra p id ly
extended. In cre ased accuracy in re fra c to m e te rs fo r th is purpose is
b ein g dem anded by in d u stry , an d th e b u reau has n o t only ad d ed to
its eq uip m ent in o rd e r to m ake th e m ore accurate tests dem anded
b u t is coo p eratin g in the p re lim in a ry m easurem ents necessary in th e ir
design, an d has th u s co n trib u te d m a te ria lly to im pro vem ent in
th e ir pe rform ance.
A fu r th e r d em o n stratio n o f th e usefulness of th is b u re a u ’s rad io m etric in stru m e n ts in solving astro no m ical prob lem s was o btain ed
d u rin g th e sum m er o f 1924. New m easu rem ents w ere m ade a t th e
Low ell O b se rv ato ry show ing, am ong o th e r th in g s, th a t th e u n illu m i­
n a te d d isk o f V enus em its a la rg e am o u n t o f in fra -re d rays. H ence,
th e question arises w h eth er th is p la n e t ro ta te s ra p id ly on its ax is o r
w heth er th e su rface is still h ig h ly heated. T h e ra d io m e tric m eas­
urem ents in dicate also th a t th e p la n e t U ra n u s is very cold. O n th e
o th e r ha n d , th e m easu rem ents on M ars in dic ate te m p e ratu res con­
sid erab ly h ig h e r th a n previou sly estim ated.
A p a p e r now in press gives th e re su lts o f an in v estig atio n of fo u r
m etho ds o f e stim a tin g p la n e ta ry te m p e ratu res, esp ecially as a p p lie d
to th e ra d io m e tric m easu rem ents on M ars. T hese fo u r m ethods o f
an alysis give co ncordan t resu lts, show in g th a t th e te m p e ratu re of
th e su rface of M ars, u n d e r a n oond ay sun, rises considerably above
0° C. T h is is in agreem ent w ith visual observation s w hich in dicate
th a t th e surface undergoes clim atic changes.
N um erous co nstants c h a ra c te riz in g th e p ro p e rtie s o f th e differen t
atom s have been determ in ed. T h e ty p es of prob lem s considered
em brace c ritic a l p o te n tia l m e asu re m e n ts; ex citatio n o f so ft an d even
visible X ra y s ; g en eral q u an tu m dynam ics, a n d its ap p lic atio n to
spectro scopy ; resonance ra d ia tio n p h eno m en a; m ethods fo r th e ex ­
citatio n o f spectra, an d th e energy re q u ired fo r th e ir p ro d u c tio n ;
th e fine stru c tu re o f sp ec tra l lin es; th e sizes o f m olecules a n d ato m s;
energ y o f a ctiv ate d ato m s; photo electric effect in v a p o rs; an d th e
s c a tte rin g o f lig ht.
A new tim e-scale exposure m achine o f th e n o n in te rm itte n t ty p e
fo r d e term in in g th e speed o f p h o to g ra p h ic em ulsions has been de-

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R E P O R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

signed an d constructed. I t is a precision in stru m e n t, designed p r i­
m a rily fo r research purp oses an d has, th e re fo re , a m ore extended
exposure ra n g e th a n is necessary fo r routine-em ulsion te stin g p u r­
poses. W ith th is m achine a sector wheel is ru n a t a co nstant speed
by a m otor, th e speed of w hich is contro lled both by g overn or an d
by clock sig nals th ro u g h a new a rra n g em en t. B y em plo yin g change
ge ars, a ran g e o f speeds o f th e sector wheel is obtained in pow crof-tw o step s fro m on e-eighth second to IT m in utes 4 seconds per
revolution. A d escrip tio n is in press u n d e r th e title A N on in term itte n t S en sito m eter (T im e Scale E x p o su re M achine) w ith Clock
C o ntro lled M o to r D rive. W o rk now in pro gress w ith th is a p p a ra tu s
h as a lre ad y given d a ta o f an im p o rta n t n a tu re b e arin g on th e th eo ry
o f th e silver brom ide em ulsion.
A n in v estig atio n has been com pleted w hich shows th e effect on th e
ex p an siv ity of glazes, of th e m ethod of p re p a rin g th e sam ples.
P rev io u sly th e glaze m a te ria l h as been cast in m olds or d ra w n into
rods in o rd e r to m ake sam ples la rg e enough fo r th e m icrom etric
a p p a ra tu s. F o r th e in terferen ce a p p a ra tu s sam ples 0.5 mm. in
len g th m ay be ta k e n d ire c tly fro m th e finished w are and m easured.
T h e expan sion o f th e cast o r d ra w n sam ples seldom agrees w ith th a t
Of th e glaze taken fro m th e finished w are. T h e resu lts of th is
in v estig atio n show th a t expansion m easurem ents m ade on cast or
d ra w n specim ens are o f little value in m a tc h in g the expan sion o f
glazes and bodies, hence th e fa ilu re know n as c ra zin g has been
p re v a le n t, alth o u g h th e glaze a n d body m a te ria l were a p p a re n tly
m atched. B y m easu rin g glaze ta k en fro m finished w are, its p ra c ­
tic al pe rfo rm an ce can be predicted.
A process has been developed fo r th e m a n u fa c tu re of levulose,
th e sw eetest of th e sugars. T h e Je ru sa le m a rtich o k e offers an inext
pensive and pro lific source of c ru d e su p p ly . T h e process consists
of juice e x tra c tio n , conversion, n e u tra liz a tio n a n d defecatio n, isola-;
tio n o f levulose hy lim e p re c ip ita tio n , and c ry sta lliz a tio n , in w hich
th e m ost expensive re a g en t re q u ired is an o rd in a ry g ra d e of lim e.
I n c o n tra st w ith prev io u s pro cedure w hich has necessitated th e use
o f org an ic solvents fo r in d u c in g c ry sta lliz a tio n , it h as been fo u n d
feasible to c ry stallize levulose from its aqueous solutio ns w ith
fa c ility . Xew d a ta on th e so lu bility o f levulose hav e been d e te r­
m ined. O f th e levulose in th e ex tracte d juice, 80 to 85 p e r cen t can
be recovered as c ry sta llin e sugar.
I t has been show n th a t th e ro ta tio n s of su g ars and th e ir d eriv ativ es
can be ev alu ated from a know ledge o f th e ir stru c tu re s, a n d con­
versely, th a t stru c tu re s a re o ften disclosed by com parisons of ro ta ­
tions. R evised ro ta tio n s o f th e halogenacetvl arabinoses have been
m easured, and those o f th e m ethyl an d several te rp en e glycosides
have been show n to agree w ith calculated values. T h e b u re a u ’s
researches in th is Held are p ro v in g valu ab le in disclosing m olecular
stru c tu re s an d in in d ic a tin g w ays fo r stu d y in g carb o h y d rate m eta ­
bolism. T h e y are being extended th ro u g h o u t th e su g a r gro up.
T he physical p ro p e rtie s o f glass are subject to changes o f con­
sid erable m a g n itu d e d u rin g th e final stag es of p ro d u ctio n , even
w hen th e com position a n d m etho ds o f m e ltin g a re c arefu lly con­
trolled. R esu lts o f in v estig atio n s show th a t by c h an g in g th e h e a t
tre a tm e n t th e d en sity an d re fra c tiv itv m ay be m a te ria lly altered

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151

a n d th a t o th er p ro p e rtie s can be g re a tly chang ed. T hese resu lts
w ill prove v alu ab le in m any problem s in th e m a n u fa c tu re a n d p ro ­
ductio n of both op tical a n d com m ercial glasses. T h ey should aid
in p re v e n tin g m any losses h ere to fo re unavo id ab le an d m ake it pos­
sible to increase th e stre n g th a n d d u ra b ility of such artic le s as
bottles, w indow glass, an d glazes or enam eled w ares.
C H E M IST R Y

A s in th e p ast, a g re a t p a rt o f th e en erg y of th e chem istry division
has been expended in th e te stin g of m a te ria ls su b m itte d by variou s
branches of th e G overnm ent service. L ittle of th is te stin g w ork can
w ith an y p ro p rie ty be called “ ro u tin e w o rk ,” if th is te rm is used in
th e sam e sense as it w ould be used in fa cto ry -c o n tro l w ork, fo r no t
only are num erou s difficult tests m ade on th e sam ples exam ined, b u t
fro m th e results of such tests conclusions are d ra w n as to th e q u ality
and s u ita b ility of th e m ate ria ls in question. H ence a la rg e p ro p o r­
tio n o f th e sam ples re p re se n ts actu al research w ork, an d in m any
cases these a p p a re n tly m in o r researches on sam ples tested requ ire
m ore w ork th a n th a t rep re se n te d by m a n y p ublished o rig in al re ­
search p ap ers. M ethods of te st a re c o n tin u a lly b ein g devised or
revised, m uch of th is being m ade necessary by p e cu liarities of
sam ples sent in fo r test.
A la rg e num b er o f specifications covering soaps, inks, p a in t m ate­
rials, roofing m a te ria ls, etc., w ere p re p a red fo r th e F e d e ra l Specifica­
tions B o ard and have been ad o p ted as U n ite d S ta te s G ov ern m ent
stan d a rd s. O th ers are in p re p a ra tio n , an d several special specifica­
tions, in c lu d in g a nu m ber fo r chem ical reag en ts, hav e been p re p a red
fo r v ariou s branches o f th e service, o r in cooperatio n w ith technical
and scientific societies.
R enew als of five ex hausted sta n d a rd sam ples w ere p re p a red .
F iv e new sta n d a rd sam ples w ere ad ded to th e list d u rin g th e year,
m a k in g th e to ta l nu m ber now av ailable 63, an d fo u r m ore are in
process o f p re p a ra tio n . T h e c o n sta n t dem and fo r th e B u re au of
S ta n d a rd s ’ sta n d a rd sam ples by chem ists from all p a rts of th e w orld
clearly shows th e g re a t value o f th is service.
A n u m b er o f new an d im proved a n d sim plified m ethods o f chem i­
cal an alysis were developed an d several new m ethods of physical
te stin g w ere devised.
D u rin g th e p a st several y ears th e re has been a g re a t in te re st in
chrom ium p la tin g an d several com m ercial research labo ra to ries have
stu d ie d th e problem . T h u s fa r, how ever, th e re have been v ery few
com m ercial ap p licatio ns. Several years ago th is bureau cooperated
w ith th e B u re au o f E n g ra v in g an d P r in tin g in th e in sta llatio n of
an electro ly tic process fo r re p ro d u c in g pla te s used fo r p rin tin g se­
curities, w hich process is still in successful ope ratio n. T h is y ear
th e b u reau was requested to in v estig ate th e po ssibility o f in creasin g
th e h ard n ess of th e p rin tin g surface. A s chrom ium is the h a rd e st
m etal know n, it was first considered. I n cooperation w ith th e B u ­
reau of E n g ra v in g an d P rin tin g , a process o f chrom ium p la tin g has
been developed an d a p p lie d fo r th e p a st several m o nth s to b oth th e
nickel electro ly tic p la te s an d th e steel plates. S a tisfa c to ry pro gress
has been m ade a n d th e re su lts so f a r o btain ed in d ic ate th a t th is p ro ­

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R E P O R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

cess o f chrom ium p la tin g w ill prove e n tire ly p ra cticab le an d very
usefu l fo r th is purp ose. F u r th e r stu dies a re in p ro g ress on chro ­
m ium p la tin g an d its o th e r possible ap plicatio ns.
A c a refu l review o f a ll av ailable in fo rm a tio n re g a rd in g th e re la ­
tiv e efficiency o f differen t fu el gases in use h as shown th a t fo r all
o rd in a ry uses o f gas th e p u rc h a se r is equally well served by th e same
am o u n t o f h e a t fro m gases o f d ifferent h e a tin g values, a n d is really
concerned only in g e ttin g th e m ost p o te n tial h e a t possible fo r a
d o llar.
Im p o rta n t pro g ress has been m ade in th e stu d y o f th e u tiliz a tio n
o f gas. M ethods have been developed fo r d e term in in g w ith reaso n­
able ra p id ity th e m a rg in of safety of gas ap p liances fro m th ree
h a z a rd s—flash back, th e blo w in g ou t of flames, an d incom plete com­
bustion. T h e w ork w as done as p a r t o f a cooperative p ro g ra m fo r
th e im prov em en t of gas ap p lian ces e n tered in to w ith th e A m erican
G as A ssociation, an d th e m etho ds developed are expected to find
im m ediate a p p lic atio n in red u cin g th e h a z a rd fro m th e use o f gas.
M E C H A N IC S A N D SO U N D

R eliab ility tests o f elev ato r safety in terlo cks have been in prog ress
continu ously d u rin g th e p a s t th re e years. T h is w ork w as o rig in ally
u n d e rta k e n fo r th e c ity o f B altim o re , b u t h as since been extended to
in clu de tests fo r th e S u p e rv isin g A rc h ite c t’s Office an d th e c ity o f
W ash in g to n , and th e tests w ill p ro b a b ly be u tilized in th e n e a r fu tu re
by a nu m b er o f S ta te sa fe ty commissions.
T h e im po rtan ce of such tests is fo rcib ly illu stra te d by th e fa c t
th a t th e N a tio n al B u reau o f C asu alty a n d S u re ty U n d e rw rite rs, one
o f th e la rg est g ro u p s of th e k in d in th e U n ite d S tates, has g ra n te d a
redu ctio n in in surance ra te s on elev ators equipp ed w ith interlocks
w hich have successfully passed th e re lia b ility te sts of th e B u re au o f
S ta n d a rd s. A su b sta n tia l sav in g in in su ran ce ra te s h as th u s been
m ade possible th ro u g h o u t th e co u n try . B u t f a r m ore im p o rta n t
th a n th is is the g re a te r assurance of safety in elevators equipped
w ith devices w hich have successfully passed these tests. T h e best
sta tistic a l in fo rm a tio n av ailable in d ic ates th a t effective hoistw ay
do o r e lev ato r in terlo cks w ould have p rev en ted a b o u t th re e -fo u rth s
of th e fa ta l e lev ato r accid ents w hich have occurred in th e past.
I n th e prosecu tio n o f th is w ork th e bu reau has h a d th e effective
coo peration of elev ato r m a n u fa c tu re rs. I n a num ber o f instances
a n in te rlo ck has been redesigne d to c o rrect w eaknesses w hich de­
veloped d u rin g th e first test. I t m ay be said w ith assurance th a t the
devices w hich « im p ly w ith these te st req uirem ents re p re se n t a dis­
tin c t advance as re g a rd s safety a n d re lia b ility in passenger-elevator
ope ratio n.
D u rin g th e p a st y ear th e sound la b o ra to ry has com pleted an ex ­
tensive series o f m easu rem ents on th e acoustic p ro p e rtie s o f b u ild in g
m ate rials. T h is is a question o f g re a t p ra c tic a l in te re st to -d ay, an d
one w hich grow s fa ste r th a n its solution.
M easurem ents o f sound tran sm issio n have been m ade on a larg e
n u m b er of p la ste r panels o f sta n d a rd constructio n, such as is o rd i­
n a rily used in p a rtitio n w alls. A b so rp tio n a n d reflection m easure­
m ents have also been m ade on a num ber o f different p la ste r surfaces.
F o r these la tte r m easu rem ents a new m ethod has been developed

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153

w hich p e rm its m easurem ents to be c a rrie d out on pieces of m ate rial
of an area as sm all as 1 square foot.
T h e resu lts an d conclusions of these m easurem ents can n o t well be
given w ith o u t an extended table. M uch depen ds on th e frequency
(or p itc h ) of th e sound used. T h e re la tiv e m erit of differen t panels
as re g a rd s opaqueness to sound of a certain frequency m ay be e n ­
tirely reversed if sound of a differen t frequency is used.
A s to reflecting pow er fo r sound, it has been fo u n d th a t in th e case
of p la ste r surface the reflection is determ in ed by a very th in surface
lay er an d is alm ost en tire ly in d ep en d en t o f th e m a te ria l of th e u n d e r­
coat.
T h e resu lts o f th is w ork are being p re p a re d fo r issue as a bureau
publication .
T h e a ero n au tic-in stru m en ts section has continued its p ro g ra m of
cooperative research an d developm ent w ork on a irc ra ft in stru m en ts
w ith th e N atio n al A dv isory C om m ittee fo r A ero nautics, th e N avy,
th e A rm y , an d o th er G overnm ent d e p artm en ts, and p riv a te concerns.
I n a d d itio n a m uch la rg e r am o u n t of ro u tin e te stin g o f in stru m en ts
has been done d u rin g th e p a st y e ar th a n ever before.
T he m ost im p o rta n t aspect o f th e in stru m e n t developm ent has
been th e design an d construction of a num ber o f special test in s tru ­
m ents fo r s tu d y in g th e perfo rm an ce o f h e av ie r-th an -air c ra ft. A
sm all gyroscope fo r use in a tu rn record er, a sm all and h ig h ly sensi­
tiv e g alv an om eter, and an electric-resistance ty p e th erm om eter fo r
m easu rin g very low a ir te m p e ratu res, have been com pleted fo r the
N a tio n al A d v iso ry C om m ittee fo r A eronautics. A cam era sex tant
w hich can be used fo r o b ta in in g p h o to g ra p h ic records o f th e su n ’s
a ltitu d e was developed fo r th e pro posed p o la r flig h t o f th e N avy
rig id a irsh ip Shenan doa h. T h is in stru m e n t p h o to g ra p h s th e su n ’s
im age on a s trip of brom ide p a p er, as well as th e im age o f a bubble
level and suitable reference scales. A sm all developing ta n k accom ­
panies th e in stru m e n t an d allow s finished p rin ts to be ob tain ed
w ith in five m inutes a fte r th e exposure. A n a ltig ra p h com pensated
fo r a ir te m p e ra tu re has been co nstructed, an d in dicates a ltitu d e s
de term in ed by pressu re an d te m p e ra tu re w ith an accuracy of 1 p er
cent.
F u n d a m e n ta l th eo re tical an d ex p erim en tal researches have been
conducted in connection w ith th e design an d im pro vem en t o f aero­
n a u tic in stru m en ts. T hese v arious researches have fo u r objects in
v iew : (1) T h e sim plification, im provem ent, an d sta n d a rd iz a tio n of
in stru m e n t m echanism s; (2) th e im pro vem en t o f in stru m e n t p res­
sure elem ents; (3) th e o b ta in in g o f perfo rm an ce d a ta fo r vario us
ty p es of p ressu re elem ents, b earin gs, and m echanism s to be used
fo r purpo ses of design and th e dissem in atio n o f th is in fo rm a tio n ;
a n d (4) th e im provem ent o f in stru m e n ts an d a p p a ra tu s th ro u g h
fu n d a m e n ta l research b e arin g on unsolved in stru m e n t problem s.
I n stru c tu re s such as ta ll b u ild in gs, chim neys, bridges, an d pow er
tran sm issio n lines, it is necessary to m ake pro vision fo r th e stresses
im posed by w in d pressure. T he values fo r w ind p ressu res now used
by eng ineers are based on th e resu lts of experim . n ts m ade a t a tim e
w hen ex p erim en tal m ethods w ere in th e e arly stages o f developm ent.
T h e m odels were m a in ly th in flat plates, fo rm s ra re ly used fo r
stru ctu re s. T h ere is g re a t need fo r d a ta on m odels resem blin g actual

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K EPO H T OF T H E SECRE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

stru c tu re s m ore closely. T he bu re au com pleted d u rin g th e y e ar an
in v estig atio n o f the d is trib u tio n o f w ind p ressu re over a m odel of a
ta ll b u ild in g w ith th e w ind s trik in g th e face of the b u ild in g at
v ario u s angles. T he m easurem ents were m ade in th e 10-foot w ind
tu n n e l on a m odel 8 by 8 by 24 inches, a t sp eels up to 70 m iles per
hou r. T h e resu lts are to be p ublished as a scientific p a p e r o f the
b ureau. M easurem ents on a model chim ney S inches in d ia m eter and
5 feet h ig h are also n e a rly com pleted.
T h e resu lts o f tests on 69 la rg e colum ns of H -shaped section,
tested in cooperation w ith th e A m erican B rid g e Co. an d th e B eth le ­
hem Steel Co., have been p re p a re d fo r p u blicatio n. T h e resu lts of
th e tests in dicate th a t th e m a jo r fa c to r in d e term in in g th e stre n g th
o f these stu rd y colum ns, of slenderness ra tio v a ry in g fro m 40 to
90, w as th e yield p o in t of th e m a te ria l. D ifferences in m an n er o f
co nstruction , slenderness ra tio , a n d v a ria tio n s in te st conditions
produced rela tiv ely sm aller differences. H ow ever, th e value o f the
tensile yield p o in t o f th e m a te ria l d eterm in ed un der d iffe r.n t test
condition s v a rie d considerably (over 12 p er c u t ) , so th a t consistent
resu lts could only be obtained by a u n ifo rm p ro cedure of tensile
testin g .
T h e tests sugg est th a t th ere is a need fo r in v estig atio n o f the
condition s u n d e r w hich tensile yield p o in ts m ay be m easured con­
sistently .
T h e am oun t o f te stin g carrie d ou t fo r o th e r branches o f th e G ov­
e rn m e n t in th e field of m echanics a n d sound is co n stan tly increasing.
In th e eng in eerin g m echanics la b o ra to ry alone te sts have been m ade
d u rin g th e y e ar fo r every executive d e p a rtm e n t except th e D e p a rt­
m ent o f Ju stic e . T h e e n g in eerin g -in stru m en t section has calib rated
878 c u rre n t m eters d u rin g th e y e ar fo r th e R eclam atio n Service,
th e G eological S urvey, th e C oast an d G eodetic S urv ey , a n d o th e r
agencies. These m eters are essential fo r g a u g in g th e stream flow of
riv e rs an d canals a n d a re c alib rated by to w in g th em a t differen t
know n speeds th ro u g h still w ater in a te stin g ta n k about 450 feet
long. 'N um erous tests have been m ade of vario us typ es o f fire ex­
tin g u ish e rs to d eterm in e th e ir su ita b ility as fire-figh tin g equipm ent
on vessels u n d e r th e ju risd ic tio n o f th e S team b o at In sp ectio n Service.
F o r th e S u p e rv is in g A rc h ite c t’s office te sts have been m ade o f ra d i­
a to r re tu rn -lin e valves a n d ra d ia to r a ir valves. M any aeronautic
in stru m e n ts, anem om eters, pressure gauges, an d p a p e r testers have
been c alib rated fo r o th e r branches of th e service. T h e im portan ce
and necessity of th e te stin g w ork can n o t be questioned, b u t th e
volum e of th e w ork is a lre ad y so g re a t th a t th e tests can no t be kept
c u rre n t w ith o u t an increase in o u r staff com m ensurate w ith th e
de m ands m ade upo n it.
ST R U C T U R A L , E N G IN E E R IN G , A N D

M ISC E L L A N E O U S

M A T E R IA L S

S tu d ies of d a ta ren d ered av ailab le by th e E m ergency F le e t C or­
p o ra tio n in its in v estig atio n s o f concrete sh ip s show th a t by th e use
o f sufficient steel, p ro p e rly placed , th e shell of th e sh ip need be only
4 o r 5 inches th ic k in stead o f th e 14 o r 15 inches dem anded by usual
concrete design practice. D ed uctio ns fro m these d a ta have been
a p p lie d to s tru c tu ra l concrete design a n d m ay re su lt in some im p o r­
ta n t economies.

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155

M easurem ents of th e stresses p ro duc ed by loads causing im p act
a n d rh y th m ic deflection were m ade in a concrete stad iu m d u rin g th e
pro g ress of a fo o tb all gam e, w hen it was loaded to capacity. T he
resu lts in d ic ated th a t th e stresses due to all loads w ere low. Those
caused by im p a c t d id n o t exceed 300 pounds p e r square inch.
S tu d ies o f a la rg e am ou nt o f pu blished d a ta show th a t th e re is an
a p p a re n t re la tio n between th e 7 an d 28 d ay stre n g th s o f concrete.
I t a p p ea rs fro m these d a ta th a t th e 28-day stre n g th am ounts to th e
7-day s tre n g th plus th ir ty tim es th e square ro o t o f th e 7-day stre n g th .
B u ild in g stones have been tested w ith re la tio n to th e ir resistance
to w e a th e rin g ; sh earin g , tran sv erse, an d com pressive s tre n g th s; p e r­
m e a b ility ; th e rm a l ex p an sio n ; a b so rp tio n ; resistance to fa tig u e ; a n d
specific g ra v ity . T h e d a ta in so f a r as th e y re fe r to lim estone are
ve ry com plete, an d p en d in g th e p re p a ra tio n o f a p u b licatio n th e
b u reau w ill be pleased to fu rn ish such in fo rm a tio n as can be given
to correspondents. M uch tim e has also been sp en t in co llatin g th e
accelerated freezin g tests o f stone by salts w ith freezings w hile th e
stone is sa tu ra te d w ith w ater. W h ile th e re is a definite ra tio be­
tw een these tw o w ith m ost stones, th e re are too la rg e a num be r of
discrepancies to p e rm it o f a g en eralizatio n , a n d fu r th e r stud ies are
being carrie d out.
T h e p ro p e rtie s o f m o rta rs o f cem ent, lim e, and gyp sum have been
in vestig ated u n d e r a nu m b er o f conditions o f use. C em ent m o rtars
w hen used as stuccos were stu d ie d la rg e ly in connection w ith vario us
ty p es o f ba cking over fram e construction. T h e bon d in g stre n g th o f
m o rta rs to m asonry, such as sand -lim e brick, w as fo und to depend
very la rg ely upo n th e c h a ra c te r o f th e ab so rp tio n o f th e bonded
m ate rial. T h e m aso nry should be capable of absorb ing some o f th e
w ater from th e m o rta r and d ra w in g th e la tte r into some of its ex ­
te rio r pores. T h e adhesion o f in te rio r gypsum m o rta rs to concrete
was fo u n d to de pend to a considerable e x te n t upon th e rela tiv e
coefficient of expansion o f th e tw o m ate rials. Its adhesion to o th er
ty p es o f backing, such as la th , tile, etc., depen ds m ore la rg ely upon
such ch aracteristics as rou ghness an d m echanical key.
G ypsum and lim e in uses o th e r th a n m o rta rs have been un d er
observation to determ ine such p ro p e rtie s as set an d its re g u la tio n ,
w aterpro ofn ess, acoustics, causes o f fa ilu re u n d er un u su al conditions,
an d th e p hy sical p ro p e rtie s o f th e raw m ate ria ls as affecting th e
p ro p e rtie s o f th e finished prod uct.
I t w ould a p p e a r possible to replace th e im p o rted silk used in
p ara ch u te s by a special m ercerized cotton, and also possible to replace
th e cotton used in th e P o rtla n d cem ent b ag con tain er by jute. B oth
o f these su b stitutes are gen erally cheap er in first cost, bu t w hether
u ltim ate cost w ould be less can n o t be stated , since th e service tests
u n d e rta k en to confirm th e la b o ra to ry tests on w hich these conclu­
sions are based have n o t been com pleted. A t th e sam e tim e it was
found th a t if an o th er su b stitu te —reclaim ed ru b b er—is used in th e
tre a d o f autom obile tires, th e tire s w ill n o t w ear as well as ones in
w hich th e stock is m ade o f crude rub ber. W h e th e r or n o t a low
g ra d e o f M anila fiber could be m ade in to as good a g ra d e o f rope as
th e h ig h -g rad e fiber, obtained a few years ago w ith m uch less cost
and less difficulty th a n it is a t presen t, has n o t been definitely d e te r­
m ined. T h e tests so f a r m ade have n o t been conclusive.
6 6 5 4 8 — 2 5 ------ 11

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R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

A stu d y o f glue as a su b stitu te fo r casein in co atin g p a p e r has
show n th a t it can easily be used an d an excellent p ro d u c t obtained.
E x p e rim en ts have also shown th a t when used as a size to replace
p a r t o f th e ro sin now in use excep tio nally good p a p e r is produced.
I f la te r d a ta are as p ro m isin g as those obtained, it w'ould seem
th a t glue should obtain a w ide use fo r th is purpose.
A sam ple of crude ru b b er secured fro m trees grow n in H a iti
showed th a t p ro d u cts could be o btain ed co m parable in all respects
to those m ade fro m sta n d a rd g ra d es of p la n ta tio n q u ality . A s H a iti
is fa rth e r n o rth th an any source of p la n ta tio n rub ber, the d a ta are
of p a rtic u la r interest.
Such p a p e r fillers as clays, asbestine, talc, and gypsum have been
stu d ie d in th e b u re a u ’s sem icom m ercial p a p e r m ill an d th e am o u n t of
filler re ta in ed d eterm in ed , as well as th e q u a lity o f th e re su ltin g pap er.
So little difference in th e q u a lity of th e p a p e r was noted th a t th e
m ain item to be considered w ould seem to be th a t o f cost. A num b er
of unu sual fibers were also m ade into p a p er, an d of these C aro a fiber
from B ra zil, b u t also occu rrin g in th e P h ilip p in e s, was fo u n d to be
of m ost prom ise an d gave p a p e rs equal to those m ade fro m ra g
stock. P a p e rs from cotton stalk s did no t a p p e a r a t all pro m isin g.
T h e re su lts ob tained on service tests o f sole leath er show th a t any
app re cia b le increase in th e resistance of such le ath ers to w ear m ust
come from th e app licatio n of m in era l tann ag e. C hrom e tan n ed soles
wore from 30 to 100 p er cent longer th a n vegetable soles. .T o obtain
th e required firm ness an d com fo rtable characte ristics o f th e vegetable
ta n n e d leath er a n d econom y o f p ro d u ctio n , it w ould a p p e a r d esir­
able to su p p lem en t chrom e ta n n in g w ith a m odified vegetable ta n ­
nin g. T h e p o ssibility o f th e use of sy n th etic ta n n in g m a te ria ls to
replace th e im p o rted vegetable ta n n in s has been fu rth e r in v estig ated,
p a y in g p a rtic u la r atte n tio n to th e fo rm ald eh y d e condensation p ro d ­
ucts of th e su lp ho nic acids o f phenol, cresol, an d n ap h th alen e. T h e ir
value is difficult to estim ate due to th e differen t p ro p e rtie s in differ­
e n t respects, as ra te an d am oun t o f fixation in th e leath er, an d effect
on th e vegetable ta n n in s w ith w hich th ey m ig h t be used. B u t it
w ould a p p e a r th a t w ith fu rth e r stu d y th e ir use could be b ro u g h t
about.
A to ta l of 83 specifications has been p re p a re d , subm itted to the
F ed era l Specifications B o ard , an d p ro m u lg ate d by th e la tte r, cov­
e rin g such item s as tires, tubes, hose, h o sp ita l goods, erasers, cheese­
cloth. tuck, denim s, sheets, pillow cases, etc.
METALLURGY

A bout 30 p e r cent of th e w ork of th e division o f m e ta llu rg y for
th e y e ar has been carrie d on p rim a rily fo r or a t th e suggestio n of
o th er G overnm ent d e p artm en ts or offices. W hile some ro u tin e te st­
in g has been done an d m any m etallic m a te ria ls of satisfa c to ry an d
u n satisfa c to ry p erfo rm ance have been stu died, m ost o f th is G ove rn ­
ment work has been of a research n a tu re , e ith e r on m ethods of te s t­
in g or on the p ro p e rtie s of m etals.
T h e b u lk o f th is w ork h as been c arrie d out fo r th e A rm y , N avy,
and A g ric u ltu ra l D e p artm en t, th e F e d e ra l Specifications B o ard , N a ­
tional A d viso ry C om m ittee fo r A ero nautics, C oast and G eodetic

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157

Su rv ey, P a n a m a C an al, F e d e ra l T ra d e Com m ission, B u re au of F o r ­
eign an d D om estic Com m erce, S team boat In sp ectio n Service, B u re au
of M ines, an d P a n a m a C an al Com m ission. I t has covered such sub­
jects as th e e m b rittlem en t on exposure of lig h t alloys used fo r a ir ­
c ra ft. p ro te ctiv e m etallic coatings, ta rn ish -re sista n t silv er alloys,
hig h-speed steel fo r c u ttin g tools, a ir-h a rd e n in g steels, perm anence
an d w ear resistance o f steels used fo r gauges, fusible boiler p lu g s,
te stin g zinc-coated m a te ria ls, th e stu d y of in v a r tapes, etc. O n ac­
count o f th e m ilita ry n a tu re of some of th e w ork, re p o rts on m any
pi'ojects are ren d ered only to th e b ra n c h of th e service th a t is
d ire c tly concerned.
A b o u t 20 p er cent o f th e w ork h as been done a t th e request o f a n d
in cooperation w ith n a tio n a l technical societies, such as th e A m erican
F o u n d ry m e n ’s A ssociation, A m erican C eram ic Society, A m erican
W eld in g Society, A m erican Society of M echanical E n g in eers, an d
especially th e A m erican Society fo r T e stin g M aterials. A larg e
am o u n t of w ork has been c a rrie d o u t on m etho ds o f corrosion te s t­
ing , on th e p ro p e rtie s o f alloys a t elevated te m p eratu res, on th e
causes of b liste rin g in cast-iron enam eled w are, and on th e te stin g
o f w ire screen cloth.
A bout 10 p e r cent h as been in th e p re p a ra tio n o f p u b licatio n s on
pre v io u s w ork, in the p re p a ra tio n o f c irc u la rs of in fo rm atio n , in
in d e x in g pu blished m eta llu rg ic al lite ra tu re a n d u n p ublishe d in fo r­
m atio n available a t th e bu re au , so as to m ake th e d iv isio n a c le a rin g ­
house o f m eta llu rg ic al in fo rm atio n , an d in g iv in g o u t th is in fo rm a ­
tio n ve rb ally and by le tte r in response to th e m any requests fo r such
in fo rm atio n from th e public, both by m ail an d by p erso n al visits to
the bureau.
A b o u t 5 p e r cent of th e w o rk is in connection w ith th e research
w ork of o th e r div isio ns o f th e bu re au , th is w ork being balanced by
th e cooperation o f th e o th e r divisions in m e ta llu rg ic al w ork.
T h e o th e r 35 p e r cent o f the d iv isio n’s activ itie s is m ade up o f
research w ork ta k en up a t th e in itia tiv e of th e division. T h is w ork
deals chiefly w ith th e fu n d a m e n ta l p ro p e rtie s of m etals an d w ith
m etho ds o f testin g . Seve ral phases o f th e quenching process in the
h eat tre a tm e n t of steel have been stu d ie d in d etail. T h e p ro p e rtie s
o f exceptio na lly p u re zinc have been exam ined. T h e so-called a b ­
n o rm a lity o f steel fo r c a rb u riz in g and o f hig h -carb o n steel, th e
den sity o f alloy steels in v ario u s conditio ns o f h e a t tre a tm e n t, inetallo g ra p h ic e tc h in g reagents fo r alloy steels, an d th e resistance of
m etals to w ear are o th e r im p o rta n t projects.
A s in th e p ast, m etho ds fo r th e an aly sis o f gases an d g a s-fo rm in g
elem ents in steel have received m uch a tte n tio n . T h e g ro u n d w o rk fo r
th e stu d y of th e effect o f these im p u ritie s a p p ea rs to be laid.
These problem s are a tta ck e d both fro m th e scientific and in d u stria l
? oints o f view. T h e requests fo r w ork fro m o th e r d e p artm en ts and
rom technical societies gen erally arise from in d u stria l problem s,
and when these problem s are taken u p th e w ork is, w henever pos­
sible, so shaped as to give fu n d a m e n tal scientific in fo rm atio n as well.
No s h a rp line can be d ra w n between scientific research an d in d u s­
tria l research. W ith in a few m onths a fte r the pu blicatio n o f a
p u re ly scientific p a p e r by m em bers "of th e staff o f th is division on

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R E PO R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

th e qu en ch in g process a n o th e r p a p e r w as pu blished by a m e ta llu rg ist
of a la rg e c o rp o ra tio n d escribin g a new p ro d u c t an d process in w hich
it w as sta ted th a t th e p ro d u c t h a d been im proved a n d th e process
cheapened by a p p ly in g some of th e fu n d a m e n ta l fa c ts b ro u g h t o u t
in th e b u re a u ’s p aper.
T h ere ha v e been m any in stances o f cooperation w ith th e division
by th e m e ta llu rg ic al in d u stry . T h e m a n u fa c tu re r of an electric
brass-m elting fu rn ace has in sta lled a fu rn ace a t the b u reau w ith o u t
charge. W ith th e ad d itio n o f a special re fra c to ry lin in g w orked ou t
in th e div isio n th e fu rn ac e h as been a d a p te d to th e la b o ra to ry p re p a ­
ra tio n of special alloys, fo r exam ple, hig h-speed steels, w hich com ­
p a re fa v o ra b ly w ith th e best commei'cial p ro d u c t of sim ila r com posi­
tion. T h is fu rn ac e has considerably extended th e ran g e o f m e ta l­
lu rg ica l w o rk w hich th e bu re au can do, an d has been very useful in
connection w ith several im p o rta n t projects.
O th e r m a n u fa c tu re rs an d pro d u cers have su p p lied free expensive
alloy steel “ te s t logs ” fo r c u ttin g tests, an d some expensive m etals
and alloys. T h e ad v iso ry com m ittees to th e bu re au on fe rro u s and
n o n fe rro u s m e ta llu rg y have given freety of th e ir tim e, an d th e ir
advice h as been m ost help fu l. T h e m a rk e t value o f th e cooperation
extended w ith o u t charg e to th e division in these v arious w ays w ould
am o u n t to a t least $10,000.
C ost records, w hich have been very useful in th e a d m in istra tio n of
th e w ork, have been k e p t d u rin g th e p a st fiscal y e ar, an d needed
sto ra g e fa c ilitie s have been p ro v id ed w hich allow p re serv atio n o f
specim ens and sto rage of su pplies in a m ore o rd e rly m anner.
T h e fu n d s fo r m eta llu rg ic al w ork have n o t allow ed th e stu d y of a
fra c tio n o f th e w orth-w hile problem s on w hich w ork has been re ­
quested. V e ry few new p ro je c ts or new phases o f old ones have
been ta k en up, a n d a tte n tio n h as been centered on com pletin g an d
re p o rtin g upo n th e old projects. C onsiderable p ro gress h a s been
m ade alo ng th is line, b u t in o rd e r to do effective w ork on th e p ro j­
ects in h a n d it w ill continu e to be necessary to deny m ost requests
fo r w ork on new p ro je cts, even th o u g h th e y a re of g en eral im ­
po rtance to th e in d u stry a n d lie w ith in th e p ro p e r scope o f g overn ­
m ental activities. Such" denial is to be p re fe rre d to th e ab an donm ent
o f c u rre n t pro je cts and loss o f th e in v estm en t o f pu blic fu n d s a lre ad y
sp en t on them . T h e division has th e equipm ent needed in th e stu d y
o f m ost problem s th a t arise w ith in its field, b u t lacks sufficient p e r­
sonnel to ex tend its activ itie s to m an y prob lem s and to p e rfo rm
m an y services w hich th e m eta llu rg ic al in d u strie s feel can best be
stu d ie d o r p e rfo rm ed by an im p a rtia l G overn m ent la b o ra to ry .
C E R A M IC S

D u rin g th e y e ar th e in v estig atio n o f th e flints used in th e ceram ic
in d u stry w as p re p a re d fo r publicatio n. T h is is one of a series of
stu dies of th e raw m a te ria ls used in th e ceram ic in d u stry , and th e
w ork com prises p a rtic u la rly th e effect on th e p h ysical p ro p e rtie s o f
th e finished p ro d u c t o f th e vario us raw m ate ria ls available. W o rk
w as also o rig in a te d on a sim ila r stu d y of th e fe ld sp a rs o f th e coun­
try . T h e p re p a ra tio n o f th e necessary te st specim ens is now p ra c ­

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tic a lly com pleted. P rev io u s w ork along th is lin e included in v e stig a ­
tions on th e ba ll clays of th e co u n try an d on w hitin g.
T h e studies o f processes o f m a n u fa ctu re as affecting th e physical
p ro p e rtie s o f ceram ic p ro d u c ts a n d of m ethods o f te stin g have
includ ed in v estig atio n s of d ry in g of clay w a re s ; th e developm ent o f
a p p a ra tu s to m easure th e ab so rp tio n o f pow er in different p a rts of
e x tru sio n m achines, fo r d e term in in g th e abrasiv e h ard ne ss of glazes,
a n d fo r stu d y in g th e viscosity o f glasses a t high' te m p e ra tu re s ; and
th e b u ild in g of a te stin g m achine fo r d e te rm in in g th e transverse
s tre n g th of clays a n d o th e r ceram ic prod ucts. T h e stu d y of th e
d ry in g has advanced to th e g re a te st degree, as a re su lt of w hich it
can be sta ted th a t th e d ry stre n g th of clays is g re a te r an d d ry in g
difficulties less prono unced if th e o p e ra tio n is begun a t n o t over
65 p e r cent re la tiv e h u m id ity and a te m p e ra tu re o f 70° C., p ro vided
th e te m p e ratu re is n o t allow ed to exceed 85° C. u n til th e sh rin k ag e
h as ceased. T h e stu dies covering extru sio n, abrasiv e hardness,
a n d viscosity have advanced as f a r as th e developm ent of th e te st
eq uip m ent an d th e c a rry in g o u t of some p re lim in a ry experim ents.
T h e w ork in connection w ith fire b rick fo r stoker-fired boilers has
been com pleted an d a p u b licatio n is being p rin te d . T h is w ork
fo rm ed th e basis fo r th e F e d e ra l Specifications B o a rd ’s Specifica­
tio n fo r F ir e B rick , w h ic h has also been issued. T h e gla ss-tan k block
in v estig atio n has been very activ ely p u rsu ed , an d five ta n k s com ­
posed o f differen t ty pe s of re fra c to rie s have been in service fo r a p ­
p ro x im ate ly 30 days, d u rin g w hich about 400 poun ds of glass were
m elted p e r day. T h is w ork is being contin ued, as th e resu lts to date
are insufficient to fo rm th e basis o f definite conclusions. T h e tests
w hich have been m ade o f p la stic re fra c to rie s shotv th a t in g en eral
these have a ll th e qu alities of first-class fire brick . T hey a re filling
a very im p o rta n t need, because th ey enable th e user to re p a ir set­
tin g s w ith o u t u sin g special shapes w hich are o ften difficult to obtain.
T h e w ork on hollow -tile w alls a n d floor slabs o f hollow tile a n d re in ­
forced concrete has advanced sufficiently to w a rra n t issu ing two
publicatio ns. F u r th e r w ork w ill be done in connection w ith th e
floor slabs. L a rg e r slabs w ill be m ade to d eterm in e still fu rth e r the
increased resistance to sh ear offered by th e tile.
T o d eterm in e th e effect o f ty p es o f cast iro n upon th e q u a lity of
enam eled cast-iro n p ro d u c ts a very extensive in v estig atio n h as been
o rig in a te d fro m both th e m e ta llu rg ic al an d th e enam eling in d u strie s
view point. T h e iro n is being p re p a re d in th e b u re a u ’s m eta llu rg ic al
division. T h e enam elin g is being done p a rtly by th e bu reau and
p a rtly a t com m ercial p la n ts. V ery considerable pro gress h as been
m ade, b u t definite conclusions are n o t available a t th e p re sen t tim e.
I t has been shown th a t it is possible to im prove th e life of p ro te c ­
tio n tubes fo r therm ocouples fo r use in glass fu rn aces by m aterially
in creasin g th e am o u n t of a lu m in a gen erally used in such bodies. In
th e stu d y of w hite-cover enam els fo r sheet iron an d steel it was shown
th a t th e coefficient of expansion is one o f th e m a jo r facto rs affecting
th e resistin g pow er o f enam els to m echanical a n d th e rm a l shock.
A stu d y of a la rg e am o u n t o f d a ta scattere d th ro u g h o u t th e lite ra ­
tu re h as shown th a t it is possible to com pute th e den sity a n d index
o f re fra c tio n of glasses from th e ir com position.

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RE PO RT O F T H E SEC R ET A R Y OF C O M M E R C E
T H E O F F IC E

D u rin g the y e ar th e ofliee expended an d accounted fo r fu nds a g g re ­
g a tin g $2,095.b00, in clu d in g $165,100 received by tra n s fe r fro m o th e r
d e p artm en ts fo r special researches.
D u rin g the y e ar a special a p p ro p ria tio n o f $173,117 enabled th e
bu reau to acquire 8 acres of p ro p e rty com pletin g the site o rig in a lly
p la n n ed fo r the bureau. T h e site has now a 1,300-foot fro n ta g e on
C onnecticut A venue, an d a to ta l a re a o f 43 acres.
Personn el actions in v o lv in g 1,078 staff changes were han d led fo r
th e stall', w hich now averages a b o u t 750 re g u la r em ployees, exclu­
sive of special assignm ents. O n J u n e 30 th ere w ere statio n ed a t the
bu reau 317 pro fessional, 240 su bprofessional, 128 clerical, a d m in is tra ­
tive, a n d fiscal, and 128 cu stodial employees, 30 e x p erts em ployed
on p a rt-tim e basis, 46 details fro m th e su p erin ten d e n t o f the S ta te ,
W a r, and N avy D e p artm en ts B u ild in g s, an d 63 em ployees assigned
fo r cooperative research u n d e r th e in d u stria l associateship plan,
m ak in g 891 in all. D u rin g th e y e a r th e staff w as reduced b y 84..
T he average basic sa la ry o f b u reau em ployees increased fro m $1,824
to $2,204 u n d e r th e classification act w hich w ent into effect J u ly
1, 1924.
T h e personnel changes d u rin g th e y e ar com prised 193 p ro m o ­
tions. 546 m iscellaneous changes, 141 entrances, 175 sep aratio n s, and
23 in tra b u re a u tra n sfe rs, m a k in g 1,078 changes. D u rin g th e y ear
th e bu reau lost by death th e ch ief chem ist, D r. W illia m F . H ille b ra n d , a recognized lead er in chem istry, know n th e w orld over fo r
his basic w ork on rock analysis.
T he bureau e d ito ria l com m ittee received an d considered 371 m an u ­
sc rip ts p re p a red by m em bers o f th e staff fo r publicatio n. O f these,
183 were ap p ro v e d fo r p u b licatio n by th e b u reau an d 188 fo r outside
p u blicatio n. T he p u b licatio ns a ctu ally issued com prise 21 scientific
p a p ers. 31 technologic pap ers. 131 circu lars, and p a p ers o f o th e r
series. A com plete list o f all p a p ers issued by th e bu reau u p to
J u n e 3 0 ,4 9 2 5 . w ill be given in th e fo rth co m in g revised e d itio n of
th e b u re a u ’s list of pu blicatio ns, C irc u la r 24. Tw elve num b ers o f th e
T ech nical News B u lle tin were issued, th e M ay a n d Junejcium bers be­
in g p rin te d in -acco rd an ce w ith a p la n fo r p u ttin g th e b u lle tin on
a su bscrip tion basis. F ifty -o n e technical le tte r-c irc u la rs were issued,
135 special news item s were released to th e press, a n d a n um ber of
special articles on th e b u re a u ’s w o rk w ritte n fo r outside jo urnals.
W ith th e 2,269 new volum es ad d ed d u rin g th e y e ar, th e scientific
lib ra ry contains 28,064 w orks, chiefly on physics, chem istry, an d th e
special technologies. M ore th a n 650 scientific a n d o th e r perio dicals
in the b u re a u ’s field are c u rre n tly received. C om plete sets o f im p o r­
ta n t reference jo u rn a ls are m ain ta in ed , some o f th em th e only com ­
plete sets in A m erica.
A b o u t a th o u san d letters, exclusive of fo rm s, are h an d led daily.
A new au to m atic check now assures ra p id an d accu rate reference
filing. T he m odernized system of m ail files is effectively used.
M im eographed jobs ra n g in g as h ig h as 72,000 sheets w ere com pleted
on a th o u san d orders. P ro cu rem e n t ord ers, n u m b erin g 4,500, w ith
necessary specifications, p ro posals, and vouchers, w ere p re p a re d in
th e pu rchase section, based largely' on d a ta deriv ed fro m th e special

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reference lib ra ry o f 15,000 scientific an d technical catalo gues m a in ­
tain ed in th is section. A b o u t 4,000 pieces of scientific a n d o th e r
equ ipm ent were received and accessioned. A n effective system is in
o p era tio n to p e rm it inspection o f a ll equip m ent of each typ e, of all
assignm ents by divisions an d sections, a n d acco rd in g to accession,
m a k in g an effective p e rp e tu a l in v en to ry system.
Su p p lies fo r
la b o ra to ry and o th e r use to th e value o f $76,000 were received, and
$73,000 w o rth were dispensed th ro u g h th e technical storeroom s of
th e b ureau, in w hich m ore th a n 6,000 sep ara te item s are re g u la rly
c arrie d in stock. M ail, express, an d fre ig h t m ovem ents fo r the
b u re au have been m a in ta in ed w ith o u t fa ilu re d u rin g th e year. T he
b u reau tru c k s ha v e also h au led all fre ig h t fo r th e D e p a rtm e n t of
Commerce.
A to ta l of 171,196 tests w ere com pleted d u rin g the year.
O P E R A T IO N A N D C O N ST R U C T IO N

T h e division o p era tes th re e su b statio n s fo r g e n eratin g , convert­
ing. and tra n s m ittin g electrical pow er a t m any different voltages
an d frequencies, an d pro v id es s ta tio n a ry an d p o rtab le sto ra g e-b at­
te ry service; o pe rates th ro u g h o u t th e y e ar tw o steam p la n ts fo r
fu rn is h in g h ig h an d low pressu re steam fo r la b o ra to ry use; re frig ­
e ra tin g p la n ts fo r m ak in g ice an d fo r te m p e ra tu re control fo r la b ­
o ra to ry pu rp oses; provides h ig h a n d low p ressu re air, gas, vacuum ,
a n d hot an d cold w ater service; in stalls new equip m ent and m akes
alte ratio n s to meet requirem ents of th e la b o ra to rie s; and cares fo r
law ns, sh ru b b ery , p ath s, roads, an d d ra in a g e Systems, an d th e p ro p a ­
g a tio n and care of flowers.
T h e bureau secured th ro u g h th e G en eral S u p p ly C om m ittee the
tra n s fe r of co n v ertin g and tra n s fo rm in g equipm ent o rig in ally p u r­
chased fo r th e G o v ern m en t’s cen tral h eatin g , lig h tin g , and pow er
p la n t an d is g ra d u a lly in sta llin g such equipm ent to replace th a t now
re n te d from th e local pow er com pany. A new m o to r g e n erato r set
has been in stalled in th e in d u stria l b u ild in g and a sm all m o to r gen­
e ra to r set fo r use in c h a rg in g sto rage batteries w as installed in
th e n o rth b u ild in g . One o f th e la rg e sto rage batteries was recon­
stru c te d bv th e a d d itio n of 66 new cells.
T h e electrical section has com pleted th e in sta llatio n o f p erm an en t
w irin g in th e cem ent a n d ceram ics lab o rato ries, an d has in stalled
num erou s pieces o f electrical equipm ent. In a d d itio n th e usual
m aintenance w ork has been p e rfo rm ed on m otors, g en erato rs, sw itch­
boards, tra n sfo rm e rs, electric ovens, and fu rn aces fo r the scientific
and technical w ork of th e bureau.
N um erous pieces of p lu m b in g equipm ent have been installed , and
th e necessary m aintenance w ork on fixtures and p ip in g fo r su p p ly ­
in g w ater, gas, a ir, vacuum , steam , and re frig e ra tio n fo r th e vario us
lab o ra to ries h as been carrie d out.
T h e constructio n of a concrete stairw ay to connect the in d u stria l
b u ild in g w ith th e m ain g ro u p of build in g s has been com pleted, and
concrete p its fo r gas tan k s used in th e pro d u ctio n o f gas fo r e x p e ri­
m ental purpo ses have been constructed. T h e settin g s of th re e o f
th e boilers in th e n o rth b u ild in g w ere relin ed , an d fo u n d atio n s were
constru cted fo r th e in sta llatio n o f vario us ty p es of la b o rato ry e q u ip ­
m ent.

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R E PO R T O F T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

T h e new en tran ce ro ad th ro u g h th e recen tly acqu ired la n d is about
75 p e r cent com pleted, and th e w ork in cid en t to th e care of law ns,
sh ru bs, flowers, roads, an d d ra in a g e system s has been p erfo rm ed .
T h e actu al supervision o f th e cu sto dial w ork in connection w ith
th e b u re a u ’s b u ild in g s was done by th is division as h ereto fo re be­
cause of th e im p ossibility o f phy sical sep aratio n of custodial an d
technical services.
G EN E R A L R E C O M M E N D A T IO N S
PO W E R P L A N T

T h e m ost u rg en t, m a te ria l need of th e bureau is a m odern cen tral
pow er p la n t. A s ex p lain ed la st year, th e pre sen t pow er service
equ ipm ent has been b u ilt u p in disconnected, w idely sep ara te d u n its,
an d th e o rig in al p la n t was designed to serve b u t 2 b u ild in gs, w hile
we now have 11. T h e B u re au of th e B u d g e t h as au th o riz ed th e
p ro je c t of a new p o w er-p la n t b u ild in g , a n d it is hoped th a t C ongress
w ill, in th e fo rth co m in g session, g ra n t fu n d s fo r th is u n it w hich
w ill re su lt in g re a te r economy an d flexibility o f o p era tio n o f o u r
necessarily very com plicated pow er service, an d also re n d e r us in ­
d ep en d en t of costly outside pow er su pply.
A DD ITIO N TO B U R E A U GROUNDS

C ongress au th o rized an d m ade a p p ro p ria tio n fo r th e purchase o f
8 ajcres o f lan d to com plete our fro n ta g e on C onnecticut A venue, th u s
p ro v id in g a m uch-needed en tra n ce to th e b u re au g ro u n d s w ith p ro ­
vision fo r fu tu re extension. T h is purchase w as m ade fo r $173,117.
T h e site now com prises 43 acres w ith a fro n ta g e of 1,300 feet on
C onnecticut A venue. T h e v isitin g com m ittee in its re p o rt dated
J u n e 24, 1925, s ta te s : “ T h e com m ittee feels, looking into th e fu tu re
developm ent of th e b ureau, th a t th e B u re au of S ta n d a rd s w ill need
fo r its fu tu re g ro w th all o f th e lan d now owned by it.”
T h e upkeep of th is new lan d an d th e construction of ro ad s across
it to the m ain bureau b u ild in g s w ill req u ire a slig h t a d d itio n to o u r
fu n d fo r b u ild in g s an d groun ds.
M ASTER T RA C K SCALE

A n o th e r item of g re a t im p o rtan ce th a t needs legislative a tte n tio n
is p ro v id in g a b u ild in g , p ro o a b ly in th e C hicago d istric t, fo r hous­
in g th e m aster tra c k scale w hich was pu rcha sed m 1918 an d has since
been sto red fo r lack o f hou sing facilities. T h is scale is needed as a
sta n d a rd to co ntro l th e accuracy of o th e r ra ilro a d scales a n d to
w eigh th e te st cars o f th e b ureau, by m eans of w hich a re determ in ed
all the fre ig h t ra te s of th e c o u n try , over $4,000,000,000.
M E D IC A L AID

A u th o riz a tio n sho uld be secured fo r th e establishm ent a t th e b u ­
reau o f a su itab ly equ ipp ed first-aid sta tio n w ith a resid en t p h y sician ,
who w ould also have supervision over h e alth condition s s u rro u n d in g
em ployees engaged in such lines of w ork as ra d iu m te stin g an d f u r ­

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163

nace operation s. T h is w ould add g re a tly to the m orale an d sense of
secu rity o f th e personnel.
CARE O F B U IL D IN G S

As sta te d la st y ear th e nu m b er o f ja n ito rs, laborers, and w atchm en
necessary p ro p e rly to care fo r th e b u ild in g s an d g ro u n d s is en tire ly
inadequate. T h e re is actu al d an g er in th is situ a tio n and it should be
rem edied a t once. T h e safety of th e valuable b u ild in g s and equip ­
m en t of th e bu reau is o ften d ep en d en t on th is service, w hich is now
very m uch b^low th e sta n d a rd set fo r o rd in a ry office build in g s be­
lo n g in g to th e G overnm ent, in w hich no un usual risk s are housed.
T R A N S FE R O F M A IN T E N A N C E OF B U R E A U ’S B U IL D IN G S

I t is urg ed th a t tra n s fe r back to th e ju risd ic tio n of th e bu reau
be m ade o f th e services re la tin g to m aintenance, protectio n, and
o p e ra tio n of th e b u re a u ’s b u ild in g s an d p la n t be consum m ated th e
com ing year. T h is re tra n s fe r has been ag reed to by th e B ureau
o f the B u d g et officials, and th e v isitin g com m ittee has also stro n g ly
indorsed th is tra n s fe r in its re p o rt o f J u n e 24, 1925.
T h e com m ittee also considered th e div id ed a d m in is tra tio n -a n d
re sp o n sib ility w hich w ould ensue if th e real contro l o f th e pro tection
and m aintenance of th e b u re a u ’s b u ild in g s and th e o p eratio n o f the
h ig h ly com plex pow er p la n t w ere vested in Colonel S h e rrill’s office.
T h is w as also discussed w ith G en eral L o rd . T h e com m itb e con­
siders it w ould be m ost unw ise to rem ove th is resp o n sib ility and
ju risd ic tio n fro m th e D ire c to r o f th e B u re au o f S ta n d a rd s n o t only
by reason of th e rem oteness of th e b ureau, b u t m ain ly by reason
o f th e difficulty, if n o t im possibility , of s e p a ra tin g the p la n t o p e r­
ation fro m th e conduct of th e w ork in th e laboratories.
E X H IB IT S

•

T h e b ureau is freq u en tly called upon to su b m it exh ib its of its w ork
an d pro d u cts a t expositions and befo re associations o f n a tio n a l scope,
an d it w ould seem d esirable th a t adequate provision be m ade fo r
th is m ethod o f p resen ta tio n of th e resu lts o btain ed by th e bureau
in science and technology before p u b lic g ro u p s th a t can pro fit from
th is ty p e o f contact.
W E IG H IN G

A ND

M E A S U R IN G

DEVICES

I t is very ge n erally contended by th e m a n u fa ctu rers of w eighing
and m easu rin g devices th a t questions in volving th e s u ita b ility of
a ty p e of constructio n fo r com m ercial use should be a fu nc tio n of
th e N atio n al G ov ernm ent ra th e r th a n o f S ta te o r local governm ents,
as a t present, reserv in g, how ever, to th e S ta te and local goverm ents
th e rig h t to determ ine th e accuracy o f each piece o f a p p a ra tu s in tro ­
duced in to th e ju risd ic tio n . On account o f n o n u n ifo rm ity of reuirem ents such m a n u fa ctu rers are unable to m ake a u n ifo rm prouct w hich w ill be accepted in th e vario us ju risd ic tio n s, b u t are
o fte n required to in co rp o ra te m in o r m odifications of construction

a

6 6 5 4 8 — 2 5 ------ 1 2

164

R E PO RT O F T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

to meet th e v a ry in g requirem nts, w ith re su ltin g distu rb an ce of
pro d u ctio n , la rg e r stocks, and increased costs. S ev eral years ago
the Scale and B alan ce M a n u fa c tu re rs’ A ssociation, a n a tio n a l o r­
g an izatio n , secured th e in tro d u ctio n into C ongress of a bill to p ro ­
vide th a t th e type of each.such device, m a n u fa ctu red in or im p o rt 'd
in to th e U n ited S tates, should be passed upon by th e B u re au of
S ta n d a rd s, and th a t only app ro v ed ty pes m ig h t be sold or im ported.
H e a rin g s upon th is bill (II. R. 4465) in th e last C ongress developed
th e fact th a t a very la rg e m a jo rity of th e m a n u fa ctu rers w re in
fa v o r of its provisions. I t is unde rsto od th a t th e bill w ill be re ­
in trod uced in to th e com ing C ongress a t th e in stance of th e associ­
ation.
T h e B u re au of S ta n d a rd s believes th a t th e situ a tio n ex istin g a t
p resen t co n stitu tes a real h a rd sh ip upon these m a n u fa c tu re rs w ith ­
out any co m pensatin g benefits and th a t th e b ill in question is well
designed to co rrect th is co nd ition an d to fu rn is h adequate pro te ctio n
to all in terests concerned-—th a t is, th e m a n u fa c tu re rs an d dealers, th e
users, and th e pu blic— and at th e sam e tim e to safe g u a rd th e rig h ts
o f th e S ta te and local governm ents.
C L IN IC A I, T H E R M O M E T E R S

T h e Sen ate in th e la st session of C ongress passed a bill m a k in g
com pulsory th e te stin g by th e bu re au o f all clinical th erm o m eters
used in th e cou ntry . T h e re seems to be a stro n g desire on th e p a rt
of those interested to have le gislation p u ttin g th e control, e ith e r by
license or test, o f these in stru m e n ts on w hich ph ysician s depend so
la rg ely in F e d e ra l hands. I f such le gislation is enacted, it w ill
re q u ire from $100,000 to $200,000 to ad m in ister, d e p en d in g on th e
requirem ents to be enforced.
PA TE N TS

It would be desirable to pro vide , by legislatio n, fo r a u n ifo rm ity
o f p ractice as to p a te n t pro ced u re in th e G overnm ent service. T h e
present situ a tio n is u n satisfa c to ry and chaotic, a lth o u g h steps have
been ta k en recently by th e C h ie f C o o rd in ato r, th ro u g h th e P re s i­
d e n t's P a te n t B o ard , to a tte m p t to c la rify th e situ a tio n u n d e r
e x istin g law. T h e in te re sts of th e G overnm ent, th e in d iv id u a l
em ployee seeking a p a ten t, a n d th e public should be ad eq uately
defined by law so th a t a u n ifo rm , eq uitable policy of pro cedure could
be ap p lied . T h e B u re au o f S ta n d a rd s, w ith its la rg e staff of tech ­
nical ex perts, is v ita lly in te re sted in an equitable solutio n of th is
com plex problem .
Since last y e ar th e b u re a u ’s w ork has resulted in some p a te n ta b le
ideas, in sp ite of th e fa c t th a t th e official em phasis is on fu n d am en tal
work involved in sta n d a rd s an d th e te stin g connected th ere w ith .
These ideas have been tre a ted u n d e r fo u r classes, one of w hich is
illu stra te d by th e discovery o f m eans fo r m a k in g p la stic gypsum .
T h is invention is being ta k e n o u t as a p a te n t ded icated to th e public.
T h e gypsum m a n u fa c tu re rs are a lre ad y m ak in g th e pro d u ct. T h e ir
concern was m erely th a t a fte r s ta r tin g m a n u fa c tu re th ey m ig h t
no t be held up.

BU R E A U O F STANDARDS

165

A n o th e r is illu stra te d by th e e a rth c u rre n t m eter developed fo r
th e stu d y of a n d p rev en tio n of corrosion by electrolysis. I t seem ed
necessary th a t th is in stru m e n t should be of u n ifo rm s ta n d a rd in
o rd e r to achieve satisfa c to ry results. T h e bureau a p p ro v ed th e
em ployee o b ta in in g a p a te n t u n d e r his own nam e w ith th e p a te n te e ’s
agreem ent th a t th e licensin g u n d e r h is p a te n t should be extended
to o th e r th a n one m a n u fa c tu re r in case th e d ire c to r of th e bu reau
w as not satisfied w ith th e q u a n tity of p ro d u ctio n , th e q u a lity o f p ro ­
ductio n, or th e price ch arg ed fo r th e in stru m en t.
A th ird p ro cedu re is illu stra te d by th e m eta l-sp ray gun. An em ­
ployee was assigned th e problem o f developing m ethods of use of
th e m e ta l-sp ray gu n p a rtic u la rly fo r G ov ernm ent uses. H e devel­
oped a new im prov em en t in th is gun. I n th is case i t is expected th a t
th e p a ten tee w ill assign h is p a te n t to th e G overnm ent.
A fo u rth p ro cedu re is illu stra te d also in connection w ith th e m etals p ra y gun , w here an em ployee in th e ra d io section conceived a special
im p ro v em en t in th e use of th e g u n in connection w ith ra d io equip ­
m ent. I f it proves th a t his idea is p a te n tab le , we have appro ved his
ta k in g ou t th e p a te n t in his own name.
A n o th e r fe a tu re o f th e p a te n t situ a tio n o f g reat in te re st to th e
G overn m ent is th e n u m b er of p a te n t litig a tio n s in vo lv in g m echan­
ical. chem ical, an d electrical questions of g re a t com plexity now
p en d in g in th e C o u rt of C laim s. I am inform ed th e re are now o u t­
sta n d in g over a billio n d o lla rs' w o rth o f p a te n ts in these fields, in
w hich th e b u re au m ig h t be o f g re a t service in sa fe g u a rd in g th e G ov­
ern m ent in te re st by reason of its ex p erts in these fields. A n ex ­
tension o f th e b u re a u ’s personnel to p u t us in position to fu rn ish th e
G overnm ent ex p ert testim ony and in v estig atio n w ould undoubtedly
re su lt in g re a t savings to th e G overnm ent.
BRA I f C H LA »ORATOR 1ES

T h e b u re au m ain ta in s branc h lab o rato rie s a t D enver, C olo.; S an
F ran cisco , C a lif.; a n d N o rth a m p to n , P a ., a t a cost o f $23,695, fo r
the te stin g o f m iscellaneous m ate rials, m a in ly cem ent and o th e r
stru c tu ra l items.
'Fhe w hole question o f m iscellaneous te stin g at th e branch la b o ra ­
to ries is w orth y o f serious atte n tio n . T h e G eneral A cco unting Office
insists th a t all pu rcha ses be tested, as requ ired by th e specifications
o f th e Fede ral Specifications B o ard . C onsequently, the G o v ern ­
m ent p u rc h a sin g agen ts in th e regions o f o u r b ra n c h la b o rato rie s are
callin g fo r assistance beyond o u r resources.
I n view of th e larg e sav ing s th a t have been m ade in W ash in g to n
by using th e la b o ra to ries o f the B u re au of S ta n d a rd s fo r develo ping
specifications and te stin g fo r conform ance, it w ould seem w orth
w hile to stu d y the ch arac te r and volume o f purchases on th e Pacific
coast in o rd e r to ascertain w hat w ould be a wise e x p en d itu re fo r
th a t region. T he objections to th e use o f p riv a te lab o rato rie s fo r
G overnm ent te stin g are, of course, well known and need no discus­
sion here.
States, in d iv id u ally a n d collectively, a re beg in n in g to dem and
m ore service from th e B u re a u of S ta n d a rd s in these m a tte rs in w hich
a single common answ er is desired. T h ey recognize a d u p licatio n of

166

R E PO R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

effort as well as w o rk in g a t cross-purposes by each S ta te goin g it
alone. I n g en eral th ey are qu ite w illin g to p a y th e cost o f th e
service rendered. I f the Pacific coast la b o ra to ry should be expanded
to m eet th e U n ited S ta te s G overnm ent needs, tn e n e x t question th a t
arises is as to th e ad v isa b ility o f in v itin g th e coast S ta te s to jo in
in th is common service.
V ery tru ly yours,
Geo r g e K. B u r g e ss ,
D ire c to r B u r e a u o f S ta n d a r d s .

B U R E A U O F F IS H E R IE S

D e pa r

Co m m e r c e ,
o f F is h e r i e s ,
W a sh in g to n , J u ly 1 , 1925.

t men t of
Bu r ea u

H on. H e r b e r t H o o v er ,
i•Secretary o f C o m m erce.
D e a r Mr . S e c r e t a r y : I n response to y o u r request I fu rn is h th e fo l­
lo w ing condensed re p o rt upon th e w ork of th e b u reau d u rin g th e
p a st year.
T h e B u re au o f F ish e rie s is concerned p rim a rily in th e conserva­
tio n o f o u r fisheries. T h is involves th e g re a te st possible use of these
resources w ith o u t e n d a n g e rin g th e fu tu re su pply. P u b lic conscience
h a s been aroused to th e im p o rtan ce o f conserving o u r aq u atic re ­
sources ; in creasin g n um bers o f recreatio n ists are becom ing in terested
in good fishing ; those in th e com m ercial fisheries a re b e g in n in g to
realize th a t unless th e su p p ly o f aquatic foods is m a in ta in ed th e ir
occupation w ill become u n a ttra c tiv e an d u n p ro fita b le ; an d , w ith th e
slow ing dow n o f recovery o f th e fishery in d u strie s from th e ir p o st­
w a r depression, th e re h as come a re cog nition o f th e need fo r im ­
p ro v em en t in technolo gical processes to b e tte r m eet com p etition a t
home and abro ad. A ll o f these fa c to rs have resu lted in an increased
pressu re up on th e bu reau fo r help , w hich is b ein g g ra n te d to th e
fu lle st ex ten t possible. D em ands fo r assistance in th e fields o f fish­
eries biology, p ro p a g a tio n , a n d technology have continued to increase
u n til now th e b u re a u ’s facilities fo r m eetin g th em are inadequate.
T o m eet th is increased dem and fo r service th e bureau has centered
its efforts on p ro je cts of basic im p o rtan ce a n d has g re a tly w idened
its sphere o f coo peratio n w ith S ta te , m u n ic ip al, a n d p riv a te agencies
in th e fields o f biology, p ro p a g a tio n an d d istrib u tio n o f fishes, and
th e collection of fishery statistics. W ith o u t th e h e lp fu l a id extended
by these agencies, w hich now enables th e bu re au to re n d e r m ore
efficient service w ith o u t g re a tly in creasin g its exp en d itu res, bureau
activ itie s w ould suffer severe c u rta ilm en t.
I n sp ite of th e increase o f th e activ itie s o f th e b u reau w hich has
been m ade possible by such cooperatio n a n d c a refu l econom y in th e
conduct o f th e b u re a u ’s business, th e dem ands fo r service still fa r
o u ts trip o u r resources. W e are in real need o f a d d itio n a l facilitie s
fo r th e con duct o f biological an d technological in v estig atio n s, fo r
an expanse o f fish-cultural activ itie s, fo r a n n u al inv ento ries of o u r
fishery p ro duc ts, a n d fo r th e p ro p e r a d m in istra tio n o f o u r A lask an
fisheries.
F IS H -C U L T U R A L A C T IV IT IE S

P u b lic in te re st in im p ro v in g th e fisheries o f in te rio r w aters an d
resto ck in g de pleted areas has in creased to such a n e x te n t as to re n d e r
F e d e ra l and S ta te agencies incapable of k eep in g pace w ith th e dem and
167

1 6 8

R E PO RT OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

fo r fish. As th is dem and has f a r exceeded th e lim its of p ro du ctio n,
various ex pedien ts h a d to be a d o p te d : F irs t, th e allo tm ent of fish
to a p p lic a n ts has been reduced, th u s affo rd in g te m p o ra ry re lie f; sec­
ond, th e bureau has striv en to prod uce th e m axim um o u tp u t w ith
e x istin g fa cilitie s an d to develop th e basis fo r large-scale pro d u ctio n
a t a few especially adva n ta g eo u s po in ts a t lower u n it cost th a n is
possible u n d e r th e presen t system ; th ir d , th e cooperation o f publics p irite d associations a n d in d iv id u a ls in th e re a rin g of fin gerling
bass, tro u t, a n d o th er species h a s been obtained an d prom ises to
become a h ig h ly im p o rta n t a d ju n c t to S ta te and F e d e ra l operation s.
In 1924 an ex perim en tal pond system , about 15 acres in are a, p ro ­
duced 150,000 th re e to six inch black bass at an o u tlay o f about $2,500.
T h e losses re su ltin g fro m p la n tin g fish o f th is size are lowj an d the
sto ck in g o f w aters w ith such fish is m uch m ore etfective th a n w ith
new ly h atch ed i/^-inch fry . T he expansion o f th is large-scale
p ro d u c tio n m ethod is d epen de nt upon facilitie s fo r p u rc h a sin g a
n um be r o f -well-located sites.
T he a tte n tio n directed by th e S e c re ta ry o f Com m erce to th e possi­
b ilities in th e re a rin g of fish to th e fin gerling stag e by p riv a te asso­
ciation s an d in d iv id u a ls has served to stim u la te a w id esp read in te re st
in th e subject, a n d to date about 25 such p ro je cts have been in itia te d .
T h e bureau is co operatin g to th e lim it o f its a b ility to m ake these
exp erim en ts a sfuccess. T he assistance rendered includes such serv ­
ices as advice relativ e to sites, construction o f re a rin g boxes, feeding,
etc. In some instances a brood stock of w arm -w ater species has been
fu rn ish ed .
In a d d itio n a nu m ber of ow ners of w aters su itab le fo r tro u t cul­
tu re have constru cted tro u g h s and p onds fo r th e re a rin g of sm all
fin g erlin g fish to be tu rn e d over to th em fro m th e b u re a u ’s tro u t
hatch eries. I n every in stance an a tte n d a n t to care fo r an d feed th e
fish d u rin g th e sum m er w ill be pro v id ed at th e expense o f th e ow ner.
T h e d istrib u tio n of th e stock in open w aters w ill be m ade in S ep ­
tem ber an d O ctober in th e m a jo rity o f cases, b u t -where facilitie s
p e rm it it is the in te n tio n of these v o lu nteer fish-cultu rists to c arry the
fish th ro u g h the w in te r an d lib era te them as y earlin g s in th e suc­
ceeding M ay or J u n e . T h e su p p ly o f fish th u s reared w ill fo r th e
m ost p a rt be divid ed equally between th e ow ners an d th e bureau, and
th e b u re a u ’s share w ill be utilized in sto ck in g suitable public w aters
in th e im m ediate region concerned. T h e pro secu tio n of w ork on th is
basis w ill not only p e rm it a m ore th o ro u g h stockin g of the w aters in
th e sections w here it is conducted, b u t it w ill relieve th e congested
conditio n o f th e b u re au ’s hatch eries d u rin g th e e a rly s p rin g and
obviate the necessity of p la n tin g la rg e num bers of tro u t at a tim e of
y e ar w hen th e w aters in m an y p a rts o f th e co u n try are no t in th e
m ost fav o rab le condition to receive them .
A num ber of th e S ta te s are ta k in g an in te re st in th is cooperative
n u rse ry w ork, an d th e re is g ro u n d fo r th e belief th a t a fte r it has
become well established the b u re au wfill be able adeq uately to meet
public de m ands fo r species o f fish a d ap te d to pond c u ltu re , th u s
o b v ia tin g o r at least g re a tly red ucin g th e need fo r a d d itio n a l h a tc h ­
eries. T h e vario us pro jects can be inspected a t fre q u e n t in te rv als
an d th e d istrib u tio n accom plished b y m eans o f th e b u re a u ’s present
o rg an iz atio n at little or no ad d itio n a l cost to th e G overnm ent.

B U R E A U OF F IS H E R IE S

169

U p to th e present tim e th e g re a te st expense connected w ith the
b u re a u ’s fish-cultu ral activ itie s has been lo r th e m ovem ent o f fish
fro m one section of th e co u n try to anoth er. T h is ap plies w ith espe­
cial force to th e w ork in the, u p p e r M ississippi R iv er V alley. T he
im po ssibility of p ro d u cin g w arm -w ater fishes at the perm anently
establishe d statio n s in sufficient num bers to m eet th e dem ands has
com pelled th e bu re au to rely upon its rescue statio n s along th is riv e r
in an effort to m ake*up th e deficiency, necessitatin g a considerable
ex p en d itu re fo r tra n s p o rta tio n o f such fish to d is ta n t po in ts in th e
eastern and so u th ern p a rts of th e U n ite d States. W ith th e establish­
m ent an d op eratio n of n u rsery pon ds th e bu reau w ill no long er be
re q u ired to m ake th is heavy o u tla y fo r d istrib u tio n .
T h e n u m b er o f fish rescued fro m th e overflowed la n d s along th e
u p p e r M ississippi R iv e r an d d istrib u te d am ounted to a p p ro x im a te ly
65,000,000, o r less th a n h a lf th e o u tp u t o f th e preced in g year. A s
in p a st ye ars, p ra c tica lly all of th e fishes rescued w ere ino culated
w ith th e g lo chidia of fresh -w a te r m ussels by th e rescue force. T h is
w ork is of m ate rial assistance in m a in ta in in g th e valuable pearlb u tto n in d u stry , w hich gives em plo ym ent to a la rg e n um ber o r fish­
erm en, an d both th e b u tto n m a n u fa c tu re rs an d th e clam fisherm en are
convinced th a t it is re su ltin g in m uch good.
Seve ral advantage ou s exchanges o f tro u t eggs w ere m ade w ith
vario us S ta te s and fo reig n G overnm ents d u rin g th e year. B rooktro u t eggs were received in re tu rn fo r eggs of th e Loch L even, ra in ­
bow, and black -spotted tro u t, re su ltin g in a considerable sav ing,
because o rd in a rily th e b u reau is com pelled to purchase m ost o f its
b ro o k -tro u t eggs fro m com m ercial fish-culturists, w hereas eggs of
th e o th e r species a re collected fro m w ild fish a t co m parativ ely sm all
cost.
A p preciab le cooperative assistance has been received from S ta te
fisheries a u th o ritie s, an d in some in stances a m a te ria l sav in g has
been effected th ro u g h th e exchange o f fish an d h a tch e ry equipm ent.
O n several occasions th e b u re au has le n t its d istrib u tio n cars fo r th e
tra n s p o rta tio n of fish p ro duc ed by th e S ta te s, th ereb y lessening its
own d istrib u tio n costs. O n o th e r occasions i t placed a t th e disposal
o f th e S ta te s th e services o f its experienced m en to assist in th e loca­
tion an d establishm ent o f hatcheries.
T h e p ro p a g a tio n o f im p o rta n t com m ercial species has been con­
ducted on a la rg e scale, an d th e o u tp u t o f cod, w in te r flounder, shad ,
g lu t h e rrin g , soclceye salm on, p ik e p erch, an d pollock exceeded th a t
of 1924. T h e w ork of salv a g in g th e eggs of offshore fishes, such
as th e cod and haddo ck, ta k en by com m ercial fishing vessels was
continued. A s it is im possible to b rin g th e eggs from th e offshore
banks to th e h atche ries fo r incub atio n, th ey are fe rtilize d an d re ­
tu rn e d to th e w a ter on th e n a tu ra l sp aw n in g areas, th u s p re v e n tin g
th e ir loss w hen th e fish are cleaned an d th e refu se discarded. A
record collection of w in ter-flo und er eggs was m ade a t th e B ooth bay
station .
S h a d -h a tc h in g o pe ra tio n s a t B ry a n s P o in t, M d., w ere qu ite success­
fu l, n o tw ith sta n d in g u n fa v o ra b le w eath er conditions an d a rela tiv ely
sm all ru n o f fish.
In th e G re a t L akes regio n, th ro u g h th e cooperation o f th e S tates,
th e h a tc h in g o f w hitefish, lake tro u t, an d ciscoes h as progressed

170

R E P O R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY O F C O M M E R C E

qu ite fa v o ra b ly despite th e fa c t th a t few eggs a re now obtain ab le
fro m C an ad ia n sources. T h e m ost n o te w o rth y developm ent has been
th e enforcem ent o f th e M ichig an law , w hich requires th e com m er­
cial fisherm en to deliv er to e ith e r th e S ta te o r F e d e ra l au th o rities,
w ith o u t cost, all eggs ta ken . T h e contin ued en fo rcem en t o f th is
law w ill re su lt in a considerable sav in g in th e cost of eg g collecting.
N early all Pacific salm on h atcheries are now a tte m p tin g to hold
y o ung salm on in re a rin g ponds in o rd e r to stock th e w aters w ith fish
o f th e la rg e r fin g erlin g size. B o th S ta te an d F e d e ra l agencies are
co n ducting ex perim en ts alo ng th is line.
T h e fo llow in g table shows th e increased collections o f eggs of
several im p o rta n t species o f fish as com p ared w ith 1924 :
Species

1925

Cod..".................................................................................................................

26,000,000
33G, 700,000
64, 000,000
402,000, 000
1,356,823, 000
430, 000,000
2,878,000,000
13,776, 000
12,160,000

1924
10,000,000
222,000, 000
46,000, 000
333.000, 000
1,000,000,000
401.000. 000
2,404,000,000
11,700,000
7,920,000

B IO L O G IC A L IN V E S T IG A T IO N S

I n th e p a st th e people of th e U nited S ta te s have been g enerally
a p a th e tic to w ard scientific in ve stig atio ns of our fisheries, but recently
th e re has been a su rp ris in g g ro w th in in te re st in these prob lem s of
fishery conservation. A m ong th e c o n trib u tin g facto rs m ention m ay
be m ade o f th e menace of exhaustion o f some o f o u r im p o rta n t fresh
and coastal w ater species, th e g ro w th in num bers of an g lers and
o rg an iz atio n s in terested in good fishing, an d an aw ak enin g to th e
h a rm fu l effects o f in d u stria l pollu tio n upon aquatic life an d upon
th e use o f w ater fo r recreatio na l p u rs u its. C o n cu rre n t w ith th is
developm ent is a g ro w in g in te re st in th e possibilities o f aq u icu ltu re—
w ater fa rm in g — in its m an ifo ld phases.
A s a result th e dem ands fo r assistance m ade upon th e division of
scientific in q u iry of th e bureau by S ta te , m u nicip al, an d p riv a te
org an iz atio n s have been num erous an d pressing. I n fact, th e y have
fa r exceeded th e a b ility o f th e b u reau to respon d, because o f lack o f
fu n d s an d personnel. T h ro u g h cooperative arra n g em en ts w ith sev­
eral S ta te fish com m issions, how ever, m uch m ore has been accom­
plish ed th a n w ould have been possible otherw ise, and b p in creasin g
such cooperation an effort is being m ade to ex p an d th e scientific w ork
o f th e bu reau and in th is w ay keep m ore n e a rly ab reast of presentday needs w itho ut co rresp o n d in g ly increasing" th e expense to th e
F e d e ra l G overnm ent. J o in t in ve stig atio ns by Fed era l an d S ta te
G overnm ents include a stu d y o f th e oyster resources o f th e S ta te of
G eorgia, inv estig atio n o f th e m u llet and o th er fisheries o f N o rth
C aro lin a, an d salm on in ve stig atio ns in cooperation w ith th e S ta te s
o f C alifo rn ia , O regon, and W ashing to n.
I he p ro p e r care o f our fisheries necessarily depends upon an accu­
ra te know ledge of th e biology o f th e vario us species o f fish and shell­
fish sought a fte r by com m ercial fisherm en and anglers. T h e p rim a ry

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171

object o f these in v estig atio n s is to determ in e th e m axim u m yield
w hich each fishery is capable of su p p ly in g w ith o u t im p a irm e n t o f th e
resource. A bsolute accuracy in such d e term in atio n s is m an ifestly
im possible, b u t it is possible to reach a n a p p ro x im a tio n close enough
fo r all p ra c tica l purposes. A n y such m easure of th e p ro d u c tiv ity
o f a fishery resource m u st depend upon a know ledge o f th e feeding
h a b its o f th e fish in question, th e ir b re ed in g h ab its, th e requirem ents
fo r th e su rv iv al of th e eggs an d y o u n g fishes, th e ir ra te o f g ro w th ,
th e age a t w hich th ey e n te r th e com m ercial catch, th e age a t w hich
th e y begin to rep ro du ce th e ir k in d , and vario us o th er sim ila r m atters.
H ow ever, th e p ro d u c tiv ity of a given fishery fluctuates fro m year
to ye ar, due to causes q u ite beyond th e influence of hum an agency.
T h e n a tu re o f these causes and th e exact effect w hich th e y have upon
th e abundan ce of fish are m a tte rs of fu n d a m e n ta l im p o rtan ce to a
solution o f th e problem s arisin g in th e care o f th e fisheries. T he
discovery o f these causes depen ds n o t alone up on a know ledge of th e
biology of th e fish them selves, b u t also upon an u n d e rsta n d in g of
th e biology of th e vario us fo rm s of life on w hich th e fish depend
fo r th e ir food an d of th e physics an d chem istry o f th e sea and of
fresh w ater. I t is essential, th ere fo re , th a t a tte n tio n be given to th e
sciences o f oceanography, lim nology, a n d g en eral m a rin e and fre sh ­
w a te r biology.
D u rin g th e p a st y e ar in v estig atio n s of th is c h arac te r have been
conducted an d a d d itio n a l in fo rm atio n has been secured re g a rd in g
oceanic c u rre n ts in th e V in e y ard S o u n d -N a n tu c k e t So und region,
p la n k to n and te m p e ra tu re s alo ng th e coast of M aine, in M assachu­
setts an d C ape Cod B ay s, an d on N an tu ck et Shoals, a n d re g a rd in g
certain chem ical c h aracte ristics o f th e w ater in L o n g Is la n d Sound
w here po llu tio n has p la y ed so la rg e a p a r t in the depletion of the
oyster supp ly . O bservatio ns on th e occurrence, g ro w th , and feeding
h ab its of la rv a l fish also hav e been m ade.
A rtificial p ro p a g a tio n is a h ig h ly im p o rta n t a id to th e conserva­
tio n o f o u r gam e an d food fishes a n d should be developed to a h ig h
degree of efficiency. I n th e stu dies on th e n u tritio n o f fish p a rtic u la r
a tte n tio n has been given to th e necessity o f v itam in s in fish food.
T h e a d d itio n of sm all am oun ts o f these essential d ie ta ry elem ents
to th e re g u la r foods has h a d a m ark ed effect in re d u cin g m o rta lity
a n d in creasin g g ro w th . Several fish p arasites, w hich freq u en tly
cause serious losses a t fish-cultu ral statio n s, have been stu d ie d , and
in come cases m ethods of tre a tm e n t have been developed. T h e fishc u ltu ra l sta tio n a t H o ld en has recen tly been m ade a center fo r va­
rio u s ex p erim en tal fish-cultu ral investigations. O th e r ex perim en ts
in th e artificial p ro p a g a tio n o f fishes, in c lu d in g pond cu ltu re, have
#been conducted a t th e biological statio n a t F a irp o rt, Iow a. I n gen­
era l, th e scientific staff o f th e b u reau is g iv in g m ore a tte n tio n to
th e stu d y o f fish-cultu ral prob lem s an d is e x te n d in g th e scope of
these inv estigatio ns.
T h e salm on fisheries a re am ong th e g re a t fisheries o f th e w orld.
M ore th a n 65 p e r cent o f th e e n tire pro d u ctio n o f salm on occurs on
th e Pacific coast o f N o rth A m erica in A laska, B ritis h C olum bia, and
th e Pacific C oast States. These fisheries are, th ere fo re , in p a rtic u la r
need o f scientific care. T h e a d m in istra tio n o f th e fisheries o f A laska
is in th e h a n d s of th e D e p a rtm e n t of Commerce, and th e heavy re ­
sp o n sib ility w hich th is im poses is fu lly app re cia te d . I n a d d itio n ,

172

R E PO RT O F T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

how ever, th ere is an o p p o rtu n ity fo r service in th e co nstructiv e care
of a g re a t fishery w hich is w ith o u t p a ra llel. A p p re ciatin ';' the n e ­
cessity fo r accurate biological in fo rm atio n if th is responsibility is to
be p ro p e rly d isch arg ed , vario us in v estig atio n s have been conducted,
and the re su lts a re being used as f a r as possible to determ in e the
re g u la tio n s to be enforced.
D u rin g th e p ast y e ar th e stu d y o f th e m ig ratio n s o f salm on in
the ocean has been continued. T a g g in g ex perim en ts were conducted
in so u th eastern A la sk a a n d in the coastal w aters b o rd e rin g th e S ta te s
of C a lifo rn ia , O regon, and W ash in g to n . In v e stig atio n s o f various
im p o rta n t sp aw n in g areas in A laska a n d on th e C olum bia R iv e r have
been m ade, an d w eirs have been m a in ta in ed in o rd e r to take a census
o f th e salm on ascen ding to th e sp aw n in g g ro u n d s in th e Iv arlu k ,
L e tn ik (A fo g n a k ), an d C liig n ik R iv ers, an d in stream s trib u ta ry
to A lita k an d Yes Bays. A ge d eterm in atio n s o f re p re sen ta tiv e
sam ples of the ru n s o f salm on into several of th e m ore im p o rtan t
stream s have been contin ued, w ith th e p rim a ry object of securin g
d a ta b e arin g on th e re la tiv e success o f various sp aw n in g seasons. A
p a rtic u la rly inten sive stu d y has been m ade of th e im p o rta n t ru n in
the K a rlu k R iver.
A t th e instance o f th e In te rn a tio n a l F ish eries In v e stig a tio n F e d ­
e ra tio n , re p re se n tin g the D om inion of C an ad a, th e Pro v in ce of B r it­
ish C olum bia, th e S ta te s o f W ash in g to n , O regon, a n d C alifo rn ia ,
a n d th e F e d e ra l G overnm ent o f th e U n ite d S ta te s, it is p la n n ed to
increase m a te ria lly th e salm on in vestig atio ns.
I n cooperation w ith th e D om inion o f C an ad a, a ctin g th ro u g h th e
In te rn a tio n a l F ish e rie s C om m ission, an extensive in v estig atio n of
th e Pacific h a lib u t has been begun. One o f th e le ad in g m en in fishery
research has been secured to ta k e ch arg e of th e in v estig atio n an d is
now a t w ork p e rfe c tin g p la n s and o rg an iz atio n . T h e h a lib u t re ­
sources o f th e Pacific have been seriously depleted an d are u rg e n tly
in need o f constructive, scientific re g u la tio n . T h e average an n u al
yield o f th is im p o rta n t fishery of th e Pacific coast o f N o rth A m erica
is abou t 54,000,000 pounds, of w hich abo ut 80 p er cent has been
taken by A m erican vessels.
T he stu d y of th e clam fishery an d resources of A laska has been
con tin ued, and a re p o rt p re sen tin g th e resu lts has been published.
T h is fishery, alth o u g h com p arativ ely new, has show n violent flu ctua­
tio ns, w hich can, in p a r t at least, be ascribed to th e evil o f o v er­
fishing. T hese in ve stig atio ns in dic ate th a t th e clam beds o f A lask a
are incapable o f w ith sta n d in g th e intensive d ig g in g common on
m ore so u th ern beaches, and th a t th e ir m axim um yield is considerably
lower. R estrictiv e m easures have, th ere fo re , been im posed, w hich
w ill tend to reduce th e in te n sity o f th e d ra in on th is valuable re-,
source.
In 1923 th e catch o f m u llet in th e S o u th A tla n tic an d G u lf S ta te s
exceeded 39,000,000 poun ds, valued a t $1,585,000. T h is is the m ost
im p o rta n t food fish o f 'th e So u th , re p re se n tin g 10 p er cent o f th e
to ta l catch o f fishery pro du cts. R ecently m uch concern h as been
evidenced re g a rd in g th e fu tu re o f th e fishery an d th e need fo r more
restrictiv e m easures. A n inv estig atio n begun d u rin g th e y e ar gives
prom ise o f resu lts o f g re a t value. Special a tte n tio n h a s been given

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173

to a stu d y of th e exten t to w hich th e fish of th is species a re segre­
g a te d in th e various localities, an d evidence has been secured which
in d icates stro n g ly th a t th e su p p ly of fish in one lo cality is in d e­
p en d en t of those in o th e r localities. I n c ertain instances evidences
o f depletion have been m ade a basis fo r recom m endations to th e
S ta te officials fo r th e p ro p e r care o f these resources. These recom ­
m end atio ns have been fa v o ra b ly received, a n d it is expected th a t
th ey w ill be in c o rp o ra te d in to law in th e n e ar fu tu re.
In v e stig a tio n s of th e life h isto ries and m ig ratio n s of th e cod,
pollock, and haddo ck have been continued. D u rin g th e past y ear
over 15,000 ta g s have been atta ch e d in an effort to determ in e the
n a tu re of th e m ig ratio n s of these im p o rta n t food fishes. T h e result-,
o f th e previou s y e a r’s exp erim en ts were corro bo rated, in th a t a d is­
tin c t southw esterly m ig ra tio n d u rin g th e w in te r to th e coast o f New
Je rse y was ag ain clearly d em o n strated in th e case o f th e cod. T h is
s tu d y of these im p o rta n t b a n k fisheries lias been expanded d u rin g
th e y ear by in c o rp o ra tin g an in v estig atio n o f th e h isto ry o f th e
eggs an d yo ung larvae in th e region of M assachusetts B ay and
N an tu ck et Shoals. T h ere is th u s un der way a com prehensive stu d y
o f these fish, w hich, when com pleted, w ill p ro v id e in fo rm atio n re ­
g a rd in g th e e n tire life h isto ries fro m th e tim e th e eggs are spaw ned
to m a tu rity . P a rtic u la r a tte n tio n is being p a id to th e c ritic a l tim es
in the early life w hen condition s v a ry in g only slig h tly fro m the.
n o rm al m ay have a serious effect upon th e su rv iv al of th e eggs and
y o u n g fish.
N ear th e close of th e fiscal y ear an in v estig atio n o f th e m ackerel
fishery w as un d ertak en . A lth o u g h no t one o f o u r g reatest fisheries,
it is an im p o rta n t one on account o f the h ig h value o f th e pro d u ct.
T a g g in g exp erim en ts have been begun in M assachusetts an d C ape
Cod B ay s a n d in th e region o f W oods H ole, a n d a s ta rt h as been
m ade to w a rd th e collection o f im p o rta n t vital statistic s o f th e
m ackerel catch in several localities.
T h e oyster fishery of th e A tla n tic coast was fo rm erly th e m ost
valu ab le o f all o u r g re a t fisheries, b u t is now sad ly depleted, alth o u g h
still h o ld in g h ig h ra n k . T h e causes of th is depletio n an d possible
rem edies have been th e subject of in v estig atio n fo r a nu m ber of
years. T h is w ork has been en tire ly reorg anized d u rin g th e past
year, a n d it is believed th a t it is now on a m ore scientific and p ra c ­
tical basis th a n ever before. S tu d ies have been continued on (he
causes of th e serious d im in u tio n in th e p ro d u c tiv ity o f the oysterpro d u cin g areas in L o n g Is la n d Sound and a d jacen t w aters, an d a
survey was m ade of th e oyster resources o f the S ta te o f G eorgia. It
is believed th at th e oy ster resources of some o f th e So uth ern S tates
are capable of g re a t developm ent, w hich m ay be in itia te d and guided
th ro u g h th e sort of in v estig atio n s w hich are being carried on.
E x p e rim en ts in th e artificia l p ro p a g a tio n o f oysters have been con­
tin u ed w ith en co u rag in g results.
O th er in v estig atio n s d u rin g th e y e ar include those re la tin g to th e
contro l o f m osquito p ro p a g a tio n in th e S o u th ern States, th e life
h isto ries and re la tio n sh ip s of th e w hitefishes and o th e r eoregonines
o f th e G re at L akes, the fresh -w a ter m ussels o f th e M ississippi B asin,
th e salm on and sm elt o f New E n g la n d , an d th e fo u lin g of sh ip s’
bottom s (in v estig ated in cooperation w ith th e B u reau o f C onstru c­
tion and R e p a ir o f th e N av y D e p a rtm e n t).

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R E PO R T OR T H E SECRETA RY OR C O M M E R CE
R E L A T IO N S W IT H T H E F ISH E R Y IN D U ST R IE S

T h e n um be r o f persons engaged in th e fisheries an d fishery in d u s­
tries o f th e U n ited S ta te s an d A la sk a exceeds 190.000; th e in v est­
m ent am ounts to abou t $200,000,000; th e an n u al pro d u ctio n o f fishery
p ro d u cts by fisherm en is a b o u t 2,600,000,000 pounds, valued a t about
$90,000,000; th e o u tp u t of canned fishery p ro d u cts h as an anntial
value of abo ut $72,000,000; an d th e p ro d u ctio n of b y -p ro d u cts is
valued a t about $10,000,000. I n 1924 th e p o rts o f B oston and
G loucester. M ass., and P o rtla n d , Me., received from fishing vessels
a b o u t 183,600,000 pounds of fish, valu ed a t a b o u t $7,000,000, and at
th e p o rt of S eattle, W ash ., abo ut 28,000,000 pounds, valued at
$2,700,000, w ere landed.
T h e available statistic s in dic ate th a t th e ra p id recovery of th e fish­
ery in d u strie s fro m th e ir p o stw ar depression has ended an d th a t we
m ay expect a m ore g ra d u a l developm ent in th e fu tu re th a n has been
th e case d u rin g th e y ears 1919 to 1923. In general, th e p ro d u c tio n o f
fishery p ro d u c ts in 1924 h as increased, b u t prices low er th a n in 1923
a re obtained. T h is w ould seem to in dic ate th a t th e p re sen t need o f
th e fisheries is to develop a g re a te r m a rk e t to absorb th e pro d u ctio n
o f fish an d fish prod ucts. I t is g ra tify in g to note th a t th e in d u stry is
g iv in g g re a te r a tte n tio n to th e p ro d u ctio n of b e tte r q u a lity fre sh
fish, an d a definite effort is being m ade by th e fish trad es, th ro u g h th e
fisheries associations, to raise th e sta n d a rd of q u a lity an d ap p rise th e
g e n eral public o f th e value of fish as a re g u la r source o f p ro te in in
th e diet.
T he b u re a u ’s m ost d ire c t co n tact w ith th e fisheries and fishery
in d u strie s is th ro u g h its division o f fishery in d u strie s, w hich, d u rin g
th e fiscal y e a r 1925, has continued to aid th e in d u strie s by its collec­
tio n , com pilation , an d p u b licatio n of fishery statistics, its technical
research, an d its dissem inatio n o f p ra c tica l in fo rm a tio n to th e
in d u stry .
S ta tistic s on la n d in g s o f fish a t the p o rts of B oston a n d G loucester,
M ass., P o rtla n d , Me., an d Seattle , W ash ., w ere collected and p u b ­
lished m o nth ly. S ta tistic s o f th e cold-storage hold in g s o f fish w ere
collected by th e B u re au o f A g ric u ltu ra l E conom ics in th e D e p a rt­
m ent of A g ric u ltu re an d published m o nth ly by the B u re au o f F is h ­
eries, as in previou s years. S ta tistic s on can ned fishery p ro d u c ts an d
b y -p ro d u cts fo r the c ale n d ar y e a r 1924 were collected and published
e a rly in 1925, and those on th e p ro duc tio n, h o ld in gs, a n d consum p­
tio n o f an im al a n d vegetable oils in th e fishery in d u strie s w ere col­
lected q u a rte rly and fu rn ish e d to th e B u re au o f th e Census fo r p u b li­
cation. as in previou s years. T h e shad fishery o f th e Potom ac R iv e r
was canvassed fo r th e 1925 season, an d g en eral fishery canvasses
w ere m ade o f th e S o u th A tla n tic an d G u lf S ta te s fo r th e calendar
y e ar 1923. S ta tistic s of th e fo rm e r hav e been com piled and p u b ­
lished. and those of th e la tte r are now in course o f p re p a ra tio n f o r
pu b licatio n . S ta tistic s o f th e fisheries o f th e Pacific C oast S ta te s fo r
1922 w ere published, an d a n o th e r less-detailed canvass fo r th e calen­
d a r y e a r 1924 was m ade.
A s th e fisheries of th e U n ited S ta te s are fo r th e m ost p a r t a p ­
p ro a c h in g the lim its o f ex p lo itatio n and m any of o u r m ore im p o r­
ta n t litto ra l fisheries are a ctu ally seriously depleted, i t is becom ing
v ery im p o rta n t th a t we have m ore com plete in fo rm atio n on w h a t is

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175

actu ally ta k in g place each year. In o th er w ords, we need com plete
a n n u al statistics. T h e m ost recent sta tistic s now available on th e
personnel, investm ent, an d yield o f o u r fisheries are as fo llo w s: New
E n g la n d S ta te s, 1919; New Y ork , New Jerse y , a n d D elaw are, 1921;
M ary la n d an d V irg in ia , 1920; S o u th A tla n tic S tates, 1923; G u lf
S ta te s, 1918; Pacific C oast S tates, 1923; M ississippi R iv er and trib u ­
ta rie s, 1922; an d th e G re a t L akes, 1922.
W ith th e presen t fu n d s an d personnel of th is division it is im pos­
sible to cover each of th e geog ra p h ical sections m ore often th a n once
in five years. O u r experience in d ealin g w ith fishery problem s leads
to th e belief th a t such a p ro g ra m is in adequate fo r th e p re sen t needs.
A serious effort is being m ade to in te re st th e several S ta te s in th is
m ost im p o rta n t fe a tu re o f fishery ad m in istra tio n . H a v in g wellestablishe d o rg an iz atio n s pro v id ed w ith fu n d s deriv ed d ire c tly from
th e fisheries, it should be possible fo r th e S ta te s to u n d ertak e th is
w ork w ith a m inim um of expense an d a m axim um o f efficiency, leav­
in g to th e B u re au o f F ish eries th e m a tte r of c o rre la tin g th e ir a ctiv i­
ties a n d ad v isin g them in th e conduct of th e ir statistic a l pro gram s.
A t th e u rg e n t so licitation of m en in th e cra b in d u stry of C hesa­
peake B ay , w ho were becom ing alarm ed a t th e m ark ed decrease in
th e stock of crabs fro m w hich th e y derive th e ir ra w m a te ria l, th e
b u re a u u n d ertoo k to in v estig ate th e ir problem s. A p re lim in a ry
surve y was m ade, in w hich it was fo u n d th a t th e re was a loss of ov er'
50 p e r cen t in c o n v ertin g th e so-called “ peeler cra b ” in to th e “ so ft
c ra b ,” due to careless b u y in g m ethods. A com parison o f th e f r a g ­
m e n ta ry in fo rm atio n av ailab le also in d ic a te d a d istin c t re la tio n sh ip
betw een th e catch o f crabs in th e S ta te of V irg in ia an d th a t in th e
S ta te of M ary lan d , le ad in g one to believe th a t th e fishery of one
S ta te is d epende nt upon w h a t occurs in th e fishery o f th e oth er.
T h e tw o S ta te s involved have accorded th e bu re au th e ir h e a rty
su p p o rt, an d th e in v estig atio n is being continued w ith th e hope th a t
a solution of th e pro blem w ill be u ltim a te ly attain ed .
U pon recom m endation of th e N o rth A m erican C om m ittee on
F is h e ry In v e stig atio n s, re p re se n tin g th e G overnm ents o f C an ada,
N ew fo u n d lan d , F ran c e , and th e U n ite d S tates, th e bu reau h as been
u rg ed to collect a d d itio n a l statistic s on th e im p o rta n t m ackerel
fisheries of th e w estern N o rth A tla n tic . T h e d a ta re q u ired are in
th e n a tu re o f contin uou s statistic a l records of th e sizes of m ackerel.
I t is hoped th a t such d a ta , collected over a perio d of y ears, w ill
e x p la in th e severe flu ctuatio ns in ab un dance to w hich th is species
is subject, and possibly p ro v id e a basis fo r p re d ic tin g th e c h arac te r
and size of th e catch in advance of th e fishing season. A p re ­
lim in a ry survey of th e m eans an d m ethods to be used in c a rry in g out
th is p ro g ra m is now being m ade.
In its technological w ork it is th e policy of th is bu reau to select
bro ad fu n d a m e n ta l stu dies w hich are u rg e n t, w hich p ro m ise to be
o f g re a te st value to th e la rg e st num ber, and w hich th e in d u stry itse lf
is least capable of u n d e rta k in g . F ew realize th e advancem ent w hich
can be b ro u g h t about by m eans o f w ell-directed and adeq uately
su p p o rte d technological inv estig ations. T h is is especially tru e o f th e
fishery in dustries, an d it is th ere fo re u rg e n t th a t th a t bu reau should
d em onstrate th e im p o rtan ce of such research. T h is w ork should
b rin g abou t th e p ro d u ctio n of b e tte r p ro d u c ts an d m ake possible

176

R E PO R T OF T H E SECRETA RY OF C O M M E R C E

th e m ore efficient u tiliz a tio n of the raw m a te ria ls of th e fisheries,,
th ereby benefiting th e e n tire p u blic a n d c o n trib u tin g to th e conserva­
tion or o u r fishery resources.
T h e sard in e-can n in g ex perim ents, w hich led to th e developm ent o f
a new process o f p re p a rin g fish fo r c a n n in g as sard in es in C a lifo rn ia ,
w ere continued in M aine. T h e new m etho d depends on ra p id ly
m oving hot a ir to cook an d d ry th e fish a t th e sam e tim e, instead
of d ry in g a n d fry in g in oil or steam in g an d d ry in g p re p a ra to ry to
can ning . B e tte r pack s are being pro du ced, a n d th e in d icatio n s are
th a t p ro d u ctio n costs w ill be lowered. T h e new process was dem on­
s tra te d successfully both in M aine a n d in C a lifo rn ia , an d e n g in eerin g
com panies w ill design an d co n stru ct equip m ent g u a ra n tee d to o perate
successfully. E ven w ith these assurances th e re is a relu ctance on
th e p a rt o f ean ne rs to scrap old equip m ent a n d p u rc h ase new u n til a
v en tu re on a com m ercial scale has been dem o n strated to be success­
fu l both tech nically and econom ically. I t is ev id ent th a t some p la n
m ust be fo rm u lated to develop th e process on a la rg e scale and
elim in ate m ost of th e risk ta k en by th e eanners. T h is p h ase of th e
m atter, is now receiving atten tio n .
C o p p er oleate is now being used in th e fisheries as a preserv ativ e
of nets a n d ropes. M any fav o ra b le re p o rts have been received from
.fisherm en, a n d as its use becomes m ore w idespread it should result
in a su b sta n tial sav in g to th e fisherm en. Cases of dissa tisfa ctio n
m ay u su ally be tra c e d to w ro n g a p p lic a tio n or its use in a m an n er
th a t is n o t intended. T h e real w o rth o f co p p er oleate can not be
d eterm in ed un til accurate d a ta a re av ailable upon cost o f tre a tm e n t
an d to ta l leng th of life of line so tre a ted . P ra c tic a l tests of th is
n a tu re are now u n d e r way.
D ue to in v estig atio n s by th e bu re au on th e iodine co n ten t o f sea
foods, it is now well know n th a t such foods contain a g re a t deal
m ore iodine th a n do m ost o th e r foods. Since g o ite r an d th y ro id
d iso rd ers are caused by lack of iodine being ingested, th e liberal use
of sea foods in th e d ie t should assist in overcom ing th is deficiency,
e sp e c ia lly in th e so-called " g oitero us belts.' w here the iodine content
o f foods and w ater is below norm al. D u rin g th e p a st y ear analyses
were m ade w hich established th e presence of iodine in canned a n d
preserved sea foods in am oun ts com p arable to th a t contained in
fre sh sea foods. T h e results o f these analyses have been published.
O ne of th e g re a te st problem s in the fishery in d u strie s is an ade­
quate u tiliz a tio n o f its wastes. Dess th a n h a lf th e su pply of waste
p ro d u cts o f th e fisheries is now being used and present processes o f
offal redu ctio n are in general qu ite inefficient, in m any cases re s u lt­
in g in the loss o f valuable p ro te in s in th e p re ss liquors an d in the
p o llu tio n o f coastal w aters. In v e stig atio n s are now un d er way
w hich prom ise to develop processes th a t w ill increase th e u tilizatio n
o f wastes, m ake them m ore efficient, and possibly pro duce b etter a n d
m ore valuable products.
ALASKA F ISH E R IE S

D istin c t pro g ress in conserving the salm on fisheries of A laska has
a lre ad y been m ade as a result o f th e act of Ju n e 6. 1924. w hich gives
th e S ecre tary o f Commerce fu ll a u th o rity to lim it or p ro h ib it any
o r all fishing operation s. T he o u tsta n d in g accom plishm ent has been

B U R E A U OF F IS H E R IE S

177

a g re a te r p ro p o rtio n a te escapem ent o f salm on to th e sp aw n in g
g ro u n d s th a n has occurred in m any years. U n d o u b te d ly th is will
reflect itself in due tim e in increased catches of salm on.
T h ere w as m ore intensive a n d com prehensive en fo rcem ent of the
law s a n d reg u la tio n s th a n ever before, 119 persons, exclusive of
crew s on 19 vessels, h av in g been engaged th e re in d u rin g th e h e ig h t of
th e season. T h e C om m issioner of Fish eries sp en t m ost o f th e season
in A la sk a fo r th e pu rpo se of observing th e effect o f th e new law and
reg u la tio n s and to consider th e necessity of m odifications. A s a
re su lt some chan ges in th e re g u la tio n s were m ade d u rin g th e p ro g ­
ress o f th e season. O n D ecem ber 2, 1924, new re g u la tio n s effective
in 1925 were p ro m ulgated. T hese regu la tio n s nam ed 12 areas in
w hich fishing is lim ited or p ro h ib ited . In 76 specific localities
w ith in these areas all com m ercial fishing fo r salm on is p roh ib ited .
R eg u latio n s p e rta in in g to the h e rrin g , sh rim p , clam , and crab fish­
eries w ere also included.
T h e catch of salm on in th e southeastern a n d w estern d istric ts of
A la sk a declined 18 a n d 32 p e r cent, respectively, th is being a ttr ib ­
ute d in p a rt to th e a d d itio n a l re stric tio n s im posed on o peratio ns
u n d e r th e new law and regulatio ns. T h e catch increased 161 p er
cen t in c en tral A laska, w here th e re was a very heavy ru n of h u m p ­
back salm on. T h e n e t increase over 1923 in th e catch o f salm on fo r
all o f A la sk a was a p p ro x im a te ly 3 p e r cent.
T h e nu m b er o f persons em ployed in th e fishery in d u strie s of A lask a
in 1924 w as 25,194, th e active in v estm en t w as $62,660,637, and the
to ta l value o f p ro d u cts was $40,289,273. T h e o u tp u t o f canned
salm on was 254,155,920 pounds, or 5,294,915 cases on th e basis o f
fo rty -e ig h t 1-pound cans each, valu ed a t $33,007,135, an increase
o f a p p ro x im a te ly 5 p e r cen t in q u a n tity an d of less th a n o n e-h alf
p e r cent in value, as com pared w ith th e preced in g year.
C ounts o f salm on ascen ding to th e sp aw n in g beds were ag ain m ade
a t K a rlu k , C hig n ik , an d A lita k B ay as a p a r t o f th e effort to secure
system atic d a ta re g a rd in g th e ra tio w hich escapem ent m ust bear
to th e ru n s o f salm on in o rd e r to m a in ta in th e su p p ly in p erp etu ity .
A stu d y of m ig ratio n ro utes o f salm on in so utheastern A lask a was
in a u g u ra te d in 1924 by th e ta g g in g of 2,716 salm on a t five different
localities. Sub sequently 662 o f these fish w ere retak en a t vario us
places. A n in v estig atio n o f th e clam resources o f cen tral A lask a was
continued in 1924, a tte n tio n being given to th e beds in th e vicinity
o f C ordova an d a t S n u g H a rb o r, Cook In le t, an d K u k a k B ay , Shelik o f S tra it.
T h e first o f th e an n u al closed seasons o f th re e m o nth s each p ro ­
vid ed fo r by th e N o rth Pacific h a lib u t tre a ty o f M arch 2, 1923,
ex ten ded from N ovem ber 16, 1924, to F e b ru a ry 15, 1925, inclusive.
T h is m easure, designed to p ro te c t an d conserve th e h a lib u t fishery,
has m et w ith w ide ap p ro v a l, an d th e in d u s try has en tered fa ith fu lly
in to both the le tte r an d s p irit o f its provisions.
A LA SK A F U R -S E A L SE R V IC E

C om pu tatio ns o f th e n u m b er of an im als in th e A m erican fu r-seal
h erd , w hich resorts to th e P rib ilo f Isla n d s, in d icated th a t th e re were
697,158 as of A u g u st 10, 1924. T h is was an increase of 44,150

178

R E PO R T OF T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

anim als. T h e to ta l ta k e o f sealskins in th e cale n d a r y e a r 1924 was
17,219.
I n th e season o f 1924 a reserve o f 8,572 th re e-y ear-o ld m ales was
m ade. T h e increase in th e size of th e h e rd in recen t years h a s m ade
it necessary th a t m ore th a n th e m in im um o f 5,000 th ree-y ear-o ld
m ales re q u ired by law be reserved each y e ar fo r fu tu re breed in g
purposes.
I n th e fiscal y e a r 1925 th e re w ere sold a t S t. L ouis 25,395 fu r-seal
skins ta k en a t th e P rib ilo f Isla n d s. T h e a g g re g ate p rice was
$713,276.28. T h e sales were com posed o f 20,037 black-dyed skins,
4,331 brow n -dy ed (C h a taig n e d ’O r ) , 1,010 raw salted, and 17 in
v ariou s stages o f processing.
T h e 787 blue a n d 15 w hite fox skins ta k en in th e w in te r o f 1923-24
were disposed o f a t p ublic au ctio n on O ctober 15, 1924. T h e gross
proceeds o f th e sale were $50,385.50. I n th e season of 1924-25, 681
blue a n d 28 w h ite p e lts w ere secured, a to ta l o f 709. T h e fo x in g
e x p e rt em ployed d u rin g th e p a st tw o seasons com pleted h is w ork
and th e p la n s ou tlin ed fo r th e system atic fe ed in g a n d developm ent
o f th e h erd s on th e P rib ilo f Is la n d s w ill be follow ed in so f a r as
practicable.
V e ry tru ly you rs,
H e n r y O ’M a l l e y ,
C o m m issio n e r o f F ish e ries.

L IG H T H O U S E SE R V IC E

D e pa r t m e n t o f Co m m e r c e ,
B u r e a u o f L ig h t h o u s e s ,
W a sh in g to n , J u ly 1,1925.

H on. H e r b e r t H o o v e r ,
S ecreta ry o f Commerce.
D e a r Mr . S e c r e t a r y : I n response to y our request I fu rn ish th e
fo llow in g condensed re p o rt upon th e w ork of th e service d u rin g th e
p a st y e a r:
MORE IM PO R T A N T A C T IV IT IE S OF T H E L IG H T H O U S E SERVICE
DURING T H E YEAR

Im p o rta n t pro g ress has been m ade d u rin g th e y e ar in th e e x te n ­
sion o f th e system of ra d io fo g sig n als an d th e ir use in n av ig atio n .
Tw o a d d itio n a l statio n s w ere established d u rin g th e y e a r on FiveF a th o m B a n k L ig h ts h ip , N. J ., an d L ake H u ro n L ig h tsh ip , M ich.,
m a k in g a to ta l o f 13 such statio n s in o p era tio n a t th e close of th e
fiscal y e ar w ith 6 a d d itio n a l lig h tsh ip s eq u ip p ed fo r relief. T h e
L a k e H u ro n L ig h tsh ip ra d io fo g sig n al was placed in commission
on J u n e 12, 1925, and was th e first sig n al o f th is k in d on the G re at
L akes. E q u ip m en t was p u rcha sed fo r 15 a d d itio n a l m odern tube
ty p e ra d io fog sig n al statio n s to be located a t P o rtla n d L ig h tsh ip ,
M e.; S o u th P a ss L ig h th o u se, L a .; G alveston J e tty L ig h th o u se, T e x .;
L os A ngeles H a rb o r L ig h th o u se, C a lif.; P o in t A rg u ello L ightho use,
C a lif .; P o in t S u r L ig h th o u se, C a lif .; C ape B lanco L ig hthouse,
O re g .; G rays H a rb o r L ig hth ou se, W a sh .; C ape Sp encer L ig hthouse,
A la sk a ; B uffalo L ig h th o u se, N. Y .; D e tro it R iv er L ig h th o u se ,M ic h .;
M an itou L ig h th o u se, M ich.; D e to u r L ig h th o u se, M ich.; W hitefish
P o in t L ig h th o u se, M ich.; D evils Is la n d L ig htho use, W is .; and to
replace th e m ore obsolete s p a rk ty p e ra d io fo g sig n al tra n s m itte rs
on N a n tu ck e t Shoals L ig h tsh ip , M ass., an d C ape H e n ry L ig hth ou se,
V a., an d w o rk is activ ely in pro g ress in connection w ith these s ta ­
tions. I n a d d itio n , special eq uipm ent has been p u rchased fo r the
pu rp o se o f te stin g th e usefulness o f ra d io fo g signals in congested
w aters, such as L o n g Is la n d Sound. P ro g re ss has been m ade in w ork
o f in creasin g th e efficiency o f ra d io fo g sig nals by sy n ch ro n izin g the
sig n als em itted by a d ja c e n t statio n s by th e use of special control
clocks, so as to avoid o v erla p p in g o f sig n als of n eig h b o rin g station s.
Since O ctober, 1924, th e ra d io fo g sig n al on N an tu ck et L ig h tsh ip
has been op era ted fo r 15 m in utes ou t of every ho ur, d ay and n ig h t,
regard less o f w eath er conditions, th u s p ro v id in g a sig n al fo r lo ng ­
distance b e arin g s in a p p ro a c h in g th e A m erican coast and also fa c ili­
ta tin g th e te stin g of a p p a ra tu s. T h e n u m b er o f sh ip s equip ped w ith
ra d io directio n -fin d in g a p p a ra tu s has m a te ria lly increased, and
179

180

R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

favorable re p o rts have been received o f th e value of th is system in
s a fe g u a rd in g and fa c ilita tin g n av ig atio n .
P ro g re ss was con tin ued in ex ten d in g the au to m atic system of
o p e ra tin g lig h te d aids. D u rin g th e y e ar au to m atic lig h tin g a p p a ra ­
tus w as in sta lled a t 74 statio n s. A t th e end o f th e fiscal y e ar the
to ta l n um be r of au to m atic lig h ts on fixed stru c tu re s in com m ission
was 993 (n ot in clu d in g some p a rtia lly a u to m a tic ), and in a d d itio n
th ere w ere 723 buoys w ith a u to m atic lig h ts, or a to ta l of 1,71G in
th e L ig h th o u se Service. T hese are op era ted a t g re a tly reduced cost
of m ain tenan ce an d w ith o u t loss o f efficiency, as com pared w ith lig h ts
atte n d ed by keepers. I n A p ril, 1925, R am Isla n d L ig h tsh ip was
disco ntinu ed a n d replaced by an auto m atic buoy usin g gas fo r o p e ra ­
tio n of both lig h t and bell. L ak e S t. C la ir L ig h tsh ip w as ch anged to
au to m atic w ith o u t a crew in N ovem ber, 1924. A ll these chan ges to
a u to m a tic 'a p p a ra tu s resu lted in m a te ria l red u ctio n s in m aintenance
costs.
A t th e end of th e fiscal y e ar the L ig h th o u se Service was m a in ta in ­
in g a to ta l o f 17,864 aids to n a v ig atio n , a n e t increase of 581 d u rin g
th e year. O f th e to ta l aids 6,351 are lig h te d an d 8,813 are floating.
T h e re a re 732 aids in A lask a, an increase of 58 d u rin g th e year.
T h e m ost im p o rta n t ligh th ouse construction in pro gress d u rin g the
y e ar w as th e lig h t-a n d -fo g sig n al statio n a t C ap e Spencer. A lask a,
w hich is now about o n e-h alf com pleted. T h e con stru ctio n of a lig h t­
house a t M a rtin R eef, in th e n o rth e rn p a rt of L a k e H u ro n , w as com­
m enced; th is w ill take th e place of a lig h tsh ip . W o rk was also com ­
menced a t an im p o rta n t sta tio n on M ilw aukee B re ak w a te r, an d th e
co n stru ctio n o f th e new statio n a t P o in t V incente, C alif., was con­
tin ued. Tw o vessels are b ein g co nstructed, a lig h tsh ip , an d a te n d er
fo r th e lower M ississippi R iver.
M uch im p ro v em en t in th e efficiency and m orale o f th e personnel
o f th e L ig h th o u se Service has resulted from the personnel classifica­
tio n law w hich h as been in op eratio n d u rin g th e year, a n d fro m th e
act p ro v id in g fo r retirem en t fo r d isab ility in th is service, w hich was
passed in M arch , 1925..
A ID S T O N A V IG A T IO N

D u rin g th e fiscal y e ar th ere was a net increase o f 580 in th e to ta l
num b er o f aids to n av ig atio n m ain ta in ed by th e L ig h th o u se Service.
O n J u n e 30, 1925, th e to ta l nu m ber o f aids w as 17,863.
D u rin g the year 72 new aids were established in A lask a an d th e
to ta l num b er th e re is now 732.
Im provem ents in aids to n av ig atio n have been m ade d u rin g th e
y ear as fo llow s: F o rty -th re e fixed lig h ts w ere changed to flashing or
occulting, the illu m in a n t of 3 lig h ts was changed to incandescent oil
va por, th e illu m in an t o f 50 lig h ts (in c lu d in g 2 lig h tsh ip s and 12
lighted buoys) was changed to acetylene, th e illu m in a n t of 33 lig h ts
(in c lu d in g 4 lig h tsh ip s) was changed to electric incandescent. Tw o
ra d io fo g signals were established. Five gas-operated fog signals
were installed a t lig h t statio n s an d on buoys. O ne diaphone a n d 4
electric sirens were established at im p o rta n t statio n s, and th e fog
sig n als at 7 o th er im p o rta n t statio n s an d lig h tsh ip s w ere im proved
by the in stallatio n of m ore efficient a p p a ra tu s. Six h u n d re d and
ninety-tw o aid s to n av ig atio n o f vario us classes sta ted were discon-

B U R E A U OF L IG H T H O U S E S

181

tinned d u rin g th e year. T h e discontinuance of fu rth e r aids is u n d e r
in v estig atio n from tim e to tim e as th e o rig in al necessity fo r th e ir
m aintenance ceases.
T h e lig htho use at S a n ta B a rb a ra , C alif., in clu d in g to w er, dw elling,
and a p p a ra tu s, was destroyed in th e e arth q u ak e o f J u n e 29, 1925. A
te m p o ra ry acetylene lig h t on a fra m e tow er was p u t in op eratio n
Ju ly . 3.
E N G IN E E R IN G C O N S T R U C T IO N

T h e m ore im p o rta n t item s o f con stru ctio n com pleted d u rin g the
fiscal year, sta ted in o rd e r o f d istric ts, w ere: R ip ra p pro tection fo r
various lig h t statio n s in th e second, th ird , and fifth d istric ts; estab­
lish in g and im p ro v in g aids to n av ig atio n in R a rita n B ay and con­
nected w aters, N. Y. and X. J . : rip r a p pro te ctio n fo r west break w ate r
pie rh ead lighthouse, A sh ta b u la H a rb o r, O hio, a n d im p ro v in g aids
to n av ig atio n , C o n n eau t H a rb o r, O hio, an d E rie H a rb o r, P a . : plac­
ing a be lt of steel p la tin g aro und th e concrete p ie r a t S ta n n a rd R ock
L ig hth ou se, L ake S u p erio r. A lich.: e sta b lish in g 72 aid s to nav ig atio n
in A la sk a ; and in sta llin g an electrically o perated fo g bell on th e je tty
a t th e en trance o f C oquille R iv er, O reg.
O th e r w orks in active pro gress a t th e close o f th e fiscal y ear
included th e fo llo w in g : T h e constructio n o f a storehouse w ith d is­
tinct office q u a rte rs and d re d g in g and o th e r im pro vem ent a t Chelsea
L ig h th o u se D epot, M ass.; im p ro v in g aid s to n av ig atio n in (lie H u d ­
son R iv er, N. Y .: im p ro v in g aid s to n av ig atio n , D elaw are B ay
E n tra n c e ; aids to n av ig atio n on th e easte rn shore o f C hesapeake
B a y a n d trib u ta rie s ; estab lish in g a sm all lig h th o u se d epot a t Coinjo c k C ut, N. C .; estab lish in g aids to n a v ig atio n , in la n d w aterw ay,
N orfolk . V a., to B e a u fo rt, N. C .; re p a irin g an d im p ro v in g aids and
e sta b lish in g new aid s to n a v ig atio n on coasts of F lo rid a and in a p ­
proaches to Ivey W est, F la .: estab lish in g an d im p ro v in g aids in
G alveston B a y and H ou ston C han ne l, T e x .; p re lim in a ry w ork on a
com bined d w elling and fo g-sig nal b u ild in g a t S a n d Isla n d , A la .;
im p ro v in g aid s to n av ig atio n a t Fail-p ort H arb o r. Ohio, and S a n ­
d u sk y H a rb o r, O h io ; estab lish in g aids in D e tro it R iv e r; p re lim in a ry
w o rk on a lig h t and fo g-signa l statio n a t M a rtin R eef, M ich.: im ­
p ro v in g aids a t C alum et H a rb o r, 111.; im p ro v in g aids a t L u din gto n,
M ich.; co n stru ctio n of a lig h t an d fo g sig n al a t M ilw aukee B re a k ­
w ater. W is.: co n stru ctin g a lig h t and fo g sig n al a t C ape Spencer,
A la sk a ; p re lim in a ry 'w o rk on G ra y s H a rb o r L ig h th o u se, W a sh .; and
the constructio n of a light an d fo g signal a t P o in t V incente, C alif.
G eneral re p a irs requ ired fo r upkeep o f aids to n av ig atio n in effi­
c ien t w o rk in g conditio n were continued d u rin g th e year, b u t th e
fu n d s av ailable were n o t sufficient fo r th e p ro p e r upkeep o f th is larg e
am o u n t o f pu blic p ro p e rty , and m uch im p o rta n t re p a ir w ork was
th e re fo re d efe rred .
IM P R O V E M E N T S IN A P P A R A T U S A N D E Q U IP M E N T

W o rk w as continued on th e in sta lla tio n an d use o f rad io fo g sig ­
n a ls fo r pro te ctio n of na v ig atio n in fog. T he tu be tra n s m itte r o p ­
e ra tin g an a lte rn a tin g con tin uous wave, w hich was developed w ith a
view to lessening o r e lim in a tin g th e effect o f in terferen ce an d placed
in service on A m brose L ig h tsh ip A p ril 23, 1924, h as been fu rth e r

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R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

im p ro ved, an d h as op era ted successfully since th a t d ate w ith noc o m p la in t of interference.
T h e extension an d im pro vem en t o f au to m atic lig h tin g a p p a ra tu s
was continued.
Som e im provem ents were m ade in th e o p era tio n o f p rim a ry elec­
tric b a tte rie s and sm all incandescent lam ps developed fo r m in o r
lig h te d aids.
Im p ro v em en ts have been m ade in a p p a ra tu s used in connection
w ith electric illu m in atio n o f lig h t statio n s, p ro v id in g relay s in case
o f fa ilu re o f bulbs an d a larm in case o f fa ilu re o f c u rre n t, etc.
In c ertain localities w here considerable num b ers o f m in o r lig h ts
are b ein g m a in ta in ed , m easures are being considered fo r th e ir con­
version w here p racticab le from fixed to h a sh in g by in s ta llin g a u to ­
m atic a p p a ra tu s an d h a v in g them cared fo r in g ro up s, w ith a view
to in creasin g efficiency an d re d u cin g th e cost of m aintenance.
A sm aller, m ore efficient m an tle h as been in tro d u ced on oil-gas
buoys and beacons in th e eleventh d istric t, re su ltin g in im p o rta n t
sav ing s in gas a n d attendance.
F tirth e r im provem ent w as m ade in th e design of a go ng buoy
developed to p ro v id e a d istin ctiv e buoy sound signal, a n d th is ty p e
of buoy is now considered suitable fo r p ra c tica l use as needed.
T h e in sta lla tio n of a ir fo g sig nals to replace steam sig n als h as
been extended w ith increased econom y a n d efficiency.
T here has been fu r th e r extension in th e th ir d d is tric t o f th e su b sti­
tu tio n of lig h t m eta l buoys fo r s p a r buoys, w ith sa tisfa c to ry re s u lts ;
an im p o rta n t a d v an ta g e in th is is th e fa c t th a t th e m etal buoys in d i­
cate th e side of channel by shape as well as by color.
In th e p a st a considerable loss h as occu rred in th e th ir d d is tric t
due to vessels b reak in g s p a r buoys, th e breakag e being between 150
a n d 200 buoys p e r y ear, m ostly ilrst-class buoys. I n an a tte m p t to
overcom e th is loss a lo t of sh o rt, heavy sp a r buoys have been p u r­
chased. T h e y are 35 feet long, 24 to 28 inches d ia m eter a t b u tt, and
18 to 22 inches a t to p , an d a re set w ith piece of ch ain to m ake u p
le n g th . These buoys have been placed on m any o f th e statio n s bad
fo r breakage, a n d fro m experience th u s f a r it a p p ea rs th is ty p e o f
buoy w ill decrease th e b reakag e an d loss a b o u t 75 p e r cent.
T h e radio-com m u nication s ta tio n a t N avassa L ig h t S ta tio n , W est
In d ie s, was tra n s fe rre d by th e N av y D e p a rtm e n t a n d has been op­
era ted by th e lig h t keepers since N ovem ber, 1923, th o u g h w ith some
difficulty, ow ing to lack o f special ra d io tra in in g . I t is im p o rta n t as
th e only quick m eans o f com m unication w ith th is rem ote station .
R ecent im provem ents have been m ade in th e equipm ent of th e station .
T h e in sta llatio n of ta n k s a t depots and lig h t statio n s fo r th e sto ra g e
o f kerosene, w hich is now being la rg e ly p u rcha sed locally in b u lk ,
w as extended d u rin g th e year.
A la rg e nu m ber o f a erial p h o to g ra p h s of lig h t station^ have been
received fro m th e N avy D e p artm en t an d m ake a valuable a d d itio n to
th e p h o to g ra p h ic records.
A "reconnaissance o f K a u la Rock, H a w a iia n Isla n d s, was m ade by
m eans o f aerial p h o to g ra p h s, taken from an A rm y a irp la n e, to be
used as a p re lim in a ry surv ey fo r th e establishm ent o f a lig h t.
O n Ju n e 30, 1925, 325 lig h t statio n s h a d telephon e com m unication,
th is being an increase of 3 d u rin g th e year.

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183

T h e in sta llatio n o f electricity fo r lig h tin g o f dw ellings a t lig h t
statio n s was extended.
Im p ro v em en ts in h e a tin g p la n ts fo r lig h t statio n s have been m ade,
m a k in g it possible to use bitum ino us coal.
T ests have been m ade w ith a view to overcom ing u n satisfa cto ry
service o f c ertain p a in ts in localities su bject to g re a t h u m id ity and
ra in fa ll.
A D M IN IS T R A T IO N

T h e g en eral o rg an iz atio n o f th e service rem ain ed un changed d u r­
in g th e fiscal year.
T h e act o f M arch 4, 1925, am ended th e L ig h th o u se Service re tire ­
m ent act o f J u n e 20, 1918, so as to p rovide fo r re tire m en t on account
o f d isab ility , w ith c ertain restric tio n s, an d u n d e r ru les to be p re ­
scribed by th e S e cre tary of Commerce.
T h e a p p ro p ria tio n a c t of F e b ru a ry 27, 1925, repealed th e law p ro ­
v id in g a ra tio n allowance fo r keepers of lighthouses, w hich was p a y ­
able fro m th e a p p ro p ria tio n g en eral expenses. T h e a p p ro p ria tio n
fo r th e salaries of lig h t keepers was co rresp o n d in g ly increased and
a n a d ju stm e n t o f th e com pensation o f keepers was m ade accordingly.
T h is change is advantage ous to th e keepers an d also sim plifies office
w ork.
T he act o f F e b ru a ry 27, 1925, also au th o rized th e purchase of ru b ­
b er boots, oil skins, etc., fo r use o f personnel w hile engaged in lig h t­
house w ork re q u irin g such equipm ent. T h is legislation sim ply con­
firm ed an ex istin g practice.
T h e classification act o f M arch 4, 1923, w hich was m ade effective
fo r th e D is tric t of C olum bia d u rin g th e y ear, h as been o f g re a t
benefit in im p ro v in g th e sta tu s an d efficiency o f th e personnel a t
W ash in g to n . Some a d ju stm en ts in allocations were m ade and
o th e r a d ju stm en ts are necessary in o rd e r to p ro v id e equitable tr e a t­
m ent fo r all em plo)Tees. A d ju stm en ts, based so f a r as p racticable
on the ra te s establishe d fo r th e personn el in the D istric t o f C olum bia,
w ere also m ade effective J u ly 1, 1924, o r la te r, fo r c ertain classes
of positio ns in th e field service, in accordance w ith th e act appro ved
D ecem ber 6. 1924; these a d ju stm en ts w ere continued, or fu rth e r
necessary read ju stm en ts m ade fo r continuance d u rin g th e pre sen t
y e a r as p ro vide d in th e act o f J a n u a ry 22, 1925.
A n a d ju stm e n t of th e com pensation o f vessel officers in th e L ig h t­
house Service was m ade effective J u ly 1, 1924, in o rd e r to b rin g
th e p ay o f these positions m ore n e a rly on a level w ith th a t of
sim ila r positio ns in th e U n ite d S ta te s S h ip p in g B o ard , th e L ake
C a rrie rs A ssociation, an d o th e r s h ip p in g in terests.
Some le gislation is needed fo r th e L ig h th o u se Service, in clu d in g
th e follo w ing m ore im p o rta n t item s: (a) E x ten sio n o f m edical
re lie f now fu rn ish e d lig h t keepers by th e U n ited S ta te s P u b lic
H e a lth Service, so as to be av ailable fo r keepers statio n ed a t rem ote
or isolated p o in ts: (b) a u th o rity fo r a d ju stm en t, w ith in reasonable
am ounts, o f claim s of lighth ou se em ployees fo r loss o r dam age
to personal p ro p e rty caused by storm s, collisions, or fire a t lig h t
statio n s, depots, or on vessels; ( c ) increase in subsistence allow ­
ance au th o riz ed fo r persons w hile tra v e lin g on official business;
(d ) to give c ertain L ig h th o u se Service em ployees p riv ileg es now

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R E PO R T OF T H E SECRETA RY OF C O M M E R C E

accorded by law to sim ila r services, in clu d in g th e purchase of
A rm y a n d N avy com m issary supplies, tra n s p o rta tio n fo r fam ilies
and household effects when b rd e re d to p erm an en tly change station,
an d tra n s p o rta tio n , w ith p ro p e r a d m in istra tiv e restric tio n s, on A rm y
tra n s p o rts ; (e) some m odifications in th e re tire m e n t prov ision s
affecting th is service.
S y ste m atic inspections o f th e service, both on its technical an d
its business sides, were contin ued d u rin g th e year. T h e su p e rin ­
te n d en t on genereal d u ty m ade g en eral inspections of statio n s,
vessels, depots, etc., and th e exam in er m ade ex am in atio n of th e
office business m ethods and accounts, depot stores an d o th e r p ro p ­
e rty , records, etc., in variou s lig h th o u se d istric ts. Special inspec­
tio ns were m ade by th e C om m issioner a n d o th e r officers fro m
W ash in g to n .
T h e b o u n d a ry betw een th e seventh a n d e ig h th d istric ts w as
changed by e x te n d in g th e seventh d is tric t to th e Suw anee R iv er,
fo r g re a te r convenience in th e work.
V ario u s economies in th e m ain tenan ce of th e service have been
effected, th e m ore im p o rta n t b ein g th e re su lt o f fu rth e r e x te n d in g
th e use of au to m atic a p p a ra tu s fo r o p e ra tin g th e lig h ts ; th e rep la ce­
m ent of a lig h tsh ip by a gas buoy an d m ak in g an o th er lig h tsh ip
au to m atic and n o n a tte n d ed ; th e in s ta lla tio n o f kerosene ta n k s at
lig h t statio n s and depots a n d th e purchase of illu m in a tin g oil
locally in bulk by th e various d is tric ts ; th e purchase o f acetylene
cylin de rs of dom estic m a n u fa c tu re a t a su b sta n tia l reduction in
cost; and th e disco ntinu ance o f aids to n a v ig a tio n fo u n d to be
no lo n g er necessary. T h e developm ent o f im proved a p p a ra tu s
an d equipm ent used in th e m echanism of aids to n a v ig atio n and
in va rio u s o p era tio n s of th e service a t d ep o ts an d in field w ork h as
also effected economies.
T h ere h as been effective cooperation w ith o th e r branches o f th e
G overnm ent in m any w ays, and th e personnel on vessels and a t s ta ­
tio n s are encouraged to re n d e r aid to those in distress.
C ooperation w ith th e school au th o ritie s of variou s S tates, and
m ore especially M aine, w here d u rin g th e y e a r 43 ch ild ren a t 14
lig h t statio n s have received in stru ctio n , h as proven of m uch value
in th e m a tte r of p ro v id in g school facilitie s fo r th e ch ild re n of lig h t
keepers a t isolated lig h t stations.
PER SO N N EL

O n J u n e 30, 1925, th e re w ere 5,961 persons em ployed in th e L ig h t­
house Service (a ll au th o riz ed em ployees, in clu d in g some vacanc ies).
T h is is a n e t decrease of 20 d u rin g th e fiscal year.
T h e an n u al re p o rt o f th e U n ite d S ta te s E m plo yee’s C om pensation
Com m ission fo r the fiscal y e ar ended J u n e 30, 1924. gives th e num b er
of reported cases o f in ju ry subject to com pensation fo r th e c ale n d ar
y ear 1923 o f em ployees o f the L ig h th o u se Service, sustain ed w hile
in th e pe rfo rm an ce of d u ty and re su ltin g in de ath and d isab ility ,
as fo llow s: C ases re su ltin g in d eath. 2 : eases re su ltin g in p e r­
m anent to ta l o r p a rtia l disab ility . 7: and of te m p o rary to ta l d is­
ability . 132. T h is num ber as com pared w ith th a t o f all o th e r
branches o f the d e p a rtm e n t com bined fo r the perio d stated in dicates

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185

th e h a za rd o u s n a tu re of th e field w ork o f the L ig h th o u se Service.
I t is believed th a t the autho rized m axim um com pensation fo r d is­
ab ility on account of in ju ry is too low, a n d th a t congressional action
is desirable to pro vide a m ore adeq uate scale o f com pensation fo r
em ployees w ho have lost th e ir e a rn in g pow er because of d isab ility
th ro u g h in ju ry sustained w hile in th e perfo rm an ce of duty.
T h e L ig h th o u se Service re tire m e n t act of J u n e 20, 11)18, was
am ended so as to p ro v id e fo r re tire m en t on account o f disab ility .
T h is pro v isio n of law has alread y been ap p lied to a few serious and
m erito rio u s cases, and w ill be of g re a t benefit to th e personnel and
in p ro m o tin g th e efficiency of th e L ig h th o u se Service.
T h e classification act has been of g re a t value in in creasin g the
efficiency of th e L ig h th o u se Service.
In c id e n ta l to th e re g u la r w ork of th e service m any o p p o rtu n ities
arise fo r re n d e rin g aid to those in d istress because o f th e location
o f th e lig h t statio n s an d vessels. D u rin g the fiscal y ear u p w a rd s of
95 in stances were rep o rted o f sav in g life and p ro p e rty or re n d e rin g
valuable aid, o ften a t a g re a t risk to th e lig hthouse em plyoee. M any
o f these acts were especially m eritorious, and th e em ployees were
in d iv id u a lly com m ended by th e S ecre tary of Commerce. S ilv er life ­
sav in g m edals were aw arded in A u g u st, 1925, by th e S ecretary of
th e T rea su ry , as p ro vid ed u n d e r congressional a u th o rity , to two
em ployees o f th e L ightho use Service fo r g a lla n t co nduct in sav in g
h u m an life. One o f these m edals was aw ard ed to C h arles A. S te rl­
ing , keep er o f C raney Isla n d L ig h t S ta tio n , who on J u ly 26, 1924,
assisted in rescu ing th e passengers on the steam er G ra titu d e , which
san k im m ediately a fte r the rescue; an d the o th e r to E v e re tt W ynoble,
oiler on th e ligh th ouse te n d e r H y a c in th , who ju m p ed overboard in
th e C hicago R iv e r an d rescued a d ro w n in g wom an on A p ril 14. 1925.
C O S T -K E E P IN G S Y S T E M

AND RESULTS

A cost-keeping system h as been continued in effect th ro u g h o u t th e
fiscal year. T h e costs are based on th e actual ex p en d itu res fo r the
vario us fe a tu re s d u rin g the fiscal y e ar, in clu d in g d ire c t purchases
and articles issued fro m stock. A stock record also is m aintained.
T h is cost-keeping system is useful in fu rn ish in g in fo rm atio n as to
th e disposition of all a p p ro p ria tio n s fo r th is service, in p re p a rin g
estim ates, p la n n in g w ork, effecting economies, an d co m p arin g the
efficiency of different d istric ts, vessels, lig h t station s, ap p aratu s,
m ethods, etc.
L IG H T H O U S E D E P O T S

T h e lightho use depots are a very essential fe a tu re of th e efficient
conduct of th e w ork of th e L ig h th o u se Serv ice; th ey are th e su p p ly ,
re p a ir, and vessel h ead q u a rte rs fo r th e v arious d istric ts. T h e depots
a re gen erally well d istrib u te d along th e coasts of th e co u n try , but
several of them are n o t adequate fo r th e w ork or a re no t su itab ly
located.
A t th e d ep o t a t Chelsea, M ass., th e con stru ctio n of a th ree-sto ry
steel fram e, brick, and concrete storehouse, h av in g q u a rte rs fo r th e
d is tric t office, an d in c lu d in g th e in sta lla tio n of a h e a tin g p la n t, was
p ra c tic a lly com pleted.

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R E P O R T O F T H E SEC RE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

D u rin g th e y e ar a d d itio n a l space a d jo in in g th e im p o rta n t d epo t
a t P o rtsm o u th , V a., was p u rcha sed in o rd e r to p e rm it extension of
th e w harves and bu ild in g s, a n d it is propo sed to proceed w ith th e
w ork o f co n stru ctio n as soon as th e necessary ap p ro v a l o f deed, etc.,
has been obtained.
P ro v isio n is also needed fo r im proved d epot facilitie s in several
o th e r d istric ts, p a rtic u la rly a t o r n e a r N ew p o rt, R. I . ; K ey W est,
F la .; H o n o lu lu , H a w a ii; G oat Isla n d , C a lif.; an d New O rleans,
L a. O th e r w ork needed consists of d re d g in g a t th e e n tran ce to
W oods H ole D epo t, M ass., an d T o ng ue P o in t D epot, O re g .; re b u ild ­
in g th e w harv es an d storehouses a t th e E dgem oo r L ig hth ouse D e­
p o t; an d com pletin g im p ro vem ents to w harves an d p ro v id in g a d ­
d itio n a l sto ra g e b u ild in g s a t th e G eneral D epot, S ta te n Isla n d , N. Y.
A d d itio n a l fu n d s a re needed fo r th e com pletion o f th e im p o rta n t
depots a t C h arlesto n , S. C., an d K e tch ik a n , A laska. T h e re is also
needed in th e fu tu re a b e tte r located d ep o t in th e first d is tric t a t
P o r tla n d ; an d a d epo t a t R o ck land , Me.
T h e storehouse a t th e E d gem oor L ig h th o u se D epot, Del., w ith
stock of supplies, m a te ria ls an d equip m ent, w as destroy ed by fire
on A p ril 28, 1925. M easures hav e been ta k e n fo r th e erection of
a te m p o ra ry storehouse fo r use u n til fu n d s fo r a p e rm a n en t sto re ­
house a re available.
A sm all d ep o t w as established a t C oinjock C u t, N. C., to ta k e th e
place o f th e one a t L o n g P o in t, w hich w as d isco ntinued on account
of th e d ism a n tlin g o f th e oil gas p la n t a t th a t p o in t.
V E S S E L S O F T H E L IG H T H O U S E S E R V IC E
REPLACEM ENT OF VESSELS

L ittle p ro g ress w as m ade d u rin g th e y e ar in th e replacem ent of
old an d w orn-o ut vessels, as noted u n d e r ten d ers an d lig h tsh ip s;
due to lack of sufficient fu n d s m uch needed w ork of replacem ent
an d re co n d itio n in g o f vessels has h a d to be postponed. '
F ro m carefu l estim ates an d ex am in atio n s as to th e conditions
an d fu rth e r serviceability of vessels o f th e L ig h th o u se Service, i t is
fo u n d th a t in a d d itio n to th ose recen tly com pleted a n d recon di­
tioned an d th e vessels now b u ild in g , 11 lig h tsh ip s an d 4 ten d ers
should be replaced or b u ilt and 4 o th e r te n d ers reconditio ned w ith in
th e n e x t five years. A s i t w ill re q u ire fro m tw o to th re e y ears
a fte r a p p ro p ria tio n is m ade befo re vessels are av ailable fo r service,
fu n d s should be pro v id ed now fo r 4 new lig h tsh ip s, in a d d itio n
to th e pro vision fo r vessels m ade in th e a c t o f F e b ru a ry 27, 1925.
R equests have been received fo r th e pro visio n of a re lie f lig h t­
sh ip fo r th e G u lf coast, and fo r th e estab lish m en t o f lig h tsh ip s off
St. Jo h n s R iv er, F la ., an d So uthw est P ass, M ississippi R iv er, L a.
L IG H T H O U SE TENDERS

T h e lig h th o u se ten d ers d u rin g th e y e ar have steam ed a to ta l of
473,759 n au tic al m iles, o r an average of a p p ro x im a te ly 8,773 miles
fo r each ten d er, in th e w ork o f m a in ta in in g buoys, c a rry in g s u p ­
plies and con stru ctio n m a te ria ls to statio n s, su p p ly in g lig h tsh ip s

B U R E A U OF L IG H T H O U S E S

187

w ith coal, w ater, etc., also tra n s p o rtin g officers an d em ployees to
statio n s or on inspection d u ty , as well as d u ty in coo p eratin g w ith
o th e r G overnm ent services, an d th e sav in g of life an d p ro p e rty
w hen occasion required. T he to ta l q u a n tity of fu el consum ed by
te n d ers d u rin g th e y e ar w as 53,503 to ns o f coal, 31,315 gallo ns of
gasoline, 4,625 gallo ns of kerosene, an d 2,307.205 gallon s of fuel oil.
T h e to ta l cost of m aintenance of te n d ers d u rin g th e year am ounted
to $2,275,061, exclusive of th e cost of re p a irs, w hich am oun ted to
$324,292.
T h e recon d itio n in g of th e te n d e r Woodbi?ie, c o n v ertin g its m a ­
ch in ery fro m gasoline to steam pro p u lsio n , an d th e reco nstructio n
of th e deck house, q u a rte rs, etc., h as been com pleted.
T h e construction of a te n d e r fo r th e low er M ississippi R iv e r is
w ell u n d e r w ay. F iv e te n d ers w ere equip ped w ith radiocom passes
d u rin g th e y ear, and a t th e end o f th e y e a r there w ere 11 tenders
equipp ed w ith radiocom passes a n d 30 ten d ers equip ped w ith ra d io ­
tele g rap h .
T h e boilers of th e te n d e r Sequoia have been converted from coal
to oil b u rn ers d u rin g th e year. T h is im p ro vem ent has increased the
cru isin g distance of th e vessel w ith o u t re fu e lin g , p e rm itte d red u c­
tio n o f th e personnel, an d w ill, it is expected, re su lt in o th er econo­
mies of o p eratio n . S im ila r change is p la n n ed fo r th e te n d er K u k u i
d u rin g th e p resen t y e ar, and also fo r o th e r ten d ers as soon as fu n d s
p e rm it.
L IG H T SH IP S

T h e L ig h th o u se Service m a in ta in s lig h tsh ip s on 46 station s.
D u rin g th e fiscal y e ar 59 vessels w ere in com m ission, of w hich 12
w ere re lie f lig h tsh ip s, an d th ey averag ed 262 days on statio n p er
vessel. T h e to ta l cost o f m aintenance of lig h tsh ip s d u rin g th e y e ar
was $1,090,490, exclusive of re p a irs, w hich w ere $120,005. M any of
these lig h tsh ip s have passed th e age of useful service, an d some of
them are in such condition as to be no t w o rth th e cost o f rep airs. O f
th e p re sen t lig h tsh ip s 42 hav e self-p ro p e llin g m achinery, an d 16 are
pro v id ed w ith sail pow er only. O ne has no m eans of prop ulsion.
T h e com pletion of new lig h tsh ip N o. I l l has been u n d e r w ay a t
th e general depot a t S ta te n Isla n d .
R ad io com m un icating a p p a ra tu s w as m a in ta in ed on 23 stations
an d 8 re lie f vessels d u rin g th e fiscal year. Sixteen lig h tsh ip s are
eq uip ped w ith ra d io fog-signal a p p a ra tu s.
L ig h tsh ip N o. 75 , on L ake S t. C la ir, w as equip ped w ith an a u to ­
m a tic g as-op erated fo g bell, an d placed on statio n as an u n atten d ed
lig h ts h ip , w ith o u t crew, a t a m a te ria l savin g, Novem ber 22, 1924.
T h is is th e first u n a tte n d ed lig h tsh ip in th is service.
R am Is la n d R eef L ig h tsh ip was discontinu ed A p ril 4, 1925, and
replaced by an au to m atic gas an d bell buoy, effecting a la rg e an n u al
sav ing.
V ery tru ly yours,
G e o r g e R. P u t n a m ,
C om m issioner o f L ighthouses.
66548— 25

13

C O A S T A N D G E O D E T IC S U R V E Y

D e p a r t m e n t o f Co m m e r c e ,
C o a s t a n d G e o d e t ic S u r v e y ,
W a s h in g to n , J u l y 1, 1925.

H on. H e r b e r t H o o v e r ,
S ecreta ry o f Commerce.
D e a r M r . S e c r e t a r y : I n response to y o u r request I fu rn ish th e
follo w ing condensed re p o rt upon th e w ork of th e bureau d u rin g th e
p a st y e ar :
H Y D R O G R A P H IC A N D T O P O G R A P H IC S U R V E Y S

M any o f th e surveys accom plished d u rin g th e y ear were requested
by o th e r G ov ernm ent d e p artm en ts, in clu d in g detailed surveys of a
section of the D is tric t of C olum bia, a n d surveys in th e H a w a iia n
an d P h illip p in e Isla n d s an d in A lask a.
A T L A N T IC A N D G U L F COASTS

D etailed inshore h y d ro g ra p h ic a n d to p o g ra p h ic resurveys were
m ade along the A tla n tic coast, ex ten d in g from St. A u g u stin e, F la .,
to th e S a v a n n ah R iv er. These surveys included d etailed w ork a t
th e entrance to the num erou s bays a n d sounds alo ng th is stre tc h of
c o a st; th e resu lts show th a t m ark ed changes have occu rred since
th e last survey was executed. O ffshore h y d ro g ra p h ic w ork, e x ten d ­
in g from th e beach to th e 100-fathom co ntour, an d a to p o g ra p h ic
survey of the shore line were carrie d on in th e v icin ity o f C ape F e a r
R iv er, X. C., d u rin g th e sum m er a n d fa ll o f 1924. D u rin g th e
w in te r and s p rin g of 1925 sim ila r w ork was executed along th e coast
of F lo rid a in th e v ic in ity o f O rm ond.
A survey of L ak e Okeechobee, F la ., w as com pleted th is w inter.
T he tria n g u la tio n h a d been established d u rin g th e previo us year.
T h e to p o g ra p h y executed in th e field consisted only of th e d e te r­
m in a tio n of enough po in ts fo r th e necessary co ntro l to tra n s fe r de­
ta il from a erial p h o to g ra p h s taken by th e B ureau of A eron autics,
N avy D ep artm en t.
R esurveys of B altim o re H a rb o r, S c itu ate H a rb o r. F ire Is la n d I n ­
let, and Beach H av en In le t were com pleted d u rin g the fiscal year.
A resu rv ey of T a m p a B ay and approaches was in pro g ress d u rin g
th e year.
PA C IFIC COAST

One vessel was continuously em ployed d u rin g the w in te r m onths,
w o rk in g n o rth w a rd alo ng th e so u th ern coast o f C alifo rn ia . T h is
survey extended fro m the beach to the 1,000-fath o m contour. D u rin g
th e sum m er th is vessel executed a sim ila r survey in th e vic in ity of
C ap e B lanco. Oreg.
188

COAST A N D G E OD E TIC SURVEY

189

I n a d d itio n , tw o vessels em ployed d u rin g th e sum m er in A la sk a
w ere assigned surv ey d u ties d u rin g th e w in te r m o nths, one w o rk in g
on th e so u th ern coast of C a lifo rn ia an d th e o th er on inshore and
offshore h y d ro g ra p h y in th e vic in ity of M onterey B ay.
A w ire-d ra g ex am in atio n was m ade of th e naval anchorage, S an
F ran cisco B ay. T h e so u th ern ch an ne l of th e en tran ce to th e bay
w as resurveyed.
D etached p a rtie s m ade a resu rv ey of th e b a r at th e en tra n ce to
W illa p a B ay an d Q u illa y u te R iver.
E n route to A la sk a one o f th e survey vessels m ade an ex am in a­
tio n fo r a rep o rte d rock in the v ic in ity o f P o in t W ilson, P u g e t
Sound. A w ire -d ra g ex am in atio n o f th e en tran ce to D ra y to n H a r ­
bor was also made.
A LA SKA

D u rin g th e sum m er m o nths, w hen survey o peratio ns can be eco­
nom ically carrie d on in th e T e rrito ry , tw o vessels have been em ­
ployed in southeastern A la sk a an d tw o in w estern A lask a. A n ­
o th e r small vessel w as added to th e fleet in southeastern A lask a
d u rin g the la tte r p a r t of th e fiscal year.
T h e p ro je c t of surveying th e outside coast of A lask a, from th e
b o u n d ary line n o rth , has been continued along th e coasts of B a ra n o f
an d C h ichago f Islands. T h e presen t c h a rts of m ost of th is locality
are based upon notes and sketches of early R ussian a n d B ritish
explorers.
W ire -d ra g exam in atio ns of Ivasaan, T hom as, and G am hier Bays,
and of T w elve-M ile-A rm w ere com pleted. S urvey s o f C old, P a v lo f,
J u te , and C h ig n ik B ay s, a n d of the approaches to W id e and P o r t­
age B ays were also com pleted. A p a rtia l survey of Isanotski S tra its
w as m ade.
O U T L Y IN G POSSESSIONS

A h y d ro g rap h ic an d w ire-d ra g survey of the V irg in Isla n d s was
continued d u rin g th e e n tire fiscal year. I t became necessary to
w ith d ra w th e vessel engaged on th is w ork fo r extensive re p a irs
d u rin g p a r t o f th e year. D u rin g its absence from th e field o f w ork
the survey was carrie d on by a detached p a rty o p e ra tin g th e th ree
launches w hich are used in connection w ith th e vessel.
I n th e H a w a iia n Isla n d s one officer has been em ployed co n tin u ­
ously on special surveys fo r m ilita ry purposes. A no th er officer w ith
a sm all detached p a rty w as em ployed fo r a period of th ree m onths
in m akin g de tailed surveys o f different h arb o rs in the islands.
T h e w ork of th e survey has been carrie d on in th e P h ilip p in e
Isla n d s by three vessels. T h e expense of th is survey is larg ely borne
by th e in su la r gov ernm ent. T w o o f these vessels have been em ­
ployed in surveys in th e Su lu A rchip elago. T h e th ird vessel was
em ployed d u rin g p a rt of the y e ar in execu tin g surveys along th e
n o rth e rn coast of L uzon and in lo catin g th e m any islands n o rth of
L uzon belonging to th e U n ite d States. W hen w ork in th is locality
w as p re v en ted by th e m onsoon, a resurvey o f Cebu H a rb o r and of a
sm all bay on th e west coast o f N egros Isla n d was accom plished.

190

R E PO R T OF T H E SECRETA RY OF C O M M E R C E
WORK I N PROGRESS AT T H E END OF T H E FISCAL YEAR

O n th e A tla n tic and G u lf coasts, a t th e end o f th e fiscal year, one
vessel was em ployed in offshore surveys south of C hesapeake B ay
and a n o th e r in sim ila r w ork south of th e C ap e F e a r R iv er. A
lau n ch p a rty w as ready to ta k e u p inshore surveys alo ng th e coast
of S ou th C aro lin a. A vessel w as co n tin u in g th e resurveys o f T a m p a
B ay and approaches.
O n th e Pacific coast one vessel was engaged in offshore h y d ro g ra ­
p h y in th e vicin ity of C ape B lanco, O reg.
In A laska th e co n tin u atio n o f th e offshore surveys in sou th eastern
A la sk a was in prog ress as well as w ire -d ra g ope ra tio n s in C h ath am
S tra its and surveys o f K a ig a n a S tra its. T h e survey o f th e inside
passages east of Ik a ta n B ay and th e eastw ard extension of th e
survey of C h ig nik B ay w ere in progress.
In th e V irg in Isla n d s one vessel w as engaged in th e c o n tin u atio n
of h y d ro g ra p h ic an d w ire -d ra g work.
In th e H a w a iia n Isla n d s one p a rty w as engaged in detailed hyd ro g ra p h ic and to p o g ra p h ic work.
I n th e P h ilip p in e Isla n d s tw o vessels contin ued surv ey w ork in
th e Su lu A rchipelago . A th ird continued on surveys n o rth of th e
Is la n d of Luzon.
IM PORTANCE OF IN STR U M EN T W ORK

T h e bu reau m a in ta in s a sm all force fo r re p a irin g its in stru m e n ta l
eq uip m ent and de vising an d co n stru ctin g new a p p a ra tu s. T h is force
is a m ost im p o rta n t a d ju n c t to th e field ope ratio ns, as it is essential
th a t th e necessary equ ip m ent be in readiness and in p ro p e r w o rk in g
conditio n befo re a p a rty takes th e field. A n y delay is ex trem ely
expensive a fte r a p a rty is o rg an ized an d u n d e r way.
M ost of th e b u re a u ’s h ig h ly accurate an d special in stru m e n ts have
been designed and bu ilt in th e W a sh in g to n office, as no p riv a te o r­
g an izatio n is fitted to p e rfo rm th is w ork. M any of these in s tru ­
m ents w ere copied o r ado pted o u trig h t by o th e r governm ents an d
by p riv a te p artie s. A nu m ber o f colleges an d univ ersitie s are m a k ­
in g use of C oast Su rv ey model in stru m e n ts in th e ir courses of in ­
stru c tio n and are a n n u ally sen d in g th e ir u n d e rg ra d u a te civil en g i­
neers to th is office to inspect ou r a p p a ra tu s an d jtrocedure.
A ra p id ly in cre asin g n um ber of m u n ic ip alities are u n d e rta k in g
precision surveys. F re q u e n t calls come from these com m unities fo r
advice o r fo r th e loan of in stru m e n ta l equipm ent.
T he in stru m e n t division is p e rfo rm in g a d istin c t p u blic service
in itse lf, both in research a n d in th e developm ent of precise survey­
in g equipm ent.
W h erev er possible th e b u re au also cooperates w ith p riv a te con­
cerns in the developm ent of new a p p a ra tu s suitable to its needs.
T h e bureau is now w o rk in g w ith a com m ercial firm on th e design
of an a p p a ra tu s fo r d e te rm in in g ocean d ep th s by th e sound-echo
m ethod. One such a p p a ra tu s is now b ein g tested on a survey vessel.
D u rin g the p a st y e ar a m achine was designed an d b u ilt by th e
in stru m e n t division fo r e n g ra v in g so u n d in g d e p th s on negativ es
used in th e p h o to lith o g rap h ic process of c h a rt p rin tin g . T h is ma-

COAST AND G E OD E TIC SU R VE Y

191

ch in e is also a d ap te d to eng ra v e on copp er p la te s used fo r th e same
p u rp o se, an d is sm aller a n d less expensive th a n th e m achines used
hereto fo re. In c id e n ta lly , th e b u reau saved a considerable sum by
b u ild in g th is m achine itse lf, as its to ta l cost was b u t $905.58 as
com pared w ith th e price of $5,500 quoted by a com m ercial com pany
fo r a m achine to do sim ila r w ork.
A nu m b er of im p ro vem ents w ere m ade in th e p o rta b le au to m atic
tid e ga uge developed by the, survey, m a k in g it m ore reliable in
o p era tio n an d easier to in sta ll. A n o th e r m achine, w hich ap plies
th e g ra d u a tio n s to geodetic level rods, was com pleted d u rin g th e
y ear. T h is w ork is now done m ore ra p id ly an d accu rately th a n is
possible by h a n d m ethods a n d is less fa tig u in g to th e operato r.
V ario us im p ro vem ents w ere m ade in th e in stru m e n ts used in
h y d ro g rap h ic , m agnetic, and geodetic w ork, w hich ren d er them m ore
efficient and less expensive. A d d itio n a l in stru m e n t m akers are sorely
needed as a m a tte r of economy as w ell as to take care of additio n al
dem ands.
G E O D E T IC W O R K A C C O M P L IS H E D

T h e prod uc ts o f geodetic surveys w hich are o f especial in terest
to th e general pub lic are th e positio ns of m ark ed p o in ts on th e e a rth ’s
su rface, in term s of la titu d e an d lo ngitu de, a n d th e elevations o f th e
bench m ark s established by leveling. O th e r geodetic operation s, such
as base m easu rem ents a n d observation s fo r astro nom ic lo n gitu de an d
azim u th , are conducted fo r th e pu rp o se o f o b ta in in g d a ta necessary
to com pute th e tria n g u la tio n an d traverse. G eodetic surveys are
o fte n called con tro l surveys fo r th e reason th a t th e p o in ts so e sta b ­
lished are used to locate detailed surveys in th e ir p ro p e r relativ e
position s on th e e a rth ’s su rface an d in elevation above m ean sea
level.
Good pro g ress was m ade w ith th e G eodetic S u rv ey of C an ad a on
th e tw o g re a t cooperative p ro je cts w hich have been in prog ress fo r
several seasons. B o th are arcs of tria n g u la tio n w hich w ill g re a tly
benefit b oth countries, th e first ex ten d in g fro m L ake S u p e rio r to th e
Pacific, an d th e o th e r fro m P u g e t So und th ro u g h B ritis h C olum bia
a n d so uth eastern A lask a to Sk ag w ay . I t is expected th a t in ano th er
y e a r th e field w ork w ill be com pleted on b oth projects.
T h e p re lim in a ry system of tria n g u la tio n co n tro l west of the
n in ety -e ig h th m e rid ia n pro b ab ly w ill be com pleted nex t year. T h is
m e rid ia n is m ark ed ro u g h ly by F a rg o , O klah om a C ity , an d San
A n to nio . T h e p re lim in a ry system consists of belts of tria n g u la tio n
crossing each o th e r in checkerbo ard fash io n, th e squares of th e
check erboard being 300 or 400 m iles on a side.
A s a p a r t o f th is g en eral system one belt of tria n g u la tio n was
com pleted last w in te r, fro m S an A nto n io w estw ard to th e liio
G ra n d e, and tw o oth ers w ere in pro gress a t th e end of th e year. T h e
first of these extends from Sioux F a lls, S. D ak., w estw ard th ro u g h
S o u th D ak o ta an d W yo m in g to B ozem an, M ont. T h e second lies in
U ta h an d N evada, betw een S a lt L ake City'' an d Needles, C alif.
I n w estern A la sk a observation s alon g th e arc o f first o rd er t r i ­
an g u latio n fro m Cook In le t to F a irb a n k s progressed p a st th e B ro ad
P a ss region an d reached alm ost to th e T a n a n a V alley. T h e fu nds
av ailable d id no t p e rm it observing to be resum ed in th e s p rin g of
1925. H ow ever, reconnaissance w as begun to select statio n s along

192

R E PO R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

th e co n tin u atio n of th e tria n g u la tio n scheme p a st F a irb a n k s and u p
th e T a n a n a and G oo dp aster R iv ers to E a g le , w here it w ill connect
to the first o rd er tria n g u la tio n b ro u g h t u p fro m P u g e t Sou nd p a st
Skagw av.
In so u th eastern A lask a first o rd e r tria n g u la tio n w as th ro w n across
D ix on E n tra n c e , connecting w ith th e C an ad ia n tria n g u la tio n to th e
south. Bases w ere m easu red along th e whole sou th eastern A la sk a
arc as fa r as th e h ead of L ynn C an al n ear Skagw ay.
U n d er a special a p p ro p ria tio n item , w ork was continu ed in C a li­
fo rn ia on the in v estig atio n s re la tin g to changes in positio n an d ele­
v atio n of th e e a rth ’s su rface in regio ns subject to earth quakes. T r i ­
an g u latio n established m any y ears ago from th e S a n ta B a rb a ra
C hannel so u th eastw ard across th e Im p e ria l V alley was reobserved
and a line of levels w as re ru n fro m S a n ta A n a to B arsto w , C alif.,
w hich crosses m any geologic fa u lts. These in v estig atio n s were con­
ducted in accordance w ith tlie p ro g ra m suggested by th e C om m ittee
on Seism ology of th e C arnegie In s titu tio n of W ash in g to n . T h e C a r­
negie In s titu tio n also cooperated w ith th e C oast a n d G eodetic S u r­
vey by p a y in g th e field expenses of a p a rty engaged in connecting,
by tria n g u la tio n , th e in te rn a tio n a l la titu d e ob serv atory a t U k ia h ,
C alif., w ith the revised tria n g u la tio n in th e v ic in ity of Sacram ento .
O ne astrono m ical p a rty was in th e field d u rin g th e g re a te r p a r t
of th e y e ar and some leveling also w as done b u t in general th e activ ­
ities o f th e geodetic p a rtie s w ere co ncentrated on tria n g u la tio n .
T he officials of th is bu reau continue to com m end in h ig h est te rm s
th e aid w hich has been ren d ered th e m by th e U n ite d S ta te s N av al
O b serv ato ry , th e B u re au o f S ta n d a rd s, the F o re s t Service, th e A la sk a
R o ad Com m ission, and o th e r G overnm ent bureaus.
T E M P LE ACT SU R V EY S

U n d e r th e pro vision s of th e T em ple A ct. the P re sid e n t is a u th o r­
ized to com plete the sta n d a rd to p o g ra p h ic m ap of the co u n try w ith in
20 years. T h is m easure, sponsored by th e eng in eerin g in terests o f
th e natio n, places upon th e C oast a n d G eodetic Su rv ey th e respo n­
sib ility of execu tin g th e first and second o rd e r tria n g u la tio n , tra v e rse
and leveling, sufficiently in advance o f th e to p o g ra p h e rs to p ro v id e
them w ith th e necessary positions and elevations. T h e contro l s u r­
veys to be m ade u n d e r th is act w ill be p la n n ed in cooperation w ith
th e Geological Survey.
T h e in a u g u ra tio n of w ork u n d e r th is act w ill m a rk a new era in
o u r n a tio n a l surveys fo r i t w ill re n d e r possible a sy stem atic p la n ­
n in g of w ork from y e ar to y e ar w hich w as n o t possible u n d e r th e
old system an d w hich w ill also re su lt in considerable reductio ns of
u n it costs.
R E D U C T IO N OF F IE L D R EC O R D S

T h e m ath em atical processes fo r a d ju stin g th e in te rsec tin g arcs of
tria n g u la tio n a n d tra v erse to p re v e n t la rg e accum u lation s o f e rro rs
have been considerably sim plified in recent years, but th e reductio n
o f th e field observations to a ta b u la tio n of la titu d e s, lo ngitud es, a n d
elevations convenient fo r the use o f th e en gineer still requires con­
siderable tim e.
O n tria n g u la tio n th e cost of th e office w ork p e r p o in t determ ined
averages betw een 5 an d 10 p e r cent o f th e cost of th e field w ork w hile

COAST A N D G E OD E TIC SUBVEY

193

on tra v e rse tlie cost p e r p o in t fo r th e office w ork is fro m 15 to 20
p e r cent th a t of th e field work.
I t is very expensive, both to th e G overnm ent and to th e public, to
delay p u b lish in g contro l surv ey d a ta . A single p h o to sta t copy of
m a n u sc rip t d ata fu rn ish ed an outside engineer w ill cost him as m uch
as a p a m p h le t c o n ta in in g th e contro l d a ta fo r an e n tire S ta te . In
a d d itio n , searching th e files fo r these d ata is ra p id ly m ak in g serious
in ro ad s upon th e tim e of th e geodetic personnel. D u rin g th e y ear
covered by th is re p o rt about 20 p e r cent of th e tim e of th e e n tire
division was ta k en up in collecting and fu rn ish in g d ata requested.
T h e cost to th e G overnm ent is still m ore m ark ed when p h o to sta t
copies of da ta m ust be fu rn ish e d o th e r d ep artm en ts, o ften in la rg e
qu an tities. T h e force o f geodetic m ath em atician s is not adequate to
p re p a re th e re su lts fo r p u b licatio n as ra p id ly as economy dem ands.
MAGNETIC a n d s e i s m o l o g i c a l w o r k

F o u r m agnetic observatories located a t T ucson, A riz .; C heltenham ,
M d .; S itk a , A la sk a : and n e ar H onolulu. H a w a ii, have been in o p era ­
tion and have secured contin uous records of th e m agnetic elem ents
a n d earth qu akes. T he m agnetic records have been used to reduce
th e field results to s ta n d a rd values and have fu rn ish e d m a te ria l
needed in th e stu d y of te rre s tria l m agnetism . T h e earth q u ak e rec­
o rd s have been used in stu d y in g a nu m ber o f im p o rta n t earth q u ak es
w hich have occurred d u rin g th e year.
T h e fifth observato ry , th a t a t Vieques, P . It., discontinued o p era ­
tio n on N ovem ber 1. 1924. A site on th e m ain isla n d of P o rto Rico
w as fu rn ish ed by th e city of San J u a n , an d a t th e close of th e y e a r
necessary b u ild in g s w ere in th e process o f erection.
T h e field m agn etic w ork h as been p rim a rily resu rv ey work. I t
lias included both th e occupation o f repeat statio n s to determ ine th e
change in th e m agn etic elem ents, and inspection an d replacem en t of
defective m agnetic statio n s fo r the use of local surveyors in s ta n d ­
a rd iz in g th e ir compasses. R epeat w ork has been carried on in (he
M idd le A tla n tic State s, N ew E n g la n d , th e W est C en tral and N o rth ­
w est States. R ep lacem en t of statio n s was carrie d on chiefly in
T exas and N o rth C aro lin a, in th e la tte r case w ith th e cooperation of
th e State . T he re is now a usable station a t every county seat in
N o rth C aro lin a an d th e in fo rm atio n has been m ade available in a
pub licatio n.
A canvass of county surveyors, sta rte d in 1924, was continu ed
th ro u g h o u t th e year, so th a t th e b u reau is now in correspondence
w ith m ore th a n 2,300 county surveyors, an increase of 300 d u rin g
th e year, and has received re p o rts on the sta te of preserv atio n of 43
p e r cent of its ap p ro x im a te ly 3,750 m agn etic statio ns, an increase of
10 p e r cent d u rin g th e year. T h e dem and fo r m agnetic in fo rm atio n
from a g re a t nu m b er of local su rv ey ors has been clearly b ro u g h t out,
and th e bureau is now p u b lish in g its resu lts by S ta te s in o rd e r to
meet th is need.
R ep e a t statio n s w ere occupied in th e H a w a iia n Isla n d s. W ith
th e cooperation of th e P h ilip p in e In s u la r G overnm ent rep eat s ta ­
tions an d also a num b er of new statio n s were occupied th ro u g h o u t
th e P h ilip p in e Isla n d s.
T h e re is a m ost u rg e n t need fo r in creasin g th e office force o f th e
div isio n of te rre s tria l m agnetism and seism ology. Im p ro v ed m e th ­

194

R E PO R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

ods have resulted in a g re a te r o u tp u t of w ork fro m the force a v a il­
able, bu t th e re has been no increase of personn el fo r years, an d th e
increased dem and on th e p a r t of th e public has m ade it extrem ely
difficult to m eet the dem ands m ade upon th e div isio n w ith its p re s­
ent personnel.
M A G N E T IC S U R V E Y O F A L A S K A

D u rin g th e y e ar m agnetic d eclinatio n was d eterm in ed a t a larg e
nu m be r of tria n g u la tio n statio n s in so uth eastern an d w estern A laska.
A s a resu lt, correct m agnetic in fo rm atio n can be placed on th e c h a rts
of th e regions w hich are being surveyed. T h e re is need fo r m agnetic
w ork in m any p a rts of th is g re a t area. M agnetic statio n s are now
foun d only alo ng th e m ain lines of tra v e l, an d th e re are vast areas
w here no observations have been m ade. A t th e p resen t tim e a p a rty
m a k in g a survey of th e A le u tia n Isla n d s, in cooperation w ith th e
Coast G u a rd , is in clu d in g m agnetic observations in its p ro gram .
I t is p la n n ed to do rep eat w ork in th e in te rio r d u rin g th e next
fiscal year.
T h e m agnetic o bservatory a t S itk a , w ith its contin uous record of
m agn etic declination , d ip , and in te n sity , is of special im p ortance, in
view of th e scarcity of observations elsewhere. T h is ob serv ato ry is
well situ a te d fo r th e stu d y of m agn etic storm s w hich are o ften ac­
com panied by a u ro ra l d isp lay s an d are som etim es of such in te n sity
as to cause difficulties in cable transm ission an d ojieratio n o f ra d io
statio ns. T h e records of th e S itk a O b se rv ato ry a re used in these
studies.
S E IS M O L O G Y

D u rin g th e y e ar th e d u ty o f m a k in g seism ological in v estig atio n s
w as placed on th is bu re au by an act o f C ongress. T h e need fo r th e
w ork w as em phasized by fo u r im p o rta n t e arth q u ak es in regions in
or a d jo in in g th e U n ited S ta te s (S t. L aw rence V alley , A laska, M on­
ta n a , a n d C a lifo rn ia ). T h e subject accord in gly has been given m ore
co n sid eratio n th a n a t any tim e since 1906. T h e b u re au is still c a rry ­
in g on th e w ork as an accessory to m agnetic w ork, on account of
lack of fu n d s, an d accord in gly is h a v in g difficulty in m eeting the
g re a t de m and fo r in fo rm atio n . I ts te n ta tiv e p ro g ram includes a
stu d v of earth q u ak e s as a basis fo r m eetin g the pro blem of e a rth ­
quake insurance, w hich includes th e p re p a ra tio n of e arth q u ak e m aps
of the c o u n try ; sim ila r in fo rm atio n about earth q u ak e regions w here
p re c au tio n in b u ild in g is necessary; reco rd in g of earth qu ak es, in ­
clu d in g th e in sta llatio n of b e tte r seism ographs and scientific stu d y
of th e records. T h e scientific stu d y is so in tim a te ly associated w ith
th e o b ta in in g of p ra c tic a l results th a t a d istin c tio n can h a rd ly be
m ade. T h e im m ediate in te n tio n is to place b e tte r in stru m e n ts a t
th e m agn etic ob servato ries a n d spend m ore tim e in th e stu d y of
records. T h e collection o f fe lt an d visible effects o f earth q u ak es has
been an d w ill continue to be a n im p o rta n t fu nc tio n.
T ID E A N D C U R R E N T O B S E R V A T IO N S

I n a d d itio n to num erous sh o rt series of tid e observation s th e re g u ­
la r tid e observation s a t p rim a ry tid e statio n s w ere continu ed d u r­
in g th e year. E ig h t statio n s w ere m a in ta in ed on th e A tla n tic coast,

COAST A N D G E OD E TIC SU R VE Y

195

fo u r on th e G u lf coast, six on th e Pacific coast, tw o in A laska, an d
one in th e H a w a iia n Isla n d s. A com prehensive c u rre n t an d tid e
survey o f D elaw are B ay a n d trib u ta rie s w as m ade in the fa ll of
1924. W ith th e co op eratio n of th e B u re au of L ighthouses, c u rre n t
o b servatio ns w ere m ade on tw o lig h t vessels statio n ed along th e
A tla n tic coast a n d one on th e Pacific coast.
T H E DELAWARE B A Y CURRENT AND TIDAL'SURVEY

A la rg e p a r t of th e an n u al a p p ro p ria tio n fo r tid e a n d c u rre n t
w ork is used fo r th e pu rp o se of com prehensive c u rre n t an d tid e
surveys of o u r p rin c ip a l harb ors. I n th e fiscal y e a r 1923 such a s u r­
vey was m ade of New Y o rk H a rb o r, in 1924 of San F ran cisco H a r ­
bor, and in 1925 of D elaw are B ay an d trib u ta rie s. D efinite in ­
fo rm a tio n re la tin g to th e tid e an d c u rre n t phenom ena fo r those h a r ­
b o rs is now available. T o th e n a v ig a to r th e C u rre n t T ables, based
on these surveys, a re o f inv aluable assistance, since th ey in fo rm him
in advance of th e tim es of slack w a ter an d th e tim e a n d velocity of
th e c u rre n t—the first of im p o rtan ce in b e rth in g la rg e vessels, an d th e
second in ke eping account o f p o sition of vessel in th ic k w eather.
A side fro m the value o f th ese d a ta fo r purp oses of n av ig atio n , th e
b y -p ro d u cts obtained a t no increased cost, are o f considerable value
to th e engineer engaged in h a rb o r developm ent an d m arin e co nstruc­
tio n of various kinds, such d a ta being necessary to a p ro p e r u n d e r­
sta n d in g of th e condition s u n d e r w hich ope ra tio n s w ill he carried on,
as well of o f th e ph ysical condition s w hich w ill re su lt from an en ­
g in e erin g project.
T h e d a ta fro m th e survey o f New Y ork h a rb o r a p p e a r in C oast and
G eodetic S u rv ey Special P u b lica tio n No. 111. T h e m an u sc rip t of
a sim ila r p u b lic a tio n fo r S an F ran cisco H a rb o r is now in press.
T h e d a ta from th e D elaw are B ay S u rv ey are now being com puted
an d a f te r being co rrela ted w ith th e v arious scattered observation s
m ade a t differen t tim es in previo us y ears w ill be fo rw a rd e d to th e
p rin te r to w a rd th e end o f th e n ex t fiscal year.
CURRENT SU R V EY , SO UTH EASTERN ALASK A

W h ile o th e r im p o rta n t h a rb o rs aw ait c u rre n t surveys it was
th o u g h t advisable fo r th e n e x t fiscal y e a r to m ake c u rre n t observa­
tion s in th e na rro w passes o f so u th ea st A lask a from D ixon E n tra n c e
to C ross Sound. D a ta fro m such observations are u rg e n tly needed
in o rd e r to increase th e accuracy o f th e p re d ic tio n s in ou r Pacific
C oast C u rre n t Tables, w hich are a t p re se n t based on m eager d ata
in m any cases. T h e stro n g velocity of th e c u rre n ts a n d th e sh o rt
d u ra tio n of slack w ater in these passes m ake accurate p re d ic tio n s ex ­
trem ely desirable.
INVESTIG ATIO N OF GULF STREAM

T h e fu n d s available fo r tid e and c u rre n t w ork do n o t p e rm it of
extensive observation s in p h ysical oceanog raphy . L ittle has been
done in th is field except in a general w ay a n d th a t of a reconnaissance
n a tu re . A s tu d y o f th e G u lf stre am is of considerable value and
m ay be considered as one o f th e m ost im p o rta n t m a tte rs in ocean­
o g ra p h y . C onsiderable reconnaissance w ork was done fo r a num -

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R E P O R T OF T H E SECRETA RY OF C O M M E R C E

her o f y ears by th is bu reau in th is im p o rta n t field, b u t la ck of fu n d s
has p rev en ted any fu r th e r w ork. Sy stem atic c u rre n t a n d o th er
oceano graphic observations should now be c arrie d on by th e survey
in th is oceanic riv e r as one of o u r vessels becomes available an d our
a p p ro p ria tio n s sufficiently increased to cover th e cost charged a g a in st
p a r ty expense, tides, etc.
t

COOPERATION W IT H OTHER AGENCIES I N TIDE A N D CURRENT WORK

T h e cooperative a rran g em en t h as continued w ith th e H y d ro g ra p h ic D e p a rtm e n t of th e B ritis h A d m ira lty w hereby th e m an u ­
sc rip t o f p re d ic tio n s fo r A m erican p o rts is exchanged fo r p re d ic ­
tion s of E n g lish po rts. T h is a rra n g em en t began w ith th e exchange
of 6 p o rts an d has since been extended from y e ar to y e ar to a p re sen t
exchange of 16 p o rts from each o rg anizatio n.
D u rin g th e y ear num erous requests have been received from v a ri­
ous org an iz atio n s and in d iv id u a ls fo r in fo rm a tio n as to costs and
m a n u fa ctu rers o f the p o rta b le au to m atic tid e gauge recently devel­
oped by th e Coast a n d G eodetic Su rvey. T h ey w ere fu rn ish e d de­
scrip tio n s of th e in stru m en t, its cost, and nam es of m an u fa ctu rers.
T h e special p ub licatio n, now in press, descrip tive of th is gauge fo r
th e use of o u r officers in in sta llatio n and m ainten ance, w ill serve a
useful pu rp o se also fo r outside engineers.
F o r use on th e ocean ographic cruise to th e Sarg asso Sea and so u th ­
e rn islands, th is bu reau loaned a p o rta b le au to m atic tid e gauge, c u r­
re n t m eters, and o th e r ocean ographic in stru m e n ts to D r. W illiam
Beebe, of the New Y ork Zoological P a rk . D octor Beebe w ill tu rn
over to th e bu reau th e records obtain ed fro m th e use o f these in s tru ­
m ents.
Because Seym our N arro w s lies in B ritis h C olum bia w aters, th is
survey has h ad no da ta upon w hich to m ake acc u ra te p redictio ns of
the c u rre n ts, w hich a re o f considerable im portance to vessels on the
Seattle-A las'ka ru n . T h e C an ad ia n T id a l and C u rre n t Su rv ey, at
th e request o f th is bu re au , fu rn ish e d us w ith three m on ths o f obser­
vatio n s m ade b y them in th e sum m er of 1923 a t each end of th e
N arrow s. These observations were analyzed and the constants used
on th e tid e -p re d ic tin g m achine fo r th e p re d ic tio n s of Slacks and
velocities in th e N arrow s. T he results a p p e a r in th e 1926 c u rre n t
tables. B efo re m a k in g use of these d a ta fo r th e c u rre n t tables the
slacks fo r th e y e a r 1910 were p redicted and checked ag ain st actu al
observation s of slacks m ade th a t y ear. T h e p re d ic tio n s agreed w ith
the actu al observed slacks w ith in less th a n 15 m inu tes 67 p er cent of
th e tim e, an d w ith in a h a lf h o u r 92 p e r cent of th e tim e.
T h e bureau is coo p eratin g w ith th e S ta te of New Je rse y in th e
stu d y o f a p p a re n t tid e flu ctu atio ns in an 800-foot well at L o n g p o rt.
T h e stu d y is being m ade in connection w ith an in v estig atio n o f th e
w ater su p p ly o f A tla n tic C ity.
D IV IS IO N

OF ACCOUNTS

F ro m J u ly 1. 192-1. to Ju n e 30. 1925, th e actual disbursem ents on
account of a p p ro p ria tio n s fo r th e C oast an d G eodetic Survey
am ounted to $2,133,718.02. I t m ust be und erstood, how ever, th a t
th is does not rep re sen t th e actu al expenses of th e survey fo r th e

COAST AND G E OD E TIC SURVEY

197

fiscal year 1925, but o nly th e actu al disbursem ents. In a sep ara te
re p o rt to C ongress w ill be fo und an item ized statem en t show ing d is­
bursem ents from each a p p ro p ria tio n an d subitem s th e re o f w ith all
d etailed in fo rm atio n as to th e ch arac te r of the expenditure.
These ex pen ditu res include the accounts of all chiefs of p a rtie s in
th e field located th ro u g h o u t th e U n ited S tates. A lask a, H aw aii, P o rto
P ic o , the P h ilip p in e s, and th e V irg in Isla n d s. F ro m 30 to 50 chiefs
o f p a rtie s w ere en gaged on field d u ty at vario u s tim es d u rin g the
year, being financed th ro u g h advances m ade to them by th is division,
an d accounts a risin g u n d er such advances were subm itted to and
th ro u g h th is division to th e T rea su ry D ep artm en t.
T h e to ta l a p p ro p ria tio n s fo r th e fiscal y e ar 1925 were $2,327,050.
C H A R T S A N D P U B L IC A T IO N S

D u rin g th e fiscal y ear th e survey continued its ta sk of fu rn ish in g
to o th er branches of th e G overnm ent and to th e m aritim e public
correct and u p -to -d ate ch arts. I t also m ade g ra tify in g pro g ress in
th e produ ctio n of new c h a rts re su ltin g from th e recen t com pletion
of surveys by ou r field p a rtie s o r from th e policy of re p la cin g cer­
ta in ex istin g ch arts w ith oth ers c o n fo rm in g to p re sen t-d ay stan d ard s.
T h e issue of c h a rts shows a g ra tify in g increase. T h e num be r of
c h a rts actu a lly sold to th e p u blic increased 8 p e r cent over 1924.
T he issue of c h arts is th e p rin c ip a l fa c to r w ith w hich to m easure the
b u re a u 's service to th e public.
A s ex p lain ed in previous re p o rts, how ever, th e n u m b er o f c h arts
issued does not afford an accurate m easure of th e ta sk incident to
th e ir prod uctio n. T h e tru e m easure is o btain ed by consideration
o f th e am ou nt of d a ta received in th e office to be used in the con­
stru ctio n or correction of ch arts. In th is respect also th e y ear has
been a g ra tify in g one. h av in g been th e b ig ge st an d m ost p ro ductiv e
one in th e surv ey's h isto ry . A s a re su lt o f conscientious effort by
each section, new in fo rm atio n , in sp ite o f th e increase in its am ou nt
and w ith no increase in personnel to handle it, has been given to the
public m ore p ro m p tly th a n at any previo us time.
F o r m any years a so u nd in g e n g ra v in g m achine has been used fo r
c u ttin g the sounding s into copper p late. E x p e rim en ts w ith th is
m achine showed th a t a sim ila r one could be used, w ith a considerable
sav in g o f tim e, fo r c u ttin g sounding s th ro u g h th e film on th e glass
negatives used in the p h o to lith o g ra p h ic process.
T he C oast and G eodetic Su rv ey was created p rim a rily to-produce
one specific p ro d u c t fo r public use, an d th e pro ductio n of th a t p ro d ­
uct still constitutes its p rin c ip a l fun ctio n. T h e su rv ey ’s value to th e
p u blic is influenced, th ere fo re , by th e ex ten t to w hich the la tte r has
know ledge of th e av ailab ility of th a t p ro d u c t and of its general
c h aracte r. H a v in g th is fa c t in m in d , th is b u re au d u rin g th e past
y e ar has continued its efforts to acq u ain t th e p u blic w ith o u r ch arts
an d to m ake it easier fo r th e public to o btain th em as well as to
im prove th e q u a lity o f th e p ro d u c t itself.
P o ste rs a d v ertisin g th e pu blicatio ns in general, as well as a special
poster de scrip tive of th e new series of inside route c h arts from N or­
fo lk to K ey W est, have been d istrib u te d fo r d is p la y by agents, y a ch t
clubs, an d a t o th er places w here th ey w ill reach th e eye o f the m a ri­

R E P O R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

198

tim e public. These posters w ere p re p a re d w ith in th e bureau, a t n om ­
in al cost, w hich is am ply justified by th e ir usefulness. L arge-scale
c h a rts o f local in te re st have been d isplayed in p o st offices, custom ­
houses, an d y a c h t clubs a t vario us places.
U nusual efforts have been m ade, both by le tte r an d by person al
visits, to im prove th e q u a lity of service ren d ered by our agents.
P a rtic u la r p ain s have been tak en to see th a t each agen t carries a
stock of c h a rts adequ ate to m eet any reasonable dem and m ade upon
him , y e t a t th e sam e tim e to in sure such a selection of c h a rts th a t
th e perio dic condem nation w ill n o t be excessive.
L E G IS L A T IO N N E E D E D

T h e Coast an d G eodetic Su rv ey is severely h a n d ica p p e d a t h e ad ­
q u a rte rs in th a t its office build in g s are old an d un suitable fo r th e
m ost efficient w ork, and consequently th e fu llest benefit is no t being
received from th e fu n d s a p p ro p ria te d fo r th e bureau. M axim um
accom plishm ents can no t be expected w ith o u t legislation. T h e a r ­
ra n g em en t of these offices in e ig h t different b u ildin gs, no t a ll con­
tigu ous, causes a loss o f efficiency in th e pro d u ctio n of n au tical
c h a rts a n d in th e m a n u fa ctu re ancl re p a ir of th e in stru m e n ts neces­
s a ry fo r surveys. N ot only is th e cost of pro d u ctio n g re a ter, b u t
less he adw ay is being m ade fo r th e reason th a t we a re using e x tra
la b o r to accom plish w ork w hich should be done m echanically. C op­
p e r p rin tin g plates are now being c a rrie d by laborers fro m a sto re ­
room to th e eng ravers five flights o f sta irs above. A n elevator should
be in stalled to fa c ilita te th is w ork. I n th is w ay the delivery of
p la te s w ould be speeded up , th e tim e o f skilled a rtisa n s w ould be
used m ost adv an tage ou sly, an d th e am o u n t of e x tra labor w ould be
m a te ria lly reduced.
T h is is not th e on ly instance o f th e kind. I n th e m a n u fa ctu re
an d re p a ir of in stru m en ts an d equip m ent th e re is o ften a sim ilar
loss o f efficiency w hich could be obviated by m in o r a lte ra tio n s to th e
bu ild in gs. I th e re fo re u rg e th a t le gislation be enacted a u th o riz in g
such m ino r im p ro vem ents as are fo un d necessary. I am in clu d in g
in th e estim ates fo r 1927 an item w hich w ill p e rm it th e replacem en t
o f m an u al la b o r by m echanical equipm ent an d otherw ise pro vid e
b e tte r facilitie s fo r c a rry in g on th e in d u stria l w ork of th e bureau.
T h is le gislation requ ires no a d d itio n a l a p p ro p ria tio n .
.

A D D IT IO N A L V E S S E L S

E m p h asis is a g ain placed on th e u rg e n t need o f th is bu re au fo r
a d d itio n a l floatin g equipm ent. T h re e te n d ers fo r th e th re e la rg e r
vessels are m ost u rg e n tly needed to replace sim ila r c ra ft w hich
ha v e been w orn o u t m service. O ne o f these gave o u t several years
a g o ; th e second one was discontinued th is y e ar an d o rd ered to be
sold as ju n k ; th e th ird ten d er is still in o p era tio n b u t is in a de­
cid ed ly d e crep it co nd ition an d p ro b a b ly w ill n o t la st a n o th e r year.
A sm all vessel of about 500 to ns displacem ent is u rg e n tly needed
fo r d u ty on th e A tla n tic coast to replace two sm all vesseds w hich
have ou tlived th e ir usefulness an d are w eak, inefficient, an d costly
to m ain tain .

COAST AND GEOD ETIC SURVEY

199

S A N IT A T IO N O F B U IL D IN G S

I am g ra tified to re p o rt th a t a recen t s a n ita ry inspection of the
b u ild in g s occupied by th is b u re au b ro u g h t fo rth official com m enda­
tio n by th e in sp ectin g ag en t, a goal to w a rd w hich we have tu rn e d
o u r efforts fo r a nu m ber o f years. T h is has been a m ost difficult
ta sk and reflects special com m endation on those ch arg ed d irectly
w ith care of th e b u ild in g s as well as those who occupy thqm in th e ir
help to m a in ta in an u n u su ally h ig h sta n d a rd o f o rd e r an d clean li­
ness. O nly one o f th e e ig h t b u ild in g s w as erected fo r th e specific
use o f th e bureau. T w o w ere constru cted fo r p riv a te dw ellings an d
a th ir d fo r a sta b le; tw o oth ers, som ew hat ad jacen t, were in tended
fo r ho tel use. A s a re su lt o f th is uniq ue com bination, an d being
n e x t to th e U n ited S ta te s C apito l an d opposite th e H ouse o f R e p re ­
sentatives Office B u ild in g , o u r q u a rte rs are m ost difficult a n d e x ­
pensive to m a in ta in in p ro p e r o rd e r w ith o u t flnusual efforts.
T en ye ars ago th e calcim ined w alls w ere scalin g b adly and th e
floors and w oodw ork were ex trem ely d irty . N a tu ra lly th e inspection
re p o rts were filled W ith u n fa v o ra b le criticism s. Now, how ever, by
an exercise o f d a ily diligen ce on th e p a r t o f o u r personnel, these
defects have been corrected so th a t all o f th e b u ild in g s are as clean
a n d in v itin g as is possible w ith o u t an e x tra o rd in a ry e x p en d itu re of
fund s.
V ery tru ly yours,
E . L e s t e r .Jo n e s ,
D irecto r , Coast a n d G eodetic S u rv e y .

B U R E A U O F N A V IG A T IO N

D e pa r t m e n t o f Co m m e r c e ,
B

ur ea u of

Na

v ig a t io n

,

W a sh in g to n , ■Ju ly 1, 1922.
H on. H e r b e r t H o o v e r ,
S ecreta ry o f Commerce.
D e a r M r . S e c r e t a r y : In response to y o u r request I fu rn ish the
fo llow in g condensed re p o rt of the w ork o f th e bureau d u rin g the
p a st y e a r :
A m erican s h ip p in g re g istered fo r th e fo reig n tra d e a n d enrolled
an d licensed fo r th e coastin g tra d e , in clu d in g th e fisheries, on J u n e
30, 1025, com prised 20,307 vessels o f 17,405,902 gross tons, com pared
w ith 20,575 vessels o f 17,740,557 gross tons on J u n e 30, 1924, a de­
crease of 208 vessels o f 334,055 gross tons.
L lo y d ’s R eg ister of S h ip p in g gives th e to ta l seagoing steel and
iron steam ers and m oto r vessels owned by th e p rin c ip a l m aritim e
co un tries on J u n e 30, 1925, as 01,317,341 gross tons, o f w hich G reat
B rita in and D om inions have 21,758,902 gross tons an d th e U n ite d
S ta te s is second w ith 11,550,533 gross tons, ex clu d in g th e G re at L akes.
O f th e to ta l w orld seagoing ton nage, am o u n tin g to 32,910 vessels
of 04,041,418 gross tons, 894 S h ip p in g B o ard vessels of 3,777,155 gross
tons and 254 p riv a te ly ow ned A m erican vessels of 547,280 gross tons
were la id up on J u n e 30, 1925.
On J a n u a ry 1. 1925, accord in g to th e C ham ber o f S h ip p in g of th e
U n ited K ing dom , th e re were la id up a t the p rin c ip a l p o rts o f th e
U n ited K in g d o m 319 sh ip s of 751,921 gross tons, as a g ain st 301 ships
o f 908.930 gross tons on J a n u a ry 1, 1924.
F o llo w in g is a b rie f an alysis o f o u r s h ip p in g on Ju n e 30, 1917, as
th e U n ited S ta te s en tered th e w ar, an d at th e close of the fiscal y ear
1924 an d on J u n e 30, 1925:
Seagoing

June

G ra n d to ta l

30-

N u m ­
ber

1925.......
1924.......
1917___

26,367
26,575
26,397

G ro ss to n s

17.405.902
17, 740,557
8,871,037

S h ip p in g B o ard | P riv a te o w n ers j
(o ver 1,000 gross j (over 500 gross I
to ns)
j
tons)
N u m ­
ber

1,218
1,339
19

G ro ss to n s

5.839, 659
6, 290, 323
76,160

N u m ­
ber

1,975
1.983
1, 552

G ro ss to n s

6.216.552
6,244,5.55
3, 564,160

Great Lakes

N u m ­
ber

2. 677
2,693
3,001

G ro ss to n s

2,855,019
2,791.204
2,779,087

A ll o th ers

N u m ­
ber

20. 447
20, 560
21,625

G ro ss to n s

2, 494, 672
2,414.475
2,451,630

O n Ju n e 30, 1925, th ere were b u ild in g in A m erican sh ip y ard s, in ­
clu d in g the G re a t L akes. 187 vessels of 185,654 gross tons, as com ­
p are d w ith 222 vessels of 185,077 gross tons on J u n e 30. 1924.
200

B U R E A U O F N A VIG A T IO N

201

N A V IG A T IO N L A W S

U n d e r section 4 of th e act o f J u ly 5, 1884, th e C om m issioner of
N av ig atio n is d irected to in v estig ate th e op era tio n of th e law re la ­
tive to n av ig atio n and a n n u ally re p o rt to you such p a rtic u la rs as
m ay a d m it of im prov em en t or m ay require am endm ent.
LO A D L IN E

In the re p o rt fo r 1924 th e re p o rt of th e com m ittee ap p o in te d by
you to consider Senate b ill 1319, S ix ty -e ig h th Congress, first session,
was set fo rth a t length . I t is g e n erally accepted th a t legislation on
th is subject is essential, first, in th e in te re st of safety an d, second, to
im prove th e com m ercial s ta n d in g o f our g re a t fleet o f ocean-going
cargo steam ers. T h e S enate bill re fe rre d to, if am ended as su g ­
gested by y o u r com m ittee m eets the m ore seriotis objections w hich have
h ereto fo re delayed legislation on th is subject. T h is legislation
should be approv ed, first, in co n sid eratio n of th e safety of th e vessel
and crew and the avoidance of th e dam age and extensive re p a irs
inevitable w ith inadequate freeboard, and second, because th e leadin g
m aritim e na tio n s a ll have differen t lo ad-line provisions, an d th e ir
law s req u ire ou r sh ip s lo ad in g in th e ir p o rts to com ply w ith th e ir
several detailed requ irem en ts in th e absence o f sim ilar regu la tio n s
of o u r own. T h e U n ite d S ta te s is now th e only m aritim e n a tio n of
im portance whose commerce is liable to be h am pered by these p ro ­
visions.
R E O R G A N IZ A T IO N O F M A R IT IM E B U R E A U S A N D A C T IV IT IE S

A constructiv e re o rg an iz atio n of th e whole re la tio n of th e F e d e ra l
G ov ernm ent to th e m erc h an t m arine in all of its a d m in istra tiv e
aspects is m ost u rg e n t. Such re o rg a n iz atio n should be m ade to
assure b e tte r a d m in istra tio n , p re v en t d u p lic a tio n , insure an d define
a d m in istra tiv e responsibilities, an d p ro vid e an e x p e rt an d efficient
o rg an iz atio n w ith re su ltin g benefits to th e m erc h an t m arine.
A m ong th e several services involved in th e proposed cen tralizatio n
o f m arin e activities is th e tra n s fe r from th e T re a su ry D epartm en t to
th e D e p a r tm e n t of C om m erce o f th e personnel now in th e custom ­
houses em ployed exclusively on n av ig atio n w ork. These em ployees
are un d er th e ju risd ic tio n o f a n d receive th e ir in stru ctio n s d ire c t
from th e D e p a rtm e n t of Com m erce, but are ap p o in te d , p a id by, and
are u n d er the ad m in istra tiv e supervision o f T re a su ry officers. T h e
B u re au of N av ig atio n p e rfo rm s n e arly all of its fu nctio ns th ro u g h
these em ployees o f th e T re a su ry , th e o rganizatio n being created on
custom s ra th e r th an na v ig atio n lines.
P e rh a p s th e m ost p re ssin g need is th e tra n s fe r to th e D e p artm en t
of Commerce o f th e ad m easu rin g officers now in the T rea su ry D e­
p a rtm e n t. T h e p re sen t aw kw ard an d unbusinesslike system neces­
sarily resu lts in A m erican adm easu rem en t being below th e s ta n d a rd
of o th er m aritim e natio ns, w hich results in discrim in atio ns ag ain st
our vessels, delay in p e rfo rm in g th e w ork an d unnecessary cost.
T h e only m eans th e bu reau h as fo r securin g u n ifo rm ity and
accuracy in th e adm easurem ent o f vessels is th ro u g h one tra v e lin g
ad ju ster who visits the various p o rts a n d confers w ith and in stru c ts

2 0 2

R E PO R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

th e adm easurers, b u t who is able to m ake th e com plete circ u it only
once in tw o years. I n th e m eantim e th e re are changes of a d ­
m easurers a t m any of the p o its. T he resu lts are n o t satisfa c to ry
even a t p o rts w here larg e vessels are m easured, and experienced m en
give p ra c tica lly a ll of th e ir tim e to th e w ork.
C en traliz a tio n o f th e personnel w ill im prove th e service. I t
w ill engen der professio nal p rid e, consolidate efforts, a n d secure
m ore responsive a c tio n ; all of w hich w ould a ttra c t com petent m en
a n d th ro u g h c en tral direction ren d er e x p e rt and adequ ate service
to th e c re d it o f th e d e p a rtm e n t an d benefit to shipow ners. Such
service w ould be sta n d a rd an d e x p e rt advice w ould be available
in th e constru ction o f vessels on points o f law re g a rd in g to n na ge,
sav in g delay an d expense en tailed in changes la te r fo u n d neces­
sary to secure th e benefits o f deductions an d exem ptions. T he
P a n a m a C an al au th o ritie s have expressed th e view th a t such service
should be in stitu te d as soon as p racticab le as th e v a ria tio n in m ethods
of adm easu rem en t a t our v arious p o rts is reflected in th e w ork a t
th e C anal.
R A D IO S E R V IC E

R a d io h as p ro bably gro w n m ore ra p id ly th a n any o th er in d u stry
w ith in th e sam e period o f tim e. I t has been estim ated th a t sales have
increased fro m a p p ro x im a te ly $2,000,000 in 1920 to a p p ro x im ate ly
$350,000,000 in 1924, an d it is contem plated th a t th e am ount w ill
reach $500,000,000 in 1925. T h is enorm ous increase can be a ttrib u te d
alm ost en tire ly to th e b ro ad castin g service w hich began th e la tte r
p a r t of 1921. T h ere is little do ubt as to th e perm anency o f th is
b ran ch of th e in d u stry . T h e enjoy m ent an d valu e of th e service is
being increased by m eans o f im proved a p p a ra tu s an d carefu l su p er­
vision of prog ram s. A t th e end of th is fiscal y e ar we have 571
b ro ad castin g statio n s, com pared w ith 535 a t th e end o f la st year.
T here h a s been a g ro w in g desire to increase th e pow er o f b ro a d ­
c a stin g statio ns. F ro m J u n e 30, 1923, to J u n e 30, 1924, th e re was an
increase of . 6 p e r cent, w hile d u rin g th e p a st fiscal y e ar th e re has
been an increase of 94 p e r cent. T h e increases have n o t m et w ith
pub lic fa v o r generally. I t m ay be fo u n d desirab le to increase th e
pow er d u rin g th e sum m er and decrease it to some e x te n t d u rin g th e
w in te r if serious in terferen ce develops. T h is can be determ in ed d u r­
in g th e com ing w in ter.
In te rn a tio n a l b ro a d c astin g m ay be successfully accom plished d u r­
in g th e com ing year. T h e difference in tim e betw een E u ro p e an d
th is co u n try presents some difficulty in th e in te rc h an g e o f p ro g ram s
w hich can be enjoyed sim ultaneously.
T h e m ain tenanc e o f co n sta n t freq uency o r w ave-length an d th e
elim in atio n of harm onics and o th er und esirab le em issions m u st be
given m ore consideration . T h e use o f cry stal co ntro l in m a in ta in ­
in g th e p ro p e r frequency o f b ro ad castin g statio n s m ay be fo u n d
p ra c tic a l an d u ltim a te ly become necessary to p re v en t statio n s in te r­
fe rin g w ith each other.
x\.s a safeg u a rd to life and p ro p e rty o u r inspection force gives
first consid eratio n to d eterm in in g th e re lia b ility of rad io a p p a ra tu s
on fo reign an d A m erican vessels c learin g fro m o u r ports.
T h e clearances an d inspections d u rin g th e p a st fiscal y e ar exceeded
those o f any p reviou s year.

B U R E A U OF N A VIG AT IO N

203

T h ere were 12.141 clearances an d 8,603 inspections d u rin g th e iiscal
y e ar ju s t ended, w hile fo r th e previous y ear th e re were 10,436 clear­
ances a n d 7,727 inspections.
T he inspections developed 316 cases o f inefficient a p p a ra tu s or
o th e r defects w hich w ould hav e co n stitu ted violation s o f th e law
h a d th e vessels sailed u n d e r th e conditions as fo un d a t th e tim e of
inspection. T h e previou s y e a r 299 such cases w ere reported.
M erch an t vessels a re re ly in g upon ra d io to an in creasin g extent.
N o t only because it is th e ir only m ethod o f d is ta n t com m unication
a n d has freq u en tly been th e m eans of sav in g lives, b u t it is now
com ing into extensive use to in su re safe n av ig atio n . T here a re a t
p re sen t 128 A m erican sh ip s w hich have ra d io com pass in stallations.
T h e re w ere 75 such in sta llatio n s m ade d u rin g th e fiscal y e ar ju st
ended.
C onsiderable prog ress h as been m ade d u rin g th e y e ar in develop­
in g th e tran sm issio n of p h o to g ra p h s by radio. A t p resen t th is use
o f ra d io m ay be considered as in th e ex p erim en tal stage. T h e suc­
cess th u s f a r achieved a p p a re n tly justifies th e p re d ic tio n th a t th is
new use of ra d io m ay be fo u n d com m ercially practicab le , an d ta k e
its place am ong o th e r im p o rta n t ra d io developm ents.
T h e lim ita tio n of ex istin g ra d io law s w ould hav e seriously h a n d i­
cap p ed th e d e p a rtm e n t b u t fo r th e excellent cooperation received
fro m a ll of th e ra d io interests. T o encourage th is s p irit of coopera­
tio n th re e conferences have been held d u rin g th e p a st th re e years,
a n d an o th er is to be held th is fa ll. T h e recom m endations o f these
conferences have been carrie d out alm ost to th e le tte r, a n d have been
o f g re a t assistance in p ro v id in g fo r th e o rd e rly o p eratio n o f th e
v ario u s ra d io services. M an y o f these recom m endations should be
covered by new legislation.
R ealizin g th e difficulties experienced by th e ra d io service of th e
d e p a rtm e n t, due to th e inadeq uate a p p ro p ria tio n p ro vided fo r th is
service, th e la st ra d io conference recom m ended a m ore lib era l a p p ro ­
p ria tio n . T h e la st C ongress did no t a p p ro v e the increase requested
by th e d e p a rtm e n t; th e re fo re , it w ill be necessary to renew th e
request in o u r estim ates fo r th e n e x t fiscal year.
No o th e r co u n try is so fo rtu n a te as the U n ite d S ta te s in h a v in g
a reserve force o f m ore th a n 15,000 skilled ra d io o p era to rs co n stan tly
tra in in g an d ex p erim en tin g w ith p ra c tica lly all of th e m ost m odern
developm ents in radio . T h ey are re fe rre d to as am ateu rs, althou gh
a la rg e nu m ber o f th em are e x p e rt o p e ra to rs, and some o f th em have
qualificatio ns o f ra d io engineers. T h ro u g h th e ir ex istin g system o f
in te rn a tio n a l com m unication th e y have an o p p o rtu n ity to prom ote
good w ill an d a b e tte r u n d e rsta n d in g between th e y oun g men of th e
w o rld , w hich m ay be m ore f a r re ach in g a n d beneficial th a n can a t
p re sen t be realized.
U n d e r a u th o rity of th e g en eral a p p ro p ria tio n s act fo r th e D e­
p a rtm e n t o f Com m erce, fiscal y e a r 1925, th e personnel an d e q u ip ­
m ent of th e in te rn a tio n a l ra d io accoun tin g section of th e N avy D e­
p a rtm e n t w as tra n s fe rre d to th e D e p a rtm e n t of Commerce. D u r­
in g th e p a st fiscal y e ar 1,784 accounts were h an d led , and 680 ac­
counts were on h an d a t th e end o f th e y ear upon w hich settlem ent
had not been m ade. R eceipts, in clu d in g $5,360 tra n s fe rre d fro m th e
N avy, am ounted to $176,125.28. D isbursem ents to fo reig n a d m in ­
istratio n s, $131,666.77. B alance on h and Ju n e 30, 1925, $44,458.51.
66548-

25-

14

RE PO R T OF T H E SECRE TA RY OF C O M M E R C E

204
/

E N F O R C E M E N T O F N A V IG A T IO N L A W S

A d m in istra tio n o f th e n a v ig atio n law s has proceeded th ro u g h o u t
the y e ar alo ng th e usual lines b u t w ith in cre asin g results. D u rin g
the y e a r th e re w ere re p o rte d to th e d e p a rtm e n t fo r m itig a tio n or re ­
m ission o f pe nalties 9,544 vio latio ns o f th e n a v ig atio n laws, an in ­
crease o f G77 over 1924, w ith a corresponding increase in th e am ou nt
of pe n alties collected. O u r inspection service developed a g ro w in g
com pliance w ith th e law s covering life-sav in g equ ip m ent a n d safe
n av ig atio n . A n average o f 9 boats ou t of 10 inspected are fu lly
equipped. M any o f th e violations re p o rte d a re technical, b u t some
o f them are of a serious n a tu re . W ith o u t co n sta n t supervision it is
no t u nlik ely th a t some degree o f carelessness w ould develop, espe­
cially on th e p a r t of sm all-vessel ow ners, w ith possible consequent
loss of life an d p ro p e rty . I t is a m a tte r of note th a t p rev en tab le loss
of life on th e w ater has m a te ria lly decreased d u rin g recen t years.
T h is re su lt u n d oub tedly is due in p a rt, a t least, to th e im proved
equipm ent and n a v ig atio n , especially of th e sm aller vessels.
O u r live inspection vessels o p e ra tin g alo ng th e A tla n tic and G u lf
coasts d u rin g th e y e ar m ade 36,450 inspection s an d re p o rte d 3,232
violatio ns o f law . T h is service has th e cooperation o f m otorboat ow ners, publication s, a n d o rg anizatio ns. I n a d d itio n to th is
w ork these vessels, in cooperation w ith th e In te rn a l R evenue B u re au ,
re p o rte d taxes on p leasu re vessels on w hich assessm ent h as been
ordered a g g re g a tin g $30,655.42; cases in v estig ated an d assessm ent
recom m ended, $23,150.47; an d cases ¡lending in v estigatio n, $129,400,
o f w hich it is e stim ated o n e-h alf w ill be collected. T h e to ta l revenue
pro duced by th is service is ab out $118,000, exclusive o f fines and
penalties, a g a in st an a p p ro p ria tio n of $79,615 fo r its op eratio n . I t
is a p o p u la r an d beneficent service, m ore th a n self-su p p o rtin g , an d
do in g m uch to safeg u a rd life an d p ro p e rty .
U n d e r th e n u m b e rin g act o f J u n e 7,1918, th e re have been recorded
in the custom houses as of J u n e 30,1925, 191,217 vessels, an increase of
n e a rly 7,000 over th e previous year. T h is is a f a ir ind ex of th e ex­
te n t to w hich sm all m o to r boats are used fo r p leasu re an d in la n d
commerce.
S H IP P IN G COMMISSIONERS

D u rin g th e y e ar 551,136 officers an d m en w ere shipped , reship ped ,
an d d isch arg ed before sh ip p in g com m issioners, as com pared w ith
555,633 fo r th e previou s year. T h e average cost p e r m an fo r th is
service was 22 cents. C ollectors o f custom s actin g a t p o rts w here
sh ip p in g com m issioners’ offices have n o t been established sh ip p ed an d
disch arg ed d u rin g th e y e ar 53,582 officers a n d men, as com pared w ith
58,446 officers an d m en d u rin g th e previous year. A m erican consuls
shipp ed and disch arged 36,389 officers a n d men.
O f 280,964 officers an d m en sh ip p ed before s h ip p in g com m issioners
119,135 were na tiv e A m erican s,41,926 n a tu ra liz ed A m erican s; 161,061
in all, o r 57 p e r cent. T h is does n o t give an en tire ly accurate idea
of th e n a tio n a lity o f crews of A m erican vessels le av in g th e various
p o rts, especially on th e Pacific coast, inasm uch as m any vessels

BUREAU

OF

205

N A V IG A T IO N

m anned w ith a p ro p o rtio n o f aliens sign on th e ir crews before consuls
in fo reig n p o rts fo r th e ro u n d voyage.
L a st j'e a r th e bureau com piled fro m ap p licatio n s filed a t th e tim e
vessels are first docum ented a sta tem e n t of th e num ber of officers and
men actu ally em ployed on A m erican vessels. These figures a re sub­
ject to correction as tra d e , m otive pow er, an d rig of such vessels
change. T h e follow ing, however, m ay be ta k en as ap p ro x im ate ly
co rre ct: On steam vessels 185,295; on gas vessels, 35,665; on sail
vessels, 15,887; an d u n rig g e d , 5,229, m a k in g a to ta l of 242,076 officers
an d m en, exclud in g m asters, m a n n in g th e docum ented vessels of th e
U n ite d States.
P R E V E N T IN G

O V E R C R O W D IN G O F P A S S E N G E R V E S S E L S

D u rin g th e fiscal y e ar passengers w ere c o u n te d on 9,275 trip s o f
excursion steam ers, th e nu m ber of passengers a g g re g a tin g 6,370,788.
O f th is num ber, n a v ig atio n inspectors m ade 7,326 counts of 3,256,597
passengers. O n 459 occasions it w as necessary to stop passengers
g o in g on excursion boats, th e lim its o f safety h a v in g been reached.
T h is involved th e safety o f 277,327 passengers, as in th e absence o f
th e in spectors th ere w ould have been an overloadin g. T h e re p o rts
to th e b u re au in d ic ate a reasonable su pervisio n of th e w ater-ex cu r­
sion business o f th e co u n try . T h is business increased over th e p re ­
vious year. T h e re is alw ays p re sen t d a n g er of overcrow ding.
P A S S E N G E R A C T O F 1882

D u rin g th e y e ar 1,257 vessels en tered o u r p o rts b rin g in g to the
U n ite d S ta te s 187,127 steerag e passengers. T h e law re g u la tin g th is
tra n s p o rta tio n is com prehensive p ro v id in g fo r th e health , com fort,
an d m orals of these im m ig ran ts. B u t five vio latio ns of th e statu te
w ere discovered an d these were in each instance o f a technical n atu re .
I n recent ye ars th ere has been a m a te ria l im pro vem en t in th e q u a rte rs
fu rn ish e d these passengers.
N A V IG A T IO N R E C E IP T S

T h e receipts from to n n ag e d u rin g th e fiscal y e a r am oun ted to
$1,813,755.66 com pared w ith $1,713,432.68 fro m th e sam e source la st
year. T h e taxes an d also th e n a v ig atio n fees an d fines are collected
by collectors of custom s in th e a d m in istra tio n o f th e n a v ig atio n law s
th ro u g h th e B u re au of N av ig atio n . T h e receipts d u rin g the p a st
y e ar com pared w ith those of th e previo us y e ar an d 1917, th e la st
p re -w a r j ’e a r, were as follow s:
June 30—

Tonnage
duties

1925..........................................................
1924..........................................................
1917..........................................................

$1,813, 755.66
1,713,432.68
1,393.743.16

Navigation
fees
$216,878.77
212,825. 46
159,808.03

Navigation
fines
$61,628.31
46,167. 78
49,962. 37

Total
$2,092,262. 77
1,972,415. 92
1,603, 513. 56

T h e accounts covering these vario us collections receive a d m in ­
istra tiv e ex am in atio n and check in th e B u re au of N av ig atio n in

206

REPORT

OF

TUE

SECRETARY

OF

COM M ERCE

W ash in g to n . These charg es are im posed on fo reig n an d A m erican
vessels alik e and do n o t re p re sen t a d iscrim in a to ry ta x a g ain st
o u r m erc h an t m arin e.
N A V IG A T IO N A P P R O P R IA T IO N S

T h e a p p ro p ria tio n s fo r th e b u reau fo r th e p a st fiscal year, com ­
p a re d w ith those fo r th e y ears ended J u n e 30, 1924 an d 1917, were
as fo llo w s:
June 30—

1925.........................................
1924.........................................
1917.........................................

Bureau

$ 5 5 ,1 4 0
•12, 7 S 0

37,780

Counting Naviga­
Shipping Tonnage
adjust­
tion
passen­
service
ment
laws
gers
*110,000
110,600
74,425

$4,500
3,760
3,000

$14,000
10,250
18,250

$67,915
75,000
26,500

Wireless
laws

Total

$180,278
139, 200
45,000

$432,433
381,590
204,955

I t w ill be noted th a t th e receipts o f collections is about five tim es
th e cost of o p e ra tin g th e b u reau th ro u g h its d ire c t a p p ro p ria tio n s.
P U B L IC A T IO N S

P u b lica tio n s of th e bu re au , co m p risin g th e N a v ig atio n L aw s
(q u a d re n n ia l w ith an an n u al p a m p h le t su p p le m e n t), L is t of M e r­
c h a n t Vessels o f the U n ited S tates, Code L is t of M erch an t Vessels,
a n d L ist of R adio S ta tio n s (a ll a n n u a l), a n d A m erican D ocum ented
S eago in g M erch an t Vessels of 500 G ross T o ns an d O ver a n d R ad io
Service B u lle tin (bo th m o n th ly ) are no longer d istrib u te d g ra tu i­
tously, b u t are fo r sale by th e S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D ocum ents, G overn­
m ent P r in tin g Office, W ash in g to n , D. C.
T h e ap p en dixe s a n d sta tistic a l tables w hich have h ereto fo re fo l­
low ed w ill be pu blished in M erch an t M arine S ta tistics.
V ery tru ly yours,
D. B. C a r s o n ,
C om m issioner o f N avig a tio n .

S T E A M B O A T IN S P E C T IO N S E R V IC E

D e pa r t m e n t o f Co m m e r c e ,
S t e a m b o a t I n s pe c t io n S e r

H on. H

v ic e ,

W a sh in g to n , J u ly 1 , 1925.
er ber t

H

o ov er

,

Seci'etary o f Commerce.
D e a r M r . S e c r e t a r y : I n response to yo u r request I fu rn ish th e
fo llo w in g condensed re p o rt up on th e w ork o f th e bureau d u rin g th e
p a st y e a r :
T h is service exists p rim a rily fo r th e purpose o f secu rin g safety
on inspected vessels o f th e A m erican m erc h an t m arine, an d it is a
p leasure to be able to say th a t d u rin g th e p a st fiscal y e ar th e re has
been no g re a t accident or disaster.
T h o u g h we have done d u rin g th e p a st y e ar m ore business th a n in
th e preced in g one, we have expended a ctu ally $13,000 less. T he
effort th a t has been m ade th is y e ar to econom ize is n o t a new one
because it w ill be recalled th a t on A p ril 18, 1924, th e local inspection
d istric ts of A pa lachicola, F la ., a n d B u rlin g to n , V t., were abolished,
an d previous to th a t tim e (hey w ere allow ed to rem ain vacant p e n d ­
in g congressional action. T h e su p erv isin g in sp ecto rsh ip of th e sev­
en th d is tric t w ith h ead q u a rte rs a t P itts b u rg h , P a., w as also discon­
tin u e d in 1921, and w hile th is position has n o t yet been abolished by
C ongress, it is to be p o in ted ou t th a t le gislation look ing to th is end
is still pend in g. T h is h as resu lted in an an n u al sav in g o f $13,450.
T he w ork o f sta n d a rd iz in g ex am in atio n questions has no t yet been
com pleted because o f (he p ressu re of o th e r w ork. I t is th e in te n tio n
o f th e bu reau to com plete th is w ork as soon as possible.
IN C L IN IN G T E S T S

T h e w ork of in clin in g vessels is done by th e tra v e lin g inspectors
o f th is service. T h is w o rk has increased to such an ex ten t th a t at
tim es th e bureau h as, in a sense, been p u t upon th e defensive in
g e ttin g , th is w ork done on tim e. T h ere is no m ore im p o rta n t ac­
tiv ity to -d ay in th e S team bo at In sp ectio n Service th a n th e in clin in g
o f vessels, and th a t being (lie fact, th e re h as been no instance w here
th e re has been any delay in th e certification of a ship because o f a
sta b ility test. In any instance w here an o p e ra to r has fe lt th a t a
differen t conclusion should have been reached by th e bureau, a fa ir
an d im p a rtia l h e a rin g has been given, an d in some in stances th e
bureau has changed its o rig in a l fin dings based upon ad d itio n a l in ­
fo rm atio n th a t was fu rn ish ed , a ll o f w hich is in th e in te re st of good
business. •
T h e tra v e lin g inspectors have also been o f g re a t assistance to th e
bureau in keepin g in touch w ith every a c tiv ity o f th e e n tire service,
a n d by h av in g them statio n ed a t W ash in g to n , th e S u p e rv isin g I n ­
spector G en eral has been able to use them in conducting investiga207

208

REPORT

OF

THE

SECRETARY

OF

COM M ERCE

tion s of com plain ts th a t have come to th e c e n tra l office, th u s enab lin g
th e bureau to have im p o rta n t and com plete in fo rm atio n a t first han d .
L E G ISL A T IO N

R eference has been m ade in previo us a n n u a l re p o rts to th e neces­
sity fo r h av in g sections 4433 a n d 4418, R evised S ta tu te s, in re g a rd
to the w o rk in g and h y d ro sta tic pressures of boilers am ended so as
to enable th is service to m ake m odern th e ru les an d reg u la tio n s
covering these m atters. T h is le gislation is still desirable, an d it is
hoped th a t C ongress w ill ta k e action upon th e m a tte r in th e n ear
fu tu re .
Section 4404, R evised S ta tu te s, should be am ended so as to include
th e su p erv isin g inspectors u n d er th e classified civil service.
R E C L A S S IF IC A T IO N

U p to th e p resen t tim e reclassification has only been m ade effec­
tiv e in th e D is tric t of C olum bia. T h e re h as been w h a t has been
term ed a re a d ju stm e n t of th e salaries of th e field service, a n d w hile
th a t has given te m p o ra ry re lie f in a sense, i t h as n o t given th e fu ll
and p e rm a n en t relief desired. T h e p a y m en t o f a p ro p e r sala ry
is ju s t as econom ical a th in g as h a v in g th e p ro p e r num b er of p e r­
sonnel, because th e re is absolutely no economy in th e em ploym ent
o f cheap m en. I t w ould be b e tte r to em ploy h ig h -p ric e d m en and
fe w er of them . B y th is it is no t m ean t to say th a t th e field em ­
ployees o f th is service are in fe rio r, b u t th is service does desire to
a ttr a c t to its ra n k s m en of th e very h ig h e st caliber and best ex ­
perience, w hich it w ill in cre asin g ly be unable to do unless p ro p e r
sala ries are pa id . I n th is service a t th e p resen t tim e are very able
m en, an d w hile th e question m ay be asked w hy, if these m en are
so able a n d can ob tain b e tte r salaries outside of th e G overnm ent,
th e y do n o t ta k e a d v an ta g e o f th e ir o p p o rtu n ities, th e answ er can
re a d ily be given th a t th e y accept positio ns in th is service a t low er
salaries in o rd e r to be a t home w ith th e ir fam ilies, w hich is some­
th in g th a t w ill no t app eal to a m an w hen he is you nger a n d w ho w ill
look to th e sea f o r em ploym ent, u n til in la te r y ears w hen he w ill
also come to th e G overnm ent fo r em ploym ent. I t is th e desire of
th is service to a ttr a c t to its em ploy m ent y o u n g active m en w ith
good experience an d th is can only be done by th e p a y m en t of sal­
aries th a t are com m ensurate w ith tra in in g an d a b ility o f desirable
men.
PERSO NNEL

T h e fo llow in g position s w ere em braced in th e Steam bo at In sp e c ­
tio n Service a t th e close of business on J u n e 3 0 ,1 9 2 5 :
A t W a s h in g t o n , D . C . :
S u p e r v is in g I n s p e c t o r G e n e r a l_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
D e p u t y S u p e r v is in g I n s p e c t o r G e n e r a l ( w h o i s A c t in g S u p e r v is o r
I n s p e c t o r G e n e r a l in t h e a b s e n c e o f t h a t o f f ic e r ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
T r a v e lin g in s p e c t o r s - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -C le r k s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
M e sse n g er _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
I n t h e s e r v ic e a t la r g e :
S u p e r v is in g in s p e c t o r s - - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -L o c a l in s p e c t o r s o f h u ll s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
L o c a l in s p e c t o r s o f b o ile r s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

1
1
3
11
1
10
46
46

STEAM BOAT

I n t h e s e r v ic e
A s s is t a n t
A s s is t a n t
C le r k s t o

IN S P E C T IO N

S E K V IC E

209

a t la r g e — C o n tin u e d .
in s p e c t o r s o f h u ll s - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - 75
in s p e c to r o f b o ile r s - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -75
b o a r d s o f lo c a l in s p e c t o r s - - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - -- - 95

T o t a l-- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -

O n O ctober 1, 1924, th e h e ad q u a rte rs of th e tra v e lin g in specto r
a t S an F ran cisco , C alif., an d th e tra v e lin g in specto r a t C leveland,
O hio, were changed to W ashin gto n.
S T A T IS T IC S

T he force inspected an d certificated 7.411 vessels, w jth a to ta l gross
to n n ag e of 14,544,153, o f w hich 7,078 w ere dom estic vessels, w ith a
to ta l gross to nnage o f 11,256,634, a n d 333 w ere fo reig n passenger
steam vessels, w ith a to ta l gross to nna ge of 3,287,519. O f th e dom estic
vessels th e re were 5,620 steam vessels, 923 m o to r vessels, 21 passenger
barges, a n d 514 seagoing barges. T h ere was a decrease of 149 in th e
to ta l n um be r o f vessels inspected, an d a decrease of 57,450 in th e
to ta l gro ss to nnage of vessels inspected as com pared w ith th e p re ­
vious fiscal year. T h ere w ere 887 cargo vessels exam ined to c arry
persons in a d d itio n to crew u n d e r th e act o f C ongress appro ved Ju n e
5. 1920. L e tte rs o f a p p ro v a l o f designs o f boilers, engines, an d o th er
o p e ra tin g m ach in ery w ere g ra n te d to 22 steam vessels, w ith a to ta l
gross to nnage o f 579. T h ere were inspected fo r th e U n ite d S tates
G overnm ent 58 h u lls of vessels and 2,097 boilers. T h e re were 2,549
reinspections of steam vessels, m o to r vessels, an d barges.
Licenses w ere isued to 23,670 officers o f all grades. T h ere were
exam ined fo r visu al defects 7,276 a p p lic a n ts fo r license, of whom 19
were fou nd color b lin d or w ith o th e r visual defects a n d rejected.
C ertificates o f service w ere issued to 9,580 able seam en, an d 586 were
rejected. C ertificates of efficiency were issued to 9,461 lifeboat m en,
an d 5,367 were rejected.
Steel p la te s fo r th e constru ctio n of m a rin e boilers to th e num b er
o f 2,560 were inspected a t th e m ills, an d a la rg e am ount of o th er
boiler m a te ria l w as inspected. T h e re w ere exam ined an d tested
131,832 new life preservers, o f w hich 1,704 w ere rejected. T h ere
w ere inspected 9,966 new rin g life buoys, o f w hich 125 were rejected.
T h ere were inspected a t facto ries 200 new lifeb oats, o f w hich 1 was
rejected. T h ere w ere inspected a t facto ries 92 new life ra fts , all of
w hich passed.
T h e to ta l nu m ber o f accidents re su ltin g in loss of life w as 173.
T h e to ta l nu m ber o f lives lost was 310. o f w hich 59 w ere passengers.
O f th e lives lost, 152 w ere from suicide, accidental dro w nin g, and
o th e r sim ila r causes, leavin g a loss o f 158 as fa irly chargeable to
accidents, collisions, fo u n d erin g s, etc. T h e re w as an increase of 13
in the nu m be r of lives lost as com pared w ith th e previous fiscal year.
Passen g ers to th e n um be r o f 344,092,530 were carrie d on vessels
required by law to m ake re p o rt of th e nu m ber of passengers carried.
D iv id in g th is num b er by 59, th e to ta l num ber of passengers lost,
shows th a t 5,832,076 passengers w ere c arrie d fo r each passenger
lost. T h e n u m b er o f lives d irectly saved by m eans o f th e life-savin g
ap pliances req u ired by law was 788.
V ery tru ly yours,
Ge o . U h u e r ,
S u p e rv isin g In sp ecto r General.

P A T E N T O F F IC E

D e pa r t m e n t o f Co m m e r c e ,
P a t e n t Of f ic e ,
W ashing ton , J u ly 1, 1925.
H e r be r t H o o v e r ,
S ecreta ry o f Commerce.
D e a r M r . S e c r e t a r y : T h e P a te n t Office w as, by E xecutiv e o rd e r,
tra n s fe rre d to th e D e p a rtm e n t of Com m erce on A p ril 1, 1925, a fte r
h a v in g been in th e D e p a rtm e n t of In te rio r fo r 7G years.
T h e P a te n t Office has been a beehive of in d u s try d u rin g th e y e a r
ju st closed. E x c e p t fo r th e “ p e a k ” y ears 1921 a n d 1922, m ore
a p p licatio n s w ere received th a n in an y y e a r in th e h isto ry o f th e
office an d m ore m oney received as fees th a n in e ith e r of th e two peak
y ears ju s t re fe rre d to. P a te n t ap p licatio n s increased from 79,689 in
1924 to 82,213 in 1925. A p p lic atio n s of all k in d s increased fro m
99,724 to 103,705. T h e la rg est am oun t o f fees ever received in a n y
previou s y e a r to ta le d $3,042,272.22. D u rin g th e y e a r ju s t closed th e
receipts rose to $3,271,259.89. T h e “ o u tp u t ” increased fro m a
to ta l issue of 59,853 p aten ts, designs, tra d e -m a rk s, etc., in 1924 to
64.704 in 1925.
N o tw ith sta n d in g th e trem endo us increase in w ork, th e n u m b er
o f a p p lic atio n s a w a itin g action h as been reduced as follow s:
lio n .

Patents
Tho “ peak,” September, 1923......................................
July 1, 1924.................................................................
July 1,1925.................................................................

74,256
60,334
44,556

Designs
2,113
323
295

T rade­
marks
3,341
1,914
1,463

Total
79,710
62,571
46,314

W h ile d u rin g th e y e a r th e re w as an a p p a re n t decrease o f a p p li­
catio ns a w a itin g action of 15,778, th e re la tiv e decrease was m uch
g re a te r, since th e office received 4,000 m ore new ap p licatio n s th a n
d u rin g th e p re ced in g j7e a r a n d also received about 30,000 m ore
am endm ents to old ap p licatio n s th a n in th e p reced in g year.
T h e average tim e in w hich an a p p lic atio n is held a w aitin g official
actio n has been redu ced fro m 5 m o n th s to 3 m onth s in new cases
a n d fro m 3.4 m o nths to 2.3 m on th s in am ended cases. T h is g a in is
also show n by th e fo llo w in g ta b le :
1923
No division under 2 months.
None under 3 months.
None under 4 months.
None under 5 months.
49 divisions o v e r 5 months.
44 over 6 months.
42 over 7 months.
39 over 8 months.
28 over 9 months.
1over 10 months.

210

1924

1under 2 months.
i under 3 months.
2 under 4 months.
8 under 5 months.

.40 over 5 months.
26 over 6 months.
9 over 7 months.
2 over 8 months.

1925
4 under 2 months.
13 under 3 months.
35 under 4 months.
46 under 5 months.
7 over 5 months.

P A T E N T O F F IC E

211

R E C O M M E N D A T IO N S

A new b u ild in g , equipped to m eet th e p re sen t needs of th e P a te n t
Office, or a rem o delin g an d e n la rg in g of th e p re sen t b u ild in g is an
absolute necessity.
D u rin g th e y e ar th e ex am in in g corps suffered a loss of 87 m em ­
bers by resig nation , retire m en t, or death. A p p ro p ria tio n s should be
increased so th a t th e techn ical force m ay be p a id sala ries as h ig h as
th e average, ra th e r th a n below th e average, as th e y now are. A s an
exam ple, o f th e 60 p rin c ip a l an d law exam iners, only 1 exceeds th e
“ av erag e ” an d all b u t 3 receive no m ore th a n th e second Step o f the
6-salary levels, alth o u g h all have been in th e office a t least 20 years.
C ongress h as p ro v id e d a te m p o ra ry force consisting o f 3 p rin c ip a l
a n d 97 ju n io r exam iners. I t is u rg e d th a t th e th re e p rin c ip a ls be
m ade p erm an en t an d th a t an a p p ro p ria tio n of $60,000 be m ade fo r
th e com ing y e a r in o rd er to m ake it possible to re ta in th e tra in e d
te m p o ra ry exam iners a few m o nth s so th a t th e y m ay be ap p o in te d
in th e p e rm a n en t force as resig n atio n s occur th ere in , in ste ad of
b rin g in g in u n tra in e d men.
Now th a t th e pu blic search room has been equip ped w ith new steel
stacks, it is urg ed th a t an a p p ro p ria tio n o f $25,000 be m ade to m ake
it possible to check up th e 2,000,000 p a te n ts in th e only place in th e
U n ite d S ta te s w here th e g en eral public can m ake searches affecting
p a te n t m atters.
I t is also recom m ended th a t ap p eals should be shortened by abol­
ish in g ap p ea ls to th e com m issioner in “ in te rfere n ce ” cases, so th a t
such ap peals w ill go d ire c t from th e exam in ers in ch ief to th e C o u rt
of A p p eals of th e D is tric t o f Colum bia.
T h e w ork of re p la cin g wooden shelves to house th e m illio ns of
copies o f p a te n ts has been p ro g ressin g ra p id ly an d should be con­
tin u ed u n til all th e wooden shelves are replaced. T h is should also be
done w ith respect to th e p a te n ted files.
V ery tru ly you rs,
T h o m a s E. R o be r t s o n ,
C om m issioner.
6 6 5 4 8 — 2 5 ------ 1 5

IN T E R A M E R IC A N H IG H C O M M IS S IO N

I n t er Amer

H i g h C o m m is s io n ,
W a sh in g to n , J u ly 1, 1925.

ic a n

H on. H e r b e r t H o o v e r , C h airm an ,
United, S ta te s S e ctio n , In te r A m eric a n H ig h C om m ission.
M y D e a r M r . C h a ir m a n : D u rin g th e first p a r t o f th e fiscal year
192T-25 th e activ itie s of th e com m ission w ere chiefly concentrated
upon th e p re p a ra tio n fo r th e F irs t P a n A m erican C onference on th e
U n ifo rm ity of Specifications, held a t L im a, P e ru , fro m D ecem ber
23, 1924, to J a n u a ry 6, 1925.
T h e com m ission was ch arg ed w ith th e d ra w in g up of th e p ro g ram ,
w hich necessitated co n sultatio n w ith th e P a n A m erican U nio n, w ith
o th e r d e p artm en ts of th e G overnm ent, an d w ith th e several n atio n al
sections o f th e com m ission in L a tin A m erican countries. T h e com­
m ission also d ra fte d th e re g u la tio n s g o v ern in g th e pro cedure a t th e
conference. T echnical p re p a ra tio n , in c lu d in g th e issue of advance
re p o rts a n d th e stu d y o f th e technical problem s to be discussed a t th e
conference, w as also p erfo rm ed by th e commission.
T h e conference recom m ended th a t th e A m erican natio n s e n te r in to
a convention lo o kin g to th e establishm ent of common sta n d a rd s of
no m enclature, u nifo rm q u a lity bases, sim plified classifications, an d
sta n d a rd specifications fo r raw m a te ria ls an d in d u stria l prod ucts.
In o rd e r to m ain ta in in te r-A m erican com m unication on th is subject
and to secure th e establishm ent of in te r-A m e ric a n sta n d a rd s, th e
conference recom m ended th a t
T h e I n t e r A m e r ic a n H ig h C o m m is s io n , t h r o u g h t h e n a t io n a l s e c t io n o f e a c h
c o u n t r y a n d t h e c e n t r a l e x e c u t iv e c o u n c il ( b e ) c h a r g e d w it h t h e r e c e iv in g a n d
d i s t r i b u t i n g o f in f o r m a t io n r e la t in g t o t h e w o r k d o n e in e a c h c o u n t r y ; t h e
c o m m is s io n w ill d ir e c t o r p e r f o r m s u c h s t u d i e s a s it m a y b e lie v e a d v is a b le ,
w ii l d r a w u p p r o p o sa ls , a n d w il l t a k e a ll n e c e s s a r y m e a s u r e s w it h in i t s s p h e r e
o f a c t io n to p r o m o t e t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f in t e r - A m e r ic a n s t a n d a r d s .

T h e com m ission was also in stru cte d to stu d y an d d r a f t th e con­
vention re su ltin g fro m th is w ork.
I n connection w ith th e u n ifo rm ity of w eig hts an d m easures, th e
com m ission was ch arged w ith the ap p o in tm e n t of a com m ittee upon
w hich all A m erican countries a re to be rep resen ted , to stu d y and
re p o rt a t the n e x t conference.
Since th e conference th e com m ission h as been assisted b y th e spe­
cial D e p a rtm e n t of Com m erce com m ittee on sta n d a rd iz a tio n in all of
these m atters.
As a, re su lt o f th e com m issions activ itie s th e re have been estab­
lished in some cou ntries bureaus sim ila r in o rg an iz atio n an d purpo se
to th e U n ite d S ta te s B u reau of S ta n d a rd s. T h is office is re n d e rin g
every assistance possible to these new ly established bureaus, especi­
ally in th e fu rn ish in g of in fo rm a tio n concernin g th e fu n ctio n s an d
m ethods of th e U n ited S ta te s B u reau of S ta n d a rd s.
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I n accordance w ith th e in stru c tio n s of th e F i f t h In te rn a tio n a l
C onference, th e com m ission has m ade p re p a ra tio n s fo r th e P a n
A m erican C ongress on H ig h w a y s to be h eld in B uenos A ires, O ctober
3 to 13, 1925.
T h e com m ission has assisted in d ra ftin g th e p ro g ram an d re g u la ­
tion s g o v ern in g th e proceedings a t th e congress, a n d has endeavored
to secure p ro p e r re p re se n ta tio n of th e o th e r A m erican countries a t
th e congress. T h is office has also help ed th e U n ite d S ta te s delega­
tio n in th e tra n sla tio n of p a p e rs a n d in th e h a n d lin g of o th e r details.
T h e com m ission has continued to p ro cure th e effectuation of th e
pro posals re la tin g to th e subjects in cluded in its p ro g ram . D u rin g
th e la st ye ar, it has issued th e follo w ing p am p h le ts :
1. P r e p a r a t io n o f H i d e s a n d S k in s in t h e U n it e d S t a t e s .
2 . T h e I n t e r A m e r ic a n H ig h C o m m is s io n — I t s R ô le in t h e E c o n o m ic S t u d ie s
o f t h e C o n t in e n t .
3. R e p o r t R e g a r d in g t h e L a w s G o v e r n in g S t o c k C o r p o r a t io n s o n t h e A m e r i­
c a n C o n t in e n t .
( C o m p le t e r e p o r t t o b e in fiv e v o lu m e s .)
4. C o m p a r is o n o f A m e r ic a n L e g is l a t io n o n B il ls o f E x c h a n g e a n d P r o m is s o r y
N otes.
5 . R e p o r t o n F ir s t P a n A m e r ic a n C o n f e r e n c e o n U n if o r m it y o f S p e c if ic a t io n s .

T h e com m ission h as continu ed its efforts to o b ta in acceptance o f th e
v ariou s recom m endations a n d resolution s passed by th e F if th I n te r ­
n a tio n a l C onference of A m erican S ta te s held a t S an tia g o , C hile, in
1923.
Since th e la st re p o rt th e convention on tra d e -m a rk s has been r a ti­
fied by B ra zil, C uba, G u atem ala, P a ra g u a y , a n d th e U n ite d S tates,
w hile th e P re sid e n t o f C hile recom m ended its ra tificatio n a t th e
opening of th e C hilean C ongress. T h e convention fo r u n ifo rm ity
of classification o f custom s statistic s has been ratified by B ra z il,
C uba, G uatem ala, C osta R ica, a n d P a ra g u a y , w hile th e P re sid e n t
o f C hile recom m ended th is convention in his m essage a t th e openin g
o f th e la st C ongress. T h e convention p ro v id in g fo r th e p u b licity
of custom s docum ents has been ratified by G u atem ala, C uba, an d
P a ra g u a y ; th e ra tifica tio n o f th is convention, too, was recom m ended
by th e P re sid e n t o f C hile in h is a n n u al message to Congress. T h e
com m ercial tra v e le rs’ convention w as ratified by P e ru on Ju n e 15,
1924. I t w as app ro v ed by th e C ongress o f C osta R ica on J u n e 3,
1924, a n d its ra tifica tio n w as recom m ended by th e P re sid e n t o f Chile
a t th e o p enin g o f C ongress. I n P a ra g u a y th e M in ister of Fin an ce
is c o n fe rrin g w ith variou s com m ercial bodies in th a t co u n try w ith
reference to th is convention. In G ua tem ala th e D ire cto r o f th e G en­
era l B u reau of In d u s trie s and Com m erce is now d ra w in g u p th e
reg u la tio n s in accordance w ith w hich th e convention is to o p era te in
th a t country. I n P a n a m a th e tre a su ry d e p a rtm e n t is a t p resen t
w o rk in g upo n th e proced ure a n d reg u la tio n s necessary to m ake th e
convention effective. I n th e D om inican R ep ublic th e convention is
now before th e D om inican G overnm ent fo r final action.
R esp ectfully ,
G u il l e r m o A. S iie r w e l l , Secretary.

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