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SPECIAL
COLLECTIONS

3 0030 00536329 7

30030005363297

LIBRARY
O F TH E

11—5420

T<ep,

l+C SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
to I

/ta 7

OF THE

SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
1929

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRIN TIN G OFFICE
W ASHINGTON : 1929
For sale by th e S u p e rin te n d e n t of D ocum ents, W ashington, D. C.

- - Price 40 cents

ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT
[November 6, 1929]
Secretary of Commerce_______________________ R obert P atterson L amont .
Assistant Secretary of Commerce_____________ J ulius K l e in .
Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Aero­
nautics___________________________________ C larence M. Y oung .
Solicitor____________________________________ E phraim F. M organ .
Administrative Assistant to the Secretary_____ M alcolm K e r l in .
Statistical Assistant to the Secretary__________ E . D ana D urand .
Chief Clerk and Superintendent_____ _________ E dward W. L ibbey .
Disbursing Clerk____________________________ C harles E. M olster .
Chief, Appointment Division_________________ E dward J. G ardner .
Chief, Division of Publications________________ T homas F. M cK eo n .
Chief, Division of Supplies___________________ W alter S. E r w in .
Director of Aeronautics________________ ______
Chief, Radio Division________________________ W illiam D. T er rell .
Director of the Census_______________- _______ W illiam M. S teuart .
Director, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com­
merce_____________________________________ W illiam L. C ooper .
Director, Bureau of Standards________________ G eorge K. B urgess .
Commissioner of Fisheries____________________ H enry O’M alley .
Commissioner of Lighthouses_________________ G eorge R. P utnam .
Director, Coast and Geodetic Survey__________ R. S. P atton .
Commissioner of Navigation______ ___________ A rthur J. T yrer .
Supervising Inspector General, Steamboat In­
spection Service___________________________ D ickerson N. H oover .
Commissioner of Patents--------- --------------------- T homas E. R obertson .
Director, Bureau of Mines____________________ S cott T u rn er .

CONTENTS
Page

Introductory statement---------------------vii
Economic review____________________________________________________ vm
Prices.-----------xi
Agriculture........................................
xii
Construction____________________
xiv
Transportation________
xv
Banking and finance__________
xvn
Foreign trade____ ________
xix
Foreign trade.......................................................— ------------------ ----------------- xxi
General progress and tendencies_________
xxi
Elimination of waste.....................
xxix
Simplified practice____________________________
xxix
American Marine Standards Committee__________________________ xxx
Commercial standards._______
xxx
Certification and labeling...............
xxxn
Scientific research................................................................................................xxxm
Utilization and conservation of natural resources..................................... xxxv
Statistics____ ________________
XL
Aids to business_________________________________________________ xli
Transportation and traffic management........................
xliii
Industrial traffic management. ................................
XLiv
Construction and home ownership......................
xliv
Human safety_________________________________ — ........................... xlvi
Progress in development of civil aeronautics___________________________
li
CONDENSED REPORTS OP' BUREAUS

Chief Clerk and Superintendent...
D irector of Aeronautics
Air regulations division.....................................
Inspection section...........................................
Licensing section.....................
Engineering section........................................
Medical section................................................
Enforcement section............................
Accident board................................................
General-.................................
Airways division (Bureau of Lighthouses)...
Navigation facilities on civil airways..........
Engineering layout of airways......................
Intermediate fields.........................................
Intermediate field marking and lighting...
Beacons...........................................................
Weather service and communications.........
Radio equipment..............................
Maintenance of airways.................................
Improvement in airways equipment_____
Airways status................................................

Pag*
l

6
7
0

12
lo
19
20
21
26
27
30
31
32
33
35
3G
38
38
39

D irector of Aeronautics—Continued
Division of airports and aeronautic informa­
tion..............................
Field service section.......................................
Airway bulletin section..................................
Statistics and distribution section...............
Editorial section..............................................
Aeronautical research division (Bureau of
Standards).............................................
Radio aids to navigation...............................
Airway and airport lighting..........................
Illuminating wind indicators........................
Neon visibility test....... .................................
Investigation of stability of airplanes at low
speeds and high stalling angles.................
Reducing airplane noise.................................
Welded joints..................................................
Testing of aircraft engines............................
Airway mapping section (Coast and Geodetic
Survey)...............
Administrative section......................................
Scheduled air transport.....................................
Miscellaneous air services.................................

ni

Page
40
41.
42
42
46
46
47
48
48
49
49
50
50
51
53
55
57
60

CONTENTS

IV

D irector of Aeronautica—Continued
Page
Air-rail service..................................................... 61
Air marking......................................................... 62
Scenic tours......................................................... 63
Survey of European airports............................ 64
Equipment-design progress.............................. 64
Aircraft production............................................ 66
Exports...................................
67
Aeronautics trade commissioner...................... 69
International civil aeronautics conference---- 69
International convention on air navigation.. 70
Policy adopted by Aeronautics Branch......... 70
R adio Division
Radio inspection service.................................... 73
Radio test cars.................................................... 74
Monitoring broadcasting stations.................. 74
Constant-frequency monitoring station------- 75
Secondary standard of frequency monitoring
stations............................................................. 76
Radio for aviation.............................................. 78
Radiobeacons and radio compasses................. 79
Automatic alarm signal device......................... 79
Radio broadcasting............................................ 79
Amateurs.................
80
International radio communication................. 81
Personnel............................................................. 82
International conferences...............
82
International radio accounting......................... 83
B ureau of tiie Census
Introduction and summary.............................. 85
Fifteenth Census................................................ 85
Apportionment of Representatives................. 89
Census of population......................................... 90
Census of unemployment.................................. 91
Census of agriculture......................................... 92
Census of manufactures...................
94
Census of distribution....................................... 95
Electrics 1industries........................................... 96
Financial statistics of State and city gov­
ernments........................................................... 97
Current business statistics................................ 98
Survey of Current Business............................. 98
Vital statistics..................................................... 99
Marriage and divorce......................................... 101
Annual census of institutions........................... 102
Religious bodies.................................................. 102
Census monographs........................................... 103
Machines used in census tabulation............... 103
Tabulation work................................................ 103
Office force........................................................ 104
Field force............................................................ IO4
B ureau of F oreion and D omestic Com­
merce

The bureau’s domestic commerce work.........
Regional commercial surveys.......................
C.'ost-of-distribution studies...........................
Industrial market studies..............................
Retail credit studies.......................................
The handling of special inquiries.................
Publications and publicity...........................
Miscellaneous activities in the domestic
field................................................................
Dollars-and-cents returns to the business
public................................................................
Aid for firms in all parts of the United States.
Avenues for expansion open to the bureau...
The Foreign Commerce Service.......................
Closo contact maintained with industry...
Adjustment of trade difficulties abroad___
Protecting American trade-marks................
Work of the district offices..............................
Foreign-trade meetings..................................
Practical benefits from district-office efforts
Specialized aid possible with larger per­
sonnel...........................................................
The cooperative office an invaluable ally..

108
108
109
Ill
111
112
112
113
113
122
125
127
128
129
130
130
131
132
132
133

B ureau of F oreign and D omestic Com­
merce—Continued
Pago
Concrete commodity service for American
industries.........................
133
Agricultural implements division................ 133
Aeronautics section......................................... 134
Automotive division....................................... 135
Chemical division........................................... 136
Electrical equipment division...................... 137
Foodstuffs division.............
138
Hide and leather division................
139
Industrial machinery division..................... 140
Iron-steel-hardware division......................... 141
Lumber division............................................. 141
Minerals division............................................ 142
Motion-picture section................................... 143
Paper division................................................. 145
Rubber division.........................................
145
Shoe and leather manufactures division— 146
Specialties division......................................... 147
Textile division............................................... 148
Specialized technical services to business....... 149
Commercial intelligence division................. 149
Division of commercial laws......................... 150
Division of correspondence and distribu­
tion................................................................ 151
Editorial division.........................
152
Finance and investment division................ 153
Division of foreign tariffs............................... 154
Division of regional information.................. 155
Division of statistical research...................... 156
Division of statistics....................................... 157
Transportation division.............................. 158
Bureau participation in foreign conferences
and fairs.......................................
160
Consistent growth in bureau’s usefulness___ 160
B ureau of Standards
General activities................................................ 163
Salaries............................................
168
Equipment.......................................................... 175
General expenses................................................ 175
Improvement and care of grounds.................. 175
Testing structural materials............................. 176
Testing machines................................................ 179
Investigation of fire-resisting properties.......... 180
Investigation of public utility standards........ 181
Testing miscellaneous materials...................... 182
Radio research.................................................... 182
Color standardization........................................ 183
Investigation of clay products.....................
184
Standardizing mechanical appliances............. 186
Investigation of optical glass............................. 186
Investigation of textiles, etc..............
187
Sugar standardization....................................... 188
Gage standardization......................................... 189
Investigation of mine scales and cars.............. 190
Metallurgical research....................................... 190
High-temperature investigation....................... 191
Sound investigation........................................... 192
Industrial research............................................. 192
Testing railroad-track and other scales........... 198
Standardization of equipment.......................... 199
Standard materials............................................. 202
Investigation of radioactive substances and
X rays............................................................... 202
Utilization of waste products from the land.. 203
Investigation of automotive engines............... 204
Investigation of dental materials..................... 205
Power-plant equipment...................
206
Transferred funds...............................
206
General recommendations................................ 209
B ureau of F isheries
International relations....................................... 212
Northern Pacific halibut convention........... 212
Treaty regarding sockeye-salmon fisheries.. 213
International Pacific Salmon Federation... 213
Great Lakes fisheries situation..................... 214
North American Committee on Fishery
Investigations...............................
214
Protection of Guadalupe fur seals................ 215

CONTENTS
Bureau of F isheries—Continued
Page
Statistical surveys.............................................. 215
Canned fishery-products and by-products
trade.............................................................. 215
Frozen-fish trade............................................. 216
Packaged fresh and frozen-fish trade........... 216
Goldfish industry........................................... 216
Foreign fishery trade...................................... 216
New England States...................................... 217
Middle Atlantic States.................................. 217
Chesapeake Bay States.................................. 218
South Atlantic States..................................... 218
Gulf States........................-............................. 218
Pacific Coast States— .................................. 219
Lake States............................... ..................... 219
Mississippi River and tributaries.............. . 220
Technological investigations............................ 220
Net preservation............................................. 220
By-products..................................................... 220
Nutritive value of fish.................................... 221
Improved handling of fresh fish.................... 222
Alaska fisheries service...................................... 222
Administration of fishery laws and regula­
tions.............................................................. 222
Alaska salmon hatcheries.............................. 223
Special studies and investigations................ 223
Products of the fisheries................................ 223
Alaska fur-seal service....................................... 224
General activities............................................ 224
Seal herd........................................................... 225
Take of sealskins............................................. 225
Marking reserved seals.................................. 225
Sale of sealskins............................................... 225
Foxes,............................................................... 226
Fur-seal skins taken by natives-------------- 226
226
Fur-seal patrol...............................................
Protection
of sea otters, walruses, and sea
226
Propagation and distribution of food and
game fishes.................................................... 227
Summary of output....................................... 227
228
Cooperative activities................................ 229
Propagation of Pacific salmons.....................
Marino spedcs of the Atlantic coast............
Auadromous species of the Atlantic coast.. 230
Commercial species of interior waters......... 230
Game fishes of interior waters...................... 231
Rescue operations........................................... 231
Biological investigations............................ — 232
Commercial fishery investigations............... 232
Shellfish investigations.................................. 236
Fish-cultural investigations.......................... 237
Vessel notes......................................................... 238
Appropriations.................................................... 239
L ighthouse Service
Activities during year........................................ 240
Aids to navigation............................................. 241
Engineering construction.................................. 242
Improvements in apparatus and equipment. 243
Administration................................................... 245
Personnel............................................................. 245
Lighthouse depots.............................................. 247
Vessels of the Lighthouse Service.................... 248
Replacement of vessels................................... 248
Lighthouse tenders......................................... 248
Lightships........................................................ 2*19
Coast and G eodetic Survey
Hydrographic and topographic work.............. 250
Geodetic work..................................................... 253
Magnetic and seismological work.................... 255
Tide and current work...................................... 255
Chief clerk........................................................... 259
Division of hydrography and topography— 259
Division of geodesy............................................ 260
Division of charts..................... ....................... 261
Division of terrestrial magnetism and seismol­
ogy..................................................................... 262
Seismology........................................................... 202
Division of tides and currents.......................... 262
Division of accounts........................................... 264
Instrument division........................................... 265

V

Bureau of N avigation
Page
267
American shipping on June 30,1929................ 268
Navigation laws.................................................. 268
Inspection of motor ships..............................
Load line....................................................--- 268
International convention on safety of life 269
at sea.............................................................
Admeasurement of vessels............................. 270
Administration of the navigation laws....... 271
272
Enforcement of the navigation laws............... 277
Preventing overcrowding of passenger vessels.
279
Shipping commissioners.................................... 279
Passenger act of 1882.......................................... 280
Navigation receipts............................................ 280
Publications.....................................................
Steamboat I nspection Service
281
Personnel............................................................ 281
A greater service.................................................
A central staff.................................................... 281
More inspectors and clerks.............................. 2S2
The Board of Supervising Inspectors............. 2S2
Revisions of boiler rules.................................... 283
Motor vessel inspection.................................... 284
Expenditures............................................------ 2S4
Number, class, and tonnage of vessels in­ 285
spected..............................................................
Miscellaneous inspections................................. 288
289
Reinspections..................................................
Cargo vessels examined to carry persons in 289
addition to crew.............................................. 289
Marine-boiler plates tested............................... 290
Steel bars to be used as stays and braces tested. 290
New life preservers inspected........................... 290
Inspections at factories.................. -.................
Number of persons who received one or more 290
licenses.............................................................
Olficers licensed.................................................. 291
Certificates of service issued to able seamen.. 293
Certificates of efficiency issued to lifeboat men. 293
Lives lost on vessels subject to inspection— m
Lives saved.............................--........................ 295
295
Accidents result ing in loss of life...................... 296
Passengers carried— ......................................... 296
Examinations for color blindness...................Work performed by inspectors in central 296
oifice..................................................................
Miscellaneous reports........................................ 296
P atf.nt Office
Statistics............................................ -................ 302
Other details of business for the fiscal year... 305
B ureau of M ines
Finances.............................................................. 307
Property...........................-................................. 313
Organization....................................................... 313
Principal activities during the year................ 314
Work done by each branch.............................. 316
Work of the technologic branch....................... 317
Mechanical division....................................... 317
Mining division.............................................. 323
Metallurgical division.................................... 328
Petroleum and natural-gas division............. 338
Experiment stations division........................ 347
Helium division.............................................. 348
Explosives division......................................... 350
Office of chief mining engineer......................... 3,54
Work of economics bran ch .-.,...,.................. 356
Coal division.................................................... 356
Division of mineral statistics.- , .................. 357
Petroleum economics division...................... 358
Raro metals and nonmetals division........... 359
Common metals division.............................. 360
Work of health and safety branch.............. 360
Health division— ........................................... 360
Safety division................................................ 364
Work of administrative branch........................ 307
Office administration division...................... 367
Information division...................................... 367
I nter American H igh Commission... . 370

SEVENTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

S ECRET ARY OF COMMERCE
D epartm ent of C ommerce ,
O ffice of the S ecretary ,

Washington, November 6, 1929.
To the P r esid e n t :
I have the honor to submit herewith for transmission to Congress
the Seventeenth Annual Report of the Secretary of Commerce in five
parts, as follows:
Economic Review.
Foreign Trade.
Elimination of Waste.
Progress in Development of Civil Aeronautics.
Condensed Reports of Bureaus:
Chief Clerk and Superintendent.
Aeronautics Branch.
Radio Division.
Bureau of the Census.
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
Bureau of Standards.
Bureau of Fisheries.
Lighthouse Service.
Coast and Geodetic Survey.
Bureau of Navigation.
Steamboat Inspection Service.
Patent Office.
Bureau of Mines.
Inter American High Commission.

The report has been prepared for transmission to Congress, as
required by the organic act of the departmen'
Very sincerely,
Secretary of Commerce.
VII

ECONOMIC REVIEW
The output of American industry during the fiscal year ended
June 30 was the highest ever attained. Although business was not
characterized by the feverish activity of the war period and the
immediately succeeding boom, the actual production of commodities
and services was larger.
The most comprehensive measure of the volume of industrial pro­
duction is the general index of output of manufactured commodities
compiled by the Federal Reserve Board. This index for the fiscal
year just closed stood at 117 as compared with the average for the
three years 1923-1925 taken as 100. It was nine points higher than
the previous peak, attained in 1927. The activity of the factories
was high throughout every month of the fiscal year, most of these
months showing an index above that of the corresponding month of
any previous year. When adjustment is made for seasonal variations
there was relatively little change in volume of output from July until
December, but thereafter a decided advance appeared. The index of
factory production for June, 1929 (adjusted for the number of working
days and for seasonal variation), was 27 per cent above the average
month of 1923-1925 and 13 per cent above the highest month of
any fiscal year preceding 1928-29; as compared with June, 1928,
itself a month of high industrial activity, the index showed substan­
tially the same ratio of advance.
Major economic indexes
[Based on calendar years 1923-1925=100]
Item

Year ended June 30—

June—

1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1928 1929

Volume of business (quantities, not
value):
Manufacturing production................ .
Mineral production..............................
Forest products, production.............. .
Railroads, ton-miles revenue freight...
Electric-power production................. . 1*
Building contracts let, 37 States,
square feet **....................................... .
Value of sales:
Department stores...............1............. .
5-and-10-cent stores...............................
Mail-order systems...............................
Wholesale trade................ -..................

75
69
80
79
72
74
So
69
(A
85

98
93
96
96
88
91
94
81
82
97

97
101
100
97
95
93 1
99
93
92
99 ;

99
98
99
98
102
95
100
104
103
99

107
99
103
105
116
122
104
118
118
101

10S
114
93
in
129
108
106
131
120
96

106
103
93
104
138
116
107
144
132
96

117
111
85
110
154'
112
109
157
166
98

« 111
» 101
97
100
140
142
» 105
» 153
137
»92

» 127
» 113
90
109
155
110
» 112
» 174
176
»96

1 Adjusted for normal seasonal variations and in the case of manufacturing and mineral production for
diiTercnces in the number of working days in the month.
* Indexes prior to January, 1925, based on estimates furnished by the F. W. Dodge Corporation.

Aggregate mineral production and the volume of freight transported
by the railroads were also very large during the fiscal year, although
slightly less than in 1926-27 when both of them had been swollen
V III

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

IX

by large production and transportation of coal caused by the strike
of British miners. The only general indicators of business activity
shown in the preceding table which stood at a lower level in 1928-29
than in the preceding fiscal year were the floor space of building con­
tracts and the output of forest products which is largely dependent on
construction activity. The decrease in volume of building was only
about 4 per cent, and it was still much above the figures of a few
3?ears ago.
Since prices of commodities during recent years have been very
stable, the statistics of value of sales of mercantile establishments
may be taken as reflecting fairly closely the true changes in quantity
of commodities sold. The index of wholesale sales shown in the
preceding table hardly shows correctly the longer trends in domestic
trade because of the increasing tendency toward direct selling by
original producers to retail establishments, or even to final consumers.
Department-store sales are more significant indicators, and these have
shown a gradual increase during every recent year. The very
marked expansion in the value of sales of chain stores and mail-order
systems is partly due to the increase in the number of stores and in
the scope of commodities handled, but no doubt in part it reflects a
general increase in sales of goods to consumers.
A conspicuous and gratifying feature of American business during
the last eight years is well brought out by the major statistics of
production and trade, namely, its steadiness. There have been
neither sharp booms nor sharp slumps. With two or three minor
and short-lived recessions, the upward trend of production and con­
sumption has been gradual, but in the aggregate considerable.
A number of important individual mine and factory products show
considerably greater gains in output during 1928-29 as compared
with the preceding year than are revealed by the general indexes of
the production of manufactured goods and minerals. The output
of steel ingots, which reflects demand for machinery, automobiles,
steel construction, and the like, was docidedly the greatest ever
attained, the increase over 1927-28 being nearly 22 per cent. The
number of automobiles produced, a very significant measure of the
buying power of the people, was likewise larger than during any cor­
responding previous period, although part of the increase of over 52
per cent as compared with 1927-28 was due to abnormal conditions
in the earlier year, involving the temporary ceasation of production
by one of the largest concerns. The production of copper, largely
as the result of rapid expansion in the electrical field, was also excep­
tionally great, the increase above the already high levels of 1927-28
being about 22 per cent, as measured by smelter production from do­
mestic ore. Marked gains appear also in the output of refined petro­
leum products and of rubber tires.
The high activity of manufacturing and mining industry during
the fiscal year just closed was accompanied by larger employment of
labor and reduction in part-time work. For some years during the
early part of the decade, notwithstanding the general prosperity
prevailing, there was a slow decline in the number of workers in fac­
tories, as the result of the introduction of more efficient labor-saving
machinery and other improvements in methods of production. In

X.

REPORT OF TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

the absence of statistics of unemployment there is no way of knowing
whether this reduction in the number working in factories, together
with the decrease also occurring in the number employed on farms
and on railways, resulted in a greater volume of unemployment.
It is known that there has been a marked increase in the number
working in various other fields, notably in the so-called service oc­
cupations, but little precise statistical information regarding this
trend is available.
Throughout our history a gradual shift has been taking place in the
occupations of the people. The proportion engaged in producing
necessaries of life has steadily fallen, more and more labor being set
free to produce advanced commodities and services characteristic of
a higher standard of living. For a long time this movement was
reflected in a steady expansion of employment in factoiy industries
as well as in distribution and in service occupations, agriculture
being almost the only branch of industry to lose, relatively, in the
number of workers. For some time after 1920, however, the trend
toward service occupations was so strong as to bring about an abso­
lute reduction in the number of factory employees. This downward
movement lias been checked during the last three or four years, and
the number of factory workers employed during the fiscal year 1928—
29 was appreciably greater than during the preceding fiscal year.
It is probable that the census of manufactures covering the calendar
year 1929 will show more wage-earners in American factories than
the census of 1925.
The general increase in the production of farm, factory, and
mineral commodities in the United States during recent years, in the
face of a stationary or even slightly declining number of workers in
these fields, is the effect of steady improvement in the efficiency of
American industry. This advance in efficiency, although possibly
more marked since the war than before it, is nevertheless merely
a continuation of a long historical process of economic advance.
Statistics showing the increase in output per man in the major
branches of industry as compared with the closing year of the last
century, and as compared with 1919, were presented in the annual
report of my predecessor for the fiscal year 1927-28 under the title
“ Progress in national efficiency.’’ It was there shown that in each
of the four branches of agriculture, manufactures, mining, and rail­
way transportation the amount of product or service turned out per
man during 1927 was from about 50 to over 100 per cent greater than
it had been less than three decades earlier. The data for 1928 show
a further gain.
The last annual report of the Secretary of Commerce discussed
also some of the major causes of this advance in the productivity of
industry. Among these the most important are perhaps the expan­
sion and improvement in the education of the people, the great
attention devoted to scientific research, the systematic pursuit of
invention and discovery, the use of more and more machinery and
other forms of capital, the increasing employment of mechanical
power, the large scale of enterprise permitting greater application of
mass methods, the conscious and concerted effort to eliminate waste
and to secure economies in production and distribution, the high

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XI

scale of wages and the consequent large buying power of the masses
of people, and the comparative stability of prices and of credit in
this country.
Most of these causes which have served to increase the efficiency
of industry and to advance the standards of living are, fortunately,
of an enduring character. They tend even to work cumulatively,
so that it may be said that it becomes easier each year to achieve
further progress.
P R IC E S

The high activity of business in the past fiscal year was accom­
panied by no general upward trend of prices. The steadiness of price
levels, which has been characteristic now of a very considerable
period of time, continued. The stability of wholesale and retail
prices since 1922 has been an important factor in keeping business
steady and large. It is a noteworthy fact that the extreme monthly
range in the movement of the general wholesale price index during
the last seven years has been only 10 per cent, the highest point
being in March, 1923, and the lowest in May, 1927. The index for
the fiscal year 1928-29 taken as a whole averaged about 1 per cent
higher than for the preceding fiscal year and about 5 per cent lower
than for the year 1925-26, which had shown the highest annual
average since the depression period. The highest price levels of the
fiscal year just closed were attained in September, 1928, and the
lowest in May, 1929, the difference between the two figures being
only about 4 per cent. The fact that there was an actual decline in
price levels of commodities during the courso of the year is an indi­
cation that the high activity of industry was not in the nature of an
inflationary boom.
Steadiness has characterized not only the general index of whole­
sale prices but likewise the indexes covering the several major groups
of commodities. For the year 1928-29 as a whole the average
prices of farm products in central markets were practically the same
as in the preceding year, though appreciably higher than in 1926-27 or
than in the years from 1922 to 1924. In 1928-29 prices of hides and
leather and their products, which had advanced considerably during
the preceding year, fell off slightly, and the group of miscellaneous
commodities, which is largely affected by the price of rubber, fell
somewhat as the result of the abandonment of the scheme of restric­
tion of shipments from the British rubber-producing areas of the
Far East. The very great demand for metals, characteristic of a
period of expansion in the construction of plants and machinery and
of automobiles and similar conveniences, resulted in an advance of
about 5 per cent in the index of metal prices, though even so it stood
somewhat lower than a few years ago.
Retail prices in recent years have shown even less variation than
wholesale prices. After the sharp break from the peak levels of the
immediate postwar boom, the extreme range of changes in the semi­
annual indexes of cost of living has not been more than 5 or 6 per
cent. There was practically no change during the last two fiscal
years, the indexes standing slightly lower than from 1925 to 1927.

XII

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Revised general wholesale price index and other price indexes
[Based upon calendar year 1926=» 1001
Annual averages

Year ended June 30* - 1913 i 1922 1923

Wholesale prices (revised):
General average..................
Farm products....................
Food.....................................
Hides and leather...............
Textile products.................
Fuel and lighting...............
Metals and metal products
Building materials.............
Chemicals and drugs.........
House-furnishing goods__
Miscellaneous...................
Farm prices on the farm...........
Retail food..................................
Cost of living:
December............................
June......................................

69.8
71.5
64.2
68 . 1
57.3
61.3
90.8
56. 7
SO. 2
£6.3
93.1
74.0
62.3
56.9
57.2

1 Calendar year.

93.7
90.5
SO.S
104. 2
95. 9
94.6
105.9
92.4
105.4
104.6
96.4
88.0
90.9
99.3
95.2

101.2

96.8
61.«
107. 7
108.0
110.4
106.4
106. 9
101.1
106.8
97.4
96.0
S9.0
06.5
97.1

1924

1925 1926 1027

98.1
98.0
90. 7
100.8
108. 5
92.3
107. 9
105.2
99. 1
107.2
95.4
97.0
91.3
98.6
96.7

100.5
106. 6
95.8
10-4.8
107.2
02.5
104.5
101.3
100.3
104.2
96.4
104.0
93.3
98.2
99.3

102.5
106. 2
101.5
101.9
105. 0
97.8
100.3
100.7
101.5
101.6
112.5
105.0
100.6
101.3
100.0

96. 8
90.3
97.4
101. 1
95.9
95. 1
99.6
97.6
98.2
106.8
92.2
95.0
98.6
100.0
99.2

1928 1029 1929*
96.6
104.8
98.6
118.8
06.8
82.4
98.0
92.0
90.0
98.3
87.4
101.5
95.5
97.8
97.0

97.4
105.0
100.3
114.0
95.7
82.9
103.0
96.3
95.2
96.7
80.0
101.0
96.1

139.5
146. 9
156.2
167.4
167.2
135.2
113.4
169.8
118.7
171.8
85.9
137.3
154.8

97.1

170.2

* Based upon calendar year 1913=100.

AGRICULTURE

There was some improvement in the agricultural situation during
the fiscal year 1928-29, viewing the industry as a whole. Legislation
creating the Federal Farm Board was an important step forward to
facilitate distribution of agricultural products and thereby to aid the
farmer. With an increase of 2 per cent over the year ended June 30,
1928, the gross income from farm products (after deducting the value
of crops fed or used for seed) totaled $12,527,000,000, the largest,
except for 1925-26, since 1920-21, and approximately one-third
more than in 1921-22. If allowance is made for the buying power
of money, the value of agricultural production in 1928-29 was larger
even than in 1920-21. The increase over the preceding year was the
result of larger receipts from livestock and livestock products. Pro­
ducers of grain and vegetable products, particularly those growing
wheat and potatoes, received smaller gross income than in the fiscal
year preceding, but producers of cotton, the principal cash crop of the
South, had about the same income as the year before, the increased
output being about offset by decreased prices.
As shown in the price section of this review, prices of farm products
both at the farm and central markets in the fiscal year 1928-29 were
approximately the same as in 1927-28. As compared with 1913, how­
ever, central market prices of farm products were 46.9 per cent higher,
while the price level of all commodities covered by the general index
was only 39.5 per cent higher; prices at the farm for farm products
were 37.3 per cent higher. On June 15, 1929, the farm price of wheat
was 1.6 cents per bushel lower than the 5-year pre-war average price.
The following table, compiled from data of the Department of
Agriculture, shows the changes during the past decade in the aggre­
gate value of farm crops and animal products, the value of products
fed or used for seed, and the resulting income from production. Of
the total of $12,527,000,000 for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1929,

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

X11 f

about 55 per cent was represented by the value of livestock and
livestock products; this fraction has been tending gradually upward.
Moreover, a much larger proportion of grain and other vegetable
products of the farm is exported than in the case of animal products;
cotton is much the largest item in the list of American exports. It
follows that the proportion of meats and dairy and poultry products
consumed by the American people is very high—much higher than
in most European countries.
Estimated value of farm products
(In millions of dollars]
Year ended June 30—
1920..........................................................................................
1921..........................................................................................
1922...........................................................................................
1923...........................................................................................
1924...........................................................................................
1925....................................................... :.................................
1927...........................................................................................
1928...........................................................................................
1929...........................................................................................

Crops
17,081
11,970
8.085
9,772
10,767
11,209
10, 558
9. 829
10.652
10, 288

fed
Animals Crons
to live­
and ani­ stock
and
mal
products forused
seed
6,944
5, S30
4, 809
5,137
5,482
5, 877
66.437
, 658
66,856
, 501

8,306
5,132
3.080
4. 543
4.961
5, 083
4, 325
4,300
4, 819
4,617

Gross
income,
excluding:
crops fed to
livestock
and used
for seed
15,719
12,668
9. 214
10,300
11,288
12. 003
12, 070
12,127
12.304
12,627

The latest available estimates of crop production in 1929 indicate
larger cotton, tobacco, and hay crops but smaller production of
potatoes and cereal crops than in 1928; the smaller output of corn
and oats being due to both reduced acreage and lower yield per acre,
while a smaller production of wheat and barley results entirely from
lower yield per acre caused by drought.
As pointed out in the last annual report of this department, under
the heading “ Progress in national efficiency,” agricultural production
in 1926-27, expressed in quantitative terms, was about 55 per cent
greater than at the beginning of the century, substantially the same
increase as in population, but the increase of 18 per cent since the
close of the World War was appreciably greater than that in popula­
tion. The number of persons on farms at present is practically the
same as in 1900 and considerably smaller than in 1919. These data,
therefore, show a very marked gain in output per farm worker. The
increase in agricultural production, however, has been much less
rapid than that in the production of manufactured and mineral
products. This is due to the fact that farm products for the most
part are necessities of life, and it is natural that the demand for
necessities should expand little if any more rapidly than the number
of inhabitants. Manufactured commodities, many of which are in
the nature of semiluxuries, or in the nature of additions to the capital
equipment of the Nation, have a demand almost unlimited; even
though at a given time the need for this or that particular class of
factory products may be fully met, new and more highly elaborated
articles arc constantly being brought out and the consumption of
many of these grows very greatly.

XIV

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

CONSTRUCTION

As already stated, building construction, considered as a whole, is
one of the few branches of business which was less active in 1928-29
than the year before. The decline was slight, amounting to 3 or 4 per
cent in the floor space of buildings for which contracts were awarded
and to 5 per cent in the value of construction contracts for build­
ings and public works. Moreover, the decline was confined largely
to residential buildings, the contracts for commercial, industrial, and
public buildings showing a considerable increase. The 12-month
period was notable for the initiation of a considerable number of large
bridge and other engineering construction projects, including several
large pipe lines from southern and southwestern gas and oil producing
fields to areas farther north, including Denver and Chicago.
The relationship of credit conditions to residential and other con­
struction has been a subject of much concern. We have been putting
annually from 82,000,000,000 to $3,000,000,000 into new homes for
the people—a sum equal to one dollar out of every thirty or forty of
the total national income. The new dwellings constructed in recent
years have, in general, been better and more convenient than those
previously in use, and have contributed to higher living standards,
which have been made possible by higher per capita income.
It is important for stable business and employment conditions,
as well as for the welfare of our people, that this great volume of
construction should proceed at a reasonably steady rate. In the
closing months of the fiscal year 1927-28 letting of building contracts
proceeded in larger volume than in any corresponding previous
period. Some reaction followed at various points where speculative
or operative builders had overanticipated the actual demand for
certain classes of structures.
A growing shortage of adequate long-term credit at reasonable
rates of interest produced somewhat uneven effects in different
cities. Up to the close of the fiscal year soundly managed construc­
tion projects for which there was a real demand were in some cases
curtailed but generally were able to go ahead. During the middle
and late summer and early autumn, however, inability of builders
and owners in many instances to obtain even conservative firstmortgage loans, and of municipalities to float bond issues at reason­
able prices, was instrumental in checking, to a serious degree, needed
construction that would have gone ahead if it had not been for diver­
sion of credit resources to finance speculation in securities.
Construction statistics
[Basad on calendar years 1923-1925=100]
Item

Year ended June 30—
1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929

Indexes of volume of business:
Construction contracts awarded—
Value, including public works and public utili88
ties, 36 ¿tates...........................................................
c)
92
Floor space of buildings, 36 States........................... «
Cement shipments......................................................... «71 (o90 93
80 96 100
Lumber production................................................. .
Price indexes:
99 103
Frame-house materials, retail........ .......................... o
Building-material prices, wholesale............................ 89 103 101
• Comparable data not avai'able.

129 130 133
95 122 107 116
105 108 113 116
99 103 93 93
98 97 95 90
97 97 94 88

101

126
113
118
83
88
92

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XV

TRANSPORTATION

The net operating income of Class I railways (which represent
about 98 per cent of the total railway business) during the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1929, was the largest ever reported, exceeding the
figure for the preceding year by 20 per cent, and the figure of 1926-27
by 7 per cent. The gain over 1927-28 was due partly to the large
traffic and partly to economy in operation as the result of which
expenditures increased very little while gross revenues rose ma­
terially. The volume of freight traffic handled (ton-miles of revenue
freight) from January to June, 1929, was larger than in the first
half of any other year on record. For the entire fiscal year the tonmileage was 0.4 per cent more than in 1927-28, although slightly
less than in 1926-27, when traffic had been swollen by the large coal
movements resulting from the strike of the British miners and from
other causes.
Operating statistics of Class I railways

(Source: Interstate Commerce Commission and Bureau of Railway Economics]
Item

Year ended June 30—
1022

Freight ton-mileage (millions):
Revenue............................................... 313, 439
Nonrevenue......................................... 38,097
Tons oi revenue freight originated
(thousands)......................................... 940, ose
Cars loaded (thousands)....................... 40, 058
056
Net tons per train, average..................
26.8
Net tons per loaded car, average.........
Average daily car surplus..................... 272, 756
Average daily car shortage.................
2,410
Bad-order cars, average number......... 339,369
Bad-order locomotives, average num­
ber......................................................... 15.764
Employees, average number............... 1,64:5, 000
Total operating revenues (thousands
of dollars)............................................. 5, 508,169
Net operating income (thousands of
dollars)................................................. 818,345

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

396, 621
40. 766
1,210,118
40, 678
731
27.0
252,410
225
194,519
11,514
1,705,000
6,011,864
1,0553, 766

427.385
43,398
1,273,048
51,905
752
27.0
218, 779
435
172, 252
10,478
1, 782, 733
6,325,158
1,194,832

449,285
46,192
1,351,076
53,627
786
27.6
213,154
287
144,668
9,302
1, 798,495
6,442,387
1,209,535

420,312
44, 330
1, 246, 228
50,576
776
26.7
303, 408
133
141,508
8,880
1,711,200
6,096,483
1,074,341

447, 024
44, 763
1,320,086
62,716
803
20.8
232,378
57
142, 672
8,343
1,679,553
6,334,043
1,294,470

The large traffic of 1928-29 was handled with fewer employees,
fewer freight cars, and fewer locomotives than in any other year of
similar volume of business. The use of larger cars and more powerful
locomotives, permitting the hauling of heavier trains, has tended
gradually to raise the average amount of freight carried per person
employed on the railways. In the last fiscal year the average weight
of revenue freight hauled per train was 803 tons as compared with 776
the year before and 656 in 1921-22. The new cars and locomotives
which are being added from time to time are of much larger capacity
than those installed 20 or 30 years ago or even 10 years ago.
The quality of service furnished by the railways, as well as lay other
public carriers, is better now than at any other time in the history of
the country. Shortages of cars have now become rare occurrences.
At present it takes scarcely two-thirds as long to move goods a given
distance as it did a decade ago. With the increasing efficiency with
which traffic is being handled, producers aro able to make quicker
deliveries and distributors are able to carry smaller stocks and to
turn over their capital more quickly. As a result goods are cheapened
to consumers.

XVI

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

One of the important factors in the recent efficiency and economy
of railway operations has been the reduction in the number of cars
and locomotives out of order. For several years past there has been
little change in the average proportion of bad-order cars, but the
figure is less than one-half as great as it was about a decade ago.
The number of bad-order locomotives has steadily declined and in
1928-29 was considerably less than in any previous year. It is also
an advantage to the railways to keep their cars in use as much of
the time as possible consistently with the avoidance of car shortages.
While an unduly small surplus of cars for loading is injurious to ship­
pers, an unduly large surplus may represent a lack of demand for
transportation. The average daily car surplus in 1928-29 was less
than in most recent years, but the fact that there were almost no
instances of shortage of cars shows that the equipment available was
fully adequate to the needs of shippers.
The situation of American ocean shipping during the year 1928-29
was somewhat more satisfactory than in recent preceding years.
Although there was a slight decline in the total capacity of seagoing
vessels registered under the American flag, there was a marked
reduction in the tonnage of idle vossels and a considerable increase
in the tonnage actually active in seagoing foreign and domestic trade.
The tonnage of seagoing steel and iron steam and motor ships (of
100 gross tons or larger) registered under the American flag was
10.745.000 gross tons on June 30, 1929, or 1 per cent less than the
year before. The decline was much less marked than during most of
the years since 1921, at which time, as the result of the feverish con­
struction of ships during the World War emergency, our merchant
marine reached its maximum figure. The capacity of seagoing ships
of the character mentioned was nearly 13 per cent less at the close of
the last fiscal year than in 1921. The relative decrease in ships
engaged in foreign trade has been much greater, since there has been
a Considerable addition to the fleet engaged in coastwise trade, includ­
ing vessels trading from coast to coast through the Panama Canal.
Six or seven years ago over half of the American seagoing merchant
tonnage was idle. The amount of idle tonnage has been more than
cut in two since that time, partly as the result of the scrapping of
vessels, but partly through putting them into service. The capacity
of idle vessels on June 30, 1929, was 2,253,000 gross tons, which was
26 per cent less than one year earlier; the corresponding figure for
January 1, 1923, had been as high as 5,328,000 tons. During the
past fiscal year the idle vessel tonnage of foreign countries declined
even more than that of the United States, and in the world as a whole
a new low postwar record for idle shipping was reached, namely,
3.312.000 gross tons, or 29 per cent less than on June 30, 1928.
The fiscal year witnessed a continuance of the movement of recent
years to shift vessels from Shipping Board ownership to private
ownership. The active Shipping Board tonnage was reduced by
241.000 gross tons. On the other hand, there was an increase of
727.000 gross tons in active seagoing shipping privately owned, the
gain amounting to nearly 13 per cent. This increase consisted largely
in additions of general cargo vessels and combination passenger and
cargo vessels for use in oversea fortign trade.
By reason of the overconstruction of vessels in the United States
during and immediately after the World War, the American ship­

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XVII

yards have been relatively inactive during recent years. The amount
of shipping under construction was less at the end of the last fiscal
year than it had been at the beginning, amounting to 151,000 gross
tons as compared with 223,000 (these data include lake and river
vessels as well as ocean vessels). A number of foreign countries at
present are building many more ships than the United States.
In conformity with the increase in value of our foreign trade, the
total weight of cargo carried in 1928-29 to and from the United States
ocean ports was di per cent greater than in 1927-28. Little change
took place in the relative extent to which American shipping par­
ticipated in the carriage of our imports and exports. Including ocean
and Great Lakes trade with foreign countries American vessels
carried almost exactly one-third of the total value of the com­
modities transported by water. This proportion had reached its
maximum in 1920, when it amounted to about 43 per cent, but the
present share of American vessels is much higher than before the
World War, when it was in the neighborhood of 10 per cent. The
share of American ships in the transportation of cargo to and from
foreign countries, as measured by weight, is considerably higher than
that as measured by value, being approximately one-half in the case
of imports and one-third for exports.
An interdepartmental mail contract committee was set up by the
President in April, 1929, for the purpose of obtaining basic informa­
tion necessary for the solution of the problems of ocean mail contracts,
and of making recommendations to the administration. Tins com­
mittee and its subcommittee are at work collecting the statistical and
other data required.
Very rapid progress was made during the last fiscal year in the field
of aviation. Whereas this country, a few years ago, lagged behind a
number of European nations in the volume of air traffic, it now out­
ranks any other country in this respect and is making more rapid
advance than any other important country. The subject is more
fully discussed in a special section of this review.
BANKING AND FINANCE

Two financial movements of the fiscal year were of a striking
nature. There was an expansion of the investment trust, unlike
anything in American financial history; and there were literally
scores of important bank mergers. Although investment trusts were
hardly known in this country four years ago, nearly a quarter of the
capital issues floated in the United States during the first six months
of 1929, or about 8S00,000,000, were investment-trust securities.
Somewhat allied to the development of both investment trusts and
bank mergers was tire creation of chain banks by holding companies.
Three other conspicuous movements of the year were the large
advance of stock prices, the expansion of brokers’ loans, and the rise
of interest rates.
Stock prices continued their sharp upward trend of recent years.
There was clear evidence of widespread stock speculation. The
older indices, being based on a few market leaders, show a phenomenal
rise. Even the newer index of 405 common stocks began the fiscal
year at 145.3 and ended it at 188.6. The average price of 40 bonds
declined from 97.3S to 93.49 from year end to year end.
7S415—29-----ii

XVIII

HEPOET OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Brokers’ loans, as reported by the New York Stock Exchange, rose
during the fiscal year by $2,173,000,000, or to slightly over seven
billions. Moro than half of the increase was in loans for the account
of others than hanks.
Despite the diversion of funds into brokers’ loans, commercial
loans of approximately 650 weekly reporting member banks in­
creased by about $3,532,000,000; and new domestic capital issues
totaled $2,366,000,000 (par value, minus refunding) more than in
the preceding year.
As was natural in a period of soaring stock values, new stock
issues increased by $2,711,000,000. Notwithstanding the preference
for stocks, there was a diminution of only $345,000,000 (about onefourteenth) in bond issues, despite the sharp rise in money rates.
An unusual proportion of the new bonds, however, were convertible.
Foreign securities publicly offered in the United States totaled
$925,359,000 (par value). This was almost exactly half of the record
established in the preceding fiscal year. High interest rates dis­
couraged foreign capital issues, most of which have always been
bonds; and a certain volume of investment funds wont into brokers’
loans which previously would have gone into foreign loans. Much
foreign capital came into the country (mostly from Canada) either
for brokers’ loons or for stock-market speculation, and several
financial writers have even declared that the United States had a
net import of capital during much of the fiscal j-ear. This opinion
can not be tested, however, without a detailed survey of international
payments during the fiscal year.
All money rates in the open market at New York rose abruptly
with hardly a recession; bankers’ acceptances from a monthly average
of 4% per cent at the beginning: of the year to 5% per cent at its close,
time loans (90 days) from 5%~5% to 8-8M per cent; new call loans
from 6.21 to 7.83 per cent; and Treasury certificates from 3.92 to
4.89 per cent.
The policy of the Federal reserve banks was largely directed toward
restricting funds available for brokers’ loans without unduly hamper­
ing commercial credit. With the cooperation of the banking com­
munity, a broad “ spread” was always maintained between the
rates for brokers’ loans and those for commercial paper, the former
having been often more than double the latter. In July, 1928,
seven of the reserve banks raised their discount rates from 4% to 5
ier cent, and the other five followed suit later in the fiscal year.
)uring the period Federal reserve credit outstanding (holdings of
securities plus investments in Government securities) was deflated
by about one-seventh, or by $205,000,000. On the other hand,
Federal reserve notes in circulation increased by $54,000,000. Total
gold reserves increased by $312,000,000, and the gold ratio rose
from 68.7 to 75.3 per cent. These changes are computed from the
week-end reports for June 27, 1928, and June 26, 1929.
Early in the fiscal year there was a very important reversal of the
gold movement. In 1927-28 the United States had a record-breaking
net gold export of S497,962,000; in 192S-29 the net import of gold
was $155,137,000. The causes of gold movements are difficult to
trace, but this reversal was perhaps mainly the result of the decline
in our foreign lending and our continuing excess of merchandise
exports.

S

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XIX

For years progressive bankers in this country have sought to
expand our acceptance market—to reduce the cost of commercial
credit, to gain the profits and prestige of an international short-term
credit center, and to enhance the supply of short-term self-liquidating
paper. The healthy growth in “ acceptances outstanding” is, there­
fore, one of the more favorable financial developments of the year.
The total for June 29, 1929, doubled the figure for five years earlier
and was nearly 890,000,000 more than the figure for one year earlier.
The greatest growth was in acceptances covering movements of goods
between foreign countries; this financing is less likely to fluctuate
seasonally than that connected with our own exports and imports.
The rapid retirement of the public debt continued. Total interestbearing debt of the United States Government on June 30, 1929, was
about $16,639,000,000. This is about 8679,000,000, or nearly 4 per
cent, less than the amount one year earlier and about $8,600,000,000
less than for 10 years earlier. Our per capita national debt was thus
reduced in one year by more than $5. Comparable statistics for the
year on the debts of States and minor political divisions are not
available.
Bank clearings set a new high record. “ Debits to individual ac­
counts” in the last five fiscal years have been as follows—in rounded
billions of dollars—531, 597, 630, and 865. Numerous other cap­
tions of American financial statistics deal with billions of dollars; this
is approaching the trillions. The growth in check pajunents in recent
years has been greatly accelerated by broader stock-market trading
at higher levels.
FOREIGN TRADE

A general discussion of the recent trends of American foreign trade
is presented in a separate section of this report. During the fiscal
year 1928-29, export trade, when adjustment is made for changes in
prices, was greater than in any previous fiscal }rear of our history and
10 per cent larger than in 1927-28. The increase in sales abroad was
shared by all the economic groups except that of crude foodstuffs,
but a large part of the total gain was in exports of various advanced
manufactures. The total value of our foreign sales of the group of
finished manufactures reached more than $2,500,000,000, showing an
increase of 22 per cent over 1927-28. The volume of imports tends
to be high in times of prosperity and low in times of depression. The
value of our purchases abroad during the last few years, however, has
been much affected by a downward trend in the prices of several
major import commodities. That value in the fiscal year 1928-29
was 3}/2 per cent greater than the year before, but, taking account of
price changes, it is estimated that the imports increased about 9
per cent.
Our exports to each of the great trade regions of the world were
greater in 1928-29 than the year before. The percentages of increase
were particularly high in the case of South America, Asia, Africa, and
Canada. Sales to Europe showed relatively little increase. The
dollar value of imports from most of the trade regions also increased.
The most marked expansion was in the imports from Africa and from
South America. Because of the decline in prices of rubber and tin
the value of our purchases from Asia showed only an insignificant

XX

REPORT OF THE SEGRETARI' OF COMMERCE

increase, and because of the fall in the price of sugar total import
from the Latin countries and islands of North America fell off slightly
in value.
The so-called favorable balance of our trade (excess of exports over
imports of merchandise) during the fiscal year just closed was larger
than in any year since 1921-22, amounting to $1,082,000,000. Partly
as a result of this large balance to our credit on merchandise transac­
tions, but also under the influence of stock speculation and other fac­
tors, there was a net import of gold to the amount of $155,000,000,
in great contrast with the net export of nearly $500,000,000 of gold
during 1927-28.

FOREIGN TRADE
GENERAL PROGRESS AND TENDENCIES
|B y William L. Cooper, Director, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, and E. D ana D urand,
Statistical Assistant to the Secretary of Commerce]

The export trade of the United States during the fiscal year 1928-29
was 10 per cent greater in value than the year before and 43 per cent
greater than in 1921-22, and when adjustment is made for changes
in prices it materially exceeded the foreign sales in any previous fiscal
year of our history. Although the increase as compared with 1927-28
was shared by all the great economic groups except that of crude
foodstuffs, which declined because of a marked reduction in ship­
ments of wheat, the gain was greatest in the class of finished manu­
factures, many individual manufactured articles showing remarkable
expansion. The value of imports increased by 33^ per cent over the
preceding year and the gain would have been much greater but for
the decline in price of a number of major import commodities.
Foreign trade of the United States
[Millions of dollars]
Item

1910-1914

Year ended June 30—1

Per cent increase, 1929
over—

1928

1929 1910-1914 1922 1928

1922

Exports of United States merchan*
aise.................................................... 2,130 3,100
2,100 3, 771
Exports, including reexports.
.Imports, merchandise...................... i , m
2,608
Excess of exports (-B or imports
(->:
+477 +1,163
Merchandise................................
Gold..............................................
+17 —441
+20
—S
-Quantitative index eliminating the
eftect of price variations (1913=»
100):*
Exports of United States mer89
110
cnandise............................. .
94
137
Imports.........................................
* Minus sign indicates decrease.

1927

4,8f>7 4,773
4.968 4,877
4, 252 4,148

5,284
5, 374
4,292

+716 +730
-148 +498
+21 +20

+1,082
-155
+17

153
176

U m
180

108
197

148
148
154

43
43
65

89

45 10.1
44 9.4

110

10.7
10.2
3.5

* Approximate only.

The trends of the last fiscal year in our foreign trade were for the
most part in the nature of a continuance of movements which have
ersisted for a number of years past and indeed for several decades.
'he conspicuous upward tendency in the aggregate value of trade in
both directions over long periods has been due largely to a very
rapid growth in exportation of manufactured goods and in the
importation of raw materials for our factories. As a result of this
development, there has been a decided shift in the relative position

i

XXI

XXII

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

of the several trade regions. Europe is becoming relatively less
important in both our export and our import trade, and the other
continents more important.
The great significance of our foreign trade, both on the export and
import side, in relation to the prosperity of our industries and the
well-being of our people is each year becoming more generally appre­
ciated by the business interests of the country and by all classes of
its population. Although the United States has highly varied re­
sources and is exceptionally self-sufficient, nevertheless the high stand­
ard of living of its people demands the bringing in of several very
important commodities and of many minor commodities which either
can not be produced in this country at all or are produced only in
insufficient quantities. If we are to pay for a great and increasing
volume of imported goods, and at the same time provide the means to
pay for services to our tourists and for other similar services rendered
to us by foreigners as well as to make investments of capital abroad,
we must export large and increasing quantities of our products.
Exports represent approximately one-eighth of all that our farms and
one-tenth of all that our factories produce. To cut off our export
trade would mean direct loss of jobs to two or three millions of our
workers and to cut off our import trade would likewise throw great
numbers out of employment. Moreover, the attendant shock to
general business, should foreign trade cease, would be even moregrave.
The exports of the United States during the fiscal year just closed
were almost two and one-half times as great in value as the annual
average for the live j-ears preceding the World War. Although a
large part of this increase is clue to higher price levels, the quantitative
gain has been not far from 90 per cent. In each of the last eight
fiscal years, with the exception of 1927-28, when there was practically
no change, our export trade, adjusted to eliminate the effect of pricevariations, has shown an increase over the year preceding, and in
most years the gain has been large. In quantitative terms, our
foreign sales in 1928-29 were about 45 per cent larger than in 1921-22.
Our exports are now much greater than those of any other country
of the world. Exports of domestic commodities in 1928-29 exceeded
the corresponding figure for the United Kingdom, which stands
second, by 49 per cent, while aggregate exports, including resales of
imported articles, exceeded those of that country by 31 per cent.
The expansion of American foreign trade, however, has been by no
means one-sided. Imports have grown, broadly speaking, even more
than exports. In terms of dollar value, the imports of 1928-29
exceeded those of the average pre-war year by 154 per cent, as against
a gain of 148 per cent in exports. As compared with the fiscal year
1921-22, the increase in value was 65 per cent for imports and 43 per
cent for exports, this conspicuous difference being due to the fact
that a business depression, such as that of 1921, normally cuts down
imports much more than it does exports, so that the import figure of
eight years ago was abnormally low.
A considerable difference appears between our exports and our
imports as regards the movement of the prices of the major commodi­
ties in the trade. Although at present the price indexes of the two

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXill

groups of commodities show roughly the same increase over pre-war
levels, the index for export articles is now materially lower than it
was in 1921-22, while that of import articles is somewhat higher.
Consequently, although the increase in value of imports since 1921-22
has been materially greater than that in value of exports, trade in
both directions shows substantially the same quantitative increase.
However, as compared with the immediate preceding fiscal year,
export prices in 1928-29 showed substantially no change, while an
appreciable decline appeared in import prices. There was little
difference between exports and imports as regards the quantitative
increase over 1927-28, both showing a gain of approximately onetenth. Rubber last year, as in various preceding years, was the
commodity which changed most conspicuously in price. While the
imports of rubber in 1928-29 were nearly one-third larger than the
year before in quantity, the value declined by nearly one-fourth,
prices having fallen greatly as the result of the abandonment of the
scheme of restriction of exports from the British rubber-producing
areas in the Far East. There was, likewise, a marked increase in the
amount of sugar imported in the last fiscal year but a decline in its
value. Import prices of crude petroleum and tin also fell sharply.
Since exports in the fiscal year just closed increased decidedly more
in value than imports, the so-called favorable balance of trade roso
to the largest total since 1921-22. It amounted to 81,082,000,000
as compared with an average of 8018,000,000 for the six years preced­
ing and with $730j000,000 in 1927-28. Partly as a result of this largo
balance to our credit on merchandise transactions but also under the
influence of stock speculation and other factors, there was a net
import of gold last year amounting to 8155,000,000. This was in
groat contrast with the heavy net export of gold during the preceding
fiscal year, which however, had been a very exceptional phenomenon.
The United States has at all times to pay foreigners, by means of
an excess of commodity exports or in other ways, very large sums for
tourist expenditures, immigrant remittances, and other similar pur­
poses. In most years also a considerable part of the merchandise
balance has beon used to make new investments of American capital in
foreign countries. During 1928-29, however, owing to the strong
demand for capital in the United States and especially in the stock
market, such investments abroad fell off sharply, while there was an
unusually large movement of foreign capital into the American
market.
The most conspicuous one feature of the export trade of the fiscal
year just closed was the great expansion of the sales of the class of
finished manufactures. The total reached the enormous sum of
$2,509,000,000, with a gain of nearly 22 per cent over the preceding
fiscal year and of 107 per cent over 1921-22, only seven years before.
Our exports of this class of commodities, many of which meet tho
active competition of the great industrial countries of Europe, were
nearly four times as great in value as during the average year immedi­
ately preceding the war, and even allowing for the difference in price
levels tho gain has been more than threefold.

XXIV

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Growth of foreign trade of the United Stales
[Millions of dollarsl
Per cent increase,1
1929 over—

Year ended June 30—
Item

TOTALEXPORTS, INCLUDING REEXPORTS
OF FOREIGN MERCHANDISE
ToEurope.................................................
All other continents..........................
Canada and Newfoundland.........
Latin America................................
Asia...................................................
Oceania.............................................
Africa................................................
EXPORTS OF UNITED STATES MER­
CHANDISE
Foodstuffs...............................................
Raw m aterials.....................................
Semimanufactures..................................
Finished manufactures.........................
GENERAL IMPORTS
F ro m —
Europe.................................................
All other continents..........................
Canada and Newfoundland.........
Latin America................................
Asia..................................................
Oceania.............................. .............
Africa............................................ .
Foodstuffs.................... .........................
Raw materials.......................................
Semimanufactures.................................
Finished manufactures.........................

1910-1914 1922
average

1927

1928

1929 1910-1914 1922 1928

1,350 2,068 2,394 2,322 2, 397
810 1,703 2, 575 2,555 2,977
871
998
320
551
797
869
831
971
536
302
587
508
G85
480
121
174
84
193
210
48
111
129
25
100
52

78 10 3.2
205 75 16. 5
212 81 14.6
222 81 17.0
400 43 20.6
302 130 10.9
41G 148 10.5

1,144
933
412
1,211

824
877
800
1,321 1,174 1,239
714
694
730
1,970 2.002 2,509

91 -30 - 2.2
74 33 5.6
113 77 2.3
284 107 21.7

836
831
853 1,777
119
310
435
679
259
705
17
31
23
52
635
398
595
927
307
407
389
639

1, 257 1,258 1.303
2, 995 2,889 2, 989
480
492
510
1,049 1,039 1.089
1,315 1,215 1,223
54
57
59
86
90
104
909
071
908
1, 051 1,541 1,510
759
849
740
874
892
901

50 57 3.5
250 08 3.5
334 00 4.8
150 60 4.8
372 73
.7
235 84 6.8
352 100 15.8
144 53
.3
154 63 - 2.0
177 109 13.8
147 50 7.9

421
713
342
654

>Minus sign denotes decrease.

The increase in exports of finished manufactures as compared with
1927-28 was distributed among many individual commodities but
was most conspicuous in articles made chiefly of metal. For the first
timo, the value of exports of automobiles (including parts and acces­
sories) and of machinery both crossed the half-billion lino, the former
reaching $591,000,000 and the latter $563,000,000. Our foreign
sales of automobiles showed the extraordinary relative gain of 39 per
cent, while the increase for machinery was 21 per cent. Exports of
the heavy products of iron and steel (part of which fall in the group
of finished manufactures and part in semimanufactures) were nearl}T
26 per cent greater in value than the year before, and the increase in
advanced articles of iron and steel was 19J^ per cent. Other classes
of finished manufactures showing very decided increases in value of
exports include refined petroleum products, cotton manufactures,
chemicals, paints and varnishes, tobacco manufactures, rubber
manufactures, paper and manufactures thereof, and advanced wood
manufactures.
The major commodity groups other than finished manufactures
showed much less change in value of exports last year as compared
with the year before. There was a considerable increase in the
group of raw materials, of which cotton makes up much the greater
part, and a smaller gain in exports of semimanufactures largely
accounted for by the rise in the price of copper, exports of which

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXV

declined somewhat in quantity but advanced 11 per cent in value.
Our foreign sales of foodstuffs fell off slightly as the result of a marked
reduction in shipments of wheat and rye.
It is entirely natural that the export trade of the United States
should show a markedly rising proportion of manufactured goods.
This trend has been unbroken for several decades, although somewhat
more conspicuous in the last few years. The class of finished manu­
factures represented 47.5 per cent of our total exports in 1928-29,
as compared with 30.7 per cent in the immediate pre-war period.
The growing share of manufactured commodities in our sales abroad
is parallel with the growing part played by such articles in our domes­
tic production and consumption, and in the production and consump­
tion of the world as a whole. By the nature of things the per capita
consumption of foodstuffs and of most other major farm products is
limited and demand for them expands little if any faster than popula­
tion grows. On the other hand, there is practically no limit to the
demand for manufactured commodities, of one kind or another.
Growing productivity in our own country as in other countries has
taken chiefly the direction of adding to the supply of manufactured
goods and of services which do not incorporate themselves in tangible
commodities. Great as has been the recent increase in our foreign
sales of manufactures, exports represent no larger a proportion of the
output of our factories to-day than they did just before the World
War, although the ratio is considerably higher than it was six or seven
years ago. It is probable that the census of 1929 will disclose the
fact that our exports of manufactures, other than foodstuffs, now
represent substantially 10 per cent of the total production.
The great expansion of American exports of manufactured goods
as compared with pre-war years has not been at the expense of for­
eign sales of American farm products. There has, of course, been a
decline in our agricultural exports from the peak reached during and
immediately after the war, when the output of European farms was
greatly cut down- and when shortage of shipping limited Europe’s
purchases of foodstuffs from markets more distant than North
Amorica. Nevertheless we arc selling abroad to-day farm products
to a value about 80 per cent greater than during the average year
from 1910 to 1914, and even after eliminating the effect of price
advances the gain is approximately 20 per cent. The United States
has thus shown itself able to maintain, if not increaso, its normal
sharo of world trade in foodstuffs and other farm products even in
the face of the marked agricultural development in such countries
as Canada, Argentina, and Australia.
The changes in the geographic distribution of our export sales dur­
ing the fiscal year just dosed wero for the most part in the same
direction as those of other recent years. Exports to Europe increased
by only 3 per cent, partly by reason of the actual decline in sales of
grain to that continent, while to all the rest of the world we sold 16J^
per cent more (in value) than in 1927-28. The continent showing
the greatest increase was Asia, 20V<i per cent, but to no great trade
region outside of Europe was the increase less than about 11 per cent.
It is to be expected that, as manufactured goods become more
important in our foreign sales, the gain in exports should be chiefly
in trade with countries as yet little developed in manufacturing indus­
tries. Europe was formerly by far the largest buyer of American

XXVI

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

exports, because at that time foodstuffs and raw materials were by
far the major factors in our sales abroad. The proportion of our
exports taken by Europe had gradually fallen for a long time before
the war, but during the period 1910-1914 that Continent still took
almost exactly five-eighths of the total, 62.3 per cent. In 1928-29
the proportion was four-ninths or 44.6 per cent. Whereas our sales
to Europe during the last fiscal year were 78 per cent greater in value
than during the average year immediately before the World War,
our sales to the rest of the world have risen from $816,000,000 to
$2,977,000,000, or by the remarkable ratio of 265 per cent. The
gain has been notable in sales to all non-European continents and
countries, but the greatest relative increase has been in exports to
Asia, which took more than five and one-half times as much in value
last year as before the war.
Apart from the marked price changes in certain leading articles
already referred to, there were no very conspicuous new developments
in the import trade of 1928-29. In terms of quantity, a large majority
of the important itoms showed considerable increases as compared
with the immediately preceding year, marked increases as compared
with the low point of 1921-22, and still larger increases as compared
with pre-war years. Noteworthy increases in terms of value during
1928-29 as compared with the year before appeared in foreign pur­
chases of refined petroleum products, copper, vegetable oils, oilseeds,
long-staple cotton, and art works. The class of raw materials as a
whole showed a slight decrease in value of imports on account of the
lower prices, while the class of finished manufactures showed a gain
of nearly 8 per cent and that of semimanufactures a gain of nearly
14 per cent, the latter being especially affected by larger imports of
semimanufactured copper.
Imports from Asia in 1928-29 on account of the decline in prices
of rubber and tin, were only slightly greater than the year before,
but from most of the continents our purchases increased by 3Yi to 7
per cent, and in the trade with Africa, which is still relatively small,
the increase was nearly 16 per cent.
The United States has a larger share in both the export and import
trade of the world at present than before the World War. The
growth of our exports has not served, as some persons apparently
suppose, to check the recovery of the industrial countries of western
Europe from the demoralization caused by the World War. On the
contrary, there is good reason to believe that the expansion of Ameri­
can export trade has actually helped the recovery of Europe. It has
increased our own buying power for foreign goods, as is shown by the
fact that our imports show a greater gain as compared with pre-war
years than our exports. The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com­
merce has rocently compiled the trade figures for a large number of
foreign countries for 1927 as compared with 1913. The exports of
these countries to the United States increased by 155 per cent in
value during this interval, while their exports to all the rest of the
world combined increased by only 46 per cent, most of this latter
increase being due to the advance in price levels. The difference
between these percentages of increase was more marked in the case
of the exports of the countries under consideration than the difference
in the case of imports. The purchases of these countries from the

REPOET OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXV; I

United States rose 91 per cent in value between 1913 and 1927, while
their imports from the rest of the world rose by 47 per cent.
Notwithstanding the fact that Europe exports chiefly manufac­
tured goods of which the United States itself is a great exporter, the
sales of European countries to us have increased more as compared
with pre-war years than their sales to other parts of the world.
Thus the five leading European participants in the World War, the
United Kingdom, Belgium, Franco, Italy, and Germany, in 1927
sold goods to the United States to a value 50 per cent greater than
in 1913, but their exports to other countries were only 27 per cent
greater, the increase being less than the advance in commodity
prices.
Moreover, the very great growth of the purchases of the United
States from those countries, which produce chiefly foodstuffs and
raw materials, has been of marked indirect advantage, to the indus­
trial countries of Europe. If one combines the exports statistics of a
group of 10 countries comprising Argentina, China, British India,
Ceylon, British Malaya, Netherland East Indies, Australia, New
Zealand, Egypt, and the Union of South Africa, he will find that
their sales to the United States in 1913 were valued at $200,000,000,
whereas in 1927 the total was almost $900,000,000, or four and onehalf times greater. Meantime their exports to the rest of the world
(although still in the aggregate much larger than to the United
States) had increased only 62 per cent. This immense gain in
their exports to the United States has benefited many Europoan
investors, who are interested in enterprises of production and trans­
portation in these countries. Moreover, our purchases of such
commodities as rubber, tin, silk, wool, hides and skins, varnish gums,
semitropical fabrics, and oilseeds and oils have greatly increased the
buying power of countries of this sort for manufactured goods from
Europe as well as from America.
That the expansion of American exports has benefited Europe
may be inferred from the fact that the recovery of European export
trade has apparently aided our own producers and merchants to sell
goods abroad. Broadly speaking, progress in trade is a mutual
thing, and the gain of one nation means gains for others as well. At
the close of tho World War it was very commonly predicted that the
recovery of European industry from the great slump caused by that
catastrophe, and the turning of tho attention of European factories
from war requirements to foreign markets, would check the increase
of exports from the United States. The contrary has actually hap­
pened. Europe is steadily recovering in production and trade, and
exported goods in 1928 to a value 47 per cent greater than in 1922,
yet our own exports have increased by not far from tho same pro­
portion, and our exports of manufactured goods, which must com­
pete with the European products, have increased much more.
Europe itself has taken more and more of our manufactured goods,
while the fact that Europe is a better market than before for food­
stuffs and raw materials produced in Asia, Africa, Latin America,
and elsewhere has added to the buying power of those regions for our
own manufactures as well as for those of our European competitors.
Above all has the recovery of the European manufacturing industry
been an advantage to American agriculture, enabling us to keep up

XXVIII

REPORT OP TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

large sales of grain, pork, cotton, and other farm products to that
continent, notwithstanding that Europe’s own fields are now pro­
ducing much more than during and immediately after the World
War.
The truth is that, so long as peace is maintained among the nations,
the total productive capacity of the world expands greatly and trade
between the nations expands even more rapidly. Moreover, as
trado expands, the proportion of it consisting of advanced com­
modities becomes constantly higher. For decades before the World
War the trade of practically every country of the world was steadily
advancing. There was then, as there is now, vigorous competition
for foreign outlets, especially in the case of manufactured goods, but
this competition did not prevent the expansion of the exports of
every industrial country. Those factors which were at work prior
to the World War to build up productive capacity, raise living
standards, and expand international trade are again in evidence
throughout the world.

ELIMINATION OF WASTE
(A résumé of the department's contribution compiled by R ay M. H udson, Assistant Director, Bureau of
Standards]

At no time since the inception of the movement in 1921 has the
elimination of waste received so much attention as during the past
12 months.
In production and distribution—that is, manufacturing and mer­
chandising; in construction, mining, land and marine transportation;
in the held of finance ; and in many other forms of human enterprise,
there is evidence of increased understanding of waste and greater
appreciation of the “huge deduction it makes from the total goods
and services which, but for waste, we might all enjoy.”
Through the report of the Hoover Committee on Waste in Indus­
try, issued in 1921, the attention of management in many lines of
business was focused on the opportunities before it to strengthen
and stabilize business through voluntary cooperation for the elimina­
tion of waste.
Consequent effort to apply the recommendations embodied in this
report has yielded many direct and also indirect benefits to manu­
facturers, distributors, and consumers. As these results have become
more widely known, both business and public interest has increased,
until to-day waste elimination is accepted as a fundamental of modern
business management. In fact, the pressure of current interindustry
competition is causing management generally to look for to-morrow’s
profits in to-day’s wastes.
Because of this larger recognition of waste, and the growing appre­
ciation of the values in its elimination, the Department of Com­
merce is constantly called upon by industry and business for coopera­
tion in endeavors designed to reduce wastes of mateiial, time, human
effort, and human life.
The contribution of these cooperative efforts to business stability,
national wealth, well-being, and prosperity can not be measured pre­
cisely, but the following review of the interests and activities of the
several branches of the department shows how' they are helping to
reduce waste.
Gratifying as the results to date may be, the surface of avoidable
waste has been barely scratched. The potentialities for further
contribution through continued cooperation are tremendous, and it
Bay be confidently expected that still greater results will be forth­
coming as the losses and penalties of needless waste become more
widely known.
SIMPLIFIED PRACTICE

For the past eight years, the division of simplified practice, serving
as a coordinating agency for manufacturers, distributors, and con­
sumers seeking to minimize the wates resulting from excessive diver­
sity in size, dimension, etc., of commonly used commodities, has
XXIX

XXX

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

helped to bring about 111 simplified practice recommendations;
12 of these were completed this fiscal year.
This record demonstrates not only the nation-wide interost in sim­
plification as a fundamental of good management, and a new way
to better net profits, but it also shows that maximum benefits from
waste elimination are attainable only through concerted action of
entire industries and close cooperation between all interests. It
further serves to emphasize the interdependence of all industries,
and the necessity for more effective coordination of effort as a basis
of improved national well-being.
In recent years the high wage level and the relatively stationary
cost of living have given to many a larger margin between income and
outgo. This has increased the number and variety of consumer
wants, while keen competition for a larger share of the consumer
dollar has stimulated many manufacturers and merchants to diversify
lines, revamp or redesign products, and to develop new ones. In
well-established lines the simplification process goes on continuously,
items being eliminated, while in the midst of effort to improve old
goods or develop new. Persistence in pruning out the least desirable
and adding the better is but a natural part of progress.
The continued success of simplified practice is evident in the
high sustained average of adherence accorded simplifications now in
effect. Eighty-six per cent of the output in 27 recommendations
reviewed this fiscal year, as revealed by statistical reports from the
participating manufacturers, conformed to the sizes, dimensions, etc.,
of their respective simplified practice programs.
The average of the yearly adherence figures for the last eight years
is 83 per cent.
AMERICAN MARINE STANDARDS COMMITTEE

This committee is representative of the marine industry. It
operates with the division of simplified practice, aided by the United
States Shipping Board. As of June 30, its membership comprised
356 member bodies, and it had promulgated 102 standards covering
construction, machinery, equipment, and operation of ships. A
technical committee on port facilities was recently organized in
cooperation with the American Association of Port Authorities.
COMMERCIAL STANDARDS

Any analysis of our present economic situation is bound to reveal
certain facts and obvious trends in the commerce of to-day. More
time and energy are being devoted to careful and judicious expendi­
ture. There is more shopping around for better values and better
bargains among the professional purchasing agents, who contract for
the materials used and fabricated by our large industrial organiza­
tions and institutions. With increased travel and speedier means of
communication our people are becoming better judges of value and
arc demanding higher quality. Every known article possessing out­
standing or unusual quality is enjoying a large and highly profitable
business.
In the present perplexing market of novelties and color the con­
sumer buyers, and even the professional purchasing agents, are

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXI

finding it increasingly difficult to distinguish between items of real
merit and products built “ for appearance only.” It is natural,
therefore, that the buyer and the purchasing agent are both seeking
authoritative and dependable criteria of quality, such as commercial
standards, and are welcoming certificates from reputable producers
that the quality of the goods equals or exceeds the commercial standard
specification.
Among the producers competition was never keener than to-day.
The alert trade association seeks a means of assuring the buyer and
the professional purchasing agent alike of the inherent quality of
the proffered goods. Individual trade-marks and trade-association
labels are helpful but are not always sufficient to satisfy the skepticism
of the modern purchaser, who demands to be shown with laboratory
analyses and tests, sponsored by an unbiased and unquestioned
authority, the quality of goods delivered.
The commercial standard, developed and established by industry
itself under the observation of the Federal Government; accepted in
writing by producers, distributors, and consumers alike; printed and
promulgated by the Department of Commerce after the most severe
scrutiny, satisfies all of the ramifications of the situation and offers
an authoritative and dependable basis for marketing and purchase
by all elements directly concerned.
The division of trade standards actively assisted on 34 projects
requested by industries interested in establishing commercial stand­
ards. During the year 15 of these projects passed the generalconference stage, being adopted by the industries concerned. To
and including June 30, 1929, six projects were accepted in writing by
a majority representing over 65 per cent of the volume of production
of each commodity. Six are now issued in printed form. With but
a single exception the remainder are in process of obtaining written
acceptance.
Among the commercial standards officially accepted by industry
are: Staple porcelain (all-clay) plumbing fixtures, which cover
grading rules, nomenclature, definitions, over-all measurements, and
standard roughing-in dimensions for porcelain kitchen sinks, laundry
trays, slop sinks, stall urinals, lavatories, baths, and shower receptors;
regain of mercerized cotton yarns, being a basis for weight adjustment
between buyer and seller; domestic and industrial fuel oils, com­
prising complete specifications for distillation range, viscosity, flash
point, etc., of six grades of fuel oils; dress patterns, which constitute
a definite uniform basis for selection of proper type and size of dross
patterns, as well as standard, widths of cotton, wool, and silk material
for pattern layouts; wall paper covering a minimum specification for
color fastness, paper stock, and other quality criteria for wall paper;
and diamond-core drill fittings comprising standard threads, joint
dimensions, and tolerances to provide complete interchangeability
of these fittings as produced by various manufacturers, as well as
standard terminology and symbols to prevent confusion of sizes
and types.
With the cooperation of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce arrangements have been made whereby commercial
standards accepted by American industries may be translated into
foreign languages and such translations distributed through our
foreign trade representatives as an additional means of promoting
foreign trade in these commodities.

XXXII

REPORT OF TIIE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

CERTIFICATION AND LABELING

In order to broaden the field of supply of commodities covered by
Federal specifications, it is the duty of the Federal agencies to make
and keep these specifications in harmony with good commercial prac­
tice. From time to time the State and other public purchasing
agencies have sought the assistance of the Department of Commerce
in the formulation of standards, specifications, and methods of tests
for their purchases. As a solution to these several problems the socalled certification plan is being applied to certain selected Federal
specifications in such a way as to make it as effective as possible for
“ public purchasers” ; that is, for the governmental and institutional
agencies, Federal, State, county, and municipal, who are spending the
money collected from the public, in the form of taxes.
In accordance with this plan, there have been compiled by the
National Bureau of Standards lists of such firms as have expressed to
the bureau their desire to have their names placed on the lists of
manufacturers willing, when requested to do so, to certify to purchasers
that materia] supplied in accordance with the designated 267 Federal
specifications complies with the requirements and tests of these
specifications, and is so guaranteed by them. These lists represent
more than 7,500 requests for listing from over 2,000 firms.
The groups of commodities covered by the specifications to which
the certification plan has been applied, the number of Federal speci­
fications in each group, the number of requests for listing, and the
number of firms requesting listing in each group, are shown in the
accompanying table.
Commodity groups
Abrasives and polishing materials............
Brushes and brooms...................................
Builders’ hardware......................................
Cement, Portland.......................................
Electrical supplies.......................................
Fire extinguishers and liquids...................
Glass,..,....................................... ........ ........
Heat insulating materials...........................
Inks....... ............... ........................................
Leather goods...............................................
Lime ana plaster.........................................
Linoleum.....................................................
Liquid-measuring devices.........................
Packing and gaskets............ .....................
Padlocks............. .........................................
Paints and paint materials........................
Paper.............................................................
Pipe and pipe fittings.................................
Refractories..................................................
Ribbons, typewriter...................................
Road and paving materials........... ...........
Roofing..bituminous, and waterproofing.
Rope wire.....................................................
Safes, burciar-resisting..............................
Scales, railroad track..................................
Screws, wood.............................................. .
Soaps and scouring compounds...............
Tableware, silver-plated............................
Textiles.......................................
Tubing, metallic.........................................
Total........................... ......................

Specifi­ Listings
cations
9
48
1
1
11
3
1
8
7
4
4
2
1
13
1
30
29
7
3
3
7
10
1
1
1
1
13
1
36
4
267

108
944
33
68
176
78
59
58
126
106
149
10
21
162
17
3,004
4A9
86
107
94
123
571
15
3
7
13
563
7
598
61
7,826

Firms
50
168
33
68
139
49
59
30
47
78
86
5
21
70
17
305
90
60
57
36
45
105
15
3
7
13
149
7
207
49
2.074

The certification plan has also been applied to seven commercial
standards, 88 firms having expressed their desire for 107 listings among
the willing-to-certifv manufacturers of the commodities covered by

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXIU

commercial standards for clinical thermometers; Stoddard solvent;
all-clay plumbing fixtures; brass, steel, and wrought-iron pipe nipples;
and regain of mercerized cotton yarns.
Commercial standards are set up by industry itself as the basis of
trade throughout the industry as a whole, including producers, dis­
tributors, and consumers, both contract and over the counter, and the
manufacturers, dealers, and users are asked to limit their transactions
to these lines of commodities so far as they can conveniently do so.
The certification plan is applied to commercial standards only when
specifically requested by the representative conference and definitely
agreed to by the manufacturers.
In certain instances, the manufacturers are using self-identifying
labels to set forth their guaranty of the quality of certain of their
goods as being in compliance with the requirements of designated
nationally recognized specifications or commercial standards. Cer­
tain manufacturers have stated that they are now using or planning
to use quality-guaranteeing labels, or their equivalent, with goods
manufactured to comply with Federal specifications for dental alloys,
dry cells, fireproof safes, gypsum, ink, linoleum, lumber, paint, pipe,
Portland cement, soap, and textiles.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Bureau of Standards.—Waste is vast potential wealth. Research
discloses its nature and measures its properties. To match these
with some need of industry is most profitable. After confirmatory
tests in the laboratory and in service, the discovery enters industry,
ever adding wealth to the Nation long after the research is forgotten.
Cellulose sulphite, a waste from pulp mills polluting streams and
killing fish, was by research found useful for tanning leather, replacing
costly chestnut wood which the blight was exterminating. Bureau
research proved that leather so tanned was satisfactory in quality, and
Federal specifications were amended to permit its use in the leather
industry.
When the corrosion of duralumin threatened its use in aircraft where
its lightness made it most valuable, the bureau on request developed
a protection. Its experts proposed a coating of pure aluminum and
studied specimens so prepared. Even when its coating was attacked
the coated duralumin was found more durable than duralumin alone.
Specimens withstood 100,000,000 alternations of stress in bureau tests.
The coated duralumin is now being produced commercially. Longer
life was thus assured a valuable but corrodible alloy most useful in
aircraft, minimizing waste by lessening the necessity for renewals of
aircraft parts.
Unmeasured waste from defective materials built into structures
has stimulated testing in advance of use to prevent weakness or short
life. Testing materials is effective in eliminating such waste. In
this the bureau has just cooperated by publishing a directory of
nearly 600 testing laboratories and by establishing jointly wdth other
groups a cement testing reference laboratory where cement-testing
methods may be tried out, equipment standardized, and testing stall
instructed for service in the cement laboratories of the country.
“Winter damage” was until recently a mysterious source of loss
through injury to clothing and other textiles laundered in winter.
On request of the industry, a bureau research was authorized for
78415—29------in

XXXIV

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

finding the cause and the cure. Both were found. As an example
of the elimination of preventable waste it is most interesting. All
“ winter damaged” garments were found to have been washed and
dried out of doors and were also found to contain sulphuric acid.
Atmospheric sulphur dioxide from winter fires was suspected at once
as the cause. Damp towels exposed to a laboratory atmosphere con­
taining a millionth part sulphur dioxide showed damage similar to
the “winter damage.” It was also found that the chemical reaction
was increased notably by the heat applied in ironing. The simple
remedy recommended—introducing calcium bicarbonate in the final
rinse water to neutralize the acid—has been tried with success by a
number of commercial laundries, materially reducing the loss.
To prolong the useful life of materials is a most valuable type of
research for the elimination of waste through frequent replacement.
In a research on leather, chromium tanning followed by vegetable
tanning was found to add 50 per cent or more to the life of sole leather.
Another research on the life of paper showed that the processing of
the fiber is the greatest factor in its deterioration, and suitable con­
trol of such processing a fruitful means of adding to its service life.
Accelerated aging tests for paper have been devised and are now in use.
The natural weathering of paints is so slow that for laboratory re­
search accelerated tests were devised to duplicate damage from alter­
nating rain and ultra-violet radiation, altogether speeding up tenfold
the weathering tests and the selection of the more weather-resistant
specimens. For other materials alternating freezing and thawing is
the factor of damage. These are accelerated in the laboratory by
artificially speeding up the cycles of freezing and thawing. Research
is in progress on testing the bond between brick and mortar, measuring
the bond strength initially and after 50 cycles of freezing and thawing.
Some samples of slate resist 4,000 freezings, indicating high resistance
to frost action. Cast stone from all parts of the United States wras
subjected to alternating freezing and thawing and found to vary
greatly, some cast stone enduring 500 cycles, while others showed
signs of disintegration after 15 cycles.
The importance of research in prolonging the life of materials is
evident from the recent disclosure that certain building stones
supposedly of long life have decayed within 60 years. Means are
being sought to prolong the life of stone by suitable protection
procedure. Crazing of semiporcelain was found by research to
follow absorption of water and expansion of the body. Cracking
of the glaze resulted. Recommendations were also published on
desirable properties in clays which will increase the life of fire brick.
Methods were devised also to enable terra-cotta makers to test the
weathering quality of their ware before it leaves the factory, thus
saving the waste in shipping defective material.
Another type of waste elimination by research is exemplified in
the technique worked out to avoid spoilage of enameled ware by
blistering. Briefly, light-colored vitreous first coats may be applied
to metal, forming oxides of the metal and of cobalt which serve as an
adhesive surface. The blistering was found to be caused by the
carbon dioxide and monoxide formed at the surface of the metal.
By suitable treatment of the surface layer it was found to be possible
to control the enameling to avoid spoilage.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XX W

A first step in finding uses for waste materials is analysis. No
system of analysis of the waste ends of levuiose-bearing materials was
known. The bureau therefore devised suitable analytical methods,
the lii'st fruit of which is the discovery and extraction of a new
sugar— difructose anhydride—from such waste.
Utilization of waste materials by finding experimentally products
in which they can be used may be illustrated by several examples of
recent developments in connection with the bureau’s cooperation on
the saving of farm wastes. A strong brown paper was made from
artichoke tops, roofing felt from sawdust and waste paper, and a
new kind of sugar—xylose—from cottonseed hulls, peanut shells, and
corncobs. This sugar is now being manufactured commercially.
Cornstalks were made into three new materials: A hard rubberlike
material, a lumber substitute, and insulating board of double, the
strength of any commercial board.
In search of a cheaper substitute for costly platinum in technical
work, alloys of rhodium were produced and made into electric fur­
nace windings for experimental study and showing up well in service.
In the conservation of heating and cooling effects so important in
homes, offices, and factories and in the refrigeration industries, the
bureau has contributed research results on the measured values of
the insulating quality of insulating materials. These data will
facilitate the selection of the most suitable materials for insulating
homes and other structures.
The bureau has in progress several hundred researches. A great
number of these have directly a bearing on the problem of waste
elimination. In seeking dependable minima of dimension in the
design of products and structures, the researches on the properties
of materials are of direct application. The enhanced utility of
devices resulting from better fits, more accurate dimensioning, are
notable. These are secured dependably through research on the
effect of improved accuracy. In other words, the application of
measurements to industrial problems can not fail to reduce the
waste by basing design on better numerical data and testing the
parts and built-up machines by systems of precision gages. The
theory is that there is a presumptively best dimension of product
or part and a best magnitude of any useful property or characteristic
which gives the least waste. The bureau’s researches are designed
to develop the best measured controls in the processes being studied
or developed, so that waste may be minimized and efficiencies pro­
moted. Not the least useful function is to conserve industrial
effort by assigning the right degree of accuracy which a given case
deserves, for at the “good enough” point waste begins.
UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Mineral.—The study of problems of efficiency in the use of fuels,
in which the Bureau of Mines has been a pioneer, has resulted in great
savings to industry. This work includes the analysis of thousands
of coal samples from the various producing districts, the improve­
ment of combustion methods, the utilization of low-grade fuels,
the study of new types of fuel, the preparation of coal, and the carboni­
zation of coal with attendant conservation of by-products. The
bureau has conducted tests of all representative coals to determine

XXXVI

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

their heating, steaming, and gas-producing qualities. Attention has
been given to new materials and new methods in the manufacture of
illuminating gas and to the obtaining of more and better by-products
in the coking of coal. The results of this extensive program of investiation have been made public in numerous bulletins, which afford
elpful information to the coal operator, the coal marketer, and the
coal consumer. As the result of the bureau’s fuel economy service,
many thousands of dollars are being saved annually through the use
of better equipment and improved combustion methods in Govern­
ment heating and power plants.
Substantial increases in the production of marketable fuel
in Alabama and the Northwestern States are being obtained as
the result of investigations in the washing of coals. Studies of the
conditions in boiler furnaces and their effects on the life of boiler
settings have resulted in the obtaining of information which should
tend to avoid the rapid deterioration of boiler furnace refractories.
The bureau’s studies in the field of metallurgy have contributed
largely to the annual recovery of millions of dollars worth of metals
from complex or low-grade ores that formerly could not be worked
profitably. Metal losses in milling that once reached several millions
annually have in later years been greatly reduced. Through its
investigative work, the bureau seeks constantly to focus attention
upon wasteful or inefficient practices, to point out improvements, and
to obtain the cooperation of producers in adopting better methods and
bringing into use more efficient devices.
A major activity during the past year has been the development
of methods which can be successfully applied to the production of
manganese, essential in the manufacture of steel, from low-grade
domestic deposits heretofore undeveloped. A study of lead blast­
furnace practice is affording data which should lead to improved
practice and increased efficiency in the important lead-smelting
industry. The bureau’s studies in the physical chemistry of steel
making are supplying information which should eliminate unscientific
and wasteful methods hitherto employed. Microscopic studies con­
ducted during the year have continued to locate the causes for exten­
sive tailing losses of metal where other methods of identification have
failed. A study of methods of developing lead-carbonate ores in many
western mining districts which are of too low a grade to be economi­
cally mined has been successfully conducted. A method for agglom­
erating slime and fine particles in leaching ores developed by the
bureau promises to have wide application in the recovery of the
copper in the enormous tonnages of tailings carrying small percent­
ages of metal which have accumulated at copper concentrators in
the Southwestern States.
Studies in the flotation of ores have assisted materially in the
successful application of this method to many classes of ores not
heretofore amenable to such treatment. Investigations in the
milling of lead and zinc ores have been instrumental in the attaining
of very large savings in the Missouri-Kansas-Oklahoma district,
where milling losses have amounted to millions of dollars annually.
Research was continued looking to the elimination of wastes in the
mining, treatment, and utilization of the numerous important nonmctaliic minerals, which are widely used in the construction of build­

f

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXVfl

ings, highways, and engineering projects. Studies relating to the
more efficient production of phosphate, bauxite, and kaolin, and to
the utilization of the Nation's extensive ocher deposits were
conducted.
The bureau is assisting the petroleum industry’- in the development
of methods of production whereby more than 20 per cent of oil in
underground deposits can be recovered, and in the devising of proc­
esses by which larger percentages of motor fuels and other commer­
cial products may be obtained in the refining of petroleum. By
conducting special engineering studies of important oil-producing
fields, the bureau is assisting operators in their efforts to control
underground water which threatens continuance of successful develop­
ment. The bureau’s studies have assisted materially in reducing
evaporation losses of petroleum from transportation and storage
which have run into millions of dollars annually. A special study of
the salvaging of material and equipment used in the petroleum indus­
try has pointed the way to the elimination of wastes which annually
reach enormous figures. A study of the controlling and gauging of
natural gas wells has afforded information which should prevent the
waste of millions of cubic feet of gas annually lost in conducting
open-flow tests.
The development of the new helium production plant near Amarillo,
Tex., has resulted in the conservation of the largest helium-bearing
natural gas field known and in the assurance of ample supplies of this
rare noninflammablc gas required by the Army and Navy for the
operation of dirigibles. Continued operation of the plant for a
period of several months indicates that the cost of helium to the
Government will be cut in half.
The special study of mining and milling methods and costs at
representative operations in the various metal and coal mining dis­
tricts of the country is assisting operators materially in the attain­
ment of more efficient methods and the lessening of costs. These
studies include such matters as prospecting and exploration, drilling
and blasting, the loading of ores and coal, mine timbering, the break­
ing and handling of ore, mine ventilation, underground transporta­
tion, and mine sampling.
Products of the soil.—There are more than 100,000,000 tons of
cornstalks produced in the United States annually. A small propor­
tion of them is used for cattle food, but most of them are either
plowed under or burned. It is now generally believed that in cornbelt soils the value of the cornstalk as a fertilizer hardly pays the
expense of plowing them under. Burning the stalks is likewise ex­
pensive, and is resorted to only as a method of removing the stalks
in a way which will stop the further progress of the corn borer.
In cooperation with Iowa State College, our Bureau of Standards
has built and is now operating a semicommercial factory at Ames,
Iowa, to make board of cornstalks. Thus far it has demonstrated
that an insulating board of satisfactory quality can be made of corn­
stalks. It has ascertained, by experiment, the best type of equipment
to be used for the purpose. An economic study of the markets for
the board has been completed. In short, the bureau has demon­
strated as far as can be done on a seraicommercial scale that the
manufacture of insulating board offers an outlet for some of the now

XXXVIII

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

wasted cornstalks at a reasonable profit to the farmer, the manufac­
turer, and the public. Tho first commercial factory, built by private
capital, is now operating.
The station at Ames is being used to develop similar information
about the manufacture of pressed board. This board may be ac­
ceptable as a substitute for lumber for certain purposes, and may thus
afford an outlet for more cornstalks.
About a million tons of cottonseed hulls are available annually.
After the shortest cotton fibers are removed from the seed and sold
as linters, the seeds are cracked and the kernels taken out. These
kernels are valuable as the source of cottonseed oil and press cake.
The hulls are of doubtful value and have only a precarious market.
The bureau has found that these hulls contained about 24 per cent
of xylose. It has also found a means of extracting this xylose from
the hulls, and in cooperation with Alabama Polytechnic Institute,
University of Alabama, and the Federal Phosphorus Co., it has built
and is now operating at Anniston, Ala., a semicommercial xylose
factory. Information on the type of equipment needed for the pur­
pose and on the cost of manufacture is being obtained.
Xylose is a sugar, but is radically different from any sugar ever
before on the market. Its suitability as a food for men and animals
is being investigated by several public and private laboratories.
Its possible use as a raw material for the manufacture of explosives,
lacquers, acids, and many other things, is being developed by several
cooperating investigators, all using samples furnished by the factory.
If any of these numerous studies turn out successfully, there will
be a market for xylose, and therefore a market for some of the cotton­
seed hulls now being wasted.
Xylose can also be made from peanut hulls, of which there are
about 45,000 tons a year available.
After the xylose has been extracted, the residue is mostly cellulose.
This may have some commercial value not now known.
Straw, in the big grain-producing areas, is largely burned on the
field in order to get rid of it. Paper has been made from straw, but
the quality was too poor and the cost too high to be economical.
It is possible to improve the quality. Modern harvesting equipment
and motor transport have reduced the cost. Perhaps, under present
conditions, straw paper is economical. Work on this has just been
started; the pulp being made at Ames, and the paper mill at the bureau
used for making the paper.
Hood utilization.—The principal achievements of the National Com­
mittee on Wood Utilization for the past year include the following:
(1) The completion of a publication, Wood Construction, which
is in reality a handbook on the use of wood for construction purposes.
The book discusses such subjects as the properties of wood as a build­
ing material; principal species and their identification, grading, and
specifications; their preservation and protection; and their applica­
tion in temporary, light, and heavy construction. A special control
committee of nationally known architects, engineers, and builders
guided the preparation of this book.
(2) Cooperation in efforts looking toward the reduction of economic
losses arising from the use of lumber insufficiently or improperly
seasoned. The committee’s part in this program has- included the

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXIX'

preparation and distribution of four bulletins, one for consumers,
one for distributors, ono for fabricators, and a fourth for manufac­
turers of lumber, on the general subject Seasoning, Handling, and Care
of Lumber. These bulletins summarize for each of the groups indi­
cated the best methods of reducing seasoning and handling losses.
(3) Further promotion of the system of grade-marking lumber.
A systematic drive was made during the year in cooperation with
trade and professional associations to direct the attention of lumber
buyers to the protection afforded them in specifying grade-marked
lumber in their purchases.
(4) Continuation of activities to acquaint the public and the
lumber industry with the economies possible through the use of shortlength lumber. A publication on the subject has already had a wide
distribution.
(5) Extension of use of end-matched softwoods as a means of
reducing waste and securing greater economy in building.
(6) Promotion of the manufacture of small-dimension lumber at
the mill instead of at points of consumption with a view to elimi­
nating freight charges and the waste involved in cutting stock to
dimension on the job. Information on this subject is now available
in a bulletin published by the committee.
(7) Reduction in the waste of wood by finding uses for discarded
materials either through direct manufacture or working the materials
for valuable by-products. An example of the first method of reduc­
ing waste is the plan developed by the committee for making useful
and interesting articles out of second-hand boxes and crates and odd
pieces of lumber. The first of a series of bulletins under the title “ You
Can Make It,” containing over 100 suggestions for utilizing discarded
wooden containers, was issued by the committee during the past
year. The committee is attempting to reduce the present waste of
wood at sawmills, planing mills, and woodworking plants. To that
end surveys were made in two States. In Virginia 28,000 carloads
and in North Carolina 32,000 carloads of such wood wnsto suitable
as raw material for pulp mills, fiber factories, box plants, and similar
industries were found. The survey is now being extended to the
State of Maryland.
(8) Tests sponsored by the. committee which show conclusively
that a gang saw will cut profitably small logs which heretofore could
not be cut at the sawmill, thus making possible the use of a greater
portion of the tree. This applies particularly to west coast timber.
(9) Reduction of losses caused by stain aud mold in lumber. As
part of its effort in this field the committee lias published a manual
on the proper treatment of lumber to prevent sap stain.
Fisheries.-—The Bureau of Fisheries’ efforts toward a further
reduction of waste lie in the fields of biology, fish culture, and fisheries
technology and include the following:
(1) Development, of the science of water fanning— (a) to utilize waste
water areas for food production under controlled conditions, develop­
ing moans for producing a maximum yield; (b) to control natural
waterways in such manner as to increase their productivity; (c) to
grow larger percentages of hatchery-produced fish to maturity,
through curtailing the ravages of diseases and growing the fish to a
larger size before releasing them in the natural streams; (d) through

XL

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

selective breeding to produce superior strains of brood stock of rapid
growth, yielding a larger number of eggs and possessing diseaseresistant qualities; and (e) development of fish screens to prevent
losses of fish in irrigation ditches.
(2) Encouraging the States to enact such legislation as will prevent
the heavy destruction of immature and undersized fish; to save the
spawn for the hatcheries; to outlaw unusually destructive fishing
practices and to so administer their fishery resources as to yield the
highest possible return without endangering the future supply.
(3) Technological research to improve methods of manufacture of
fish and shellfish meals for stock feed; solve the problem of reduction
of fish waste rich in glue; develop improved methods for saving cod
livers for production of medicinal oil; continue experiments in net
preservation to lengthen the life of the fisherman’s gear; and
develop improved methods of preparing fresh fish for market for
shipment to points distant from centers of production.
(4) Effect improved methods of unloading fish from fishing vessels
to provide more expeditious handling without damage to the product.
STATISTICS

The last few years have been marked by a period of generally
sustained prosperity, little short of spectacular. During the years
following the postwar depression, there have been none of the violent
fluctuations in business such as have characterized most of our pre­
vious periods of high activity. This has in a very large measure
been due to greater knowledge and wider use of the current facts on
industry and commerce.
This growth in the utilization of statistics is manifest in all fields of
production and distribution and has provided business executives
with a basis for combating industrial and commercial wastes, which
until recently could be direetty attributed to the lack of facts in the
establishment of production and merchandising policies.
With the growing complexity of business and the rising inter­
dependence between one industry and another, the business executive
must not only know how his own firm is progressing but also how
his industry and business and industry generally are progressing;
he must know the buying conditions of his customers as well as the
conditions within his raw-material markets; he must know of con­
ditions surrounding the credit structure and of the employment
conditions within his potential market and how these and a thousand
other factors may affect the welfare of his own business. In short,
he can not know too much if he will effectively withstand the hazards
which rapidly changing conditions are bringing forward.
The files of this department disclose many interesting applications
of business statistics and the results which their utilization have
accomplished. A building-supply company in negotiating for its
early contract for cement w-as urged to make a quick purchase
efore the development of a shortage. A study of business statistics
as presented in the Survey of Current Business indicated to that
company that cement stocks were 1,500,000 barrels higher than the
ear before and that prices actually seemed to be on the decline.
urther examination disclosed to executives of that company that
300,000 freight cars were reported as being idle, as against a shortage

N
i

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XLT

of 68,000 the year before, indicating that the railroads could be
counted upon to deliver merchandise promptly. The use of these
facts, according to the purchasing agent, enabled the building-supply
company to save 30 cents a barrel on a large order of cement.
Not long ago a request was received from a large manufacturer of
women’s wear substantially as follows: “ I am contemplating adding
a line of manufacture appropriate for use by owners of rumble-seat
cars. I would like to get information, if possible, as to the number
of such cars manufactured and sold during each }7ear.” From a
manufacturing and marketing viewpoint, the question of this manu­
facturer provides a striking piece of evidence of the rise of factual
thirst on the part of American industry in its endeavor to eliminate
waste in the production and distributive processes.
AIDS TO BUSINESS

The domestic-commerce division is engaged in a number of research
projects whose results are aimed at the elimination of some portion
of the estimated $8,000,000,000 wastes in the distribution system.
Waste, for instance, that arises from such conditions as excessive
expenditure in sales promotive efforts without adequate information
as to prospects in a given market; disorderly marketing; haphazard
procedure in retail merchandising; extravagant delivery services; and
unwise credit methods.
Regional surveys.—The most sweeping endeavor of the division is
its national regional market surveys, in connection with which the
United States has been divided into nine regions, for detailed analysis
of local commercial factors. These surveys are to provide a thorough
basis of facts upon which scientific, wasteless distribution may be
planned.
The reports on each area describe the outstanding features of the
fundamental industries of agriculture, forestry, mining, fishing, manu­
facture, trade, etc., which form the sources of people’s income and
wealth. Commodity movements and the machinery of distribution,
wholesale and retail marketing areas, merchandising and credit trends,
factors involving advertising appeal, store and plant location, nature
of outlet, merchandising methods, buying habits, commodity prefer­
ences, and other factors are considered.
The Commercial Survey of the Southeast and one of three volumes
comprising the New England Survey have been printed. The Pacific
Southwest Survey is ready for printing and field work on the Gulf
Southwest Survey has been started.
Distribution cost analysis.—Another type of waste-eliminating
research in which the domestic commerce division is engaged con­
cerns the analysis of distribution costs from the standpoint of the
cost of handling individual items or performing individual services.
The investigations into wholesale and retail distribution, for several
lines of trade including groceries, hardware, dry goods, paints and
varnishes, electrical equipment and specialties, have as their purpose
not so much to provide comparative data on operating costs or to
specif}1- wasteful practices in the concerns studied, but rather to pre­
sent, a method for functional cost allocation, which may easily be
adopted by any member of the trade in determining the profitableness
of his own individual commodities, customers, or services.
Our wholesale hardware study records the experience of a firm
which had reduced its inventory items from 12,000 to 6,500; customer

XU I

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

accounts were cut about 50 per cent to include only those which were
profitable; the sales territory was reduced about 35 per cent, and
yet the dollar volume of net profit was increased 35 per cent, and
operating expenses were reduced from 20 per cent on sales volume
to 16 per cent.
Retail credit survey.—Still another line of research designed to elimi­
nate wasteful procedure from distribution concerns the matter of
credit selling. Of the immense sum of not less than $8,000,000,000
estimated to represent waste in distribution, nearly $1,000,000,000
is said to bo attributable to credit losses. In view of the desirability
of scrutinizing credit practices to eliminate preventable waste,
the domestic commerce division has undertaken, at the request and
with the cooperation of the National Retail Credit Association and
affiliated business groups, a national survey of retail credit conditions.
A material part of the costs of distribution is said to come from cost
of extending credit. Any unnecessary mark up in consumers’ prices
caused by charges to cover wasteful practices in the extension of
credit is a burden on all classes of business, as well as on the con­
sumer, and anything that will help to reduce the cost of extending
retail credit will be a boon, therefore, to consumers, retailers, whole­
salers, manufacturers, and farmers.
The survey will show, for instance, by number, size, location, and
class of store—department, chain, automobile, furniture, shoe, cloth­
ing, grocery, hardware, etc.—the losses on open accounts and on
installment sales, collection ratios, and methods of credit scrutiny,
correlations between credit losses and proportion of price represented
as down payment, in different lines of business, repossessions, and
salvage values of individual commodities.
Industry surveys.—The domestic commerce division is also engaged
in studying the relation between the condition of productive equip­
ment and profits. The replacement of machinery which, in point of
service may have many years of usefulness but which is incapable of
satisfying the latest fancies of the consumer market or competing with
more recent and improved machinery, has been a difficult point for
manufacturers and has prompted requests for a study of this problem.
The important phases of the industrial equipment studies are:
(1) To bring out facts shoving the relation of equipment obsolescence
to production costs, and (2) to discover, if possible, a means for cor­
rectly evaluating and providing for obsolescence in costs accounting.
The first result is expected to be obtained by the study of machinery
among manufacturers of the same. The second result is expected from
an investigation among the users of such machinery.
In addition to this type of industrial survey, the division is making
related studies designed to show the correlation between production,
sales, and stock on hand of various industrial products, and to reveal
past and present trends in consumption of particular sizes for which
there is a demand. An opportunity for simplification of products
was suggested in the ensilage cutter machinery study by the fact
that 5 of 17 sizes accounted for 80 per cent of the total sales of the
concerns surveyed.
These two types of industrial survey, it is hoped, will enable
the elimination of wasteful practices with respect to equipment pur­
chase and replacement, and by pointing the way to coordination of
productive capacity and output with market demand.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XUU

Marketing areas.—Among still other projects of the domestic com­
merce division are studies designed to outline logical trading areas
throughout the United States and providing basic market data upon
which sales or advertising quotas may be set by any concern, scien­
tifically and with a minimum of guesswork.
As a summary to the entire field of market research, the division
publishes annually a volume entitled “ Market Research Agencies,”
which lists all known research organizations in the United States and
describes their activities and available studies. One obvious result is
that much duplication of research effort is thus avoided.
TRANSPORTATION AND TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

Gratifying results continue to be shown in the elimination of waste
in physical distribution of goods. Cooperative efforts along these
lines among manufacturers, shippers, carriers, warehousemen, con­
sumer bodies, and Government agencies, continue, to effect substan­
tial saving in the physical movement of merchandise. Studies inau­
gurated last year, which include close scrutiny of each distinct phase
of material handling from point of production of raw material to place
of consumption of finished product while yet in initial stages, clearly
show that enormous wastes can be eliminated by modernizing handling
and packing methods.
The joint program of the division of simplified practice and the
transportation division which followed the adoption of standard
dimensions and heights of lift trucks and skids, has already made
itself felt in the field of industry. As a result, many manufacturers
and shippers have found use for skid trucks, tractors, and trailers in
handling merchandise, and reports point to appreciable savings
in handling operations.
The adoption of the use of skids and trucks at railway terminals
and in coastal and intercoastal shipping, and the adoption of standard
dimensions to permit interchangeability, has already tended to ex­
tend the use of such equipment for the handling of merchandise into
new fields.
Other recent developments in material handling and shipping.goods
are pointing the way to further possible opportunities in waste elimi­
nation. It is claimed that the unit-container service, installed by
several eastern railways, has already demonstrated results from the
use of such equipment. Further benefits along this line are antici­
pated; there appeal's a necessity for standardization of such con­
tainers for use on standard flat or gondola cars. At the present time
unit containers are designed for handling by special equipment, and
arc not permitted off the lines to which they are leased.
The use of container cars for less than carload and package freight
has extended the activities of freight forwarding companies. These
organizations, which have developed their own station facilities, col­
lect small shipments and forward in package cars, or unit containers,
to destination, where similar service is performed in delivery. The
shipper's advantage derived from such services is pointed out to bo
usually lower packing costs, pick-up, and delivery, and a minimizing
of damages to goods in transit. The forwarder usually satisfies him­
self with the profit arising from the difference in theleso-than-carload
costs the shipper would be required to pay when forwarding small
shipments and the carload rate he obtains on such consignments.

XLIV

REPORT OF TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

INDUSTRIAL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

While it has been evident for a long time past that there were
great possibilities for tho elimination of waste in transportation from
the shipper’s viewpoint, the findings of the survey on industrial
traffic management conducted during the past year by the transpor­
tation division of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
reveals figures of waste eliminations which far exceed the expecta­
tions of those interested in inaugurating the survey.
This work was undertaken at the request of the associated traffic
clubs, and after a year’s study the transportation division is sum­
marizing the conclusions for publication; 1,500 complete question­
naires returned by all types and forms of business establishments
have supplied all the material which will enter into publication.
Information will be shown concerning the proper cost of such a
department, and the functions required of its personnel.
The survey discloses that business organizations in many cases
have eliminated losses from $4,000 for small concerns to $350,000
per year for large nation-wide organizations. Examination of the
questionnaires shows clearly that traffic departments produce more
efficient results when permitted to function separately rather than
as a part of some other major activity with an industrial organization.
CONSTRUCTION AND HOME OWNERSHIP

In each field of the department’s cooperation with business, civic,
and labor groups, and Government officials, important steps have
been taken toward solving outstanding problems of the construction
industry and home ownership. Besides the activities relating to
standardization and simplification of building materials, improved
wood utilization, and scientific investigations of the manufacture,
uses, and properties of building materials, all of which are described
elsewhere in this report, definite advances have been made in the
following fields :
Uniformity of local building codes.—By completing its report on fire
resistance in construction the department’s building code committee
has reached a new stage in its work. The seven reports which it
has prepared during the past eight years involved much basic work
on fundamental subjects, such as requirements for small dwellings,
floor loads, allowable working stresses in design, and masonry walls.
It is now vigorously engaged in consolidating, bringing up to date,
and supplementing its previous reports in the form of a single volume
which can be used readily as a basis for new or revised local ordinances,
since a survey by the department has revealed the fact that the
existing codes of several hundred cities have not undergone a major
revision for at least 10 .years and are thus necessarily obsolete.
At least 200 municipalities throughout tho country have now
made use of the committee’s reports.
Stabilization of construction.—A study of the methods by which
public works construction can be controlled as a practical matter in
order to help stabilize employment and general business conditions,
was undertaken tow'ard the close of the fiscal year by the department
in cooperation with the committee on recent economic changes of

REPOBT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XLV

the President’s Conference on Unemployment. Data obtained
thus far from the different Federal Government departments, and
from State and local public works officials, planning commissions,
and civic organizations throughout the country, indicate that sub­
stantial results can be attained. Application of the idea will be of
far-reaching value in focusing the attention of business men, labor
organizations, other groups, and public officials on the value of
definite efforts to stabilize employment in other directions, and con­
tribute materially to the general program for stabilization of em­
ployment and business, which has been one of the main concerns of
the department during the past eight years. The local ups and
downs of business in many cities are such as to demand the type of
thought and attention that hitherto have been directed more largely
to the nation-wide aspects of the matter.
City ‘p lanning and zoning.—The department’s service to munici­
palities actually concerned in problems of city planning has continued
to be in demand. More than 800 cities now have officially established
planning commissions, and substantially the same number have
zoning ordinances in effect. More than 35 States have used the
department’s standard State zoning enabling act. The standard
city planning enabling act, by the adoption of which States may
confer adequate city planning powers upon municipalities, has
already served as the basis for acts in a number of States. The rapid
extension and application of city planning and zoning unquestionably
results in reducing the great wastes which arise when buildings or
public improvements are poorly located.
Small house construction.—Groundwork for a constructive program
for improvement of small house design and construction was laid
by a field survey of several hundred newly erected small houses in
cities throughout the country, The information obtained, which is
directly of great interest to many business and professional groups,
will also be of basic value for systematic efforts to improve the
quality of structures, reduce costs, and educate the public to be more
discriminating in its demand for homes. It is believed that the in­
formation obtained as to common dimensional standards will open
the way for further simplification of sizes and thus permit economies
in their manufacture and use.
Home-owners’ problems.—Following the issuance of a bulletin on
Present Home Financing Methods, which aimed to aid prospective
home owners in making satisfactory financial arrangements for the
purchase of homes and to encourage the development of more adequate
provision for their needs, the department commenced a study of the
conditions under which secondary financing companies operate. The
belief is widely held that existing State legislation is a deterrent to the
entrance of more capital into this field, and to the efficient organiza­
tion of this type of financing as part of the recognized financial organ­
ization of the community. The study revealed a lack of data regard­
ing the reasonable needs of a community for financing above the
customary first mortgage, and regarding the risks due to instability
in the value of residential property. The need for a comprehensive
study of the subject and for the formulation of a constructive remedial
program is evident, and steps are being taken which it is hoped maylead to such a work in cooperation with private groups concerned.

ALVI

REPORT ©F THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

HUMAN SAFETY

Reduction of waste, through preventive measures, in that greatest
of all national resources—human life—has gone forward steadily, yet
much remains to be done in this direction. As our population grows,
as our means of locomotion increase in variety and speed, and as the
number of persons engaged in hazardous occupations and pursuits
increases, we are confronted in increasing magnitude with the problem
of safety and protection to human life.
Through educational and legislative measures, through extension
of compensation insurance into areas not now reached by it, and by
quickened public interest in the wisdom and value of such effort will
we accomplish the reduction of our annual fatalities. It has been well
demonstrated that a large percentage of these are avoidable, and
because of that fact we should assume a greater personal and national
responsibility toward their prevention.
The annual economic loss to the Nation through accidents, injuries,
and occupational diseases is estimated upward of 31,500,000,000.
The Department of Commerce is cooperating to increase safety, as
follows:
On the street.—Due to the increasing interest in uniform motor
vehicle laws and regulations the National Conference on Street and
Highway Safety has during the past year had heavy calls for the
Uniform Vehicle Code, the Model Municipal Traffic Ordinance, and
related materials. There was substantial progress toward uniformity
through adoption of laws and ordinances in harmony with the con­
ference models in additional States and municipalities. Toward the
close of the year steps were also taken to organize new committee
studies of several important subjects not covered by previous con­
ference reports. Twenty States have enacted law's based on the
Uniform Vehicle Code.
The Model Municipal Traffic Ordinance, which was completed in
August, 1928, has been put into effect in two States, New Jersey and
Wisconsin, by State legislation embodying substantially its provi­
sions, and has also been adopted by numerous cities and towns in
other States.
The report on street traffic signs, signals, and markings prepared
for the national conference by a committee of the American Engineer­
ing Council and completed in March, 1929, has been widely distrib­
uted to cities and towns interested in standardization of these traffic
facilities.
During the past summer three new committees of the National
Conference on Street aud Highway Safety were appointed to carry on
more intensive work along certain lines within the scope and purpose
of the national conference: (a) Protection of railway grade crossings
and major highway intersections, (6) maintenance of motor vehicle,
and (c) measures for relief -of traffic congestion. A fourth committee
to review the conference models for uniform State laws and ordinances
has also been authorized.
In production.—Seventy-eight per cent of all the manufacturing
industries in the United States are driven by electrical power, as shown
by the census reports issued in 1929. The National Electrical Safety
Code, published by the Bureau of Standards, is a reasonably complete
standard dealing with the generation, transmission, and utilization of

REPORT OF TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XI.VU

electricity, and accordingly applies toward the elimination of waste in
life and limb in the large majority of our manufacturing industries.
The National Electrical Safety Code has received the general sup­
port of all those affected and has exerted a powerful influence toward
securing better electrical construction. It, or parts of it, are recog­
nized officially by about half the 48 States. The casualty insurance
interests have as a group adopted the code and are applying it in their
inspections and rating schedules. Even in situations where legal en­
forcement or casualty insurance differentials do not extend there is so
much interest in the subject of safety in industry and so many man­
agers are anxious to have their employees properly protected that the
rules of the code are applied voluntarily. The existence of a generally
recognized standard facilitates the accomplishment of protection
against electrical accidents desired by industrial managements.
In the year 1928-29 a new edition of the Discussion of the National
Electrical Safety Code was issued as Handbook No. 4. The code in­
corporates accident-prevention precepts in the electrical industry.
The discussion elaborates the reasons for these precepts and the meth­
ods for their application to good engineering practice. Many sug­
gestions have also been included which are not found among the more
formal rules of the code but which have bearing upon good practice
in relation to electrical safety.
Activities allied with the development of the National Electrical
Safety Code include cooperation in the preparation of the 1929 Na­
tional Electrical (Fire) Code and a standard of the American Mining
Congress for use of electricity in metal mines. A 1929 edition of the
electrical code was also prepared which combines the accident-preven­
tion and fire-prevention rules of the other two codes.
The lack of national uniformity in industrial safety codes and laws
has resulted in retarding developments toward safety in industry.
The Bureau of Standards through its safety standards section has
participated in the work of the committee preparing or revising a
number of nationally recognized industrial safety codes.
In mining.—The Bureau of Mines has proceeded vigorously with
its educational campaign designed to bring about safer and more
healthful working conditions among the employees of the mining,
quarrying, metallurgical, oil, and gas industries. More than 81,000
of those workers were trained in first-aid or mine-rescue methods
during the year, bringing the total number so trained by the bureau
since its establishment to approximately 365,000. The Bureau of
Mines safety studios were concerned largely with the prevention of
mine explosions, the reducing of heavy loss of life from falls of mine
roof and coal, the elimination of hazards from use of unsafe types of
explosives and mechanical equipment, and the improvement of venti­
lation conditions in mines. Attention was given to health and sanita­
tion problems affecting workers in the mineral industries, with special
reference to poisonous gases, unwholesome dusts, and unhen Ithful
conditions of temperature and humidity to which the miner is fre­
quently exposed.
At sea.—The activities of the Coast and Geodetic Survey operate
to eliminate waste in many different ways. First and most important
is the safeguarding of life and property at sea and in the air by the
compilation and issue of nautical charts and aeronautical maps.

.XL,Vili

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

The degree of safety with which a mariner may navigate his ship
along a coast and into the harbors of that coast depends almost
entirely on the quality of the chart that is his guide. The work of
providing adequate and accurate nautical charts for the coasts of the
United States and its off-lying possessions has progressed steadily for
many years. It is a stupendous task on account of the vast extent
of our coasts, the changeable nature of large sections, and the growth
of demands (due to increase in size and speed of ships and the com­
mercial development of our country) for new charts and for additional
information on existing charts.
While far from complete, this work has now reached the stage
where economic waste resulting from shipwrecks on uncharted dangers
or through uncertain knowledge of ocean currents, once a common
occurrence, has been practically eliminated.
Next in importance to the safety with which passengers and cargo
may be transported on the water is the saving in time of passage
from port to port and in handling vessels in harbors and other re­
stricted waters that is made possible by the adequate charts and
accurate tide and current predictions provided by the Coast and
Geodetic Survey. In the present-day era of high-speed ships, large
operating costs, and keen competition, this is a matter which no
steamship operator can afford to neglect. This service to the mari­
time public has a far-reaching effect on the economic aspects of
water transportation.
The operations of the bureau on land also are of material assistance
in the elimination of waste. One of the most important of these is
the execution of control surveys which are the foundation of all
accurate topographic maps. Accurately controlled maps have been
found invaluable in many engineering and industrial operations such
as hydroelectric power development, drainage and irrigation projects,
flood control, and highway location. In highway construction alone
immense savings may result from the availability of suitable maps.
There is a record of one case where a highway was projected from
an ordinary location survey and was later relocated after an accurate
topographic map was completed. The new route is 7.3 miles shorter
than the one first planned and the estimated saving in cost of con­
struction is $200,000. The topographic map cost $2,200.
Other contributions along this line are the bureau’s magnetic data,
which are used to an increasing extent in the search for oils and
minerals, and its cooperative seismological work, which can not fail
to have a far-reaching effect with respect to public safety and the
protection of property in regions subject to earthquakes.
The Steamboat Inspection Service plays an important part in the
elimination of waste in lives and property in the marine field. These
activities include the inspection and reinspection of vessels in American
waters to determine their seaworthiness and required equipment in
life-saving devices.
During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1929, 328,465,552 passengers
were carried on steam vessels that are required by law to report the
number of passengers carried. There were 86 passengers who lost
their lives. It will, therefore, be seen that 3,819,366 passengers were
carried for each passenger lost. The record for ocean and coastwise
vessels alone makes an even better showing than this. On ocean
and coastwise vessels 298,430,673 passengers were carried. Sixty

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XLIX

passengers lost their lives, making a total number of 4,973,844
passengers carried for each passenger lost.
Congress passed the load-line law March 2, 1929, applying to all
merchant vessels of 250 gross tons or over, loading at or proceeding
on a foreign voyage by sea from any port within the United States
or its possessions. The department has organized an appropriate
committee of experts actively engaged in preparing the regulations
under which these load lines will be fixed. One of the outstanding
purposes of this law, which has been actively advocated by the
department for some years, is to conserve life and property through
preventing the overloading of vessels.
During the year the United States was represented at an Inter­
national Conference on Safety of Life at Sea in London, when a
comprehensive convention was signed by the United States and 17
of the principal maritime nations. This convention, the preparatory
work for which w-as under the direction and supervision of the De­
partment of Commerce, undoubtedly is the most important step
ever taken by maritime nations to promote the safety of life at sea.
Its provisions covered the construction and equipment of vessels,
their life-saving and fire-extinguishing appliances, their navigation,
the patrol of the seas to give notice of icebergs and floating obstruc­
tions, and the equipment of practically all merchant vessels with
radio apparatus.
Navigation inspectors, in preventing the overcrowding of passenger
vessels, mado 8,453 counts covering 5,536,831 passengers. In 177
cases it was necessary to stop passengers going on board, the limit of
safety having been reached, involving 169,875 passengers.
Important progress was made by the Lighthouse Service the past
year in connection with the work of the department in its efforts for
increased safety of all who go to sea. The work of extending, main­
taining, and improving aids to marine navigation has been pushed
steadily, including construction of lighthouses and lightships, with
improvements in illuminating and fog-signal apparatus. The im­
provement in apparatus and equipment is given constant attention
and is a material factor in increasing the safety of ships at sea.
Outstanding improvements include radiobeacons and automatic
lighting apparatus. The extended use of automatic apparatus is not
only a considerable direct economy, but it permits an extension of
aids to navigation which might to some extent bo difficult.
In addition to the beacons for the guidance of shipping, valuable
aid is rendered by lighthouse keepers and by the vessels of the Light­
house Service, in rescuing and giving assistance to vessels and persons
in distress.
The Lighthouse Service has cooperated in the extension and im­
provement of facilities for air navigation during the past year,
including the establishment and maintenance of civil airways and
their equipment, with intermediate landing fields, beacon lights,
signal and radio apparatus, and other aids to air navigation, and the
maintenance of a weather service on the airways. Important
improvements in lighting and other apparatus and equipment have
been made.
In the air.—The Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Com­
merce has always made the assuring of safety of pilots, passengers,
-IV

L

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

and public one of the primary objectives in its work of promoting
aeronautics as an aid to commerce.
By establishing airways, licensing and inspecting aircraft, examin­
ing and licensing pilots, inspecting and rating flying schools, and by a
score or more of kindred activities, the Government is rapidly develop­
ing that sense of security and safety which is so essential to the full
utilization of air transport.
The use of radio devices has played an important part in the de­
velopment of modern business through the utilization of this means
of economical, rapid, and accurate system of communication. Fur­
thermore, reduction of waste must be considered to their credit, not
only from the direct savings made available but also for the conserva­
tion of life and property. To-day, radio is acting as a safeguard and
protection for an ever increasing number of lives and amount of
property. Those who use ship or aircraft transportation benefit
through its world-wide protection.
Through the means of ship-to-shore radio communication the
courses of vessels carrying valuable cargoes or vessels in search of a
cargo may be guided in such a manner to obtain a maximum of
service and much waste avoided thereby.
Radiobeacons have been established at strategic points along our
coasts for the purpose of transmitting radio waves in a somewhat
similar way to a beacon of light. Vessels equipped with a radio­
compass receiver can intercept these transmissions and determine
their exact position. Vessels can now be safely guided to port through
the densest fog with very little or no delay. In former days vessels
approaching the coast would necessarily be required to await clear
weather before entering the harbor, often resulting in a loss of time
amounting to several days. When a disaster occurs at sea the rescu­
ing vessel or vessels can more readily locate the disabled vessel by
means of the radio compass. It is indispensable for such purposes
when the visibility is low.
The transmission of time signals, weather and iceberg reports, and
other meteorological information is an important adjunct of efficient
and safe maritime navigation. Even very small vessels equipped
with an inexpensive receiving set find these services of much value.
Radio-compass stations now located at entrances to all of our im­
portant harbors can accurately ascertain the position of any vessel
within range if the vessel is equipped with radio transmitting and
receiving apparatus. This service is rendered without cost to the
individual vessel.
The use of facsimile transmitters now permits of the direct trans­
mission and reception of weather maps, documents, etc., heretofore
impossible, resulting in a wider service to the public and consequent
greater economy of natural resources through the use of radio stations.

PROGRESS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL AERO­
NAUTICS
[By W m. P. M acCracken, Jr., Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Aeronautics]

During the fiscal year 1928-29 civil aeronautical developments
taken as a whole in this country not only more than doubled their
own records of the preceding 12-month period but also far exceeded
the optimistic forecast of a year ago.
It is indeed gratifying to be able to report that the aeronautical
services of the department were able to meet these added responsi­
bilities, which were unexpectedly placed upon them, in a manner
generally satisfactory to the industry and the public. While there
is still urgent need for additional personnel and funds, the work of the
aeronautics branch is more nearly current than it was a year ago.
At that time routes over which scheduled service was maintained
totaled 11,196 miles. To-day regular operations are conducted
over routes 29,227 miles in length; the daily scheduled trips require
69,029 miles of flying. Much of this flying is done at night, making
use of the lighting facilities which this department maintains along
10,183 miles of airways. Of these, 4,266 miles were established dining
the past year. But of more importance than the extensions of the
lighted airways have been the improvements and expansion of radio
and weather service as aids to air navigation. Experiments are being
conducted looking to a still greater degree of perfection in these
facilities. But the progress already made demonstrates conclusively
that greater safety and reliability in air operations will result as more
radio aids and weather information are made available.
Three-fourths of our entire population live near enough to our
existing air routes to be able to gain some advantage from the services
offered. That they are availing themselves of this opportunity is
partially evidenced by the fact that air-mail poundage increased from
1,861,800 pounds for the preceding fiscal year to 5,635,680 pounds for
the year just closed. Increases in air express and passenger traffic
were as great in proportion. While it is still true that a comparatively
small percentage of the entire volume of traffic in this country is
being moved through the air, it is obvious that air operations will
each year constitute a more important factor in our transportation
service. Rates, except for domestic air mail, are relatively high, but
apparently there is a substantial volume of traffic which can afford
to pay the present premium charge for speed and service. Perhaps
even more important is the fact that as aviation develops costs should
and will be reduced, thereby increasing the field from which air traffic
will come.
There has been some suggestion that discrepancies in passenger
fares and express rates charged by the various air-transport operators
would justify Federal regulation of this phase of interstate air com­
merce in order to protect the public from discrimination.
LI

L IT

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

When one considers that commercial air transportation is only
three years old in this country, it is obvious that it could not possibly
be standardized sufficiently to permit of such regulation without irrep­
arably stunting its growth. Furthermore, there is no such thing as
monopoly in this new field and it does not lend itself to becoming
a monopoly unless made such by Government subsidy or franchise.
Some who favor such regulatory measures assert that they are
necessary to attract capital into air transportation or to protect that
already invested. This first assertion is contrary to the facts and, as
regards the second, no amount of Government regulation can elimi­
nate the financial hazards of pioneering or the natural consequence of
incompetent management which is always to be found in some degree
in a new industry.
The phenomenal progress that has been made in civil aeronautics
in the United States in a remarkably short space of time should be
accepted as conclusive proof that our national policies in this new
field are sound and in general should be continued.
Aerial service continues to require a substantial majority of the
civilian aircraft and to account for the major portion of hours in the
air. Much of this flying is done in giving students instruction.
This June 1,211 student-pilot permits were issued as compared with
730 in June, 1928. Heretofore there has been little or no regulation
governing this phase of the industry. The last Congress, however,
passed an amendment to the air commerce act, introduced by Senator
Bingham, directing the Secretary of Commerce by regulation to rate
flying schools. While it is not compulsory that any school obtain such
a rating, it is certain that competition and the cooperation of the bet­
ter schools will make this a very potent factor in improving the stand­
ards of civilian flying training. This will not only afford the student
protection from unscrupulous and incompetent schools, but will
decrease the accident rate due to errors in piloting resulting from
inferior training. Plans carrying out this latest activity have only
recently been completed. Real benefits to be derived from it will
appear in the future.
It is also interesting to note that interest in civilian lighter-than-air
development is becoming quite apparent. Thus far airships have not
been used in commercial operations but several such ships have been
built and placed in operation for the purpose of training personnel
and demonstrating the possibilities of this type of service. No doubt
during the next year the department will be called upon to render
service in connection with this type of aerial operation. While much
remains to be undertaken, both by the department and the industry,
the accomplishments to date have been such as to greatly increase
public confidence, which, after all, is the foundation upon which the
success of our air commerce must be built.

CONDENSED REPORTS OF BUREAUS
CHIEF CLERK AND SUPERINTENDENT
D epartm ent
O ffice of

of C ommerce ,
the C h ie f C lerk ,

Washington, July 1, 1929.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r . S ecretary : There was no abatement during the year
of our ever-continuing problem of space requirements. The situation
was partially relieved by moving the division of simplified practice
and the division of building and housing to the Bureau of Standards,
thus providing additional space in the Commerce Building for the
Aeronautics Branch and the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com­
merce. The Commerce Building is still badly crowded and more
space is needed, but until the department’s new building is completed
a continuation of makeshift arrangements will be necessary.
On June 10, 1929, the corner stone of the new Department of
Commerce Building was laid with appropriate ceremony by the
President of the United States. It contained the Bible, the Con­
stitution of the United States, a United States flag, a medallion of
President Hoover, an impression of the Department of Commerce
seal, a flag of the Secretary of Commerce, publications of the depart­
ment, current newspapers, a one-dollar silver certificate of the series
of July 10,1929, ten 2-cent postage stamps of the series to commemo­
rate the fiftieth anniversary of the production of the first incandescent
electric lamp invented by Thomas A. Edison, and a number of other
articles and publications typifying the work of the department,
matters of current interest, and the march of progress of the country
from its early days to the present.
Inscribed on the stone are the names of Herbert Hoover, President
of the United States; A. W. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury; R. P.
Lamont, Secretary of Commerce; James A. Wctmore, Acting Super­
vising Architect of the Treasury; and York & Sawyer, architects.
The date on the stone is 1929.
The table following shows the total amount of all appropriations
for the various bureaus and services of the Department o? Commerce
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1929:
78415—29 ------ 1
1

2

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
Bureau

appropriation '
act

acts

Special act

Total

Allotments
by other
departments

$667,700.00
Office of the Secretary.................... $645,100.00 $22,600.00 !
4, 502,900.00
Aeronautics Branch........................ 4.361.850.00 141.050.00
3S6,160.00
320,000.00
|
06,160.00
;
Radio Division................................
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
4,431,723.00
4.257.357.00
i
174.366.00
Commerce.....................................
2, 245,450. 00
Bureau of the Census..................... 2.148.200.00 I 97.250.00
1,169,800.00
Steamboat Inspection Service....... 1.114.060.00 i 55, 740. (h)
346, 741.45
Bureau of Navigation..................... 330,880.00 1 9,670.00 $6,191.45
$168,117.15
2,411,875.00
2.246.055.00
j
165.820.00
Bureau of Standards.......................
2, 455,301.32
52,000.00
Coast and Geodetic Survey........... 2.356.580.00 | 98,721. 32
11,536,954.00
391,7C4.
00
Bureau of Lighthouses................... 11,145,250.00 ;
2,180,108. 00
Bureau of Fisheries......................... 2,123, 748.00 | 56.360.00
3,376,300.00
Patent Office.................................... 2.903.800.00 i 472, 500. CO
2,681,618.00 205,500.00
Bureau of Mines.............................. 2, 542, 080.00 139, 538.00
Printing and binding:
All bureaus except Patent
Office....................................... 715,000.00
1,855,0C0.00
Patent Office............................ 1,140,000.00 J Total....................................... I 38,349,960.00 1,891,479.32 I 6,191. 45 40,247,630. 77 »425,617 15
• Not included in appropriations.

Disbursements during the year ended June 30, 1929, from appro­
priations and from funds transferred from other departments were
as follows:
Appropriation for—
Bureau
Office of the Secretary...........................................
Radio Division.....................................................Bureau o( Foreign and Domestic CommerceBureau ol tlie Census............................................
Bureau of Navigation.........................................
Coast and Geodetic Survey.................................
Bureau of Fisheries...............................................
Patent Office...........................................................
Bureau of Mines....................................................
Total..............................................................

1927 and
prior years

1923

1929

Total

$526.31 $584,354.34 $1,853, 532.96 $2,438,413.61
25,967.14 1, 696,972. 25 3,172,049. 75 4,894,989.14
289, aS4. 25
350,855.94
11,268.00
50,203. 69
4,790. 63 253, 568. 81 4,008,318.74 4,266,684. 18
221.46 237,901. 63 1,938,768. 28 2,176,891.37
88.05 103,465. 66 1,046, 283.87 1,149,787. 58
2. 75
28,415. 72
311,367.51
339, 785. 98
3,312.17 423,273.39 2,207,053. 97 2,633,639. 53
6,864.03 539, 690. 97 2,030,420. 73 2, 576,975.73
803. 69 691,646. 65 10,377,214. 35 11,069, 664.69
25, 652.98 334, 255.64 1,682,023.18 2,041,931.80
»3.89 274,172.13 3,006,854. 72 3,281,110.74
79,058. 77 221,247.34 4,371,842.46 4, 672,148.57
158,595.87 5,439,168.22 36,295,114.77 41, S92,878.86

The miscellaneous receipts for the fiscal year are shown below, by
bureaus.

Coast and Geodetic Survey: Sale of charts, publications, old prop­
erty, etc__________________________________________________ $67, 907. 43
Bureau of Fisheries:
Sale of fur seal skins_____________________________________ 287, 833.01
Sale of fox skins---------62, 697.41
Meals furnished employees at isolatedstations_____________
1, 552.50
Sale of old property, etc__________________-_______________
827. 25
Bureau of Standards:
Test fees............................
67,473.82
Miscellaneous refunds------- --------------------------------Steamboat Inspection Service: Sale of old property------------------7. 57
Bureau of Lighthouses:
Sale of old property______________________________________ 65, 317.78
Rent___________________________________________________
4, 028.00
Government property lost, destroyed,ordamaged__________
7, 638.32
Work done............................................................................................
3, 470.19
Miscellaneous_______________________________________________
426.65

3

•CHIEF CLERK AND SUPERINTENDENT

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce:
S2, 125. 00
Registration fees, etc., China trade act____________________
Sale of publications______________________________________
4, 525. 57
Miscellaneous refunds____________________________________
142. 44
Office of the Secretary:
Certification fees (37Stats. 497)__________________________
609. 00
Sale of strip maps (Aeronautics Branch)__________________
3, 492.28
Penalties for violation of air-traffic rules_________________
4, 210.00
Miscellaneous___________________________________________
600. 75
Patent Office: Patent fees____________________________________ 3, 693, 459. 84
Bureau of Mines:
Analyzing samples_______________________________________
9, 349.44
Miscellaneous___________________________________________
4, 394.49
Bureau of Navigation:
Tonnage tax____________________________________________ 2, 014, 438. 06
Navigation fees___________
249, 483.21
Navigation fines_________________________________________
54, 729.90
Miscellaneous__________________
100. 00
Total...................................................... _.......................................... 6,611,826.08

At the close of the year the personnel of the department numbered
16,744 (15,159 permanent and 1,585 temporary). Of the total num­
ber, 5,064 are employed in the District of Columbia and 11,680 con­
stitute the field force.
The number of employees retired on annuity during the year under
the civil service retirement act was 28—21 by reason of age and 7 on
account of disability. The average annuity of those retired under the
act is $832.88. Under the Lighthouse Service retirement system, 31
were retired for age with an average annuity of $1,210.17, and 19 on
account of disability with an average annuity of $923.04. A total
of 754 employees have been retired under the two systems to the
close of June 30, 1929.
The following statement shows for the fiscal years 1928 to 1930,
inclusive, the amounts available for printing and binding and the
unexpended balances of the appropriations for 1928 and 1929:
Fiscal year
1928
Services other than the Patent Office:
Amount available...................................................................... » $719,000. 00
» 717, 362.31
1,637.69
Patent Office:
Amount available...................................................................... 1. 135,000. 00
999, 128. 87
135, 871. 13

1929

1930

$715,000. 00 * $015,000.00
s 704, 395. 24
10. 604. 76
1,140, 000. 00
* 1,027,256.31
112, 743. 69

1, 100, 000. 00-

1 Includes $2-5,000, available for printing and binding for the Aeronautics Branch, contained in PublicAct 638, 69th Congress, and $19,000 made available by the second deficiency act, 1928 (Public Act ,503,.
70th Cong.).
* Does not include printing and binding for the bureau of the Census. During 1930, 1931, and 1932 prin t­
ing and binding for that bureau will be paid for from appropriations for the fifteenth decennial census.
* Estimates. Exact figures can not be given until all work ordered is completed and billed.

Total receipts from sales of the department’s publications for the
fiscal year 1928 (the lastest period for which complete data are
available) were $651,926.48, compared with $531,882.53 for 1927.
The following table presents the details in comparison for the two
years by selling agencies and issuing offices:

4

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
Sales

By the Superintendent of Documents:
Miscellaneous sales..........................................................................................- ........
Subscriptions......................................................................................... ..................Toial...................................................................... -.......................-........................
By Coast and Geodetic Survey: Coast pilots, inside route pilots, tide tables,
current tables, and charts........................................-.................................................By Patent Office: Specifications of patents, reissues, etc., trade-mark section
and decision leaflet of Official Gazette, and classification bulletins and defini­
tions................................................................................................................................Grand total..............................................................................................................

Receipts
192'

1928

$97,172. 77 $118,214.89
48,723. 98 * 119,888.26
145,896. 75 238,103.15
58,978.63 62,057. 33
327,012.15 351,766.00
531,882. 53 651,926. 48

i This increase is due in large measure to the increase in the subscription price of the Patent Office Official
Gazette.

As in prior years, wherever possible surplus equipment was obtained
to meet the needs of the branches of the department. Through
the cooperation of the Chief Coordinator’s Office, Bureau of the
Budget, material comprising clothing, office equipment, etc., to the
value of approximately $20,000 was obtained from surplus stocks of
other Government departments without transfer of funds.
Very truly yours,
E. W. L ib bey ,
Chief Cleric and Superintendent.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH
O ffice

D epartment of C ommerce ,
of th e D irector of A eronautics ,

Washington, July 1, 1929.

The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r. S ecretary : In compliance with your request the fol­

lowing report is submitted, describing the state of air commerce
and briefly summarizing the activities of the Aeronautics Branch
of the department during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1929.
I. ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS

In three short years, the Federal Government has assisted mate­
rially in reducing the problems of air transportation to terms of
business, industry, and commerce. The Aeronautics Branch of the
Department of Commerce completed on June 30, 1929, its third venr
of activities authorized by the air commerce act of 192t>, which
charged the Secretary of Commerce with the promotion and regu­
lation of civil aeronautics. The fundamental principle of this act,
which was passed with the approval of the aeronautical industry, is
to afford aviation every possible opportunity to regulate itself. The
industry has always cooperated most heartily with the Federal Gov­
ernment, for it recognized the imperative need of national guidance
and control.
The air commerce act was passed to provide this necessary guid­
ance and control, the direct result of which was the organization of
the Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce. The
branch has utilized existing Government agencies wherever possible;
and in addition it lias created new divisions and sections when nec­
essary, in order to execute the various provisions of the air com­
merce act. These provisions include:

1. The inspection and licensing of aircraft.
2. The examination and licensing of airmen.
3. The identification of aircraft.
4. Tiie establishment and enforcement of air traffic rules and regulations.
5. The investigation of aircraft accidents.
6. The assembly of all data pertaining to these subjects.
7. The establishment and maintenance of civil nirways.
8. The equipping of airways with suitable intermediate landing fields, beacon
lights, radio apparatus, and other aids to aerial navigation.
9. The maintenance of comprehensive airway weather service.
10. The charting of airways.
11. The publication of air maps.
12. The conduct of scientific research and development work to create and
improve air-commerce facilities.
13. The rating of flying schools.
14. The publication of air-commerce bulletins.
Ih. The encouragement of municipal airport construction.
10. The rating of airports.
5

6

HE POUT TO THE SECRETARY' OF COMMERCE

17. The issuance of detailed data on individual airports.
18. The collection and dissemination of air commerce information ; and
19. The general promotion of air commerce, industry, and trade.

The duties imposecl by this act have been distributed as far as
practicable among existing Government agencies. The task of sur­
veying, establishing, operating, and maintaining aids to navigation
along air routes was assigned to the Bureau of Lighthouses; the
charting and mapping of air routes, to the Coast and Geodetic Sur­
vey; and the scientific research for improvement of air navigation
facilities to the Bureau of Standards.
Since the department had no facilities for examining and licensing
aircraft and airmen, for promulgating and enforcing air traffic rules
and regulations, for encouraging airport construction by municipal
and private interests, or for collecting and disseminating aeronauti­
cal information, it was necessary to set up a number of new instru­
mentalities. The aeronautic activities of these new instrumen­
talities as well as of the existing agencies, however, are all co­
ordinated under the direct supervision of the Assistant Secretary
of Commerce for Aeronautics, the Director of Aeronautics being
in immediate charge. The functions of these agencies and instru­
mentalities follow.
AIR REGULATIONS DIVISION

The air regulations division is directly concerned with the con­
struction and operation of civil aircraft in all its phases. By de­
termining and enforcing definite standards of safety, it has established
and maintained public confidence and thereby played a large part in
the phenomenal growth of air commerce and the aircraft industry.
The division is composed of five principal sections: (1) Inspec­
tion, which is divided into field, factory, engineering, and school
rating groups; (2) engineering; (3) medical; (4) licensing; and
(5) enforcement. During the past year, a sixth section ^statistical)
was organized for the purpose of handling the work incident to
aircraft-accident analysis and developing therefrom vital statistics.
The statistical function of this section was transferred to the divi­
sion of airports and aeronautic information when the latter was
created. The function of collecting accident reports and analyses
up to the point of developing statistical data, however, remains a
function of the air regulations division under the direct supervision
of the division chief.
The chief of the division is responsible to the director of aero­
nautics for the general administration of the division and for or­
ganizing, supervising, and coordinating the work of the sections as
hereafter outlined.

7

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

T able A .—Status of aircraft, pilots, and mechanics, by States, June SO, 1929
Aircraft
Li­ Iden­
censed tified
Arizona.....................
District of Colum-

Minnesota................
Mississippi...............
M issouri...................
Nebraska___ _____

15
15
24
518
37
43
16
60
36
20
14
299
84
51
81
18
44
4
32
109
235
92
18
195
40

Aircraft
Pilots chanics

5
39
18
20
51
32
378 1,167
23
82
52
21
4
9
6 183
53 117
42
44
14
16
247 312
96 117
63
56
122 116
26
39
37
40
12
12
39
53
64 141
140 297
72 108
12
27
131 191
73
49

30
16
39
877
52
43
8
106
130
26
11
82
86
93
24
45
9
56
113
307
82
10
139
71

Li­ Iden­
censed tified
New Hampshire__
Ohio..........................

U tah........................
Wyoming.................
Alaska......................
Hawaiian Islands..Total...............

Pilots chanics

11
2
8
9
7
97
74 115
3
8
6
752 248 551
29
59
34
14
25
8
230
98 267
97 111
134
29
36
61
244 117 265
9
18
10
14
13
20
23
28
29
34
67
33
173 148 214
11
36
21
4
9
6
26
42 in
108
79 127
16
7
21
121
82 112
29
10
10
7
7
3
290
2
4,232 3, 055 5,641

17
7
178
1
459
23
14
308
79
64
280
10
14
20
43
235
39
3
198
114
13
52
28
13
47
5.111

INSPECTION SECTION

The inspection section is charged with the examination and li­
censing of pilots, mechanics, and flying-school instructors, and with
¡lie inspection and approval of airplanes and flying schools. In addi­
tion, it is charged with all field work in connection with enforce­
ment of the Air Commerce Regulations, including the air traffic rules
and the investigation of aircraft accidents.
The inspectors employed in this work are of two general classes:
(1) Pilots of unusual qualifications who, on account of the nature
of their work, must have not only a thorough knowledge of airplanes
and airplane construction but also sufficient tact and diplomacy
properly to meet the public and carry out the work of examining
pilots and mechanics and of inspecting aircraft in the field; (2)
airplane inspectors stationed in the various aircraft factories, who
are selected for their intimate knowledge of structural details in the
manufacture of aircraft and are not necessarily pilots. Approxi­
mately three-fourths of the total inspection personnel are men of the
former type, while the balance are nonflying (factory) airplane
inspectors.
At the close of this fiscal year, the inspection section is in the
unique position of being current with its work regarding the han­
dling of new applications for license. This condition, which has
long been sought, has been accomplished only through the employ­
ment of a high type of personnel whose willingness to work over­
time has operated constantly for the benefit of the organization and
the industry.
The pilot inspectors are subdivided into three general classes:
(1) Aeronautical inspectors, (2) aeronautical engineering inspectors,

8

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

and (3) aeronautical school inspectors. The first class examines
pilots and mechanics, and inspects airplanes for original as well as
for renewal licenses. They operate under the jurisdiction of super­
vising aeronautical inspectors, who are in charge of the nine princi­
pal districts into which the country is subdivided.
Aeronautical engineering inspectors inspect and test, in actual
flight, all new types of aircraft to determine their eligibility for an
approved-type certificate, or for license. They also conduct factory
inspections of the various factories involved, and carry out such field
tests as may be deemed necessary by either the inspection or engi­
neering sections.

The third class examines and flight tests flying-school instruc­
tors, and inspects flying schools to determine their eligibility for
an approved school certificate. The above personnel is all itinerant
and operates directly or indirectly under the jurisdiction of the
various supervising aeronautical inspectors.
Airplane inspectors who are not pilots operate under the juris­
diction of a supervising airplane inspector. These men are per­
manently stationed at the various airplane factories and devote their
entire time to the minute inspection of airplanes during construc­
tion and to the licensing of them upon their satisfactory completion.
There are approximately 45 of the flying type of inspectors and
15 of the factory type in the section at this time, a total of 60. On
account of the scarcity of men who have qualifications necessary to
hold successfully either type of inspection position and because of
the training they receive from the department, they are in great
demand by manufacturers and operators; they are, therefore, em­
ployed by these outside agencies at greatly increased salaries when­
ever they can be induced to leave the department. In order to pre­
vent a high rate of personnel turnover, all inspectors are employed
with a distinct understanding that unless discharged for cause they

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

9

will remain in the service at least one year. They then pass through
a probationary period in order that those found to be undesirable or
unqualified may be removed from the service without undue delay.
It is believed only just and equitable that these members of the
field service who are engaged regularly in extra hazardous flying,
involving the testing of new types of aircraft and of new pilots for
license, be afforded additional compensation to cover the unusual
hazards involved. Although the past record is considered good, two
inspectors have lost their lives during the year in this work. Such
compensation, which is accorded other flying branches of the Govern­
ment, would have the effect of retaining in the service a responsible
type of man who may otherwise yield to the pressure of the industry
because of the greater financial advantages which are being constantly
offered.
In view of the fact that all inspectors, especially the aeronautical
inspectors, are operating under a high nervous tension and work for
long hours in order to handle the tremendous volume of work, an
increase in the personnel will undoubtedly be necessary before the
next fiscal year terminates. This is especially true if proper atten­
tion is to be given to aircraft-accident investigation, which is only
one of the many duties of the inspectors. In addition, after October
], 1929, all grades of pilots’ licenses will be renewed in the field by
the inspectors, and the licenses granted to pilots who carry pci'sons
for hire will be subdivided; all of which will throw an added Durden
on the field personnel.
The efficiency of the section could be further increased by the use
of more airplanes, were they available. Unfortunately, there are
more than four inspectors to each airplane at their disposal; the
result is that the majority of travel must necessarily be by rail, thus
greatly retarding the work of inspection. Obviously, the bulk of the
inspectors’ work is located at the various airports, which necessitates
not only rail transportation but other means of travel from the rail
terminals to the airports. Consequently, much time is saved, more
work accomplished, and better service rendered when an airplane is
used.
LICENSING SECTION

The licensing section is responsible for the preparation and issu­
ance of all aircraft, pilot’s, and mechanic’s licenses and their re­
newals; the transfer of titles to aircraft assigned Department of
Commerce numbers; the issuance of certificates of airworthiness for
export, for aircraft to be exported to foreign countries having re­
ciprocal agreements with the United States; and for the validation
of such certificates and the maintenance of all files and records per­
taining to the above.
For the fiscal year 1929, the output in volume of work for
the licensing section has more than doubled. This increase, although
primarily due to a natural increase in incoming applications for
the various classes and types of licenses, has been appreciably aug­
mented by additional work, such as additional examinations to be
checked and much more rigid eligibility requirements for pilots,
mechanics, and all types of aircraft, made necessary by the depart-

10

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

merit’s own rapid development toward more competent pilots and
safer planes. Applications continued to be received throughout the
fiscal year in a smooth and steadily increasing volume, indicating
a much more stable condition than has heretofore existed.
Student applications continued to be received at a rate beyond
all reasonable expectation and showed an actual increase of 477 per
cent over the previous year. This increase, however, has no real
bearing on the number of future pilots. Figures indicate that for
every 100 students, only about 15 per cent ever get beyond the stu­
dent stage. This latter figure is also somewhat misleading in that
it can not be considered indicative of the percentage of students
who are unable to learn to fly. It more nearly indicates a large
group of people who, for technical or personal reasons, are inter­
ested in first-hand information on the principles of flying, but who
have no intention of becoming pilots or accomplishing more than
possibly a single solo flight.
At the present time Canada and Colombia are the only foreign
countries with which the United States has a reciprocal agreement
for the mutual validation of airworthiness certificates for export.
In spite of this limited field, certificates of airworthiness for export
were issued for 114 airplanes during the fiscal year to Canada alone,
as against a total of 60 for all previous years. Although many air­
planes were exported to other foreign countries, no export certificates
could be issued because of the absence of reciprocal agreements with
these countries.
To date, aircraft of the lighter-than-air class have not constituted
a licensing problem. Eight or ten free balloons have been issued
identification numbers and four dirigible airships have been issued
licenses. No provision has yet been made for examining and licensing
dirigible pilots, but letters of authority to operate as such have been
issued to the few who have so far applied.
During the fiscal year a total of 42,338 licenses, license renewals,
title transfers, and export certificates were issued as against 14,083 for
the previous year. Figure 3 (p. 13) is arranged to show this growth
relative to the various types of licenses issued. At the beginning
of the fiscal year the renewing of licenses and the transferring of
titles were just beginning to be really felt. This work, entirely
additional to the issuance of original licenses, has now grown to
where it constitutes 29 per cent of the total volume of work; and
as airplane licenses must be renewed annually and a majority of the
pilots’ licenses semiannually, this phase of the work will continue to
grow until it constitutes the major portion of the total volume. The
lower curve on Figure 3 shows the steadily increasing rate at which
new applications have been received. The upper curve indicates the
constantly increasing volume of work necessitated by license renewals
and the transferring of title to aircraft formally assigned Depart­
ment of Commerce numbers.
To keep the issuance of licenses current with such an increase in
the volume of work has necessitated many radical changes. The
office routine has been reduced to an absolute minimum and form
letters are now being used wherever possible. An effort has been
made to make all licenses and license applications as self-explanatory
as possible in an effort to reduce correspondence. Many office records

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

11

formerly deemed essential were discontinued through necessity, and
many valuable statistics have had to remain buried in the tiles, due
to lack of personnel to compile them.
The absorption of some of this work increase has been made pos-'
sible through changes resulting from experience gained during the
previous year of operation. A new files group has been created
which handles all of the files of the licensing section as a unit, thus
avoiding much duplication. Modern machines are now in operation
for the typing of identification-mark assignments and all of the
various classes of aircraft licenses. These machines automatically
type all office and statistical file copies, eliminating costly duplica­
tion of effort. This same system is now being developed for the
typing of all pilot’s and mechanic’s licenses. When all classes of
licenses can be tjrped on these machines the office routine will not
only be materially reduced but statistics now unavailable because
of iack of time for assembling will begin to become accessible.
These savings, although material, do not compensate for the
radical increase in the actual volume of work. Moreover, there are
.several difficulties yet to be corrected, especially along the lines of
educating the public as to the details of the department’s require­
ments.
In spite of past efforts, much confusion still exists relative to the
requisites for transferring title to aircraft bearing Department of
Commerce numbers. This necessitates a tremendous volume of cor­
respondence which seriously handicaps the performance of the work.
In an effort to remedy the situation, an entirely new system for
handling transfers of title has been devised. A “ record, transfer,
and reassignment ” form is being mailed to the owners of aircraft,
along with the license or identification mark. This form is selfexplanatory and, when properly completed and returned to the De­
partment of Commerce, constitutes sufficient evidence of sale to sup­
port transfer of title to a new owner.
Confusion has also persisted relative to the renewal of each class
of license. Although all licenses plainly display their expiration
dates, and notices are sent out by the department calling attention to
the expiration date and explaining the requisites for renewal, a
great many airplane owners and pilots fail to renew their licenses
at the proper time and a vast amount of correspondence ensues.
This situation has been carefully studied and very shortly a new
system of renewing licenses will be put in effect which will relieve
the licensing section of much of this burden.
Another difficulty encountered throughout the fiscal year was due
to the absence of provision in the air commerce regulations for reg­
istering aircraft in the names of purchasers in cases where title
was reserved bjr the seller until the full purchase price had been paid.
This necessitated much correspondence and many delays, and con­
stituted a decided detriment to the marketing of aircraft. The air
commerce regulations have since been revised and a system is being
developed whereby licenses can be issued to owners and operators
who are purchasing their airplanes on partial-payment plans.
The demand for rush information on ownership or status of air­
craft, status of license applications, etc., necessitates telegraphic re­
plies to from 20 to 50 incoming wires per day. This represents a

12

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

large amount of work in that practically all telegraphic requests
refer to new applications not yet classified or filed. In a large num­
ber of cases, other sections of the Aeronautics Branch must be con­
tacted in order to coordinate the replies.
Although a radical saving has been effected through a reduction
of office routine and the utilization of modern equipment, the volume
of work has continued to increase at a decidedly faster rate than
personnel could be increased to handle it. A resume of the work
shows that 50,000 original and renewal applications were received
and acted upon and that out of this number 42.338 original or re­
newal certificates were issued authorizing operation in connection
with aircraft. This represents an increase in volume of work of
*204 per cent whereas it has only been possible to increase the per­
sonnel 43 per cent, with the result that keeping the issuance of
licenses current has been and still is extremely difficult.
Fiscal year
1927-28
Pilots' licenses issued_____________________________
Pilots’ licenses renewed...................
Student permits issued.........................................................
Aircraft licenses issued.........................................................
Aircraft licenses renewed.....................................................
Identification marks assigned.............................................
Mechanics’ licenses issued..................................................
Export certificates issued.....................................................
Transfers of title comnleted... ____________________
Total........................................

2,632
808
2,682
1,728
1,328
2,806
GO
2,039
14,083

1928-29
5,137
4, 687
If», 868
4,379
727
3, 256
3,264
75
111
4,906
42,413

Increase
2,505
3, 879
13,186
2,651
727
1,928
458
54
2,867
28,330

Percentage
of increase
95
480
491
153
145
16
90
141
200

ENGINEERING SECTION

The primary function of the engineering section is to determine
whether or not aircraft which are to be made eligible for license are
of proper structural design.
What is known as an approved-type certificate is issued to aircraft
manufacturers meeting certain stipulated requirements. This en­
titles the manufacturer to build aircraft of exact similarity to an
approved model, which are then eligible for commercial license. In
order to obtain such a certificate, the manufacturer must first submit
complete technical data, together with stress analyses and blue prints
of his aircraft, all of which are forwarded to the engineering section
of the air regulations division in Washington. Here the plans are
carefully checked to make sure that the design of the structure pos­
sesses the required margin of safety and adheres to accepted en­
gineering practice.
This requires the attention of aeronautical engineers who are
familiar with all the mathematical processes of aircraft analysis
and design, technicians who are authorities on all the structural
details and types of construction that can be applied to aircraft.
This does not prohibit the department’s approval of a radical or
new type of design, for approval may be obtained if the structure
is justified either by mathematical computation or by actual physical

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

13

tests. When the engineering section has approved the design, the
manufacturer is required to present a standard machine for
inspection.
Here the inspection section takes up the work. The airplane is
examined to determine if it is built according to the design sub­
mitted; it is checked for detail design, workmanship, and materials;
it is weighed and thoroughly flight tested to make sure that it satis­
fies the stability requirements of the department and has no unde­
sirable flying characteristics. The factory is also inspected to de­
termine whether or not it is suitably equipped and manned to
produce aircraft exactly similar to the design submitted. When
this structural check, practical flight test, and factory inspection are
satisfactorily completed, the manufacturer is issued an approvedtype certificate for this particular model ; and henceforth this plane

is approved for license so long as the workmanship, materials, and
design are adhered to according to required standards and are found
by periodic inspection to be in airworthy condition.
Engines, too. which are to be used in licensed aircraft must be of
a type approved by the engineering section. All engines which have
not been subjected to an acceptance test by the Army or Navy air
services must pass a Department of Commerce test. These tests
are being performed by the Bureau of Standards. Propellers are
in the same category and must be approved before being used in
licensed aircraft.
During the past fiscal year 121 approved-type certificates were
granted for airplanes, 21 approved-type certificates were granted
for engines, and 28 approved-type certificates were granted for pro­
pellers. In addition, 65 different types of airplanes were examined
and appproved without being granted approved-type certificates, and
13 types of engines were approved on the same independent basis.
The total number of approvals granted to airplanes, engines, and
propellers during the fiscal year, therefore, amounts to 248. This
is three and a half times the amount of work handled during the
previous year which amounted to only 72 approvals.

14

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The volume of incoming work is increasing steadily and shows
no signs of diminishing.
Seventeen per cent of tlle year’s work was received during the first
quarter, 16 per cent during the second, 27 per cent during the third,
and 40 per cent during the last quarter. Approvals were granted

F iocbe 4.— Incom ing work and outgoing approvals
Not ».— By Group 2 Is m eant airplanes approved for license
but Issued approved type certificates because of the extremely
lim ited quantity to be produced.
»

in accordance with the same mounting scale; that is, 15 per cent in
the first quarter, 17 per cent in the second, 31 per cent in the third,
and 37 per cent in the fourth quarter.
It was found necessary to revise and rewrite the Airworthiness
Requirements (Aeronautics Bulletin 7-A ), in order to keep pace
with the rapid development in the design and construction of air­

15

AERONAUTICS BEAK Oil

craft, engines, and propellers. This was accomplished during the
year and the revised requirements became effective on duly 1, 1929,
In addition to this work, a large volume of miscellaneous tech­
nical correspondence of a general informative nature flows con­
tinuously through this office.
The section at present is about three weeks behind in checking
stress analysis. Last year additional engineers were employed dur­
ing the summer months to dispose of an accumulation of work and
reduce it to a current status. These engineers were available be­
cause of being university faculty members and therefore in a posi­
tion to accept other employment during the summer vacation pe­
riod. This year these men were not available to the Government
owing to the greatly increased demand for aeronautical engineers in
the industry. For the same reason, nine engineers of the regular
staff, including the chief of section, resigned to enter the commer­
cial field.
MEDICAL SECTION

This section consists of a medical director, an assistant (both of
whom are graduate flight surgeons), and especially qualified desig­
nated doctors throughout the country. These physicians examine
pilots and student pilots as to their physical and mental fitness for
flying before they are licensed, and check those who are already
licensed by periodic examinations.
The work of this section, too, during the past year has increased
beyond all anticipation, the amount of work being approximately
two and a half times as great as in the preceding fiscal year.
The number of physical examinations certified increased from
11,688 during 1927-28 to 28,153 during 1928-29.
Comparative figures are given for the two years.
1927-28

Deduct 500 for 1920-27.......................................................................................................
Total.................................................................................................................-___

0.
1, 24 2
4,379
12, 188
500
11,688

1928-29
567
«3, 709
8,013
16.766
28,478

1 Although it would appear from these figures that the number of trained pilots is decreasing, very op­
posite is the case. Practically all those who received training other than as licensed students have now been
taken care of, and the trained pilot class Is coining to-day from the student class. Inasmuch as their student
examinations are their original examinations, their numbers do not appear under “ trained pilots, original
examinations," but under “ students." Their first examinations as trained pilots, therefore, appear under
“ reexaminations.” It will be seen from the accompanying figures that the number of examinations under
these headings is rapidly increasing.

That there is a steady increase in the incoming examinations is
shown by the following table. Comparative figures are given for
two years. Figures are given by quarters and to the nearest 100.
1927-23
1, 700
2. 100
2,400
4,500

1928-29
0,600
6. 700
7,000
9,000

16

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY

OF

COMMERCE

The number of examinations during the first quarter of this
fiscal year was half as large again as the last quarter of the preced­
ing fiscal year; and the number in the last quarter of this year
was twice as large as the number at the corresponding period last
year. Furthermore, this figure of 9,000 does not include about 2,500
examinations received during the last year which were not checked
because of lack of personnel.
From present indications the number of physical examinations
during the first quarter of the new fiscal year just beginning will
be nearly 12,000, which means that during the year 1929-30 we shall
have 45,000 to 50,000 or nearly twice as many as in the fiscal year just
ended.
In addition to the above examinations, there have been 1,209 re­
checked and certified for a higher grade on the same examination.
Each examination has had to be checked and the results certified
to the licensing section. In case of trained pilots, contact was
made with the inspector in 600 separate cases to determine the ad­
visability of granting waivers.
The number of medical examiners has increased from 366 on July
1, 1928, to 704 on June 30, 1929; and it is quite likely that this
number will reach 1,000 by the end of the next fiscal year. This
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F igure 5.— Physical exam inations received

means constant correspondence between this office and a constantly
growing number of physicians, for about three physicians are usually
corresponded with for every appointment made.
The personnel of the office lias increased during the past year
from 1 medical director and 4 clerks to 1 medical director, 1 assist­
ant medical director, and 6 clerks. In other words, although the
work has increased 250 per cent the personnel has increased only
50 per cent. As the rate of incoming work is constantly increasing,
it will be seen that unless there is a corresponding increase in
personnel the work of licensing pilots will be greatly delayed. It
is estimated that four more clerks are needed to handle the imme­
diate situation adequately. Every unnecessary step has been elimi­
nated from the work, and only the barest essentials are being covered.
Additional personnel would also obviate the present necessity of
neglecting much valuable research.
One of the most important factors of the work is the coordination
of the activities of over 700 medical examiners. It is essential that
these physical examinations be standard. While definite standard­
ized instructions are always issued, the technique should be in­
spected from time to time and frequent personal contact maintained.
Since it is necessary that either the medical director or the assistant
medical director be in Washington all the time, it would require

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

17

about three years for the other one to visit and inspect the work
of every medical examiner.
Despite the fact that the medical examiner personnel is already
too large to bo efficiently coordinated directly from this office, it
is constantly growing larger. For maximum results the country
should be divided into five districts and a district flight surgeon
appointed for each.
The duties of each of these district flight surgeons would be to
interview all applicants for appointment in his district, and to co-

ordinate the work of examiners already appointed by personal inter­
view and instruction. Later, if the country is districted also for
licensing purposes, this district flight surgeon could handle the check­
ing of the physical examinations for that district. It is believed
that his duties at first would require only half time. The activities
of these district flight surgeons could be frequently and easily
checked by this office, which would inevitably result in a higher and
more standardized type of examination.
No further appointments of medical examiners should be made
without a personal interview and instruction, except in emergency.
78415—29----- 2

18

REPORT TO TH E SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

This was the system in vogue at the start, but it was discontinued
because of the necessity of the medical director being in Washington
most of the time. With an assistant medical director it will be pos­
sible for one or the other to spend some time in the field, but the
appointment of district flight surgeons will aid materially in this
work. It is believed that all applicants in a given State should be
gathered at one point for instruction and inspection. Recent ap­
pointees who have not had this instruction could also attend this
instruction period.

The appointment of these district flight surgeons would relieve this
office of much routine work and thereby allow other things to be
done which are now being neglected. Much statistical work, for
example, should be done on the more than 40,000 examinations now
on file to see whether or not present methods of examination and
policy of granting waivers, etc., have proved practical from the
standpoints of instruction, inspection, and actual flying ability of
pilot applicants. Moreover, a closer study should be made of acci­
dents from the physical standpoint.

a e r o n a u t ic s b r a n c h

19

Although more responsibility lias been thrown on the medical ex­
aminers this past year by permitting them to issue letters of au­
thority to student pilots, this responsibility will be further increased
this year by permitting them to issue the actual student permits.
While this will relieve ihe licensing section of a considerable amount
of work, it will not reduce the volume of work of the medical sec­
tion, as all the examinations and applications of students will still
have to be checked and certified in this office.
Revised editions of the Physical Standards for Airplane Pilots
and Supplementary Guide for Medical Examiners were sent out to
all.examiners during the last fiscal year.
The data for a statistical study of all aircraft accidents from the
medical standpoint and for a further statistical study of rejected
students to determine the character of their defects were accumulated
for the calendar year 1928, but, owing to lack of time and insufficient
clerical help, no studies have yet been made of these data.
Reference is made to last year’s report as to the routine handling
of examination reports, accident reports, and applications for ap­
pointment as medical examiner. Except for simplifying the pro­
cedure as much as possible, the routine remains the same.
One conference of medical examiners was held in Washington in
December, 1928, at the time of the International Aviation Confer­
ence; and approximately 35 examiners attended this conference at
their own expense. In July another conference will be held at Port­
land, Oreg., in connection with the meeting of the American Medical
Association.
The medical director attended the First International Conference
on Sanitary Aviation in Paris, France, May 15-20, 1929. He also
visited England, Germany, and Italy, and investigated the physical
standards and methods of examination of both civilian and military
pilots in these four countries.
ENFORCEMENT SECTION

The enforcement section handles the legal phases of enforcing the
air commerce regulations, as well as the investigation of violations
of the air commerce act of 1926, the air commerce regulations, and the
air traffic rules. It prepares the assessment of penalties and acts
in a general advisory capacity in all matters pertaining to air law.
For the period covered by this report there have been approxi­
mately 493 violations, 176 assessments of civil penalties, 76 suspen­
sions of licenses, 21 revocations of licenses, 6 denials of licenses, 192
reprimands, $4,525 collected, 6 public hearings, and 12 cases referred
to the Department of Justice.
While the total number of violations is more than twice that of the
preceding year, the number of planes and hours flown has increased
at a far greater rate.
Numerous complaints have been received alleging low flying over
congested areas, but investigations have generally disclosed that no
violations were committed, the low flying being accounted for by
reason of take-offs and landings. A number of new airports and

20

REI’ORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

landing fields have been established close to congested areas, which
of course necessitates low flying over such places when taking off
and landing.
During the past year, especially during January, February, and
March, the enforcement section assisted in the preparation of State
legislation covering aeronautics, passed upon State bills proposed
on this subject, and advised State, municipal, and other authorities,
both verbally and by correspondence, in the endeavor to assure
urgently needed enactment of uniform State aeronautical legislation.
Numerous interpretations of the regulations were rendered, and
the amendments to the regulations submitted during the year were
compiled for publication.
ACCIDENT BOARD

The Aircraft Accident Board determines the causes of all aircraftaccidents. This board consists of at least two expert pilots, a flight
surgeon, an aeronautical engineer, a lawyer versed in air law, and
a statistician, thus assuring that any contributing factor to an air­
craft accident will be covered by expert knowledge. The board
analyzes all accidents on which reports are received from the field
and reduces them to their causation factors expressed in percentage.
The statistics gathered from the work of this accident analysis have
proved invaluable as a running check against the efficacy of the va­
rious functions of air regulation, showing exactly the points that
must be stressed from time to time to decrease the number of air­
craft accidents.
These accident-figure analyses have pointed the way to the devel­
opment of certain engineering functions within the division which
have already greatly decreased aircraft accidents due to structural
failure and to unfavorable fljdng characteristics of the plane. They
have also pointed the way to decreasing those accidents that are
attributable to personnel, which are by far the greatest in number,
and it is expected that the recently instituted system of rating flying
schools and the new methods of licensing the higher passenger­
carrying grades of pilots will go far toward decreasing the accident
rate.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

21

T a b le B .—F atalities in airw ay operations and airplane miles per fatality,
ca lenda r yea rs 1018-11)29
FATALITIES IN AIRWAY OPERATIONS
Post-office mail
Calendar year

Contract mail

Fatalities

Fatalitias
Miles

Miles i

1929 (6 months).......
1928............................
1927............................
1920............................
1925............................
1924............................
1923............................
1922............................
1921............................
1920............................
1919...........................
1918............................
Total........... ..

Other airway operations

Miles* 1
Pilots !“
Pilots
.
6,379,770
6.
0
m
s)
«
c>
S46,290
7
0 2,827,154
0)
« i ! « 0 7,4,223,142
51
1
1,320,435
148,070
3
1
77, 6S0
i 1 0 1,95S, 144
2, 583, 050
0
2,521,758
i
<«)
0
2,101,077
(>)
0
)
:
(4
(o
3
(i).
(S)
(i)
1,870, 422
5!
1
w
0
1,750,803
!
<!)
0)
«
m
2
1,912,733
(*>
(*)
!
«
(<•)
7
1
1,048,441
8
0
«
,
O)
;
(!)
O')
461,295
4:
0
(*)
« i1 (>)
0)
102, 548
0
(!)
(i)
11
(«)
9 20,407,358 . 21 j 11 3,052,910
15, 738, 571
æ l
AIRPLANE M ILES PER PILOT FATALITY
Post-ofPee
mail

Calendar year
1929.......................................................................................................
1928.......................................................................................................
1927.......................................................................................................
1920 ....................................................................................................
1925 ...................................................................................................
1924 ...................................................................................................
1923 ...................................................................................................
1922.......................................................................................................
1921.......................................................................................................
1920 .....................................................................................................
1919......................................................................................................
1918 ..............................................................................................

|

1,320,435
2,583,066
2, 521,768
720,359
374,084
1,756,803
273,248
131,050
115,324
102, 548

( ontract
mail

Fatalities
. . ... .
Pilots Passen­
gers

(«1
0)
0)

«
(<•)
0)
0)
(«)

3
3
0
0

7
4

m
m

0
0

<0

5

f‘i
<*>
(•)
«
c>

1

Other airway
operations

1,063,296
1, 120,013
844,628
062,716

I1
$

b il3 ,677

i Miles flown both In scheduled operations and in ferry, test, and otluor nonschedulod flights.

1 Miles flown in scheduled operations, not including ferry test or other uonschoduled flights.
’ On July 1 and Sept. 1, 1927, the Post Office Department turnod over their operations to private con­

tractors.
< No complete data available at this time.
* No contract mail prior to 1926 save for the 2 foreign routes from New Orleans and Seattle. No casual­
ties on either of theso.
< From 1911 to 1925 there have existed from time to time passenger linos between various points in the
United States, but there is no official record of their operations.

GENERAL

The work of reorganization, in order to meet the new and ever
increasing demands of the aircraft industry, lias been carried on
during the past year and is still in process. The engineering and
inspection sections have been almost completely reorganized; and
the licensing section is working out a new method of issuing licenses
for both personnel and aircraft, as well as a much improved system
of internal office procedure.
The problem of licensing aircraft to be used exclusively for ex­
perimental purposes lias been cared for, and a new classification of
u Restricted ” (R) license created to cover special cases.

22

DEPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Requirements for transport pilots, mechanics, and airplanes have
also been made more stringent.
A new airplane license system has been initiated providing for the
issuance of licenses to aircraft which are subject to lien or chattel
mortgage. This is a matter of immediate concern to aircraft manu­
facturers, operators, and finance companies, since it will probably
be necessary to finance the marketing of aircraft in the very near
future. Since a number of aircraft manufacturers are already sell­
ing their product on time payments, the inauguration of this system
was a necessity and will be, of course, of material assistance to the
industry.
Another of the many new problems which have arisen during the
past year is that in connection with the expansion of American
owned and operated air lines into foreign countries (Central and
South America), and the desirability of maintaining both aircraft
and airmen on an American licensed status. This has been partially
solved by the establishment of inspection facilities in the Panama
Canal Zone, but a more extensive service is immediately imperative
if the Federal guaranty of airworthiness of aircraft, competency of
personnel, and accompanying public confidence are to be maintained.
The Alaska Territory is still uncared for except by a very brief
yearly inspection, which is insufficient. The Hawaiian Islands are
covered through arrangements with the Army, but there is not as
yet representation in the Philippines.
The demand for particular and statistical information contained
in the files of the division became so heavy during the year that it
was extremely difficult to cope with the situation with the clerical
force available. Arrangements wTere consequently made with the
Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce and the American Bureau of
Aircraft to develop and publish certain classes of this information.
This arrangement has proved quite satisfactory and has provided
the industry with a service that would not be possible for the depart­
ment to render without a material increase in personnel.
In general, progress and development of the air regulations divi­
sion during the past fiscal year is viewed with considerable satisfac­
tion. Smoother functional efficiency has been obtained through im­
proved sectional organization and coordination of sections and
through better liaison with other divisions and with the aeronautic
industry.
The reorganization accomplished has resulted not only in better
service to the industry but a guaranty to the public of higher stand­
ards of airworthiness in approved aircraft and competence in li­
censed pilots. The process, however, is by no means completed. Be­
cause the division is in direct Federal control of the aircraft industry
and operators, it will of necessity undergo continuous reorganization.
It must, therefore, remain in a state of flux so long as that condition
exists in the industry in order that it may not become unduly re­
strictive, but at the same time enforce suitable standards of safety.
As the new and increased demands placed upon the division by
the industry have not been met by a proportionate increase in per­
sonnel, it can safely be said that the difficulties now being experienced
in its efforts to give adequate service are not due to method but
to the tremendous increase in volume of work and limited per­

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

23

sonnel. The success that lias been attained by the regulations
division in overcoming obstacles to the accomplishment of its several
purposes is due largely to the personal interest and untiring in­
dividual efforts of the personnel, both in the field and in the office.
This high esprit de corps has made possible a decentralization of
responsibility and authority, has resulted in efforts put forth by
individuals beyond all reasonable expectations, and has effected a
higher degree of efficiency than could possibly have otherwise been
attained.

T able

C.— Aids to air navigation

ESTABLISHED AND OPERATINO JUNE 30, 1920

29.8 157 6.8
23.1 58 2.1
19.4 29 2.6
20.6 162 4.6
21.6 56 18.6
27.8 196 10.3
26.1 33 4.7
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27.6 38 7.4
15.8 85 9.4
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8
1

1 0
2 ■■
8

4
5
3
5
1
6
1
1

8
«8

Marker Ixwcoti
| Telephones
Mechanicians *
Servioo trucks *

$5,803.17
6,433. 42
5,670. 00
18,983. 50
1,081.00
8,633. 00
914.00
2,185.00
2, 110.00
2 , 778. 00
605.00
533. 20
540. 00
4,195. 50
370. 00
4,411.00
4, 500. 00
‘¿ , 200.00
4,834. 00
1,233.00
1,705.00
1,637.00
4,791. 00
1,565.08

Average rent

120.5
106.4
47.5
51.1
38.3
55.5
86.4
42.2
60. 1
46.2
51.4
106.6
45. 0
47. 0
67. 5
49.9
53.6
40.0
42.6
41. 1
69.2
103.3
70.9
120.6

Number

2,771.7
2,871.0
523. 0
1,790.2
115.0
1,054.9
616. 0
296.0
305.0
416.1
257.2
106.6
45.0
659.0
135.0
449.5
322.0
320.0
383.5
123.3
485.0
620.0
709.0
2, 533. 0

i*
s3
£
59
90
36
86
16
78
28
21
15
29
18
8
4
47
2
29
25
23
45
11
21
16
38
47
2

Average rent !

3o

Per acre

Per field

Total

Per field

687
624
214
732
65
529
183
168
138
143
99
27
25
327
57
219
152
174
247
89
177
159
189
476

Per field

St. Louis-Chicago.................................
Chicago-Twin Cities............................
Kansas City-St. Louis.........................
Pueblo-Choyenne..................................
Sait Lake-Pasco...................................
Los Angeles-Salt Lake.........................

23
27
11
35
3
13 19
11 7
2
5 5
9 9
3 5
4o 1
1
7 14
2 2
8 9
0 6
4 8
7 9
4 3
4 7
4 6
4 10
7 21

0
11
9
10
6

Total

Cleveland-Albany ( C l e v e l a n d Buffalo).............................................

8-10
808
430
731
201
788
280
220
277
345
198
134
46
541
76
454
275
278
472
159
228
200
392
664

Total

San Francisco-Salt Lake......................
Salt Lake-Omaha.................................
Omaha-Chicago...................................
Chicago-New York...............................
New York-Boston................................
Atlanta-New York...............................
Miami-Atlanta (Jacksonville-AtlanNew Orleans-Atlanta (Selma, Ala.,
Atlanta-Chicago (EvaneviUe-Cbl-

Airports >, >
| Number

Miles lighted

Airway

24-inch
revolving Flashing

Rent

Acreage

Radio
stations *

3
2

3
....
6 2
3
1 1
.... 1 4

4
5
2
4
1
5
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
3
1
3
2
91
1
1
1
2
4

REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

Boundary Obstruction
lights
lights

Weather
stations *

Beacons

j Upper air
1 Weather Bureau
1 Airways division
’ Communication

Intermediate fields

5 2 2
378 10 8 188 23.5 46 5.7
701.3 87.6 5,234.00 7.46 34 5.33 4 .33 4 3 4 1
San Francisco-Seattle (San Francisco-Redding and Portland-Seattle).
367 11 4 100 25.0 26 6.5
304.0 76.0 1, 724. 00 5.67 33 5.29 1 1.00 5 12 2 1
15 2 2
Albuquerque-W ich ita ( Al buquerque-Clovis and WaynokaWichita)................ ...................... !.. 305 : 4 | 3 112 37.3
7 2.3
705.0 255. 0
82.00 .10 22 1.05 15 .67 0 0 0 0
0 2 2
Total................................... ........ 10,183 ¡120 263 6,300 24.0 1,455 5.5 19,677.3 74.8 05,760.87 4.87 881 10.86 518 5.13 45 no 54 27 7 8 320 72 85
1 !
1 All airports are established, maintained, and operated through public or private enterprise and not by the Federal Government.
* The totals for airports, weather stations, radio stations, as shown are not the totals of the figures given, as one unit frequently serves two or more airways and is listed two or
more times.
8 One radio communication station and one radiobeacon are located at Key West, Fla., providing service on the Key West-IIabana Airway, which is not listed.
4 The totals for airway mechanicians and service trucks as shown are not the totals of the figures listed, as there ars relief mechanicians, chief mechanicians, and spare service
trucks not definitely assigned to specific airways.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

8

26

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
T abi k C.— A ids to air n a vig a tio n —Continued
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
Beacons
Airway

St. Louis-Evans ville................................................ .
Milwaukee-Green Bay (Milwaukee-Fond du Lac)
Atlanta-Chicago (Atlanta-Evansville).....................
Michigan Airways (Kalamazoo-Detroit-Bay City)
Cleveland-Albany (Buffalo-Albany)........................
New York-Montreal (New York-Albany)..............
Salt Lake-Pasco (Salt Lake-Burley).........................
SanFranciseo-dcattle (Hedding-Portland)_______
St. Louis-Columbus (Indianapolis-Dayton).......... .
Los Angeles-Albuquerque (Gallup-Albuquerque)..
Total.....................................................................

lighted
162
63
375
213
261
142
178
400
135
13G
2,0C5

ate fields

24-inch
revolving

Flashing

N um ber

N um ber

N um ber

4
1
8
0
5
3
4
11
0
1
37

155
35
13
22
12
12
43
10
11
178

0
U
1
0
0
1
8
17
0

4
31

AIRWAYS DIVISION (BUREAU OF LIGHTHOUSES)

The work of the airways division is carried on under the laws,
rules, and regulations applicable to the Lighthouse Establishment,
and so far as practicabïè through the regular district organization
of the Lighthouse Service.
This division is under a chief engineer and is organized into four
units—surveys, construction, weather and communications, and
radio.
The survey unit determines airway routings, selects sites for bea­
cons and landing fields, and concludes all negotiations for licensing
these sites and for conditioning the fields for use by aircraft. The
construction unit arranges for the purchase and shipment of all
lighting equipment and supervises its erection and installation un­
der contract or by airways division field forces. The weather and
communications unit selects, establishes, and supervises the opera­
tions of airways weather-reporting stations and airways-communication stations. The radio unit designs, procures, and supervises
the erection and installation of radio equipment for communications
stations and radiobeacons.
Maintenance of the intermediate landing fields and beacon lights
is accomplished by the district organizations of the Lighthouse
Bureau to which have been added the necessary special personnel.
Maintenance of aeronautical aids has been assigned as follows :
Third lighthouse district. Staten Is­ Sixth lighthouse district, etc.—Con.
land, N. Y. :
Miuini-Atlanta airway (JacksonNew York-Boston airway.
ville-Atlanta section).
Chicago-New York airway (Belle- New Orleans-Atlanta airway (Selma
fonte-New York section).
(Ala.)-Atlanta section).
Atlanta-New York airway (Ricli- Atianta-Chicago airway (Atlantautond-Ni'w York section).
Evansville section).
New York-Montreal airway.
Tenth lighthouse district, Buffalo,
Sixth lighthouse district, Charleston,
N. Y.:
S. C.:
Chicago-New York airway (Bryan
Atlanta-New York airway (Atlanta(Ohio) -Beliefonte section).
Richmond section).
Louisville-Cleveland airway.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

27

Tenth lighthouse district, etc.—Con. I Twelfth lighthouse district, etc.—Con.
Cleveland-Detroit airway.
Omalia-Chicago airway.
Cleveland-Albany airway.
Kansas Cit.v-Omaha airway.
Cincinnati-Chicago a'rway (Cincin­ Kansas City-St. Louis airway.
nati-Indianapolis section).
St. Louis-Evansville airway.
Milwaukse-Qreen Bay airway.
St. Louis-Columbus airway (Indiannpolis-Dayton section).
Michigan airways.
Washington - Cleveland a i r w a y Seventeenth lighthouse district, Port­
land, Oreg.: San Francisco-S. attle
(Pittslmrgh-Cleveland section).
airway (Mcdford-Seattle section).
Twelfth lighthouse district, Milwau­
Eighteenth lighthouse district, San
kee, W is.:
Chicago-Twin Cities airway.
Francisco, Calif.:
Chicago-New York airway (Chicago- Los Angeles-Salt Lake City airway
Bryan section).
(Los Angeles-Las Vegas section).
Los Angeles-San Francisco airway.
Cincinnati-Chicago airway (Indianapolis-Chicago section).
San Francisco-Seattle airway (San
Francisco-Medford section).
Atlanta-Chicago airway (EvansSan Francisco-Salt Lake City air­
vilie-Chicago section).
St. Louis-Chicago airway.
way (San Francisco-Reno s<ction).
Kansas City-Chicago airway.

Only two maintenance organizations, in addition to the regular
lighthouse districts, have been required to maintain efficiently the
airways extending from the Mississippi and Missouri River Valleys
to the eastern borders of California, Oregon, and Washington.
These have been located at Salt Lake City, Utah, and Fort Worth,
Tex., in charge of airways engineers and are concerned solely with
the maintenance of aeronautical aids. Airways maintenance lias
been assigned to these offices as follows :

Airways engineer, Fort Worth, Tex.: Airways engineer, Salt Lake City,
Dallas-Kunsas City airway.
Utah—Continued.
Tulsa-Pouca City airway.
Salt Lake Oity-Pnsco airway.
Los Angeles-Aibuquerque airway.
San Francisco-Salt Lake City air­
way.
(Galiup-Albuquerque section.)
Albuquerque-Wlc-hita airway.
(Reno-Salt Lake City section )
Waco-Fort Wortti airway.
Los Angeles-Snit Lake City airway.
Airways engineer, Salt Lake City, Utah :
(Las Vegas-Salt Lake City sec
Salt Lake City-Ornaha airway.
tion.)
Salt Lake City-Great Falls airway.
Pueblo-Cheyeime airway.

The divisions of finance, law a id property, and personnel of the
Bureau of Lighthouses function i: t their respective spheres of action
for the airways division, thus o m ating the necessity for special
units.
NAVIGATION FAOH.lTl ES ON CIVU. AIRWAYS

The 1929 appropriation of $4,689.550 was expended for the estab­
lishment of aids on 4,260 miles of airways. Seventeen airways were
included in this mileage, on all of which air transport companies
are operating on regular schedules requiring night flying all or part
of the time over the entire airway or the section lighted. These airwavs are: Cincinnati-Chicago, Kansas Oity-Omaha, South BendKalamazoo, Chicago-Twin Cities (La Crosse-Twin Cities section),
Cleveland-Albany, Miami-Atlanta (Jacksonville-Atlanta section),
Salt Lake-Pasco (Salt Lake City-Boise se tion), Kansas City-St.
Louis, St. Louis-Evansville, San Francisco-Seattle (Redding-Seattle section), Atlanta-Chicago, Now York-Montreal (New York-Albany section), Michigan airways, Milwaukee-Green Bay (MilwaukeeFond du Lac section), St. Louis-Columbus (Indianapolis-Davton

28

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

section), Los Angeles-A]buquerque (Gallup-Albuquerque section)r
Albuquerquc-Wichita (Albuquerque-Clovis and Waynoka-Wichita
sections). In addition a considerable sum was expended in rebuild­
ing the aids on the Salt Lake City to Omaha, Omaha to Chicago,
and Chicago to New York airways, which comprise the lighted sec-

tions of the transcontinental airway taken over from the Post Office
Department July 1, 192T.
At the close of the fiscal year there were 10,183 miles of lighted
airways in operation, with 263 intermediate fields, 1,399 airway
beacons, 164 airway weather reporting stations, 27 airway communi­
cation (radio) stations, and 7 radio-range beacons. In addition

29

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

•t.jieixj were under contract with the work of installation in various
stages of completion 2,065 miles of airways on which are being
established 37 intermediate fields and 209 airway beacons. The 2,065
miles under construction include :

New York-Montrea! (New York-Albany section).
-Cleveland - Albany ( Buffalo - Albany
section).
Michigan Airways (Kalanmzoo-ODe(roit-Bay City sections).
Atlanta-Chicago (Atlanta-Evansville
section).
Mil waukoe-G reen Bay (MilwaukeeFond du Lac section).

St. Louis-Evansville.
Salt Lake-Pnsco (Salt Lake-Burley
section).
San Francisco-Seattle (Reddiug-Portland section).
St. Louis-Coluinbus (IndianapolisDayton section).
Los Angeles-Albuquerque (Gallup-Albuquerque section).

Surveys of the following airways for lighting in the fiscal year
1980 were under way in June, 1929 : Miami to Atlanta (Miaini-Jacksonville section), Washington to Cleveland (Washington-Pittsburgh
section), Brownsville-New Orleans (Brownsville-Houston section),
Brownsville-Fort Worth (Waco-Fort Worth section), Portland to
Pasco, Pasco to Spokane.

Operator

Route

B a li...........................
Barnes and Gorst
Seattle-Victoria......................
ban Franciseo-Chicsgo.........
Wiohita-Oklahonia City___
Tíilsa-Okimügee....................
Canadian-Colonial.. New York-Montreal............
Now York-Boston.................
Cleveland-Albany.................
Colonial Western

&
o

i

T3

a
if
s

a*
§

1

s

2

12
12
12
6
m

«
3
12
12
b

»

Embry-Ríddíe.......... Ciueinnati-Chicago............... 12
12
Detroit-Clevefand................. 12
Petroit-Buffalo..................... 12
Gulf Air Lines,......... New Orléans-Atlanta........... 8
’1
8 t. Louis-Evahsville..........— 1
Los Angeles-San Francisco..
Agua Caliente-San Diego... 5
San Diego-Palm Springs__ 1V4
San Diego-Los Angeles......... 6
m

6
12
12
5
12
12

! Im
OJ
o
»C3
00
ce
<o
ßi

E x p r e s s
(p o u n d s)

Table D.—Scheduled H ying on c iv il a irw a ys, ca lenda r yea r 1928

82,061 209
2,146
22, 715 305
0
1, 817, m 1,963 24,089
104,000 2,695
0
0
o
m
0
c)
ci
40,806 119
> 0
121, 127, 106
i, m
2 0 4 ,847j 243
243
3, 500
48
0
108,5351
27
0
183,438 314
671
290, 617 (>) 1, 631, 512
«
(<
m
m
»
(')
207,699! 349
0
46,998 127
0
0
C)
oí
366,99611.118
0
0
«
¡ (<)
Ü
(’
i M
0
<«)
(<>
4,600,
35
6S
&)
106, 176!
95,135
2,002,602) 1,260 68,190
«
o
«
165,3241 45(1
0
0
0
60,6101
299.520! 967
0
0
w
: o
173,233; 752
0
0
«
í <‘ >
0
W
1 (*)
0
0)
1 «

'S

I

i
s

>>
«3

a s
a

. CJ
-6
05

s

66,817 $200,452.21
68,843 24, 439. 00
986,162 2,016, 654. 81
0
0
0
0
0
0
* 32,103 « 23,06 1.00
55, 742 160,966.84
52,988 « 8 ,815. 00
0
0
28,285 34,508.41
41,098 60, 401. 42
9, 758 10,409.63
1,169
1,259. 63
0
0
27, 677 48,432. 77
8,850
6, 900. 28
w
(o
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
909,040 910,913.81
226,036 678,093.29
23,871 59, 082. 03
80,976 33, 549.00
71,100 195,524. 04
w
w
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Dallas-Chicago.......................
National Parks.......... Salt Lake City-Great Falls.
New Orleans............. PiiottawD-New Orleans.......
Milwaukee-Green iiay ......... w
3M
Northern Air Lines w Chicago-Twin Cities............. 5
Twin Cities^Fargo................ (>)
Twin Citics-Duiuth............. (>)
' Miles flown include schedule, ferry, and test, but do not include miles flown on miscellaneous operations.
* Operated first half of 1928 by the Northwest Air Service.
* No report.
‘ included in total of operator.
* Does not include mail carried or revcuuo from mail carried under contract with other Governments.
* Cleveland-Buftalo only for first 5 months.
’ Evansville-Chicago section inaugurated Nov. 19, 1928.
* No report for first half of 1928.
* Includes Tulsa-Ponca City spur inaugurated also July 5, 1928. Toledo-Dctroit spur Inaugurated
June 4, 1928.
10 Northern Air Lines and Universal submitted a consolidated report.

30

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Mail pa y ­
ments

Mall (pounds)

E Xp r o s s ;
(pounds)

Passengers
flown

Route

Miles flown

Operator

Months oper­
ated

T abus D.—Scheduled flying on civil airways, calendar year U)28—Continued

Pacific Air Transport Los Angelcs-Soattle............... 12
Pan American........... 11avana-M iam i...................... 12
7
M iami-Atlanta..................... 1
Si out Air Service___ Detroit-Ohieago 11.................
Detroit-Cleveland .............
Texas Air Transport. Lared.o-Dallas.__..................
Gal vcston-Dallas...................
Wost Coast................ San Franciseo-Portland.......
Portland-Seattlo....................
United States.............
Westoni Air.............. Las Angelos-Salt Lako City.
Los Angeles-San Francisco..
Pueblo-Chcyenne..................
Wihningtcn-Avalon. ...........
Total................

702,739 1,482 3,296! 137, 06) ; $389,740.27
Ufi, fi80 1,401 6,240} 4 345, 726! 4 146, 363. 00
00
431, 608
01 106, 623¡ 319,981.42
01 4.841 6.993.95
(<)
12
243, 86ô 5, 710
O! 63.489 160, 702. 63
123 156,000
1,003
336
0.
0
10,800 218
0
0
0
212 60,
751 6,412
fiool
0
0
o
(*) !
0
o
o
926
91 42,842: 123,770. 21
1111fiH 445,519
(0 ! 20,216' S4,433.56
0
)
ci
166, 876 o
0 70,167 62,447.27
5,081
250
Oi
0
0fi 350,000
0
)
0!
0
o
o
6J4 27, 200 238
0
0
0
12 950,
378,853
0
0j 133,348 400,032.16
12
552 5, 630 13.508! 385,924 1, 156, 654. 28
7
(*)
o!
o
(4)
<*>
12
12 M)(<) ì<>o (*)(') ! 62,818!0 52,13S. 940
10, 673,450 49,713 1, 848,156 4,063,173 7,432, 720.86
p
j

* N o report.
* Included in total of operator.
4 Does not include mail carried or revenue from mail carried under contract with other Governments.
i> Discontinued July 19, 1928.
i* Mail contract discontinued July 16, 1928, but route is still operated for the carrying of express by the
Ford Motor Co.
EN G IN EER IN G LAYOUT OF AIRWAYS

Between the given terminals or intermediate airports airways are
laid out on as near straight lines as the topographical features of
tiie region will permit. A strip approximately 25 miles wide is
carefully studied from the air to determine the location of the most
level open country, the wooded and mountainous sections (to be
avoided, if possible), the location of main roads, railroads (both
important landmarks for clay flying), centers of habitation, and
electric-power lines. At the same time a survey is made to determine
the proper locations for radiobeacons. These studies are supple­
mented by a ground survey for corroboration of and additions to
the data obtained from the aerial survey and the straightest route
which offers the best combination of the facilities mentioned is
selected. On the route adopted intermediate field sites at approxi­
mately 30-mile intervals are selected, with due regard for the fact
that fields to be useful in emergencies should be located on good
roads near centers of habitation where help is available and where
facilities for prompt communication and transport exist. The ex­
ceptions to this plan may be noted in hazardous territory where
additional fields are located at critical points, in wThich cases the
possibility of negotiating safe landings largely precludes other con­
siderations.
On an air line between the fields, at approximate 10-mile intervals,
beacon sites are selected. Beacon sites vary slightly from standard
line and spacing in order to secure advantages of roadside loca­
tion and commercial electric power, and also to secure for the sites
the advantage of as high an elevation as practical, so that interven­

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

31

ing ground elevations may not block the view from one beacon to the
next. When the topography is such that this is impossible, eleva­
tions between adjacent regular beacons are marked with auxiliary
beacons or blinkers of lower candlepower, so that light-to-light vision
may always be maintained unless atmospheric conditions prevent.
When licenses for the occupation of fields and beacon sites have
been secured a survey is made of each field site to determine the kind
and amount of conditioning that is required to make it suitable for
airplane use and the necessary work is performed under contract.
Upon receipt of the necessary data a proposal is prepared and
contract let for installation of the lighting equipment on the airway
as a Avhole or in sections, after accomplishment of which the airway
is assigned to one of the districts for maintenance.
During the construction period a survey is made in collaboration
with representatives of the Weather Bureau to determine the proper
locations for weather reporting and communication stations which
ire established approximately coincident with the placing in opera­
tion of the lighting facilities.
Airways are designated by the first letters of their terminal cities,
thus, O-C for Omaha to Chicago, LA-SF for Los Angeles to San
Francisco. All field and standard beacon sites are known by num­
bers which, by the addition of zero, indicate their approximate mile­
age on the airway; thus, a field 32 miles from the starting point of
an airway is No. 3; a beacon 585 miles from the starting point is No.
58. Beacons other than standard are given numbers corresponding
exactly to their mileage.
At the close of the fiscal year 1929. 13 experienced airplane pilots.
10 civil engineers, and 5 airplanes were assigned to the survey of
airways. Four electrical and structural engineers and 18 inspectors
of airways construction, all of them with extensive aeronautical
experience, were engaged in the establishment of lighting equipment.
INTERMEDIATE FIEI.DS

The standard intermediate field in low altitudes provides two land­
ing strips or runways of a length of 2.000 feet and width of 600
feet, approximately at right angles to each other, with one strip lying
in the direction of the prevailing wind. Such a field has an area
of 47 acres. In the higher altitudes (above 4,000 feet) the standard
length for landing strips is 2,500 to 3,000 feet. Landing strips may
form a T, L, or +? and the inner angles at the junctions of the strips
are usually beveled off to provide additional diagonal landing space
for use under conditions of strong cross winds. In many cases it is
possible to secure triangular or square fields giving the desired run­
way lengths in all directions. In rough country it is often possible to
secure only one landing strip, in which case an attempt is made to
increase the width of such a “ 2-way field ” sufficiently to permit land­
ing diagonally into strong cross winds.
The field surfaces should be fairly level, and wrhen not level must
be free from sharp breaks in grade, and well drained, naturally or by
artificial methods.
Fields are licensed for occupation for periods of 5 to 10 years,
with occupation for an indefinite period beyond this term subject to

32

BEPOBT TO TH E SEOBETABY OF COMMERCE

termination upon six months’ notice by either party. The average
cost is $4’.87 per acre per annum throughout the United States. Bea­
con sites are similarly licensed, the average cost being $3.87 per site
per annum. Owing to the constantly increasing public interest in
air transportation, it has been found possible to establish many inter­
mediate fields on a cooperative basis, whereby the city or town at
which the field is located, or some civic or commercial organization
of the city, rents or purchases the field and licenses it to the depart­
ment at a reduced or nominal consideration, or conditions the
field licensed directly from the owner by the department, or both.
A large portion of the intermediate fields established during the
past year have been established cooperatively with considerable saving
in expense to the Government.
INTERMEDIATE FIELD MARKING AND LIGHTING

Intermediate fields have been marked by 50-foot (diameter)
white circles at the intersections of the runway center lines, with
wliite panels 20 feet long and 2 feet wide extending from the out­
side of the circle along the runway center lines to indicate the land­
ing directions. It is proposed to increase the size of these markers
to a diameter of 100 feet for the circle with a 4-foot band and to a
length of 100 feet and width 4 feet for the runway markers. The
circle and panels are constructed of crushed rock tamped flush with
the field surface and whitewashed. The boundaries of the fields
are marked by chrome yellow sheet metal cones 30 inches in diam­
eter and 24 inches in height, installed immediately below the boun­
dary lights and attached to the boundary light standards. It is
proposed to augment this boundary marking by installing 70-foot
sections of painted fence at each angle in the field boundary and at
600-foot intervals on long straight sides.
The lighting of intermediate fields comprises a beacon, course
lights, boundary lights, range lights, obstruction lights, and illu­
minated wind indicator. A standard 24-inch revolving beacon is
provided at each field, with the exception that in mountainous ter­
ritory, where fields lie off the air line marked by beacons or in val­
leys at irregular intervals between beacon sites, electric blinkers of
lower candlepower are provided; and in desert or uninhabited re­
gions, where commercial electricity is not available, nor supplies of
gasoline and oil, and attendants to operate local electric generators
can not be had, acetylene beacons, which may be charged up for a
6 months’ period of operation without attention, are installed in
lieu of standard electric equipment.
Standard boundary lights, installed at intervals of approximately
300 feet around the perimeters of the fields, consist of waterproof
prismatic globes and fittings mounted on iron pipe standards 30
inches above the ground (where snowfall of greater depth is an­
ticipated the height of standards is increased), in which are in­
stalled 15-watt electric bulbs if commercial current is available, or
10-watt bulbs if power is provided by a local generator. An under­
ground parkway cable carries the current to the boundary lights.
Range lights, installed in the boundary system and similar in all
respects to boundary lights, except that the wattage of the bulbs is

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

33

increased by 10, and that the clear globes are replaced by green
globes, are placed at opposite ends of the principal runways to aid
pilots in making landings. Two such range lights are used at each
end of the best or prevailing-wind runway, and single lights mark
the center line of the other runway.
Obstructions at the ends of landing strips or runways over which
approaches or take-offs must be made are marked in all cases by red
lights at the heights of such obstructions. Obstruction lights hat®
25-watt electric bulbs in lighthouse red globes. Where only a few
isolated obstruction lights are necessary connection is made with the
boundary light circuit. Where obstructions are in the nature of
pole lines, or lines of trees, separate overhead electrical circuits are
sometimes provided. Obstructions along the sides of runways, where
the widths of runways do not permit of landing or taking off across
them, are marked by red obstruction lights at obstruction height if
isolated, or by obstruction lights at obstruction heights at the ex­
tremities of a line of obstructions, supplemented by red lights in the
boundary light system between the extremities.
Desert fields are boundary lighted by special acetylene blinkers
flashing one hundred times per minute, established at the corners of
the fields and the centers of long sides. Range lights, obstruction
lights, and illuminated wind indicators can not be provided, but in
such cases all obstructions have been removed.
Illuminated wind indicators are supported on brackets attached
to the beacon towers. A conventional wind cone or sock 8 feet long,
18 inches in diameter at the mouth, and 8 inches in diameter at the
opposite end, of porous weave, is colored chrome yellow. A 150watt electrical lamp is installed at the mouth with a chromiumplated reflector which directs the entire output of light into the sock.
A skeleton metal framework extending inside for a distance of 4
feet holds this portion of the sock open and horizontal to increase
the effectiveness of the lighting. This indicator shows wind direc­
tion at a wind velocity of 5 miles per hour. At greater velocities the
sock inflates and rises proportionately, reaching an angle of 7°
below the horizontal at a wind speed of 30 miles per hour.
At the close of the fiscal year 1920, 263 intermediate fields,
equipped as described, were being maintained by the airways divi­
sion. The average cost of the lighting installation is approximately
$5,000 per field.
BEACONS

Airway beacons have been established at approximate 10-mile
intervals from airport to airport on all lighted airways. Every
third beacon is on an intermediate field, according to standard prac­
tice. Alterations of the direction of airway courses generally occur
at fields, and the beacons between fields are established as near as
possible on the air line from field to field.
The standard beacon consists of a 1,000-watt searchlight fitted
with a 24-inch precision parabolic mirror giving 2,000,000 beam
candlepower. An electric motor of one-sixth horsepower rotates the
searchlight at six revolutions per minute. Each lie aeon is fitted with
an automatic lamp changer and two electric lamp bulbs. In case
78415— 2 »------ 3

REPORT TO TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

one lamp burns out, the stand-by lamp is automatically placed in
circuit and in focus within a fraction of a second. Two course
lights are mounted on the tower platform just below each search­
light, one pointing forward and one pointing backward on the air­
way course. The" course lights are 500-watt searchlight projectors
fitted with special cylindro-spherical mirrors and 18-inch doublet
lenses, giving a beam of 15° horizontal and 8° vertical spread with
a beam candlepower of 100,000 when fitted with lighthouse red or
green lenses. Red lenses are used at beacon sites and green lenses
at intermediate landing fields. Each course light, in alternation
(while the main beam ot the beacon is swinging through the opposite
180° of arc), flashes its code signal, which corresponds to its number
on the airway. Code signals run from 0 to 9 and then recommence.
The pilot must know on which 100-mile section of airway he is flying
ih order to positively identify the site.
The beacon is mounted on a skeleton steel tower, the standard
height of which is 51 feet. Towers of standard construction are,
however, available in 20, 62, 75, and 87 foot heights for use where
conditions indicate desirability of heights other than 51 feet. At the
top of each tower is constructed a 6-foot square platform with guard
railing, providing an opportunity for airway mechanicians to work
on.the lights with ease and safety.
On the ground at each tower base is constructed in concrete a
directional arrow 54 feet in length which points to the next higher
numbered beacon. The tower rises in the center of the arrow. The
arrow surface is painted black on the rectangular feather end. At
all fields and at beacons where local generating sets are required
a small power house 10 by 14 feet forms the feather end of the
arrow. At fields which do not require local generators the houses
provide storage facilities for emergency equipment.
Gasoline engine-driven electric-generating sets, where required, are
furnished in duplicate, with a thermostatic relay control which will
automatically stop the operating generator if it becomes too hot
and will start the stand-by generator. Generators may thus alter­
nate automatically throughout a night.
Astronomic time clocks are installed at all beacons connected with
commercial power. These clocks switch on the current at sunset
and switch it off at sunrise.
There is under service test a clock designed to operate on the
direct current produced by the gasoline-engine-driven generators
and automatically start and stop these at the proper time, which, if
the test is successful, will permit full automatic operation of all
electric installations.
Topographic considerations, in some instances, require closer
spacing of lights anti lighting of hazards to air navigation, such as
mountains, buttes, or canyon walls. In desert regions it has in many
cases been found impracticable to install electric beacons, due to
the lack of possible caretakers and the difficulty of supplying local
generators with gasoline and oil.
For use as auxiliary lights, or in lieu of standard beacons at
standard spacings, the airways division has designed and installed
other types of beacons which work effectively. Dioptric lanterns
of. 300 and 375 millimeters diameter have been used with single

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

35

acetylene burners, with clusters of three acetylene burners, and with
500-watt electric lamps. Another standard unit is a double-ended
range lantern fitted with two 18-inc.h doublet lenses similar to the
course light lenses using a double acetylene burner light source.
When such units are used in lieu of standard beacons to mark the
airway center line the standard spacing is reduced to 3i/2 miles,
by which arrangement the lower eandlepower is olfset by the shorter
spacing, resulting in practically equivalent effectiveness.
There were 1,399 beacons of all types in operation at the close of
the fiscal year 1929.
W EATHER SERVICE AND COMMUNICATIONS

During the fiscal year 1929 the United States Weather Bureau
established 3 new upper air meteoroligical stations in addition to
the 42 already existing. The majority of these are located at air­
ports throughout the United States and furnish information at fre­
quent intervals during the day and night to weather-control stations
along the airways. Reports are also received from over 200 firstorder Weather Bureau stations twice daily. These, in combination
with the upper air reports, are used in making the zone forecasts
for the airways. Such forecasts are made available to all pilots
using the airway through the medium of airways communication
stations.
The system of communications already established, under which
the maintenance personnel on the airways furnishes to the Weather
Bureau airways-control stations certain additional information re­
garding local storms, fogs, and changes in existing local weather
conditions, is being constantly extended as new airways are estab­
lished. There are at present 54 airways weather observers engaged
in furnishing data to Weather Bureau personnel at terminal fields
along the airways. In addition, the United States Weather Bureau
has established 110 special airways weather reporting stations from
which frequent daily reports of local conditions are obtained. This
informaton is furnished to the control stations along the airway and
transmitted to other stations in the immediate vicinity. Such in­
formation from control stations to other stations in the immediate
vicinity or along the airway is transmitted by the communications
network of the airway. During the fiscal year there were four
complete meteorological stations established liy the United States
Weather Bureau.
Teletype circuits between weather reporting stations on the Chi­
cago-New York and Los Angeles-San Francisco airways have been
established and placed in operation, for transmission of hourly re­
ports from the airways weather reporting stations, and will be con­
tinued in service through the fiscal year 1930.
Experience has shown that it is essential that weather reports for
pilots should be furnished at more frequent intervals and a plan has
been worked out which will be put in effect at the beginning of the
fiscal year 1930. In accordance with this plan, a number of stations
have been established from 150 to 200 miles on either side of the
transcontinental airway and approximately the same distance apart.
Reports will be received from each of these stations in three major

36

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

control stations at 3-hour intervals, day and night. A resume of
conditions in the geographical area surrounding each control sta­
tion will be made by an official of the United States Weather Bureau.
This résumé will be transmitted to all airways communications sta­
tions within the sector to be broadcast simultaneously by them.
It is planned also to broadcast from all airways communication
stations by radiophone a report of the terminal weather from certain
terminal fields within the geographical area surrounding each sta­
tion. This broadcast will be made each half hour so that pilots may
have first-hand information regarding the conditions at their des­
tination. Constant improvement is being made in the weather re­
porting and communications system and it is expected that a nation­
wide broadcast of conditions at short intervals of time will soon be
placed in operation.
RADIO EQUIPM ENT

During the fiscal year 1929 the improvement and standardiza­
tion of radio stations and radio equipment was most marked. The
present standard radio communication comprises a 2-kilowatt in­
termediate frequency radio telephone and telegraph transmitter
complete with motor generator, line amplifier, and two button micro­
phones, operating on 100 to 500 kilocycles frequency, for broad­
casting by voice or code to airplanes and ground stations; a 400watt crystal controlled high-frequency radiotelegraph transmitter
for point-to-point communication in code at 3.000 to 6,000 kilocycles;
an intermediate frequency receiver (75 to 1,000 kilocycles) ; a highfrequency receiver (2,000 to 15,000 kilocycles) ; and a 2,300-watt
engine driven generator for emergency power supply, with a 2,000watt rotary converter, capable of furnishing current sufficient for
radio transmission, station lights, and tower obstruction lights; all
housed in a 22 by 28 foot ready-cut frame building of attractive
design and construction. The intermediate frequency single wire
antenna is supported on two 125-foot skeleton steel towers 380 feet
apart equipped with winches. The high-frequency antenna system
is mounted on one 50 and two 60 foot masts. The radio grounding
system comprising approximately 4,000 feet of solid copper wire is
buried.
During the past year 11 of these standard stations have been erected
to replace the old stations on the transcontinental route equipped
with obsolete arc type apparatus at Bellefonte, Cleveland, Maywood (Chicago). Iowa City, Omaha, North Platte, Rock Springs,
Salt Lake City, Elko, Reno, and Oakland; and complete new stand­
ard apparatus has been installed in the city-owned radio building
at Cheyenne and in the Commerce Department hangar at Bryan,
Ohio. New stations have been established at Key West, La Crosse,
St. Louis, North Kansas City, Wichita, Glendale, and Fresno. All
these stations are transmitting scheduled radiotelephone broadcasts.
Point-to-point radiotelegraph communications may, when required,
be handled on the 2-kilowatt intermediate frequency transmitter,
but are usually transmitted on the 400-watt high frequency set.
Four additional standard radio communication stations which
.are practically completed and will go into operation during the

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

37

month of August, 1929, are at Medford, and Portland, Oreg., Seattle,
Wash., and Boston, Mass.
Seven radiotelegraph stations located in temporary quarters, but
equipped with modern high-frequency equipment, are in operation
at Oklahoma City, Forth Worth, Washington, D. C., Richmond,
Greensboro, Spartanburg, and Atlanta.
Twenty-five 200-watt intermediate frequency combination tele­
phone and telegraph transmitters are on order. It is expected that
these transmitters will become standard at points where a trans­
mission range of not more than 50 miles is required and as emer­
gency equipment at standard communication stations.
The aural type radio-range beacon has been greatly improved and
standardized. As now installed it consists of a 2-kilowatt aural type
interlocking equi-signal transmitter with goniometer and automatic
keying device operating in the 190 to 565 kilocycle range, housed in
a single-room frame building and in several cases operated b}7 remote
control. The antenna system comprises two single-wire vertical
loops installed at right angles to each other on five wooden masts.
Seven standard beacons are now in operation at New Brunswick,
Bellefonte, Cleveland, Goshen, Sterling, Des Moines, and Key West,
Fla., providing a continuous radio-marked course from Omaha to
New York and Ivey West to Habana. The Hadley Field radio­
beacon also marks 100 miles each of the airways to Boston and At­
lanta. At York, Gothenburg, and Boston, radiobeacons are being
constructed which will complete the radio marking of the New York
to Boston airway and extend the radio marking of the transconti­
nental route to Cheyenne, Wyo. Sixteen additional radiobeacons
are expected to be in operation at the close of fiscal year 1930.
Radio-marker beacons are required to indicate the intersections of
radio-range courses, and in some instances to indicate the locations of
landing fields. The marker beacon comprises a 7.5-watt double­
frequency automatic transmitter of an elfective range of 3 to 5 miles,
with a simple single-wire antenna supported on a single mast.
Eight such marker beacons have been placed in operation at Numidia, Brookville, Toledo, Bryan, Lansing, Cicero, Aurora, and
Iowa City.
In order to check up efficiently the operation of the radio equip­
ment and to obtain data for use in increasing the efficiency of
operation, two of the airways division airplanes have been fitted
with the best modern airplane radio equipment, and are continually
engaged in this work. Valuable data have been obtained thereby.
In cooperation with other units of the Department of Commerce
airways division radio engineers have been engaged in the de­
velopment of a poly-directional radiobeacon which will furnish 12
radio-marked courses instead of the 4 now produced by the standard
radiobeacon. These courses will normally be separated by intervals
of 30°, but the angles of divergence are readily adjustable to meet
requirements. The first such beacon is approaching completion at
the Lighthouse Bureau depot in Detroit. Other development work
includes the design of the 200-watt intermediate frequency combi­
nation telephone and telegraph receiver already mentioned, the auto­
matic transmitting apparatus for marker beacons and a means of
varying the angle of divergency between the radiobeacon courses by

' 38

REPOST TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

introduction of a single-wire antenna into the close loop system in
such a manner as to vary the loop field patterns.
The Federal Kadio Commission has been induced to reserve 50
radio channels for airplane radio communication, and to make allot­
ments of these channels to airways father than to operating com­
panies, thus providing for continuation of radio communication over
specific airways in the same channel regardless of the changes in
identity of operating concerns.
At the close of the fiscal year 1929, 6 radio engineers, 2 construc­
tion engineers, and 12 radio electricians were engaged in experi­
mental work, construction of radio stations, and installation of
apparatus.
M AINTENANCE OF AIRWAYS

Airway equipment, after installation by the airways division, is
assigned'to the Lighthouse Service district offices for maintenance.
To these district offices are assigned associate and assistant airways
engineers, of extensive aeronautical experience in addition to en­
gineering qualifications, who, under the general supervision of the
lighthouse superintendents, maintain the airways.
Airway mechanicians are assigned to patrol 175-mile sections.
They are provided with M to 11/4 ton panel body motor trucks of the
speedwagon type, equipped with spare parts and tools for taking care
of practically any service or emergency repair job required on any
type of airway lighting equipment. Airway mechanicians must
make their rounds and check over each beacon at least twice per
month. Landing field caretakers are required to assist in any
reasonable manner air travelers who make emergency landings on
fields in their charge.
Caretakers are employed at all fields, and attendants at most bea­
cons, whose duties include careful observation, of the functioning
of the lighting equipment and reporting to the airways mechanician
of the district office any failures which can not be remedied by simple
measures, such as changing lamp bulbs or fuse plugs.
At the close of the fiscal year 1929, 20 airways engineers, 72 air­
way mechanicians, and 782 caretakers and attendants were employed
in the maintenance of 10,183 miles of airways.
IMPROVEMENT IN AIRWAYS EQUIPM ENT

Further refinements have been made in the design of the standard
24-inch revolving searchlight. A new type cover glass incorporating
prisms which deflect 20 per cent of the light upward from the main
beam and distributes it through 25° or vertical arc has been designed,
service tested, and adopted as standard. This reduces the chances
for a pilot to miss the beacon by flying above the main beam at short
distances from the light. Mercury contactors for the course light
circuits in the beacon base have been tested, approved, and adopted
as standard, replacing the magnetic type which was objectionable on
account of its interference with radio reception in the near vicinity.
A new type of stray light shield, in the form of a cylindro-spherical
reflector, has been designed to replace the louvre type of shield.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

39

This reflector is placed directly in front of the light source, gather­
ing the stray light and reflecting it back through the paraholic
mirror in such a manner as to increase the horizontal width of Jthe
main beam. It also shields the lamp bulb from the direct rays of the
sun during daylight.
The illuminated wind indicator has been improved by providing
for the installation of 150 or 200 watt bulbs instead of 75-watt bulbs.
A skeleton frame or cage to be inserted in the wind sock holding at
open and horizontal for half its length providing for greater visibility
of the sock has been tested out and standardized. Several refinements
in the design of beacon towers, including a steel grating for the
platform and a cage for the ladder to be used on towers 100 feet
or more in height, have been included in the new specifications.
Beacons and fields supplied with commercial electric current are
subject to failure as the result of transmission line breakdown dire
to electric storms or other causes at points at some distance from the
sites. To provide against extinguishment of the lights at inter­
mediate fields consideration is being given to the installation ofra
stand-by alternating current generator which can be automatically
started upon failure of the commercial current and put the lights in
operation again within a fraction of a minute. One such generator
has been installed and is undergoing service test with satisfactory
results during the limited period it has been in operation. A new
signaling flare has been adopted as standard, which has double the
burning time of the flare formerly used. An interesting device lias
been invented and is now under test which automatically causes the
revolving searchlight to point north upon coming to a stop when
the current is switched off at daylight. If it tests satisfactorily it
will eliminate damage to the beacon lamps due to the reflection of the
sun’s rays from the parabolic mirror upon the lamp bulbs and sockets
during the inoperative daylight period.
AIRWAYS STATUS

The following airways have
weather reporting service:

lighted and equipped with

San Francisco-Salt Lake City.
Salt Lake City-Omaha.
Omaha-Chicago.
Chicago-New York.
New York-Boston.
Atlanta-New York.
Atlantn-Chicago (Evansville-Chicago
section).
Miami-Atlanta.
New Orleans-Atlanta (Selma (A la.)Atlanta section).
Louisville-Cleveland.
Cleveland-Albany (Cleveland-Buff alo
section).
Cleveland-Detroit.
South Bend-Kalamazoo.
Cincinnati-Chicago.
St. Louis-Chicago.

Chicago-Twin Cities.
Kansas City-Chicago.
Dallas-Kansas City.
Tulsa-Ponca City.
Kansas City-St. Louis.
Kansas City-Omaha.
Pueblo-Cheyenne.
Los Angeles-Salt Lake City.
Salt Lake Clty-Pasco (Burley-Boise
section).
Los Angeles-San Francisco.
San Francisco-Seattle (San Francisco-Redding and Portland-Seattle
sections).
Albuquerque-Wichita (AlbuquerqueClovis and Waynöka-Wichita sec­
tions).

40

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY

OF

COMMERCE

Installation is proceeding und< contract on the following airways or sections :

New York-Montreal (New York-Al­
bany section).
Cleveland - Albany (Buffalo - Albany
.section).
Michigan airways (Kalamazoo-Detroit-Bay City sections).
Atlanta-Chicago (Atlanta-Evansville
section ).
Milwaukee-Green Bay (MilwaukeeFond du Lac section).

St. Louis-Evansville.
Salt Lake-Pasco (Salt Lake-Burley
section).
San Francisco-Seattle (Redding-Portland section).
St. Louis-Columbus (IudianapolisDayton section).
Los Angeles-Albuquerque (GallupAlbuquerque section).
Waco-Fort Worth.

Salt Lake City-Great Falls.
Portland, Oreg.-Pasco, Wash.
Pasco-Spokane.
Brownsville, Tex.-New Orleans.
Brownsville, Tex.-Fort Worth.

Galveston-Waco.
Miami-Jacksonville.
Washingtou-Cleveland.
Jacksonville-Richmond.
Fort Worth-Birmingham.

Tampa-Day tona.
Los Angeles-San Diego-Forth Worth
Los Angeles-Albuquerque.
Albuquerque-Wichita (to complete).
St. L> nls-Indianapolis.
Fort Worth-Loulsville.
New Orleans-St. Louis.
New Orleans-Atlanta (to complete).

El Paso-San Antonio.
San Antonio-Houston.
El Paso-Pueblo.
Fort Worth-Pueblo.
Kansas City-Minneapolis-Duluth.
Seattle-Minneapolis.
Fargo-Winnepeg.

San Francisco-Salt Lake City.
Salt Lake City-Omaha.
Omaha -Chicago.
Chicago-New York.
St. Louis-Chicago.

Dallas-Kansas City.
Kansas City-Chicago.
Chicago-Twin Cities.
Los Angeles-San Francisco.
Atlanta-New York.

The department’s program for the fiscal year 1930 contemplates
establishment and maintenance oi aids on the following additional
routes :

Airways under consideration for installation of aids subsequent
to fiscal year 1930 include:

W iishington-Buffalo.

The following airways have een fully equipped with radio communication service:

Radio construction is proceeding under contract to give service
throughout the following airways:
New York-Boston.
Salt Lake-Pasco.

I San Francisco-Seattle.

Radiobeacon service has been provided on the Omaha-to-Chicago,
CKicago-to-New York, and Key West-to-Habana airways, and radio­
beacons are under construction to provide service on the Salt Laketo-Omaha and New York-to-Boston airways.
DIVISION OF AIBFOBTS AND AERONAUTIC INFORMATION

As the contact office between the Aeronautics Branch, the areonautic industry, and the general public, the division of airports and
aeronautic information is charged with virtually all of the promo­
tion duties covered by the air commerce act of 1926. Specifically
these duties include :

1. The direction and coordination of the. work of the Aeronautics Branch re­
lated to the assisting in the selection and development of airports.
2. The promotion and correlation of cooperative scientific research with the
industry on airport problems, and the publication of reports on these
problems.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

41

3. The promulgation of airport rating regulations and the rating of airports.
4. The publication and dissemination of information relating to civil aero­
nautics, including the periodical known as Domestic Air News, which will
henceforth be published under the title of Air Commerce Bulletin.
5. The preparation and publication of airway bulletins.
C. The compilation and publication of statistics covering accidents to aircraft
and other statistics on the manufacture and operation of civil aircraft
7. The general promotion work of the Department of Commerce encouraging
the development of civil aeronautics in the United States.

During the past fiscal year this division has been completely re­
organized. Its activities are now distributed among four sections,
all of which are under the direct supervision of the division chief.:
Field service section, Airway Bulletin section, statistics and distri­
bution section, and editorial section.
FIELD SERVICE SECTION

The field service section, which was created February 4, 1929, has
taken over certain phases of the work previously handled by the air­
port section. Among these phases are included conferences with
municipalities, chambers of commerce, and similar organizations
desiring assistance in the selection of airport sites and information
regarding the requirements for the development of suitable airports.
Five airport specialists, including the chief of section, are avail­
able for this work. These men are routed throughout the United
States on carefully planned itineraries, the usual procedure calling
for the inspection of a number of sites, perhaps a talk before a civic
organization at noon or in the evening, and a conference or series of
conferences with officials interested in the development of the air
port. The field representative then submits his report to Washing­
ton for review, after which a copy is sent to the interested com­
munity or organization.
In addition to this advisory work, the Department of Comm'erce
is now charged with determining what improvements should be pro­
vided by applicants for the lease of public lands for airport pur­
poses.
Another function of this section is that of rating airports upon
application of the owner. This work is rapidly assuming increas­
ing importance and application forms have already been requested
by a number of cities. As yet, however, the applications are com­
ing in slowly, due no doubt to the fact that airport officials are dis­
covering that additional conditioning or construction work must
be done before the rating they desire can be obtained.
During the year just ended a great deal of time has been devoted
to a study of the management aspects of airports and to a uniform
system of field rules which will apply in whole or in part to air­
ports all over the country.
Numerous conferences have also been held in Washington with
private individuals, representatives of cities and civic organiza­
tions, who are interested in developing airports. Because of limited
personnel, it is frequently impossible to send a representative at
the time desired by the airport or municipal officials; as the result
many of these individuals have traveled long distances for confer­
ences with this section.

42

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

From July 1, 1928, to June 30, 1929, 648 cities requested visits
by one or more of this section’s representatives. During the same
period 636 cities were actually visited and 251 addresses delivered
in the cities which were interested in obtaining an adequate airport.
AIRWAY BULLETIN SECTION

Another section of steadily increasing importance is the airway
bulletin section of this division. During the past year 260 airway
bulletins were issued, 29 revised, and 289 reprinted. These airway
bulletins, which are distributed to a mailing list of 3,400 individuals
and organizations, are illustrated loose-leaf sheets describing air
ports, Department of Commerce intermediate fields, airways of the
country, air markings, meteorological conditions, and other data
essential to air navigation.
A total of 663 airway bulletins have now been published and
there are 401 additional airports to be made the subject of future
bulletins. Airports are being established at the rate of 75 a month
and bulletins are being completed at the rate of 40 a month. To keep
the information contained in these bulletins up to date, a semiannual
canvass is made. In addition to the full data which this section must
get and record on all airports and intermediate fields, it keeps a
record of some 6,000 other fields that may be used for landing.
These fields are not scheduled for inclusion in the airway bulletins,
awing to the fact that they are not set aside for the sole purpose
of aircraft operations. A semiannual canvass is also made of these
fields, the information being held on file for the benefit of pilots
making cross-country flights who wish to know of all available land­
ing places.
Each of the airway bulletins prepared by this section contains two
maps, one of the airport itself showing wind rose and immediately
surrounding terrain and the other showing the airport’s location
with respect to near-by railroads, rivers, and the nearest city. In
addition these bulletins give the name of the airport, its class,
latitude and longitude, altitude above sea level, description of sur­
face and runways, obstructions, marking and identification, lighting,
accommodation, meteorological data, and other information desired
by pilots or operators.
STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTION SECTION

The functions of the statistics and distribution section include the
procurement, compilation, and analysis of all statistical data for the
Aeronautics Branch, including data covering aircraft production,
aircraft operation, aircraft accidents, and aids to air navigation; the
preparation and publication of all statistical bulletins o f the Aero­
nautics Branch, together with the Aeronautics Trade Directory; the
contacting of other Government departments associated with aero­
nautics and coordinating such information for issuance; the collec­
tion of material for, and the conduct of, the reference library of the
Aeronautics Branch; the distribution of all publications and printed
forms of the Aeronautics Branch; the handling of correspondence

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

43

that does not pertain to the technical phases of the work ; the inter­
viewing of persons desiring general information.
In the distribution of aeronautical information this section during
the last year functioned as the intermediate or contact office between
the Aeronautics Branch, the aeronautics industry, and the general
public, either by personal interviews, correspondence, or through the
distribution of publications. As the majority of the information
disseminated is prepared in bulletin form, a list of these aeronautics
bulletins follows:
1. Civil Aeronautics in the United
States.
2. Construction of Air Ports.
3. Aeronautics Trade Directory.
4. Air Markings for Cities.
5. Air Ports and Landing Fields.
6. Aeronautical Publications.
7. Air Commerce Regulations.
7-A. Airworthiness R eq uirem en ts
Regulations.
7-B. School Supplement, Air Com­
merce Regulations.
7-C. Entry and Clearance of Aircraft
Regulations.
8. Airway Map of the United States.

9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
36.
17.
18.
19.

United States Air Transport
Routes in Operation.
Airway Strip Maps.
Airway Distance Map of the
United States.
Airway Operation Costs.
Civil Air Accidents and Casualties.
Relative Lift Distribution in any
Biplane.
Air Traffic Rules.
Air Port Rating Regulations.
Air Port Management.
Abstract of State Laws on Aero­
nautics.
Aviation Training.

The volume of correspondence in this section has rapidly in­
creased and during the last few months of this fiscal year an average
of 700 inquiries per month were replied to by letter. An additional
3,200 requests per month were answered by the forwarding of one
or more bulletins or application forms, making an average monthly
total of 23,500 bulletins and 13,500 application blanks ror various
licenses distributed free upon request. One of the most important
functions of the section is the maintenance of a mailing list which at
the present time contains more than 12,000 names. This list is
divided into 26 sections, each section containing the names of indi­
viduals or companies desiring a particular type of information.
New and revised bulletins are forwarded on this list as well as a
semimonthly publication, Air Commerce Bulletin (formerly Do­
mestic Air News).
Aeronautical intelligence files are being developed for all data
collected from the industry and other sources so that considerable
time will be saved in the answering of inquiries. These files will
also be invaluable as permanent records for research in analyzing
the trend and progress of the industry.
Valuable statistics on the census and value of aircraft, aircraft
engine, and propeller manufacture were compiled by the section.
There is considerable demand for the tables prepared on airway
operations, miscellaneous flying, gas, and oil consumption by the
different classes of operators; also the quarterly statistical state­
ment issued on the status of aircraft, pilots, and mechanics licensed
by States. This and numerous other material is furnished the edi­
torial section for use in the Air Commerce Bulletin (formerly Do­
mestic Air News). Frequent requests are also received for similar
data to be used in connection with articles or talks on civil aero­
nautics. If added personnel can be secured during the coming
year, it is planned to compile statistics on additional subjects which

44

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

will be of vital interest to all concerned in the status and progress of
civil aviation.
Considerable benefit has been derived from the numerous personal
interviews held each day with representatives or associates of the
industry in furnishing or securing pertinent data. In this way the
department is able to learn how it can best serve the public in the
dissemination of aeronautical information. Contact is being main­
tained with a number of universities offering graduate courses in
finance or business administration in the exchange of data rela­
tive to the economic aspects of aviation.
Excellent progress has been made by the aeronautics reference
library of this section in securing every available publication on civil
aeronautics. A total of 399 bound volumes has been catalogued in
addition to the more than 10,000 domestic and foreign magazines,
pamphlets, and reports that are on file in the library. Complete
sets of all Government aeronautical publications and a file of news
clippings on aeronautical current events are kept for general refer­
ence. A semimonthly bulletin is published by this section listing
references of important articles indexed by the librarian from current
publications received. Close cooperation is also maintained with the
engineering section in the collection of data on the latest engineering
developments.
One of the most important subjects handled by this section is that
of classifying and arranging civil aircraft accidents and casualties
for statistical purposes. This work not onty requires the continuous
attention of one employee properly to classify and analyze each acci­
dent report and for the recording of the same, but requires thorough
knowledge of the method of analysis set up by the special committee
on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft acci­
dents, of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. Each
accident requires individual study properly to arrive at the correct
classification and analysis for statistical use. This is very important
as the statistics are required for comparison and other purposes by
finance and insurance companies, actuary societies, and the press
service.
During the fiscal year this section has also been charged with the
actual work of distributing the airway strip maps which have been
sold by the department. These maps include those prepared by the
airway mapping section of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the Army
Air Corps, and the Hydrographic Office of the Navy Department.
Arrangements are now being made, however, so that these maps
can be sold by the principal airports, by the National Aeronautic
Association, and by the American Automobile Association. The
Coast and Geodetic Survey will handle the actual distribution of
maps to these agencies and also sales made direct from the depart­
ment. The following maps are now available at the prices indicated:
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AIRWAY STRIP MAPS
|.Published maps available from (he Coast and Geodetic Survey, D epartm ent of Commerce
at 3?» cents each)

Maps published

102. Dallas-Oklahoma City.
103. Oklahoma CityWichita.
104. Wichita-Kansas City.

105.
110.
111.
115.
119.

Kansas City-Moline.
St. Louis-Chicago.
Chicago-Milwaukee.
Louisville-Cincinnati-Cleveland.
Buffalo-Albany.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

127.
128.
12t).
130.
131.
132.
133.
134.

Birmingham-Atlanta.
Atlanta-Greensboro.
Greeusboro-Richmond.
Richmond-Washington.
Pueblo-Cheyenne.
Los Angeles-Las Vegas.
Las Vegas-Milford.
Milford-Salt Lake City.
Maps in process
101. Galvestou-Houston-Dallas.
100. I’ilottown-New Orleans.
107. New Orleans-Jackson.
108. Jackson-Memphis.
109. Memphis-St. Louis.
112. Milwaukee-Twin Cities.
113. Twin Cities-Fargo.
114. Cincinnati-Indianapolis-Chicago.
110. Cleveland-Buffalo.
117. Detroit-Grand Rapids-Milwaukee.
118. Detroit-Buffalo.
120. Albany-Boston.

45

121. New York-Albany.
122. Albany-Montreal.
123. Miami-West Palm Beach-Titusville.
124. Tampa-Titusville.
125. Titusville-Jacks< >nville.
126. Jacksonville-Atlanta.
135. Salt Lake City-Boise.
130. Boise-Pasco.
137. Pasco-Portland.
138. Salt Lake City-Pocatello.
139. Pocatello-Butte.
140. Butte-Great Falls.
141. Laredo-San Antonio.
142. Fargo-Winnipeg.
143. Atlanta-Nashville.
144. Nashville-Evansville.
145. Evansville-Chicago.
146. Evansville-St. Louis.
147. South Bend-Kalamazoo-Bay City..
148. Laredo-Houston.
149. Tulsa-Ponca City.
150. Kansas City-Omaha.

ARMY AIR CORPS AIRWAY STRIP MAPS
[Available from Coast and Geodetic Survey, D epartm ent of Commerce, a t 35 cents each}

1. Uniontown-Dayton.
2. Washington-Union town.
3. Washington-New York.
4. Washington-Norfolk.
5. Dayton-Rantoul.
6. New York-Boston.
7. Beaumont-New Orleans.
8. New Orleans-Montgomery.
9. Chicago-Iowa City.
10. Iowa City-Omaha.
11. Omaha-North Platte.
12. North Platte-Gheyenne.
13. Cheyenne-Rock Springs.
14. Rock Springs-Salt Lake City.
15. Montgomery-Augusta.
10. August a-Kayetteville.
17. ____________________
18. Fnyetteville-Norfolk.
19. New York-Bellefonte.
20. Bellefonte-Cleveland.
21. Cleveland-Chicago.
22. Chicago-Rantoul-St. Louis.
23. St. Louis-Kansas City.
24. Kansas City-Muskogee.
25. Muskogee-Dallas.
20. Dallas-San Antonio.
27. San Antonio-Beaumont.

28. San Antonio-Dryden.
29. Dryden-El Paso.
30. El Pnso-Tucson.
31. Tueson-Phoenix.
32. Phoenlx-San Diego.
33. Salt Lake City-Elko.
34. Elko-Reno.
35. Reno-San Francisco.
36. Daytop-Louisville.
37. Louisville-St. Louis.
38. San Diego-Tucson.
39. San Diego-Los Angeles.
40. Los Angeles-San Francisco.
41. San Francisco-Yrcka.
42. Yreka-Vancouver.
48. Vancouver-Seattle.
44 Detroit-Rnntoul.
45. Detroit-Cleveland-Pittsburgh-Uniontown.
46. Wasliington-MIddletown.
47. Detroit-Dayton.
48. Louisville-Nashville.
49. Nashville-Birminghnm.
50. Binningham-Montgomery-Pensacola.
51. St. Louis-Muskogee.
52. St. Louis-Dayton.
HYDROGRAPHIC .OF] CE AIBWAY MArs

[Published maps available from Coast and Geodetic Survey, D epartm ent of Commerça
at 40 cc its each)

Maps published.

V-231.
V-232.
V-233.
V-234.
V-235.

V-236.
V-237.
V-238.
Boston-New York.
V-239.
New York-Philadelphia.
Philadelphia-Hampton Roads. V-240.
V-241.
Washington-Hampton Roads.
II a m p t o n Roads-Morehead V-242.
V-249.
City.

Morehead City-Charleston.
Charleston-Jucksonv.lle.
Femandina-MIami.
Miami-Isle De Pinos, Cuba.
Key West-Cedar Keys.
Cedar Keys-Pensacola.
Pensacola-New Orleans.
Habana-Port Morelos.

46

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

V-250. Port Morelos-Puerto Barrios.
V-251. Puerto Barrios-Cape Grac.as
a Dios.
V-252. Cape Gracias a D i o s - P o r t
Limon.
V-253. Port Llmon-Panama C a n a l
Zone.
V-2G4. Media Luna Cay-Cape Haitien.
V-2GG. Batabano-Media Luna Cay.
V-41G. San Diego-San Luis Obispo
Bay.
V-41GA. San Diego Area.
V—417. San Luis Obispo Bay-San
Francisco.
V-418. San Francisco-Humboldt Bay.
V-419. Humboldt Bay-Coos Bay.
V-420. Coos Bay-Astoria.
V-422. Astoria-Vancouver Island.
V-423. Seattle-Alert Bay.
V-424. Alert Bay-Ketcbikan.
V-42f>. Ketchikan-Juneau.
Maps in process
V-230. Eastport, Me.-Boston.
V-243. New Orleans-Galveston.
V-244. Galveston-Corpus Christl.
V-245. Corpus Christi-Tampico.
V-246. Tampico-Puerto Mexico.

V-247. Puerto Mexico-Campeche.
V-248. Campeche-Cape Catoche.
V-254. Gulf of Darien-Santa Marta.
V-255. Santa Marta-Curacao Island.
V-256. Maracaibo-Caracas.
V-257. Caracas-Port of Spain.
V-258. Port of Spain-Santa Lucia.
V-259. Barbardos-Barbuda.
V-260. Barbuda-Porto Rico.
V-261. Porto Rico-Port au Prince.
V-2G2. North Coast of Haiti.
V-203. Port au Prince-Jamaica.
V-265. Cape Maisa-Neuvitas.
V-267. Habana-Neuvitas.
V—10]. Panama Canal Zone-Cape Mala.
V-402. Cape Mala-Puntarenas.
V-403. Puntarenas-La Union.
V^04. La Union-San Jose.
V-405. San Jose-Salina Cruz.
V-406. Salina Cruz-Acapulco.
V-407. Acapuico-Manzanillo.
V-408. Manzanillo-Mazatlan.
V-412 }GuIf of California-

V-413.
V—414.
V—415.
V-421.

Mazatlan-Cape San Lucas.
Magdalena Bays-Rosaritn.
Rosarita-San Diego.
Columbia River.

EDITORIAL SECTION

The editorial section issues a semimonthly bulletin entitled “Air
Commerce Bulletin,” which is sent to 12,000 readers who have spe­
cifically requested it. It is also circulated through aeronautical clubs,
libraries, airports, and other seats of flying activities. This bulle­
tin carries official notices to pilots, operators, and manufacturers of
aircraft; air-traffic rules; notices of suspension and revocation of
licenses and registrations, lists of reserve air spaces set aside by the
President; statistics on operation, miles flown, accidents and their
causes, gross income and operating expenses of airlines; lists of
aeronautical lights certified; general notes on the progress of civil
aeronautics at home and abroad; lists of air routes in operation;
notes on progress of airway lighting, radio, and other aids to air
navigation; lists of Department of Commerce medical examiners;
articles and tabulations on airport and airway development; State
laws and municipal ordinances; sample contracts; proposed air­
ports; lists of official publications available; and other constructive
information of an authentic and authoritative nature relating to
civil and commercial aeronautics.
AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH DIVISION (BUREAU OF STANDARDS)

To carry out further provisions of the air commerce act, there has
been established in the Bureau of Standards a division of aeronauti­
cal research having for its object the development and improvement
•of aids to air navigation and the promotion of safety and comfort
in flight. Work accomplished by this division in cooperation with
other units of the Department of Commerce during the year just
«ended includes: (1) Research on radio aids, (2) investigations on

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

‘47

airway and airport lighting, (3) wind tunnel research, (4) meth­
ods for reducing airplane noise, (5) investigation of the strength
of airplane joints and fittings, and (6) tj'pe testing of aircraft
engines.
RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION

On a clear night a pilot can follow his course along an airway
readily with the aid of light beacons. During foggy weather, how­
ever, these lights can be seen for only short distances and under such
conditions flight over the airways is necessarily curtailed. The solu­
tion of this difficulty has been found in the development of the radio­
beacon by means of which the aviator can follow a fixed course.
This requires radio stations operated by the department at a number
of airports which transmit directional signals and radiophone bul­
letins of information. All airplanes can secure this service by the
use of a simple receiving set.
These radiobeacons send out a directive type of radiation. Two
sets of distinctive code signals are heard and when the signals are of
equal intensity the pilot is flying on a course directly toward (or
away from) the radiobeacon. With the beacons in use at present
these signals have been found to be effective for navigation purposes
for distances up to approximately 175 miles.
A visual course indicator has been developed by the Bureau of
Standards so that it is no longer necessary for the pilot to listen
continuously to the radiobeacon signals. The indicator, which is
carried on the instrument board, contains two vibrating reeds, placed
side by side, the ends of which are visible to the pilot. When the
airplane is on its course these two reeds vibrate with equal amplitude
and trace out what appears to be two white lines of equal length.
If the pilot moves off his course to the right, the right line becomes
longer. If he goes too far to the left, the left line becomes longer.
Thus by glancing occasionally at the instrument board the pilot is
enabled to fly on a direct course from one radiobeacon to another
even though the ground below may be entirely obscured.
Where several airways have a common airport, such as Chicago, a
multicourse radiobeacon is necessary in order to send the directive
signals along the several airways. A satisfactory solution of this
problem appears to have been reached by means of which the same
radiobeacon is made to send distinctive signals in the proper direc­
tion along the several airways.
During the year just passed the activities of the department’s
aeronautical radio research group included :
(a) Improvements of the visval directive radiobeacon system.—
Design improvements permitted the elimination of approximately
50 per cent of the beacon transmitting equipment. Specifications for
the simplified transmitting equipment were prepared and a complete
beacon set constructed to these specifications. A station course shift
indicating instrument for use at the beacon station to check the
operation of the beacon was also developed. The design of a lowpower marker beacon suitable for marking the intersections of main
beacon courses and dangerous places along the airways was also
completed.

48'

REPOHT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Experiments were begun toward increasing the number of courses
served by the double-modulation directive radiobeacon in its appli­
cation to airways. At many air ports, however, the number of
radiating airways exceeds the possibilities of the type of beacon;
the development of a beacon capable of serving 12 courses was
hegun and successful preliminary results obtained.
(b) Improvements in the design of the vibrating reed course
indicator.—Changes in the design were made to permit the use of
the improved modulation system at the beacon, to increase the sensi­
tivity of the instrument, and to insure efficient operation under all
conditions of weather. Specifications for the construction and
adjustment of the instrument were prepared and furnished to three
commercial concerns. The design of a 3-reed indicator for the
multicourse beacon was begun.
(c) Cooperation with receiving set manufacturers in the design
and testing of suitable beacon and telephone receiving sets.
(d) The study of the mechanical and electrical problems involved
ih the design of a satisfactory ignition shielding system for airplane
engines.—Cooperation was established with airplane engine, mag­
neto, spark plug, and cable manufacturers in order to make
satisfactory ignition shielding available commercially. This shield­
ing is deemed necessary to reduce interference with radio reception.
(e) The study of direction finding on aircraft.—Preliminary ex­
periments were begun toward the development of a visual automatic
direction finder of a simple type.
(/) The study of the application of the directive radiobeacon
system to landing in fog.
(g) The equipping of a cabin airplane to serve as a flying labora­
tory for developing and testing the various radio aids to air
navigation.
AIRWAYS AND AIRPORT LIG H TIN G

Tests on airway reflectors by a visibility method are now in
progress. A standard airway reflector and a short focus reflector
are mounted on a turntable. Preliminary observations from a sta­
tion about 1.5 miles distant were found to be inconclusive and the
apparatus has been remounted so that it can be observed from
several directions, and observation points at distances of about 3, 63,4,
and 8% miles have been selected. Observations are now in progress
and it is expected that results will show whether a narrow intense
beam or a broader less intense beam shows any appreciable advantage
as to the visibility at the distances named.
IL LU M IN A T IN G W IN D INDICATORS

A series of laboratory tests on various methods of illuminating
wind cones has been made and an improved reflector system de­
veloped. This reflector system is now being given a field test at the
United States Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D. C., with a 32-volt,
5G-candlepower lamp installed in the reflector. For purposes of comiarison, a standard airway wind cone with its regular reflector and
amp is installed on the same pole. Laboratory results with the 200-

f

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

49

watt lamp indicate that the average brightness of the cones can be
increased six or seven times.
Samples of various cloths have been tested and experiments have
been made on several methods of treated cloths in order to increase
the transmission of light through them. New cones are being made
up from the most promising and untreated fabric and laboratory
measurements are in progress on these fabrics.
NEON V ISIB ILITY TEST

A visibility test on the light from a neon lamp as compared with
the light from an incandescent filament lamp with red color filter
was conducted at Moody Point, Me. The apparatus for the test was
erected at a place on the coast where a range of observation of about
4.5 miles was available, the particular location having been selected
on the basis of fog records of the Bureau of Lighthouses for some
years. The apparatus was in no sense an aviation beacon, but was
designed solely for observation by observers patroling the shore.
The rotating experimental beacon was so operated that three flashes
of light could be seen successively—a neon flash, a red flash from an
incandescent lamp with color screen to match the neon color, and a
clear flash from an incandescent lamp without color screen.
For the neon lamp and the incandescent lamp, with red color
filter, the 15 millimeter aperture in each unit had the same candlepower, the same color, and the same horizontal light distribution as
closely as was experimentally possible. When the red color filter
was removed from its unit (he two incandescent beams were also of
approximately the same candlepower, color, and horizontal distri­
bution. Three different neon lamps of the hot cathode type were
used. The complete equipment, with motor, rheostats, and electrical
measuring instruments, was erected.
Thirty-three sets of observations were made—in clear weather, in
haze, in fog, and in rain. One fog observation was made in daytime.
The method of observation varied somewhat, depending on the
weather, but generally observations were made from five stations*
approximately 4.5, 3.5, 3, 2.5, and 1.25 miles from the beacon.
Observations were made with the naked eye and with a photo­
metric wedge. No differences sufficiently great to be detected by the
mehods used in this test were found between the visibility of light
from a neon lamp and light of the same color, candlepower. and hori­
zontal distribution produced by an incandescent filament lamp with
color screen.
INVESTIGATION OF STABILITY OF AIRPLANES AT LOW SPEEDS AND H IG H
STALLING ANGLES

The work on this subject has so far been confined to wind-tunnel
investigations of the effect of changes in the chord and span of aile­
rons on the rolling and yawing moments of aircraft. The investiga­
tion was first made at low angles of attack. A second investigation
dealing with high angles of attack is now being made.
This work has excited the interest and favorable comments of air­
plane designers. It has a direct bearing on the control of airplanes
78415—29------4

50

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

at low speeds and high angles of attack. The blanketing effect of
the wing on the aileron at high angles of attack is clearly brought out
in these measurements, which provide a basis for more effective ail­
eron design.
This is a direct service to manufacturers, aiding as it does in de­
termining the performance of a new type of airplane previous to
actual construction, and at the same time advances the department’s
policy of increasing safety in the air by affording information on the
probable behavior of new types of aircraft.
REDUCING AIRPLAN E NOISE

Comfort as well as safety must be considered in the transporta­
tion of passengers by air, and a study is being made of the various
means of reducing the noise in the cabins of passenger airplanes.
This will include eventually the study of various types of muffling
devices for the engine exhaust and of methods of reducing propeller
noise, but the first work has been directed toward the partial sound
proofing of airplane cabins. The weight of the material used is,
of course, an important factor. It has been found that a cabin wall
built up of layers of suitable materials is far more effective from
a sound-proofing standpoint than a single layer of material of the
same weight.
A composite cabin wall, consisting of five layers of material, has
been developed as a result of the bureau’s laboratory work. An ex­
perimental installation was made in a 3-motored ship and it was
found possible to carry on a conversation in an ordinary tone of
voice without difficulty when the windows were closed. The weight
of this material is a little over 1 pound per square foot of interior
cabin wall and the manufacturers would like to see this reduced, if
possible.
Since each type of airplane presents its special problem in insulat­
ing the cabin against sound, to get the best results it is consequently
desirable to work directly with the manufacturers. It is highly im­
portant to make the interior of the cabin sound absorbing. Without
sound absorption in the interior the noise will eventually build up
to the full intensity of the outside noise no matter how effective the
insulation may be. At the same time the interior of the cabin must
be as nearly fireproof as possible. This requirement, together with
that of minimum weight, adds to the difficulty of finding an effective
solution.
WELDED JO IN T S

The general use of steel tubing welded at the joints, in airplane
construction, has created a demand for more complete and reliable
data on the strength and other properties of welded joints in struc­
tural members. This investigation was undertaken to assist the
aeronautics branch of the Department of Commerce in its main
function of promoting safety in aviation.
The strength of all types of joints in common use and the relative
work of each is being determined and new types will be developed
which may be better than any now iu use.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

51

Testing has been completed on the first group of joints, 165 in all.
These joints were designed from data supplied by manufacturers,
welded under procedure control, and tested in special fixtures.
The results of this first series are being prepared as a progress
report for publication as a technical note of the National Advisory
■ Committee for Aeronautics.
From data based on the results of these tests more improved joints
will be made and finally the best type for each purpose will be
determined.
Eighty-five joints, including all the T-joints, have been tested so
far. Tension and compression specimens from every tube used, have
been tested. Although no quantitative data are available for this
report, several conclusions based on observation may be made.
The most serious problem encountered in designing reinforcement
in a welded joint is the formation of cracks in gusset plates after
cooling. It is evident that the problem is one of design as well as
of welding technique. Best results seem to be obtained by making
the thickness of gusset plates somewhat greater than the tube thick­
ness and keeping the plan area of the gusset as small as possible.
Whenever possible the design should allow for movement of the
members as the joint cools.
The relative cost and weight of each joint as well as the strength
will be determined.
As soon as testing has been completed a new series of joints will
be made based on the data obtained from these tests.
TESTING OF AIRCRAFT' ENGINES

The air commerce regulations of the department provide that all
airplanes engaged in interstate air commerce must contain power
plants of a type approved by the department. The engines first
used in commercial planes were those designed and built for military
purposes, and these engines are known to be safe because they have
been thoroughly tested by the Army or the Navy. The great popu­
larity of the air-cooled engine has led to the design of new engines
by many manufacturers, and such engines must pass type teste by
the Army, the Navy, or the Department of Commerce before they
can be certified as airworthy by the Director of Aeronautics.
The present test requirements include (1) a 50-hour endurance
test to be run in ten 5-hour periods, (2) full-throttle runs to deter­
mine the power developed at speeds ranging from 75 to 110 per
cent of the rated speed, and (3) a flight test of the engine installed
in an airplane. New equipment for engine testing has just been
installed by the Bureau of Standards at Arlington, Va., including
three open torque stands on which engines are run with propeller
load, the torque reaction being measured on the engine mounting.
With this new equipment, combined with that already available, it
is expected that tests can be carried out at the rate of one engine per
week, which is approximately the rate at which requests are now
'being received. Less than 50 per cent of the engines so far tested
have successfully met the department’s requirements on the first
trial, which shows the necessity of conducting type teste before
authorizing the use of new types of engines in interstate commerce.

52

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

The Government makes no charge for these tests, but the manufac­
turer is required to provide his own fuel and oil. Each power plant
is considered on its own merits and there are no standard require­
ments as to weight per horsepower or fuel or oil consumption per
horsepower-hour. Sound design, adequate materials, good work­
manship, and reliable performance of the engine and its accessories
are required.
The testing of commercial engine types to determine their suit­
ability for use in licensed aircraft has been carried on actively
throughout the past fiscal year. Tests were made on 26 engines, of
which number 12 failed, 5 were withdrawn, 2 are still under test,
and 7 have been approved. Of the 12 unsuccessful engines, only
1 completed half of the endurance test and 6 failed in the first
period. Ten failures occurred in the first six months and most of
them revealed faults which could readily be corrected by the engine
manufacturer. Three engines have already passed the test after an
initial failure and the voluntary withdrawal of other engines for
further development work promises to save time and expense to the
manufacturer as well as to the Government.
The basis on which commercial aircraft engines are rated was
modified slightly in November, 1928. Instead of requiring the
engine manufacturer to specify both rated speed and rated power,
he is asked to designate only the maximum speed at which the en­
gine should be operated at full throttle. This is taken as the rated
speed and the rated power is determined by the average brake horse­
power developed in the first 5-hour period of the endurance test
which is run at full throttle and rated speed. The remaining nine
5-hour periods of the endurance test are run with the engine
throttled sulficiently to reduce power not more than 10 per cent.
Shortly after the work was started it was found that applications
for typo tests were coming in at the rate of one a week while tests
at College Park required from one to three weeks each. It also
developed that the air blast available in connection with the dyna­
mometer test stand at the Bureau of Standards was insufficient for
endurance test work with most air-cooled engines so this equipment
has been useful chiefly for testing water-cooled engines and for
calibrating the smaller air-cooled engines. Plans are being made
to provide facilities for cooling air-cooled engines of larger power.
Engine testing equipment, including three complete torque stand
units, has been installed at Arlington, Ya., during the past six
months and two of the units are now in operation.
The use of special 4-blade wooden test propellers has afforded a
satisfactory solution of the cooling problem on the torque stand,
but the magnitude of the windage correction is found to vary with­
in wide limits for different designs of engine. This correction is
determined experimentally for each engine by dynamometer cali­
bration or other suitable means.
To avoid interruptions in the test schedule due to postponed test
dates, applications for test are now required to be accompanied by
complete engine specifications and drawings and by an affidavit that
the engine has satisfactorily completed the required 25-hour pre­
liminary bench test. Seven engines which have met these prelimi­
nary requirements are now awaiting test.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

53

Members of the Bureau of Standards staff have assisted indi­
vidual engine manufacturers in solving technical problems in con­
nection with engine design and engine testing and have presented
the objects and lessons of commercial aircraft engine type testing
at an A. S. M. E. aeronautical meeting in Wichita, at the first
national aeronautical safety conference in New York, and at the
international civil aeronautics conference in Washington. The
problems involved in type testing and the coordination of civil and
military type testing have been considered by the N. A. C. A. com­
mittee on power plants for aircraft on several occasions.
A field x-epresentative of the Bureau of Standards has been re­
cently designated as liaison officer between the Aeronautics Branch
and those engaged in the development, testing, production, and in­
spection of commercial as well as military aircraft engines.
Through his activities the Bureau of Standards will be informed
as to current methods and equipment for engine testing as used by
the military establishments and by individual engine manufacturers
while the Aeronautics Branch will be informed as to the relative
quality of the inspection applied to commercial and military engines.
He will also be able to cooperate with and assist the engine manufac­
turers whose plants he visits.
AIRWAY MAPPING SECTION (COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY)

Another highly important function of the Aeronautics Branch is
the preparation of airways maps and charts for air navigation.
This is carried on W the Coast and Geodetic Survey, a bureau of
the Department of Commerce.
The maps now being compiled, which are usually referred to as
“ strip maps,” are published on a scale of 1 to 500,000, or about
8 miles to the inch. Each map covers a strip 80 miles in width and
from 200 to 400 miles in length; and the size of each sheet is 11
inches in width and 24 to 48 inches in length, making a convenient
form and size to be folded for use by the pilot.
The material used in the compilation of these airways maps is
taken from various sources. Among the best of these are the topo­
graphic maps of the United States Geological Survey; and the
contour lines forming the boundaries for gradients of elevations on
airways maps are almost always taken from these topographic maps.
After an air-map compilation has been made from the best avail­
able material, photographic copies mounted on cloth are taken to
the field and checked. This work is done by a trained engineer,
■ who goes as an observer with an experienced pilot. A number of
trips are made back and forth across the region represented until
the whole area is covered. The compilation is then accordingly cor­
rected and lithographic impressions are made on a scale one-fourth
larger than the compilation. One of these sheets is inked for each
color to be printed on the map. When the inking is finished the
drawings are again reduced by photography to the original scale
and the negatives are used to prepare the aluminum plates for
printing the edition.
The maps are printed in color, the better to express such various
features as streams, elevations, airports, flight courses, and mag­
netic variations.

54

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The rapid development of airway routes has already brought about
duplication of mapping due to the overlapping of routes between
the various cities. To solve this difficulty and also to furnish charts
for those who do not follow the regular routes, sectional charts
will be constructed which will be called “ United States Airway
Charts.” For these charts the United States has been divided into
sections, each covering 8° of latitude and 4° of longitude, which
allows the publication on an average-sized sheet 26 by 28 inchesr
using the same scale as the strip maps, 8 miles to the inch.
The first of these sectional United States airway charts to be pub­
lished will be east of the Mississippi River, where the multiplication
of routes creates an urgent need for this form of chart.
It is likely that the strip maps may be printed and used exten­
sively along the established airways even after the sectional charts
are made, but for general use the larger charts will be in greater
demand. One may mark out a particular route on a sectional chart
or across two joined charts and then cut out the strip and fold to a
convenient size for use on the proposed trip.
Prior to the creation of the Aeronautics Branch, the Army Air
Corps had prepared a number of airways maps for military use.
The Coast and Geodetic Survey is not duplicating these; but the
Air Corps is maintaining its supply of such maps and the Coast and
Geodetic Survey is preparing new ones of the various routes not
otherwise covered.
During the past year the following strip maps were published:

128. Atlanta-Greensboro.
129. Greensboro-Richmond.

| 130. Richmond-Washlngton.

Work was continued on the following maps:

112.
114.
115.
116.
119.
127.

Minneapolis-St. Paul-Milwaukee.
Chicago-Cincinnati.
Louisville-Cleveland.
Cleveland-Buffalo.
Buffalo-Albany.
Birmingham-Atlanta.

132.
133.
134.
135.
136.

Los Angeles-Las Vegas.
Las Vegas-Milford.
Milford-St. Lake City.
Salt Lake City—Boise.
Boise-Pasco.

Nos. 127, Birmingham-Atlanta, and 119, Buffalo-Albany, were
delivered to the printing section, but due to removal of the Coast
and Geodetic Survey to new quarters these were not printed.
Nos. 112, Minneapolis-St. Paul-Milwaukee; 114, Chicago-Cincinnati; 115, Louisville-Cleveland; and 116, Cleveland-Buffalo, have
been compiled and are awaiting flight checks.
Nos. 132, Los Angeles-Las Vegas; 113, Las Vegas-Milford; and
134, Milford-Salt Lake City, receiving priority, the compilations
were finished and the final drawings were begun.
Work was begun on the following maps:
121. New York-Albnny.

| 122. Albany-Montreal.

102. Dallas-Oklnhoma City.
103. Okluhoma City-Wichita.
110. St. Louis-Chicago.

111. Chieago-Milwaukee.
131. Pueblo-Cheyenne.

Reprints were made of the following maps:

Distances were scaled and furnished the air mail contract division
of the Post Office Department, airports and aeronautic information
division of the Aeronautics Branch, Department of Commerce, and
various items of information to the public.

55

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

The original compilation of sectional or general flying charts of
the entire country is a project over twice as large as the original
strip-map program. This alone will require more than nine years
to complete with existing facilities. In addition, about 50 strip maps
or three or four years’ work will be required to fill urgent demands
while the general charts are being constructed. By concentrating
upon the compilation of original charts the country can not be cov­
ered at the earliest before 1940. In the meantime there will undoubt­
edly be a vast amount of revision and corrections to be made to exist­
ing charts that may easily defer completion of the original project
for an additional 10 years. The requirements of chart users in 1950
can not be forecast, but charts constructed and put to use now will
by that time have served their purpose. It therefore appears im­
perative that the personnel of the airways mapping section, which
henceforth will be known as the airways charting section, be greatly
increased if chart production is not to be left behind the demand.
ADMINISTRATIVE SECTION

The administrative section, which acts in the capacity of a service
unit for the various divisions and sections of the Aeronautics Branch,
is charged specifically with the handling of all appropriations and
accounting matters; the handling of personnel records and all work
relating thereto; the maintenance of central file records; the purchas­
ing of and accounting for all property, including special aeronautical
equipment of all kinds; and all other general administrative work
relating to the operation of the Aeronautics Branch.
Funds for carrying on the work of the branch are appropriated
under two titles, namely, “Aircraft in commerce ” and “Air naviga­
tion facilities.” The appropriation “Aircraft in commerce ” is used
primarily for salaries and traveling expenses of inspectors engaged
in the inspection and licensing of aircraft, for salaries of employees
necessary to carry on the work at the Washington office, for the test­
ing of aircraft engines, and for conducting other research work in
connection with such subjects as soundproofing airplane cabins, the
testing of welded joints in steel tubing, etc. The appropriation “Air
navigation facilities ” is used primarily for the construction and
maintenance of civil airways. A small portion of this appropria­
tion, however, is used for the payment of salaries of airport special­
ists who are engaged in assisting municipalities and private enter­
prises in the selection of airport sites and for research work in
connection with the development of aids to air navigation such as
radiobeacons, course light, fog landing instruments, etc. Below is
a tabulation of the amounts that have been appropriated under these
two heads since the Aeronautics Branch began to function:
Fiscal year
1927 1........... .........................................................
1928.........................................................................................................
1929 *....................................................................
1930.........................................................................................................

Aircraft in Air naviga­
commerce tion facilities
$250,000
700,000
859, 500
958,000

$300,000
3,091,500
4, 659,850
8,458,020

Total
$550,000
3,791,500
5,519,350
6,416,620

1 Second deficiency act, fiscal year 1926, approved July 3, 1926.
* Includes under “ Aircraft in commerce/’ $72,500 appropriated by the second deficiency act of 1928 and
$85,000 appropriated by the second deficiency act of 1929 and under “ Air navigation facilities,” $1,000,000
appropriated oy the second deficiency act of 1928.

56

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Despite the fact that air-commerce operations increased consider­
ably more than 100 per cent during the fiscal year 1929, the total
personnel of the Aeronautics Branch increased only 63 per cent and
the appropriations but 45 per cent. The largest personnel increase
has been in the licensing section, necessitated by the constantly in­
creasing volume of clerical work occasioned by the unprecedented
growth of the aeronautical industry.
Much difficulty has been encountered securing personnel with the
necessary qualifications and experience. Men properly equipped for
appointment as aeronautical inspectors and aeronautical engineers,
for example, are usually receiving or in a position to demand higher
salaries than the department can oiler, and it is only by the knowl­
edge that working for the Aeronautics Branch they will gain ex­
perience which they can not obtain elsewhere in anything like as
short a period that the department has been able to secure the type
of men that it has. The standards for appointment are quite high,
but, with the work that must be done, this of course is essential.
During the year the field offices opened at Atlanta, Ga., Kansas
City, Mo., Dallas, Tex., Oakland, Calif., Los Angeles, Calif., Detroit,
Mich., Chicago, 111., Philadelphia, Pa., and Garden City, Long
Island, N. Y., have been equipped -with all necessary furniture and
other office appliances and supplies. The five additional airplanes
which were authorized in the 1929 appropriation act were purchased,
bringing the total for regulations work up to 20. This number is
quite inadequate and the lack of suitable equipment in the form of
aircraft has been a decided handicap in the carrying out of many of
the duties intrusted to the department under the air commerce act.
It is a most difficult task effectively to advocate the use of aircraft
when pilots of our own service do their traveling in railroad trains
and taxicahs. Also the enforcing of the air-traffic rules without the
use of aircraft is as difficult as the task of a traffic officer endeavoring
to enforce the speed laws without a motor cyc le or automobile. Speci­
fications were written for, and purchase made of, other special fly­
ing equipment, such as winter flying suits, parachutes, moccasins,
etc., which are required for use by the department’s pilots engaged
in the flight testing of aircraft, the examining of pilots, etc.
During the year the hangar at Bolling Field was celotexed and
an engine overhaul room completely equipped and furnished, in­
cluding the installation of an air compressor and other special repair
equipment. The work of overhauling the department’s own motors is
now well under way, and this will undoubtedly result in a material
saving while at the same time providing repair work of uniform qual­
ity. The department’s mechanics stationed at Bolling Field, in addi­
tion to servicing the motors and ships employed in the Aeronautics
Branch’s regulation and inspection work, are now servicing the
ships and motors of the airways division whenever they are in
Washington.
II. DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL AERONAUTICS

The past year has witnessed important developments in virtually
every phase of civil aeronautics. Spectacular achievements have com­
bined with day-in and day-out scheduled operations to bring aero­

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

57

nautics before the public to an unprecedented degree, which in turn
has enabled the industry to advance with gratifj’ing celerity. Per­
haps because of this, capital in rapidly increasing volume has been
made available for aviation. The urge to merge, which has been
noticeable throughout the business world during the past few years,
has resulted in numerous consolidations of varying magnitude, both
in the manufacture of aircraft and in the operation of air lines. Air
commerce, the dream of centuries, has now become an integral part
of the Nation’s business.
Actual aeronautical progress during the fiscal year of 1929 in­
cludes the increases in businesses already established, the inaugura­
tion of operations previously only in project, and totally new develop­
ments. Another classification of progress, in both subdivisions of
which very large strides have been made, includes (1) scheduled
transport, which consists of regularly scheduled operations over

established routes; (2) miscellaneous air services, which include
sightseeing, messenger service, aerial photography, student instruc­
tion, private flying, etc.
SCHEDU LED A IR TRA N SPO RT

Table E shows that during the year ended December 31, 1928, 35
different companies operated over civil airways 59 different sched­
uled air lines and flew a total distance of 10,673,450 miles. These
operators transported 49,713 passengers, 1,848,156 pounds of express,
and 4,063,173 pounds of mail.
There are now 29,227 miles of established airways in the United
States; and it will be noted by referring to Table C (pp. 24-26)
that 10,183 miles of these airways are now lighted for night flying.
Moreover, 2,065 additional miles of lighted airways are now actually
under construction.

58

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

This established airway system is the backbone of the Nation’s
commercial aviation, although operations over this network of air­
ways constitute only about 15 per cent of all civil flying. During the
past year scheduled operations have increased from 27,817 to 09,029
miles per day.
Additional routes covered by scheduled air lines since July 1, 1928,
include St. Louis-Omaha, Tulsa-Ponca City, Oakland-San Jose,
Milwaukee-Green Bay, Louisville-Cleveland, Akron-Cleveland, Chicago-Cleveland, Washington-New York, Cleveland-Buffalo,
Brownsville-San Antonio, San Antonio-Fort Worth, Houston-New
T O T A L M O N T H L Y A IR M A IL P O U N D A G E F O R T H E U N I T E D S T A T E S

F igure 10

Orleans, Indianapolis-Chicago, Salt Lake-Great Falls, Salt LakePocatello, Chicago-Pontiac, Cleveland-Bay City, Miami-Atlanta,
Tampa-Daytona Beach, Atlanta-Chicago, St. Louis-Evansville, Los
Angeles-Phoenix, Tulsa-Dallas, Louisville-Indianapolis, Indianapolis-Detroit, El Paso-Dallas, Des Moines-Waterloo, Tulsa-St.
Louis, Sweetwater-Tulsa, Tulsa-Kansas City, Portland-Spokane,
Kansas City-Minneapolis, Los Angeles-Kansas City, and Garden
City-Cleveland.
These new routes include connections with Canada, Mexico, Central
America, and South America. Foreign routes inaugurated during
the year include New York-Montreal, Miami-Nassau, San JuanMiami, Miami-Cristobal (Canal Zone), Brownsville-Mexico City,
Cristobal-Mollendo (Peru), and Seattle-Vancouver.

59

AERONAUTICS BRANCH
T a ble E .— Air m ail operation statistics
January-June, 1929 (inclusive)

JulyDecember, 1928
Miles of service
(inclus­
Total,
ive), rev­
Amount Revenue
weight paid
per
enue
per
to con­
of mails
scheduled
tractor scheduled
Scheduled1 Actually
dispatched
mile
mile
flown
1.
2.
3.
4.
S.
8.
9.
11.
12.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

DOMESTIC ROUTES

P ounds

Boston-New York.................
63,936
53,971
50,926
131,241
Chicago-St. Louis.................. 134,830
40,149
387,325
324,079
169,903
Chicago-Kansas City (day). 168,418
147,302
302,417
Salt Lake City-Los Angeles. 317,699
335,159
Salt Lake City-Pnsco............ 197,816
175,651
98,393
Seattle-Los Angeles............... 388,523
375,419
114,852
Chicago-Minneapolis............ 328,157
299,336
65,610
61,867
57,199
51,545
Cievelnnd-Pittsburgh...........
Cheyenne-Pueblo................
79,326
77,240
45,533
Cloveland-Louisville............. 156,818
45,408
141,565
Now York-Chicago............... 652,309
737,304
562,651
Chicago-San Francisco......... 1,182,191 1,127,724
803,496
151,136
New York-Atlanta................ 279,512
246,316
49,323
Aihany-Cioveland................. 157, 553
134,302
Dallas-Oalveston................... 118,638
113,888
24,551
Dallas-Brownsville................
173,457
180,612
40,361
Atlanta-New Orleans............ 161,396
40,444
150,321
35, 569
Chicago-Cincinnati............... 101,688
92,133
Atlanta-Miami....................... 217,860
58,482
209,613
Oreat Falls-Salt Lake City.. 203,219
177,193
29.985
Bay City-Chicago................. 235,995
73,881
199,280
49,166
45,834
8,420
92', 510
87,438
18,883
30. Chicago-Atlanta................... 283,295
49,990
258,668
31. Chicago Municipal AirportGrant Park Kamp, Chi135
3, 349
135
Total.................................... 6,200,794 5,664,373 3,142,652

$152,729.87
101,629.45
611,031.09
1,005,297.68
294,579.04
325,027.00
180,378. 53
154,610.56
37, 792.07
55,346. 62
633,058.22
1,632. 744.43
453,405.91
54,739. 68
70,948.96
116,6>00. 40
70,778.84
52.263.05
85,384.46
74,185.46
65, 754. 73
6,610.44
18’, 883. 62
38; 993.07

$2.39
.75
.92
3.16
1.49
.84
.55
2.50
.48
.35
.97
1.38
1.62
.35
.60
.65
.44
.51
.39
.37
.28
. 13
.20
. 14

210.00
6,193,083.18

i. m
1.00

46,476
44, 616. 96
51,916
m
Seattle-Victoria......................
9,856
9,856
9,120.00
>)
New.Orleans-Pilottown........
31,800
15,900. (X)
31,800
(■ )
Miaini-Iiabana......................
99,180
94,482
99.180.00
M
178,364
178,364
356, 728. 00
Miami-San Juan................... 213; 860
213, 599
425.688.00
v)
Miami-Nassau, Baham as...
30.400
30,400.00
30,800
Brownsville-Mexico C ity ... 106,652
105,728
105,728.00
(*)
Total.................................... 717, 730
715,403
325,910 1,087,360.96
Grand total......................... 6,918,524 6,379,776 3,468,562 7,280,441.14

». 48
».93

$2.06.
1.34
.81
2.98
1.38
.76
.87
2.83
.4e
.31
.91
1.40
1.08
.35
.45
.65
.26
.43
.20
.37
.40
.13
1.03

FOREIGN ROUTES

1. NewVVork-Montreal.............

2.
3.
4.
6.
7.
8.

»..50
• 1.00
* 2.00
»2.00
» 1.00
* 1.0 0

• 1.62
1.05

». 48
». 93
*.50

• 1.00

». 76
1.02

^Miles scheduled as estimated by Post Office Department on basis miles of route times trips scheduled.
Actual miles flown on regular schedule plus .ferry and test mileage amounts to practically the same ns
scheduledtinileage.
3 Poundage on individual routes not available. •
* Revenue per mile actually flown used instead of scheduled miles.

60

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The growing aggregate of air passenger traffic, the mounting total
of air express tonnage, the increasing volume of air mail poundage
all prove that the airplane has won a definite place in the general
transportation scheme. The establishment of the new air mail rate
of 5 cents for the first ounce and 10 cents for each additional ounce,
has resulted in a highly gratifying volume growth—domestic air
mail alone having increased during the past fiscal year from 210,957
to 598.494 pounds per month.
The trade areas directly served by air routes now contain approxi­
mately 90,000,000 people, and nearly 100 cities having station stops
on these airways. By the close of the next fiscal year it is believed
that practically all oi the larger centers of population and many of
the medium-sized cities will be directly connected by roads of the
sky; and that many other outlying cities, whose locations do not war­
rant their being placed as stopping points on regular lines, will be
served by smaller “ feeder ” air lines.
Already there are 32 United States air lines carrying express, 47
air lines carrying mail, and 61 air lines carrying passengers. Of these,.
23 carry passengers only, 16 carry mail only, and 2 carry express
only. Of the remainder, 12 carry passengers and express, 13 carrymail and passengers, 5 carry express and mail, and 13 carry mail,
express, and passengers.
The equipment and navigational facilities on most of these lines are
rapidly improving, and cabin planes are becoming standard equip­
ment on many routes to protect passengers from wind and weather.
Although notable strides have been made during the past 12 months,
even greater advances are anticipated during the coming year.
M ISCELLANEOU S A IR SER V ICES

Because scheduled air transport is the backbone of America’s com­
mercial aeronautics, business men usually focus upon it the greater
part of their attention. Notwithstanding this, however, scheduled
operations comprise less than one-sixth of the civil flying in the
United States, the remainder consisting of nonscheduled commercial
services and private flying. These miscellaneous air services include
sightseeing, student instruction, crop dusting, aerial photography,
mapping, messenger service, advertising, charter or taxicab service,
and several other classes of operations.
So rapidly has this class of flying increased that it is impossible to
obtain authentic figures to indicate its progress. It is estimated, how­
ever, that during 1926 more than 18,000,000 miles were flown by
miscellaneous operators; that in 1927 the mileage flown increased to
30,000,000 miles, and that in 1928 the total increased to 60,000,000
miles.
The instruction of students in particular has increased at an
unprecedented rate during the last 12 months. To take care of this
augmented demand, the number of flying schools, which 12 months
ago totaled 320, has now increased to nearly 600; and the constantly
mounting number of applications for student pilots’ permits indicate
that during the next fiscal year the reputable flying schools will
probably be taxed to the limit.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

61

An important result of miscellaneous air service, which in turn
is resulting in the further development of nonscheduled flying, has
been the steady increase in the number of airports in the United
States. It has long been recognized that established schedule routes
require proper terminals and ground facilities; but many cities
refused at first to establish their own airports unless regular routes
were promised them. Miscellaneous services, however, have now
grown to such proportions that they far exceed in volume the sched­
uled operations, with the result that many cities throughout the
Nation have been forced to acquire and construct adequate airports
to take care of this traffic.
Until recently these miscellaneous operations were frequently con­
sidered doubtful by cities contemplating municipal airports; with
the advent of the Department of Commerce’s licensing system, how­
ever, by which prospective users of nonscheduled services can deter­
mine the airworthiness of planes and competency of pilots, this
doubt is being dissipated steadily. With the passage of uniform
State legislation covering intrastate air commerce, unscrupulous
ilots and operators flying aircraft of questionable airworthiness are
eing rapidly eliminated. As a result, public confidence is being
established completely in this type of operations as well as in
scheduled air transport.
Private flying, too, is developing very rapidly and the widespread
growth of flying clubs is further increasing these operations. By
private flying is meant the operation of aircraft for sport and pleas­
ure and for private use of business men. The latter phase includes
aircraft utilization by salesmen when traveling from one territory
to another, the operation of planes to carry business executives on
inspection visits to various factories and branches and the use of
planes by doctors, engineers, lecturers, and numerous others who
nave occasion to travel more or less regularly over medium dis­
tances.
The not unreasonable price of modern airplanes and the fairly
low costs of their operation, together with the establishment of
navigational facilities and other aids being provided by the Govern­
ment and the industry itself, are now making it comparatively easy
for the private owner to use his plane with a high degree of safety,
comfort, profit, and satisfaction.

E

A IR -B A IL SER V ICE

Perhaps the most important development during the past year
has been the establishment of combined airplane and railroad pas­
senger service. Although this has been projected for several years,
only a few lines had actually started operations prior to July 1,
1928. To-day, however, there are five transcontinental air-rail lines
in daily operation from coast to coast. Whereas before this hook
up of air lines and railroads the minimum time required to complete
a journey from New York to Los Angeles by rail was 102 hours, the
same trip can now be made in 44 hours. Railroads already collab­
orating with established air lines include the Pennsylvania, New
York Central, Chicago & Alton, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe, and
others. Furthermore, many other major railroads and important
steamship lines are contemplating similar hook ups, which will un­
doubtedly become effective within the next 12 months.

62

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
T able F . — S ch ed u led a in v a y s opera tions sta tistics, Ju ly-D ecem l/er, 1928

Operators
reporting
E ngine-hours________________________ __________________
67,117
27
Miles flown____________________________________________ 0, 657, 661
27
Passengers c a rrie d _____________________________________
IS, 971
26
E xpress carried (pounds)-------------------------------------------802,785
Pilots on detail________________________________________
275
28
M echanics on detail____________________________________
499
26
Other operating personnel_____________________________
262
19
Total personnel________________________________________
1,036
28
Pilots' p a y :
B ase________________________________________________
$194.02
25
B ate per mile, day_________________________________
$0. 055
25
R ate per mile, night________________________________
$0,093
25
Base and other total_______________________________
$463. 513
25
M echanics’ and riggers’ p a y :
Pay m onthly_______________________________________
$164. 375
27
H o u r______________________________________________
$0.761
18
T rips possible__________________________________________
11,977
27
T rips attem pted________________________________________
11,664
27
T rips completed________________________________________
10,796
27
Trips completed, per cent______________________________
92.6
27
Average hours flown per month per pilot_______________
68
25
E quipm ent:
Number of planes__________________________________
268
29
Value______________________________________________ $5, 226, 569. 70
29
R evenues:
Passenger___________________________ _______________
$452, 561
25
M ail________________________________________________ $4,849,812
25
E xpress and fre ig h t_______________________________
$66, 677
25
M iscellaneous______________________________________
$117,218
25

AIR MARKING

The air marking of cities, towns, and highways is one of the most
important aids now required by the industry. Cross-country flying
l,y pilots of average ability and limited experience will be greatly
facilitated as soon as each Federal and State highway and the
majority of cities and towns throughout the Nation are properly
marked for identification from an altitude of 2,000 feet. To acceler­
ate this consummation, a committee was organized to study the subject
of highway marking and to recommend a standard system for general
use throughout the United States. The committee of six represent­
ing the Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce, the
Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department, the National Air­
way Marking Association, and the Army Air Corps, undertook this
work on June 4, 1928. In conjunction with its studies a review was
made of the suggestions and designs for air markings submitted at
the airways marking conference held at Wichita, Kans. Studies
were also made of a iarge number of suggestions received from other
sources and of reports covering various tests on the visibility of
different color combinations and the illumination of large advertis­
ing signs.
After these studies were made the committee made an extended
series of actual flight tests in which markings of various designs,
sizes, and colors were painted on large canvases placed on the roof
of the Commerce Building in Washington and tested under a wide

63

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

variety of weather conditions. As the work progressed there were
many eliminations and numerous changes made in those markings
offering the greatest promise until highly satisfactory results were
obtained under daylight conditions. From this point on night tests
were made in which the markings were illuminated by different
methods and through a wide range of intensities. These tests, which
were concluded on January 5, 1929, brought out the need for certain
changes in the markings which had not been indicated by the day
tests.
T able G.— Air-mail contract rates
[C. A. M.«Domestic contract air mail. F. A. M .-Foreign contract air mail]
Route
C. A. M.

1. New York-Boston.....................
2. Chicago-St. Louis......................
3. Dallas-Chicago...........................
4. Los Angeles-Salt Lake C ity...
6. Salt Lake City-Pasco...............
8. Los Angeles-Seattle:
Up to 1,000 miles.................
Entire route.........................
9. Chicago-Minneapolis-St. Paul
11. Clevoland-Pittsburgh...............
12. Pueblo-Cheyenne......................
16. Louisvillo-Cleveland................
17. Chicago-New York...................
18. Chicago-San Francisco.............
19. Atlanta-New York....................
20. Cleveland-Albany.....................
21. Qalveston-Dallas.......................
22. Brownsville-Dallas....................
23. New Orleans-Atlanta.-...........
24. Cincinnati-Chicago.................
25. Atlanta-Miami...........................
26. Salt Lake City-Great Falls__

Rate
per—

Route

P ound

27. Chicago-Muskegon-Bay City-Pontiac......................................................
28. St. Louis-Omaha.................................
29. Brownsville-New Orleans.................
30. Atlanta-Chicago, with St. Louis
spur.....................................................
Average rate per pound

$3.00
2.53
3.00
3.00
3.00
2.81
3.09
2. 75
3.00
.83
1.22
» 1.24
* 3.00
3.00
1. 11
2. 89
2. 89
1.75
1.47
1.46
2.475

C. A. M.

Rate
per—
P ound

$0.89
.785.
1.00

.78
2.09

F. A. M.

3. Pilottown-Ncw Orleans.
1. New York-Montreal...............
2. Seattle-Victoria........................
4. Miami-Habana, Cuba............
5. Miainl-Cristobal, Canal Zone
6. Miami-San Juan, P. R...........
7. Miami-Nassau.........................
8. Brownsville-Mexico City.......
9. Cristobal-Santiago, Chile.......

(3)
M ile

$0.96
.76
2.00

2.00
2.00

2.00
2.00

1.80

1 Up to 1,500 pounds a day; thereafter a reduction of 5 per cent for each additional 500 pounds.
* Up to 1,000 miles, $1.50; 15 cents for each 100 miles over 1,000.
• $75 per round trip.

After completing its studies the committee recommended the gen­
eral use of a standard system of air marking that convevs the
necessary information to pilots in the simplest and most effective
manner. Its findings and recommendations as to general require­
ments, air-marking insignia, location, illumination, etc., were pub­
lished on January 23, 1929, in a bulletin entitled “ Report of Air
Marking Committee.”
SCENIC TOURS

During the past year there has also been an increased public sup­
port of scenic flights and air tours. These tours are the natural
evolution of the “ joy hops,” which, while still exceedingly popular,
no longer satisfy those who formerly desired only the thrill of their
first airplane ride. These scenic trips are now being made from
numerous cities and over many of the Nation’s more picturesque
spots. Some of these include the Grand Canyon, Yellowstone Park,
Mount Rainier, New York City, Washington, and other points of
recognized interest.

64

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
SU R V EY OF E U R O PEA N A IR PO R T S

The Director of Aeronautics of the Department of Commerce
visited during the past year all the more important aviation
centers in Europe. The scientific study of European airport man­
agement and administration made available to the United States
numerous principles as to (1) type of ownership, or the extent of
control over the airport as a unit; (2) the physical layout including
area, buildings, equipment, etc.; (3) the nature and extent of air­
craft; and (4) the uniformity of airport rules and regulations when
considered nationally or internationally.
As a result of this survey, three factors were found to be funda­
mentally applicable to American airports: (a) Adequate jurisdic­
tion with qualified executives in charge; (b) definite control of all
activities, including segregation when possible and advisable; and
(c) uniform rules and regulations governing the operation of air­
craft in the vicinity of the airport, and in landing and taking off.
If a competent executive with suitable authority exercises intelligent
control over all activities, in conformity with uniform requirements,
the problems of airport management can be successfully handled
without difficulty.
EQ U IPM E N T -D E SIG N PROGRESS

Numerous notable advances in aircraft construction, design, and
accessories have been made during the past year. Into the plane
itself has been built much of the inherent stability hoped for
and promised by aeronautical engineers for many years. More­
over, this stability has been achieved without sacrificing maneu­
verability or controlability. Among the striking features of the
year’s development are the increasing number of multimotored
transports, the increasing use of metal propellers and tail wheels
instead of skids, the adoption by numerous manufacturers of
the engine cowling developed by the National Advisory Commit­
tee for Aeronautics, the increased use of metal in wings and
fuselages, the development of the Diesel engine for aircraft,
and tile attainment of increased speed by nearly all types of
commercial aircraft. Another striking feature of late develop­
ment has been the general application of brakes to airplane
wheels. Not only does this development greatly reduce the landing
roll and take-off distance but it also aids materially in maneuvering
an airplane on the ground as the brakes are independent in action.
Landing gears of oleopneumatic and oleospring design, too, are now
being used almost exclusively for shock-absorption purposes and are
proving extremely successful in improving landing characteristics.
There is a general tendency to substitute metal for all parts of air­
plane construction. In fuselage design wood and wire construction
have been almost entirely superseded by welded steel tubing or
other metal. In the majority of instances wings continue to be
built of wood spars and ribs with coverings of fabric; but a number
of manufacturers are giving attention to the construction of all-metal
planes with a very thin sheet of duraluminum replacing the fabric
and several of these designs are now in extensive commercial use.

65

AERONAUTICS BRANCH
T able H . — A irc ra ft and en gine census by typ es, 1928 ( ca lenda r y e a r )
AIRCRAFT
New construction

Kind

Number
Heavier than air:
Small transport, mail and express, open
cockpit............................................................
Cabin, single engine...........................................
Cabin, multimotored..........................................
Seaplanes, all types.............................................
Lighter than air:
Airships................................................................
Balloons—
Captive..........................................................
Total.............................................................

3,114
86
902
114
111
18

Value
$19,896,073
954,544
9,132,460
5,361, 644
2,565,600
577,518

Rebuilt and reas­
sembled
Number

Total value

Value

116 $198,229 $20,694,302
26 241,803 1,196,347
20 59,138 9,191, 598
1
3,500 5,365, 144
2,565,600
5,000
582,518
i

4,714,547 .................
4,714,547
609,932
609,932
4,346 43,812,318
104 507,670 44,319, 9S8

ENGINES
Engines (aircraft only):
Radial, 1-150 horsepower.................................
All other types, 1-150 horsepower....................
Ali other types, 151-400 horsepower.................
All other types, 401 horsepower and over.......
Total..................................................................

621 $592,217
1. 547 0,0-11,316
1,073 7, 987,975
11
15,975
9
13, 700
235 2.157.981
2,812,210
294, 244
3,496 19,915.624

25 $23,000
65 40,000
604 356,727
7,152
6
700 426, 879

$616,217
6,041,316
7, 987,975
55,975
370. 427
2,165,133
2,812,216
294, 244
20,342,503

Until recently the large supply of engines left over from the war
materially retarded America’s development of aircraft engines; now,
however, this supply is virtually exhausted and large numbers of new
engines are being developed to meet the demand of a strong market.
Most of these new engines are of the fixed radial air-cooled type,
primarily because this type possesses the advantages of lightweight,
comparative simplicity of installation and maintenance, and high
reliability. Several new vertical line engines, however, are being
developed.
Exhaust manifolds have been receiving considerable attention in
an effort to reduce noise as well as to carry exhaust gasses clear of
the passenger compartment. Extensive study has also been devoted
to the development of linings for airplane cabin interiors, which will
reduce the noise of propeller and exhaust carried to the passenger’s
ears. Through improved installation of intake and exhaust mani­
folds, together with the mandatory utilization of fire walls and the
elimination of air-pressure fuel-feed systems, the possible risk of
fire in the air has become almost negligible.
Because of the lower cost of two and three place open cockpit by­
planes, this type of aircraft continues to be the most popular: but
(he general trend in larger airplanes continues to be toward the
monpplane and biplane cabin types.
■5

06

REPORT TO TITE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

T able I .—Aircraft products, by number and value, calendar years 1919-1028 ’
Item

1928

» 1927

1920

1925

1923

1921

1919

Aircraft industry........ $64,062.'491 $21,161,851' ’$17. 670,405 $12,524, 719 $12,945,263 •$6,652,981 $14,372, 643
Secondary products
452,53f
« 24, 500 1250,462 ’ 197, 10! » 777, 843 <*>
of other industries..
(»)
Total value....... 64,662,491 21,614. 388 317.694.905 12, 775,181 13. 142,364 <7,450, S24 14, 372.643
Airplanes:
505
*4. 217 91,888
1,125
711
200
432
Number................
Value..................... $35, 847,391 $12, 224, 979 $7, 448, 679 $5,90S, 335 $0,160. 218 $3,818,340 S3,466.452
Seaplanes and amphi­
bians:
107
230
Number................
* 129
78
82
12
61
Value.................... $3,143,118 $2, 280,02C $1,422,348 $765, 324 $1, 570,851 $314, 76S $4, 580,016
Under construction at
close of year (both
classes):
281
374
341
Number................
508
259
(>)
(*)
Value.....................
$2,377,769 $1,428,447 $1,339, 737 $060,322 $1,0.58, 670
(5)
«
Parts and engines,
value......................... »• $24,335,927 $5,037,519 3$4,683,973 S3, 794,885 $2,839,294 $901,619 52,601,995
All other products,
i n c l u d i n g repair
work, value 11.......... $1,336,056 $2, 071,870 3$39!, 136 $878,190 $1, 226, 264 $1,429,775 $2, 065, 510
1 Tho census of manufactures was taken at 5-year intervals prior to 1919, but has since been taken at 2yoar intervals. The census of the aircraft industry for 1926 was a special one. The statistics for (he air­
craft industry were not published in detail for years prior to 1919. At the census for 1914,16 establishments
reported the manufacture of aircraft and parts. The production of airplanes, seaplanes, and parts for that
year was valued at $481,022; the receipts for repair work amounted to $209,481; and the value of “ all other
products” was reported as $99,309. Tho data for any establishments engaged in the manufacture of air­
craft in 1909 were included with those for manufactures of motor cycles, bicycles, and parts.
2 The figures in this column are slightly higher than those previously published by the department, as
additional reports have been added.
3 Not including output of 3 establishments with products valued at loss than $5,000 and of 5 engaged
primarily in tho manufacture of aircraft engines.
* Includes $10,993 reported by 4 establishments with products valued at less than $5,000.
* Not available.
* Value of aircraft made by establishments engaged primarily in tho manufacture of engines.
7 Parts only.
* Not including 104 aircraft rebuilt or reassembled by the manufacturers.
* Not including 150 planes built by individuals and firms engaged primarily in air-service operations.
10 An accurate census of aircraft-engine manufacture was made in 1928. Ii has been impossible to secure
this information for previous years, as the majority of the data compiled by the Bureau of Census included
reports on other types of internal-coinbusion engine reports.
n Experimental work, pontoons, airships, automobile bodies, sea sleds, and other miscellaneous items.

AIRCRAFT PRODUCTION

During the calendar year 1928 the establishments engaged primarily
in the manufacture of aircraft built 4,217 airplanes, valued at $35,847,391, and 129 seaplanes and amphibians, valued at $3,143,118.
The production in 1927 was 1,888 airplanes, valued at $12,224,979, and
107 seaplanes and amphibians, valued at $2,280,020.
Combined production of all classes of heavier-than-air craft—air­
planes, seaplanes, and amphibians—increased from 1,995, valued at
$14,514,999 in 1927 to 4,346, valued at $38,990,509 in 1928, the rates
of increase being 117.8 per cent in number and 168.8 per cent in
value.
Of the 94 establishments reporting for 1928, 16 were located in
New York, 14 in California, 9 in Michigan, 8 each in Kansas and Illi­
nois, 7 in Ohio, 6 in Missouri, 4 in Iowa, 3 in Pennsylvania. 2 each
in Arkansas, Maryland, Oklahoma, and Texas; and 1 each in Colo­
rado, Delaware, Minnesota, Nebraska, New Jersey, Rhode Island,
Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, and Wisconsin.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

67

During the year a total of 3,496 new aircraft engines were con­
structed whose value aggregated $19,915,624. Aircraft propellers
manufactured in 1928 numbered 14,358, of which 9,163 were wood,
4,809 metal, and 386 all other materials. Comparative figures for
previous years are not available, as no previous census had been taken
of aircraft engines and propellers.
EXPORTS

The trend in commercial aeronautics development throughout the
world is borne out by foreign sales of United States aeronautic prod­
ucts during the calendar year 1928. Air-line developments and new
uses for the airplane in this country, which lias flying conditions as
unfavorable as any part of the world, are as much responsible for
the increased exports as were the long-distance flights of 1927.
Had the 1928 total of aeronautic product shipments from the
United States been $49,706 greater, which would have been attained
with the export of one additional transport plane, the valuation for
1928 would have equaled the combined values for the previous three
calendar years, when $3,714,429 worth of aeronautic products were
shipped or flown to foreign countries. Exports of the three aero­
nautic items—aircraft, engines, and parts—during the calendar year
1928 were valued at $3,664,723, or 93 per cent over those for the pre­
vious year, and those in the first half of 1929 exceeded the aggregate
for the full year of 1928 by more than 41 per cent.
In addition to the fact that 1928 was the record export year for
United States aeronautic products, the increase for 1928 over 1927
was more pronounced than for any similar period. Aircraft exports
advanced from 63, valued at $848,568. in 1927, to 162, valued at
$1,759,653, in 1928. Canada took 62 airplanes as compared with 26
in the preceding year. Peru, which took only 8 airplanes in 1927,
was the destination for 24 during 1928, while Mexico was the pur­
chaser of 20 as compared with only 1. The fact that the American
embargo was lifted on airplanes into China during 1928 accounted
for 9 being shipped to that country. Latin America, including the
West Indies, absorbed 75 planes, or 45 per cent of our total exports
for the year, a fact which attests the increased interest of United
States aircraft manufacturers in that important marketing area.
Chile was the one South American country purchasing American
aircraft during 1927 which made no purchases in 1928, but early this
year there was a considerable movement of planes to that country
because of a sale concluded last year.

BEPOBT TO THE SECBETABY OF COMMERCE

68

T able J .— U nited S ta te s exp o rts o f a eron autica l produ cts, ca lenda r years
I ' . U ’ - V J .IP

Itom
1922:
Planes...............................

Number

Value

37
147

tl 5(5,630
72,819

Total value....................
1923:
Planes................................
48
80
Parts for planes................
Total value.................... ................ ■
1924:
Planes................................
59
Engines.............................
140
Parts for planes................
Total value....................
1925:
80
Planes....................... ........
73
Tarts for planes................

49-4. 980

Item
1926:
Planes................................

L’csUsi

Total value...................
1927:
Planes................................
Parts for planes................
Total value....................
1928:
Planes...............................
Engines.............................

309,051
65. 558
58,949
433, 55S |
412,738
219,609
165,926
798,273

j

Total value....................
1929 (first half):
511.282
Planes................................
170,793
Parts for planes................
101,584
783, 659

Number
50
297
" "

Value
$303, 149
573, 732
150,329
1,027,210

63
84

848, .VS
4.84,875
570, 117
1,903,583

162
179

1,759,653
66.1,820
1,240,241
3,664, 723

199 3,290, 949
178
830, 282
1,053,525
5,174.756

Exports of airplane parts during 1928 reached a total value of
$1,240,244, or nearly 118 per cent above the 1927 figure of $570,117.
Canada heads the list of countries of destination tor parts during
1928, taking over three times as many as in 1927. Soviet Russia in
Europe continued to be among the principal markets for parts, and
the increase in similar exports to China was 363 per cent greater
than during the preceding three years.
Exports of airplane engines, although not showing so great an
increase over 1927 as did airplanes and parts, advanced from a total
of 84 engines, worth $484,875, in 1927, to 179, valued at $664,826, in
1928. The decrease in the average unit valuation is surprising and
may be explained partly by the fact that in 1927 the higher-powered
surplus war engines were being exported, whereas in 1928 these
stocks had become about exhausted. Furthermore, during 1928 the
lower-powered surplus war engines constituted the bulk of exports,
which might account for the decrease in average unit value.
The gain in exports of aircraft engines and parts during 1928 is
remarkable, not alone for its high percentage but for the fact that
this was effected in the face of such obstacles as keen competition and
the desire of each producing foreign country to further its own avia­
tion industry through the use of its own products, a condition that is
made more difficult by the fact that in certain foreign countries air­
transport companies receive assistance from the Government in the
form of subsidies which carry with them a stipulation that only
domestic aircraft may be used, thus cutting off this outlet to Ameri­
can aircraft manufacturers.
Along with the exports of United States airplanes, the production
figures of aircraft-producing countries are of significance, even if
not always comparable; some giving statistics of value only, some of
quantity only, and some of both. The United States procluction of

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

69

aircraft of all types for 1928 was conservatively 4,600, whereas, ac­
cording to reliable estimates, France produced 1,440, Italy 475, Ger­
many 352, and Switzerland 25. In 1927 the United Kingdom pro­
duced approximately 204 commercial airplanes.
It is known that during 1927 France exported about $8,000,000
worth of airplanes, engines, and supplies, with Yugoslovia, Rumania,
Switzerland, Germany, and Brazil the leading markets in order of
importance; figures of unit exports from France in 1927 are not
available. The United Kingdom’s exports of airplanes, seaplanes,
and parts for 1927 amounted to $5,292,540, and in 1928 to $7,434,700.
Germany’s exports of planes increased from 54 in 1927 to 61 during
the first seven months of 1928. The United States was the leading
market for German aircraft, taking 10. Brazil followed with 8.
Italy and Switzerland with 5 each, and Austria with 4.
Because of the diversified uses to which airplanes are put in the
United States, where there is a wide range in temperature and
altitude, together with a comparatively large domestic market for
aircraft, it would appear that the United States is peculiarly fitted
to supply the world market for airplanes in much the same way it
does now for automobiles.
AERONAUTICS TRADE COMMISSIONER

On July 1, 1927, an aeronautics trade commissioner for Latin
America was appointed to cover the following work: (1) Promotion
of sales of American aeronautical equipment; (2) maintenance of
information service on aeronautics in Latin America; (3) dissemina­
tion of reliable information about aeronautics in the United States:
and (4) the combating of monopolies, propaganda, influence, and
competition prejudicial to the interests of the American aeronautics
industry in Latin America.
While this commissioner is attached to the Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce, an active cooperation is maintained with the
Aeronautics Branch.
During the past fiscal year the work of the aeronautics trade com­
missioner and his assistant was effective in that both kept in touch
with developments in that territory and were instrumental in paving
the way for American air lines now penetrating the West Indies,
Central America, and South America.
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AERONAUTICS CONFERENCE

A.t the suggestion of the President of the United States, an inter­
national aeronautics conference was called to provide an opportunity
for an interchange of views on problems pertaining to aircraft in
international commerce and trade, and to commemorate the twentyfifth anniversary of the first airplane flight. This conference was
held in Washington, December 12-14, 1928.
Officials of the Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Com­
merce served on all but 2 of the 14 committees appointed for this
international conference. Attendance at the conference included 77
officials and 39 unofficial delegates from foreign countries, 12 Amer­
ican official delegates, 32 American technical advisors, 43 committee
members, and 238 representatives from American companies inter­
ested in the advancement of aeronautics.

70

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

As a result of this conference, highly illuminating facts and figures
were obtained on the organization, economic and legal aspects of air
transportation, aerial photography, private flying, airway develop­
ment, operation and technical aspects of air transportation, air
ports, meteorologjq navigation, aeronautical research and installment
financing of aeronautical equipment, development and control of
tests, and trade in aircraft and aeronautical engines.
INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON AIR NAVIGATION

The United States was represented at the extraordinary session of
the International Convention for Air Navigation by a delegation
consisting of William P. MacCracken, jr., Assistant Secretary of
Commerce for Aeronautics; Joseph R. Baker, assistant solicitor of
the Department of State; John J. Ide, European representative of
the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; Maj. B. K. Yount,
assistant military attaché for air at Paris; and Lieut. Commander
William D. Thomas, assistant naval attache.
This conference was called by the International Commission for
Air Navigation for the purpose of considering amendments to the
convention, which might facilitate the adherence of the noncontract­
ing nations. After considering numerous proposed amendments to
the convention relating to the regulation of aerial navigation, dated
October 13, 1919, the conference recommended amendments in articles
8, 5, 7, 15, 34, 37, and 41 and the deletion of article 42. At a regular
session of the commission which was held immediately following the
adjournment of the extraordinary session, these recommendations
were concurred in; but before they become effective they must be
ratified by all the contracting states. The extraordinary session
was attended by delegates from 1G noncontracting nations: Austria,
Brazil, China, Colombia, Cuba, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Haiti,
Hungary, Luxemberg, Norway, Spain, Switzerland, Venezuela, and
the United States.
In addition to attending these sessions the Assistant Secretary of
Commerce for Aeronautics inspected aviation activities in France,
Italy, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, and England. In each of
these countries lie called on the respective heads of civil aviation and
inspected their various activities which correspond to those of the
Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce and of the
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. While in Eng­
land he attended the international air exposition and delivered the
Wilbur Wright memorial lecture entitled “ Science and Its Relation
to Aeronautics " before the Royal Aeronautical Society.
III. CONCLUSION
POLICY ADOPTED BY AERONAUTICS BRANCH

From the beginning, the Aeronautics Branch has adhered to its
policy of assisting in bringing about a combination of four essential
elements: (1) Airworthy aircraft, adequately equipped and effi­
ciently maintained, (2) flown by competent pilots over (3) suitably
equipped airways (4) in conformity with standard air traffic rules.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

71

Since this policy has proved to be absolutely sound, it undoubtedly
oilers the best way of cooperating with the industry and also of
bringing about public acceptance and use of properly established
air commerce. It will, therefore, continue to be the basis for plan­
ning the activities of the Department of Commerce in the promotion
and regulation of civil aeronautics, authorized by the air commerce
act of 1926.
To carry out all the provisions of this act and the Bingham
amendment of 1929, appropriations for the fiscal year 1929 aggre­
gated $4,361,850; and in addition part of the amount appropriated
for the fiscal year 1928 was available for expenditure in the latter
part of 1929. Despite the fact that air commerce increased in vol­
ume more than 100 per cent over the preceding year, thereby greatly
increasing the volume of work devolving upon the Aeronautics
Branch, the appropriations for this necessary work increased only
45 per cent. Virtually every division and section of the Aeronautics
Branch, therefore, is handicapped by inadequacy of equipment and
insufficiency of personnel for the increased volume of work.
Notwithstanding this handicap, it is generally conceded through­
out the industry mat the Department of Commerce is contributing
materially to tfie advancement of civil aeronautics, to the creation
of a powerful reserve of aerial defense for use in time of war, and to
the development of a nation-wide network of air transport lines
for use in time of peace.
It is the chief function of the Department of Commerce to develop
America’s commerce and industry, and the particular function of the
Aeronautics Branch is to assist in the development of a new industry
(1) which will provide employment for a constantly increasing per­
centage of the population; (2) which will serve as a potent agency
for peace by more closely knitting together the various nations of
the world; (3) which will provide a reservoir of aerial defense; (4)
which will speed the movement of men, money, mail, and merchan­
dise; (5) and which will decrease the costs of distribution and thereby
increase the purchasing power of the consumer’s dollar.
Because every person and business in the United States is pay­
ing continuously tor the transportation of people, ideas, or merchan­
dise, it is readily apparent that any reduction in the cost of trans­
portation. any improvement in speed or convenience, any advance
which will reduce the toll of loss occasioned by slower and older
forms of transportation, will prove of direct benefit to each firm and
individual in the Nation.
Since many millions of dollars worth of money, mail, and merchan­
dise are “ in transit ” every day in the year, it is immediately apparent,
that each minute of reduction in this dead-loss transit time will effect
a saving in the necessary costs of doing business.
Hand-to-mouth buying, which is admittedly a prime factor in
America’s prosperity, will lie greatly facilitated by the further
development of air transportation. The more rapid transit provided
by aircraft and airways will appreciably reduce the necessity for
keeping huge sums of money tied up in slow-moving merchandise,
will enable retailers to carry smaller stocks and thereby release
capital for other merchandising activities, and will lower the costs

72

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

of transacting business and thereby add to the buying power of the
public’s income.
A nation-wide increase in our general prosperity seems certain,
therefore, to result from the increasing development and utilization
of air transport. To further this increasing development and use,
it is highly important that the aeronautical work of the Department
of Commerce be both expedited and expanded by necessary legisla­
tion and adequate appropriations.
Very truly yours,
C larence M. Y oung ,
Director of Aeronautics.

RADIO DIVISION
D epartm ent

of

C ommerce ,
R adio D iv isio n ,

Washington, July 1, 1929.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r . S ecretary : In response to your request I furnish the
following condensed report of the work of the radio division during
the past fiscal year, including references to related developments
which have taken place during the year.
Under authority of an act of Congress approved March 4, 1929,
all the powers and” authority vested in the Federal Radio Commission
by the radio act of 1927 are continued to be vested in and exercised
by the commission until December 31, 1929. The radio division
continues the inspection of all licensed radio stations, land and ship;
examines and licenses radio operators; checks the frequencies of
stations; measures the field strength of stations; and performs all of
the field work necessary for the enforcement of the ship radio act,
the radio act of 1927, and the International Radiotelegraph Conven­
tion of 1927. The radio act of 1927 limits the period of a broad­
casting station license to three months and all other classes of radio
station licenses to a period not exceeding one year. These licenses
are issued by the Federal Radio Commission, with the exception of
amateur and technical and training-school station licenses which
arc issued by the radio division by authority of the Federal Radio
Commission.
RADIO INSPECTION SERVICE

During the fiscal year 10,715 inspections were made of radio installa­
tions cn American and foreign vessels clearing from our ports as com­
pared with 9,093 the previous year. The inspections made developed
335 cases of defective apparatus, lack of proper equipment or per­
sonnel, etc. There were 15,023 clearances of such vessels as com­
pared with 14,305 during the previous year. There were 1,102
inspections of ship stations for license as compared with 1,139 the
previous year. There were 1,154 inspections of commercial land sta­
tions and 229 inspections of amateur stations as compared with 806
and 184, respectively, the previous year. Examinations were given
3,477 applicants for commercial operators’ licenses and 3,163 appli­
cants for amateur operators’ licenses. During the year offices were
established at Kansas City, Mo., St. Paul, Minn., Dallas, Tex., and
Los Angeles, Calif. Consideration has been given to locating offices
at Denver, Colo., Hawaii, and Alaska. This can not be accom­
plished until additional personnel is available and some additional
equipment is obtained, although there is pressing need for them. It
is hoped that Denver and Hawaii can be opened this fall and Alaska
next spring.
73

74

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

It is expected there will be a considerable increase in the duties of
the inspection service during the coming year, due to the extensive
use of radio in the aviation service and the operation of numerous
point-to-point commercial communication stations.
RADIO TEST CARS

The division now has in service six radio test cars, one assigned to
each of the following districts: Third, Baltimore; fourth, Atlanta;
fifth, Dallas; sixth, San Francisco; eighth, Detroit; ninth, Kansas
City. Two additional cars are urgently needed for the first district,
Boston, and the seventh district, Seattle. Since the first car was
purchased in 1925 the usefulness of these cars in our inspection work
has been fully demonstrated. There has been no other way found
to satisfactorily transport the inspection equipment and efficiently
perform much of the inspection wrork. The cars provide a practical
and satisfactory means of checking the frequency of the numerous
small stations sharing the same frequencies. This can not be done
from the headquarters offices when several stations are simultane­
ously using the same frequency. The cars also provide the only means
of measuring the field strength of radio transmitters and determining
the dependable service area of stations. The strength of harmonics
is also measured in this manner.
MONITORING BROADCASTING STATIONS

With apparatus constructed by the field inspection service, moni­
toring was carried on throughout the year in all inspection districts.
The use of this equipment demonstrated the need for more precise
instruments, and steps have been taken to procure them. It also
proved the value of frequency measurements at fixed points rather
than at the station being measured as was formerly the custom.
This service has been of value to the Federal Radio Commission and
has been helpful to station owners. Of tho 614 licensed broadcasting
stations, frequency measurements vTere made of 374 stations. The
240 stations not measured vrere mostly of low power, at a considerable
distance from tho monitoring stations, and stations operating simul­
taneously on shared frequencies, or operating mostly during daylight
hours. To measure the frequencies of these stations it will be neces­
sary to make use of test cars fitted with frequency-measuring appa­
ratus, which will be possible during the coming winter wrhen the ap­
paratus now being manufactured for this purpose has been installed.
Fixed-point measurements will be made at Boston, New York, Balti­
more, New Orleans, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, Detroit,
Chicago, St. Paul, Denver, and Grand Island, Nebr. At tho latter
oint the constant-frequency monitoring station will be situated,
n addition to monitoring the commercial and private stations, our
service will monitor the Government stations of any department of
the Government desiring our assistance. When these monitoring
stations are fully equipped and manned the measurements will not be
limited to broadcast stations as heretofore, but will include the fre­
quencies in use above and below the broadcast band. During the
year there were 2,451 measurements made show'ing a deviation of

f

RADIO DIVISION

75

500 cycles or more from the assigned frequency of the stations out of
a total of 22,450 measurements made of broadcasting station frequen­
cies. There were 106 measurements showing deviations of 5 kilo­
cycles or more, and of this number there were 59 deviations of 10
kilocycles or more.
C O N S TA N T -FR E Q U EN C Y M O N IT O R IN G ST A T IO N

The department was authorized in an act approved February 21,
1929, to purchase a suitable site and to contract for the construction
thereon of a building suitable for installation therein of apparatus for
use as a constant-frequency monitoring radio station, and for the
construction of a suitable roadway, power, and communication
facilities, at a cost not to exceed $50,000.
The site, comprising 50 acres of land, has been procured in the
vicinity of Grand Island, Nobr., which is about the geographical
center of the United States, where tests indicate radio-reception con­
ditions to be favorable in all directions. The chamber of commerce
at Grand Island has shown a real and helpful interest in our problem
from the beginning of our effort to find a suitable site and is continuing
its cooperation to the fullest extent.
The Navy Department, Bureau of Yards and Docks, prepared
plans and specifications for the building and is continuing to give such
assistance and advice as are needed in connection with the work.
It is expected that the building will be erected and the apparatus
installed and in operation within a few months. The measuring
apparatus to be installed in this station will be of such design that it
will be capable of making measurements with a resulting accuracy of
1 part in 1,000,000. The primary source of frequency will be that of
the earth’s rotation derived through the United States standard of
time, which is the Naval Observatory at Washington, from which
standard time is transmitted twdee daily. To further augment these
standard time transmissions there will be installed at the constantfrequency station a master clock, operating in a heat-controlled
chamber and under vacuum, accurato to a degree greater than onetenth of a second. This method assures agreement with the recog­
nized radio standard of the United States at the Bureau of Standards.
This standard clock will be checked daily and kept in synchronism
with the Naval Observatory clock.
An electrically driven tuning fork, controlled by the clock, serves
as a basis for the establishment of the ultimate radio-frequencies to be
developed. As an alternate, a piezoelectric oscillator will be supplied
to perform the same service as the tuning fork. The frequency of the
tuning fork which is relatively knv, on the order of 5,000 cycles, is
multiplied by means of harmonic multiplier circuits to radio-frequen­
cies on the order of 30,000 kilocycles. The production of these radiofrequencies is accomplished in such a manner that harmonics are
available at every 10 kilocycles throughout the radio-frequency
spectrum. These standard frequencies arc used as a means of
measurement of unknown radio-frequencies in precisely the same
fashion as described in the operation of the secondary standards of

76

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

frequency. The equipment involved in all operations is of a more
precise nature due to the greater requirements of accuracy for this
central station.
Three types of receivers are to be installed at this station, two of
which cover the frequencies from 100 to 30,000 kilocycles; tho third
covers from 10 to 100 kilocycles, using both loops and antenna and
having extreme selectivity and sensitivity. The arrangement of the
receivers permits simultaneous use at all times. Each receiver is to
bo in a shielded booth. All power supplies, although generated on
tho promises, are to bo filtered and shielded. The standards and
receivers will be operated entirely from storage batteries, all provided
in duplicate, and charged by means of small motor generators through
suitable distribution systems connected to the main power plant.
A special antenna system, in conformity with the latest develop­
ments in this lino, is to be erected. These antennae are in the main
to be of the type connected to receivers through radio-frequency
transmission lines. Duo to the large number of these antennae and
to the necessity of complete isolation from any device capable of
causing interference with reception it has been necessary to secure
at least 50 acres of land for the use of this station.
The station is to be built around a room having 2,000 square feet
of floor space in which will be installed all of the standard equipment
and receivers. In addition to this large room there will be rooms to
be used for dormitories, kitchen, workshop, office, storage batteries,
motor generators, and switchboards. An adjacent building will pro­
vide garage space and power plant. Every effort has been made to
make the station complete in itself, so that 24-hour-a-day service
will be insured throughout the year.
SEC O N D A R Y STAN DARD O F FR E Q U E N C Y M O N IT O R IN G

The secondary standards of frequency now being developed for
the division obtain their fundamental source of frequency from a
piezocrystal with temperature carefully controlled. This crystal is
electrically connected with the 10-kilocycle oscillator and controls it.
The 10-kilocycle oscillator is a device rich in harmonics, furnishing
them every 10 kilocycles between the limits of 30,000 and 10 kilo­
cycles. Since these numerous frequencies are furnished by an
oscillator controlled by the crystal oscillator their accuracy is
supposed to be of the same order as that of the fundamental control
frequency.
The beat frequency indicator is a device which furnishes indication
in a visual form between various circuits and is primarily a resonance
indicator capable of use to a great accuracy.
Tho audio-frequency oscillator operates between the frequencies of
approximately 60 and 15,000 cycles. Its use is the accurate determi­
nation of the difference between unknown frequencies such as those
of tho transmitting stations to be measured and the known frequencies
supplied from the control oscillator.
Tho heterodyne frequency wave meter is an oscillating wave meter
which is used for the identification of individual 10-kilocycle har­
monics. It is a device having fundamentally a straight line curve
permitting the standard frequency identifications to be made quickly
and accurately.

EADIO DIVISION

77

The tuning-fork calibration meter furnishes a means of either cali­
brating or determining the state of calibration of the audio-frequency
oscillator. It is really a device supplying a sufficient number of
known accurate audio-frequencies by means of which the calibration
curve or the audio oscillator may be either drawn or checked.
The above equipment is to be used for the measurement of fre­
quency of any radio transmitter in the following manner: Signals are
tuned in from the transmitter on the proper receiver, a description
of which follows later, and are put through the following operations:
The output from the receiver is heterodyned or mixed with the output
of the 10-kilocycle controlled oscillator. Since this oscillator has
harmonics all through the radio-frequency spectrum, one of these
harmonics will beat with the output of the receiver producing an audio­
frequency whose value is dependent on the difference or sum between
the transmitter’s frequency and the proper harmonic. The order or
value of this harmonic may then be determined by means of the het­
erodyne frequency meter. The beat frequency produced between the
harmonic of the 10-kilocycle oscillator and the transmitter may then
be measured bv means of the audio-frequency oscillator. This
amounts to merely varying the frequency of the audio oscillator until
its frequency is exactly the same as that of the beat frequency men­
tioned above. We now know exactly the difference between the
standard frequency and the transmitter frequency. Inasmuch as the
transmitter frequency'' may be either above or below the standard
beating harmonic from the !0-kilocyele generator, it is necessary to
either add or substract this difference from this harmonic. Whether
it should be added or subtracted is determined by the use of the het­
erodyne frequency meter which is heterodyned with the incoming
signal, and since it was previously heterodyned with the beating har­
monic a glance at the curve of the instrument will indicate which way
the transmitter frequency lies. In all of these operations each zero
beat, v'hether betw'een audio or radio frequencies, has been determined
by means of the zero beat indicator furnishing visual indication, and
also by means of a loud speaker furnishing audible indications. A
brief summation of the operations outlined above would be that, to
measure an unknown frequency, the unknown frequency is heter­
odyned with a standard known frequency. The difference between
the known frequency and the unknown or transmitted frequency is
measured by means of an audio oscillator exactly synchronized with
the difference between the two.
The receivers to be used at the secondary standard stations consist
of two units, one operating between the frequencies of 1,500 and 100
kilocycles, the other operating between the frequencies of 1,500 and
30,000 kilocycles. The receiver mentioned first consists of four
stages of individually tuned radio-frequency amplification. Plug-in
coils are used to cover the wide range. The selectivity of this receiver
is such that it is possible to receive without interference stations on
each of the 10-kilocycle channels throughout the broadcast band.
The sensitivity of the receiver is such that it will respond to signals of
less than 1 microvolt per meter level and furnish a good loud-speaker
signal at this value. The audio-frequency section of the receiver fur­
nishes reproduction throughout the entire audio range of frequencies
up to 10,000 cycles and works in to a special dynamic type of loud
speaker giving high-quality reproduction. Regeneration in the de­

78

KEPOBT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

tector circuit of this receiver is supplied to further increase the sensi­
tivity of the set and to make possible the reception of continuous wave
signals. This receiver operates from both loops and antenna through­
out its range.
The high-frequency receiver which operates over the range of 1,500
to 30,000 kilocycles is a radio-frequency receiver having three stages
of screen grid individually tuned amplification. This receiver is an
extremely selective and sensitive devico, furnishing loud-speaker re­
sponse on radio signals of a level considerably less than 1 microvolt
per meter. Regeneration is supplied in this receiver to increase its
sensitivity and to make possible the reception of continuous wave
signals. The audio-frequency portion of the receiver as well as its
loud speaker is identical with that described above.
The power supply for the secondary standard of frequencj7, its
associated equipment, and the receivers as outlined above, is derived
entirely from storage batteries. All batteries are supplied in dupli­
cate both for filament and plate supply. These batteries are kept in
a state of charge by means of two high-voltage motor generators and
one low-voltage motor generator. All charging and discharging are
done through a switchboard which furnishes indications of the various
rates of charge and discharge at all times.
The total secondary standard of frequency, as described above, is a
complete unit for the reception and measurement of any frequency
between 100 and 30,000 kilocycles. The accuracy of measurement
is such that a result of at least 1 part in 100,000 may be secured.
These secondary standards are to be placed in each of the radio
inspection districts. Six of them will be placed on the six test cars
now in service. They will supplement the service to be performed at
the central station situated in Nebraska.
RA D IO F O R AV IA TIO N

There are now 97 planes equipped with radio apparatus. Radio
transmitting licenses have been issued to 34 airports; in addition there
have been issued 44 construction permits for airports to be equipped
with radio transmitters. From the radio standpoint, this service is
just getting started and is expected to expand rapidly.
Following are some pertinent extracts from a report submitted by
a commercial aviation committee on radio:

It is anticipated that the safeguarding of life and property in aviation will be
largely dependent upon radio communication, radio navigation, advising pilots
regarding weather conditions, directing pilots to landing fields, guiding pilots
during periods of poor visibility, and enabling pilots to land. Due to the nature
of the service rendered, radio is the only means for handling communications to
and from aircraft in flight. At present in the United States there are approxi­
mately 3,000 landing fields in operation or under construction and about 20,000
planes of all classes in use. Several overseas aircraft routes are projected.

Radio stations in this important and rapidly developing service
must be inspected and protected from interference. Safety of life
and property is largely dependent upon reliable radio communication,
and the inspection service of the radio division will be relied upon to
aid in protecting this service from interference. The personnel and
facilities of the radio division are far from being adequate to meet the
demands being made upon it. It is essential that increased facilities
be made available through larger appropriations for this service;

EADIO DIVISION

79

otherwise its duties can not be performed as they should be, even
though the personnel continue working overtime in the future as they
have in the past.
R A D IO B EA C O N S AND R A D IO CO M PA SSES

For the purpose of better safeguarding navigation, particularly in
foggy weather, when the greatest need for aid exists, the Bureau of
Lighthouses has in operation 23 radiobeacons on the Atlantic coast,
15 on the Pacific coast, 6 on the Gulf coast, and 21 on the coasts of
the Great Lakes. These beacons are located in the lighthouses and
light vessels. The transmitters send out characteristic signals com­
posed of dashes and dots which serve to identify each beacon. This
service is available to ships which are equipped with radio compasses.
In other countries there are a total of 57 beacons.
Interest in the installation of radio compasses on ships is increasing
rapidly. Because of the value of this apparatus as a navigational aid
and its demonstrated usefulness in connection with locating vessels in
distress it was agreed at the Safety of Life at Sea Conference held in
London in April and May of this year that all passenger ships of 5,000
tons gross tonnage and upwards shall within two years from the date
on which the convention comes in force be provided with an approved
direction finding apparatus (radio compass).
Under the United States flag there are 718 commercial vessels and
375 Government vessels using radio compasses or a total of 1,093.
There are 1,942 foreign vessels so equipped.
A U TO M A TIC ALA RM SIG N A L DEV ICE

The Safety of Life at Sea Convention signed at London May 31
provides for the use of the auto alarm as a means of maintaining
watch. This device may bo used as a substitute for an operator or a
watcher where more than one operator is required on a vessel. How­
ever, all vessels which are required to be fitted with radio installations,
shall, for safety purposes, carry a qualified operator. Where the auto
alarm is installed it must be in operation whenever the operator or
watcher is not on duty. The auto alarm must meet the specifications
set forth in the International Radiotelegraph Convention of Wash­
ington, 1927. There are 5 types of auto alarm being manufac­
tured—3 British, 1 French, and 1 German. So far, only the
British types are installed on ships and all are on British ships, with
few, if any, exceptions. During the fiscal year, 088 inspections were
made of vessels equipped with auto alarms and in 414 cases reports
were made that the device had responded to signals not intended to
actuate the apparatus.
RA D IO B RO A D C A STIN G

The United States was the first country in the world to have radio
broadcasting. The first broadcasting licenses were issued in the fall
of 1921. Prior to this time a few special events were broadcast, but
this form of transmission was carried on largely for the purpose of
testing radiotelephone transmitters, which was usually done under
experimental licenses. One of the earliest radiotelephone tests of
which this office has a record, in connection with which phonograph

80

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

records of music were broadcast, was carried on by the Wanamaker,
New York, radio station during May, 1914. Different types of
hydrogen arc radiotelephone transmitters were used in these tests.
Government departments, commercial radio companies, and ama­
teurs were about the only ones having radio receiving sets at that
time. One of these sets was installed in the office of the radio inspec­
tor, customhouse, New York, for the purpose of observing interference
between amateur stations and ships. While engaged in this work the
broadcast of music was detected. No one at that time had any idea
of the future possibilities of broadcasting entertainment. About five
years later experiments were being made with the tube type of radio
transmitter. Listeners hearing the musical programs, and learning
the source of them, sent in requests for more music which subse­
quently resulted in the inauguration of the service through stations
built for this purpose. During the early days the programs of a
majority of the stations consisted almost entirely of phonograph
records. The announcers usually had favorite records which they
repeated numerous times during a program.
The Secretary of Commerce foresaw the danger of the stations
losing public interest if a change was not made in the programs.
He ordered the creation of a new class of license requiring a higher
standard in equipment, studios, and programs which immediately
stimulated interest in the programs and resulted in rivalry among
station owners to improve their stations and obtain one of the new
high-class licenses. Thus was the foundation laid for the high-class
broadcasting service we have to-day, which is far in advance of any
country of the world as indicated by the increase in the number of
receiving sets in use, approximately 60,000 in 1922 and approxi­
mately 10,000,000 at the present time. When an event of general
public interest is broadcast it is reasonable to assume that it is avail­
able to more than half of the population of this country and a large
number in other countries of the world.
From the beginning it has been recognized that the basis of granting
a broadcasting license should be service to the public, and in no other
way can an audience be held or a station prosper. There is no financial
support for the operation of broadcasting stations derived directly
from the listeners through the payment of a fee, such as is the custom
in many other countries. For instance, in Great Britain there is an
annual tax on the use of receiving sets amounting to $2.45. In
France the rate is 5 cents per annum and in Salvador it is $18 per
annum. Canada charges $1 per annum.
AM A TEUH S

At the end of the fiscal year there were 16,829 licensed amateur
radio stations, a decrease of 99 as compared with the previous year,
when there were 16,928. While other countries are worrying over
the problem of controlling, taxing, and discouraging the few surviving
amateurs they have, this country is constantly endeavoring to keep
this large and useful group of experimenters engaged in useful and
interesting work. The latest proposal they have put forward is a
request for permission to carry on radiotelephone communication in
the 20-meter band, from 14,000 to 14,400 kilocycles. If given this

KAD10 DIVISION

81

privilege, the amateurs expect to carry on international radiotelephone
communication in this high-frequency band.
In order to continue satisfactory operation under the restricted
frequency bands imposed by the Washington convention, intensive
technical development has been carried on by the amateurs during
the past year. This, the American Radio Relay League reports,
has resulted in marked advances in apparatus and methods. In
March, 1928, the band 28,000 to 30,000 kilocycles, 10.7 to 10 meters,
made available to amateurs in the Washington convention, was opened
to their use in this country. They have given particular attention
to work in this band, and two-way communication has been estab­
lished between amateurs in this country and in Europe, South
America, and New Zealand. European amateurs have succeeded in
communicating from Europe to South Africa and India on similar
frequencies. On their more useful frequencies, numerous amateur
stations have now been in communication with as many as 50 foreign
countries. There is an increase in amateur interest in radiotelephony
and many amateurs now seek an opportunity to duplicate by voice
the long-distance work which they have successfully accomplished by
radiotelegraphy.
The amateur again demonstrated his great value as a means of
emergency communication to storm-stricken communities during the
West Indian hurricane in September, 1928. At the Virgin Islands,
when the Navy station was destroyed, one of the operators who
maintained an amateur station put his set on the air and broadcast
a warning to the United States in advance of the disturbance. As
a result, amateurs in Florida and other Southern States had estab­
lished emergency communication routes before the storm had reached
this continent. Particular credit is due to two amateurs at Palm
Beach who, although they lost their homes and personal belongings,
put their amateur set into operation and for throe days furnished
the only means of communication with northern points from the dis­
tressed aroa. State, Army, and municipal authorities were high in
their praise of this service.
In addition to emergency work, amateurs afforded home contact
with many exploring and scientific expeditions.
IN T E R N A T IO N A L RA D IO C O M M U N IC A T IO N

Radiotelegraph and radiotelephono circuits now link the United
States with the principal countries of the world. This service is
being constantly improved and extended. Already it is far more
extensive than that of any other nation. Much of this expansion
and improvement are due to the successful use of short waves (high
frequencies). Handling of increased traffic has been made possible
by the development of directive, high-speed, short-wave apparatus.
In addition to the trans-Atlantic radiotelephone service, inado
available to the public January, 1927, there is soon to be inaugurated
radiotelephone service between ship and shore and ship and ship.
It is planned to provide a method for direct conversation between
the residence or office phone and the stateroom phone on the ship.
78415—29------- 6

82

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
PE R SO N N E L

The division is experiencing much difficulty in obtaining employees
in the inspection service having the essential qualifications considered
necessary for the performance of the highly technical duties required
of this service. There are 18 vacancies to be filled. The Civil Serv­
ice Commission held a special examination throughout the United
States on January 15, 1929, which resulted in obtaining 14 eligibles
from a total of 44 who took the examination for the position of assist­
ant radio inspector. Only three of these men were willing to accept
appointment. The Civil Service Commission has authorized the
filling of existing vacancies by temporary appointments pending the
establishment of another list of eligibles. Commercial companies are
employing men with similar qualifications and are offering bettor
salaries. The supply is not equal to the demand in this highly tech­
nical and specialized field, therefore our service will be at a disad­
vantage until the salaries more nearly compare with commercial
salaries.
I renew my previous recommendation that the following classifi­
cation of positions and salaries be made applicable to the field-inspec­
tion personnel:
Supervisor (senior). .
Supervisor (junior)..
Assistant supervisors
Inspectors_________
Assistant inspectors.

55, 600-56, 400
4, 600- 5, 200
3, 800- 4, 400
3, 200- 3, 700
2, 600- 3, 100

A true indication of the need for additional personnel is shown by
the number of hours overtime worked by 56 inspectors, which was
601 days during the year, and the amount of annual leave these men
were able to take, which was 686 days during the year—average
overtime per man 10% days, average leave per man 12% days. The
above annual leave was not given to compensate for overtime, but
ordinary leave granted all employees.
IN T E R N A T IO N A L C O N FER EN C ES

A representative of the radio division attended three international
conferences during the year. The first one was held at Ottawa,
Canada, in January, where arrangements were made by representa­
tives of Canada, Cuba, Newfoundland, and the United States to use
certain short waves or high-frequency channels for national services
in such manner as to avoid international interference. Mexico was
invited to send a representative, but it was not convenient for him
to attend at the time arranged. However, the requirements of
Mexico were given careful consideration and a share of the waves
was provided for the use of Mexico.
The second conference was held at Praguo, Czechoslovakia, in April.
This conference limited its deliberations almost entirely to subjects
affecting European broadcasting and particularly to a new plan of
frequency assignments for European broadcasting stations. Several
other subjects of technical character were discussed, but as they were
of international interest it was decided that they be referred to the
international technical consulting committee on radio created by the
International Radiotelegraph Convention of Washington, 1927. This

RADIO DIVISION

83

technical committee will hold its first meeting at The Hague in Sep­
tember, 1929.
The third conference was held at London, beginning April 16 and
closing May 31. This conference dealt with subjects relating to
safety of life at sea, an important one of which is radio. As a result
of this conference the number of vessels required to be equipped with
radio is materially increased. Passenger ships of 6,000 gross tonnage
and upwards, if engaged in international service, must be fitted with
radio direction-finding apparatus (radio compass). Where ships in
the international service carry more than 13 lifeboats, 1 shall be a
motor boat, and where the number is more than 19, 2 shall be motor
boats. These motor lifeboats shall be fitted with a wireless telegraph
installation. The radiotelegraphy provisions of the convention apply
to all ships engaged in international voyages except cargo ships of
less than 1,600 tons gross tonnage. All ships covered by the conven­
tion must carry at least one licensed operator, but continuous watch
may be maintained by the use of an automatic alarm, provided such
device complies with the requirements specified in the International
Radiotelegraph Convention of Washington, 1927.
IN T E R N A T IO N A L R A D IO A C C O U N T IN G

Since July 1, 1924, it has fallen to the lot of the radio division to
carry out the provisions of the London Radiotelegraph Convention
of 1912, to which the United States is signatory, with reference to
settlement of accounts for tolls arising from the exchange of radio
traffic between vessels of American registry and foreign coastal and
ship stations. Messages originating in the United States and
addressed to vessels of any nationality via radio are also chargod
to the United States by foreign administrations. Collections and
settlements therefor are made through the accounting section of the
radio division.
The activities of the accounting section of the radio division
during the fiscal year from July 1, 1928, to June 30, 1929, may be
summarized as follows:

Number of accounts handled:
On hand July 1, 1928____________________________________________ 701
Received during year___________________________________________ 1, 100
Total.................................................................................................................. 1,801
Settled and cleared______________________________________________ 1, 045
Accounts on hand and unsettled June 30, 1929____________________ 756
Financial operations required to complete activities summarized:
Cash balance, July 1, 1928_________________________________ SOI, 863. 31
Collections____ __________________________________________ 62,773.74
Total........................................................................................................ 124,637.05
Disbursements_____________________________________________ 80, 117. 24
Cash balance, June 30, 1929______________________________ 44, 519. 81

Efforts of the nations signatory to the London Radiotelegraph Con­
vention of 1912 have been directed in late year's toward expediting
settlement of accounts of the classes described. Special efforts have
been made by the accounting section of the radio division to keep the
accounts constantly moving in order that they may be held only

84

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

long enough to permit collection of charges due by American com­
panies to foreign administrations. The cash handled represents
collections only, as no appropriation account is involved in any way.
The speed with which accounts may be settled with foreign adminis­
trations depends only on the completion of collections from American
companies, inasmuch as no single account may be disbursed until
all charges are collected. The cash balance at the end of each fiscal
year represents partially collected charges on unsettled accounts.
Very truly yours,
W. D. T errell ,
Chief Radio Division.

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
D epartment of C ommerce ,
B ureau of the C ensus ,

Washington, July 1,1929.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r . S ecretary : I submit the following brief report of the
work of the Bureau of the Census during the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1929:
IN TRO D U CTIO N AND SU M M A RY

While carrying on its regular periodical inquiries, involving the
compilation and tabulation of data in regard to births, deaths, mar­
riages, divorces, prisoners, patients in hospitals for mental disease,
feeble-minded and epileptics in institutions, manufactures, electrical
industries, financial transactions of States and cities, cotton ginning,
and current production of numerous commodities, the bureau during
the past year has had to give a great deal of study and work to plans
and preparations for the great task of taking the Fifteenth Decen­
nial Census, when it will be necessary to enumerate and to collect data
for a population of more than 120,000,000, recording 25 or 30 items
as to age, nativity, occupation, etc., of each individual; for more
than 6,000,000 farms gathering details as to acreage, value of
farms, crops, livestock, etc.; for about 200,000 manufacturing estab­
lishments, with information as to number of employees, value and
quantity of products, horsepower, material used, etc.; for about 20,000
mining enterprises; for perhaps 2,500,000 establishments engaged in
trade, collecting data as to number of employees and sales of various
commodities ; for an unknown number of persons unemployed at the
rime of the census; and for an indefinite number of drainage or irri­
gation projects or enterprises.
The preparatory work involves planning the organization and
selection of the field force to be employed in taking the census;
dividing the entire territory of the United States into districts of suit­
able size for the census purposes ; defining or mapping the boundaries
of these districts; selecting and formulating the inquiries or ques­
tions to be carried on the Schedules; and other tasks. The next census
will include close to 20,000 questions or items of information regard­
ing individuals, farms, and manufacturing, commercial, and other
enterprises; and between now and the 1st of next April it will be
necessary to print more than 40,000,000 copies of various schedules
of inquiries.
F IF T E E N T H CENSUS

The bill providing for the Fifteenth Census which, as stated in my
previous annual report covering the fiscal year 1928, failed of pas­
sage in the last Congress was reintroduced when the Seventy-first
85

86

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Congress met in special session last April, and after some amend­
ments passed both House and Senate, receiving the signature of
the President on June 18. It provides that “ a census of population,
agriculture, irrigation, drainage, distribution, unemployment, and
mines shall be taken by the Director of the Census in the year 1930
and every 10 years thereafter.” This list of subjects includes two—
namely, distribution and unemployment—which were not covered
by the census of 1920 and one of which, distribution, was never in­
cluded in any previous census. The subject of manufactures, which
does not appear in the above list, is provided for by a section of the
law which directs that the statistics of manufacturing industries
shall be collected and published for every second year after 1927.
Under this provision of the law a census of manufactures will be
taken in 1930 covering the year 1929, thus forming virtually a part
of the Fifteenth Census.
The law provides that the census of population and agriculture
shall be taken as of the 1st day of April. The Bureau of the Census,
therefore, must have its organization completed and everything in
readiness for taking the census when that date arrives.
The late date at which the law was enacted would not have allowed
sufficient time for preparation if the bureau had not previously done
a great deal of preparatory work in anticipation of the passage of
the act. The greatest preparatory task is that of defining and mapiing the enumeration districts. The geographer’s division in the
fureau of the Census had been working on this task for more than
a year; and in order to carry on that work the force employed in
that division had to be increased from 58 to 255.
The law provides that the enumerators must complete their work
within two weeks in all cities having over 2,500 inhabitants and
within 30 days in all other places. In order to complete the enumera­
tion in the time thus prescribed by the law it will be necessary io
employ over 100,000 enumerators. In cities the enumerators’ dis­
tricts should be laid out so that each, as a rule, will include a popu­
lation of about 2,000 as estimated. In rural districts, where the popu­
lation is sparse, or relatively so, it will not be possible for the enumer­
ator to enumerate that number of people within the time prescribed
by law, especially as he has the task of obtaining the census data
for farms as well as for the inhabitants in his district. Accordingly,
the rural district normally includes a smaller population but covers
a larger area.
In my last previous report I referred to the correspondence that
was being carried on with persons or organizations in all parts of
the United States, including practically every county and township,
for the purpose of obtaining information that would assist the bureau
in defining the enumeration districts and determining the rates of
pay which the enumerator should receive. This correspondence is
now practically completed. Approximately 85.0Q0 persons have been
communicated with and the great majority of them have furnished
the information which the bureau requested.
As a further preliminary to the laying out of enumeration districts,
it is necessary to obtain a correct list of the minor civil divisions of
the county—such as townships, precincts, and election districts—and
to procure correct maps showing the boundaries of these divisions;

?

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

87

also correct and up-to-date maps of cities, indicating clearly the
streets and boundaries. During the past year 6,900 city or county
maps were secured, leaving 300 cities or counties for which maps
are still to be obtained, if possible. For some of these no maps are
in existence. But the use and importance of base maps in connection
with the coming census have been so emphasized that many local gov­
ernments have arranged to prepare such maps for our use.
Enumerators’ districts have now been established for about 2,000
counties and for 54 of the 72 cities which had a population of over
100,000 in 1920, leaving about 1,000 counties and 28 cities for which
the work is not yet completed.
The law provides for the appointment of supervisors who are to
have charge of the work of enumeration in their respective districts.
There will be in all about 575 supervisors, which is a considerable
increase over the number appointed for the census of 1920, when there
were 372. Thus the number of enumerators under the charge of each
supervisor will on the average be smaller than it was 10 years ago—
a change which, it is believed, will promote efficiency and promptness
in taking the census. On the average a supervisor at this census will
have about 170 enumerators under his charge, whereas at the last
census the average was about 230.
In past censuses the supervisors’ districts, as a rule, have conformed
to the boundaries of congressional districts, as the law provided that
that should be the case so far as practicable. But this provision was
not retained in the act for the Fifteenth Census; and it would obvi­
ously be impossible to make 575 supervisors’ districts conform to the
boundaries of 435 congressional districts. As a rule, however, each
congressional district contains the headquarters of at least one super­
visor’s district.
The law provides that the supervisors and enumerators may be
appointed by the Director of the Census without regard to civil
service laws or the classification act of 1923. The bureau is daily
receiving applications for appointments as supervisors; and every
precaution is being taken to insure the selection of competent and
intelligent men for this important task. On receiving an applica­
tion the applicant is sent a copy of the general instructions for super­
visors, a pamphlet of about 50 pages, with a request to read this and
then to notify the bureau whether he still wishes to be considered an
applicant for the position. This step is taken because it is believed
that in many instances persons apply for this position without much
idea as to what the duties of the office are, and possibly with the im­
pression that it is something in the nature of a sinecure. There have
been several instances in which the applicant, on receiving these in­
structions as to the duties of the office, has withdrawn his application.
If he still wishes to be considered an applicant, he is sent an appli­
cation blank together with a test schedule which he is required to fill
out and return with his formal application. This is the same kind
of a test that is given to the enumerators. The facts that are to be
entered on this schedule are stated in the form of a descriptive nar­
rative. and it is safe to say that no one could fill out the schedule
correctly without having carefully studied the instructions. The test
schedule, when received, is corrected in this bureau and a photostat
copy of the corrected schedule is then mailed to the applicant for his

88

REPOBT TO THE SECRET ARY OF COMMERCE

information. If he has satisfactorily passed the test and his record
and credentials are likewise satisfactory, he is given an appointment.
While the law provides that the enumerators, like the supervisors,
may be appointed by the Director of the Census, it provides also
that the authority may be delegated to the supervisors; and in prac­
tice that is what will be done in most cases. All applications for
appointments as enumerators, however, must be filed in Washington,
and the test schedules as filled out by the applicants will also be sent
to Washington where they will be marked and graded. The bureau
will then send to each supervisor the applications and corrected test
schedules of those applicants within his district who have success­
fully passed the test, from which list he will make his selections.
The work of the supervisors at the census of 1920 was, in some
instances, delayed for the reason that they were unable to secure a
sufficient number of enumerators. In order to forestall any similar
difficulty at this census and to be able to supply the supervisors when
appointed with lists of eligibles for the position of enumerator, the
bureau is taking steps to insure a sufficient number of applicants,
and up to date has received and placed on file the names of about
50,000 persons who have informally applied for employment as
enumerators.
The bureau is giving a great deal of study to the matter of deter­
mining the scope of the census as regards details, or the items and
questions that are to be carried on the schedules. In previous
censuses the items to be covered have been specified in the census
act. But the present law, while it specifies the main subjects to be
covered by the census, leaves the question of detail to the discretion
of the Director and the Secretary of Commerce under the provision
that “ the number, form, and subdivision of the inquiries in the
schedule shall be determined by the Director of the Census with the
approval of the Secretary of Commerce.” This is probably wise,
because the matter of adding a new question to the schedule or
eliminating a question included in previous censuses is one which
requires the judgment of experts and must be considered from many
angles. There is grave danger of overloading the census with detail.
One must consider not only the value of the information in itself but
its relative value as compared with other information which might
be obtained by some alternative question or questions. One must
consider the probable degree of accuracy in the answer to the pro­
posed question, and the practicability of obtaining the desired in­
formation through the agency of a census. It must be remembered
that the enumerator does not by any means see or interview every
inhabitant. He must get the data for all members of the family
from the member or members who happen to be at home at the
time of his call. The adult male members of the family are quite
likely to be absent at their places of employment. The questions
must be such as will be readily, accurately, and willingly answered
by anyone whom the enumerator may find at home. That cuts out
many topics of inquiry which would be of great value if only
we could count on getting the correct answers without delay or
embarrassment.
On this important matter of selecting and limiting the questions
cn the schedule the bureau is trying to get the best counsel available.

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

89

Advisory conferences to consider the scope and formulation of the
schedules have been organized—one on the population, another, with
a different personnel, on manufactures, a third on distribution, and
a fourth on unemployment. In formulating the agricultural sched­
ule. the bureau has been in constant conference with representatives
of the Department of Agriculture.
The bureau is establishing cooperative arrangements w7ith various
organizations and Government bureaus, when they can be of service
in connection with taking the census. It has made such arrange­
ments with the Bureau of Indian Affairs for the enumeration of
Indians on reservations; with the Foreign Service division of the
State Department for the enumeration of American citizens employed
in the foreign service of the Government; with the War Department
for the enumeration of Army posts; with the Navy Department for
the enumeration of the officers, sailors, and marines at naval bases
and on Navy vessels; with the National Park Service for the
enumeration of persons in the national parks; with the Bureau of
Lighthouses for the enumeration of persons on lightships and in
lighthouses that are not accessible to enumerators; with the Bureau
of Navigation and steamship companies for the enumeration of
persons employed on mercantile vessels; with the Bureau of Mines
for the census of mines.
A PPO R TIO N M EN T OF R E P R E SE N T A T IV E S

The census act contains a section relating to the apportionment of
Representatives. It provides that after each census the President
shall transmit to Congress a statement showing the population of
the several States as ascertained by the census and also the number
of Representatives to which each State will be entitled under an
apportionment of the then existing number of Representatives (at
present 435) by each of the following methods: (1) By the method
used in the last preceding apportionment; (2) by the method known
as the method of major fractions, which happens at this time to be
the same as (1) ; and (3) by the method known as the method of equal
proportions. Then if the Congress to which this statement is sub­
mitted fails to pass a law apportioning Representatives, the appor­
tionment by method (1) as announced by the President goes into
effect. In short, this section of the law7 provides for what may be
called an automatic apportionment in case Congress fails to act. If,
however, the statement required from the President is not submitted
within one week after Congress meets in regular session following
the census, these provisions of the law7 have no effect. So unless the
Bureau of the Census is to bear the onus of nullifying the lav7, it
must have the population count completed and the apportionment
tables ready by the time Congress meets in December following the
date of the census.
This is the first time since the passage of the act providing for
the census of 1850 that a census act has contained a section regulating
the apportionment of Representatives.

90

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
CENSUS OF PO PU LA TIO N

Of the various subjects which have come to be included in the
ever-widening scope of the decennial census, population is by far the
most important and fundamental. It is an essential factor in the
presentation of practically all statistics of social or economic phe­
nomena. The data with regard to births and deaths, for example,
would be of little value if we did not have the population figures as
a basis for rates. Population data are likewise necessary for the
interpretation of statistics of production, distribution, and trans­
portation.
The first decennial census, taken in 1790, covered only population,
and was little more than a count of the number of people, although
five classes were distinguished in the tabulation of the returns on
the basis of age, sex, color, and status (slave or free). In the census
of 1920 there were about 20 classifications; and in their various
combinations these result in literally hundreds of classes which are
shown in the present-day census reports. Furthermore, the popu­
lation figures must be published in more or less detail, not only for
States and counties but also for cities, with their wards, for smaller
incorporated places, and even for townships, election districts, etc.
The population schedule to be used in 1930 will in the main be the
.same as that used in 1920 and earlier censuses. Most of the questions
are standard questions, basic and essential in any census of popula­
tion, such as age and sex. No one would think of omitting them;
and conservatism in making changes is advisable because much of the
value of the information obtained in each decennial census depends
upon its comparability with information obtained in previous
censuses. Nevertheless in this, as in every previous census, there will
be some modifications and innovations to meet changing conditions
and new interests.
Each census since and including that of 1850 has asked the nativity
(State or country of birth) of each person enumerated; and in 1880
there were added questions calling for the nativity of each parent
(father and mother). These questions will be retained on the census
schedule for 1930. But it is proposed to omit the inquiry as to the
mother tongue or native language of foreign-born persons and for­
eign-born parents, which was introduced in the census of 1910 and
repeated in 1920. This question imposed a heavy additional burden
on the enumerators and on the office force engaged in tabulation. It
is believed that the questions as to the nativity and parent nativity
permit an adequate classification by origin of the population of for­
eign birth or parentage, and that the added information that might
be obtained by the mother-tongue question is not of sufficient value
and reliability to justify the retention of that question, especially as
the political boundaries of Europe now conform more closely to racial
divisions than was the case in 1910.
For the information of the Veterans’ Bureau two new questions
have been proposed to ascertain whether the person enumerated is a
war veteran and if so in what war he served.
Inquiry was made in 1920 as to whether or not the person lived on
a farm at the time the census was taken, the answers to this ques­
tion forming the basis for the statistics of the farm population. A
second question, as to tvhether the person lived on a farm a year

BUREAU OF TH E CEXSUS

91

ago, is to be added in 1930. The answers to these two questions, taken
in conjunction, will afford the basis for statistics of migration to and
from the farm.
Another new question on the population schedule is tlie one re­
lating to unemployment, asking in regard to every person usually
engaged in a gainful occupation whether actually at work at the
time of the census. If the answer is “No,” then, as explained later
(see p. 92), a supplementary schedule carrying additional questions
must be filled out for that person.
It is of far more concern that the data obtained once in 10 years
through the costly process of taking a census shall be adequately
tabulated and fully exploited than it is that the schedule of inquiries
shall carry every item of interest that it is practicable to include.
The population schedules of previous censuses contain a mass of
valuable data that has never been utilized. In every census since
and including that of 1850 there have been questions on the schedule
that have never been tabulated at all. There have been other ques­
tions that were inadequately tabulated.
The population schedule contains not only data regarding the
individual but equally valuable data regarding the family of which
the individual is a member. The latter class of data has been en­
tirely neglected in the past. It is hoped that this may not be the
case in the coming census.
Accordingly tentative plans have been made for a family card to be
punched after the work on the individual cards has been completed.
On this would be punched the total number of persons in the family,
the number of children, probably subdivided into two or three age
groups, the number of boarders or lodgers, and the number of rela­
tives or other dependents; the occupation of the head of the family;
the number of gainful workers; and various other items of informa­
tion about the family which are on the schedule but which have
never before been tabulated. One purpose of the family card, among
others, is to make it possible to tabulate the relative numbers of
children in the families of the various racial groups and of various
social classes as indicated by occupations.
CENSUS OE U N EM PLO Y M EN T

Inquiries with regard to unemployment were made and the results
published in connection with the censuses of 1890 and 1900. Similar
inquiries were made in 1910, but the results remained unpublished,
along with considerable other material, for lack of funds. No ques­
tion on unemployment was asked in 1920, but the Fifteenth Census
act makes specific provision for such an inquiry in 1930.
Though the law refers to a census of unemployment as though it
were to be a distinct investigation, the information must be obtained
in connection with or as a part of the population census. So far
as the plans have been worked out, there will be a question on the
population schedule asking, for every person who usually works at
a gainful occupation, whether or not he is at work on the day of the
enumerators call. There will be in addition a special schedule on
which to record further information for each person reported as not
at work.

92

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

An unemployed person is to be defined as one who is (a) usually
employed, (b) out of a job, (c) able to work, and (d) looking for a
job. Questions will be asked on the special schedule by which these
persons can be distinguished from other persons not at work on the
day of enumeration; and certain other classes, for example, those on
strike and those on lay off without pay, will probably be shown also
as supplementary items. It is believed that the tabulation of the cases
where a man has a job but is not drawing pay will afford some index
of the extent of part-time employment.
CENSUS OF A G R IC U LTU R E

Agriculture has been one of the subjects covered by each decennial
census since and including that of 1840. The act of 1919 providing
for the Fourteenth Census, while perpetuating the inclusion of agri­
culture in the decennial census, provided that a census of agriculture
should also be taken in 1925 and in every tenth year thereafter, so
that the census of agriculture is now taken every five years.
Of all the schedules used in the decennial census the one for agri­
culture is the most elaborate. One reason for this is found in the
variety of crops grown on farms in the United States. Information
as to acreage and the quantity produced is sought regarding all the
major crops and most of the minor ones. The various kinds of do­
mestic animals on farms—cows, pigs, horses, etc.—must be separately
reported and in more or less detail by age and sex. Other subjects
covered in the schedule include the acreage of the entire farm and
of certain classes of farm land such as crop land and pasture land;
the tenure under which the farm is operated; the total value of the
farm Avith separate items for buildings, for dwelling houses, and for
implements and machinery; farm debt; principal farm expenses; land
drained; farm machinery and facilities such as automobiles, tractors,
telephone, radio, etc., each separately reported; and other data.
The information obtained by these inquiries is of incalculable
value. But the schedule must be kept within workable limits and it
is necessary, therefore, to guard against undue expansion and over­
elaboration. The formulation and selection of the questions to be
included in the next census are matters of great importance to which
the bureau has been giving very careful consideration. Last Decem­
ber a joint committee composed of representatives of the Census
Bureau and of the Department of Agriculture held the first of its
meetings to prepare the schedules and outline plans for the censuses
of agriculture, irrigation, and drainage. Many suggestions had
reached the bureau relative to inquiries that it was thought should be
included in the schedule. All of these suggestions were given care­
ful consideration by the committee. Two preliminary farm schedules
were presented for discussion, one containing 275 inquiries prepared
by the census representatives, and the other containing 502 inquiries
prepared by the Department of Agriculture representatives.
On January 30, 1929, the committee submitted a tentative farm
schedule containing 375 inquiries as compared with 415 inquiries at
the census of 1920, and 5G0 inquiries at the 1910 census. A schedule,
containing 355 inquiries, was sent to the printer on April 25, and is
now in proof. This contains o\Ter 50 new questions not carried in the
census of 1920. On the other hand it omits about 110 of the questions

BUBEAU OF TH E CEXSUS

93

contained on the 1920 schedule, thus effecting a net reduction of
about 60 items.
The following are some of the more important inquiries to be made
for the first time at the census of 1930: Value of the farmer’s dwelling
house; such farm expenses as supplies and repairs for automotive
vehicles, electric current, seeds and plants, and spraying and dusting
materials; combines, electric motors, and gas engines on the farm;
the number of days the farmer was gainfully employed in work not
on his farm; the daily production of milk and eggs at the time of the
census; and the number of baby chicks bought in 1929.
A large part of the questions carried on the schedule for 1920
but omitted from that for 1930 pertained to values of livestock and
quantities of products sold or to be sold. The livestock values for
1930 will be computed from average price figures, by counties, to be
furnished by the Department of Agriculture; and the quantities sold
or to be sold will be reported for only a limited number of products.
The bureau plans to distribute 3,500,000 sample schedules to
farmers prior to the date of enumeration.
The recent decennial censuses of agriculture have included an
enumeration of livestock not on farms, the information being ob­
tained on a separate schedule, which had to be carried by all the
enumerators—those in cities and villages as well as in rural districts.
The scope of this inquiry has been extended for the coming census
to include chickens and bees not on farms.
At the urgent request of agricultural interests in the States of
California and Florida, arrangements have been made for a very
much more complete enumeration of subtropical fruits than has
heretofore been made. For this purpose a tentative supplemental
schedule containing 87 inquires was prepared by the joint committee
for use in 16 States. This schedule includes inquiries concerning
grapes, by varieties, nuts, and certain fruits grown in the West, as
well as subtropical fruits.
A supplemental schedule containing 250 inquiries has been pre­
pared, on which are to be reported all irrigated crops. At former
censuses the enumerator was instructed merely to check irrigated crops
reported on the general schedule. The use of a separate schedule
for this purpose is expected to yield more complete information on
this subject.
Schedules for irrigation and drainage enterprises have been pre­
pared by the joint committee of this bureau and the Department of
Agriculture, to which a representative of the Bureau of Reclamation,
Department of the Interior, was added for this purpose. The sched­
ule for irrigation enterprises contains 80 inquiries, and that for
drainage enterprises contains 60 inquiries. These schedules are now
in the hands of the printer.
During the past year 32 special tabulations or compilations of data
obtained in the 1925 census of agriculture have been made at the
request and at the expense of various institutions, organizations, or
individuals outside the Census Bureau. Six of these tabulations were
made by employees of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, De­
partment of Agriculture, under the supervision of the Census Bureau.
These were jobs of considerable size. In fact, one tabulation of farm
data, crops and livestock for selected counties and townships in nine

94

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

States, for use in the study of types of farming, has been in progress
for over two years, requiring the services of several clerks. Most of
the other tabulations were made at the request of agricultural colleges
or schools.
CENSUS OF MANUFACTURES

The biennial census of manufactures for the calendar year 1927
covered 201,001 establishments, comprising 169,325 engaged in the
conversion of raw or partly manufactured materials into finished or
partly finished products, 22,541 printing and publishing establish­
ments, 5,962 laundries using power-driven machinery, and 3,173 es­
tablishments in the dyeing and cleaning industry. The manufactur­
ers in general have a keen appreciation of the value of the census
statistics, but, as at previous censuses, many of them were dilatory
in preparing their reports, some of which were not received until
late in 1928. The bureau was, nevertheless, able to begin the publica­
tion of the statistics early in 1928, and the census had been well ad­
vanced toward completion by the end of the fiscal year 1929, when 26
of the 64 reports, to be issued in pamphlet form, on individual in­
dustries or on small groups of closely related industries had been
sent to the printer and the preparation of the other reports in this
series was so far along that it is expected that the last of them will
be ready not later than September 15.
The statistics are first issued in the form of mimeographed pre­
liminary reports, each presenting the outstanding information for
an industry, or in some cases for two or more related industries. In
all, the bureau has issued preliminary reports covering 267 industries,
besides a preliminary summary covering all industries by groups,
and a report on prime movers in use in manufacturing industries.
Following the publication of these preliminary summaries, the com­
plete reports are being issued in the form of the printed pamphlets
referred to above. These, together with certain additional material,
will later be assembled for final publication in the form of a single
octavo volume of approximately 1,500 pages.
In fulfillment of promises to local chambers of commerce, boards
of trade, and similar organizations in return for their cooperation
in the collection of the census data, summaries for the counties and
cities in which these organizations are located were sent to them at
thesearliest dates possible, with permission to make such use of the
figures as they might see fit. Thus, in many cases, statistics in regard
to the manufacturing activities of counties and cities were first given
to the press by the local organizations.
For census purposes manufacturing is classified into 340 industries,
of which 226 were canvassed by means of special schedules, 152 in
number, each adapted to some one industry or to two or more closely
related industries, and the remaining 114 were canvassed by a general
schedule. The number of industries canvassed by special schedules
represents a great increase over the number, 119, thus canvassed at
the census for 1925. The general schedule carries those questions
which are applicable to all industries alike. The special schedule
differs from it mainly in calling for additional detail regarding the
products of the industry to which it relates, expressed in units of
quantity so far as possible, as well as in value. This great increase

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

95

in the number of special schedules used has made it possible to com­
pile and publish production statistics—the class of statistics for
which the demand is the greatest—which are considerably wider in
scope than those given in the reports for earlier years.
A census of manufactures has regularly been included in every
decennial census beginning with that of 1840. The act of 1902
establishing the permanent Census Bureau provided that a special
census of manufactures should be taken in the year 1905 and every
10 years thereafter. This action made the census of manufactures
a quinquennial inquiry, since it continued to be included as a part
of the decennial census. Then the act of 1919, providing for the
Fourteenth Census, made the census of manufactures biennial, as it
is at present. The next regular year to be covered by the biennial
census, 1929, coincides with the year normally covered by the decen­
nial census. Accordingly the 1929 census of manufactures, it may
be said, will play a dual role, forming a part of the decennial census
while continuing the series of biennial censuses. For this reason the
scope of the next manufactures census may be somewhat expanded
as compared with the previous biennial censuses.
CENSUS OF DISTRIBUTION

The provision for a census of distribution was incorporated in the
Fifteenth Census act in response to a general demand for basic data
that would throw light upon the important problem of eliminating
unnecessary economic waste in the distribution of commodities. In
most fields of production efficiency has increased amazingly during
the last few years, and to a very large degree this is the result of the
increase in statistical and other analytical knowledge of the opera­
tions of production. There has been no corresponding improvement
in the field of distribution.
The average output per worker in production has increased 85 per
cent since the beginning of the century and 34 per cent since the
end of the war. We have no comparable figures to show the changes
in efficiency in distribution, but the fact that production is taking a
smaller and distribution a larger share of the consumer’s dollars
than before the war makes it quite clear that distribution has not
increased in efficiency so rapidly as production.
There certainly is some relation between this situation and the
fact that, while we have abundant data regarding production, we
have very few dependable statistics covering the field of distribution.
It is but natural, then, that business is now demanding that the Gov­
ernment should provide better statistics of distribution.
Much preliminary work has been carried on to determine the scope
of the distribution census or the inquiries that it should carry. A
number of conferences have been held with representatives of trade
organizations, chambers of commerce, industrial organizations, stat­
isticians, economists, and others interested in distribution problems
for the purpose of securing their view's and suggestions regarding the
particular type of data required by business generally. These inter­
views developed the need of reliable information relating to the inter­
change of commodities by industry, with special reference to the
industrial market for different classes of commodities used in further
fabrication.

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REFORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The test census of distribution taken in 11 cities in 1927 developed
important facts in regard to the sales of commodities by retailers,
wholesalers, brokers, and similar agencies. No effort was made at
that census, however, to include data relating to the sale of commodi­
ties by one manufacturer to other manufacturers for use in assem­
bling or for the purpose of fabricating other products. To determine
the practicability of including industrial distribution in the national
census a canvass was made in Cleveland in cooperation with the
domestic commerce division of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce. The questionnaire used called for the kind and cost of
raw materials, semifinished products and completely manufactured
parts, and mill supplies and fuel purchased and used by manufactur­
ing establishments in Cleveland in fabricating products for sale, as
well as the kind and cost of materials, equipment and supplies pur­
chased for use in plant maintenance, extensions to plant and build­
ings, and plant operation. The questionnaire also included an inquiry
showing the kind and volume of products sold by method of distribu­
tion, as follows: (1) Sold to wholesalers, jobbers, etc.; (2) sold to
chain stores; (3) sold to retailers; (4) sold direct to consumers; and
(5) sold to miscellaneous purchasers.
In cooperation with the domestic commerce division of the Bureau
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce and the Louisville grocery sur­
vey a census of food outlets was made in Louisville, Ky.
The results of these censuses and the experience gained in making
the canvasses will be taken into account in formulating plans for the
national census.
Plans have been completed to organize an advisory committee and
secure the assistance of men familiar with the different phases of
distribution, to advise the bureau regarding the scope of the census,
the form of questionnaires, methods of tabulation, form of presenta­
tion. and numerous problems incident to original research in this
field of statistics.
In the cities the census of distribution will not be covered in the
same canvass with the enumeration of the population, but will be
taken at an earlier date by special enumerators selected for that work.
But it is probable that the data for the country stores and other
establishments in rural districts will be secured by the regular census
enumerators employed in taking the censuses of population and agri­
culture in April.
CENSUS OF ELECTRICAL INDUSTRIES

The quinquennial census of electrical industries, covering central
electric light and power stations, electric railways, telephones, and
telegraphs, was taken for the calendar year 1927. The schedules were
formulated in accordance with recommendations made by repre­
sentatives of the electrical industries. The canvass was commenced
promptly after the close of 1927 and was practically completed by the
end of 1928.
Preliminary reports in mimeographed form. 49 in number, were
issued during a period of approximately eight months beginning
in September, 1928. The preliminary reports on central electric light
and power stations presented statistics as to number of companies or
systems, number of employees, expenses, output, equipment, etc., for

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97

the United States as a whole and for the individual States. The
reports on electric railw ays, telephones, and telegraphs were less com­
prehensive but summarized the figures of fundamental importance.
The final reports will be sent to the printer before the close of 1939
and will be issued early in 1930.
As the quinquennial census of electrical industries and the biennial
census of manufactures covered the same year, a special effort was
made to prepare complete statistics on electric power. Data in regard
to electric and Other power in use in manufacturing industries are
collected regularly at each census of manufactures. Thus the only
special inquiry needed to make the presentation complete was the
canvass of the so-called “ isolated ” power plants—plants operated by
mines, quarries, hotels, amusement parks, etc. This wag made by
sending a very simple form of schedule, calling for data in regard to
horsepower of prime movers, kilowatt capacity of generators, and
number of kilowatt-hours of output, to the isolated plants which
operated generators having a capacity of 100 kilowatts or more.
It thus became possible for the first time, by combining the data for
electric light and power plants proper, electric-railway powder plants,
electric power plants operated by manufacturing establishments, and
the isolated electric plants, to calculate, with a fairly close approxi­
mation of accuracy, the total kilowatt capacity of generators in
operation and the total output of electric current in the United
States.
FINANCIAL STATISTICS OF STATE AND CITY GOVERNMENTS

Financial statistics of State governments.—On June 30, 1929, the
work of collecting and compiling the financial statistics of the gov­
ernments of the 48 States for the fiscal year ended December 31,
1928, was about 40 per cent complete. Preliminary summaries for
the individual States are issued as rapidly as possible after the field
work in each State is completed.
The copy for the 1927 report was transmitted to the printer
November 23, 1928, and has now been printed and distributed.
Financial statistics of city governments.—The cities covered by
this annual survey are those having a population of 30,000 and over
as shown by the population census of 1920, or as shown by a special
population census taken since that time. There were 250 cities in
this class in 1928, and press summaries giving preliminary statistics
for the fiscal year 1928 had been issued for 62 of these cities by June
30, 1928. The copy for the final report on this subject will be ready
to go to the printer as soon as the summary for the last city is
issued.
The copy for the 1927 report was transmitted to the printer Jan­
uary 31. 1929, and the report is now being printed.
For the fiscal year 1925 the plan of having some of the State and
city officials fill out the census schedules was tried for the first time,
and since that year the number preparing these financial statements
has gradually increased. For the year 1928 the officials of 3« States
and 154 cities agreed to do the work. Prior to 1925 it had been the
practice of the bureau to have the financial statements for each of
the 48 States and 250 cities included in the survey compiled by
7S415—29----- 7

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REPORT TO TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

trained employees of the bureau. The services of these employees
are now required on work connected with the Fifteenth Decennial
Census; therefore, it is necessary during the census period to have
the majority of the State and city reports compiled by local officials.
This plan of having the census schedules filled out by State and city
officials was approved by the National Association of State Auditors,
Comptrollers, and Treasurers at their annual meeting in November,
1928.
The National Association of State Auditors, Comptrollers, and
Treasurers and the International Association of Comptrollers and
Accounting Officers have appointed committees to confer with the
bureau on methods of collecting and compiling statistical informa­
tion relating to State and city governments. These committees were
called in session last year, and in conjunction with the officials of
the bureau in charge of the collection and compilation of State and
city financial statistics, the schedules and books of instruction were
revised to incorporate all needed changes.
CURRENT BUSINESS STATISTICS

The bureau during the past year has continued to compile and
publish at regular intervals, usually monthly or quarterly, statistics
regarding production of various commodities. The basic data are
generally furnished directly by the producers without expense to the
bureau.
The most comprehensive of these compilations and the one of
longest standing is that relating to the production of cotton, or the
cotton-ginning inquiry, which was established in 1900 and has been
kept up ever since. This now requires the employment of about 700
field agents to send in the reports and an annual expenditure author­
ized by Congress of more than $275,000. The scope of this inquiry
has been described in my previous annual reports and there have been
no developments or changes of any importance in regard to it during
the past year.
The list of other commodities for which current data are collected
includes fats and oils; hides, skins, and leather; boots and shoes;
leather gloves and mittens; wheat and flour; wool and wool manu­
factures; hosiery and knitted underwear; clothing; pyroxylin-coated
textiles; automobiles; railroad locomotives; electrical goods, electric
industrial trucks and tractors, and mining and industrial electric
locomotives; wood chemicals; paints and varnishes; oil burners;
babbitt metal; boxboard; enameled sanitary ware; enameled and
galvanized sheet metal ware; fertilizers; edible gelatin and animal
glues; fire-extinguishing equipment; steel castings and malleable
castings; steel barrels; mechanical stokers; fabricated structural
steel, steel boilers, fabricated steel plate, and steel furniture; pumps,
water systems, and water softeners; porcleain and vitreous-china
plumbing fixtures; terra cotta and floor wall tile; etc.
SURVEY OF CURRENT BUSINESS

The monthly Survey of Current Business published by this bu­
reau has appropriately been called the clearing house of business
statistics, in that it brings together the current reports of business

BUREAU OF TH E CENSUS

99

activities issued by this bureau, as well as those compiled by other
governmental agencies and representative private organizations, in­
cluding trade associations. This' monthly bulletin, which contains
now approximately 1,800 individual statistical series, has definitely
established its place in the field of current economic and statistical
literature, being now perhaps the leading source of business statis­
tics. It publishes figures covering production, stocks on hand, sales,
prices, exports, imports, one or more of these or other business in­
dices for each of more than 240 commodities. An increasingly large
number of requests for figures on many subjects not now covered on
a current basis evidences the increasing demand for statistical data
on the part of business executives throughout the country. To keep
pace with this growing interest in current figures, the Survey is
aiming to broaden the scope of the inquiries so as to cover particu­
larly such new industries as rayon, oil burners, radio, etc., with a view
to filling in the statistical gaps which now exist. During the year
the collection of monthly data from oil-burner manufacturers was
authorized, a sufficient degree of cooperation from the manufacturers
of this industry having been assured. Statistics on paints and
varnishes, which hitherto had been reported to the bureau semi­
annually, were studied with a view to providing this important in­
dustry with monthly data after assurances that the industry required
current figures for the establishment of its own production and mer­
chandising policies. These are but samples of the work which the
Survey of Current Business is doing to help business help itself.
In my last annual report I referred to the Record Book of Busi­
ness Statistics which, by presenting monthly figures so far as avail­
able from 1909 through 1926 on the various items shown in the
Survey, is designed to furnish an historical background to the Sur­
vey by supplying data for earlier census years for comparison
with recent or current data. Two parts of the Record Book, one
covering textiles and the other covering metals and machinery, were
issued during the fiscal year 1928. This last year Part 3, covering
fuels, automobiles, and rubber, has been completed and sent to the
printer.
The monograph on How to Use Current Business Statistics, which
was prepared and published during the preceding year, has had
a large sale, thus giving weight to the belief that further monographs
concerning statistical problems might be prepared and published
with profit to business and industry generally.
VITAL STATISTICS

In the United States the responsibility for the registration of
births and deaths rests upon local and State agencies as established
and controlled by State laws. The Federal registration area, for
which statistics are compiled by the Bureau of the Census, com­
prises those States and Territories which are found to be receiving
reports, under their own legal and administrative procedure, of 90
per cent or more of the births and deaths which actually occur. The
completeness of reporting is measured in each case "by a special
test carried out by the Bureau of the Census. No State is eligible
for this test until the model registration law or some equally satis­

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

factory law has been enacted by the State legislature and has been in
force long enough to justify the belief that it is working satisfac­
torily.
At the present time South Dakota is the only State in the Union
which does not have satisfactory birth and death registration laws.
The effort to secure such legislation at the last session of the legis­
lature failed in spite of the active support of the health authorities
and the favorable recommendations of this bureau and of various
State and national agencies interested in vital statistics. Texas and
New Mexico have recently enacted satisfactory laws, and an intensive
i ampaign to promote registration has been going on under the leader­
ship oi the State health authorities but with the very active coop­
eration of this bureau and of the committee appointed by the vital
statistics section of the American Public Health Association. This
committee combines the effectiveness and unifies the efforts of officials
of the Census Bureau, the Children’s Bureau, the United States Pub­
lic Health Service, and other organizations, such as the American
Red Cross, the Boy Scouts of America, the United States Chamber
of Commerce, certain large insurance companies, the National Tuber­
culosis Association, and the International Health Board. The health
officials of Texas and New Mexico are confident that their States
will be able to meet the Federal requirements as to completeness of
registration before the end of the calendar year 1929, and plans are
now being made to carry out the test previously referred to.
Since my last report Nevada has been added to the death registra­
tion area, so that at present the area includes 45 States, and 10 cities
in nonregistration States, a total estimated population of 114,572,000,
or 95,5 per cent of the population of continental United States.
Colorado and Nevada have been added to the birth-registration
area, and South Carolina has been readmitted, so that at present the
area includes 45 States with a total estimated population of 113,426,000, or 94.5 per cent of the population of continental United
States.
In 1927, the last year for which returns have been received and
tabulated, there were 1,236,949 deaths in the registration area, or a
death rate of 11.4 per thousand population, the lowest rate ever re­
corded by the bureau. In the same year there were 2,137,836 births,
corresponding to a birth rate of 20.6 per thousand population. This
rate, the same as 1926, is also the lowest recorded since 1915 when
the birth registration area was established.
Two annual reports have been printed during the fiscal year,
namely, Mortality Statistics, 1925, Part I I : Mortality Statistics, 1926,
Part I; Births, Stillbirths, and Infant Mortality Statistics, 1925,
Part II; and Births, Stillbirths, and Infant Mortality Statistics,
1926, Part I.
In response to an invitation from the French Government, trans­
mitted through the State Department, the bureau will send the chief
statistician for vital statistics to the International Conference to be
held in Paris in October, 1929, for the fourth revision of the Inter­
national List of Causes of Death. In addition to the chief statis­
tician I have designated six additional representatives of State and
national agencies which are interested in the purpose of this con­
ference. The Internationa] List, which is to be revised, is accepted

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

101

as the authoritative nomenclature throughout the civilized world.
It has already been adopted officially by some 4b or 50 countries.
The work of revising the first edition of the Standard Nomencla­
ture of Diseases and Pathological Conditions, Injuries, and Poison­
ings for the United States is progressing.
During the fiscal year the bureau has issued 112 mimeographed
statements, with a total edition of 404,000, giving summaries of sta­
tistics covering births, deaths, infant mortality, and automobile
fatalities. These include the Weekly Health Index, issued each
Wednesday, which gives the number of deaths in each of the largest
cities from which telegraphic reports have been received up to 11
a. m., on Tuesday, and the 4-week summary of automobile fatalities
based on weekly telegraphic reports from the registrars of 78 major
cities with a total population of approximately 33,000,000. The
latest of these summaries is that for the four weeks ending June 15,
1029, which shows a death rate of 23.8 per 100,000 for the preceding
52 weeks as compared with a rate of 22.4 for the 52 weeks ending
June 16 of the previous year. In addition, there have been mailed
over 7,000 letters and approximately 2,000 packages.
The new forms for the standard certificates of birth and death have
been approved by the vital statistics section of the American Public
Health Association and by the Association of State and Provincial
Health Officers, and distribution will be begun in ample time for use
beginning January, 1930.
An ever-increasing use of the data collected and analyzed by the
divisic of vital statistics is being made by insurance companies,
foundations for research, and other agencies—official, semiofficial,
and private. During the year the division has made 219 special com­
pilations of data by request for 71 different organizations, (lie ci st
of the compilation, if appreciable, being met by the organization
making the request. This does not include the many requests com­
ing from private individuals engaged in research, from State or
municipal governments, and from Members of Congress.
MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE

The statistics of marriage and divorce continue to be received by
the public with a high degree of interest. The preliminary sum­
maries, which are issued for the individual States as rapidly as the
county officers have completed their reports, are given close study,
as is attested by the hundreds of press clippings received. This is
especially true of localities where rigid State laws have been enacted
in an effort to curb hasty marriages or to make the granting of a
divorce a more difficult proposition. The reports for the surrounding
States are carefully scanned by the press of the country with a view
of ascertaining whether or not the border counties show marked
changes in figures, and the results are commented on at length.
It is unfortunate that lack of uniformity in the information re­
corded by the officials issuing marriage licenses in the various States
prevents the publishing of anything further than the actual number
of marriages performed in the United States, by States and counties.
Many requests for additional data are received—particularly the age
of the contracting parties. Fairly uniform information on a number

102

REPORT 1 0 THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

of subjects is obtained from court records with regard to divorces
granted and marriages annulled.
The statistics of marriage are now obtained from some office of
the State government in 29 States, and the statistics for divorce are
likewise obtained from State officials in 16 States, with a prospect
that 1 more State will be added to the list next year. In the other
States it is necessary to obtain the information from county officials.
On June 30,1929, the work of securing the information with regard
to marriages and divorces in 1928 was about 90 per cent complete,
reports having been received for 1,057,608 marriages. 180,674 di­
vorces, and 3,930 annulments, as compared with a total of 1,201,053
marriages, 192,037 divorces, and 4,255 annulments for the year 1927.
Preliminary press statements have been issued for 28 States.
ANNUAL CENSUS OF INSTITUTIONS

During the fiscal year the Census Bureau has continued the col­
lection of data for the annual census of Federal and State insti­
tutions, including (1) prisons and reformatories, (2) institutions
for mental patients, and (3) institutions for the feeble-minded and
for epileptics. Splendid cooperation has been received from the
State administrative agencies and institutions in filling out the
schedules of questionnaires. Returns covering the year 1927 were
received for all of the 165 State hospitals for mental disease, for the
73 institutions for feeble-minded and epileptics, and for 95 out of
100 prisons and reformatories.
Page proof of the detailed report on prisoners for 1926 has been
corrected and returned to the printer.
The manuscript of the report on mental patients covering two
years, 1926 and 1927, has been sent to the printer. The correspond­
ing report for feeble-minded and epileptics for 1926 and 1927 is in
preparation.
The machine tabulation of the data on prisoners for 1927 has
been completed and the report is in preparation.
Preliminary summaries giving statistics by States and various
census years through 1927 have been issued for each principal class
of institutions covered by the census. Separate announcements on
prisoners have been issued for 32 States, and on mental patients
for 34 States.
RELIGIOUS BODIES

Work on the census of religious bodies has been completed, ex­
cept for the handling of proof on material sent to the printer but
not yet in type. The results have been published in a series of
denominational bulletins, each bulletin covering either a single de­
nomination or a group of related denominations. In all there were
96 bulletins covering 213 denominations besides a bulletin cover­
ing federated churches and 1 for independent churches. These
bulletins give detailed statistics, the denominational history, doc­
trine, polity, and work. The statements concerning the history, doc­
trine, etc., were prepared by some person in a position of prominence
or authority in the denomination, who was qualified to speak for
the denomination on the subjects. Prior to the release the material

BUREAU OE THE CENSUS

103

in page form was submitted to each denomination for approval
before the data were made public. In addition to these bulletins,
press releases were issued for all of the denominations, and similar
releases were made for each State.
The final report for the Census of Religious Bodies will be issued
in two octavo volumes. Volume I (about 500 pages) will contain
a general discussion and introductory comments to the tables. The
statistics in this volume will show data for the United States as a
whole, the States, cities of 25,000 and over, and political subdivi­
sions. In Volume II the denomination bulletins which have been
issued will be brought together in a single volume of about 1,500
pages, which will be virtually an encyclopedia of religions in the
United States. All of the textual material and tables for both vol­
umes are now in the hands of the Government Printing Office.
CENSUS MONOGRAPHS

The census monograph on Growth of Manufactures, by Edmund E.
Day and Woodlief Thomas was published last November. Two other
monographs—Earnings of Factory Workers, 1896 to 1927, by Paul
F. Brissenden, and Women in Gainful Occupations, by Joseph A.
Hill—were completed and sent to the printer in the past year. The
monograph on Ratio of Women to Children, by Warren S. Thomp­
son, is still in manuscript.
No other monographs have been projected and probably none will
be until after we have the results of the next census.
MACHINES USED IN CENSUS TABULATION

During the past year the mechanical laboratory has built 10 unit
tabulating machines to be used in tabulating statistics of population
in the coming census. The bureau has purchased 630 individual
card punches and 400 individual card-punch verifiers and 900 sched­
ule holders. The present electrical tabulation equipment of the
bureau includes 37 card-unit tabulators, 27 card sorters, 3 card
counters, 12 gang punches, and 8 adding-machine tabulators.
A number of tests of equipment have been made, and it has been
ascertained that the machines to be used are superior in every way
to the equipment used at prior censuses.
TABULATION WORK

In the aggregate the work performed by the tabulation division
of the bureau during the fiscal year amounted to a run of 98,743,047
cards; that is, it was equivalent to passing that number of cards
through one machine one time. Of course, the number of separate
cards handled is less than that, since the same card may be run
through the machines two or three or more times in the course of the
tabulation.
The above total includes tabulations made by request for other
branches of the Government or for outside agencies amounting to
10.171.210 card units. The outside agencies making the requests meet

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

the expense of the tabulation sometimes by depositing a sum in
advance to pay for the necessary service of clerks employed by the
bureau, and sometimes by appointing and paying directly the clerks
to be employed on the work. The total cost of work done for either
outside agencies or for other branches of the Federal Government
was $6,377.74. It includes tabulations for the Personnel Classifica­
tion Board, the Treasury Department (General Supply Committee),
the Milbank Memorial Fund, the University of Chicago, the Boston
Department of Public Health, the Institute of Social and Religious
Research, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Depart­
ment of Rural Sociology.
The great bulk of the tabulating work of the bureau the past year
consisted in the tabulation of births and deaths, amounting to 73,229,158 card units. This work recurs every year, as these are annual
inquiries.
As indicating roughly the approaching expansion of the tabulation
work that will be necessary in connection with the decennial census,
it may be stated that the tabulation of the Fourteenth Census was
equivalent to approximately 2,500,000,000 card units. It will natu­
rally be more than that in the Fifteenth Census.
OFFICE FORCE

Nuviber of employees.—The office force at the close of June 30,
1929, comprised 709 officials, clerks, etc., 19 experts and assistants in
the mechanical laboratory, and 197 temporary employees engaged on
the work of the census of manufactures and the preliminary work
of the Fifteenth Decennial Census, making a total of 925. The aver­
age number of persons employed in the office in Washington during
the entire year was 866, as compared with 845 for the preceding
year.
In addition, there were 23 temporary employees whose compensa­
tion was paid by certain social, industrial, and other organizations;
and 78 employees of other departments or bureaus serving without
compensation. These two classes of agents were engaged in search­
ing the census schedules for the purpose of obtaining data which are
not included in the bureau’s published reports.
FIELD FORCE

The field force at the close of June 30, 1929, numbered 864 and
comprised 10 consulting experts; 721 special agents employed
throughout the Cotton Belt to collect data for cotton reports, show­
ing the quantity of cotton ginned to specified dates, cotton consumed
and stocks held, bale weights, etc.; and 133 special agents employed
on the preliminary work of the Fifteenth Decennial Census, or
on the inquiries relating to vital statistics, or on financial statistics
of States and cities. In addition, there were 13 special agents at
$1 per annum, employees of chambers of commerce and other
industrial organizations, and 104 employees of other departments
or bureaus who were serving without compensation. During the
year 380 agents were appointed for the various inquiries, 49 of

BUREAU OP THE CENSUS

105

this number being enumerators of special censuses who were paid by
the respective localities.
Classification.—The difficulties that have always been encountered
since the passage of the classification act in properly classifying the
bureau’s shifting force have been increased in the past year on ac­
count of the preliminary work for the approaching census. There
were 334 transfers of employees (including temporary clerks) from
one main division to another during this period. New job descrip­
tions were submitted to the Personnel Classification Board for 136
employees, 22 of these being for new appointees, 77 being realloca­
tions of old jobs, and 37 being due to changes in work. Twentyfive appeals are still pending. The board during the past year ap­
proved 21 appeals and disapproved 43.
Very truly yours,
W. M. S teuart ,
Director of the Census.

BU R EA U OF FOREIGN A N D DOMESTIC COMMERCE
B ureau

of

D epartment of C ommerce .
F oreign and D omestic C ommerce ,

Washington, July 1, 1920.

The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear Mr. S ecretary : Because of the increased speed at which

present-day commerce is carried on there is call as never before for
thoroughgoing, far-reaching, unbiased fact-finding studies to form
a groundwork on which to build sound, yet forward-looking business
policies.
The bureau has always taken the position that business should, so
far as possible, conduct such research as it needs through its own
organizations. Nevertheless, there are certain types of investiga­
tions that can not be initiated by private interests, that can be under­
taken successfully only by an entity possessing both the confidence of
the public and the prestige that goes with a governmental charter.
The bureau’s studies, accordingly, have in the main been confined to
this latter class—those that could not well be undertaken by private
agencies.
The past year has emphasized more than ever the many striking
changes impending in the domestic field. One has only to note the
recent developments in chain stores, in mail-order establishments, in
cooperative wholesale buying, in mergers of wholesale and retail
houses, in direct-to-retailer selling, and a host of like innovations to
realize that our whole system of domestic distribution is in a state of
flux. No one can predict what changes the next 5 or 10 years may
bring; but it is clear that the most important business problems of
the moment are those of marketing and distribution.
In the foreign field we have not only maintained but have most
gratifvingly improved our export position. Last year, for the first
time since 1920-21, shipments of American merchandise abroad ex­
ceeded five billion dollars. With a value of $5,264,000,000 they were
one-half larger than the United Kingdom’s exports of British goods
and three-fourths greater than Germany’s domestic exports.
Our export trade affects production and employment within the
country to a degree not always realized. We sell abroad about oneeighth of the total produce of our farms and about one-tenth of the
goods turned out by our factories. The cutting off of our foreign
commerce would not merely directly deprive of employment a great
army of people but would have its repercussion in every avenue of
activity and make uncertain the status of even those workers who
produce solely for domestic consumption. The bureau feels that its
widespread and thoroughly organized efforts for the expansion of
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107

the export trade unquestionably have contributed to the economic'
stability of all who labor, for the fact that there is an export outlet
makes prices better, wages higher, and employment more secure.
The demand for most agricultural products is by the very natureof things limited, and world consumption thereof can not be greatly'
stimulated by the activity of sellers or by anything that governments
can do. The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce has never­
theless been of great aid to the American farmer in helping him
market his products in competition with other exporting countries,
and as to certain classes of products it has been able to aid also in
developing demand abroad. It is a matter of gratification that,
although our exports of foodstuffs are less than during the war
period and the immediate postwar years when European agriculture
was demoralized, they are greater to-day than before the World
War—and that in spite of the expansion of agriculture in countries
such as Canada, Australia, and Argentina.
The rapid growth of our exports of manufactured commodities is
partly the result of general world progress in wealth and well-being.
The demand for most manufactured commodities, unlike that for
many products of the farm, is capable of almost indefinite expansion,
and, besides, new manufactured articles constantly are being intro­
duced. A great part, however, of the credit for the growth of our
exports of manufactured goods may be claimed for the efficiency of
American factory methods and of American salesmanship, including
in the latter the activities of this bureau. During the past fiscal
year our exports of finished manufactures reached the huge sum of
$2,509,000,000, being 22 per cent larger than in 1927-28 and 107 per
cent larger than in 1921-22. The greatest gains during recent years
have been in motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, and other highly
elaborated products.
It is true that exports constitute a smaller proportion of the output
of industry in the United States than in Great Britain, Germany,
and certain other countries. This is due to the fortunate circum­
stance that the United States, being exceptionally self-sufficient, does
not need to seek abroad so large a part of what it consumes as do
countries of less varied and adequate resources, and does not have to
export a very great fraction of what it produces to pay for what it
imports. Nevertheless, the proportion of the produce of our farms,
mines, and factories which is sent abroad is important, and the
absence of an export market would be no small disaster to our
economic life.
This fact lends gravity to the problem facing American business
in the renewed competitive ability of European industry. Great
Britain has begun to rationalize, or recondition, its industries,
to the end that, hy replacement of plant and by enlargement of the
industrial unit through regrouping or consolidation, the country may
obtain the benefits of elimination of waste, standardization and sim­
plification of practice, and other economies which attend large-scale
production. With the reparation liabilities finally fixed and with
the other advantages accruing under the Young plan, Germany is nowfree to release its revivified economic pow-ers. There is danger, too,
lest by customs restrictions or the institution of more quota systems
(as in the case of motion pictures) American exports will be cur­

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY- OF COMMERCE

tailed in certain markets. American commerce must be prepared
to face a new situation.
Adaptation to changing conditions has always been needful in
industry and trade. The signs are that more adaptation than usual
will be called for in those industries that rely on foreign markets
as outlets for surplus production. From now on competition in
foreign trade is going to be the keenest we have had since foreign
trade came to mean much to us.
The accompanying report covers the activities of the Bureau of
Foreign and Domestic Commerce for the fiscal year 1928-29, during
the greater part of which Dr. Julius Klein was director. From the
date of his appointment as Assistant Secretary of the department to
the close of the year he gave to this organization the same enthusiastic
and active support that distinguished his eight years of service as
director.
THE BUREAU'S DOMESTIC COMMERCE WORK

There has perhaps never been a time when business was more con­
fused with regard to the future of existing marketing and distribu­
tion methods. The growth of the chain-store movement, the large
number of mergers (often involving old-established distributing
houses), the pressure of mass production for new outlets, the devel­
opment of hand-to-mouth buying and of installment selling are
only a few of the indications that deep-seated changes are taking
place.
Under these conditions business must have some constructive assist­
ance. The bureau’s experience in the past has been that manufactur­
ers and distributors welcome help from the Government in solving
these difficult problems.
The whole field of market research is relatively new; much pioneer­
ing must still be done. For working out certain phases of the study
there must 1« some agency in which the business public has entire
confidence and which, because it has nothing to sell, can present its
findings in a wholly unbiased manner. The bureau’s activities of
the past year have demonstrated that it can perform this function
satisfactorily and at the same time supplement and reinforce what is
being done by private organizations.
That business men desire the bureau to continue its activities in
this field was shown by the unanimous adoption, at the annual meet­
ing of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States last May, of a
resolution reading: “ Congress shoidd provide more adequate appro­
priations to permit the division of domestic commerce of the De­
partment of Commerce to undertake detailed cooperative distribution
studies with those fields of industry which are interested.” The
moderate increase in the funds available for domestic-commerce in­
vestigations last year made it possible to expand this work in a num­
ber of directions.
REGIONAL COMMERCIAL SURVEYS

The domestic commerce division has been engaged in a series of
comprehensive surveys that attempt to bring together pertinent facts
regarding commercial operations in different sections of the country.

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109

Such of this information as already exists in governmental bureaus
or can be procured from outside sources is supplemented by intensive
work on the ground by trained market analysts through interviews
with manufacturers, merchants, bankers, farmers, and others in the
territory under study. Each survey aims to bring out particulars of
buying habits, consumer demand, commodity preferences, merchan­
dising and credit practices, factors involving advertising appeal,
those affecting store and plant location, and many other points.
The Commercial Survey of the Southeast, published last year as a
report of some 475 pages, has met with an unusually favorable recep­
tion. The Commercial Survey of New England, second in the series,
will comprise three volumes, of which The Market Data Handbook
of New England has already appeared. The handbook is designed,
among other things, to serve as a working manual in laying out sales
territories, fixing sales quotas, routing salesmen, and determining
areas which can profitably be handled from individual stores or
branch houses. The other two volumes, The Industrial Structure of
New England and The Commercial Structure of New England, now
in press, will contain a wealth of new details on the industrial and
commercial trend in that region. Manuscript for The Commercial
Survey of the Pacific Southwest is nearly completed; it is based on
more than 2,000 separate interviews with business men in all kinds
of commercial and industrial undertakings in this rapidly growing
region. Work was begun on two new surveys covering, respectively,
the Gulf Southwest and the Pacific Northwest. Preliminary reports
will be issued in the early months of the current fiscal year.
In addition to the formal reports on these surveys, special bulletins
were issued bearing on particular phases. These were entitled “ The
External Trade of New England,” “ The Retailer and the Consumer
in New England,” “ New England Manufactures in the Nation’s
Commerce,” and “ Transcontinental and Intercoastal Trade of the
Pacific Southwest in 1926.”
There also was prepared during the year the manuscript of a
Market Data Handbook for the United States, which brings together
in one place, by counties, information needed by the market analyst.
Although this handbook will contain some material obtainable from
other sources, approximately 70 per cent of the figures will be en­
tirely new. Many of them have been secured by the tabulation of
new data from the Bureau of the Census, Bureau of Mines, Bureau
of Fisheries, and the Department of Agriculture, as well as through
cooperation with nongovernmental organizations. Business men wholiave been consulted are enthusiastic over the benefits that will derive
from this publication.
COST-OF-DISTRIBUTION STUDIES

A phase of the bureau’s domestic-commerce work which attracted
much attention during the year had to do with costs of distribution.
Several studies along this line were completed and others are under
way. A bulletin, entitled “ The Wholesale Grocer’s Problems,” pub­
lished in the fall of 1928, analyzed the operations of a large wholesale
grocery house considered representative. Among other things, this
research brought out that the firm was handling 2,100 items through

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BEl'ORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

its warehouses, whereas representative chain stores serve their patrons
with but 700 or 800 items; that many of the articles stocked were
moving so slowly that warehouse and inventory expense absorbed all
possible profit long before the goods were sold; that 45 per cent, by
number, of its orders were for amounts of $10 or less, and that no
$10 order could be handled by it at a profit. These facts have pointed
the way to the elimination of many wasteful operations in our na­
tional distribution system.
Another bulletin issued during the year under the title “ The
Retail Grocer’s Problems ” presented a somewhat similar analysis
of a single retail grocery store. Study of display, credit, delivery,
commodity selection, and related matters revealed many wasteful
practices.
These two studies furnished the basis for the bureau to undertake
what has come to be widely known as the Louisville grocery survey,
the most comprehensive study of distribution problems ever carried
out for any group of commodities. It involved the tracing of the
movement of food products through the market of Louisville, Ky.,
from wholesaler to consumer. The information developed while
the work was in progress was so valuable as to warrant the calling
of a national conference of grocery executives in that city. This
conference was attended by the leaders of that industry, and at its
close thev expressed, as a body, their interest and confidence in the
work. Since then they have, as individuals, offered the department
strong support and cooperation.
The scope and plan of this survey were found to be of deep
interest not only to those directly concerned in the purveying of
food products but also to leaders in practically every line of industry
and trade. Although the field work in Louisville was not finished
until June 30, the merchants there had already taken good advan­
tage of the facts unearthed. One store reported a 25 per cent
increase in business within three months with no increase in expenses;
another was able to reduce its working force and at the same time
see a material increase in volume of sales. Throughout the city there
is much evidence of a new spirit among the retail dealers, and
stores in large numbers are adjusting their methods to meet modern
standards. Because this survey represents the first practical attempt
to bring manufacturers, wholesalers, and retailers to a mutual con­
sideration of their problems, the final report will point the way to a
closer cooperation between these three links in the distribution chain.
The domestic commerce division also conducted during the year
studies of operating costs and merchandising methods in the whole­
sale dry goods, electrical jobbing, and wholesale paint-and-varnish
trade. The preliminary reports issued have brought widespread
and favorable comment.
Some idea of the increase in the work undertaken by this division
may be had when it is recalled that during 1927-28 the operations
of only 2 firms were studied in detail, whereas last year those of 9
wholesale and 27 retail houses, representing four major industries,
were analyzed. The work is now somewhat beyond the experimental
stage, and savings reported by the establishments in which our
researches have been made denote the practical nature of the studies.

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111

The president of one of these companies stated that his organization
had been able to both decrease its gross margin and increase its net
profit in the face of the most severe competition it had ever encoun­
tered. There can be little doubt that wide dissemination of the
information obtained in these surveys will make for a general raising
of standards in the field of distribution.
It is significant to note the acceptance of the bureau’s plan in this
work by the business interests involved as expressed in a resolution
adopted by the national wholesale conference recently held under the
auspices of the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, which
is quoted in part below:

It is recommended tlmt unit cost studies be encouraged which will discover
the entailments of each unit operation large enough or important enough seri­
ously to affect operating results, to the end that causes of inefficiency may be un­
covered and correctives may be suggested which will reduce or eliminate losses.
Whereas there is no body which can initiate, organize, and carry through
widespread cost investigation, commanding unanimous support because of its
thoroughness, impartiality, and responsibility, which is essential to the general
acceptance of its findings: Therefore,
It is recommended that the Department of Commerce be asked to inaugurate
a movement to establish a central control of cost studies, organized, directed,
and supervised by the department, to which trade associations and other groups
may appeal to initiate and conduct such inquiries as may be desired by them,
in order that the results may be published in such form and with such dispatch
as would foster the extension of this type of inquiry and promote the introduc­
tion of methods adapted to meet the pressing need for distributive economy.
INDUSTRIAL MARKET STUDIES

During the year the domestic commerce division completed a re­
port on the gray-iron foundry industry which, although as yet issued
-only in preliminary form, has had a far-reaching effect upon this
industry and has been responsible,, in a measure, for putting it on a
better economic basis. Other studies now under way or arranged for
include surveys of leather-glove distribution, in cooperation with the
National Association of Leather Glove and Mitten Manufacturers;
the distribution of pumps and water systems, in cooperation with
that industry; the blue-print and allied industries; knitting machines
in the knitted-outerwear industry in the vicinity of Philadelphia;
and lathes in use in the wood-turning industry.
The two latter studies are concerned with an investigation of in­
dustrial equipment which has been urged upon the bureau by leaders
in various fields. It is believed by many that the present overcapacity
in certain industries is closely tied up with the widespread use of
■ out-dated equipment, which raises the cost of production. A fact­
finding survey showing the relative efficiency of the actual equipment
o f individual plants in an industry would, it is thought, throw much
light on this subject.
RETAIL-CREDIT STUDIES

Conjointly with the National Retail Credit Association the bureau
is conducting a nation-wide credit survey that will embrace
all important lines of retail trade. Over 1,000 credit bureaus and
300 chambers of commerce are cooperating in this work. More than
200,000 questionnaires were mailed, and a large proportion of these
have already been filled out and returned. A preliminary report has

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

been issued, covering three lines of retail trade and presenting sta­
tistics from stores with combined sales of over one and a half billion
dollars. It is expected that the final report will be available about
the middle of the current fiscal year. The chief executive of the
largest retail-credit association states that the results which are
being secured will be of great importance in stabilizing business and
will likely induce many benefits contributing toward lower living
costs for the consumer and a better balance for the tradesman.
Credit conditions in the grocery stores of Louisville, Ky., were
studied as part of the grocery survey already alluded to. Detailed
information secured from 416 grocery stores was analyzed and pub­
lished under the title “ Credit Extension and Business Failures.” A
still more comprehensive investigation of credit extension and bank­
ruptcy in grocery stores is now being carried out in Philadelphia, and
plans have been perfected for a somewhat similar research in the
restaurant business in Kansas City, Mo.
THE HANDLING OF SPECIAL INQUIRIES

The bureau has found a need to exist for some agency to correlate
and furnish to business men information bearing upon special prob­
lems. A large amount of data is available in the various govern­
mental departments and organizations, but the average business man
does not know where to go to procure it. The bureau is therefore
attempting to act as a clearing house for such information from both
governmental and nongovernmental sources, and has set up in the
domestic commerce division a special section to which inquiries com­
ing to the bureau are sent after first being routed through the appro­
priate commodity division for technical treatment. The specialinquiries section endeavors to coordinate the results of governmental
research which can be applied to business, to analyze available mate­
rial from all authoritative sources, and to put the inquirer in touch
with experts in the Government service or with sources of informa­
tion on the outside which bear upon the problem submitted. Each
year since 1923 has seen a remarkable growth in the demand for this
type of service—last year, an increase of 73 per cent in the number
of inquiries handled, but there is no measure for the increase in scope
of the problems considered nor for the savings in dollars and cents
accruing from their solution. The bureau is attempting to equip its
29 district offices to handle a large proportion of inquiries of this
class.
PUB LI CATIONS AND PUBLICITY

Research is of little service to the public until brought to the atten­
tion of those who can make use of its findings. During the year
just closed a special effort was made to acquaint business men with
the domestic-commerce work of the bureau through press releases,
feature articles, and public addresses. The division’s weekly multigraphed bulletin, issued under the title “ Domestic Commerce,” which
now goes to a mailing list of 15,000, contained 1.210 items relating
cither to the work in the bureau or to other significant developments
in the field of marketing and distribution. Fourteen new publica­
tions were released by the division and approximately 385,000 copies

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

113

thereof distributed. A mailing list is maintained of those who desire
notice of new domestic-commerce publications, and this list now
contains nearly 28,000 names.
One measure of the interest in the bureau’s domestic-commerce
work is the space devoted to it in business magazines and newspapers.
A check up of such clippings and of such publications as come to the
bureau gave a total of 15,000 column inches for last year, two-thirds
of which were magazine items. More than 100 public addresses were
made by members of the domestic-commerce staff before trade asso­
ciations and other business organizations.
The district offices of the bureau have been of immeasurable assist­
ance in bringing this domestic-commerce work to the attention of
business executives in their territories. It is hoped that provision
will be made in the near future whereby marketing specialists can
be placed in these offices, which would have the effect of multiplying
many times the effectiveness of the domestic-commerce work now
being done.
MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITIES IN THE DOMESTIC FIELD

The bureau carried on many other activities in the domestic field.
In the domestic commerce division two other important publications
were issued—Market Research Agencies, which attempts annually to
bring together a list of all studies on market research available to
investigators, and Commercial and Industrial Organizations of the
United States, a directory of trade associations and other business
organizations, both national and local in scope. Several of the com­
modity divisions made domestic-marketing studies, among them being
surveys of the confectionery industry by the foodstuffs division, of
radio sales by the electrical equipment division (which is undertak­
ing a similar study on electrical refrigeration), and of tire sales by
the rubber division. The textile division is conducting research on
new uses of cotton, the transportation division on inland water conveyance, and other divisions are cooperating in one way or another
in the domestic-commerce program.
During the year a study of prison industries and prison-made
goods was completed by the bureau under the direction of a committee
appointed by the Secretary of Commerce at the request of business
and civic organizations.
DOLLARS-AND-CENTS R E T U R N S TO T H E BU SIN ESS PU BLIC

Highly satisfactory growth continues to be shown in the dollarsand-cents returns obtained for American business firms through the
bureau’s trade-promotive work—a statement borne out not only by
the substantial sums involved but by the wide diversity of achieve­
ments reported.
Aid in the selection of suitable foreign connections (one of the
most helpful contributions the bureau has made to the expansion of
American export trade) produced to a large extent the results on
which a money value could be placed. However, only a part of the
actual benefits each year becomes known, for the bureau is not in­
formed of all instances in which business or savings accrued from
its efforts. Man}7 of the services rendered, such as preventing Amer­
ican firms from dealing with unreliable and incompetent importers

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

or from expending time and money to introduce articles that could
not be marketed in the particular area chosen and counsel given
preparatory to offering goods in foreign countries, though of major
importance, are not computable in dollars and cents. The few ex­
amples below illustrate the character of the bureau’s efforts in behalf
of the American exporting community.
Airplanes.—Acknowledging assistance given by the Santiago office
in doing business with Chile a New York airplane manufacturer
wrote: “ We encountered very strong and extremely well-organized
competition in Chile. The work of the commercial attaché at San­
tiago was of the utmost help to us in closing a contract covering
about $750,000 worth of airplanes and equipment.”
Aluminium ware.—The bureau’s Winnipeg office interested a Cana­
dian manufacturer’s representative in aluminum ware made in Wis­
consin. During the six remaining months of the year he placed
orders for $100,000 worth of these utensils.
Automobiles.—The automobile industry affords one of the out­
standing examples of the way in which the bureau has been able, over
a course of years, to render effective service to a successful export
industry. The Rio de Janeiro office pointed out to a New York export
company last year that, owing to the inability of its only Brazilian
agent to cover the whole country, the car which it was marketing
was practically unknown in that city. The importer suggested by
this office w7as appointed distributor for Rio and vicinity, contracting
for $225,000 worth of cars.
A Turkish importer wrote: “ You may be interested in knowing
that the first idea of our firm’s engaging in the automotive business
with America originated with your commercial attaché at Constan­
tinople, who enlightened us fully about the possibilities. This idea
resulted in our importing about $300,000 worth of cars the first year,
$500,000 worth last year, and w7e have very good hopes of more than
doubling the last figure during the present year.”
An Ohio automobile manufacturer reports that after five years of
hard work in South Africa he still was without a distributor, and
when finally one was obtained this was solely through the efforts of
the trade commissioner at Johannesburg. The connection has already
meant $60,000 worth of business, although arranged but a short
time ago.
When the Chilean distributor of a car made in New Jersey relin­
quished his agency, the commercial attaché in Santiago undertook to
interest other firms, with the result that a new agency was established
which has taken $228,000 worth of these cars.
An Indiana manufacturer whose agency in the Netherland East
Indies had been placed with a firm lacking sufficient capital was
enabled to dispose of $30,000 worth of warehoused cars through the
assistance of the Batavia office and to establish a satisfactory new
connection, the initial order amounting to $12,000.
The representative of a New York automobile firm after spending
several weeks in Panama and Colombia in unsuccessful efforts was
enabled to obtain effective advertising for his car through a method
suggested by the commercial attaché at Panama City, resulting in
$15,000 worth of immediate sales, with prospects good for placing
an agency.

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Collaboration by the trade commissioner at Tokyo is credited by
the traveling representative of an Ohio automobile company for his
success in finding a satisfactory distributor in Japan. A 15-month
contract, calling for $250,000 worth of cars, was signed.
A Michigan manufacturer of motor cars, after stating that assist­
ance- given by the Detroit office and foreign representatives of the
bureau made it possible for his company to do a three-and-a-half
million dollar business with 15 foreign countries, goes on to say: “ It
would have cost us $75,000 to have sent representatives directly to
these countries to make contact with these firms.”
Assistance by the Lima office to Peruvian importers seeking a solu­
tion for financing problems connected with bonded warehousing and
other difficulties has greatly facilitated the importation of American
automobiles into Peru.
Automobile accessories.—An Australian merchant has imported
$300,000 worth of automobile accessories from 19 American firms
whose names were supplied by the Sydney office; and an Iowa manu­
facturer has sold $30,000 worth of motor trunks to a Canadian dis­
tributor selected with the aid of the Winnipeg office.
Baking equipment.—Among the many American products enjoying
large sales in New Zealand through connections formed with the as­
sistance of the Wellington office are baking ovens manufactured by a
Pennsylvania concern whose orders from this source amount to
$75,000.
Through the Toronto office a New York manufacturer of dough­
nut machinery learned of the opportunity to sell $150,000 worth of
this equipment to a Canadian firm which states that it will place more
business.
Brass goods.—California and Ohio manufacturers have sold $60,000
worth o f brass goods to Australian connections suggested by the trade
commissioners stationed in that Commonwealth.
Builders' supplies.—The Toronto office helped Pennsylvania, Michi­
gan, and Connecticut makers of heating and other building equip­
ment of a mechanical nature to obtain $350,000 worth of Canadian
business. For a Missouri manufacturer of architectural steel the
Ottawa office found a Dominion purchaser whose orders approxi­
mated $50,000. After having given up this market an Ohio firm mak­
ing sheet-metal building specialties was referred by the bureau’s Van­
couver office to an agent who placed a $20,000 order.
Canning machinery.—Exports of canning, case-packing, and label­
ing machinery by New York, Maryland, Illinois, and California firms
to contacts in Germany established through the Berlin office amounted
last year to $91,000.
Chemicals.—A New York chemical exporter was assisted in con­
cluding a contract in Germany involving shipments in excess of
$3,000,000. This contract necessitated the purchase of additional
plant equipment on the part of the producer and provided employ­
ment for a largely increased working force.
Coal.—As a result of assistance by the Toronto office, $10,000 worth
of coal has been sent from New York and Pennsylvania to a Canadian
firm which states that prospects for much more business are excellent.

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Dairy equipment.—Some $120,000 worth of milk-handling equip­
ment was sold by an Illinois manufacturer to a Brazilian with whom
he was put in touch by the Sao Paulo office.
Drills.—The trade commissioner at Calcutta made it possible for
an American manufacturer of drills to obtain orders amounting to
$60,000 from the Indian Government.
Electrical equipment.—After obtaining a $588,000 French contract
for electrical equipment through the collaboration of the Paris office
a New York exporter wrote: “ Had you not been able to assist me in
(his matter the order would hare gone to a European competitor.”
Flour-mill machinery.—An Illinois builder of flour and cereal mill
machinery made 45 new foreign connections as a result of trade leads
supplied bv the Chicago office, booking $125,000 worth of business
with Europe and Mexico.
Foodstuffs.—Six shippers of fruit and canned foods in California,
Washington, and New York have done a business exceeding $400,000
with German connections made through the Hamburg office; while
the bureau’s London office aided in the selection of agencies that have
meant $400,000 additional business in Great Britain for exporters of
fruit juice, fruit, rice, and canned foods in Illinois, Florida, Cali­
fornia, Virginia, Louisiana, and New York.
A Washington flour mill reports effecting a “ considerable” saving
and $200,000 worth of business, principally with China, through
Seattle office aid.
A Philippine connection, which has meant $500,000 worth of addi­
tional business to a California exporter of general groceries, was
obtained through the bureau’s San Francisco office; and a California
exporter of citrus fruits concluded, with the assistance of the Los
.Angeles office, trade connections in Scandinavia and China from
which business to the extent of $852,000 has been realized.
Fountain pens.—When the Austrian agent of a New York maker
of fountain pens went into the hands of a receiver, the interests of
this firm were protected through prompt action by the bureau’s
Vienna office, and another agent secured whose sales during the past
year amounted to $10,000.
Glassware.—The attention of a Panama importer, whose yearly reO'iirements approximate $80,000, was directed by the commercial
attaché to a California line of glassware, for which he later took over
the agency.
Hardware.—The Sydney office assisted 22 American manufacturers
of hardware in disposing of $145,000 worth of their products on the
Australian market.
Heaters.—Forty thousand dollars’ worth of oil heaters manufac­
tured in Maryland was sold through a Canadian distributor who
took over this line at the suggestion of the Toronto office.
Hospital equipment.—Aid by the Bucharest office enabled an Illi­
nois manufacturer to sell $80,000 worth of X-ray equipment to
Rumania; while through the assistance of the Cairo office a New
York manufacturer’s representative booked orders for $18,000 worth
of hospital equipment in Egypt.

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Leather.—The Swedish agent cf a New York exporter, secured
through the help of the commercial attache at Stockholm, took
$300,000 worth of this firm’s leather last year; another New York
firm shared with a Massachusetts exporter $83,000 worth of leather
business in China resulting from a radio message from the bureau’s
office in Shanghai; and a New Jersey company has sold $75,000 worth
of leather through a Belgian agency suggested by the Brussels office.
Leather manufactures.—Assistance by the Ottawa and Montreal
offices to a New York manufacturer of footwear specialties resulted
in a substantial expansion of this firm’s sales in Canada. In two
weeks’ time the purchases of one customer alone exceeded $25,000—
equivalent to the manufacturer’s total sales in the entire Dominion
during the preceding year.
With a connection obtained through the bureau’s office at Bogota
the traveling representative of a Missouri firm transacted $50,000
worth of shoe business in Colombia in two months.
Lighting 'plants.—A Canadian firm to which the Winnipeg office
pointed out the profitable business that could be worked up in farmlighting sets made agency connections with an Indiana manufacturer
that have brought the latter $10,000 in orders so far.
Lumber.—Survey of the market by the Hamburg office revealed a
good demand in Germany for the products of a Washington lumber
company but little business being done through reluctance of the
agent then handling the line to push it properly. Recommendations
by the trade commissioner resulted in the making of a new connection
that has done $300,600 worth of business in a short time.
Two Panama firms which began experimenting with American
redwood and Douglas fir at the suggestion of the commercial attache
have taken $110,000 worth of this lumber from Washington and
California.
A Tennessee lumber company states that the bureau’s office at
Memphis assisted it in finding Ì9 foreign representatives who have
placed approximately $205,000 worth of orders for hardwood
flooring.
Lumbering machinery.—The Tokyo office has endeavored to intro­
duce new' appliances and processes into Japan which -would bring
about the mechanizing of Japanese forestry operations. As a result,
the Japanese Government is planning to use American gasoline
skidders extensively, having already ordered $18,000 worth of this
equipment.
Meat products.—An Illinois packing house whose business in
Venezuela had “ fallen to practically nothing ” obtained, with Cara­
cas-office collaboration, a new agent -who placed $89,000 worth of
orders for meat products in a year’s time.
Shipments of meat products of another Illinois firm, valued at over
$1,000,000, were denied entry into a European country except at a
prohibitive duty. Following explanations by the commercial attaché
a lower duty w'as applied, which, the exporter states, brought about
a saving of $30,000.
Motor cycles.—A manufacturer of motor cycles has obtained $60,000 worth of business in Egypt, Poland, and Brazil from connec­

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

tions made with the help of bureau offices in Cairo, Warsaw, and
Sao Paulo.
Office supplies.—Agencies placed with the aid of bureau represen­
tatives have made outlets in Sweden for $50,000 worth of accounting
machines from New York; in Finland, Brazil, and Turkey, for
$50,000 worth of typewriters from Illinois and New York; in Egypt,
Newfoundland, and the Straits Settlements, for $27,000 worth of
dictaphones from New York; and in Czechoslovakia, for $23,000'
worth of adding machines from New York.
Oil-well machinery.—Information furnished by the Buenos Aires
office enabled a firm in California to obtain a $250,000 Argentine
order for oil-well machinery.
Paints.—Two California manufacturers of paints and varnishes
transacted $28,000 worth of business the first three months with
Philippine connections made through the bureau’s Manila office. A
Netherland order for $20,000 worth of white lead went to an Illinois
firm through the instrumentality of the bureau office at The Hague.
In a Latin American country the paints and roofing specialties of
a New York manufacturer were barred on account of trade-mark
difficulties which were removed through the commercial attache’s
friendly endeavors, resulting in $300,000 worth of business.
Paper and paper goods.—A representative of a New York export
house, upon arrival in Johannesburg, was assisted by the trade com­
missioner in locating distributors for his various lines in South
Africa. Among the connections formed was one for paper cups
which brought orders amounting to $35,000 in a short time.
A California firm whose name was referred to a Porto Rican
importer by the trade commissioner at San Juan did $100,000 worth
of business in wrapping paper; and the Wellington office assisted two
New York paper companies in obtaining orders totaling $16,000
from New Zealand.
Petroleum products.—Advice from the Paris office resulted in the
placing of an agency in France and the booking of orders for
$200,000 worth of American lubricating oils.
Plumbing equipment.—Sales suggestions from the Sao Paulo office
to a New York manufacturer of plumbing equipment brought the
latter $100,000 worth of business in Brazil; and from the Lima
office, $15,000 worth in Peru.
Printers' supplies.—The following transactions were attributed to
assistance given by bureau field representatives: A $50,000 order for
bookbinding machinery, which went from New York to Hungary;
one for $50,000 worth of linotypes, from another New York firm to
Finland; orders for $15,000 worth of printing ink, sent by two Ohio
firms to Brazil; and $10,000 worth of miscellaneous printing equip­
ment, purchased from American manufacturers by a newspaper in
Panama City.
Public-works contracts.—A New York firm of contractors assured
the commercial attaché in Santiago that his advice and his acquaint­
ance with the local situation were important factors in concluding
contracts for the construction of two dams in Chile involving a.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

119

total of more than $1,750,000. Assistance rendered by the com­
mercial attaché at Buenos Aires was instrumental in the closing, by
a Massachusetts firm, of a $1,700,000 paving contract in a South
American city.
A South American office also reports the letting to a New York
firm of a $500,000 contract for the installation of a conveyor system
for a municipal building. Not only was the opportunity to bid on
this project originally brought to this firm’s attention by the bureau’s
office, but a postponement of bidding was obtained that enabled the
New York engineer to reach the country in time to submit his offer.
Pumps.—A Missouri manufacturer of deep-well centrifugal
pumps was assisted by the commercial attaché in forming a connec­
tion in Mexico that brought in an initial order of $12,500.
Radio sets.—Through an agency arranged with the aid of the
Toronto office a New York manufacturer disposed of $200,000 worth
of radio sets and accessories in Canada during the past year, with a
great deal of additional business in sight.
Refrigerators.—The Bucharest office assisted in the placing of
agencies for Michigan and Ohio manufacturers of electric refrigera­
tors, resulting in $74,000 worth of orders in Rumania; the efforts of
the Rio de Janeiro office enabled the representative of an Indiana
refrigerator company to obtain a $60,000 Brazilian contract; and
advice from the Bombay office led to the selection of an agent for f,
Michigan corporation which sold $15,000 worth of units in India.
Road-making machinery.—The Spanish representative of a Wis­
consin manufacturer of concrete mixers, cranes, and power shovels,
who obtained his appointment with the assistance of the Madrid
office, reports that during the past year he sold products of this
firm to the amount of $350,000; while the purchases of the Brazilian
agent of this firm, obtained through the cooperation of the bureau’s
office in Sao Paulo, amount to $25,000.
An American manufacturer of gasoline-driven shovels who had
consigned a $14,000 order to a Brazilian bankrupt firm was suved
from loss by the commercial attaché at Rio de Janeiro, who was
instrumental in having the shipment taken over and later disposed
of at invoice price.
Recommendations made by the Montevideo office brought about
the purchase of $125,000 worth of road machinery from three Ameri­
can firms for use in Uruguay.
Rubber sundries.—New York and Ohio manufacturers of miscel­
laneous rubber goods have done $198,000 worth of business in Sweden,
Austria, and Egypt through connections made with the help of the
Stockholm, Vienna, and Cairo offices of the bureau.
Salt.—A firm in British Columbia importing salt from across
the ocean was furnished the name of a California supplier by the
Vancouver office and $110,000 in orders resulted.
Sewer pipe.—At the suggestion of the Montreal office an Ohio
manufacturer of sewer pipe furnished quotations to a Canadian
firm of engineers and obtained a $25,000 contract, with prospects
of at least $75,000 worth of this pipe being sold in tine next 12 months.

120

REPORT TO TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Smoke consumers.—Through the efforts of the Budapest office a
Delaware manufacturer of smoke consumers received an $80,000
order from a Hungarian railroad company.
Soap.—Soap works in California, Florida, and Texas obtained
representation in Porto Rico with the aid of the trade commissioner
at San Juan and sold $105,000 worth of laundry soap in seven
months.
Soda fountains.—Germany bought $80,000 worth of soda foun­
tains from a New York manufacturer through an agent suggested
by the Berlin office; and $35,000 worth of equipment of this sort
was shipped from Ohio to a Brazilian connection suggested by the
Sao Paulo office.
Steel.—Ohio alloy steel to the value of $30,000 went to a Brazilian
firm whose name was furnished by the trade commissioner at Sao
Paulo.
Sugar-mill machinery.—A New York manufacturer has sold over
$35,000 worth of sugar-mill machinery in Brazil to a buyer with
whom he was put in touch by the Rio de Janeir© office.
Textiles.—By arranging agencies for two well-known manufacturers of bathing suits the Berlin office made it possible for these
firms to expand their exports to Germany by $170,000 last year; and
similar service on the part of the Montreal office enabled three New
York textile houses to obtain $90,000 worth of additional business in
Canada.
The Toronto office referred a Canadian manufacturers’ agent to
Pennsylvania and New York mills producing cotton goods; business
(o the extent of $100,000 already has been concluded, with favorable
future prospects.
A trial order for cotton duck placed by an importer in the Straits
Settlements at the suggestion of the Singapore office led to $85,000
worth of business with a New York house in 10 months’ time; and
the success of six New York mills in selling $90,000 worth of piece
goods in Malaysia was due to the efforts of the bureau personnel in
Singapore and Batavia.
Market possibilities for Turkish toweling in Chile were called to a
Georgia manufacturer’s attention by the Santiago office. The agency
subsequently established purchased $25,000 worth of this commodity.
Assistance by the Cairo and Alexandria offices to seven New
York manufacturers’ representatives led to $190,000 worth of Egyp­
tian business, principally in knitted and piece goods; while the Bom­
bay and Calcutta offices were credited with having assisted four New
York textile houses in obtaining $105,000 worth of export trade in
the highly competitive market of India.
Theater seats.—The bureau’s office in Singapore supplied to a
New York manufacturer of theater seats information that enabled
him to obtain a $15,000 order for the Straits Settlements.
Theatrical goods.—A New York manufacturer of theatrical goods
declared: “ Due to cooperation received from your organization, the
inclease in our sales during the year amounted to $110,000. More­
over, had we sent our own salesman to make the contacts and secure
this business, it would have cost us certainly at least $6,000.”

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

121

Thermometers.—A Massachusetts maker of thermometers, con­
trollers, and gauges has sold $250,000 worth of his products to Eu­
rope and Latin America as the result of assistance rendered by the
Boston office.
Tires.—Two New York manufacturers sold $220,000 worth of tires
in Finland, Spain, and Egypt through agencies arranged with the
aid of bureau offices in Helsingfors, Madrid, and Alexandria; and
sales of $185,000 worth of tires to Austria, Rumania, and Spain by
five Ohio firms resulted from connections fostered by the Vienna,
Bucharest, and Barcelona offices.
Tools.—An Ohio maker of tools found sales in a near-by market
impractical because of the high duty levied on his product. Upon
explanation by the commercial attaché a lower rate was applied, con­
cerning which the manufacturer wrote: “We frankly believe we are
justified in saying that this duty reduction will mean an increase of
at least 100 j>er cent in this year’s sales alone. It has made it possible
for us to do a business of $5,000 to $6,000 per month.”
Vacuum cleaners.—A New York manufacturer has furnished
$45,000 worth of vacuum cleaners to an importer in the Netherlands
whose desire to purchase was communicated to American firms
through the office at The Hague.
Wallboard.—The export-trade investigator of an Illinois wallboard manufacturer states that his six years of travel in locating
overseas markets has brought him into touch with bureau offices
throughout the world. As a recent example of the progress he is
making in opening up new outlets with the help of bureau repre­
sentatives he cites assistance given by the Calcutta office that led to
agency arrangements and $70,250 worth of immediate business in
India. Among other connections definitely traceable to bureau co­
operation he mentioned one in Denmark, which has done a business
running close to $1,000,000; and one in Rome, which has contracted
to dispose of $400,000 worth of his firm’s wallboard in five years.
Woodvxtrking machinery.—The factor}' representative of a New
York manufacturer of woodworking machinery obtained introduc­
tions through the Prague office that made it possible to place $20,000
worth of business in Czechoslovakia.
Miscellaneous.—An Australian importer writes the bureau’s office
at Sydney : “ Through your service we have been fortunate enough
to secure several very valuable agencies with whom our business dur­
ing the year amounted to $520,000.” These agency arrangements
covered New Jersey steel flooring; Illinois railway appliances; Michi­
gan trailers; and New York vacuum cleaning machinery, valves, and
exhausters.
Australian business men have been encotmiged by the Melbourne
office to visit the United States when traveling, and letters of intro­
duction have been furnished them with a view to facilitating the
making of desired American connections. During the year such
service resulted in 16 American firms obtaining representation in
Melbourne, with initial orders totaling $44,000. These firms in­
cluded radio, electrical-goods, vending-machine, and grinding-tool
manufacturers of Illinois, an Ohio maker of wireless sets, textile
mills of New York and Massachusetts, and a Michigan manufac­
turer of electrical refrigerators.

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REPORT TO TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

AID FOB FIRMS IN ALL PARTS OF THE UNITED STATES

In all of its trade-promotion work the bureau functions as a
whole to the end that American commerce may best be served. Thus,
while the foreign office in the areas named should perhaps be
credited with initiating the transactions listed below, every element
of the bureau organization contributed to their successful culmina­
tion, and, as is seen, practically every State in the Union profited.
Alabama products marketed with the assistance of the bureau last
year included shipments of fresh vegetables to Canada, of naval stores
to Denmark and Japan, and of lumber to Belgium, Germany, Spain,
and the Netherlands. Arkansas exporters utilized the bureau’s facili­
ties in introducing their tents and awnings into Mexico and Cuba,
pine lumber into the United Kingdom, and cucumbers into Canada.
New buyers for California products have been found throughout
the world with the help of this bureau; last year grapes v'ere disosed of in the Orient and South America, edible nuts in Australia,
umatra, and Great Britain, olives in Canada, canned butter in
Mexico and South and Central America, irrigation appliances in
South America, canning and fruit-drying machinery in Mexico,
Italy, France, and Africa, asphalt roofing in China and Peru, and
jewelry in the Philippine Islands. From Colorado many carloads
of beans have been sold in Porto Rico. Connecticut engineers’ sup­
plies and geometric tools were shipped to Canada, garage equipment
to Spain, outboard motors to British Malaya, vacuum bottles to
Cuba, metal hose to Mexico, and ball bearings to Egypt.
Sales of Delaware bottling machinery were effected in India, South
America, and Mexico, and of confectionery in Egypt.
Florida exporters were aided in selling grapefruit in Canada,
Australia, and England, sponges in Argentina and Europe, paving
blocks in Porto Rico, dry kilns in Canada, and lumber in Latin
America.
Georgia mills sent cotton and worsted goods to Germany and the
Netherlands and cotton waste to England, the furniture factories of
the State found new customers in Porto Itico, and its forests supplied
rosin and turpentine to South America and pecans to Canada.
Illinois manufacturers availed themselves of the services of the
bureau in selling, among other articles, dental supplies and car­
pets to France, steel furniture and dehydrated vegetables to
Canada, farm engines to Latvia, fountain pens and chemicals to
Singapore, adding machines to Cuba, and hosiery to Panama. In­
diana vacuum cleaners and enameled ware found new outlets in Can­
ada, playground equipment in Switzerland and Hawaii, furniture in
Porto Itico and Argentina, engines in Bulgaria, Italy, and Colombia,
and oil burners in Australia. From Iowa oak lumber was sold in
Canada, well-drilling machinery in India, China, England, Australia,
and South Africa, cereals in Finland, anchors in Uruguay, incubators
in South America, Rumania, Cuba, and Spain, and washing machines
in New7 Zealand and Australia, while a large quantity of flavoring
extracts went to a Manila ice-cream plant.
From the State of Kansas airplanes were shipped to Australia
and China, wheat-testing equipment to Canada, and flour to South
America. Kentucky tobacco is being marketed in Turkey, Central

g

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

123

America, Straits Settlements, and Haiti, hardwood lumber in the
United Kingdom, hosiery in Cuba and Canada, and asphalt in the
Straits Settlements.
Louisiana producers have opened up, with bureau aid, new markets
in Europe and South America for rice, in Central and South America
for sash and doors, in the British West Indies for boxes, and in
Central America and Porto Rico for paper.
A Maine manufacturer of hoists and cranes has done a large
business in Newfoundland, and quarry tools and forgers from this
State have been sold in Canada. New Zealand purchased an enamel­
ing plant in Maryland. Germany took hosiery from this State, and
an agent was found in Mexico for a Maryland manufacturer of
flooring. Massachusetts laboratory apparatus went to Spain, tex­
tiles to Brazil, tennis rackets to Hungary, leather goods to Central
America, the West Indies, and the Near East, lumber to the United
Kingdom, South Africa, and the Netherlands, plastic paints to Aus­
tralia, England, Japan, and Cuba, and bedroom furniture to
Venezuela.
Michigan motor boats were placed with satisfactory distributors
in England, Germany, Sweden, and Egypt, blue-printing machinery
in Denmark, concrete machinery in Costa Rica and the Straits Settle­
ments, electric toasters in Australia and Africa, and masons’ tools
in France, South Africa, Argentina, England, and India. Minne­
sota was assisted in disposing of chemical products in South America,
Australia, and Mexico, dentists’ supplies and equipment in Australia,
Sweden, Poland, and New Zealand, campers’ equipment in England,
Mexico, and Australia, flour in Denmark, Cuba, and South Africa,
and farm machinery in Rumania, Hungary, Italy, Germany, and
Poland. Mississippi radio sets are selling in Canada through an
agency established with the bureau’s assistance. Missouri airplanes
and accessories have found a market in Mexico and Brazil, lumber
in Germany, China, Chile, and Argentina, flour and petroleum in
Guatemala, batteries in Belgium; France, Italy*, Spain, and India,
and confectionery in South America and the Philippine Islands, and
a buyer was obtained in Egypt for a shipment of Missouri automo­
bile accessories after the original consignee had refused to accept it.
The bureau helped a Nebraska manufacturer of gasoline engines
to select a distributor in Canada; and a New Hampshire manufac­
turer of sporting goods was furnished information that led to trade
connections and substantial sales in Mexico, South America, Jamaica,
and the Orient. From New Jersey school furniture and oilice sup­
plies were sent to Singapore, electric refrigerators and machinery to
China, radiators to Finland, drapery fabrics to Canada, and radios
to Japan; and a New Mexico exporter of alfalfa meal found new
buyers in Denmark and England last year.
Among the divers products which New York exporters have dis­
posed of in overseas markets through bureau cooperation are film
projecting machines in Sweden, soda fountains in Panama, check
protectors in Chile, electric dish-washing machines and radios in
Switzerland, iron and steel ware in Europe and Japan, millinery in
Porto Rico, and knitting machinery in England. North Carolina
exporters were assisted in marketing cotton and knitted goods in
Spain, England, Brazil, and India, leather belting in England, and

124

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY- OE COMMERCE

leaf tobacco in Europe and Egypt, and a firm in this State was kept
informed last year on matters relating to the Brazilian coffee indus­
try. Carloads of potatoes from North Dakota were shipped to
Canada.
Ohio manufacturers availed themselves of the services of the bureau
in selling hardware and toys in the Far East, radios in Australia,
roofing cement and oil paints in Greece, tires in Hungary, hosiery in
Denmark, and rubber novelties in Finland. Oklahoma flour was
sold in Brazil and Porto Rico; and agencies were established in
France for Oregon pine doors, and in South America for bathing
suits manufactured in this State.
Pennsylvania. through the bureau’s efforts, furnished stainless steel
lates to Canada, engineering supplies to South Africa, Australia,
pain, and Brazil, plate glass to the Philippine Islands, India, Aus­
tralia, Uruguay, and Argentina, cut glass to Europe and the Philip­
pine Islands, mirrors to India and Central America, candy machin­
ery to the Far East, and compressors to Switzerland and Canada,
and a manufacturer of paper cups was aided in overcoming a difficult
problem in connection with the marking of his product in Canada.
Rhode Island rubber and canvas footwear found a market in the
Philippine Islands, radio specialties in South America, electric
refrigerators in the Straits Settlements, battery cables in Greece, and
textiles in Canada.
Lumber from a South Carolina mill was sold in Germany.
Tennessee manufacturers established agencies in Canada for yarn,
in Uruguay and Argentina for pumps, in the Far East for paints
and varnishes, and in Cuba, Mexico, and Venezuela for hosiery.
Texas exported ready-cut and portable houses to Rumania, grain and
seed separators to France, Italy, and Australia, tents, awnings, anti
folding cots to Colombia and Porto Rico, bank fixtures and safes to
Mexico, scrap rubber to Great Britain, Germany, France, and Japan,
rice to a number of European countries, and large quantities of
yellow pine to Porto Rico.
Utah sent a large amount of honey to Germany, and a manufac­
turer of radio products in this State was assisted in obtaining
representation in Argentina.
A Vermont manufacturer of embossing machinery is doing busi­
ness with a connection established through bureau cooperation in
Finland. Virginia jute products and peanuts were shipped to Can­
ada, peanut cleaning and grading machinery to South Africa, dental
supplies to Czechoslovakia, trunks and traveling bags to the Netherland West Indies and Panama, washing machines to New Zealand,
and electrical medical apparatus to China.
From the State of Washington lumber products and apples went
to France, soda fountains to Japan, and builders’ hardware to Pan­
ama. A West Virginia manufacturer of steel rails was assisted in
finding a buyer in South America, and a firm making art glass sent
its wares to new customers in Canada. Among other assistance to
Wisconsin manufacturers the bureau helped to market vulcanizers
in Turkey, concrete mixers in Malaysia, motor boats and hosiery in
Egypt, knitted goods in Australia and South Africa, and cooking
utensils in Central and South America, Egypt, and Czechoslovakia.

S

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

125

AVENUES FOR EXPANSION OPEN TO THE BUREAU

" Facts ” are the keys which unlock many doors of opportunity—
opportunity not only to profit, but to serve. Indeed, in their gather­
ing the bureau can render its finest service to commerce.
Costs of distribution have been rising in recent years and in con­
siderable measure have offset the savings accruing from lowered
production costs. There is urgent need for attacking this problem
from a new angle—for developing methods by which the distributor
may know what it costs him to handle individual commodities, to
serve individual customers, and to perform individual operations.
Data of this character on production cost9 have been credited with
many significant savings in manufacture, and it is believed that
similar results can be obtained in distribution. As indicated in the
discussion of our domestic-commerce activities, commendable progress
was made last year. The interest which business men have evinced
and the need for constructive leadersltip in this field over the next
few years would seem to justify a material strengthening of this
work.
The bureau has 29 district offices located in important commercial
centers and will open 2 more this year under the authority of Con­
gress. These offices have been established primarily to serve ex­
porters in their respective territories. With the further development
of the bureau’s domestic-commerce work it is daily becoming more
•evident that our district offices could render invaluable service to
local manufacturers and merchants by furnishing them information
already available in the various Government departments, by bring­
ing to their attention the results of both private and governmental
research, and by assisting them to solve some of the problems which
they face. The present district-office personnel is not much more
than sufficient to serve those clients engaged in foreign trade. By
strengthening the staffs it would be possible to add a domestic-com­
merce service that would be greatly appreciated by thousands of
business men in each of these districts.
Since the organization of the commodity divisions the bureau has
been able to render highly valuable services to manufacturers of ar­
ticles used in construction work, but none of the existing divisions
has been in position to cooperate effectively with American contrac­
tors interested in construction projects in foreign countries. This is
particularly unfortunate inasmuch as the execution of an important
contract by an American crew is recognized as an admirable way to
promote American trade; for after the work is completed the local
population will be found to be regular users of a broad line of
American commodities, from breakfast foods and cameras to motor
cars and clothing, and the business community and Government de­
partments frequently will have developed an interest in American
construction methods, materials, and machinery. American capital
is flowing into foreign countries at a very rapid rate, American con­
tracting firms are in charge of projects involving millions of dollars
all over the world, and the need for a more perfect bureau service
along these lines is not only obvious but acute.
Inclusion of all sections of the country and all navigation systems
would seem a desirable extension of the somewhat circumscribed sur-

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BEPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

vey of the inland waterways of the United States now in progress.
The enlarged program should analyze the merits of the develop­
ment of inland waterways and canals from the point of view of (a)
their economic importance, (6) their justification, based upon cost
and other relevant data, and (e) their relationship to other forms of
transportation (rail, motor truck, and ocean), and could, at the same
time, review the motor-truck transportation field. Opportunity to
assist in the solution of these domestic distribution problems is open
to the bureau through cooperation with the shippers’ regional advi­
sory boards.
'The bureau began last year a study of industrial traffic manage­
ment, the purpose of which is to show the status of industrial traffic
functions in American business, the relation between the traffic and
other departments of well-coordinated establishments, and how trans­
portation waste may be eliminated by the proper functioning of a
traffic department. When completed this survey (which is being
carried on through the agency of the various shippers’ regional ad­
visory boards and traffic associations) will point the way to further
studies which aifect every shipper and receiver of merchandise in the
country. Numerous requests received from individual concerns as
well as from traffic groups in regard to this work can not be complied
with for lack of funds.
During the past year the bureau’s research into the field of retail
credit and causes of business failures and bankruptcies has disclosed
sources of vast wastes in our economic system. Additional fact-find­
ing studies along this line would, it is believed, point the way to
large savings. One of the heavy items in the cost of distribution is
the loss incurred through business failures. Economies effected here
would ultimately be reflected in lower prices to the consumer.
A decidedly favorable reaction was evidenced by the trade during
the past year as to the possibility of making more extended studies
of the present and future supply and supplementary sources of the
exotic raw materials that now represent two-thirds of our chemical
imports. To carry on basic studies in connection with the hundreds
of items involved, however, would necessitate expansion of the bu­
reau’s facilities. To follow the many mergers and other competitive
developments abroad in the field of chemicals is becoming quite a
burden on the bureau, yet the desirability of keeping currently
informed focuses attention on the need for additional personnel in
this instance also.
The American sawmill industry, which cuts one-half of the sawn
lumber of the world, and the American wholesale-retail trade through
which that great volume is marketed are seeking knowledge of the
distribution of their product. Only unsatisfactory estimates are
available now for many of the old-established outlets; for new users,
such as makers of motor-car bodies and radio cabinets, consumption
figures are even vaguer. Reliable data on both annual and seasonal
consumption are needed to guide not only mill output but reforesta­
tion of wanted species.
In the marketing of foodstuffs three constantly changing factors
are involved—production, stocks, and consumption; to get a better
balance between them is one of the great problems confronting the

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

127

producer and the trader. Current statistics are very helpful to this
end, but only a few branches of the foodstuffs industry have statis­
tics of this kind. Apparently, however, many others are ready to
furnish the needed figures if some Government agency will collect
them.
Statistics are at once a highly essential tool in the conduct of busi­
ness and a chart by which producers and distributors can guide
their course. Although the United States has more highly developed
economic statistics than any other country to-day, much remains
to be done in extending the fields covered and in improving methods
of presentation and analysis. Moreover, it is of great importance
to our business men that American statistics should be comparable
with those of foreign countries and that the volume of statistical
information concerning other countries should be expanded. A num­
ber of vigorous international movements are under way for the de­
velopment of economic statistics and for the promotion of statistical
uniformity. A member of the staff of this bureau was the delegate
of our Government to an international diplomatic conference for
this purpose held in Geneva in November and December, 1928. Con­
tinuation of the bureau’s participation with other branches of Gov­
ernment in movements for the standardization of statistical methods
is desirable.
Much of the bureau’s work, particularly in regard to domestic
commerce, is of such a character that many trade associations and
other business organizations would gladly assist financially in the
phases in which they are interested. If the Secretary of Commerce
could be authorized to accept such contributions, under proper safe­
guards, and to direct the expenditure and to account for these funds,
public moneys would be conserved and the bureau would be enabled
greatly to enlarge its usefulness. Authorizations of this nature are
in force in the Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of Standards,
and other governmental organizations.
THE FOREIGN COMMERCE SERVICE

The Foreign Commerce Service has now had two full years in
which to orient itself to the new status given it by the Iloch Act
and to put into effect some of the plans for expansion that had
been held in abeyance. Six new foreign offices were opened last
year (six were opened in the preceding twelvemonth also]), at Accra,
Gold Coast Colony; Budapest, Hungary; Guatemala City, Guate­
mala; Mukden, Manchuria; Oslo, Norway; and Winnipeg, Canada.
As a market for American merchandise the area served by the
Accra office is virgin territory; but it is rich in natural .resources,
and past experience has demonstrated the value of the early estab­
lishment of an office in such fields. In addition to developing mar­
kets for American goods, this office is now furnishing long-needed
information on the production of cocoa and palm oil (of which West
Africa is the principal world supplier), the importance of which
data can be readily measured by the widespread and growing use
of these products in the United States.

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Until September 10, 1928, the Vienna office, established several
years ago, served the whole of the former Austro-Hungarian Em­
pire. The economic recovery of Europe and revived interest in
foreign trade made it advisable then to divide the territory and place
an office in Budapest. Many opportunities for trading in Hungary
that, were brought to the attention of American exporters last year
would have been lost had this post not been established.
Prior to the opening of the office in Guatemala the bureau had had
representation at only one place in Central America—at Panama
City. The new Guatemala office covers not only the Republic of
Guatemala but extends its activities into British Honduras. Hon­
duras. and El Salvador as well. Dollars-and-cents accomplishments
already reported are particularly gratifying in view of the compara­
tively low purchasing power in this area.
The rich natural resources of Manchuria bid fair to make of Muk­
den one of the most productive of the smaller offices of our service.
Prospects are bright for the extension of American export trade there.
The Oslo office, which, like the one at Mukden, has been established
.only six months, serves territory that formerly was covered from
Copenhagen. In addition to the information which the new office
will supply on specific opportunities for the sale of American goods,
American interests should benefit by the reports which it will for­
ward on the pulp and paper industry. Oslo being an important cen­
ter of this industry, the office there will act as a clearing house for
northern Europe for information pertaining to this subject.
The record development of the Prairie Provinces of Canada and the
many trade inquiries coming to the bureau from that section were
the determining factors in placing an office at Winnipeg. The grati­
fying results apparent in its first few months have more than justi­
fied its establishment.
To take care of the manning of these new offices and to provide a
larger force for certain of those already established 29 new Foreign
Commerce officers were appointed last year, bringing the bureau’s
foreign field staff to 187, assigned to its 56 offices in 44 countries. The
personnel consisted of 36 commercial attaches, 21 assistant commer­
cial attaches, 56 trade commissioners, 49 assistant trade commission­
ers, and 25 American clerks.
CLOSE CONTACT MAINTAINED WITH INDUSTRY

Direct contact with industry on the part of the Foreign Commerce
Service is established through the extensive traveling in the United
States of returned officers, who visit the principal industrial centers
to confer with individuals and organizations interested in export
trade. It is estimated that last year 12 industrial centers, on the aver­
age, were visited by each such officer and that in each city 20 or more
interviews were had with firms and individuals, in addition to nu­
merous addresses before chambers of commerce and other trade
bodies.
As a result of such contacts business executives are making greater
use each year of the services available from these offices, particularly

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129

when traveling abroad. Evidence of this is found in the increasing
number of letters of introduction (over 500 last year) given by the
Washington and district offices to American business men embarking
for foreign countries—and, conversely, by our overseas offices to busi­
ness men in their respective territories contemplating a visit to
the United States. More than 250 interested foreign buyers were
thus introduced to Washington headquarters and the district offices
and interviews arranged for them with suitable manufacturers, to
say nothing of the numerous trade delegations which visited this
country and for which the bureau, at the request of Foreign Com­
merce officers, planned itineraries, or at least offered them the facili­
ties of its district offices.
ADJUSTMENT OF TRADE DIFFICULTIES ABROAD

While the large firm, with a well-developed export program and
organization, does not need to call upon the bureau for collaboration
to the same extent as does the small firm or the beginner, there is one
class of bureau service of which the large and the small avail them­
selves alike—protection of interests. Study and a thorough under­
standing of the commercial, tariff, and trade-mark laws of the coun­
try in which he is stationed enable the field officer to intervene, when
such course is proper, in disputes that call for friendly representations
or explanations. The steaddy increasing demand for services of this
character is probably the best indication of their value to American
business interests.
By explaining the “ other side,” disruption of otherwise satisfac­
tory agency connections has been avoided in innumerable cases,
thereby contributing directly to the success of American sales efforts.
In effecting the collection of overdue accounts and straightening out
a variety of other claims the foreign office, while not functioning as a
collection agency, has often succeeded after other means have failed;
and toward the end of reducing to a minimum claims arising from
bankruptcy it has reported to interested American firms those foreign
business houses in liquidation or verging thereupon.
As in previous years, the Foreign Commerce Service has succeeded
in removing many obstacles to the normal development of commerce
between the United States and foreign countries arising from regula­
tory decrees affecting American commercial interests, such as con­
sular and customs procedure and related regulations, restrictions, and
charges, incorrect tariff classification of merchandise, and import
quotas. Economies that may be calculated in terms of hundreds of
thousands of dollars have been effected in behalf of American trade.
Regulations considered discriminatory to American merchandise
have been altered following explanation by bureau representatives,
and more reasonable tests of American foodstuffs, pharmaceutical
products, etc., have been obtained. Business, financial, and technical
concerns frequently have sought bureau advice and assistance on
legal, financial, and commercial details concerning their projects, and
assistance has been given them in connection with many difficult
matters that involved dealings with foreign governments.
78415—20------- 9

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
PROTECTING AMERICAN TRADE-MARKS

Trade-mark protection has continued to have the systematic atten­
tion of the bureau over the past 12 months, and the innumerable in­
stances in which American firms have been prompt to take precau­
tionary steps to maintain their rights reflect the value of this service
to our exporters and traders. Under the trade-mark laws of many
countries it is an easy matter to obtain control of valuable trade­
marks, no requirement other than the filing of an application being
necessary to confer upon the applicant, if no protest is lodged, exclu­
sive use of the mark and the right to all royalties under it. The
bureau’s foreign offices have continued to notify American manufac­
turers of attempted infringements in time to prevent registration, and
in several cases succeeded in recovering trade-marks after registra­
tion had been granted to foreign firms. Established businesses have
been saved, losses in investments in foreign factories have been
averted, and the establishment of agency connections for the sale of
many American products not theretofore represented on a foreign
market has been made possible. Copyright protection, a closely re­
lated branch of activity, has also been covered by the bureau’s foreign
offices.
With reference to the bureau’s trade-mark service a New York
export house states: “ As you know', we represent a group of Ameri­
can manufacturers who have large investments in trade-marks
throughout the world, and your cooperation has made it possible for
us to keep them thoroughly advised at all times.” And an Illinois
manufacturer of campers’ and hunters’ equipment writes: “ We wish
to thank you for your splendid service in sending us information with
regard to our trade-mark in Argentina. We consider these data very
valuable, for we are making an extensive campaign in that country,
and without the information you have furnished no doubt our inter­
ests would have been endangered.”
WORK OF THE DISTRICT OFFICES

During the past year new district, or branch, offices were opened
in Birmingham, Ala., Charlotte, N. C., Denver, Colo., Indianapolis,
Ind., Milwaukee, Wis., and Pittsburgh, Pa., bringing to 29 the num­
ber of such offices established by the bureau in the more important
trade centers of the United States. These 29 “ service stations ” ren­
dered 2,944,890 commercial services last year, an increase of 17 per
cent over the 2,509,114 services of the year before. There were
135,044 visitors seeking information, compared with 103,694 in
1927-28; letters written rose from 241,099 to 296,437; 882,747 re­
quests for details in regard to the specific trade opportunities notice
of which is regularly given in Commerce Reports were complied
with, contrasted with 708,964; and 635,933 requests for lists of pros­
pective foreign purchasers of American goods were handled, some
60,000 more than in the preceding " '
The managers of these offices
most energetic in their
efforts to develop the practical side of the bureau’s services. They

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

131

have been steadily spreading the gospel of foreign trade, and each
day finds more firms within the area served by each office entering the
foreign field. Said a satisfied client of one of the newer offices
recently:

As you come in contact with the manufacturers of this district you are
familiar with the existing conditions of this territory. We did not know the
kind of service that you were rendering until two months ago. This was no
fault of yours or your department * * *. When your department was
created in this city we figured there must be some kind of a “ catch.” * * *
At one time we did a good foreign business, but for the last four years we have
dispensed with it. After becoming acquainted with you and your department’s
work and what you are doing, we are again going after this lost business.

The district office brings a vast fund of information and many
more-immediate trade helps right to the business man’s door. By
merely telephoning the nearest office, or making a short call there, or
addressing a letter to which he will receive a reply in a day or two,
the business man can establish relations with an organization pre­
pared to aid in the solution of export problems. That this service
is used to advantage by many is indicated by the tenor of the letters
received in acknowledgment. One firm wrote:

Again let us express to you our greatest appreciation for the efficient service
performed by the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. I only wish we
had more goods applicable for foreign trade, as we could capitalize to a much
greater extent, with the facilities which your office has and the painstaking work
you perform.

Other letters included such phrases as: “ We have used the serv­
ice for only a month or two but find it of inestimable benefit in under­
standing foreign markets. We expect great things from its con­
tinued use and, “ We believe that the department should be highly
complimented for the increase in general service, caliber of its person­
nel, and the real constructive job it is doing in the face of increasing
competition from abroad.”
FOREIGN-TRADE MEETINGS

During the past year foreign-trade meetings under the auspices of
tho district and cooperative offices were held in a number of cities to
discuss export problems with the manufacturers of those localities.
In every case the program was arranged and the bulk of the pre­
liminary work was done by the manager of the local office. The
meetings were conducted along the lines of a convention, with group
and individual conferences to which exporters brought their prob­
lems for consideration by the bureau’s experts sent out from Wash­
ington and the foreign service.
At one or more sessions of each meeting addresses were made by
bureau representatives on such timely subjects as Why Bother with
Export? Latest Developments in European Finance, Combination
Sales Arrangements, Industrialization of Foreign Countries—Its
Significance, and Germany as a Competitor. The advantages to the
bureau of these meetings is the personal contact thus established with
American business and the presentation of new problems for it to
solve.
Last year’s meetings were held at Atlanta. Boston, Buffalo,
Charlotte, Cincinnati, Cleveland. Denver, Hartford, Indianapolis.

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Kansas City, Louisville, Milwaukee, Pittsburgh, and Rochester. As
an index of the value of these meetings the following is quoted from
a letter received from a firm in the Pittsburgh district:

The average man with whom we come in contact has never appreciated the
value of the bureau. Neither did we before we contacted with your office. At
the recent conference In Pittsburgh the signer represented this company. He
had the unique distinction of representing the smallest amount of capital of
anyone at the gathering, but what your bureau has done for the larger exporter
was done even more so, proportionately, for us.
PRACTICAL BENEFITS FROM DISTRICT-OFFICE EFFORTS

The growing importance of the place occupied by the district office
in American foreign commerce is perhaps best indicated by the 200
per cent increase in the dollars-and-cents results reported by bureau
clients to these offices during the past fiscal year. One thousand and
twenty-one firms—out of 23,360 served—voluntarily reported sales
and savings effected through bureau service to the amount of
$42,651,854, or an average of $41,775 per firm.
Particular attention is given by the district offices to the needs of
those inexperienced in the export field, and in the above total there
is included a substantial amount of introductory or initial business
reported by firms that state their export department “ has just been
started.” Concerning such service a Pennsylvania manufacturer of
stoves who had the' guidance of the Philadelphia district office in the
early stages of his export effort writes:
Foreign merchandising was new to us. You did not stop at simply answer­
ing fully nnd satisfactorily the questions we asked, but secured for us
information peculiarly adapted to our particular product, and the same was
really invaluable. * * * We have been assisted far beyond our expectations.
SPECIALIZED AID POSSIBLE WITH LARGER PERSONNEL

In view of the daily growing demands upon the district offices
every effort should be made to secure authorization for additional
personnel. Although the work has almost doubled, practically all
the funds granted in the past four years have been used for staffing
new offices. This has meant much overtime for the older offices (16.8
days per employee last year) in order that the work might be kept
up to date.
The great increase in domestic-commerce inquiries has made the
assignment of domestic-commerce experts to a majority of the district
offices imperative. Then, too, interest in foreign trade has deepened
all over the United States, with consequent heavier demands upon
the district offices for export information. To meet this situation
and to better serve the 23,000 firms which currently use the bureau’s
facilities through these branches, it would seem advisable to
strengthen the staffs by adding specialists in lines such as automo­
tives, lumber, foodstuffs, textiles, cotton, and machinery in regions
where trade in these commodities is especially important.
Further funds for travel are needed if the district offices are ade­
quately to cover the territories assigned to them. In many districts
the majority of the industries served are outside the city in which
the bureau’s office is located and a more frequent and intimate con­
tact is impossible under the present appropriation.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

133

In the pursuit of his official duties the district-office employee fre­
quently makes use of his own car for transportation. These employ­
ees are allowed small sums for gasoline and oil, but they should be
reimbursed more adequately—say, 7 cents per mile while traveling
in their own automobiles on official business. An allowance of this
sort has been authorized by Congress for several other governmental
units.
THE COOPERATIVE OFFICE AN INVALUABLE ALLY

In addition to its regular branch offices, the bureau is aided in its
efforts to make the country foreign-trade conscious by some 50 com­
mercial organizations throughout the United States. These cham­
bers of commerce, boards o f trade, manufacturers’ associations, and
similar bodies maintain cooperative offices as a means of helping the
industries of their respective localities by distributing export data
supplied by the bureau. During the past year these offices have
been unusually active and have been of material assistance to the
bureau. They cooperate very closely with the district offices and
relieve them of considerable work.
Thus, through its chain of 29 district and 50 cooperative offices,
the bureau is linked up with all the more important industrial centers
of the country.
CONCRETE COMMODITY SERVICE FOR AMERICAN INDUSTRIES
AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS DIVISION

The year just ended witnessed a notable expansion in our agricul­
tural-implement industry as a whole. Amalgamations of some of
the principal manufacturing units into groups made for increased
efficiency and larger output in many lines and strengthened the entire
industry in both its domestic and its foreign trade position. Exports
registered an increase of 28 per cent, contrasted with a gain of only
6 per cent in the preceding year.
Cooperating with the foreign and district offices of the bureau the
agricultural implements division was able to take an active part in
extending the export trade to its present satisfactory proportions.
Sixteen thousand more services were rendered the industry last year
by the Washington and district offices than in 1927-28. Over 250
specific trade opportunities (also a notable increase) were received
from abroad and given distribution through the division. One wellknown firm reported that bureau assistance enabled it to increase its
foreign sales by more than $22,000—a figure representing initial
orders only and one which future trade is expected materially to
increase. Manufacturers of tractors in Minnesota, Illinois, Califor­
nia, and Iowa obtained approximately $378,500 worth of foreign
business through agencies placed with the aid of bureau representa­
tives in Bucharest, Wellington, Constantinople, Panama City, Paris,
and Warsaw. A manufacturer of hand farm tools received $6,000
in export orders as the first result of bureau efforts.
These examples illustrate the types of specific assistance which the
bureau is able to give. Other services contributing indirectly to
increased sales were carried on by the agricultural implements clivi-

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BKPOttf TO -THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

sion all through the year. A comprehensive survey of world markets
for dairy machinery and barn equipment, completed during the
twelvemonth, besides indicating the best markets for cream sepa­
rators, milking machines, silos, and various barn appurtenances, made
plain the principal sources of foreign competition in these articles,
which have come to be important items in American implement ex­
ports. Furthermore, the survey pointed out the best methods of
marketing such equipment and the prevailing credit situation in each
country. It was also the means of obtaining valuable lists of foreign
dealers in dairy and barn equipment.
Agricultural implement and machinery reporting by consular and
bureau officers stationed abroad has improved greatly, particularly
the quality of the material furnished on this highly technical sub­
ject for dissemination to the domestic industry. An outstanding
report of the year was a bulletin on the market for agricultural im­
plements and machinery in Australia. Other important published
material consisted of articles on market conditions in the principal
countries of the world and statistical discussions of United States
exports, which appeared in Commerce Reports, the official weekly
publication of the bureau; Implement and Tractor Notes, a bulletin
published at intervals by the division; and an unusually large number
of special circulars covering a variety of subjects of interest to the
industry.
Officials of agricultural implement and machinery manufacturing
firms are making increased use of the division for consultation, and
in consequence the number of visitors from the trade was consider­
ably larger than during any previous year. The desirability of using
factory-trained specialists to represent the bureau abroad in its agri­
cultural-implement promotion work is being given serious considera­
tion. If additional appropriations can be obtained to employ repre­
sentatives of this type, there seems no doubt that an important service
would be rendered to the industry.
AERONAUTICS SECTION

The aeronautics industry is comparatively new. Rapidly chang­
ing conditions combined with astounding growth have brought the
marketing aspect of the business to a somewhat confused state. The
industry is spread over practically the entire United States, there
being important manufacturing centers on the west coast, in the
Central States, and along the Atlantic seaboard. It is difficult for
the bureau to cover this entire area from Washington, and there is
need for qualified aeronautics marketing experts to be stationed in
certain of the bureau’s district offices to assist manufacturers and
exporters with their sales problems, both foreign and domestic.
The foreign market for American aircraft is more active than ever
before. If export sales continue during the remainder of the calen­
dar year at the pace set for the first six months, this country will sell
abroad some $10,000,000 worth of aircraft and equipment, which will
be three times as much as last year. There is a very active interest
in American aeronautical equipment in the Far East; Europe is
purchasing instruments and miscellaneous equipment if not Ameri­

FOREIGN AND DOMF.STIC COMMERCE

135

can-made aircraft proper. To promote this eastern trade and prop­
erly to cover the informational side of European activities there
should be aeronautics trade commissioners in both areas. The trade
commissioner and assistant trade commissioner who have been study­
ing the Latin American field for the past two years were instrumental
in paving the way for the American air lines now penetrating the
West Indies and Central and South America.
To meet the increased importance of the aeronautics industry the
aeronautics section of the bureau expanded its services in the promo­
tion of the industry’s foreign trade and in the dissemination of infor­
mation on foreign aeronautical activities to manufacturers, the press,
and educational institutions. At the close of the fiscal year the mail­
ing list for the section’s Foreign Aeronautical News contained 1,740
names. The section cooperated closely with the Aeronautics Branch
and with the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America in the
negotiations pending for the reciprocal licensing of American air­
craft in foreign countries and was instrumental also in obtaining
cancellation of the embargo on aircraft in one country.
Among the year’s special services was aid to the Assistant Secre­
tary of Commerce for Aeronautics in organizing the International
Civil Aeronautics Conference at Washington in December, the chief
of the section acting as executive officer for the conference; assistance
in the establishment of an export subsidiary by a prominent aircraft
manufacturer; and preparation of the foreign chapter of the Air­
craft Yearbook issued by the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce
and of material for a special export edition of one of the leading
aviation trade journals.
AUTOMOTIVE DIVISION

The automotive industry established during the year a number of
new high production and export records—for the latter, a gain of
approximately $173,000,000 over the 1927-28 exports. The countries
of the world are becoming very motor conscious and they are looking
to the United States to supply the larger part of the automotive
equipment they so urgently require. In turn, the manufacturers are
looking to the bureau to furnish detailed, current information on
both the existing world markets and those which one day will offer
real outlets for American automobiles, and they do not hesitate to
credit the bureau with having played an important role in registering
the large export increase just noted. Five special automotive trade
commissioners have operated further to serve the industry in strategic
overseas markets.
One of the automotive division’s outstanding services for the year
was the preparation and practical use of a new form entitled “Appli­
cation for Assistance in Securing Dealer, Distributor, or Indent
Agent.” The American exporter desiring foreign representation fills
in this form, giving intimate particulars of his business, and it is
then sent to the bureau’s field officers in the territory selected. The
field officer, having full and complete information in hand, is in
position to recommend suitable local representation, eliminating a
large amount of correspondence and saving much time. One impor­
tant automobile firm states that a year ago it had 52 foreign distribu­
tors and now has 102, half of this increased activity being due solely

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REPORT TO TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

to the cooperation of the automotive division and the bureau’s field
staff. In securing 10 of these distributorships the firm spent less
than $100.
Two of the year’s published studies by the division were World
Production of Automobiles and World Census of Automobiles, which
were universally well received. Additional sheets were distributed
for inclusion in the division’s Automotive Foreign Trade Manual, a
loose-leaf manual containing statistics of imports, exports, registra­
tions by makes, taxation, sales surveys, and a great deal of other basic
information such as population, topography, highway mileage, cur­
rency, and climate of foreign countries, kept constantly up to date—
a service which enables the exporter to check his true position in any
overseas market.
To secure first-hand information on foreign manufacture and com­
petition the chief of the division visited a number of European coun­
tries during the year. He and other members of the division staff
attended and took part in important meetings of automotive trade
associations, motor shows, and highway conventions. As a further
point of direct contact between the industry and the bureau, factory
representatives bound for overseas posts are visiting the bureau and
remaining from one to five days collecting data on file here.
CHEMICAL DIVISION

The United States stands first among nations as a producer and
consumer of chemical products and second as an exporter. It pro­
duces 47 per cent of the world’s chemical supplies and ships 15 per
cent of the world’s chemical exports. An historical study of the
development of the American chemical industry from the beginning
of the present century, undertaken by the chemical division with a
view to presenting an authentic statement of the status of the indus­
try, was issued by the bureau early in 1929 and has been pronounced
one of the most comprehensive essays ever published on the subject.
While there has been no spectacular rise—but a most steady
growth—in our chemical exports the past few years, a change is to
be noted in the character of the commodities sent abroad, the trend
now being toward larger shipments of consumer products and a de­
cline in basic materials. Foreign trade in consumer goods has been
stimulated by the division’s series of world-market studies on insecti­
cides, veterinary preparations, plastic paints, dental preparations,
polishes, and similar products. As an interesting side light on the
value of these studies, household fly sprays, a totally unknown indus­
try a few years ago, are now being exported at the rate of $3,000,000
annually.
“ Cartellization ” (or “ control of an industry through a voluntary
association of its constituent independent enterprises for the joint
regulation of production and distribution ”) has taken place to a
greater extent in the chemical industry than in any other, and the
division is devoting increasing attention to this vitally important
economic trend. Since the chemical industry is basic to all industry,
the formation abroad of national and international chemical cartels
is of widespread significance, and this finds its reflex in the mount­
ing volume of service which the chemical division is called upon to

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

137

render to bankers, financiers, economists, business men in other
branches of industry, and to students of public affairs.
Foreign monopolies controlling essential raw materials have
always been a matter of deep interest to the American chemical in­
dustry, inasmuch as exotic raw materials (not all of them under
monopoly control, however) represent two-thirds of our total chem­
ical imports. Because of limited facilities the division’s work of
the year in this field was confined to one monograph on the subject
of iodine.
Distribution and other problems affecting domestic commerce are
becoming of increasing importance in the work of the chemical divi­
sion. Many trade associations are making special studies of pre­
ventable wastes, and the division has set up a special section, in
charge of a qualified expert, to handle matters of this kind in so far
as its facilities permit. Surveys of drug-store merchandising, such
as that carried out for the grocery industry, and of paint merchan­
dising suggest themselves as fields where lower cost of distribution
should result through simplification, and many other suggestions
have been made as to fields for study in a domestic-commerce
program.
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT DIVISION

“ Following 12 years of laboratory study and intermittent experi­
mental work, radio broadcasting has now had nine years of public
development. In this time it has become a part of civilization ex­
ceeded in importance by few other contributors to the advancement
of the human race. * * * During the past seven years over $50,000,000 worth of American radio goods has been sent to foreign coun­
tries; in 1925 exports amounted to $9,903,787; in 1926, $8,749,453;
and in 1927, $9,182,414. In 1928 a new record was set, with exports
valued at $12,061,410.”
The bulletin from which these sentences are quoted. Radio Markets
of the World, 1928-29, prepared by the electrical equipment division,
scored an outstanding success. A Directory of Foreign Broadcasting
Stations also proved popular. In the domestic field the division con­
tinued its quarterly survey of radio dealers’ and jobbers’ stocks, a
service that is growing more and more valuable to the industry.
Starting with the J uly 1, 1929, tabulation, stocks and sales will be
shown each quarter within the wholesale areas as outlined by the
Wholesale Grocers’ Atlas (compilation of which was a major work of
the bureau in 1926-27) and by type of business handling the radio
sales.
As evidencing the value to industry of distribution information of
this kind, the division has been solicited by the electric-refrigeration
and heating-appliance groups to undertake similar quarterly surveys
covering their lines. This will mean the mailing for the three sur­
veys of approximately 100,000 questionnaires each quarter. The two
additional services will start within a few months.
In the general electrical-equipment field, the series of trade infor­
mation bulletins dealing with foreign market conditions now covers
22 countries. Flashlight markets abroad were discussed last year in
several issues of Commerce Reports, where also appeared articles on
sundry appliance lines; and much additional material was released

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

through other channels. The division still handles the Australian
Electricity Commission's specifications for contemplated work open to
public bidding, distributing these specifications promptly in the
united States, and has continued the collection and dissemination of
“ Foreign electrical current characteristics,” that is, voltage, fre­
quency, source, available supply, rates, etc., of the electricity fur­
nished in every community of the world having current.
The National Electric Light Association (“ NELA ”) has cooper­
ated splendidly by furnishing handbooks and bulletins for the bu­
reau’s foreign offices, thus keeping the field staff informed on electrical
developments in the United States, and is preparing a Spanish trans­
lation of the handbook for use in Spanish-speaking countries.
A number of American companies were interested by the electrical
equipment division in the export field, among them a well-known
radio company and a washing-machine manufacturer whose whole
export policy was mapped out by the division. Very definite aid was
given two large telephone companies with respect to the Guatemalan
situation.
The division and the district and cooperative offices together under­
took a detailed study of radio dealers’ methods of operation during
the year, but it is not yet ready for publication. Also a survey was
made of the kinds of materials used by manufacturers of electrical
equipment and appliances. The panelboard section of “ NEM A”
(National Electrical Manufacturers Association) asked the division
to assist in obtaining statistics from those manufacturers not in the
association, which is being successfully accomplished each quarter.
Several fruitless attempts have been made to have a census of radio
sets in the United States taken, but there is still a plan under consid­
eration which may develop favorably.
FOODSTUFFS DIVISION

West Africa produces about two-thirds of the cocoa beans of the
world, yet the American trade, which imports some $15,000,000 or
$20,000,000 worth of this cocoa annually, has in the past had no
direct information service covering the harvest or the factors that
affect yield and price. One of the most important extensions of the
foodstuffs division’s work last year accordingly was the arranging for
a Very complete service of reports on this crop through the bureau’s
new office at Accra, Gold Coast.
The rapid rise of vegetab’e oils as a foodstuff in recent years and
the constantly increasing calls on the bureau for information made
desirable the assignment to our London office of a trade commis­
sioner specializing in fats and oils to cover Europe; and the early
appointment of a citrus-fruit trade commissioner for Europe, with
headquarters at Hamburg, has been authorized. Besides these new
officers, there are foodstuffs trade commissioners stationed at London,
Rome, Shanghai, Singapore, Panama City (for the Caribbean coun­
tries), Rio de Janeiro, and Accra, and a special commissioner on
Pacific coast fruit products is traveling in the Far East.
The foodstuffs division has long desired to prepare a summary of
the pure food laws and regulations, customs requirements, and trade
restrictions affecting imports for the major countries to which we

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139

sell food products. Such a survey is now well under way, a begin­
ning having been made last year in the study on fresh fruits and
vegetables and canned foods undertaken in collaboration with the
division of foreign tariffs.
The tobacco section was particularly active in the introduction of
American cigarettes into eight foreign countries and in developing
the trade in American tobacco in three of the principal European
tobacco monopolies.
Other work developed by the division in the foreign field included
the setting up of a reporting service on shipments of avocados from
Cuba and research into the marketing of fur-bearing animals and
pure-bred livestock in several foreign countries.
In the domestic field a system for collecting monthly figures on
candy production and confectionery sales was established at the
request of the confectionery industry, and a start made on the collec­
tion of statistics for the mayonnaise industry; arrangements were
completed for weekly telegraphic reports (to be sent to California
and Florida) on shipments of citrus fruits to the United Kingdom;
and numerous other statistical services helpful to industry were
organized.
During the year a grocery specialist was added to the division
¡ersonnel, who made a detailed distribution-cost analysis for two
arge grocery houses in conjunction with the domestic commerce
division. The investigation disclosed a number of very important
sources of loss in distribution that could be remedied and aroused
much interest among wholesale grocers generally.

{

HIDE AND LEATHER DIVISION

The establishment of the New York Hide Exchange has created
a most insistent demand for more information regarding world pro­
duction and stocks of hides and skins. The bureau’s hide and leather
division, therefore, has started the preparation of a world raw-stock
manual that will present a summary of the livestock population, the
trend toward increase or decrease of herds, and the international
flow of trade in raw stocks for every country producing hides and
skins in commercial quantities, thus affording the importer and the
tanner a clear-cut outline of the raw-stock situation in any given
area. To make the manual of permanent value, it is proposed to have
it carefully revised each year.
That American exporters of leather make very practical use of
the existing services of the division is seen in the wider distribution
of American leather; 98 foreign countries bought American leather
last year, where but 70 took it in 1913, and, of these, 17 were “ milliondollar markets,” against only 6 such before the war. The division
aided American tanners in the selection of 150 known agents during
the year. Exchange of agency information between the members of
the industry through the division as a clearing house proves con­
stantly of more value.
Perhaps the outstanding new development of the year was the train­
ing of an assistant trade commissioner for service in China. Undoubt­
edly the most useful among the many publications issued was the bul­
letin on Selling American Leather in Germany, said by competent
judges to display a masterly grasp of European leather-merchandising

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REPORT TO TH E SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

problems. A series of fortnightly letters, accompanied by confidential
circulars dealing with major questions in the exportation of leather
and mailed to the chief executives in the industry, was an exceptional
service feature of the last quarter of the year.
Through the untiring efforts of the very active advisory committee
of the Tanners’ Council of America and the hide and leather division
the cooperation of the tanning industry with the various Government
departments and bureaus has been greatly intensified. The inter­
departmental committee for the study of domestic raw-stock con­
servation, which committee is composed of representatives of the
Departments of Agriculture and Commerce, gained much recognition
during the year for the splendid work already accomplished in the
elimination of the cattle grub, the improvement in the take-off of
hides, and the standardized grading of domestic hides and skins.
A tentative schedule of grades has been published and is being dis­
cussed by interested groups.
The problem of a future domestic supply of tanning materials has
now definitely come to the fore, and as an initial step toward its solu­
tion the council of the American Leather Chemists Association has
appointed a committee of four experts to act, through the hide and
leather division, in an advisory capacity to the Department of Com­
merce in formulating a practical program of research and education.
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY DIVISION

American exports of strictly industrial machinery now approxi­
mate $1,000,000 a working day—an astounding volume when the
character of this equipment is considered and when it is remem­
bered that this represents a consistent rise from a yearly total of
$112,000,000 in 1922.
The industrial machinery division was quite successful last year
in its trade-promotion work; letters received from individual ma­
chinery manufacturers tell of specific instances where some $2,000,000
worth of business was secured. These orders, placed with the aid
of the bureau’s foreign and district office staffs, included construc­
tion machinery for Canada, canning machinery for Brazil, excavat­
ing machinery for Latvia, machine tools for France and India,
lighthouse equipment for Cuba, and sales of other machinery to
Nicaragua, Turkey, Australia, and other countries.
During the past year studies were completed on the market for
industrial machinery in Italy and the Netherland East Indies and
(conjointly with the agricultural implements division) for dairy
equipment and supplies in Great Britain and on the Continent.
Questionnaires are now in the field for a world survey of the sawmill
and woodworking industry and the possibilities for the sale of equip­
ment of this class in foreign countries; and a bulletin on the Mexican
Market for Industrial Machinery is now in course of preparation.
On the domestic side the industrial machinery division collaborated
with the domestic commerce division in studying plant equipment in
American factories, and it is hoped that preliminary reports thereon
can soon be published. Efforts are being made to apply the results
of the Census of Manufactures to the sales problems of the machinery
industry, and reports covering this part of the work should also be
available in the near future.

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141

IKON-STEEL-HARDWARE DIVISION

The past fiscal year saw the completion by the iron-steel-hardware
division of an export-market survey for domestic oil burners—a
product peculiarly American, having been developed by American
engineers and at present finding its widest use in American dwellings
and commercial buildings. This survey, however, because of the
unusual detail incorporated (detail which embraced the type of heat­
ing systems in popular use abroad, the types and availability of fuels,
the characteristics of available fuel oils, and the existence of laws
and regulations that might affect the use of oil burners) has already
resulted in the establishment of several profitable agency arrange­
ments abroad, and the interest of American makers concerning the
marketability of their burners in foreign countries is rapidly increas­
ing. Paralleling this study the division, with the assistance of the
bureau’s field officers, also conducted a survey of foreign markets for
cooking and heating appliances which is receiving an enthusiastic
reception.
Foreign trade in the varied products within the iron, steel, and
hardware category registered a satisfactory increase. At the close
of 1928 shipments of iron and steel products were greater by 30 per
cent than at its beginning and hardware by 15 per cent—this im­
provement, in general, being maintained and even augmented in the
first six months of 1929. This gain was particularly gratifying in
view of the generally increased production and export sales of com­
peting foreign countries and the intensive price competition which
prevailed. While all branches of the industry were served by the
division throughout the year, especial assistance was rendered ex­
porters of black and galvanized sheets, tin plate, high-grade enamel­
ing sheets, steel rails and track accessories, scrap steel, transmission
towers, water, gas, and oil tanks, metal store fronts, arms and muni­
tions, builders’ hardware, cutlery, lamps and lanterns, domestic oil
burners, and cooking and heating stoves and appliances. Three
trade information bulletins were published on the several phases of
the Japanese iron and steel industry.
The division’s weekly Foreign Hardware Trade Bulletin now
reaches more than 2,100 firms interested in hardware lines. This
bulletin contains information submitted by Foreign Commerce and
consular officers covering both existing and potential markets and
specific conditions affecting the hardware trade in each area dis­
cussed. In addition, much attention is paid to the activities of our
principal competitors in the major foreign markets, and advice as to
both regular and unusual sales activity is included.
Early in 1929 the chief of the division visited the Pacific and Gulf
coasts of the United States, establishing a number of new contacts
and renewing others of long standing. There has been, as a result,
an extension of the scope of the division’s activities in those sections.
LUMBER DIVISION

In the opinion of the lumber export committee (composed of repre­
sentatives of the principal export groups and acting in an advisory
capacity to the Department of Commerce) a better knowledge in
other countries of American construction methods and the efficient
use of our lumber through dry kilning, grade selection, and attention

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REPORT TO TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

to working stresses would materially improve consumption of Ameri­
can lumber abroad. As part of the necessary educational work the
lumber division of the bureau cooperated in the preparation of the
first two of a series of trade-extension bulletins, American Douglas
Fir and Its Uses and American Pitch Pine and Its Uses, for distri­
bution abroad by shippers of these woods, and called the attention of
exporters to the very useful handbooks on Wood Construction, Sea­
soning and Handling of Lumber, and Sap Stains and Their Preven­
tion, issued by the National Committee on Wood Utilization, as suit­
able to supply foreign agents and customers. Continued cooperation
with this latter committee has considerably enlarged the division’s
store of marketing information, and close touch has been maintained
with the work of American lumber associations as well.
Besides the publications just mentioned, the division issued a 340page bulletin on the British lumber trade; revised bulletins on lum­
ber-import methods in South America and in Germany, Italy, and
Spain ; prepared a handbook on lumber exporting and a pamphlet on
department services to the lumber industry; paid particular atten­
tion to press releases and articles for Commerce Reports; and in
collaboration with the division of foreign tariffs issued a special cir­
cular giving the import duties levied on sawn lumber in all major
foreign markets. During the year a series of monthly circulars cov­
ering hardwoods, Southern pine, etc., was inaugurated. A new
Directory of Exporters of American Lumber was issued, exporters
were listed on new, specially designed species-products file cards,
domestic references on wholesale-retail lumber trade wTere compiled,
and plans made for domestic distribution surveys when funds
become available.
In addition, the division during the year complied with 675 re­
quests for information regarding foreign agents, mostly from estab­
lished firms interested in new outlets or replacements for unsatisfac­
tory present representatives. Experience indicates that one-third of
such suggestions made by the division result in at least trial arrange­
ments, so that over 200 connections probably were obtained for
American lumber shippers last year without cost to them. Annual
revision of the division’s foreign-agency file was carried out in con­
junction with American lumber exporters. Consultation of this file
prevents two or more exporters of the same kind of lumber from
competing through the same foreign agent.
A lumber specialist was stationed at Buenos Aires to cover the
River Plate lumber trade. The lumber specialist assigned to the
London office collaborated with the bureau’s continental offices
and American consuls in Europe on lumber-trade reporting and
promotion.
MINERALS DIVISION

With the close of 1928-29 there is concrete evidence that the min­
erals division during its first full year of separate existence (for­
merly it functioned as a section of the iron and steel division) has
achieved definite results and provided material advantages to the
nonferrous minerals-metals, coal, petroleum, and affiliated industries.
Its minerals-metals section prepared, under the direction of the
chief of the division, a 278-page monograph entitled “ Mineral Raw
Materials: A Survey of Commerce and Sources in Major Industrial

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143

Countries.” As this work covers in detail world distribution of the
principal nonferrous minerals and metals that enter international
trade, the report unquestionably will serve for at least five years as
a ready-reference text not only for the economist but also for persons
actively concerned in international trading in mineral raw materials.
The special service of the section to the tin and antimony trade in
the form of regular weekly and monthly cables covering shipments
of these metals from producing countries illustrates the desire on the
part of the trade to obtain, through official sources, current statistical
data of vital importance in the conduct of everyday business. There
were also issued during the year bulletins on the marketing of man­
ganese ore, antimony, mercury, and tungsten; and, at the direct re­
quest of the interested trades, world surveys on mica, tin, copper, and
lead are scheduled for the immediate future.
Prior to January, 1929, the activities of the minerals-metals sec­
tion were largely directed toward the promotion of import trade in
those raw materials of which the United States has a supply inade­
quate for domestic requirements. Since the first of the calendar
year there has been an increasing demand on the part of American
manufacturers for service that will aid in the development of foreign
markets for their finished products. In this connection, a bulletin
surveying possible outlets in Canada, Mexico, Central America, and
the Caribbean area for cement, tile, roofing materials, pipe and
boiler covering, and brick will appear within a few weeks. This
initial work was conducted at the request of American exporters of
building materials. Similar publications for other geographical
areas are planned.
The petroleum section of the division issued during the past fiscal
year a monograph entitled “ International Trade in Petroleum and
Its Products,” for which there was an immediate demand for 5,000
copies. The trade has found this report so useful that, through the
American Petroleum Institute as a representative agency of trie in­
dustry, it has asked that the bulletin be revised and published
annually hereafter. The section likewise issued a bulletin on Petro­
leum Refineries in Foreign Countries, 1929, of which 4,500 copies
were sold. This, too, will be revised and published annually; and
World Prices for Gasoline, Kerosene, Diesel Oil, Fuel Oil, and
Bunker Coal will be revised semiannually.
A report on Fuel and Power in Canada, with Special Reference
to the Factors Affecting American Coal, was issued by the coal sec­
tion as the first of a series that will embrace the United Kingdom,
Germany, France, Belgium, and Italy. By maintaining close touch
with the United States Coal Exporters Association and other organi­
zations representing the coal industry the section is able to direct its
attention to problems of current interest.
MOTION-PICTURE SECTION

The revolutionary changes in the motion-picture industry brought
about by the large-scale production and exhibition of sound films
caused the work of the bureau’s motion-picture section to undergo
considerable modification from what had been originally planned.
The advent of the sound film diminished in value much information

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

previously collected but of use only to producers and distributors of
silent pictures and heavily increased the demand for information
on the prospects of marketing both sound films and reproducing sys­
tems abroad, with the further result of widening the section’s circle
of contacts through inclusion of companies making sound apparatus.
In order that the bureau might adjust its services to the changed
conditions in the industry, the chief of the motion-picture section
went to Hollywood in September, 1928, to ascertain exactly the type
and extent of the data most urgently required, and thereafter the sec­
tion concentrated its main efforts on supplying the material vital
in the present circumstances. Thus special supplementary reports
on sound films occupied a prominent place in the various publica­
tions of the section throughout the remainder of the fiscal year.
These publications included 6 trade-information bulletins on Aus­
tralia, India, and other countries of the Far East, 31 foreign-market
bulletins, and feature articles contributed to the trade press. The
survey of the European motion-picture industry inaugurated the
previous year was brought up to date and republished with much
additional material.
A number of special services were rendered during the year. Chief
among them were a survey conducted to determine the contribution
of the motion-picture industry to the prosperity of other industries;
cooperation with State Department officials in dealing with legisla­
tive problems affecting motion pictures in a number of foreign coun­
tries; the procuring of representative industrial films for use at the
Seville exposition; advice in the establishment of the foreign sales
organization of a manufacturer of sound-recording apparatus; and
preparation of lists of theaters abroad of a type in which reproduc­
ing apparatus might be installed.
New contacts were made in the motion-picture equipment trade
and an advisory committee was set up. Two bulletins on the pros­
pects for equipment sales in Europe and Latin America were pub­
lished, as well as a number of smaller pamphlets on individual
markets.
The industrial and educational work of the section was broadened.
Much useful information on the sources of American nontheatrical
films was given out to a constantly expanding group of inquirers,
who included representatives of several foreign governments. The
Composite List of Nontheatrical Film Sources is being revised and
enlarged, and a questionnaire is being issued to several thousand
schools designed to show the extent to which visual education is being
employed in them.
The motion-picture trade commissioner assigned to Europe was
called upon during the course of the year to report and advise on
difficult legislative situations affecting motion pictures in several con­
tinental countries. He submitted over 150 market and statistical
reports which formed the basis of many of the most popular publi­
cations of the section. The work of the bureau’s foreign offices was
equally effective; the commercial attaches in Austria, France, Ger­
many, Hungary, and other countries where film control was in force
or contemplated rendered splendid service in advising the trade how
these regulations might be met. The same applies to the trade com­
missioner in Calcutta where a similar situation exists.

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145

PAPER DIVISION

Expansion of production marked the paper industry last year,
and exports of practically all lines made greater gains than in any
twelvemonth since the war. The movement toward cartellization
noted under “ Chemicals ” is encountered also in the paper industry
of Europe, and steps have been taken by producers in this country
to reach an agreement regarding foreign markets with members of
the European industrial group.
Manufacturers of paper and paper board, and of printing ma­
chinery and supplies as well, were actively assisted by the paper
division of the bureau in finding outlets for their products abroad
and were kept informed of changes in foreign economic and trade
conditions. Inquiries relating to export markets answered during
the year through Washington and the district offices numbered
34,970, or nearly 30 per cent more than in 1927-28. While this in­
crease was spread fairly well over the entire group of products, per­
haps the greatest proportionate gain was in inquiries concerning
markets abroad for specialty goods and in connection with domestic
distribution.
The limited personnel of the division makes it desirable to foster
cooperation with industry through the medium of trade associations,
but it has been handicapped in extending assistance to the printing
equipment branch by lack of an active organization there, necessitat­
ing the establishment of contact with trade publications and in­
dividual manufacturers. The division was able, however, to help
several printing equipment concerns in placing agencies overseas.
Besides articles appearing in Commerce Reports, items of special
interest to the trade were published in the division’s Weekly News
Release, and a revised edition of the Glossary of Paper Terms and
Instructions to Exporters was issued. Trade information bulletins
covering New Zealand, Australia, the Near East, and part of Europe
are planned for publication during the next half year.
The new office recently opened by the bureau at Oslo, Norway,
has contributed much valuable material to the division’s file of infor­
mation on the paper industry of northern Europe. Already the com­
mercial attaché has established contacts with European trade asso­
ciations that will be of practical advantage to the bureau.
RUBBER DIVISION

The past fiscal year was marked, on the one hand, by the antici­
pated high rate of rubber production following the end of the exportrestriction policy that had been in effect in British Malaya and
Ceylon since 1922, and on the other hand by an unforeseen equally
high world rubber consumption, in consequence of which current sta­
tistics of world rubber production and consumption were more than
ever necessary to the American trade.
To meet the situation the division’s statistical services on rubber
were broadened through cabled reports on shipments from produc­
ing centers and imports into manufacturing countries, by official
reports of month-end quantities of rubber afloat for the United
States, and by elaboration of the United States export classification
78415—29----- 10

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REPORT TO TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

covering rubber products. Fresh information about trade develop­
ments was supplied through special circulars issued weekly. Spe­
cial surveys were made of consumption of crude and reclaimed
rubber in the United States during 1927 and 1928. A considerable
improvement in the timeliness and accuracy of statistics published
in the trade press was a natural corollary of these activities. Semi­
annual conferences were held with leading statisticians representing
rubber manufacturers.
To assist the rubber footwear industry in this country the division
has arranged to make surveys of stocks of such footwear in dealers’
hands at stated intervals, following the compilation of similar sta­
tistics for manufacturers’ stocks through the Rubber Manufacturers
Association. The first survey was made as of June 30, 1929. This
service is similar to the survey instituted in 1924 for tire stocks,
which continues to be conducted semiannually by the rubber division.
The year’s publications by the division included bulletins on Euro­
pean Markets for Rubber Sundries and Specialties and British Colo­
nial Office Reports on the Rubber Situation, besides regular weekly
news letters on the import trade in rubber and export trade in tires
and monthly circulars on the export trade in rubber footwear, me­
chanical rubber goods, and rubber sundries and specialties. Mimeo­
graphed material consisted of 370 circulars, 91 statistical statements,
and 47 corrections to the division’s manual giving rates of customs
duty applicable to rubber products upon importation into foreign
countries. The manual of statistics on foreign trade in rubber foot­
wear and rubber heels and soles was revised and will shortly be
released.
SHOE AND LEATHER MANUFACTURES DIVISION

Within the purview of the shoe and leather manufactures divi­
sion there are, besides leather footwear of all kinds, the related lines
of lasts, welting, and findings; and gloves, harness and saddlery,
luggage, leather belting, leather novelties, and others. That the
division has been able to create interest and to present possibilities
of foreign trade advantageously to exporters of all these articles is
shown in the markedly larger number of inquiries received by it
last year. A change, too, is to be noted in the character of these
inquiries—formerly for general data, now for advice on more inti­
mate phases of trading. As adviser in this latter capacity the
division was able materially to aid manufacturers seeking foreign
markets in planning sales campaigns for new territories.
Specific opportunities to sell leather goods abroad increased 30
per cent in the last six months over the number called to the atten­
tion of the trade in the first six months of the fiscal year and ranged
from useful footwear to small pieces of scrap leather. Since foreign
consumer preferences can best be determined through personal survey
and analysis, to supplement the information submitted bv consular
officers and the bureau’s field staff the chief of the shoe division spent
three months in Europe last year studying present footwear trade
possibilities and trends.
The division, however, is being consulted more and more in con­
nection with the domestic sales situation. Distribution, or selling, is
the big problem confronting American shoe manufacturers to-day.

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147

From 90 to 95 per cent of their production must find an outlet
through domestic channels. Consideration is being given to obtain­
ing quarterly or half-yearly reports, by class and grade, of manu­
facturers’ output and dealers’ stocks-in-hand. These figures when
compared with the population and the age groups of population in
the country would point out the localities of saturation and of
shortage and be of great assistance in determining where to con­
centrate sales effort.
The cordial cooperation with other governmental agencies which
has characterized previous years continues, particularly with the
Army Quartermaster’s Department, to which advice is regularly
given as to the best time to purchase shoes for the Army and also
as to when surplus stocks of footwear, harness, saddlery, and other
leather articles could be disposed of most advantageously.
SPECIALTIES DIVISION

Approximately $200,000,000 worth of American specialties (or
$15,000,000 more than in 1927) was shipped to other countries last
year—a figure that indicates, in some measure, the importance of
the group of unrelated commodities handled by the specialties divi­
sion. Contributing to this total were the first sales of manufacturers
who previously had done no exporting, but were helped by the divi­
sion to a definite start in developing foreign outlets on a permanent
basis, as well as the shipments of veteran exporters who further
extended their trade abroad by the establishment of added agencies
or branch offices and by more intensive work in areas already covered.
This has involved a larger use of advertising as an aid to sales and
brought about a decided increase in the advertising services rendered
by the division, whose store of information on foreign advertising
media and methods is being drawn upon more and more by American
manufacturers, exporters, and advertising agencies.
Requests for general trade information likewise are increasing, to
meet which last year the division greatly extended its services in the
way of prompt dissemination of facts and figures of interest and by
keeping makers of all specialty lines posted on the possibilities of
developing new or unusual fields. As an outcome of this direct serv­
ice the division has received reports of definite dollars-and-cents
results which, it is interesting to note, include sales of such diverse
articles as fire extinguishers, furniture, ash receivers, trophies, adver­
tising novelties, compacts, playing cards, books, picture lrames, office
supplies, and phonograph-record cleaners.
As in the past the division maintained close contact with industry
through representative trade associations as well as individual manu­
facturers and groups of manufacturers. Especial emphasis has been
given to anticipating the requirements of the industries served, an
example of which is to be found in the studies carried on relating
to coin-operated mechanisms and possibilities for the sale of ma­
chines of this type in foreign countries. As a result a gratifying
number of manufacturers have been able to develop some good
export outlets. Further, a new classification covering these machines
was set up in the official United States trade returns, that some indi­
cation could be had of the volume of foreign sales in this new export.
From January 1 to June 30, 1929, these amounted to $403,570.

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

There is every indication that future increases in this trade will be
substantial and that the service inaugurated by the division for this
industry was well worth while.
TEXTILE DIVISION

Keen competition and slack demand have caused the selling of
textiles in foreign markets to become increasingly difficult and led
the textile division to intensify its trade-promotion work throughout
the whole of the past fiscal year. To this end it maintained close
contact with the various textile associations and through them called
to the attention of the proper firms many specific opportunities for
trading, forwarded numerous samples to the bureau’s foreign offices
for inspection by prospective purchasers or agents, and made avail­
able to American concerns an increased volume of trade information
either directly or through published reports. Substantial results
followed.
The American rayon industry surpasses that of any other country
of the world in volume of output, but up to the present time it has
produced almost entirely for home consumption. Output has been
expanding at a rapid rate, however, and there is now a possibility
that production may overtake consumption here. In an endeavor to
find suitable markets abroad for any exportable surplus the textile
division, at the request of the industry, conducted a survey of rayon
sales prospects in Central and South America. The information
thus obtained and suggestions as to the proper methods for entering
the most encouraging of these markets were supplied to interested
manufacturers.
The textile division also undertook, in cooperation with the Buenos
Aires office, an investigation of the market possibilities for Americanmade fur coats in Argentina. As a result of this survey a large
consignment of fur coats will go to that southern Republic before
the end of 1929. The fur section of the division published a bulletin
on the International Trade in Furs which supplies much-needed
statistical data on the subject.
In the domestic market the division’s principal service to the tex­
tile industry was in facilitating business between the Government
and textile manufacturers and in collaborating with the various
institutes and associations in the trade on a number of important
projects. The chief of the division is chairman of the technical com­
mittee on textiles of the Federal Specifications Board, the principal
function of which is to devise master specifications for the textile
requirements of the Government. These specifications, so far as pos­
sible, call for materials of standard commercial constructions and
thus permit freer bidding on the part of textile manufacturers and
assure maximum returns to the departments for the money expended.
During the past year the committee promulgated 19 approved specifi­
cations and drew up 19 tentative ones for later consideration by
the board and the industry.
The new uses for cotton section of the division continued its investi­
gation of current and potential uses of cotton in the building, awning,
leather-shoe, automobile-tire, and citrus-fruit industries as well as
a number of other enterprises. Its conclusions, published in pamph­

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

149

let form, were given wide distribution. Suggestions developed
through these inquiries have been made the subject of further study
and technical research bv cotton manufacturers.
At the request of the National Association of Dyers and Cleaners
the textile maintenance section of the division cooperated in a study
of the controversies arising between department or dry-goods stores
and cleaning establishments as a result of the fading or shrinking
of fabrics in the cleaning process.
The fur section, in cooperation with State game commissions,
the Department of Agriculture, and the National Association of the
Fur Industry, made the second tabulation of the value of the annual
fur catch in the United States.
SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL SEBVICES TO BUSINESS
COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCE DIVISION

The work and functions of the commercial intelligence division
are to act as the bureau’s clearing house of information respecting
foreign business firms of all classes; to respond to inquiries from
bureau clients as to who are logical distributors for their products
in the trading centers of the world; to be informed on the buying
terms customary in foreign markets, and on sources of credit infor­
mation; to keep a record of failures, liquidations, and bankruptcies
of foreign buyers, and of concerns that resort to fraudulent business
practices. Commercial intelligence such as this is a perishable com­
modity, its prompt and accurate dissemination a necessity. The
record achieved by the division during the past year was made pos­
sible only through the excellent support received from the consular
officers of the Department of State and the field staff of the Bureau
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
The trade-list service, the oldest activity of the division, has ad­
vanced to the point where the names and addresses of over 600,000
foreign buyers—importers, wholesalers, commission merchants,
brokers, and large retailers—of some 3,200 separate commodities are
on file. Four hundred and seventy-two new listings were added last
year, and approximately 700,000 of the lists sent out to bureau clients
upon specific request therefor.
The supplying of detailed reports on individual concerns abroad
(known as World Trade Directory reports) continues to be the most
important activity of the division. The master file now contains re­
ports on nearly 400,000 foreign firms, 44,687 new reports having been
added in 1928-29; more than 148,000 requests for information of
this character were received during the year. As a measure of the
confidence reposed in the division and as showing how users of the
service cooperate, it is interesting to note that American exporters,
banks, and credit and trade organizations furnished the division with
over 30,000 reports respecting their trade experiences with foreign
firms to add to this file last year.
In investigating the fitness of foreign agencies to handle the selling
franchises of American exporters data have been collected which en­
able the division to suggest suitable sales agents to meet specific needs.
Over 3,000 such requests were handled last year and satisfactory
results reported.

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The division has recently made an extensive study of buying terms
current in the trading centers of the world in respect to the major
commodities exported from the United States. The data now avail­
able to American traders have never before been recorded in such de­
tail. They indicate that American exporters generally are collecting
for shipments to foreign buyers by means of documentary time drafts
payable at definite due dates and that they are not finding it necessary
to extend as long credit terms as do their foreign competitors in
many of the world’s markets.
Sources of credit information to enable the American exporter to
“ rate ” the foreign buyer as a credit risk have been investigated by
the field staffs of the Departments of Commerce and State. All re­
liable sources existing in each foreign area as well as in our own
country have been listed and made available to shippers as a tradeinformation bulletin, Sources of Foreign Credit Information, now in
its third edition.
Some 9,000 specific opportunities to sell American products were
received in the bureau last year from buyers abroad and checked in
the commercial intelligence division as to the responsibility and stand­
ing of the inquirer before publication in Commerce Reports and the
press of the country.
DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL LAWS

A memorable contribution toward the codification of commercial
law, which has long been the objective of international jurists, was
made by the division of commercial laws last year through the serv­
ices of the chief of the Latin American legal-information section,
who, at the request of the Chilean Government, attended a series of
conferences with its experts and legal authorities called for the pur­
pose of revising the Commercial Code of that country. The section
is also cooperating with the American section of the International
Chamber of Commerce in matters affecting c. i. f. contracts as
interpreted under the Warsaw Rules of 1928. The bulletin on
Argentina which the section last year contributed to the series on
Trading Under the Laws of Foreign Countries was one of the most
comprehensive yet issued.
In the main the work of the European section of legal information
had to do with incorporation and tax matters. Domestic legislation
in the several countries of Europe was analyzed and American ex­
porters informed of the benefits thus accorded their foreign enter­
prises. Studies were also made with special reference to the elimina­
tion of double taxation. A monograph on the intricate subject of
Taxation of Business in Italy by the chief of this section appeared at
the close of the fiscal year. Research is now being conducted to de­
termine what protection may be afforded American shippers under
drafts payable to collecting banks in foreign countries, and also with
reference to European inheritance taxes and death duties.
Due to limitation of personnel, assistance given American firms
doing business elsewhere than in Latin America or Europe has been
limited to cooperation in the solution of specific problems. Although
very desirable, it has not been possible to conduct extended research
regarding the laws of Asiatic, African, and Oceanic countries.

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151

In the field of industrial property the services of the patent and
trade-mark section increased approximately 50 per cent during the
twelve months, its antipiracy work having trebled through investiga­
tion of more than 3,000 notices of application for registration of
trade-marks apparently American. The benefits of this service are
attested by hundreds of letters of appreciation; its dollars-and-cents
value can be gauged only by the worth attached to the trade-mark or
trade name by the firm concerned. Recently the section has under­
taken also certain studies relating to unfair competition.
The work of the insurance and trade-adjustment section increased
65 per cent. Cooperation toward removal of misunderstandings was
extended in over 1,000 cases. The great majority of these difficulties
were reported to the bureau after all other efforts at adjustment had
proved futile; yet, notwithstanding this, and although the section’s
activities are limited to friendly representations, recovery of more
than $200,000 was effected through cash payments, repossession of
merchandise, fulfillment of prepaid orders, and replacement of defec­
tive goods. Other problems amicably solved involved such misunder­
standings as conflict of agency or sales territories, the results of
which adjustments can be measured only in terms of good will.
In its various endeavors toward removal of misunderstandings, re­
establishment of commercial confidence, and resumption of business
relations between American firms and their estranged customers the
division has enjoyed the cooperation of trade associations and local
chambers of commerce; toward elimination of the commercially unfit,
the cooperation of appropriate governmental departments and Better
Business Bureaus has been successfully enlisted. The division’s list
of more than 6,000 attorneys practicing in 450 foreign jurisdictions
has recently been revised, and now an attempt is being made to
record the names of American attorneys having foreign corre­
spondents.
The past year saw increased restrictions upon American business,
occasioned by nationalistic trends in insurance matters. The devel­
opment of workmen’s compensation and various forms of industrial
and social insurance has placed additional burdens upon American
capital in foreign territory. These conditions have necessitated the
initiation of efforts, though with limited personnel, toward protec­
tion and promotion of American insurance interests abroad, toward
informing American business regarding foreign insurance legisla­
tion, and toward protecting the American insuring public against
unreliable foreign concerns seeking to operate in the domestic field.
The immediate need for such cooperation is evidenced by the fact
that in the three months since its institution over 200 services have
been rendered at the request of foreign governments, State insurance
officials, insurance associations and companies, and individuals.
DIVISION OF CORRESPONDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION

Prompt handling of a variety of correspondence relating to the
foreign marketing of American products and the development of the
country’s domestic commerce, reviewing letters prepared by the com­
modity and technical experts of the bureau, disposition of a mass of

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

constantly arriving inquiries, and maintenance of mailing lists to aid
American business men are among the everyday services of the divi­
sion of correspondence and distribution. Although here grouped
with technical divisions for reasons of typographical convenience,
the correspondence division is, more strictly, an administrative divi­
sion, one of its important duties being to see that administrative rules
and regulations dealing with questions of general policy, as well as
more detailed administrative problems, are complied with by all
units of the bureau for the smooth functioning of the organization
as a whole.
During the year ended June 30, 1929, 220,131 letters were received
in the correspondence section of the division at Washington and
routed to the appropriate units and 230,770 outgoing letters were
reviewed. These totals compare with 198,121 letters received and
193,495 outgoing letters reviewed in the fiscal year 1928, respective
increases or 11 per cent and 19 per cent. Supervision of incoming
and outgoing mail enables the correspondence section to observe such
factors as uniform treatment of similar problems by the different
units at Washington and in the field, appropriate cooperation between
the several divisions of the bureau in Washington and between the
Washington organization and the bureau’s field representatives, the
efficient handling of correspondence, and like subjects. Considerable
progress has been made in the way of reduced letter writing through
the use of form letters devised by the chief of the division.
The distribution section has, among other duties, the supervision
of the various mailing lists of the bureau, including the Exporters’
Index—that intricately classified list of eligible American firms and
individuals interested in foreign trade which forms the basis of the
bureau’s distribution of commercial information. One of the major
problems currently facing this section is avoidance of duplication.
In the interest of governmental economy and efficient service to the
American business public it is necessary that the hundreds of bureau
mailing lists be utilized without repetitions. Constant attention
to this point on the part of the distribution section has resulted in a
distribution system that is carried on practically without duplication
of material to any address.
EDITORIAL DIVISION

Its position as the clearing office for commercial information that is
to be distributed in printed or mimeographed form enables the edi­
torial division to correlate and coordinate the publication work of
the bureau. Inasmuch as the bureau’s service is almost wholly a serv­
ice of information, its function being to gather data and make them
usefully available to the business public, the amount of printed ma­
terial which it issues must necessarily be large. Last year the equiva­
lent of 20,000 octavo pages of printed and 50,000 pages of mimeo­
graphed and multigraphed matter was handled by the editorial
division—both figures being substantial increases over the 1927-28
totals, in keeping with the expansion in the general activities of the
bureau.

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153

No new forms of presentation were found necessary, those in use
for several preceding years—Commerce Reports, handbooks, tradepromotion monographs, trade information bulletins, and special and
periodic circulars—having proved both adequate and popular. Cer­
tain of the major reports in these categories are mentioned in con­
nection with the commodity and technical divisions’ work, as are also
the Commerce Yearbook, Commerce and Navigation of the United
States, and the Statistical Abstract. A unique testimonial to the
practical value of the bureau’s illustrated weekly, Commerce Reports,
was its adoption last year as required supplementary reading in their
foreign-trade courses by two more of our leading universities; and
increasing world-wide interest in commercial developments of the
type therein discussed resulted in the placing of this periodical in the
libraries of many ocean liners.
Sales of the Commerce Yearbook last year broke all records—
more than 20,000 copies of the two volumes, representing some $22,000
in receipts; the Statistical Abstract, too, had a most unusual sale,
indicating the need for reliable statistical data by both business men
and economists. Receipts from all bureau publications distributed
on a sale basis by the Government Printing Office aggregated $72,813
in 1928, or nearly 30 per cent more than in the preceding year.
FINANCE AND INVESTMENT DIVISION

From its fund of information on finances abroad the finance and
investment division last year answered a somewhat larger number of
inquiries than usual from prospective underwriters of foreign bond
issues, from exporters regarding international credit methods, from
banks regarding financial practices and conditions abroad, from
intending investors in foreign securities, and from several other
important classes of inquirers.
The division was active, also, in its statistical work. Arrangements
were made to collect more complete statistics on foreign balances in
this country and on American deposits at foreign financial centers.
The results show the Nation’s net export or import of short-term
capital; they give also the most accurate picture ever obtained of
America’s international status in short-term credit and of the world’s
reserves of dollar exchange. The questionnaire used in this survey
covers loans and acceptance operations as well as deposits; it was
devised after numerous conferences with bankers and bank account­
ants.
A pamphlet on the American underwriting of foreign securities
and one on Canadian loan corporations issued during the year were
well received by the public, as were the usual reviews of the public
finances of Latin American and far eastern countries. Among the
mimeographed circulars which evoked special appreciation by our
own bankers and extensive comment in the foreign press was that
relating to the Republic of Colombia.
The division’s annual survey of America’s balance of international
payments was further improved in many respects. It is now one of
the most widely known publications of the bureau. The 1928 sur­
vey—the seventh of the series—includes a laborious compilation of
comparable data for all recent years.

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The division initiated an investigation of ways and means of in­
creasing Canadian travel in this country, a source of income to our
Nation of upward of $100,000,000 a year. Measures to reduce the
exorbitant discounts sometimes charged upon Canadian bank notes
brought in by Dominion visitors are being studied by the Federal
Reserve Board. Other branches of the Government have been reuested to consider certain other measures to make travel here by
¡anadians easier and more pleasant.

2

DIVISION OF FOREIGN TARIFFS

For another twelve months inquiries and problems from American
exporters in regard to foreign import duties on their products, for­
eign-tariff reclassifications, and customs, consular, pure-food, mark­
ing, and other regulations have been studied and answered, projects
and difficulties in connection with these subjects have been analyzed,
and solutions developed by the division of foreign tariffs—all essen­
tially a continuation of similar work done in previous years.
Notable in the past year’s work of the division is the progress made
on special publications. A newTresearch section was established, wdth
additional personnel, to prepare material dealing with foreign duties
and regulations on selected classes of products. Foodstuffs received
first consideration, the section completing Part I of the Handbook on
Foreign Tariffs and Import Regulations on Agricultural Products,
covering fresh fruits and vegetables, and sending to the printer the
manuscript for Part II (Canned Foods in Europe). Work is rapidly
going forward on Parts III and IV, which will cover canned foods
in other areas. Judging from the reception which the first volume
has already received, it is evident that the handbook wfill be or real,
practical value to the trade.
Work has been proceeding on a revision of Preparing Shipments
to Latin America, issued during the previous fiscal year, the value
of which is indicated by the sale of more copies of this than of any
other trade-promotive publication of the bureau for years past. One
purchaser wrote of his gratification at being able to obtain for 20
cents a bulletin which he would not part with for $20. Progress has
been made in the compilation of similar bulletins to cover other sec­
tions of the globe. The necessity for great detail and absolute ac­
curacy in these publications, so that exporters may rely upon them in
preparing their shipments for abroad, makes their issuance neces­
sarily slow. The amount of research involved is voluminous, and the
final drafts are sent to the foreign offices of the bureau and to the
foreign consuls general stationed in the United States for veri­
fication and comment before actual publication.
The series of bulletins previously issued on the Shipment of
Samples and Advertising Matter Abroad was completely revised
and published as a single volume; and current information on gen­
eral tariff matters was distributed by means of the division’s weekly
section in Commerce Reports and numerous special circulars.
As in former years, cooperation with the Department of State in
the development and application of American commercial policy
and the negotiation of commercial treaties and with other depart­
ments of the Government in questions involving the tariffs and tradecontrol measures of foreign countries demanded a considerable share
of the division’s time.

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155

DIVISION OF REGIONAL INFORMATION

The division of regional information serves as the central point
from which information is disseminated to American business in­
terests with regard to economic conditions in foreign countries. Its
work forms mainly a background to the commodity and technical
work of the bureau; nevertheless it maintains direct contact with
a large number of business executives, bankers, and export mana­
gers. Typical matters coming up for discussion or correspondence
are questions as to competitive conditions abroad, problems of dis­
tribution, purchasing seasons, itineraries for a foreign sales cam­
paign, standards of living, market possibilities, and a great variety
of general economic problems. Last year a special service was ren­
dered the United States automotive industry, through the Na­
tional Automobile Chamber of Commerce, bj' furnishing that or­
ganization up-to-date information on economic conditions abroad.
In August, 1928, the division initiated a new periodic service, Rus­
sian Economic Notes (now issued weekly), the material for which
is taken chiefly from the ofiicial organs of the various economic de­
partments of the Soviet Government. Publication of weekly and
monthly economic cables and radiograms was continued throughout
the year and special articles prepared for Commerce Reports, much
of this material being based on reports from the field officers of the
bureau and the Department of State. Distribution was undertaken
direct from Washington (except west-coast distribution, handled by
the western district offices) of the China and Japan monthly trade
reports prepared in our Shanghai and Tokyo offices. In addition
to these and other periodic services, 43 circulars were issued on mis­
cellaneous subjects, the most popular being the special circulars on
living costs and office operating expenses in foreign countries. The
weekly surveys of economic conditions in foreign countries for the
use of the bureau’s district offices, the monthly surveys prepared es­
pecially for the Department of Agriculture, and the monthly cables
on economic and commercial conditions in the United States for
the American Chambers of Commerce and American trade organiza­
tions in the Far East were all continued.
The division collaborated with the division of statistical research in
the compilation of the 1929 Commerce Yearbook, contributing, as
heretofore, the discussion of economic trends and outlines of business
conditions in foreign countries. Among trade-information bulletins
published were reviews of the resources, industry, finance, and trade
of the Baltic States, budgets of European countries, industries and
trade of Ceylon, economic development of Siam, and United States
trade with Latin America. Several pamphlets outlined sales terri­
tories in far eastern areas; and the pamphlets on employment for
Americans in the Far East and Latin America were reprinted twice,
so great was the demand throughout the year for that type of infor­
mation.
Work was started on a number of major publications, an especially
significant work in process of preparation being a Handbook of the
United Kingdom. Handbooks such as this, reviewing in detail the
business practices and conditions affecting the sale of American goods

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

in foreign markets, are extremely useful, especially to exporters with­
out experience of the market in question. Naturally these reviews,
to be as complete as possible, should be prepared largely by competent
personnel stationed abroad and necessary facilities should be pro­
vided.
The regional information division continued its studies of the
international cartel situation (noted under “ Chemicals ” and
“ Paper ” but embracing other fields as well) and has maintained an
extensive library of information on this subject. The chief of the
division prepared a survey of the international cartel movement in
1928, and is contemplating further study “ on the ground ” during
his visit at the beginning of the current fiscal year to a number of
European countries.
It has been gratifying to receive comment as to the value of the
work of the division of regional information from a number of
prominent American organizations. An official of a large oil com­
pany declared: “ Your letter gives a more graphic picture of the
situation than I could have obtained anywhere else in the world.”
And an important automobile corporation wrote: “ The information
furnished is very comprehensive and illuminating and we feel that
this is a real dollars-and-cents service.”
DIVISION OF STATISTICAL RESEARCH

Compilation of the Commerce Yearbook and of the Statistical
Abstract of the United States is the most important work of the
division of statistical research. The Commerce Yearbook, first is­
sued in 1923, proved so useful to business men, bankers, and students
of economics that in 1926 its scope was enlarged by the issuance of a
second volume (in whose preparation the division of regional infor­
mation collaborates), which surveys business conditions in about 70
foreign countries along the same lines employed in Volume I for the
United States and contains numerous tables of world production and
trade. Larger sales of both volumes in 1928 than in any earlier year
attest the growing popularity of the book. In the 1929 issue of
Volume II there has been a considerable expansion of the statistical
material, particularly on banking and foreign trade.
The Statistical Abstract of the United States has been issued annu­
ally for 50 years, with steady enlargement of the field covered. The
division also prepares bulletins analyzing the foreign trade of the
United States by calendar and fiscal years and supplies business men
and other inquirers with information which does not fall within the
scope of the more specific commodity, regional, and technical divi­
sions of the bureau.
Approximately 5,000 typewritten pages of translations from 14
different languages were completed by the translation section during
the year. Between 500 and 600 pages of this material consisted of
specifications for public bids on private and governmental work in
foreign countries—a highly technical service of direct benefit to our
manufacturers and exporters, to whom these specifications were made
available through the interested commodity divisions. Cooperating
with the division of commercial laws the section translated certain of
Poland’s new legislation relating to trade-marks, patents, and stock

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157

companies. The section was also called upon frequently for transla­
tions by other bureaus both within and without the department—as
examples might be mentioned services rendered the Commissioner of
Lighthouses and the Civil Service Commission.
Within the year the geographic section inaugurated active coopera­
tion with map publishers and distributors to increase foreign and
domestic sales of American maps and atlases. Outstanding services
of a technical geographic nature, entirely new in character, relating
to climate, soil, floods, water supply, topography, etc., were rendered
to several American business houses in connection with contemplated
foreign investments or foreign sales. Important contributions were
made to the forthcoming bulletin of the United States Geographic
Board on the spelling of foreign geographical names. About 100
original maps were compiled for bureau publications. The regular
circular information service was maintained for map publishers and
geographers regarding changes in boundaries, place names, and
nomenclature and regarding foreign maps, atlases, and globes.
DIVISION OF STATISTICS

The major publication of the division of statistics is Foreign Com­
merce and Navigation of the United States, the annual review of our
interchange of commodities with the world at large upon which all
official discussions of our foreign-trade position are based. As in
former years, the report was issued in two volumes for 1927. Vol­
ume II, however, was enlarged by the inclusion of tables showing
the trade of the United States with each foreign country by principal
articles imported and exported.
The Monthly Summary of Foreign Commerce of the United States
was issued by the division each month with the usual promptness.
The flexibility of this monthly service is seen in the 87 new classifica­
tions in domestic exports and the 22 new import classifications set up
during the year at the request of the industries concerned. Five of
the new export classifications related to edible and 6 to inedible
vegetable products (4 of the latter covering rubber), 7 related to
textiles, 5 to wood and paper, 2 to nonmetallic minerals, G to metals
and manufactures (4 of them covering tools), 15 to machinery and
vehicles, and 40 to chemicals and allied products (15 covering me­
dicináis, 12 industrial chemicals, 4 paints, 8 soap and toilet prepara­
tions, and 1 coal-tar products); of the new import classifications 2
related to animal products, 7 to edible and 4 to inedible vegetable
products, 5 to textiles, 1 to machinery, and 1 to chemicals—all indica­
tive of the division’s ability to meet the changing needs of commerce.
Besides these comprehensive publications the division compiled,
for the fifth time, the very popular tabulation showing the principal
articles exported from each State of the Union; published weekly
reports giving the exports of principal grains and flour, exports of
pork products from principal ports, imports of raw wool into Bos­
ton, New York, and Philaoelpliia, and imports of wheat from Can­
ada; and a special monthly report on imports into five principal
United States ports of cotton cloth by commercial designations and a
similar report for wool cloth. More than 250 special mimeographed
statements showing exports and imports of principal articles by

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

countries and customs districts are issued each month to some 4,600
subscribers. All of the statistics issued by the division are compiled
from master tables prepared in the section of customs statistics at
New York from import entries and export declarations forwarded to
it by customhouses throughout the United States.
TRANSPORTATION DIVISION

The transportation division continued to serve a dual capacity in
the bureau organization, being both a technical and a commodity
division. In its commodity work, with the aid of our Foreign Com­
merce officers and that of the Consular Service of the Department of
State it promoted sales abroad of railway equipment, ships, barges,
and tugs.
The shipping section of the division published in Commerce Re­
ports semiannual surveys of conditions in the shipping industry of
the leading maritime nations of the world. It continued the program
inaugurated several years ago of cooperating with the United States
Shipping Board in developing freight and passenger traffic for
American ships. With the assistance of the American consul at
Saigon it was instrumental in having established adequate and regu­
lar refrigerator service on an American line serving Indo-China.
The section also did special research in connection with the ocean
mail awards and for the National Council of American Shipbuilders.
The shipping research section, which is cooperating with the Ship­
ping Board in conducting foreign-port surveys, completed two port
publications—handbooks on Hamburg, Germany, and Liverpool,
England—which are now in press, and also compiled a report on
foreign bunkering stations. A considerable amount of research was
accomplished for the handbooks now under preparation covering
ports in Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. In connection with the
foreign-port surveys and the foreign railway, inland waterway, and
other transportation research being carried on by the division, it is
probable that a great deal more information will be needed from our
foreign offices in the future than in the past. This important trans­
portation-research work will bring to American exporters and ship­
ping interests desired facts concerning ports, facilities, subsidies,
services, competition, etc.
The new mail-contract work of the division in furtherance of the
program of the Interdepartmental Mail Contract Committee ap­
pointed by the President in April will necessarily require factual
details regarding the activities of foreign countries in transportation.
An augmented personnel to collect and compile them is needed.
The chief of the transportation division is serving as secretary of the
subcommittee on mail contracts.
Extensive research is being completed relative to Government aid
to merchant shipping—subsidies and subventions by foreign govern­
ments to their ocean transportation lines.
The assistance which the division rendered the agricultural coun­
cil of the Central Western Shippers’ Advisory Board in its attempt
to set up machinery for solving the vexing problems confronting the
potato industry, by supplying information on the economics of ware­
housing and financing the distribution of commodities, is typical of
both the enlarged scope of the boards and of the cooperation which
the division is able to offer them.

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159

The foreign railway section of the division continued to promote
sales abroad of railway materials of all kinds, placing numerous
manufacturers in touch with foreign agents; it analyzed railway
finances and traffic for American firms interested in bidding on con­
struction projects of this sort in other countries; and in collabora­
tion with the industries concerned it is formulating plans for a re­
search pertaining to the further development of foreign markets for
railway equipment and supplies.
Comprehensive studies of foreign and domestic inland waterways
are in progress, and during the past year an interim report on Ger­
man and French waterways was completed. Field work for the first
of the domestic studies has been practically completed, but it is de­
sired to make a thorough research covering all inland-navigation
systems of this country, weighing the merits of the development of
the waterways from the point of view of their economic importance,
justification, cost, and other relevant details. This inland-waterways
work in the transportation division is being undertaken in line with
the bureau’s domestic-commerce program.
The communication section of the division cooperated closely with
the Federal Radio Commission in its world-wide study of the highfrequency (short-wave) spectrum. A bulletin on Wireless Commu­
nication in the British Empire was published. Press rates for bureau
messages were obtained for several of our foreign offices, resulting
in substantial savings in cable tolls on messages to the department.
The division’s packing and materials-handling section has been
working with the simplified practice division of the department in
establishing standards of dimensions for skids and lift trucks. These
standards, which permit interchangeability of such equipment, when
in full operation will, it is felt, effect savings approximating $500,000,000 annually.
In its export-packing work the division continued to advise Ameri­
can exporters regarding this important phase of export procedure.
Gratifying results continue to be shown in the domestic-packing
educational campaign. During the year the railroads of the United
States and Canada reported further reductions of $2,000,000 in loss
and damage claims and the express agencies for the same period cut
their payments more than $500,000. Representatives of the carriers
state that a great deal of this fine showing is due to the eliminationof-waste program carried on by the division.
In its transportation field survey work the division brought to a
successful conclusion its research regarding the practicability of the
uniform through export bill of lading, and a bulletin was issued
showing the advantages and disadvantages of the instrument.
As part of its participation in the domestic-commerce activities of
the bureau the division has been conducting—at the request of indus­
try, sponsored by the Associated Traffic Clubs of America—a general
survey of industrial traffic management. Although incomplete, the
data already collected disclose the need for further studies along
general commodity lines, and these will be undertaken as soon as
funds permit. A new section has been established in the division to
carry out plans relative to analyzing the place of the motor truck
in distribution.

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

At a meeting with officials of the Cuban Railway held in Wash­
ington the transportation division was requested to prepare certain
data pertaining to the operation of weighing and inspection bureaus
in the United States. The results of this conference are expected to
lead to better understanding and business relationships in railway
transportation between the two countries.
BUREAU PARTICIPATION IN FOREIGN CONFERENCES AND FAIRS

The bureau has contributed technical assistance at international
conferences both by means of reports and by the personal attendance
of advisers for some years. The quantity and diversity of this type
of service have so increased of late that it became necessary to pro­
vide in one of the sections at Washington last year a clearing office
for the bureau’s participation in these meetings. Some of the con­
ferences and congresses for which a considerable amount of work
has been done are the Conference on International Expositions,
Paris, November, 1928; Pan American Trade-Mark Conference,
Washington, February, 1929; Fifth General Meeting of the Inter­
national Chamber of Commerce, Amsterdam, July, 1929; Second
Pan American Highway Conference, Rio de Janeiro, August, 1929;
Pan American Conference on Customs Procedure and Port Formali­
ties, Washington, November, 1929; and the World Engineering
Congress, Tokyo, November, 1929.
The section prepared a bulletin on International Fairs and Exposi­
tions that presents, in condensed form, a review of the many trade
and sample fairs held annually and semiannually throughout the
world. To American manufacturers who now participate in these
affairs as well as to those who contemplate doing so this bulletin
will be of service for several years to come.
CONSISTENT GROWTH IN BUREAU’S USEFULNESS

The work of the bureau is effective only in proportion to the num­
ber of persons who make use of its services. That this number in­
creases year by year is a source of inspiration; that the bureau
serves this larger clientele with a personnel proportionately smaller
and at a cost per service also less is a source of deep gratification,
betokening, as it does, the loyal effort of every member of its staff.
No record can be kept of the number of services rendered by the
foreign offices of the bureau, though some indication of their value
is to be found in the brief list of actual dollars-and-cents results on
an earlier page. For bureau offices within the United States a total
of 3.342,118 services (or 11,140 each business day) was reported last
year—21 per cent more than the total for 1927-28; contrasted with
which are increases (for the whole bureau organization) of but 13
per cent in personnel (1,379, against 1,218) and 13 per cent also in
funds expended ($4,603,357, against $4,067,957), and roughly (since
the foreign offices are omitted from the number of services), a
decrease of 6 per cent in the average cost per service.
In its many and varied activities the bureau received not only the
sympathetic and understanding support of Congress but also collab­
oration of the finest sort from the other departments and branches

161

FOREIGN- AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

of our Government. The cooperation extended by the Consular
Service of the Department of State particularly is of inestimable
value. Happity the bureau is able to make some measure of return
by working harmoniously and wholeheartedly with these other
governmental agencies along lines of mutual interest.
The following tabulation outlines more clearly than could be
stated in words the bureau’s progress in the past lmlf-decade:
Class of service rendered

Fiscal year ended June 30—
1025

1926

1927

1928

1929

Total services rendered *.................................. 2,041,250 1,973,524 2,421,563 2, 770, 773 3,342,118
Commodity:
Agricultural implements...........................
53,444
47,841
29,753
73,463
89, 591
Auto motives...............................................
214,806
181,606
228, 727
251,392
236, 060
Chemicals....................................................
105,477
119,613
122,
300
146,
122
126,007
Electrical equipment................................. 112, 245
133, 462
109, 947
117,788
142, 526
Foodstuffs.................................................... 142,306
180,867
155,301
247,
092
226,445
Hides and leather.......................................
29,108
2o, 300
16,858
28,200
36, 122
Industrial machinery.................................
99,038
117, 200
139, 304
90, 937
94, 709
Iron, steel, and hardware.........................
112,559
221,252
213,
949
216,975
230,550
Lumber........................................................
70, 483
91, 393
118,472
112,450
128,782
Minerals......................................................
53, 793
54, 503
28i 172
80,026
92, 253
Paper. ......................................................
17, 518
21,861
11,785
34, 970
27,326
Rubber........................................................
21, 208
14. 260
21, 790
23,S93
31,660
Shoes and leather manufactures..............
10,388
7, 148
14, 740
12.744
21,492
Specialties.................................................... 230,223
185, 667
134, 637
149, 748
189, 697
T extiles...................................................... lOO; 195
106,590
129,139
124,332
166,855
Technical:
Commercial intelligence *.........................
119,582
«14, 543
(>)
(>)
m
Commercial laws.......................................
16, 318
16, 984
24,543
«2,161
37, 304
Finance and investments.........................
15. 546
20, 678
27, 743
43,732
Foreign tariffs.............................................
30, 031
89, 732
43, 160
27,002
66,962
77, 367
Statistics (foreign trade)...........................
29,871
50,749
37,874
54.166
Transportation...........................................
28,620
25,806
55,956
36, 506
70.160
Miscellaneous «.................................................. 585,620
758,407
874,873
949,
071
362,861
Geographical classification of above, so far
as feasible:
Latin America............................................ 329,737
703,542
288,649
803,155
576,292
Near East................................................ .
52,464
42,718
99, 758
100,613
111,970
Far F.nst *.................................................... 253,875
288,631
300,280
259,860
246,990
Eastern Europe..........................................
94,165
97,631
114,623
63, 295
40,390
718,324
773, 481
929, 295
Western Europe 6....................................... 745,318
831,043
120,196
2(15,376
Domestic commerce...................................
51,370
65, 559
61, 780
Foreign-trade opportunities:
5,904
6,380
5,088
Number of opportunities published i __
4,909
7,218
Number of cases in which reserved information was furnished 8___________ 446,806
437, 059
578,343
885, 213
713,805
Trade lists (lists of foreign merchants),
678, 524
537,144
690,372
number of copies furnished on request___ 687,159
568,096
Special informational circulars (ruiraeographed), number of copies distributed... 3,713,800 3,327,120 2,583,725 3,659,725 3,626,135
i Does not include services rendered by the foreign offices of the bureau nor by the cooperative ofllces
maintained by the bureau in chambers of commerce and boards of trade in the United States.
* Bureau only.
* Included in “ Miscellaneous. ”
« Services which could not be identified under a specific group; includes “ Commercial intelligence"
for all years except 1029.
* In the bureau’s organization this includes Australia and New Zealand.
* In the bureau’s organization this includes Africa and Canada (mandated territories, possessions, and
dominions politically related to Western Europe).
i Foreign-trade opportunities are specific openings for business in other countries, notice of which is sent
to "Washington by the Foreign Services of the Departments of Commerce and State and published in the
bureau’s weekly publication, Commerce Reports.
8 Confidential information rolating to trade opportunities distributed only to persons and firms listed
on the bureau’s Exporters' Index.

As this tabulation shows, expansion in service marked every com­
modity and technical grouping of the bureau’s work last year. Gains
are to be noted as high as 44,600 in the inquiries concerning industrial
machinery and 39,800 in the number regarding specialties, 37,700 re­
lating to textiles, 24,700 to electrical equipment, 23,200 to foreign78415—29------11

162

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

trade statistics. 22,800 to foreign tariffs, 20,600 to foodstuffs, 20.200 to
some phase of transportation, 20,100 to chemicals, 19,600 to iron,
steel, or hardware, 16,300 to lumber, 16,100 to agricultural imple­
ments, 15,300 to automotives, and 12,200 to nonferrous minerals.
But outstanding in this year of conspicuous expansion was the
growth of the domestic-commerce work evidenced by an increase of
139,200 (110 per cent) in the number of services rendered by the
bureau organization in this field.
It is not unnatural, then, that the bureau finds in this inventory of
its 1928-29 accomplishments new incentive for future achievement.
Very truly yours,
O. P . H opkins , Acting Director.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS
D epartm ent of C ommerce ,
B ureau of S tandards ,

Washington, July 1, 1929.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r . S ecretary : I submit herewith a brief report upon the
work of the Bureau of Standards during the fiscal year ended June
30, 1929. The various outstanding accomplishments are grouped
according to the subjects for which the Congress had made specific
appropriations.
G EN ER A L A C T IV IT IE S

Organization.—In May the divisions of simplified practice and
building and housing were moved from rented quarters of the Depart­
ment of Commerce to the Industrial Building of the Bureau of Stand­
ards, thus bringing together all the commercial standardization
group. The closer cooperation now' possible between all the divisions
of the bureau and particularly between those engaged in research and
testing and in commercial standardization should prove of great bene­
fit to all concerned. The commercial standardization group has been
organized in four principal divisions: Simplified practice, trade stand­
ards, specifications, and building and housing.
Cooperation.—Most of the bureau’s work is made effective through
voluntary cooperation of the State and municipal governments; sci­
entific and professional societies; trade associations; manufacturers;
and individuals who accept the findings of the bureau and incorporate
them into a State law, a municipal ordinance, a dimensional standard,
or a standard of quality, performance, or practice. The extent of
these relationships is shown by the fact that at the present time the
bureau is cooperating with over 200 scientific, technical, and industrial
organizations.
One of the most effective ways in which the bureau cooperates with
American industries is through its research associate plan, referred
to in past annual reports. At the close of the fiscal year there were
98 of these associates stationed at the bureau, representing 48 indus­
tries and associations.
Personnel matters.— As of July 1, 1929, the following will be pro­
moted to division chiefs: E. W. Ely of simplified practice, A. S.
McAllister of specifications, I. J. Fairchild of trade standards, and
H. S. Rawdon of metallurgy. Mr. Rawdon succeeds Dr. H. W. Gillett,
who accepted the directorship of the Battelle Memorial Foundation,
Columbus, Ohio. The regular staff at the close of the fiscal year
numbered 965 employees. In addition, there were 98 employees
assigned to the bureau under the research-associate plan and 9 mis­
cellaneous assignments, including guests and details from other
branches of the Government, making a grand total of 1,072 persons.
The turnover was 21.5 per cent. There were 369 promotions and the
average salary ($2,413) increased by $170. The status of the personnel
shows an increase of 83 employees as compared with last year.
163

164

BEPORT TO THE SECBETABY OF COMMERCE

The contributions of members of the bureau’s staff to scientific
and technical progress have received public recognition in several cases.
The James Turner Morehead medal of the International Acetylene
Association was awarded to H. L. Whittemore for his contributions
to the art of welding; the Willard Gibbs medal of the American Chem­
ical Society to C. S. Hudson, for his work on carbohydrates; the medal
of the Annual Assay Commission to W. F. Meggers for his assistance
in regulating the weight of coinage; and the John A. Fenton prize of
the American Foundrymen’s Association to H. T. Wensel and W. F.
Iioeser for their method of measuring the temperature of molten cast
iron. I. G. Priest is serving as president of the Optical Society of
America.
Visiting committee.—This committee has retained its active interest
in the bureau’s problems, holding two formal meetings at the bureau
this past year, and making important recommendations to the
Secretary of Commerce on the bureau’s needs and policies, particu­
larly in reference to the more adequate financial support of research,
approval of a building program, and indorsement of the bureau’s
patent policies. Members of the committee have visited the bureau
frequently. The present personnel of the committee is: S. W. Strat­
ton, Gano Dunn, William F. Durand, W. R. Whitney, and John R.
Freeman.
International relations.—The International Advisory Committee on
Electricity met in Paris, November 20-23, 1928, and adopted resolu­
tions proposing the establishment of an international system of elec­
trical units based on the fundamental centimeter-gram-second system.
The report of this committee was submitted to the International
Committee of Weights and Measures in February, 1929, and it is
understood the conclusions were ratified by the international commit­
tee at its meeting in June.
The establishment of the proposed new basis for the units will
require a large amount of experimental work in the various national
laboratories and a large number of comparisons between them. Stand­
ard resistance coils and standard cells have been exchanged between
the bureau and the national laboratories of Japan and Union of
Socialistic Soviet Republics and a standard condenser has been
measured both at the bureau and at the National Physical Laboratory
of Great Britain. Other exchanges are in progress, including lamps
and thermocouple wire.
At a special meeting, called by the International Electrotechnical
Commission, in Paris on November 16, 1928, preliminary agreement
was reached on a maximum value for conductivity of aluminum wore.
Arrangements were also made to collect information w'hich might
serve as the basis for establishing a standard average value for this
property.
In connection with the seventh plenary session of the International
Commission on Illumination at Saranac Inn, New York, September,
1928, a conference was held with representatives of the national
laboratories of France, Germany, and Great Britain looking toward
the removal of discrepancies between the practical candlepower
standards of those countries. Provisional agreement was reached on
a basic method for calibrating high-efficiency lamps. Through an
interchange of lamps and colored filters progress is being made on the
experimental work necessary to carry out this agreement.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

165

Two members of the bureau’s staff attended the meeting of the
International Union of Scientific Radio Telegraphy at Brussels in
September, 1928. The bureau will be represented at the first meeting
of the International Technical Consulting Committee on Radio
Communication to be held at The Hague in September, 1929. Six
special committees have been appointed by the Interdepartment
Radio Advisory Committee acting under the auspices of the State
Department. Members of the bureau’s staff have been designated
as chairman of three of these committees.
At an international convention in Stockholm in 1928, at which the
bureau was represented, agreement was reached on the value of the
unit of X-ray dosage and its method of measurement. International
action is also being taken on standard methods of protecting X-ray
workers, a member of the bureau’s staff serving as chairman of our
national committee on this subject.
Because of urgent requests from many sources, the bureau has
taken the preliminary steps to determine the advisability of attempt­
ing to reconvene the International Sugar Commission, which has
lapsed since 1914. Scientific, technical, and standardization matters
of the highest importance to the sugar and carbohydrate industries
of the United States and other countries require consideration and
could be handled in a satisfactory manner by this commission.
Two representatives of the bureau will attend an informal con­
ference on the physical properties of steam to be held early in July in
London under the auspices of the British Electrical and Allied In­
dustries Research Association. The work in progress at the bureau
in cooperation with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers
will be discussed.
The international stand aids for grading wool set up by agreement
between England and the United States have been adopted by several
other countries. At the biennial meeting last spring of the Interna­
tional Commission on Standard Grades for American Cotton the
bureau was represented on invitation from the Department of Agri­
culture, which acts as the official custodian of the cotton standards.
These have been adopted by Belgium, England, France, Germany,
Holland, Italy, and Spain.
It seems probable that international agreement will soon be reached
on the standard temperature of 20° C. (68° F.) for shop gage blocks
(end standards of length) as proposed by the bureau at the Interna­
tional Conference on Weights and Measures in 1927.
A paper on precision measurement of length has been prepared for
presentation at the World Engineering Congress, Tokyo, Japan, in
November, 1929. The paper treats .precision length measurements
from the standpoint of engineering and industry, •with special applica­
tions to interchangeable manufacture and automatic gaging.
Weights and measures conference.—'The National Conference on
Weights and Measures, the principal agency through which the
bureau cooperates with the State and local governments on matters
of weights and measures administiation, held its twTenty-second annual
meeting at the bureau June 4 to 7. The conference adopted in final
form a code of specifications and tolerances for grease-measuring
devices, and some amendments were also made to codes formerly
adopted relative to liquid-measuring devices, liquid capacity meas­
ures, and milk bottles. It wTas decided to consider at next year’s

166

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

meeting codes for automatic indicating scales and person-weigh­
ing scales.
Conference oj Stale utility commission engineers.—The seventh
annual conference of State utility commission engineers was held at
the bureau on May 31 and June 1, and was attended by delegates
from 25 States, the District of Columbia, and two Provinces of
Canada. The subjects discussed included uniform types of rates
and rate schedules, charges for fire protection, street-lighting rates,
the rise and fall of prepayment gas meters, rural-line construction and
cost, rural electrification, electric power generation, overhead wiring
and radio antennas, electric-service rules, long-distance transmission
of manufactured gas, branch line and switching transportation, and
State regulation of common-carrier motor busses.
American Standards Association.—This body has been reorganized,
and the Director of the Bureau of Standards chosen as a member of
the new board of directors. The bureau is sponsor for 13 standardiza­
tion projects and is represented on 71 committees having for their
object the formulation of American standards.
National Screw Thread Commission.—The activities of the commis­
sion were confined largely to revision and publication of its 1928
(third) report, Miscellaneous Publication No. 89. This is consid­
erably enlarged over former editions and contains much new and
revised material. The basis thread data for the coarse and fine
thread series and for the classification of screw thread fits remain
unchanged, while the sections on special threads, threading tools,
gages, and methods of gaging have been extensively revised.
American Gage Design Committee.—The work of the American Gage
Design Committee was completed, and a report covering the design
of blanks for plain and threaded plug and ring limit gages is now in
the hands of the printer. This report represents the combined efforts
of manufacturers and users of limit gages. The recommendations of
the committee have been approved as a commercial standard and
are alreadv widely accepted by industry, even before the report is
printed. The general acceptance of the recommendations of the
committee will result in substantial economies in the production of
limit gages.
Federal Specifications Board.—The board has just promulgated its
six hundred and twenty-third purchase specification. These specifi­
cations are being used more and more by State and municipal govern­
ments, institutional bodies, and by industry. A large part of the
research and experimental work necessary in connection with the
formulation of specifications is done by this bureau.
Relations to Government departments.—The bureau is authorized to
receive funds for specific research projects from other departments,
and in pursuance of this policy in the past year the bureau has re­
ceived ¿339,923 for the support of 32 projects representing work for
7 Government establishments. In addition, the bureau does a great
deal of consulting, specification, and testing work for various branches
of the Government.
Publicity.—The Bureau of Standards Journal of Research has com­
pleted its first year and has been well received. The subscription list
now numbers 5,620. The number of research papers published in
the Journal was 76. Including the Journal, reprints, and all other
papers in the regular series of the bureau, the total number of publi­

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

167

cations released during the year was 168. The monthly Technical
News Bulletin has been mailed as heretofore. About 170 papers have
been published in outside technical journals. There have also been
released to the press 178 short accounts of interesting achievements,
together with numerous photographs illustrating the bureau’s work.
The third annual number of the Standards Yearbook was published.
Beginning on July 15, 1929, the Commercial Standards Monthly (pre­
viously issued in multigraphed form) will be enlarged and issued as a
printed magazine available on a subscription basis, thus making
available information on the progress of current standardization
activities.
Testing.—The testing work for the public and Government depart­
ments continues to be a heavy drain on the resources of the bureau.
The following table gives a summary of the testing activities. The
work often merges with the investigational and research fields and
requires in addition a considerable outlay for upkeep of reference and
laboratory standards. The total number of tests was 173,512, rep­
resenting a fee value of 8544,402.
Number of test items, determinations, and fee value for tests completed during the
fiscal year ended June SO, 1929
Number of test items forKind of instrument or material, class of test, or
nature of service rendered

Govern­
Total
ment
depart­ Bureau number
of
test
of
Public ments
and Stand­ items
State ards
institu­
tions

Number
of de­
termina­ Fee value
tions

694
425 2,053 3,109 $17,756.10
934
Electrical standards, instruments, and materials
3, 668 7,686 21,725.00
3,668
Electric batteries.....................................................
448 4, 095 4,220 * 21,668.48
318 3, 329
Electric lamps and lighting equipment...............
2
197
436 3, 125 2, 312. 50
237
Length-measuring devices.....................................
492 2, 295 11,096 2,255. 00
68
Gages and gage steels............................................. 1,735
108 2, 978 14.711 6, 433. 65
820
Miscellaneous dimensional determinations........ 2,050
Weights and balances............................................. 5,762 1,419 1,136 8,317 18, 443 7, 620. 50
2
907
4
913 26, 274 44,020. 00
Scales.........................................................................
33
368 4, 728
39
876.00
296
Timepieces................................................................
493
16,
595 29,861 11,221.70
3,779
11,323
Volumetric apparatus.............................................
3 1,025 2,980 1,470. 25
146
876
Hydrometers.. .......................................................
406
51
460
645 1, 001,00
Density determinations, etc..................................
3
563 4, 166 17,422 9. 285. 10
Laboratory thermometers...................................... 2,492 1,111
76,932
307,
736 9, 006. 95
40,599
36,
333
Clinical thermometers............................................
101
335 4, 805 3, 762. 50
58
176
Pyrometers, calorimeters, etc................................
46
149
23
149 1, 125.00
Insulating materials................................................
80
12
41
Fire-resisting materials...........................................
26
3
100 2. 572.10
93 1,869 10,086 17,561.50
Fuels and lubricants...............................................
287 1,489
153
144
270 2, 176.00
9
Automotive equipment, etc____________ ____
26
144 32, 525.00
26
Airplane engines......................................................
934
144 2,283 3, 394 5, 142.50
Optical instruments and materials...................... 1,205
3, 247. 50
1,904
1,873
31
2,839
Carbohydrates.........................................................
13
1,065 1,065 4, 490. 00
Radioactive materials............................................. 1,052
13,
373.00
134
1,227
1,008
Engineering instruments and appliances............
85
1,310
38
578
27
643 3,149 8,821.00
Aeronautic instruments...........................................
580.00
1
21
74
Aerodynamic tests of models..................................
20
60 2,240 4,400 15,068. 00
Physical properties of engineering materials........
63 2,123
32
Sound producing and measuring instruments__
18
1 26451 83460 1, 812.50
Making of special castings__________________
47
217
676. 75
251
627.50
Fusible boiler plugs..................................................
251
502
646
Metallographie examinations..................................
106
762 3,345 6,067. 00
441
Miscellaneous metallurigcal tests...........................
657 1,098 2,685 9, 370. 50
Pottery and chinaware.............................................
196
811 1,514.00
10
210
Glass............................................................................
57
430. 00
39
90
158
367
Refractories and heavy clay products...................
48
416 1,204 4,003. 00
45,
491
*
110,717.00
Cement, concreting materials, lime, etc................
11, 566
207 11, 795
1 Includes fee value of $3,687.48 for inspecting 1,401,054 incandescent lamps at various factories for other
branches of the Government.
* Includes fee value of $23,821 for sampling and shipping 1,044,093 barrels of cement.

168

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

N um ber o f test item s, determ inations, and fee value fo r tests com pleted during the
fiscal year ended J u n e 30, 1929 —Continued
Number of test Items for—
Kind of instrument or material, daw of test, er
nature of service rendered

Stone and sand-lime brick.........................t
Miscellaneous ceramic materials................
Rubber...........................................................
Textiles.......................................................
Paper.
.................... *..................
Leather.................................................... .
Paint, varnish, and bituminous materials.
Chemical analysis of metals.......................
Chemical tests of miscellaneous materials.
Distribution of standard samples..............
Total.................................................... .

Govern­
ment
depart­ Bureau
of
Public ments
and Stand­
State ards
institu­
tions

Total
number
of test
items

Number
of de­
termina­ Fee value
tions

72
60
132
420 $2,052.50
1,279
55 1,300 7,082 13,128.50
1,477
58 1,542 9,417
6,036
499 6,579 17,102 35,097. 00
443 2, 183 6,342 18,374. 00
1,714
201
2 375 1,351 2.378.00
17 1,552 12,327 22,351.00
388
238
627 2,408 4,677. 50
1 1,535
1,427
110 7,1,637
5,154 8,231.75
6,812
618
430
16,360. 50
72,443 93, 563 7,506 173,512 »600,520 »544,402.33
28
7
44
26
82

» Of those totals 229,249 determinations Were for the public, fee value $75,153.75; 348,510 determinations
were for the Government department and State institutions, fee value $427,628.38; 22,761 determinations
were for the bureau, fee value $41,620.29. The number of test items and determinations necessary in con­
nection with the bureau's own work of research and standardization, with the resulting fee values, is
not included in these totals.

SALARIES ($ 6 4 8 ,1 4 0 )

This fund provides for personal services of administration and
operation; the establishment, upkeep, and comparison of standards;
the development of methods of test, as well as most of the testing;
and for the determination of fundamental constants of importance in
physics, chemistry, engineering, and technology not otherwise pro­
vided for.
Ratio of the absolute to the international ampere.—In order to
measure the absolute value of a current, the Rosa-Dorsey-Miller
current balance has been redesigned and reconstructed. A special
observing room has been prepared so that the observer need not
enter the weighing room, new piers have been constructed in the
weighing room, and an entirely new set-up has been made for
measuring the ratio of the radii of the coils used in the balance. In
order to measure the current in international amperes, new standard
resistors have been constructed which are capable of carrying rela­
tively large currents, and the method of measuring the potential drop
over these resistors has been improved.
Ratio of the absolute to the international henry.—The inductance of
certain coils is being determined in both absolute and international
henries. One coil has been completed and measured. This is wound
on a porcelain form and maintained at a constant temperature. Two
sets of mechanical measurements have been completed and four sets
of electrical measurements. The mean value of the result is: 1 inter­
national henry ■*■ 1.00053 absolute henry, with an error of not more
than two or three in the last significant figure.
Magnetic testing and research.—Particular attention has been given
to the standardization of magnetic-testing methods and apparatus
and the preparation of suitable standard test specimens. The work
has included not only testing with fields of ordinary intensity but
also of very high and very low intensity.

BUREAU OE STANDARDS

169

Cooperative investigations on the relationship between magnetic
properties and torsion characteristics and impact tests, respectively,
were undertaken.
Electrical resistance standards.—A new type of electrical resistance
standard of much greater constancy than those in general use has
been developed. The greater constancy is obtained by annealing
the resistance material, manganin, after being formed to final shape,
at a temperature of about 600° C. in carbon monoxide at a greatly
reduced pressure apd effectually sealing the containing case.
Standards oj electromotive force.—A new standard cell bath arranged
for temperature control at any point between 18° and 35° C. has been
put iii operation, and measurements made to determine how well
standard cells, new and old, follow the accepted international temper^
aturc formula. Significant deviations have been found. Interna­
tional comparisons have been made on cells recoived from Japan and
the Union of Socialistic Soviet Republics. Cells from the bureau
have been sent to Great Britain, Germany, and Union of Socialistic
Soviet Republics. Thirty-four new standard cells have been con­
structed at the bureau, including both acid and neutral types of
saturated cells. Comparisons of these with the bureau’s standard
group showed that the new cells agree with the present standard to
about one ono-liundred-tbousandth of a volt. The bureau’s stand­
ard for voltage is made available for public use through the medium
of portable cells which are being received for certification in rapidly
increasing numbers.
Standards oj candlepower.—An international photometric compari­
son of four blue glass filters is in progress. These glasses have already
been measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt and at
the National Physical Laboratory. When the measurements are
completed at this bureau the glasses will be forwarded to the Labora­
toire Central d’Electricité.
The Waidner-Burgess absolute standard of light■—This standard has
been realized by the use of a hollow ipclo&ure of fused thoria in a
bath of molten platinum contained in a crucible of fused thoria.
This provides a convenient standard of reference, and the measure­
ments so far made indicate a satisfactory constancy and reproduci­
bility. A preliminary value, based on 36 freezes is 38.9 candles per
square centimeter. By observing with an optical pyrometer as well
as with the photometer, data on the melting point of platinum are
being obtained.
International temperature scale.—Six standard thermocouples, two
from the National Physical Laboratory, two from the PhysikalischTechnische Reichsanstalt, and two from this bureau, were calibrated
and have been sent to the National Physical Laboratory- Three
calibrated standard resistance thermometers have been sent to the
National Physical Laboratory for the first part of an interoomparison of resistance thermometers, from the national laboratories.
Exchange oj standard viscosity samples with the Physikalisch-Tech­
nische Reichsanstalt.—The absolute viscosities of four samples of oil,
received from the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt, were deter­
mined by the bureau. The average deviation from the mean values
of the two laboratories was 0,5 per cent for the two lighter oils, and
1.1 per cent for the two more viscous oils.

170

BEPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Constant of gravitation.—The observational work on this project
has been completed. Data for 16 values of this constant have been
obtained, 11 of which have been computed. The mean result of
these 11 values is 6.668 X10~8] in c. g. s. units.
Absolute determination of gravity at Washington.—A detailed study
has been made of previous absolute determinations, especially that
made at Potsdam. As a result of this study a tentative design for
apparatus has been drawn up and construction work started.
Definition of the yard and the inch in terms of light waves.—There has
been much correspondence and discussion relative to the question of
defining the yard and the inch in terms of light waves. An alternative
definition of the meter as the equivalent of 1,553,164.13 wave lengths
of the red radiation from cadmium, under standard conditions, has
already been agreed to by the International Conference on Weights
and Measures, and this relation is widely accepted.
If, in ’addition, the yard should be accepted as equal to 0.9144
meter, or the inch as 25.4 millimeters, exactly, the present lack of
agreement as to the exact relation between the units of length of the
two systems of measurement would be overcome. If, at the same
time, there might be international agreement that industrial measures
of length should have their nominal dimensions correct at a tempera­
ture of 68° F. (20° C.), the problems of international interchangeability of parts would be completely and satisfactorily solved. Such
a solution is regarded by this bureau as of very great and increasing
importance.
Renewed search for a source of homogeneous radiation.—Preliminary
to his comparison, in 1893, of the wave length of the red radiation of
cadmium with the length of the international meter, Professor Michelson made an exhaustive search for the most satisfactory source of
light. The intervening 40 years have brought forth no serious com­
petitor of the cadmium red line. The international congress stressed
the desirability of renewing the search. In light of modern spectro­
scopic knowledge, the effectiveness of which lies in the extensive
classifications covering nearly all the chemical elements, the spectroscopist is enabled to select for more intensive study those lines which
from their classification are theoretically favorable.
To this end, the bureau has been engaged in measuring and classi­
fying the arc and spark spectra of krypton and xenon, members of the
rare gas group which, on the whole, possess very narrow lines. At
low temperatures (liquid air) the lines of xenon theoretically should
give visible interference fringes with path differences of 50 to 100 cm.
The proposed line X5649A, of krypton, proves to be unsatisfactory as
a standard because it lacks intensity and is subject to reversal.
Certain lines of krypton and xenon appear favorable as auxiliary
standards, perhaps, but none compare favorably with cadmium red.
Interferometer equipment for ruling line scales.—Gratifying progress
has been made toward completing the equipment for ruling 40-inch
(or 1 moter) scales by interference methods. In a preliminary trial,
without thermostatic control, a meter scale with lines at 10 cm. in­
tervals was ruled in 50 minutes and found, on calibration, to be cor­
rect within the errors of observation.
In final operation, the ruling machine will be under strict tempera­
ture control and the auxiliary end gages calibrated in terms of the red
radiation of cadmium. Search is being made for a scale material

BUBEAU OF STANDABDS

171

having proper thermal expansion, stable in dimensions, noncorrosive,
capable of receiving a satisfactory polish, and of homogeneous struc­
ture permitting the ruling of perfect lines. A special chromium steel
has been obtained which bids fair to fulfill these requirements.
Intercomparison of line standards.—Each of the four platinumiridium meter bars of the bureau was compared with all of the others
and with invar meter bar No. 39. Meter No. 39 was also calibrated
to decimeters and each of the bureau’s fodr decimeter bars was com­
pared with two decimeter intervals of meter No. 39. Each decimeter
bar was also calibrated to centimeters, the first centimeter to milli­
meters, and a subdivided millimeter on each bar was calibrated to
tenth-millimeters. As a result of this very complete intercomparison
the bureau now has a much more accurate knowledge of both the
relative and absolute lengths of its various precise length standards
than was previously the case, and certain apparent discrepancies have
been explained and eliminated.
Intercomparison of United States and Canadian line standards.—An
intercomparison of length standards of this country and those of
Canada was carried out, comparison being made at Ottawa and at
Washington. The Canadian bars have since been recompared at the
International Bureau at Sevres, France, and at the National Physical
Laboratory at Teddington, England. These comparisons have con­
firmed the results obtained at Ottawa and Washington. As a result
there is now a very satisfactory tie-up between the various national
standards of the United States and Canada and those of the Inter­
national Bureau.
Graduation and calibration of precision circles.—The construction of
theodolites and transits suitable for first-order work, such as that of
the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, requires the gradua­
tion and calibration of circles of very high accuracy. The apparatus
necessary for this work is already available at the bureau, but pre­
vious to the last year little use had been made of it. The apparatus
has been put in condition for use, and trial circles have been graduated
and calibrated. The results so far obtained indicate that the re­
quired accuracy can be obtained.
Seconds signals by use of the photo-electric cell.—The obtaining of
accurate time signals from the Iiiefler clock using a photo-electric cell
as a transmitting medium has been accomplished, and signals con­
stant to about 0.0001 second are now available for distribution to the
bureau’s laboratories.
Design of new pendulum.—In continuation of the research on
seconds signals, the bureau proposes to construct a pendulum which
will give accurate seconds signals by means of a photo-electric coll
and to cause the cell at the same time to close a circuit which will
give an impulse to the pendulum and maintain its motion. Results
so far are encouraging.
Specifications for electric time ‘systems, fire alarms, etc.—The chief
of the time section has served as secretary of the technical committee
on Government master specifications for manual fire-alarm systems,
electric and pneumatic clock systems, and watchman’s time-clock
systems. Specifications on manual fire-alarm systems and electricclock systems have been prepared and are in the hands of the Federal
Specifications Board. Specifications for watchman’s time-clock
systems will be ready shortly.

172

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The chief of the time section has also served as a menber of the
certification committee and of the examining board of the Horologica! Institute of America. There are now certified watch repair
men in every State, in Hawaii, Canada, and England. A total of
913 junior watchmaker’s certificates and 360 certified watchmaker’s
certificates have been granted to date.
Glass volumetric apparatus.—Over 15,000 pieces of glass volumetric
apparatus were submitted'for test. Of this number 98 per cent was
found eligible for test, while of that tested 93 per cent passed the
test for accuracy. This is an improvement over previous years and
is especially gratifying since a large part of the apparatus submitted
is now made in the United States.
Fundamental constants and properties erf pure metals and their
alloys.—Work on the properties of very pure nickel, thorium, and
rhodium is well advanced. That on pure zinc and cadmium will be
incorporated in a circular now being prepared on those metals.
The effect of cold working on the hardness of pure copper and other
metals has been studied, and a report is nearly ready for publication.
An attempt is being made to find out more about the nature of the
Ai point in pure iron by means of the beta ray spectroscope. Plans
are being laid for a comprehensive study of pure iron; what has been
taken as “ pure” iron in the past is now' knowm to have had appre­
ciable contamination from oxygen.
Development of metallograpliic test methods.—An automatic polish­
ing machine, designed and built at the bureau, has worked out very
successfully, giving, even w'ith inexperienced operators, a better
quality of polish on specimens for microscopic examination than can
be gotten by hand save by the most tedious and painstaking effort.
With the personal equation of polishing eliminated by this machine,
the way is open for the study of methods and materials used in
polishing.
Platinum metals.—Special attention has been given to methods for
the accurate determination of the individual metals. Satisfactory
procedures for the determination of iridium and ruthenium were
developed, and some progress was made on the determination of
osmium.
An improvement was made in the method for the purification of
rhodium with respect to the elimination of minute amounts of iridium.
The development of a method for the preparation of very pure
iridium was resumed after several months’ interruption.
Several lots of pure platinum and pure rhodium were prepared for
the study of physical and mechanical properties of the metals.
Analytical reagent chemicals.—Forty-eight individual methods for
the determination of impurities in reagent chemicals were investi­
gated and in many cases modified or replaced by better methods.
As in past years this work formed a material part of the preparation
of specifications for reagent chemicals by a committee of the American
Chemical Society.
Accelerated weathering tests.—Additional wrork has been done with
accelerated tests to simulate weather decay of organic protective
coatings. Most materials can be tested with a simple cycle of light
and rain, and data on a variety of coatings are being accumulated.
A simpler apparatus for determining the point of breakdown of an
organic protective coating on metal has been constructed.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

173

Tinting strength of pigments.—The tinting strength of white and
black pigments is the brightening or darkening strength, respectively;
but with chromatic pigments tinting strength is a 2-factor property.
New names for three different factors involved in tinting are sug­
gested; namely, chromatic, darkening, and brightening strength.
A method for treating these properties photometrically or spectrophotometrically and of indicating their relative magnitude by
numerical indices is suggested.
Preparation of pure rubber hydrocarbons.—Some crystalline com­
pounds have been obtained and some pure rubber gels of high trans­
parency have been prepared.
Molding composition for airplane propellers.—At the request of the
Navy Department a molding composition has been developed for the
construction of airplane propellers for use in wind-tunnel tests.
Apparatus and methods for the fractionation of petroleum into its con­
stituent hydrocarbons.—In cooperation with the American Petroleum
Institute, new types of apparatus of increased efficiency have been
developed for the fractionation of petroleum for the purpose of finding
the amounts and nature of the constituent hydrocarbons.
Bullcley consistometer.—A new consistometer has been developed
which embodies both speed and wide range of applicability. It has
been found particularly useful in obtaining information on both the
unworked and worked (or broken down) consistency of oils when in
a plastic condition at low temperatures.
Thin film lubrication.—It has been shown that the apparent clogging
of capillaries 0.3 mm. in diameter by continuous flow of an oil, which
in the literature on the subject has been attributed to formation of
a rigid film, is really due to impurities in the oil. Work on finer
capillaries is in progress.
Ilerefining of used lubricating oils.—Both automobile and airplane
engine oils have been successfully rerefined at the bureau. A com­
mercially successful method not only saves the oil but solves the
problem of disposing of what would otherwise be a waste product.
Low4emperature investigations.—To make better provision for the
low-temperature investigation of the bureau, a new liquefier of larger
capacity was built, a new hydrogen compressor was purchased, and
cryostats for temperatures down to that of liquid air were designed
and are being constructed.
Gas thermometry.—Apparatus is being designed and constructed for
use in determining the mean coefficient of expansion between 0° and
100° C. of the thermometric gases, to provide new data for calculating
the interval between the ice point and the absolute zero. The designs
include a thermometer with no unheatod space, and very sensitive
pressure measuring apparatus, so that measurements may be made at
low pressures.
Properties of carbon dioxide.—Some additional experiments on vapor
pressure were made, and equations and tables for vapor pressure of
both solid and liquid have been calculated. Apparatus for determin­
ing the pressure-volumc-temperature relations has been constructed.
Molecular weights in the vapor state.—The range over which molec­
ular weights can be determined in the vapor state has been extended
by the development of a method combining vapor pressure and
evaporation experiments. This makes possible the determination of
molecular weights at temperatures at which the total pressure may be
only a fraction of a millimeter of mercury.

174

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Orifice-meter investigations.—Cooperative orifice meter tests spon­
sored by the gas measurement committee, natural gas department of
the American Gas Association, with the cooperation of the Bureau of
Standards and Bureau of Mines, have included tests on the effects of
orifice-meter flange design; a study of the discharge coefficient of
orifices in 4-inch lines for comparison with those previously obtained
for an 8-inch line; and three series of tests for studying the effects of
high-line pressures.
The result of the tests with different flange forms were fairly con­
sistent, but because of the unexpectedly large effect shown, the
validity of the tests was questioned by some of the companies inter­
ested. Further tests on the subject are to be made.
Density of creosote oils.—An investigation of the density and thermal
expansion of creosote oils was carried out at the request of the
American Wood Preservers Association, the American Society for
Testing Materials, and the American Railway Engineering Associa­
tion in order that the volume of creosote oils at various temperatures
might be accurately calculated. The work is being continued to
include coal-tar creosote oil.
Development of new apparatus for testing dilution pipettes.—A large
increase in the number of dilution pipettes submitted for test made it
necessary to develop a more rapid method of test than that formerly
in use. The new method has already proven highly satisfactory in
both speed and accuracy.
Physical properties of oak.ed products.—Last September the United
States Manufacturers of Cream of Tartar (Inc.) placed a research
associate at the bureau for the purpose of investigating the physical
properties of baked products. Attention has thus far been given
largely to a study of volume, because of the wide use of this property
in evaluating flour, baking powder, and other ingredients of baked
products. A detailed study has been made of the various methods
used in the determination of volume, and many of the sources of
uncertainty in previous measurements have been discovered and
eliminated. The work is being continued and other properties, such
as color and texture, will be studied.
Temperature of drying rolls.—The bureau was requested by the
United States District Court of New York to determine the tempera­
ture of milk drying rolls, under conditions of use, as the temperature
was an issue in patent litigation. A satisfactory method of making
such measurements was found and applied.
Construction of instruments and apparatus and preparation of test
specimens.—The construction division took care of the requirements
for instruments and apparatus, including glass apparatus of various
designs, and woodwork required in the upkeep of buildings. Test
specimens and standard steel and alloy samples were also prepared.
Some of the apparatus built may be mentioned: Three vibration
galvanometers, stroboscope, amplifier set, six resistance frames, double
spectrometer, optical head for coincidence type thread gage, two
quadrant resolution instruments, autographic thermal expansion fur­
nace, eight resistance standards, two diffuse illumination color com­
parators, and a large amount of special radio apparatus.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

175

EQUIPMENT ($88,000)

Upkeep of mechanical plant.—The usual maintenance work, such as
the replacement of piping, fittings, valves, etc., has been carried on.
A number of changes have been made in piping layouts to facilitate
connection to the new power plant.
Electrical construction and repair.—The usual maintenance work on
the electrical installations has been carried on and a great number of
new electrical installations incident to laboratory expansion have
been made.
Plumbing and pipe work.—In addition to the maintenance work on
existing pipe systems, new extensions to steam, water, gas, air, and
vacuum lines were made incident to the installation of new laboratory
equipment. A new water main has been installed to supplement the
water supply.
Spectrograph.—A quartz spectrograph, giving a spectrum from
2100 A to 8000 A, about 200 mm. long, was purchased for use in the
spectroscopic section.
Timepieces.—A Shortt mean-time astronomical clock with slave
clock, and a weight-driven printing chronograph with an error not
exceeding one 1/100 second, were ordered for the mechanics and sound
division.
Testing machines.—One hydraulic compression testing machine
with a capacity of 300,000 pounds and an Amsler rope-testing machine
were ordered for use in the testing of structural materials.
Machine tools.—Purchases for the bureau’s instrument and machine
shops included three plain precision bench lathes, one motor-driven
shaper, and one universal milling machine, the last for use in the
Chicago master-scale depot.
Miscellaneous machinery.—Purchases of other machinery included
three vacuum condensate return pumps, one 100-kw. frequency changer
set for use with high-frequency furnace, one air-conditioning unit for
the cement section, and one 4-stage belt-driven hydrogen compressor
for the low-temperature laboratory.
GENERAL EXPENSES ($69,855)

Heat, light, and power.—Coal for heating and electricity for lighting
and power purposes have been purchased as necessary.
Miscellaneous supplies.—Office and janitorial supplies, gasoline,
and lubricating oil have been provided as usual.
Library books.—The number of volumes accessioned was 1,639 (the
same as last year) and 201 were canceled, making the total number
of accessioned volumes 33,871. Scientific and technical periodicals
received number 1,056.
Travel.—Provision was made for travel on general bureau business,
not connected with any specific problem. Travel of the members
of the bureau’s visiting committee was also provided for.
IMPROVEMENT AND CARE OF GROUNDS ($14,431)

Improvement of grounds.—Good progress has been made in improve­
ment of the grounds by grading and sodding, the planting of trees
and shrubs, extension of sidewalks, construction of road curbing, etc.

176

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

TESTING STRUCTURAL MATERIALS ($267,058)

Plumbing codes.—A revised edition of the report of the subcommittee
on plumbing codes of the building code committee was published.
These recommendations have been utilized in laws or regulations of
seven States and more than 100 cities.
Building codes.—The building code committee practically completed
its report on fire-resistive construction, and started to revise and con­
solidate the seven reports issued since 1923.
City 'planning and zoning.—Surveys of zoning ordinances and city
planning activities throughout the country were made and issued. A
standard city planning enabling act was published, and the standard
State zoning enabling act has now been used in the laws of 34 States.
Const-ruction economics—A. review of construction from 1919 to 1928
was written for the committee on recent economic changes of the
President’s Conference on Unemployment. The article on Construc­
tion for the Commerce Yearbook, and numerous other reports on
building activity, building costs, and building materials, were pre­
pared. Retail prices for building material in 55 cities have been
issued monthly.
Borne financing.—Present Home Financing Methods, a pamphlet
for prospective home builders and groups interested in improving
existing financing facilities, was printed.
Survey of small house consrtuctiOn.—Data on the design, choice of
materials, structural details, and general conditions relating to the
construction and sale of small houses were obtained through a field
survey in 31 cities.
Cooperation vjith other agencies on building and housing problems.—
Cooperation was continued with Federal and State agencies and with
thousands of local governments and private organizations concerned
with building and housing. City planning and zoning, building codes,
and home-ownership problems were taken up jointly with bodies
such as Better Homes in America with its 5,700 local committees
and organizations representing architects, engineers, business, civic,
and other groups.
Arlington Memorial Bridge.—In Conjunction with the Arlington
Memorial Bridge Commission, measurements of temperature, during
and subsequent to the hardening of the concrete; deformations of the
arch barrel due to changes in loading and temperature; rotations of
the piers; and effectiveness of the expansion joints are being made in
one of the reinforced concrete arch spans of this bridge. Both the
elastic and inelastic deformations are being determined and the
measurements are planned to furnish a check on the reliability of the
results of model tests.
Durability of concrete aggregates.—Apparently there in no relation
between strength of concrete and amount of disintegration. In
several cases concrete made from aggregates which have been sub­
mitted to the sodium-sulphate and sodium-chloride treatments
showed at 15 months no gain in strength or a loss of strength compared
to the 3-month tests. In the boil and dry and untreated aggregates
there w-as in every case an increase in strength.
Diatomdceous earth.—Fourteen samples of diatomaceous earth sub­
mitted by different producers were included in an investigation to
study differences in these materials when used as admixtures in
concrete. All were found to act in much the same manner, requiring

177

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

more water to give the same flow as concrete without admixtures.
The strength was in some cases slightly lowered.
Durability of bond between mortar and brick.—Cooperating with the
American Face Brick Association, an investigation of the durability
of the bond between mortar and brick has boon started. This work
includes tests to determine the effects of absorption and rate of absorp­
tion of the brick, moisture content of brick when bonded, and initial
curing conditions on the durability of the bond after a few months
exposure to dry, saturated, or outdoor storage, or to 50 cycles of
freezing and thawing.
Clay brick and brick masonry.—In cooperation with the Common
Brick Manufacturers’ Association, the effects on wall strengths of such
factors as the physical properties of the brick, composition and prop­
erties of the mortar, and the workmanship have been determined for a
wide range of the commercially important types of construction and
materials. In addition, the strength and absorptive properties of
brick from a number of sources have been determined to obtain data
useful in the development of specifications for brick.
Cast stone.—Samples of cast stone from all parts of the United
States show a considerable range in properties. The number of
cycles of freezing and thawing that the specimens underwent before
any signs of disintegration varied from 15 to over 500.
Slate.—Approximately 2,800 tests on about 60 samples of slate
from quarries in Maine, Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, Mary­
land, Georgia, Tennessee, and Arkansas gave the following valuos:
Highest

Maximum deflection for

1.63
2.90
2.87
16.160
18,400.000
0.240
inch thickness, 15.5-inch span (inch)...
15.2

Lowest

Average

0.1
2.77
2. 74
3,380
7,400,000
0.081
6.2

0.27
2. 78
2.76
9,340
13,400.000
0.145
8.3

Frost-action tests on 23 samples of slate are in progress, some of
which have undergone nearly 4,000 freezings. These tests indicate
that slate has a high resistance to frost action.
Lime.—The compilation of data on the composition, fineness, and
available lime content of chemical quicklimes was completed. Progress
has been made in the development of an improved method for deter­
mining the soundness of lime. The present standard method requires
at least three days for a test while the improved method takes from
four to five hours. A continuous sedimentation method for determin­
ing the fineness of lime is being tried and appears to be capable of
giving the desired results.
Sand-lime brick.—Absorption, transverse strength, compressive
strength flat, and compressive strength on edge of representative
samples of sand-lime bricks from 27 manufacturers have been deter­
mined. Some of the brick from each lot have been reserved for a
more thorough study of the absorption characteristics, after which
accelerated weathering tests will be made.
Gypsum fiber concrete.—This material, mixed iu the proportions used
in practice, may be expected to have an ultimate compressive strength
of from 450 to 1,300 pounds per square inch.
78415—29----- 12

178

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Lime and gyjpsum.—Results indicate that the modified Vicat appa­
ratus is superior to the Southard viscosimeter, the present standard
instrument for testing consistency of calcined gypsum. Committee
C -ll of the American Society for Testing Materials has adopted the
modified Vicat apparatus as their standard.
Tests indicate that Keene’s cement to be of good quality should
have a tensile strength of over 450 pounds per square inch. The
time of set of the majority of the cements tested was between one and
four hours.
Elastic pointing materials.—The exposure of 60 proprietary
materials to the weather for nearly two years in the joints of coping
stone has indicated a large percentage of failures. Discolorations of
the limestone near the joints due to oil penetration were found to
disappear after a few months and hence this feature could not be
considered especially objectionable. The most common failure of
the materials is due to shrinkage cracks. A few of the very plastic
grades flowed from vertical joints, while others became, hard and
inelastic after a period of weathering.
Waterproofing compounds.—Considerable difference has been found
in the effectiveness of commercial dampproofing and waterproofing
compounds. After seven days’ curing, concrete test specimens are
subjected to a 20 pounds per square inch water pressure. The
permeability as measured by the amount of water passing through
the specimen is determined at all ages up to one year.
Stone preservatives.—A special study has been initiated to determine
the value of stone preservatives in preventing decay under various
conditions. Several instances of decay of stone in important build­
ings have forcefully shown the need for more information in this field,
since some of the building stones which have heretofore been con­
sidered to be reasonably premanent have reached advanced stages of
decay within 60 years.
Abrasive hardness.—Further improvements have been made
on the abrasion-testing apparatus, and data have been obtained
on marble, limestone, sandstone, granite, and slate, as follows:
Ha values
Highest Lowest Average
Sandstone (12 tests)............................................................................. ................

34. 5
97.6
24.9
10.8
75.1
15.2

7. 5
12. 9
1.0
2.5
37.0
5.8

17.0
42.3
9.8
6.7
56.3
8.1

The Ha figures given above were determined by abrading the
various materials under uniform conditions with No. 60 artificial
corundum and expressing the result as a reciprocal of the volume
abraded in a given time.
Chemical testing and methods of analysis.—Approximately 2,000
samples of structural materials were tested for various branches of
the Government. Analyses of Portland cement, cast irons, steels,
alloy steels, ferro-alloys, brasses, bronzes, bearing metals, boiler
plugs, Monel metal, and light aluminum alloys were made to aid in the

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

179

development of specifications, to insure proper delivery of materials,
to detect causes of failure in service, and to determine the composition
of materials used in metallurgical research. Nickel and chromium
plated plumbing fixtures and hardware were examined, and some time
was also spent in developing improved and more rapid test methods.
Cement reference laboratory.—In cooperation with the committee
on cement of the American Society for Testing Materials there has
been established a laboratory to deal with the various difficulties
encountered in the testing of cement in the 300 cement laboratories of
the country. Instruction will be given to employees of cement
laboratories throughout the country in proper methods of testing,
equipment used in testing will be calibrated, and new test methods
will be studied. A staff has been assembled and the laboratory is
now ready for operation.
Branch laboratories and inspection of cement.—The branch labora­
tories maintained at Northampton, Pa., for inspection and testing of
cement; Denver, Colo., for testing of cement and concreting materials;
and San Francisco, Calif., for testing cement and miscellaneous
materials; together with the cement-testing laboratory in Washington,
have rendered a much-needed service to Government purchasing
agencies. One million two hundred and ninety thousand five hundred
and forty-two barrels of cement were sampled and 1,073,590 barrels
were shipped.
TESTING MACHINES ($41,003)

Calibration of testing machines.—Specifications have been issued
covering the manufacture and use of proving rings, of which 17,
with capacities up to 100,000 pounds, have been tested. Proving
rings which failed to meet the specifications have been studied to
determine the cause of their unsatisfactory performance. Experience
has shown that proving rings are superior to any other device on the
market for calibrating testing machines.
f ‘ Bridge towers.—At the request of the Port of New York Authority
the bureau has undertaken a series of strength tests on models of the
tower column sections used in the Hudson River suspension bridge.
Four columns, 24 feet in length, with a section area of about 160
square inches, have been tested to destruction. Two wero made from
ordinary structural steel and two from silicon structural steel. The
former failed at loads of about five and one-half million pounds and the
latter at about eight and three-fourths million pounds. The column
strengths and coupon test specimen values were found to agree very
well. There was no indication of detail or secondary failure.
Fatigue of Alclad.—In cooperation with the Aluminum Co. of
America the fatigue resistance of over 120 specimens of corroded and
uncorroded Alclad and comparable duralumin sheets is being deter­
mined. Some of the specimens have been subjected to over 100,000,000 cycles of stress. The results indicate that the corroded Alclad
specimens have approximately the same life as the uncorroded speci­
mens and that the fatigue limit of the corroded duralumin specimens
is slightly less than for uncorroded specimens.
Methods of locking screw threads.—An investigation of methods of
locking screw threads is being actively prosecuted in cooperation with
the Dardelet Threadlock Corporation and other manufacturers.
Machines are now being built to apply repeated loads to either the

180

KEPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

bolt or nut somewhat as they are applied in service. The stresses
in the bolt will be measured by means of optical instruments.
All manufacturers of thread-locking devices have been requested to
cooperate.
Dome of the New National Museum.—To insure the safety of a
'acking operation during repairs to the dome of the New National
► luseum the bureau laid out 96 gage lines on the steelwork which
were measured with strain gages morning and evening during the 40
days required for the work. The total number of readings was about
4,000. It is believed that the stresses in the steelwork were deter­
mined with an error not greater than 500 pounds per square inch.
Copper roofing.—Tests in cooperation with the Copper and Brass
Research Association show that the maximum load which can be
continuously supported by a soldered seam without eventual failure
is about one-quarter of the breaking load found by the usual tensile
test. Data have been obtained which will provide the basis for
formulas for computing the sizes of gutters required on buildings.
An investigation of a form of localized corrosion affecting open-valley
flashings has been completed. An inexpensive change in the method
of laying the flashing is suggested as a means for eliminating corrosion
difficulties.

i

INVESTIGATION OF FIRE-RESISTING PROPERTIES ($30,213)

Fire resistance of hollow load-bearing wall tile.—The main series of
tests in cooperation with the Hollow Building Tile Association con­
sisted of 167 fire-endurance tests and 4 fire and water tests of typical
wall constructions, 71 of which were made with walls between 10 and
11 feet high and 8 to 16 feet wide. This was preceded by two pre­
liminary series to determine the effects of fire on individual tile units,
the effects of changes in design of unit, and in the constituents and
preparation of the clay.
The results are summarized as fire-resistance periods, winch are
determined by the time the walls sustained load under fire exposure
and prevented the average temperature rise on the unexposed side
from exceeding 139° C. (250° F.), or the maximum rise at any point
where temperature measurements are taken from exceeding 180.6° C.
(325° F.). Freedom from cracks or openings large enough to trans­
mit flame or ignite combustible materials is also required both in
fire-endurance tests and fire and water tests.
The final grouping of test results is in three classes, determined by
the design of the tile. Fire-resistance periods are given for 8, 12, and
16 inch walls in each class, the values varying with the thickness and
design from 1% to 11 hours for unplastered wralls and from 4 to 15
hours for walls plastered on both sides. Periods for walls assumed
to have combustible members projecting into them 4 inches from the
unexposed side ranged from 1 hour with 8-inch unplastered walls to
10 hours wfith 16-inch plastered walls built of tile of the designs giving
the highest results.
Severity of building fires.—A burning-out test wras conducted in a
fire-resistive building containing kerosene in open pans to an amount
giving approximately the same Btu content as was present in the
furniture and paper in a previous similar test with office occupancy.
Although, on account of its higher fuel value, the weight of kerosene
introduced was less than one-half of that of the wood and paper for

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

181

the companion test, the equivalent duration of the resulting fire was
the same within 10 minutes. The results indicate possibility of
gaging the fire hazard of occupancies in terms of the severity of the
standard furnace test by means of the amount and fuel value of
combustibles present per unit of floor area or room volume.
Moving oj large wall furnace.—As provided for by a special appro­
priation of $22,000, the structural framing of the large wall furnace
and shelter has been moved to a new location and reerected with
reinforced concrete inclosing walls and roof. The new furnace is
designed to obtain good temperature uniformity over the wall aroa
exposed, and a fire control that will enable the furnace exposure to be
duplicated in successive tests and conform with prescribed standards.
INVESTIGATION OF PUBLIC UTILITY STANDARDS ($107,297)

Electrical codes.—A new edition of Handbook 4, discussion of the
National Electrical Safety Code, was issued, and a pictorial edition
of this code is in preparation. Assistance was given State commis­
sions in Nevada and Wisconsin in preparing State codes. A 1929
edition of the electrical code combining accident-prevention and fireprevention rules was prepared, and cooperation was rendered in the
preparation of a standard code for the use of electricity in metal
mining. The bureau assisted in the revision of the National Elec­
trical Code of the National Board of Fire Underwriters for a 1929
edition.
Protection against lightning.—Miscellaneous Publication No. 92,
Code for Protection Against Lightning, was issued. Data collected
by the Western Actuarial Bureau were analyzed. Assistance was
given in the preparation of the report on protection against lightning
of the National Fire Protection Association.
Code for electricity meters.—The new edition of the Code for Elec­
tricity Meters, issued under a joint sponsorship of the National
Electric Light Association, the Association of Edison Illuminating
Companies, and the bureau, has been submitted to the United States
national committee of the International Electrotechnical Commission
as a proposed basis for an international specification for alternatingcurrent watt-hour meters.
Surveys of Government telephone service.—Methods of meeting the
telephone service requirements of activities both in Washington and
in the field have been studied. Recommendations were made for a
consolidated Treasury system in Washington on completion of the
Internal Revenue Building and concerning consolidated service in
nine Federal buildings in other cities.
Soil-corrosion investigation.—Approximately 1,000 samples of pipe
materials were removed from the soil-corrosion test locations and
examined. The results confirm those previously published. An
extensive investigation of protective coatings for pipe lines is under
way.
Measurement of high voltages and large currents.—The optical parts
for the large high-voltage electrometer were completed. The guard
condenser was assembled and studies of its potential distribution were
made. The original beam-arrestment mechanism was discarded and
a much more accurate mechanism was designed and constructed.
Oil-cooled shunts for 1,000, 2,000, and 2,500 amperes were finished,

182

REPORT TO THE SECRETAR V OP COMMERCE

with the necessary oil-cooling equipment, and a standard current
transformer for currents up to 12,000 amperes was nearly finished.
A cathode-ray oscillograph for use in studying the properties of liquid
dielectrics was completed.
Fractional distillation oj gases.—Study of methods for the analytical
separation of natural gases by fractional distillation, including the
definition and determination of the gasoline in the gas, was com­
pleted.
Specific gravity and density balances for gas.—-An improved balance
was constructed employing a type of suspension not previously used
in this field. A balance has also been designed for the direct determi­
nation of the density of gases.
Oven linings.—The corrosion of the majority of available commer­
cial oven linings under service conditions has been determined.
Miscellaneous gas appliances.—The efficiency of storage water
heaters has been measured, methods of rating them worked out, and
satisfactory performance standards recommended. A study was
made of the floor temperatures under radiant heaters with reference
to standard tests for safety in connection with such heaters.
Burners for propane and butane.—Successful laboratory burners for
these “ bottled” gases were constructed and are now being used as
models by apparatus companies.
TESTING MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS ($47,125)

Variety of materials tested.—A great variety of chemical and physical
tests were made for Government departments on paints, varnishes,
roofing and waterproofing materials, rubber goods, packings, inks,
typewriter ribbons, carbon paper, textiles, boiler waters and com­
pounds, detergents, chemicals, gold alloys, etc. Miscellaneous ma­
terials were tested to determine their fire hazard to guide the Steam­
boat Inspection Service in making rulings on the transportation of
commodities on passenger vessels.
RADIO RESEARCH ($55,772)

Standards of radio-frequency.—The accuracy of the bureau’s fre­
quency standard was considerably improved by means of piezo­
oscillators, in which special attention was paid to temperature control
and quartz plate mountings. The error in constancy of these piezo­
oscillators is less than 5 parts per 1,000,000. Intercomparisons be­
tween the bureau’s standards and those of two other laboratories in
the United States showed agreement to 1 part per 100,000. The
transmitters used for sending out scheduled signals of standard fre­
quency were reconstructed in order to permit closer frequency
setting and control, with resulting marked improvement in the
accuracy of the transmissions.
Study of piezo-electricity.—A theoretical and experimental study of
the operation of the quartz plate in a piezooscillator was made.
The modes of vibration of a quartz plate were studied by observing
the glow discharge surrounding the plate when operating in helium
at a low pressure. Special methods of driving the quartz plate in a
piezooscillator were developed and studied.
Improvements in testing station frequency standards.—The accuracy
of testing piezooscillators used by broadcasting stations was in­

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

183

creased about ten times by using a method which gives a calibration
directly in terms of a standard piezooscillator. The temperature of
the room used for testing is maintained constant at all times.
Radio wave phenomena-.—The vagaries of radio wave transmission
were studied by means of field intensity measurements, fading
records, and wave direction determination. Measurements were
made at the bureau, at field stations, and in a traveling laboratory.
Rapid variations in the intensity of received signals were found to be
partly due to continual changes in the plane of polarization of the
waves which arrive by way of various paths and combine at the
receiving station. Apparatus was developed to isolate the various
factors involved and to make possible a study of each one independ­
ently. Measurements were made on the apparent height of the
Kennelly-Heaviside layer by measuring the time difference between
the arrival of the ground wave and the upper-air wave.
Radio wave propagation.—Continuous signal intensity records from
long-wave stations in various parts of the world are furnishing
information as to annual, seasonal, and diurnal variations in signal
strength and as to the properties of the Kennelly-Heaviside layer
which causes fading of signals, errors in direction finding, and other
variations in radio propagation.
Correlation of radio with other natural phenomena.—When averaged
over long periods, daylight signal intensity appears to vary directly
while daylight static varies inversely with solar activity and the
disturbances in terrestrial magnetism. Correlations with weather
are very marked in the case of static and less marked in the case of
signal strength.
Assistance to Federal Radio Commission.—Technical assistance,
including preparation of data, was given the Federal Radio Com­
mission. At the request of the commission the services of the chief
of the radio section were made available for a period of four months,
during which he served as chief engineer and organized the engineering
division of the commission.
COLOB STANDARDIZATION ($10,950)

Fixing upon a standard “ white”—The spectrum colors, such ns red
and green, are specified by their wave length, but white must be
fixed by agreement. Various suggestions aro as yet open to selection:
“ White” shall be defined as the color (a) which a sufficient number
of observers, having normal color vision, select by preference; or
(6) of the sun’s radiation (outside the atmosphere); or (c) of a com­
pletely overcast sky; or (d) of an equal energy spectrum; or (e) of a
“ black” body when the ratio of its luminosity to its total radiation
is a maximum, about 0.14.
Of these, (b), (c), and (e) have been the subject of intensive study
which, it is believed, will soon culminate in a generally acceptable
specification for white.
Spectrophotometric measurements fundamental to the photometry of
practical light sources.—Color differences between various light sources
in common use entail a direct comparison of intensities. Calibrated
optical filters for equalizing the color have proved effective.
From a recent interlaboratory comparison in this country of
several such filters it was concluded that: (1) Consistent values
may be obtained by the spectrophotometric method in the measure­

184

BEPOKT TO THE SECRETARY QE COMMERCE

ment of the intensities of deeply colored light; and (2) such values
agree more or less satisfactorily with the averages obtained by the
so-called flicker and equalitv-of-brightness methods of photometry.
Blue filters are now being evaluated by the national laboratories of
England, France, Germany, and the United States, by means of
which the relative efficiencies of vacuum and gas-filled lamps may
be expressed on a common basis in all four countries.
Lovibond glasses.—The calibration of 65 of the “ 35-yellow” Lovibond glasses, used in the color grading of edible oils, which has been
conducted in cooperation with the American Oil Chemists’ Society,
was completed and a publication issued. The effect of temperature
changes on the readings with red and yellow glasses was also deter­
mined and was found to bo small. More than 1,000 red glasses have
been calibrated in terms of the bureau’s standards and reported to
the owners. The results of these calibrations are now being collated
and prepared for publication.
INVESTIGATION OF CLAY PRODUCTS ($49,370)

Investigations on architectural terra cotta.—In cooperation with the
National Terra Cotta Society the resistance of terra cotta to weather­
ing was determined. Factory tests are being developed to assist terra­
cotta plants in inspecting their ware before it leaves the factory.
The best method of setting terra-cotta ashlar on buildings was
studied. Filled terra-cotta facing adds considerably to the strength
of walls and apparently justifies reckoning filled terra cotta as a
portion of the thickness of walls.
In brick-backed construction, if mortars are improperly used, the
expansion of the brick masonry tends to pull apart the terra-cotta
ashlar and thus open the terra-cotta joints. This expansion is
capable of producing a considerable pressure on the terra-cotta facing
unless expansion joints are provided.
Refractory bricks and clays.—Test data obtained on 27 fire clays
and 14 brands of fire-clay bricks indicate that the temperature of firing
of these materials has a decided influence on their physical properties,
which in turn affect the life of the refractory when subjected to
thermal shock. Preliminary recommendations have been made as to
desirable properties for saggers to increase their life.
Resistance to abrasion of metals, suitable for dies, to the flow of plastic
clay.—A marked difference has been found in the wearing qualities of
different metals. For example, it was found that for the same
length of clay column extruded the .losses by abrasion of carbonchrome steel and cast iron (both widely used in the industry) were
as 1 to 12.
Investigation of hollow-ware dies.—Density of the clay column is
affected more by slight changes in the ratio if water to dry clay—that
is, from 1 to 2 per cent—than by a change of 25 per cent in die length
or 50 per cent change in die taper. Die lubrication plays an un­
important part in reducing the power consumption, but materially
improves the column by preventing torn corners and developing
smoother surfaces generally. The most efficient hollow-ware dies for
medium plastic clays are those having tapers less than 6° and a total
length of not over 3 inches or less than 2 inches and cores not over
1\4 inches or less than 1 inch in length.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

185

Application of light-colored vitreous first coats to sheet iron and steel.—
The following procedure for applying a light-colored vitreous enamel
directly to sheet iron or steel was developed:
The metal is first prepared for enameling in the usual manner. It
is then dipped in a 4 per cent solution of cobalt nitrate at about 95°
C. and allowed to remain until hot. Upon withdrawal, the hot
metal quickly dries, after which it is placed in a furnace at about 300°
C. for five minutes, when the cobalt nitrate apparently decomposes
and the metal simultaneously acquires a coating of its own oxide and
of cobalt oxide. Both of these oxides when at the surface promote
adhesiveness, and it appears that practically any enamel composition
which is satisfactory in other respects will adhere well when the iron
is prepared in this way.
Cast iron for enameling purposes.—The gas which causes blisters
in an enamel when applied to some iron castings appears to be
principally C 02, with some CO admixed. This evolution of gas may
occur without damage at certain stages of the enameling process, but
from a blistering iron continues through the critical stage of the
enameling during which the relatively thick finish coat of enamel is
fused and too viscous to permit free escape of the gas. The evolu­
tion of gas during the critical period appears to be caused by the break­
down of combined carbon and its recombination with oxygen, and is
controlled by the amount and condition of the combined carbon pres­
ent in the surface of the casting to which the enamel is applied.
Experiments have shown that it is possible to modify the nature of
this surface layer so as greatly to reduce blistering through the addi­
tion of certain elements to the iron, notably silicon, which diminishes
the proportion of combined carbon.
Use of feldspar in white ware.—Ten similar vitreous white-ware
bodies, maturing at cone 14, were prepared and their properties
determined. The kind of feldspar used and the calcination of differ­
ent components appear to have very little effect on the physical
properties, except in cases where the feldspar evidently lost its
fluxing power in calcination.
Crazing of semiporcelain dinnerware.—Thermal expansion was
measured on pieces of plates as received and on pieces of the same
plates after they had been treated in the autoclave. The first ex­
pansion of each piece after it had been given the autoclave treatment
was lower than its expansion before, thus showing that the ware had
absorbed some water during treatment. There was also a material
increase in weight. Specimens with a high water absorption, with two
exceptions, crazed during the autoclave treatment.
Improved apparatus for testing chinaware.—A modified pendulum
apparatus, using one 5-ounce hammer, for testing the resistance of
chinaware to impact and chipping has been designed and built to
obviate difficulties encountered in the use of the apparatus specified
in United States Government Master Specification for Vitrified
Chinaware, No. 243a.
Columbus laboratory.—At the Columbus branch there were secured
during the year data showing the elasticity and thermal dilation of
about 110 white-ware glazes. This work was undertaken to secure
factors which might enable one to calculate these physical properties
from the composition of the glazes. The 17 representative English
china clays are being studied for use in the white-ware industry.

186

BEPORT TO TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The data will be compared with representative china clays of domestic
origin. The cooperation with the American Society of Mechanical
Engineers on the study of power-house refractories was continued
with satisfactory results. Studies of a special white-ware body in
which fluxes are being introduced indicate the possibility of lowering
maturing temperatures for certain types of white ware. The study of
26 representative alluvial and glacial clays and shales to determine
the characteristics which indicate their usability was well advanced.
STA N D A R D IZ IN G M EC H A N IC A L A PPLIA N C ES ($ 2 9 ,6 7 7 )

Testing oj engineering instruments.—The volume of work in the
calibration of water current meters and other engineering instruments
has increased by 40 per cent in the past fiscal year and by over 100
per cent in the past three years.
Fire-extinguishing appliances.—The testing and investigation of
fire-protection appliances for the Steamboat Inspection Service has
been extended to include certain types of complete extinguishing
systems for ships, as distinguished from portable apparatus. Con­
struction and performance specifications were drawn up for portable
extinguishers of the foam type.
Performance specification for numbering machines.—The experimen­
tal study of the durability of numbering machines, resulting in the
formulation of a performance specificaion for machines of the lever
type for the use of the Federal Specifications Board, has been extended
at the request of the Post Office Department to develop performance
specifications for other types of numbering machines.
Automatic postal machines.-—The bureau has cooperated with the
Post Office Department in studying the possible extension of the use
of time and labor saving automatic postal machinery.
Elevator safety interlocks.—Additional commercial examples of
interlocks have been tested. The data are made available, as a basis
for their approval for use on installations in their respective jurisdic­
tions, to certain regulatory bodies, as, for example, the Government
departments, State governments, and casualty insurance companies.
Accelerometer testing equipment.—Equipment for testing accelerom­
eters has been designed and constructed. This consists of a rotating
disk with provision for photographing the dial of an instrument under
test when a reading is desired.
IN V E S T IG A T IO N O F O PT IC A L GLASS ($ 2 7 ,4 2 0 )

Production of optical glass.—Thirty-nine pots of six different kinds
of optical glass, borosilicate crown, barium flint, medium flint, dense
flint, light barium crown, and ordinary crown, were made to deter­
mine melting procedure which will consistently yield glass of good
quality.
Blanks numbering 25,910 and weighing approximately 3,500
pounds were molded and annealed, the majority being used by the
Navy Department.
Physical properties of glass as affected by thermal treatment (including
annealing).—Additional values for the increases in refractivity and
density per degree centigrade decrease in the effective annealing
temperature, and a slight revision of some of the values previously
reported have resulted from new data. Some of the more reliable
tentative values are:

187

BUKEAU OF STANDARDS

Type of glass

Medium Hint....................................................................................

Increase in refrnctivity and Range of
density per degree centi­ effective
grade decrease in effec­ annealing
tive annealing tempera­ temperature
ture.
for which
values were
determined
Refractivity Density
(° C.)
0. 000024
.0000.10
.000048
.000032
.000047

0.00016
.00027
.00028
.00017
.00033

350-460
360-440
470-540
500-570
500-570

Viscosity of glass.—It has been found that, the viscosity-temperature
relations of light barium crown and borosilicate crown glasses can
be expressed by the equation:
Log. M= C - ^ f b 2- (1,400- T2)
in which n = viscosity, T = temperature (° C.), and A, B, and C
are constants having the following values for the two types of glasses:
Borosilicate crown, ¿1=8.53, Z?= 700, C—10.53, and light barium
crown, ¿1 = 8.22, Z?= 600, C= 10.18.
Relations between chemical composition, density, and index of refrac­
tion of glasses.—A series of glasses was made by melting mixtures of
pure silica and soda ash in a specially designed platinum resistance
furnace. The composition of these glasses varied from approxi­
mate^ 50 per cent silica, 50 per cent soda to 80 per cent silica,
20 per cent soda.
The density of these glasses can be quite accurately computed
from the expression:
Z>= 0.3293 (P„-30)°-4486 +0.01873 (Pb)'-0802
in which P„ and P b are tho percentages of silica and soda, respectively.
The work on index of refraction necessitated a modification of the
method of measurement because somo of those glasses are too hygro­
scopic to permit grinding and polishing in the ordinary way.
IN V E S T IG A T IO N O F T E X T IL E S , ETC. ($ 54,144 )

Method for testing yarns.—An improved multiple strand method
for testing yarns has been devised, in which 100 or more lengths
arranged parallel to one another under the same tension may bo
broken simultaneously, thus giving average results for a considerable
amount of material. Auxiliary equipment has been built w’hich
permits testing with the yarns w-et with any liquid and at any tem­
perature, thus simulating conditions existing during the process of
manufacture, laundering, or cleaning.
Wool meter.—A simple portable instrument for grading rawr w'ool
has been devised. Results obtained with it agree to better than 2
microns with laborious, time-consuming, microscopical measurements.
Properties of parachute fabrics.—A study of the properties of silk
parachute fabrics, for the National Advisory Committee for Aero­
nautics, shows that parachute silk of American manufacture is equal
to or better than imported cloth. Specifications for parachute fabric
have been prepared.

188

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Laundry “ winter damage."—A type of laundry damage, prevalent
in the New England States in the wintertime, known as winter
damage, was investigated at the request of the Laundry Owners’
National Association. It was found that a slight modification of
the laundry procedure will materially decrease this damage.
Dyes.—The fading of dyed textiles in sunlight transmitted by
various glasses showed that the ultra-violet in sunlight which is not
transmitted by window glass has relatively little fading action on
most fabrics. The fastness to washing of dyed fabrics was studied,
and a machine for making laboratory tests was built in cooperation
with the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists
which has adopted it as a standard for the association. The spectral
reflection of dyeings was studied with reference to the dyeing process.
Postage stamps.—Cooperative work with the Bureau of Engraving
and Printing on United States postage stamps was undertaken at
the request of the Secretary of the Treasury, to effect any possible
improvements in the manufacturing processes or in the quality of
the stamps. One complete printing, gumming, and drying unit is
being used for experimental purposes, and thorough laboratory tests
are being made of the raw materials and the finished product.
Paper Currency.—A publication was prepared which describes
further developments in the manufacture of currency paper, including
the use of various combinations of linen and cotton fibers, and the
effect of variations in the cooking, bleaching, beating, and sizing
operations.
Paper quality standards.-—Chemical and physical tests, including
accelerated aging tests, of representative commercial writing and
book papers are being made. One of the important indications of
the tests is that the processing of the fiber, irrespective of its source,
is the most important factor in its rate of deterioration.
Paper-testing methods.—A recommended procedure for determining
the bulk of paper was developed. Modifications in the design of
bursting strength testers were suggested to assist in overcoming some
of the variables of such instruments. The cooperative work with
the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry on devel­
opment of official association test methods resulted in the completion
of methods for gloss, opacity, and bulk.
Miscellaneous.—Experiments have been conducted on a humidityrecording instrument for use in paper laboratories, on methods of
measuring gloss and brittleness, and on several unusual papers and
mper-making fibers. The use of sawdust and waste papers has been
ound feasible in the manufacture of roofing felts. On the other
hand, rayon, which is commonly found to some extent in paper­
making rags, was found to have no paper-making value. Some
investigations have been made on building board from compressed
wood, flax from New Zealand, insulating board from licorice root,
and a very strong paper made from mitsumata fiber, submitted by
the Imperial Government Printing Bureau of Japan.

f

SU G A R ST A N D A R D IZ A T IO N ($ 5 8 ,2 2 7 )

Hard refined levvlose production.—The semifactory-scale plant is
practically completed. The problem of washing the artichoke tubers
and removing foreign material has been successfully solved, and the
hydraulic press station has been improved.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

189

About 10 tons of cleaned artichokes were worked and the juice
concentrated for dilution later in the experimental operation of the
plant. Further study of the 8 per cent of substance which does not
convert to levulose revealed the presence of a group of new disaccharidcs, one of which has been recovered in crj'stalline form. This
sugar is composed of two molecules of levulose and has been named
difructose anhydride. As no system of analysis of products contain­
ing levulose is in existence, the bureau has carried forward the devel­
opment of such a system to the point where it is now available for
plant control.
Color research in sugar production.—The transparency and optical
stability of sugar solutions for spectrophotometric analysis have been
studied, and the methods for obtaining them have been improved and
the time of preparation reduced. A method of preparing the asbestos
fiber used for the filtration has been worked out so that only two
hours are required for a step which formerly required several days.
Testing oj sugars.—The testing of sugars and sugar products, as well
as of polarimetric equipment used in pure research and in the in­
dustries, was continued on an augmented scale. The scientific super­
vision of the collection of the duty imposed by the tariff act on sugars,
molasses, etc., vested in the bureau, has been continued by means
of daily exchange samples of sugar and molasses. In response to
industrial requests a table of weights per gallon of sugar solution at
the standard temperature of 20° C. has been developed and a sup­
plementary table of weights per gallon at different temperatures
computed.
G A G E ST A N D A R D IZ A T IO N ($ 4 0 ,7 * 3 )

Measurement and certification oj master gages.—There has been a
considerable increase in the number of gages submitted for test.
The largest volume of work has been submitted by the petroleum
oil industry which has sent master gages for well-casing threads,
rotary tool joints, rotary drill pipe, line pipe, and sucker-rod gages.
An increasing number of gages have also been submitted by manufac­
turers of machine tools and automobile accessories.
Cooperation with standardizing bodies.—The bureau has cooperated
with the National Screw Thread Commission in carrying out re­
searches on the strength of screw threads and in preparing and editing
the 1928 report of the commission; with the American Gage Design
Committee in preparing standard designs for gage blanks; with the
American Petroleum Institute in fixing tolerances for master gages
and products used in the production of petroleum oil; and with the
Diamond Core Drilling Manufacturers Association in standardizing
equipment used in diamond core drilling operations.
New and improved methods have been devised and utilized in the
measurement of gages. Particular attention has been given to the
setting up of standard conditions and equipment for the measurement
of screw-thread gages.
Standard method oj determining pilch diameter oj thread gages.—
Disputes frequently have arisen between gage maser and the pur­
chaser and user of thread plug gages with regard to values of pitch
diameter of the thread obtained by the wire method of measurement.
This method is almost universally used and its intrinsic accuracy is
satisfactory from a practical viewpoint. While a difference in the
value for pitch diameter may be due to inaccurate wires or measuring

190

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

instruments such differences may arise from variations in the method
of determining the diameter of the wires or the use of widely different
or excessive contact pressures. The bureau, after consulting with
some of the gage makers, has adopted definite limits for contact pres­
sures and a standard method for determining diameter of the wires
used. These standard methods together with specifications for
measuring wires have been adopted by the National Screw Thread
Commission.
IN V E ST IG A T IO N O F M IN E SCALES AND CABS ($ 13,688 )

Tests oj mine scales.—The mine scale test equipment of the bureau
made tests of 153 mine scales in the eastern coal fields. Fifty scales,
or 32.7 per cent, were within tolerance, while 103, or 67.3 per cent,
were found to be incorrect.
The general results, in comparison with results of other years, show
no appreciable changes which might be interpreted to indicate con­
sistent betterment oi weighing conditions at coal mines. In sections
of the eastern coal regions, since recent dissolution of previously
existing labor agreements, a noticeable trend toward the system of
payment by contract or by car is apparent.
M E T A L L U R G IC A L R E SE A R C H ($ 51,614 )

Foundry sands.—In cooperation with various rubber companies
and with foundries a study has been made of special rubber cements
and of rubber latex as a binder for foundry core sand. Such binders
give cores of high permeability which allow the use of fine sand and
consequent smooth finish on the cored surfaces. The cores burn to
loose sand, which is extremely easy to remove from the casting, thus
greatly reducing difficulties in cleaning out the cores. Core strengths
equivalent to those obtained with linseed oil core binders can be
reached with the rubber-bonded cores.
Foundry practice.—Work in cooperation with the Steel Castings
Development Bureau, and with the Bureau of Mines, on causes for
low ductility in steel castings continues.
In cooperation with the American Foundrymen’s Association a
study has been started of methods for determining the shrinkage of
metals and alloys during freezing; that is, on the propensity to give
unsound castings because of internal shrinkage. Methods of de­
termining the fluidity of metals—that is, their ability to fill a mold
during casting—are likewise being investigated.
Rau steel.—The endurance properties of steel from rails taken from
track after service have been compared with those of steel from rails
from the same ingot before service. The endurance properties of
steel from rails that have failed by transverse fissures have also been
studied. Fissures apparently arise from tiny cracks present in the
rail before service. Further work on endurance properties of failed
rails and of alloy and heat-treated rails is in progress, as is work on
the relation between endurance values determined by axial loading
instead of in rotary bending.
Active work on the properties of rail steel at high temperatures is
being continued. A large proportion of the rail steel examined has
a range of brittleness at high temperatures, in which the steel is both
weak and of low ductility. While it is not yet certain that cooling
stresses exerted as the rail passes through this temperature range are

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

191

responsible for the “ shatter cracks” that appear to be the nuclei
responsible for transverse fissures, there is enough evidence that the
cracks have some thermal source to justify much further work along
this line.
High-speed tool steel and the machinability of steel.—A report on a
new method of evaluating the ability of tool steels to take light cuts
(finish turning), and on the effect of nickel, cobalt, arsenic, antimony,
copper, tin, aluminum, titanium, or tantalum in high-speed steel,
both in roughing and finishing cuts, is in press. A study of the behavior
of tungsten carbide tools has been started.
Bearing bronzes.—The effect of zinc as impurity of copper-tin-lead
bearing bronzes for automotive use has been studied in cooperation
with a research associate from a manufacturer of bearings, and a paper
describing the work is in press. Zinc is by no means as harmful as is
often supposed. Work on the effect of nickel, antimony, and phos­
phorus in these bearing bronzes is in progress.
Substitutes for platinum.—The working of pure rhodium, and of
alloys of platinum and rhodium high in rhodium has been successfully
accomplished, and these alloys are showing up well in service as
furnace windings. Information on the properties of alloys and on
their utility as cheaper substitutes for pure platinum and other
platinum alloys is nearly ready for publication. Work is in progress
on the quality of various platinum alloys for laboratory crucibles.
Corrosion of metals.—Results of a study of laboratory corrosion test
methods for zinc-coated steels have been published, and a paper on
the effect of aeration in electrolytic corrosion testing is in press.
Apparatus for the study of the effect of aeration in submerged corro­
sion testing is in operation. The study of corrosion of nonferrous
screen wire cloth and corrosion of zinc-coated products when exposed
to the weather has been continued in cooperation with the American
Society for Testing Materials.
Specifications.—The usual cooperation has been given to the Fed­
eral Specifications Board and to technical societies in preparation of
specifications for metals, metallic products, molding and core sands,
and foundry supplies.
H IG H -T E M P E R A T U R E IN V E ST IG A T IO N ($1 0 ,4 0 1 )

Comparison of older temperature scales.—After the adoption of the
international temperature scale a comparison was made between the
thermoelectric portion of this scale and the three other thermoelectric
scales which had been used by the bureau since 1912. None of the
older scales differed from the international scale by more than 0.3° C.
The freezing point of copper on the international scale was determined
as 1,083.0° C. and that of the copper-silver eutectic as 779.4° C.
Thermoelectric properties of platinum-rhodium alloys.—The emf
against platinum of a series of these alloj’s with rhodium content from
1 to 100 per cent was determined over the range 0° to 1,200° C.
Freezing point of nickel.—The location of this point makes it a very
convenient one for the calibration of the standard optical pyrometer.
The temperature was found to be constant and reproducible, the
average found for each of two separate lots being 1,454.9° C., which
when rounded to 1,455° C. is believed not to be in error by more than
1° C.

192

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
SO U N D IN V E ST IG A T IO N ($1 1 ,4 0 9 )

Acoustic properties of building materials.—The demands upon the
new reverberation chamber for measuring the sound absorption of
materials used in the interior finish of auditoriums are already greater
than can be promptly met. One reason for this is the development
of the talking picture, which has suddenly directed attention to the
acoustic quality of existing theaters which had been built with no
consideration of this point. A large number of measurements have
been made to develop a lime plaster that shall be a good absorber of
sound. These experiments have given promising results but are not
yet completed. Panels of stud and steel construction have been
tested for their soundproof character. The soundproofing of airplane
cabins has been studied and flight tests have been made with the coop­
eration of the Navy Department and of the Army Air Corps.
Tuning fork investigation.—The behavior of tuning forks made of
materials other than steel has been studied to find some material
which will produce a fork free from certain errors inherent in steel,
especially the effect of amplitude of vibration upon frequency. Inci­
dentally, it has been necessary to study somewhat extensively the
effect of the character of the mounting upon the period of a tuning
fork.
IN D U S T R IA L R E S E A R C H ($ 2 0 3 ,6 2 7 )

Properties of water and steam.—In cooperation with the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, experiments yielding data on the
heat capacity of water over the range 0° to 270° C. were completed.
Observations were taken over intervals of 10° C. and values of the
heat content or enthalpy of saturated water at 10° intervals have
been obtained, each value being the result of nine or more complete
determinations.
Representative values follow.
Temperature, “ C.
10 ...............................

30........................
5 0 .......................
100 ............ ...............

Enthalpy
Mean
cal/gram
10.03
___ 29. 99
___ 49. 94
___ 100.00

Enthalpy
Temperature, ®C.
Mean
cal/gram
150_____________ .
150. 88
200_______________
_ __ 203. 99
250 ______________
259. 11
270............................... .................. 282. 76

Experimental data on latent heat at 100°, 130°, 150°, and 200°
have been obtained.
Properties of petroleum products.—In cooperation with the American
Petroleum Institute, the correlation of existing data on important
properties of these products has been completed and the experimental
work is designed to furnish data now lacking. Measurements of the
thermal expansion and compressibility of petroleum products over the
range 0° to 300° C. and 1 to 50 atmospheres are in progress. A calo­
rimeter for measuring specific and latent heats of petroleum products
has been constructed, assembled, and tested.
Thermal conductivity of insulating materials.'—A new apparatus for
making measurements of conductivity at lower temperatures was
built and used to make measurements on a number of typical insulat­
ing and building materials over the range of temperatures from
—30° to +70° C. The conductivities increase with temperature at
rates of 0.2 to 0.4 per cent per degree centigrade. Measurements of
conductivity of loose fibrous materials showed that conductivity

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

193

increases as the packing becomes very loose. The conductivities of
some of these materials, particularly asbestos fibers, are unexpectedly
high. Comparison of conductivity tests by other laboratories by
means of calibrated specimens showed average deviations of about
3 per cent, which is satisfactory for commercial purposes.
Efficiency oj street car reduction gears.—Comparative tests have been
made on two spur gears and one worm gear type in cooperation with
the American Electric Railway Engineering Association, improved
methods of testing and new equipment having been specially developed
for the purpose.
Quenching media.—In hardening steel by quenching, in heat treat­
ment, it is often desired to cool the steel at a rate intermediate between
the rate obtained by quenching in water or aqueous solutions and by
quenching in oil. The use of hot aqueous solutions, while it has some
drawbacks, appears to solve the difficulty in at least some cases.
Metal spray.—The method of coating a metal or some material like
wood or paper with another metal to produce a surface more resistant
to moisture, or with other desirable properties, has drawbacks in
that it is sometimes impracticable to roughen the surface which is to
receive the coating so that it will adhere properly. There is a ten­
dency for the coating to be porous. By the use of special rubber
cements the adhesion can be much improved and the pores filled.
Experimental specimens have been produced which have satisfac­
torily withstood severe corrosion or exposure tests in cooperating
plants which have to combat corrosion of chemical vapors or liquids.
Gases in metals.—Work on the problem of determining the tiny
amounts of oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen in iron and steel has been
centered on overcoming some of the remaining difficulties in the
analytical methods and a determination of their limitations. Both
vacuum fusion and “residue” methods have been studied, the latter
in close cooperation with the Bureau of Mines. A study of the ways
in which nitrogen combines with iron has been completed.
Heat-resisting alloys.—Long-time tension (“ flow” or “creep”)
tests on several alloys of industrial importance and similar tests on a
series of alloys of nickel, chromium, and iron were made in cooperation
with the joint committee on high temperature properties of metals
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the American
Society for Testing Materials, as well as with a research associate
from a manufacturer of alloy steels. These alloys are the foundation
upon which most of the industrial alloys for service under extreme
temperature conditions are built. Further work on these alloys,
including a study of the effects of various other elements, is
contemplated.
Wear-resisting alloys.—The wear resistance of chromium plating,
applied under different conditions of deposition, and of the new
nitrided steels has been studied, using the gage wear tester, previously
developed at the bureau. A rather comprehensive study of a com­
mercial wear tester made abroad, which uses sand as the abrasive,
has not so far shown much promise in that method of testing, as it
does not distinguish sharply between metals known to vary in wear
resistance in actual service.
Health hazards in chromium plating.—In cooperation with the
United States Public Health Service a study was made of the effects
of chromic acid spray upon the health of the operators and the meth78415—29----- 13

194

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

ods and degree of ventilation required to eliminate such hazards.
The results showed that with reasonable precautions there is no
serious hazard in this industry.
Thermal expansion.—The thermal expansion of magnesium and
some of its alloys, as well as of tantalum, rhodium, and amber, have
been determined. Determinations of the thermal expansion of
chromium and fused quartz are now in progress.
Elastic hysteresis research.—Progress has been made in determining
the source of the discrepancy in the values of the elastic hysteresis
modulus when obtained by measuring the deflection of bars under load
and by observing the damping of tuning forks. The measurements
of damping give values twice as great as the deflection method. It
has been found that the damping of a tuning fork is unchanged when
the fork is mounted rigidly, suspended by strings, mounted on rubber,
or mounted rigidly and unbalanced by adding weights to one prong.
Attention will now be given to further experiments employing the
deflection method.
Optical heterogeneity of fused quartz.—Various parts of a single
piece of clear fused quartz, from which it was planned to make a
standard of refractive index for testing refractometers, were rig­
orously investigated as to uniformity of refractive index throughout
the mass of the sample. The variations found were not only small,
but the nature of their distribution indicated that an annealing
process might entirety remove them.
Properties of flames.—The properties of flames which affect their
stability and efficiency are being studied. An investigation will soon
be finished of the relative proportion of carbon monoxide and hydrogen
in the gases from flames in which combustion is nearly but not quite
complete.
Heat of formation of sulphur— The heat of formation of sulphur
dioxide, at 25° C. and atmospheric pressure, from rhombic sulphur
and gaseous oxygen was found to be +296,890 ±200 absolute joules
per mole, or dividing by the factor 4,185, this value becomes 70,940
g-cal,5.
Heat of formation of nitric acid.—A method and apparatus for
determining directly the heat of reaction between nitric acid and
hydrogen to form nitrogen and water has been perfected and measure­
ments of this thermochemical constant are under way.
Identification.—Attention has been given to the identification of
typewriting, handwriting, bullets, cartridge cases, and firearms. The
bureau’s purpose is to establish standards which may be regarded as
reasonable minimum requirements for equipment and training for
carrying on this work. On numerous occasions the bureau has
assisted other departments of the Federal Government in problems of
identification.
Fading of dyes.—A spectrophotometric method has been perfected
for the quantitative measurement of the degree of fading of dyed fab­
rics. Tentative standard methods for determining the fastness to
washing of dyed fabrics have also been developed, and a machine
embodying these methods has recently been placed on the market.
Sole leather.—Tests recently completed show that sole leathers first
tanned with chromium salts and then retanned with vegetable mate­
rials wear from 25 to 75 per cent longer than the ordinary vegetable
tanned sole leathers now chiefly used.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

195

Acid in leather.—Leather prepared with one particular tanning
material has lasted two years without appreciable deterioration,
although it contained 3 per cent sulphuric acid. Leather prepared
with another material showed deterioration in samples containing
about 1 per cent sulphuric acid. It appears that the resistance of
leather to deterioration by sulphuric acid is influenced by the vege­
table material with which it is tanned. A study of the effects of
relative humidity upon the deterioration of leather by sulphuric acid
indicates that deterioration takes place at a greater rate with high
than with low humidities.
This project is sponsored jointly by the Tanners’ Council of
America and the American Leather Chemists Association, and coop­
eration is effected through an advisory committee representing these
organizations.
Influence of temperature and humidity on the physical properties of
rubber compounds.—In cooperation with the American Chemical
Society an investigation has been completed of the effect of tempera­
ture and relative humidity upon the physical properties of rubber as
exemplified by the stress-strain relation and the resistance to abra­
sion. The effect of relative humidity and temperature upon the
resistance to abrasion is of interest to the industry, for it concerns the
seasonal tire wear as well as the standardization of the laboratory
procedure in determining this property.
Sponge rubber.—A survey of the manufacture of sponge rubber has
been made, using samples of sheet sponge of different types obtained
from several sources. This investigation covers hardness, porosity,
strength, permanent set, water absorption, buoyancy, hysteresis under
compression, cushioning properties, and heat insulation.
Abrasion tests for rubber.—A new abrasion-test machine has been
designed and built, and data on its performance are being obtained.
Rubber floor tile.—A report covering the properties of rubber floor
tile has been prepared and discussed at conferences with manufac­
turers and users. Further work is planned to make available definite
information regarding the physical properties desirable in rubber floor
tile and the conditions of service for which it is best adapted.
Properties of electrical insulating materials.—This research has been
largely confined to the electrical properties of compounds of sulphur
with pure rubber hydrocarbon. A series of 17 compounds has been
studied in which the sulphur content varied from 0 to 32 per cent in
steps of 2 per cent. The dielectric constant, power factor, and
resistivity of each member of the above series were measured at
approximate temperatures from —77° to +102° C., the dielectric
constant and power factor being measured at 60, 1,000, and 3,000
cycles. A comparative method for measuring the thermal conduc­
tivity of electrical insulating materials has been developed.
Storage-battery investigation.—Experiments to determine the effect
of expanders as well as variations in the treatment of plates after
pasting have been made. The causes of corrosion of positive plates
in large storage batteries, such as those used in submarines, are being
studied. An investigation to determine the possibility of using other
material than antimony to harden the lead of the grids has been
begun.
Wind pressure on structures.—Measurements of the wind pressure
on a relatively smooth cylindrical stack 10 feet in diameter and 30

196

KEPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

feet high in a natural wind have shown a pressure corresponding to
approximately 10 pounds per square foot (projected area) at a speed
of 100 miles per hour. On the brick stack of the bureau’s power
plant values corresponding to 15 to 17 pounds per square foot at 100
miles per hour have been noted. The wind pressure in model tests
is known to increase with the height-diameter ratio and with rough­
ness, and the same appears to be true of large structures in natural
winds. For general use the bureau can not at present recommend
any reduction below the commonly used figure of 20 pounds per
square foot at 100 miles per hour.
Spedrochemical analysis.—New descriptions of the arc and spark
spectra of lanthanum, chlorine, bromine, iodine, arsenic, krypton,
and xenon have been prepared. These have led to the classification
of nearly all the lines in the first (arc) spectrum of each and have
given information as to the most sensitive lines for spectrochemical
detection and quantitative estimation of small quantities, of the
elements. In each, excepting arsenic, the main features of the second
(spark) spectrum have been found, and the strongest spark lines
classified. About 100 samples of metals, alloys, salts, and miscellane­
ous materials were examined by spectrograpkic methods. Impurities
were identified in proof gold of the Bureau of the Mint and a higher
standard of proof is now being maintained by the spectroscopic
method of testing.
Atomic structure investigations.—The rate of disappearance of ions
and electrons in an ionized gas by recapture of the electrons has long
remained an unknown quantity in ionization problems. Attention
has been centered on measurements of this probability of recombina­
tion. The intensity of the radiation resulting from the capture
process is a convenient measure of the rate of recombination. The
results give reliable values for the relative probabilities of capture
for electrons of different speeds into various atomic levels, while a
study of the converse process, ionization of atoms by light, fixes the
absolute value of the probabilities.
Photographic emulsions.—An investigation relating the hydrogen
and bromide ion concentration with the sensitivity of the emulsion
shows that these control sensitivity directly, as well as through their
effect on the efficiency of both nuclear and dye sensitizers. Experi­
ments on sensitization by sulphites indicate that this is peculiarly
dependent on removal of soluble bromide. The study of the effect
of washing and coating pH was therefore extended to include the
effect of bromide ion concentration. A study of a particular dye
bath has beem made to develop correct principles governing the use
of two dyes.
Research associates.—The following table gives the names of asso­
ciations and manufacturers cooperating with the bureau under the
research associate plan, together with the number of associates and
the problems on which they are engaged:

197

BUREAU OF STANDARDS
Research associates at the B ureau o f Standards
Assigned by—
American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists,
W. E. Hadley, secretary, care of Clark Thread Co.,
Newark, N. J.
American Chemical Society, rubber section, Mills Build­
ing, Washington, D. C.
American Dental Association, Columbus, Ohio...............
American Electric Railway Association, care of R. H.
Dalgleish, president, Capital Traction Co., Washing­
ton, D. C.
American Electroplaters Society, George Gehling, secre­
tary-treasurer, 5001 Edmund Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
American Face Brick Association, 130 North Wells
Street, Chicago, 111.
American Foundrymen’s Association, Cleveland, Ohio..
American Gas Association, 342 Madison Avenue, New
York, N. Y.
American Petroleum Institute, 250 Park Avenue, New
York, N. Y.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 29 West i
Thirty-ninth Street, New York, N. Y.
American Society for Testing Materials, 1315 Spruce j
Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Institute, 285 Madison
Avenue, New York, N. Y.
Associated Knit Underwear Manufacturers of America
(Inc.), 329 Main Street, Utica, N. Y.
Atlas Lumnite Cement Co., 25 Broadway, New York,
N. Y.
Brown Co., Berlin, N. H ......................................................
Bunting Brass & Bronze Co., 715-755 Spencer Street,
Toledo, Ohio.
Bureau of Efficiency, Washington, D. C .........................
Cast Iron Pipe Research Association, 566 Peoples Gas
Building, Chicago, 111.
Celite Co., Los Angeles, Calif..............................................
Celotex Co., 645 North Michigan Boulevard, Chicago,
Cerro de Pasco Copper Corporation, 44 Wall Street, New
York, N. Y.
Committee on Glass, E. C. Sullivan, chairman, Corning
Glass Works, Corning, N. Y.
Common Brick Manufacturers Association of America,
2121 Guarantee Title Building, Cleveland, Ohio.
Copper and Brass Research Association, 25 Broadway,
New York, N. Y.
Cotton Textile Institute (Inc.), 320 Broadway, New
York, N. Y.
Dardolet Thread Lock Corporation, 120 Broadway, New
York, N. Y.
Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, Lon­
don, England.
Elevator Safety Code Committee, subcommittee on
research, approval, and interpretation, American
Standards Association (formerly American Engineer­
ing Standards Committee), 29 West Thirty-ninth
Street, New York, N. Y.
Engineering Foundation, 29 West Thirty-ninth Street,
New York, N. Y.
Hugh L. Cooper Co., 101 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y.
Indiana Limestone Co., Bedford, Ind.................................
International Association of Electrotypers of America,
George C. Stock, field secretary, Leader Building,
Cleveland, Ohio.
International Education Board, 61 Broadway, New !
York, N. Y.
Marine Underwriters Committee, 82 Beaver Street, New
York, N. Y.
Metalloid Co., 53 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, 111.i
Midvale Co., Nicetown, Philadelphia, Pa.........................:
National Association of Glue Manufacturers, J. R. j
Powell, consulting secretary, Armour Glue Works, i
1355 West Thirty-first Street, Chicago, 111.
National Association of Hosiery & Underwear Manufac­
turers, 334 Fourth Avenue, New York City.
National Lead Co., 105 York Street, Brooklyn, N. Y___*

Num­
ber

Specific project

1 Assisting in study of methods for test­
ing fastness to light of dyed fabrics.
1 Physical testing of rubber.
3 Study of dental materials.
1 Testing of oils for use on street railways.
2
1
1
3
7
2
3
1
1
3
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
3

6

1
3
1
1
1
1

Spotting out of plated finishes.
Prevention of stain on brick structures.
Liquid shrinkages in metals.
Methods of testing gas appliances to
determine their safety.
Thermodynamic properties of petro­
leum products; corrosion in pipe
lines.
Steam tables.
Cement testing.
Relative values of different fibers used
in roofing felt.
Standardization and simplification of
underwear sizes.
Properties of high alumina cement.
Permanency of papers.
Testing of bronze.
Durability of currency paper.
Study of cause of soil corrosion of castiron pipe.
Investigation of workability of concrete.
Heat transmission of materials.
Development of new uses for metallic
bismuth.
Research in physical properties of glass.
Sound measurements and compression
tests of brick walls.
Investigation of safe loading of corru­
gated copper roofing, etc.
Study of specific uses for cotton mate­
rials.
Investigation of Dardelet lock thread.
Research in Portland cement.
Elevator safety equipment; develop­
ment of methods and instruments;
construction, maintenance, opera­
tion, etc.
Preparation of bibliography on wire
rope.
Clays in concrete mixtures.
Properties of Indiana limestone; water­
proofing, discoloring, etc.
Nickel electrotyping.

1 Spectroscopic research.
1 Investigation of spontaneous combus­
tion in jute fibers, etc.
1 Study of composition and absorptive
properties of metalloid and similar
clairfying agents.
1 High-temperature testing of metals.
1 Glue for use in paper sizing.
2 Development of methods of measuring
hosiery; standardization of twist with
respect to dye application.
1 Research in pigments.

198

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
Research associates at the B ureau o f Stan dards —Continued
Assigned by—

National Research Council, Washington, D. C................
National Terra Cotta 8ociety, 19 West Forty-fourth
Street, New York, N. Y.
Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, Okla........................
Portland Cement Association, 33 West Grand Avenue,
Chicago, 111.
Society of Automotive Engineers (Inc.), 29 West Thirtyninth Street, New York, N. Y.
Steel Castings Development Bureau, f>00 Stock Exchange
Building, Philadelphia, Pa.
Steel & Tubes (Inc.), Cleveland, Ohio.............................
United States Manufacturers of Cream of Tartar (Inc.),
39 West Thirty-eighth Street, New York. N. Y.
Welded Steel Tubes (Inc.), 224 East One hundred and
thirty-first Street, Cleveland, Ohio.

Num­
ber

Specific project

8

Testing materials; structure of the
alkali atoms; insulating liquids.
3 Investigation of architectural terra
cotta.
Design of burners for propane gas.
and hardening of Port­
7 Constitution
land cement.
4 Vapor lock; cooperative fuel research.
1 Research in steel castings.
3 Tension and compression tests of steel
tubing.
1 Physical
and chemical characteristics
of baked products.
1 Preparation of reports on tubes.

TESTING RAILROAD-TRACK AND OTHER SCALES ($49,085)

Railroad-track scales.—A total of 726 tests of railroad-track scales
in 23 States was made. Of this number 434 were owned by railroads,
288 by industries, 4 by the Federal Government, and 1 by a munic­
ipality. Fifty-four scales were adjusted to improve their weighing
accuracy, and faulty mechanical conditions in 12 scales were corrected
by bureau inspectors.
Traclc-scale test results.—Of the scales tested 71.8 per cent were
correct within the prescribed tolerance. The average error for all
scales tested was 0.20 per cent of the applied test loads. Both of the
figures establish new records for accuracy. Corresponding figures for
the preceding year were 70 and 0.23 per cent, respectively.
The comparative standing of the eastern, southern, and western
districts with regard to the proportion of correct scales is represented
by the respective values 68.2, 65.4, and 75 per cent.
Master-track scatk tests.—Fifteen of the 19 master-track scales in
use throughout the United States were tested. With the exception of
two scales which had undergone overhauling or modification since the
last preceding test, all proved to be accurate within the “maintenance
tolerance” which allows maximum weighing errors of approximately
0.02 per cent of the test load values.
Track scales for weighing grain.—Ninety-seven of the scales tested
this year were in grain weighing service and therefore subject to a
special tolerance fixed by the Interstate Commerce Commission.
Forty-three scales or 44.3 per cent were within the tolerance. The
average weighing error for all scales was 0.15 per cent. Repeated
tests of grain weighing track scales show that the majority of this
equipment is not adapted for service under the special tolerance
requirement and that frequent repair and adjustment of the equip­
ment to not compensate for deficiencies of design or construction.
Test car calibrations in the field.—Twenty-seven track-scale test
cars were weighed by substituting them against the standard weights
of the field units. This service is extended at remote points where
transportation of a test car to a master scale would be impractical
or where tho test car wheel base exceeds the rail length of the con­

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

199

ventional master scale. Recently, several, cars of long wheel base
type have been modified to allow ready conversion to a short wheel
base.
Bureau master scale and test car depot.—New load-bearing blocks of
improved design were made and installed in the longitudinal extension
levers of the master scale at Clearing. With the exception of more or
less slight functional variations, the performance of the scale has
since been satisfactory.
Forty-four track-scale test cars received at the depot this jrear were
weighed and adjusted to standard weight value. A seal designating
formal certification of the car as a test weight was affixed to each car
designed and built according to approved standards.
Research and investigation.—A cooperative activity with the Na­
tional Scale Men’s Association resulted in a set of specifications
formally approved by that association for the repair of heavy
capacity scales.
Cooperation with States in weights and measures matters.—Formal
conferences of State and local weights and measures officials have been
attended in Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota,
New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Virginia.
Incident to these meetings, conferences have been held with officials
in Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, and Tennessee.
Cooperation with other Government departments.—Numerous con­
sultations have been held with representatives of other Federal de­
partments and of the District of Columbia on questions of weighing
scales, measures, etc., and a considerable amount of equipment has
been examined or tested for the agencies mentioned.
STANDARDIZATION OF EQUIPMENT ($192,123)

General conjerences on simplified practice.—Sixteen general confer­
ences were held to adopt simplified practice recommendations. The
first general conference in connection with a new sendee of the division
of simplified practice resulted in the adoption of a regional recom­
mendation. Simplified practice recommendations have been accepted
covering 98 commodities and 14 simplified practice recommendations
and 1 regional recommendation are now in process of acceptance.
Printed recommendations have been issued for 88 commodities.
Number of acceptances to simplified practice recommendations.—A
total of 1,199 acceptances have been received from trade associations
and other organized groups, as well as individual acceptances from
20,790 manufacturers, distributors, and users.
Revision and reaffirmation conferences.—Forty-one conferences were
held by the members of the industries concerned, resulting in the
revision of items in 10 of the simplified practice recommendations
already in effect and the reaffirmation of 31 recommendations, or 75.5
per cent. This shows an increasing stability in simplified practice
recommendations over last year when only 25, or 67.5 per cent of the
37 recommendations reviewed, were reaffirmed without change.
Adherence to simplified practice recommendations.—Field surveys
showed that the average degree of adherence for 26 commodities was
85.43 per cent. This compares favorably with the figure for the
previous year which was 86.86 per cent and covered 30 commodities.

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

200

Degree o f adherence obtained by actual survey
S. P. R.
No.

Commodity

1 Vitrified paving brick..............
4 Asphalt.......................................

0
17
20
22

26
28
29
30
31
36
41
43
46

Forged tools.-...........................
Steel reinforcing bars................
Eaves trough and conductor
Milling cutters...........................
Insecticides and fungicides___
Paint and varnish brushes___
Tissue’ paper...............................

Degree of S. P. R.
adherence No.
P er cent

70.10
91.00
93.14
89.00
93.00
90. 83
64.78
96. 21
94. 28
93. 55
100.00
80.45
54. 40
82.00
85.64
76.60

48
50
51
52
54
60
61
62
75
79

Commodity

Degree of
adheronce

Shovels, spades, and scoops___
Bank cnecks and other com*

P e r cent

Staple vitreous china nlumbing
Packing of carriage, machine,
White glazed tile and unMalleable foundry refractories.
Average.............................

96.62
82. 64

100.00
88.77
94.89
67.14
86.63
99.00
86.54
64. 31
85. 43

Field surveys in progress.—Surveys of existing varieties are in prog­
ress for 20 industries.
Benefits of simplified practice.—Correspondence from the acceptors
of simplified practice recommendations continues to bring in interest­
ing examples of savings that are being effected. The ultimate
realization of the potential benefits of simplified practice by the
consumers of the country will, of course, take some time, but indi­
cations, of which the following is a sample, clearly illustrate that
none of the claims made for it are beyond the realm of probability:
On the item of shovels alone we are pleased to advise that, due to the elimina­
tion of a vast number of sizes and styles, our inventory on this line has been cut
practically in two, without any complaints whatever from the consuming trade.
This proved of such benefit to us that after the inventory was straightened out
and the old sizes disposed of we were able, in January of this year (1929), to
reduce our prices to the consuming trade ranging from SI to S2.50 per dozen.

Regional recommendations— The division of simplified practice has
been developing a new service to industry, in the form of regional
recommendations. Hitherto the work has been confined to projects
which, from their inception, were national in scope. It has, however,
become increasingly evident that there is a large field for service in
programs covering only a part of the United States. Obviously, some
limit must be set up beyond which the bureau can not be expected to
go, and for the present it has been decided to limit this new activity
to (a) natural products or commodities, the nature of which varies
in different parts of the country, and (&) to programs which hold
forth a definite promise of ultimately developing into national
recommenda tions.
During the last quarter a general conference was held for the
development of one such regional recommendation, covering screen
sizes and terminology of high-volatile bituminous coal in the Great
Lakes region.
Commercial standards.—This classification covers standards of
grade, quality, measurement, tolerances, and other specification
requirements established voluntarily by industry as a basis for mar­
keting and certifying various commodities. In cooperation with the
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce standards are translated
into foreign languages as a basis for promoting foreign trade.

BUREAU OE STANDARDS

201

Fifteen general conferences were held, covering the following com­
modities: Surgical gauze, steel pipe nipples, wrought-iron pipe nip­
ples, standard weight malleable iron or steel screwed unions, plain
and thread plug and ring limit gage blanks, builders’ template hard­
ware, brass pipe nipples, regain of mercerized cotton yarns, domestic
and industrial fuel oils, dress patterns, boys’ blouses, waists, shirts,
and junior shirts, men’s pajamas, wall paper, diamond core-drill
fittings, and hickory golf shafts.
A satisfactory majority of acceptances have been received and the
success of the following projects has been announced: Stoddard sol­
vent, staple porcelain (all clay) plumbing fixtures, steel pipe nipples,
wrought-iron pipe nipples, brass pipe nipples, regain of mercerized
cotton yarns, and dress patterns.
The following four commercial standards have been issued in printed
form: Clinical thermometers (CSl-28), Stoddard solvent (CS3-28),
staple porcelain (all-clay) plumbing fixtures (CS4-29), steel pipe
nipples (CS5-29).
Radiator investigation.—-To develop a logical basis and test for the
rating of radiators used for heating purposes, a test room of average
size was built, having one wall exposed to a refrigerated space, corre­
sponding to the exterior wall of a building. In testing a radiator
measurements are made of the useful heat output as well as the total
heat output. The latter determines the capacity of the radiator,
and the former is a measure of its effectiveness as a heater. The two
factors are essentially independent, but it is hoped that they can be
combined in such a way as to form a logical basis for ratings.
Standardization of fire-control instruments for the Army.—The Ord­
nance Department of the Army has adopted the plan of standardizing
optical systems to govern the design of future fire-control instru­
ments, which was proposed some years ago by a member of the bu­
reau’s staff. This will apply to all optical instruments controlled by
the Ordnance Department and will result in greatly simplifying the
problems of design, production, and maintenance.
Dry-cell standardization.—Qualification tests on dry cells collected
at intervals of approximately six months have been in progress
continuously.
Specifications for storage lotteries.—Attention has been given to
tests of storage batteries to obtain information necessary in preparing
specifications for automotive and other types of batteries. While
good progress has been made on the specifications for battery per­
formance, the tests to determine quality of the cases are proving a
serious obstacle.
Safety codes.—A report on dry cleaning was prepared for the Na­
tional Safety Council. Sponsorship for the safety code for aeronau­
tics was discontinued. In connection with the elevator safety code
a handbook for elevator inspectors has been prepared. Members of
the staff have participated actively in the work of the safety code
correlating committee and in sectional committees preparing and
revising safety codes for various industries. Codes for refrigeration,
window washing, woodworking, factory lighting, street traffic signs,
signals, and markings, and for floor openings, railings, and toeboards,
wore completed. Work was continued on codes for walkway sur­
faces, conveyors and conveying machinery, and colors of gas-mask
canisters.

202

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Directories of laboratories.—In a second revised edition of the
Directory of Commercial Testing and College Research Laboratories
data are given concerning the laboratories in 196 colleges, and 294
commercial testing laboratories, with 94 branch laboratories or
offices. A directory of all Federal governmental testing laboratories
has been prepared for the use of the Federal Government purchasing
agents.
Specifications in various industries.—The second volume of the bu­
reau’s encyclopedia series, entitled “ Standards and Specifications for
Nonmetallic Minerals and Their Manufactures,” has been prepared
for printing.
Cooperation with public purchasers.—In connection with the com­
pilation of material for the National Directory of Commodity Speci­
fications and the Standards Yearbook, and the inauguration of the
so-called certification plan, the bureau has cooperated with the public
purchasing officers in all of the 48 States and with all of the State
highway commissions. It has established contact with more than
15,000 additional public purchasers for all of the cities throughout
the country, all of the municipalities having the city-manager form of
government, and many counties, public schools, hospitals, and other
public institutions.
Facilitating the use of specifications.—The certification plan has
been so extended as to include commodities covered by a total of 248
United States Government master specifications. More than 7,500
separate requests for listing as willing to certify to compliance with the
specification requirements have been received from about 2,000 manu­
facturers. Self-identifying quality-guaranteeing labels are now being
used by manufacturers of certain staple lines of merchandise to show
that they comply with the requirements and tests of certain of the
specifications.
STANDARD MATERIALS ($10,824)

Distribution of standard samples.—A direct result of the use of the
standard samples of ores, metallurgical products, and pure chemi­
cals prepared and distributed by the bureau is a saving of thousands
of dollars a year through improved manufacturing operations and
the avoidance of costly disputes based on faulty analysis. The
standard sample fund is unique in that the return to the United
States Treasury in fees and accumulated stocks of salable samples
has always exceeded the appropriation. In 1928 and 1929 $16,062
was received from the sale of 7,336 samples and approximately
$45,000 worth of standard samples were added to the salable samples
on hand.
INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND X RAYS
($31,741)

Measurement of X-ray dosage.—A precise measurement of the
intensity (power) of X rays is one of the most difficult problems
associated with the study and application of this radiation. In
thereapeutic applications measurement of the dose administered is of
prime importance, yet it was not until the 1928 international con­
ference on X rays at Stockholm that a unit for expressing X-ray
dosage and its method of measurement was agreed upon. Inasmuch
as leading laboratories were then at variance in their measurements

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

203

of the same radiation by as much as 4 per cent of the magnitude
involved, the bureau has been engaged in identifying the possible
sources of the existing discrepancy, and has met with considerable
success. The theory of the measurement remains unquestioned,
but sufficient precautions do not appear to have been taken to insure
that experimental conditions fulfilled the requirements of the theory.
X-ray and radium -protection.—The (1928) International Congress
on Radiology adopted proposals on X-ray and radium protection
which various national committees have been formed to promulgate.
A member of the bureau’s staff was appointed chairman of our
national committee.
Tests of radioactive preparations.—Upon these tests the prices of the
preparations are based. During the year 1,050 preparations, ranging
in radium content from 0.05 to 100 mg. and totalling 11,300 mg.,
were tested.
UTILIZATION OF WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE LAND ($53,148)

Wall hoard from cornstalks.—The bureau continued to operate
the plant at Ames, Iowa, in cooperation with the Iowa State College,
•'or the manufacture of insulating board from cornstalks. With new
types of equipment recently installed wall board has been made with
a thickness of inch and twice as strong as any insulating board on
the market. An insulating board designed for refrigerators, 2 inches
thick without lamination, can also be made.
Small-scale experiments have been completed on the manufacture
of pressed board from cornstalks, which is intended to be used as a
substitute for lumber.
A process has been developed for the manufacture of a new material
called maizolith, which is also made from cornstalks and has many
characteristics of hard rubber or vulcanized fiber.
Manufacture of xylose.—Laboratory work on the manufacture of
xylose from cottonseed hulls has been completed. The bureau has
erected and is operating a semicommercial factory at the plant of
the Federal Phosphorous Co., Anniston, Ala., in cooperation with
the University of Alabama and the Alabama Polytechnic Institute.
The factory is designed to make 100 pounds of xylose per day.
This factory started operation on March 16. It is planned to use
other raw materials, such as peanut shells and corncobs, and to
reduce cost and improve efficiency.
Samples of xylose are being supplied to interested individuals
and concerns who are assisting in finding a market for the material.
There is a possibility of it being used in the dyeing and tanning
industries, for use in foodstuffs, for manufacture of chemicals, ex­
plosives, furfural, and for manufacture of alcohol to be used as sol­
vent for lacquer, etc.
Utilization of cornstalks.—A field survey of the economic possi­
bility of using cornstalks as an industrial raw material has been
completed by an economist retained for the purpose. This included
a study of the cost of collecting cornstalks, of the cost of manu­
facture of insulating board and wall board from competitive materials,
and of the probable expansion of the markets of these products.
Miscellaneous.—Many preliminary investigations of other types
of waste land products have been conducted. A study of the Texas

204

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

sunflower indicated small possibility of the industrial use of this
plant at present.
Cotton burs were found to be high in potash and therefore valuable
as a fertilizer.
Experiments with artichoke tops show that they can be used for
the production of a strong brown paper.
Peanut shells contain a considerable quantity of xylose, and it is
possible that the fiber left after the extraction of the xylose may
nave some value.
Complete chemical and microscopical analysis of wheat straw have
been completed, the stem and the nodes being anaylzed separately.
Based on this information we have now started to investigate the
paper-making qualities of straw.
The acid which is produced by the oxidation of xylose has certain
characteristics which may make it of value in the tanning and dyeing
industries. The bureau has produced this acid in the laboratory
and is now investigating the optimum conditions for its manufacture.
INVESTIGATION OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES ($26,833)

Automobile engine acceleration—The effect of fuel characteristics
and operating conditions on engine acceleration has been studied.
To evaluate the influence of engine design, specified acceleration
tests will be repeated by request on representative engines at the
laboratories of certain automobile companies. These field tests will
conclude one phase of the joint motor-fuel research started seven years
ago in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute, the Na­
tional Automobile Chamber of Commerce, and the Society of Auto­
motive Engineers.
Phenomena of combustion.—Using the soap bubble as a constant
pressure bomb, an intensive study in cooperation with the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has been made of the explosive
reaction with oxygen of butane and of composite fuels containing
butane as one constituent. The results show that the relations
already found to hold for simple gases and their mixtures hold also
for complox hydrocarbon molecules. The equivalent reaction order
of a composite fuel may be determined from the reaction orders of
its components, and the velocity constant of the fuel may also be
determined from the velocity constants of those components.
Antiknock characteristics of fuels.—The bureau is cooperating with
representatives of the automotive and petroleum industries in an
organized attempt to reach agreement upon satisfactory methods of
measuring and expressing the tendency of motor fuels to knock or
detonate. Specially designed detonation test engines have been dis­
tributed to the laboratories represented on the committee and each
laboratory will make the same series of preliminary tests with this
engine on six special fuels. The ultimate object is the general adop­
tion of a common test engine and procedure as a tentative standard.
Gasoline volatility.—The final form of the correlation between the
distillation curves of the American Society for Testing Materials and
the complete equilibrium air-distillation data for 38 fuels, gains accu­
racy by taking into account the slope of the distillation curve, and
appeal's to furnish a comprehensive answer to the problem of equilib­
rium volatility of hydrocarbon fuels of any degree of complexity in
the temperature range covered by gasolines. This basic investiga-

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

205

tion should be supplemented by a study of the differences between
volatility under equilibrium conditions and under nonequilibrium
conditions such as exist in automotive engine manifolds.
Vapor lock in airplane juel systems.—The investigation of vapor
lock began with a study of the contribution of the various constitu­
ents of a gasoline to the total vapor pressure, when every opportunity
was given for bubbles to form. Bubble formation and growth under
typical flow conditions are at present being studied.
Engine tests oj lubricating oils.—A six-cylinder bus engine has re­
cently been set up for testing automobile engine oils under constant
conditions, a reference oil being used to serve as a check on changes
taking place in the engine itself. Tests thus far have been confined
to the reference oil.
Vibration oj motor vehicles.—Vertical accelerometers are used by
the Bureau of Standards in estimating the comparative riding quali­
ties of motor vehicles. They are also used by the Bureau of Public
Roads in estimating the vertical impact forces which tend to wear
out the road surface. A machine for calibrating such instruments
has been set up at the Bureau of Standards, and the two bureaus are
cooperating in the calibration of various types of vertical accelerom­
eters.
Automotive headlighting.—The bureau has continued to cooperate
with the Society of Automotive Engineers in the investigation of
headlighting from the automobile driver’s point of view. The light
spread required for safe driving at various speeds over typical roads
was determined photographically. A multiple-element photometer
has been developed for estimating the approximate light intensity
thrown in the driver’s eyes when meeting another car on the road.
Cooperative investigations in the automotive field.—The appropria­
tion for the automotive work is not sufficient to carry on investiga­
tions of fundamental importance in this field. However, it has been
used as a nucleus for cooperative research in which other branches of
the Government and industrial associations have joined. Some valu­
able research has thus been made possible.
INVESTIGATION OF DENTAL MATERIALS ($5,421)

Physical and chemical properties oj dental materials.—The investiga­
tion of the physical and chemical properties of inlay materials,
amalgams, plasters, and waxes has continued, and purchase specifica­
tions have been drawn up for these materials. Assistance has been
given to dental colleges, manufactures, and dental testing laboratories
in the design, selection, and installation of testing equipment for
dental materials.
Cooperative dental research.—The dental research in cooperation
with the American Dental Association, which was begun last year,
has been continued and most satisfactory relations have been main­
tained. The $7,500 per year appropriated by the association for this
work has made possible the establishment of one full-time research
associateship and the part-time employment of two additional men.
The progress made has been most gratifying to the bureau and, it is
believed, satisfactory to the association. Defective dental materials
and technics have been pointed out to the profession and to manu­
facturers, and improvement in the quality of certain materials is
already apparent.

206

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

POWER-PLANT EQUIPMENT ($100,000)

Equipment.—The boiler-room installation has been completed with
the exception of two boilers which are to be moved from another
location and for which a contract has been placed. Steam con­
nections to the old plants have been completed and the new boiler
plant will be in full operation beginning July, 1929.
Cooling pond.—Although the power-plant building proper was
completed last year, one unit of the water-spray pond was completed
this year. This pond will serve as a source of supply for condenser
circulating water and will, when put in service, greatly conserve our
water supply.
TRANSFERRED FUNDS ($339,923)

Organization and projects.—During the year funds were transferred
from the following branches of the Government covering the projects
listed:
Aeronautics Branch, Department of Commerce:
Lighting of airways.
Radiobeacons.
Testing of commercial airplane engines.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing:
Electrodeposition problems.
Paper currency.
Postage stamps.
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce: Preparation of directories of
specifications.
Coast and Geodetic Survey:
Development of seismometers.
Making of special castings.
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics:
t
Aerodynamics.
Fatigue of duralumin.
Light alloys for aircraft.
Power plants.
Steel and duralumin tubing.
Substitutes for parachute silk.
Navy Department:
Aircraft instruments.
Airship girders.
Altitude control of carburetors.
Corrosion of metals.
Gas-cell fabrics for airships.
Gaseous fuels for aircraft.
General aeronautical fabrics.
Ignition systems for aircraft engines.
Production of optical glass.
Storage batteries for submarines.
War Department:
Application of supercharger to Curtiss airplane engine.
Bomb ballistics.
Development of machine guns.
Embrittlement of duralumin.
Experimental length gages.
Problems of friction and lubrication.
Radio transmission.

Many of these projects were supported partly by bureau and
partly by transferred lands. The more important of these have
already been described under the appropriate bureau fund. Impor­
tant investigations supported wholly by transferred funds include
the following:

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

207

Type testing of commercial airplane engines.—The importance of
testing new designs of commercial engines before permitting their use
in licensed aircraft is shown by the fact that of 24 engines received for
test 12 failed, 5 were withdrawn, and 7 were approved. The failures
were due in many cases to faults which would have been evident to
the manufacturer had he done more adequate preliminary testing.
Three engines which failed initially were corrected and have passed a
second test. Engine-testing equipment, including three complete
torque stand units, has been installed at Arlington Farms. This plant
takes the place of a single test stand at College Park and will permit
testing on the average of one engine a week.
Effect of sparlc character on ignition ability.—A single-cylinder test­
ing engine is being used under controlled operating conditions to ascer­
tain whether one type of spark is superior to another in its ability to
ignite the mixtures which actually occur in engines. Methods have
been devised for estimating the “dryness” of the explosive charge at
the end of the compression stroke and for comparing the “ sphere of
influence” of different sparks. The efficiency of aircraft ignition sys­
tems shielded to prevent interference with radio communication is
also being studied. This work was supported jointly by the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the Bureau of Aeronautics
of the Navy Department.
Prevention of embrittlement of duralumin corrosion and of deterio­
ration of magnesium alloys by corrosion.—Two more technical notes
on the progress of the work, which is supported by the Navy Depart­
ment, War Department, and National Advisory Committee for Aero­
nautics, have been published by the last-named organization. Two
other progress reports were published.
Exposure tests at the bureau, Hampton Roads, Va., and Coco Solo,
Canal Zone, on bare and coated duralumin and magnesium or magne­
sium alloy specimens are in progress. A total of 2,373 exposure or
control specimens remain to be tested. So far no thoroughly satis­
factory protective coating has been found other than pure aluminum,
which has so far been applied only to duralumin. All exposure and
laboratory tests continue to show that duralumin quenched in cold
water and naturally aged is greatly superior to that quenched in hot
water or oil, and to that aged at elevated temperatures. The Alclad
duralumin is extremely resistant to the type of corrosion that causes
embrittlement. Even under repeated flexure and corrosion combined,
the most severe set of conditions that can be met, the Alclad duralumin
was vastly superior. Under severe corrosion and in repeated floxure
at 10,000 pounds per square inch hot-water quenched duralumin
broke in 5 days, cold-water quenched lasted 30 days, but became
brittle in 7 days, while Alclad duralumin was unharmed after 24 days
and ran 65 days without breaking. The life of the Alclad duralumin
when tested at three times the stress, 31,000 pounds per square inch,
was about the same as the cold-water quenched bare duralumin at
10,000 pounds per square inch. Alclad duralumin is an outgrowth,
in commercial hands, of fundamental data obtained by the bureau in
this cooperative work, on the good protection afforded by an alumi­
num coating, and is now in wide commercial use in aircraft.

208

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Nickel deposition.—A study of the colorimetric and electrometric
methods of measuring the pH or acidity of nickel-plating solutions
was conducted, and the corrections to be applied to colorimetric
readings were determined.
Iron deposition.—Experiments on the electrolytic production of
iron printing plates have been continued. One unit for carrying out
this process is just being installed at the Bureau of Engraving and
Printing.
Gas-cell fabrics.—Practical tests of gas cells constructed with the
new gas-cell fabric developed at the bureau have shown that the
rubber film in the fabric needs improvement. Considerable time
has been spent in the factory where the large-scale production of this
fabric has been undertaken, in order that the experience gained at the
bureau might be translated into industrial practice. Some pre­
liminary tests indicate that a new type of gas-impermeable material,
quite different from the fabric referred to above, offers considerable
promise. It will be further investigated.
Aircraft in commerce—Radio.—-In cooperation with the Aeronau­
tics Branch of the Department of Commerce a new visual type of
beacon transmitter was developed, marking out any number of
courses, up to 12, at any desired angles. Changes were made in the
visual receiving indicator to improve its operating characteristics
and to adapt it to the use of the new beacon. A method for aiding
landing in fog was designed and the equipment constructed. Methods
of shielding airplane engine ignition systems were studied; in cooper­
ation with the aircraft and radio industries a shielding assembly was
developed which is satisfactory from an airplane operating standpoint
and also effective from a radio standpoint. Manufacturers of radio
receiving sets for use on airplanes submitted preliminary designs of
their sets and suggestions were made as to improvements in design.
The development of a direction finder for use aboard aircraft, with
visual indication, was begun. A complete installation of shielding
and radio receiving equipment was made on an airplane of Pitcairn
Aviation (Inc.).
Lighting of airways.—A series of field observations on an experi­
mental beacon consisting of a neon lamp, an incandescent lamp
with red color filter matching the neon color, and a clear incandescent
lamp, was made during foggy weather. It was found that neon light
has no superiority over light of the same color and intensity from
incandescent lamps as regards visibility through fog, haze, rain, or
clear air.
A series of tests on different methods of illuminating wind-indicator
cones is in progress, and an improved reflector system for lighting the
indicators has been developed.
Vertical component seismometer.—A design has been completed and
construction started on a vertical component seismometer for the
Coast and Geodetic Survey. This seismometer is to be equipped
for electromagnetic and optical magnification and electromagnetic
damping and will form a companion instrument to two horizontal
component seismometers of the type previously developed in this
bureau.
Wind-tunnel turbulence.—Measurements of the turbulence in the
bureau’s three wind tunnels have been completed. It has been
found that the effects of turbulence afford a fairly complete explana­

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

209

tion of the discrepancies in the results obtained in different wind
tunnels with the airship models circulated bjT the National Physical
Laboratory.
High-speed airfoil tests.—Results of measurements of the aerody­
namic characteristics of 24 airfoils at speeds up to and slightly above
the speed of sound have been published by the National Advisory
Committee for Aeronautics.
Aileron investigation.—Results of work for the Aeronautics Branch of
the Department of Commerce on the effect of variation of chord and
span of ailerons on rolling and yawing moments in level flight has
been published by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
Strength of aircraft tubing.—The strength of tubing has been found
to depend greatly upon the yield point of the material. As the yield
point of the tubing used in this investigation was considerably higher
than the specified minimum, it seems possible to raise the yield point
requirements and thus use higher stresses with safety.
Airship girders.—Further developments have been made leading to
more economical inspection testing of these girders. Comparative
tests at the bureau and the Goodyear Zeppelin Corporation have been
carried out in connection with the new 6,500,000 cubic-foot airship
now building for the Navy.
Aircraft instrument investigation.—Investigations to provide a basis
for the specification of performance of aircraft instruments have been
carried out for the Bureau of Aeronautics on bank indicators, alti­
meters, tachometers, air-speed indicators, oxygen equipment, and
bakelite cases.
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

There was set forth in last year’s report a detailed statement of
some of the more urgent needs of the Bureau of Standards for its
future development, and this program has been indorsed by the
visiting committee. It includes more adequate support for funda­
mental research relating to standards and the determination of
fundamental constants of importance to science and industry, includ­
ing further development of cooperative research with industry; tho
further extension of the commercial standards group in its program of
cooperation with business; and a building program.
The building program includes a hydraulic laboratory, the authori­
zation for which passed the Senate but was not reported out of com­
mittee in the House at the last session of Congress; the remodeling of
the North Building, which has heretofore been a combination of
power plant and shop building into a structure to house all the
bureau’s shops; the construction of a greatly needed central adminis­
tration building to relieve much-needed space for laboratories in other
buildings and provide suitable quarters for the commercial standards
group which was recently transferred from down town, resulting in very
serious congestion, and also providing for adequate space for library,
auditorium, and the central administrative functions; and a building
for high-voltage standardization, testing, and research, of special
design to enable the bureau to carry out such operations at 1,000,000
volts. To meet the needs of the Federal Radio Commission and keep
pace with requirements in the increase of accuracy of radio trans­
mission, provision should be made for sending and receiving stations
in the suburbs of Washington. There also will be required eventually
78415—29------ 14

210

EEPOET TO THE SECBETAEY OF COMMEECE

a building to house the fire-resistance work of the bureau; a now
mechanical laboratory suitably designed to house heavy equipment
for tests and investigation of large structures; enlargement of the
dynamometer laboratory for research relating to automotive and
aircraft engines; enlargement of the laboratory for low-temperature
research; and provision should eventually be made for a building to
take care of expanding work, particularly relating to precision meas­
urements in the weights and measures field.
As pointed out in previous reports, increased facilities and personnel
are needed at the branch laboratories of the bureau in order to handle
in a more satisfactory manner work relating to testing for the various
Government departments, and in particular provision should be made
for testing on a more comprehensive scale Government purchases of
cement and other commodities.
Provision has not yet been made for establishing at the bureau a
first-aid station, not only for accidents but for supervision of workers
in such fields as radium, X rays, and furnace and chemical operations.
I feel strongly that provision for such a station will greatly help the
morale and health conditions of the employees working in these fields.
Very truly yours,
G eoege K. B uegess ,
Director, Bureau of Standards.

BUREAU OF FISHERIES
D epartment of C ommerce ,
B ureau of F isheries ,

,

Washington July 1, 1929.

The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce.
D ear M r . S ecretary : I have the honor to submit the following
summary of the work of the Bureau of Fisheries during the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1929.
Fisheries, like agriculture, are divided into a large number of
small operating units, largely lacking in capital to conduct funda­
mental technical research, which has been the basis for the huge
profitable expansion in the industrial field. These conditions have
retarded the development of the fisheries at home and abroad and
made them a subject for national concern and aid. It is especially
noteworthy that in this country our fisheries industries are now
rapidly developing improvements in handling, manufacturing, and
merchandising. It is believed that the bureau is entitled to an ap­
preciable share of the credit for this condition because of the tech­
nical assistance it has given in solving the problems of the fisheries
and through the training of skilled technologists, who have gradu­
ated into the fisheries industries for solving the problems of their
employers.
These developments have improved the quality of the products
offered the consumers and greatly increased the demand for aquatic
products. The intensity of fishing effort has been increased to fill
this growing demand and threatens the future supply in places. As
a result there is growing concern for the future of our fisheries,
resulting in greatly increasing the demands upon the bureau for
accurate knowledge regarding the condition of each important
fishery and the restrictions that may be necessary to insure a con­
tinuance of large-scale operations.
Fishery administration is involved. Many important species are
of wide range and migratory habit. The fisheries are prosecuted in
State, interstate, and international boundary waters and on the high
seas. While each State makes its own laws governing the fisheries
within its boundaries, the State authorities and those engaged in the
fisheries generally look to the Bureau of Fisheries to make the in­
vestigations necessary to determine the condition and trend of each
important fishery and to recommend the restrictions needful for
maintenance of supply.
Because of land deficiencies of elements important to the health
of man and his domestic animals and the losses of fertility through
erosion and other factors, and because the seas through the ages
have been absorbing these losses, it is desirable that man draw as
fully as practicable on the resources of the seas of the earth. This
policy not only involves the wise use of existing resources but the
development of the science of aquiculture or water farming.

212

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

At the present time statistics collected by the bureau reveal that
our annual harvest of fishery products approximates 3,000,000,000
pounds, for which our 127,000 fishermen receive $113,000,000. The
pack of canned fishery products in 1928 exceeded 617,000,000 pounds,
valued at nearly $96,000,000. Fishery by-products to the value of
$14,880,000 were produced. The quantities of fish frozen exceeded
113,600,000 pounds—the largest on record. Over 65,000,000 pounds
of packaged fresh and frozen fish, or three and one-half times the
production of 1926, valued at nearly $10,000,000, were marketed. In
1928 our imports of fishery products were valued at nearly
$59,000,000 and our exports at $21,000,000.
The output of fish and eggs from the bureau’s stations during the
fiscal year amounted to 7,060,000,000, slightly exceeding the record
output of 1928. There is continued growth in the number of fish
nurseries cooperating with the bureau, from 55 in 1927 to 86 in 1928
and to 114 in the current year, with the result that many waters are
now being adequately stocked with fish.
The wisdom of the White law of 1924, broadening the powers of
the Secretary of Commerce over the fisheries of Alaska, is evidenced
by the improvements in the runs of salmon, the commercial catch of
which in 1928 exceeded 517,000,000 pounds, and by the stabilization
of the industry.
Under the bureau’s program of husbandry the fur-seal herd has
been built up to more than 900,000 animals, or more than five times
the combined total of all other fur-seal herds in the world. With this
growth it has been possible to increase the take of skins from sur­
plus bulls to more than 30,000 per annum. The herd is increasing
at the rate of over 5 per cent annually.
The importance of the bureau’s international relations on fishery
matters is increasing, and rapid strides are being made in the solution
of these problems under the most amicable circumstances.
Tribute should be paid to the efficiency of the bureau’s personnel,
without which the achievements recorded in these pages would not
have been possible.
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
NORTHERN PACIFIC HALIBUT CONVENTION

The International Fisheries Commission has continued to follow
the condition of the halibut fishery through the collection of biological
statistics, as is required of it by the terms of the present treaty.
These statistics show a continued decline in abundance despite the
closed season now in force. However, the work of the commission has
been hampered by lack of power to collect complete statistics. This
power it requested in its first report.
Vessel operations for the study of the early biological stages were
carried on from October 26 to'December 10, for the studv of the
eggs and larvæ from January 10 to April 12, and for the extension
of the study of commercial sizes on banks farther west from April
12 to May 18. Halibut were tagged and material was collected for
the study of growth, spawning, and migrations off the Shumagin
Islands. For the remainder of the time'the scientific staff was en-

BUKEAU OF FISHERIES

213

gaged upon the preparation for publication of scientific reports em­
bodying the results of the statistical work, the tagging operations,
and various other phases of the life-history investigations. Several
of these reports are ready and should be issued during the coming
year.
The continued observation of the fishery has emphasized the neces­
sity for action upon the recommendations of the commission as sub­
mitted in its first report. New and more adequate regulations must
be adopted to halt the continued decline; and more reasonable powers
for the collection of statistical information must be granted the com­
mission if the observation of the fishery is to be continued as care­
fully as the terms of the present treaty require.
TREATY REGARDING SOCKEYE-SALMON FISHERIES

On March 27, 1929, at Washington, the Secretary of State and the
Canadian Minister signed a treaty for the preservation and extension
of the sockeye-salmon fisheries of the Fraser River System, which
includes the waters contiguous to the State of Washington and the
Province of British Columbia.
The treaty includes provision for the establishment of an interna­
tional fisheries commission of six members, one of the three United
States commissioners to be the Commissioner of Fisheries of the
United States. The commission is charged with the duty of mak­
ing a thorough investigation into the natural history of the sockeye
salmon and is given the power to maintain hatcheries and develop
the fisheries. The commission is also given the power to establish a
closed season, when fishing for sockeye salmon will be prohibited,
between the 1st day of June and the 20th day of August in each year,
and to regulate the character and size of fishing gear that may be
used during the open fishing season. The convention is concluded
for a period of 16 years, after which it is subject to termination on
notice of one year given by the Government of either the United
States or Canada.
Formerly the most productive sockeye-salmon fishery engaged in
by Americans and Canadians, in recent years the pack has shrunk
to such a low figure as to be a cause for real alarm. It is the hope of
those interested in the restoration of this fishery to its former great­
ness that the treaty will be ratified and adequate measures taken to
provide for an escapement of fish sufficient to seed the beds properly.
INTERNATIONAL PACIFIC SALMON FEDERATION

This federation was established in the spring of 1925 as an informal
organization of the leading fishery executives of the United States,
Canada, the Pacific States, British Columbia, and Alaska for the
purpose of conducting and systematizing the work of salmon research
according to a comprehensive unified program. A meeting was held
at Vancouver, British Columbia, April 5, 1929, at which the entire
field of salmon research was discussed. With all of the Pacific coast
biologists engaged in salmon studies working under a unified pro­
gram with definite objectives, results are being achieved much more
rapidly than would be possible otherwise.

214

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
GREAT LAKES FISHERIES SITUATION

On December 5, 1928, the third meeting of the International Fish­
eries Conservation Council of the Great Lakes was held at Lansingr
Mich. With some slight modifications, recommendations made at
previous meetings relative to legal sizes of fish and size of mesh of
gill nets were reaffirmed. Resolutions were adopted urging (1) the
saving of the original statistical records now being collected to insure
their accessibility for further study; (2) the adoption of the prin­
ciple that in all fisheries legislation each species of fish be afforded
such protection as will make certain that only fish that have spawned
at least once shall be included in the commercial catch; and (3) that
in the adoption of closed seasons these shall be seasons closed to com­
mercial fishing, and that the several States, the Province of Ontario,
and the United States Bureau of Fisheries shall undertake the collec­
tion of spawn for the hatcheries, limiting fishing strictly to the needs
of the Federal, Provincial, and State hatcheries.
During the past two years the bureau has taken an active part in
(1) the unification and coordination of the scientific work on Lake
Erie; (2) the inauguration of a new system of fishery statistics suit­
able to the need of the biologist; (3) the codification and revision
of the commercial fishing laws of Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio, and
in cooperating more closely with State authorities and fishermen’s
organizations to secure specific and uniform laws for each lake; and
(4) the inauguration of a series of studies (a) on the effect of gear
on the fish population, (Z>) fish populations instead of individual
species, (c) fluctuations in the fisheries, and (d ) life histories of nine
important market species.
To the credit of several of the States, Michigan in particular, it
should be said that the fisheries have been the subject of much closer
study and important legislative action than for many years before.
Until all of the governments bordering each of the lakes work in
closer harmony in enacting needful legislation, the seriousness of the
situation can not be considered as having been relieved.
NORTH AMERICAN COMMITTEE ON FISHERY INVESTIGATIONS

The fifteenth meeting of this committee was held at the University
of Toronto, Toronto, Canada, on October 22, 1928. The committee
viewed with particular concern the increasing intensity of the fishing
for haddock and urged the respective Governments to make at once
every effort to investigate the situation thoroughly. As nearly as
can be ascertained, the catch of haddock by United States and Ca­
nadian fishermen has increased from 100,000,000 pounds in 1921 to
280,000,000 pounds in 1928. Because of the possible interrelationship'
of the stock of haddock on the grounds off the coast of Canada with
that off our own coast, the problem has international aspects, which
may necessitate international accord and action. The meetings of the
committee have resulted in a coordination of fisheries investigations
of the several governments, a standardization of method, and the
initiation of scientific research bearing directly on the economic prob­
lems of the fisheries.

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

215

PROTECTION OF GUADALUPE FUR SEALS

Recently attention has been directed toward the preservation of
the Guadalupe fur seal (Arctocephahis tovmsendi). Formerly abund­
ant on certain islands off the coast of California and Lower Califor­
nia, they were subsequently practically exterminated. Recently re­
discovered, the matter has been brought to the attention of the Mexi­
can Government, which is in complete accord with the idea of pre­
serving these seals, with the result that the outlook is promising
that the remnant of the herd may become the nucleus for the restora­
tion of these animals to greater abundance.
STATISTICAL SURVEYS

According to the most recent statistics available, the commercial
fisheries of the United States are in a sounder position than at any
time in their history. They now employ nearly 127,000 fishermen,
and the annual catch amounts to nearly 3,000,000,000 pounds, valued
at about $113,000,000. For transporting these products from the
fishing grounds to market or from port to port over 4,000 persons
are engaged aboard transporting vessels.
The statistical work of the bureau in 1928, as in former years, in­
cluded the furnishing of statistics on the catch of fishery products, the
gear employed in making the catch, and statistics of related fishery
industries.
That fishery statistics, both biological and trade, are becoming more
generally appreciated by those interested in our fisheries is evidenced
by the generous cooperation given the bureau by fishermen, fish
wholesalers, those in related fishery industries, State fisheries agencies,
and others. The bureau appreciates this cooperation and wishes to
take this opportunity to thank such persons for their support during
the past year in an effort to give the fishing industry a statistical
record upon which to base its activities. In this connection the
bureau urges those in the industry to offer criticisms and suggestions
for the betterment of statistics now being collected.
During 1928 unusual progress was made in the collection of sta­
tistics of the catch of fishery products in the United States. This
was occasioned by greater cooperation with State fishery agencies
and by the use of automobiles by agents, which enabled them to can­
vass a larger territory than formerly when travel was performed
mainly by train. As a result, catch statistics for 1927 were obtained
of the fisheries in the South Atlantic, Gulf, Pacific Coast, and GreatLakes States and for the State of Connecticut.
CANNED FISHERY-PRODUCTS AND BY-PRODUCTS TRADE

Four hundred and eighty-one establishments were engaged in
canning fishery products in 1928, the total production being
15,629,980 standard cases, or 617,327,527 pounds, net weight, valued
at $95,871,855, to which may be added the value of by-products,
$14,880,956, making a total of $110,752,811. This was an increase
of 18 per cent in the value of canned products and 16 per cent in

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

the value of by-products when compared with the respective values
of the previous year. Alaska contributed 43 per cent, California
22 per cent, and Maine 9 per cent of the total value.
FROZEN-FISH TRADE

In 1928 there were 155 public freezers and cold-storage warehouses
in the United States and Alaska devoted wholly or in part to the
storage of frozen and cured fishery products. The average monthly
holdings during the past few years have increased, amounting to
53,925,000 pounds in 1928, or 10 per cent more than in 1927 and 22
per cent more than the 5-year average. The quantity of fish frozen,
amounting to 113,637,898 pounds, is greater than the amount in any
other year for which there are records.
PACKAGED FRESH AND FROZEN FISH TRADE

Packaged fresh and frozen fish were produced in 85 plants oper­
ated in 12 States in 1928. The output amounted to 65,245,376
pounds, valued at $9,790,024. Haddock accounted for 87 per cent
of the total quantity prepared. Other species packaged to a con­
siderable extent were cod, squeteague, hake, and croaker. Massachu­
setts accounted for 65 per cent of the production, and Connecticut
and New York also packed important quantities. Of the total pro­
duction, fillets accounted for 89 per cent; the rest consisted of dressed
fish, pan-dressed fish, sticks, steaks, and tenderloins.
GOLDFISH INDUSTRY

«

The American output of goldfish, produced in some 770 acres of
ponds, mainly in Maryland, Ohio, and Indiana, in 1928 amounted
to 21,500,000 fish, having a value to the breeders of about $942,000.
Of this number, 17,000,000 were common goldfish, valued at $573,000,
and 4,500,000 were fancy goldfish, valued at $369,000.
FOREIGN FISHERY TRADE

The value of the United States’ foreign trade in fishery products
during 1928 amounted to $80,028,683, of which $58,854,938 represents
the value of those imported for consumption and $21,173,745 the
value of exports of domestic fishery products. Compared with the
previous year, this is an increase of 8 per cent in the value of the
total trade, 6 per cent in imports, and 13 per cent in exports.
Imports consisted of 360,767,010 pounds of edible products (in­
cluding fresh, frozen, cured, and canned fishery products), valued
at $37,391,079, and nonedible products (comprising mainly fish and
marine-animal oils, pearls, and imitation pearls), valued at
$21,463,859.
Exports consisted of 170,817,414 pounds of edible products, valued
at $20,786,353, and nonedible products valued at $387,392.

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

217

NEW ENGLAND STATES

As the latest general canvass of the catch of fishery products for
Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecti­
cut was made for 1924, no later data on general conditions in this
section are available. However, the trend is revealed by statistics
collected for 1928 on various phases of the fisheries in this section.
Vessel fisheries.—In 1928 landings of fish by American vessels at
Boston and Gloucester, Mass., and Portland, Me., amounted to
277,981,691 pounds, as landed, valued at $10,849,145, and were larger
than in any year for which there are records; the value also was
greater, due largely to the demand by the filleting trade. Of this
amount, over 155,000,000 pounds were haddock. While Boston,
Gloucester, and Portland continue to receive most of the fish brought
in by these vessels, larger quantities are being landed at other New
England ports, especially at Vinal Haven, Me., and Groton, Conn.
Mackerel fishery.—In 1928 the mackerel fishery resembled that of
the previous year, with heavy southern and Block Island runs in the
spring, followed by a slack season in the Gulf of Maine during the
summer and autumn. An unusual run of large mackerel appeared
off Cape Ann and lasted well into December. Altogether, the
season’s catch, amounting to nearly 31,000,000 pounds, was about 25
per cent below that of the previous year.
Packaged-fish, trade.—The packaged-fish trade in New England,
centering at Boston and Groton, Conn., is now on a sounder basis,
and methods used at the packing plants are being modernized. The
output of packaged fresh and frozen fish in New England increased
perceptibly over 1927, the production in 1928 being valued at over
$9,000,000. To supply the demand for raw fish by the packers, more
vessels fishing with otter trawls were added to the fleet, so that now
288 vessels of over 5 net tons are outfitted with this gear and operate
from the three principal ports.
Canned sardines.—Sardine canning, conducted only in Maine in the
New England section, recovered from the slump of 1927 with a
production valued at over $8,000,000.
MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES

According to the latest statistics (1926) of the fisheries of New
York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, the situation is not
encouraging. The production of many of the staple fish showed a
tremendous decline in 1926 as compared with 1921. Notable examples
are the bluefish, which declined 72 per cent; scup, 37 per cent; and
squeteague or weakfish, 36 per cent.
At New York City and Groton, Conn., the landings of fresh fish by
vessels of over 5 net tons amounted to about 71,000,000 pounds in
1928, which is considerably better than in 1927. As with Boston, the
landings consisted largely of haddock, which are in demand by pack­
ing plants in those two cities. The menhaden industry of this sec­
tion recovered very slightly in 1928.
Shad fishery.—On the Hudson River the shad fishery was carried
on by 293 fishermen and yielded 79,029 fish, which weighed 246,231

218

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

pounds, valued at $43,149 to the fishermen. This represents a de­
crease of 31 per cent in weight, as compared with the weight of the
catch in 1927, but was nearly equal to the catch in 1926.
CHESAPEAKE BAY STATES

The last general canvass of the catch of fishery products for this
region (Maryland and Virginia) was made for 1925. However,
later statistics of the canning and by-products industries and cer­
tain other industries are available. The menhaden industry again
suffered a poor year in 1928, the total value of the products manu­
factured being one of the lowest on record. The existence of this
situation should encourage those in this industry to improve methods
in an effort to reduce overhead and to produce a quality product.
The diversion of a greater amount of menhaden meal to feedstuffs
should result in a better price for this product. To produce such a
product would require but little additional expenditure in improv­
ing manufacturing methods.
In 1928 greater activity was evidenced in the alewife-canning
industry, the value of the products being the highest on record. The
oyster industry has regained its previous level, although retail sales
have not kept pace in some localities of the country. The crab
industry recovered entirely from its previous poor years, and, accord­
ing to reports of persons in the trade, the production was one of the
largest on record. This section is rapidly becoming a factor in the
production of packaged fish, especially croaker and sea trout.
Shad -fishery.—In 1928 the shad and alewife fishery on the Poto­
mac River was prosecuted by 754 fishermen. It yielded 716,420 shad
that weighed 2,077,622 pounds, valued at $214,687 to the fishermen,
and 14,783,655 alewives with a weight of 5,903,062 pounds, valued
at $58,297 to the fishermen. The catch of shad was larger than in
any one of the past 29 years, except 1922. The catch of alewives
was larger than in any year since 1909, except 1924.
SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES

In 1927 the fisheries of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,
and the east coast of Florida employed 11,527 fishermen, or 14 per
cent more than in 1923. The catch amounted to 260,668,693 pounds,
valued at $5,695,887, which is an increase of 14 per cent in quantity
and 12 per cent in value when compared with 1923.
The fisheries of this region are conducted largely alongshore with
small operating units. For this reason the trade is confined chiefly
to marketing primary products, except for canned shrimp and
oysters. The production of canned shrimp in 1928 showed little
change over the previous year, while there was a considerable in­
crease in the production of oysters. The output of menhaden
products increased substantially.
GULF STATES

The fisheries of the west coast of Florida, Alabama, Mississippi,
Louisiana, and Texas were more productive in 1927 than in any year
for which there are records since 1880. They employed 15,133 fisher­

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

219

men, or 43 per cent more than in 1923, and the catch amounted to
195,705,355 pounds, valued at $9,965,775, which is an increase of 22
per cent in quantity and 23 per cent in value when compared with
1923. This was due chiefly to larger catches of shrimp and oysters.
The production of canned shrimp was greater than in the previous
year, although the market value did not increase accordingly. The
production of canned oysters was about the same as in 1927.
Florida sponge fishery.—In 1928 the quantity of sponges sold on
the sponge exchange at Tarpon Springs, Fla., amounted to 413,198
pounds, valued at $729,918. Of this amount, 232,208 pounds, valued
at $623,776, were large wool; 33,744 pounds, valued at $50,616, small
wool; 61,358 pounds, valued at $28,633, yellow; 74,698 pounds, valued
at $20,925, grass; and 11,190 pounds, valued at $5,968, wire.
PACIFIC COAST STATES

In 1927 the fisheries of Washington, Oregon, and California pro­
duced 651,196,982 pounds of products valued at $22,306,576, which
is an increase of 25 per cent in quantity and 18 per cent in value
over 1926, and is the largest catch on record. This was due mainly
to larger catches of pilchards, tuna, and tunalike fishes. There were
20,514 fishermen engaged in making this catch.
In 1928 the pack of salmon was 44 per cent less than in the pre­
vious year. This was due to smaller packs of pink and humpback
salmon on Puget Sound, 1928 being an off year. Compared with
the previous off year, 1926, there was an increase of about 1 per cent.
The pack of sardines was the largest on record both in volume and
value. The production of canned tuna was less than in 1927, but
the value was greater, being slightly below the highest value on
record.
Unusual developments occurred in the mackerel-canning indus­
try of California in 1928, the production being valued at about
$1,600,000. In 1927 the production was so small that it was included
in the statistics with other canned fish. Now mackerel is finding
favor in the export trade with the Philippines.
Halibut fishery.—The halibut fishery of the Pacific coast, which is
prosecuted by American and Canadian vessels, ranks as one of the
foremost fisheries of that section. In 1928 the total weight of the
catch, as landed, by vessels of both nationalities amounted to 54,915,000 pounds, valued at $5,673,000. This is virtually the same as in
1927, and a little more than for 1925 and 1926, in spite of the de­
pleted condition of the fishery. Of the total landings, 79 per cent
was taken by American craft and 21 per cent by Canadian craft.
LAKE STATES

In 1927 the lake fisheries (Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan,
Superior, and Namakan. Lake of the Woods, and Rainy Lake) of
the United States and Canada produced 111,952,531 pounds of fish.
Of the total the United States accounted for 81,326,550 pounds,
valued at $6,794,891. This is about the same as in the previous
year, although there was a slight decline from the 10-year average.
The average is being held up by greater catches of some of the less-

220

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

favored species, while decreases are apparent in some of the choice
species, such as the cisco of Lake Erie, which shows a decline of
81 per cent compared with the 10-year average. Larger catches
were made on every lake in 1927 than in 1926 except Lake Ontario,
Lake Erie, and the international lakes of Minnesota. The Cana­
dian catch amounted to 30,625,981 pounds, an increase of 11 per
cent over the previous year.
MISSISSIPPI RIVER AND TRIBUTARIES

No general statistical canvass has been made for this section since
1922, therefore recent developments can not be determined. A spe­
cial canvass of the fisheries of Lakes Pepin and Keokuk for 1928
reveals a smaller catch than for 1927.
TECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

During the past year the bureau operated the Reedville laboratory
the entire year for the study of problems of the menhaden indus­
try; a temporary summer laboratory at Erie, Pa., for the study
of net preservation; another at Brunswick, Ga., to study the utili­
zation of shrimp waste; and continued the investigation on the
handling of fresli fish at Boston, Mass., throughout the year. The
Washington laboratory was used mainly for the conduct of chemi­
cal and technological research. In addition, one of the bureau’s
technologists studied the South Atlantic and Gulf States fisheries
in an effort to acquaint those in the fisheries with better handling
methods. The bureau received the active cooperation of Johns
Hopkins University and the University of Wisconsin in research
on two important fisheries problems.
NET PRESERVATION

Work upon the perfection of a treatment for use upon cotton nets
in salt water was continued, an attempt being made to ascertain the
most economical treatment. It is estimated that by following the
procedure outlined by the bureau the cost of preserving trap gear
may be cut to about one-third the cost of the best commercial treat­
ments employed.
The investigators at the Erie (Pa.) laboratory discovered that the
deterioration of gill nets was due to bacteria alone. These are cel­
lulose-digesting organisms, which attack the cotton fiber. In com­
bating these destructive organisms the bureau’s trap-net treatment
proved effective. Formerly there was prejudice to this treatment as
it darkened the nets and was believed to decrease their fishing effi­
ciency. However, practical tests in Lake Erie raised doubts as to the
soundness of this conclusion except as to the incidental catch of
whitefish.
BY-PRODUCTS

Menhaden.—In the study of by-products problems special atten­
tion has been accorded the menhaden industry, not only because of
the urgent need for improvement in this industry, but also because

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

221

of its similarity to the herring and sardine industries in the reduction
of accumulated waste. To date two main sources of loss are appar­
ent, namely, losses of protein and oil in the waste liquors and nitrogen
loss through oxidation in the flame driers now in use. Two smallscale commercial driers were tested. One showed promise, so that a
slightly altered type will be tested next year; the other showed excel­
lent results and will be run again next season, as the supply of fish
last year was not regular enough to allow the technologists to gather
sufficient data upon cost and efficiency.
It is equally as important to save oil and to improve its quality as
to improve meal, for both represent nearly equal portions of the
profits of the menhaden industry. The presence of free fatty acid
detracts from the usefulness of oil, and if present in too great
quantity actually changes the channel of trade into which the oil
mav enter. Preliminary experiments have shown conclusively that
water increases the free fatty acid content of oil in storage tanks,
and that sun and rain do not improve the quality of fish oils.
Ground fish and waste fish.—As a result of the increasing demand
for packaged fish large quantities of waste accumulate at central
points. In addition, large quantities of trash fish are taken in the
nets of otter trawls fishing for ground fish. Further, small amounts
of fish waste accumulate in isolated localities or city fish markets.
All of these factors make profitable utilization more feasible than
in former times. The majority of this waste comes from nonoily
fish having a high glue content, which renders reduction extremely
difficult. Experiments looking toward the solution of this problem
are now under way, special consideration being given to the devel­
opment of plants suitable for installation on board fishing vessels.
Larger fishing vessels now being built have space for such equipment.
Shrimp.—Through research upon the utilization of shrimp waste
it has been found that fertilizer material or shrimp meal (a mate­
rial particularly valuable for its mineral constituents) can be pre­
pared by four relatively inexpensive and simple methods applicable
to those localities in which the industry is small and the season short.
The fertilizer stock is excellent for treating soils, and the meal prom­
ises the same favorable results that have been secured from using
steam-dried shrimp meal in animal nutrition. Through the adoption
of such processes it is expected that a good deal of the material now
discarded will be utilized.
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FISHERY PRODUCTS

Fishery products are by nature rich in many important food fac­
tors, as the sea lacks the deficiencies common to many land areas.
Therefore these products are a most valuable adjunct to the citizens’
dietary and to the farmers’ list of feeds. In general, these products
are particularly valuable for their mineral constituents, vitamin po­
tency, and availability of protein. The researches of the bureau’s
investigators at Johns Hopkins University have added materially to
this knowledge. To further increase this knowledge, the bureau has
arranged cooperative feeding tests with the United States Depart­
ment of Agriculture, State experiment stations, various private agen­
cies, and independent investigators.

222

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
IMPROVED HANDLING OF FRESH FISH

The bureau’s technologist on the Boston Fish Pier has clone much
to promote the adoption of improved practices and methods of
handling fish on the pier and aboard vessels, and also is aiding the
industry to draw up plans for unloading vessels more expeditiously.
The technologist working in the Southern States has been demon­
strating improved methods of handling and distributing fishery
products, including methods of precooling the product. During one
phase of this study a chilling tank was installed at the fish freezer of
a cooperating dealer in South Carolina to demonstrate possibilities
along this line. Cooperation along similar lines was extended to
dealers in other Southern States, particularly in Louisiana and Texas.
This work has been conducted in cooperation with the fisheries asso­
ciation of that territory.
ALASKA FISH ERIES SERVICE
ADMINISTRATION OF FISHERY LAWS AND REGULATIONS

Since the passage of the act of June 6, 1924, giving the Secretary
of Commerce broad powers in regard to the time, place, and manner
of conducting commercial fishing in Alaska, distinct progress has
been made in restoring runs of salmon depleted in earlier years by
overfishing, and in consequence there has been a healthful stabiliza­
tion of the fisheries, Alaska’s most important industry. The beneficial
and progressive results thus achieved clearly reflect the wisdom of
the constructive policy that, since the passage of the new law in
1924, has been pursued in conserving this great natural resource.
The constant purpose and aim is to so conserve the fisheries that there
may be a maximum use -without impairment of the future supply.
The salmon fishery of Alaska extends for more than 2,000 miles
along the coast, from the southerly extremity to north of the Arctic
Circle. In this great region the distinct differences in geographic
and other features naturally result in considerable variation in the
time and extent of the runs of salmon from the sea for reproductive
purposes. This, in turn, means a corresponding variation in the
character and extent of fishing operations in the different regions.
The regulations issued each year are framed carefully to meet the
varying conservation requirements in the 12 fishing areas created by
the Secretary of Commerce, but it occasionally happens during the
progress of the season that modification of the. re<mlations becomes
advisable to meet conditions
section. The
Commissioner of Fisheries was in Alaska several weeks during the
active salmon-fishing season and was able to initiate immediately
any such necessary changes in the regulations.
A patrol for the enforcement of the fishery laws and regulations
was carried on actively throughout the season. Eleven statutory and
two hundred and one temporary employees were engaged in the work,
in addition to the crews of the 14 vessels of the bureau and 8 char­
tered boats. A number of launches were also used in the patrol.
Violations of the fishery laws and regulations occurred chiefly in
southeastern Alaska and were primarily failures to comply with
restrictions as to closed periods and closed areas. These cases were
disposed of through the courts in the usual manner.

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

223

In the general revision of the regulations issued under date of
December 18, 1928, to be effective in the following season, some fur­
ther restrictions were imposed in certain areas where the intensity
of fishing had been too great, and various other changes were made
for the purpose of preventing any marked expansion of operations.
An important feature of the revised regulations was the redistricting
of the southeastern Alaska area into eight divisions, instead of six
as formerly. Various modifications of the regulations made by sup­
plementary orders in the spring of 1929 included the extension north­
ward of the boundary of the Yukon-Kuskokwim area and restrictions
on commercial fishing for herring therein.
On February 28, 1929, an act was approved amending section 7 of
the Alaska fisheries act of June 26, 1906, in regard to the utilization
of salmon after removal from the water. Formerly it was provided
that salmon must not be canned or salted for sale for food more than
48 hours after being killed, but this has now been extended to include
icihg, freezing, smoking, and drying for human consumption.
ALASKA SALMON HATCHERIES

At the Government hatcheries at Afognak and on McDonald Lake
44,478,925 red-salmon eggs were collected in 1928, as well as 4,429,000
pink-salmon eggs. Shipments of 2,493,000 red-salmon eggs and
3,888,550 pink-salmon eggs in the eyed stage were forwarded to
Seattle in October. At the privately owned hatchery operated under
the provisions of the Alaska fisheries act of June 26, 1906, 20,310,000
red-salmon eggs were collected.
SPECIAL STUDIES AND INVESTIGATIONS

Fourteen weirs for counting salmon ascending streams to spawn
were maintained in 1928, as follows: Anan Creek, Olive Cove, Eagle
Creek, and Situk River in southeastern Alaska; Ivarluk River, Clngnik River, two streams tributary to Olga Bay, Uganik River, Morzhovoi Bay, Thin Point Lagoon, Chinik Creek, and English Bay
in central Alaska; and Ugashik River in western Alaska. The col­
lection of accurate data on the spawning population in a salmon
stream over a period of years is an important factor in the study of
the salmon to determine the size of the future run that may be ex­
pected from a known escapement. A general survey of the escape­
ment of salmon also was made in all districts.
Extensive collections of salmon scales were made in several locali­
ties for life-history study of the salmon, and a tagging experiment
was conducted on the Alaska Peninsula to develop further informa­
tion concerning migration routes, 463 red salmon being tagged and
released from a trap at Nicholaski Spit. Studies of the herring and
clam fisheries were continued.
PRODUCTS OF THE FISHERIES

The output of Alaska fishery products in 1928 showed a decided
increase, the total value representing a gain of 35.8 per cent over the
preceding year and ranking third in the history of the industry,
being exceeded only by the value of products in 1918 and 1926.

224

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

More canneries were operated than in any previous year, and the
production of canned salmon increased from 3,572,128 cases in 1927
to 6,083,903 cases in 1928, or approximately 70 per cent. The pack
of cohos increased about 18 per cent, chums 96 per cent, pinks 96 per
cent, and reds 48 per cent, while kings decreased about 23 per cent.
As compared with the average for the five years from 1923 to 1927,
inclusive?there was an increase in the pack of every species, the gains
aggregating nearly 22 per cent for the entire pack. This greater
output was attributable in large measure to the extraordinarily heavy
run of red salmon in the western district and to the greatly improved
condition of the pink-salmon run in southeastern Alaska.
The total value of the fishery products of Alaska in 1928 was
$54,545,588, as against $40,163,300 in 1927. In addition to cannedsalmon products valued at $45,383,885, salmon were mild-cured,
pickled, fresh, frozen, and otherwise utilized, in the value of $2,103,878. Other important fishery products were valued as follows: Her­
ring, $3,098,457; halibut, $3,094,000; whaling, $454,274; shrimp,
$202,165; clams, $107,046; crabs, $51,477; cod, $28,979; and miscel­
laneous products, $21,427. The value of the catch to the fishermen
was approximately $17,343,000, or $3,531,000 greater than in the
preceding year. There were 31,086 persons employed in the various
branches of the industry, as compared with 28,872 in 1927.
The extent and condition of the Alaska fisheries in 1928 and of the
activities of the bureau under the laws and regulations for the pro­
tection of the fisheries are covered in detail in the annual report of
the Alaska service for that year.
ALASKA FUR-SEAL SERVICE «
GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Computations made in 1928 indicate that the numerical strength of
the Pribilof Islands fur-seal herd was seven times as great as in 1911,
when the North Pacific Sealing Convention for the protection and
preservation of the fur seals was ratified. The increase in the size
of the herd has been reflected in larger takes of sealskins in successive
years.
Sealing activities at the islands in the season of 1928 included the
marking and reserving of an adequate number of 3-year-old male
seals for future breeding stock the taking and curing of sealskins, and
the operation of the by-products plant on St. Paul Island for a
brief period to supply food for foxes. Incidental to sealing opera­
tions, attention was given to the management of the fox herds and
to the taking of fox skins.
In 1928 several new buildings, principally houses for natives, were
erected on St. Paul and St. George Islands, and a medical building
on the latter island was partly completed. Satisfactory progress was
made in the extension of improved roads on both islands.
A staff of employees at the Pribilofs directs the work performed
by resident natives and by temporary native workmen from the
Aleutian Islands and the mainland, who assist with the work in the
summer. The temporary labor is employed at a specified wage, but

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

225

the Pribilof natives are compensated by food, fuel, shelter, and edu­
cational and medical facilities furnished the entire native population,
which at the close of the year 1928 numbered 308 persons. Addi­
tional compensation is paid Pribilof natives in cash at the rate of
75 cents for each sealskin and $5 for each fox skin taken, and cer­
tain other small cash payments are made for special services.
The annual supplies for the Pribilof Islands were transported from
Seattle, Wash., on the U. S. S. Vega, through the cooperation of the
Navy Department. On its return to Seattle, the vessel carried the
annual shipment of sealskins and fox skins, as well as a number of
passengers. Assistance also was rendered by the United States
Coast Guard in patrolling waters frequented by the fur-seal herd.
SEAL HERD

Computations showed a total of 871,513 fur seals in the Pribilof
Islands herd on August 10, 192S, an increase of 62,043 animals, or
7.74 per cent, over the corresponding figure for 1927.
TAKE OF SEALSKINS

In the calendar year 1928 there were taken on the Pribilof Islands
31,099 fur-seal skins, of which 23,003 were from St. Paul Island and
8,096 from St. George Island. This was an increase of 6,157 over
the number taken in 1927.
MARKING RESERVED SEALS

In 1928 there were marked 8,852 3-year-old male seals to be re­
served for future breeding stock, of which 6,900 were on St. Paul
Island and 1,952 on St. George Island. The marking was done by
shearing a patch of fur, and in addition on St. Paul Island 200 of the
animals so marked were also iron branded for special observation in
future years. In addition to the seals marked, there remained also
the 3-year-old males that were not taken up in driving operations.
SALE OF 8EALSKIN8

In the fiscal year 1929 two public-auction sales of fur-seal skins
taken on the Pribilof Islands were held at St. Louis, Mo. The first
was on October 15, 1928, when 7,174 black dyed, 5,623 logwood-brown
dyed, 647 golden-chestnut dyed, and 16 miscellaneous (dressed and
raw salted) skins, a total of 13,460, were sold at a gross price of
$414,103.10. At the same time 161 Japanese fur-seal skins were sold
for $1,686.70, of which 123 were dyed black. 21 dyed logwood brown,
1 washed and dried, and 16 raw salted. These 161 skins were the
United States Government’s share of sealskins taken by the Jap­
anese Government in 1927 on Robben Island. There were sold also 1
confiscated skin dyed logwood brown and 4 confiscated skins washed
and dried for $35.80.
At the second sale, held on April 8, 1929, 5,334 black dyed, 9,884
logwood-brown dyed, 1 golden-chestnut dyed, and 5 miscellaneous
skins, a total of 15,224, were sold at a gross price of $469,442.50.
78415—29------15

226

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Special sales of sealskins, authorized by the Acting Secretary of
Commerce, in the fiscal year 1929 consisted of 245 logwood-brown
dyed skins at a gross price of $12,834.87. All were taken at the
Pribilof Islands.
FOXES

The feeding and trapping of foxes on the Pribilof Islands afford
employment and special compensation to the natives in the winter,
when sealing activities are at a minimum, and the sale of the fox
skins brings considerable revenue to the Government.
There were sold at public auction on October 15, 1928, at St. Louis,
Mo., 278 blue and 15 white fox skins taken on the Pribilof Islands in
the season of 1927-28. The gross price realized was $21,290.
Foxing operations in the winter of 1928-29 resulted in a take of
79 blue and 8 white fox pelts on St. Paul Island and 4G5 blue pelts
and 1 white pelt on St. George Island, a total of 553. During the
season 24 foxes on St. Paul Island and 281 on St. George were
trapped, marked, and released for breeding purposes. The actual
breeding reserve naturally was much greater, as many of the foxes
are not caught in the traps.
FUR-SEAL SKINS TAKEN liY NATIVES

By the provisions of the North Pacific Sealing Convention of
July 7, 1911, natives of the Pacific coast may, under certain re­
stricted conditions, take fur seals at sea. The resulting skins must
be authenticated as having been taken lawfully before they can enter
into commerce. One thousand four hundred and eighty-one seal­
skins taken in 1928 have been authenticated by the Government, 773
of which were taken in the offshore waters of southeastern Alaska
and 708 in waters off the coast of Washington. Through the courtesy
of the Interior Department the latter skins were authenticated by
the superintendent of the Neah Bay Indian Agency. An official
report states that 2,421 fur-seal skins were taken by natives of Brit­
ish Columbia in 1928.
FUR-SEAL PATROL

A patrol of the waters frequented by the Pribilof Islands fur-seal
herd was again maintained by vessels of the United States Coast
Guard. Three vessels of the Bureau of Fisheries also assisted in the
work—the Widgeon and Auk-let in southeastern Alaska and the
Brant off the coast of Washington.
PROTECTION OF SEA OTTERS, WALRUSES, AND SEA LIONS

Regulations previously issued for the protection of sea otters, wal­
ruses, and sea lions were not changed during the year. The killing
of sea otters is prohibited at all times. There is a closed season at
all times on walruses and sea lions, although certain limited killing
is permitted under specified conditions.

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

227

PROPAGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OP POOD AND GAME FISHES

While the output in various fields and at various stations fluctu­
ated, the aggregate output was substantially the same as that of the
previous year, the total of 7,060,309,500 eggs, fry, and fingerlings
representing an increase of 24,052,300 over 1928. Decreases occur­
ring in the production of certain species were balanced by material
increases in the numbers of other forms. One of the most serious
shortages occurred in connection with the rescue work on the upper
Mississippi Kiver, where water conditions were such that virtually
no applications could be filled from this source. Offsetting the
decline, however, was the increased shad output of the Potomac
River, which had been exceeded in only three years since 1900.
Increases were registered in the aggregate production of the Atlantic
coast marine species—cod, haddock, pollock, and winter flounder—
as well as the usual quadrennial gain for the commercially important
sockeye salmon. A decline was noted in the production of whitefish,
lake trout, and pike perch. There follows a summary of the output
classified according to the natural grouping of the propagation,
activities.
SUMMARY OF OUTPUT

Warm-water species:
Basses--------------------------------------------------------------------------3, 243, 900
Sunfisli-------------------------------------------------------------------------2,154, 000
Crappie------------------------------------------------------------------------1, SOS, 900
Yellow perch------------------------------------------------------------------ 193, 111, 500
Other___________________________________________________
121,050
Cold-water species:
Trouts—
Brook_____________
10, S55, 200
Rainbow____________________________________________
12, 72S, 200
Loch Leven_________________________________________
9, 214, 700
Black-spotted________________________________________ 19, 084. 000
Grayling-----------------------------------------------------------------------1, 705. 000
Landlocked salmon--------------------------------------------------------608,700
Anadromous species:
Shad____________________________________________________ 71,851,000
Glut herring-------------------------------------- ----------------i_______
11. 500,000
Salmon—
Atlantic_____________________________________________
917,200
Pacific--------------------------------------------------------------------- 152, 529,10 0
Striped bass_____________________________________________
9, 001, OOO
Commercial species (Great Lakes and interior waters) :
Whitefish_______________________________________________
97. 295, 000
Cisco----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 132, 200, OOO
Lake trout--------------------------------------------------------------------- 30, 335, 000
Pike perch--------------------------------------------------------------------80. 750. 400
Carp----------------------------------------------------------------------------20, 831, 000
Marine species:
Cod------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2,502.155.000
Haddock------------------------------------------------------------------------ 351, 442, 000
Winter flounder-------------------------------------------------------------- 2, 918, 583, OOO
Pollock-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 358, 442, OOO
Mackerel-----------------------------------------------------------------------2, 778. OOO
Miscellaneous fishes__________________________________________ 52, 754, COO
Total-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7,060, 369, 500

New substations were placed on an operating basis at Fort Worth,
Tex., and Crawford, Nebr., although the latter had not been finally
completed by the close of the year. The transfer of the Potomac

228

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

River shad station from Bryans Point, Md., to Fort Humphreys,
Va., was under way at the opening of the fiscal year and was com­
pleted in time to permit the gratifying hatch mentioned above. The
change gives the bureau a model plant for this work. Construc­
tion work at the large new pond station at Valdosta, Ga., continued
throughout the year, but was retarded by difficulties encountered in
sinking wells to provide subterranean drainage. Prospects indicate
that this obstacle will be overcome within a short time. Title to the
sites for new pond-cultural substations at Reagan, Okla., and Creede,
Colo., has been cleared and construction is scheduled to begin
immediately.
Car distribution was somewhat hampered by the retirement of
car No. 4 from service, but a contract has been awarded for and
construction begun on a modern steel car to replace it. A large
hatchery building of rustic log design has been under construction
in Yellowstone Park, and rearing pools have been completed at
Mammoth Hot Springs within the park. Arrangements have been
made with the National Park Service whereby the bureau will fur­
nish an investigator to study fishing conditions in the parks and
direct fish-cultural operations. Attention will be given to other
Federal areas, such as the national forests, and an employee will be
in charge of the bureau’s stations in the intermountain area.
COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES

The bureau’s relations with outside agencies, such as the States
and sportsmen’s organizations, have been extended. The fish-nursery
system, whereby sportsmen furnish pools and ponds and rear to
finger ling or adult size fish received from Federal hatcheries, has
expanded, so that 114 units were in operation, which received 4,070,268
fish of various species as well as over 900,000 eggs. These enter­
prises have developed to an extent that has placed a severe strain
upon the bureau’s ability to supply fish, but it is believed that the
results attained from the planting of larger fish justify extraordi­
nary efforts. The State of Virginia inaugurated a series of such
units, which were stocked with several hundred thousand trout from
the bureau’s Wytheville (Va.) station. Plans have been laid to
fill the bureau’s applications for local waters from the output of
these nurseries.
There have been many other instances of mutually helpful co­
operation with the States. The bureau has detailed an employee
to undertake the propagation of shad in Florida and to resume the
propagation of spiny lobsters, which was started last season. The
usual cooperative arrangement with Pennsylvania and Vermont for
the operation of the pike-perch station on Lake Champlain wTas con­
tinued, although extreme weather conditions seriously reduced the
output of fry. The bureau has continued to assist the State of West
Virginia by incubating a million trout eggs at the White Sulphur
Springs (W. Va.) station for distribution within the State. The
ractice of assigning trout eggs to such States as desire them has
een continued as far as the available supply would permit. An
employee was detailed throughout the greater part of the year to
supervise the construction of a hatchery for the State of Arkansas.

E

BUBEAU OF FISHERIES

229

One of the large fishing companies requested that an experiment be
made regarding the possibility of planting fertilized cod and haddock
eggs taken by steam trawlers operating on the offshore banks, such
as Georges. Two men were detailed on this work for about six
weeks during the spring, but weather conditions prevented a full
realization of all the possibilities of the undertaking. The bureau
has continued the operation of a striped-bass hatchery in cooperation
with the State of North Carolina. Fish-cultural activities are being
expanded in Glacier National Park, the park service assisting in the
initiation of egg-taking operations and in the construction of rearing
pools. A limited distribution of bass and other pondfishes was
obtained from a large pond at Miles City, Mont., constructed by the
State and operated by this bureau on Government-owned land.
PROPAGATION OF PACIFIC SALMONS

The aggregate output in this field was 152,529,100, about 12,000,000
in excess of the previous year. The gain was entirely accounted for
by an increase in the production of sockeye salmon. All other species
handled showed a decline in the number distributed. As the sockeye
is the most valuable form commercially, it is gratifying to note that
operations with this variety were so successful. A very satisfactory
season at the. Alaska stations was largely responsible for this situa­
tion. A small decline in the output of chinook salmon is attributable
to limitations in the collections in the Columbia River, from which
field the bureau derives its main supply of this species. As usual,
due to the limited capacity of the Puget Sound stations, it was
necessary to discontinue the taking of chum-salmon eggs while a
supply was still available. A number of the stations have been
increasing their rearing-pond equipment with the object of distribut­
ing a larger proportion of the output as fingerlings.
MARINE SPF.CIES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST

These stations handle four species only—the cod, haddock, pollock,
and winter flounder, which are distributed as fry or fertilized eggs.
For the first time the output exceeded 6,000,000,000—several hundred
million over that of the previous year. The increase is confined to
the. latter three species, the output of cod remaining virtually equiva­
lent to that of last year. Experiments in fertilizing immense num­
bers of cod and haddock eggs taken in conjunction with operations
of steam trawlers working out of New York City and planting them
on the offshore fishing grounds were undertaken. Two employees of
the Woods Hole (Mnss.) station were detailed to accompany the
vessels, but practical difficulties in handling the fish prevented achiev­
ing the expected results. Shore cod fisheries in the vicinity of the
Boothbay Harbor (Me.) station yielded a considerable quantity of
eggs for this work, however. It is interesting to note that an em­
ployee of this station was lent to the State of Florida to supervise
the hatching of spiny lobsters or crawfish at Key West. This con­
stituted the only instance in which the artificial propagation of this
form has been conducted on a practical basis. The augmenting of
the output of haddock was deemed especially desirable, since this
species has enjoyed a rapidly increasing demand for filleting.

230

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY' OF COMMERCE
ANADROMOU8 SPECIES OF THE ATLANTIC COAST

One of the most satisfactory features of the operations conducted
by the division of fish culture was the marked increase in the pro­
duction of shad at the Potomac River station. The new station at
Fort Humphreys, Va., operating for its first season, handled over
78.000. 000 eggs. The total distribution of over 71,250,000 shad,
which included a limited number produced at the Edenton (N. C.)
station, indicates a high percentage of hatch. A hatch of yellow
perch almost equaling earlier records also was obtained at Fort
Humphreys. Two consecutive successful seasons with the shad give
reason to hope that, on the Potomac River at least, the runs can be
maintained on a plane of high productivity. The Edenton (N. C.)
station enjoyed average success in its shad work, but the output of
glut herring was negligible in comparison with that of last year.
The Craig Brook (Me.) station, obtaining its supply of Atlanticsalmon eggs from Canada, handled 500,000 less than in the previous
year. A program of rearing these fish to larger size before distribu­
tion may be developed to offset any possible future decline in the
numbers handled. The bureau again enjoyed the cooperation of the
State of North Carolina in propagating striped bass on the Roanoke
River.
COM MERCIA I. SPECIES OF INTERIOR WATERS

The main activity in this field is the propagation of whitefish,
cisco or lake herring, and lake trout at the Great Lakes stations.
With regard to the whitefish, the reduction in the number of eggs
collected, which has become so evident during the past five or six
years, continued, and the output for the past year dropped below
100.000. 000 fry. As the egg take and consequent distribution of fish
reflect the condition of the fishery to a considerable degree, the pres­
ent situation can not be viewed complacently. Virtually all of the
stations handling this species reported inability to secure an ade­
quate supply of eggs. The fluctuations that mark the cisco opera­
tions, however, brought the output up to 35,000,000 more than in
the previous year.
Inability to operate on spawning grounds in Canadian waters con­
tributed to the reduction in whitefish output at the Cape Vincent
(N. Y.) station. The production of lake trout in this field was ap­
proximately 30,000,000, or 7,000,000 under last year’s figures. The
decline apparently was not traceable to a shortage in fish so much
as ro adverse weather conditions and other factors. An attempt to
net and pen lake trout at Cape Vincent awaiting the maturity of
the eggs failed to give the successful results that rewarded the
previous season’s attempt.
Operations with buffalo fish, carp, and yellow perch in interior
waters were attended by average results, but there was a noticeable
decline in the production of pike perch, the output totaling about
one-third that of the previous year. This was due to the virtual fail­
ure of the Lake Champlain field, which is usually responsible for the
bulk of the output. Rigorous weather conditions accompanying an
extremely late spring proved to be a very serious handicap to egg
collections. The Great Lakes stations that handle this form enjoyed
a reasonably successful season.

BUHEAU OF F1SHEBIES

231

GAME FISHES OF INTERIOR WATERS

The strictly game fishes include the trouts and pondfishes, such
as bass, sunfish, and crappie, propagated at the bureau’s stations in
the Southern States. The only species of trout showing an increase
in abundance was the black-spotted or native cut-throat of the Rocky
Mountain section. The main field for work with this species in the
Yellowstone National Park yielded an egg collection of well over
20.000,000. The Meadow Creek (Mont.) substation of the Bozeman
(Mont.) station, one of the most important of the Loch Leven and
rainbow-trout egg-collecting fields, turned in a total within 1,826,000
of its previous high record. A new rainbow egg-collecting station
yielding a half million eggs was developed at Williams Lake, Idaho,
in connection with the salmon work in that territory. The Craig
Brook (Me.) station increased its take of brook-trout eggs from the
station brood stock to a new record, and its substation at Grand Lake
Stream, Me., handled almost a million landlocked salmon.
Development of the brook-trout egg-producing unit at York Pond,
N. H., has continued, with a yield of nearly 3,000,000 eggs for the
past season. In brief, the bureau has augmented its collections of
trout eggs at the above-named stations and at others in New England,
the Middle Atlantic and Middle West sections, Utah, Wyoming, and
Colorado so as to become virtually independent of outside egg sources,
making up any deficiencies by the exchange of surplus rainbow,
Loch Leven, and other eggs for eggs of needed varieties. The bureau
has likewise deliberately reduced its numerical output of trout by
retaining the fish longer before planting, with consequent diminution
of output. This plan, together with the distribution of larger num­
bers of advanced fry and small fingerlings to private rearing pools
conducted by groups of sportsmen, probably will result in more effi­
cient restocking in spite of the smaller number handled.
While the aggregate number of warm-water pondfish distributed
shows a material decline from the previous year, this has been due
to an absence of distribution from the rescue field on the upper
Mississippi River. The output of large-mouth and small-mouth bass,
which are mainly derived from the hatcheries, was about the same as
the previous year, the small-mouth distribution being somewhat in
excess of the previous season. Without citing the records of the indi­
vidual stations, it may be said that most of them produced an average
yield of bass, sunfish, and similar fishes. Development at Orange­
burg, S. C., permitted a much greater distribution from that point,
but the San Marcos (Tex.) station, normally of high productivity,
was visited by floods, which injured the spring hatch.
RESCUE OPERATIONS

The salvaging of fishes stranded in the landlocked sloughs along
the Mississippi River was an activity of no importance during the
past year, the continued high stage of the river rendering such work
unnecessary. Virtually no fish were seined and returned to parental
waters, and no general distribution to other waters could be made.
Inasmuch as the bureau can not cover the full area in which rescue
work is possible in a normal year, the situation during the past season
will prove beneficial, in that the river itself, serving as a reservoir,
will be amply restocked.

232

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

BIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

The chief function of the division of scientific inquiry is to provide
fishery administrators, both State and Federal, with sound and prac­
tical scientific information that can be applied, either immediately or
ultimately, to the conservation of the fisheries. The investigations
of the bureau’s biologists contribute year after year to the upbuilding
of a coherent body of scientific knowledge, which ultimately will
become as important in the development and conservation of the
aquatic food supply as have the associated branches of agricultural
sciences become in the production of land crops.
Satisfying progress has been made in solving the fundamental
problems encountered in the major fisheries of the entire country. In
the marine fisheries of the Atlantic coast attention has been centered
upon variations in the yield and the natural forces that determine
abundance. In the salmon fisheries of the Pacific coast and Alaska
predictions of future runs in the important areas are now becoming
feasible; and the yield, at least in Alaska, is .being so regulated,
through protection of an adequate spawning escapement, that an
abundant future supply is assured. In the Great Lakes the question
of the cause of the decline of the fisheries has been investigated, and
a study of fishing gear to determine the most effective and at the
same time the least destructive types has resulted in definite recom­
mendations for legislation to the various State governments. In the
field of aquiculture studies on greater productivity of waste areas
have been particularly successful. Hatchery methods have been im­
proved through studies of fish diet, and the control of disease and
fish production in ponds and swamp areas likewise has been increased.
Through an extension of precise knowledge of the habits and physi­
ology of shellfishes, important improvements in cultural or farming
methods have been furnished the shellfish industries.
Mention has been made in previous reports of the growing public
appreciation of the results of scientific investigation of the fisheries;
and the greater interest, manifested by more liberal financial sup­
port, has been continued through the past year without abatement.
Despite the handicap of too few permanent investigators, the activi­
ties carried on by an increasing number of temporary employees have
expanded. The scientific work is now organized uniler three distinct
heads—commercial fishery investigations, shellfish investigations, and
fish-cultural investigations. Cooperation in research by State and
private agencies has continued to be a material factor in increasing its
extent and effectiveness.
COMMERCIAL FISHERY INVESTIGATIONS

North and Middle Atlantic States■—In the North Atlantic area
data have been obtained concerning the life history and migrations
of the Nantucket Shoals cod, a fish of peculiar importance to the
American fishery because of its availability throughout the year.
Studies on the migrations of cod have been extended southward to
the shores of New Jersey and to the mouth of Chesapeake Bay, where
during the past spring unexpectedly large quantities of larvae and
eggs were taken for the first time west of Rhode Island.

BUREAU OF FISHEBIES

233

Investigations of the mackerel fishery were continued on a large
scale. This fishery is subject to extreme fluctuations, a study of
which reveals the success or failure of a spawning year as the chief
cause, rather than migration, which previously had been held re­
sponsible. With the object of perfecting a system of prediction con­
cerning the probable abundance of future year’s runs of mackerel,
observations on the commercial catch are being continued at the chief
ports of landing, and, in addition, oceanographic investigations (re­
ferred to later) and quantitative collections of eggs and larvae have
been undertaken in order to discover not only the occurrence of a
successful spawning year at the earliest possible moment but also the
natural causes that favor survival. Such predictions, which already
have attained practical accuracy, not only will afford material benefit
to the producer, the distributor, and cold-storage interests, but may
warn of depletion, should it occur, and indicate the extent to which
the mackerel fishery may be prosecuted with safety.
Fishery investigations in the Middle Atlantic States, begun during
the last fiscal year, have been continued, primary attention being
given to the squeteague or weakfish, which is the most important
species in this region. Observations also were made on the scup and
butterfish as well as other minor species taken in the shore fisheries
conducted largely with pound nets.
Historical records of the pound-net fishery of Long Island and New
Jersey have been analyzed in order to trace the character of fluctua­
tions in yield. Biological observations in the major fishing centers
are being made to ascertain the essential features of the life history of
the fish, their spawning and growth, their feeding and migrations;
and continued collection of detailed statistics is expected to provide
dependable evidence on the question of depletion. In addition to the
observations on the Long Island and New Jersey coasts, similar
studies have been made of the commercial fisheries of lower Chesa­
peake Bay.
Oceanographical studies have been initiated during the present
year for the purpose of discovering the causes of variations in abund­
ance of the important fishes depending upon physical environment,
such as temperatures, currents, chemical composition of the sea water,
and the contained microscopic life that constitutes the food for the
schools of fish. The fisheries steamer Albatross II has furnished
the means for making these studies in the waters of the Middle
Atlantic region.
In addition to the collection of eggs and larvae of the cod, mackerel,
weakfish, and other shore species, studies on the movements and dis­
tribution of the plankton organisms, upon which the mackerel di­
rectly and other fishes indirectly feed, have been undertaken. Such
studies give promise of explaining the apparently erratic movements
of the mackerel and other plankton-feeding fishes. All of the inves­
tigations in this area have been furthered by the facilities of the
fisheries biological laboratory at Woods Hole, Mass., which for most
of the year serves as a base for field operations.
The final report on the biology of the New England smelt is now in
process of completion, in which the details of the life history of both
marine and fresh-water races are presented and further construc­
tive recommendations for the conservation of a depleted fishery are
offered.

234

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OK COMMERCE

South Atlantic and Gulf States.—Except for important oyster
investigations throughout the South, investigations of the commer­
cial fisheries of the South Atlantic and Gulf States have centered at
the fisheries biological laboratory at Beaufort, N. C., during the past
¿seal year. Due to changes in the method or conducting fishery re­
search, which lessened the usefulness of the Key West station (au­
thorized by an act of Congress on March 1, 1911, but never com­
pleted), authorization was obtained from Congress on April 29, 1929,
to return the property to the original owners. Investigations of the
Texas shore fisheries were completed early in the year, and an exten­
sive report, outlining the biology of the important species and con­
taining constructive recommendations for fishery legislation, was
published.
At the Beaufort laboratory extensive repairs and alterations to the
station buildings and grounds to fit them for year-round investiga­
tions have been under way. The larval and postlarval development
of the important fishes is the least understood field in fishery biology,
and the peculiar advantages of situation and equipment at this laborotary have been utilized throughout the year in this important
research.
With the completion of a new nursery house for the raising of
the animals under controlled conditions, terrapin culture at the
Beaufort station again became an active field for investigation.
Although practical methods have been developed and production on
a commercial scale has been carried on with the cooperation of the
North Carolina conservation department, the relatively high mortal­
ity of winter-fed young terrapin has proved to be a serious obstacle.
The occurrence of certain diseases was investigated; and although
the nature of the diseases still remains unsolved, experiments on feed­
ing were again undertaken with considerable success.
Pacific coast and Alaska.—One of the most important problems in
the administration of the salmon fishery of Alaska is to determine,
as accurately as possible, the product in terms of adult commercially
valuable fish of known escapements to the spawning grounds in
order that the salmon runs may be maintained at their maximum
productivity. Special attention has been given during 1929 to a
study of the production from known spawning escapements in the
Karluk and Chignik Rivers. As the mature fish return to spawn
at different ages several years are required to assemble the data for
a single generation. These are now complete for the escapements
of 1921 and 1922. Studies at Karluk of the number of seaward mi­
grants leaving the stream each year are being made as a further
step in determining the proper relation that should be maintained
between the catch and spawning escapement. The relative fluctua­
tions in the rate of mortality of the young fish in fresh waters and
in the ocean can then be determined, in the hope that accurate
forecasts of future runs may be made.
A detailed study of the statistics of the salmon fishery of Alaska,
begun in 1925, has been continued during the past fiscal year. The
results are proving to be of value in detecting depletion, and doubt­
less will be of still greater value in future years as a means of
determining the effect of such regulations as have been and will
be imposed. The first report of a series dealing with the statistics

BUREAU OE FISHERIES

235

of Bristol Bay and the Alaska Peninsula was published during
the year.
Adding to the considerable list of tagging experiments already
completed to determine the routes of migration of the spawning
fish in the sea, one new experiment was conducted in the Alaska
Peninsula region to determine the distribution of red salmon taken
in a locality previously unfished. A report on this experiment is
nearing completion.
Since 1916 an extensive series of experiments involving the mark­
ing of young salmon liberated from the hatcheries has been con­
ducted on the Columbia River. The chief problem has been to
discover the relative value of various methods and pi-ocedures of
hatchery practice. A report was completed and published during
the year, dealing with experiments in which young chinook salmon
were marked. Another report, dealing with experiments in which
young sockeye were marked, is well along toward completion.
The herring fishery is second in importance among the fisheries
of Alaska, being exceeded in yield onl}' by the salmon fishery. The
rapid development of this fishery and indications that depletion
has already taken place make it important to study the biology of
the fish and the changes in abundance in each locality in order that
proper regulations may be drawn up. This study, begun in 1925,
has been continued, and an extensive report has been completed for
publication.
For years the great salmon industry of the northwest has suf­
fered from the loss that occurs when young fish, on their migration
to the sea. enter irrigation and power-diversion canals and are de­
stroyed. Further loss of fish life is occasioned when the mature
fish, journeying upstream to spawn, encounter obstacles to their
progress, such as dams and the tailraces of power houses, over or
around which adequate fishways have not been built. Congress pro­
vided a special appropriation at the end of the fiscal year 1928 for
an investigation of means for reducing this loss by devising and
erecting suitable screens, stops, or diverters at the mouths of such
canals or tailraces, and by devising suitable fishways over dams.
Gratifying progress in this work has been made during the past
year. The entire area in which such irrigation canals are operated
lias been surveyed, experiments were made with types of screens
at present in use, and detailed studies of the use or an electrical
field in stopping or diverting fish from the entrances of such canals
were made, with the result that an approved type of electrical fish
screen was selected, and several installations on Government irriga­
tion projects have been made.
Inland waters.—The most important commercial fisheries of in­
land waters are supported by the Great Lakes: but in certain of
the lakes, particularly in Lake Erie, depletion of the more valuable
species is becoming acute. During 1928 a general survey of Lake
Erie fisheries was completed. On the basis of data collected for
these studies, the bureau has been able to assist intelligently and
effectively in the recodification of the major part of the commer­
cial fishery laws in Michigan, Ohio, and Indiana. Similar assist­
ance has also been given New York and Wisconsin in an effort to
establish uniform regulations governing the commercial fishery activ­
ities on each of the Great Lakes.

236

KEPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The bureau has received extensive cooperation in fisheries investi­
gations of Lake Erie from the States of New York, Ohio, and Penn­
sylvania, the Province of Ontario, the Buffalo Museum of Science,
and the Buffalo Health Department. Fundamental studies of the
productivity of the lake, and especially environmental conditions
affci ting fish life, are being given chief attention by this group of
investigators.
The usual cooperation with the Wisconsin Geological and Natural
History Survey in limnological studies of lakes in northern Wisconsin
has been continued. Notable contributions to fishery science have
been made during the year by the publication of two reports covering
work of several years past, one dealing with the taxonomy of the
whitefishes of the Great Lakes system and the other with the life
history of the herring of Lake Huron.
SH E I.tJFISH INVESTIGATIONS

Oysters.—In the field of practical oyster culture, studies on the pro­
duction of seed oysters were continued at Milford, Conn., and Onset,
Mass., developing to greater effectiveness the method of catching
■ oyster seed on shells Contained in wire bags planted in the water at
varying depths. In the Long Island Sound region a method has
been evolved whereby the time of spawning and setting can be pre­
dicted one month in advance, so that oyster farmers are enabled to
take advantage of best setting conditions by planting the cultch at
the proper time of year.
Experiments in oyster farming were continued in the waters of
Georgia and begun in Texas, with the cooperation, in both cases, of
the State commissions. Various methods employed in northern
waters are being adapted to local conditions in the South, ivith the
expectation of demonstrating and popularizing this important form
of water farming. Experimental work has been undertaken, also,
to determine the factors that control the development of eggs and
sperm in the oyster, which, in turn, influence the abundance of the
new crop. It is expected that such detailed studies will provide a
scientific basis for the development of better methods of oyster
culture.
At the request of the Maryland fish commissioner, a survey was
made of the natural oyster bottoms of the Potomac River. The
bottoms’ were found to be in a deplorable state of depletion, and
recommendations were made for their rehabilitation. A second sur­
vey of oyster bottoms in Mobile Bay. Ala., w’as made at the request
of the conservation department and the Mobile Chamber of Com­
merce. It was found that oysters of that region were very generally
destroyed by unusual flood conditions, and a program of rehabilita­
tion was outlined.
During the fall of 1928 a general survey of the oyster problems of
the Pacific coast was made, and a complete analysis of the situation
was submitted for publication. Special attention was directed to
the importation of the Japanese oyster, together with possible pests
that might have a serious effect upon native oysters, and a program of
field and laboratory investigations to increase and improve Pacific

BUKEAU OF FISHEBIES

237

coast oyster production has been undertaken in the Puget Sound
area.
Further studies on the control of the oyster drill, which has proved
to be a serious pest in lower Chesapeake Bay, were undertaken at
the Beaufort (N. C.) laboratory. A complete report on this investi­
gation has been submitted for publication, outlining the biology of
the organism and recommending means of control.
Fresh-water mussels.—The pearl-button industry of America de­
pends upon an adequate natural supply of fresh-water mussels, a
mollusk that formerly grew abundantly throughout the bottom areas
of the Mississippi River. Crude methods of artificial propagation
employed by the bureau until the present time have been unable to
maintain a natural supply sufficient to meet the growing demand.
Experimental methods of propagating the fresh-water mussels
recently developed at the Fairport (Iowa) laboratory, in which the
parasitic larval stage in the development of the mussel is eliminated
by means of culture in nutrient solutions, have been perfected during
the present year and are now ready for large-scale application.
One of the first obstacles, however, to restocking the depleted:
mussel beds is the increasing menace of pollution in the Mississippi
and tributary rivers. In many extensive areas pollution has been
found to be so severe that juvenile mussels produced by artificial
propagation were unable to withstand the unfavorable conditions
when planted in areas that were otherwise favorable. At the end
of the fiscal year detailed
into the Mississippi River
order to discover localities more suitable for producing abundant
supplies of mussel shells. At the same time additional experiments
to perfect minor points of technique are being conducted, and mussel
propagation is being carried on at the Fairport laboratory on a
semilarge-scale basis, the product to be planted in the few areas
known to be suitable.
,

-«

r

•

V

.

•

T -J •

FISH-CULTURAL INVESTIGATIONS

All of the major projects of investigation pertaining to fishcultural operations mentioned in the report for 1928 have been con­
tinued in the past fiscal year.
Experimental work at the Pittsford (Vt.) experimental hatchery
during 1928 was concerned chiefly with feeding of fingerling and
yearling trout. The primary object was to investigate the feasibility
of using various substitutes for fresh meat as a food for trout. Our
experiments have shown that a number of dry products are avail­
able which can be successfully substituted to replace approximately
50 per cent of the fresh meat at a very considerable reduction in cost.
The experiments on the propagation and rearing of bass and
other pondfishes at the Fairport station have given very encouraging
results and have shown conclusively that young bass can be reared
in nursery ponds during the summer with comparatively small
losses.
In the upper Mississippi wild life and fish refuge detailed studies
on the natural fauna in the various sloughs, ponds, and creeks of
the Mississippi River bottom were made as a basis for undertaking

238

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

fish culture on a large-scale, semicontrolled basis. The relation of
the food eaten by the fish to the total amount of food available in
a number of representative sloughs of the refuge was investigated
carefully and a report submitted during the past spring. A num­
ber of sloughs have been cleared of brusTi and vegetation and seined
to remove predatory fish in preparation for active fish-cultural ex­
periments. Bass and other important game fishes will be reared and
distributed or allowed to disseminate naturally through the adjacent
water areas.
Investigations at the Pittsford station on diseases of trout have
shown that the disease commonly known as fin rot is due to a
bacterial infection, and methods of controlling it have been devised.
The bureau’s pathologist has rendered valuable services at the vari­
ous State and Federal hatcheries throughout the year by making
diagnosis and recommending treatments where epidemics of disease
have occurred.
VESSEL NOTES

From July 1 to November 28 the steamer Albatross II was en­
gaged in fish-tagging and other fishery investigations on the fishing
banks from Cholera Bank off New York to Roseway Bank off Nova
Scotia, and during this period 4,257 fish were tagged and liberated.
From December i until February 18 the vessel was at the Boston
Navy Yard undergoing necessary repairs and having a new radio
outfit installed. During the remainder of the year mackerel investi­
gations were continued and one .fish-tagging cruise was made. Dur­
ing the year 165 oceanographic stations were njade and four lines
of drift bottles were run out. The vessel cruised 11,341 miles.
The steamer Phalarope was employed as a tender for the Woods
Hole biological station and on the Potomac River in connection with
shad propagation. The steamer Shearwater was engaged in fishery
investigations on Lake Erie, besides her fish-cultural work at the
Put-in-Bay (Ohio) station.
Fifteen vessels of the Alaska service cruised more than 120,000
nautical miles in the fiscal year 1929, as compared with about 90,000
miles covered by 14 vessels in the previous year. The Brant and
Eider each covered approximately 14,000 miles, and the Crane about
13,000 miles.
An addition to the Alaska fleet was the Coot, a vessel 50 feet in
length and 11 feet in breadth, constructed at Bellingham, Wash., in
the spring of 1929 and shipped by commercial steamer to St. Michael.
Alaska. It is to replace the Tern on the Yukon River, the sale of
which vessel has been authorized.
The Eider continued as local tender for the Pribilof Islands, with
base at Unalaska. Before the close of another season it is expected
that this vessel will have been replaced by a new and larger vessel,
to be named Penguin, which is to be constructed soon at Seattle.
'Phe Widgeon^ Murre, Auklet, and Petrel were engaged in fishery
protective work in southeastern Alaska throughout the season. Other
vessels employed in that district for a time in the fall, after the close
of fishing operations to the westward, were the Crane, which had been
on duty in the Alaska Peninsula following its initial voyage to

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

239

Bristol Bay with bureau employees and supplies; the Teal, which
had patrolled waters of the Cook Inlet area during the summer; and
the Kittiwake engaged in the Seward-Katalla district until the end
of August. The Blue Wing and Bed Wing were engaged in patrol
work in the Kodiak-Afognak district; the Merganser in the IkatanShumagin region; the Ibis at Chignik; the Tern on the Yukon liiver;
and the Scoter on Bristol Bay.
The Brant was used in southeastern Alaska during much of the
season, chiefly in connection with general supervisory work bv Com­
missioner O’Malley. One cruise was made westward as far as Kodiak
in July. Secretary of Agriculture Jardine and Solicitor General
Mitchell were aboard the Brant during part of August.
In addition to work in connection with the conservation of the
fisheries in Alaska, the Brant yvas engaged for several weeks in the
spring in patrolling waters of Neah Bay, Wash., and vicinity to en­
force the laws for the protection of the fur-seal herd during its
migration northward. The Auklet performed similar duty off the
coast of southeastern Alaska.
During the winter several of the Alaska vessels were given a
general overhauling, the work being done at Seattle and at other
ports in the Pacific Coast States and Alaska. The Scotei■, which has
been employed in the Bristol Bay area for a number of years, pro­
ceeded to Seattle at the close of the 1928 fishing season and was ex­
tensively remodeled. The Red Wing, used in the Kodiak region,
was equipped with a ^-cylinder gas engine and new tanks were in­
stalled.
On June 30 the floating equipment of the bureau consisted of 4
steamers, 4 auxiliary schooners, and 76 motor vessels ranged in size
from 101 to 20 feet in length.
APPROPRIATIONS

Appropriations for the bureau for the fiscal year aggregated
$2,092,108, as follows:

Salaries________________________________________________________ $803, 708
Miscellaneous expenses:
Administration______________________________________________
4, 400
Propagation of food fishes___________________________________ 503,000
Maintenance of vessels______________________________________ 152,500
Inquiry respecting food fishes________________________________ 108, 000
Fishery industries___________________________________________
55, 000
Protecting sponge fisheries___________________________________
2, 500
Protecting seal and salmon fisheries of Alaska_____________________ 307, 000
Upper Mississippi wild life and fish refuge_______________________
25, 000
Repairs and improvements:
Fish hatchery, Saratoga, Wyo________________________________
18,000
Fish hatchery, Northville, Mich________________________________
25,000
Fish hatchery, Bryans Point, Md., transfer to Fort Humphreys,
8, 000
V a_______________________________________________________
Biological station, Beaufort, N. .0____________________________
20, 000
2,002,108
Very truly yours,
H enry O ’M alley ,

Commissioner of Fisheides.

LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE
D epartm ent of C ommerce ,
B ureau of L ighthouses ,
Washington, July 1, 1929.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r . S ecretary : In response to your request I furnish the

following report upon the work of the service during the past fiscal
year:
MORE IMPORTANT ACTIVITIES OP THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE
DURING THE YEAR

The most important work in progress during the year was the con­
struction of the primary light and fog signal on Lansing Shoal, near
the northern end of Lake Michigan, winch was nearly completed, and
was placed in commission during the fiscal year, and the lightship was
withdrawn. The similar station at Poe Reef, Mich., in the Straits of
Mackinac, will probably be placed in commission in the early part
of the fiscal year 1930. The improvements of the aids at Milwaukee
Harbor, Wis., were completed. Other important aids to navigation
completed or in progress during the year included the installation of
a modern fog signal at Cape Cod Light Station; and at Cape Cod
Canal Breakwater Light; the construction of a modern light and fogsignal station at Michigan and Gull Islands in Lake Superior; improv­
ing aids to navigation in St. Marys River; a light and fog-signal
station at Muskegon South Breakwater, Mich.; improving aids in
Grays Harbor, Wash.; improving aids to navigation in Columbia
River; establishing a system of aids in Wrangell Narrows, Alaska;
improving aids at Southwest Pass, La.; the replacement of obsolete
steam fog signals in the eleventh and twelfth districts; and extensive
repairs and replacements of hurricane damage in the southern dis­
tricts. Works were completed or are in progress at several of the
lighthouse depots, including the rebuilding or improvement of wharves,
bulkheads, shops, storehouses, etc.
Six lightships with Diesel electric propulsion and two small tenders
were in course of construction under contracts.
During the fiscal year there was a net increase of 394 in the total
number of aids to marine navigation maintained by the Lighthouse
Service. On June 30, 1929, the total number of marine aids was
19,001.
Important improvements in lighthouse depot facilities have been
initiated. New locations for existing depots have been authorized at
Portland, Me., and Newport, R. I. A depot at Seattle, Wash., has
been acquired by transfer of Government property. A small depot at
Rockland, Me., has been authorized. An excellent site for the
transfer of the depot at Chicago, 111., has been acquired from the city
by exchange of properties and has been occupied.
240

BUBEAU OF LIGHTHOUSES

241

During the year 123 new automatic marine lights on fixed struc­
tures were established and 54 lights were changed from attended to
automatic. At the end of the fiscal year the total number of auto­
matic lights on fixed structures was 1,467 (not including some partially
automatic), and in addition there were 942 buoys with automatic
lights, or a total of 2,409 in the Lighthouse Service. There are also
13 fog bells operated automatically.
The radiobeacon system was further extended and the effectiveness
and amount of service was increased during the year. Ten additional
radiobeacons were established and 12 stations were under construction.
The total number in operation at the end of the year was 64. Radiobeacons for the two approaches to the Panama Canal were planned,
to be installed this summer. Systematic arrangements for the
elimination of interference between radiobeacons were put into effect
with successful results. These include synchronization of adjacent
stations through automatic clock control to prevent overlapping, and
the use of different frequencies for adjacent groups of stations.
Charts showing full information regarding radiobeacons were pub­
lished. The number of clear weather operating periods was increased.
Considerable progress was made during the fiscal year in extending
airway facilities throughout the United States. About 4,266 addi­
tional miles of airways were lighted, covering 17 different routes, as
follows: Cincinnati-Chicago, Kansas City-Omaha, South BendKalamazoo, Chicago-Twin Cities (La Crosse-Twin Cities section),
Cleveland-Albany, Miami-Atlanta (Jacksonville-Atlanta section),
Salt Lake-Pasco (Salt Lake City-Boise section), Kansas City-St.
Louis, St. Louis-Evansville, San Francisco-Seattle (Redding-Seattle
section), Atlanta-Chicago, New York-Montreal (New York-Albany
section), Michigan Airways, Milwaukee-Green Bay (Milwaukee-Fond
du Lac section), St. Louis-Columbus (Indianapolis-Dayton section),
Los Angeles-Albuquerque (Gallup-Albuquerque section), Albuquer­
que-Wichita (Albuquerque-Clovis and Waynoka-Wichita sections).
At the close of the year 10,183 miles of airways were provided with
aids to navigation, including 1,406 lighted beacons and 7 radio rangos.
Constant progress is being made in the improvement of air navigation
facilities.
A representative of the Lighthouse Service was present at the meet­
ing of technical committee for buoyage and lighting of coasts, of the
League of Nations, held in Genoa, February, 1929, and took part in
its deliberations.
Statements covering the works above mentioned in greater detail
and including various other works in hand during the year are included
under the appropriate heads following.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION

During the year various improvements in aids to marine navigation
have been made: Forty-nine fixed lights were changed to flashing or
occulting; the iiluminant of 1 light was changed to incandescent oil
vapor; the iiluminant of 56 lights (including 16 lighted buoys) was
changed to acetylene; the iiluminant of 9 lights (including 1 lightship)
was changed to electric incandescent; 10 radiobeacons were estab­
lished; 1 gas-operated fog signal was installed at a light station; and
7 diaphones and 8 oscillators and nautophones were established at
78415—29------16

242

BE PORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

important stations. The discontinuance of aids is under investigation
from time to time as the original necessity for their maintenance
ceases; 807 aids to navigation of various classes were discontinued.
The total number of marine aids at the end of the year was 19,001.
In Alaska 44 new aids were established, and the total number is
now 821, including 306 lights, 25 gas buoys, 3 radiobeacons, 14 other
fog signals, 297 buoys, and 176 daymarks. A radiobeacon was
established at Sentinel Island Light Station, Alaska, December 14,
1928.
The aids to navigation in the outlying United States territory of
Guantanamo Bay, the American Samoan Islands, and the island of
Guam are maintained under the supervision of the naval comman­
dants by means of allotments made from appropriations for the
Lighthouse Service.
At the close of the year there were 10,183 miles of lighted airways
in operation, with 263 intermediate landing fields, 1,406 airways
beacons, 164 airways weather reporting stations, 27 airways com­
munication (radio) stations, and 7 radio range beacons. Teletype
circuits for transmission of hourly weather reports were installed for
experimental purposes during the year between weather reporting
stations on the Chicago-New York and Los Angeles-San Francisco
Airways. The experiment has shown that this system is of much
value and arrangements have been made for its continuance.
The unusually severe hurricane in September, 1927, caused con­
siderable damage to aids to navigation and other lighthouse property
in Porto Rico and on the Florida coast. During this hurricane the Cape
Lookout Lightship parted her moorings and was dragged from her
station, but was returned within 24 hours without damage. An
appropriation of 8129,934 was provided for repairing damages caused
by this hurricane. A severe storm swept Lakes Erie and Ontario on
April 1, 1929, causing damage to lighthouse property, the most
serious being to the riprap protection at Ashtabula Breakwater, Ohio.
The airways division of the Lighthouse Service has found the in­
spection of airways aids to navigation by plane to be practicable and
convenient.
ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION

The more important construction projects completed during the
fiscal year stated in order of districts are as follows: Extensive repairs
to Little Diamond Island Lighthouse Depot wharf, Me.; installing
modern fog-signal equipment at Cape Elizabeth Light Station, Me.;
installing modern fog-signal equipment at Cape Cod Light Station,
Mass.; relocating the tower and installing a modem fog signal at
Cape Cod Canal Breakwater Light Station; improving 3 lights in
Sheffield Harbor and Norwalk River; improving 4 lights in Stamford
Harbor, Conn.; rebuilding Port Chester Channel Light, Conn.; estab­
lishing 5 lights in the Housatonic River, also establishing and con­
verting 9 acetylene lights in the Hudson River, N. Y.; rebuilding the
south wharf and retaining wall at Edgemoor Lighthouse Depot, Del.;
rebuilding the north end of the wharf at the lighthouse depot, Laza­
retto, M d.; installing a modern fog-signal equipment at Cape Henry
Light Station, Va.; and establishing Worton Point Light. Many
items of repair and replacement caused by hurricane damage have
been completed in the southern districts. An automatic acetylene

BUREAU OF LIGHTHOUSES

243

lighting system at Navassa Island, Caribbean Sea; installing fog-,
signal equipment at Tawas, Huron Island, and Big Bay Point Light
Stations, Mich.; establishment of West Neebish Channel Leading
Light; new structure at Fighting Island South Channel Range Light,
Mich.; establishment of modern fog signal at Round Island Light Sta­
tion, Mich.; new steel tower at Grand Marais Harbor of Refuge, Mich.,
and establishment of modern fog signal at Au Sable Light Station,
Mich.; improvement of aids in Milwaukee Harbor, W is.; establishing
a light and fog-signal station with radiobeacon at Lansing Shoal, M ich.;
establishment of a modern fog signal at Two Rivers Pierhead Light
Station, Wis.; also at Menominee Pierhead Light Station, Wis.; the
establishment of a system of aids in Wrangell Narrows and Dry Strait,
Alaska; extensive improvements to aids in Columbia River, Oreg.;
improvements in Grays Harbor, Wash.; establishment of Nawiliwilx
Harbor Breakwater Light, Hawaii; and construction of a new concrete
wharf and bulkhead at Honolulu Lighthouse Depot, Hawaiian Islands.
Important works in active progress but not completed at the
end of the fiscal year are as follows: Establishing acetylene lights
in Inland Waterway, Norfolk, Va., to Beaufort, N .C .; repairing hur­
ricane damage at Cove Point Light Station, Md., Havre de Grace
Light, Md., and Turkey Point Light Station, Md., construction of a
double dwelling for the assistant keepers at Jupiter Inlet Light Sta­
tion, Fla.; iron light structures at Cape Florida Shoal, Mosquito
Bank, and Hen and Chickens Shoal Lights, Hawk Channel, Fla.;
repairing aids on Inside Route Atlantic and Gulf coasts, Fla.; estab­
lishing range lights in Tampa Bay; repairs to Mobile Point Light
Station, Ala.; construction of Southwest Pass fog signal, La.; repair­
ing hurricane damage at Mona Island Light Station, P. R., at the
lighthouse depot, San Juan, P. R., at Port San Juan, Cape San Juan,
Arecibo, and Hams Bluff Light Stations, and Yabucoa range beacons
and Catano and Anegado range lights, P. R .; new keepers’ quarters,
Cleveland Light Station, Ohio; new light and fog signal at Poe Reef,
Mich., and Fourteen-Foot Shoal, Mich.; rebuilding light station at
Michigan Island, Mich.; improving aids in St. Marys River, Mich.;
installing modern fog signal and equipment at Forty-Mile Point
Light Station, Mich.; establishing an automatic light at Gull Island,
Mich.; installing modern fog signal and machinery at South Fox
Island, Mich.; reconstruction and rearrangement of aids to navigation
at Frankfort, Mich.; reconstruction and rearrangement of aids to
navigation at Muskegon, Mich.; establishing miscellaneous aids in
Alaska; improving aids in Columbia River; improving aids in Grays
Harbor, Wash.; extensive improvements at Goat Island Depot,
Calif.; establishing a light station at Anacapa Island and an auto­
matic light on Santa Barbara Island, Calif.; construction of a light­
house depot at Honolulu, Hawaii.
IMPROVEMENTS IN APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT

Materials have been ordered for equipping all remaining radiobeacons having spark transmitters with modern tube type radio
transmitters. Designs of tube-transmitter equipment w'ere improved
so as to assure greater frequency stability. A continuous-wave radiobeacon transmitter was built and tested, indicating that this type is
practicable and can be adopted when older models of the ship type

244

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

radio compasses are altered so as to be able to receive continuous-wave
signals. This form of transmission will have advantages in conserving
space in the crowded frequency band allotted to aids to navigation.
Definite progress has been made in the reduction of mutual inter­
ference of radiobeacons. This improvement is attained by three
methods: Clock control, grouped stations, and staggered frequencies.
Reliable clocks have now been designed which will select a definite
minute for each station in a group of three and cause that station to
send its signal at that time only. This clock control makes possible
the grouping of three station with the same frequency. This permits a
more widely separated frequency between adjacent groups. Reliable
control clocks now available make possible the increased use of auto­
matic or semiautomatic radiobeacons, starting and stopping the
radiobeacon transmitters and associated equipment at prescribed
intervals without constant personal attention, greatly increasing
the efficiency of this system without increase of personnel.
At Cape Henry, Va., there was put into commission in May, 1929,
the first synchronized radioboacon and air fog signal, the latter an
electric oscillator. This arrangement permits a navigator to closely
estimate his distance in fog, without special receiving equipment;
tests showed it to be effective to moderate distances.
The continued development of improved airways lighting equip­
ment and accessories progressed, with the incorporation of a new type
cover glass and stray light shield for the standard 24-inch revolving
searchlight. Prisms are incorporated in the new type cover glass,
which deflect 20 per cent of the light upward from the main beam
and distribute it through 25° of vertical arc. Mercury contactors,
replacing the magnetic type, have been adopted as standard for course
light circuits in the beacon base. The new type stray light shield
is in the form of a cylindrospherical reflector and is placed directly in
front of the light source, gathering the stray light and reflecting it
back to the parabolic mirror, increasing the horizontal width of the
main beam. The illuminated wind indicator is improved by the use
of a 150-watt bulb instead of the 75-watt bulb, and a skeleton frame
is now used which provides groater visibility of the lighted cone.
During the year the improvement of airways radio equipment and
communication stations progressed with the standardization of a 200watt intermediate frequency combination telephone and telegraph
transmitter, complete with motor generator line amplifier and 2button microphones for broadcasting bv voice or code to airplanes
and ground stations. Standard radio buildings at 11 sites on the
Transcontinental Airway were erected and equipped with standard
radio apparatus to replace the old buildings equipped with obsolete
arc-type apparatus. The aural type radio range beacon was im­
proved and standardized and 7 were placed in operation during the
year. Two Airways Division airplanes were equipped with up-todate radio apparatus to check the operation of radio equipment on
airways. Progress was made on the development of a polvdirectional
radiobeacon, designed to furnish 12 radio-marked courses, instead of 4
marked courses produced by the present radio range beacon. As the
airways work will be covered more completely elsewhere in the Sec­
retary’s report, only brief references to it are included here.
Electricity is being increasingly used to furnish illuminant in light­
houses and for power for operating fog signals. The extension of

BUREAU OF LIGHTHOUSES

245

commercial power lines, the design of dependable small generators,
and the increase in radiobeacon installations have made it practicable
and economical to further materially increase electrically lighted aids
to navigation. The number of minor lights provided with electric
illuminant, the current for which is supplied by a battery of primary
cells or dry cells, has been much increased. Several types of flashing
mechanisms for such lights are now in successful use throughout the
service.
The design of an electric lamp suitable for use with the large lenses
is an important problem. Several different types of lamps have been
made and tested in actual service with favorable results. The im­
provement of lighting equipment on lightships is being studied.
Important tests of fog-signal apparatus have been carried out dur­
ing the year, with results of great value. Practical tests have been
made to determine the most efficient type, shape, and position of
resonators for air signals. Tests of signals in which the sound is
propagated by the vibrations of a circular disk electrically energized
have proved satisfactory. Several of these oscillators are now in use.
Satisfactory tests have also been completed of another type of vibra­
tory-disk instrument in which the vibrations are set up by air under
high pressure impinging on the center of the disk while the periphery
is held rigid. Two installations of this type have been placed in
service satisfactorily. During the past year important modifications
have been made in the reciprocating piston type of fog signal or
diaphone, increasing the volume of tone with less consumption of air.
A new type of multiple valve for whistling buoys was designed and
has proved more efficient than the old type.
Daylight range lights have been established to mark an important
channel in New York Harbor and have been found to be very effective
in haze when unlighted ranges became useless.
The extension of automatic lighting apparatus is increasing annu­
ally, as stated earlier, adding greatly to the economy and efficiency
of the service.
The number of old steam power plants for fog signals in the service
is being gradually reduced; 6 such replacements were made during
the year, and others are being replaced.
A new type of power boat, for buoy work, designed in the third
district, is very efficient in handling small buoys. This boat is car­
ried on the deck of a larger tender and operates in waters too shallow
or restricted for a larger vessel.
ADMINISTRATION

The general organization of the service remained unchanged dur­
ing the year.
The continued extension of automatic apparatus for operating
lights, the grouping of minor lights under the care of fewer attend­
ants, and the discontinuance of unnecessary aids where this can be
done without detriment to the requirements of navigation have
made possible a reduction in the salary expenses for light stations.
There is a saving in maintenance resulting from the replacement of
two lightships with fixed structures. A third will be replaced the
coming year.

246

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

The act of February 25, 1929, contains various provisions of
legislation affecting the Lighthouse Service, including the authoriza­
tion of two aids to navigation in the approaches to the Panama Canal
from the Pacific Ocean; the authorization of the purchase of depot
sites at Newport, R. L, Portland and Rockland, Me., the detail of
engineers of the field service to duty in Washington, and the exten­
sion of facilities for medical attention for light keepers. The acts
of December 15 and 21, 1928, provide for the transfer of several
reservations or portions of reservations.
A conference of superintendents of lighthouses, coast and Lake
districts, was held in Washington, in January, 1929, this being the
10th of such conferences. There was valuable discussion of the
entire work of the Lighthouse Service, both technical and adminis­
trative.
Superintendent King, of the fifth lighthouse district, represented
the Lighthouse Service of this country at a meeting of a committee
on uniformity of buoyage and lighting of the coasts, held at Genoa,
Italy, February 8 to 15, 1929. A delegation, consisting of Commis­
sioner Putnam and Superintendent Yates of the third district and
Superintendent Rhodes of the eighteenth district, represented the
United States at the International Lighthouse Conference in London
in July, 1929.
The total appropriations for the maintenance of the Lighthouse
Service for the fiscal year 1929 were $9,685,020 and for special
works $1,851,934. Of this amount 8129,934 was a deficiency ap­
propriation for hurricane damage. These amounts are exclusive
of appropriations for airways, which amounted to |4 ,659,850.
A revised edition of the regulations for uniforms in the Lighthouse
Service was issued.
A new edition of the Ship’s Medicine Chest and First Aid at Sea,
published by the United States Public Health Service, has been
furnished to vessels and light stations in the Lighthouse Service as
needed.
There has been effective cooperation with other branches of the
Government in many ways. The personnel on vessels and at sta­
tions are encouraged to render aid to those in distress. Coopera­
tion with local school authorities has aided in providing school facili­
ties for the children of light keepers at isolated light stations.
Systematic inspections of the service, both on its technical and its
business sides, were continued during the year. The superintendent
on general duty made general inspections of stations, vessels, depots,
etc., and the examiner made examinations of the office business
methods and accounts, depot stores, and other property records in
various lighthouse districts. Special inspections were made by the
Commissioner and other officers from Washington.
A cost-keeping system based on actual expenditures for the various
features, including direct purchases and articles issued from depot
stocks, was continued in effect throughout the fiscal year. A stock
record was also maintained.
PERSONNEL

On June 30, 1929, there were 5,773 persons employed in the marine
work of the Lighthouse Service. This is a reduction of 92 from the
number in 1928, and of 247 from the maximum number in 1923.

BUKEAU OF LIGHTHOUSES

247

There has been a steady increase in the number of aids to navigation
maintained, and this continual decrease in personnel is due to the
increasing use of automatic apparatus.
The number of persons in the airways division on June 30, 1929,
was 1,180, making a total of 6,953 for both branches.
The United States Employees Compensation Commission give the
number of reported cases of injury subject to compensation for the
calendar year 1927 of employees of the Lighthouse Service as follows:
Cases resulting in death, 3; cases resulting in permanent total or
partial disability, 10; cases of temporary total disability^, 143. Four
cases of accidental death by drowning of employees on lighthouse
vessels occurred during the fiscal year, and 1 death was caused by
an explosion on a tender. There were more than 300 casualties
resulting in more or less serious injuries of employees on vessels and
at light stations, etc., during the year.
Medical treatment by the Public Health Service, without charge,
was received by approximately 1,505 employees of the Lighthouse
Service during the fiscal year.
Incidental to the regular work of the service, many opportunities
arise for rendering aid to those in distress because of the location of
light stations and vessels. During the fiscal year about 80 instances
were reported of saving life and property or rendering valuable aid,
often at great risk to the Lighthouse Service employees. Many of
these acts were especially meritorious, and some of the employees
were specially commended by the Secretary of Commerce.
LIGHTHOUSE DEPOTS

Lighthouse depots conveniently located and adequately equipped
are essential in this work. Some depots have become inadequate both
in area and equipment, others are in locations where they can not be
utilized efficiently. Provision should be made for new depots in
several districts and for improvement and enlargement ol some
depots now in use. Considerable progress has been made during the
fiscal year to meet the increasing demands of the service for more
facilities of this kind. Initial allotments have been made, and sites
are being examined for depots at Portland and Rockland, Me., and
Newport, R. I.
Several projects for improving and enlarging existing depots have
been completed during +ne fiscal year or were in active progress.
At Edgemoor Depot, Del., the reconstruction of the south wharf
and bulkhead was completed. At Portsmouth Lighthouse Depot,
Va., the deck of the wharves, also the roads in the reservation, were
covered with reinforced concrete. Considerable work has been
done at the depot at San Juan, P. R., to restore the buildings, wharves,
and grounds damaged by the hurricane of September 13, 1928.
At Chicago, 111., in view of important city improvements on the
water front, which required the occupation by the city of the former
depot, an exchange has been effected whereby the Lighthouse Service
has acquired from the city a valuable site for the depot at the east
side of Ogden Slip, on the north side of Chicago River near its entrance.
This exchange was authorized by an act of Congress approved May
29, 1928, and by city ordinance of October 31, 1928. The new site
has been occupied by the transfer of buildings from the former depot.

248

EEPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

A depot at Seattle, Wash., on Lake Union, has been acquired on
Government property by transfer. A 1.50-foot extension to the
wharf at the Goat Island Lighthouse Depot, San Francisco, Calif.,
has been completed, and a new concrete retaining wall, which will
provide additional area. At Honolulu Lighthouse Depot, Hawaii, a
reinforced concrete wharf and a sea wall along the bulkhead has been
completed, and the construction of modem depot buildings and shops
is in progress.
VESSELS OF THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE
REPLACEMENT OF VESSELS

The Lighthouse Service at the end of the fiscal year had in commis­
sion 110 vessels. The situation as to the replacement of obsolete
and old vessels has been considerably improved.
Six lightships and two tenders are being constructed under contracts
aggregating SI,639,274, and which it is expected will result in the
replacement of lightships Aro. 1, No. 5, No. 13, No. 41, No. 67, and
No. 70, and the tenders Water Lily and Poinsettia, which vessels are
beyond economical repair for this service.
Plans have been prepared for a new steel tender to replace the
wooden tender Laurel, the hull of which is in bad condition, not worth
repair; much of the machinery of the Laurel will be used. Plans are
being prepared for a small steel tender to replace the Birch, which is
also beyond economical repair. Preliminary plans have been made
for a new steel hull to replace the wooden hull of the tender Woodbine.
The condition of the vessels in the service now indicate that two
new tenders will be required within the next two years for replace­
ment purposes. An additional 100-foot tender is required for the
tenth district, for service in Lake Ontario.
LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS

Lighthouse tenders during the year steamed a total of 482,506
nautical miles in the various maintenance, construction, and inspec­
tion work, an average of approximately 8,616 miles for each tender.
The total quantitjr of fuel consumed by tenders during the jTear was
41,561 tons of coal, 99,365 barrels of fuel oil, 31,851 gallons of gaso­
line, and 3,770 gallons of kerosene. The total cost of maintenance
of tenders during the year was $2,278,655, exclusive of repairs which
cost $294,834.
The tender Manzanita has been changed from coal to an oil burning
vessel during the year. The improvement has increased the cruising
distance without refueling, reduced the personnel, and has resulted
in other economies of operation.
The gasoline-propelled tender Poinsettia was destroyed by explo­
sion and fire on December 27, 1928.
At the end of the year there were 55 tenders in commission; 19 of
these are equipped with radiocompasses, and 30 have radiotelegraph.
No tenders have been put into commission, condemned, or sold
during the year.
The following tenders have been extensively overhauled during
the fiscal year: Ilex, Lotus, Shrub, Iris, Mangrove, Palmetto, ana
Manzanita.

BUREAU OF LIGHTHOUSES

249

The following was the number of tenders of the Lighthouse Service
in commission on June 30 of the years specified, omitting those not
having regular crews: 1910, 51; 1915, 45; 1920, 55; 1925, 55; 1926, 56;
1927, 57; 1928, 56; 1929, 55. On June 30, 1929, 50 tenders were in
actual service, and 5 were undergoing repairs. There are 10 small
depot tendera without regular crews.
LIGHTSHIPS

Lightships are maintained on 45 stations. At the end of the year
55 lightships were in commission, including 10 relief ships. They
averaged 268 days on station per vessel. The total cost of main­
tenance of lightships during the year was $1,126,176, exclusive of
repairs, which cost $148,394. The lightship station at Lansing
Shoal, Mich., was discontinued October 6, 1928, on the completion of
the new light and fog signal station.
The following lightships have been extensively overhauled during
the fiscal year: Cape Charles, Va., ATo. 72; Portland, Me., Ao. 74;
Eelief, No. 76 (eighteenth district); Barnegat, N. J., No. 79; Frying
Pan Shoals, N. C., No. 94; and South Pass, La., No. 102.
The following was the total number of lightships on June 30 of the
years mentioned: 1910, 68; 1915, 66; 1920, 62; 1925, 59; 1926, 56;
1927, 57; 1928, 56; 1929, 55. Lightship stations, 1910, 51; 1915, 53;
1920, 49; 1925, 46; 1926, 46; 1927, 45; 1928, 46; 1929, 45.
During the year Cape Charles, Va., and Brunswick, Ga., lightship
stations were discontinued and the ships moved to new stations as
follows: Cape Charles, Va., lightship was moved to Chesapeake
Bay entrance and renamed Chesapeake; Brunswick, Ga., lightship
was moved to the entrance of the St. Johns River, Fla., and renamed
St. Johns.
Grays Reef Lightship No. 56 was condemned, and was sold in
December, 1928, being beyond economical repair.
Of the present lightships 42 have self-propelling machinery, 11 are
provided with sail power only, and 2 have no means of propulsion.
Very truly yours,
G eorge R. P utnam ,
Commissioner oj Lighthouses.

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY
D epartment of C ommerce ,
C oast and G eodetic S urvey ,

Washington, July 1, 1929.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r. S ecretary : In response to your request I furnish the
following report upon the work of the bureau during the past fiscal
year:
HYDBOGEAPHIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC WORK

During the fiscal year 1929 hydrographic, topographic, and con­
trol surveys were made on various sections of tne Atlantic and Pa­
cific coasts, along the Alaska coast, in the Hawaiian Islands, and in
the Philippines. To perform these surveys, which comprised 38
separate projects, 25 different survey units were employed.
A summary of the surveys accomplished or in progress at the close
of the year is given below:
Atlantic coast.—At the beginning of the fiscal year the survey
ship Lydonia was engaged on a resurvej’ of the southern part of the
coast of Maine. New surveys were carried northward from Ports­
mouth, N. H., to Portland, Me. A wire-drag party completed the
sweeping of a trial course for deep submergency tests of subma­
rines in the vicinity of Portsmouth, N. H. A resurvey of Gloucester
Harbor and the Annisquam River, Mass., was completed. Revision
surveys were made at Newburyport and Hampton, Mass., and at
Edgartown, Oak Bluffs, Gardiners Bay, and Jamaica Bay, N. Y.
Revision of the Potomac River triangulation was completed. The
survey ships Ranger and Natoma made new surveys in the entrance
of the Delaware River and in the vicinity of Five-Fathom Bank.
An original survey of the Cooper River from Charleston, S. C., to
the Seaboard Air Line bridge was completed. On the Florida coast
topographic, hydrographic, and control surveys were carried south­
ward from the vicinity of Ponce de Leon Inlet to Cape Canaveral
by the party on the survey ship Lydonia. The ships Ranger and
Natoma completed similar surveys from Jupiter Inlet southward to
Hillsboro Lighthouse, and in addition the party on the Natoma de­
veloped the shoals off Cape Canaveral. Control surveys for the re­
duction of air photographs were made along the Florida coast in
connection with other operations. Examinations were made by the
party on the Ranger of several reported shoals between Hillsboro
Lighthouse and Miami, and revised the triangulation in a portion of
Biscayne Bay. On the west coast of Florida surveys of San Carlos
Bay and the Caloosahatchee River were completed by the party on
the survey ship Ilydrographer. This party also completed the tri­
angulation and traverse necessary to control the air photographs
between San Carlos Bay and Cape Sable. A revision survey of
Mobile, Ala., water front was made.
2 50

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

251

Pacific coast.—On the Washington coast a shore party had started
control and topographic surveys preparatory to taking up hydrographic work between Cape Elizabeth and Cape Flattery. Chart
revision work was done in the vicinity of Seattle.
On the Oregon coast the survey ship Pioneer completed the proj­
ect- on which it had started during the latter part of the previous
fiscal year, namely, a complete topographic and hydrographic survey
of the coast from Cape Foulweather to Cape Arago. This work ex­
tended approximately 60 miles offshore. Inshore work was done
by the launch party from Cape Blanco southward to Cape Sebastian.
On the California coast the survey ship Discoverer completed the
project it had started during the latter part of the previous fiscal
year, namely, a complete topographic and hydrographic survey of
the coast from Cape Sebastian southward to Crescent City. The
offshore hydrography was carried southward to Redding Rock and
extended approximately 60 miles offshore. During the latter part
of the fiscal year this party started on a similar project which ex­
tended southward from Cape Mendocino to Point Reyes. At the
end of the year the work had been carried to the vicinity of Point
Arena. A launch party engaged on inshore hydrographic and
topographic surveys had completed work from Crescent City south­
ward to Mussel Point. Near the end of the fiscal year the survey
vessel Pioneer started on a new project which extends from Point
Reyes to Point Sur. Considerable revision work was done in San
Francisco and vicinity.
Alaska.—In southwest Alaska the party on the survey ship Sur­
veyor completed a large offshore area southwest of Montague Island.
This work extended offshore to Portlock Bank. Surveys were also
made by this partv in the approaches to Ressurrection Bay and in
Harris and Two Arm Bays. A survey made in Sitkalidak Strait,
Kodiak Island, by a subparty of the Surveyor disclosed a passage
which shortens the steamer track of vessels approaching Port
Hobron from the westward by approximately 40 miles. At the end
of the fiscal year the party on the Surveyor had taken up work on
the north and west coast of Kodiak Island and was engaged on
surveys in Shelikof Strait and in Uganik, Uyak, Zachar, and Alitak
Bays. While working at this project the party dragged the area
where the steamer Aleutian was wrecked and disproved the existence
of an uncharted rock in that locality.
Hawaiian Islands.—At the end of the fiscal year the survey ship
Guide had practically completed the survey of the inlets, shoals,
banks, and adjacent waters which extend westward from Niihau
Island to French Frigate Shoals. During the winter season this
vessel surveyed a large area west and northwest of the island of
Hawaii and made detailed surveys of the landings at Honokaa and
Kukuihaele on the north coast of the island. A revision survey of
Kahului Harbor on the north coast of Maui Island was also made
by this party.
Philippines.—The survey ships Pathfinder, Fathom#?, and Marindvque were employed throughout the year on surveys in Balintang
Channel, Lyzon Strait; on the east coast of Luzon, in the vicinity
of Casiguran Sound; in the Sulu Archipelago, in (be vicinity of
Tawi Tawi Island; and on the south coast of Mindanao, in the
vicinity of Davao and Dumanquilis Bay.

252

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Hydrography, topography, and triangulation (second and third order) performed
during year
Hydrography
Locality

Miles Area in Number
of
u aro of sound­
sound­ seimiles
ings
ing lines

Coast of Maine.......................... 2,616
Isles of Shoals, Me.................... W D 45
Gloucester Harbor, Mass___
190
Newburyport, Marthas Vine­
yard and Gardiners Bay,
Mass., and N .Y ...............
492
Jamaica Bay, N. Y ._...............
Cane May, N .J ........................ 1, 934
1, 225
Delaware Bay.....................
Potomac River, Md. and Va..
188
Cape Lookout, N. C ................
Cooper River, S. C — ............. 390
3,989
Cape Canaveral, Fla.................
West Palm Beach and Cope
Canaveral, Fla......... ............. 1, 262
Lake Worth to Hillsboro, Fla- 1,398
Cape Sable to San Carlos Bay- 1,156
West coast Florida (air photo
reduction)...............................
La Jolla, Calif............................ 114
15
San Francisco Bay, Calif.........
Point Reyes, Calif....................
202
Shelter Cove to Point Arena,
Calif......................................... 2,807
Crescent City to Mussel
307
Point, Calif............................
Cape Sebastian to Trinidad
Head, Calif, and Oreg_____ 6,837
Coquille River to Cape Sebas­
tian, Oreg.............................. . 598
Cape Foulweathcr to Cape
Arago, Oreg............................. i 6,978
Bchm Canal, Alaska................
Keku Strait and Wrangell
Narrows, Alaska................... 738
T iku Inlet, Alaska................... .............
KruzoiT island and Peril
860
Strait, Alaska.........................
WD 32
Southwest Alaska...................... 5,857
Hawaiian Islands.................... 15,755
North of Luzon and Minda­
nao, P. I .................................. 6,026
East coast Luzon and Minda­
nao, P. I.................................. 5,411
Sulu and Mindanao, P. I ......... 6,830
Total................................. 74,481

461 33,344
WD 26
3 12, 092

Triangulation (second
and third order)

Topography
Length
of shore
lino
surveyed
in miles

Area
Area
sur­
of covered
veyed Length
in
in inscheme
square miles square
miles
miles

6

24

38
74
10

0
15
30

7
90
05

12

7 2, 261
1 Ï, 506
20 3, 22G
4, 133 16, 6S4
42 6, 200
5, 600 54,074
94 9,738
4,065 42,743

38
11
150
9
44
7
74
52
114
58
74

10
3
773
5
21
3
21
72
83
65
31

17 51, 691

4S

17

31
126
69
11
7
2,621
144
216
41

124
WD IS
3, 652
33, 795
7,655
3,233
493
67,227

23,874
40, 701
25,511
1, 618
16, 178
52, 03G
18, 197
29, 463
38,987

9,986
WD 11
42,196
85,340
34,099
44, 713
143, 385
846, 517

110
130
239
212
4
36
108
135
104
115
160
75
1,726 1,862

Number
of geo­
graphic
positions
deter­
mined

32
7

317
12

10
31

05
19
46
26
27
39
45
40

168
20
108
21
151
6
GO
150

31
3
100
69
32
25
28
74

20
35
14

20
86
18

9
39
18

78
30
26
68
88

136
28
75
615
434
260
1,405
1,000
75
5,165

68
87
17
21
167
44
15
6
17
891

69
77
27
878

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

253

GEODETIC WORK
Length Area
scheme covered
Triangulation, first-order:
M ile s
Maine, Augusta to interna­
tional boundary.................... SO
Pennsylvania and Ohio, Pitts­
burgh arc................................ 85
Ohio, Columbus arc................ 225
Kentucky, Owingsvilleto Virginia-Tennessee boundary.. 120
K e n t u c k y , Bardstown to
Berea................................... . 65
Kontucky, Owingsvillo to
Portsmouth, Ohio________ 50

Sq . m i.

420
95
Buren................ ..........
California, Newport Beach to 'j
1 60
Boar Lake....................
|l, 200
Total....................................... 1,200
Triangulation, second-order: Cali- j
fornia, Redding to Humboldt I
j 85
Bay......................................
Base line, first-order: Ohio, Burg- 1
hill.................................................. i 5.8
Reconnaissance, first-order tri­ j
angulation:
New York and Pennsylvania,
Buffalo, N. Y., to Canton,
Pa............................................ 150
Kentucky, Berea to Ports­
mouth, O hio........... ............ 110
Arkansas, Danville to Mis» souri boundary...................... 120
Missouri, Springfield to
Charleston............................ 190
Arkansas, Louisiana, and
Texas, ninety-fourth me­
ridian arc................................ 310
Louisiana, Mississippi, and
Alabama, Shreveport to
union base.............................. 390
Georgia and Alabama, Atlanta
to Montgomery. .................. 200

5,400
1,600
1,100

2,700
1,100

2,500
2,850
1,000
600

Length Area
scheme covered
Reconnaissance, first-order tri­ M ile s S q . m i.
angulation—Continued
Missouri, Kentucky, Arkan­
sas, and Tennessee, Cairo
1,600
to Memphis........................... 145
Arkansas, Mississippi, and
Louisiana, Memphis to
1,700
Natchez................................ . 270
Mississippi and Louisiana,
Natchez to New Orleans... 180
1,300
California, Newport Beach to
;
1,600
Lucerne Valley..................... 90
(2,165
Total....................................... '2,155
22,800
1-----------

Montrose, Colo., to Farmington, N. M ex........................ 148
Farmington to Shiprock, N.
Mex......................................... 30
18,850
Alexandria, Va.........................
.3
Tucumcari to Taylor Springs,
N. Mex................................. . 103
Greenup to Jackson, Ky....... . 128
2.400
Somerset to Glasgow Junc­
tion, Ky................................ . 102
Monett, Mo., to Memphis,
;
Tcnn. (part of line), 362—
40 = 322.................................... 322
Covington to Richmond, Va. 257
Balcony Falls to Harpers
Ferry, W. Va_...................... 185
Washington, D. C.................. . 1
1,200 i Taylor Springs, N. Mex., to
Pueblo, Colo, (part of line). 14
1,600 ,
Total....................................... 1,290.3
1,800 j
Summary:
18.850
First-order triangulation.
1,200
2,700
Second-order triangulation__ 85
2,400
First-order base line................ 5.8
First-order triangulation, re­
3,000 j
22,800
connaissance.......................... 2,155
First-order leveling......................... 1, 290. 3
4,100
2,200 j

For several years the funds available for geodetic work have been
devoted largely to the extension of the first-order triangulation net
of the country. This has been done with a view to supplying those
missing arcs that are needed in the adjustment of the net in order
that final or. standard geographic positions can be furnished those
desiring the data. The time comes in the conduct of the geodetic
work of a nation when the network of arcs of triangulation must be
adjusted in a single unit and those unavoidable discrepancies where
two arcs join must be distributed over the net according to the best
mathematical methods. This has already been accomplished for the
western half of this country. The eastern border of that net is an
arc of triangulation which extends from Canada to Mexico, approxi­
mately along the ninety-eighth meridian. During the fiscal years
1930 and 1931, even if no increase in appropriations for the geodetic
work is made, additional arcs for the eastern half of the country
will be executed.

254

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Triangulation during the past fiscal year has been extended from
central Iowa along approximately the ninety-third meridian south
to central Arkansas, with a spur line from that arc running eastward
for 100 miles from Springfield, Mo. That arc of triangulation which
extends from the vicinity of Martinsburg, W. Va., northward via
Pittsburgh, Pa., to the Lake Survey triangulation in northeastern
Ohio was completed. Part of that arc was executed in the previous
fiscal year. An arc of triangulation was begun in the vicinity of
Sandusky, Ohio, and carried southward to a point about 60 miles
north of Portsmouth, Ohio, during the first half of the fiscal year.
Late in the fiscal year this work was resumed and it is expected that
it will be completed very early in July, 1929. An arc of triangulation
was begun in the summer of 1928 in Maine and was completed in
June, 1929. The work had to be discontinued in the fall of 1928
because of unfavorable atmospheric conditions.
An arc of triangulation for the study of earth movements in Cali­
fornia was begun during the early part of the fiscal year in southern
California. This arc will run between Newport Beach and Lucerne
Valley. About three-fourths of that arc were completed dui'ing the
fiscal year. The remainder will be executed in the early part of the
fiscal year 1930. The location of the arc was decided on by officials
of this bureau in consultation with members of the committee on
seismology of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. By execut­
ing arcs of triangulation over regions subject to earthquakes in the
past, and the location of many triangulation stations which are well
monumented, one is able by making new observations in the future
to determine whether the ground has undergone strain in horizontal
direction and its extent. If an earthquake should occur in this
region, the reobservation of the angles of triangles would enable
one to determine the amount of movement at different places and
to determine the distance from the actual fault resulting from the
earthquake that movement has occurred. This work, which is con­
sidered to be of prime importance for the study of earthquakes, is in
its infancy, and it is believed that exact knowledge of the behavior of
an earthquake may have a large influence on the practical affairs of
our people.
First-order levels were run between Republic, in western Missouri,
along the St. Louis-San Francisco Railway to Memphis, Tenn. A
line was run from Montrose, Colo., to Farmington, N. Mex., and an­
other from Tucumcari to Taylor Springs, N. Mex. Two lines of
first-order leveling aggregating 230 miles were run in Kentucky. In
Virginia levels were run from Covington to Richmond along the
Chesapeake & Ohio Railroad and from Glasgow Junction to Harpers
Ferry along the Norfolk & Western, Baltimore & Ohio, and the
Southern Railways. The latter work was executed at the request
of the United States Geological Survey which furnished the funds
for the field expenses.
A party of the Coast and Geodetic Survey was engaged during
the first five months of the fiscal year in determining astronomic
longitudes and latitudes and occasionally azimuths at triangulation
stations in Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Illinois. The astronomic
data secured are essential to the adjustment of the triangulation of
the eastern half of the country.

COAST AN I) GEODETIC SURVEY

255

The variation of latitude station at Ukiah, Calif., has been kept
in operation during the fiscal year and the record of observations
furnished to Prof. H. Kimura, president of the International Com­
mission on the Variation of Latitude. The Ukiah work was done
in cooperation with the Governments of Japan and Italy and with
officials of the International Astronomical Union and the Iternational Geodetic and Geophysical Union.
MAGNETIC AND SEISMOLOGICAL WORK
M agn etic sta tio n s occupied d u rin g th e fiscal ye a r ended J u n e SO, 1929

Alabama_______________________
Alaska_________________________
Florida________________________
Georgia________________________
Indiana_____________________ ____
Kansas_________________________
Kentucky______________________
Louisiana______________________
Mississippi_____________________
Nebraska_______________________
North Carolina_________________

2
14
5
14
2
3
4
2
3
5
1

Ohio___________________________ 8
Pennsylvania___________________ 3
South Carolina_________________ 5
South Dakota__________________ 1
Tennessee______________________ 3
Texas__________________________ 8
Virginia________________________ 10
West Virginia__________________ 3
Total____________________ 96

As shown in the table the principal magnetic work has been in
the section of the country lying eastward of a line from southern
Texas to western Pennsylvania, an area in the northwest, and in the
interior of Alaska. In the latter survey observations were made at
points never hitherto reached for this purpose.
Continuous recording of the magnetic elements was in progress
at five magnetic observatories. The hurricane destroyed several
buildings at San Juan, P. R., but fortunately not those containing
the essential magnetic instruments, and these have been kept in oper­
ation. New methods which facilitate observations have been put in
effect at a number of observatories. Cooperative magnetic observa­
tions were carried on at Duke University, Durham, N. C. Special
auroral observations were made at Sitka.
Seismology.—Instrumental observations have been made at Tucson,
Sitka, at the cooperative stations at the University of Hawaii and
the University of Chicago, and at the San Juan Observatory up to
the time of the hurricane. No observations have been made in Porto
Iiico since that time. Several new seismographs have been tested at
Cheltenham, which is used primarily for this purpose.
The collection of reports on the visible and felt effects of earth­
quakes as made by volunteer observers is becoming better organized.
The inspector in charge of the field station at San Francisco has
done important work in organizing the collection of reports in the
Pacific coast region.
TIDE AND CURRENT WORK

In addition to numerous short series of tide observations along
the coasts of the United States and possessions in connection with
hydrographic surveys, tide observations were continued at primary
tide stations of the bureau for the purposes of furnishing general
tidal control for hydrographic surveys in the various regions repre­
sented and for the determination of tidal datum planes.

256

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Primary tide stations
Pensacola, Fla.
Portland, Me.
Portsmouth, N. H. (cooperative).
Galveston, Tex.
Poston, Mass.
San Diego, Cadi, (cooperative).
La Jolla, Calif.
Fort Hamilton, N. Y.
Los Angeles, Calif, (cooperative).
New York, N. Y.
San Francisco, Calif.
Atlantic City, N. J.
Astoria, Oreg.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Seattle, Wash.
Annapolis, Md. (cooperative).
Valdez, Alaska.
Baltimore, Md.
Ketchikan, Alaska.
Hampton Itoads, Va. (cooperative).
Charleston, 8. C.
Seward, Alaska.
Honolulu, Hawaii (cooi>erative).
Mayport, Fla. (cooperative).
Hilo, Hawaii (cooperative).
Daytona Beach, Fla.
Key West, Fla.

Within the past few years considerable savin" has been made in
the appropriation for tides and currents in establishing primary tide
stations in cooperation with other organizations having personnel
in the immediate localities in which the tide observations are de­
sired. Of thé 27 primary tide stations 8 are cooperative, or more
than 25 per cent of all. These cooperative tide stations are main­
tained and operated at practically no additional cost to the Govern­
ment, and the records are forwarded to this bureau for our permanent
files.
Tide observations, secondary stations.—In addition to the primary
tide stations, short series of tides are observed by hydrographic
parties either with standard or with portable tide gages. Tides
were observed at 07 stations, with a total of 17 years and 7.9 months.
Staff observations.—In addition to the primary and secondary
stations, tides were observed on plain tide staffs, for hydrographic
purposes, and were recorded in books. Tides were observed on plain
staff gages at 41 stations, with a total of 4 years and 0.3 months.
Tide observations, outside sources.—Tide records were received
from sources outside this bureau from 28 tide stations, totaling 17
years and 9.2 months of records. These records are in addition to
the cooperative primary tide stations.
S u m m a ry o f tid e records received
Stations
Eastern coast.............
Gulf of Mexico coast.
Pacific coast..............
Alaskan coast______
Outlying territory...
Total................

80
10
29
15
18
152

Years

Months

18
4
10
3
54
92

5.9
4.3
5.8
10.5
11.9
2.4

Current observations.—Short series of currents were observed as
listed below:
S u m m a ry o f cu rre n t o b serva tions

Stations
Short series.........................................................................................................

186

Year ; Months
1

9.S

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

257

In continuing the program of tide and current surveys of im­
portant harbors, Chesapeake Bay and tributaries were completed
during the fiscal year. Because of the wide extent of the waterways
comprising this system two field seasons were necessary, the upper
part of the bay being surveyed in the fiscal year 1928 and the lower in
1929. During the past fiscal year 106 current stations and 23 tide
stations were observed during this survey. The results have been
tabulated and reduced and the manuscript for a publication on tides
and currents in Chesapeake Bay and tributaries is nearing comple­
tion and will be sent to the printer early in the present fiscal year.
In the last month of the fiscal year 1929 a tide and current survey
of Long Island Sound and tributaries was begun. This will be
completed during the fiscal year 1930.
At Fort Hamilton, N. Y., the tide station which had been in
operation for about a year and a half was discontinued on December
31. 1928, the series derived furnishing the observation required.
The tide station at Valdez, Alaska, which was in operation for
several years, was discontinued October 4, 1928, the observations ob­
tained being sufficient for the purpose for which this station was es­
tablished.
A portable automatic tide gage has been loaned to the Florida
Railroad & Navigation Corporation for the purpose of securing a
series of tidal observations on the west coast of Florida, the records
to become the property of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. This
gage is operated at no cost to the survey.
Through a cooperative arrangement between this survey and the
Chamber of Commerce of Cordova, Alaska, a series of tide observa­
tions is being obtained at that place.
At the request of the city of Fort Lauderdale, Fla., a portable
automatic tide gage has been established at that place to be operated
for a period of about a year.
In order to furnish data in connection with a lawsuit to which
the Government is a party, two portable automatic tide gages were
maintained during the month of February in the vicinity of Bennings Bridge, D. C., in cooperation with the United States Army
Engineers. Members of the division were called upon to testify in
court as expert witnesses in connection with this case.
In addition to the tide records, temperature and density observa­
tions—frequently requested by operators of cold-storage plants, by
fishing concerns, and by investigators of the ravages or pile-boring
ilmnoria—were made at all primary tide stations at no increase of
cost to the Government. Short series of these observations were also
made at all current stations occupied in the current survey of Chesa­
peake Bay and tributaries.
The following cooperation was given the Coast and Geodetic
Survey in tidal work during the year:
The primary tide station at Annapolis, Md., which is operated
cooperatively by this bureau and the Naval Academy was put into
operation on August 7, 1928. Aside from serving as a primary
tide station, it is also to be used for the purpose of instructing
the midshipmen in tidal work.

258

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The Navy cooperated in the operation of tide stations at the
Portsmouth (N. H.) Navy Yard, San Diego, Calif., and at the
naval operating base, Hampton Roads, Va.
The chief hydrographer, Canal Zone, furnished tide observations
for the full year at two tide stations in the Canal Zone.
The city of Los Angeles and the Territory of Hawaii are co­
operating in the maintenance and operation of tide stations at Los
Angeles, Hilo, and Honolulu, respectively.
Capt. G. St. Maur Stocker, Swatow, China, is furnishing the
records from a series of tide observations being obtained at the
entrance to Swatow Harbor.
During the fiscal year the following primary tide stations were
visited and levels run between tide staffs and bench marks:

Portland, Me.
Portsmouth, N. H.
New York, N. Y.
Baltimore, Md.
Annapolis, Md.
Charleston, S. C.
Mayport, Fla.
Jacksonville, Fla.
Daytona Beach, Fla.

Key West, Fla.
Everglades, Fla.
Astoria, Oreg.
Seattle, Wash.
Ketchikan, Alaska.
Cordova, Alaska.
Valdez. Alaska.
Seward, Alaska.
Honolulu, Hawaii.

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

259

The accomplishments of the Washington office of the bureau dur­
ing the fiscal year, by divisions and sections, follow.
CHIEF CLERK

The principal duties of this division are the care, custody, and
upkeep of the building occupied by the bureau; the supervision of
the expenditures for office expenses, including the purchase of sup­
plies for the office and to some extent for the field; the care of most
of the original records of the field surveys, as well as the library
of printed publications; the general supervision of all matters re­
lating to the personnel work, including reports of leaves of absence f
the custody and accounting for the receipts from the sale of chartsr
publication, etc.; and the direction of the employees engaged in the
care, maintenance and protection of the buildings occupied by thebureau in the District of Columbia.
In the library and archieves 109 hydrographic and 87 topographic
sheets, each representing new surveys made by the bureau, were
received. Other additions were blue prints (mostly showing surveys
made by Army Engineers), 616; maps, 3,253; charts, 2,346; field,
office, and observatory records, 3,913; photographs and negatives,
171; prints, 400; lantern slides, 156; books, 467.
The total number of permanent and temporary employees in the
office and field forces, which includes commissioned officers and all
employees appointed through civil-service certification, is: Office
force, 221; field force, 199; total, 420. These figures do not include
the persons engaged as rodmen, chainmen, heliotropers, and others in
the field parties nor any enlisted men on vessels.
The statistics in regard to leave of absence during the calendar
year are: Annual leave, 7,459 days; sick leave, 1,829 days; withoutpay leave, 285 days; accrued leave, 3,264 days. While the number of
employees naturally varied on account of resignations and vacancies,
calculated on the number actually in the service on June 30, 1929,
as a basis of computation, the average annual leave taken during
the year by each employee was approximately 17.37 days and sick
leave 4.35 days.
The receipts from the sale of charts and nautical publications pre­
pared by the bureau amounted to $65,545.42. The funds realized
from the sale of old property, work done, and miscellaneous sources
amounted to $4,707.63.
DIVISION OF HYDROGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY

The work performed by the administrative and other officers of
this division stationed at the Washington office is quite diversified.
It consists of the preparation of plans and instructions for field sur­
veys, the supervision of field w*>rk, and the examination of the records
of field parties. These officers prepare plans and specifications for
new vessels and for hydrographic surveying equipment. They also
supervise repairs and upkeep of the vessels. Research work is car­
ried on in connection with new surveying methods and appliances.

260

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

During the past year experiments were made on a new type of echo­
sounding apparatus for use in shallow water and a new instrument
was devised for getting more accurate measurement of deep water by
means of echo sounding. A course of instruction was carried out in
ihe division for the education of field officers in the use of echo­
sounding apparatus and sound ranging. All field officers stationed
in Washington took this course of instruction.
The preparation of manuscript for coast pilots and inside route
pilots was performed by the coast pilot section of the division from
information obtained by an officer of the division who made a thor­
ough field inspection of the area covered by the coast pilot. This
section compiled during the year a publication containing tables
for ascertaining navigable distances between the ports of the United
States ports to a number of foreign ports. This publication lists
over 400 ports and points on inland waterways and is intended to
supplement the series of coast pilots by providing a convenient means
for ascertaining navigable distances between the ports of the United
States and its offlying territories.
DIVISION OF GEODESY

The following important pieces of work were completed during
the year or were in progress at the end of the fiscal year :
C o m p u ta tio n a n d a d ju stm e n t o f th e fo llo w in g pieces o f tria n g u la tio n .—

1. Readjustment of the first-order triangulation west of the ninety-eighth
meridian. Main scheme and intersection points completed.
2. Southeast Alaska : Main scheme completed and partly prepared for
publication.
*
3. Territory of Hawaii: Adjustment completed and manuscript of publication
sent to the printer.
4. Readjustment of the first-order triangulation net east of the ninety-eighth
meridian. Preliminary work only.
C o m p u ta tio n o f leveling. —About 1,300 miles of leveling located in New Mexico,
Kentucky. Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Colorado.
C om pu tation o f th e fo llo w in g astro n o m ic and g ra v ity w o rk.—
1. Azimuths : 37 stations in the United States, Alaska, and Hawaiian Islands.
2. Longitudes: 19 stations in the United States. Work was also done in
preparing for publication the world longitude determinations made by this
bureau in 1920.
3. Longitudes : 11 stations in the United States.
4. Ibiplace azimuths: Computation of time geodetic azimuths at 19 Lapjace
stations.
5. Isnstatic reductions: Computation of the reduction for topography and
Isostatic compensation at 49 sea stations determined in fall of 1928 by coopera­
tion of the United States Navy, Carnegie Institution of Washington, and Dr.
V . A. Vening Meinesz. Also same computations for 3 stations in Hawaiian
Islands.
6. Gravity computations: Compulation of 3 stations in Hawaiian Islands and
of various standardizations and experimental work at Washington, D. C.

Investigations were carried on during the year in the following
subjects : Interior of the earth, lunar theory, variation of latitude,
California earthquakes, and tidal friction.
The following publications were issued by the division during the
fiscal year:

Special Publication 140, Manual of First-Order Leveling.
Special Publication 145, Manual of Second and Third Order Triangulation
and Traverse.

261

COAST AND GEODETIC SUBVEY

Special Publication 151, Comparison of Old and New Triangulation in
California.
Special Publication 153, Conformal Projection of tlie Sphere Within a Square.
Special Publication 156, Triangulation in the Hawaiian Islands (in press).
Special Publication 77, Precise Leveling in Texas (revised edition).
Serial 257, Geodetic Surveys—Methods, Instruments, and Purposes (revised
edition).
DIVISION OF CHARTS

The printing and distribution of charts increased by more than
7.000 copies during the year. This is approximately the normal
annual increase that has been continuing for the past 15 years. The
sale of tide tables and current tables is the largest we have ever had.
These are substantial evidences of growth. There are many indi­
cations that during the coming year this volume will be exceeded.
There is a persistent demand from various sources for charts of
localities not previously published. Charts of several rivers and
comparatively shoal areas heretofore considered unimportant for
navigation but now coming into importance on account of the phe­
nomenal increase in the number of motor boats are on our program.
The addition of a new chart to the number on issue requires not only
the work of compilation and preparation of plates but also contin­
uous correction, year after year, work which is already taxing the
capacity of the division. This demand for charts of new areas must
be met to the best of our ability and between 1925 and 1929, 31 new
charts have been added to the list on issue.
Photographic copies of original survey sheets are quite extensively
used in the study of important engineering projects as base maps
for local improvements and assessments and as evidence in litigation
involving valuable property rights. These records are highly valu­
able, judging by the number of complimentary letters received.
The progress in airway mapping has fallen behind the increasing
demand for airway charts. The production of strip maps is being
curtailed to permit undertaking general flying maps which will
eliminate considerable duplication caused by overlapping strips.
Accomplishments for the year.—There were 13 new nautical charts
produced and 10 new editions of existing charts; 3 airway strip maps
published, 5 reprinted, and 5 nearing completion. All existing charts
were kept up to date and weekly Notices to Mariners prepared for
publication.
Below is given a 5-year comparative statement showing the total
number of nautical charts on issue, the new charts constructed, and
new editions issued during the year; also the cancellations of obsolete
charts. On account of very extensive corrections several of the 84
new editions listed for 1929 required practically as much work as a
new chart.
1925
Current charts on issue....................................................
New charts.........................................................................
New editions...................................................................
Charts canceled.................................................................

679
13
114
8

1926
687
10
97
2

1927
691
10
94
12

1928
702
18
74
7

1929
710
13
84
5

262

REPOET TO THE SECRETARY 01" COMMERCE

The charting program for 1930 includes 13 new nautical charts,
5 charts to be reconstructed, 9 new airway strip maps, 2 sectional
charts of a series that will eventually cover the entire country. The
work of first importance will be keeping existing charts up to date.
DIVISION OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AND SEISMOLOGY

The principal accomplishments have been:
1. The resumption of preparation of magnetic observatory results
for publication. Progress has been made though the amount is un­
satisfactory. Further improvements in methods have been made.
2. Preparation of the field results for publication. This has been
kept practically up to date.
3. Preparation of the magnetic tables and charts for 1925 was
completed. This publication should meet the need for which it is
prepared for many years.
4. Progress has been made in the preparation of magnetic in­
formation by groups of States. A volume covering the area from
Delaware to Tennessee was practically completed and the necessary
maps compiled.
5. A program of development of instruments and methods with
study of the underlying theory has been an important activity.
There have been improvements in the standard methods and new
materials and apparatus have been adopted for solving the problems
as they have become available.
6. Attention has been given to some of the major problems relat­
ing to the earth’s magnetism, and a special effort has been made to
keep in touch with all the various organizations throughout the earth
which are now very actively attacking this problem. Special men­
tion should be made of cooperation with the Navy Department and
the Carnegie Institution of Washington.
SEISMOLOGY

Only a partially successful effort has been made to put the avail­
able information into finished form. The delay in the issue of our
quarterly seismological report has become quite serious but in so far
as other observatories are concerned their needs have been met by
advance information from our observatories. Immediate determi­
nation of position of earthquakes through reports from cooperative
organizations and observatories has proved so valuable that upon
request from Great Britain the service has included transmission of
earthquake information to Europe as part of the meteorological
messages of the Weather Bureau. Advice and information has been
furnished to those contemplating the installation of instruments and
other various activities related to the earthquake problem.
DIVISION OF TIDES AND CURRENTS

Owing to the increased calls for tide and current data and because
of the additional data obtained from the current and tide surveys the
work in the office of the division of tides and currents has increased
considerably in the past few years, without a commensurate increase
in the personnel.

COAST AND GEODETIC SUKVEY

263

Upon the completion of a tide and current survey, one of which
is made in a different harbor each summer, the observations are re­
duced and the manuscripts for special publications on the tides and
currents in these harbors are prepared for printing in the next fiscal
year. The survey of Chesapeake Bay and tributaries was completed
early in the past year and manuscript is now being prepared for
publication.
These comprehensive tide and current surveys were begun in
1922, and to the present time the following special publications, deal­
ing with tides and currents in the respective harbors, have been
issued:
Currents and tides in harbors
No. 111. New York Harbor, 1925.
No. 115. San Francisco Harbor, 1925.
No. 123. Delaware Bay, 1926.

No. 127. Southeast Alaska, 1927.
No. 142. Boston Harbor, 1928.
No. 150. Portsmouth Harbor, 1929.

No. 83.
No. 119.
No. 128.
No. 136.

No. 141. California, 1928.
No. 148. New Jersey, 1929.
No. 155. Massachusetts (in press).

Special Publication 148, Tidal Bench Marks, State of New Jersey,
received from the printer during the fiscal year, is part of a series
containing descriptions and elevations of tidal bench marks along
the coasts of the United States. The following are publications of
this series issued to the present tim e:
Tidal bench mark publication
New York, 1922.
District of Columbia, 1925.
Rhode Island, 1926.
Connecticut, 1927.

Special Publication 154, Instructions, Primary Tide Stations,
which was prepared as a supplement to Special Publication 139, was
sent to the printer in January, 1929. This publication contains in­
structions pertaining to the operation of a primary tide station and
the prelminary reduction of the records.
Two new publications that were issued during the fiscal year, Tide
Table, Boston Harbor and Vicinity, and Tidal Current Charts, New
York Harbor, have been well received by the public, the unexpected
demand for the current charts necessitating a reprint within a few
months of the original issue. This publication gives by means of a
set of 12 charts the direction and velocity of the current at various
localities throughout New York Harbor. In addition to this infor­
mation, the complete set of charts presents a comprehensive view of
the tidal-current movement for the harbor as a whole. At the pres­
ent time we have insistent demands for similar publications for San
Francisco Bay, Boston Harbor, and Chesapeake Bay, where current
surveys have already been made and observational data are available.
The predictions of tides and currents are made and the manuscript
submitted to the printer each year in time to have all the tables for
any calendar year ready for issue by July 1 of the preceding calendar
year. Predictions of currents for the current tables for the calendar
year 1931 were begun October 30, 1928, and completed November 30,
1928. Tide predictions for the tide tables for the calendar year 1931
were begun November 30, 1928, and completed January 22, 1929.

264

REPORT TO THE SECRETARÏ OP COMMERCE

The following table, showing the issue of the tide tables for each
fiscal year for the 10-year period 1920-1929, is indicative of the
demand for the tables:
United
States and Atlantic
Pacific New York Boston
Foreign Coast Tide Coast Tide Harbor
Harbor Total
Ports Tide Tables
Tables Tide Table Tide Tables
Tables

Fiscal year
1920..................................................
1921 1922..................................................
1923..................................................
1924..................................................
1925..................................................
1926..................................................
1927..................................................
1928..................................................
1929..................................................

3,469
3,577
3,067
2,479
2.509
2,218
2,730
2,692
2,377
3, 257

5,357
5, 678
5,704
5, 440
7,097
6,727
6,707
67,.934
281
7,276

16,061
14, 957
14, 902
15, 054
15, 234
15,849
15,347
15,911
17,009
16,896

1,992
952

1,461

24,887
24,212
23,673
22,973
24, 840
24, 794
24,784
25, 537
28,619
29,486

The following table shows the number of copies of the current
tables issued for the fiscal years 1923 to 1929, separate current tables
having been issued in 1923 for the first tim e:
Fiscal year
1923...............................
192^.............................
1925............................
1926...............................

Atlantic Pacific
Coast Coast
Current Current Total
Tables Tables
2,029
3,124
2,452
3, 014

1,786
2,002
2,474
1, 763

Fiscal year

3,815 1927......... ....................
..............
5, 126 1928
..........
4, 926 1929
4,777

Atlantic Pacific
Coast Coast
Current Current Total
Tables Tables
3,722
3, 614
3, 492

2,311
2,501
4, 040

66,033
, 115
7, 532

The United States and Foreign Ports Tide Tables for 1929 con­
tain daily predictions for 88 reference stations and tidal differences
and constants for 3,775 subordinate stations. One additional refer­
ence station, Aberdeen, Grays Harbor, Wash., was included in the
1930 edition.
In accordance with a cooperative arrangement for the exchange
of tidal predictions, daily predictions for the annual tide tables are
now exchanged between the Coast and Geodetic Survey and the
following organizations: British Admiralty, 19 stations; Canadian
Hydrographic Office, 4 stations; Deutsche Seewarte, Germany, 6
stations; and Service Hydrographique, France, 4 stations.
The production of tide and current tables has been systematized
and a high degree of efficiency attained. Only nominal improve­
ments can now be hoped for along these lines, as the present con­
ditions are such that any further speeding up must result in loss
of accuracy.
DIVISION OF ACCOUNTS

For the fiscal year 1929 the regular appropriations for the Coast
and Geodetic Survey amounted to $2,445,127. This amount was
further increased to $2,527,627 by deficiency acts, transfers from
other departments, etc. The actual disbursements during the fiscal
year amounted to $2,587,862.02. This amount does not represent
the actual expenses of the bureau for the fiscal year 1929, as included
therein arc disbursement on account of previous fiscal years.

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

265

During the year from 30 to 50 chiefs of party have disbursed
funds in the field, operating throughout the entire United States
and its possessions. These chiefs of party7 are financed by advances
made to them through this division, and their accounts are in
turn rendered to this division for credit to their account of advances.
They are then included in the accounts of the disbursing agent, and
are transmitted to the General Accounting Office for final settle­
ment.
The primary object for these chiefs of party being in the field
is the accomplishment of surveying work, and it is, and has been,
the continued endeavor of this division to simplify the accounting
work in every possible manner in order that a maximum of effort
may be devoted by these chiefs of party to their surveying work.
The majority of these officers have no permanent station, their
work being migratory. The accounting work is necessarily accom­
plished at night after completing the day’s work in the field, and
under the most difficult conditions, as, for instance, by lamplight
in a small tent with only the crudest facilities.
INSTRUMENT DIVISION

The development, procurement, modification, and servicing of the
surveying instruments used by the field parties and observatories of
this bureau in its work of geodetic, hydrographic, magnetic, tidal
surveys, and other activities is the function of the bureau’s instru­
ment division. This division also records all material transfers to,
from, and between field parties and the Washington office, and ac­
counts for material at the bureau’s headquarters. It is also the
function of this division to design such special instruments and
equipment as may be needed, to prepare drawings and specifications,
and to construct sample instruments. It is also frequently necessary
for this organization to design and build special machines to per­
form some of the highly accurate and special work which is oc­
casioned by the construction of the various precision instruments
which the bureau uses.
These various functions were carried on during the past year,
and a number of new instruments and improvements were made,
the more important being :
Precise level rod.—We have steadily improved the level rod
both in its construction and in the method of dividing it. We
have been able to develop a rod which will be of longer life, and so
stable that there will not be appreciable changes in length due to
usage. By the designing and constructing in our own shop of a
special dividing machine we have been able to graduate these rods
with a much higher degree of accuracy, and calibration is now car­
ried one decimal place farther than was formerly possible. By
means of this machine all rods are practically alike and we are
experimenting, with, I understand, very favorable results, with a
change in the method of conducting the leveling work whereby it
is not necessary to reverse the positions of the forward and rear
rods with each set-up, and the preliminary tests show a speeding
up of from 10 to 15 per cent.
Second-order theodolite.—This instrument, whose design was re­
ferred to in last year’s report, has been under construction during

266

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

the year and is virtually completed. A notable improvement in its
design has been made in the introduction of ball bearings into the
micrometer microscopes, which renders them extremely sensitive and
makes them adjustable and practically free from the effects of wear.
An important element of such microscopes is the reversibility of the
micrometer screw. The introduction of ball bearings renders the
operating parts so lacking in friction that movement is virtually
instantaneous in either direction on rotation of the screw. This will
result in speedier and more accurate observation.
Engine-driven sounding machine.—A new portable, air-cooled,
gasoline engine-driven sounding machine has been developed for
launch work and is now under field test. This machine is quite
light, very powerful, and its entire control is in one hand of the
operator. This machine will enable shallow soundings to be con­
ducted with much greater ease and rapidity than where the hand
sounding machine is used.
Registering sheave.—The registering sheave used by this bureau
in deep-sea sounding was redesigned to incorporate a more rugged
and more easily read and operated registering device, and a number
of these instruments were placed in the field for testing purposes.
A new type of automatic time switch for the control of signal
lamps, to eliminate the constant need of an attendant, was designed
and built during the year. This switch makes use of a drop of
mercury sealed into a glass tube properly mounted on suitable metal
parts, connected with a clock. This type of switch will not be
affected by moisture, temperature, or dirt, nor is there any tendency
for the tarnishing of contacts, as in the case of some of the switches
previously used. A quantity of these switches is being used dur­
ing the present season.
Efforts are continually being made to improve the quality and
accuracy of the instruments, and to reduce their cost by the use of
improved materials and methods of construction. Every effort is
made to reduce the operating expense of the shops by the introduction
of labor-saving machinery, and by adding suitable apparatus for
testing incoming instruments and materials.
Very truly yours,
R. S. P a t t o n , Director.

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION
D epartm ent of C ommerce ,
B ureau of N avigation ,

Washington, July 1, 1929.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r . S ecretary : In response to your request I submit the
following report upon the work of the bureau during the past fiscal
year:
AMERICAN SH IPPIN G ON JUNE 30, 1929

On June 30, 1929, the merchant marine of the United States,
including all kinds of documented craft, comprised 25,326 vessels of
16,477,859 gross tons, of which 2,256 seagoing vessels of 10,724,030
gross tons were of 1,000 tons or over, compared with 2,336 vessels of
10,882,793 gross tons on June 30, 1928. Following is an analysisJof
the ownership of seagoing tonnage compared with one year ago:
Ownership and date
Private ownership (500 gross tons
and over):
July 1, 1928....................................
July 1, 1929....................................
U. S. Shipping Board (1,000 gross
tons and over):
July 1, 1928....................................
July 1, 1929....................................
Total, 1928..................................
Total, 1929..................................

Steel
N um ber

G ross to n s

761
628
2,122
2,061

4,110,061
3,315,692
10,461,438
10, 334, 418

1,361 6,351, 377
1,433 7,018,726

Wood
N um ber

573
520

573
520

!

Total

G ross toiis

N um ber

1,934
1,953

G ross to n s

702,920
643, 770

761
628
2,695
2,581

4,110,061
3,315, 692
11,164,358
10,978,188

702,920
643, 770

7, 054, 297
7, 662, 496

Of these totals 1,230 vessels of 6,571,345 gross tons were engaged
in the foreign trade and 1,350 vessels of 4,406,843 gross tons in the
coasting trade.
Since June 1, 1921, when our foreign trade reached its greatest
volume, 10,699,596 gross tons, there has been a steady decline, until
June 1, 1929, it amounted to only 6,565,419 gross tons, a falling off
of 4,134,077 gross tons. The decrease in the foreign trade is duo
principally to the scrapping of large vessels which belonged to the
Shipping Board and to changes from foreign to coasting trade because
of greater opportunities in that service.
Since June 1, 1921, the coasting trade, exclusive of the trade on the
Great Lakes, has increased 1,962,397 gross tons. During the same
nine years the total seagoing tonnage has decreased 2,165,854 gross
tons.
During the year 808 vessels of 128,976 gross tons were built
and documented, and on July 1, 1929, there were building or under
contract to build in our shipyards 218 vessels of 169,862 gross tons.
The corresponding figures for 1928 were 969 vessels of 257,180 gross
tons built and 483 vessels of 264,410 gross tons under contract to
build.
267

268

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The new tonnage includes 5 steel passenger steamers of 29,811
gross tons, 3 steel cargo motor ships of 4,357 gross tons, 2 steel motor
ship tankers of 11,877 gross tons, and 1 steel steam ferry of 2,029
gross tons, aggregating 48,074 gross tons.
On June 30, 1929, the laid-up seagoing tonnage of the United States
aggregated 569 vessels of 2,232,449 gross tons, as against 760 vessels of
3,145,113 gross tons on June 30, 1928.
Details of the world’s laid-up tonnage, classification of American
vessels by size, service, and power, and of vessels launched and under
construction may be found in Merchant Marine Statistics for 1929, a
publication prepared by this office.
NAVIGATION LAWS
INSPECTION OF MOTOR SHIPS

For several years this bureau has called attention to the need of
clarification and extension of the steamboat inspection laws to cover
the increasing number of large vessels propelled by internal-com­
bustion engines.
We have in the United States 11,651 documented motor vessels of
over 732,000 gross tons of which 110 vessels aggregating 401,942 gross
tons are each 1,000 tons or more.
The increased use in our foreign trade of motor vessels emphasizes
the necessity for additional legislation covering their construction,
manning, and equipment.
LOAD LINE

An act to establish load linos for American vessels was approved
March 2, 1929 (Public, No. 934, 70th Cong.). It applies to all mer­
chant vessels of 250 gross tons or over loading at or proceeding on a
foreign voyage by sea from any port or place within the United States
or its possessions, the Great Lakes excepted, and to merchant vessels
of the United States of like tonnage loading at or proceeding for a
voyage by sea from any foreign port or place, the Great Lakes ex­
cepted.
These load water lines are to be established under regulations
issued from time to time by the Secretary of Commerce and shall in­
dicate the maximum depth to which vessels safely may be loaded.
The master and the owner of the vessel are required to keep these
load water lines permanently and conspicuously marked on the vessel
as required by the regulations. The marking of these load lines is to
be under the supervision, so far as their position and manner of mark­
ing is concerned, of the American Bureau of Shipping or other proper
association selected by the Secretary of Commerce. If the ship­
owner desires, he may request the Secretary of Commerce to appoint
any other corporation or association satisfactory to the Secretary of
Commerce for the purpose. The Secretary of Commerce also has
authority to appoint any officer of the Government for this purpose.
In the case of foreign vessels leaving our ports authority is given
the Secretary of Commerce to accept the load line placed under law3

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION

269

and regulations of the country to which they belong provided such
laws and regulations are equally effective with those established under
this act. If they are not as effective as our law requires, load lines
must bo placed on such vessels under the rules and regulations of
the Secretary of Commerce.
It is unlawful for any vessel subject to the act to be so loaded as to
submerge in sea water these load-line marks.
Provisions are made for the administration of the law and regula­
tions and heavy penalties are provided for their violation.
The requirement that the administration of this law in the field
shall be through the American Bureau of Shipping is of prime impor­
tance as it is essential to our merchant marine that this American
classifying and rating society should have the support of the Govern­
ment ami American shipowners generally.
The law does not go into effect for 18 months after its approval.
In the meantime the committee appointed by this department has
held and is holding hearings and preparing for submission to you for
consideration and possible approval regulations based on the most
advanced practices of maritime nations for carrying the act into effect.
It will be noted that the above law does not apply to our coastwise
trade or to traffic on the Great Lakes.
On March 1 last, just before adjournment, the Senate passed the
following resolution (S. Res. 345, 70th Cong., 2d sess.):
Resolved, That the Secretary of Commerce is requested to make a comprehensive
study of load-line legislation in the coastwise and intercoastal trade and on the
Great Lakes and of all types of vessels, and to submit his report covering the same
to the Senate during the month of December, 1929, and to accompany such report
with a tentative draft of a bill to effectuate his recommendations.

In order to make a proper study of the complicated questions cov­
ered by this resolution, extensive hearings covering navigation on the
Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts, and the Great Lakes would be in­
volved. There was no opportunity for an appropriation to be made
for this purpose, and tire department necessarily will be handicapped
somewhat in complying fully with the wishes of the Senate. The
matter, however, has been given some consideration inasmuch as when
the bill (S. 1781) which later became law was before the Committee
on Merchant Marine and Fisheries of the House, the application of
the bill to the coastwise trade and the trade on the Great Lakes was
gone into to some extent.
INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA

The International Conference on Safety of Life at Sea met in Lon­
don from April 16 to May 31, 1929, when a comprehensive convention
was signed by the United States and the following 17 foreign maritime
nations: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italv, Japan,
the Netherlands, Norway, Russia, Spain, Sweden, and the delegations
of Great Britain, Canada, Australia, Irish Free State, and India.
This convention doubtless will be transmitted to the Senate at the
next regular session for the advice and consent of that body to its
ratification.

270

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

This international convention undoubtedly is the most important
step ever taken by maritime nations to promote the safety of life at
sea, and it is to be trusted that the Senate will consent to its ratifica­
tion. The limited space available in this report precludes a detailed
statement of the work of this convention. It may be stated generally,
however, that this convention was engaged in perfecting a great work
which can not but be of lasting benefit to mankind. The spirit of
courtesy and conciliation displayed throughout the conference con­
tributed greatly to the increase of mutual respect and confidence
among the nations. The United States delegation, of course, en­
countered a wide diversity of interest—economic, practical, and hu­
manitarian—among the other delegations. Out of this conflict, how­
ever, there grew up a standard of hull construction, equipment, and
navigation in practically all respects a material advance over existing
international practice or local legislation.
Preparatory to the conference, committees designated by the De­
partment of Commerce for more than a year gave extensive study to
preparing a standard of hull construction, equipment, and navigation
that would secure the highest degree of safety to passengers and cre^v.
Those taking the leading and most active part in these committee
meetings were appointed as delegates to the conference or as their
technical advisers. As a result of this preliminary work the United
States delegates at London undoubtedly influenced to a considerable
extent the results which were attained.
ADMEASUREMENT OF VESSELS

The necessity for the establishment in the interests of our merchant
marine of a proper admeasurement service in this country is growing
more and more apparent.
At the time the Bureau of Navigation was transferred from the
Treasury Department to the Department of Commerce it was not
deemed feasible to segregate that portion of the clerical force in the
customhouses employed on marine work from those engaged in col­
lecting and safeguarding the public revenue.
It therefore became necessary for the Commissioner of Navigation,
charged by statute with the admeasurement of vessels, to perform his
duties through employees selected, paid, and rewarded for efficient
service or demoted by the Treasury Department.
Under such an unbusinesslike organization we have been unable to
secure uniformity and accuracy in the admeasurement of our vessels
which is essential in these days of close competition on the sea. On
her admeasurement a vessel pays canal tolls, tonnage taxes, in some
cases pilotage and port dues of numerous kinds both in America and
foreign ports, and an error in her admeasurement is a handicap to
that vessel wherever she may go.
It is obvious that there should be established an admeasurement
service composed of trained admeasurers under the direct control of
the department charged with this service. Centralization of the
work in this department will greatly improve the service at all ports;
it will engender professional pride; remove the work to a large extent
from local influences; consolidate efforts and secure more responsive
action; all of which will tend to attract to the service competent men
who through central direction will render impartial and adequate

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION

271

work to the credit of the department and the benefit of shipowners.
The shipowners will have standard service and, should it be desired,
expert advice in the construction of vessels on points of law regarding
tonnage, thereby preventing delay and expense due to changes that
later they might find necessary to get all the benefits of deductions
and exemptions provided in the law. The Panama Canal authori­
ties have expressed their views that such service should be instituted
as soon as practicable, as the variation in methods in admeasurement
at our various ports is reflected in the work at the canal.
In Great Britain the subject of admeasurement is considered of
sufficient importance to require a long apprenticeship before a man
is considered qualified to measure a vessel, and the compensation of
the admeasurers is considerably above that provided in this country.
With vour permission I hope to present to you a form of proposed
legislation to effectuate the above suggestions. This service is closely
related to the administration of the load line law. Shipowners and
shipbuilders are urging the organization of an efficient admeasure­
ment service and I feel justified in emphasizing the necessity for
legislation on this subject at an early date.
The necessity for uniform and accurate admeasurement of vessels
has received international consideration, and the League of Nations
at Geneva appointed a technical committee for maritime tonnage
measurement made up of representatives of the various maritime
nations, a representative of the United States attending. It is
expected in the near future that there will be a formal international
conference on the subject, and as this country has, next to Great
Britain, the largest seagoing tonnage of any maritime nation, it is
essential that we should be represented at that conference. The
United States will be in a much stronger position if its delegates have
behind them a properly organized admeasurement service qualified to
support its views on the subject.
During the year our officers admeasured 1,387 vessels of 272,592
tons. The outlook for the next fiscal year is considerably brighter,
especially as regards large freight and passenger vessels, there being
under construction 15 vessels of more than 1,000 tons with an esti­
mated aggregate of more than 100,000 gross tons. Contracts for
other construction are under consideration.
Owing to changes in construction and for other reasons the tonnage
of 416 vessels of 547,701 gross tons was changed during the year,
requiring admeasurement. There are 44 customs districts employing
something less than 200 men engaged in the work a whole or a part
of the time. The present cost of admeasurement work in salaries
approximates 876,000.
ADMINISTRATION OF THE NAVIGATION LAWS

I desire again to bring to your attention the importance of the
reorganization of our field services. As stated last year the ownership
of vessel property and its use, both national and international, are
closely regulated by Federal law. At the beginning of our Govern­
ment the administration of these laws was intrusted to collectors of
customs, acting under the instruction of the Secretary of the Treasury,
as those officers located at every port of entry were easily accessible
to the shipmaster and owner.

272

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

On the creation of the Department of Commerce this administra­
tion, which directly afTects the movement of commerce, was trans­
ferred to that department, but the employees and machinery necessary
to such administration were left in the Treasury Department, where
they are now functioning under the direction of the Secretary of
Commerce.
This creates the anomalous situation of the employment by the
Treasury Department of personnel and the regulation of adminis­
trative machinery to perform duties under the jurisdiction of the
Department of Commerce and for which the Secretary of the latter
department is responsible.
The laws administered by the marine divisions of the customhouses
are voluminous, technical, and complicated. Their proper adminis­
tration affects the title to all vessel property, its prompt turn around
in our ports, the safety of passengers and crew, and the health and
welfare of immigrants and of the crews manning our ships.
It would be difficult to imagine any corporation successfully carrying
on its business with a personnel selected, remunerated, rewarded, or
penalized by an association engaged in an entirely different line of
effort.
The solution, of course, is the transfer to the Department of Com­
merce of the personnel engaged on this work. More and more
evidences are accumulating of the disadvantage of the present system
to our merchant marine as new laws are enacted placing in the
Department of Commerce added duties and responsibilities.
ENFORCEMENT OF THE NAVIGATION LAWS

, The work of general enforcement of the navigation laws has pro­
ceeded throughout the year along regularly established lines. The
cooperation of shipping interests in complying with the requirements
of the law continues. These laws are voluminous and cover practically
every operation of the vessel from the time she is contracted to be
built until she is finally abandoned or sold foreign. The Coast Guard
service with its widespread and efficient organization has brought to
the attention of the department a number of violations of the law,
especially in the case of smaller vessels, and has rendered excellent
service in patrolling the course during regattas and marine parades.
The department’s patrol fleet has been active and the customhouse
and navigation inspector facilities are reporting an increasing com­
pliance with the law.
There were reporfed during the year 7,887 violations of the various
statutes which we administer. This does not include a large number
of highly technical violations which were not entered on the books of
collectors of customs as fine cases, the department handling these
violations directly and in such a way as to secure compliance with the
law without the needless imposition of penalties. There has been a
constant endeavor on the part of our enforcement agencies to enlist
the assistance and good will of vessel ownors, and the bureau feels
justified in claiming that there is at the present time a closer com­
pliance with the navigation laws than has been the case for many
years.
Of the violations reported, 3,873 or nearly half of the total number
were of small vessels of which there are about 250,000 on navigable

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION

273

waters. These small vessels are used by millions of people for com­
mercial and pleasure purposes, hence their equipment is important.
They are peculiarly subject to accidents on account of their small
size and because in the waters where they navigate there often are
floating objects which they may strike. The increase in the violations
of the passenger act over recent years is perhaps due to a closer
administration of the law. The defects reported, however, have not
been of a serious nature and it is a matter of common knowledge
that the quarters devoted to the transportation of steerage passengers
are in all respects far in advance of those provided when the law
went into effect in 1882.
The following table shows the enforcement of such laws by customs
districts and laws violated, followed by a comparison with the work
of previous years:
78415—29----- 18

T a b l e s h o w i n g , b y p o r t s , th e n a v i g a t i o n l a w s v io la te d a n d th e n u m b e r v j v i o l a t io n s d u r i n g th e y e a r e n d e d .1 u n e S O , 1 9 S 9

Portland, M e .......................

517
53*1
199
103
57
GS
144
202
40
14
i
14
8
55
405
44
81
25
186
220
1,233
9
354
87
2
1
466
43
29
337

73
49
7
15
1
8
10
10
3
2
45
3
18
29
14
10
4
3
9

335
266
118
69
25
32
92
118
27
1
3
8
4
70
25
21
11
59
57
822
171
65
265
5

241

11
48
37
25
13
13
27
1
6
2
25
39
17
22
8
57
55
230
62
14
2
1
64
28
15
20

3
3
1
1
1
1

Passen­ Enroll­
ger act ment and
(22 Stat. license
180-191, R. S.
U.S.C. 4336,
Title 46, U.S.C.
secs. 151— Title 46,
162, 171) sec. 277)

Entry
and
clearance
(R. S.
4197,
U.S. C.
Title 46,
sec. 91)

1
19
9
2
1
2
3
3
1

2
2

4
8
3
4
5
14
12

2
18

3

*

3
2

::::::::::
.........
................

1
1
.........

13
1
1

4
9
8

17
1
1

Name on
vessel
(R. S.
4178,
U.S.C.
Title 46,
sec. 46)

Change of
master
(R. S.
4335,
U. S. C.
Title 46,
sec. 276)

19
14
3
1
G
1
1
.............i
1
1

2
11
18
9
32
24
1

9
10

Num­
bering
act (40
Stat. 602, Miscel­
U.S.C. laneous
Title
46, secs.
288-289)

« s e |i " f e ^ Ì

Anchor­
age and
St. Marys
River rules
(29 Stat. 54,
34 Stat. 130,
U. S. C.
Title 33,
sec. 474)

r*

Seamen's
act
(38 Stat.
1169,1164,
U.S.C.
Title 40,
secs.
672-673

M„ A*. j-i

Surren­
dered
license
(R. S.
4325-4326,
U. S. C.
Title 46,
secs.
267-268)

2
1

i ................
1
3
................
1 .............r
6
7
2
1

70
89
17
12
4
11
14
312
4
6
8
27
2
24
6
35
53
80
56
7
110
9
5
56

8
39
2
3
4
1
2
193
8
C
18
9
11
3
1
1

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Headquat ten> port

Motor-boat
laws (36
Stat. 462,
U. S. C.
Steam­ 511-519)
boat laws “ Rule? of
road”
(R. S.
(20 Stat.
Total 4399-4500,
U. S. C. 320-328,
Title 46, 28 Stat.
secs. 361- 645-650,
498)
29 Stat.
690-691,
u.
s. c.
Title 33,
secs. 61-351)

1
1
1
1
18
1
23
6
10

71
80
29
26
3
55
4
75
57
333
221

3
45
8
7
62
80
20

7,887
8,643
8, 306
10,778
9,544
8, 867
11,251
11,412
10, 707
10, 667
8,173
4, 749
7,569
7,825
6,868
6,720
3,506
3,634
2, 268
1,070
1,134
852
684
670
524
706

375
534
654
2, 501
922
547
695
422
840
2,650
1,589
710
1,020
812
671
768
333
165
182
252
151
245
209
194
142
184

3,873
3,537
3,244
3, 722
3,487
2,782
3,069
4, 614
3, 772
2,530
2,397
2,337
4,660
5,126
<462
4,838
2, 783
3,119
<811
'488
710
385
92
130
53
93

1,078
1,070
1,130
1,330
1,446
1,069
945
944
974
988
1,066
922
770
943
982
631
23
96
23
17
33
12
88
114
99
101

1 Included under “ Miscellaneous" in 1904 report.

o
T

1

3
4
1

9

20
1
3
36
8

9
7
1
19
244

10
1
5
13
3

2
2

16
12
2
9
5
18
10
27
48
16
28
32
29
19
10
25
8
17
45
61
21
21
62
27
21
16

177
295
283
178
453
185
1,130
59
45
38
38
20
42
59
104
41
24
38
10
13
14
23
9
10
26
29

345
821
464
272
238
116
79
71
100
104
83
62
43
28
41
26
10
39
16
16
7
18
23
6
7
12

198
145
197
285
224
445
505
443
673
267
196
127
400
331
,348
153
83
81
43
68
59
30
52
40
20
24

37
34
77
83
92
78
49
66
68
39
32
27
41
35
67
59
26
12
30
12
7
27
6
11
19

15
6
i

13
21
21
47
34
104
405
75
250
5)4
273
100
286
271

4

5
3
2
3
4
55
11

1
11
8
23
12
17
13
3
6
18
13
13
49

I
1
5

5
1
14
34
21
22
18
10
16
17
no
42
118
83
250
74
67
93
90
J

C)

2
4
2
5
9
28

30
11
2
19
28
33
1
10
67
335
01
1,335
1,869
1,983
2,080
2,374
3,201
4,117
4, 426
3,676
3.192
2, 244

.................

.............

2
221
2
29
28
8
401
281
227
248
249
250
215
158
208
160
8G
82
182
90
42
45
152
55
91
128
132
103
99
113
104
179

OF NAVIGATION

Total—
1929 (41 ports)...........
1928 (40 ports).........1927 (39 ports)...........
1926 (39 ports)...........
1925 (40 ports)...........
1924 (40 ports)...........
1923 (40 ports)...........
1921 (42 ports)...........
1920 (41 ports)...........
1019 (40 ports)...........
1918 (49 ports)...........
1917 (48 ports)...........
1915 (48 ports)...........
1914 (49 'ports)...........
1913 (107' ports).........
1912 (105 ports).........
1911 (92 ports)...........
1910 (74 ports)...........
1909 (64 ports)...........
1908 (73 ports)...........
1907 (66 ports)...........
1906 (77 ports)..........
1905 (63 ports)..........
1904 (66 ports)...........

126
113
34
46
34
227
25
95
290
1,075
333

276

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The following table shows the work done by the various branches
of the service engaged in the enforcement of the navigation laws in
comparison with previous years:
Headquarters port

Mobile .

Total—
1928 (41 ports).......
1928 (40 ports).......
1927 (39 ports).......
1926 (39 ports).......
1925 (40 ports)___
1924 (40 ports).......
1923 (40 ports).......
1922 (41 ports).......
1921 (42 ports).......
1920 (42 ports)___
1919 (41 ports).......
1918 (49 ports).......
1917 (48 ports).......
1915 (48 ports)........

Total
517
534
199
103
57
68
144
202
46
14
1
14
8
55
405
44
81
25
186
226
1, 233
9
354
87
2
1
466
43
29
337
125
113
34
46
34
227
25
95
290
1,075
333
7,887
8,643
8,306
10, 778
9, 544
8,867
11,251
11.396
10,706
10,667
7,382
4,893
7,565
7,895
6Ì860

NaviLocal
Kil­
Coast In- Cus­ gatlon
in­
ken­ Tarra­
Dixie Si wash Psyche Guard
toms
specgon
spec­
ny
tors
tors
484
18

2

17
112
105
211

208
141

591

• 234
48

17

960 227
1,009 144
743 368
9S7 387
472 401
I, 192 787
1,332 829
1, 184 999
1, 637 1, 112
1,303 1,261
1, 480 1, 226
84 809
1, 234
’ 987
1,425

59

13
33
1
n
11
11
11

7
7

35

218
32
40

17
19
140
44
7

2
13
13
9

4

75

6

26
25
20
8

127

86
2
47
250
174

58
57

248

62
147

1
89
14
22
9
7
24
40
7

5

547
295 1,222
596
268 1,537
69 1, 176
400
941 1.909
315
970
874
515
671
586
1, 078
1, 111 1,060 1, 172
764 1, 275 2,500
712
479
1,182
41
864
984
...........

1

5
3
6
17
1
15

14
204
43
12
28
27
23
29
23
151
27
12
14
14
8
48
82
281
17
27
45
19
8
72
89 ......
271
9
58
40
2
1
134
40
29
71
52
31
8
36
20
8
38
34
126
25
31
212
31
619
15

1,167 211 2,868
1,019 321 3,397
1,548 423 3,327
1, 504 245 3,548
1, 179 222 4, 040
616 327 3,312
521 799 3,883
509 317 3, 203
404 773 3, 869
300 2,083 5,028
235 ' 767 3, 114
241 404 2,054
1,255 712 2,833
1,333 590 2,876
l',380 361 2,661

390
352
352
941
871
297
540
630
529
626
554
696
654
1,089
'999

Of the 7,887 violations reported, 3,251 were discovered by the
various five patrol boats which operate along the Atlantic and Gulf
coasts and for the summer months on the Great Lakes. This does not
give a complete index of the work of the boats as durine; the year they
made 29,645 inspections and the violations reported indicate that 1
violation was discovered in each 10 inspections. When it is recalled
that all violations, no matter how technical, are reported to the
department, a fair idea can be given of the extent to which our inspec­
tion service has secured compliance with the law. It is a matter of

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION

277

congratulation that reports are received of very few cases of loss of
life due to lack of equipment on these vessels, in strong contrast to
conditions which existed some years ago before our motor-boat
equipment laws were in effect.
Following is a comparative statement of cases of violations of the
navigation laws reported by officers of customs, 1915-1929:

,

Comparative statement of cases of violations of the navigation a?id steamboat inspection
laws reported by officers of customs 1915-1929
Port

1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929
396 312 461
440 412 427
118 54 89
42 144 87
91 39 50
178 389 283
104 218 161
85 4 110
293 441 163
62 79 138
1
49 50 105
....
14 18 18
5 109 54
43 33 40
2
10
182 172 137
58 63 128
52 84 84
8 133 82
107 106 109
173 177 315
622 1.256 1,292
....
335 531 430
40 92 74

265 .500 663 699 482 480 419 161 300 361 551 517
194 243 62G 607 S98 711 566 707 800 833 513 534
32 95 97 200 50 287 131 20(5 131 310 231 199
111 168 143 188 62 116 262 90 24 34 257 103
28 109 40 44 68 192 136 105 82 110 82 57
144 88 119 171 97 179 165 139 76 97 30 68
177 499 1,096 252 160 154 303 187 97 84 16S 144
56 27 40 141 32 62 48 11
3
146 142 122 168 67 184 311 80 83 184 182 202
132 282 241 73 68 245 79 44 42 38 33 46
1
54 21 24 41
8 10 167 78 57 26 3Ï 14
1
3
3 95 35 22 16 45 10 12 18 14
11 10
85 32 34 29 37
3 2 4
7 4 8
44 43 39 60 36 77 130 10G 78 51 45 55
.....
109 192 125 183 185 178 131 127 171 261 281 405
50 49 64 35 57 29 26 23 54 35 18 44
18 07 83 06 86 62 162 150 154 120 49 81
18 81 133 33 14 79 17 5
7 10-1 1 25
52 98 122 301 203 334 234 191 96 2G3 42 186
221 501 487 779 2W 467 790 371 411 186 285 226
583 026 1,349 849 2,698 1,475 663 1,625 2,454 1,185 1,170 1,233
22
8 21 13
7 12 10 14 3 9
181 814 618 846 680 632 412 375! 842 434 345 354
201 54 18
8 85 85 18 112 58 142 50 87
1
2 2
....
1
3
Philadelphia......... 867 483 406 166 532 600 684 778 624 360 854 549 303 493 466
Pittsburgh............ 13 27 4 6 9 28 10 22 14 41 35 16 53 39 43
33 68 93 117 203 2.56 112 21 17 216 84 52 15 61 29
Portland, Me....... 566 241 145 51 53 55 320 346 440 21» 393 684 159 645 337
Portland, Oreg... 273 229 130 239 120 182 107 83 101 171 291 237 84 100 125
08 65 137 176 181 98 94 114 169 217 104 113
Providence........... 21 125 94
Hochester______ 28 42 44 102 14 24 55 10 61 57 53 18 24 130 34
1 3 %
3 33 68 29 1
4
4 22
2
St. Louis............... 186 154 348 173 291 396 182 173 179 127 89 100 04 57 46
....
1
4
1
5
St. Paul................
9 10 25 23 28 15 8: 9 34
2 2
7
....
1 22 34 32
San Francisco___ 446 276 190 151 223 766 466 213 291 288 284 281 238 277 227
14
14
18
22
23 25
8 14 10
19
26 25
San Juan............... 28 11 12
Savannah.............. 78 82 48 41 77 os 149 165 163 126 126 07 47 60 95
294
564
755
360
328
290
Seattle................... 306 409 318 338 266 320 310 272 1,223
Tampa................. 314 570 547 295 1,303 1,247 1,770 2,300 1,649 1,386 1,398 1,690 1,519 1,609 1,075
W ilmington, N. C_ 206 137 262 19 261 302 426 263 200 173 152 78 312 282 333
Total (47 ports) 0,868 7,825 7,569 4,749 8,173 10, G67jl0, 70ö|ll, 30ojll, 251 8,867 9, 544 10, 778 8, 30tij8. 643;7,887
1
>The districts of Laredo (No. 23) and Eagle Pass (No. 25) were abolished by Executive order Sept. 7,
1917, and the district of San Antonio (No. 23) was created by the same order.
2 The districts of Los Angeles and San Diego wore consolidated by Executive order of Jan. 26, 1923, with
Los Angeles as headquarters port.
Baltimore.............
Boston...................
Bridgeport...........
Buffalo..................
Charleston............
Chicago.................
Cleveland.............
Detroit..................
Duluth..................
Galveston.............
Honolulu..............
Juneau.'................
Los Augeles..........
Louisville.............
Memphis..............
Milwaukee...........
Mobile..................
New Orleans........
New York..........
Norfolk.................
Ogdensburg..........

PREVENTING OVERCROWDING OF PASSENGER VESSELS

The work of preventing the overcrowding of excursion vessels has
proceeded along the usual lines, the number of persons using this
form of recreation having increased to some extent. It is gratifying
to note that throughout the United States there has not been reported
a single case of overloading of excursion vessels subject to the inspec­
tion laws. This is in strong contrast to the conditions which existed
before Congress made provision for the close supervision of this
service.

278

REPORT TO TH E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The following tablo shows the counts made by the navigation and
customs services by ports:
Number of counts and the number of passengers involved in preventing overcrowding
of passenger vessels during fiscal year 1929
Navigation

Port

Customs

Total

Counts Passengers Counts Passengers Counts Passengers
682
496,627
1
347
265,319
31,119
3
3,227
30, 750
413,230
73
392.055
140,939
183
8, 263
1,187,163
10
18,001
6,804
" '74
1,040
9,917
12
125, 493
1
650
318
885 2,000,713
77
2
109,073
221 .172, 545
63,101
14,152
2,686
36.975
58
2,888, 247 1,870 2,648, 584
2, 70S, 132 3,059 2,376,979

1,522
34
2,248
383
922
2
169
3
620
438
64
178
Total, 1929..................................!......... 6,583
Total, 1928....................................................... 7,171

1,623
381
3
2,321
506
932
74
14
169
4
885
622
221
438
64
230
8,453
10,230

497,209
296,438
3, 227
449,9S6
532,994
1,195,420
18,001
6,804
10,957
125,493
974
2, 000, 713
109,1.50
172, 545
63,101
14,152
39,661
5, 536,831
5,085,111

When a vessel is inspected and equipped to carry passengers, there
is inserted in her certificate of inspection the maximum number of
passengers which she may carry with safety. In the administration
of the law preventing the overcrowding of such vessels the inspectors
determine from the certificate the number of passengers which the
particular vessel may carry. These inspectors are equipped with
automatic counting devices and passengers are not permitted to go
on board except under the count of these inspectors. When the
limit of passengers set by the certificate of inspection has been reached,
the inspectors then notify the officers of the vessels who prevent any
more passengers going on board.
During the year it was necessary for the inspectors in 177 cases to
take such action. This involved the safety of 169,875 passengers.
The following table shows in detail the occasions when the limit of
safety had been reached before all the passengers had embarked:
Shut-offs, by specified m onths
J u ly , 1928 ! A u g u st, 1928
P o rt

P h ila d e lp h ia ...
T o ta l, 1929.
T o ta l, 1928.........

S eP 1928b e r’

M a y , 192«

j

J u n e , 1929

T o ta l

P asP a s­
P a s­
C o u n tsL n S m ! CouI1,s sengers C o unts se n g e rsC oullt3 sengers C o u n ts senfem C ounts sengers
2 2 , 150l
4
21 3,300;
1
33’ 11,090'
8
7i 12,260
9
17! 44,102
9
2j 1 ,6 00 ..............
10i 3 , 139i
1
2 1,505
2
2!
2r8j ..............
77 ' 79,174 ;
34
136; 94,866
27

5,200
1,650
2,271
12, 671
27,706
615
2,010

i, 65Ô;..............
1.............
!
7
..............!

1

1

5 2 , 123 ;
37,045

2

2,124
6,016

2|
4
6:
44

1,650
1,094
14,024
12,020

...........
.

L
1 1,650;
4
519

9 8,140
6 19, 548

56! 28,7gS
50' 38,696

8
4
52
16
34

9,000
6,600
16,579
24,931
91,848
wm 1,600
44 12,020
11 3, 754
4 3, 515
28
2
177 169,875
223 190,674

279

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION

SHIPPING COMMISSIONERS

During the year 627,392 seamen were shipped, reshipped, and dis­
charged as compared with 547,732 the year before. The average cost
to the Government per man was 22 cents, a reduction of 1 cent per
man over the previous year.
Collectors of customs acting at ports where shipping commissioner
offices have not been established shipped and discharged during the
year 47,562 officers and men as compared with 73,042 during the
previous year.
Of the 325,120 men shipped before shipping commissioners 160,397
were native Americans and 48,814 were naturalized Americans:
209,211 in all, or 64.3 per cent. This does not give an accurate idea of
nationality of crews of our vessels, as under existing law vessels may
sign on a portion of their crews in foreign ports before United States
consuls for the round trip. These men do not appear before our
shipping commissioners and are not included in the following table
which shows the aggregate work and salaries of the shipping com­
missioner service for the past 12 years:
Year
1918........................
1919........................
1920....
1921....
1922........................
1923........................

Seamen
shipped,
Average
reshipped, Salaries cost per
man
and dis­
charged
457,24S
485,796
628,9S0
650,840
541,952
538,755

$72,075
72,288
89,949
99, 646
92,318
94,476

$0.16
. 15
.13
.15
.17
.17

Year

Seamen
shipped,
Average
reshipped, Salaries cost per
man
and dis­
charged

192