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30030005363271

NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
1931

U N ITE D STA TES
G O V ER N M EN T P R IN T IN G O FF IC E
W A SH IN G TO N : 1931
F or sale by th e S u p e rin te n d e n t of D o c u m e n ts, W a s h in g to n , D. C.

P ric e 40 c e n ts

ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT
(July 1,1931)

Secretary of Commerce-------------------------------------- R obert P atterson L amont.
Assistant Secretary of Commerce________________ J ulius K lein .
Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Aeronautics__ Clarence M. Y oung.
Solicitor----------------------------------------------------------- E phraim F. M organ.
Administrative Assistant to the Secretary________ M alcolm K erlin .
Chief Clerk and Superintendent__________________E dward W. L ibbey
Disbursing Clerk----------------------------------------------- Charles E. M olster.
Chief, Appointment Division-------------------------------- E dward J. Gardner.
Chief, Division of Publications___________________ T homas F. M cK eon .
Chief, Division of Purchases and Sales__________ W alter S. E rw in .
Director of Radio-----------------------------------------------W illiam D. T errell.
Director of the Census---------------------------------------- W illiam M. S teuart.
Director, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com­
merce----------------------------------------------------------- F rederick M. F eiker .
Director, Bureau of Standards----------------------------- George K. B urgess.
Commissioner of Fisheries--------------------------------- H enry O’M alley .
Commissioner of Lighthouses___________________ George R. P utnam .
Director, Coast and Geodetic Survey____________ R. S. P atton .
Commissioner of N avigation______________________Arthur J. T yrer .
Supervising Inspector General, Steamboat Inspec­
tion Service-------------------------------------------------- D ickerson N. H oover.
Commissioner of Patents----------------------------------- T homas E. R obertson.
Director, Bureau of Mines______________________ S cott T urner .

n

CONTENTS
Introductory statement------------------------------------------------------------------Economie review___________________________________________________
Prices________________________________________________________
Agriculture-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Construction___________________________________________________
Transportation_________________________________________________
Banking and finance----------------------------------------------------------------Foreign trade-------------------------------------------------------------------------Elimination of waste---------------------------------------------------------------------Construction and home ownership_______________________________
Domestic marketing service------------------------------------------------------Simplified practice------------------------------------------------------------------Certification and labeling-------------------------Commercial standards----------American marine standards------------------------------------------------------Scientific research-------------------------------------------------------------------Utilization and conservation of natural resources-----------------------Human s a fe ty -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Progress in development of civil aeronautics-------------------------------------

Page

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x x x ii
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CONDENSED REPORTS OF BUREAUS
Page
Page
Aeronautic development service-—Contd.
Chief Clerk and Superintendent
Aeronautics research division.,.................... 28
Radio section..... .....................
28
International Colonial and Overseas ExpoLighting section,......................................... 30
sition............................................ -...................
1
Aircraft engine section..................
31
Disbursing office..........................................
1
Wind-tunnel section................................... 31
Appointment division........................................ 3
Engineering section..................................... 32
Division of publications.................................... 3 Airport
section................................................. 33
Division of purchases and sales----------------4 Airways-mapping
section............................... 34
Traffic office......................................................... 4 Special research committees..........................
35
Department library............................................ <1
Committee on airport traffic control------ 35
Solicitor’s office— .............................................
5
Committee on airport drainage and sur­
facing......................................................... 36
A eronautics B ranch
Committee on airport zoning and emi­
nent domain.............................................. 37
Organization and functions............................... 6
Fact-finding committee on control of air­
Air regulation service.........................................
6
plane hangar fires by automatic appli­
Inspection service............................................ 7
cation of water
— 37
Licensing division...........................................
8
Liaison committee on aeronautic radio
Medical section............................................
9
research....................................................... - 38
Registration section..................................... 10 Administrative
division.................................... 38
Enforcement section.................................... 11 Summary and conclusions................................
39
Accident board............................................. 12
Engineering section..................................... 13
R adio D ivision
Engine testing section................................... 15 Legislation...................................
49
Airways division...................................-............ 16
, Air navigation facilities on Federal airways, 17 Radio inspection service.................................... 49
survey........................................................ 51
Radio facilities................................................. 18 Field
test cars______________________
- 51
Improvements in airways equipment------- 22 Radio
Mobile standards on radio test cars.,.......... 52
Aeronautic development service------- ------— 23 Monitoring
broadcasting stations.................... 52
Aeronautic information division......., .......... 23
Constant frequency station............................... 53
Editorial section........................................... 23 Secondary
standard monitoring stations........ 54
Statistics and distribution section______ 25
of the quality and quantity of
Airway bulletin section.............................. 27 Measurement
modulation....................................................... 54
Aeronautics reference library..................... 28

in

IV

CONTENTS

Page
Radio for aviation...................................
55
Radiobeacons and radiocompasses____ ____ 55
Automatic alarm signal device........................ 56
Police radio_____________
56
Amateurs............................
56
International conferences__________
57
International radio accounting...............
58
B ureau of the C ensus
59
Introduction ------Volume I of population----- ------------------- 59
Final volumes.............................
60
Other activities________
61
Bureau personnel______________________ 62
New divisions________________
62
Metropolitan districts______
62
Punching and tabulation of returns________ 62
Punching division......... .............................
63
Tabulation division________
64
Publications division________
64
Census of population............................
64
Preliminary statistics__________________ 64
State bulletins............................. ........ . ......... 65
General population classification___ _____ 65
Subject bulletins............................ ............... 65
Occupation statistics..................................... 65
Family data.................................................... 65
Blind and deaf-mutes.......................... ......... 66
Census of unemployment..................... . .......... 66
Census of agriculture------------- ---------------- 66
State bulletins................................................. 67
County statistics________________
67
Farm expenses, debts, taxes, etc., and types
of farms.................................. . .................— 67
Special farm tabulations.......... .................. 67
Census of horticulture...........................
68
Irrigation.......................................................... 68
Drainage___________________
68
Census of manufactures— -----68
Preliminary industry reports----------69
Final reports________
69
Census of manufactures, 1931_____
69
Census of mines and quarries........................... 69
Census of distribution.__________________ 70
Preliminary reports..........................
70
Construction census__________
70
Hotel census___ ______
70
Vital statistics....................................... ........ .. 70
Annual reports..............
71
Reference books. ..........................................
71
Marriage and divorce.....................
72
Annual census of institutions.. ..............
72
Financial statistics of State and city govern­
ments....................................................
73
Current industrial reports_________
73
Tabulations for outside organizations______ 74
Old census records-----------------------75
B ureau of F oreign and D omestic C ommerce
The domestic business situation.................
77
Foreign trade................
77
The bureau’s work in domestic commerce.. _ 81
Domestic regional division.........................
83
M erchandising research division.............
84
Marketing service division............................ 85
Dollars-and-cents results of foreign trade pro­
motion.............................................................. 86
Aid for every region_____________________ 89
Opportunities for more extensive service___ 92
The foreign commerce service_____ _______ 95
Intangible benefits to American firms......... 95
Efforts for increased efficiency__________ 96
District and cooperative office service............. 97
D istribution of trade opportunities.........
97
Trade lists furnished..................
97
Personal contact between district offices
and private business...................
98
Cooperative offices_______
98
Needed expansion_________
98
Concrete commodity service for American
industries.....................................
98
Aeronautics trade division...............
98
Agricultural implements division________ 99
Automotive division_____________
100

Page

Concrete commodity service for American
industries—Continued.
Chemical division........................................... 101
Electrical equipment division..............
102
Foodstuffs division........... .........
103
Hide and leather division.............................. 104
Industrial machinery division..................... 105
Iron and steel division________
106
Lumber division.......................
106
Minerals division_____________________ 107
Motion-picture division................................ 108
Paper division..................
109
Rubber division...............
lio
Shoe and leather manufactures division... ill
Specialties division________________
112
Textile division_______________________ 113
Tobacco division______________________ 114
Specialized technical services to business....... 114
Commercial intelligence division................ 114
Division of commercial laws......................... 115
Division of correspondence and distribution. 116
Editorial division______
117
Finance and investment division________ 117
Foreign construction division___________ 118
Division of foreign tariffs...................
120
Division of regional information_________ 120
Division of statistical research__________ 122
Division of statistics.________
123
Transportation division________
124
Type and regional distribution of commercial
services rendered__________________
125
B ureau of Standards
General activities____ _____
127
Salaries..........................
132
Equipment....................
137
General expenses.........................
138
Improvement and care of grounds_________ 138
Testing structural materials______________ 138
Testing machines_______
142
Investigation of fire-resisting properties____ 143
Investigation of public-utility standards........ 144
Testing miscellaneous materials...................
145
Radio research_________________________ 145
Color standardization______________
146
Investigation of clay products..........................
147
Standardizing mechanical appliances______ 149
Investigation of optical and other types of
glass------------------------------------------------- 150
Investigation of textiles, etc______________ 150
Sugar standardization___________________ 152
Gage standardization.................................
153
Investigation of railroad and mine scales and
cars_________________________
1
Metallurgical research______ ___________
155
High-temperature investigation.......................... 156
Sound investigation_____ ___________
157
Industrial research.........................................
157
Standardization of equipment.........................
163
Standard materials___________________
166
Investigation of radioactive substances and
Xrays_______________________
166
Utilization of waste products from the land.. 167
Investigation of automotive engines_________ 168
Investigation of dental materials......................
169
Transferred funds....................................
169
Recommendations..... ........................................ 172
B ureau of F isheries
International relations................................
175
Revised Northern Pacific Halibut Con­
vention___ __________________
175
Passamaquoddy power project____________ 178
North American Council on Fishery In­
vestigations ......................................
178
International Colonial Exposition at Paris. 179
Conservation of whales__________________ 179
Japanese vessels in Bering Sea___ ________ 180
Domestic relations________________________ 180
Aid to our island dependencies___________ 180
Fisheries conferences____________________ 181
Cooperation with States.............................
182
Five-year construction and maintenance
program..-----------------------------183

CONTENTS
Page
Propagation and distribution of food and
game fishes________------------------------- 183
183
Introduction............................... -............... — 185
Propagation of commercial species...........
Propagation of game fishes............................ 186
186
Rescue operations-------------- ------ ------Cooperative activities------- ------------------- 186
Statistical surveys..............................---........ 187
Fisheries of the United States and A laska- 187
Manufactured products------ ----------------- 188
Fish-farming industries in the United States. 189
Foreign fishery trade---------------------------- 189
189
Technological investigations-----------------Improvements in methods of handling fresh 190
By-products and production methods------- 190
Net preservation-------------- -------- --------- 191
Nutritive value of marine products--------- 191
Gloucester laboratory--------------------------- 192
Biological fishery investigations---------------- 193
Fishery investigations of the Atlantic and 193
Gulf coasts--------------------- ---------------Fisheries of interior lakes---------------------- 194
Fisheries of the Pacific coast and Alaska---- 195
Fish screen and fish ladder investigations.. 196
Aquicultural investigations------------------- 196
Shellfish investigations------------------------- 197
Alaska fisheries service---------------------------- 199
Administration of fishery laws and regula- 199
tions. ...................................................... .
Alaska salmon hatcheries..--.---------------- 199
Special studies and investigations.........— 200
Products of the fisheries............................ 200
Alaska fur-seal service----------------------------- 200
General activities----- ------- ------------------- 200
Seal herd................ ........ ........ ----------------- 201
Take of sealskins................... -........ -.......... 201
Marking reserved seals------------------------- 202
Sale of sealskins-------------------- -------........ 202
Foxes............................................................ . 202
Fur-seal skins taken by natives....... -.......... 202
Fur-seal patrol..................................-............ 203
Protection of sea otters, walruses, and sea
lions....... ....................-............................. . 203
Black bass law enforcement.................-.......... 203
Vessel notes___________________________ 204
Appropriations-------------------------------------- 205
L ighthouse Service
Activities during year----------------------------- 206
207
Aids to navigation..............................—.........— 208
Engineering construction------------- ----------- 208
Improvements in apparatus and equipment.. 211
Administration............................................... . 212
Personnel— ................... -........ -....................... 212
Lighthouse depots.............................-.......... —
Vessels of the Lighthouse Service.............. 212
213
Lighthouse tenders--------------------------Lightships........................................-............ 213
C oast and Geodetic Survey
Hydrographic and topographic work---------- 215
Geodetic work....... .................-............-............ 217
Tide and current work................ .................... 220
Magnetic and seismological work----- ------ 4- 223
Chief clerk_____________
224
Division of accounts--------------224
Division of instruments------------------------ j- 225
Division of hydrography and topography.... 226
Division of geodesy--------------------------------- 227
D ivision of charts----------------------............... 228
Division of tides and currents----------------- 230
Division of terrestrial magnetism and seis­
mology...................................
231
B ureau of N avigation
American shipping on June 30, 1931........ --I- 233
N avigation laws........................................----- 234
Load lines-------------- --------------------------- 234
Coasting trade------ ---------- ----------........ — 235
Inspection of motor ships........... ........ ------ 235
International convention on safety of life at
sea____________ ________ ______ _____- 236

y
Page

International convention on load lines..........
Load line act of March 2,1929.......................
Admeasurement of vessels-----------------------Administration of the navigation laws-------Navigation patrol service----------------------Enforcement of navigation laws---------------Preventing overcrowding of passenger ves­
sels— .........................-.................................
Shipping
commissioners-------------------------Passenger act of 1882....... ..................................
Navigation receipts-------------------------------Publications----------------------------------- -----Steamboat I nspection Service
Personnel............................................................
Improved ship construction------------ --------Hulls and equipment-----------------------—
Boilers and machinery----------- ------ ------Ships’ personnel---- ------------- -------...........
Examinations for licenses-------- -------------Officers and crew-------------------------------Action against licenses................. ..............
Lessons learned from disasters------------------Expenditures.........................7-..........................
Hulls and equipment statistics-----------------Vessels inspected and certificates of inspec­
tion issued------ ----------------------- -----Miscellaneous inspections........................
Reinspections............... ...................................
Certificates withdrawn or refused--------- rCargo vessels examined to carry persons in
addition to crew— --------------------------New life preservers inspected------------ ---Life-saving apparatus inspected at factories.
Work performed by inspectors in central
office.................--------------------------------Boilers------------- ----------- — ........ -........ ......
Marine-boiler plates tested------- -----------Steel bars and forgings tested----------------Statistics concerning ships’ personnel--------Officers licensed-------- ------------------------Results of action against licenses.................
Examinations for color blindness............... .
Certificates of service issued to able sea­
men and to lifeboat men--------------------Transportation and loss of life----- -----------Passengers carried---- -------------------------Lives saved------------ ----------- 7------ -7----Lives lost on vessels subject to inspection..
Accidents resulting in loss of life------------Vessels lost--------------------------------------Property lost— ................................... ........
P atent Office
Aiding industry........................................ ........
Statistics--------------------------------------------Other details of business for the fiscal year...
B ureau of M ines
Finances.-.......... ........................... ........
Technologic branch-----------------------Mechanical division..-----------------Mining division.................-...............
Metallurgical division-------------—
Petroleum and natural-gas division..
Experiment-stations division--------Helium division..----------------------Office of the chief mining engineer----Economics branch—...............-........ —
Coal division....................................... .
Mineral-statistics division------------Petroleum-economics division..........
Rare metals and nonmetals division
Common-metals division-------------Principal mineralogist....................
Health and safety branch.....................
Health division— ....................... --Demographical division.....................
Administrative branch. ------- ---------Office-administration division..........
Information division........................General considerations................... .
F e d e r a l E mployment Stabilization
B oard. . . ............................... ........................
I nter-American H igh C ommission---------

236
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¿35

NINETEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
D epartm ent of C ommerce ,
O ffice of the S ecretary ,

Washington, November 4, 1931.
To the P resident :
I have the honor to submit herewith the Nineteenth Annual Report
of the Secretary of Commerce in the following parts:
Economic Review.
Elimination of Waste.
Progress in Development of Civil Aeronautics.
Condensed Reports of Bureaus.
The Director of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce in
his report has discussed in detail our foreign trade for the past year
and for that reason a separate review of that subject has not been
submitted.
As the Fifteenth Decennial Census was taken as of April 1, 1930,
the Director of the Bureau of the Census has embodied in his report
detailed information concerning that enumeration and the tabulation
of the results as well as the several other censuses taken at the same
time. Therefore special attention is invited to the report of that
bureau.
. .
The report has been prepared for transmission to Congress as
required by the organic act of the department.
Very sincerely,
R. P. L amont ,
Secretary of Commerce.
VII

ECONOMIC REVIEW
During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1931, the United States suf­
fered from a severe depression world-wide in extent. The accu­
mulation of large stocks of raw material's and foodstuffs throughout
the world, extensive declines in the prices of commodities, securities,
and real estate, the unsettlement of political and fiscal conditions in
many foreign countries, widespread unemployment in the leading in­
dustrial nations, have all contributed to the difficulties of the United
States, which have been further accentuated by the effects of a severe
drought throughout a large portion of our agricultural area.
Following upon some evidence of business stability and improve­
ment in the spring of 1930, industrial production and employment,
the volume of domestic and foreign trade, and the prices of securities
and commodities declined sharply during the remainder of that year.
During the first half of 1931, however, the volume of production and
distribution and factory employment gave indications of stability,
and some improvement of more than seasonal proportions occurred,
particularly in the consumers’ goods industries and in retail trade.
Unemployment, which had risen to high levels during the winter, was
reduced somewhat by seasonal expansion in several lines of business.
Commodity prices continued their decline, however, and recessions
were particularly severe in the case of the great agricultural staples
which were faced with unwieldy surpluses and the prospect of very
large yields in the current crop year. By the last month of the fiscal
year business activity had subsided to about the levels of midwinter,
while stock and commodity markets had reached new low levels. The
President’s proposal', on June 20, for a 1-year moratorium on repara­
tions and intergovernmental debts had a salutary effect on business
sentiment in this country and abroad which was promptly reflected
in an upturn in commodity and security values.
Major economic indexes
[Based on calendar years 1923-1925=100]
Manu­ Min­ Railroads,
Depart­ Depart­
Year ended June facturing erals ton-miles Electric
power ment ment
30 and month produc­ produc­ revenue produc­
store
sales store
tion
tion freight
tion (value) stocks
1920.............. .........
1921________ ___
1922..........................
1923.......................
1924 ___________
1925------------------1926..........................
1927------------------1928........ ............. .
1929..........................
1930 ___________
1931..........................
June, 1929........... .
June, 1930...............
June, 1931.............
vm

91
73
75
98
97
99
106
109
106
118
110
87
2 129
2 100
2 84

82
83
69
93
102
98
99
113
103
112
110
91
2 112
2100
2 85

1 Preliminary*

96
90
79
96
97
98
105
111
104
110
104
186
109
92
76

70
72
88
95
102
116
129
138
154
163
155
155
155
150
2

88
92
84
94
99
100
104
107
107
110
108
98
2 113
1 103
2 95

95
97
89
92
101
101
103
103
102
100
99
88
2 98
2 96
2 82

Manu­ Factory Factory
factured employ­
pay
goods
stocks ment rolls
86
90
91
87
101
104
104
110
117
120
121
120
122
126
118

Adjusted for seasonal variation*

112
92
84
99
101
96
101
100
97
100
97
80
2 103
2 90
*76

113
98
74
95
102
96
103
104
100
106
101
76
110
91
68

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XX

The best measure of industrial activity in the United States is fur­
nished by the Federal Reserve Board’s index of production which,
for the past fiscal year, averaged 20 per cent less than in the preced­
ing year and 25 per cent below the unprecedented volume of the
fiscal year 1928-29. Despite the severity of the depression, it is im­
portant to note that industrial production in the last fiscal year was
in greater volume than in the calendar years 1920 and 1922, and 81
per cent more than in the depression year 1921.
Manufacturing plants continued to curtail operations during the
last six months of 1930, and in December their activity was at the
lowest point of the current depression. Conditions improved con­
tinuously during the next four months. In April, 1931, the index of
factory production was about 20 per cent higher than the December
low point and, if allowance is made for the usual seasonal improve­
ment, the increase amounted to 11 per cent. There was a slight de­
cline in May and again in June, the seasonally adjusted index in the
latter month standing at 16 per cent below the same month of the
previous year but 5 per cent above December, 1930.
Although the decline in production has been general, _there has
been a wide disparity in the severity of recession in various fields.
The heavy industries experienced the greatest declines; iron and
steel output in the past fiscal year was 37 per cent below the volume
for the year preceding, automobile output fell off 36 per cent, while
production of nonferrous metals declined 25 per cent. _Consumers’
goods industries, on the other hand, held up to relatively higher
levels, with a decline of only 4 per cent being recorded by food prod­
ucts and of only 3 per cent by tobacco products, while the textile,
leather, and rubber tire groups showed declines ranging from 11 to
15 per cent.
The seasonally adjusted index of mineral production, while mov­
ing much more erratically than that of manufacturing production,
tended downward throughout 1930-31, and for the fiscal year just
closed averaged 17 per cent less than in the fiscal year 1929-30.
Actual production of minerals which reached the lowest point in
March, 1931, showed seasonal improvement during the following
three months. If allowance is made for normal seasonal change, the
June index, which was 15 per cent below a year ago, marks the
lowest point thus far recorded in the present decline.
Of the eight individual minerals combined in the index of mineral
production the output of bituminous coal, anthracite, and crude pe­
troleum compared most favorably with the preceding fiscal year with
declines ranging from 6 to 17 per cent. The curtailment of opera­
tions in the heavy manufacturing industries was reflected in de­
creased demand for iron ore, shipments of which were 38 per cent
less than in the previous year. The other minerals—copper, lead,
zinc, and silver—showed production ranging from 22 to 32 per cent
under the preceding fiscal year.
Cui’tailment of industrial operations resulted in the release of
additional factory workers and further reduction in pay rolls. For
the fiscal year as a whole the Federal Reserve Board’s index of fac­
tory employment averaged 18 per cent below the level of the preced­
ing year, while pay rolls were 25 per cent smaller, reflecting an in­
crease of part-time operations. It is significant that the decline in

X

REPORT OP THE SECEETARY OF COMMERCE

factory employment from the high levels of 1928-29 has been con­
siderably less, and the curtailment of pay rolls slightly more, than the
decrease in production of manufactured goods as measured by the
Federal Reserve Board’s index. Although the contraction of em­
ployment and pay rolls was sharpest in the case of manufacturing
and mining industries, the lessened demand for the goods and serv­
ices of the transportation and other public-utility industries, the
construction industry, mercantile business, and the various service
industries resulted in the release of many workers in these fields.
Unemployment increased steadily during the fall and winter and
reached a seasonal peak in January, 1930, when it was estimated on
the basis of special census taken in that month, that the number of
jobless workers was slightly in excess of 6,000,000. After that time
the volume of unemployment was somewhat reduced as a result
of seasonal demand for workers in agriculture, construction, and cer­
tain other industries. With the seasonal curtailment of these activi­
ties as winter approaches, the volume of unemployment must be ex­
pected again to increase unless there is substantial improvement in
business.
When the depression commenced in 1929, world stocks of raw ma­
terials and foodstuffs had already reached record high levels and
during the following two years, despite curtailed operations in many
lines, huge additions were made to these surpluses. During the past
fiscal year the Department of Commerce index of domestic raw ma­
terial stocks averaged 7.4 per cent larger than in the preceding year
while the index for June, 1931, was 17.0 per cent above that for the
same month of 1930. The situation with respect to stocks of manu­
factured goods is much more satisfactory. After rising above pre­
depression levels during the fiscal year 1929-30, the index has since
turned downward and at the end of the past fiscal year was about
6 per cent below the preceding year and at the same level as in June,
1928.
By reason of the fact that mining, manufacturing, and construc­
tion were m a smaller volume the facilities of our transportation
companies and our distributing agencies were used to a less extent
tnaji in other recent years. Ton-miles of revenue freight carried
by railroads was 18 per cent less than in the previous year, while total
freight-car loadings fell off by 17.4 per cent. It is notable that load­
ings of merchandise in less than car lots, which measure the move­
ment of finished goods for consumption, was only 10.5 per cent less
than in 1929-30.
. spite of the large amount of unemployment and the decrease
m national income there was a strong demand for many classes of
consumers’ goods. Although the dollar value of department-store
sales declined 9 per cent between the last two fiscal years, the decline
was probably offset, possibly more than offset, by declines in the
retail price of commodities ordinarily sold in department stores,
bales of two mail-order houses declined 1'4 per cent between the two
periods^ but if allowance is made for the lower price levels of 1930-31
the decline in the volume of sales was relatively small.
• -L,eP^rtlJien^sfore stocks, which have been reduced substantially
since the beginning of the depression, were less in June, 1931, than
at any time since 1919. In part this reduction of stocks has reflected
tne ettects of better systems of inventory control and more rapid

XX

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

turnover during recent years, but the reduction of retail stocks dur­
ing the past 18 months has been at an accelerated rate with ample
evidence that in many instances existing inventories are insufficient
even for the current volume of sales. With the return of confidence
and expansion of purchasing power retail stocks can be expected to
increase substantially.
PRICES

The extensive downward movement of prices which started about
the middle of 1929 had not reached bottom in June, 1931, although
wholesale prices in that month averaged only fractionally higher
than in 1913. This sharp trend toward lower levels, which has
caused so much uncertainty and hesitancy in the business world, has
not been confined to the United States. Price declines in this country
have been smaller than in many of our foreign markets and some
of the greatest drops have occurred in those commodities most im­
portant in international trade.
The combined index of wholesale prices constructed by the Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics averaged 16.5 per cent lower in the fiscal
year 1930-31 than in the preceding fiscal year. Farm products prices
averaged almost one-fourth lower as a result of the general decline
in the prices of all types of farm products. Food prices declined
about 17 per cent, while commodities other than farm products and
foods, consisting mostly of fabricated articles and minerals, declined
13 per cent.
Rubber prices averaged 51 per cent lower in the last fiscal year than
in the fiscal year preceding; hides and skins, silk and rayon and nonferrous metals averaged nearly one-third lower, and petroleum prod­
ucts averaged somewhat more than one-fourth lower. Declines rang­
ing from 15 to 22 per cent occurred in prices of leather, cotton goods,
lumber, paint materials, and miscellaneous textiles; and prices of
boots and shoes, iron and steel, brick, drugs and pharmaceuticals,
fertilizer materials, fertilizers, and paper and pulp were lower by
from 5 to 10 per cent. Prices of anthracite coal, coke, agricultural
implements, and cement averaged only slightly lower in 1930-31
than in 1929-30.
Price indexes

[Calendar years 1923-1925=100]
Item
Wholesale prices:
General average-------------------Farm products............................
Foods.............................................
Other products............................
Hides and leather products
Textile products.......................
Fuel and lighting.....................
Metals and metal products...
Building materials...................
Chemicals and drugs...............
House furnishing goods...........
Miscellaneous..........................
Farm prices______ ___________
Retail foods.....................................
Cost of living......... .........................

Fiscal year ended June 30—
1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931
100.5
94.1
96.8
104.7
103.8
99.2
115.8
100.1
102.6
100.5
101.2
96.7
93.0
95.4
96.1

97.4
95.3
95.8
99.1
97.2
99.7
96.8
101.5
100.9
98.6
101.5
94.6
95.0
97.8
99.2

99.8
103.7
101.3
98.2
101.0
98.6
97.1
98.3
97.3
99.7
98.6
95.6
102.0
100.1
100.3

101.8
103.3
107.3
99.8
98.3
96.5
102.7
94.4
96.7
100.8
96.2
111.6
103.0
108.0
102.5

96.1
93.7
103.0
94.7
97.5
88.1
99.8
93.6
93.6
97.6
93.4
91.4
93.0
105.0
100.7

95.8
101.9
104.3
91.0
114.6
88.9
86.5
92.2
88.3
95.4
93.1
86.7
99.0
102.6
98.7

96.7
102.2
106.0
91.2
109.9
88.0
87.0
96.9
92.4
94.6
91.6
79.4
98.0
103.3
98.0

92.8
97.2
103.2
88.4
102. 5
82.0
83.7
95.2
91.6
91.9
91.7
78.7
96.0
103.8
97.6

77.4
73.6
85.8
76.7
88.8
66.1
72.5
84.7
80.1
83.0
87.7
66.0
70.0
89.3
89.9

June, June,
1930 1931
86.2
86.5
95.7
83.9
98.7
75.6
80.2
89.7
86.4
88.4
91.1
73.9
88.0
98.7
94.8

69.5
63.6
76.5
70.4
84.7
60.1
61.0
82.2
74.4
77.4
83.9
61.3
57.6
79.0
84.4

XII

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

By reason of very sharp declines in all agricultural products, the
combined index of farm prices (prices received by the farmer) com­
piled by the Department of Agriculture dropped over one-fourth for
the fiscal year 1930-31 as a whole as compared with 1929-30. A drop
of 39 per cent occurred in prices of cotton and cottonseed, and there
were declines of from 25 to 31 per cent in prices of livestock, fruits
and vegetables, grains, and poultry products. Prices of dairy prod­
ucts averaged 18 per cent lower. The only group of farm products
the farm prices of which on July 15, 1931, were higher than before
the war was that of fruits and vegetables; other groups ranged from
8 per cent to 43 per cent below pre-war levels.
Retail prices do not usually fluctuate as widely or as rapidly as do
prices of commodities at wholesale, partly for the reason that they
include many items of cost which change slowly; nevertheless, dur­
ing the past fiscal year retail prices of foods averaged nearly 14
per cent lower than in the fiscal year preceding, a decline only slightly
less than that shown in wholesale prices of foods; the decline from
June, 1930, to June, 1931, was the same for each, 20 per cent. Meat
prices averaged nearly 14 per cent lower during the fiscal year 1930-31
than during 1929-30, dairy products averaged 11 per cent lower, and
prices of cereal foods were about 8 per cent lower.
The cost of living index compiled by the National Industrial Con­
ference Board averaged 8 per cent lower from July, 1930, to June,
1931, than during the same period of 1929-30. Aside from retail
prices of foods already discussed, the greatest decline occurred in
prices of clothing, liy 2 per cent. Rents were reduced 5y2 per cent,
but fuel and light and sundry items declined less than 2 per cent.
In June, 1931, the cost of living was 11 per cent lower than in June,
1930, and 16 per cent below the high point reached in 1929.
AGRICULTURE

Agricultural production as a whole declined in 1930, crop produc­
tion being 5 per cent less than in 1929, largely due to the severe
reduction of the corn and hay crops by drought. At the same time
markets for several of the “ cash crops ” were somewhat curtailed by
the industrial depression, and a precipitate world-wide decline in
prices affecting all products took place. Principally as a result of
the fall in prices, the aggregate farm value of crops declined from
$9,562,_000,000 in 1929 to $6,964,000,000 in 1930.
Agricultural cash income, which represents to a great extent the
farmer’s purchasing power, declined 23 per cent from 1929 to 1930.
Details of farm values and gross and cash income for several years
past are presented in the following table:

XIII

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Estimated farm value of products, gross income, and cash income, calendar years
m i-m o

[Value in millions of dollars]
Item
Crops:
Farm value................................. .................
Gross income-------- ---------------------------Cash income------------------------------------Animal products:
Gross income....................... .......................
Cash income___ _________ ... ----------Grand total (excluding duplications):
Cash income...........................................

1924

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

10,537
6,240
5,570
5,086
5,166
4,137

10,008
6,225
5, 505
5,820
5,819
4, 655

9,285
5, 540
4,870
6, 078
6,010
4,856

10, 078
5,902
5,270
5, 978
5, 797
4, 683

9, 806
5, 737
5, 091
6, 205
6, 061
4, 965

9, 562
5, 688
5,012
6,490
6,295
5,194

6,964
4,032
3,453
5,514
5,370
4,423

11,406 12, 043 11,550 11, 699 11,798 11,983
9, 707 10,160 9,726 9,954 10,056 10, 205

9,402
7,876

During the first half of 1931 conditions in the 1930 drought area
improved greatly, but two other areas—the Pacific Coast and North­
ern Plains States—were experiencing unusual drought and heat.
A corn crop larger than the 5-year average is indicated by condi­
tions during the first half of 1931. A wheat crop greater than in 1930
was being harvested at a time when world supplies were the largest
and prices the lowest in many years. The production of meat animals
has continued undiminished. The cotton crop also is large, and here
again world supplies are exceptionally high and prices correspond­
ingly low.
The aggregate production of all agricultural commodities has not
varied greatly in the last few years, and variations in farm income
have been due mostly to variations in price. Prices of our two major
“ cash crops,” wheat and cotton, are determined by world conditions,
and world visible supplies of both of these commodities have been
steadily mounting in recent years. During the past fiscal year prices
received by producers of wheat and cotton declined 40 per cent and
45 per cent, respectively, and, although better conditions relative to
other products have served to mitigate the situation viewed as a
whole, it was inevitable that some real distress in the industry should
result and that the reduced farm buying power should make its in­
fluence felt throughout the business community.
CONSTRUCTION

Building and engineering construction, as a whole, was character­
ized in 1930-31 by a drop to levels lower than for several years past
and by a sharp reduction in construction costs. The total value of
reported contracts for all types of construction in 36 Eastern States
for the fiscal year 1930-31 was 32 per cent less than in 1929-30, while
floor space of building construction decreased 34 per cent. The indi­
vidual classes of construction showed marked differences in behavior.
The actual physical volume of public-works construction was ap­
proximately equal to that during the preceding fiscal year. Although
there was a 9 per cent decrease in the value of contracts awarded for
11 subclasses of public construction, this was substantially offset by
the loAver level of construction costs. The Federal Government

XIV

REPORT OE THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

showed an increase of about 30 per cent in its expenditures for con­
struction as compared with the preceding fiscal year, thus contribu­
ting materially to the general program to sustain employment.
The State governments were able to maintain their programs at a
high rate, while the municipalities and other local governments, in
spite of special efforts to expedite public works as a means of lessen­
ing unemployment, were unable to prevent a decrease, in the face of
lowered assessments and impaired revenues.
Residential building, which had begun to fall off in volume even
before the depression set in, declined only 20 per cent in floor space
during 1930-31 from the preceding year. Although residential
vacancies appear to have increased slightly during the year, they
were not excessive at any time; the rate of new construction was
substantially below that of any reasonably computed trend line, and
is thus contributing to the future demand that will develop whenever
general business activity picks up, and families cease doubling up and
seek better quarters once more.
The decline in building of hospitals and institutions, and religious and memorial structures, all public or semipublic items, was about
the same as the decline in value of all construction.
Public-utility companies, including the railways, went forward
with construction programs instituted during the early part of the
depression, but had to curtail substantially the undertaking of
further new projects, although not to such a marked degree as was
the case with factories a,nd other types of industrial building. There
was a sharp falling off in commercial building.
Shipments of Portland cement, which is used in virtually all types
of construction, fell off only 13 per cent from the preceding year,
the large volume of road building having counted in favor of this
material. However, the volume was less than in any year since 1924.
The distinct downward trend in building-material prices, which
commenced in 1929, after several years of comparative stability, was
continued. The Bureau of Labor Statistics’ wholesale price index
of building materials, as stated on a 1913 base, dropped from 173
in October, 1929, to 137 in June, 1931, which is the lowest index
number since early in 1917.
Among other items, improvements in construction methods and
machinery have resulted in greater output per man-hour, especially
during the past two years, and thus have contributed toward lower­
ing the cost of all types of building and construction.
Construction contracts awarded in 86 States, fiscal years 1928-1981
[Source: F. W. Dodge Corporation]

Class

Value (millions of dollars)
1928

1929

1930

Total............... ............................. 6,329
2,712
Public works and public utilities....... 1, 256
Industrial and commercial..........
1,394
All other........... .......................
967

5,990
2,281
1, 250
1, 571
888

5,148 3, 520
1,365
980
1,387 1,119
1,492
687
903
734

1 Floor space of public works and public utilities not included.

1931

Floor space (millions of square
feet)
1928

1929

1930

1877
536
212
130

1847
468
257
122

1608
268
215
124

1931
1404
214
92
98

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

XV

Construction statistics, fiscal years 1922-1931
[Based on calendar years 1923-1925=100]
1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931

Item
Indexes of volume of business:
Construction contracts awarded—
Value, including public works

109
88 101 129 130 133 126
«
92 95 122 107 116 112 81
(a)
Residential construction—
75 82 109 98 105 88 53
w
79 78 104 87 99 86 50
$
w
Public works and public utilities,
73 89 103 128 138 137 152
(2)
«
All other construction—
108
72
85 110 113 106 111
(s) (a)
80 98 94 94 104 93
(3)71 (2)90 75
93 105 108 113 116 118 116
Price indexes:
99 103 98 97 95 90 88 88
(3)
Building-material prices, wholesale._ 89 103 101 97 97 94 88 92 92
i 36 States.

(»)
(>)

74
53
38
40
123
64
52
101
82
80

2 Comparable data not available.

TRANSPORTATION

The existing economic conditions throughout industry generally in
the United States during the past fiscal year were reflected in the
substantially lower total operating revenue and net operating in­
come received by Class I railways, the activities of which constitute
approximately 98 per cent of the total railway business of the
country.
The "total operating revenue of those roads during the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1931, was $4,838,139,000, a decline of 19.1 per cent
from the amount received for the fiscal year 1930 and 23.6 per cent
less than in 1929. The net operating income for the current fiscal
year amounted to $746,182,000, as compared with $1,088,295,000 in
1930 and $1,294,470,000 in 1929. This 1931 total represents a decrease
of 31.4 per cent when compared with the 1930 figures and a decline
of 42.4 per cent from the 1929 total.
The volume of revenue freight traffic handled by Class I railways
during the fiscal year 1931 was 349,916,000,000 ton-miles, a decline
of 17.3 per cent from 1930 and 21.7 per cent from 1929. During the
same period passenger miles declined 29.2 per cent from 1930 and 28.7
per cent from 1929.
These heavy shrinkages in the volume of railway traffic and in­
come furnished the basis for an appeal in June, 1931, from the car­
riers to the Interstate Commerce Commission for a fiat increase of
15 per cent in freight rates. In presenting that appeal the manage­
ment of the carriers stated that, if granted, the higher rate schedule
would enable the roads to earn at least an additional $500,000,000
per annum. In this action the railroads received the support of
banking and other interests whose holdings of railroad securities
are heavy but met strenuous opposition from shippers generally and
the agricultural interests in particular. The commission’s decision
of October 16, 1931, denied the application for a 15 per cent increase
and made other suggestions regarding increased revenues.
Notwithstanding this loss in income, the roads through constant
improvement in equipment and refinement in methods of operation
have continued their efforts to improve an already highly efficient

XVI

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

transportation machine. New records were made in increasing
freight-train speeds and in the consumption of fuel per traffic unit
handled. Improved passenger service has been made available and
many lower passenger rates have been established to increase pas­
senger traffic and to further competition with other modes of trans­
portation. One large eastern system is proceeding with the work of
electrifying its lines, at an estimated total cost of $175,000,000.
The average number of men employed during the year showed a
decrease of 15.2 per cent from the 1930 total. Efforts on the part
of the roads toward preventing a greater volume of unemployment
were made in some cases by working full shop forces part time and
by undertaking a greater amount of maintenance work than current
activities demanded. Under special accounting regulations obtained
from the Interstate Commerce Commission the carriers provided
extra work for 6,000 men for a number of months in dismantling
30,500 units of obsolete equipment. Since November 1, 1929, no less
than 67 certificates of “ convenience and necessity ” were obtained
by the carriers from the Interstate Commerce Commission' for the
construction of 1,678 miles of new line, at a cost of $244,193,172.
Operating statistics of Class I railways, fiscal years 1922-1981
[Source: Interstate Commerce Commission and American Bailway Association]
Item
Freight ton-mileage (millions) :
Revenue............................................................
Nonrevenue.............. ........................................
Tons of revenue freight originated (thousands).
Cars loaded (thousands)........................................
Net tons per train, average..................................
Net tons per loaded car, average..........................
Average daily car surplus.................... ................
Average daily car shortage....................................
Bad-order cars, average number..........................
Bad-order locomotives, average number *1...........
Employees, average number.................................
Total operating revenues (thousands of dollars)
Net operating income (thousands of dollars)___
Item
Freight ton-mileage (millions):
Revenue...........................................................
Nonrevenue......................................................
Tons of revenue freight originated (thousands) _
Cars loaded (thousands)........................................
Net tons per train, average....................................
Net tons per loaded car, average..........................
Average daily car surplus......................................
Average daily car shortage....................................
Bad-order cars, average number...........................
Bad-order locomotives, average number 1...........
Employees, average number................................
Total operating revenues (thousands of dollars)
Net operating income (thousands of dollars)___

1922

1925

1926

313,439
38,097
940,056
40,658
656
26.8
272,756
2,410
339, 369
15,764
1,643,000
5,508,169
818,345

396,621
40,766
1,210,118
49, 678
731
27.0
252,410
295
194,519
11,514
1,765,000
6, Oil, 864
1,033,766

427,385
43,398
1,273,048
51,905
752
27.0
218, 779
435
172,252
10,478
1,782,733
6,325,158
1,194,832

1928

1929

1930

420,312
44,330
1, 246,228
50,576
776
26.7
303,408
133
141,508
8,880
1,711,200
6,096,483
1,074,341

447,024
44,763
1,320,086
52,716
803
26.8
232,378
57
142,672
8,343
1, 679, 553
6,334,043
1,294,470

423,067
42,643
1,280,828
50,418
799
26.9
326, 719
44
141,796
8,103
1,639,881
5,983,954
1,088,295

1927
449,285
46,192
1, 351,076
53,627
786
27.6
213,154
287
144,668
9,302
1,798,495
6,442,387
1,209,535
1931
349,916
34,279
1,032,873
41,660
767
26.3
552,421
None.
155,304
6,595
1,391,118
4,838,139
746,182

1 Includes switching and terminal engines.

Ocean shipping in this country as well as abroad inevitably has
felt the effects of the present recession in oversea trade. Idle tonnage
in the United States on June 30, 1931, represented an increase of 32
per cent over last year. In comparison, total idle tonnage in the
principal foreign countries denoted an increase of about 125 per cent

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

XVII

over a similar period. The percentage increase in idle tonnage in this
country was limited through the withdrawal of laid-up shipping for
scrapping purposes and the maintenance of established trade routes.
In shipbuilding, the present situation is relatively favorable to the
United States as compared with the combined total of the principal
foreign shipbuilding countries. At the end of the fiscal year 1931,
a decline of 25 per cent in tonnage under construction was noted m
American yards in comparison with a 45 per cent decrease in foreign
yards. This situation is attributable very largely to the stimulus of
the merchant marine act of 1928, which liberalized the Government s
construction loan facilities and provided higher rates for the car­
riage of ocean mails, with the view to retiring the Government from
shipping and developing a modern privately owned mei chant
marine.
. , of our
The participation of American shipping in. the carriage
waterborne foreign trade, on the value basis, is shown by the following figures: Exports—1931, 35.2 per cent of the total; 1930, 3o.4 pei
cent. Imports—1931, 34.4 per cent of the total; 1930, 32.1 per cent.
Progress in the development of inland waterway facilities con­
tinued during the year. The appropriations for river and harbor
improvement authorized by the last Congress make available $80,000,000, which will be utilized in beginning work on new projects and
carrying forward projects already commenced. The completion and
opening of new modern terminals at Cincinnati, Ohio; Evansville,
Ind.; and Peoria, 111., were accomplished during the year.
An economic and potential traffic survey of conditions existing m
the Altamaha River area of Georgia has been completed and similar
work on the Calumet River project in Illinois is under way. The
latter project proposes to furnish the last link needed for a through
channel of 9 feet minimum depth from the Lakes to the Gulf of
Mexico.
BANKING AND FINANCE
Conditions in the financial markets during the fiscal year 1930-31
were in general indicative of further recessions in business and secur­
ity market activity. A combination of factors, such as have charac­
terized the depression phase of the business cycle in the past, together
with the effects of drought and other unusual influences, resulted m a
number of bank suspensions which in turn tended to delay business
recovery. Business activity, as measured by such indexes as bank
debits and commercial loans, moved to levels lower than those of the
fiscal year, 1929-30, and the short-term credit situation was consid­
erably eased and money rates stood at record low levels as the fiscal
year closed.
.
.
After a period of steady liquidation in the security markets during
the closing months of the calendar year 1930, renewed buying activity
set in during the first quarter of 1931. The total market value of
stocks listed on the New York Stock Exchange stood at approximately
$64,000,000,000 at the beginning of July, 1930, and, after declining to
less than $50,000,000,000 by the beginning of 1931, rose to $57,000,000,000 by the beginning of March. During the remainder of the fiscal
year both quotations and total market value moved gradually down­
ward. The change for the fiscal year was a drop of approximately 38
per cent in the general level of stock prices and a shrinkage of $16,475,84206—31------ii

XVIII

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

000,000 in the market value of the stocks listed on the Stock Ex­
change. The combined index of 12 industrial and trade groups,
including 337 stocks, declined 40 per cent during the fiscal year, while
the averages o,f 33 rail stocks dropped 41 per cent and 34 publicutility stocks showed a net price loss of 31 per cent.
Bond prices fluctuated throughout the year. After a period of
marked weakness during the closing months of 1930 the market
showed steady improvement and at the close of the fiscal year
average yields had fallen somewhat below their position of a year
previously. United States Government issues showed strength
throughout the year while corporate and foreign government issues
tended in general to fluctuate in accordance with earnings reports
and foreign political and economic conditions, respectively.
Security trading during the period under review was on a con­
siderably lower level than during 1929-30. Contrasted with average
monthly sales of 88,000,000 shares during the last quarter of the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1930, the average monthly turnover during
the corresponding period in 1931 was 53,000,000 shares.
The year’s liquidation in the security markets was accompanied
by a steady decline in brokers’ loans. Loans made by rep or tin g
member banks, which stood at slightly above $3,000,000,000 at the
beginning of the fiscal year, receded to $1,479,000,000 on the last
reporting date of June, 1931. Total loans to member firms of the
£,ew York Stock Exchange, as reported by the latter, fell from
$3,728,000,000 to $1,391,000,000 during the same period. The greater
decline m the second group of reported loan figures indicates that
there was a marked degree of liquidation on the part of private
bankers, foreign bank agencies, and nonbanking lenders. The steady
decline m the total volume of brokers’ loans in the face of periodic
price advances suggests that securities were tending to pass more
and more into nonspeculative hands.
Money rates at the close of the past fiscal year were distinctly
favorable to business revival. During the year two consecutive
reductions brought the rediscount rate of the Federal Eeserve Bank
of New York down to U/2 per cent. The other reserve banks had in
eflect on June 30 rates of either 2i/2 per cent or 3 per cent During
the year call money rates fell from an average of 2.62 per cent to
1.50 per cent. Time loan rates ranged from iy2 per cent to 1 3 / per
cent while the commercial paper note stood at the end of June at
contrasted
the 1929-30 fiscal
year. with a rate of 3y2 per cent at the close of
New capital issues, especially those in the form of common stocks,
fell below the level of the previous year. Although the total for the
closing month of the fiscal year was only $251,000,000, the fluctuations
xrom month to month covered a wide range and during both July
1930, and March, 1931, new issues were in excess of $500,000,000. If
corporate issues are omitted, the total of new financing during the
year compares favorably with that of other recent years. Total
long term and short term issues of municipalities during October
1930, were the highest for that month since 1924, and the authoriza­
tions m the November elections of State and municipal issues for
public construction and for development of public works represented
a record total.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XIX

Loans on securities by reporting member banks, which stood at
$8,435,000,000 at the beginning of the last fiscal year declined to
$6,746,000,000 during the succeeding 12 months. This represented
a reversal of the trend during the preceding year when loans on
securities had increased approximately $675,000,000. “All other
loans of reporting member banks experienced a relatively small de­
cline of 7 per cent, but, it must be added, the changes in this item
were influenced during the past year by the large holdings of
bankers’ acceptances which are included in the reported figure.
Total bank debits which aggregated $840,000,000,000 during
1929-30 fell to $563,000,000,000 during the fiscal period ending June
30, 1931. A relatively large part of this decline was due to a drop
of 40 per cent in New York City bank debits and was apparently
more closely related to security liquidation than to the recession in
commercial activity. Bank debits outside New York City, which
are a fair measure of general commercial activity, showed a drop of
only 28 per cent and represented a total which was only slightly
below the aggregate for such active business years as 1925—26 and
1926-27. A great part of this drop was due to a decline of more
than 19 per cent in wholesale prices during the fiscal year rather
than to recession in the actual volume of trade.
Outstanding bankers’ acceptances at the end of the fiscal year were
$63,000,000 in excess of those reported at the close of June, 1930.
This increase in the face of a marked decline in wholesale prices and
in foreign trade was accounted for largely by the extraordinarily
low bill rates which have prevailed during the year. Throughout
the entire 12-month period American banks extended large short­
term advances in the form of acceptance credits. A feature of the
acceptance market at the close of the fiscal year was the support
given the market by the accepting banks themselves, a fact evidenced
by the relatively small proportion of the total bills outstanding held
by the Federal Reserve banks for their own account and for the ac­
count of foreign correspondents. More than $1,000,000,000 of the
$1,368,000,000 outstanding at the end of June was in the hands of
“ outside ” investors.
Net gold imports for the fiscal year amounted to $296,600,000. Net
releases from “ earmark ” amounted to $83,000,000. Until the final
month of the period here reviewed gold placed under “ earmark”
had slightly exceeded releases from “ earmark,” but during June
the financial crisis led to heavy; releases totaling $92,300,000. Total
monetary gold stocks in the United States rose during the year from
$4,533,000,000 to $4,958,000,000.
The public debt at the end of the fiscal year just closed stood at
$16,329,000,000 or $461,000,000 higher than on June 30, 1930.
Although further retirement was halted, the present debt outstand­
ing represents a decline of 35 per cent from the postwar peak of
$25,479,000,000 on August 31, 1919.
Attention was called above to the past year’s numerous bank sus­
pensions. Many factors account for the inability of various banking
institutions to meet the demands made upon them, but to a large
degree the underlying conditions are identified with the depression
phase of the business cycle. Sharp declines in commodity prices
make the payment of bank loans difficult, continued recessions in

XX

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

investment values press severely on bank reserves, and general busi­
ness uncertainty oftentimes tends to develop a psychological situation
making it difficult for smaller banks to withstand the aggregate
demands of depositors. Such factors, as is usual during depression,
prevailed last year and their influence was accentuated by the effect
of unusual weather conditions and widespread drought.
FOREIGN TRADE

Changes in the value of United States foreign trade during the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1931, reflected the continued depression
in world business. Throughout the whole period world trade was
characterized by the economic chain of falling prices, reduced pur­
chasing power, and renewed declines in export and import values.
Total United States merchandise exports of $3,084,000,000 and im­
ports of $2,432,000,000 fell below the respective totals for the pre­
ceding fiscal year by 34 per cent and 37 per cent. Compared with
the average sales abroad for the 5-year period 1922-1926, the past
year’s drop in export values—with or without the inclusion of re­
exports—was approximately 29 per cent.
A large part of the year’s decline in export and import values was
due to the marked drop in prices. Crude materials and foodstuffs
experienced sharper drops in price than did manufactured products.
During the past fiscal year the average unit export values of copper,
unmanufactured cotton, and wheat flour fell from 25 per cent to 35
per cent below those of 1929-30, while in the case of such products
as automobiles, typewriters, and calculating machines average price
declines were less than 10 per cent. If United States exports during
1930-31 are adjusted for price changes, the year’s decline is only 22
per cent, and if compared with average exports during the 5-year
period, 1922-1926, the total volume of sales abroad showed an in­
crease of over 2 per cent.
Foreign trade of the United States
[Millions of dollars]
Year ended June 30—
Item
Exports of United States merchandise.
Exports, including reexports-------Imports, merchandise_____________
Excess of exports (+) or imports (—):
Merchandise_________________
Gold.......................... ........ ..............
Silver______ _________________
Quantitative index eliminating the
effect of price variations (1910—
1914=100):
Exports of United States merchandise----------------------------Imports___________ j ...................

1910- 19221914 1926 1926
average average

1927

1928

1929

1930

1931

2,130
2,166
1,689
+477
+17
+20

4,248
4, 332
3, 646
+685
+213
+H

4, 653
4, 753
4,465
+289
-97
+29

4, 867
4.968
4, 252
+716
-148
+21

4, 773
4,877
4,147
+730
+498
+20

5, 284
5, 373
4, 292
+1, 082
-155
+17

4.618
4, 694
3,849
+845
-223
+18

3, 032
3,084
2,432
+651
-297
+5

100
100

132
165

14S
170

175
180

.174
184

193
203

173
200

135
167

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXI

Imports consisted to an even greater extent than exports of those
classes of goods subject to sharp price recessions. Unit import val­
ues of copper, unmanufactured wool, raw silk, and crude rubber
showed declines during the year ranging from 35 to 46 per cent.
Reduced to a quantity basis, total imports for the last fiscal year
dropped only 17 per cent and were 8 per cent above the average
imports for 1922-1926.
The geographic distribution of United States foreign trade during
1930-31 reflects further the nature of the factors underlying reduced
world purchasing power. Exports to Europe, which totaled $1,523,000,000, declined slightly less than 30 per cent below their value of
1929-30, whereas the values of our sales to non-European areas
showed recessions ranging from nearly 60 per cent in the case of
Oceania to 32 per cent in the case of Asia. The value of exports to
Canada fell approximately 35 per cent, while sales to Cuba dropped
43 per cent in value. The declines in the values of exports to South
America were sharply influenced by a 50 per cent shrinkage in the
value of purchases by Argentina and Brazil. Our exports to Euro­
pean countries dropped by varying degrees, 14 per cent in the case of
those to Soviet Russia and 45 per cent in the case of those to Italy
and Greece. The decline in sales to Europe was materially influenced
by the fact that foodstuffs and crude and semimanufactured mate­
rials, the prices of which underwent sharp recessions, constitute
approximately three-fifths of our total sales to the Continent.
United States imports from Europe during 1930-31 showed a
value decline of 39 per cent, whereas purchases from all other areas
combined fell 36 per cent. Sharp declines in the value of imports of
such colonial products as long staple cotton, burlaps, and tin, and
sharp reductions in our purchases of leather and leather manufac­
tures, linen goods, wool manufactures, works of art, diamonds, and
various other articles led to marked reductions in our imports from
both the United Kingdom and other European countries. Reduced
purchases of newsprint, wood pulp, lumber,_and copper from Can­
ada ; sharp drops in imports of hides and skins, raw wool, and meat
products from Argentina; reduced shipments to us of copper and
sodium nitrate by Chile; sharp declines in the value of coffee im­
ported from Brazil, due to price declines rather than to smaller
quantities; value declines of Japanese silk purchases, despite a 10 per
cent increase in the quantity imported; and the combined effects of
severe drops in the price of crude rubber and a slight decline in the
quantity purchased from British Malaya, all reflect representative
influences operating during the year in our principal import markets.

XXII

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Foreign trade, "by countries and economic classes
[Millions of dollars]
Year ended June 30—
1910- 19221914 1926
aver- average
age

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

1931

TOTAL EXPORTS, INCLUDING REEX­
PORTS OF FOREIGN MERCHANDISE

»
To—
Europe................................................
2,253 2,331 2,394 2,322 2,397 2,173
All other continents.......................... 1,350
816
2,422 2,575 2.555 2,977 2,521
Canada and Newfoundland......... 320 2,079
639
708
797
871
999
830
Latin America ................................ 302
722
879
869
831
970
848
Asia.................................................
121
502
539
587
568
686
566
Oceania............................................
48
146
201
216
174
193
160
Africa_______________________
25
69
94
106
111
129
116
EXPORTS OF UNITED STATES
MERCHANDISE

Foodstuffs................................ .............
Raw materials........................................
Semimanufactures-............................I
Finished manufacturers......................
GENERAL IMPORTS

From—
Europe.................................................
All other continents____________ "
Canada and Newfoundland____
Latin America___________ _•___
Asia__..............................................
Oceania.............................................
Africa________ ________ ___
Foodstuffs....................................
Raw materials.......................................
Semimanufactures..............................
Finished manufactures..................

1,523
1, 561
530
512
385
64
71

421
946
780
877
824
806
658
713 1,194 1,301
1, 321 1,174 1,239 1,031
342
555
635
694
714
730
636
654 1, 554 1,937 1,976 2,062 2,508 2,293

1,446

836
852
119
435
259
17
23
398
595
307
389

719
1,713
334
623
685
25
46
591
765
454
623

1, 093
2,554
406
965
1, 045
57
80
849
1,400
655
743

1,269 1,257
3,196 2,995
476
486
1,052 1, 049
1,498 1,315
71
59
99
86
930
968
1,905 1,651
796
759
834
874

1, 258
2,889
492
1,039
1, 215
54
90
969
1,541
746
891

1,302
2,989
516
1,089
1, 223
57
104
971
1, 510
849
961

1,188
2,661
487
950
1, 096
40
88
837
1,309
785
918

457

The year’s changes in United States exports by commodity classes
ranged from a decline of 37 per cent in the case of finished manufac­
tures to a drop of slightly less than 30 per cent in the case of raw
materials. Exports of automobiles, including parts and accessories,
tell 51 per cent. Machinery, photographic goods, and paper, rubber,
and cotton manufactures showed material export value declines. As
compared with the 1922-1926 average, United States exports of foodstiiits showed a decline of more than 50 per cent, but exports of fin­
ished manufactures, were only 7 per-cent less than those of the same
5-year period.
In our import trade by economic classes the sharpest drop for the
fiscal year was in semimanufactures, which fell 42 per cent below pur­
chases during 1929-30. Imports of foodstuffs fell slightly less than
30 per cent during the year. This class is dominated by coffee and
sugar, both of which declined severely in price. In quantity coffee
imports actually increased 11 per cent and sugar purchases, on a
quantity basis, dropped only 9i/2 per cent.
The excess of merchandise exports over imports for the fiscal year
amounted to $651,000,000, as compared with an average of $732,000,000
during the immediately preceding 5-year period. This balance, the
smallest for any fiscal year since 1926, was partly offset by net gold
imports of $297,000,000, the largest net receipt of the metal in recent
years.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXIII

Progress of branch factory movement.—The influence of the world­
wide depression on most phases of economic activity during the last
year has naturally retarded the expansion of our industries into
foreign fields through the establishment of branch factories. It
may be said that, with the notable exception of Canada, there has
been no development of any significance since the submission of the
report on American Branch Factories Abroad (S. Doc. No. 258)
last January, and there is no reason to expect a resumption of
activity before a general business revival takes place.
The exceptional situation in Canada, where a considerable num­
ber of branch plants, predominantly American, were established
during the last year in spite of the unfavorable economic situation
in that country, serves to confirm the conclusion of this department
in the report to the Senate that the tariff policies of foreign countries
constitute the most important single factor in the expansion of our
industries beyond the boundaries of the country. The upward re­
visions of the Canadian tariff by the conservative government in
September, 1930, and June, 1931, were definitely and officially stated
to be for the purpose of encouraging the industrial development of
the country; the success of the protectionist tariff policy, as evidenced
by the establishment of new American branch plants, has been
repeatedly stressed by the leaders of the Government during the
tariff debates. In addition to increasing the rates of duty on a con­
siderable number of commodities, the Canadian Government has
also made certain changes in the drawback regulations and the
methods of fixing the basis for ad valorem duty with a view to
increasing the advantages of the domestic industry. A contributing
factor is to be found in the intensive campaign in favor of Canadian
products carried on by the Government in connection with the upward
revision of the tariff. According to a statement by the Premier on
June 1, 1931, 81 new foreign branch plants, including 74 American,
had been established in Canada since August, 1930. No information
is available as regards the amount of investment involved.
It is of interest to note that while in the case of Canada the upward
tariff revision has proved successful in attracting foreign industrial
capital, a similar, but even more drastic, policy in Australia has so
far failed to produce the desired results, primarily on account of the
uncertainty connected with the economic policies of the country.

ELIMINATION OF WASTE
Many of the activities of the agencies functioning under the aus­
pices and authority of the Department of Commerce are of im­
portance in the general campaign aimed at the elimination of un­
necessary waste. Prominent among these activities from the point
of view of waste elimination are those relating to the production,
distribution, and utilization of manufactured commodities, and to
the operation and control of equipment involving hazards to life
and property.
Mechanical equipment which is capable of functioning but which
remains idle, and laborers willing to work but remaining unem­
ployed, represent definite economic loss. In the elimination of waste
of this kind the Department of Commerce has been especially active.
CONSTRUCTION AND HOME OWNERSHIP

The Government’s program of cooperation with public and private
agencies on the important problems related to the construction in­
dustry and home ownership has undergone some notable develop­
ments.
During the past fiscal year the President’s Conference on Home
Building and Home Ownership was announced, and is to be held in
December, 1931. For more than a year the work of the committees
of this conference, of which the Secretaries of Commerce and In ­
terior are chairmen, will have been reviewing the available mate­
rial, supplemented with their own surveys, on the problems of the
home owner. From this, the conference may be expected to arrive
at certain definite and important conclusions which may go a long
way toward removing present obstacles to the building of good
homes.
The efforts initiated by the President, following the decline of
prices in the stock market in October, 1929, for the furtherance of
which there was set up, in this department, the division of public
construction, were constantly stimulated by this division.
As a further development in this field, the Federal Employment
Stabilization Board, created by legislation passed and approved dur­
ing the last session of Congress, has been set up in this department,
with the Secretary of Commerce as chairman, to cooperate with the
various construction agencies of the Federal Government in the
preparation of long-range plans for public works.
While there has been a general decline in the volume of construc­
tion during the past year, undertakings in the field of public works
and utilities have held up remarkably well. The construction pro­
gram of the Federal Government, as is discussed elsewhere in this
report, is a notable example of the practice of expanding the con­
struction program during times of depression, and was followed by a
xxiv

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXV

great number of State and local governmental agencies during the
winter months of the last fiscal year, when the need for employment
was greatest.
The department has kept in close touch with a new national body
formed during the fiscal year, with the Secretary of Commerce as
chairman, and composed of representatives of groups interested in
the construction industry. It is the object of this organization,
known as the National Conference on Construction, to investigate
the particular points in the set-up of the construction industry that
present difficulties, and to determine and promote changes in prac­
tices that will tend to stabilize construction.
Home building and home ownership.—The work of the depart­
ment to stimulate home ownership, with special regard to develop­
ment of sound economic policy for home owners, has been tied in
with the work of the President’s Conference on Home Building and
Home Ownership wherever possible. The actual work on this con­
ference was commenced early in the fiscal year.
The conference is being financed with funds contributed from pri­
vate sources. However, the Bureau of Standards, particularly
through its division of building and housing, has made valuable
contributions in the work and research of the various committees
investigating the jpany problems connected with home building and
related subjects. 9 Other Federal departments have been of con­
siderable assistance in furnishing material that was needed by the
committees of the conference.
Preparations for the President’s conference on home building
and home ownership have involved special investigations in the
field or by the questionnaire method; study of the experience of
business groups, civic organizations, and public departments; the
compilation of the best available information; analysis of facts;
and the preparation of reports to be presented at the conference.
The problems that are being studied involve the setting for the
home; city planning and zoning; subdivision layout; landscape
planning and planting ; utilities for houses ; financing ; home owner­
ship and leasing; problems of taxation in relation to housing;
blighted areas and slums ; reconditioning, remodeling, and modern­
izing; house construction—relative merits of different types of
dwellings; fundamental equipment—heating,_lighting, ventilation,
plumbing, and refrigeration ; standards for kitchens, laundries, and
other work centers; household management; home making; home
furnishing and decorating; farm and village housing; negro hous­
ing; relation of income and the home; organization and manage­
ment of large-scale operations; and home information centers.
There has been prepared and published a pamphlet Care and
Repair of the House, which makes available in compact form a
great amount of information on such subjects as heating, lighting,
plumbing, and refrigeration in the home, and will aid the home
owner in curtailing the repair bills on the home, which amount to
several hundred million dollars a year for the Nation.
The general purpose of such statistical work as that performed, in
the building and housing division is designed to help in stabilizing
business conditions. It is an important factor in eliminating the
waste due to overproduction in periods of prosperity and the unem­

XXVI

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

ployment over periods of depression. The work on vacancy surveys
is closely related to this type of elimination of waste.
The financing of homes, which has been recognized as one of the
greatest problems in the field of home building, has received con­
siderable study in the form of field surveys and research, in an at­
tempt to arrive at some conclusions that will materially aid in pro­
viding better credit facilities for those desiring to build, and tend to
stabilize property values, enabling those families desiring to build
to do so on a sound economic basis.
A large amount of material has been assembled on the problem of
home financing. Case studies have been made of some 5,000 mort­
gages. Information was sought on second mortgages, liens, and
foreclosures. Losses on different types of mortgages were studied to
determine the relation of loss to amount of down payment, monthly
payment, and the total amount of the mortgage.
Uniformity of local building codes.—Recommendations designed
to be helpful to local code committees and to bring about greater
uniformity continue to be issued by the building code committee.
During the year these included a report giving minimum require­
ments for fire resistance in buildings and a supplement to an earlier
report giving recommendations for working stresses in masonry
walls.
Studies that are expected to lead up to future reports including a
survey of existing exit facilities in buildings and counts to deter­
mine the rate at which persons pass through doorways, down stair­
ways, and in other locations. Extended consideration was also given
to the necessary size of house drains and house sewers in plumbing
systems with particular reference to high buildings.
. A survey of building-code requirements in cities of 1,000 popula­
tion and over by the 1930 census showed that there were approxi­
mately 1,500 building codes of various kinds in existance, ranging
from very elementary requirements to elaborate consideration of all
the topics usually covered. Significant of the inertia manifested in
code revision was the information obtained that there are 88 cities
having building codes that had not received a major revision for
20 years. Evidence of the usefulness of the recommendations issued
by the Department of Commerce was shown by reports that they
had been utilized in 281 cities in connection with code revision.
Planning and zoning.—An increasing demand is made for the de­
partment’s services in the field of planning and zoning and a broaden­
ing of the activities is urged from many sources. Interest in regional
planning has shown a rapid development in the last few years.
Official and unofficial regional planning commissions or organizations
have been set up in widely scattered sections of the country. There
are now 68 such bodies throughout the country, whose activities cover
a land area of approximately 100,000 square miles, embracing a
population of close to 40,000,000.
The standard city planning enabling act, published by the depart­
ment in 1927, under which States may confer suitable city planning
powers upon municipalities and which also contains provisions for
instituting regional planning, has been used in the legislation of 10
States.
Legislation conferring upon municipalities the power to adopt
zoning regulations has been adopted by 47 States and the District of

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXVII

Columbia and the constitution of the one other State, Washington,
has been construed to permit the adoption of zoning ordinances. A
standard State zoning enabling act, prepared by the advisory com­
mittee on city planning and zoning and published in 1923, has been
used in this legislation in 36 States.
Zoning ordinances are now operative in very nearly 1,000 munici­
palities of the country, including 9 counties and 47 townships.
Eighty-two of the 93 cities of the country having a population in
excess of 100,000 have adopted zoning ordinances.
The tendency toward extending zoning beyond the limits of mu­
nicipalities into rural areas through regional county and township
zoning laws, as noted above, is accompanied by a growing concern
about the development of areas immediately surrounding our cities.
A number of municipalities have adopted subdivision regulations
under a grant of extraterritorial power by the State legislature in
order that new developments adjoining their boundaries may be re­
quired to conform to the city plan and avoid the makeshift and dis­
orderly development that has been so common heretofore. This
matter is now under consideration by the department’s advisory com­
mittee on city planning and zoning.
A large body of qualified opinion throughout the country holds
that city planning and zoning have had a salutary effect on municipal
development through stabilization of uses and values of private
property. It has also resulted in the reduction of huge wastes attend­
ing the improper location of buildings and public improvements and
unplanned installations of public facilities, such as sewers, water
mains, and paving that not infrequently occurred in the past.
Uniformity of mechanics1lien acts.—At the request of groups en­
gaged in the construction industry and with the indorsement of other
groups engaged or interested in the industry, an advisory commit­
tee consisting of representatives of the groups was appointed in 1925
for the purpose of working out in their own way the problems alleged
to confront the industry in this field.
This committee has now unanimously agreed upon a draft of a
mechanics’ lien act, which it is believed equitably distributes among
the owner, the contractor, the subcontractor, material man, laborer,
and others concerned the burdens and benefits of such legislation.
The mechanics’ lien act committee of the National Conference of
Commissions on Uniform State Laws, which has been represented on
the department committee and which has cooperated with it through­
out the study, is also in unanimous agreement on this draft, which
was tentatively approved by the National Conference of Commis­
sioners on Uniform State Laws at their annual meeting in Septem­
ber, 1931. Final action on the act will be taken by this body and
by the department committee in the fall of 1932.
The task has been a large one on a controversial subject and is a
notable example of the success of cooperative effort of groups with
conflicting interests in a given field to solve their own problems. The
act, if adopted, will no doubt have a beneficial effect in the construc­
tion industry through the correction of a number of bad or ques­
tionable practices, including an overextension of credit in reliance
upon lien law security, and the use of funds provided for a specific
construction project for other purposes.

XXVIII

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

DOMESTIC MARKETING SERVICE

The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce has experienced,
during this past year, a tremendously increased demand for assistance
from all sections of industry and trade in its work of isolating and
treating the basic causes of marketing waste. At the beginning of
the fiscal year it was felt that these increases had reached a point
where effective administration of the work could no longer be secured
in a single division. A reorganization was effected which resulted in
setting up three divisions in the place of the former domestic com­
merce _division. These divisions have been designated as the mer­
chandising research division, the domestic regional division, and the
marketing service division.
Experience has shown that the most important work which the
bureau can do in the domestic field is to carry out, in cooperation with
organized groups of business men, fact-finding studies which they
themselves can not undertake successfully. Ample evidence is avail­
able to show the need for an unbiased research agency of this charac­
ter in which business men will have confidence. The bureau has
sought to merit this confidence and the large increase in the demands
suggests that it has been attained in a large measure.
Along with the prosecution of such research work goes also the
equal responsibility to see that the practical results of these studies
are brought to the attention of the business public in such a way
that they will be applied in the everyday operations of merchants
and manufacturers. It has seemed useless to expend money in carry­
ing out research work if the results are largely to lie buried in Gov­
ernment pamphlets which few business men know exist.
In reorganizing the domestic commerce work careful consideration
was given to these two functions. Two of the new divisions es­
tablished are purely research organizations. The merchandising
research division carries on studies dealing with merchandising func­
tions such as costs, credits, sales efforts, consumer preference, indus­
trial marketing, and related subjects. The domestic regional division
was set up to handle research studies having particular regional
aspects. These include commercial surveys of sections of the country,
trade-area studies, market data, and commodity-movement studies.
The third division known as the marketing service division has
for its purpose the dissemination of the results of our own and other
research in the field of marketing. Particular emphasis is placed
on getting these results before the business public in such a way as
to secure their practical use. This is being done through press re­
leases, special articles, speeches, radio talks, exhibits, model stores,
correspondence in answer to inquiries, and also through the stimula­
tion of discussion programs by trade organizations, chambers of com­
merce, and other bodies. An effort is also being made to decentralize
this work as far as possible through the use of our own district
offices and through cooperation with local chambers of commerce in
various parts of the country.
Efforts have also been made to develop the domestic commerce
activities of the commodity divisions particularly by having these
divisions act as the contact point with trade associations in their
respective fields and thus to bring before such organizations the serv­

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXIX

ices which the bureau can render and the results of studies in their
particular trades.
In general, the work during the past year has been carried on along
lines indicated in previous reports. The analysis of the comprehen­
sive data obtained in the Louisville Grocery Survey has been com­
pleted and either published or prepared for publication. A national
retail drug-store survey was undertaken with the cooperation of more
than 30 national trade associations. The credit surveys have been
continued and extended to cover merchandising credit. The Market
Data Handbook is being revised and a series of supplements will be
issued. The regional commercial survey work has been reorganized
along commodity lines and several publications issued. There has
been a special demand for studies in cooperation with particular
trades or industries such as those undertaken for the jewelry, mark­
ing devices, blue printing, drop forging, confectionery, and other
industries.
The bureau is in receipt of thousands of letters from business men
expressing appreciation of the work which it is doing and of the
service it has been able to render. Most of this work is of a funda­
mental character upon which it is impossible to place specific dollarand-cents valuation. However, many of these letters state that the
work of the bureau has enabled them to effect economies in their
operations ranging from a few hundreds to many thousands of dol­
lars. The marking-device industry has stated that the survey con­
ducted for them was worth a million dollars to the industry. The
Market Data Handbook has enabled thousands of firms to effect sig­
nificant savings in marketing their products. The confectionery
industry and the grocery and dry-goods trades have been especially
appreciative of the work which the bureau has done for them.
The results of the bureau’s efforts in this field have been especially
helpful during the trying times of the past year. Many firms have
indicated that by applying the results of the bureau’s work they have
eliminated large amounts of wasted effort and have been able to turn
threatened deficits into the profit column. The bureau feels that this
work which has proved itself effective in helping to eliminate many
unnecessary wastes in distribution should be materially strengthened.
It is one of the methods by which the Government can greatly assist
in the recovery from the business depression, and its results are of
benefit not only to industry and trade but in even a larger way to all
consumers through lower prices resulting from more efficient
operation.
SIMPLIFIED PRACTICE

In the past standards have been developed either from a technical
study of the material or article under consideration, with a view to
arriving at the most nearly perfect product, or on the basis of produc­
tion and sale, with a view to ascertaining the variety of the article
which enjoys the greatest demand. In a great many cases both
methods have proved eminently satisfactory. The first of these
methods, or what is commonly known as standardization based on
technical or scientific research, has saved countless millions of
dollars.

XXX

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

However, the division of simplified practice is concerned with the
second of the two methods, namely, elimination of needless variety.
From the point of view of the manufacturer, the selection as standard
of the size or style which enjoys the greatest demand has a direct
value which takes the form of dollars added to his net profits. The
distributor profits through smaller inventory and greater turnover,
while the ultimate consumer usually gets a better article and quicker
delivery from stock. The function of the division of simplified prac­
tice is to get all parties interested in a project of this character and
to coordinate their work in developing simplified practice recom­
mendations. During the past year this cooperative work has been
continued with many new industries taking advantage of the oppor­
tunities offered by this neutral agency.
Since the division was organized 10 years ago, 117 simplified
practice recommendations, exclusive of 1 regional recommendation
and 1 limitation-of-variety recommendation, have been accepted by
industry. Twenty new simplified practice recommendations were
developed by industry during the fiscal year.
A total of 38 existing recommendations were reviewed by their
respective standing committees during the same 12-month period.
Of these, 32 were reaffirmed, without change, for additional periods,
and 6 were revised.
Surveys of production, distribution, and use were made to deter­
mine adherence to 13 simplified practice recommendations. The
acceptors reporting indicated that, on the average, approximately
90 per cent of their volume of production conformed with the
recommendations.
Two noteworthy developments recently observed in the application
of simplified practice are an increasing interest shown by the con­
sumers of the commodities simplified, and an extension of the practice
to the field of distribution.
There are unquestionably extensive wastes in distribution, some of
which can be substantially reduced through the application of sim­
plified practice. As an example, four recommendations have re­
cently been adopted covering wrapping and packing supplies. Simi­
lar programs for other items are under consideration. The
sharpening of consumer interest appears not only as applying to
existing recommendations but is also leading to the establishment
of new simplification programs. For example, one simplified prac­
tice recommendation that was originated during the past year by
consumers is now before industry for acceptance. Similarly, two
other projects were proposed by representative users and are now
being developed. This interest, on the part of the consumer, is not
confined to individuals. Such national associations as those com­
posed of purchasing agents, storekeepers, building and construction
contractors, architects, department stores, groceries, and druggists,
are constantly increasing their efforts to eliminate waste through
the application of simplified practice.
CERTIFICATION AND LABELING

More than 15,000 requests have been received from 7,000 separate
firms for listing as willing to supply material certified by them to
comply with the requirements of 335 Federal specifications and 21

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXI

commercial standards. The lists of willing-to-certify manufacturers
have been sent to Federal, State, county, and municipal purchasers
who are spending money collected from the public in the form of
taxes.
There is given in the accompanying table, a statistical summary of
the willing-to-certify lists, showing the groups of commodities cov­
ered by the specifications to which the certification plan has been
applied. The commercial standards referred to therein relate to
clinical thermometers, plumbing fixtures, pipe nipples and unions,
builders’ hardware, drill fittings, gage blanks, feldspar, foundry
patterns, golf shafts, wall paper, cleaning solvent, dress patterns,
and men’s pajamas.
Total number of—

Total number of—
Commodity groups
Abrasives and polishing
materials.........................
Brick..................................
Brushes and brooms........
Builders’ hardware...........
Cement, Portland.............
Cotton gauze and band­
ages.................................
Dental and surgical sup­
plies.................................
Electrical supplies............
Fire extinguishers and
liquids.............................
Floor coverings..................
Glass...................................
Goggles and helmets........
Heat-insulating materials.
Inks.....................................
Insecticides........................
Leather goods....................
Lime and plaster..............
Liquid-measuring de­
vices________________
Lumber..............................
Masonry, cement, and
concrete materials.........
Nonferrous metals............
Office supplies...................

Specifi­ List­
cations ings

Firms

9
113
2
596
945
48
1
33
69
1
5
34
16
1
14
220
3
78
5
32
52
1
7
58
8
58
114
6
28
3
4
103
4
145
21
1
2 5, 642
5
76
32 1,221
72
8

54
596
179
33
69
11
16
153
51
19
52
14
30
43
18
81
87
21
3,150
71
327
57

Commodity groups
Packing and gaskets____
Padlocks.............................
Paints and paint materials..............................
Paper..................................
Pipe and pipe fittings___
Refractories.......................
Ribbons, typewriter........
Road and paving materials..............................
Roofing, bituminous
and waterproofing.........
Rope, wire.......................
Rubber matting................
Safes, burglar-resisting__
Scales, railroad track........
Scales, weighing................
Screws, wood....................
Soaps and scouring compounds............................
Tableware, silver-plated..
Textiles..............................
Towels...............................
Tubing, metallic...............
Commercial standards...
Total........................

Specifi­ List­ Firms
cations ings
13
162
1
17
29 3, 004
28
557
83
7
3
108
93
3
7
121
16
571
15
1
13
1
3
1
1
7
1
33
14
1
13
562
1
7
33
598
12
1
4
61
699
21
356 15,466

66
17
305
126
64
60
36
48
106
15
13
3
7
33
14
158
7
191
12
49
638
7,099

The 335 Federal specifications to which the certification plan has
been applied represent about one-half of the total number of speci­
fications promulgated by the Federal Specifications Board for the
use of all Federal Government departments and establishments.
About 50 per cent of the specifications and standards to which the
plan has been applied and nearly 60 per cent of the listings relate
to building materials.
Official indorsement of the certification plan has been received
not only from agencies representing Federal, State, county, and
municipal governments but also a great number of other consumer
groups and trade associations, especially those in the building
industry. In the case of commercial standards, a majority of the
general conferences of representative producers, distributors, and
consumers voted formally to request the Bureau of Standards to
apply the certification plan to the approved commercial standards.

XXXII

REPORT OE THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The year just past has witnessed a rapidly increasing and very
widespread indorsement of the self-identifying, quality-guarantee­
ing labeling plan, in accordance with which a firm desiring to
bring effectively to the attention of the “ over-the-counter ” buyer
at the time of making a purchase, commodities which it is willing
to guarantee as complying with certain specifications and standards,
places on the commodities or their containers labels definitely setting
forth these facts.
The labeling plan has been formally indorsed by not only the
leading organized consumer groups but by a large number of pro­
gressive trade associations, many of whom are underwriting the
labels and maintaining inspection services to insure that the guar­
antees on the labels will be complied with.
Certain manufacturers have stated that they are now using or
planning to use quality-guaranteeing labels, or their equivalent,
with goods manufactured to comply with Federal specifications for
brooms, dental alloys, dry cells, fireproof safes, gypsum, ink (writ­
ing, colored, and indelible), library paste, lime, linoleum, lumber,
paint, paper (correspondence, carbon, blue print), pipe, Portland
cement, rope, soap, textiles, and wall board.
COMMERCIAL STANDARDS

While the whole realm of present-day marketing is in a state of
flux, manufacturers are meeting the modern demand for more nearly
complete and accurate information on their products, and for some
means of comparison or basis for judgment on the part of the
customer. They realize that the purchaser of to-day distrusts his
five senses as buying guides; the goods purchased are superior, or at
least equal, to some recognized standard. This trend is very appar­
ent in current advertising. It exhibits itself in the establishment
of testing laboratories as adjuncts to magazines for checking or
indorsing producers’ claims for products advertised therein, or as
the basis for “ approval ” insignia, and it is particularly manifest in
the increased use of labels by means of which quality or grade of an
article is definitely certified to the purchaser by the seller or by his
trade association, sometimes both.
In addition to satisfying the consumer on the merits of a given
article, the rapid introduction of new materials, processes, and inven­
tions has brought about an increasing need for a better understand­
ing between buyer and seller (1) as to the real significance of the
terms employed to describe the product, (2) definitions or specifica­
tions for the various grades or ratings, (3) recognized methods of
test, (4) dimensional standards and tolerances to provide inter­
changeability or to prevent skimping, and (5) any other criteria for
use by the consumer as a guide to acceptance or rejection of the
product.
Industries are frequently confronted by a situation brought upon
them by short-sighted manufacturers who produce inferior merchan­
dise to sell at a low price. While this price may be lower than that
required to purchase the standard quality, it is frequently high in
relation to value. Dissatisfaction in the use of this inferior mer­
chandise brings discredit to the whole industry, and users are driven
from the product in question to another competing product in spite

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXIII

of all the leaders of the industry may do to restore public confidence
in their goods. Forward-looking groups of producers have therefore
found it advisable to cooperate in the formulation and promulgation
of specifications and methods of test sponsored by the industry as a
whole as a basis for marketing.
Cooperation in this direction has the effect (1) of pooling producer
information and data, (2) of passing on to the distributor and user
authoritative knowledge and expert advice on the product, (3) of
promoting more efficient use, (4) of preventing misrepresentation,
and (5) generally increasing the assurance in procurement and
satisfaction in the use of the commodity.
Homemade specifications, used by an increasing number of con­
tract buyers in an attempt to control quality, complicate the market­
ing situation. Manufacturers are forced to produce a multiplicity
of varieties of their products to meet the whims of specification
writers who may have no real knowledge of the commodity; mass
production is interfered with.
The task of untangling the maze of conflicting terms, grades,
ratings, test methods ; arriving at a generally acceptable understand­
ing thereon ; and “ putting it over ” with the buying public seems
colossal to the manufacturers and beyond the range of possibility by
means at their immediate disposal. So it is but natural that many
groups have sought the aid of the Department of Commerce for this
purpose.
The commercial standard, developed and established by industry
itself, under the observation of the Federal Government, accepted in
writing by producers, distributors, and consumers alike, printed and
promulgated by the Department of Commerce after acceptance by a
satisfactory majority and without active opposition, satisfies all
hases of the situation and offers an authoritative and dependable
asis for marketing and purchase by all elements directly concerned.
During the year, as a result of general conferences, wide publicity
in trade papers, and general circulation for written acceptances, the
success of 11 commercial standards was announced. Twelve of the
standards were issued in printed form during the same period, mak­
ing a total of 34 accepted commercial standards and 27 issued in
printed form as of June 30, 1931.

E

AMERICAN MARINE STANDARDS

These standards are promulgated by the American marine stand­
ards committee as a result of nation-wide consideration within the
field of the marine and allied interests. The committee was formed
under the auspices of the division of simplified practice to promote
elimination of waste in the construction, operation, and maintenance
of ships and port facilities. As of July 1, 1931, its membership
comprised about 370 member bodies, and 124 standards had been
issued.
The committee is aided by facilities and services contributed by
the Department of Commerce and the United States Shipping
Board, but it is self-governing. An executive board is elected an­
nually from and by the membership, which is composed of ship­
yards, ship repair and docking establishments, ship owners and
84206—31----- hi

XXXIV

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

operators, naval architects, marine engineers, and various technical,
commercial, and governmental interests related to marine industry.
Advisory members are appointed to the board by the American Insti­
tute of Electrical Engineers, the American Society of Civil En­
gineers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the American
Society for Testing Materials, the Bureau of Standards, and the
National Fire Protection Association. The committee cooperates
■ closely with the American Association of Port Authorities as to
standards for port facilities; also with other organizations carrying
■ on standardization work in other fields.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Bureau of Standards.—-As has been pointed out in previous annual
reports, the Bureau of Standards works in close cooperation with
American industries in their efforts toward waste elimination. This
has been a year of greatly curtailed production, yet it is interesting
to note that the requests from industries for the bureau’s services
have shown substantial increases in many lines and but very slight
reductions in others. Apparently farsighted executives are taking
advantage of present conditions to eliminate inefficiency in manu­
facturing processes and to acquire all possible scientific data relating
to their particular industries for use when normal conditions
return.
One of the most effective ways in which the bureau cooperates
with industries is through the research associates stationed in its
laboratories. At the close of the fiscal year there were 95 of these
associates, representing 47 individual manufacturers or industrial
groups, working on a wide variety of problems. These figures com­
pare favorably with 96 and 41, respectively, for the previous year.
A valuable service which the bureau renders is the testing of
materials, instruments, and appliances for the Government and
under certain _conditions for the public, to determine compliance
with specifications. The total number of such tests conducted during
the year was 212,717 with a fee value of $816,979. The correspond­
ing figures for the previous year were 200,726 and $683,614,
respectively.
An important development was the satisfactory realization of an
exchange arrangement between the Bureau of Standards and the
Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt of Germany by which Dr.
F. Henning was sent to Washington for two months’ work on the
absolute standard of light and on temperature measurement, while
I-)r. G. W. Vinal spent some time in Berlin in carrying out com­
parisons of the fundamental electrical standards.
In connection with this international cooperation it is interesting
to note that a standard which the bureau has advocated for a lon^
time has now been adopted by the International Committee on
Weights and Measures; that is, a temperature of 68° F. as an inter­
national standard for all industrial length measuring instruments.
This will be of the greatest importance in eliminating confusion and
waste in shop procedure all over the world.
Since 1914 the bureau has worked with the railroad systems of
the country in helping to raise the standard of performance of rail­
road track scales upon which the charges for revenue freight are

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXV

based. The number of these scales tested by the bureau’s special
equipments during the year, 1,030, is the largest on record, and the
percentage of correct scales shows a small but satisfactory increase.
As in the case of the manufacturing industries it is gratifying to
know that at a time when scale maintenance might have been
expected to drop somewhat in efficiency, the carriers are increasing
their efforts to improve scale performance.
The American Electric Railway Association is supporting a proj­
ect at the bureau, as the result of which the efficiency of the driving
mechanism of street cars will be increased and noise reduced. The
gearing, methods of suspension, and the arrangements for lubrica­
tion are receiving intensive study.
In the color printing process considerable waste results from misregister, which produces an overlapping of the various colors in the
finished print. At the bureau, methods for controlling dimensional
changes in electrotypes are being investigated as well as the causes
of changes in the paper.
Paper manufacturers and allied industries have worked with the
bureau for many years and recently particular attention has been
paid to ways for increasing the life of paper. The importance of
using highly purified fibers in the manufacture of paper for perma­
nent records has been brought out, and it is evident that the degree
of purification rather than the source of fibers is the important point
to be considered. A survey wras completed of atmospheric conditions
in libraries where valuable books and records are stored in stacks.
It was found that some important deteriorating influences had been
largely overlooked, namely, humidity and acidity of the atmosphere.
Sulphuric acid present in the atmosphere of large cities has been
found to be one of the principal ca,uses of the rapid destruction of
paper. Treatment to neutralize this acidity will remedy this diffi­
culty.
Of particular interest to the Army and Navy, but also to those
concerned with commercial aviation, is the development by the bu­
reau of a satisfactory cotton cloth for the making of parachutes.
This investigation, which has just been brought to a satisfactory
conclusion, was undertaken primarily to discover whether cotton
could be used in place of silk in case of a war emergency. The
bureau has found that this is entirely practicable and it has been
able to make a cloth which meets all the military requirements.
The testing of all sorts of building materials is an important
function of the bureau. This wTork includes chemical analyses,
strength tests under all varieties of conditions, fire tests, and field
inspections. Thus data have been secured on the durability of slate
from practically every important slate-producing district in the
country. Fire tests have been carried out on special wood parti­
tions suitable for the interior trim of high-grade offices, steamships,
etc., and on a new design of steel floor construction. In coopera­
tion with the Federal Fire Council and the National Fire Protec­
tion Association conditions in Government buildings have been
studied and recommendations made which will lessen the fire hazard.
The services of the cement reference laboratory, maintained jointly
by the bureau and the American Society for Testing Materials, have
been in constant demand. Field inspections were made in 122 labora­

XXXVI

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

tories and requests have been received for 196 more. Uniformity
in testing procedure will result from this work, with a consequent
elimination of waste.
At the bureau’s cement laboratory in Washington and at its three
branch laboratories 2,311,000 barrels of cement were sampled, an
increase of 42 per cent over last year.
Additional studies have been made of welded steel members for
buildings, bridges, ships, and other structures. Reliable engineering
data on the strength of welded joints will help to spread the use of
this method of fabrication, as it has been proved that it possesses
many advantages, such as cheapness and freedom from noise.
The study of the corrosive action of soils on specimens of pipe
and protective coatings has been continued in cooperation with the
American Gas Association and interested manufacturers. The im­
portance of surveying soils through which a new pipe line is to pass
has been brought out, since no one class of pipe material or protective
coating has been found best for all conditions.
As has been the case during every recent year the demands of the
radio industry have called for more and more accurate standards.
The necessity for the close control of radio frequency is such that the
bureau maintains its basic standard of frequency with an error of
only 1 part in 10,000,000. A new series of standard-frequency
radio transmissions was inaugurated in January. These are accurate
to better than 1 part in 1,000,000 and can be heard and utilized
over practically the entire country.
In the past, imperfect castings have been a frequent source of loss
to foundries. Part of the trouble comes from the lack of fluidity
of the metal which refuses to flow into the remote spaces in the mold.
A method has been developed for measuring the fluidity of metals in
casting, and by making certain tests under specified conditions in the
foundry it will be possible to tell in advance whether a satisfactory
job can be turned out.
A source of danger in the operation of airplanes and of annoyance
to motorists is vapor lock or the formation of bubbles in the fuel line.
This usually stalls the engine and under certain conditions may
result in loss of life. The bureau has found that vapor lock can
be largely eliminated by careful design of the fuel system and recom­
mendations to this effect have been published. It is expected that
the new models of automobiles will reflect these recommendations in
the arrangement of their power plants.
The new national hydraulic laboratory in which the flow of water
in channels, over dams, and in turbines can be studied will soon
become an accomplished fact. The designs for the building and
equipment were approved by the advisory committee early in the
spring and the concrete work has already been completed. It is
expected that the laboratory will be in operation during the coming
fiscal year.
UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION OE NATURAL RESOURCES

Mineral.—The Bureau of Mines maintained during the fiscal year
1931 its program of investigations concerning the location and con­
servation of resources of natural helium-bearing gases and added
very materially to its store of information on the subject. Notable

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXVII

advances were made in increasing the efficiency of helium production
in the Bureau of Mines helium plant near Amarillo, Tex. An aver­
age cost of $10.36 per thousand cubic feet for helium was affected for
the year, covering the operation of the plant and the source of gas
supply; and during one month of the year the record low cost of
$5.95 per thousand cubic feet was reached.
.
Products of the soil—The industrial utilization of farm wastes
lias been greatly extended through practical studies by the Bureau of
Standards in cooperation with Iowa State College, Alabama Bolytechnic Institute, and the University of Alabama.
The 100 000,000 tons of cornstalks commercially available but
wasted annually in the United States have received most attention
as a possible means of farm relief. The whole stalks are cut into
short lengths, cooked with water, washed, shredded, beaten, sized,
and run onto a machine for removing the water and forming a porous
board and then drying it in a continuous operation Insulating
boards with varying porosity and a thickness from one-half to 1 inch
are easily made with this machine and found equal to any commer­
cial product. Work is being continued on the improvement of the
water-proofing and fire-resistant properties of these boards. I he
board-forming machine was designed, constructed, and tested m a
semicommercial size and operation, and has been adopted and used
very successfully by a commercial firm for this purpose. This com­
pany, upon organization, employed the bureau staff responsible for
the semicommercial developments who are now manufacturing daily
60 to 80 tons of cornstalk wallboard. One trainload was used ± 0 1
insulating the Chicago World’s Fair buildings. The company
employs about 75 men and has paid farmers over $200,000 for corn­
stalks in one year, or more than the entire United States Government
appropriations in four years for this work. About half of the wailboard is fabricated in very porous form, used m refrigerators, and
the rest is grooved for making flat insulating walls and linings tor
ceilings. The board can be painted or plastered in smooth finish or
covered with wall paper. A machine is being developed for harvest­
ing the cornstalks, shelling and sacking the corn, and baling the
stalks in one operation in order to enable farmers to have employ­
ment in collecting and selling cornstalks m fall and winter months.
Pressed board or cornstalk lumber is formed by hot-pressing the
porous board into a dense tough sheet without any grain. Sheets
about 0 06 inch to 0.1 inch thick have been made for use as book­
binder board and found to be about three to four times as strong as
standard commercial materials. Service tests are under way. When
impregnated with synthetic resins and hot-pressed, these boards have
great strength, beauty, and finish desirable in making table tops, wall
panels and furniture. A number of complex forms of articles have
been successfully molded, and manufacture of window frames, chair
seats and backs' boxes, electrical fixtures, and dimension lumber will
beMaizolith is a tough, horny product like hard rubber. It is made
bv purifying cornstalk fibers, beating them into a gel and molding
and drying and machining it in the form of slabs, tubes, rods, and
other shapes. Work is being continued on the rate of diymg,
shrinkage, aging-strength relations, waterproofing, cost data, and
other important factors.

XXXVIII

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Wheat straw has been converted into a strong kraft paper pulp
in 45 per cent yield. Economical methods of bleaching have been
developed and conversion of the pulp, with or without other fibers,
into paper is under investigation.
Cooperative work has been continued on the purification of xylose
from cottonseed hull bran and its use in human diets and in several
commercial products. Medical authorities report that it is nontoxic,
and one cooperator reports that it may be useful in treating Bright’s
disease. The University of Alabama has made promising varnishes
from xylose and aniline.
Sweetpotato starch has been found suitable for sizing textiles
and can replace certain imported materials. It can be produced
economically in the South from cull sweetpotatoes. Semicommercial
production of the starch and sizing is under way for use in practical
tests on textiles in cooperation with the Alabama Polytechnic Insti­
tute. Industrial textile mills are interested and have offered coopera­
tion in plant scale studies.
The chemical reactions involved in the kraft pulp process are being
investigated in a semicommercial cooperation with the University of
Alabama. The kraft pulp cook gives rise to very pungent mercaptans whose odors are obnoxious and injurious to the community.
The study is developing means for the recovery and commercial use
of these mercaptans to avoid this public nuisance with possible profit
to the pulp company.
The production of edible oil and laundry and white soap from
crude cottonseed oil has been developed for household use on the
farm. Certain further refinements of the process have been worked
out to enable local oil mills to refine their own oil to supply local
markets with soap and high-grade, colorless cooking oils. The mills
now operate only four to six months annually and would thereby
give employment to local labor during a large part of the year, cut
down overhead on the plant, and save freight on the products. At
the request of a commercial firm an investigation of a continuous
process of solvent extraction of oil-bearing seeds has been made to
see whether high-grade oil and protein meal suitable for human
food can be produced economically. The process seems very promis­
ing and could be employed economically in local oil mills.
The Departments of Commerce and Agriculture and several com­
mercial firms were requested by the United States Committee on the
French Colonial Exposition in Paris to prepare a pictorial exhibit
showing progress in the United States on the industrial utilization
of waste farm products. A model was made showing a cotton farm,
factory, and commercial laboratory, the cotton being picked and
hauled to the factory, and the products issuing from it. On account
of the limited space the model showed only about 50 products made
from cottonseed. Exhibits of products from fruits and vegetables
and of insulating board from agricultural fibers were included. The
Department of Commerce has been informed from various surces
that this exhibit is attracting considerable attention.
Several articles and bulletins have been published and others are
in preparation on the development of these semicommercial processes
and on analytical methods employed in the researches.
The object of these researches is to make marketable products
from farm wastes, develop commercial processes for their manu­

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

XXXIX

facture, study economic factors involved in the collection, trans­
portation, and processing of raw materials and marketing of finished
products. In carrying out this work the Departments of Commerce
and Agriculture are cooperating to make sure that there will be no
duplication of efforts. It is believed that a steady expansion of this
program will result in a valuable means of farm relief.
Fisheries.—Through its technological research, the Bureau of
Fisheries constantly is developing new by-products from the waste
or refuse of the various fishery food industries and is finding new
uses for old fishery products and by-products.
For the past several years chemical and engineering studies have
been made of methods of manufacturing fish meal, fish oil, and other
by-products of the fisheries. The aim of this work is not only to
improve existing methods of production but to devise from time to
time new machinery and new methods of production. A constant
improvement of the finished product is the result of better manufac­
turing methods. Such improvements in the quality of the finished
product mean higher quality markets and a resultant increase in
their economic value to the country. A concrete example of this is
the transition of dehydrated fish waste from fertilizer stock to fish
meal for animal feeding, and a further and more recent development
of fish flour for use in the human dietary from the edible waste of
the fisheries. The bureau’s production studies have brought out an
important fact that both the degree and duration of heat in the
manufacturing process adversely affect the nutritive value and gen­
eral quality of the finished product. These studies have further sub­
stantiated the knowledge that excessive heat and oxidation tend to
destroy certain nutritive properties of most foods.
Nutrition research by the bureau is opening new markets for many
of our fishery products. For example, investigations of domestic
fish oils have shown that these oils, which formerly had to depend
on such industrial uses as the manufacture of soaps, etc., for a
market, contain sufficient quantities of vitamins A and D to replace
imported cod-liver oil in both human and animal nutrition. Improvements in the method of manufacture of these domestic fish oils will
expand such markets. Other nutrition studies of the bureau are
demonstrating the nutritive value and possibilities m specialized use
of many marine products. Experiments in the preservation of
marine products from the chemical, engineering, and bacteriological
standpoints are expected to improve constantly and to develop
attractive food products of the fisheries at increased economic value
to both producer and consumer. The principal methods of preservation are refrigeration, canning, smoking, salting, and dehydration.
By making use of and studying experimentally these general meth­
ods of preservation, it is hoped to improve the nutritive value,
palatability, and keeping qualities of the various products of the
fisheries.
The bureau is also making scientific investigations of the efficiency
of certain chemicals in prolonging the useful life of fishing nets and
gear. From time to time, certain chemical formulas have been devised
which have a marked preserving effect. Publications have been
issued recommending these formulas, describing methods of prepa­
ration of these chemical treatments and the most efficient means of

XL

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

applying them to nets. Wherever these formulas have been used
upon the recommendation of the bureau, marked improvements in the
preservative efleet on the nets and gear of the fishermen have been
demonstrated.
An effective policy for the conservation of the fisheries of Alaska is
being prosecuted by the bureau under the law which gives it control
of commercial operations. A close check on such activities and care­
ful observations of the volume of the salmon runs are constantly ex­
ercised for the purpose of regulating fishing to permit the escape­
ment of at least 50 per cent of the runs for brood fish. Where it is
apparent that a particular run has become depleted, fishery-opera­
tions are further curtailed in order that the future supply may not
be impaired as a result of inadequate seeding. On the other hand,
restrictions are modified promptly when the situation warrants.
Biological studies of the life history of the salmon and other valuable
food fishes are conducted, and exhaustive analyses of statistical data
are made with a view to applying scientific knowledge to the prac­
tical end of enlarging and stabilizing the industry. The results
achieved have been gratifying, and there is reason'to believe that
the yield of the fishery resources for future generations may be main­
tained at a higher level than the present liberal harvest.
The artificial propagation of fish as conducted at Federal hatch­
eries comprises both the husbandry and the conservation of a natural
resource. The latter aspect is emphasized by the practice of securing
eggs from commercial species caught for the market and subsequently
incubating them and distributing them from the hatcheries.
Fishery resources are further augmented by the stocking of fish
derived from domesticated stock maintained at the hatcheries or by
the collection of eggs from wild fish with the consequent reduction
in mortality achieved by hatchery rearing in place of dependence
upon nature. More complete utilization of existing hatchery facili­
ties, together with improvement in technical methods looking toward
the reduction of the mortality, is one of the most potent means
whereby conservation is achieved; and the ultimate object of insuring
a greater number of mature fish in the streams is furthered.
As a result of extensive experiments improvements in the efficiency
of fishing gear are being developed, which promise to become an
active factor in the conservation of fish through the elimination from
the commercial catch of undersized or immature fish taken and de­
stroyed in tremendous quantities in ordinary commercial fishing
operations. These studies have demonstrated the proper size of mesh
for gill nets and pound nets in the Great Lakes which will liberate
undersized fish without reducing the catch of commercial sizes, and
similar success has been attained in perfecting the otter trawl used
in the haddock fishery of the North Atlantic. The use of such im­
proved gear will be an important factor in the conservation of the
fish supply and, moreover, will permit economies of operation.
Increased utilization of the natural supply of food fish in the sea
results from predictions of the variations in abundance. During last
season the great abundance of mackerel in the North Atlantic fishery
was foretold early in the spring, and similar predictions of abund­
ance have been issued for the current season, thus permitting the
industry to make preparations to harvest and distribute the crop to
better advantage.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XL1

Wood utilization.—The National Committee on Wood Utilization
lias carried on a number of projects, the object of which has been
the elimination of waste in the manufacture, distribution, and consumption of wood products.
Early in the year the committee issued a booklet entitled How
■ to Judge a House.” This manual, prepared under the guidance of
a subcommittee of nationally known building authorities, contains
practical hints and advice concerning the various problems confront­
ing the home buyer or renter. It has proved to be one of the most
popular of the committee’s publications, more than 75,000 copies
having been sold.
.
. „ , ,.
The committee is now compiling a report on Wood Construction
in the Tropics, in which will be included the latest data on proper
methods of preventing damage from decay and insect attack, with
,a resume of good construction principles.
A handbook on roof designs for airplane hangars and similar
structures is being developed. In this booklet careful consideration
will be given to latest types of construction on which the committee
is making cooperative studies at the Forest Products Laboratory
on metal-joint connectors, and at the University of Illinois on glued
laminated wood arches. The basis for the report on airplane-hangar
construction will be the fire tests conducted at the Bureau of
Standards during the spring of 1930, under the auspices of the
fact-finding committee on automatic-sprinkler protection for air­
plane hangars. The National Committee on Wood Utilization
participated in these tests.
The committee’s project on the utilization of discarded wooden con­
tainers and odd pieces of lumber was continued. More than 200,000
copies of the first two volumes of the You Can Make It series have
been sold. Several States, in cooperation with the committee, spon­
sored wood-utilization contests, the winners of which were given free
trips to Washington, D. C. The manuscript of a new bulletin
entitled “ You Can Make It for Profit” was sent to the printer dur­
ing the latter part of the fiscal year.
For the purpose of assisting the nontechnical consumer in judg­
ing furniture values, the committee published a book entitled Fur­
niture : Its Selection and Use.” This book appropriately illustrated
how to select home furnishings economically and efficiently without
sacrificing quality of manufacture or beauty of design.
In view of the large number of insulating products made from
wood and wood fiber, the committee has just prepared a bulletin
entitled “ House Insulation: Its Economies and Application.” _This
booklet is intended as a ready reference manual for architects,
builders, and contractors, as well as the prospective home builder
who desires authoritative information about insulating materials
and their proper use and application in house construction.
The committee has continued its activities in the treated wood field
and has extended its program sponsoring the retail distribution of
treated wood to several other States than Ohio, where the program
originally was launched, in order that supplies of the material might
be generally available to small consumers, thereby assisting them in
reducing upkeep and repair expenses and prolonging the life of
their houses and buildings.

XLII

REPORT OE THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

The committee inaugurated in New York State the fourth of its
series of State surveys of nonutilized wood. Information regarding
the kind, quantity, and location of wood waste in the State will be
tabulated and published, based on returns received from approxi­
mately 4,000 sawmills, woodworking and wood-using plants. The
third of the State survey series has been completed in Maryland.
The report is now in press and will show the distribution and sources
of supply of approximately 5,000 carloads of wood waste.
_A detailed study of the economies of using cut-to-size small dimen­
sion stock in the various wood-fabricating industries, such as automo­
bile bodies, furniture, sporting goods, and wood turning, has been
completed and will probably be issued during the coming year. The
object of this study is to decrease waste in the wood-fabricating in­
dustries and to encourage the close utilization of raw material at
the sawmill.
HUM AN SA FETY

_In mining.—in making recommendations on standard mining prac­
tice to the mining industry the Bureau of Mines bases its formal
decisions on the findings of its mine safety board, which is made'
up of representatives of the different technical divisions of the
bureau.
Much information of value in solving problems confronting mine
operators is being developed by the Bureau of Mines, in this
bureau’s experimental mine the relative explosibility of coal-mine
dust irony different mines of the country is tested from time to time
to ascertain the proper means of preventing coal-dust explosions.
Tests are being made of the factors in general rock dusting for the
prevention of coal-dust explosions, for the purpose of modifying the
code on such dusting formulated by the Bureau of Mines and
approved by the American Standards Association.
Electrification of the coal-mining industry has created new haz­
ards. The bureau is constantly conducting tests of various types
of electrical equipment used in mines with a view to the develop­
ment of “ approved ” designs that eliminate these hazards as much
as possible. As faultily designed miners’ lamps have caused many
mine explosions, the bureau has led the way in the development of
permissible ” lamps which are far safer than those previously used.
The permissible type of explosive, the use of which is rapidly being
extended throughout the mining industry as a result of the bureau’s
tests and educational campaign, is also much safer than other types
of explosives.
With a view to complying with regulations for the operation of
coal mines on the public domain, the Bureau of Mines and the
Bureau of Standards are carrying on a cooperative investigation
relating to the strength of mine stoppings that will resist explosions.
Definite routine tests to determine the safety of gas masks when
worn in known concentration of various mining and industrial gases
have been adopted by the Bureau of Mines. The bureau has con­
ducted courses of instruction in standardized methods of minerescue procedure and has given demonstrations in the proper use
and limitations of rescue apparatus. Its handbook on self-contained
mine-rescue oxygen-breathing apparatus has been revised, enlarged,

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XLIII

and reissued. Its manual of instruction in first aid has also been
revised, enlarged, and reissued.
For a number of years the bureau has fostered the holding ot
a considerable number of contests to encourage the training of
miners in methods of first aid to the injured. More than 100 of
these contests are noiv being held annually with the cooperation of
the Bureau of Mines personnel and more than 110,000 persons en­
gaged in the mining and allied industries are taking the full stand­
ardized first-aid course as given by the personnel of the Bureau of
Mines.
A new course in accident prevention in bituminous coal mines has
been formulated, and is being taught in various parts of the United
States, chiefly to officials; the course requires several weeks’ time and
in its first year has been taken by nearly 2,000 coal mine officials.
Experience has shown that safety in industry is materially ad­
vanced by having a definite safety organization at every plant. In
order to“aid in having a safety organization at every mine the
Bureau of Mines has formulated a suggested type of safety organ­
ization applicable to any kind of mining plant. In addition the
Bureau of Mines is aiding in the establishment of chapters of the
Holmes Safety Association at mining communities to help in making
the safety organization effective in the mining town as well as in and
around the mine.
One of the more recent of the activities of the Bureau of Mines is
a field study of mine lighting with a view to establishing standards
by which the mine worker will have sufficient light to allow of safe
efficient work rather than work more or less in the dark as in the
past. These studies while yet in their infancy reveal that the mine
worker frequently has less than 5 per cent of the amount of light
that most other industrial workers have.
The factory and) the home.—The Bureau of Standards is active in
the work of the safety code correlating committee and cooperates in
the formulation of various industrial safety codes. It is a sponsor
for the National Electrical Safety Code, American Logging and Saw­
mill Safety Code, National Safety Code for the Protection of Heads
and Eyes of Industrial Workers, Code for Protection Against Light­
ning, Safety Code for Elevators, Dumbwaiters, and Escalators, Gas
Safety Code, and Code for Automobile Brakes and Brake Testing, all
of which are subject to periodical revision. During the year atten­
tion was given to revising the National Electrical Code and the Code
for Lighting School Buildings, and text was prepared for an elevator
inspectors’ handbook.
An analysis was made of records of low-voltage electrical acci­
dents, which showed that a majority of the domestic fatalities re­
sulted from the use of defective portable cords or portable appliances
and most of these occurred in the bathroom, due to wet conditions.
Home safety demonstrations were given at Scranton, Pa., and Green­
ville, N. C., in connection with meetings of State Federations of
Women’s Clubs.
By sea and air.—The radio division, through its supervisors of
radio stationed at the principal seaports, enforces the radio law re­
quiring radio apparatus and radio operators on all foreign and
American vessels navigating the oceans and the Great Lakes where

XLIV

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

such vessels carry 50 or more persons, including passengers or crew,
or both, and run a distance between ports of 200 miles or more.
This branch of radio inspection work, having for its purpose the
safety of life and property, receives first consideration.
During the fiscal year just ended there were reported 15,408 clear­
ances of vessels coming under the radio act referred to and during
the same period 11,433 inspections were made.
In furtherance of safety at sea and in the air, the Lighthouse
Service has made many changes and improvements in the aids to
navigation. A new light station, which has been under construc­
tion for two years is now nearing completion in the St. Marys River
connecting Lakes Superior and Huron. This station, at Detour,
Mich., will replace an older one built on the shore some distance from
the track of vessels. Another station of major importance is under
construction at Anacapa Island, Calif.
During the year, three new lightships, of a new and improved
design, have been placed in commission, replacing older vessels. On
these ships Diesel electric power is utilized both as a means of
propulsion and for operating the masthead light, fog, and radio
signals.
The effectiveness of the radiobeacon system has also been increased,
12 new beacons being established, bringing the total up to 90. Of
these 68 now automatically broadcast their signals hourly. A recent
development, which has proved a valuable additional aid to mariners,
is the synchronizing of the fog signals and radiobeacon signals in
order that vessels may quickly determine their distance from the
sending station. Sixteen such distance-finding stations are now
in service.
On June 30, 1931, there were 20,273 marine aids to navigation
maintained by the Lighthouse Service, a net increase of 711 over
the previous year.
Improvements in airways facilities included the lighting of about
2,283 additional miles of airways, the construction of 13 airway
radio-communication stations, erection of 43 aural type and 2 visual
type radio range beacons, a number of radio-marker beacons, and
the installation of telephone-typewriter circuits aggregating over
3,000 miles in length.
The number of radiobeacons operated by the Lighthouse Service
has increased during the past year, as has the number of radio com­
passes. There is a total of 90 radiobeacons in operation at the present
time, divided as follows: Atlantic coast, 26; Gulf coast, 9; Pacific
coast, 21; and Great Lakes, 31. This is an increase of 12 stations
over last year.
The number of commercial and Government ships under the United
States flag equipped with radio compasses on July 1, 1931, was 1,334.
There are 3,553 foreign vessel's so equipped, as compared Avith 2,285
last year.
The activities of the Coast and Geodetic Survey since its inception
during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson in ¿807 have aided hu­
man safety in many ways, and to-day either directly or indirectly
affect almost every scientific and engineering endeavor. It has been
progressive in constantly improving methods and appliances, and its

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

XLY

standards and specifications in hydrographic and geodetic theory and
practice continue to be adopted by other nations.
With precision the watchword, its records are accepted with con­
fidence as accurate and official, and they cover nautical charts, airway
maps, predictions of tides and currents, currents diagrams, informa­
tion on ocean depths, variation in sea levels, oceanography, the size
and shape of the earth, earthquake investigations, manuals on various
kinds of surveying, the exact geographical locations and elevations of
thousands of points throughout the United States, compass varia­
tions, aurora observations, isostasy, control surveys, and many related
subjects.
The nautical chart, probably the best-known product, is an essen­
tial1equipment of every vessel, large and small. It is interesting to
note the vast changes that have occurred in these charts, the require­
ments of the speedier motor-driven craft of to-day over the leisurely
moving sailing vessels stipulating an exactness of detail previously
as unattainable as it was unnecessary. Many of the larger vessels of
to-day carry a passenger list and represent a money investment of a
size that probably would not have been believed possible at one time.
They operate on schedules making no allowance for fogs, shoal's, and
other navigational menaces. However, with a modern chart showing
the configuration of the bottom in detail, the mariner without re­
ducing speed fixes his position from underwater landmarks listed,
by means of an electrical depth-registering device, just as he uses
visible features on approaching land, all shown on charts. _
Further safety aids to the mariner in maintaining his schedule
include the published predictions of tides and currents and current
charts issued for certain of the important harbors with congested
traffic. In other words, the mariner of to-day realizes that as a
further insurance against loss of life and property he needs not
only the nautical charts and their accompanying Coast Pilots, giving
other data with respect to ports, harbors, and natural features, all
of which can not be portrayed on the charts, but he utilizes as well
the available accurate data of the velocity and direction of the cur­
rent and the time of occurrence of slack water published with respect
to congested ports where swift and dangerous tidal currents exist.
Charts of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts must not only show de­
tails correctly with respect to that region, but they must be geo­
graphically placed with respect to their relations or positions to
charts of the Pacific coast, as well as maps of the intervening terri­
tory. This is accomplished by means of a control survey which,
while not in itself a map, furnishes a rigid framework upon which
maps and charts are properly built. At thousands of selected points
or stations throughout the United States the ^Coast and Geodetic
Survey determines the exact geographical position, which is marked
with a metal disk embedded in solid rock, or heavy block of con­
crete, for permanency. With stations separated by no more than
50 miles, local surveyors can without undue expense survey near-by
areas after ascertaining from the bureau the exact position of the
particular station used. In the same way, these thousands of sta­
tions will properly place, so they may be brought together into a
large map and fit, individual maps of cities, counties, States and

XLVI

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

countries, lakes, rivers, and islands, and the Atlantic, Gulf, and Pa­
cific shore lines.
The Coast and Geodetic Survey also issues specialized maps pre­
pared for the use of aviators. These airway strip maps, covering
established airway routes, and the airway sectional maps, a series of
92 of which will eventually cover the entire United States, are pro­
duced in colors and show airports, radio ranges, revolving and flash­
ing beacons, prominent high-tension lines, various lighthouses,
streams, lakes, railroads, towns, elevations, and other features of
importance to the pilot of an airship.
Both charts and maps contain information on the variation of the
compass, in the form of “ compass roses,” on which the direction of
the magnetic north, or the direction indicated by the compass, is
shown in its relation to the true north. With the annual variation
shown, the mariner or pilot can make allowance for the change be­
tween the data of his chart or map and the date of its use. These
data are based on observations of the earth’s magnetism at numerous
places over the country and in adjacent water areas, from which
the variation of the compass may be obtained at any desired place.
Increased activities in earthquake investigation, made possible by
more funds, should lead to practical results. A plan for obtaining
exact information regarding strong earthquakes in their central
region is expected to give invaluable data. There is much still to be
learned, however, before it can be possible to make use of what will
eventually be known about earthquakes, so that it can be possible, for
instance, to design structures that will not necessarily be destroyed
by them.
As long as the waters move, earthquakes occur, and engineers alter
channels, changes will take place requiring resurveys and amend­
ments to records to show these ever-changing conditions in the inter­
ests of human safety.
Provision of aids to air navigation for maintaining safety in air
travel along the routes of the Federal airways system is a respon­
sibility of the Aeronautics Branch. At the end of the fiscal year 1931
there were 17,500 miles of airways lighted and under construction
whicJy are or will be equipped with radio direction, communication
facilities, and weather-reporting services. In addition there are
1,123 miles of airways which have been or are being provided with
certain air-navigation facilities for day operations and which will be
completed for night operations in the future. It is contemplated that
the federal airways system eventually will include 25,000 miles of
trunk-line airways.
. Rotating beacon lights are installed on the airways at 10-mile
intervals, and lighted intermediate landing fields are provided at 40
to 50 mile spacings. Radio range beacons give directional guidance
at all times, and are especially valuable when low visibility makes it
difficult or impossible for pilots to see the beacon lights. Radio­
broadcasting stations provide current information as to weather con­
ditions to aircraft in flight at half hourly intervals. This informa­
tion is collected from weather stations by means of automatic tele­
graph-typewriter circuits, and the stations of these circuits, situated
011a* irwa7S’<,a^f0 r®Porf the movements of planes when requested.
« T
• the fiscal year there were 350 intermediate landing
.fields, l,72o airways beacons, 178 airways weather-reporting stations,

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XliVII

48 airways radio communication stations, 51 radio range beacons, and
24 radio marker beacons in operation on the Federal airways system.
Also in the interests of safety, the Aeronautics Branch licenses air­
men who are competent and aircraft that are airworthy. In addition
the branch approves aircraft as types, granting to those which
qualify, approved type certificates or group 2 approvals, the former
for planes to be produced in quantity and the latter for craft of
which limited numbers are to be manufactured. Aircraft engines,
and certain accessories also are inspected, tested, and if qualified,
approved.
All of the regulations governing civil aeronautics have safety as an
essential consideration. These include the air commerce regulations
and air-traffic rules; the airworthiness requirements for aircraft;
rules governing the approval of hying schools; entry and clearance
regulations for aircraft crossing the national boundary; parachute
regulations; regulations governing scheduled operation of interstate
passenger air transport services; airworthiness requirements for en­
gines and propellers; and regulations governing alterations to li­
censed aircraft. During the year a draft was prepared of the pro­
jected airworthiness requirements for aircraft components and ac­
cessories.
The regulations governing scheduled interstate air passenger serv­
ice, promulgated during the fiscal year 1930, have demonstrated their
value, and all of the air lines having services of this type now are
operating under letters of authority from the Department of Com­
merce. These regulations deal with the adequacy and airworthiness
of equipment and competency of personnel.
A great part of the research program of the Aeronautics Branch
is directed at achieving increased safety in flight. Objects of this
research include improved radio aids, refinement of airplane running
lights and airway lights, improvement of airplane-control surfaces,
and crash-resistant fuel tanks. Many contributions already have
been made to aeronautics by the Aeronautics Branch research work­
ers, particularly in the field of radio.
Another activity contributing to safety of flight is compilation of
maps for air navigation. These maps, prepared by the airway
mapping section of the Aeronautics Branch, which is located at the
Coast and Geodetic Survey, are extremely accurate geographically
and show prominently the airports, airway facilities, and other fea­
tures with which airmen are particularly concerned.
The Bureau of Standards contributes to progress in human safety
through its research work. It has .pioneered in the use of radio for
safety purposes. An early contribution was the radio direction
finder and radiobeacon system, which is now one of the mainstays
of marine navigation. At the present time it is active in applying
radio to the needs of safety in air navigation. It has developed,
for the Aeronautics Branch of the department, a radio range-beacon
system to guide aircraft along the airways. A recent refinement is
the development of a system of visual indicators for the range
beacons. Service tests of this system on the airways have begun.
One of the outstanding present needs of aviation is a means
whereby pilots may make landings when wholly blinded by fog.
The Bureau of Standards has developed a system of radio aids for
blind landing, which gives the pilot continuously during landing

XLVIII

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

full information on height, lateral position, and distance. This
system has progressed to the point where service tests on the airwaysare about to begin.
Along streets and highways.—During the past year the National
Conference on Street and Highway Safety has continued its work for
uniformity in traffic regulation. The uniform vehicle code and the
model municipal traffic ordinance, as revised by the Third National
Conference in 1930 and approved by the National Conference of
Commissioners on Uniform State Laws and the American Bar Asso­
ciation, were widely used as guides in the preparation during 1931
of State motor vehicle laws and municipal traffic ordinances.
The uniform operators’ and chauffeurs’ license act was adopted thisyear by Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Colorado, and Oregon, bringing up
to 19 the number of States having the standard drivers’ license law
with mandatory examination, besides 7 States requiring motorvehicle operators and chauffeurs to be licensed but without manda­
tory examination of new drivers.
The uniform act regulating traffic on highways (Act IV of the
Uniform Vehicle Code) was enacted this year in four additional
States—Colorado, Nebraska, Oregon, and Utah—bringing up to 18*
the number of States having adopted that act or revised their laws
to accord therewith.
Since Act IV of the uniform code, as revised in 1930, incorpo­
rated many of the provisions found formerly only in the model
municipal traffic ordinance, a means is thus afforded of establishing
through State law enactment, uniformity in a larger part of the
traffic rules and regulations of all cities and towns within the borders
of a State. Municipalities in States adopting Act IV of the code,,
therefore, need to deal with but relatively few additional matters
by municipal traffic ordinance. The model municipal traffic ordi­
nance provides a national standard covering such matters. The
ordinance has been adopted by many cities and towns, both large and
small, during the past year.
The manual on street traffic signs, signals, and markings, giving
shape, size, color, location, etc., recommended for devices essential to
safe and orderly conduct of traffic in cities and towns has been de­
signed for adoption by traffic authorities without need for legisla­
tion and is in accord with the provisions of the uniform code and
model ordinance. Its standards are in harmony with the system of
standard rural signs adopted by the American Association of State
Highway Officials and are already in effect in a large number of
cities and towns and are rapidly replacing older nonstandard traffic
guides.
The organizations participating in the conference have assisted
throughout the year in promoting wider adoption of the entire con­
ference program, including uniform traffic regulation, enforcement
of traffic laws and regulations, education of highway users, construc­
tion and maintenance of motor vehicles, and improvement of street
and highway traffic facilities, working directly and through their own
local affiliated groups, by State and regional traffic conferences, traffic
surveys, radio addresses, and the use of other channels of publicity.
The national conference has assisted in coordinating the efforts of
the various cooperating organizations and in making available the
collective experience and information.

PROGRESS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL
AERONAUTICS
Progress of a most gratifying character has been made by
scheduled air-transport operations during the past fiscal year. Com­
pared with June 30, 1930, the total mileage flown daily by air trans­
port companies both in the United States and on foreign extensions
at the end of this fiscal year showed an increase of 37,132. The
present total mileage flown on schedule every 24 hours in the United
States, and to Canada, the West Indies, and Latin America is 140,314.
During the calendar year 1930, 417,505 passengers were carried and
nearly 37,000,000 miles were flown.
However, the major portion of the Nation’s flying is carried on in
miscellaneous operations such as student instruction, aerial sight­
seeing, exhibition flying, crop dusting, aerial photography, and kin­
dred activities. More than 108,000,000 miles were flown and nearly
3,000,000 persons were carried in this type of activity in the calendar
year 1930. Of this number, about 1,850,000 were carried for hire.
The manufacturing phase of the aeronautics industry is rapidly
changing from a large number of producing units, many of them
small local companies hastily formed to supply a demand for air­
craft which seemed apparent a few years ago, to a specialized group
surrounded by the highest type of engineering, producing, and mar­
keting personnel obtainable to-day.
Although smaller in number, the manufacturers now producing are
better equipped to operate at high capacity than ever before. The
factories possess the latest equipment and are operating according
to the most efficient production methods, and could doubtless increase
their production by a large amount within the next year if the need
arose.
The work of the Aeronautics Branch during the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1931, has been directed, as in the past, toward the further
development of the aircraft industry and the further promotion of
civil aeronautics in the United States.
Outstanding in this regard has been the expansion of the Federal
airways system which, when completed, will embrace 25,000 miles
of airways fully equipped with aids to air navigation for the safe
operation of aircraft both day and night.
At present there are 17,500 miles of airways lighted and under
construction, which are or will be equipped with radio direction and
communication facilities and weather reporting services. Including
the 2,000 miles of lighted airways authorized for the ensuing year,
the airway program now embraces 19,500 miles.
In addition to the foregoing, there are 1,123 miles of airways
which have been or are being provided with certain air navigation
84206 31
—

-

-iv

XLIX

L

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

facilities for day operations. Portions of this mileage will be lighted
during the ensuing fiscal year and it is possible that some sections
will be utilized to bring about minor relocations of airways which
experience has indicated will become necessary better to serve the
Federal system.
Radio aids to air navigation were increased in number during the
year. At present there are 48 airways radio communication stations
in operation for the broadcast of weather information to planes in
flight at frequent intervals, an increase of 13 over last year, and 10
stations are under construction. Fifty-one radio range beacons are
in operation to provide directional guidance by means of radio sig­
nals to airmen flying along the airways, an increase of 42 over the
previous fiscal year. There are 13 radiobeacons under construction.
At the end of the fiscal year 9,500 miles of automatic telegraph
typewriter circuits for the collection and transmission of weather
reports along the airways were in operation, an increase of 3,850
miles over the preceding fiscal year.
Of immediate and potential value to aeronautics in general is the
research work undertaken by the Aeronautics Branch during the fis­
cal year just closed. Much of this work is centered on aeronautic
radio and at present the problems nearing solution or still under
investigation include:
A device for the simultaneous transmission of radiotelephone
weather broadcasts and visual type radio range beacon signals on
the same frequency;
A system of radio aids to facilitate blind landings of aircraft ;
A new improved type visual radiobeacon course indicator;
A simple direction finder for aircraft;
A device known as a deviometer, which permits a pilot to follow
any chosen fixed radiobeacon course within 15° on either side.
Other research problems are directed at the reduction of noise
from airplane engine exhausts by the use of mufflers; the develop­
ment of crash-proof tanks; the control of airplanes at low speeds
by means of conventional ailerons; a continuation of the study of
welded aircraft joints and research into various phases of aeronau­
tical lighting, including airplane running lights, airway beacons,
and colors of aviation glasses.
In addition to the foregoing, special research committees of the
Aeronautics Branch, organized cooperatively with the industry, are
working on problems pertaining to airport traffic control and airport
drainage and surfacing. The reports of two other committees, whose
work was concluded during the previous fiscal year, were published
during the year. One of these committees engaged in a study of the
control of hangar fires by the automatic application of water, and
the other in a study of airport zoning and eminent domain.
Another indication of the progress in civil aeronautics may be
gleaned from the licenses and approvals issued by the Aeronautics
Branch following examinations and inspections. A tabulation on
this subject follows.

LI

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
Item

June 30, June 30,
1931
1930
6,684
3,089
13,041
8,843
334
54
174
230

7,386
i 2,800
16,089
9, 226
426
72
297
358

1 The decrease in unlicensed aircraft is regarded as a progressive step toward the elimination eventually
of all unlicensed aircraft from operations.

Airports and landing fields also increased in number. At the end
of the fiscal year, there were 1,870 such facilities, representing an
increase of 215 over the number on record a year before. The pres­
ent total includes municipal and commercial airports; Army air­
dromes, naval and Coast Guard air stations; Department of Com­
merce intermediate landing fields and marked auxiliary fields. There
were 541 proposed airports of which the Aeronautics Branch had
knowledge at the end of the year.
With the passing of each' 12-month period, direct evidence con­
tinues to point to the permanent position occupied by aeronautics
in our national economic life. Millions of people now are availing
themselves of the advantages of air transportation, both scheduled
and miscelleaneous in character, and the value of this rapid and
direct-route service doubtless has manifested itself to all who have
employed it in furtherance of their business and social lives.

CONDENSED REPORTS OF BUREAUS
CHIEF CLERK AND SUPERINTENDENT
D epartm en t
O f f ic e

o f

C o m m erce,

o f

Washington, July 1, 1931.
C h ie f

t h e

C ler k ,

The honorable the S
C
.
D
M r. S
: The year just closed was one of the busiest
in the department’s history, but notwithstanding the heavy and unu­
sual demands the personnel of the various divisions of the Secretary’s
Office were equal to the occasion and through willing cooperation
enabled us to close the year with all work practically current. Over­
time work performed by 70 employees during the year amounted to
589 days.
e c r e t a r y

e a r

o f

o m m er c e

e c r e t a r y

INTERNATIONAL COLONIAL AND OVERSEAS EXPOSITION

Several of the bureaus of the department are exhibiting at the Inter­
national Colonial and Overseas Exposition in progress since May at
Paris. Due to the fact that the primary object of this exposition is to
display the industrial, commercial, and cultural development of
colonial possessions, the exhibits of the department are confined almost
entirely to a display of graphs, charts, maps, and printed material
descriptive of the progress made in trade and industry.
DISBURSING OFFICE

The table following shows the total amount of all appropriations
for the various bureaus and services of the department for the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1931.
Bureau

Federal Employment Stabilization
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce. . ---------------------------Steamboat Inspection Service.—.........
Bureau of Navigation...........................
Coast and Geodetic Survey....... ..........
Bureau of Lighthouses..........................
Printing, and bindingAll bureaus except Patent OfficePatent Office---- ----------------Total..............................................
84206— 31------ 1

Annual appro­ Deficiency
act
priation act

Special
act

$725, 595. 00 $384, 445. 00
3.200.00
9, 204, 830. 00
2.840.00
500,000.00
90.000.
15.000.
5, 086, 660. 00
8, 497, 000. 00
265.00
1,373, 355. 00
1,840.00
459,300. 00
2,735, 671. 00 912,300. 00
2,920. 00
3, 072,104.00
13, 237, 700. 00 145, 480. 00
364,825.00
2,825, 560. 00
36, 200.00
3,773, 730. 00
15,580.00
2,549,480. 00
10,
000.00
645,000. 00
1,100, 000.00
55,785,985.00 1,984, 895.00

$1,110,040.00
$283. 89 9,208,313.89
502,840. 00
90,000.00
00
00688.00 5.102.348.00
8.497.000. 00
1,373,620. 00
463,524.86
2,384.86
3.647.971.00
3, 075, 024. 00
1,921.50 •13,385,101.50
3,190, 385. 00
3.809.930.00
2,565,060. 00
655,000.00
1.100.000. 00
5, 278. 25 57,776,158.25

Total

Allotments
by other
depart­
ments

$40,000.00
261, 243. 67
41, 300. 00
1, 025. 01
169, 000. 00
512,568. 68

1

2

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Disbursements during the year ended June 30, 1931, from appro­
priations and from funds transferred from other departments were as
follows:
Appropriation for—
Bureau
Office of the Secretary..............................................
Aeronautics Branch____________ ___________
Radio Division____________________________
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce___
Bureau of the Census_______________________
Steamboat Inspection Service.—...........................
Bureau of Navigation____ _________________
Bureau of Standards______________ __________
Coast and Geodetic Survey............. .......................
Bureau of Lighthouses...........................................
Bureau of Fisheries...................... ......... ^...............
Patent Office........................................ ....................
Bureau of Mines___________________________
Total— .........................................................

1929 and
prior years

1930

1931

Total

$56.47 $371,016.89 $2,269,753.09 $2,640,826.45
173,094.48 1,261,675. 68 6,752,552.68 8,187,322. 84
510.46
26,724.86
496,414.82
523,650.14
1,623.73
96,363.77 4,872,551.32 4,970,538. 82
289. 37 466,803. 64 19,518,924.59 19,986,017. 60
19.70
26,742. 04 1,246,064. 54 1, 272,826. 28
66.76
9,703.31
429,242.49
439,012. 56
2,839.17 141,875. 30 3,189,822.19 3,334,536. 66
34, 849. 52 437,354. 09 2, 650,379. 63 3,122,583. 24
14,626. 80 559,132. 61 10,927, 593. 84 11,501,353. 25
9,376.07 134,030. 92 2,030,025. 29 2,173,432. 28
7. 00
29, 601. 41 3, 726,963. 20 3,756,571.61
878. 95 149, 600. 34 4,113,857. 58 4,264,336. 87
238,238.48 3, 710, 624. 86 62, 224,145. 26 66,173,008. 6a

The miscellaneous receipts for the fiscal year are shown below,
by bureaus.

Coast and Geodetic Survey: Sale of charts, publications, old
property, etc-------------------------------------------------------------------- $76, 398. 06
Bureau of Fisheries:
Sale of fur-seal skins_____________________________________
85, 772.87
Sale of fox skins___________________________________________
10 , 330.23
Meals furnished employees at isolatedstations_____________
2 , 921.52
Sale of old property, etc_________________________________
845. 51
Miscellaneous___________________________________________
i_ 3 7
Bureau of Standards: Test fees_______________________________
66 , 576. 15
Steamboat Inspection Service: Sale of old property_____________
31. 48
Bureau of Lighthouses:
Sale of old property________________________________________
18, 944 .42
Rent---------------------------------------------------------------3 , 808.00
Government property lost, destroyed, ordamaged........................
11 , 164.51
Work done------------------------------------------------------------3 , 867.50
Sale of land and buildings________________________________
55 . 00
Miscellaneous refunds______________________________________
10 , 568.51
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce:
2 , 075. 00
Registration fees, etc., China trade act____________________
Sale of publications________________________________ ______
5 , 361 . 97
Sale of old property_____________________________________
170. 64
Miscellaneous refunds___________________________________
48. 01
Office of the Secretary:
Certification fees (37 Stat. 497)___________________________
355 . 75
Sale of strip maps'(Aeronautics Branch)______________ ____
3 . 15
Penalties for violation air traffic rules_____________________
6 , 380. 00
Miscellaneous refunds___________________________________
290. 00
Patent Office: Patent fees____________________________________ 4 , 470, 309. 90
Bureau of Mines:
Analyzing samples---------------------------------------------------------11 , 557 . 00
Sale of gas from helium plants____________________________
11 , 497 . 52
Rental of pipe lines._____________________________________
12 , 500. 00

3

CHIEF CLERK AND SUPERINTENDENT

Bureau of Mines—Continued.
Sale of property_________________________________________
$5, 159- 51
433. 27
Miscellaneous refunds----------------------------------------------------Bureau of the Census: Sale of property-----------------------------------1, 030. 40
Bureau of Navigation:
Tonnage tax____________________________________________ 1> 777, 612. 54
Navigation fees_________________________________________ 205, 534. 43
Navigation fines------------------------------------------------------------- 340, 718. 35
Miscellaneous: Refund of gasoline tax------------------------------------812. 43
Total_____________________ ___________________________ 7, 143, 134. 99
APPOINTMENT DIVISION

At the close of the year the personnel of the department numbered
23,680 (17,197 permanent and 6,483 temporary). Of the total
number 10,488 are employed in the District of Columbia and 13,192
constitute the field force.
The number of employees retired on annuity during the year under
the civil service retirement act was 72—54 by reason of age and 18
on account of disability. The average annuity of those retired under
the act is $1,023.23. Under the Lighthouse Service retirement
system 43 were retired for age with an average annuity of $1,161.43,
and 20 on account of disability with an average annuity of $1,147.14.
Nine hundred and seventy-six employees have been retired under the
two systems to the close of June 30, 1931.
DIVISION OP PUBLICATIONS

The following statement shows for the fiscal years 1930 to 1932,
inclusive, the amounts available for printing and binding and the
unexpended balances of the appropriations for 1930 and 1931.
1930

1931

1932

Services other than the Patent Office and the Bureau of the
Census:1
00 3 $655, 000. 00 $750, 000. 00
Amount available.............-...................-..........................— 2 $649,300.
Expenditures_____ ______-............................................ ...... 647, 738.18 * 641, 653.10
13,346. 90
1, 561. 82
Balance— ..................................-..........................................
Patent Office:
000. 00 1,100,000. 00
Amount available......................................... -...................— 1,100,
(*)
Expenditures............................................................................. 1,096, 331.11 4 1, 067,964. 62
3,668. 89
32,035.38
Balance..........................-.......................................................
1 During the decennial census period (July 1, 1929-Dec. 31,1932) the cost of printing and binding for the
Bureau of the Census is paid from appropriations for the Fifteenth Decennial Census.
2 Includes $34,300 contained in the first deficiency act, fiscal year 1930.
3 Includes $10,000 contained in the second deficiency act, fiscal year 1931.
<Estimated. Exact figures can not be given until all work ordered is completed and billed.
« Beginning with the fiscal year 1932 the appropriation for printing and binding for the Patent Office is
made to that bureau and not to the Office of the Secretary.

Total receipts from sales of the department’s publications for the
fiscal year 1930 (the latest period for which complete data are avail­
able) were $742,249.88, compared with $677,045.17 for 1929. The

4

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

following table presents the details in comparison for the two years
by selling agencies and issuing offices.
Sales

Receipts
1929

By the Superintendent of Documents: Miscellaneous sales and subscriptions- $231, 376. 5b
By Coast and Geodetic Survey: Coast pilots, inside route pilots, tide tables,
current tables, charts, and airway maps............................................................. 67,390. 91
By Patent Office: Specifications of patents, reissues, etc., trade-mark section
and decision leaflet of Official Gazette, and classification bulletins and defi378,277. 70
677,045.17

1930
$250, 831. 78
80,093. 75
411,324. 35
742,249.88

DIVISION OF PURCHASES AND SALES

Notwithstanding a large increase in work in the division of pur­
chases and sales, additional personnel was avoided through overtime
work and capacity production, which enabled the division to keep
pace with the requirements. There were placed during the year
18,927 purchase orders; 700 contracts were examined; the number of
requisitions was increased by 853; there was an increase of 216
proposals issued and an increase of 4,761 invitations to bid. The
division passed 19,074 vouchers, an increase of 2,769. All leases for
the field service, as usual, were forwarded through this division.
Surplus material to the value of approximately $166,903.03 was
obtained through the cooperation of the Chief Coordinator from sur­
plus stocks of other Government departments without the transfer of
funds.
TRAFFIC OFFICE

The traffic office has functioned efficiently during the year and
effected many economies. Cooperation was maintained between the
bureaus and the department and with Federal coordinating agencies.
Freight shipments were consolidated and land-grant rail routes and
Government-operated ships were used wherever possible. Advantage
was taken of round-trip or reduced rates for passenger travel when­
ever opportunity permitted.
DEPARTMENT LIBRARY

Books and pamphlets on commerce, industries, and related subjects
in the department library on June 30, 1931, numbered approximately
150,747. Books catalogued during the year numbered 5,747. Prog­
ress was made in the bibliographical work, and many useful lists were
compiled. A list of periodical publications of foreign and domestic
banks was compiled and distributed. An outstanding contribution
by the library was the completion of a bibliography giving references
to sources of prices contained in periodicals, which is now in the
process of printing.

5

CHIEF CLERK AND SUPERINTENDENT

SOLICITOR’S OFFICE

During the fiscal year 652 contracts, 1,285 leases, 12 insurance
policies, 23 revocable licenses, 38 deeds, 340 contract bonds, 67 annual
bid and performance bonds, and 87 official bonds were examined and
approved, disapproved, drafted, redrafted, or modified.
The number of legal opinions rendered, formal and informal,
totaled 288; legislative matters bandied which concern the Depart­
ment of Commerce numbered 73; power of attorney cards, authorizing
agents to execute official and contract bonds for surety companies,
totaled 3,980. In addition 11,820 miscellaneous matters requiring
advice or suggestion of the solicitor, or for the formulation of depart­
mental action, not included in the foregoing items, were handled by
the solicitor’s office.
Very truly yours,
E. W. L
,
Chief Clerk and Superintendent.
ib b e y

AERONAUTICS BRANCH
D epartm en t
O f f ic e

o f

op

C om m erce,

A s s is t a n t

S ecreta ry

o f

Washington, July 1, 1931.
The honorable the S
C
.
D
M r. S
: In compliance with your request, the fol­
lowing report, on the work accomplished by the Aeronautics Branch
in the fiscal year 1930-31 and describing the present state of air
commerce in the United States, is respectfully submitted.
C o m m erce

e c r e t a r y

e a r

o f

fo r

A e r o n a u t ic s ,

o m m er c e

e c r e t a r y

ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS

The air commerce act of 1926 charges the Secretary of Commerce
with the responsibility of promoting and regulating air commerce.
The act created the office of an additional Assistant Secretary of
Commerce to administer the details of this work. Shortly after the
approval of the act by the President, the Aeronautics Branch was
organized. On June 30, 1931, it completed its fifth year of activity.
The Aeronautics Branch is divided into three major parts as follows:
The air regulation service, the airways division, and the aeronautic
development service. The three officials in charge of these respective
units are responsible to the Assistant Secretary, and with the latter
as chairman they also constitute the membership of the executive
board of the Aeronautics Branch which formulates all policies affect­
ing the present activities and future plans of the branch.
The functions of the three principal agencies of the Aeronautics
Branch are set forth in the following pages.
AIR REGULATION SERVICE

The air regulation service carries out the details of the regulatory
powers vested in the Secretary of Commerce by the air commerce act.
The purpose of the air regulation service is twofold: (1) To insure that
all flying operations over which it has jurisdiction are conducted in air­
worthy aircraft piloted by competent airmen, and in conformity with
standard air traffic rules; and (2) to foster the development of air
commerce through the safe and reliable operation of such aircraft and
airmen. However, the fundamental principle of the air commerce
act is to afford the aeronautic industry every possible opportunity to
regulate itself, and from the beginning the industry has cooperated
with the Federal Government in this regard.
The functions of the air regulation service are assigned to three
main divisions and are coordinated under the director of air regulation.
These divisions are: Inspection service, licensing division, and engine
testing section, the latter organized at the Bureau of Standards.
6

AERONAUTICS BRANCH
IN S P E C T IO N

7

S E R V IC E

The inspection service is the field service division of the air-regula­
tions phase of the Aeronautics Branch. It is charged with the follow­
ing duties :
(а ) Inspection and testing of aircraft,, including gliders, for approved type
certificate and group 2 approvals.
(б ) Inspection of aircraft repair stations for approved repair station certificate.
<c) Inspection of civilian flying schools for approved schools certificate.
(d ) Inspection of interstate passenger air transport lines for certificate of author­
ity to operate.
(e) Inspection and testing of parachutes for approved type certificate.
( f ) Inspection of aircraft for license and renewal of license.
(g) Inspection of repairs to damaged aircraft.
( h) Inspection of factories building approved type aircraft.
(i) Examination and flight testing of pilots for license.
(j ) Examination and flight testing for flying instructor’s rating.
(k ) Flight testing of pilots for passenger-carrying ratings in various classes and
weights of aircraft.
(l) Examination of ground instructors for license.
(m ) Examination of mechanics for license. _
(ri) Examination of parachute riggers for license.
(o) Field investigation of accidents in civil aeronautics.
(p) Investigation of reported violations of the regulations.
(q ) Field enforcement of the Air Commerce Regulations and the Air Traffic Rules.

Inspectors employed to carry out the foregoing duties are of two
general classes:
1. Pilots of unusual qualifications who, on account of the nature
of their work, must have not only expert flying ability and a thorough
knowledge of airplanes and airplane construction but also sufficient
tact and diplomacy properly to meet the public and carry out the
work of examining pilots and mechanics and of inspecting aircraft in
the field. Inspectors in this class who have other special qualifica­
tions, such as executive ability or a knowledge of engineering or
flight training, are selected to fill the positions of supervisors, aero­
nautical engineering inspectors, aeronautical school inspectors, and
air-line inspectors.
2. Airplane inspectors are selected for their intimate knowledge of
structural details in the manufacture of aircraft and need not be
pilots. These men are stationed at the aircraft factories and at
district headquarters where large numbers of aircraft require inspec­
tion for license and relicense. Inspectors in this class who have
special qualifications are selected to fill positions as air-line mainte­
nance inspectors, which position has developed during the past year
in connection with inspection of interstate passenger air transport
lines.
The pilot inspectors are subdivided into five classes, namely,
supervising aeronautical inspectors, aeronautical inspectors, air-line
inspectors, aeronautical engineering inspectors, and aeronautical
school inspectors. At the close of the fiscal year the inspection service
had in its employ a total of 88 inspectors, 75 of whom are pilot aero­
nautical inspectors and 13 factory (airplane) inspectors. This per­
sonnel was assigned as follows: Chief, inspection service; assistant
chief, inspection service; supervisor, air-line inspection; 9 district
supervisors; 8 aeronautical engineering inspectors; _9 aeronautical
school inspectors; 6 air-line inspectors; 40 aeronautical inspectors;
and 13 airplane inspectors. Of the 13 airplane inspectors, 2 were
assigned to air-lme maintenance inspection.

8

BEPOBT TO THE SECBETABY OP COMMEECE

The inspection of passenger air transport lines has increased in
importance to such an extent that the number of men assigned to this
activity was increased at the close of the fiscal year. The present
air-line inspection program provides for the assignment of four air-line
inspection crews, each crew consisting of two air-line inspectors and
one air-line maintenance inspector. These crews will be stationed at
New York, Chicago, Dallas, and Los Angeles.
During the year the efficiency of the field engineering inspection
work was materially improved by the establishment of four engineer­
ing bases for the flight testing of new types of aircraft for approval.
Two engineering inspectors are stationed at each of these bases which
are located at New York, Detroit, Kansas City, and Los Angeles.
The stations are equipped with adequate facilities, including scales
and instruments for the flight testing and weighing of new types of
aircraft. The establishment of additional engineering bases would
facilitate the handling of the engineering test work since engineering
inspectors are still required to travel to some of the factories which are
not located within a convenient distance of the present bases.
Revisions were found necessary in the regulations governing altera­
tions and repairs to licensed aircraft and the approval of repair sta­
tions. These revisions have resulted in the establishment of a larger
number of competent service depots and repair stations.
Parachute regulations, which became effective just before the
beginning of the last fiscal year, have brought quite satisfactory
results in that all the standard makes of parachutes have been thor­
oughly inspected and tested for approved type certificate. Also,
under these regulations parachute riggers have been examined and
licensed for the packing and servicing of commercial parachutes in
the field.
Whereas during the past year there has not been any marked peak
in the work handled by the inspection service, the field activities
have shown a steady increase due to the volume of work necessary
in connection with the increase in renewals of existing aircraft and
airmen licenses as well as in the issuance of additional original licenses.
The work of the inspection service is still handicapped by the lack of
sufficient aircraft for the use of inspectors. This need is measurably
cared for in the 1932 fiscal program, which permits the placing of one
additional airplane in each of the nine inspection districts.
The inspection service is current with its work, regarding thehandling
of all types of applications with the possible exception of the passenger
air transport lines. The majority of these have been given a pre­
liminary inspection, the results of which warrant the authorization
for their continued operation pending the issuance of the actual
certificate after final inspection has been completed.
L IC E N S IN G

D IV IS IO N

The licensing division is responsible for the preparation and issu­
ance of all aircraft and airmen licenses and their renewals; for the
transfer of title to aircraft assigned Department of Commerce num­
bers ; for the issuance of certificates of airworthiness for export for
aircraft sent to foreign countries having reciprocal agreements with
the United States; for the validation of certificates and the main­
tenance of all files and records pertaining to the foregoing; for deter­

9

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

mining whether aircraft for which approvals are asked are of proper
structural design; for examining pilots and student pilots as to their
physical and mental fitness for flying before they are licensed and
checking by periodic physical examination those who are already
licensed; for handling the technical phases of enforcing the Air Com­
merce Regulations, as well as the investigation of violations of the
air commerce act of 1926, the Air Commerce Regulations, and the
Air Traffic Rules, and for the assessment of penalties; for acting in a
general advisory capacity in all matters pertaining to air law; and for
determining the causes of all civil aircraft accidents.
This division is divided into five sections, as follows: Medical sec­
tion, registration section, enforcement section, accident board, and
engineering section.
MEDICAL SECTION

The number of medical examinations handled by the medical sec­
tion during the fiscal year was 39,386, or 10.2 per cent less than dur­
ing the previous fiscal year. It will be noted, however, that the
difference is largely due to the reduction in the number of students
trained during the last fiscal year. Comparative figures for the past
three fiscal years follow.

.

T a b l e 1 — Medical

examinations

Fiscal year—
1928-29 1929-30
3,709
8,013
16,756
28,478

2,701
18, 595
22,606
43,902

1930-31
894
23, 296
15,196
39,386

While student examinations have fallen off 32.7 per cent during the
last fiscal year, as compared with the fiscal year 1929-30, the number
of renewal examinations have increased 25 per cent in the same period.
In the table it will be noted that during the last fiscal year only 894
original examinations of trained pilots have been received as compared
with 2,701 during 1929-30 and 3,709 during 1928-29. The yearly
figures under this heading are important as they indicate the rapid
reduction in the number of applicants receiving unlicensed training.
As practically all applicants are now receiving their training as
licensed students, their original examinations appear under the head­
ing “ Student pilots, original examinations.” As unlicensed flying
training becomes still less, the numbers appearing under the heading
“ Original examinations, trained pilots” will become still fewer.
The pronounced reduction in student applications began in No­
vember, 1930, and while student training revived considerably dur­
ing the last quarter, the showing for the fiscal year is considerably
less than during the fiscal year 1929-30.
The medical field force has remained practically unchanged as far
as numbers of examiners are concerned. In many localities the need
for medical examining units has ceased to exist while activity in new
localities has led to the establishment of additional medical units.

10

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The shifting of the examining service in response to the changing needs
of the industry has led to a more satisfactory medical arrangement
without making the field medical organization unduly large. Numer­
ous group meetings with the medical examiners in various localities
by the medical director and assistant medical director have resulted
in a material improvement in the efficiency of the field organization.
In June, 1930, there were 816 authorized medical examiners. At
this time there are 798.
The medical section devoted the past several months of the fiscal
year to a detailed study of the effect of physical deficiencies on the
performance of students and pilots. This analysis will be ready for
presentation shortly. It already shows that physical deficiencies
have a very deterrent effect on the ability of students to obtain a
pilot’s license, and that licensed pilots with physical defects have
higher nonfatal and fatal accident rates than those who are physically
normal.
These studies have been made in order to determine to what extent,
if any, the physical requirements might be altered in favor of the
applicant. The study shows that the physical requirements are
exceptionally lenient and that, based on the performance of appli­
cants barely meeting them, further relaxation of the requirements is
not desirable at this time.
REGISTRATION SECTION

t The registration section is composed of five units : Administrative,
aircraft, airmen, sales, and files, performing the following main
functions :

1. Review of all applications for licenses submitted for aircraft and airmen
for compliance with the Air Commerce Regulations.
2. The technical review of aircraft inspection reports for conformity with
approved type certificates.
3. The preparation and issuance of all licenses for aircraft and airmen.
4. Recording of ownership and transfer of title to aircraft.
5. Maintenance of all files and records pertaining to aircraft and airmen.
6
. Preparation of correspondence relating to status of aircraft and airmen’s
licenses.
7. Preparation of forms for applications and licenses pertaining to aircraft
and airmen in conformity with the Air Commerce Regulations.

The section acts as a liaison group for the licensing division in that
it coordinates information with respect to the issuance of licenses for
aircraft and airmen.
During the fiscal year 44,206 licenses, renewals of licenses, transfers
of title, and export certificates were acted upon. The total volume
of work during the year amounted to 110,657 accountable items,
consisting of original and renewal applications received, sales re­
corded, and licenses and other certificates issued, which is a decrease
of 4 per cent from that of the previous year.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

11

The total number of applications for aircraft and airmen licenses
during the fiscal year and the present status of active licenses are
shown in the following tables:

T a b le 2. — Total

applications received and certificates issued for fiscal year ended
June 30, 1981

Item

Aircraft:
Applications received.........
Certificates issued.................
Certificates renewed--------Transfer of title on new and
used aircraft.......................
Total...............................
Airmen:
Applications received.......
Certificates issued-----------Certificates renewed--------Total.......... .............. .

Percent­
age of in­
crease or
decrease
com­
Number aspared
with
previous
fiscal
year

Item

11,367
10,860
3,985
7,578
33,790

Mechanics:
received.
+4 ! Applications
+8 1 Certificates issued___
Certificates renewed..
+75
+10
Total__________
Grand total..........
+12

28, 483
26, 528
15,814
70,825

-15
-16
+69
-5

Percent­
age of in­
crease or
decrease
com­
Number aspared
with
previous
fiscal
year
2,515
1,666
1,861
6, 042
110,657

-49
-55
-16
-44
-4

N ote —Certificates include all classes of licenses, as well as identification-mark assignments and export
certificates.
T a b l e 3. —Status of active licenses for fiscal year ended June 80, 1931

Item

Aircraft:
Gliders:
Export certificates:

Percent­
age of in­
crease or
decrease
com­
Number aspared
with
previous
fiscal
year
7,458
2,777
100
1,107
394
26

+12
-10

Item

Airmen:
Pilots................. ................
Students.................................
Glider pilots------------------Glider students.....................

+48
+30 Ground instructors-------------

ENFORCEMENT SECTION

Percent-.
age of in­
crease or
decrease
com­
Number aspared
.
with
previous
fiscal
year
16,268
14, 244
238
974
9,222
171
153

+25
+67
+510
+4
-34

The enforcement section handles the technical phases of enforcing
the Air Commerce Regulations, as well as the investigation of viola­
tions of the air commerce act of 1926, the Air Commerce Regulations,
and the Air Traffic Rules. It prepares the assessment of penalties
and acts in a general advisory capacity in all matters pertaining to
air law.
For the period covered by this report there were 6 public hearings
held, 7 cases were referred to the Department of Justice, and $5,005
in assessed penalties was collected. Other details of these enforcement
activities appear in the following table:

12

BEPOBT TO THE SECEETAEY OF COMMERCE

T a b l e 4.-—Analysis

of enforcement of Air Commerce Regulations, fiscal year ended
June SO, 19S1

Nature of violation
Acrobatics...................................................
Low flying............... ..................................
Unlicensed pilot flying licensed plane...
No navigation lights..................................
No identification numbers.......................
Miscellaneous offenses...............................
Total..................................................

Repri­ Suspen­ Revoca­
Total Number
assessed mands sions tions Denials Dismis
sals
224
212
102
17
13
600
1,168

73
43
48
3
101
268

21
29
25
2
4
92
173

86
45
10
6
159
314

4
1

1
5

45
63

12
18

85
13
5
188
306

A number of special matters were handled during the past year by
the section, including a complete revision of the Air Commerce Regu­
lations, which now consist of a main publication on general regulation,
supported by 10 supplementary codes on special phases of aeronautical
work.
During the year several cases having a far-reaching effect upon the
future development of aviation came to trial, and in two, namely, the
case of Swetland v. Curtiss Airports Corporation et al. and Hagymasi
v. Colonial Western Airways (Inc.), a representative of the section
acted in an advisory capacity in each case to the presiding judge.
Coordination work between the department and the various State
aeronautical regulatory bodies materially increased during the year,
and a number of conferences with State officials were attended. ~
ACCIDENT BOARD

The purpose of the accident board is to analyze and determine the
causes of all civil aircraft accidents; to initiate action for suspension
or revocation of aircraft licenses according to the extent of the damage
incurred; to disseminate pertinent accident information to the various
sections of the Aeronautics Branch; and to prepare basic facts for
statistical compilation and analysis.
The board consists of two pilots, a flight surgeon, an aeronautical
engineer, a lawyer versed in air law, and a statistician, thus providing
a background of expert knowledge to the analysis of all aircraft
accidents.
For statistical purposes, aircraft accidents are divided into three
groups, as follows:
(1) Accident.—This group includes all accidents to aircraft operat­
ing as such which involve death or serious injury to persons and
wherein damage incurred by the aircraft is sufficient to necessitate
an inspection of repairs by an authorized Department of Commerce
inspector before being reflown.
(2) Mishap.—1This group includes all accidents to aircraft operat­
ing as such which do not involve death or serious injury to persons
and wherein damage incurred by the aircraft is not sufficient to
necessitate an inspecton by an authorized Department of Commerce
inspector before being reflown.
(3) No accident.—This group includes all accidents occurring to
aircraft while not being operated as such, such as hangar fires, wind­
storms, floods, etc.
N o t e .—For purposes of the foregoing grouping, an aircraft is considered to
be “operating as such” from the time of take-off until the landing has been
completed.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

13

A1J aircraft accidents, regardless of statistical grouping, are analyzed
as nearly as is practical in accordance with the method outlined by
the special committee on aircraft accident analysis, and published by
the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in their Report
No. 357. This method was developed by the special committee as a
basis for analysis, classification, and comparison of aircraft accidents,
which would conform to a standard and be universally comparable
for both civil and military accidents. Slight deviations from this
method are necessary inasmuch as the Aeronautics Branch is con­
cerned with accidents to civil aircraft only, and most of the accident
information sought from the department varies widely from infor­
mation relating to military accidents.
All accidents involving fatal or serious injury are immediately
investigated by a Department of Commerce inspector. Other acci­
dents are covered from the Washington office through correspondence.
Forms are mailed to the persons involved and are completed by the
pilot, operator, or owner and returned to the accident board. The
board has made a successful effort to secure reports on all aircraft
damaged through accidents, however slight. As a result, records are
inclusive enough to develop accurate statistics on the part accidents
have played in aircraft operation.
Accident forms and office procedure remain essentially the same as
last fiscal year, and have proved very successful. The preliminary
report form developed during the previous fiscal year has been of
much assistance^ during the fiscal year of 1931. In event of an air­
craft accident in his territory, whether minor or serious, the inspector
immediately completes this form in duplicate and forwards one copy
to the Washington office. This form contains sufficient information
for the Washington office not only to contact the proper parties for a
complete report but to suspend or revoke the aircraft license imme­
diately where damage incurred by the aircraft is sufficient to render
its operation unsafe. The copy of this form retained by the inspector
contains sufficient information to insure that every part of the air­
craft damaged will be covered by inspection after repairs have been
made.
Through the analysis and study of aircraft accidents, the Aero­
nautics Branch has been able quickly to locate and remedy structural
weaknesses in various types of aircraft and to restrict pilots who have
demonstrated their inability to fly aircraft properly and safely. The
work has proved a reliable indication of the progress of aviation and
has pointed the way to making the Air Commerce Regulations more
effective.
ENGINEERING SECTION

During the past fiscal year the engineering section has handled
several special projects and dealt with an ever-incrcasing amount of
technical data without making substantial additions to personnel.
Consistent with the policy of expediting action as much as possible
in connection with the examination of manufacturers’ and owners’
technical data, a western office engineering section was created during
the year by transferring two aeronautical engineers to Los Angeles,
Calif. This plan makes it possible for manufacturers and' owners

14

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

west of the Rocky Mountains to make as favorable personal contacts
■ as can be made by eastern and midwestern concerns with the main
office in Washington.
The preparation and publication of the following new bulletins to
-supplement Aeronautics Bulletins Nos. 7 and 7-A represent an im­
portant step toward familiarizing the public with the requirements
of the Aeronautics Branch:
Aeronautics Bulletin No. 7-D, Parachute Supplement of Air Commerce
Regulations.
Aeronautics Bulletin No. 7-F, Airworthiness Requirements of Air Commerce
Regulations for Airplane Components and Accessories. (In preparation.)
Aeronautics Bulletin No. 7-G, Airworthiness Requirements of Air Commerce
Regulations for Engines and Propellers.
Aeronautics Bulletin No. 7-H, Air Commerce Regulations Governing Aircraft
Repairs and Repair Stations.

One of the most interesting accomplishments of the year was in
connection with the development of the autogiro for commercial use.
Following a conference with the inventor of the autogiro, tentative
autogiro airworthiness requirements were drawn up and applied in
the examination of three complete designs. Two of these have been
approved, one being granted an approved type certificate and one
being placed on Group 2 status. The examination of the third design
is being completed at this time. A conference is to be held in the
near future to correlate the experience and knowledge of all those
concerned with the autogiro in order to produce specific standards
and requirements relative to complete Department of Commerce
approval of such aircraft.
Aeronautics Bulletin No. 7-A, Airworthiness Requirements of Air
Commerce Regulations, along with the supplementary bulletins pre­
viously mentioned, is subject to certain revisions and additions each
year. It is the responsibility of the engineering section to observe
and study during the year the suitability of the existing requirements.
Following a study of pertinent Army and Navy airworthiness factors
and conferences with the aircraft manufacturers, this bulletin was
revised and reissued. The conferences each year with the manufac­
turers of aircraft are an invaluable aid in drafting requirements which
are consistent with the production of airworthy aircraft and at the
same time do not impose upon a designer’s initiative.
During the past fiscal year 98 approved type certificates were
granted for airplanes, 19 for engines, 39 for parachutes, and 235 for
propellors. In addition, 132 types of airplanes, 1 glider, and 17 pro­
pellers were examined and approved for license without being granted
approved type certificates. There were also numerous approvals
of such components as pontoons, skis, flares, wheels, tail-wheel shock
absorbers, shoclv-absorbing struts, navigation lights, and autogiro
rotor hubs.
A total of 4,569 technical subjects were considered during the year as
compared with 3,465 during the previous year.
Figure 2 shows the variations in the number of technical entries
over a 3-year period. Figure 3 shows the plot of incoming work for
each month of the past fiscal year.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

15

ENGINE TESTING SECTION
The testing of commercial engine types by the Aeronautics Branch
to determine their suitability for use in licensed aircraft is the function

of the Arlington engine-testing laboratory organized under the Bureau
of Standards, to which the Aeronautics Branch transfers the necessary
funds for conducting such tests. With three torque-stand testing

F igtjee 3.—Plot of incoming work in the engineering section for each month of the past fiscal year

units continuously available and a fourth unit m reserve, it has been
possible in most instances to schedule the official test at the conven­
ience of the manufacturer as soon as he has met the preliminary test
requirements.

16

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

During the year tests were undertaken on 27 engines, and of this
number 14 passed, 10 failed, 2 were withdrawn, and 1 is still under
test. Seven of the engines which failed were new types and three had
received one previous test each. Crank-case breakage was the most
common source of major failure, three cases being noted. The follow­
ing parts each caused one major failure: Crank shaft, cylinder, piston,
connecting rod, exhaust valve, crank-pin bearing, and counterweight
retainer bolt. Only 3 of the 10 engines which failed ran more than
halfway -through the 50-hour endurance test, and 5 were wrecked
before completing the first 5-hour period. Although the percentage
of failures has continued to decrease, the results indicate that in many
instances there is need for more development work on the part of
manufacturers.
The engines showed considerable variety both as to type and size.
There were 11 radial engines, including 1 Diesel, 8 inverted in-line
engines, 4 horizontal-opposed engines, and 4 V-type engines, includ­
ing a 12-cylinder inverted V. Five engines tested had less than 200
cubic inch displacement and 3 engines had more than 700 cubic inch
displacement. While the total number of engines submitted was
much less than in the previous year, the fact that 9 engines were
received during the fourth quarter indicates an early return to the
previous rate of 1 engine a week.
An aircraft engine is approved for use with fuels equal or superior
to that used during the official test._ In view of the recent adoption
by the automotive and petroleum industries of octane numbers to
designate the detonation characteristics of gasolines, the minimum
fuel requirements of all approved engines have been expressed in
terms of approximate octane numbers. The values for different
engines range from 55 to 85 octane number.
The Army Air Corps in selecting commercial engines for use in
training planes has considered only those approved by the Department
of Commerce and subjected each engine to a 100-hour test, more than
50 hours of which was at full throttle. This example and the action
of one manufacturer in requesting that his engine be run at full
throttle throughout the endurance test suggest that some increase in
the severity and scope of the present official test should receive early
consideration.
AIRWAYS DIVISION

The establishment and maintenance of aids to air navigation is
carried on by the airways division of the Aeronautics Branch organ­
ized within the Bureau of Lighthouses, and, so far as practicable,
through the regular district organizations of the Lighthouse Service
of the Department of Commerce.
_The airways division has assigned the work of establishment of
airways to four sections: Survey, construction, communications, and
radio. The survey section determines airway routings, selects sites
for beacons and landing fields, and concludes all negotiations for
licensing these_ sites and for conditioning the fields for use by aircraft.
The construction section arranges for the purchase and shipment of
all lighting equipment and supervises its erection and installation
under contract or by airways division field forces. The communica­
tions section selects, establishes, and supervises the operations of
airways weather-reporting stations and airways communications sta­
tions. The radio section designs, procures, and supervises the erection
{

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

17

and installation of radio equipment for communications stations and
radiobeacons.
.
, , .. ,
Maintenance of air navigation aids is accomplished mainly by the
lighthouse districts to which have been added the necessary special
personnel. Two maintenance organizations, in addition to the
regular lighthouse districts, have been required. These units, in
charge of airways engineers, are concerned solely with the mainte­
nance of aeronautical aids and are located at Salt Lake City, Utah,
and Fort Worth, Tex. To them is assigned the territory between the
Mississippi Valley and the Pacific Coast States._ At the close of the
fiscal year there were 31 airways engineers, 121 airways mechanicians,
and 1,139 airways keepers, attendants, and caretakers employed in
the maintenance of the airways. There were 2,100 persons in the
employ of the airways division on June 30, 1931, of whom 808 were
part-time caretakers.
The divisions of finance, law and property, and personnel, of the
Bureau of Lighthouses, function in their respective capacities for the
airways division, thus obviating the necessity for special units to
handle these matters.
AIR NAVIGATION FACILITIES ON FEDERAL AIRWAYS
The construction program of the fiscal year 1931 comprised the
establishment of lights, the installation of day fields, the establish­
ment of radiocommunication stations, radiobeacons, radiomarker
beacons, and the addition of automatic telegraph-typewriter circuits
for communications and weather reporting on the airways.
Contracts were let for lighting the following airways: JacksonvilleRichmond, San Diego-El Paso, El Paso-Fort Worth, Dallas-Louisville (Nashville-Louisville section), Dallas-Atlanta (Mendian-Birmingham section), San Diego-Los Angeles, Los Angeles-Amarillo
(Daggett-Amarillo section), Amarillo-Kansas City (Amarillo-Waynoka section), and New Orleans-Atlanta. Day fields were established
on the Dallas-Meridian section of the Dallas-Atlanta airway and on
the Dallas-Nashville section of the Dallas-Louisville airway. _
Because of changes in the routing and scheduling of air-mail
contract and passenger-carrying lines the improvement of existing
airways was undertaken, in order to provide more direct courses and.
larger intermediate fields suitable for the larger types of aircraft
coming into general use as a result of combined mail, express, and
passenger cargoes. Such work was undertaken on the WashingtonNew York, Chicago-New York, San Francisco-Salt Lake City,
Fort Worth-Kansas City, Kansas City-Chicago, and LouisvilleCleveland
routes.of the fiscal year there were „„
.. of. airways
.
At the close
17,500 miles
lighted and under construction and 1,123 miles under construction
Dimngttie fiscal year the United States Weather Bureau established
112 special airways weather-reporting stations in addition to the
230 already in operation. These stations furnish frequent reports of
local conditions, which are transmitted by the communications
network of the airway to the airport stations along the airway and to
other stations in the vicinity.
,
.
,
,
Additional automatic telegraph-typewriter circuits have been
established by the Aeronautics Branch for weather-reporting service,
84206—31----- 2

18

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

comprising a system of 9,500 miles in length with. 178 stations. Dur­
ing the fiscal year 3,846 miles of circuits were established. The
circuits now in operation are :
San Diego to San Francisco.
San Francisco to Portland.
Seattle to Pasco via Portland.
San Francisco to Salt Lake City.
Salt Lake City to Cheyenne.
Cheyenne to Omaha.
Los Angeles to Albuquerque.
Albuquerque to Kansas City.
Kansas City to Chicago via Omaha.
Kansas City to Indianapolis via St.
Louis, Evansville, and Columbus.
Cleveland to New York.
Cleveland to New York via Columbus,
Pittsburgh, Bellefonte, and Phila­
delphia.

St. Louis to Cleveland via Chicago and
Detroit.
McConnellsburg, Pa., to Boston via
Washington and New York.
Atlanta to Washington.
Atlanta to Chicago via Chattanooga,
Nashville, Evansville, and Terre
Haute.
Fort Worth to Dallas.
Pocatello, Idaho, to Idaho Falls.

The volume of weather reports which must be received, correlated,
and transmitted daily has made it necessary to establish zones with a
principal or headquarters United States Weather Bureau office to
supervise the aeronautical weather service in the zone and act as a
clearing house for weather information. Such principal weather
stations are located at Cleveland, Omaha, Salt Lake City, Oakland,
Portland (Oreg.), Atlanta, and Dallas.
Likewise the volume of radio and automatic telegraph-typewriter
traffic on the airways communication system requires closer super­
vision and direction than can be given by the airways traffic super­
visor at Washington. Accordingly, the communications system has
been divided administratively into 11 districts each under operating
direction of an assistant airway traffic supervisor. Assistant airway
traffic supervisors are at present stationed at the airways communi­
cation stations at Newark, N. J.; Cleveland, Ohio; Atlanta, Ga.;
Chicago, 111.; St. Louis, Mo.; Cheyenne, Wyo.; Salt Lake City, Utah;
Los Angeles, Calif.; Portland, Oreg.; Albuquerque, N. Mex.; and Fort
Worth, Tex. Supervisors are located at Los Angeles and Cheyenne
in lieu of those formerly at Oakland and Omaha, and the supervisors
at Chicago, Portland (Oreg.), Albuquerque, and Fort Worth are in
charge of new communications districts organized during the fiscal
year 1930. At the close of the fiscal year 444 licensed radio operators
were on duty at the airways communication and radiobeacon sta­
tions, an increase of 206 during the year.
RADIO FACILITIES
The radio communications stations operated by the airways divi­
sion are 2-kilowatt radio telephone and telegraph transmitters with
associate equipment. These transmitters operate on frequencies be­
tween 190 and 500 kilocycles and are used for communications by voice
with aircraft and for point-to-point communications using frequencies
from 2,500 to 12,210 kilocycles. High-frequency and low-frequency
receiving equipment is also installed and the station is capable of re­
ceiving on any frequency from 75 to 13,000 kilocycles. Where re­
quired, an emergency power supply has been installed in order to
operate all, or a portion of equipment in case of electric power failure.
These sets vary in size from 2% to 25 kilovolt-amperes.

19

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

At the beginning of the fiscal year 37 radio broadcasting stations
were in operation at the following locations:
Iowa City, Iowa.
Bryan, Ohio.
Bellefonte, Pa.
Boise, Idaho.
LaCrosse, Wis.
Forth Worth, Tex.
Kansas City, Mo.
Atlanta, Ga.
Greensboro, N. C.
Washington, D. C.
Albany, N. Y.
Key West, Fla.

Los Angeles, Calif.
Oakland, Calif.
Portland, Oreg.
Reno, Nev.
Salt Lake City, Utah.
Cheyenne, Wyo.
Omaha, Nebr.
Chicago, 111.
Cleveland, Ohio.
Hadley Field, New Bruns­
wick, N. J.
Pasco, Wash.
Wichita, Kans

Tulsa, Okla.
St. Louis, Mo.
Spartanburg, S. C.
Richmond, Va.
Buffalo, N. Y.
Boston, Mass.
Murfreesboro, Tenn.
Fresno, Calif.
Medford, Oreg.
Seattle, Wash.
Elko, Nev.
Rock Springs, Wyo.
North Platte, Nebr.

Amarillo, Tex.
Butte, Mont.
Idaho Falls, Idaho.

Memphis, Tenn.
Nashville, Tenn.
Birmingham, Ala.

Big Spring, Tex.
Jacksonville, Fla.
Little Rock, Ark.
Shreveport, La.

Yuma, Ariz.
Charleston, S. C.
Fargo, N. Dak.
Jackson* Miss.

New Orleans, La.
Tucson, Ariz.

New Brunswick, N. J.
Cleveland, Ohio.
Sterling, 111.

Key West, Fla.
Chicago, 111.
Bellefonte, Pa.

Goshen, Ind.
Des Moines, Iowa.
Boston, Mass.

During the fiscal year nine additional stations were erected and
placed in operation at the following locations:
. Cincinnati, Ohio,
j Jackson, Mich,
j Pittsburgh, Pa.

Low-power broadcasting stations were also in operation at Strevell,
Idaho, and Pleasant Valley, Nev. Four radio broadcasting stations
installed by the Transcontinental Air Transport Co. at Albuquerque,
N Mex., Winslow, Ariz., Kingman, Anz., and Waynoka Ariz., were
taken over by the department, improved to the adopted standards,
and placed in operation.
.
.
,
During the fiscal year the radio stations at Bryan, Ohio, and Mur­
freesboro, Tenn. (listed in the foregoing), were discontinued and were
replaced by the new stations installed at Jackson, Mich., and Nash­
ville, Tenn. (also listed above). The total number of standard broad­
casting stations in operation at the end of the fiscal year, therefore,
WYn addition to the communications stations regularly broadcasting
weather information, three other Aeronautics Branch communica­
tions stations were in operation for special purposes. These included
a radiotelegraph station at Oklahoma City, employed only for pointto-point telegraph work, and two low-power broadcasting stations
located at Strevell, Idaho, and Pleasant Valley, Nev Also, there
were three low-frequency radio transmitters installed by Trans­
continental Air Transport at Clovis, N. Mex., Columbus, Ohio, and
Indianapolis, Ind., which had been turned over to the Aeronautics
BlRadio broadcasting stations were under construction at the close
of the fiscal year at:
These stations were practically completed.
At the beginning of the fiscal year there were nine aural-type radio
range beacons in operation at:

20

REPORT TO THE SECBETAEY OP COMMERCE

During the fiscal year 43 aural-type radio ranges were placed in
operation at the following locations:

Albany, N. Y.
Auburn, Calif.
Boise, Idaho.
Burley, Idaho.
Cheyenne, Wyo.
Columbia, Mo.
Elko, Nev.
Atlanta, Ga.
Buffalo, N. Y.
Chattanooga, Tenn.
Cincinnati, Ohio.
Columbus, Ohio.
Erie, Pa.
Evansville, Ind.
Fontana, Calif.

Fort Worth, Tex.
Indianapolis, Ind.
Knight, Wyo.
Moran, Kans.
North Platte, Nebr.
Omaha, Nebr.
Richmond, Va.
Salt Lake City, Utah.
Sidney, Nebr.
St. Louis, Mo.
Syracuse, N. Y.
Tulsa, Okla.
Wichita, Kans.
Fernley, Nev.
Fort Madison, Iowa.

Greensboro, N. C.
Kansas City, Mo.
Medicine Bow, Wyo.
Nashville, Tenn.
Oakland, Calif.
Pasco, Wash.
Rock Springs, Wyo.
Saugus, Calif.
Spartanburg, S. C.
Summit, Calif.
Terre Haute, Ind.
Washington, D. C.
York, Nebr.

Harrisburg, Pa.
Seattle, Wash.
Medford) Oreg.
The Dalles, Oreg,
Amarillo, Tex.

Winslow, Ariz.
Daggett, Calif.
Pittsburgh, Pa.
Portland, Oreg.

Willows, Calif.
Shasta City, Calif.
Albuquerque, N. Mex.
Kingman, Ariz.

Adair, Pa.
Anderson, S. C.
Atwater, Calif.
Concord, Calif.
Granger, Wyo.
Crewe, Va.
Helmer, Ind.
Laramie, Wyo.

McCool, Ind.
Parkman, Ohio.
Tarkio, Mo.
Winklebleck, Pa.
Allentown, Pa.
Big Spring, Tex.
Blue Canyon, Colb.
Cherokee, Wyo.

Two of the aural ranges listed above were discontinued, those at
Auburn, Calif., and Sidney, Nebr., and the visual-type beacon at
Detroit was dismantled and is being moved to Fontana, Calif., for
use on the Los Angeles-Amarillo airway, making the total number of
radio range stations m operation at the close of the fiscal year 51.
1 wo visual-type radio ranges were in operation during the year at
Bellefonte, Pa., and Detroit, Mich.
At the close of the fiscal year 13 radio ranges were under construc­
tion at the following locations:

Of this group all were of the aural type except those at Amarillo,
Winslow, Daggett, Albuquerque, and Kingman, which were of the
visual type The visual system is being installed along the airway
from Los Angeles to Kansas City.
The various radio range stations were in operation well over 98 per
cent of the time during the fiscal year, the only off periods being
caused by power failures, failures of some part of the equipment or
shutting down for cleaning and adjusting of the equipment.
Twenty-four radio marker beacons consisting of 7K-watt single
m
d
double frequency
the following
locations:automatic transmitters have been installed at
Greenville, Ky.
Grinnell, Iowa.
Jefferson, Ga.
Lexington, Nebr.
Monteagle, Tenn.
Pine Bluff, Wyo.
Vincennes, Ind.
Wolcott, Ind.

During the fiscal year the marker beacons at Iowa Citv, Iowa:
loledo,
Ohio; Aurora, 111.; Lansing, Mich.; and Cicero, 111., Were dis­
continued.
th%marker-beacon equipment now in operation has been
fitted for radiotelephone transmission as well as for marker-beacon
operation. This type of equipment marks a general area about 5

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

21

miles in radius by means of radio code signals and indicates to the
pilot his approximate location. When within approximately 10 miles
of the marker-beacon station the pilot of a radio-equipped aircraft
may talk with the operator of the station by voice in order to obtain
weather or other information.
Experience in the operation of the marker-beacon system indicates
that the installations should be of the directive or radio-range type
instead of the nondirective type in order to render field localizing
service. This would make it possible for an airman in unfavorable
weather conditions to locate the field at which the marker-beacon
equipment had been installed and make an emergency landing if
necessary. This type of service will require more powerful equipment
and with such equipment it will be possible to communicate with air­
craft by voice over a distance of 30 to 40 miles. The marker:beacon
code signals will be heard over approximately the same distance.
Installation of such stations at all the important 50-mile intermediate
landing fields is being considered.
Two of the airways division airplanes have been fitted out with radio
receiving and transmitting equipment to permit observation of the
performance of the airways radio facilities. These ships have done
•considerable flying during the past year and have proved valuable in
improving the quality of radio service.
The airways radio facilities now operate on frequencies from 237 to
285 kilocycles and from 315 to 350 kilocycles. This provides 14
channels for 51 radiotelephone stations and 53 radio range stations.
It has been found quite difficult during the past year to operate this
equipment on the limited number of channels available without
serious interference. It is believed that, for the completed system
of airways radio facilities, six additional channels will be required
which would extend the lower limit of this band from 237 to 200 kilo­
cycles. In order to conserve frequencies, a system of operating air­
ways radio facilities on a time-sharing basis has been developed using
accurate clocks for turning on and off the radio equipment at the
proper times. This system consists of operating one radio station
during certain minutes of the hour and adjacent radio stations during
the remaining minutes of the hour. Although some relief is secured
from interference by the use of this system, it has not found full favor
with the pilots and its future possibilities are as yet not fully
determined.
. .with. aircraft has been m. operation
. along
Two-way communication
the Salt Lake-Portland and Salt Lake-Great Falls airways during a
portion of the past year. The Department of Commerce stations at
Salt Lake, Boise, Pasco, Portland, Idaho Falls, and Butte were used
to handle the communications from the ground.
_
.
An experimental radio automatic telegraph-typewriter circuit has
been set up between Bellefonte, Pa., and Buffalo, N. Y., in order to
test the feasibility of extension of automatic telegraph-typewriter
transmissions from wire circuits to remote points by radio. This
circuit has been operated on a frequency in the neighborhood of 200
kilocycles and the operation of the machine has been quite satisfac­
tory except during poor radio conditions. Some consideration is
being given to extending this system.
,
^Considerable improvement has been made in the performance _ol air­
ways radio equipment, particularly in connection with reducing of

22

BEPOBT TO THE SECBETABY OF COMMERCE

harmonic radiations from the transmitters and keeping abreast of
new developments in the radio art. Harmonics have been reduced
to a point where they cause very little interference with other services,
and very few complaints have been received in this respect. A test
car has been fitted out for measuring the harmonic and fundamental
radiations from radio transmitters which has assisted materially in
this connection.
A contract was let during the fiscal year for a radio transmitter
that may be operated simultaneously as a radio broadcast transmitter
and as a radio range beacon transmitter of the visual type. This
equipment is scheduled for delivery in November, 1931, and arrange­
ments are being made for a thorough testing in order to determine the
practicability of altering the present airways radio equipment for
operation in this manner.
At the close of the fiscal year there were 10 radio engineers, and 31
radio electricians and mechanics engaged in construction, installation,
and maintenance of radio equipment.
IMPROVEMENTS IN AIRWAYS EQUIPMENT
The airways standard electric code beacon was improved by sub­
stituting two 360° sections of half height in the lower-lens element for
the three 120° segments of full height used heretofore. This newly
designed lens made possible the. elimination of the three vertical
astragals which obstructed to some extent the light beam. Mogul
prefocus sockets were substituted in rotating beacons, code beacons,
and course lights for the mogul screw for the purpose of assuring
accurate focussing of the light units at all times.
A new type boundary and obstruction light globe, considerably
more efficient than the old type globe, was developed. The new globe
has an improved vertical light distribution, in that the light trans­
mitted to a pilot approaching at an altitude of 500 feet appears of
equal intensity from a point of 500 feet altitude and 4,000 feet distant
to a point directly over the light and 1,000 feet above it.
The design of standard airways beacon towers has been improved to
obtain a stronger and more rigid structure, and provision has been
made for the installation of course lights or a code beacon by the
addition of an auxiliary platform above the rotating beacon.
Airport traffic signal lights have been developed by means of which
colored-light code signals can be flashed to pilots approaching landing
areas. Time switches with special features for use with 3-kilovolt­
amperes engine-alternator sets have been developed.
A water-repellent and mildew-proof treatment has been developed
for wind cone sock fabric which will increase the life of the material.
New color schemes have been adopted for the painting of airways
structures in order to provide suitable contrasts with ground colors
prevalent in various sections of the country. New and improved
airways keeper’s quarters have been designed.
A special system of low altitude side lighting was developed for
use in the Columbia River Gorge, where extremely low ceilings
prevail at times. The system adopted includes the use of stand-by
lights fed by storage batteries during periods of commercial power
failure.
A new directional arrow, fabricated of galvanized metal, has been
developed. This arrow can be moved readily, and as it is elevated

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

23

several feet above ground will be always visible except during excep­
tionally heavy snowfall.
A new wind indicator has been developed which shows by lighted
wind tees both direction and velocity of the wind.
AERONAUTIC DEVELOPMENT SERVICE

The aeronautic development service embraces all activities in
connection with assisting communities in the selection and develop­
ment of airports, the rating of airports, the promotion and correlation
of aeronautic research, the publication and dissemination of aero­
nautic information, and the general promotion work of the department
looking toward the development of civil aeronautics.
The service is divided into an aeronautic information division, an
aeronautics research division, an airport section, an airways-mapping
section, and a section devoted to special research committees.
AERONAUTIC INFORMATION DIVISION
As the contact office between the Aeronautics Branch, the aero­
nautic industry, and the general public, the aeronautic information
division is charged with many of the promotion duties covered by the
air commerce act of 1926.
Specifically these duties include—
The publication and dissemination of current information relating
to civil aeronautics through the semimonthly periodical, Air Com­
merce Bulletin.
The publication of airway bulletins describing airports, Department
of Commerce intermediate landing fields; airways, air markings,
meteorological conditions, special warnings, and other data essential
to air navigation.
The preparation and editing of nonperiodic publications known as
Aeronautics Bulletins, which are issued from time to time on specific
phases of civil aeronautics of both a technical and nontechnical
character.
The preparation and dissemination of information for the aero­
nautic trade journals, and newspapers maintaining special aeronautic
columns, departments, or sections.
The compilation and publication of statistics covering accidents to
civil aircraft and other statistics on the manufacture and operation of
civil aircraft.
The activities of the aeronautic information division now are dis­
tributed as follows: Editorial section, statistics and distribution sec­
tion, Airway Bulletin section, and aeronautics reference library.
EDITORIAL SECTION

One of the most important functions of the editorial section is the
publication of the Air Commerce Bulletin, a semimonthly .bulletin
which goes to a mailing list of approximately 13,000 individuals,
libraries, corporations, airports, and others interested in aeronautics.
It is the purpose of this publication to make available promptly, and
in a convenient form, accurate and official information that is collected
by the Aeronautics Branch. As the Air Commerce Bulletin is an
official contact of the Aeronautics Branch with the public, news of

24

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Aeronautics Branch projects is emphasized, but other information of
value to those interested in aeronautics also is published.
In addition to articles and news items on aeronautical topics, the
Air Commerce Bulletin carries regularly notices to airmen and aircraft
operators; information as to licenses, identifications, and approvals
issued by the Aeronautics Branch; and a summary of the operations
of United States air-transport routes.
Under the heading “ Notices to airmen and aircraft operators”
are published notices of airport and airway changes and warnings,
airway progress, radio and communications, airport ratings, new
airway bulletins and airway bulletins withdrawn from circulation,
new airway maps and aviation charts, certified aeronautical lights,
recent air markings, proposed airports, and airports no longer
proposed.
Under “Licenses, identifications, and approvals” the reader will
find a summary setting forth the number of licenses and certificates
that are in force in the various classifications in which these are issued
by the Aeronautics Branch, and also notices of new approved type
certificates, revisions in approved type certificates, and approvals
without approved type certificates.
The information on air-transport routes is carried in tabular form.
The table “United States air transport routes” indicates the routes
and shows for each route in operation the number of airway miles,
type of service (passengers, mail, express, or combinations), number
of trips daily, plane miles scheduled daily, date of beginning service,
and name of the operator. Airway miles, airplane miles scheduled,
and number of companies operating are given in totals for domestic
routes, for American-operated foreign routes and for all routes oper­
ated by American operators.
During the fiscal year 1931, 21 aeronautics bulletins and 3 other
publications were written or revised and sent to the printer.
A complete list of aeronautics bulletins and other aeronautic
publications, with notations showing publications written or revised
during the year, follows.
Aeronautics bulletins

1. Civil Aeronautics in the United States.1
2. Airport Design and Construction.12
3. Aeronautics Trade Directory.1
4. Air Marking.
5. Airports and Landing Fields.1
6. Aeronautic Publications.3
7. Air Commerce Regulations.1
7-A. Airworthiness Requirements of Air Commerce Regulations for Aircraft.1
7-B. School Supplement of Air Commerce Regulations.1
7-C. Regulations Governing Entry and Clearance of Aircraft. (Department of
Commerce rules only.)1
7-D. Parachute Supplement of Air Commerce Regulations.1
7-E. Air Commerce Regulations Governing Scheduled Operation of Interstate
Passenger Air Transport Services.
7-F. Air Commerce Regulations for Aircraft Components and Accessories. (In
preparation, tentative title.)
7-G. Airworthiness Requirements of Air Commerce Regulations for Engines
and Propellers.2
Revised during fiscal year.
* Written during fiscal year.
3 Revised twice during fiscal year.
1

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

25

7-H. Air Commerce Regulations Governing Alterations and Repairs to Licensed
Aircraft.2
89.. Establishment
Airway Map of the United States.3
and Certification of Aeronautical Lights and Recommended
Standards for Marking Obstructions to Air Navigation.
10 . Air Navigation Maps.1
11 . Establishment and Operation of Department of Commerce Intermediate
Landing Fields.1
12. Aircraft Engine Testing.
13. Civil Air Accidents and Casualties. (In preparation.)
Lift Distribution in any Biplane.
14. Relative
15. Control of Airplanes at Low Speeds by Means of Conventional Ailerons.2
16. Airport Rating Regulations.
17. Airport Management.
„ T
, ,
18. State Aeronautical Legislation and Compilation of State Laws. (Out of
print.)
19. Aviation Training.1
, TT ..
_ .
20. Suggested City or County Aeronautics Ordinance and Uniform Meld Rules
for Airports.
21. Trend in Airplane Design as Indicated by Approved Type Certificates.2
22. Gliders and Gliding.2
23. Medical Examiners of the Aeronautics Branch..1
24. The Federal Airways System.2
25. Reduction of Airplane Noise.2

Other aeronautic publications-

First Report of Liaison Committee on Aeronautic Radio Research.
Report of Fact Finding Committee on Control of Airplane Hangar Fires by
Automatic Application of Water.2
.
Report of Committee on Airport Zoning and Eminent Domain.2
Proceedings of the National Conference on Uniform Aeronautic Regulatory Laws.

In keeping with the promotional obligations of the Aeronautics
Branch, this section also assists in the preparation of articles on
various phases of aeronautics for newspapers and magazines and
personal and radio addresses.
STATISTICS AND DISTBIBUTION SECTION

The function of the statistics and distribution section is to collect,
compile, analyze, and disseminate statistical data and other useful
information on aircraft and engine production and the value thereof ;
scheduled air transport and miscellaneous flying operations and
activities; civil aircraft accidents and casualties; licensed and unli­
censed aircraft; licenses for pilots and mechanics; and approvals
issued by the Aeronautics Branch for aircraft, engines, equipment,
accessories, and various other items.
.
This section is also responsible for the preparation and handling oi
correspondence that is not of such a nature as to require the attention
of one of the special or technical sections of the branch; the distri­
bution of all publications of the Aeronautics Branch; maintaining
liaison with information offices of other Government bodies a,nd asso­
ciations engaged in aeronautics; and contacting, interviewing, and
assisting executives and members of the industry, operators, finance,
insurance and actuarial companies, the general public, etc., inter­
ested in the promotion and progress of civil and commercial aero­
nautics.12
1
2
8

Revised during fiscal year.
Written during fiscal year.
Revised twice during fiscal year.

26

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

Aircraft 'production.—-A complete census of the number and value
of aircraft, aircraft engines and aircraft equipment manufactured
during the calendar year 1930 was made by the section, through the
use of an improved questionnaire from which practically 100 per cent
returns were received. The report of this study was given widespread
circulation.
Aircraft operation.—Statistics on scheduled and miscellaneous
flying operations were compiled for both the first and last halves of
the fiscal year. The data required for these statistical studies were
collected by means of forms prepared by the section and filled out by
the operators of scheduled air lines, and in the case of the miscella­
neous operations by the owners of licensed and unlicensed aircraft.
Civil aircraft accidents and casualties.—Statistics on civil aircraft
accidents and casualties were compiled from the records furnished by
the accident board.
Previous to the semiannual report July-December, 1930, accidents
occurring in all operations were analyzed and published in one report.
Now, however, the scheduled air transport and miscellaneous flying
operations are treated in separate reports, in recognition of the fact
that the two types of operations are conducted on different premises.
Scheduled air transport includes those operations in which aircraft
carry passengers,_ mail, and express over fixed routes at regular
intervals, as distinguished from miscellaneous operations, such as
experimental, student instruction, commercial or industrial, and
pleasure flying. Not only have the two general types of flying
activities been divided, but miscellaneous operations were further
broken down into the main four subdivisions, namely, student instruc­
tion, experimental, commercial or industrial, and pleasure flying.
This method of compilation, analysis, and publication was instituted
during the last 6-month period of 1930.
Correspondence and distribution of publications.—The correspond­
ence handled during the past fiscal year was maintained at approxi­
mately the same volume as for the previous year, while the distribu­
tion of bulletins and publications has increased appreciably. More
than 336,000 bulletins have been sent out in response to letters received
and in general distribution as compared with 300,000 last year.
The number of forms and application blanks distributed have been
reduced substantially as individual requests for this material are now
being handled by the Aeronautics Branch inspection districts.
In numerous instances during the year the necessity for dictated
replies to inquiries was eliminated by the new and revised bulletins
designed to meet the demand for general aeronautical information
and by the use of suitable form letters in cases where feasible. A
very definite change in the character of requests received has been
evident during this fiscal year. The increased familiarity of the
general public with the different phases of aeronautics has resulted in
more specific and detailed inquiries which require more time and
research for the preparation of replies.
On June 30, 1931, the mailing list for aeronautics bulletins included
8,193 names, and for the Air Commerce Bulletin the list numbered
12,768.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

27

General information and summary—The statistical research work
of this section has kept pace in growth and development with civil
aeronautics in the United States.
The section has installed a complete file of ancrait, pilot, and
mechanic licenses, and identification marks issued for unlicensed
aircraft. From these current records a quarterly statement is com­
piled giving the status of licenses by classes and States.
A concise technical-description file of engineering approvals also
has been established from which daily, weekly, and semimonthly
lists are prepared for general distribution. These lists are also
supplied to the Aeronautics Branch inspectors for their information
and guidance.
AIRWAY BULLETIN SECTION
This section is charged with maintaining up-to-date records of all
airports and landing fields in the United States, together with records
of proposed airports and airports under construction.
The airway bulletin section also publishes illustrated loose-leaf
sheets describing airports. Department of Commerce intermediate
landing fields, special warnings of unusual conditions that might affect
the safety of flight, airways of the country, meteorological conditions,
and other data essential to air navigation.
.
.
Airway bulletins contain two maps, one of the airport itself snowing
a wind rose for the locality concerned, the immediately surrounding
terrain, dimensions of the landing area, obstructions to approaches,
markings, positions of available facilities, etc., and the other showing
the airport’s location with respect to near-by railroads, rivers, and the
supporting community. In addition, the text portion of these bulle­
tins gives the name of the airport, its class, method of operation,
latitude and longitude, altitude above sea level, description of surface
and runways, location and nature of obstructions, method of marking
and identification, description of lighting equipment, accommodations
for aircraft and air travelers, meteorological data, and other informa­
tion desired by pilots or aircraft operators.
.
During the past year 250 new airway bulletins were issued 14b,
revised, and 101 reprinted. These airway bulletins are distributed to
a mailing list of 3,500 individuals, organizations, and others interested.
A total of 1,259 airway bulletins has now been published and re­
cords at the close of the fiscal year show 1,863 airports and landing
fields actively in operation and 675 cities having under advisement the
establishment of airports.
.
. . ,
During the fiscal year the airway bulletin section maintained com­
munication with more than 5,000 chambers of commerce, municipal
airport committees, civic officials, airport owners, aircraft operators,
and others engaged in or directly interested in the operation of air­
ports. Approximately 20,000 letters were written to these and other
contacts soliciting information concerning airports. In addition, some
5 000 letters of a general nature requesting specific information rela­
tive to the Federal airways system, airport, and allied matters were
answered.
, airway
.
,bulletin
,, « section com­
Before the close of the fiscal year the
menced the compilation of material for two new bulletins, which are
designed to supersede the loose-leaf sheets. The first of the bulletins
is to contain illustrated information of particular value to pilots.
Data to be included embrace charts showing locations of the radio

28

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

aids, beacon lights and intermediate fields operated by the Depart­
ment of Commerce, meteorological summaries of the United States,
tabulations of special aeronautical weather services available, and
much other material of value to those in the air. The second bulletin
is to contain in digested form written summaries describing all airports
and landing fields in the United States of record with the department.
In this bulletin pilots will have under one cover, readily available
for reference, data on all airports and landing fields in the country.
It is expected that these two new bulletins will be published early in
the fiscal year 1932.
AERONAUTICS REFERENCE LIBRARY

The aeronautics reference library is maintained, primarily, for per­
sonnel of the Aeronautics Branch although it is now being used
extensively by persons outside the branch who are engaged in aero­
nautical research work.
Much valuable material has been added to the library during the
past year. It now contains 500 books, a file of technical reports and
documents issued by the several Government agencies having to do
with aeronautics, aeronautic magazines and official organs, and
reports from the industry, besides a large number of foreign reports
and documents pertaining to aeronautics. The material in these
publications is indexed and a semimonthly library bulletin is issued.
Publications received during the fiscal year numbered 4,268; 521
magazines and reports were indexed, and 285 books and documents
were catalogued.
AERONAUTICS RESEARCH DIVISION
_The aeronautics research division is engaged in a research program
directed toward the development and improvement of aids to air
navigation and the promotion of safety and comfort in flight. Its
activities are divided among the following sections: Radio section,
lighting section, aircraft-engine section, wind-tunnel section, and
engineering section.
RADIO SECTION

The research work on the use of radio in aeronautics was devoted
principally to the development of a combined transmitter for the
simultaneous transmission of radiotelephone weather broadcasts and
visual-type radio range beacon signals on the same radio-frequency,
a complete system of radio aids to facilitate blind landing of aircraft,
a_ new improved type visual beacon course indicator, a simple
direction finder for aircraft, and receiving equipment for aircraft.
Also, preliminary work was begun on radio methods and equipment
for the prevention of collision between aircraft in conditions of low
or zero visibility.
Simultaneous phone and range beacon transmitter.—The develop­
ment of this type of transmitter was completed, and numerous flight
tests were made to check and demonstrate its operation. With this
transmitter the pilot receives the radio range beacon service and
weather or other telephonic information simultaneously on the same
medium-frequency aircraft receiving set, without either limiting or
interfering with the other. Such an arrangement is especially de­

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

29

sirable under adverse weather conditions when both services are most
needed.
Blind-landing aids.—Improvements were made in the operation of
the transmitting and receiving equipment constituting the radio
system of aids for the blind landing of aircraft. In particular, a
combined instrument was developed for use on the airplane which
indicates by a single reading the relative position of the airplane
with respect to the landing runway as well as with respect to the
proper curved landing path. An improved marker beacon for
defining the landing-field boundaries was also developed. Work was
begun on adapting the system to permit the pilot to land into the
wind regardless of the wind direction at the airport. A dual-control
airplane was completely equipped with the necessary radio equip­
ment and aircraft instruments and provided with a hood over the
pilot’s cockpit to permit actual blind flights on the system. Numer­
ous preliminary tests were made.
Improved type visual beacon course indicator.—A new course indi­
cator was developed for use with the visual-type radio range beacon
which utilizes the selectivity of the vibrating reeds but permits the
pilot to receive the beacon course indications on a zero-center pointertype instrument similar to that employed with the earth-inductor
compass. This indicator may be found more convenient by pilots
than the regular reed indicator with its two white lines. It affords
operational advantages over the reed indicator; namely, that the
instrument is of standard aircraft size, it may be more readily com­
bined with other aircraft instruments, and the sharpness of course
indication may be controlled by the pilot. Specifications were pre­
pared for the construction of the new device, and submitted to
interested manufacturers.
Aircraft direction finder.—Simplifications and improvements were
made in the aircraft direction finder under development. The new
design is such that an ordinary receiving set having the proper fre­
quency range may be readily converted for direction-finding opera­
tion by the addition of simple input and output units. A single-loop
antenna is employed. In the interests of simplified design, visual
indication only is provided. Means are provided for using the
direction finder as a navigation device (that is, for taking cross
bearings) in addition to its use as a homing device.
Aircraft receiving eguipment.—A device called a deviometer, suit­
able for use with either the reed indicator or the new type course
indicator, was developed. This device permits a pilot to follow any
chosen course, within 15°, on either side of the fixed beacon course.
Improvements were made in the automatic volume control for the
visual type range beacon so that the pilot may obtain a sense of
approach as he nears a given beacon station.
A symmetrical longitudinal T-type receiving antenna for use op
aircraft was developed and exhaustively studied. This antenna is
free from course errors in radio range beacon reception and is at the
same time superior to the conventional pole-type antenna structurally,
and in respect to ice formation, mechanical features, and aerody­
namic resistance.
The design of a receiving set having suitable electrical characteris­
tics and automatic volume control for reception of the combined
signals from the simultaneous phone and beacon was begun.

30

BEPOET TO THE SECBETARY OF COMMEECE

Collision 'prevention.—Preliminary work was done on the develop­
ment of a radio system to aid in preventing collisions between air­
craft when flying under adverse conditions of visibility. The aim is
to give automatic warning to an airplane of the presence and approxi­
mate position of any other airplane within a radius of about 3 miles
from it. The system involves the continuous transmission of ultra­
high-frequency radio waves from each airplane. Directivity of re­
ception or transmission, or both, will inform the pilot of the direc­
tion of danger. The development of ultrahigh-frequency equip­
ment sufficiently rugged and reliable for use on aircraft is a difficult
problem.
LIGHTING SECTION

Airplane running lights.—A theoretically ideal candlepower dis­
tribution curve for airplane running lights has been worked out
mathematically. This distribution takes account of the speed of the
airplane and the effects of low visibility. The design of the reflector
developed last year (see Air Commerce Bulletin, March 15, 1930)
has been modified so as to give this distribution, and an experimental
reflector is being made up in the Bureau of Standards shops. To
afford a basis of comparison with running lights now in use, candlepower distribution measurements have been made on commercial
running lights. These units include both new and used pyralin
running lights, and two types of glass running lights. Distribution
measurements have also been made for the Navy Department on a
new type of glass running lights developed by that department.
Aeronautical code light characteristics.—An investigation is going
forward to determine the minimum length of dots, dashes, and
eclipses which can be used in code signals without risk of confusion.
Short signals are desirable on account of the increasing number of
airports which frequently makes it necessary to assign 2-letter char­
acteristics to identify airports. The time available for such charac­
teristics is limited by the eclipse interval of the main beacon. It has
been found that the articulation of fast signals depends upon the
flashing mechanism used. An improvement in the flashing mechanism
commonly used for aviation code lights has been made which will make
possible higher-speed signals. Work is also being done to determine
the time of heating and cooling of the lamp filaments used in areonautical code lights.
Airway beacons.-—Photometric measurements were made in con­
nection with the development of the new 36-inch airways beacon, and
a 300-meter photometric range has been constructed on the grounds
of the Bureau of Standards, primarily for the purpose of analyzing
the candlepower distribution of this beacon. Visibility tests and
candlepower distribution measurements on various beacon lights
have been made to afford a sound experimental basis for the regula­
tions relative to aeronautical lights.
Air traffic control projector.—A traffic-control projector for use at
airports is in process of development. This projector is very light and
may be easily handled, even in a strong wind. It is designed to give
either green or red signals at the election of the operator. These
signals are of high intensity and are readily visible at a distance of
1% miles in daylight, even against an unfavorable background.
Arrangements are being made to put the device to practical service
tests.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

31

Specifications jor the colors of aviation glasses.—-Tentative specifica­
tions for red and green glass have been furnished the airways division.
Work is now in progress to determine whether it is possible to increase
the transmission of colored glass without causing the colors to become
indefinite for the normal observer. This requires an extended series
of visibility tests with a number of observers.
Committee activities.—Through membership in the appropriate
committee of the Illuminating Engineering Society the section has
participated in the drafting of the definitions for terms relating pri­
marily to aviation lighting and in the preparation of reports for the
International Commission on Illumination, summarizing aviation
lighting research in this country, which will be presented at an inter­
national conference in England in September. A comprehensive
paper analyzing the results of researches on the transmission of light
through fog will also be presented at the international conference.
AIRCRAFT ENGINE SECTION

Experimental work carried on during the year by the aircraft engine
section has resulted in considerable improvement in the operation of
the mercury scales used to measure engine torque. A new type of
mechanical scale has also been designed and built. Comparative
tests may show that the latter is preferable to the mercury scales for
use with engines of low power.
Test runs are in progress to study further the efficiency of air­
straightening grids which are used between the propeller and the
engine to eliminate the effect of windage on the observed torque.
A new design of grid as well as several small grid sections have been
built for use in this work.
In connection with the fuel requirements of aircraft engines, pre­
liminary experiments on five aviation gasolines ranging from below
60 to above 80 octane number were undertaken in cooperation with
the Army, the Navy, and four industrial laboratories. The fuels
were rated by a variety of available methods and the results showed
that the knock rating assigned to an aviation gasoline depends on the
test method and equipment used. Further work must be done to
determine the particular method of test which gives ratings most
indicative of the detonation characteristics of fuels under flight con­
ditions.
WIND-TUNNEL SECTION

During the year an aeronautics bulletin has been prepared on
The Control of Airplanes at Low Speeds by Means of Conventional
Ailerons. This bulletin contains a summary of the measurements on
ailerons of varying span and chord which were presented in a more
technical manner in Technical Reports 298, 343, and 370 of the Na­
tional Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. As a result of these
publications, certain questions have been raised by the industry,
namely, as to the magnitude of the interference effect between ailerons
on opposite wing tips, and as to the effect of aileron displacement on
the lift, drag, and center of pressure of the main wing. These ques­
tions are being investigated and most of the experimental work has
been completed.
Measurements have been made of the characteristics of rudders of
varying size at large angles of attack. The yawing moments pro­
duced by seven rudders have been measured for three fuselage

32

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

models for rudder angles up to 44° and for angles of attack up to 40°.
The results of these measurements are being prepared for publication.
ENGINEERING SECTION

Reduction of noise in airplanes.—The work on this continuing proj­
ect has been concentrated during the past year on the problem of
mufflers for airplane engines. A. Hispano-Suiza engine capable of
delivering 200 horsepower has been mounted on a test stand at the
Arlington laboratory. The engine is water-cooled and the power is
absorbed by a hydraulic dynamometer which is relatively quiet. In
this ,way propeller noise is eliminated, and the conditions are made
most favorable for the study of mufflers. The noise is measured
instrumentally by means of a calibrated condenser microphone, an
attenuator, a portable amplifier, and a current-measuring device.
The effect of the muffler on the power output of the engine is meas­
ured by the dynamometer. In order to give a standard of perform­
ance as regards noise reduction, provision is made in the set-up to
pipe the exhaust, when desired, to underground tanks, with water
cooling. Such an arrangement reduces the exhaust noise to a
minimum.
The cooperation of the industry was invited by announcement in
the press, especially in submitting mufflers for test. As a result,
three mufflers have been sent in, and others are promised. In addi­
tion, the department's engineers have designed experimental mufflers,
and testing has been started." The results obtained so far indicate
(1) that the noise level is still high, even when the exhaust noise is
eliminated, duetto the noise of the valve gear and other sources; (2)
that the reduction obtained depends on the position of the observer
with respect to the engine and muffler; and (3) that the use of mani­
folds gives a considerable reduction in noise. The study will be con­
tinued during the coming year.
Crash-resistant fuel tanks.—The possibility of increasing the resist­
ance of fuel tanks to rupture, or at least of avoiding the deluge of
fuel, has been under study. Preliminary experiments were made by
dropping 10-gallon cans on a concrete surface, and some data were
obtained on the effect of altitude and of certain types of protection.
These tests were supplemented by dropping actual fuel tanks, several
of 200-gallon capacity.
A new elastic and strong synthetic material having many of the
properties of rubber, but insoluble in gasoline or oil, was found to
offer great possibilities when used inside the tank. Experiments have
been completed only for the 10-gallon cans, but the results were very
encouraging. There are many problems to solve before the use of
this material can be considered practical, but the possibility of a real
advance in making fuel tanks crash resistant seems present.
_ Welded aircraft joints.—The study of aircraft joints has been con­
tinued with the cooperation of the National Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics. The program in progress consists of the study of welded
joints in chrome-molybdenum steel tubing which are reinforced by
gusset plates, the study of welded joints in thin-walled tubing, and
the study of reinforced joints which have been heat treated after
welding. The very extensive preliminary work, consisting of tensile
and hardness measurements on each piece of tubing and gusset plating
and the machining of specimens, has been completed. The welding
of the specimens, under procedure control, has been started.

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

33

AIRPORT SECTION
The airport section is the point of contact between the Aeronautics
Branch and the public and private airports of the country. Its
primary function is to foster and encourage the development of air­
ports and this work has met a distinct need in supplying information
to cities, towns, counties, etc., engaged in the development of air­
ports. This is particularly true in the small communities where the
local sponsors usually are not familiar with the problems involved.
The number of airports and landing fields in the United States on
June 30, 1931, was as follows:
Total number of airports and landing fields (Army, Navy, municipal,
commercial, Department of Commerce intermediate and marked
auxiliary fields)___________________________________________________ 1, 860
Municipal airports__________ ,_______________________________________ 577
Commercial airports_________________________________________________ 601
Department of Commerce intermediate landing fields__________________ 350
Army airdromes____________________________________________________
57
Naval air stations (including Marine and Coast Guard)________________
12
State-operated fields_________________________________________________
2
Marked auxiliary fields______________________________________________ 259
Fields for miscellaneous Government activities________________________
2
Proposed airports___________________________________________________ 541
Airports and landing fields having any night lighting equipment________ 649

Field advisory service.—This service, which is rendered upon request
without charge, includes conferences with States, counties, municipali­
ties, and civic and trade organizations desiring assistance in the selec­
tion of airport sites and requesting information regarding requirements
for the development of suitable airports. Four airport specialists,
supplemented by the chief of the section, are available for this work.
During the past fiscal year 664 visits were made by these men in an
advisory or rating capacity and 73 talks in the interest of airport
development given.
The men are routed throughout the United States on carefully
planned itineraries, the usual procedure calling for the inspection of a
number of sites, perhaps a talk before a civic organization at noon or
in the evening, and a conference or series of conferences with the
officials interested in the development of airports and desiring infor­
mation regarding the requirements of the Airport Rating Regulations
of the Department of Commerce. In addition to visiting the cities
requesting service, many fields on which the department has pub­
lished airway bulletins were inspected to check the information con­
tained in these bulletins.
Airport specialists do not in any case render detailed engineering
service, but do urge the importance of having experienced engineers
make comprehensive studies and prepare plans for complete airport
development in order that every dollar invested in the project may be
expended to the best advantage.
Rating of airports.-—The Aeronautics Branch is charged under the
law with the examination and rating of air navigation facilities.
Under this authority, requirements for the various airport ratings
granted by the Government have been promulgated. At the end of
the fiscal year eight airports had been rated, all but one receiving the
highest, or A-l-A, rating. That so few have been rated is accounted
for by the fact that in their present stage of development the majority
of the airports have not yet met all the requirements for the particular
rating desired.

-- 3

84206—31

34

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

The rating of airports is undertaken in order that pilots and aircraft
operators may know at a glance that certain minimum requirements
have been met as to general equipment and facilities, effective landing
area, and aeronautic lighting equipment, and that certain essential
features from the standpoint of safety of operations are available.
Hundreds of airports are engaged in construction programs leading
to the highest ratings. Also, it is felt that the Airport Rating Regu­
lations are making a definite contribution to airport development by
suggesting to airport committees and other bodies of laymen respon­
sible for or interested in airport projects, various facilities essential to
the safety and efficiency of the airport which otherwise would be pro­
vided only through considerable effort on the part of the industry.
Work oj a special nature:—Numerous conferences are held in the
Washington office with State and local officials and individuals inter­
ested in airport development or in the manufacture of the varied
equipment that is required by the modern airport. The Airport
Rating Regulations are revised periodically to keep abreast of changes
in the rapidly moving industry. Considerable work has been done
by the section on the preparation of an aeronautics bulletin entitled
“ Design and Construction of Airports.” Information of interest and
value to the industry on the amount of money invested in airports
and the anticipated expenditures for 1931 was obtained by this sec­
tion and published in the Air Commerce Bulletin of February 2, 1931.
A survey to determine the sums appropriated by State governments
for the development of any ground facilities is in progress.
In addition to the regular work, members of the airport section have
served on the following research committees: Airport traffic control,
airport zoning and eminent domain, and airport drainage and surfacing.
AIRWAYS-MAPPING SECTION
This activity of the Aeronautics Branch is carried on by the
airways-mapping section of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. The
mapping program includes two series of maps : Sectional airway maps
and strip airway maps.
Sectional airway maps.—Three maps have been flight checked and
printed :
Upper K-16. Milwaukee.
Lower K-16. Chicago.
Upper K-17. Detroit-Toronto.

Nomenclature oj sectional airway maps.—A name has been added to
each map to supplement the letter and number coordinates. Those
interested in airway maps will better understand the location of a
map if some city or other prominent feature is mentioned as being
included within the limits of the map.
The following sectional airway maps have been in process of
compilation during the year:
Upper I—11.
Upper 1-12.
Upper 1-13.
Upper 1-14.
Lower 1-14.
Lower J-14.

Los Angeles.
Prescott.
Albuquerque.
Oklahoma City.
Dallas.
Wichita.

Upper J-16. Indianapolis.
Lower K-17. Cleveland.
Upper K-18. Rochester.
Lower K-18. New York.
Upper J-18. Washington, D. C.

Strip airway maps.—The compilation program for strip airway
maps was continued to a limited extent during the year in order to

35

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

prepare the maps of certain routes more quickly than could have
been done by compiling the sectional airway maps of the localities.
The compilations of the following strip airway maps have been
completed during the fiscal year and printed, all to a scale of 1:500,000 :
No.
No.
122. Albany-Montreal.
143. Atlanta-Nashville.
126. Jacksonville-Atlanta.
137. Portland-Spokane.

144. Nashville-Evansville.
ISO. Kansas City-Omaha.

A special detail map of the Columbia River Gorge was printed on
the back of map No. 137 and was numbered 137-A, for office records
only. This _was designed primarily to allow the plotting of the
special lighting through the gorge.
Strip airway map No. 149, Tulsa-Ponca City, ready for printing,
was canceled, but the compilation is to be used in the preparation of
sectional airway map Lower J-14, Wichita, the work on which has
been started.
Distribution of airway maps and charts.—The number of maps
distributed by the Department of Commerce for the fiscal years 1930
and 1931, issued through the office of the Coast and Geodetic Survey,
follows:
Army air navigation maps................................................... .................................
Navy aviation charts................ ................ ............................ .............. .

1930

1931

12,004
13,657
731
26,392

17,555
9,474
579
27,608

The smaller number of Navy aviation charts issued during 1931, as
far as this list shows, is explained by the fact that after September 18,
1929, the larger orders were filled by the Hydrographic Office and
only a few were sold by the Coast and Geodetic Survey.
New editions.—The demand for Department of Commerce airway
maps necessitated reprints of the following strip maps:
No.
No.
103. Oklahoma City-Wichita.
119. Buffalo-Albany.
129. Greensboro-Richmond.

132. Los Angeles-Las Vegas.
133. Las Vegas-Milford.
134. Milford-Salt Lake City.

SPECIAL RESEARCH COMMITTEES
The Aeronautics Branch has organized a number of special
cooperative research committees under the chairmanship of the
director of aeronautic development for the purpose of investigating
and reporting on certain outstanding problems. Summaries of the
accomplishments of those committees, which were active during the
fiscal year, follow:
COMMITTEE ON AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL

This committee originally was organized in the fall of 1929 as the
committee on standard signal systems for airports. However, the
scope of its work has been increased and the name changed to com­
mittee on airport traffic control. It is composed of representatives
of the Aeronautics Branch and the Bureau of Standards of the

36

BEPOBT TO THE SECBETABY OF COMMEBCE

Commerce Department; the Army Air Corps; the Bureau of Aero­
nautics, Navy Department; the National Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics; and the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America
(Inc.).
In undertaking its studies, the committee was impressed with the
basic necessity of uniformity throughout the country in (a) airport
field rules and (6) signals employed to control traffic at airports. It
also realized that in a new field, developing as rapidly as air trans­
portation, it is impossible to predict ultimate requirements and
establish hard and fast conclusions. At the same time, it recognized
that a start should be made at once along sound lines that would
permit a step-by-step development to meet new requirements as they
arise.
A survey has been made of traffic conditions at foreign and American
airports. Numerous suggestions have been received from engineers,
manufacturers, and operators as a result of a general invitation
extended through the press. Questionnaires were sent to managers of
representative airports of the United States asking for information
regarding air-traffic conditions at their respective ports and means
employed for controlling such traffic, and requesting suggestions
as to a suitable uniform traffic-control system.
All of the suggestions and other information received from these
several sources have been carefully classified and analyzed by the
committee. At the same time the committee has been conducting at
Bolling Field, D. C., a series of tests of various types of visual signal­
ing units under both day and night conditions.
A preliminary report has been published by the committee,
setting forth in detail the information outlined in the foregoing.
Further studies are now being made with the cooperation of more
than a score of local subcommittees, organized throughout the
United States at cities where important airports are located. In
preparation of their individual reports to the full committee, the sub­
committees will study airplane movements to and from airports to
determine existing traffic conditions and periods of greatest density
in traffic; estimate the volume and maximum density of the traffic
that probably will be passing through the various airports in the next
three to five years; study the landing area layouts from the standpoint
of traffic flow and the suitability of servicing and terminal arrange­
ments; make time studies of airport traffic operations in order to
determine the delay points; and draw up recommendations as to the
extent and character of signal systems which seem necessary or desir­
able in connection with control of airport traffic.
COMMITTEE ON AIRPORT DRAINAGE AND SURFACING

f^The absence of uniform and thorough applications of adequate
drainage and surfacing for airports has been responsible for accidents
to planes in landing and taking off from airports and landing fields,
for delays and interruptions in departures and arrivals of aircraft,
and has involved the wastage of thousands of dollars in time and
money in connection with airport projects.
To undertake the solution of the problems of drainage and surfacing
in so far as they relate to airport engineering and construction, the
technical resources of the American Engineering Council, the
American Road Builders’ Association, and the Aeronautics Branch

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

37

have been joined into one group, and these organizations have desig­
nated representatives to serve on a committee on airport drainage
and surfacing organized in June, 1930.
Two questionnaires distributed by the committee have elicited
valuable information and suggestions. One of these questionnaires
was placed in the hands of airport managers_ to obtain information
on practices now prevailing and results obtained. The other, sub­
mitted to local engineering committees organized throughout the
United States by the American Engineering Council, was so designed
as not only to bring out that which is best in current practice, but
also to draw on the knowledge and employ the ability and initiative
of some of the best engineering talent in the country, to the end that
the problems might be brought nearer to a satisfactory solution. In
addition, the special research engineer of the committee made an
inspection tour covering representative airports in all parts of the
country, interviewing engineers, airport managers, pilots, and oper­
ators and making a comprehensive study of airport problems and
practices in the various sections of the country.
The committee is now engaged in the preparation of its report,
which will be printed by the Aeronautics Branch and made available
to all who may be interested.
COMMITTEE ON AIRPORT ZONING AND EMINENT DOMAIN

The organization of a cooperative committee on airport zoning and
eminent domain on March 11, 1930, was the result of many requests
received from city officials, airport managers and engineers, and
others interested in the development of adequate airports for infor­
mation and suggestions as to suitable airport-zoning ordinances to
insure protection to the flying public against hazards that might be
developed in the vicinity of airports.
This committee consists of representatives of the Aeronautics
Branch, the Bureau of Standards, and the advisory committee on
city planning and zoning of the Department of Commerce; the air
transport section and the airport section of the Aeronautical Chamber
of Commerce of America; the committee on aeronautical law of the
American Bar Association; the National Conference on City Plan­
ning; the Planning Foundation of America; and the Chamber of
Commerce of the United States.
The committee’s report was published during the fiscal year in the
Air Commerce Bulletin, and also was reprinted as a separate publi­
cation in December, 1930. A limited number of copies of the report
are available free upon request to the Aeronautics Branch and the
publication also may be purchased from the Superintendent of Docu­
ments, Washington, D. C., at 5 cents per copy.
FACT-FINDING COMMITTEE ON CONTROL OF AIRPLANE HANGAR FIRES BY AUTOMATIC
APPLICATION OF WATER

This committee, organized to consider the practicability of applying
the principle of automatic issue of water from sprinkler systems to
control fires in airplane hangars conducted tests of a number of types
of sprinklers by starting fires in a specially constructed hangar con­

38

REPOET TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

taining several obsolete airplanes. Time required for extinguishment
of the flames under various conditions with sprinklers of different
types was noted, and other pertinent data obtained. These tests
were complete during the fiscal year 1930. The report was published
during the fiscal year 1931 and now is available free upon request to
the Aeronautics Branch.
LIAISON COMMITTEE ON AERONAUTIC RADIO RESEARCH

This committee, which was organized in January, 1930, is a con­
tinuing body for the purpose of making surveys of research in progress
in the field of aeronautic radio and of those problems calling for
research. In addition, the committee determines what steps should
be taken to insure the most effective application of research to the
needs of aeronautics and recommends suitable research problems.
This committee consists of representatives of the Aeronautics
Branch and the Bureau of Standards of the Department of Com­
merce; the Army Air Corps; the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy De­
partment; the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics; the
Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America; the Institute of
Radio Engineers; the National Electrical Manufacturers’ Association;
and the Radio Manufacturers’ Association.
During the year the committee held several informal meetings,
which culminated in a 2-day session in Washington and at the
Department of Commerce experimental flying field at College Park,
Md. The committee now is engaged in the preparation of its second
report, the first of which was published in 1930.
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION

The administrative division, composed of a personnel unit, an ac­
counting unit, a files unit, and a supply unit, is the service organiza­
tion for the various divisions and sections of the Aeronautics Branch.
The division is specifically charged with the handling of all budget,
appropriation, and accounting matters; the handling of appointments
of personnel and personnel records; the maintenance of central file
records; the purchasing of and accounting for all property, including
special aeronautical equipment of all kinds; and all other general
administrative work relating to the operation of the branch.
Funds for carrying on the work of the branch are appropriated
under two titles, “Aircraft in commerce” and “Air navigation facili­
ties.” The appropriation “Aircraft in commerce” is used for salaries
and traveling expenses of inspectors engaged in the inspection and
licensing of aircraft and airmen, for salaries of employees necessary to
carry on the work in the Washington office and in the field offices,
for the testing of aircraft engines, and for certain research work con­
ducted at the Bureau of Standards.
The appropriation “Air navigation facilities” is used primarily for
the construction and maintenance of civil airways. A portion of this
appropriation is, however, used for the preparation of maps used by
airmen, for the carrying on of certain research and experimental work
looking toward the development of aids to air navigation, and for the
airport consultation and airport rating activities of the department.

39

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

Following is a tabulation of the amounts that have been appropri­
ated under these two heads since the Aeronautics Branch began to
function:
T able 5
Aircraft in Air navigacommerce tion facilities

Fiscal year—

$300,000
3,091,500
4, 659,850
5,458,620
7,944, 000
8,992, 640

$250,000
700,000
859,500
958,0Ö0
1, 260,830
1, 369, 660

1927 i.
1928..
1929 2.
1930-.
1931..
1932-.

Total
$550,000
3,791,500
5, 519, 350
6,416, 620
9, 204, 830
10,362,300

1 Second deficiency act, fiscal year 1926, approved July 3,1926.
... _ .
, , -ftOQ .
2 Includes under “Aircraft in commerce,” $72,500 appropriated by the second deficiency act of 1928 ana
$85,000 appropriated by the second deficiency act of 1929 and under*‘Air navigation facilities,” $1,000,000
appropriated by the second deficiency act of 1928.

The personnel paid from the appropriation “Aircraft in commerce”
for the past five years is as follows:
T able 6
Date

District of
Columbia
51
104
146
166
175

Field
37
68
127
150
136

Total
88

172
273
316
311

During the year the filing systems of each of the nine field offices
have been completely revised and a standard installation made in
each district. During the year the Aeronautics Branch purchased
$180,585 worth of accountable property, which included five air­
planes and three airplane engines. A total of 295,052 pieces of mail
was received and 817,381 dispatched during the year, and in addition
to this correspondence 7,144 telegrams were received and 5,456 were
dispatched during the 12 months ended June 30.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

The work of the Aeronautics Branch during the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1931, has been directed, as in the past, toward the further
development of the aircraft industry and the further promotion of
civil aeronautics in the United States.
Outstanding in this regard has been the expansion of the Federal
airways system which, when completed, will embrace 25,000 miles of
airways fully equipped with aids to air navigation for the safe opera­
tion of aircraft both day and night. At present there are 17,500
miles of airways lighted and under construction which are or will be
equipped with radio direction and communication facilities and
weather-reporting services. Including the 2,000 miles of lighted
airways authorized for the ensuing year, the airway program now
embraces 19,500 miles. However, the 2,000 miles authorized for the
fiscal year 1932 have not yet been allocated, but steps in this direction
will soon be taken, and during the year this mileage will become part
of the Federal airways system.

40

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

In addition to the foregoing, there are 1,123 miles of airways which
have been or are being provided with certain air-navigation facilities
for day operations. Portions of this mileage will be lighted during
the _ensuing fiscal year, and it is possible that some sections will be
utilized to bring about minor relocations of airways which experience
has indicated will become necessary to better serve the Federal
system.
At present there are 48 airways radio-communication stations in
operation for the broadcast of weather information to planes in flight
at frequent intervals, an increase of 13 over last year, and 10 stations
are under construction.. Fifty-one radio range beacons are in opera­
tion to provide directional guidance by means of radio signals to air­
men flying along the airways, an increase of 42 over the previous
fiscal year. There are 13 radiobeacons under construction.
At the end of the fiscal year 9,500 miles of automatic telegraphtypewriter circuits for the collection and transmission of weather
reports along the airways were in operation, an increase of 3,850
miles over the preceding fiscal year.
Three lighted transcontinental routes are included in the Federal
airways program: One, between New York and San Francisco (in
operation on day and night schedules); a second, the midcontinental,
between New York and Los Angeles; and the third, between New
York and San Diego, known as the southern transcontinental. The
latter two have been under construction and are rapidly nearing
completion. Air-transport companies now are operating passenger,
mail, and express services over these three routes.
These transcontinental airways are designed to serve the north,
central, and southern sections of the United States from east to west
both directly and through feeder routes and connecting routes. 'Also
they not only constitute the basis for air transportation service to a
large portion of the country, but at the same time they provide alter­
nate routes for air travel. Further, they are coordinated closely with
various border countries and are so designed as to facilitate interna­
tional travel to the nations of the Western Hemisphere.
RESEARCH WORK
Of immediate and potential value to aeronautics in general is the
research work undertaken by the Aeronautics Branch during the
fiscal year just closed. Much of this work is centered on aeronautic
radio, and at present the problems nearing solution or still under in­
vestigation include—
A device for the simultaneous transmission of radiotelephone weather
broadcasts and visual-type radio range beacon signals on the same
frequency.
A system of radio aids to facilitate blind landings of aircraft.
A new improved type visual radiobeacon course indicator.
A simple direction finder for aircraft.
A device knowh as a deviometer, which permits a pilot to follow
any chosen fixed radiobeacon course within 15° on either side.
Other research problems are directed at the reduction of noise from
airplane engine exhausts by the use of mufflers; the development of
crash-proof tanks; the control of airplanes at low speeds by means of
conventional ailerons; a continuation of the study of welded aircraft
joints and research into various phases of aeronautical lighting, in-

41

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

eluding airplane running lights, airway beacons, and colors of avia­
tion glasses.
In addition to the foregoing, special research committees of the
Aeronautics Branch, organized cooperatively with the industry, are
working on problems pertaining to airport traffic control and airport
drainage and surfacing. The reports of two other committees, whose
work was concluded during the previous fiscal year, were published
during the year. One of these committees engaged in a study of the
control of hangar fires by the automatic application of water, and the
other in a study of airport zoning and eminent domain.
T a b l e 7. —Progress of civil aeronautics in
1926

the United States, by calendar years

1927

1928

1929

1930

I . S c h e d u le d a ir tr a n s p o r t o p e ra tio n s

Airplanes:
Airways (all):
Services in operation.......................
Express mileage................................
Mail mileage......................... ........ .
Passenger mileage--------------------Total mileage—
Domestic................ ....................
Foreign extensions.....................
Accidents:
Passenger-miles flown per pasPersonnel employed:

3 18
4,434
8 , 039
3, 715
8 , 252
152

i 600
1 525
1 128
i 325
i $1,838,462 1 $7, 000, 000 i $1 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 i $11, 489, 450
12 2
23
63
97
7,233
8 ,379
11,775
20, 445
14, 561
41, 501
8 , 223
26, 597
7, 557
11,455
19,730
36,136
29,887
8,865
15, 590
24,865
19, 662
257
1,077
11,456
44
9
12
24
889,454 1,047,562
4,105,023
4 21
82
74
' 113
42
24
13
18
4,322,802
i 1,800
1 525
i 1,182
5 308
i 562
i 675
1 107
1 1,0 0 0
1 663
i 601
i 462
e 1,496
i 2,345
i 3,475
2,869; 255
2,263,580 1,848,156 1, 866,879
549,477
1, 174, 098 2,134,690 6,285, 374 14, 452,952
314, 268
58,705
106,735
1,270,299 4,063,173 7,772,014
8 , 513,675
1 383,866
m
(0
(’)
$2, 643,454 $7,432,721 $17,042,521 $20,015,969

Express and freight carried-.pounds.. 1,733,090
Fuel (consumed):
Gasoline.............................. gallons.. 863,617
Oil____ _________________do----43,181
Mail:
Carried by contractors..pounds.. 377,206
Carried by Post Office Department_______ _______ pounds.. 1 433,649
Income to contractors..................... $765, 549
Income average per scheduled
round trip......................................
$295
$654
$994
$1, 205
Income average per pound of contract mail........................ ...............
$2 . 08
$2.03
$2 . 0 1
$2.03
Income average per pound eontract mile flown................... ........
$0.39
$0. 625
$0.94
$1.06
Load, average pounds per sched112
uled round trip..............................
273
489
617
Miles of mail airways.......................
8,039
8,223
14, 561
26, 597
Total carried......................pounds.. i 810,855 7 1,654,165 4, 063, 173 7,772,014
Miles flown:
Daily average....................................
11,830
29, 242
16,083
6 8 , 881
Mail.................................................. 34, 240,407 3 5,543, 578 7,846. 296 14,869,166
Total, all operators........................... 4, 318,087 5,870,480 10, 673,450 25,141,499
Passenger miles flown (one pasPassengers carried...................................
5, 782
8,679
49,713
173,405
Passenger fare, average per mile............
$0 . 1 2
$0.106
$0 . 1 1
$0 . 1 2
Pay rate of:
$0.74
$157
Pilots, average per mile in addi$0.05
Pilots, average per mile in addi$0 . 1 0
8 $550
Hevenue to operator:
Mail contractors................................ $765, 549 $2, 643,454 $7,432, 721 $17,042, 521
» $599,059 10 $3,701,465
Total, all operators (mail, passenger, and express).......................... . is $765,549 »3$2, 643, 454 13 $8,031,780 u $20,743,986

Footnotes at end of table.

$974
$1.60
$0.70
608
41,501
8,513,675
10 1,2 2 0

19,904,185
36,945, 203
103,747,249
'417; 505
$0.083
$0.74
$158
$0. 046
8 $460
$20,015,969
ii $5.761,151
ii $25, 777,120

42

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

T a b l e 7. —Progress

of civil aeronautics in the United States, by calendar years—
Continued

1926

1927

1929

1928

1930

I I . M is c e lla n e o u s fly in g o p e r a lio n s

Airplanes in operation (licensed and
unlicensed)______________________
2,612
4,779
9,315
9,218
Accidents:
Number of fatal..............................
301
95
215
287
Miles flown per fatal accident.........
315,789
383,275
359,700
279,070
Number of nonfatal..........................
821
1,732
158
1,299
oi q
Number of passenger fatalities___
89
241
210
Miles flown per passenger fatality.
337,079
508, 309
285,714
456,432
Fuel (consumed):
Gasoline.............................. gallons.. 2,426,028 3,882,351 7,764,702 14,235.243 13,981,331
Oil............................................ do___ 121,301
194,118
700,567
388, 235
711,762
Miles flown........ ..................................... 118, 746, 640 i 30,000, 000 i 60, 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 1110, 000,000 1 108,269,760
Passengers:
(ifi)
( 15)
Carried for hire............................
1 1, 732,752 1 1,840,492
» 676, 657
( 15)
( 15)
Carried for pleasure.......................... 1 94.353
l 457,849
i 456,679
I I I . F ed e ra l a ir w a y s s y s te m a n d a id s to
a ir n a v ig a tio n

Communication:
Radio communication stations.......
Radio range beacon stations_____
Radio marker beacons.....................
Weather reporting airway sta­
tions—Weather Bureau and
Department of Commerce, auto­
matic telegraph typewriter
equipped.........................................
Miles of automatic telegraphtypewriter service........................
Weather Bureau airway stations—
not equipped with automatic
telegraph-typewriter service........
Weather Bureau—first-order sta­
tions (does not include airway
stations)__________ _________ _
Airway lighting:
Beacons—
Revolving and flashing listed
together for first 4 years........
Revolving...........................
Flashing...............................
Beacons, privately owned and
certified.........................................
Intermediate landing fields, light­
ed—Department of Commerce...
Mileage lighted by Department of
Commerce.....................................
Miles under construction by De­
partment of Commerce................

45
33
6

0

0

58
2,415

143
8,400

12

23

95

190

279

202

207

206

207

209

612

760

1,188

1,311

92
2,041
1,108

134
4,468
1,277

54

114
285
12,448
1,352

8

210

6,988
2,314

1,290
362
140
347
15,258
3,221

T V . A ir p o r ts a n d in te r m e d ia te
la n d in g fie ld s

Airports:
Commercial and private..................
Municipal.........................................
In te rm ed ia te —Department of
Commerce—lighted___________
In te rm ed ia te —Department of
Commerce—unlighted................
Auxiliary—marked..........................
Army, Navy, Marine Corps,
National Guard, reserve, and
miscellaneous airports..................
Total airports in operation______
Proposed............................................
Lighted, total....................................
Of entry, regular.......... ...................
Of entry, temporary____________

263
240
134

365
368
210

495
453
285

0

320

340

235

79
1,036
422

81
1, 364
921

82
1, 550
1,413

0

0

10

564
550
347
7
240
74
1, 782
733
640
10
30

V . L ic e n s e s a n d a p p ro v a ls

Approved type certificates (issued by
the Department of Commerce):
Airplanes................................... ........
Engines............................................. .
Engines — foreign (temporarily
approved).......................................
Gliders................................................

Footnotes at end of table.

279
35

390
64
14

1

43
T a b l e 7. —Progress of civil aeronautics in the United States, by calendar years—
Continued
AERONAUTICS BRANCH

1926
V . L ic e n s e s a n d a p p r o v a ls —Continued
Approved type certificates—Con.
Parachutes........-...............................
Pontoons.............................-.............
Propellers...........................................
Skis....................................................
Approvals (without approved type
certificates) :
Airplanes.........................................Engines...............................................
Gliders...............................................
Propellers...........................................
Repair stations.. . .............................
Schools...............................................
Unlicensed aircraft (active):

Licensed (active):
Airplanes............................................
Gliders................................................
Instructors, flying.............................
Instructors, ground....... ...................
Mechanics.........................................
Pilots, airplane.............................. .
Pilots, glider.......................................
Riggers, parachute............................
Permits (student pilot) issued:
Airplane------------------------- ------Glider..................................................

1927

1928

135

28
33
185
14

16

147

309

832

1,939

31
3,155

3
24
38
2,464

1,908

3,165

6,685

1,572

4,887

154
7,624
10,215

545

9,717

20,400

63
$848, 508
84
$484, 875
$570,117
1,995
$14, 504, 999
$4, 783, 748
$1,873,106
$21,161,853

162
$1, 759, 653
179
$664, 826
$1, 240,244
4, 346
$43, 411, 812
3,496
$19,915, 624
$1,336,055
$64,662,491

3
13
10
i 900

3
17
18
10
i 1, 400

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

2
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

1930

5

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

1929

0
0
0
0

0
0

0

0
6
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0

0

0
20
1

11
0
0
0

0
111

0
0

0

11
1

1,0 12

7,354
76
186
263
8 ,993
15,280
178
86

18,528
772

V I . P r o d u c tio n a n d ex p o rts o f a ircra ft

Exports:
50
Airplanes...........................................
Airplanes, value............................... $303, 149
297
Engines...............................................
Engines, value................................. $573,732
Parts, value....................................... $150,329
Production:
1,186
Airplanes............................................
Airplanes, value................................ $8 , 871, 027
842
Engines, value................................... $4,080,571
Equipment (miscellaneous),
$829,527
Total value all airplanes, parts,
and equipment............................... $17, 694, 905

321
$4,819,669
377
$1, 635,076
$2,351,651
3,437
6 ,111
$6 6 , 638,299 $34, 545,728
4,356
0 «)
(U)
$22,396,054
$3,904,395
1$100,000,0U0 $60,846,177
354
$5, 574, 484
321
$1,375, 697
$2,252, 203

V I I . O th er

Legislation (aeronautical):
States having miscellaneous laws..
States having no laws----------------States having regulatory laws-----States having uniform laws only...
Firms engaged in the industry_______

3
29
7
9
1 600

22

1
8
20

19
l 1,500

(16)
O')
('«)
(16)
i 1,500

Rased on reports.
Reports from 51 out of 57 operators.
3 Includes Post Office Department operations.
4 The 1927 figures should not be used for comparative purposes as the accident reports for that period
were incomplete due to the fact that the inspection service was in the formative stage with a shortage of
trained field personnel to carry on the work. For the same reason there were doubtless some unreported
accidents in 1928.
3 Reports from 33 of 35 operators.
6 Reports from 27 to 33 of 35 operators.
7 San Francisco-Chicago operated by post office until June 30, 1927; Chicago-New York, by post office
until Aug. 31, 1927. All subsequent mail carried by contract.
s Average base pay of pilots $189 per month, with an average of 5 cents additional per mile flown during
the day and an average of 1 0 cents additional per mile flown during the night.
0 Reports from 21 of 35 operators.
w Reports from 24 out of 38 operators for first 6 months and 47 out of 52 for second 6 months.
1 1 Reports from 45 out of 50 operators for first 6 months and 51 out of 57 for second 6 months.
1 2 Mail income only. No data on passenger and express.
1 3 Includes mail, also passenger and express revenues from all but 5 operators.
1 4 Reports from 29 out of 38 operators for first 6 months and 47 out of 52 for second 6 months.
The department did not request passenger data for the years 1927 and 1928.
is Complete data not available at this date.
1
2

44

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

INSPECTION OF PASSENGER AIR LINES
The Aeronautics Branch continued the development of its inspec­
tion procedure under the regulations governing the scheduled opera­
tion of interstate passenger air services, which were adopted last year.
Every line now engaged in carrying passengers in interstate commerce
on schedule is operating under a letter of authority which is tanta­
mount to the certificate of authority provided for in the regulations.
The inspections conducted by a staff of specially qualified air-line
inspectors are producing results which may be described as threefold:
1. They give the air-line managements the benefit of outside expert
advice and suggestions based on personal experience of the inspectors
with the lines in question.
2. They give the Department of Commerce evidence as to the quali­
fications of the air lines to carry passengers in scheduled interstate
commerce for hire.
3. They serve to reassure the public that the Department of Com­
merce and the air-line operators are cooperating closely for the further
advancement of safety and reliability in scheduled air passenger
transportation.
The air-line regulations have become necessary in order to standard­
ize the various methods of scheduled interstate passenger air trans­
port operation that have developed and will continue to develop in
the future. They are in furtherance of a comprehensive, funda­
mental program which has been developed under the provisions of the
air commerce act. Airways are now extensively established, satis­
factory communications equipment is becoming available, and the
required use of such facilities and aids to air navigation in the interest
of increasingly safe and reliable operation in a uniform manner is
definitely in order.
PROGRESS OF SCHEDULED AIR TRANSPORT
Progress of a most gratifying character has been made by scheduled
air transport operations during the past fiscal year. Compared with
June 30, 1930, the total mileage flown daily by air transport companies
both in the United States and on foreign extensions at the end of this
fiscal year showed an increase of 37,132. The present total mileage
flown on schedule every 24 hours in the United States, and to Canada,
the West Indies, and Latin America is 140,314. During the calendar
year 1930, a total of 417,505 passengers were carried and nearly
37,000,000 miles were flown.
A general improvement in the miles flown per accident in scheduled
operations is noted through the first half of the fiscal year. Reports
for the last half are not yet available.

45

AERONAUTICS BRANCH
T a b l e 8. — Miles flown

per accident in scheduled air transport operations
July- January- JulyJanuary- July- January- December,
December,
June, 1928 December,
1928 June, 1929 1929 June, 1930 1930

Miles flown........................................... 4,484,612 6,188,838 9,201,338 15,940,161 16,902,728
76
44
Total number of accidents.................
35
61
51
Miles flown per accident.................... 128,132 121,350 150,842 209, 739 384,152
7
9
15
6
Fatal accidents........................... ........
5
Miles flown per fatal accident........... 896, 922 884,120 1, 022, 371 1, 062,677 2, 817,121
4
13
5
5
9
Total pilot fatalities.........................
Miles flown per pilot fatality............ 1,121,153 1,237,768 1, 022,371 1 , 226,166 3, 380, 545
22
10
9
9
Total passenger fatalities...................
3
Passenger-miles flown........................
«
w 52, 264, 616
(0
Passenger-miles flown per passen- 0
2, 375,664
ger fatality.........................................
0)
«
0
0
1

20,042,475
47
426,436
3
6 , 680,825
3
6,680,825
2
51, 482,633
25, 741,316

Passenger-mile figure not available for this period.

The bulk of the Nation’s flying is carried on in miscellaneous opera­
tions such as student instruction, aerial sight-seeing, exhibition
flying, crop dusting, aerial photography, and kindred activities.
More than 108,000,000 miles were flown and nearly 3,000,000 persons
were carried in this type of activity in the calendar year 1930. Of
this number, about 1,850,000 were carried for hire.
For the first half of the fiscal year more than 50,000 miles were
flown in miscellaneous operations for each accident, and 353,141 miles
for each fatal accident.
T a b l e 9.— Mileage flown per accident in

miscellaneous flying operations 1

JulyJuly- January- July- January- DecemJanuary- DecemDecemJune, 1928 ber,
1928 June, 1929 ber, 1929 June, 1930 ber, 1930
Miles flown...................................................... 1 2 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 48,000,000 47,000,000 63,000,000 51,767,200 56, 502, 560
641
713
917
1,116
395
873
30,380 74,883 65,919 72,165 56,453 50,630
92
123
169
141
160
118
130,435 390, 244 398,305 372,781 367,143 353,141
114
130
87
78
127
65
184,615 551, 724 602, 564 496,063 454,098 434,635
134
109
104
90
12 0
107
133,333 400, 000 439, 252 470,149 474,928 543, 294
155
'207
185
271
238
258
77,419 231,884 254, 054 232,472 217, 509 219, 002

1Weather
conditions
duringthe
lastin6months
the calendarfigures
year usually
are morefavorable
flying
than
during
the
first 6months,
hence,
makingofcomparisons,
for corresponding
periods'sfor
hould
be
used
in
each
case.
2
Includes
fatalities
to
pilots,
copilots,
students,
passengers,
aircraft
crew,
ground
personnel,
and
spec­
tators.
MANUFACTURING ACTIVITIES
The manufacturing phase of the aeronautics industry has changed
from a large number of producing units, many of them small local
companies hastily formed to supply a demand for aircraft which
seemed apparent a few years ago, to a specialized group surrounded
by the highest type of engineering, producing, and marketing person­
nel obtainable to-day.

46

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

Although smaller in number, the manufacturers now producing
are better equipped to operate at high capacity than ever before.
The factories possess the latest equipment and are operating according
to the most efficient production methods, and could doubtless increase
their production by a large amount within the next year if the need
arose.
Reports showing the amount and type of production of aircraft are
compiled according to calendar years. During 1930, aircraft, engines,
parts, and equipment were manufactured having a total value of
$61,211,198. Heavier-than-air aircraft, excluding power plants, were
responsible for $27,333,736 of this total, representing 3,437 airplanes.
Lighter-than-air aircraft accounted for $365,021. Airplane parts man­
ufactured during the year were valued at over $7,000,000. The
total value of aircraft engines and parts was $22,396,054. In 1929,
6,111 airplanes valued at $66,638,299 were manufactured. The total
value of airplanes, parts, and equipment (not including lighter-thanair aircraft) was approximately $100,000,000 for 1929.
T a b l e 10 .— Number

and value of aircraft, aircraft engines, and aircraft equipment
manufactured during the calendar year 1930
AIRCRAFT

Type

Monoplanes
Number

Biplanes

Value 1 Number

Total

Value 1 Number

Value 1

H e a v ie r-th a n -a ir { e x c lu d in g p o w e r
p la n ts )

Open cockpit one, two, three, etc.,
Cabin, single engine:

Parts, airplane......................................
Total value of heavier-thanL ig h ie r-th a n -a ir (e x c lu d in g p o w e r
p la n ts )

Balloons:

Total value of lighter-than-air

280 $945,982
136
367,271
444 3,067,766
60 2,046,325
25
386,231
17
935,050
2
23,400
114
171,000
1,078 7,943,025

1,971 $13, 368,461

20
279,486
21 1,109,619
85 1,734,898
62 2,498, 247
200 400,000
2,359 19,390,711

2,251 $14,314,443
136
367,271
464 3,347,252
81 3,155,944
110
2,121,129
79 3,433,297
2
23,400
314
571,000
3,437 27,333,736
7,211,992
34,545,728

2
63
11

74, 604
31,560
12,355
118,519
246,502
365,021

1 Includes value of aircraft with instruments and accessories but does not include power plant.
1 Includes planes and estimated value of planes constructed by individuals or concerns (not considered
as aircraft manufacturers) for their own or experimental use and those manufactured by aircraft com­
panies failing to send in production reports due to discontinuance of operations.

47

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

Number and value of aircraft engines, and aircraft equipment
manufactured during the calendar year 1930— C ontinued

T a b l e 10.—

ENGINES

Number
Engines (aircraft only):
100
or less...................
101horsepower
to 200 horsepower...................
201 to 400 horsepower...................
Over 400 horsepower.....................
Total.......................................

490
703
647
1,836
3,676

Value

Total

All other types

Radial

Number

$385,295
1,432,325
2,159, 705
10,166,922
14,144, 247

Value

Number

Value

$635,545
773
738 1,496,125
649 2,159,705
2,196 12,976,418
4,356 17,267,793
5,128,261

283 $250,250
35
2 63,800
(3)
360 2,809,496
680 3,123,546

Total value of engines and

24

396,054

EQUIPMENT
Number
236
8,032
3,818
Grand total, aircraft, engines, parts, and equipment..................................—

Value
$1,029, 060
1,808,462
1,066,872
3,904,395
61,211,198

» Manufactured for experimental purposes. No value given.

LICENSES AND APPROVALS
Another indication of the progress in civil aeronautics may be
gleaned from the licenses and approvals issued by the Aeronautics
Branch following examinations and inspections. A tabulation on this
subject follows:
T a b l e 11
June 30, June 30,
1931
1930

Engines with approved type certificates.............................................. -..............-........ Aircraft with Group 2 approvals (approved for license but without A.T.C.)...............

6,684
3,089
13,041
8,843
334
54
174
230

7,386
116,089
2,800

9, 226
426
72
297
358

1 The decrease in unlicensed aircraft is regarded as a progressive step toward the elimination eventually
of all unlicensed aircraft from operations.

Airports and landing fields also increased in number. At the end of
the fiscal year there were 1,870 such facilities, representing an increase
of 215 over the number on record a year before. The present total
includes municipal and commercial airports; Army airdromes, naval
and Coast Guard air stations; and Department of Commerce inter­
mediate landing fields and marked auxiliary fields. There were 541
proposed airports of which the Aeronautics Branch had knowledge at
the end of the year.

48

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

With the passing of each 12-month period, direct evidence continues
to point to the permanent position occupied by aeronautics in our
national economic life. Millions of people now are availing them­
selves of the advantages of air transportation, both scheduled and
miscellaneous in character, and the value of this rapid and directroute service doubtless has manifested itself to all who have employed
it in furtherance of their business and social lives.
Before the Federal Government came to the assistance of the
science and industry in 1926, the future of civil and commercial aero­
nautics was regarded almost wholly from a theoretical viewpoint.
In the few short years that have intervened aeronautics in the United
States has established an enviable record. Its world leadership in
the number of pilots and planes engaged in civilian pursuits, the
number of scheduled air lines, miles flown, passengers carried, pounds
of mail and express transported is undisputed. The constant
development that is taking place throughout the United States and
the further coordination of air transportation with the best features of
surface transportation all are contributing to the advancement of our
Nation.
The Aeronautics Branch is proud to have a part in this pageant of
historical events that is being unfolded daily and is mindful of its
obligations under the air commerce act to promote and regulate civil
and commercial aeronautics. To regulate is to take steps in the
interest of safety. To increase the safety of air transportation is to
advance and promote its use. The two are interchangeable and can
not be separated without jeopardizing the future of aeronautics.
Very truly yours,
C
M. Y
,
Assistant Secretary of Commerce.
la r e n c e

o u n g

RADIO DIVISION
D epartm ent

o p

C om m erce,
R a d io D i v is i o n ,

Washington, July 1, 1981.

The honorable the S
C
.
D
M r. S
: In response to your request I furnish the
following condensed report of the work of the Radio Division during
the past fiscal year, including references to related developments
which have taken place during that period.
e c r e t a r y

ea r

o f

o m m er c e

e c r e t a r y

LEGISLATION

The Seventy-first Congress, third session, did not enact any radio
legislation respecting the duties of the Radio Division. The only
piece of special legislation concerning this division was the act author­
izing the increased expense for Grand Island, Nebr., where the^con­
stant frequency monitoring station is situated. Another bill, S. 5503,
was introduced to enlarge this activity by purchasing additional land,
erecting additional antennas, and putting up an administration build­
ing. This bill did not pass the House of Representatives.
RADIO INSPECTION SERVICE

Inspections of the radio installations on ships are made to determine
that the apparatus is in good working order and in charge of com­
petent operators. It has for its purpose, of course, the protection of
life and property.
_
T , ,
As the law now reads, it applies to steamers only. It has been
found in connection with this inspection work that there are a number
of vessels propelled by Diesel engines which do not properly come
under the classification of steamers, and as these vessels frequently
carry 50 or more persons, the law should be amended to include this
type of vessel. Such amendment could be accomplished by the
substitution of the word “ vessel” for the word “ steamer” where it
appears in the first and second sections of the act of June 24, 1910,
as amended July 23, 1912.
.
.
Other inspections of the radio installations on ships and the inspec­
tion of radio stations on land are performed under authority of the
radio act of 1927. Such inspections are in the nature of a general
survey of the stations for the purpose of determining if the station
inspected complies in every respect with the information furnished
by the owner of the station in his application for a radio station
license. The inspection includes verification as to the power used by
the station, the wave lengths, or frequencies, to which the station
may be adjusted, type of apparatus, location of station, and numerous
other details.
.
, ,
The radio stations to be inspected are situated in all parts ot tne
United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Porto Rico. It is not possible
with the limited inspection force of the Radio Division to inspect
regularly the more than 26,000 licensed radio transmitting stations.
49
84206—31----- 4

50

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

Those in Alaska have never been inspected, those in Hawaii and Porto
Rico only on rare occasions, and a large number in the United States,
principally those used by amateurs, have not been inspected. With
a larger force of inspectors, a considerable number of unlicensed sta­
tions would be discovered and required to obtain a license or cease
operation.
An increase is shown in all inspection duties during the past fiscal
year. In the fiscal year 1930 there were 15,595 clearances of foreign
and American vessels required by law to be fitted with radio apparatus
and 11,334 inspections. For the fiscal year 1931 there were 15,408
clearances and 11,433 inspections. During the year 1930 there were
17,795 inspections made of all classes of stations, including ships.
The number of such inspections increased to 19,458 for 1931.
Inspections during the year 1931 developed 315 defects in the radio
installations on ships, which were remedied before the vessels de­
parted. During the previous year there were 382 such defects
reported. It is believed that the reduced number of defects re­
ported for the latter period is due to the improvement in radio
apparatus installed and the careful attention which has been given to
radio apparatus when these inspections were made, which encourages
radio operators and others concerned in keeping their apparatus in
good working order.
Much of the work performed by the inspection force requires travel,
either by train or by radio test cars, because of radio stations being
located in practically every city of importance in the United States
and many of them in rural sections. During the year 1930, 1,577
inspection trips were made and 534 cities visited, while in 1931,
1,135 inspection trips were made and 501 cities visited.
One trip was made to Porto Rico by the division’s representative at
Atlanta, Porto Rico being a part of the fourth radio district. This
was the second inspection trip made to Porto Rico since the radio law
has been in effect. The previous trip was made in 1913.
During the coming summer it is planned to have the supervisor of
radio at San Francisco make a trip to Hawaii, which has not been
visited for several years. Because of numerous difficulties, such as
transportation, shortage of personnel, and lack of funds, it has not
been possible to make an inspection trip to Alaska.
Under the radio act of 1927 all the licensed radio stations must be
operated by licensed radio operators. The applicants for such
licenses are given a comprehensive examination to determine their
fitness. The qualifications required depend on the class of station to
be operated and the class of licensed operator such station must em­
ploy. Operators for employment on ships and those on land making
use of the International Telegraph Code must pass a code examination
as well as a written examination, designed to develop the applicant’s
knowledge of the apparatus he intends to use, how to repair such
apparatus or keep it in proper working order, knowledge of the na­
tional and international laws in so far as they apply to his duties, and
knowledge of operating procedure intended to prevent interference
and to insure orderly operation of stations.
There are 10 classes of licenses. During the early years of radio
there were only 3 classes of licenses—commercial first class, commer­
cial second class, and amateur. Additional classes have become
necessary because of the development of new radio services such as
broadcasting, police radio, aviation, and radiotelephone.

RADIO DIVISION

51

During the year examinations were given to 11,850 applicants for
radio operators’ licenses. Of this number 5,776 were for commercial
licenses and 6,073 for amateur licenses. Last year there were 5,363
applicants for commercial licenses and 3,993 for amateur licenses,
making a total of 9,356.
Licenses were issued to 20,703 radio operators during the year, of
which there were 5,506 commercial and 15,197 amateur. The pre­
vious year’s figures are 5,255 commercial and 11,541 amateur. The
foregoing figures include renewal licenses issued without reexamination.
FIELD SURVEY

During the year the traveling supervisor of radio made an inspection
trip which covered five radio inspection districts, the fourth, fifth,
sixth, seventh, and ninth.
The primary purpose of this trip was to coordinate the work of the
several offices and to obtain direct information as to the problems
encountered and the possible need for additional personnel and
equipment.
The supervisor found to exist a pressing need for additional per­
sonnel and equipment by practically all of the offices he visited. This
need, however, will be substantially reduced soon by reason of in­
creased appropriations for the fiscal year 1932. His report contains
a gratifying statement with reference to the good will existing between
the public and the Radio Division and appreciation of its cooperative
efforts and desire to be helpful in connection with the enforcement of
the radio law.
RADIO TEST CARS

During the past fiscal year, two additional test cars were placed
in service, one at Boston and the other at Seattle. This brings the
total number of cars in service to eight. The cars delivered to Boston
and Seattle are not yet equipped with field strength measuring appa­
ratus, or mobile secondary standards of frequency, but it is contem­
plated that this equipment will be installed in the early fall of 1931.
With the six radio test cars, fully equipped with field strength
measuring apparatus and mobile secondary standards of frequency,
it has been possible during the past year, to make a large number
of field strength surveys to determine the service areas of broadcast
stations, and ascertain whether or not they render good broadcast
service to radio listeners in their respective areas. With these cars,
it has also been possible to ascertain the energy in harmonics from
broadcast and other stations, with a view to the elimination of these
parasitic radiations.
During the fiscal year 1932, two or more of the chassis on the
radio test cars now in use should be replaced, as these cars now have
been run in excess of 60,000 miles. The repair items on these cars
will gradually increase with their mileage, and since they are required
to travel all kinds of roads in all kinds of weather and transport the
delicate precision apparatus, the cars must be kept in a high state of
repair at all times.
It would not be possible, to-day, to do our field work and the
monitoring of low-power radio stations without these cars. Addi­
tional cars could be used to advantage if placed in service at New
York, Los Angeles, and Kansas City.

52

EEPOBT TO THE SECBETABY OE COMMEECE

MOBILE STANDAEDS ON EADIO TEST CAES
The large number of low-power broadcast and other stations which
operate on shared channels in the United States cause very serious
heterodyne interference, and in many cases it is impossible to meas­
ure the frequency of these stations at the regular monitoring stations.
To take care of this situation, mobile standards have been placed on
six of the radio test cars located at Baltimore, Atlanta, Dallas, San
Francisco, Chicago, and Detroit. With this equipment, it is possible,
in many cases, to reduce heterodyne interference on broadcast chan­
nels adjacent to shared channels by making sure that the low power
stations are operating on their assigned frequencies.
MONITORING BROADCASTING STATIONS

Although the monitoring stations at Boston, Baltimore, Atlanta,
New Orleans, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Portland, Oreg., Detroit,
Chicago, and Grand Island maintain watches less than 8 hours out
of the 24 during working days, these stations reported 76,447 fre­
quency measurements during the fiscal year as compared with 45,695
for the previous year. The United States stations measured are
classified as follows:

Broadcasting_________________
Commercial__________________
Amateur_____________________
Experimental________________
Government_________________
Unidentified_________________

469
142
336
60
59
23

Broadcasting------------------------Commercial__________________
Amateur----------------- ---------- 27

31 Ships________________________
5
125
--------Total__________________ 188

Police________________________
18
Aeronautical land_____________
17
Ship------------------------------------10
Airplanes____________________
4
Total_________________ 1, 138

Stations were measured in 36 foreign countries. These stations
are classified as follows:

The records of the division show a constantly increasing improve­
ment in frequency control since the monitoring work of the division
was undertaken. As an illustration, in December 339 broadcasting
stations were measured. The frequency variation of 35 of these
stations was less than 100 cycles above or below the assigned fre­
quency. The frequency variation of 66 of these stations was less
than 200 cycles above or below the assigned frequency, while the
frequency variation of 238 of these stations was more than 200 cycles
above or below their assigned frequencies.
In June 330 stations were measured. The frequency variation of
97 of these stations was less than 50 cycles above or below their
assigned frequencies. The frequency variation of 71 of these sta­
tions was less than 100 cycles above or below their assigned frequen­
cies. The frequency variation of 69 of these stations was less than
200 cycles above or below their assigned frequencies. The frequency
variation of 93 of these stations exceeded 200 cycles.
At the present time the Federal Radio Commission requires broad­
casting stations operating between 550 and 1,500 kilocycles to main­
tain their assigned frequencies between the limits of 500 cycles per
second above to 500 cycles per second below the assigned frequency.

RADIO DIVISION

53

Beginning with June 22, 1932, the tolerance of 500 cycles now per­
mitted will be reduced to 50 cycles. The reduced tolerance will
necessitate broadcasting stations exercising greater care and in some
cases providing better equipment. It is anticipated that this will also
mean a considerable increase in the work of the monitoring stations.
CONSTANT FREQUENCY STATION

The construction work on the large frequency monitoring station
at Grand Island, Nebr., was practically finished during the fiscal year.
The Diesel-engine driven generators were installed in the power house
and placed in operation on December 5, 1930, and frequency measurement work was begun about the middle of February, with a small,
inadequate corps of radio engineers and other personnel. During
the brief time the station has been in operation, highly accurate
frequency measurements are being made daily on radio stations in the
United States and foreign countries. Telephone and telegraph sta­
tions in Argentine, Austria, Australia, Brazil, Belgium, Canada,
Chile, Cuba, Colombia, Costa Rica, China, Czechoslovakia, Domini­
can Republic, England, Egypt, France, Germany, Hawaii, Holland,
Indo-China, Italy, Japan, Java, Madagascar, Morocco, Mexico,
Norway, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Portugal, Philippine Islands,
Panama, Persia, Russia, Spain, Syria, Venezuela, and other countries
are received and measured daily. At the present time, due to in­
sufficient personnel, the station is in operation only 16 hours daily;
thus, full advantage can not be taken of all the facilities at the station
for making frequency measurements and other observations.
Since the station was placed in operation in February, a total of
3,029 measurements have been made. At the end of the fiscal year,
167 different radio stations located in foreign countries had been
measured, a total of 789 measurements being made on these stations.
It is interesting to note that a very large number of these stations
failed to maintain their assigned operating frequencies, and in many
cases were observed to be causing interference with radio telephone
and telegraph stations operating in the United States. In addition
to the foreign stations measured, 2,240 measurements were made at
■ Grand Island on 650 individual radio telephone and telegraph stations
within the continental limits of the United States.
It requires 9 skilled radio engineers to intercept and measure the
signals from radio telephone and telegraph stations, each watch, at
Grand Island. These watches, at the present time, are of 8 hours
duration, and sufficient personnel should be provided so as to make
available the required number of engineers for each watch, and to
have the station in operation 24 hours each day. If this were done,
it would be possible to make 2,000 or more accurate measurements
per month, in addition to making other observations, such as channel
congestion, material broadcast, improper use of frequency assign­
ment, and other special tests.
The antenna systems at Grand Island are inadequate to cover the
United States. Two additional broadcast antennas should be pro­
vided, one for reception of stations in southeastern United States
and the other for stations in northwestern United States. In addi­
tion to these antennas for broadcast purposes only, additional anten­
nas for high-frequency reception are needed. Two additional re­

54

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

servers, one for high-frequency work, the other for broadcast and
other services, could be used to advantage. A high-speed recorder
should be provided for the interception and identification of high
speed automatic transmitting stations, and their frequencies meas­
ured. An experimental receiver for interception of television and
measurement of the frequencies of television stations should be
obtained as soon as possible. At the present time these stations can
be measured but can not be identified.
The public has shown great interest in the station, this interest
being evidenced by the fact that 2,219 persons have visited this station
since March 15, 1931. They have registered from almost every State
m the Union, and include Representatives from both Houses of
Congress, and officials from the larger radio and telephone operating
companies.
SECONDARY STANDARD MONITORING STATIONS

During the past fiscal year, nine secondary standard stations
were installed and placed in operation in the following cities: Atlanta,
Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Detroit, New Orleans, Los Angeles,
San Francisco, and Portland. With these secondary standards of
frequency, it has been possible to measure the frequencies of many
hundreds of transmitting stations in the United States and some
foreign stations.
The increasing accuracy of frequency maintained by radio stations
is conclusive evidence of the benefits derived by station owners and
listeners since monitoring by these stations began.
MEASUREMENT OF THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF MODULATION

For some time tests have been carried on to determine a satisfac­
tory method of measuring the percentage of modulation at broadcasting and other radiotelephone stations. The Radio Division now
has portable and highly accurate equipment in use for the measure­
ment of the power or field strength of radio stations and for the
measurement of the frequencies of stations. To make its service
complete it is necessary to measure the third characteristic of a radio­
telephone station, which is its degree and quality of modulation.
This characteristic is the one which definitely determines the quality
of reception. The necessity for modulation measurements are,
therefore, apparent.
Many experiments have been conducted by the Radio Division
during the past several months on all available types of modulated
radio transmitters to determine how these measurements could best
be made. These experiments have gone so far as to include tele­
vision.
A special instrument developed for the purpose has been used with
very satisfactory results. By means of it many radio broadcasting
stations have been able to make adjustments to their transmitters
which very materially improved their service to the public. These
adjustments could not have been made without some device of this
nature and the cooperation which has been rendered in this field is a
source of considerable satisfaction.
Further tests are being conducted with a view to being able not only
to measure the percentage of modulation and the quality of it but

RADIO DIVISION

55

also the determination of the degree of distortion which might be
present. Similar tests are also being conducted to measure these
important factors at the various monitoring stations operated by
tins division so that it will not always be necessary to take the
equipment to the station under observation to make the test.
These tests, and the development of equipment under them, have
been especially significant in that they enable the broadcaster to
improve his service to the public and the radio listening public to
enjoy better radio reception through the reduction in distortion.
Also, they show directly whether the station is meeting the require­
ments of the Federal Radio Commission with respect to quantity
and quality of modulation.
RADIO FOR AVIATION

There has been an encouraging increase in the use of radio in the
aeronautical service during the past year. The records of the divi­
sion show that licenses have been issued to 99 aeronautical stations
and 17 permits have been issued for construction of aeronautical
stations. When these stations are constructed there will be a total
of 116 such stations as compared with 66 stations and 23 outstanding
construction permits last year. Last year there were 215 planes
equipped with radio. There are now 303. The above figures do
not include Government stations.
The ground stations are spaced along the airways so as to insure
continuous communication between aircraft in flight and the station
on the ground. There is an average separation between ground
stations of 200 miles so that the maximum range to be covered in
communication is approximately 100 miles. • Experience has shown
that with this fairly close spacing of transmitters reliable communica­
tion can be conducted under any but the most adverse conditions.
Radiotelephone apparatus is most generally used. The aircraft
radiophone installations are extremely simple and are controlled by
a single push button so that the pilot may operate the system with a
minimum of effort. Trailing antennas such as necessary when longer
wave lengths are used have been eliminated, making it possible for
aircraft to engage in transmission while on the ground as well as m
the air. The traffic handled consists of messages relating to safety,
position reports, meteorological reports, arrivals and departures,
and anything pertinent to the movement of aircraft.
•

RADIOBEACONS AND RADIO COMPASSES

Safety of navigation has been further increased through the instal­
lation of additional radiobeacons and radiocompasses. There are 90
radiobeacons in use in the United States at the present time, an in­
crease of 10 over the preceding year.
The radiocompass is recognized as one of the most useful aids to
navigation in use on vessels. Its value in locating vessels^in distress
has been demonstrated frequently. On vessels of the United_States
there are 1,334 radiocompasses installed, an increase of 66 during the
last fiscal year.
_
. . .
Reports from many of the air-mail operators indicate improvement
in their performance schedules through the use of these radio aids to
navigation.

56

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

An observer of foreign aeronautical radio services expresses the
conviction that our system of Government and private aids to air
navigation are unequaled in the balance of the world.
AUTOMATIC ALARM SIGNAL DEVICE

Inspection of automatic alarm devices was continued during the
past fiscal year. In this period 871 inspections were made of these
instruments, used exclusively on foreign vessels. According to re­
ports made to the division by its inspectors these devices responded
1,244 times to signals not intended to actuate the apparatus. Last
year there were 755 inspections and 1,210 false alarms, usually re­
ported as caused by heavy static or the operation of near-by trans­
mitters. The consensus of opinion seems to be that the alarms now
used are possibly of greater value than the untrained watcher, but
provides a poor substitute for a trained licensed radio operator. The
division is preparing to observe tests of two such devices manufac­
tured in this country which are to be installed on vessels on the Great
Lakes during the coming summer.
POLICE RADIO

The use of radio as an aid in directing the work of police continues
to grow. Last year there were 20 radio transmitting stations used by
police departments, while this year there are 53 such stations licensed
and in operation and construction permits have been issued for 10
more.
According to a report made by the chief of police in an important
western city, during one. month of the fiscal year just closed 80 stolen
automobiles were recovered and arrests were made in connection
therewith, 9 persons were arrested charged with robbery, etc., 11
persons were arrested for violations of the traffic laws, and 1 person
was arrested charged with intent to commit murder. This police
chief states: “ This is a remarkable showing when one realizes that
the results were obtained solely through the radio broadcasting avail­
able to this department up to 11 p. m. daily, after which hour we
have no such service.” The city referred to above now has a radio
broadcasting station of its own which can be used 24 hours each day.
AMATEURS

The past fiscal year shows increasing interest on the part of ama*teurs. In 1929 there were 16,829 licensed amateur radio stations, in
1930 there were 18,994, and this year there are 22,739. These figures
indicate that the amateurs are by far the largest users of transmitting
radio stations in the United States. In addition to the licenses issued
to the amateur stations, correspondence with the Eadio Division
shows that there are more young men making inquiry with reference
to obtaining such licenses than in any previous year. It is believed
that this growing interest may be attributed to the use of the radio­
telephone by amateurs.
The amateurs have given much attention to attaining frequency
precision and control of their apparatus. The standard frequency

RADIO DIVISION

57

system sponsored by the American Radio Relay League, and inaugu­
rated last year on a nation-wide basis, has been continued during the
fiscal year just ended. As high as 300 calibrations a month have
been reported from this service. The benefits derived from these
standard transmissions sent by the amateurs themselves are not con­
fined to the amateurs in this country. It is reported that many
foreign amateurs, particularly those in South Africa and Australia,
have been utilizing these transmissions on the higher frequencies.
With such a service regularly available, considerable interest has
been evinced in the popularization of measuring equipment of a
standard comparable in accuracy and stability to the transmissions,
and /e t within the financial and constructional abilities of the aver­
age amateur. The American Radio Relay League reports that their
laboratory work has resulted in the development of dynatron oscil­
lator equipment which fulfills these specifications, affording toler­
ances well within 0.01 per cent and still easily constructed and
calibrated. With such equipment available, together with the trans­
missions supplied by the standard frequency stations, large numbers
of amateurs have built and now possess measuring apparatus equal
to that in many laboratories. The good effects have been apparent.
In line with their long established self-policing policy, the amateurs
have created a system of official observing stations, the amateur
stations so appointed being equipped with reasonably accurate
measuring apparatus for regularly observing and reporting any offfrequency violators among the amateur ranks. The American Radio
Relay League reports that approximately 100 appointments have
been made.
The communications possibilities of frequencies on the order of
56,000 kilocycles have been examined and considerable development
work accomplished in the design of radiotelephone transmitters and
special receivers of the superregenerative type to work on these
frequencies.
While no major emergency occurred in the United States to enable
the amateurs to participate in the storm relief work for which they
have been noted in recent years, greater cooperation has been afforded
to more than a dozen expeditions sailing from the United States, and
increased activity, is reported in connection with the Naval Radio
Reserve and the Army Amateur Radio System.
The monitoring stations of the division are regularly engaged in
measuring the frequencies of amateur stations. Comparatively few
violations have been found and only a few have been penalized for
such violations. It seems evident that the amateurs realize that their
future success and public good will depend upon the operation of their
stations in an orderly manner, having due regard for other users
including the broadcast listeners. When a new amateur enters the
field his transmissions are usually observed by the older amateurs
who take such action as may be necessary to bring him in line with
the self-policing policy of the organization.
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES

The first meeting of the International Technical Consultative Com­
mittee on Radio Communications for the purpose of studying tech­
nical and related questions was held at The Hague, Netherlands, in

58

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

September, 1929. The second meeting of this committee was held at
Copenhagen, Denmark, May 27 to June 8; 1931. Representatives of
the government departments interested in the subjects to be con­
sidered and representatives of commercial companies attended this
meeting. The next meeting which is to be held in 1933 will be at
Lisbon, Portugal. The date of holding this meeting has not been
announced.
The United States proposals for consideration at the International
Radio Telegraph Conference to be held in Madrid, Spain, in Septem­
ber, 1932, have been submitted to the International Radio Telegraph
Bureau, Berne, Switzerland, for distribution to members of the union.
The exact date of holding the conference in Madrid has noP been
announced.
In view of the fact that this conference will be a joint conference
of members of the International Telegraph Convention and the Inter­
national Radio Telegraph Convention and the importance of some of
the problems to be considered, it seems probable that the duration
of the conference will be longer than those held heretofore.
INTERNATIONAL RADIO ACCOUNTING

Activities of the international radio accounting section during the
fiscal year just ended may be summarized as follows:
Number of accounts handled:
On hand July 1, 1930______________________________________
Received during year--------------------------------------------------------Total__________________________________________________
Settled and cleared________________________________________
Accounts on hand and unsettled June 30, 1931____________
Financial operations required to complete activities summarized:
Cash balance July 1, 1930__________________________________
Collections during fiscal year of 1931________________________
Total________________________________________ __________
Disbursements during fiscal year of 1931____________________
Cash balance, July 1, 1931_______________________________

569
1, 099
1, 668
1, 237
431
$40, 950. 83
65, 591. 46
106,542.29
80, 572. 11
25, 970. 18

It is apparent from these figures that the number of accounts
received from foreign administrations has increased over last year’s
receipts. This increase was taken care of in the number of accounts
settled and cleared. The number of accounts remaining on hand at
the end of last fiscal year was also reduced by 138 accounts.
In spite of the increased volume in number of accounts received
and cleared, there has been a reduction in the money transaction
which would indicate that the volume of radiotelegrams exchanged
by American vessels and foreign coastal and ship stations was less
in 1931 than in 1930.
The decrease in the cash balance of the year indicates only that
the 431 accounts remaining on hand and unsettled involve a propor­
tionately lower amount of partially collected tolls.
Very truly yours,
W. D. T
,
Director oj Radio.
e r r e l l

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS
D epa rtm en t of C om m erce,
B ureau of th e C e n su s,

Washington, July 1, 1931.
The honorable the S
C
.
D
M r. S
: I submit the following report of the work
•of the Bureau of the Census during the fiscal year ended June 30,
1931.
ecreta ry of

ear

o m m erce

ec r eta r y

INTRODUCTION

It is indeed gratifying to report that the close of the fiscal year
1931 finds a major part of the Fifteenth Decennial Census tabulation
work completed and final or preliminary reports issued on practically
all the subjects covered. The field work of the census was finished
and the tabulation of returns started soon after the opening of the
year.
Population figures for the United States, by States, excluding
Indians not taxed, and the congressional representatives to which
•each State would be entitled (under both the major fractions and
the equal proportions methods of apportioning membership to the
House of Representatives) were furnished to the Secretary of Com­
merce on November 17, 1930, for transmission to the President, and
were forwarded by the President to Congress on December 4, 1930,
in accordance with the terms of the Fifteenth Census act. Each
Senator and Representative in Congress was also furnished a tabu­
lation showing the population in his respective State and district.
The policy of issuing press releases presenting results as rapidly
as the tabulations could be made for the various units, and of com­
bining unit reports and republishing promptly data for larger units,
has been continued in the current census. Through this procedure
census information has been made available to the public in a re­
markably short time after receipt of schedules in the bureau. The
efficacy of the plan was proved by the enthusiasm with which census
information was received by the press and the public generally.
There was also a very gratifying demand for all the releases—so
great a demand, in fact, as to necessitate the issuing of second and
even third editions of many of them. The preliminary reports of
the new census of distribution and the preliminary industry reports
of the census of manufactures have also proved of special interest
as important indices to industrial conditions during the present busi­
ness depression ; while the unemployment statistics have been exceed­
ingly timely and useful.
Volume I of population.—Volume I of the Fifteenth Census Re­
ports—Number and Distribution of Inhabitants—was printed and
distributed just 13 months after the canvass started (April 2, 1930),
69

60

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

as compared with 20 months required for the publication of a similar
volume at the census of 1920. This octavo volume of 1,268 pages,
contains population statistics for all States, Territories, and outlying
possessions, by minor civil divisions, together with a United States
summary showing the distribution of the population by States,
counties, and principal cities by size groups.
Another record was established by the division of manufactures,
which completed the publication of its preliminary industry reports
within the calendar year 1930. At previous censuses the issuance of
these preliminary industry reports had never been completed until
April or May of the year following that in which the canvass was
made.
Publication dates have been advanced on all phases of the census
work, in spite of the fact that the number of inquiries on the various
schedules were generally increased, and that the censuses of distribu­
tion and unemployment were added. This advancement in the dates
of publication is attributable to two factors: Improvement in the
methods of conducting the census and improvement in the machinery
and equipment used to tabulate the returns.
More than 50 per cent of the individual State population and agri­
culture reports have already been printed and distributed. These
reports were included in the following series : Number and Distribu­
tion of Inhabitants, Composition and Characteristics of the Popula­
tion, Unemployment, and Agriculture—three series, one presenting
information by minor civil divisions, and two by counties.
The distribution division has also finished its series of printed press
releases giving retail-trade data for all towns of 10,000 population
or more, and wholesale-trade data for cities of 100,000 or more, and
has started the issuance of State and merchandise reports. The divi­
sion of manufactures has likewise completed its preliminary sum­
maries for industries and States and has started issuing printed
industry reports.
F in al vo lw n es .—These State and industry reports will be assembled
and supplemented by summary tables and analytical text to form
volumes of the final reports. The titles of the proposed volumes of
the Fifteenth Decennial Census report are :
POPULATION

Number and distribution of inhabitants—Population of States, counties, cities,
and minor civil divisions. (First series of State bulletins.)
General report and analysis—Population by color, race, sex, age, marital con­
dition, etc.
Composition and characteristics of population—Second series of State bulletins :
Part 1. United States summary and Alabama to Missouri.
Part 2. Montana to Wyoming.
Occupations—State bulletins—General tables and analysis.
Economic and natural families—Dwellings and families, ownership of homes,
etc.
Unemployment—Number unemployed at date of census for United States, States,
and principal cities.
AGRICULTURE

Farm acreage and farm values, by townships or other minor civil divisions.
Reports for States, with statistics for counties and a summary for the United
States and the North, South, and West:
Part 1. The Northern States.
Part 2. The Southern States.
Part 3. The Western States.

BUREAU OE THE CENSUS

61

Statistics by type of farm, with statistics for counties and a summary for the
United States and the North, South, and W est:
Part 1. The Northern States.
Part 2. The Southern States.
Part 3. The Western States.
Special reports (brief studies on agricultural subjects: Horticulture, etc.).
General report and analytical tables.
Irrigation of agricultural lands (one volume).
Drainage of agricultural lands (one volume).
MANUFACTURES

General report and analysis—United States, by industries and States.
Reports for industries—General statistics, by States; quantities and values or
productsforin States—General
detail.
. for
„ States,
, industrial
. , ,.,
Reports
statistics, by industries,
areas, and important counties.
m in e s a n d quarries

General report and analysis—United States, by industries and States.
DISTRIBUTION

Reports for States (retail and wholesale)—States, cities, and counties.
Special trade reports.
Hotel reports—States and principal cities.
Construction industry—States and principal cities.

In addition to volumes of the final report, several special mono­
graphs and studies are to be prepared from census information and
published by the bureau as a part of the Fifteenth Decennial Census
work.
Other activities.—Concurrently with the Fifteenth Decennial Cen­
sus work, the bureau has been carrying on its regular activities with­
out abatement.
The scope of the current industrial inquiries has been extended and
the reports improved. Seven new industries have been added to the
list of industries covered, making a total of 51 inquiries which are
answered by 5,110 manufacturing establishments, and by approxi­
mately 7,900 dealers in certain classes of merchandise. The reports
have been materially improved by the inclusion of graphs showing at
a glance the trend of industrial activities reported. Of these 51
reports published, 43 are released monthly, 7 quarterly, and 1 weekly.
The statistics for each inquiry relate generally to one or more of the
following : Production, new orders or bookings, sales, shipments, un­
filled orders, cancellations, stocks, financing (automobile), and space
operated and occupied in public merchandise warehousing.
During the year South Dakota was added to the registration area
for deaths, which area now includes 96.2 per cent of the total popu­
lation of the United States and its possessions. The birth-registra­
tion area covers about 95 per cent of the total population.
Statistics of marriage and divorce continue to be received with
much interest and given close study by interested agencies. This
information is issued in preliminary summaries for States as rapidly
as the information is received, and is finally assembled in annual re­
ports. Annual statistics are likewise gathered and published on in­
stitutions, State and city governments, and certain special industries.
All of these inquiries have been continued during the fiscal year,
despite the unprecedented amount of work resulting from the Fif­
teenth Decennial Census, which undoubtedly is the most compre­

62

EEPOET TO THE SECEETAEY OF COMMEECE

hensive statistical survey ever undertaken by this or any other
Nation.
Bureau personnel.—There were on the rolls of the Bureau of the
Census employed in Washington on July 1, 1930, a total of 5,032
persons, of whom 713 were permanent employees. In addition,
there were employed in the field a total of 6,472 employees, of whom
726 were special agents appointed to collect data for the cotton
reports. The remaining 5,746 field employees were practically all
engaged in the collection of the Fifteenth Decennial Census data.
On July 1, 1931, there were employed in the Bureau of the Census
at Washington a total of 5,811 employees, of whom 680 held per­
manent appointments. Of this force, 89.8 per cent were engaged
on Fifteenth Decennial Census work. In addition, there were em­
ployed in the field a total of 1,028 persons, of whom 747 were special
agents assigned to the collection of data for the cotton reports, and
87 were engaged in the preparation of financial statistics reports
for States and cities.
The problem of carrying on the regular intercensal investigations
during the decennial census period was solved in some degree during
the last fiscal year by the assignment of temporary employees to do
the work normally done by the trained permanent personnel, the
largest part of whom are engaged on decennial census work in super­
visory capacities.
New divisions.—In order to centralize and systematize the gigantic
tasks of recording and tabulating census information and distrib­
uting the press announcements and reports, three new divisions were
created under the following titles: Punching, tabulating, and publi­
cations. The wisdom of this action has been proved by the increased
efficiency which has resulted. Heretofore, all the work now con­
centrated in these new divisions was handled by the respective divi­
sion of inquiry concerned. Worthy of special note is the elimination
of wastage through duplications and wrong addresses resultant from
the revision of the mailing lists for press announcements and reports.
Metropolitan districts.—The population of a city often gives a very
inadequate idea of the population massed in and around that city,
constituting the “ greater ” city, as it is sometimes called; and in few
cases do the boundaries of the city limit the urban population which
that city represents or of which it is the center. In view of this situ­
ation the Bureau of the Census has established metropolitan districts
to include in a single total both the population of the central city
itself and that of the suburbs or urbanized areas surrounding it, the
rule being to include all adjacent areas having more than 150 inhabit­
ants per square mile. A district was established for every city where
the population of the city itself plus that of the included territory
amounted_ to 100,000 or more. The results have been published in a
bulletin giving the population in detail and a map of each district.
PUNCHING AND TABULATION OF RETURNS

Prior to the census of 1930 the punching of cards, or the mechanical
recording of information, was conducted in the various divisions of
the bureau. For example, the population division had charge of the
punching and tabulation of cards, along with the work of coding and

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

63

filing population schedules, and, the publication of results; the
division of manufactures likewise had charge of all the work in
connection with the census of manufactures, etc.
At the beginning of the census for 1930, it was decided to concen­
trate all punching and machine tabulation work into the two separate
divisions of punching and tabulation. The improved results have
justified the concentration.
Punching division.—The punching force has been mobile, thus
making it possible to interchange the work of the different divisions
among the operators without loss of time. The modified key punch
and schedule holder also added efficiency and speed to the punching
work. When the work was at its peak, an average of 1,791 individual
population cards were punched per day per operator for the month,
as compared with 864 individual population cards punched per day
per operator on the old pantagraph punch in 1920.
During the process of the Fifteenth Census, cards have been
punched for 20 separate inquiries, involving a total of approximately
290,000,000 cards. The distribution of these cards is shown in the
following tabulation:
Investigations

Cards punched
Population:
Continental United States-------------------------------------------------- 124,952, 063
Alaska, Hawaii, Porto Rico, Guam, Samoa, Panama Canal, and
460
Virgin Islands--------------------------------------------------------------- 2,147,
15,106
Voters in District of Colum bia----------------------------------------------15,843
Census of unemployment—preliminary--------------------------------------- 4, 056,
Census of unemployment, 1930--------------- —------------------------------- 2, 361, 435
712
Census of unemployment, 1931—Selected cities--------------------------123, 903
Blind and deaf-mutes---------------------- --------------------------------------73, 994
Family—New Haven, Conn------------------------------------------------------- 5,444,
941
Family—Continental United States-----------------------------------------203, 743
Divorce, 1929------------------------------------------------------------------------93, 037
Prisoners, 1928_______________________________________________
General farm:
216
Continental United States-------------------------------------------------- 1140, 501,
680, 323
Hawaii and Porto Rico— -----------------------------------------------434,194
Incidental agricultural production------------------------------------------274, 078
Irrigation____________________________________________________
355, 081
Drainage_____________________________________________________
Distribution:
1,700, 006
Preliminary----------- ---------------------------------------1, 797, 765
Retail--------------- -----------------------------------------979, 469
Wholesale____________________________________
120, 891
Construction--------------------------------------------------15, 567
Hotels----------------------------------------------------------Current inquiries (quarterly) :
75, 886
Radio goods--------------------------------------------------69, 446
Electrical appliances------------------------------- -----1, 044, 667
Manufactures-----------------------------------------------------48, 315
Mines and quarries-----------------------------------------------346,130
Profits study------------------------------------------ .--------- --134,673
Village population, 1930 (committee on social trends)
Total_______ *------------------------------------------------------------- ^89, 562, 525

All cards punched have been verified, except about one-fourth of
the cards for the manufactures and mines and quarries schedules,
and more than 575,000,000 cards have been handled in this division
since its organization March 16, 1930.1

1 Includes 7,454,201 cards handled the second time for punching the type of farm and
value of products codes.

64

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

At the peak of the punching work, the personnel of this division
numbered about 2,000, which was the largest force ever assembled in
one organization for the punching of cards; likewise the equipment
used included more punching and verifying machines than had ever
been installed in one bureau or organization.
Tabulation division.—The concentration of the machine tabulation
under one official has proved equally as satisfactory as in the case
of punching. It has been possible to do machine tabulation for sev­
eral phases of census work at the same time, which has resulted in
a more prompt publication of results. The sorting and tabulating
equipment in use at the present census has reached a high stage of
efficiency, and part of it was perfected in our mechanical laboratory.
The following statement shows the numbers of punched cards
handled in the machine tabulation division during the past fiscal
year on the five general sections of the work, representing the equiv­
alent of passing cards through the machine one time in each case:
Section of work:
Number of cards
Population-------------------------------------------------- 1, 634,051,872
Agriculture------------------------------------------------ 723,136,055
Manufactures----------------------------------------------- 18,703, 620
Distribution------------------------------------------------ 30, 857, 364
Miscellaneous (including current inquiries)__r_ 120,876,494
Total-------------------------------------------------- 2, 527, 625, 405

Publications division.—The publications division was organized
to meet the need for a centralization of the publication and distri­
bution of census information. Prior to its organization, each divi­
sion of inquiry handled the publication and distribution of its various
reports.
The new division was created in the fall of 1930 and immediately
set to work centralizing and systematizing the publication and dis­
tribution of all the material issued by the bureau. The revision of
the mailing lists, and the supervision of the work in the duplicating
department of the bureau, were especially noteworthy accomplish­
ments of this division, which now handles efficiently the constant
stream of releases and reports issued by the bureau.
CENSUS OE POPULATION

The examination and hand count of the population schedules
started in May, 1930, was practically completed in seven months, and
a press release presenting the final population figures for the United
States, by States, was issued on November 22, 1930.
Preliminary statistics.—The first count of the number of names
returned on the population schedules, however, was made by the
supervisors in the field, and the results were announced locally by
them immediately after the completion of the enumeration. The
results of these counts by the supervisors subsequently were assem­
bled and issued by the Census Bureau in a series of press releases
giving the population of each State by counties with figures for
the larger cities. The first of these State releases was issued on
June 21, 1930, and the last on August 25, 1930. A press release
giving the population of the United States by States, based on this
preliminary count was issued on August 8,1930, the preliminary total

BUREAU OE THE CENSUS

65

being 122,698,190, which differed by only 76,856 from the final count
of 122,775,046.
S ta te bulletins. —The first of a series of State bulletins, showing
the distribution of the population by minor civil divisions, was issued
on July 31, 1930, and the last State bulletin of this series was issued
December 29, 1930. The United States summary bulletin for the
series was issued January 27, 1931. Similar bulletins were also pub­
lished for the Territories and outlying possessions. This complete
series was bound together to form Volume I of the Fifteenth Census
Deports on Population, which was issued in May, 1931. This report
was printed in octavo form to meet the demand for a handy volume
of population figures of general interest.
G eneral po pu lation classification. —General population schedule
coding was begun in May, 1930, and was completed in December of
that year. The composition and characteristics of the population for
States, counties, and cities, tabulated on the basis of this coding, are
presented in a second series of State bulletins, the first of which, the
bulletin for Delaware, was issued in December, 1930. At the close of
June of this year, 26 bulletins of this series had been issued, and
bulletins for 19 additional States were in process of printing. Pre­
liminary press releases giving the most important figures for States
and the larger cities, together with a brief classification of the popu­
lation for counties, had been issued for all except 4 States. These
releases cover information shown in more detail in the bulletins as
to color, nativity, sex, age, country of birth, illiteracy, school attend­
ance, marital condition, and industry groups.
S u bject bulletins. —The remaining material to be tabulated from
the population card, aside from occupations, is being prepared for
presentation in a series of subject bulletins, the topics corresponding
approximately with the topics covered by the chapters in Volume II
of the 1920 reports, viz, color or race, nativity, and parentage; sex
distribution; age distribution; marital condition, etc. The subjects
on which no data were presented in the second series of State bulle­
tins include State of birth of the native population, age by single
years, marital condition, and illiteracy by age; and for the foreignborn white, mother tongue, year of immigration, and ability to speak
English.
O ccupation sta tistics. —The results of a preliminary tabulation
showing the number of gainful workers, by sex, in about 50 industry
groups, were published in the second series of State bulletins. The
detailed tabulation of gainful workers, classified by specific occupa­
tion as distinguished from the broad industry groups of the pre­
liminary count, was started on March 17, 1931, and the first press
release giving preliminary figures for the gainful workers classi­
fied according to occupation was issued on April 23, 1931. At the
close of the fiscal year, similar releases had been issued for 4 States
and 30 cities, and copy had been prepared for 3 bulletins in the
series presenting these statistics by States, with figures for cities
of 25,000 or over. In this series of bulletins, the gainful workers
are classified not only by sex and by occupation, but also by color,
nativity, and age, and the female gainful worker's are also classified
by marital condition.
F a m ily data. —The census information with regard to families
is being tabulated from a separate family card. The first process
84206—31----- 5

66

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

in the tabulation of this information was the transcription of the
family data from the population schedule to a condensed transcrip­
tion sheet from which the cards could be conveniently punched. At
the end of the fiscal year this transcription had been completed for 37
States, comprising nearly one-half of the families in the United
States. Cards had also been punched for 23 States comprising about
one-fifth of the total number required.
A part of the results of the family-card tabulation will be pre­
sented in a series of State bulletins, and the remainder in a brief
series of subject bulletins. The State bulletins will present the num­
ber of families by counties, with figures for all incorporated places
having 2,500 inhabitants or more, and will show the number of
families classified by size, by color and nativity of head, and accord­
ing to the number of children under 10 years of age in the family.
In addition, there will be presented the number of dwellings, classi­
fied as one-family, two-family, and three-or-more-family dwellings;
the number of owned homes, classified according to value; and the
rented homes according to monthly rental. (The classification of
homes by value and rental is limited to nonfarm homes.) They will
also be classified according to number of children under 21, number
of gainful workers, and number of lodgers. . There will be a classifica­
tion of home makers according to employment status, first, segre­
gating those who have no gainful occupation, and second, separating
those who have an occupation which takes them away from home into
several groups, such as professional workers, office workers, and
industrial workers.
Blind and deaf-mutes.—A hand count of the blind and deafmutes has been made from the population schedules and a report,
presenting the results of this count, has been printed.
CENSUS OE UNEMPLOYMENT

The preliminary announcement of the returns of the census of
unemployment for the United States, by States, was made available
in August, 1930. Other releases during the summer of 1930 gave
preliminary returns for counties and cities. On March 21, 1931,
the final unemployment returns by classes for the United States,
by States, was issued in press release form. The first State bulletin,
giving final unemployment returns by classes, appeared in Novem­
ber. At the close of the fiscal year, 29 State bulletins had been
printed and 16 more were in process of printing.
A special census of unemployment was taken in January, 1931
supplementing the data collected on this subject at the census of
1930. This census was authorized in connection with the work of the
President’s Emergency Committee on Employment, and the results
were made available to that committee on March 21, 1931.
CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE

The first results of the census of agriculture were presented in a
series of State press releases—started in August, 1930—giving the
number of farms by counties as determined by a hand count of the
general farm schedules. This series was followed by a preliminary
announcement on October 15, 1930, of the number of farms in the

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

67

United States, the number announced being 6,297,877, only 9,229
more than the final total of 6,288,648.
S ta te bulletins. —There will be four series of State reports issued
in connection with the census of agriculture, and copy for the first
two is now in the hands of the printer. More than 60 per cent of
the series presenting the following information by minor civil divi­
sions has been printed: Number of farms; acreage of land in farms,
classified according to use; and value of land and buildings, buildings,
farmers’ dwellings, and implements and machinery. This is the first
census since 1870 at which agricultural data have been published
by minor civil divisions, and the first census at which the value of
farmers’ dwellings has ever been ascertained, although the value of
all farm buildings was secured at the census of 1900 and at each
succeeding census. All farm buildings in the United States were
reported in 1930 as valued at $12,949,993,774, and of this amount,
the value of farmers’ dwellings represented $7,083,572,150, or 54.7
per cent.
C oun ty sta tistics. —The three additional series of State reports
for agriculture will present statistics by counties. Twenty-seven
reports of the first county series have been printed. They show the
number, acreage, and value of farms, by color and tenure of oper­
ator; number of each of the principal classes of livestock; acreage
and production of selected crops, and acreage and value of vegetables
raised for sale. It has been determined that the number of horses on
farms decreased from 19,767,161 in 1920 to 13,383,574 in 1930, a de­
crease of 6,383,587, or 32.3 per cent. The number of mules on farms
decreased from 5,432,391 in 1920 to 5,353,993 in 1930, a decrease of
78,398, or 1.4 per cent.
F a rm expenses, d eb t, taxes, etc., and typ es o f farm s. —Only the
Delaware report has been printed as yet of the second and third
county series of agricultural reports. The second series will give in­
formation on farm debt, taxes, expenditures, machinery, and facil­
ities ; cooperative marketing; movement of farm population; number
of sheep, goats, and bees; livestock products, miscellaneous crops,
value of livestock, and value of products. The third series of State
reports will include information concerning farms and farm acreage,
value of farms, value of farm products sold, specified classes of live­
stock, livestock products, tenure, and specified farm expenditures, all
classified by type of farm. This is an innovation in census tabula­
tions, although a somewhat similar classification was made in 1900.
The farms are classified by types according to principal sources of
income, 40 per cent of value of products governing their classification.
The types of farms are as follows: Self-sufficing, truck, fruit, cashgrain, cotton, crop-specialty, general, dairy, poultry, stock-ranch,,
animal-specialty, abnormal, and unclassified. The abnormal type is.
subdivided into five subtypes: Institution or country estate; parttime; boarding and lodging; forest-product; and horse farm, feed lot,,
or livestock dealer.
S p ecia l fa rm tabulations. —At the request of the Department of
Agriculture, a special tabulation of farm acreage, classified accord­
ing to the use of the land, and the value of farm land and buildings
for specified townships or wards in Arkansas and Louisiana, was

68

BEPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMEECE

made in advance of the machine tabulations for these States. These
data were used by the Department of Agriculture in making a valu­
ation for the War Department of certain lands in the Lower Missis­
sippi Valley included in the plans for flood control.
The publication of statistics of the number, acreage, and value
of farms, by minor civil divisions, has brought a number of letters
of appreciation, and a demand is being made for data on livestock,
livestock products, crops, and other items by such divisions.
Census of horticulture.—The horticultural census was taken by
mail subsequent to the decennial census of agriculture, and required
the use of six schedules which relate to florists’ establishments, nur­
series, and bulb, seed, mushroom, and blueberry farms. Complete
returns were not received until February, 1931. The census ad­
visory committee on horticulture, appointed last year at the general
meeting of trade representatives, held a meeting on December 12,
1930, to consider the returns from this investigation and to recom­
mend a plan of publication. It was decided to compile statistics for
Pennsylvania first for study. Preliminary press announcements
have now been issued for several States. These announcements
give for each of the six branches of the industry the number, acre­
age, and value of establishments reporting, the number of persons
employed, and receipts from sales. Tabulations have been com­
pleted for 25 States.
Irrigation.—Tabulation of returns for the census of irrigation,
which included 19 States, is well under way. A series of preliminary
press announcements for States, by counties, has been issued showing
the acreage irrigated, the irrigating capacity of enterprises, irrigable
acreage in enterprises, and the number of enterprises, with compara­
tive figures for 1920. Copy for four State irrigation reports has been
:sent to the printer. These reports will show, in addition to the above
data, the acreage and value of irrigated farms, irrigation works,
investment in enterprises, and cost of maintenance and operation.
Drainage.—The area covered by the census of drainage includes
35 States. The last of the schedules for this inquiry were not re­
ceived until May, 1931. A series of preliminary press announce­
ments for States, by counties, giving the acreage of land in drain­
age enterprises, drainage condition, acreage of land in occupied
farms, and capital invested, has been published for all drainage
States; and copy for one final State report has been sent to the
printer. The State series will include the following data, distrib­
uted by counties: Number of farms reporting drainage, acreage
drained, condition of land in enterprises, drainage works, and capi­
tal invested in enterprises.
CENSUS OE MANUFACTURES

The collection of returns for the census of manufactures for 1929
was delayed considerably, chiefly by three factors: The industrial
depression prevailing at that time, as a result of which many manu­
facturers reduced their office forces so that the employees whose
usual duty it was to make census returns found it inconvenient to do
so; the necessity for employing the same field force on the censuses
of manufactures and distribution; and the increase in the number of
inquiries on the schedules. The most important change made in the

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

69

inquiries on the manufactures schedules in revising them for use at
the recent census was the substitution of value of products sola
(shipped or delivered) during the census year for value of products
manufactured, as called for by the schedules used at previous cen­
suses. Objection to this change was made, however, by representa­
tives of a considerable number of important industries, and as a
result the former basis—production, not sales—for reporting was
retained on the schedules for these and certain other industries. One
of the several inquiries which increased the length of the manufac­
tures schedules and retarded the completion of the canvass related
to the distribution of sales, placed on the schedules in order to obtain
data needed for the purposes of the census of distribution.
Preliminary industry reports.—Despite the delay in getting in the
returns, the preliminary industry reports, 212 in number, were issued
during the period from June 26 to December 31, and a general sum­
mary covering all industries was published on December 31, 1930,
thus establishing a record. The reports were prepared as soon as the
canvasses for the respective industries were complete. Since Janu­
ary 1, preliminary manufactures reports for States have also been
compiled and published.
Final reports.—The sequence of reports for individual industries
comprises two series, namely, the preliminary and the final. The
material for the first final report, that on the manufacture of soap,
was sent to the printer on June 30, 1931. The final reports present
general statistics by States, detailed statistics on power equipment,
statistics on wage-earner employment by months, detailed production
statistics, and, for many industries, detailed statistics on consumption
of principal materials. A series of State reports and a number of
general reports, all in pamphlet form, will also be issued. Finally,
the reports of the census of manufactures will be assembled and bound
together in three of the volumes of the Fifteenth Decennial Census
reports.
. .
, , ,
Census of manufactures, 1931.—Some preliminary work has been
done during the last fiscal year on the revision of the schedules for
the census for 1931. The scope of the inquiries will be materially
reduced as compared with those for 1929.
CENSUS OF MINES AND QUARRIES

A total of 10,136 returns were received at the decennial census of
mines and quarries, taken in 1930 as a part of the Fifteenth Decennial
Census. The United States Bureau of Mines, as well as the various
State bureaus of mines, cooperated in the canvass. The first preliminary reports were issued on October 31, 1930, and presented statistics
on the production of Pennsylvania anthracite and of sulphur. At
the close of the fiscal year preliminary reports had been issued for
13 industries, 10 other reports had been prepared for release in
July, and summaries for all remaining mining and quarrying indus­
tries had been completed. A general summary covering all mining
and quarrying industries, for the United States as a whole, and the
State summaries were also in course of preparation at the close of
the fiscal year.

70

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

CENSUS O F DISTRIBUTION

A census of distribution is an innovation in census taking, and the
first national census of distribution is being successfully completed by
the bureau. In this census, there were collected 1,549, 402 retail and
169,777 wholesale trade schedules, 153,461 schedules relating to com
struction work, and 25,817 hotel reports. The coding of wholesale
schedules for final machine tabulation has been completed, and simi­
lar coding of the retail schedules will be completed within a month.
The work of punching cards for these schedules is well advanced
and the plan of publication of the results has been determined and
is under way. Information as to distribution of sales between
retailers, wholesalers, etc., has been taken from about 146,000 manu­
facturers schedules, and a large part of the resulting data has been
published in press-release.form.
Preliminary reports.—Preliminary retail trade reports have been
issued for each city in the United States having 10,000 inhabitants
or more, and wholesale trade reports for cities having 100,000 in­
habitants or more. The retail reports show retail business in each
city classified in detail by kind of business, and also show amount
of sales of independent stores, chain stores, and other types of organi­
zations. The wholesale reports cover the wholesale function in
business. Both retail and wholesale reports show the number of
establishments, the net sale, the number of full-time employees, the
total salaries and wages paid, and the cost of stocks of goods on hand.
A series of preliminary State retail summaries has also been pub­
lished, and both wholesale and retail summaries for the United States
as a whole have been prepared for publication. In addition, a series
of publications has been started showing retail data by counties, by
cities, and incorporated places down to 1,000 population.
Construction census.-—A material portion of the work of gathering
schedules on the construction industry has been conducted by corre­
spondence; but this phase of the work was completed in February.
Two preliminary reports on the construction industry have been
issued, and plans for the presentation of the final reports on this
subject have been determined. The work of coding the schedules
for punching is about 50 per cent complete.
Hotel census.—Manuscripts for 38 State reports concerning the
hotel business have been sent to the printer, and 12 State reports
and 1 for the District of Columbia had been published at the close
of the fiscal year.
VITAL STATISTICS

During the fiscal year 1931 the State of South Dakota met the
requirement of 90 per cent complete registration and was admitted
to the registration area of the United States for deaths. There are
now 47 States, the District of Columbia, the Territory of Hawaii,
the Virgin Islands, and 8 cities in the nonregistration State of
Texas, in the death-registration area, which includes 96.2 per cent
of the total population of the United States.
There are in the birth-registration area of the country 46 States,
the District of Columbia, the Territory of Hawaii, and the Virgin
Islands, including 94.7 per cent of the total population. Because
of the greater difficulty in obtaining complete registration of births,
only entire States rather than cities or other sections thereof, are ad­

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

71

mitted to the birth-registration area. Texas and South Dakota are
still outside of the birth-registration area, but officials of those
States are using every means to compel the registration of births,
emphasizing its importance to individuals. It is hoped that fort
coming registration tests in these two States will justify their admission tcTthe birth-registration area of the United States. _
Birth and death registration certificates now carry an inquiry as to
occupaion of father and of mother of the infant, or former occupation
of the deceased, respectively, and it will, therefore, be possible here­
after to present occupational data in birth and mortality statistics
In 1929 there were 1,386,363 deaths reported in the registration area
in continental United States, for which the mortality rate was 11J
per 1,000 population. In that same year there were reported
2,169,920 births in the birth-registration area, for which the rate was
18.9 per 1,000 population. This is the lowest birth rate recorded
during the 15 years that this bureau has been compiling birth
Annual reports.—The publication of the annual reports of birth
and mortality statistics for 1929 was delayed so that the 1930 popula­
tion returns might be used in compiling rate tables. The manuscript
for these reports will be forwarded to the printer shortly, however.
A special effort was made during the past year to bring about
greater cooperation between certain States and the Federal govern­
ment in the collection of vital statistics. The chief statistician in
charge of this work at the bureau visited a number of State officials m
the far West and in the North to observe the methods used m these
States for collecting vital statistics, and to offer suggestions and the
facilities of the Census Bureau for the improvement of their methods
toward better and more complete returns.
, ,
Reference looks.—During the last fiscal year the bureau published
a Pocket Reference of Information on Occupations and the Physi­
cians’ Pocket- Reference to the International List of Causes of Death.
The former is the first booklet on that subject to be issued by this
bureau. The latter was revised as a result of the international con­
ference at Paris, and is the eighth edition of this work Copies of
these booklets have been furnished to State officials for distribution to
physicians, undertakers, local registrars, and others interested in vital
statistics work. They are especially valuable as an inspiration for
more complete and accurate statements from persons reporting births
or There
deaths.is an ever-increasing demand, for
„ the
, ,bureau,s reports, on
vital statistics and for special and detailed tables not presented in
our printed volumes. The bureau has continued to issue the Weekly
Health Index and the 4-week summary on mortality from automobile
accidents during the last fiscal year.
Vital statistics are steadily assuming a greater national interest,
and officials of this bureau are, therefore, frequently authorized to
attend conferences relating to these matters. In particular, during
the last fiscal year this bureau took an active part in the White House
conference on child health and protection, preparing the greater part
of the statistics used for the discussions. The bureau is also cooperat­
ing very actively with the National Conference on Nomenclature

72

BEPOBT TO THE SECEETARY OP COMMEECE

of Disease, the National Safety Council, the New England Health
Institute, and the Association of State and Territorial Health
Officers.
MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE

Statistics of marriage and divorce continue to be received by the
public with a high degree of interest. Close study is given to the
preliminary summaries, which are issued for the individual States in
advance of the annual report as rapidly as the data are received from
the county officers. This is especially true of localities where rigid
ptate laws have been enacted in an effort to curb hasty marriages or
to make the granting of a divorce more difficult. The reports lor the
surrounding States are carefully scanned by the press of the country
with a view to ascertaining whether the border counties show marked
changes
length. m figures, and the results observed are commented on at
^ unfortunate that lack of uniformity in the information re­
corded by the officials issuing marriage licenses in the various States
prevents the publishing of anything further than the actual number
of marriages performed in the United States each year by States
and counties, as many requests for additional data are received—
particularly data relative to the number of marriages performed
each month and the age of the contracting parties. This latter item
is of utmost importance in the study of child-mortality statistics,
f airly uniform information on a number of items relative to divorces
granted and marriages annulled is obtained from court records.
,, a? statistics of marriages are now obtained from some office of
the State government m 29 States, and the statistics of divorces are
likewise obtained from State officials in 16 States. In the other
States county officials furnish the information.
On June 30, 1931, the work of securing the information with
regard to marriages and divorces in 1930 was about 99 per cent com­
plete, reports having been received for 1,119,342 marriages, 189,913
divorces, and 4,307 annulments, as compared with a total of 1,232,559
marriages, 201,468 divorces, and 4,408 annulments for the year 1929.
-Preliminary press statements have been issued for 41 States. From
returnsdecreases.
received it is apparent that the totals for the year will
show
ANNUAL CENSUS OE INSTITUTIONS

The bureau is collecting annual statistics concerning State and
I ederal prisons and reformatories, State hospitals for mental disease,
and State institutions for the feeble-minded and epileptics from the
heads of Hie various institutions or from State administrative
agencies The 1927 report on prisoners was published in the fiscal
year 1931, and that for 1928 is in process of printing. The 1928 report on hospitals for mental disease is being compiled. The 192627 report on feeble-minded and epileptics in State institutions was
issued during the last fiscal year, and the tabulations for 1928 are
practically completed.
This office felt great satisfaction in the passage at the last session
of Congress of a law granting authority to the Bureau of the Census
S T 13!-0 anf? Publ,lsh annually statistics relating to crime and to
the detective, dependent, and delinquent classes, as data of this

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS

73

character have been collected at annual periods for the past few
years because of the insistence of interested parties but without spe­
cific legislation. A number of conferences were held during the last
year with individuals and representatives of organizations interested
in social statistics. The advisory committee cooperating in the col­
lection of prison statistics is having a complete list of prisons in this
country compiled. This publication will be of much importance for
census purposes.
FINANCIAL STATISTICS OF STATE AND CITY GOVERNMENTS

The annual reports covering the financial statistics of States and
cities provide information relative to the financial administration of
the governments of the States and of the cities having a population
of over 30,000, reflect their financial condition, serve as a guide to the
officials in planning future operations, and in extending or curtailing
functions or activities, furnish assistance to officers who are charged
with responsibilities incident to the administration of the govern­
ments, and enable the public to judge intelligently of the fidelity,
efficiency, and economy practiced by their officials. Institutions of
learning are using these census reports in connection with courses of
study.
Since the inauguration in 1925 of the plan of having local officials
fill out the census schedules relating to the financial transactions in
their respective States or cities, rather than Census Bureau experts
formerly detailed for that purpose, an ever-increasing willingness to
cooperate in this way has been apparent. Whereas in 1925 officials
of only 1 State and 17 cities cooperated, at present officials of 35
States and 170 cities are furnishing these reports. The principal
subjects covered by the annual financial statistics reports are: (1)
Total and per capita receipts from revenues and from the principal
classes thereof; (2) total and per capita payments for operation and
maintenance, interest on debt, and total outlays for public improve­
ments; (3) total and per capita indebtedness; and (4) total and per
capita assessed valuation of property and tax levies, and rates of levy.
The 1930 census shows 310 cities having a population of 30,000 or
over, and it is planned to include reports for all of these cities in the
city financial statistics report for that year.
On June 30, 1931, manuscripts for the annual reports on financial
statistics of States and of cities for the fiscal year ended December 31,
1929, were in the hands of the printer. Work- of compiling the
schedules for 1930 for States was about 45 per cent complete, and for
cities about 50 per cent complete on that date.
CURRENT INDUSTRIAL REPORTS

The bureau issues almost a hundred reports at weekly, monthly,
quarterly, semiannual, or annual intervals, covering industrial fields.
These reports have proved of interest to the general public and of
great value to business organizations. The majority of them are
issued monthly and include statistical charts. Of primary interest
among them are those relating to the cotton industry. There has been
a tendency on the part of Congress to authorize by specific legislation
more and more frequent reports on phases of the cotton industry.

74

EEPOBT TO THE SECBETABY OE COMMEECE

Annual reports were published from 1905 to 1909 on the supply,
distribution, imports, and exports of cotton; four periodical reports
were published each year from 1909 to 1912, and compilation of
monthly statistics of cottonseed and cottonseed products was begun
in 1916; and from time to time other inquiries relating to the cotton
industry have been inaugurated and reports issued at intervals rang­
ing in length from a week to a year.
Trade organizations are requesting additional current industrial
reports continuously to supplement the reports of the biennial
census of manufactures. Those issued at this time cover phases
of the following industries: Textiles (including cotton, wool, and
knit goods), leather (including boots and shoes), iron and steel,
machinery, miscellaneous metal products, clay products, electrical
goods, animal and vegetable fats and oils, glues, wheat and wheat
flour, forest products, paper production and paper-making equip­
ment, sand-lime brick, ties and poles purchased and preserved, vege­
table materials used by tanners, and a number of others.
As may be seen by the foregoing, censuses of industry and busi­
ness conducted by this bureau fall into two general classes. Those
which are comprehensive and detailed, covering an entire field, and
those which relate to a single item or to associated items, regarding
production, sales, stock, etc. The two classes of inquiry serve
distinctive purposes. Those that fall into the first class have a
permanent value; but, because of the length of the schedules and the
detail of published dates, it is often impossible to make the results
of such censuses available immediately after the close of the canvass.
On the other hand, the value of the second class of statistics lies
primarily in the fact that the data are current and available to the
public promptly. The schedules are short and relate to special
phases of the industries involved. The prompt cooperation of busi­
ness organizations in supplying census figures is immediately re­
flected by the prompt publication of census results.
TABULATIONS BOB, OUTSIDE ORGANIZATIONS

During the last fiscal year the Bureau of the Census has made
many special tabulations from the statistics resulting from the
census of 1930 which have been paid for by persons requesting the
service. For instance, population figures, by enumeration districts,
have been supplied for Chicago and Cleveland, and by counties for
New York State, at the request of the University of Chicago, the
Cleveland Health Council, and the New York Telephone Co., re­
spectively. In addition, detailed population figures, by tracts, have
been supplied for Baltimore, at the request of the Baltimore Health
Department; for Buffalo, at the request of the Buffalo Census Com­
mittee; for Columbus, at the request of the Columbus Chamber of
Commerce; for Cleveland, at the request of the Cleveland Health
Council; for Indianapolis, at the request of the Indianapolis Census
Committee; and for the Boroughs of New York City, at the request
of the Cities Census Committee (Inc.), New York City.
_Many other tabulations have been requested by various organiza­
tions to be made at their expense.

75

BUREAU OE THE CENSUS

OLD CENSUS RECORDS

As an evidence that census statistics touch the life of every indi­
vidual in the country, it is of interest to know that 5,767 persons came
to this office during the fiscal year 1931 and examined the old census
records for genealogical or other purposes. In addition, there were
6,889 searches made of the population schedules by employees of
this office at the request of individuals, for use of various Federal
Government departments, especially the Pension Bureau, Civil Serv­
ice Commission, and Navy Department; for use of State officials in
connection with old-age pensions, as well as for other purposes.
Very truly yours,
W. M. S
,
Director of the Census.
teu a rt

BUREAU OE FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE
D epartment of C ommerce ,
B ureau of F oreign and D omestic C ommerce ,

Washington, July I, 1931.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce.
D ear M r . S ecretary : A difficult business year has just closed. The
United States, in common with other nations, is passing through a
severe economic disturbance, the results of which are so widely
known as not to call for special comment.
The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, constituted as
a great service bureau for the aid of American commerce and indus­
try, has been called upon increasingly to aid in meeting the special
economic problems which have faced business during this interval.
Because it provides a staff of experts in many fields, the bureau
has been called upon by the legislative and administrative branches
of the Government, as well as by business men, to present the facts
in regard to various economic problems. Some idea of the useful­
ness of the bureau may be gained when it is stated that a new record
in the number of demands upon the bureau has been established for
the year just closed. There has been an increase of more than 1,000
requests a day as compared with the previous year, an increase of
9 per cent. The total number of requests for service amounted to
3.966,000; in the last week of the fiscal year 86,600 requests were
received, as compared with 18,100 in the same period in 1930.
New demands are being made upon the bureau by organized
trades and industries because of the business situation. As a conse­
quence, the bureau is performing many services of an intangible
nature which can not be evaluated directly in terms of new business
or immediate savings. However, hundreds of letters have been re­
ceived, acknowledging the constructive work of the bureau’s staff
in many lines. Of particular importance is the work of securing
facts which only a Government body can obtain and the exchange
of information regarding the best practices prevailing in individual
trades and industries. Such interchange of information has been
particularly helpful on the broad problems of the stabilization of
employment, specialized trade promotion, balancing of production
and consumption, elimination of wasteful methods in distribution,
and related problems upon which the bureau has attempted to take
some leadership.
Most of these services can not be evaluated directly in dollars
and cents. However, the definite record of firms reporting new
business and savings directly resulting from the bureau’s work dur­
ing the year amounts to $57,554,813, which is an increase of 13 per
cent over the previous year. This record represents only 8% per
76

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

77

cent of the number of firms for which the bureau performed similar
services and it is reasonable to suppose that if the record were com­
plete there would be a very large addition to the concrete evidence
of the value of our work to American business.
The bureau cooperated in advancing the work of the President’s
Commission on Housing, the President’s Committee on Employment,
the Committee on Eecent Economic Changes, and many committees
of private and public character sponsored by business organizations
such as the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, organized
trades and industries, and the national organizations dealing with
the functional services of business and trade.
THE DOMESTIC BUSINESS SITUATION

Domestic business activity during the past fiscal year reflected
the continued decline into depression by world business. After a
temporary improvement early in 1930, business activity declined
until the beginning of 1931, after which minor fluctuations took
place in what was apparently the trough of a cyclical depression.
The continuance of the world-wide _decline in prices, especially
of raw materials in the face of increasing stocks, led to uncertainty
on the part of producers, with further curtailment of operations
and decreased employment. At present prices, many raw materials
are selling below actual cost of production.
Industrial production in the first half of 1931 was 16 per cent
below the first six months of 1930, while in the same period a cor­
responding decline of 16 per cent in factory employment took place.
Similarly, freight-car loadings dropped 18 per cent, while the whole­
sale price level declined 19 per cent. Department-store sales were
relatively better maintained, however, falling off but 7 per cent.
Business in general was unsettled throughout the fiscal year.
The large extent to which business activity in this country is
dependent upon world conditions has become increasingly apparent.
The world decline in the price and buying power of silver, the
accumulations of large stocks of essential raw materials, and gen­
erally upset political as well as economic conditions in most coun­
tries have had severe repercussions in the United States, directly
through curtailed exports and imports and indirectly through dis­
turbed monetary and other conditions.
In view of this, the following summary of developments in our
foreign trade and of economic conditions in our foreign markets
for exports and sources of imports is of special significance.
FOREIGN TRADE

Our foreign trade during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1931,
declined sharply in value. Total merchandise exports of $3,084,000,000 showed a 34 per cent drop, and aggregate imports of
$2,432,000,000 a decrease of 37 per cent, from the totals of 1929-30.
On a quantity basis declines were less severe, exports falling only
22 per cent and imports only 17 per cent. Important factors in the
drop in our exports were the severe decline in prices, not only of

78

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

agricultural but also of mineral products, and the decrease in sales
of finished articles to those countries whose purchasing power was
reduced because of low prices received for their products.
The excess of merchandise exports over imports amounted to
$651,000,000, in comparison with an excess of $845,000,000 in 1929-30
and of an average of $732,000,000 for the immediately preceding
5-year period. Every month but July and August of 1930 showed
an excess of gold imports over exports; net imports of the metal
for the fiscal year amounted to $297,000,000, an increase of $24,000,000
over the import balance in 1929-30.
The value of exports and imports by economic classes and trade
regions in comparison with the value for 1929-30 is shown in the
accompanying table.
Value in millions
of dollars

Continent and class

Per cent decrease
from 1929-30

Exports1 Imports Exports1 Imports
T otal.............................
To Europe...............................
To all other continents. .........
Northern North America.
Latin America_________
Asia.....................................
Oceania..............................
Africa_______ _________
Foodstuffs_____ __________
Raw materials.........................
Semimanufactures. ................
Finished manufactures...........

3,084
1,523
1,561
530
512
385
64
71
457
725
405
1,446

2,432
719
1,713
334
623
685
25
46
591
765
454
623

34.3
29.9
38.1
36.2
39.7
32.0
59.9
39.2
30.6
29.7
36.4
36.9

36.8
39.5
35.6
31.3
34.4
37.5
38.9
47.9
29.4
41.6
42.2
32.1

1 Total exports and exports by continents include reexports of foreign merchandise; exports by economic
classes include only United States merchandise.

This decline in our foreign trade is due, of course, to the world­
wide business depression. During the past fiscal year conditions
became more acute in many foreign countries. Almost no spot on
the globe was free from the devastating effects of trade recession.
Conditions in Europe culminated in June with a threat of financial
collapse in Germany. The President’s moratorium proposal, nego­
tiations for which were in progress at the close of the fiscal year,
promised much in the way of relief.
The following resume of economic conditions throughout the world
indicates the difficulties which our exporters have faced. Of course,
such conditions forced a reduction in our foreign trade, with a very
unfavorable reaction on domestic conditions.
EUKOPE

The trade recession, which for most of Europe began in the latter part of
1929, became a depression increasing in severity throughout 1930, and hopes
of improvement with the spring of 1931 were largely disappointed. Few Euro­
pean countries reached the midyear in a satisfactory position from an economic
standpoint. France and the Scandinavian countries were able to maintain a
relatively high degree of commercial and industrial activity, and even of pros­
perity, until toward the end of 1930, when they, too, felt the effects of the
generally weakened world market.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

79

ThP period was marked by falling commodity prices, reduced industrial pro­
duction Tecliidng foreign trade, credit shortage, greatly increased unemploymcni ’and^enerfliy ^Towered purchasing power. These adverse developments
were’aggravated by the psychological factor to which they had given rwe an
which la s ev denced in hand-to-mouth buying, reluctance of investment, and a
General policy of caution and retrenchment. Popular dissatisfaction with
pconomic^conifitions in some instances sought political expression and so added
a° further disturbing 1element. On the other hand, stocks were very generally
exhausted
reduced;purchasing
and replacement
costslackwere,
f i l' n “ ®’however"
larlv low orReduced
power and
of public Xconfidence,
^owe ’
iwevented any marked increase in buying. The trend of wages was slowly
downward, with employers attempting to cut production costs and labo
crops for^1931. The return to the farmer at prevailing prices however was
insufficient greatly to strengthen his purchasing power, in spite of the lower
PrindSu°strfaiIproduction, which during 1930 fell fromi the high levell of 1929 to

S££K
reT hfm ?StnseriousaX t of the industrial depression was the great increase
in u n eS y m en ? which reached record proportions in many European countriP ^ T o ta l German unemployment reached nearly 5,000,000 during the winter
fnTdid not fanTielow l000% 0 until June. Unemployment in Great Britain
totaled 2 700 000 in February, or about 22 per cent of industrial workers, and
at the end of June still remained about 2,500,000. Italian unemployment. nearly
doubled during the year. The rise in unemployment greatly mci eased the
demands on the various governments for measures of relief. The balance o
th^German and British budgets was seriously disturbed by greater requirements tounemployment insurance than had been anticipated Many govern­
ments undertook to increase employment through public woiks, but in this they
were hampered by the necessity for economy in public expenditure as a resu t o
rpfluced revenue and tlie desire to avoid increasing taxes.
FnroDean nublic finances reflected the economic difficulties with which all
count™L werPe confronted during the year, and heavy budget deficits were the

SKrrf c t S5

SB*

“ SSS S . . -

Fmmwa/foreign trade in 1930 fell decidedly from the peak reached in 1929,
‘ind this decline continued unchecked through the first half of 1931- Exports
heW un better than imports, primarily because of the heavy decline in prices
of raw-material imports but also because the dullness of domestic maikets
caused Seater emphasis on export trade while discouraging imports. There
was considerably less decrease in the volume than in the value of foreign trade.

ass as^rsfsr*»siS s x a i s s s .
CANADA

Thp fall in wheat prices and the continued poor export demand for raw

unti
curtailed ithe production
areasbyforthethe
third successive
had curtailed
P
.of some
expended
Dominion,
provincial,y and
foreign trade, all of them increasing the rates m the general schedule applica
to shipments from the United States.

80

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
LATIN AMERICA

The entire region of Latin America remained in the grip of acute depression
Prices in consuming markets for the export products of all of the individual
countries continued to decline, thereby drastically reducing national, corporate
and individual income. With _ insufficient financial resources to tide them
over so protracted a period of inactivity, some governments have been unable
re slsP tlle ^01'cu 0l- popular discontent and have given way to new regimes •
others have endeavored to stem the tide by adopting measures of relief In
oecurredinStanCeS default:s or suspensions of services on the foreign debts
Mexico’s troubles have been more economic than political, with the continued
decline in prices for silver and other metals a basic factor. An ameliorating
tourist6 traffic6
however’ is seen in the rapid growth of American
Centra! America continued to suffer from the decline in coffee prices and
dwindling demand for bananas. In Panama and Guatemala revolutionary
activities culminated m the overthrow of established governments.
*
Luba’s hopes were raised perceptibly toward the close of 1930 through the
consummation of the Chadbourne effort to effect an agreement among the
principal sugar-producing countries to restrict production; market prices,
however, have shown no material gain, and the curtailed operation of the
grinding mills and cane-cutting activity have added to the already serious prob­
lem of unemployment and discontent. The other islands of the West Indies have
experienced similar distress, except in so far as they have been protected bv
colonial or mainland trade policies.
*
In Colombia, national elections have resulted in a notable degree of solidaritv
and, despite low monetary returns from coffee, efforts have been made to
u «Sti ithe i?aJ.ance of national and state trade. Retrenchments in the extensive
oil fields of Venezuela have added to the nation-wide depression carried over
from the previous year. Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia have also passed through
a very trying period a s a result of declining revenues and stagnation of trade
Intermittent revolutionary outbreaks in Peru starting in August unseated
i?Te successive governments. In Chile, discouragement over continuance of
the depression.and the failure of the nitrate industry to recover its former
Hctivity following reorganization led to outbreaks of discontent. Argentina
and Brazil witnessed the installation of revolutionary governments: while trade
remains on a very low level in both, there are indications of a slightlv more
hopeful outlook tor the future. While business conditions in Uruguay have
been unsettled, owing largely to the weakened position of the peso, the value
of the nation s exports has remained at a fairly satisfactory level. Paraguav
owing to the simplicity of its economic structure, was less influenced by world
conditions than the other Latin American countries.
Depreciated exchange in practically all of th e‘Latin American countries
has
been a factor of outstanding importance in preventing a revival of importing
activity.
^ ®
FAR EAST

The last fiscal year witnessed in China an almost complete duplication of
the general conditions that existed during the previous fiscal year. A short
season of peace with the promise of an established government and a certain
amount of order was followed again by factional outbreaks; the end of the
year found the recognized National Government beset by rebellions in both north
and south, as well as engaged in vigorous military movements to overcome com­
munist agitations in the Yangtze Valley. These administrative difficulties have
served to keep China s commerce, both internal and external, in depression
and distress. There has been no opportunity to improve internal lines of
transportation and_ communication, which would insure the free movement
of commodities. Silver exchange still remains upon a low basis, which, com­
bined with low prices tor Chinese products in world markets, has greatlv
curtailed
both import and export trade, and kept China’s purchasing& ^power
at
a low point.
imi? 6 general depression in Japan’s commerce and industry that characterized
1930 continued unabated in the first half of 1931. Further restrictions were
placed on industrial production, and large dismissals of factory workers ag­

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

81

gravated the unemployment situation. Conditions in rural districts were equally
unsatisfactory, owing to the low value of farm products and increased debts
of the farmers. Foreign trade continued at a low ebb. Export returns were
reduced by the decline in commodity prices, particularly in the price of raw
silk, and by the depression in principal far eastern markets which was intensi­
fied by the low level of silver. Owing to the industrial inactivity and general
retrenchment policy as well as the decline in purchasing power, imports were
restricted. An encouraging feature, however, was the reduction in the usually
high unfavorable trade balance.
Unsatisfactory conditions prevailed in India throughout the year. The
monsoon season was good and large crops were harvested, but prices for India’s
export commodities fell to very low levels, so that as the year closed little
profit was being realized and in some instances export demand was nonexistent.
Internally, business was seriously disorganized by strikes which centered about
political movements, and by competition from imported commodities, particu­
larly piece goods. Foreign trade declined considerably in value because of
lower price levels and smaller volume, but the usual favorable balance was
maintained. The jute and piece goods industries were hard hit, but the latter
received relief in the form of higher duties on imported piece goods, particu­
larly upon those qualities which come into more direct competition with local
manufacturers.
Australia continued to make uncertain progress. Low price levels for all
primary products reduced oversea balances further, and imports were curtailed
drastically in response to reduced purchasing power, exchange difliculties, and
the continuance of the emergency tariff measure. Unemployment grew increas­
ingly serious as the year advanced, with little or no improvement noted at the
close. The same factors are expected to depress imports during the coming year.
Crop yields were good in New Zealand, but price levels of all primary prod­
ucts, particularly butter, were very low, causing export values to decline. Acute
unemployment throughout the year and exchange difficulties continued to handi­
cap importers.
A steady decline in prices of rubber, tin, and sugar, leading products of
British Malaya and the Netherland East Indies, caused general trade depression
there throughout the past fiscal year, although a brief revival of optimism fol­
lowed the improved world sentiment at its close. International agreements for
the restriction of tin and sugar were entered into, and the possibility of forming
a rubber-restriction scheme was under discussion at the close of the year.
Foreign trade of both countries declined steadily and in the case o i British
Malaya, reverted to unfavorable trade balances, although consumption of im­
ported goods was reduced to minimum requirements.
The depression which became general in the Philippines in the last half of
1930 continued with only temporary readjustments throughout the fiscal year.
Unusually heavy stocks of leading export products, coupled with declining world
demand, led to record low commodity values. Greater firmness and slight price
increases followed the moratorium proposal, hut business during the year as a
whole was restricted and cautious, and foreign trade fell to the lowest levels in
recent years.
THE BUREAU’S WORK IN DOMESTIC COMMERCE

The first appropriation for domestic commerce work in the bureau
was made for the fiscal year ending June 30; 1924. At that time there
was established a domestic commerce division, which was charged
with carrying on the major activities in this field. From time to
time Congress has seen fit to increase the appropriations available
for studies in the domestic field, and this has resulted largely in
increases in the variety of duties and the personnel of the domestic
commerce division. At the beginning of the present fiscal year it
was felt that these increases had reached a point where effective ad­
ministration of the work could no longer be secured in a single divi­
sion. A reorganization was effected which resulted in setting up
three divisions in the place of the former domestic commerce division.
84206—31----- 6

82

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

These divisions have been designated the merchandising research
division, the domestic regional division, and the marketing service
division.
Experience has shown that the most important work which the
bureau can do in the domestic field is to carry out, in cooperation
with organized groups of business men, fact-finding studies which
private enterprise can not undertake successfully.
Along with the prosecution of such research work goes also the
equal responsibility to see that the practical results of these studies
are brought to the attention of the business public in such a way that
they will be applied in the everyday operations of merchants and
manufacturers.
In reorganizing the domestic commerce work careful consideration
was given to these two functions. Two of the new divisions estab­
lished are purely research organizations. The merchandising re­
search division carries on studies dealing with merchandising func­
tions such as costs, credits, sales efforts, consumer preference, indus­
trial marketing, and related subjects. The domestic regional division
was set up to handle research studies having particular regional
aspects. These include commercial surveys of sections of the country,
trade-area studies, and market data and commodity-movement
studies.
The third division, known as the marketing service division, has
for its purpose the dissemination of the results of the bureau’s and
other research in the field of marketing. Particular emphasis is
placed upon getting these results before the business public in such a
way as to secure their practical use. This is being done through
press releases, speeches, exhibits, model stores, correspondence in
answer to inquiries, and also through the stimulation of discussion
programs by trade organizations, chambers of commerce, and other
bodies. An effort is also being made to decentralize this work as far
as possible through the use of our own district offices and through
cooperation with local chambers of commerce in various parts of the
country.
Efforts have also been made to develop the domestic commerce
activities of the commodity divisions particularly by having these
divisions act as the contact point with trade associations in their
respective fields and thus to bring before such organizations the
services which the bureau can render and the results of studies in
their particular trades.
The work which has been accomplished during the year in the
domestic field is described later. In general, the work has been car­
ried on along lines indicated in previous reports, but the reorganiza­
tion and expansion has resulted in expediting and facilitating the
various surveys and has made them more valuable.
The bureau has received hundreds of letters from business men
expressing appreciation of the work which it is doing and of the
service it has been able to render. Most of this work is of such a
character that it is impossible to give it a specific dollar-and-cents
valuation. However, many of these letters state that the work has
enabled them to effect economies in their operations ranging from a
few hundreds to many thousands of dollars. The marking-device
industry has stated that the work done for it was worth $1,000,000.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

83

The results of the bureau’s efforts in this field have been espe­
cially helpful during the trying times of the past year. Many
firms have indicated that by applying the results of the bureau’s
work they have eliminated large amounts of wasted effort and have
been able to turn threatened deficits into the profit column. The
bureau feels that this work, which has proved itself effective in
helping to eliminate many unnecessary wastes in distribution, should
be materially strengthened. It is one of the methods by which the
Government can greatly assist in the recovery from the business de­
pression, and its results are of benefit not only to industry and trade
but in even a larger way to all consumers through lower prices re­
sulting from more efficient operation.
DOMESTIC REGION An DIVISION

The commercial surveys of the domestic regional division have
found a distinct place in the business world as guides to intelligent
distribution planning and sound commercial practice. Since the crea­
tion of this division three of these studies have been released: Com­
mercial Survey of the Pacific Southwest, Distribution of Dry Goods
in the Gulf Southwest, and Petroleum Industry of the Gulf
Southwest.
The latter two studies mark a wide departure from the former
survey plan in that each study covers a particular commodity in its
field of distribution rather than an all-inclusive and somewhat gen­
eral picture of distribution within a given area. As a result, these
studies are more specific in covering expense of operating, methods
of sales promotion, problems of buying and selling, stock control,
advertising, and elements of competition. An evidence of their wide
appeal is the fact that the original editions have been exhausted, and
there is a gratifying accumulation of orders for the new editions.
Other survey studies that are in press are Cotton Production and
Distribution of the Gulf Southwest, Distribution of Hardware in
the Gulf Southwest, and Commercial Survey of the Pacific North­
west. Two new regional areas are being surveyed, the Mid-West and
the West Midcontinent. A study of the distribution of furniture is
now being carried on in these two areas as well as in the Gulf
Southwest.
A supplement bringing up to date information contained in the
Market Data Handbook of the United States is nearly ready for the
press. Already many orders for it have been received. This work
is being substantially improved by the issuance of one supplement to
cover the general consumer market and »another to cover the
general industrial market. At the instigation of numerous manu­
facturers, advertisers, and agencies interested in marketing research
a number of case studies are being prepared on the use of market­
ing statistics for the preparation of sales quotas and sales budgets.
Many current practical marketing problems begin or end with the
need of more specific knowledge as to the physical movement of
commodities within specified market areas. To fill this need the
domestic regional division is now gathering information on the inter­
state and intrastate movement of 156 groups of commodities. This

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

information has been gathered for 40 States and supplemented by
information from express agencies and air-transportation companies.
In addition to the technical market research carried on by the divi­
sion, information has been supplied which has had an important
bearing on the expenditure of over $50,000,000 by public-utility
companies in certain areas of the Southwest. Commercial informa­
tion has been supplied which has led to the establishment of a new
air transport line. A special report was prepared on the commercial
activities of southern Texas for the use of the Committee on Hivers
and Harbors of the House of Representatives in its consideration of
a proposed canal for that area, as well as a report in connection with
a projected deep canal for the State of Florida.
MERCHANDISING RESEARCH DIVISION
'During the fiscal year 1930-31 data obtained in the Louisville
grocery survey were analyzed and 12 separate preliminary reports
were issued on different commodity departments by the merchandising
research division.
Two final reports on retailing, as a result of the study, were pre­
pared during the year. The first, entitled “ Costs, Markets, and
Methods in Grocery Retailing,” is now in press, and the second
is in preparation. A report on the wholesaling practices found in
the survey is now being prepared.
Many changes were reported in store arrangement, merchandis­
ing practices, and management in the 26 grocery stores and the
various wholesale houses connected with the Louisville study as a
direct outcome of that survey. Several retail stores have installed
modern lighting systems, new shelves, and central-island display
tables. Such remodeling has resulted in increased sales in prac­
tically every case, in some instances amounting to as much as 35
per cent.
In one retail store the application of the principles developed in
the survey resulted in a sharp reduction in inventory, the elimina­
tion of stock which had been on hand for up to 25 years, and an
increase in the volume of business from $80,000 to $96,000 a year.
In April, 1931, field work was commenced on the national drug
store survey in St. Louis. This survey will be of the same char­
acter as the Louisville grocery survey, several stores being inten­
sively analyzed in all of their merchandising operations.
In January, 1931, a study of store location in Baltimore, based
primarily on the 1.930 Census of Distribution, was begun. This
study covers the location of all retail outlets in relation to local
shopping districts, trahsportation facilities, and the number, racial
characteristics, and income of the population in those districts. The
field work of this study is practically completed.
A distribution-cost study of several manufacturing confectioners
was completed during the year and the report printed.
The retail-credit researches were continued by making two semi­
annual tabulations for the periods January-June and July-December, 1930. Reports were published on these surveys for seven kinds
of stores in 25 cities. These surveys make it possible to compare
retail-credit conditions in 1930 with those in 1929.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

85

A nation-wide survey of the credit practices of wholesalers, man­
ufacturers, and commission houses has been started and is now in
progress. This survey was undertaken at the request of the Na­
tional Association of Credit Men and is being carried out with the
active cooperation of its 145 affiliated associations.
A study of business failures, made in Newark, N. J., was com­
pleted and a report written. New investigations have been under­
taken in Boston, Mass., and Chicago, 111.
Work was completed, and reports prepared for publication, on
three projects which were started during the previous year—a survey
of machinery in knitted outerwear plants in Cleveland and two
separate surveys covering operations of manufacturing jewelers and
retail jewelers. The division was requested by the National Whole­
sale Jewelry Association to make a corresponding study of wholesale
jewelry establishments, which is in progress.
Other studies in progress at the close of the fiscal year include a
survey of manufacturing costs, marketing costs, and distribution
practices of marking-device manufacturers; a census of capacity,
output, and channels of distribution of drop-forging equipment; a
study of capacity, output, distribution methods, policies, and expenses
of manufacturers of public-seating equipment; a survey, in coopera­
tion with the University of Alabama, of retail-management practices
in five Alabama cities; and a study oi retail delivery costs.
MARKETING SERVICE DIVISION

The steadily growing interest in the bureau’s domestic commerce
activities has been reflected in the consistent and increased demand
on the marketing service division during the past, year for bureau
publications in that field.
The cooperation of some 60 trade associations resulted in the ex­
haustion of the initial editions of several survey reports within a few
weeks of their appearance. In some cases trade associations under­
took the publication and complete distribution of survey reports.
An evidence of the appreciation of the bureau’s services in domestic
commerce is seen in the ever-increasing number of requests for
speeches before trade associations and other commercial groups and
over radio networks. More than 100 radio talks on these services
were prepared and delivered during the past year, and, despite a
serious handicap in lack of travel funds, several hundred speaking
invitations were accepted.
The 1930 edition of Market Research Agencies, published during
the fiscal year, shows a steady expansion in the_ field of domestic
market research by public and private organizations.
Another service in the domestic commerce field which shows steady
growth is the bulletin Domestic Commerce, issued three times each
month.
_
.
The small business unit expanded its work among mercantile in­
terests which lack organized channels of approach to the bureau’s
services. It has encountered a growing demand for service to the
negro business factors of the country. Work among foreign-lan­
guage merchants and the smaller unorganized business interests
generally showed a steady gain.

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

.Efforts are being made to meet the demands of business for wide­
spread and general application of domestic-commerce information,
as evidenced by the increase to the record number of 18,548 indi­
vidual requests for such service received during the year. In this
service the bureau functions as a clearing house, not only for the
results of its own research but also for new merchandising thought
and experience of whatever source.
An extension program has been developed during the past fiscal
year for closer cooperation with trade associations. It embraces
the following points:
To provide such organizations with more complete informational
material from which they can supply merchants and manufacturers
directly with needed statistics.
To supply carefully digested information on particular merchan­
dising subjects, to be made the basis of systematic discussion pro­
grams. Three such programs have already been completed, 9 are
being prepared, and 30 are in prospect.
To provide retailers with practical demonstration of the benefits
that follow modernization of store arrangement, by setting up model
stores, at the expense of local trades or communities, under the
guidance of a representative of the bureau thoroughly trained in
such work. At Jacksonville and Orlando, Fla., retail grocery asso­
ciations set up model grocery stores, illustrating the principles
revealed in the Louisville survey. As a result, 357 stores in the State
were modernized within a few months, all of them reporting in­
creases in business, some of them up to 50 per cent. A general fall­
ing-off in grocery-store failures was reported by the grocery asso­
ciation. Similar model stores were set up at Des Moines, Iowa, and
Norfolk, Ya.
’
DOLLARS-AND-CENTS RESULTS OF FOREIGN TRADE PROMOTION

Each year the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce at­
tempts an evaluation of the results of the services it has rendered.
For many years past this total, which is based upon written state­
ments of American firms, has continued to increase. Last year the
report showed slightly in excess of $50,000,000. For the fiscal year
1930-31 the foreign trade of the United States shrank approximately
35 per cent in value. This factor of diminished export trade, due to
unfavorable business situations in world marts and continued price
declines, created a very unfavorable setting for the compilation of
the dollars-and-cents report this year.
In spite of this unfavorable situation, the report for 1930-31 shows
that American firms, as a result of the bureau’s services, have re­
ceived new business and direct savings to the extent of $57,554,813.
The real significance of this increase lies in its coincidence with the
increased figure for services rendered. This is no chance coin­
cidence. It means that a large number of firms, as indeed several
have stated, have, in their effort to reduce overhead, turned to the
bureau for services and advice that have an immediate and tangible
value.
_Accordingly, the total of over $57,550,000 becomes this year a more
significant percentage of our total foreign trade; it furnishes evidence

EOBEIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMEECE

87

that in periods unfavorable to domestic trade the bureau plays an
increasingly important rôle in the development and maintenance of
our foreign trade. It includes very few estimates of the intangible
services which because of their nature bar any evaluation, but which,
nevertheless, constitute a large part of the total activity of our
offices.
A glance at a few of the typical cases of assistance which have
been reported gives an indication of the effectiveness with which
we serve a wide range of industries.

A n t is e p t ic s .—Four of our offices were called upon to assist in the arrange­
ment of connections for an exporter of antiseptics, and $25,000 worth of exports
to Panama, Guatemala, Straits Settlements, and Venezuela was the direct
result.
A u to m o b ile s .—One of the large manufacturers of Detroit lists $100,000 as
the value of automobiles exported through bureau assistance.
A u to m o tiv e s p e c i a l t i e s .—A mid-West manufacturer of these products states
that two of our Latin American offices helped to secure two agents, and since
the granting of the agencies $20,000 worth of business has resulted. _
B e a n s .—Arrangements were made by our offices with importers in Habana
and Mexico for the sale of American beans, and the domestic company con­
cerned reports an export to them during the year valued at $22 ,000 .
C a n n e d o y s t e r s .—This commodity, through the assistance of the bureau, has
been successfully introduced in four new foreign markets, namely, New Zealand,
Australia, England, and Canada, and $10,000 worth of business has been done
there.
C e llu lo id p r o d u c t s .—An American firm dealing in celluloid products received
last year a total of $10,500 in orders from the Canadian and Mexican agencies
arranged by our offices.
C e r e a ls .—Prepared cereals invoiced at $10,000 were placed on the markets
of South and Central America with bureau cooperation.
C h e m ic a ls .—Through a contact made in London by our office there, a New
York exporter of manufactured chemicals secured a $100,000 business during
the past year. Through the assistance of our San Juan office one southern
concern sold $19,750 worth of wood preservative in Porto Rico. To agents
recommended by our Habana, Madrid, and Mexico City offices one western
firm shipped $10,000 worth of animal serums and toxins. Another chemical
concern reports that with general assistance in securing a foothold in nine
different markets his export business last year directly traceable to our efforts
amounted to $14.196. Agents in Cuba, Porto Rico, and Brazil, recommended
by our offices in those countries, bought $30,000 worth of chemicals from another
C it r u s f r u i t s .—One shipper of fresh grapefruit states^ that “ the total amount
of foreign business made possible to our concern during the past 12 months
through the cooperation and aid extended by your bureau amounted to $325,000.”
Practically all of his shipments were made to the United Kingdom.
C o tto n .—Although but recently opened, our Lisbon office was successful in
aiding one shipper to export $13,476 worth of cotton to Portugal during the past
few months.
C o tto n g i n s .—At the suggestion of our Buenos Aires office one exporter started
negotiations for the sale of his machinery which resulted in the sale of $40,000
worth in Argentina.
C o tto n y a r n s a n d t e x t i le s .—Three southern cotton mills alone reported that,
owing to the bureau’s activity, they had exported $796,234 worthy of cotton yarn
and textiles to practically every corner of the globe. The desirability for outlets
in the markets of South America for cotton prints and goods was called to the
attention of a certain manufacturer; with the bureau’s constant guidance and
assistance, connections were arranged to which during the fiscal year 1931 he
exported goods worth $262,875.50.
D ry - d o c k e q u ip m e n t .—A large New England firm received contracts valued
at $260,000 from Belgium and France as a result of recommendations made by
the bureau representatives in those countries.
E l e c t r i c h e a tin g p a d s .—General assistance by the Boston district office and
specific information from four of the bureau’s foreign offices were responsible
for the shipment of $50,000 worth of electric heating pads to Norway, Cuba,
Canada, and Mexico.
C U IIC C IJJ.

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BEPOET TO THE SECBETABY OP COMMERCE

E l e c t r i c a l m o t o r s a n d f a n s .—Our offices in the Orient and several of those in
Europe facilitated the shipment of $10,000 worth of this equipment from one midwestern manufacturer to agents in their territories.
F l o u r .—A half million dollars, perhaps the largest single item ever attributed
to the bureau for encouragement of export of an agricultural or horticultural
commodity, was reported by one organization as the amount of business during
the past year directly traceable to the efforts of this bureau. Bureau field men
helped one Illinois miller to export $220,000 worth of wheat flour to the West
Indies, Latin America, and Europe.
F o u n t a i n p e n s .—Eight foreign countries proved markets for one company’s
fountain pens during the course of the year. This firm estimates that the direct
assistance we extended in these shipments brought a tangible return of
$116,556 to it.
H a r d w a r e .—Ten thousand dollars worth of hardware was sent by one manu­
facturer to agents in Latin America recommended by our offices.
L e a t h e r .—Aid extended by our offices in Latin America, China, and Turkey is
shown by one exporter to have resulted in $25,000 worth of business to those
countries. One firm, listing $43,000 worth of export business to Canada due to
our assistance, states “ This represents only six months’ business, to June 30,
1931, as we did not begin to derive benefit until about January 1, 1931.”
L iv e s t o c k .—One organization lists $25,000 as the value of horses and cattle
exported with our assistance during the year.
L u m b e r .—Lumber invoiced at $350,000 sent to Mexico, Portugal, France, and
Spain represents the tangible results of the bureau efforts for another exporter.
M a c h in e s a n d m a c h in e r y .—As one of the results of the bureau’s activity may
be listed the export of $20,000 worth of hoists to Africa by one concern. Thanks
to agents recommended by our Scandinavian and Latin American offices, one
firm exported $22,500 worth of shoe-repair machinery. Our offices in the Netherland East Indies, Japan, England, and France assisted another manufacturer
to ship mining machinery to those countries valued at $26,813. Cane-sugar mills,
crushers, and auxiliary milling equipment for cane-sugar factories which had a
total value of $500,000 were shipped abroad by one concern through assistance
rendered by this bureau.
P a i n t s a n d v a r n i s h e s .—Auto enamels and lacquers valued at $45,000 were sold
to agents in South America, Germany, and Denmark through the aid that our
men stationed in those countries were able to extend to a certain mid-western
company.
P a p e r a n d p a p e r p r o d u c t s .—Information furnished by our Mexico office enabled
a Missouri firm to sell $93,000 worth of paper in Mexico and Central America.
Another firm gives us credit for assisting in $250,000 worth of business to the
British Isles, France, Germany, Italy, and Spain.
P r e p a r e d fo o d p r o d u c t s .—Macaroni and spaghetti valued at $110,000 are re­
ported by another firm as being their export business directly traceable to the
efforts of the bureau. These exports went to Panama, Mexico, and Haiti.
R a d i o s .—One New York exporter reports that through the efforts of one of
our commercial attachés in South America he was able to establish an agent
who, during the first four months of his agency, has sent him business totaling •
$ 100, 000.
R o a d - p a v in g c o n t r a c t s .-—Owing to a vast amount of assistance and advice of
our Warsaw and Budapest offices, one American firm of contractors secured
road-building contracts in those countries worth $600,000. In the letter ac­
knowledging and thanking for this service it states : “ We have listed for total
amount merely our Poland and Hungary road-building contracts, totaling
$6010,000 which were executed in 1930. However, a number of new prospects
have followed these, possibly exceeding $1,200,000.”
R u b b e r p r o d u c t s .—By keeping in constant touch with our offices in South
America, several of the European offices, and the Johannesburg office, one New
England firm reports exports to those regions valued at $18,000. Electrical
tapes valued at $88,000 were exported by one manufacturer to England, Aus­
tralia, Mexico, Argentina, the Netherlands, and Central America after a market
analysis of foreign import statistics suggested and aided by the bureau.
S a f e t y r a z o r s .—One of America’s largest manufacturers of this commodity
reports that the bureau made possible exports to Latin America and China
valued at from $80,000 to $100 ,000 .
S e e d s .—Vegetable and flower seeds valued at $6,000 were shipped to Colombia
by one grower. He gives the bureau entire credit for this transaction.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

89

S h o e s . —Trade-promotion work on the part of our Habana and Mexico City
offices made possible an export of $27,550 worth of shoes to those countries by
one firm. Owing to the bureau’s activities in its behalf, another concern states
$15,000 worth of new business and savings was made possible to it during the
past year.
S p r a y e r s a n d g a r d e n t r a c t o r s .—A manufacturer of sprayers, dusters, and
similar equipment reports $152,000 worth of new business through the assistance
of the agricultural implements division and district offices, and a garden-tractor
manufacturer closed an agency agreement which resulted in $45,000 worth of
business during the first six months of its existence.
S t r u c t u r a l s t e e l .—Listed on our Exporter’s Index only a year and a half ago,
one firm states that $135,000 worth of business has been done during the past
year through connections arranged for it in Canada.
S u l p h u r .—One large firm says, “ With your cooperation we have made satis­
factory sales of crude sulphur to Finland, Spain, and Mexico. Last year the
largest individual customer of sulphur we had was obtained through your aid
and this year we have again sold this same customer sulphur amounting to
approximately $200 ,000 .”
T a n n in g e x t r a c t s .-—Even in the face of some very stiff foreign competition one
dealer reports that through constant contact with certain divisions and offices
of the bureau he exported $43,500 worth of his commodity to Europe, Japan,
Cuba, and South America.
T o b a c c o .—Through the offices of our representatives in Europe, $25,000 worth
of tobacco exports is reported by one organization of our tobacco region.
T r a n s p o r t a t i o n .—A local manager of one of the Atlantic steamship lines
writes: “ It is the writer’s personal opinion that revenue accrued to our vessels
from trade developed abroad by shippers in cooperation with your office is con­
servatively estimated at about $150,000.
AID FOB EVEBY BEGION

While the areas served by the bureau’s district offices are not laid
out with such a nice distinction for State lines as the following would
indicate, this section shows at a glance how every region and State
is a direct beneficiary of the services extended by the Bureau of
Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
Alabama products that reached world marts last year through our
cooperation include lumber to Panama, West Indies, and South
America and paper bags to the United Kingdom. Arkansas sent tool
handles to Australia and New Zealand, rubber products to India and
England, and lumber to France; and Arizona sent plaster and plaster
board to Mexico.
California exporters turned to the bureau last year for aid in the
export of nursery stock to Guatemala, plaster and cement to New
Zealand, scrap metals to Japan, chinaware to Canada, oil-burning
ranges to Argentina, Phillippine Islands, and South China, grape
juice to Porto Kico, evaporated milk to the Philippines, fresh fruits
to Europe, dried fruits to China, Java, Italy, Germany, and Porto
Kico, and pickles and catsup to China and Japan. Colorado com­
modities include beans to Cuba and Mexico, tents and awnings to
Canada, mining machinery to Japan, Canada, England, and France,
and medicinal solutions to Mexico and Porto Kico. Connecticut sold
corsets to the West Indies and hardware in Mexico, Colombia, Chile,
and Turkey.
Delaware concerns list among their shipments aircraft to Canada,
Mexico, and Peru, rubber products to Philippine Islands and China,
and dyestuffs to Latin America and Europe.
Again this year the bureau materially assisted the export of
Florida citrus fruit to practically every country in the world. It

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

also aided the sale of ground oyster shell in the United Kingdom,
Belgium, Germany, and the Netherlands, canned fruits to Sweden
and Denmark, lumber to leading nations of Europe, and cement to
Colombia.
Reports from Georgia firms indicate that our assistance has made
possible shipments of cotton goods to Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela,
hickory lumber to Japan and South Africa, and blankets to panada.
Idaho shipped lumber to Canada. Illinois shipments have included
blackboards to Central and South America; radios and parts to China,
Brazil, and Egypt; insulating board to Siam, Colombia, Mexico, and
Italy; machinery to Canada, Czechoslovakia, the Netherlands, and
Belgium; oil and gas stoves to Argentina; railway equipment to
Japan and Peru; prepared cereals to Colombia; and electric bulbs
to Sweden. From Indiana handles were sent to the Netherlands and
Australia; pianos to Italy, England, Egypt, and Switzerland; silk
hosiery to Germany, the Union of South Africa, and Egypt; ma­
chinery to India; and paper boxes and plates to Canada and South
America. Iowa produce sent abroad includes paper specialties to
South Africa, the Philippines, and Venezuela; fountain pens to
Denmark, England, France, Germany, and the Netherlands; pre­
pared cereals to Norway; machinery to Argentina and South Africa;
and livestock to New Zealand.
Kansas, through the bureau’s effort, furnished flour to the markets
of Ireland, Venezuela, and Colombia, toilet articles to Japan, and
seed to Brazil and Cuba. Kentucky tobacco found markets in Eng­
land, Belgium, Germany, Denmark, and China; cooperage stocks
were moved to Canada, and hardwood lumber wTas sold in the United
Kingdom.
Paint and varnish from Louisiana was sold in Latin America with
our assistance. Lumber was sold in Germany and Venezuela, canned
oysters in England, Canada, and New Zealand, cotton in France, and
naval stores in Europe.
Maine paper products went to the British Isles, France, Germany,
Italy, and Spain. Shoes from Maryland were sold in Latin America,
paint from the State in Italy, oil burners in Switzerland, insecticides
in Egypt, and overalls in Franee. Through assistance rendered them
Massachusetts shippers have sent biscuit machinery to Guatemala,
groceries and provisions to Cuba and Colombia, shoes to Great
Britain, Sweden, Canada, Porto Rico, Cuba, Panama, and the Philip­
pines, leather to Latin America and Turkey, phonographs to Mexico
and South America, chemicals to India, Philippines, Argentina, and
Greece, rubber products to England and Germany, textiles to Canada,
and paper to the Caribbean area. Michigam has sent automobiles to
the Netherlands, Belgium, Norway, Denmark, and South America.
Another company reports that, through our advice and aid, it shipped
automobiles to practically every civilized country. Motor boats
were sold in Latin America, automotive specialties in Denmark,
South Africa, the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland, and spark
plugs to Canada, Turkey, and the Gold Coast. Pipes and fittings
were moved to Mexico, Cuba, and South America, show cases to the
Netherlands and Denmark, and leather to China and the South
American republics. Minnesota exports invoiced for shipment
abroad contained such items as matches to Canada, stoves and heating

FOREIGN' AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

91

appliances to Denmark, Finland, and Czechoslovakia, dairy products
to England, flour to Greece, Scotland, Holland, Denmark, Central
and South America, and animal products went to Norway and
Sweden. Mississippi iodine products went to Latin America. Mis­
souri producers of insecticides and disinfectants sent their product
to Porto Eico, Cuba, and Mexico, X-ray films went to England, Den­
mark, Switzerland, and Belgium, electric motors and fans to Latin
America and Europe, oil burners to Denmark and Norway, pecans
to France and England, and talking-picture apparatus to Canada,
Spain, Mexico, and India.
Nebraska producers availed themselves of the services of the
bureau, with the result that tents and awnings were sent to several
countries; laboratory products to Canada, Belgium, and the Scandi­
navian countries; and shoes to Argentina, Italy, and Cuba. New
Hampshire shippers listed sporting goods and paper specialties ex­
ported with our help to South Africa, Chile, and Peru. New Jersey
products went to practically every corner of the globe. Some of
these were copper products, printing presses, machinery, and
chemicals. From New Mexico pottery and watches were sent to
Mexico and the Netherlands, and alfalfa meal was shipped to Eng­
land, Scotland, and Denmark. New York wall board went to Aus­
tralia; beds and bedding to Greece and China; beekeepers’ supplies
to Cub;a ; surgical appliances to Italy, India, Poland, and China;
electrical appliances to Canada, Mexico, Argentina, and Venezuela;
machinery to Latvia; parachutes to China; vegetable oils to Canada;
radios to South America; cleaning fluid to England; piece goods to
the Straits Settlements, Turkey, and Guatemala; and phonograph
records and needles to the Far East. Exporters from North Carolina
applied to the bureau for assistance, with the result that tanning
extract was sold in Japan and England; cotton yarns were sent to
Argentina, Scandinavia, England, and Australia; mica to France;
tobacco to Germany and the Netherlands; machinery to Venezuela;
and crude drugs to France. North Dakota seeds found markets in
Canada.
Ohio manufacturers were successful in marketing stump pullers in
Rumania; household appliances in Canada, England, and France;
steel office furniture in South Africa; road-building machinery in
Panama, Portugal, and the Philippine Islands; rubber balls and toys
in European and South American countries; and chewing gum in the
Netherland East Indies, China, Denmark, England, the Netherlands,
and France. The State of Oklahoma credited the bureau with
assistance in shipping oil-well equipment to Poland and Rumania
and gasoline and lubricating oils to Germany, England, and France.
Oregon sent ready-cut houses to Venezuela; swimming suits to Guate­
mala, the Netherland East Indies, and Straits Settlements; apples to
France; doors to England, France, and Belgium; and chemicals to
Canada.
Our representatives aided in the establishment of agencies for
Pennsylvania lubricating oils in France, England, Spain, Cuba, and
Japan; automobile polishes and greases in the United Kingdom,
Italy, France, and India; radio sets and parts in France, Flungary,
Czechoslovakia, Austria, Germany, Denmark, and most of the South
American countries; fresh fruits in Germany, France, and England;

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

varnishes in Canada and Mexico; mining machinery in South Africa:
plumbing fixtures in South America; and phonographs in Argentina
and Colombia.
Rhode Island's foreign trade listed such sales and agencies as office
appliances to several countries, rubber products to China and Japan,
radios to Mexico and Canada, and steel products to the Philippines,
all made through our assistance.
Wood preservative from South Carolina was sold in Porto Rico,
oyster products went to Latin America, and lumber went to Eng­
land. South Dakota shipped auto accessories to England, France,
Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and South Africa.
Tennessee lumber found satisfactory distributors, through our
cooperation, in Argentina, Porto Rico, Mexico, Portugal, Spain,
France, and Scandinavia. Raw cotton was shipped to England and
the Netherlands, chemicals to Peru and Mexico, and hosiery to
Guatemala and India. Texas producers have opened up, with bureau
aid, new markets in Brazil and Turkey for machinery. Wheat flour
went to Cuba, Mexico, Colombia, Guatemala, and Porto Rico;
horses and mules went to Central America; fruit extracts and con­
centrates to South America; poultry feeds to Porto Rico; biologicals
and serums to Spain; cotton to England; and musical instruments to
Mexico.
The establishment of an office in Salt Lake City greatly facilitated
the export of Utah honey to Germany, France, Belgium, and
England.
Vermont sent fire clay, paper products, pipe organs, and talcum
powder abroad. Exports of Virginia coal went to Canada, paper
products to South Africa and India, fountain pens to India, jute
bagging to Canada, hosiery to Porto Rico and Peru, leaf tobacco to
England and Germany, apples to Denmark and the United Kingdom,
fertilizer to South America, and agricultural implements to a dozen
foreign countries.
The export invoices of Washington contain such items as lumber
to Uruguay, hardware to Japan, foodstuffs to China, Japan, Eng­
land, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Uruguay, soda-foun­
tain equipment to Japan, textiles and feathers to Germany, Eng­
land, and China, electric-refrigeration equipment to Cuba, Brazil,
and Argentina, and pears and apples to Europe. Canada purchased
white-oak timbers and walnut logs from a firm in West Virginia,
and Mexico and several of the South American countries purchased
souvenir novelties, post cards, and knives. Wisconsin dairy products
were shipped across the border to Canada, sporting goods went to
Italy, milking machinery to South Africa, tractors to Mexico and
Egypt, construction machinery to Cuba and France, bacon and lard
to Italy, outboard motors to Latvia, India, Norway, Java, England,
and France, and leather goods to China and Japan.
OPPORTUNITIES POR MORE EXTENSIVE SERVICE

The work of the bureau may be divided broadly into two classi­
fications—that essential for carrying on the international trade of
the United States and that concerning the development of domestic
trade.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

93

In the field of foreign trade promotion, over a period of years,
the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce has not only become
a source of facts and of expert opinion, but has established itself
as a center for formulating the foreign trade policy of the United
States. In work for the promotion of foreign trade, the bureau
has an established organization and personnel, world-wide in its
scope and services. During the coming years this great staff to
American industries and trade will probably be called upon as never
before to meet the problems of international competition. It is prob­
able that as specific demands arise under the new world economic
conditions, it will be necessary for the bureau to extend certain of
its activities abroad in order better to serve the interests of the United
States in our international trade.
The second broad function of the bureau, namely, the development
of domestic commerce, is only at the beginning of its possible service
relationship to business in the United States. Many other branches
of the Federal Government render service to domestic business in
this country, including such organizations as the Department of Agri­
culture, the Interstate Commerce Commission, the Federal Trade
Commission, and numerous others. In our own Department of
Commerce there are bureaus devoted primarily to the promotion of
great branches or functions of American business, particularly the
Bureau of Mines, the Bureau of Fisheries, the Bureau of Standards,
the Patent Office, the Aeronautics Branch, and others.
For the most part, the services of these bureaus are rendered to the
great productive industries, such as agriculture, mining, forestry, fish­
eries, and manufacturing. In addition to these there is in this coun­
try intricate machinery of distribution, including the marketing func­
tion of manufacturers and the activities of wholesalers, jobbers, com­
mission men, retailers, and others. The Bureau of Foreign and Do­
mestic Commerce is the only organization of the Federal Government
attempting to serve those millions who earn their livelihood through
merchandising activities. The vast total annual business of com­
modity distribution in this country has for the first time been deter­
mined during the year just closed by the new Census of Distribution.
These figures, totaling $53,000,000,000 in retailing and $70,000,000,000
in wholesaling activities, show the enormous importance of this phase
of our business activities.
,
It is clearly recognized that the most important problems facing
American business to-day and in the years immediately ahead are
those of distribution and marketing. Vast_ wastes are occurring
through ignorance of the possibilities of particular markets and the
best methods of reaching them; through the uneconomic methods of
handling commodities and of carrying on business. These prevent­
able wastes are taking a large toll from American consumers, unnec­
essarily raising the prices which they have to pay for commodities,
and, consequently, limiting the market for other products of our
farms and manufacturing establishments.
With a total appropriation available for domestic commerce ac­
tivities far less than that expended on research by many corporations,
the bureau in the last few years has been able to assume a leadership
in the field of market research which is recognized throughout the
country. The work of the bureau in this field has so far been de­
veloped along three major lines.

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

The first of these has been the assemblage of a staff of competent
men, expert in problems of distribution, whose services are available
to carry out comprehensive fact-finding studies in cooperation with
and at the request of organized trades and industries. Although this
work has been strictly limited to the type of studies which can not
well be carried out by private organizations, yet the demands made
upon the bureau are far greater than it can undertake. These activi­
ties represent largely pioneering work in the fields of market re­
search, analyses of costs of distribution, credit research, and similar
undertakings.
For 20 years efforts have been exerted in this country, both in the
Government and in organized industries, to establish principles of
production management which lead to low-cost production. No such
degree of experience is available in the field of market management.
The domestic commerce work of this bureau is directed toward the
establishment of such principles as will make for low distribution
costs. This work already has had favorable results in savings to
American business.
The second phase of the domestic commerce activities of the bureau
consists in the collection and publication of commercial statistics as
an aid in guiding business judgment. In this work the commodity
divisions of the bureau, through their intimate contact with particu­
lar trades and industries, have been of special service in guiding the
work along practical lines. With the cooperation of organized trades
and industries, this work has a wide opportunity for further develop­
ment, depending primarily not on an elaborate Government partici­
pation but rather on the education of our organized trade groups as
to the way in which they can put to work the present services of the
bureau in these and many other directions.
The third phase in the development of our domestic commerce
work has been in the direction of extending service to the great
merchant group. Eesparch work which is not translated into prac­
tical application to business problems is of little immediate value.
During the past year special efforts have been made to bring the
practical phases of our own and other research work to the atten­
tion of merchants in such a way that they can put these principles
into practice in their own establishments. Through coordinated
efforts with trade organizations and local chambers of commerce, the
bureau has a very practical opportunity to serve as a great educa­
tional center for making the best practices of the individual the
common practice of all. Such preliminary work as has been done
indicates the importance of strengthening our business fabric by
the reduction of credit losses, the reduction of failures in individual
businesses, the reduction of specific wastes in distribution, with
decreased costs and eventually lower prices because of the savings
thus brought about.
In this projection of the work of the Bureau of Foreign and
Domestic Commerce, it may be said briefly that our present staff
constitutes a service organization for establishing in the United
States the principles of economic planning, so much talked about
and so little understood. As a matter of fact, this bureau has helped
to formulate, with many industries, specific programs for their
development and rehabilitation which, fundamentally, constitute

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

95

economic planning in a broad sense. In the sense that economic
planning is not a theoretical phrase, but a point of view of manage­
ment, that it presupposes the control of production and distribu­
tion costs with the sense of the social responsibilities of the manu­
facturer and merchant, as well as his profit obligations to himself and
his stockholders, the bureau constitutes a fact-finding and commer­
cial research organization at the service of American industry and
trade in extending the benefits of economic planning to producer,
manufacturer, and distributor alike.
THE FOREIGN COMMERCE SERVICE

The type of assistance rendered to American industry by the
foreign representatives of the Department of Commerce is influ­
enced to a great extent by conditions prevailing in the territory
of each office. In spite of the world-wide depression of last year
these foreign-trade scouts were able to effect 2,873 new agency and
sales connections. Approximately 1,600 new connections were made
in 1929-30.
INTANGIBLE BENEFITS TO AMERICAN FIRMS

Probably the most important services rendered to American in­
dustry, however, by the foreign corps must be classed as intangible
in character, for the reason that no possible way exists to measuie
the benefits accruing from them to American industry. As a matter
of fact, a large part of the “ tangible” results, so called, might
truly be included among the intangible, as in estimating the dollaisand-cents benefits resulting therefrom no cognizance is taken ot the
effect of these tangible services in future years. Time and space
do not permit a description of the intangible services rendered.
Brief mention is made, however, of a few of the outstanding or most
unique services of the intangible class consummated m the past
^ A national association of foodstuffs manufacturers whose product
is made from an imported raw product estimated that the crop iorecasts of one of our foreign offices has resulted m a saving to that
particular industry of at least $1,000,000.
Documents permitting the sale of disinfectants and pharmaceu­
ticals in a near eastern country were obtained for a Connecticut
corporation, a New York manufacturer of insecticides, a bt -Louis
disinfectant company, and a Massachusetts producer of cattle and
^ManuTaffiures falsely advertised as of American origin were with­
drawn from a Mediterranean market and a precedent firmly estab­
lished whereby such unfair competition can be successfully combatted.
Through intervention with the proper authorities of a European
country an American steamship company has been able to maintain
its established services without the necessity of making heavy finaldal deposits. In one case a refund of a fine of several thousands of
dollars was actually obtained for the American steamship company.
A far eastern government, at the request of the American trade
commissioner, has provided the ground and personnel for an experi­
mental farm for the purpose of trying out American power-faimm0
equipment.

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

Carefully selected trade lists supplemented by sales information
describing each of the firms contained in the lists are submitted to
American inquirers in response to every trade inquiry. Moreover,
in cases where even the slightest possibility exists that a demand
can be created or augmented for the commodity involved, repre­
sentatives of the foreign offices personally interview firms in an
endeavor to place the sales franchise of the inquirer. Direct assist­
ance of this sort is especially helpful in times of economic depression
when so many firms have endeavored to effect a reduction in expendi­
tures by limiting the number of their foreign sales representatives.
On the other hand, knowledge of local firms and of local condi­
tions has enabled our foreign offices to serve American inquirers
in a negative manner. During the widespread unfavorable eco­
nomic conditions of the past year the foreign representatives clid
not hesitate to advise American firms, when the occasion warranted,
to keep out of certain markets which, for one reason or another, did
not offer a hope of profitable business.
In other cases timely reports regarding the apparently pre­
carious financial condition of foreign firms have undoubtedly saved
American companies from large losses.
EFFORTS FOR INCREASED EFFICIENCY
The consular-coordination plan invoked during the previous fiscal
year in Great Britain has been extended to include France and
Germany. The results of this arrangement have been so satisfac­
tory that plans are being made to apply it generally throughout
the service.
In its endeavor to place the knowledge and services of foreign
commerce officers directly before the public the bureau continued its
practice of sending field officers on itineraries throughout the United
States to confer with business firms. During the year a total of 37
such oversea representatives of the Department of Commerce visited
an average of 12 cities and held an average of 29 interviews in each
place. The mutual benefits resulting from these personal relation­
ships can not be overestimated. Not only are the American firms
able to get a better view of foreign markets and foreign firms, but
the field man himself becomes better acquainted with the products
and problems of the firms he interviews and is thus in a better
position to serve American business when he returns to his post.
A plan was evolved during the year whereby it is hoped to effect
a reduction in cable charges without affecting the efficiency and
celerity of the reporting service. One of the means adopted in this
connection is the more extensive use of air mail, especially in the
dispatch of letters and reports to and from Latin America.
The bureau had 59 offices in the principal commercial centers of
46 countries last year. New offices were opened at Bangkok, Bel­
grade, Hong Kong, Lisbon, and Tientsin. The total personnel of the
foreign service,_consisting of 199, was composed of 38 commercial
attaches, 23 assistant commercial attaches, 59 trade commissioners,
70 assistant trade commissioners, and 9 American clerks. In line
with the consular-coordination plan the Hamburg office was closed.
The Peiping office was also closed, the commercial attaché and his
staff transferring to Shanghai.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

97

The serious effort made by the foreign-commerce officers to develop
new business for American exporters is partially illustrated by the
following statistical information concerning the work of these repre­
sentatives. More than 17,000 reports on foreign markets were pre­
pared during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1931, an increase of more
than 1,000 over the preceding year. During the year 8,084 informa­
tional cables were received from the foreign offices. Informational
letters to American firms increased from 40,000 in 1930 to 47,000 in
1931, while informational letters to the bureau increased from 40,000
to 42,000. These substantial increases were made despite an increase
of less than 3 per cent in the appropriation available for the foreigncommerce service.
DISTRICT AND COOPERATIVE OFFICE SERVICE

At the beginning of the fiscal year 1930-31 there were 31 district
and 44 cooperative offices in the more important trade centers of the
United States. In October new district offices were established at
Charleston, S. C., El Paso, Tex., and Salt Lake City, Utah, and
during the year new cooperative offices were opened in commercial
organizations in Anniston, Ala., Longview, Wash., and South
Bend, Ind.
The number of commercial services rendered by the 34 district
offices during 1930-31 totaled 3,524,370, as compared with 3,214,278
the preceding fiscal year. This increase of almost 10 per cent shows
the greater use made of the facilities of the district offices during the
difficult period through which we have been passing.
DISTRIBUTION OF TRADE OPPORTUNITIES

The district offices distributed 942,580 “ trade opportunities ” during
the year. These were opportunities for the sale of American prod­
ucts throughout the world sent to the bureau by representatives of
both the Department of State and the Department of Commerce and
made available to American business firms through the district offices.
Many firms in this country attribute their success in foreign trade to
following up these trade tips, and use this means constantly in
making new connections abroad.
TRADE LISTS FURNISHED

The branch offices furnished American manufacturers and ex­
porters with 731,502 trade lists during the year. These lists give the
names of importers in foreign countries to whom it is possible to sell
American products. They cover all lines of business and list buyers
in almost every country in the world.
An exporter of tobacco says of this service:

The trade lists which you have furnished us of the tobacco trade and industry
have opened up trade channels in at least two countries—Ireland and Argen­
tina—we having made shipments during this month to both countries against
firm orders on cash terms.

A radio manufacturer states:

We entered the export field only about four months ago. Prior to that time
the writer was accumulating lists and data which you had furnished. Our
84206—31----- 7

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

first mailing during the month of March resulted in approximately $10,000
worth of business, April approximately $10,000, May $12,000, and June, we
estimate, will amount to $15,000. We attribute at least 50 to 60 per cent of
this business to your assistance. Your lists have proved very valuable.
PERSONAL CONTACT BETWEEN DISTRICT OFFICES AND PRIVATE BUSINESS

A total of 171,523 persons visited the district offices during the
past year. All types of problems were brought to these offices for
solution. Some visitors called to confer with traveling oversea rep­
resentatives of the Department of State and this department, and
others came to confer with foreign business men in this country to
purchase American goods. Foreign business men are given letters
of introduction by our foreign officers to district office managers,
which bring such visitors in contact with American firms.
Another form of effective contact is that achieved in foreign-trade
meetings held throughout the country. The district offices play a
large part in arranging such meetings, which are for the purpose of
discussing export problems with manufacturers. These meetings
offer means for group or individual conferences with bureau experts
from Washington and the Foreign Service. Conferences of this
type were held in Boston, Buffalo, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Cleve­
land, New York, Philadelphia, St. Louis, and many other cities.
COOPERATIVE OFFICES

As stated previously, there are 47 cooperative offices of the bureau
maintained in the more important commercial organizations in cities
where the bureau does not have district offices. These offices have,
during the past year, contributed greatly to the effectiveness of the
district office service. They have relieved the district offices of con­
siderable detail work and have also been instrumental in distributing
trade opportunities and trade lists. They have held trade confer­
ences and taken care of foreign visitors.
NEEDED EXPANSION

For the past five or six years the number of commercial services
has been constantly increasing, and if the district offices are to keep
pace with the increased demands made upon them, further funds
should be provided to staff the present offices adequately.
Furthermore, a few additional district offices should be provided
to round out the district office service; and funds should be secured
for placing bureau personnel in the more important cooperative
offices.
CONCRETE COMMODITY SERVICE EOR AMERICAN INDUSTRIES
AERONAUTICS TRADE DIVISION

With the curtailment in domestic sales and production, the in­
dustry’s demands upon the aeronautics trade division for' assistance
in the past fiscal year were greater than ever before. To meet this
demand the services inaugurated during the first year of existence
were expanded. The weekly supplement to the Handbook for the
Aeronautics Exporter, prepared by the division and published by the

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

90

Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce, was expanded to include data
on the foreign budgets for aeronautics expenditure, and, with the
collaboration of the commercial intelligence division, more data on
overseas importers and dealers suitable for handling American
aviation products.
The division contributed leading articles for the principal avia­
tion magazines. At the suggestion of the division a prominent trade
journal devoted an entire issue—part of which was translated into
Spanish and had wide circulation in Latin America and the Far
East—to international aviation and trade. Two articles prepared in
the division were used, and suggestions made by the division were
followed as to other editorial content. Publicity was prepared in
the division, and in some cases translated into foreign languages, on
United States aeronautical achievement and products, which re­
ceived widespread coverage through both foreign and domestic field
offices.
As was true during the fiscal year 1929-30, the division was asso­
ciated, either through its own initiative or in its capacity of clearing
house for work accomplished, in behalf of the industry by foreign
offices of the Department of Commerce and Department of State,
with at least one-half of the aeronautics exports during the fiscal
year 1930-31. In this connection one of the industry’s most prom­
inent manufacturers writes:
There have been instances of actual business produced through the cooper­
ative efforts of particular foreign offices totaling, roughly, $250,000, and in
addition to these actual orders there are now pending contracts on which we
have received a great deal of help from your foreign offices, running well into
6 -figure amounts.

A survey was started on the distribution of aircraft in the United
States, which is intended to aid the sales manager in allocating dis­
tributor and dealer territories and determining the extent of his
market, and servicing organizations in locating their facilities more
strategically. The collaboration of executives in the industry, a
prominent statistician, a professor of merchandising, the Aeronau­
tical Chamber of Commerce, and the trade press was obtained in
projecting and developing this detailed survey.
Bulletins on airports, flying conditions, and regulations in Canada
and Italy were published.
In addition to the routine informational service, including the
publication of a weekly bulletin on foreign aeronautics, circulars,
maps, and statistical reports, numerous special studies and reports
for official use of this Government and aeronautic interests were
made.
The assistance of the Aeronautics Branch was especially helpful
during the year.
AGRICULTURAL IM PLEMENTS DIVISION

With the trade in agricultural implements during the fiscal year
1930-31 in a rather depressed condition, due to the general agricul­
tural depression throughout the world, the agricultural implements
division succeeded in maintaining its service on nearly the same
plane as in the previous fiscal year, which was one of the most suc­
cessful in history. During the year 1930-31 the implement export

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

trade fell off more than 23 per cent, while the services rendered the
industry through the division and the district offices fell off only 9
per cent.
Trade promotion through the cooperation of the foreign offices,
district offices, and the agricultural implements division was par­
ticularly gratifying during the year, and a number of important
trade contacts were effected.
Publication in Commerce Reports of market reports from foreign
offices of the bureau and the Department of State were well received
and served to keep the industry informed of important developments
in all the important markets. Statistical statements released in
Commerce Reports and through division special circulars kept the
industry posted on the export trade throughout the year. Through
the medium of special circulars and short items in the division’s
implement and tractor notes, the industry was kept further in­
formed of developments in the foreign implement situation.
Excellent reports were received from consular officers, one of par­
ticular worth being a monthly report from the American consulate
at Cobh, Irish Free State, on exports of Irish tractors. This cir­
cular, the only available official publication dealing with the manu­
facture and sale of Irish tractors, was in great demand from persons
both within and without the implement industry.
Two trade information bulletins were released during the year,
one on the manufacture and sale of farm equipment in the United
Kingdom and the other on the demand for American farm equipment
in Yugoslavia.
Throughout the year contact was enjoyed between the division and
the National Association of Farm Equipment Manufacturers, which
comprises 85 per cent of the industry, in this way extending the
bureau’s services to a much greater number of manufacturers than
would otherwise be possible. In this connection the division gave
particular assistance to the association in compiling data and doing
special research work in the preparation of material to be used at a
recent meeting of great importance to the implement trade. This
was in addition to the customary routine service rendered the
association.
AUTOMOTIVE DIVISION
Every year except one since its organization in 1921 the automotive
division, with the cooperation of the bureau’s district offices, has
shown an increase over the previous year in the number of services
rendered to the automotive industry, in the fiscal year ended June 30,
1931, such services totaled approximately 300,000, representing an in­
crease of about 5y2 per cent over 1930,19 per cent over the peak business
year of 1929, and more than 1,600 per cent over 1921. The number
of special publications increased 100 per cent, and all of the weekly
publications of the division were expanded and improved. For
example, the Automotive Foreign Trade Manual and the Automotive
World News now have new sections showing monthly market surveys
of foreign countries and other information. Also, the format of those
publications has been changed to make them more readable and
interesting.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

101

A constant flow of educational material went forward to the for­
eign offices of the Department of State and Department of Commerce
and the domestic offices of the bureau. The results of this procedure
have been reflected in better and more comprehensive reports from
the field. Regular weekly reports of the American automotive produc­
tion and sales situations were sent to field officers.
Among the division’s new services established within the past year
A monthly report to the industry of oversea stocks of American and
foreign vehicles by countries and price ranges.
A world survey of potential foreign markets for American parts,
accessories, and garage equipment. In this the division anticipated
industry’s need, as export trends clearly indicated that our foreign
trade in those products had suffered relatively less than in the case
of complete vehicles.
.
Various studies of automotive and highway development m major
sections of the world.
.
At the beginning of 1931 material dealing with export prospects
for that year, prepared by the foreign offices, was sent to motor exec­
utives, who indicated that they especially appreciated these data
covering specific products by individual countries and wanted the
service to be put on a regular annual basis.
A new domestic-commerce study has recently been undertaken and
the ground work for another one is being laid.
The division, with the cooperation of the bureau’s foreign offices,
assisted in paving the way for the sale of a considerable amount of
automobiles and accessories in the foreign markets.
CHEMICAL DIVISION
Realizing the intimate relationship that exists between chemical
research and industrial progress, the chemical division extended
contact with professional and scientific organizations to the mutual
benefit of science and industry. The cordial relationship existing
with more than 35 trade associations was enhanced, and through
these collective agencies much information and assistance were made
Already existing statistical services have been amplified and other­
wise modified to make them most useful. During the year the quality
of service established in previous years has been maintained, with
the result that the domestic producer has been enabled to determine
those lines and markets most profitable to enter, continue, or dis­
continue, as the case may be.
Bulletins on the chemical industries and trade of Germany, Great
Britain, France, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Portugal were pub­
lished. The trade commissioner specializing in chemical reporting
at Berlin was delegated to conduct similar surveys for Norway,
Sweden, and Denmark. In addition to these major publications,
there was published a series of special reports covering markets
abroad for various kinds of polishes, paints, pigments, disinfectants,
and toilet preparations.
Of decided value to American manufacturers and consumers has
been the type of information which the chemical division con­
tinues to furnish in an increasing quantity covering foreign exotic

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

materials and competitive processes and technique. A series of
reports was published on production and methods of marketing
various foreign gums, and the division maintains a number of
periodic services whereby information is made available covering
such items as naval stores, tung oil, and other natural materials!
Locating sources of supply of various essential raw materials has
received continued and increasing attention. As an example of this
activity, the chemical division, through the foreign representatives
of the department, combed practically the entire world seeking out
hitherto unknown sources of certain crude botanicals, most notable
among which are psyllium seed, extremely important in medicine,
and derris root, an insecticide.
Essential raw materials under foreign monopoly control continue
to receive attention, with the result that domestic sources of supply
have in many instances been established. The chemical division has
been most assiduous in its endeavors to develop domestic sources of
supply of synthetic nitrogen, and efforts to promote home production
of potash have been fostered in every way. Synthetic camphor and
synthetic menthol are other instances, and the chemical division has
been of assistance in having established a rapidly growing acreage
in our Southern States for the production of tung oil.
The division is vigorously participating in the national drug-store
survey now being conducted in St. Louis by the merchandising
research division. A pharmaceutical expert has been detailed to
that survey. A distribution survey is in progress covering con­
sumption of naval stores, and other activities of a similar character
are under consideration.
ELECTRICAL EQUIPM ENT DIVISION

There were some outstanding developments during the year regard­
ing the work of the electrical equipment division which should
greatly affect the distribution of electrical appliances and radio sets.
The transfer of the division’s quarterly surveys of dealers’ and whole­
salers’ stocks and sales, both radio and appliances, to the Census
Buieau placed them on a definite basis. The radio survey was for­
merly carried on through the cooperation of the Electrical Manu­
facturers’ Association.
As an adjunct to this information the division cooperated with
the National Electric Light Association in compiling a count of
electric meters, classified by kinds. Such a count of meters had not
been taken since 1925.
A study was made of the materials entering into the manufacture
of radio sets, and a detailed study of radio-dealer operations was
continued as in former years._ This information is now available
for 1928, 1929, and 1930, and is being worked up as a comparative
study.
Circulars giving the type of electric current available have been
consolidated into three groups, covering Europe, Latin America,
and the rest of the world. These circulars cover the majority of
inquiries, as they list the principal cities. Detailed circulars on the
different countries are gradually being completed in order that they
may be published in a single volume.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

103

The bulletin on world radio markets was again revised and was
received even more favorably than before. ’During the year a new
mimeograph service was started, giving lists of broadcasting sta­
tions. These lists are of three types—one giving detailed information,
arranged by countries, on the various stations, their call letters, wave
lengths, etc. ; the second giving a list of addresses of these stations ;
and the third presenting details of North American stations, with
variations in time, etc. These three lists are kept current by supplementary correction circulars.
..
An innovation during the year was the occupancy by the division
of a booth at the annual trade show held in Chicago by the Radio
Manufacturers’ Association. Splendid assistance was rendered by
the airways division of the Bureau of Lighthouses.
Two trade information bulletins were published during the year,
one entitled “ Electrical Equipment Market in the Netherland East
Indies ” and the other “ British Market for Electrical AppliancesIn addition to “ Radio Markets of the World-1930,’’ referred to
above, a trade promotion series publication on the Electrical Equipment Market in the Union of South Africa was issued.
Increased interest in foreign trade was evinced during the year by
numerous requests from companies new to the foreign held, tele­
phone companies continued to receive service regarding foreign con­
cessions. Exporters are apparently becoming more and more inter­
ested in having information regarding the foreign markets m greater
detail than they have received in the past. In a number of instances
actual samples, where not too bulky, were sent abroad for companies
requesting help in securing agencies. A new form for the purpose
was printed for the division, which, when filled out, gives complete
information to field men.
FOODSTUFFS DIVISION

During the past year most of the efforts of the foodstuffs division
have been directed toward perfecting and improving well-established
services, although several new projects have been considered and a
few projects undertaken.
.
. ... ,
Among the new activities was a cooperative enterprise with the
New York Canners’ Association and the New York State Labor
Department in making a study of cannery operations m western
New York State. The purpose was to determine the causes of peri­
odic congestion and overtime work in these plants, with the hope also
of discovering whether there were any important wastes that might
be eliminated or management problems that could be solved.
Arrangements have been made, in cooperation with the National
Canners’ Association, to collect statistics quarterly on stocks o
canned goods in warehouses of canners, wholesalers, and chain stores.
Cooperation has been undertaken with the American Bottlers of
Carbonated Beverages in the development of monthly figures on the
production of beverages, covering 11 different flavors.
The publication Per Capita Consumption of Principal I oods m
the United States proved very popular, and arrangements are being
made to keep information on per capita consumption as nearly up to
date as possible.

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

Other publications that might be mentioned are a series of four
short bulletins on the market for fruit juices and sirups, covering the
various world markets, and two bulletins covering the production of
raisins and currants and the canned-fruit industry in Australia. In
ail, during the year the division issued or collaborated in 2 publica­
tions m the Domestic Commerce Series, 4 in the Trade Promotion
Series, and 12 Trade Information Bulletins.
This division cooperated with the University of California in sendiug an expert to the Far East to make a complete survey of the pos­
sible market for American food products in the territory extending
from Japan and northern China to India.
°
The Accra office has completed a survey on cocoa production on
the Ivory Coast, and also palm-oil production in Nigeria and the
Cold Coast.
Our foreign-service work on the exports of fresh fruits has been
considerably
expanded and developed into a regular and important
reporting service.
HIDE AND LEATHER DIVISION

American tanners, in their efforts to cut losses and keep up productioii, turned last year even more actively to the intensive cultivation
of foreign markets, despite the reduced purchasing power in those
markets. I his was evidenced by the greatly increased number of
inquiries received by the hide and leather division and by the 32 per
cent increase in service letters to members of the industry. Tanners
were advised throughout the year regarding trade conditions in those
countries which afforded outlets for improved sales and were also
cautioned against granting unwise credits in some markets where
collections were slow. There is ample evidence that these services
were appreciated by the industry.
Special circulars and confidential notices in the Foreign Markets
Bulletin advised leather exporters of possibilities for makino- o-00d
connections in specific markets. Publications were compiled ^and
released to the industry concerning the leather requirements of such
markets as Czechoslovakia, Germany, and Japan. These contained
suggestions for improved trading methods and also other informative
ieathersCeSSary t0 aSS1St ^ the exPansion of the sales of American
The interchange of agency information and the better utilization
of foreign agents has been intensified and expanded during the past
vk31"’ iTiu servi.c.e weekly analyses of foreign markets by countries
through the medium of Commerce Reports has been found so useful
to tne trade that it has been continued as a permanent feature.
Ine visit of the American leather trade commissioner for Europe
to this country resulted in personal conferences with individual firms
and was of great practical value to the industry. The intensive in­
vestigations of the trade commissioner handling leather in China
covering markets for American leather and studies of the cattle-hide
and goat-skin trade of China, have been invaluable. The voluminous
manuscript for the Raw Stock Manual was practically completed at
the close of the fiscal year. Undoubtedly the most interesting and

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

105

useful publication released by the division during the year was Trade
Information Bulletin No. 728, Marketing American Leather m China.
Through the efforts of the leather trade commissioners in Europe and
in China, the sections of the Leather Export Manual dealing with
those areas have been expanded.
.
,
At the suggestion of the division’s advisory committee, the hide and
leather division is working up a card index detailing the types of
leather sold by each American tanner. This will be revised annually
and will be furnished to the consular offices and the foreign offices of
the bureau as a reference compilation in answering inquiries for
American leather.
.
, J
.
The division has continued to assist in the ^marketing of reindeer
skins from Alaska and the utilization of their by-products. Work
has continued in cooperation with the interdepartmental committee
on the conservation of domestic hides and skins.
The new committee of the American Leather Chemists Association
has already formulated a program including a division of work
among the various Federal departments interested m the studies tor
the better utilization of domestic tanning materials, creation of new
domestic sources of supply, and researching the entire field of mineral
and synthetic tannages.
INDUSTRIAL M ACHINERY DIVISION

The curve representing American industry machinery exports
rose from 1922 until late in 1929 from $112,000,000_ to $263,000,000,
and toward the end of this period industrial machinery was being
shipped from the United States at nearly $1,000,000 a working day—
a huge total. The world-wide depression in the fiscal year just
closed forced contraction in this trade.
During the year the division has given even more careful atten­
tion to opportunities for the sale of industrial equipment abroad,
and as a consequence new business for American machinery manu­
facturers that can be directly traced to the assistance of this division
is already known to approximate $700,000 and probably will be
found to exceed $1,000,000 when all reports are in.
During the year the division published bulletins describing the
machinery markets of South Africa, British Malay, and Siam, the
sawmill and woodworking machinery markets in western, central,
and eastern Europe, dairy equipment in Latin America and the
Far East, and Industrial Machinery—1930, describing the world s
machinery trade and the American position therein.
On the domestic side the division has conducted a survey of the
mechanical equipment in certain industries with relation to excess
factory capacity, depreciation experience, and the influence of obso­
lescence. Much valuable information has been developed and the
report is now in preparation. It is expected that the results de­
veloped will prove of value to other industries also.
The division has also devoted much attention to an analysis of the
market for industrial machinery in the United States, efforts that
are attracting interested attention from a wide community. Better
sales management has resulted, and manufacturers indicate that the
methods developed are not merely assisting to eliminate the wastes

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

of distribution heretofore experienced in this trade, but are also
resulting in increased sales and more scientific coverage at reduced
costs.
IRON AND STEEL DIVISION

The activities of the iron and steel division during the 1930-31
fiscal year followed closely those lines which have in the past proved
most effective as a means of supporting the operations of the domestic
industry, and, while the recorded volume of trade declined along
with that in virtually every other major commodity line, the division
feels rewarded in the 7 per cent increase in the number of services
rendered and in the steady growth of its contacts as measured by the
divisional exporters’ index.
As in past years, certain of the products handled by the division,
seemed to predominate over others in the volume of interest and
inquiry concerning them. Chief among these were steel fabric for
construction work, automatic oil burners, munitions of war (includ­
ing tear-gas equipment), corrosion-resisting steels, and secondhand
rails—all, of course, in addition to the usual volume of inquiries con­
cerning the other categories of iron and steel and hardware products.
The division was active in its work of securing the adoption of
American engineering standard specifications by foreign municipal,
State, and Federal Governments; through special research covering
outlets for the products of specific companies; and by means of a
series of articles on Latin American markets for steel products
secured_from and through the cooperation of bureau and consular
officers in that territory.
The closing months of the year also were marked by the publica­
tion of the first issue of the Iron and Steel Fortnightly, a biweekly
pamphlet containing a wide variety of items of interest to the iron
and steel trade generally. This publication, the need of which was
long felt, is now reaching approximately 1,700 contacts of this
division and has had a most gratifying reception.
Trade information bulletins published during 1930-31 included the
titles “ Czechoslovak Iron and Steel Industry,” “ Market for Cooking
and Heating Appliances in Canada and Latin America,” and
“ Belgium-Luxemburg Iron and Steel Industry.”
LUMBER DIVISION

On June 1 American Pitch Pine and Its Uses, prepared by the
lumber division in cooperation with the National Committee on
Wood Utilization and the Southern Pine Association, was released.
This is the second of a series on American woods prepared for ex­
porters to distribute abroad; foreign uses are emphasized, and numer­
ous illustrations and drawings are included to appeal to foreign
buyers.^ The first of the series on Douglas fir was issued in coopera­
tion with the Northwest lumber organizations in both English and
Spsmish editions. Thousands of copies have been purchased by
exporters.
1'he new series of foreign lumber-sales manuals, in revision of
the 1923 series, now covers South America, Germany, Spain, Italy,

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

107'

and South Africa, the last having been issued during' the past year.
The bulletin covering Caribbean countries is in press. Complete
information on sales methods in all foreign countries is available m
various bulletins of the division.
Through the foreign offices of the bureau and American consuls
detailed information on foreign container markets has been secured.
A bulletin on foreign cooperage markets is in preparation, and one
on foreign markets for boxes, crates, and packages is to follow. A
handbook for American lumber exporters has been practically com­
pleted. The service manual for lumber exporters was revised to
include all assistance available in the department.
For a chapter in the bulletin on wood construction in the Tropics,
prepared by the National Committee on Wood Utilization, informa­
tion has been obtained from offices in tropical and semitropical coun­
tries as to the proper methods to follow in selling preservativetr69itG(l lumber.
Domestic conditions caused increased interest in foreign markets,
and the division was called upon much more for foreign agency sug­
gestions. During the year some 1,155 such suggestions were made,
about a 45 per cent increase over the previous year, and it is esti­
mated that 250 of these resulted in permanent or trial connections.
Annual revision of the foreign lumber agency file was continued in
cooperation with the exporters to the end that exporters desiring
new connections may be put in touch with foreign firms not already
handling the same lines for American competitors.
Close" cooperation has been maintained with the National Com­
mittee on Wood Utilization in extending its recommendations to the
export trade, as well as with the various lumber associations. The
division is cooperating with the Timber Conservation Board.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Entomology of the Department
of Agriculture, data on termite prevention have been supplied Amer­
ican fabricators and Latin American erectors of ready-cut buildings.
Numerous export opportunities have been brought to the attention of
American firms, hickory ski stock has been sold in northern Europe,
ash for baseball bats and tennis rackets in Japan, and preservativetreated marine and railroad material in Latin America.
MINERALS DIVISION

During the fiscal year 1930-31 two phases of activity developed
to a point that signifies a definite trend and consequently may serve
to influence the future policies of the minerals division: (a) The
need and demand for assistance in analyzing problems pertinent to
domestic marketing or distribution of manufactures, and (5) the
requests from governmental and trade organizations for aid of an
advisory character with respect to current conditions abroad, consti­
tute fields in which the division has been occupied actively during the
past year.
... ,
The extent to which nonferrous scrap_ metal competes with and may
substitute for primary metal is a subject that has become of vital
importance to consumers, producers, and dealers. At the request of
the trade and with the cooperation of three major trade associations,
the division inaugurated a domestic survey covering the origin, flow,

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

and distribution of secondary copper and brass during 1930. There
is evidence that the trade may require such a survey on an annual
basis.
A study of the distribution of gasoline and lubricating oil through
domestic filling stations is being conducted in collaboration with the
Bureau of the Census.
During the last half of the fiscal year the division has endeavored
to assist the structural clay-products industries through cooperation
with an organization that represents seven trade associations. Close
attention has been given to the procurement of adequate trade statis­
tics and to the solution of problems in the present system of
distribution.
The increasing amount of time and effort spent by the division’s
specialists serving in an advisory^ or consultant capacity to both
Government and trade agencies is justified, despite the often intan­
gible character of this service; during the year current resumes have
been prepared for other Government organizations covering such
topics as control of world petroleum resources, the Russian oil situa­
tion, manganese from a world viewpoint, etc. Illustrations of this
type of service are a study on State versus private control and opera­
tion of foreign petroleum refineries, a listing of services available to
the clay-products industries through the Department of Commerce,
a report on current conditions in the Russian anthracite-coal indus­
try, etc.
Effective January 1, 1931, a clay-products unit was established in
the division to serve primarily as a contact point between the depart­
ment and the structural clay-products industries.
During the fiscal year the division compiled material for pub­
lications on the international trade in petroleum in 1930, fuel and
power in Latin America, the status of the British coal industry, and
cement markets of the Western Hemisphere. Periodical publica­
tions of the division were continued. They include Mineral Foreign Tra,de Notes and Petroleum Foreign Trade Notes, biweeklies:
International Coal Trade Situation, monthly; Foreign Petroleum
Statistics, monthly; World Gasoline and Kerosene Prices, quarterly;
and Special Cement Bulletin and Antimony Exports from China
both monthly.
Importers and consumers of essential raw materials of which the
United States has an inadequate supply to meet its industrial re­
quirements (asbestos, antimony, tungsten, mercury, tin, fluorspar,
etc.) have consistently solicited the division’s cooperation in con­
nection with current problems relative to supply.
MOTION-PICTURE DIVISION

The fiscal year 1930-31 brought to the motion-picture industry a
number of pressing problems. Theater receipts slumped sharply
from the abnormally high level of the preceding year. In the equip­
ment field the saturation point on theater wiring in the United
States has nearly been reached. The foreign market for American
pictures showed a marked falling off, not only in non-English speak­
ing territories, where an effective solution of the language problem
has not been reached, but also in countries where English-lano-ua°'e
pictures can be shown.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

109

This general situation was reflected in the work of the motionpicture division. Requests for its services, which increased by
about 20 per cent over the 1929-30 fiscal year, assumed a somewhat
changed character. Many of them sought information on problems
connected with the domestic field, particularly with relation to
changed business conditions. On the other hand, film distributors
and, to an even greater degree, equipment manufacturers, have
shown increased interest in sales abroad by repeated requests for
data from foreign markets. A special feature of such calls for as­
sistance is that the majority of them involved constant requests for
service extending, in the case of several companies in the equipment
field, over a period of months.
The publications of the division were devised primarily to cover
those markets of the world which heretofore had not been treated.
Thus, trade information bulletins were issued dealing with the major
Latin American countries and markets in the Far East except Aus­
tralia, New Zealand, and India. The bulletin on China, originally
put out in 1926, was brought up to date, and special material on the
smaller island areas of the world (which still provide a substantial
outlet for silent pictures) was issued in bulletin form. The fourth
annual bulletin on the European motion-picture industry completed
the printed publications. In addition, 54 foreign market bulletins
embracing brief data on various phases of the film trade m indi­
vidual foreign countries were issued, and the division’s weekly press
release covering current film news now goes to a special mailing list
of 115 publications.
.. .
, ,
The industrial and educational work of the division is centered
in a nontheatrical section. A marked interest in business films has
been evinced by a sharp increase in the number of services ren­
dered to all types of commodity manufacturers as well as the larger
companies producing these films. Numerous publications in this
field have been issued, including a complete survey of the use of
educational motion pictures in the primary and secondary schools
in the United States and also a list of nontheatrical film sources. A
report on the value of business films for trade-promotion purposes is
nowThebeing
prepared. trade commissioner m. _Europe, as m past, years,
motion-picture
performed services of outstanding value to the industry. His
reports—over 200 in number—furnished an accurate index to con­
ditions in that important market. He was of inestimable value, also,
to the field men of the department and to the branch managers of
American film companies in Europe in the face of difficult legislative
situations in a number of continental countries.
PAPER DIVISION

The year 1930-31 was marked by depression in the paper industry,
and both production and consumption of paper and paper goods
showed a decrease. Competition in all lines was noticeably strong,
since exports of paper and paper products as a whole decreased by
about 18 per cent in value. This drop was accounted for largely by
the fact that our exports included increased quantities of paper
products of lower value, actual volume being estimated to have

110

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

decreased by only about 6 per cent as compared with the previous
year.
Active assistance was rendered by the paper division to manu­
facturers of all lines of paper and board as well as of printing
machinery and supplies, and full information was furnished them,
either in published material or in correspondence, regarding economic
conditions affecting markets for their products. The actual number
of services performed for exporters in connection with markets dur­
ing the year was 33,275, an increase of slightly more than 1 per cent
over last year. A greater number of these, however, concerned new
markets for paper-specialty lines.
Market investigations were made on behalf of firms manufacturing
tissue papers and varied lines of writings and papeteries, while print­
ing-equipment concerns were assisted in finding outlets and repre­
sentatives abroad.
Cooperation with the industry through the trade associations has
been continued on an increased scale. A special statistical survey of
the world’s international pulp trade was completed, as was also a
portion of a similar work in connection with finished paper. The
preliminary work on a manual or glossary of paper terms and
designations in six languages as used in international trade was
completed and sent abroad for final revision and correction.
During the year 1,008 items of special interest to the trade were
published in the weekly Side Runs of the Paper Trade, and 308 trade
opportunities also appeared both in that bulletin and in Commerce
Reports.
The addition of one member to the staff of the division during the
year has permitted the completion of several important pieces of
work concerning the market and industrial situation abroad that
heretofore could not be adequately handled.
,
RUBBER DIVISION
The major statistical study of the rubber division in 1930-31, pub­
lished as a special circular, is entitled “ Domestic Renewal Sales of
Automobile Casings.” This study begins with renewal sales of
1,525,000 automobile casings (7.84 casings per car annually) in 1910
and ends with 40,000,000 casings (1.65 per car annually) in 1930.'
The difference between the average annual tire consumption per
car m 1910 and 1930 illustrates very strikingly the immense im­
provement in tire construction during the period. American and
foreign rubber-trade papers, practically without exception, reprinted
this statistical study in its entirety.
The survey of automobile tire stocks held by distributors on April
1, 1931, in the entire United States, a semiannual survey which has
been conducted, since 1924, was of increased interest this year because
the stocks of tires held by factory-operated retail stores, mail-order
stores, and oil-company and other chain stores were for the first time
included with those of independent retailers.
. The decline in rubber-goods exports and growing foreign compe­
tition has made increased foreign-market analysis desirable while
the low price for rubber has somewhat reduced the necessity for in­
creased research on domestic production. Confidential circulars re-

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

111

viewing the trend of exports for different sections of the industry
were prepared and distributed as soon as complete statistics for 1930
became available, a special effort being made to
e^ P ° ^
of rubber sundries and specialties, trade m which continues to «io
considerable strength. A start has been made on maintenance of
current detailed records of international competition m each market
for rubber footwear and automobile casings; continuance qf thiswor
denends on personnel facilities. Changes m international competi­
tion in thesePlines are occurring so rapidly that semiannual reviews
are no longer satisfactory guides to exporters, and current monthly
records are the only means of keeping abreast of developments.
In the last two months of the fiscal year all manufacturers of
rubber products who were not already receiving division services
were circularized. As a result, numerous additional companies have
become clients for the crude-rubber services of the division, and
others have become subscribers to export services. n
,
During the year the division issued weekly circulars and news
letters o£ world movement of and developments m crude rubber and
weekly and monthly circulars covering foreign markets for all passes
of rubber manufactures. Other subject matter issued consisted of
301 circulars, 126 statistical statements, and 54 corrections to the
division’s loose-leaf manual of foreign import duties on rubber
manufactures.
SHOE AND LEATHER MANUFACTURES DIVISION
The past year has been rather trying to the boot and shoe and
allied industries because of restricted sales abroad as well as m
the domestic markets. This factor has caused an increase of 12.7
per cent in the number of commercial inquiries received by the shoe
and leather manufactures division during the last six months of the
^The^ division mailed questionnaires to more than 5,500 contacts
advising them of helpful trade information, domestic as well as
foreignf now available in the bureau, and to date over 25 per cent
have reauested material which should be useful to them.
An important conference was held with Army officials relative to
the assembling of shoe-repairing outfits for use m Army camps.
Close cooperation has continued with the various advisory com­
mittees and trade associations. The assistance rendered the War
Department, in advising when to place contracts for Army footwear,
has resulted in a considerable saving to the, Government.
Charts were prepared for the Navy Department to show production
trend of men’s footwear. The graphic charts drafted for use of the
trade associations have been given publicity m several of the imP°Monthly'p resentations and interpretations of import and export
statistics and digests of reports received from consular officers, commeOciafattachlf and tradePcommissioners concerning. the markets m
various countries for footwear and allied commodities have been
published in Commerce Eeports.

112

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

SPECIALTIES DIVISION
As announced last year, a special survey abroad was made by
the specialties division on behalf of the makers of coin-operated
machines. As one result of this survey a series of bulletins has
been published covering the metal and" paper currencies of prac­
tically every country of the world. In addition to the coin-operated
machine industry, many others have profited from this survey.
Bankers, automobile manufacturers, the motion-picture industry, and
various Government agencies have found it very helpful.
A special service extended to the Olympic games committee has
resulted in the accumulation of a vast amount of data on the develop­
ment of sports in foreign countries. These data are being used as a
basis for a comprehensive publication on sports abroad, the manu­
script of which is nearing completion.
The usual cooperation was maintained with a large number of
trade associations coming within the specialties field. The Business
Equipment Institute held its annual meeting in Washington, and
a special program was arranged for the benefit of its members for
the purpose of showing the various new special services which
might be extended by the bureau to this important industry.
During the year the division cooperated with the broom-manufac­
turing industry in the formation of the Broom Manufacturers Insti­
tute-accomplished at a meeting in January held under the bureau’s
auspices. It has since aided in the establishment and adoption of
standard grades of brooms and in a program for understanding and
acceptance of those standards.
With the cooperation of the National Association of Book Pub­
lishers, a new export classification for books was established with a
view to giving American publishers accurate figures showing exports
of American publications.
Because of its increasing importance a special mailing list has
been built up to take care of the hotel and restaurant field The
wide range of commodities falling in this field had made it hereto­
fore extremely
existing
channels.difficult to service this group adequately through
The St. Louis drug-store survey provided a further opportunity
lor the division to plan studies of value to the industries producing
specialties—-books, vending machines, soda fountains, glass and pottery, furniture photographic goods, smokers’ supplies, sport goods,
stationery, and many others.
6 ’
In. the field of export, advertising, the specialties division com­
pleted a triennial revision of lists of advertising mediums, and carried out an unusual number of special researches. Advertising
Abroad, a summary of foreign news of interest to advertising men
is now issued monthly.
’
Because of the increasing need for special and selective servicing
?,* tile large group of industries represented in the specialties field
it was found necessary to revise the specialties section of the Ex­
porters Index completely. Although this work was started in Jan­
uary, it will probably not be completed until the end of August. It

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

113;

has entailed a vast amount of clerical work, justified only because
American manufacturers listed with the specialties division will be
assured of more prompt and efficient service and of receiving mate­
rial of specific interest to them.
TEXTILE DIVISION
Trained specialists in certain foreign markets—notably Australia,„
British Malaya, the Netherlands East Indies, and the Philippines—
have served to stimulate interest in American textiles and aided in
maintaining sales on a fairly satisfactory basis.
As in preceding years, the division attempted to secure the maxi­
mum results in its trade-promotion work by referring specific trade
opportunities, submitted by field officers of the Department of State
and Department of Commerce, to firms equipped to supply the
articles desired. The division continued its usual services in the dis­
semination of pertinent information on current trends in textile
producing and consuming countries through the medium of bulletins
dealing with specific textile commodities. In cooperation with the
bureau’s foreign offices the division made a survey of Latin Ameri­
can markets for rayon and hosiery, the cotton-goods market of
British Malaya, and world markets for leather cloth. It also issued
a bibliography of dry cleaning.
Services of the textile division and the district offices to the textile
industries during the period under discussion recorded an increase
of 24 per cent over the previous 12 months and of 38 per cent over
1928-29.
The division continued to collaborate with the Cotton Textile Insti­
tute (an organization of cotton manufacturers representing approxi­
mately two-thirds of the industry) and the Department of Agriculture
in the search for new and extended uses for cotton. A pamphlet,
Cotton and Miniature Golf, issued by the division, called attention
to this new industry as a potential outlet for a number of cotton
products, such as tents and awnings for coverage, canvas folding
chairs, table sunshades, and similar appurtenances. Outlets for can­
vas curtains and various other cotton furnishings were suggested by
another release on the solarium. Consumer interest was also stimu­
lated by the distribution through retail channels of a booklet wThich
listed numerous articles of cotton as acceptable and in some cases
unique Christmas gifts. The division also issued a revision of Cot­
ton Fabrics and Their Uses, first compiled in 1928.
The division was active in securing the adoption and wide use of
a new letter material (recently developed by cotton manufacturers)
for manuscript in broadcasting programs. This new cotton letter­
head was found free from the disturbing crackle often audible to the
radio audience when ordinary paper is used. Special exhibits show­
ing the use of cotton products in the automobile, shoe, and other
refated industries were prepared for loan purposes and displayed at
“ cotton festivals ” in Memphis and Houston.
These attempts to develop new uses for cotton and to extend old
uses have attracted favorable attention abroad. The British cotton
industry in particular has resorted to various publicity methods,
including a National Cotton TFeek and trade exhibitions, to stimulate
the consumption of cotton products.
84206— 31-------8

114

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

TOBACCO DIVISION
The tobacco section became a bureau division on July 1, 1930.
The. development of a tobacco division involved no great change in
activities, but was brought about primarily as recognition of an
industry which ranked second in exports of agricultural raw products
and seventh when compared with all other commodities exported.
In 1925 there were less than 50 active contacts using the services
of the tobacco section ; this number has increased to 804. Sixty per
cent of the contacts being serviced by the division are actually
engaged in the tobacco business and allied trades. The services ren­
dered to its business contacts by the division during the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1931, numbered 58,541. There was an increase of
290 per cent in the activities of the tobacco division last year over
those of the tobacco section the year before.
The work of the division during the fiscal year became more and
more a work of individual service, requiring a greater study of
minute and technical details. There were involved the questions of
new trade outlets, protection of old outlets, ways and means of over­
coming competition from other tobacco-producing countries, poten­
tial buying power, and credits. Individual problems necessitated a
large increase in the work of foreign consuls, commercial attachés,
and trade commissioners ; nevertheless, the thorough and cooperative
manner in which these problems were handled enabled the tobacco
division to serve its contacts more adequately.
A publication of special import issued during the year was
United States Tobacco and Its Markets, which was well received by
the industry.
J
Preparation of a manuscript, Four Hundred Years of Tobacco,
was started during the year, and the division will issue this com­
pilation of data within a short time. Other bulletins discussing
significant subjects are in preparation.
SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL SERVICES TO BUSINESS

COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCE DIVISION
Information centered in the division of commercial intelligence
respecting merchants in Canada, Mexico, and the oversea countries
has been made much use of by American foreign traders durino- the
past 12 months; more so, in fact, than during any previous 12 months
in the history of the division.
During the past year 60,000 new and revisions of old reports have
been added to the World Trade Directory file, so that file now con­
tains reports m detail on over 500,000 foreign firms located all over
the world. The amount of supplemental information bein«' re­
ceived daily in the division from American banks, credit organiza­
tions, and exporters in this country is proof of the value that these
various organizations and firms place on the service.
Requests received from bureau clients for detailed information on
foreign firms, referred to as World Trade Directory reports, totaled
during the past fiscal year 193,500, an increase of 20 per m it over
the preceding fiscal period. Of these requests, well over 60 ner
cent were serviced out of the central file maintained in the division.

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

115

• The trade-listing service of the division, one of its oldest functions,
continues to grow. During the year many old lists were revised and
.3,963 new ones compiled; 750,000 of these lists were distributed, all
as the result of direct requests. This service of the division has
developed to a point that listings are now available with respect to
foreign distributors of any type of merchandise that can be exported.
The division continues to keep informed on changing conditions
in each foreign market affecting the payment or nonpayment of
dealers’ obligations and presents this information in digested form
each week in Commerce Reports.
It continues to report trimonthly to American banks and credit
organizations on failures, insolvencies, bankruptcies, etc., affecting
merchandise dealers all over the world. It reports to American busi­
ness men, through the medium of the bureau’s district and coopera­
tive offices, the anticipated visits of foreign buyers to this country.
The division handled, during the past fiscal year, 7,677 Trade
Opportunities received from the foreign markets, which were made
available to the exporters of this country.
It is the reservoir of information respecting all reliable sources
of credit information to enable our foreign traders to rate buyers
as credit risks, and has recently completed a study of terms cus­
tomary in buying respecting practically every commodity in every
foreign country, data never having been assembled before in such
completeness by any Government or private organization.
The consular officers of the Department of State who are con­
tributing to the division’s work by gathering data in the field are
deserving of much praise for their accurate and painstaking investi­
gations and reporting activities.
DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL LAWS
Inquiries addressed to the division of commercial laws increased
more than 20 per cent during the past fiscal year, while the services
rendered by the division increased more than 17 per cent.
The change in European financial and economic problems has
been reflected in changing taxes, while the urgent need of funds has
been indicated by renewed activity and enforcement of provisions
which had fallen into desuetude and an increased effort to collect
revenue from all possible sources. This renewed activity has led to
a large volume of inquiries concerning the possibility of consign­
ments, particularly in European countries, the volume growing so
large that special studies were made by the European section of the
division as to the protection afforded and restrictions imposed upon
this manner of trading.
With the increased use of airplane and other speedy methods of
transportation, the problems for the liability of common carriers
assume a growing importance, and in Latin America specific studies
were made on this problem. Other problems of particular impor­
tance in that area resulted in studies of consignments, new aspects
of protesting bills of exchange, and new legislation with respect
to powers of attorneys and installment sales, the latter in coopera­
tion with the committee on foreign law and conflict of laws of the
Bar Association of the City of New York.

116

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

The value of the trade-mark protection service has increased mate­
rially during the past year, regular service being given for an
increased number of countries and greater accuracy in the work
being obtained. This exceedingly valuable service is far from attain­
ing its maximum value, for trade-mark piracy is present in all
nations, while the present service covers with regularity only a few.
While the division’s trade-adjustment work is not designed for
cash results, the activities along these lines resulted in cash recoveries
of approximately $80,000 and replacement of merchandise valued at
$19,000. The far greater intangible results, the promotion of good
will and the maintenance of American export reputation for the
observance of ethical trade practices, can not be valued. Inci­
dentally, American commerce was safeguarded by identifying those
foreign firms with which American exporters can not safely deal.
In this work the bureau has enjoyed the continued and efficient coop­
eration of the State Department, the Federal Trade Commission,
the Department of Justice, the Post Office Department, and betterbusiness bureaus and trade associations and organizations through­
out the country.
The growing interest of American insurance in foreign markets,
both directly and through reinsurance, and the growing nationalistic
tendencies in foreign insurance legislation, as well as the greater
recognition of the effect of labor legislation and social insurance
enactments upon American establishments abroad, was indicated by
an increase of more than 20 per cent in requests for information in
these fields. Cooperation in insurance matters was extended to Gov­
ernment officials in Argentina, Colombia, Guatemala, the Nether­
lands, and New Zealand, and to departments of banking and insur­
ance in 11 of the United States. Assistance was also rendered on
specific problems to the War Department, Department of Agricul­
ture, Department of Labor, and a number of independent Govern­
ment agencies.
During the fiscal year just closed the division published 42 special
circulars, 2 trade-promotion monographs, and 4 trade-information
bulletins. The special circulars deal with restrictions imposed upon
business throughout the entire field of commercial law and generally
throughout the world. The bulletins covered specific problems in
Argentina, Portugal, the Baltic States, and France, while the tradepromotion monographs dealt with problems arising in Peru and
France.
DIVISION OF CORRESPONDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION
The division of correspondence and distribution is composed of
two sections. The correspondence section routes incoming mail and
reviews outgoing material. One of its principal functions is to co­
ordinate the activities of the bureau’s many units to the end that
similar problems are given similar treatment. Incoming letters
routed to the appropriate commodity or service division or other
unit during the past fiscal year totaled 213,995, practically the same
as in 1929-30. There were 274,818 outgoing letters reviewed, an
increase of nearly 30,000 over the previous year. The division’s
own outgoing mail is second in volume among the divisions of the

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

117

bureau; during 1930-31 there were 17,500 letters and forms sent out
in answer to specific requests.
A reduction in letter writing of the bureau was accomplished
through the preparation of form letters to answer the most common
questions asked the bureau.
The distribution section has supervision of the bureau’s mailing
lists, and it methodizes them to prevent duplication. The main list,
of course, is the exporters’ index, a classified record of American
firms interested in export trade. That list has grown from 19,302
names in 1926 to 25,123 at the close of the past fiscal year.
EDITORIAL DIVISION
One result of the greatly increased use of illustrations in bureau
publications was the quickly apparent need of a central file of photo­
graphs so that they would be readily available to any division re­
quiring them. Such a file was established in the editorial division
late in the fiscal year. Although it is not yet complete, the file has
already demonstrated its usefulness.
It has been noted that the work of the bureau during 1930-31
placed far greater emphasis on domestic markets than ever before.
This situation was reflected in the work of the editorial division.
The influx of manuscripts from the new domestic commerce divisions
made it necessary for several members of the division’s personnel
to become, almost overnight, familiar with market research, cost
analysis, statistical and analytical technology, and the new termi­
nology characteristic of such studies, in order that the results of the
research be presented to the business community in usable form.
In addition to this great volume of new work, the regular publica­
tions of the bureau were prepared for publication, and about as many
foreign-trade publications as in the previous year. In the latter,
also, a change in character was noticeable. There was a lessening of
purely trade reports and a tendency toward more permanent reports.
Some of the titles were Guide to American Business in France; Coal
Industry of the World; Industrial Machinery, 1930; and Handbook
of Foreign Currency and Exchange.
This combination of increased activity and continuation without
diminution of the old has greatly taxed the capacity of the division.
FINANCE AND INVESTMENT DIVISION
The financial difficulties of several foreign governments caused a
sharp increase in the number of inquiries received in the finance and
investment division with reference to foreign budgets, public debts,
banking, currency, and exchange. The inquiries not only were far
more numerous than in normal times but also called for more ex­
tended research. There was also a notable increase in the number
of visits from executives of banks in search of data bearing on foreign
securities held by their institutions and their clients.
Because of the increase in bank failures abroad the division had
many more inquiries regarding the standing of banks and the han­
dling of drafts. The sharp decline in Australian exchange and in
the exchanges of practically all of the Latin American countries
likewise gave rise to numerous inquiries relative to various aspects
of foreign-trade financing.

118

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

The discussion of the silver question led to many inquiries, in
answering which the bulletins and special articles prepared in the
division were particularly useful.
Numerous requests were received for information covered in the
balance of international payments, and much time was devoted to
developing the sources of information for several of the more im­
portant phases of this annual study.
The mailing list for the division’s regular circulars was greatly
expanded, and more precise and complete data were included in press
releases.
Of the eight bulletins issued, one was an exhaustive treatise on
Japanese banking. Another important bulletin was that on Ameri­
can direct investments in foreign countries, which contains the
results of the first census of foreign investments ever undertaken.
The results were useful in preparing the division’s section of the
report to the Senate on branch-factory movement abroad and in
answering the many inquiries received regarding the character and
scope of our investments in individual countries.
FOREIGN CONSTRUCTION DIVISION
The foreign construction division was organized in February, 1931,
coordinating the construction activities of the various divisions of
the bureau. Its primary object is to increase American participation
in foreign construction work. It acts as a clearing house for infor­
mation on construction projects overseas. It aids in establishing
contacts between foreign specifying officials, engineers, architects,
and buyers and American contractors, engineers, manufacturers, and
exporters.
^ Since its establishment the division has completely reorganized the
I oreign Construction News bulletin to conform more neariv to stand­
ard construction and engineering practice in reporting actual con­
struction projects, contracts awarded, and other pertinent informa­
tion to assist the American reader in establishing contacts and in­
creasing his activities with respect to foreign constriiction work.
Foreign Highway News, devoted to information on highway proj­
ects and developments, has also been modified so as to give names
and addresses of oversea contractors, enabling American firms and
interested parties to establish direct contact. The division has con­
tinued to collect and distribute statistics and other data on foreign
highways. It has cooperated with the Bureau of Public Roads of
the Department of Agriculture in carrying out the resolutions of the
International Road Congress held in Washington last fall.
The division is distributing an informational fortnightly bulletin
giving details and progress reports on construction work previously
announced in its confidential bulletin mentioned above. There is
also an informational service to the foreign offices of the bureau
Issued about once a month, carrying information regarding engineer­
ing and construction innovations in the United States. Its objective
is to help to increase the knowledge abroad of American methods and
achievements.
Direct contact has been established with engineering firms now
engaged on or interested in contracting for construction work abroad.
Data are being assembled for the preparation of a summary report

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

119

of the activities of American construction companies overseas, for
the purpose of affording foreign interested parties as complete a
report as possible on the types of work American companies have
completed and can undertake.
Standards.—The work of the standards section has also been in­
cluded in the scope of activities of the new foreign construction
division. Cooperation with the Bureau of Standards and nongov­
ernmental agencies has been continued. Reports of activities of
national standardizing bodies, both here and abroad, as well as of
organizations other than national, engaged in the study, develop­
ment, and promotion of standards of grades, types, and quality of
commodities, standard specifications for commodities, and uniform
safety codes—all have been received and distributed.
International fairs and expositions.—Under the jurisdiction of the
division are also coordinated the bureau’s activities in connection
with international fairs and expositions. Considerable assistance
was given the United States commissioners in connection with plans
for participation by the Government in the International Colonial
and Overseas Exposition which opened at Paris this spring. The
foreign fairs section also contributed largely to the preliminary
plans for the participation of the Government in The Century of
Progress, Chicago world’s fair of 1933.
As an experiment, the bureau, through the American commercial
attaché at Berlin, established a trade informational office at the
Leipzig Spring Trade Fair in March, 1931. The American consu­
late at Leipzig cooperated. Attendance at this fair was made up
almost exclusively of buyers, dealers, merchants, and manufacturers.
The experiment proved a success, and similar participation will be
made at the 1932 spring fair.
International conferences.-—The coordination of bureau and de­
partment activities in connection with international conferences con­
tinues to be under the direction of this division. In the case of some
meetings this involves cooperation in the preparation of agenda,
attendance at meetings, technical advice, and the like. In the case
of others assistance is required only in selecting delegations and
assembling material for the use of the delegates.
Some of the international meetings in which bureau representa­
tives took part during the last half of 1930 and the first half of
1931 were:

Third International Congress for Applied Mechanics ; Stockholm ; August.
Pan American Reciprocal Trade Conference; Sacramento; September.
Sixth International Road Congress ; Washington ; October.
International Congress of Aerial Safety ; Paris ; December.
International Standards Association Meeting; Berlin; February.
Conseil Central de Tourisme International ; Budapest ; May.
International Parliamentary Congress of Commerce ; Prague ; May.
International Coffee Congress ; Sao Paulo ; May.
Eighteenth National Foreign Trade Convention ; New York ; May.
Sixth General Congress, International Chamber of Commerce; Washing­
ton ; May.
Permanent International Commission for Road Congresses; Pans; June.
International Congress for Housing Service and City Planning ; Berlin ;
June.Congress of the International Association of Agriculture of
Sixth
Tropical Countries ; Paris ; June.

120

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

DIVISION OF FOREIGN TARIFFS
The increase in the number of inquiries received by the division
of foreign tariffs during the past year, together with the large
variety of problems that have been presented to the division for
study, analysis, and advice, again emphasized the vital need to
American business houses of a reliable source of information on
foreign tariffs and trade regulations. This has been especially true
following the number of changes and revisions that have taken
place in the tariffs of important foreign countries in the last 12
months.
With the full cooperation of the State Department and of our own
commercial attachés and trade commissioners, the division has been
able to untangle a number of kinks in the exporting process and to
temper the difficulties and technical points in various foreign tariffs
and trade regulations in such a way as to afford the American ex­
porters the most economical and least troublesome method of entry
into foreign markets. It is difficult to estimate in dollars and cents
just what the total of these savings is, since one of the division’s
principal functions is to forewarn and guide, as well as to help
smooth out difficulties after importation has taken place, but they
are considerable.
The urgency of foreign-tariff problems during the past year called
for even closer relations than usual with the various trade associa­
tions. This has been necessary not only to facilitate the dissemina­
tion to their member companies of information regarding develop­
ments in foreign tariffs and trade-control measures but for the veri­
fication of trade rumors and for consultations on particular foreign
situations.
The greatly renewed interest in finding export outlets for products
of American manufacture has brought to the division a large number
of inquiries for special tariff information on various products as an
important part of studies of prospective markets.
Two additional studies were issued in the series of handbooks on
foreign tariffs and import regulations on agricultural products, cov­
ering Canned Foods in the Western Hemisphere and Canned Foods
in Asia, Africa, and Oceania. Manuscript is almost completed for
the fifth in this series, which is to be a study of tariffs and tradecontrol measures on grains and grain products in the principal
foreign markets, including agrarian Europe.
In connection with the sessions of the International Chamber of
Commerce held in Washington last May, the division was called on
for special work on subjects under discussion during the meetings.
_One of the accomplishments of the division that attracted con­
siderable comment was the publication in April of a very timely
article on Foreign Tariffs and Trade Control Movements, 1930-31.
The demand for copies of this article from business firms, univer­
sities, business schools, and students of foreign trade was so heavy
as to necessitate a reprint.
DIVISION OF REGIONAL INFORMATION
Seldom has it been so important to keep American industry abreast
nf foreign economic trends as during the past year, considering the

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

121

abnormal situation prevailing in almost every part of the world.
Latin America, Europe, the Far East, and Africa—all presented
problems meriting careful study and warranting individual advice
and, where necessary, special caution in the conduct of foreign busi­
ness. This service of the division of regional information has em­
braced remote regions of the world as well as countries concerning
which information on internal developments is more easily accessible.
For instance, an extraordinary situation developed in Persia during
the year, involving stringent Government regulations on foreign
exchange, and the advice of the division was particularly sought after
by American concerns with outstanding claims or prospective ship­
pers to that country. A special section of the division has been
devoted entirely to the Russian situation.
As a result of the growing interest in the branch-factory movement,
the department was instructed by a Senate resolution to prepare a
report on the subject. The division of regional information was
entrusted with the task of preparing the part of the report dealing
with the underlying economic factors, while the part contributed by
the finance and investment division dealt with the statistical phase.
The report was issued as Senate Document No. 258.
In connection with the preparation of the report, which involved
considerable investigation in foreign countries as well as in the
United States, an amount of valuable material on the subject has
been collected and is being kept up to date. In addition to being used
in answering current inquiries, it will serve as a basis for an annual
survey of the branch-factory movement, which will become a regular
feature similar to the review of the international cartel movement.
One of the most extensive publications prepared under the direction
of the division is the Commercial Travelers’ Guide to Latin America,
and a complete revision of this handbook, made during the past year,,
is now in the hands of the printer. The growing interest in the com­
mercial possibilities of the Near East has occasioned the preparation,
of a Commercial Travelers’ Guide to North Africa and the Near
East, the first of its kind dealing with that region, and it is hoped
that it may be ready for publication toward the end of the calendar
year.
A review of the organization and characteristics of the French
market, submitted by a trade commissioner in Paris, was published
under the title of Guide to American Business in France. The divi­
sion has recently undertaken the preparation of a publication on
European sales areas. Numerous pamphlets and articles in Com­
merce Reports have already been published covering the sales areas
and marketing problems in individual countries. Many prominent
export organizations have commented on the value of these surveys,
some stating that they are indispensable for any firms doing business
in the territories covered.
Trade information bulletins were published on Cuban Readjust­
ment to Current Economic Forces, Spain: Resources, Industries,
Trade, and Public Finance; and Australia as a Market for American
Goods in 1931. Many special articles and regional reviews were pre­
pared for Commerce Reports, representing original research in the
division or based on reports of bureau and State Department field
officers. The foreign cable summaries appearing under the headings

122

EEPOET TO THE SECEETAEY OF COMMERCE

World’s Commercial News in Brief and Monthly Cable and Radio
Reviews proved of concrete service to business interests. The divi­
sion also continued the distribution of the weekly Russian Economic
Notes, Commercial Notes on Canada, and the monthly trade reports
compiled in the far eastern field offices covering China, Japan, and
southeastern Asia.
DIVISION OF STATISTICAL RESEARCH
Demands upon the statistical research division were greatly in­
creased during the past year, the business depression engendering a
generally greater and more searching inquiry and analysis of the
rapidly changing conditions. Practically all of the work formerly
performed by the statistical assistant to the Secretary is now being
handled by this division. These increased services necessitated some
reorganization and some important additions to the staff. A detailed
and continuing study of business cycles was carried on, with special
emphasis on current developments. Regular weekly surveys of
employment and of business conditions, domestic and foreign, were
established and maintained.
The Survey of Current Business was transferred from the Bureau
of the Census at the beginning of the fiscal year. During the year
intensive study has been given to the editorial make-up and statis­
tical contents of the publication, as well as to a more timely printing
schedule. Under the new plan adopted the Survey now consists of a
monthly of 56 pages, containing approximately 2,000 alphabetically
arranged series covering a 13-month period, which provide the basic
statistics for the 25 pages of charts and interpretive text; an annual
supplement, the 1931 issue of which gives monthly data on the same
2,000 series running back seven years; and a weekly supplement
giving the weekly and monthly data made available during the week
just closed. This threefold service is provided for the same price as
the old Survey—$1.50 per year. The typographical set-up of the
publication has been entirely changed and placed on a plane com­
parable with the most recent advances in commercial printing of
business journals. The printing of the monthly issues has been
placed on a 7-day schedule and the weekly supplement has been
placed on a 3-day printing schedule. The circulation of the Survey
has been given special study and an intensive circulation campaign
is being put into effect.
Studies were made in the field of graphic presentation and a
regular advisory service established. In addition to the regular
statistical advisory and checking service for other divisions of the
bureau, a greater volume of special inquiries of all kinds was taken
care of during the year, many of these requiring considerable re­
search, special compilation, and analysis. Several special studies
were made for the American delegates to the International Chamber
of Commerce convention.
The work of preparing the regular annual publications of the
bureau, the two volumes of the Commerce Yearbook, in the prepara­
tion of which other divisions of the bureau cooperate, and the Statis­
tical Abstract, was carried forward, many new features being added.
The usual analyses of United States foreign trade quarterly and
annually by fiscal and calendar years were made and published in

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

123

Commerce Eeports and as trade information bulletins. A Handbook
of Foreign Currency and Exchange was published and regular
monthly statements of foreign exchange rates issued. The handbook
is now in its third printing.
The geographic section was called upon to render an increasing
number of technical geographic services to business interests. Twentyeight reports were prepared for map publishers. A large number of
requests were received for Geographic News, and issues are now being
sent regularly to many business firms, as well as map publishers and
professional geographers. Correct spelling of about 400 geographic
names was determined for use in the decisions of the United States
Geographic Board. Geographic material was prepared for the Com­
mercial Travelers’ Guide to Latin America ; cooperation was extended
in the writing of the text for the Sixth Eeport of the United States
Geographic Board; and a geographic study was made of present and
potential wheat-producing areas throughout the world.
In the past year the translation section has translated, from 16
foreign languages into English and from English into 4 foreign langauges, a total of 5,500 typewritten pages, not only for the bureau
but for practically all bureaus of the department. The larger pieces
of work included French Merchant Marine, Cost Analysis and Price
Fixing in the Eetail Trade, Spanish Code of Procedure, and Inter­
national Eesponsibility of the Nations. The section assisted other
departments, the Chief Coordinator’s office, and especially the Civil
Service Commission, in planning competitive examination papers in
18 foreign languages and in rating the results.
DIVISION OF STATISTICS
The work of the division of statistics consists of compiling and
preparing for publication the statistics relating to the foreign trade
of the United States. Statements of imports and exports of mer­
chandise, gold, and silver, of vessels entered and cleared by countries
and customs districts, and other statistical data are published annually
and monthly.
The annual volume Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the
United States, covering the calendar year 1929, was issued in two
volumes. The practice of issuing the Monthly Summary of Foreign
Commerce in two parts has also been continued in order to expedite
the issuance of the principal data for exports and imports.
An annual report on the principal articles exported from each
State was compiled and published for the calendar year 1930. The
publication of certain weekly reports was continued during the year.
These reports showed the exports of principal grains and flour; ex­
ports of pork products from principal ports; imports of raw wool by
classes into Boston, New York, and Philadelphia; imports of wheat
from Canada; exports of gasoline; and exports of citrus fruits.
About 15 monthly statements, showing exports and imports of
principal articles and groups of articles, are prepared from data
compiled for the Monthly Summary of Foreign Commerce and are
published before the Summary is sent to the printer. Special reports
on imports of cotton cloth by specified trade designations and im­
ports of wool cloth by kinds are also issued monthly. Special

124

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

monthly statements to the number of 253 are issued, showing ex­
ports and imports of certain commodities by countries and by customs districts. A nominal charge of $1 a year is made for these
statements in order to stop the distribution to those who may be
no longer interested in receiving them. However, more than 5,000
individuals and firms paid for the service during the past year, thus
clearly indicating their interest and belief that the statements are
of distinct value.
The statistical classification of imports into the United States,
which went into effect on June 18, 1930, with the new tariff act, was
revised and amended and a new edition issued which became effec­
tive January 1,1931. Schedule B, statistical classification of exports,
was also revised and extended and a new edition issued effective
January 1, 1931.
In order to facilitate studies of the effects of the tariff act of 1930
by the United States Tariff Commission, other Government offices,
and individuals, Table No. 9, Imports for Consumption, showing
quantities, values, rates of duties, and duties collected by articles,
was prepared in two parts. Part I covers the period from January
1 to June 17,1930, under the tariff act of 1922, and Part II covers the
period from June 18 to December 31, 1930, under the new law.
TRANSPORTATION DIVISION
Problems in transportation and communication were sharply
amplified during the past year. Intensive interest in reducing
consumer cost has centered around our distribution system. During
the year the transportation division engaged in several fact-findingstudies to develop basic data relating to the various forms of trans­
portation.
A study on industrial traffic management was published. The
widespread need for information on this important phase of dis­
tribution was amply illustrated by the sale of the publication, which
approximated 20,000 copies. The Associated Traffic Clubs of
America, which cooperated in securing the basic information from
industries, purchased more than 10,000 copies for their members.
The inland waterway section, with the cooperation of the domestic
commerce divisions, completed an economic survey of the Altamaha
River system in Georgia. This study, based entirely on facts pro­
cured by field investigators from interested shippers, was under­
taken at the request of the Board of Rivers and Harbors, War
Department, and will be included in the Army Engineers’ report to
Congress, relative to improvements of the Altamaha River system.
Plans were made by the War Department and the Department of
Commerce for the inland waterway section to undertake the eco­
nomic survey of the Calumet River-Sag Channel project.
In conjunction with the Bureau of Public Roads of the Depart­
ment of Agriculture, a field survey of motor freight transportation
was started in February. Motor freight hauling firms in every
State were interviewed by the field representatives of the two
bureaus. The purpose of this study is to develop facts of an
economic character, such as radius of haul, relation of various items

FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

125

of costs, efficiency of operation from the viewpoint of consistent
loads and back hauls, etc., and information on road conditions in
important trucking areas.
Advice to American exporters regarding packing and shipping
continued to be an important phase of the division’s activities. In
the domestic shipping field the division cooperated with the railways
and express companies in a campaign to reduce transit wastes. It
is interesting to note that last year’s loss and damage claims paid
by the railways were lower than in any previous year since the
records have been kept.
The foreign railway section, which in addition to its technical
activities, carries on the commodity work of the division, continued
its efforts to promote the sales of railway equipment in foreign
countries. One specific result of its trade-promotion activities was
the sale of $480,000 worth of rolling stock to the Brazilian rail­
ways. Although the past year was not a favorable period for this
industry, the section’s commercial service increased approximately
13 per cent over the previous year.
In its joint foreign port research work with the United States
Shipping Board the division has collected information on over 300
foreign ports, which lias been revised for the new directory of foreign
bunkering stations. Additional information relative to charges
against vessels calling for bunkers only has been added, and the
directory, when published, will contain information of this nature on
about 225 ports. Monographs covering 20 ports in Argentina,
Uruguay, and Brazil were about 60 per cent completed and a mono­
graph on the Baltic ports about 30 per cent completed at the end of
the year.
As a result of the combined efforts of the cable coordinator and
the cable section, savings effected in tolls on bureau telegraph and
cable messages amounted to $10,000 during the year. This saving
was effected by the joint use of air mails and by employment of
strategic foreign offices of the bureau for the purpose of relaying
messages to other bureau offices in close proximity. The communica­
tion section rendered service to the American communication com­
panies and to the general public.
TYPE AND REGIONAL DISTRIBUTION OE COMMERCIAL SERVICES
RENDERED

The following table shows the services rendered to American busi­
ness by the bureau and its 34 district offices during the past fiscal
year. The table divides them according to type and the geographical
area to which the service pertained. Each service listed consists of
a personal contact by visit, telephone or telegraph, or letter with an
American business firm or individual.
Every year but one since the organization of the bureau there has
been an increase in the number of services rendered. During the year
just closed there was an increase of 9.2 per cent over the preceding
year. This increase was greater, both numerically and proportion­
ately, than was recorded in 1929-30 over 1928-29.

126

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE
Glass of services

Total services rendered 1.
COMMODITY

Aeronautics trade.......................
Agricultural implements...........
Automotive.................................
Chemical__________ _______ _
Electrical equipment________
Foodstuffs...................................
Hides and leather___________
Industrial machinery________
Iron, steel, hardware________
Lumber___________________
Minerals. .............. ................
Motion pictures........................
Paper------------ ------------------Rubber____________________
Shoe and leather manufactures.
Specialties................................
Textiles.......................................
Tobacco.......................................
TECHNICAL

Fiscal year ended June 30
1928
1929
1930
1931
1,973,524 2,421,563 2,770,773 3,342,118 3,631,658 3,965,591
1926

1927

«
29,753
228,727
119,613
133,462
155, 301
16, 858
117, 200
221,252
91,393
28,172
(25
11, 786
14,260
7,148
185,667
106, 590
<*)

«
53,444
214,806
122,300
109,947
180,867
26,300
90,937
213,949
118,472
54, 503
«
21,861
21, 790
12,744
134, 637
124,332

TO
73,463
236.060
126,007
117, 788
226,445
28, 2 0 0
94, 709
216,975
112,450
80,026
(4
27,326
23,893
14, 740
149, 748
129,139
TO

TO
89,591
251,392
146,122
142, 526
247,092
36,122
139, 304
236,550
128,782
92,258
TO
34,970
31, 660
21,492
189,597
166,855
TO

43,937
8 8 , 641
283,065
170,581
157,420
252,371
29,122
176,375
264, 318
145, 263
84, 687
31, 379
32, 693
27,185
23,325
2 1 0 , 216
185,863
TO

41,327
80, 635
297,815
193,827
195,336
300,517
25,930
173, 628
282,125
193,081
70,621
33,289
33,275
23, 532
27,256
226,589
231,208
9, 619

«
16,984
27, 743
(35
43,160
37,874
TO
36,506

(«) 543
24,
37,304
(3$
66,962
54,166
TO
55,956

26,393
32,161
43, 732
(3) 732
89,
77, 367
TO
76,160

65,220
39, 624
46,341
(3)
109,287
114, 766
48,060
58,649

, 602
46,449
69,027
2,459
137,402
133,053
78,048
58,499

TO
758,407

TO
TO
874,873
1,042,260

102,492
840, 778

301,954
598,488

94,165
288, 631
576,292
99, 758
718,324
61,786

97,631
300,280
703,542
100, 613
773,481
126,196

52,118
271,852
8 6 6 , 270
45,489
462,448
441, 719

317,039
906, 645

Commercial
intelligence:
World to
Trade Directory
reports ...........
Commercial
laws.....................
16,318
Financeconstruction..................
and investment.............. 20,578
Foreign
(3)
Foreign tariffs..........................
30,031
Statistics
(foreign
trade)....
..........
50,
749
Statistical
research....................
to
Transportation___
______ __ 25,806
MISCELLANEOUS
Commercial processes 2................
Unclassifiable________
____ 362,TO861
GEOGRAPHICAL CLASSIFICATION *8*1
Africa...................................
Eastern
Europe................ ........ 40,390
Europe..................................
_______ 288,
Far
East________
246,990
Latin
America....... .................
649
Near
East...............................
42, 718
Western
Europe___
_______
831,043
United States (domestic commerce)__ 65,559
SPECIAL SERVICES
Trade
opportunities
__ 437,059
Trade
lists
(lists of*___
foreign__mer­
chants)
10____ ________ _
Special mimeographed circulars n__ 3, 578,524
327, 120
*

to

114,523
259,860
803,155
111, 970
929,295
265,375

10 0

751,364

578,343 713,805 885,213 915,058 496,086
537,144 568, 696 690, 372 740,823 769, 636
2,583, 725 3,659, 725 3,626,135
3,579,176 4,929,852
12 Established
Does not include
inquiries
handled
by
cooperative
offices
1929-30.
8 Established 1930-31.
i Included
Other oramnorctol
intelligence
merged with above commodity items. See also “Trade lists ”
m miscellaneous
priorservices
to 1928-29.
0 Included in miscellaneous prior to 1929-30.
1 Production, wholesaling, retailing general distribution where no commodity is specified.
nnuM n 2 *5 7 “ ? dl.|tr^bllted as J? ai*®a to which they pertain are all included in the total, but many service
C ° 2 Included intota?^ geograpincally* ^ he bureau changed its classification of areas on Jan. 1, 1930.
Originated in commercial intelligence division; included in total.
1 1 Not included in total.

The assistance rendered the bureau by the consular offices of the
Department of State has become increasingly valuable in investiga­
tions of foreign market conditions. The program of coordination
of activities in the foreign field has resulted in such an increase in
efficiency that one bureau office abroad has been closed during the
past fiscal year and another one will be closed before autumn.
Very -truly yours,
F rederick M. F eiker , D ir e c to r .

BUREAU OE STANDARDS
D epartment of C ommerce ,
B ureau of S tandards,

'Washington, July 1, 1931.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce.
D ear M r. S ecretary : I submit herewith a brief report on the work
of the Bureau of Standards during the fiscal year ended June 30,
1931. The various subjects are grouped under the appropriations
provided by the Congress.
GENERAL ACTIVITIES

Organization.—Two additional sections, one dealing with testing
and specifications and the other with waste-land products, were set
up in the organic and fibrous materials division, and the staff en­
gaged on the design and construction of the new hydraulic labora­
tory has been organized into a hydraulic laboratory section in the
division of mechanics and sound. A section dealing with chemical
and miscellaneous products has been added to the trade standards
division.
The regular staff at the close of the fiscal year numbered 1,066employees. With miscellaneous assignments the grand total was
1,171 persons, an increase of 10 as compared with last year. The
turnover was 5 per cent, the lowest since the World War. In five of
the bureau’s divisions there was no turnover. There were 531 promo­
tions and reclassifications to higher grades, and the average salary
($2,505) increased by $55.
Cooperation.—It is of interest to note that in spite of reduced
industrial activities the number of research associates stationed at
the bureau by trade and technical associations has not changed mate­
rially. As of June 30, there were 95 associates from 45 associations,
as compared with 96 from 41 associations last year. The bureau has
maintained the most cordial relations with all Government depart­
ments with which it deals as well as with hundreds of outside public
and private organizations interested in its work.
Finances.—The congressional appropriations for the fiscal year
were $3,647,971, including $350,000 for the hydraulic laboratory,
$400,000 for land, $147,000 for two radio stations, $75,000 for remod­
eling the shop building, and $40,000 for a new track-scale test car—
leaving $2,635,971 for operation, research, testing, and standardiza­
tion, an increase of $129,225 over the previous year. There were
transferred from other Government units $474,015, including reim­
bursements. The testing, research, and consulting work for other
departments carried on bureau funds is very heavy and growing
rapidly. Every effort was made to operate economically, and
$102,000 was turned back to the Treasury.
Visiting committee.—The present personnel' of the committee is:
Dr. S. W. Stratton, Gano Dunn, John R. Freeman, Charles F. Ket­
tering, and Charles L. Reese. The committe held one formal meet­
127

128

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

ing and individually visited the bureau several times. (This com­
mittee, and its annual visit of inspection to the bureau, were
provided for by the act creating the Bureau of Standards.)
Hydraulic laboratory.—The design of this laboratory was begun
in July, 1930, with the aid of an advisory committee, consisting of a
number of prominent hydraulic engineers. The final design was
adopted in January, 1931, and construction started on April 23. It
is expected that the building will be completed about April 1, 1932.
The design provides for a building 285 feet long, 60 feet wide over
two-thirds of its length, and 92 feet wide over the remainder.
There will be three stories at one end and two stories at the other.
The building will contain two large concrete supply basins from
which water will be pumped through the flumes and other experi­
mental apparatus to a concrete measuring basin from which it will
be returned through channels to the supply basins. A maximum
flow of 250 to 300 cubic feet per second will be possible in the main
flume, which is the dominating piece of equipment with a cross
section 12 feet square over a length of approximately 200 feet. A
description of this laboratory appears in Civil Engineering for July,
1931.
International relations.—The International Committee on Weights
and Measures met in April and approved, without change, the reso­
lutions of its advisory committee recommending the adoption of
a “ black-body ” radiator as the primary standard of light, and
requested the national laboratories to give special study to the
bureau’s standard which operates at the freezing point of platinum.
A resolution was adopted approving the use of 20° C. (68° F.) as
the standard temperature for all industrial length-measuring in­
struments, gages, etc.
The international committee recommended that the national labo­
ratories make observations with silver voltameters to determine
anew the correct value for the international volt. To hasten agree­
ment on this point, the bureau sent Doctor Yinal to Berlin to make
the measurements jointly with the representatives of the German
and British laboratories. Dr. F. Henning of the German laboratory
spent two months at the bureau, working on methods of temperature
measurement, and also devoting a great deal of attention to the new
primary standard of light and the melting points of platinum,
rhodium, and iridium. Doctors Dellinger, Dickinson, and Osborne
attended the plenary session of the International Electrotechnical
Commission at Stockholm, Doctor Dellinger as the official dele­
gate of the Institute of Radio Engineers and Doctors Dickinson and
Osborne in connection with standardization of requirements for
prime movers in the generation of electric power. Doctor Wenner
reported to the International Geodetic and Geophysical Union, also
in Stockholm, on the development of seismometers and salinity
meters at the bureau. Doctor Briggs represented the bureau at the
International Congress of Applied Mechanics at Stockholm. Doc­
tors Dellinger and Mcllwraith took part in the second meeting of
the International Technical Consulting Committee on Radio Com­
munication at Copenhagen in May and June, 1931. Doctors Del­
linger and Austin represented the bureau at the sessions of the In­
ternational Scientific Radio Union which were held in Copenhagen
at the same time.

BUREAU OE STANDARDS

129

The bureau has cooperated with other national laboratories, and
particularly those of England, France, and Germany, in comparisons
of standards of resistance, capacitance, and candlepower. The inter­
laboratory comparison of the thermoelectric portion of the interna­
tional temperature scale has been completed and work on the optical
part of the scale is under way.
Some correspondence has taken place on a proposed new unit of
heat, continuing the discussion mentioned in the report for last year.
The bureau has suggested that before adopting any unit based on the
electrical units, there should be a definite understanding as to the
values of the units to be employed. No decision has yet been reached.
Visitors.—The bureau has been honored by many distinguished
visitors from all over the world, 25 countries being represented.
Weights and measures conference.—The twenty-fourth meeting of
the National Conference on Weights and Measures was held under
the auspices of the bureau on June 2 to 5, 1931. Important actions
of the conference included the adoption of a code of regulations for
penny-in-the-slot person-weighing scales; revision of the code of
regulations for lubricating-oil bottles; and the adoption^ of a code
for odometers. Subjects considered embraced testing equipment for
large capacity scales, scales for determining wheel loads on motor
trucks, inspection of postal scales, Federal regulation of baskets and
hampers, quality labeling of canned goods, and many other matters.
Conference of State Utility Commission Engineers.—The ninth
annual conference of State Utility Commission Engineers, held at
the bureau on June 4. and 5, was attended by 25 engineers represent­
ing 16 States, the District of Columbia, and the Province of Ontario,
Canada.
Other conferences.—Many other important conferences were held,
including a two days’ session, November 24 and 25, of chairmen of
simplified practice project committees, attended by representatives
of over 50 industries; the metallurgical advisory committees on May
19 and 20 with over 60 in attendance; several meetings of the under­
ground pipe-corrosion group; conferences relating to trade standards,
and many technical subjects.
Federal Fire Council.—This organization, with the Director of the
Bureau of Standards as chairman, made up of representatives of
Federal institutions and the District of Columbia, formed last year
to function in advisory and informative capacity on matters relating
to fire prevention and protection of Federal buildings, held four
meetings during the year. Committee reports outlining the fire haz­
ards present and the needed structural changes and fire protection
equipment, were received and acted upon, covering the Senate side
of the Capitol and the Senate Office Building, the buildings of the
Smithsonian Institution, and those of the National Training School
for Boys. Through cooperation with the National Fire Protection
Association, surveys are being made by its engineers of Federal penal
institutions and reports have been completed on the Atlanta Peniten­
tiary, the Chillicothe Reformatory, and the Industrial Institution for
Women at Alderson, W. Ya. Fire hazard and safety surveys of the
bureau’s buildings and occupancy were made by local committees. _
American Standards Association.-—The bureau has continued its
close cooperation with this association. The Director of the Bu­
reau of Standards is a member of the board of directors, and two
84206— 31-------9

130

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

members of the bureau’s staff represent the Department of Commerce
on the standard’s council. The bureau is sponsor for 14 standardi­
zation projects and is represented on 73 sectional committees.
National Screw Thread Commission.—The National Screw Thread
Commission, of which the- director of the bureau is chairman, has
continued its work on the standardization of screw threads. Con­
necting threads for gas cylinders and valves have received particular
attention. In cooperation with the American Society of Mechani­
cal Engineers, a survey was undertaken to determine the extent to
which the commission’s screw thread standards are being accepted
and followed by industry. About 7,000 samples of bolts and nuts
have been collected and are being measured at the bureau. Con­
sideration has also been given to a possible revision of the class 4 fit
(fine) in order to make this class of threaded work commercially
feasible with the threading tools and gages now available.
American Gage Design Committee.—A report of the American
Gage Design Committee, covering plain and thread plug and ring
limit gages up to AX/% inches, was published in February. The com­
mittee has mapped out a standardization program for extending the
size range up to 12 inches, and for covering snap gages and length
snap gages over the same size range.
Federal Specifications Board.—This board, of which the Director
of the Bureau of Standards is ex officio chairman, has promulgated
its six hundred and ninety-sixth purchase specification, 210 this past
year, including 165 revisions. A large part of the research and ex­
perimental work on which these specifications are based is performed
in the bureau’s laboatories, and the chairmanships of several of the
board’s technical committees are held by members of the bureau’s
staff.
Publicity, bureau reports, etc.—-The number of papers published
in the Bureau of Standards Journal of Research was 146. In addi­
tion, the Technical News Bulletin and Commercial Standards
Monthly were issued each month. Forty-eight papers were pub­
lished in the other series of the bureau, including simplified practice
recommendations, building and housing, commercial standards, cir­
culars, handbooks, and miscellaneous publications. The total, in­
cluding 12 numbers of each of the periodicals, 146 reprints, and 48
publications in other series was, therefore, 230.
Approximately 170 papers were published in outside journals.
Releases to the press totaled 299, including several feature articles.
The fifth annual number of the Standards Yearbook was issued in
March. In commenting on the distribution of Government pub­
lications the Public Printer referred to this yearbook as one of his
“ best sellers.” Unusual demands have also been recorded in connec­
tion with the bureau’s circular 383 on washing, cleaning, and polish­
ing materials, building and housing publication No. 15 on care and
repair of the house, and several others.
Exhibits.—The bureau participated in the exhibit of colonial prod­
ucts at Paris, the industrial exposition at Liege, Belgium, the com­
mercial exhibition at Washington, and in the exhibit of testing appa­
ratus and machines held by the American Society for Testing
Materials at Chicago in June.
Medical officer.—The plan of stationing at the bureau a medical
officer of the United States Public Health Service has worked out

131

BUREAU OU STANDARDS

most satisfactorily. Not only have emergency cases been promptly
cared for, but the general health of the employees has been improved.
Testing.—Table 1 gives a summary of the bureau’s test work for
the past year. The total number of tests completed was 212,717,
and the fee value $816,979.59. The corresponding figures for 1930
are 200,726 and $683,614.51.

T able 1.— N u m b e r s

o f t e s t ite m s , d e t e r m in a t io n s , a n d f e e v a lu e
c o m p le te d d u r in g th e f is c a l y e a r e n d e d J u n e 30, 1031

fo r

te sts

Num ber of test items
for—
Kind of instrument or material, class of test,
or nature of service rendered

Electrical standards, instruments, and materials............................................. -.......................
Electric lamps and lighting equipment.............
Length-measuring devices................... ..............
Gages and gage steels------- -----------------------Hsemacytometers. sieves, thermal expansion,
etc..........................................................-............
Weights and balances..........................................
Timepieces ............................................................
Volumetric apparatus........................... ...........
Hydrometers........................ ..............................
Laboratory thermometers............ ......................
Pyrometers, calorimeters, etc..............................
Fuels and lubricants............................................
Optical instruments and materials.....................
Radioactive materials----------------------- ------Engineering instruments and appliances------Aeronautic instruments................................ .......
Physical properties of engineering materials...
Sound producing and measuring instruments..

Cement, concreting materials, lime, etc............
Textiles..................................................................
Paper.......................................................... -........
Leather.................. ......... ...........................-........
Paint, varnish, and bituminous materials........
Chemical analysis of metals................................
Chemical tests of miscellaneous materials........
Distribution of standard samples.......................
Total_____________________ ________

Govern­
ment
depart­ Bureau
of
Public ments
and Stand­
State ards
institu­
tions

Total Number
number of deter­ Fee value
of test mina­
items tions

811 1,061
480
2,371
60
192 3i 149
651
146
129
6
1,283
736
395
321
3, 538
290
3, 319 6, 204
583
4 1, 228
364
63
4
8,872 5, 512
359
27
801
617
258
2, 744 1,128
606
27,954 64, 361
'223
10111 475653 133
194J 1,488
10 15231 377
502
251
606
1 1,'236
918
1
2,463
126
101
1, 899
220
87
13
1 12 146
52 2,107
9
30
41
117
397
955
1, 00047 540989
21 3850
479
57
26 19,950
77
125
5, 301 6,745
1, 606 71218
2218 5,900
1, 664 1,101
315
39
61 2,780
150
482
127
4
14
6, 3329 886
171
3
60, 305 137, 644 14,768

2,352
3,803 $18,852. 60
2,431
4,924 12, 879. 50
3^992
4 ,129 1 26^ 845. 59
1,875
2,337. 25
281
2,414
9,509
2, 255. 00
4,149 19,857 11,138. 85
10,106 21,837
7, 288. 65
1, 232 38,060 58, 778. 50
4
,437
431
h 301. 50
14, 743 32,116 10,151. 05
1,445
3, 669
1, 897. 00
258
329
447. 00
4,478 18,318
9, 823. 60
92,315 411, 956 12, 006. 50
'409
5' 754
4, 631. 50
157
1, 080. 00
131
58
76
5, 785. 00
2,059
9,489 18, 687. 00
162
471
9, 525. 00
31
238 51, 500. 00
1,359
5, 352
i , 200. 25
1,919
2,873
2, 850. 00
2, 700
1, 064
8,115. 00
1, 447
1, 634 24,195. 00
999
3,480 10, 084. 50
13
13
100. 00
2,305
5,436 13, 059. OO
1
, 086. 00
39
45
158
929
1, 390. 76
397
794
993. 50
3,154
1, 053
4, 946. 54
4, 002
8
, 260. 90
1, 540
56
331
418. 50
59
231. 00
131
529
4, 935. 90
1,591
20, 033 89,428 2 221, 363. 75
202 889 2, 659. OO
12, 046 26, 694 38, 625. 90
1,624 11,440 36,931. 50
6,634 15,900 34, 861. 50
2,783
81,, 769
299 25, 528. 50
355
3,698. 50:
2,936 23,375 63,413. 00'
9,839. 50
613
2,324
3, 563 10, 547. 00
6, 909
506
90 14,433. 50»
212,717 3 805, 578 3816,979; 59

>Includes fee value of $7,918.59 for inspecting 2,971,048 incandescent lamps at various factories for other
branches of the Government.
1
Includes fee value of $54,802 for sampling, testing, and shipping 6,610,000 barrels of Portland cement and
50,130 barrels of masonry cement.
« Of these totals 235,062 determinations were for the public, fee value, $71,380.65; 534,257 determinations
were for the Government departments and State institutions, fee value, $683,170.67; 36,259 determinations
were for the bureau, fee value, $62,428.27. The number of test items and determinations necessary in con­
nection with the bureau’s own work of research and standardization, with the resulting fee values, is not
included in these totals.

132

EEPOET TO THE SECEETAEY OP COMMEBCE
SALARIES ($710,000)

Maintenance and intercomparison of electrical units.—Three 1-ohm
resistance standards of a new type developed by the bureau, meas­
ured in the national laboratories of Germany and England, showed
that the units of resistance in use in Germany and in England are,
respectively, 10 parts per million and 27 parts per million greater
than the unit maintained by the bureau. An absolute method of re­
sistance measurement has been under development in which the
regulation of the speed of the driving motor is one of the major
phases of the problem. This ha,s been solved satisfactorily. Meas­
urements of inductance on a porcelain-core inductance standard
showed that 1 international ohm (Bureau of Standards) = 1.00051
absolute ohms.
Improvements and refinements have been made in the measure­
ment and control of the temperature of the oil baths for the stand­
ard cells. Comparisons with several foreign national laboratories
indicate that the bureau’s value of the international volt i,s 20 micro­
volts below that of England and 60 microvolts above that of Ger­
many. Experiments with the silver voltameter in which the bureau
is cooperating through a representative now in Berlin, were begun
in Germany in May and will be continued in England and France
in the effort to reduce these discrepancies. .Measurements with the
Rosa-Dorsey-Miller current balance showed that 1 international
ampere (Bureau of Standards) =0.99997 absolute ampere.
Waidner-Burgess standard of light.—A proposal was submitted
to the advisory committee on electricity of the International Com­
mittee on Weights and Measures that the reproducible light stand­
ard, developed last year at the bureau, be adopted as an international
standard. Final action, however, was not taken at the 1931 meet­
ing, as the other national laboratories had not yet had time to give
the proposal sufficient study.
Freezing point of iridium and its use for light standard.—The
freezing point of pure iridium ha,s been determined by the crucible
method in an electric induction furnace, resulting in a figure of
2,452° C., ±3°.
Preliminary observations of the brightness of a black body at the
freezing point of iridium, following the same technique as that for
the Waidner-Burgess light standard using platinum, have shown
that the iridium freezing point can be so used, but with much more
difficulty. However, it can be used conveniently for stepping up
from carbon filament to tungsten filament lamps.’ The preliminary
figure obtained for brightness of thi,s standard is 1,250 candles per
square centimeter in terms of the bureau’s derived tungsten
standards.
Maintenance of unit of candlepower.—Carbon-filament incandes­
cent lamps were sent to the laboratories in five foreign countries and
remeasured after their return. The units of candlepower as main­
tained in the United States and Great Britain are in close agree­
ment, but the French unit seems to be about 1 per cent larger, and
the unit, derived from measurements in Hefner candles, maintained
in Germany, smaller by more than 1 per cent than the unit main­
tained at the bureau.

BUREAU OP STANDARDS

133

Magnetic testing and research.—A method for standardizing mag­
netic permeameters at high values of magnetizing force was de­
veloped. Investigations were carried out on the relation between
magnetic properties and torsional strength of tool steel. Data to
aid in the interpretation of the results of thermomagnetic analysis,
with special reference to the effects of carbide particle size and the
tempering of quenched steel, were obtained.
Ruling of line scales by interference methods.-—Two meter scales
and several shorter ones have been ruled, using light wave lengths
to step off the intervals. One of the meter scales was subdivided into
centimeters, the other into decimeters. The smaller scales were sub­
divided down as low as one-thousandth of an inch. AH were free
of any error requiring the use of a correction chart.
Recalibration of tape bench.-—-A check on the 5-meter intervals ox
the bureau’s 50-meter bench standard, used in testing steel tapes,
shows no change in excess of 0.1 millimeter from the result of the
previous calibration made in 1922, the average change being less than
0.04 millimeter.
,
Graduation and calibration of precision circles.— I he graduation
and calibration of precision circles has shown that while the bureau s
equipment is capable of graduating circles to an accuracy of two sec­
onds or better, extreme care must be exercised in the mechanical and
heat treatment of the circles, both before and after graduation, in
order to maintain this accuracy.
Effects of wire diameter and of large openings of sieves upon siev­
ing values.—Detailed measurements of large numbers of sieves have
been made in connection with work on standard samples of abrasives.
Nickel-chromium alloy for weights.—The accuracy and behavior
of high-precision weights made of an alloy of 80 per cent nickel and
20 per cent chromium, have been studied under a variety of condi­
tions to which standards may be subjected in practice. Thus far
the material seems to be of satisfactory constancy.
Variation of electroplated weights with humidity.—This investi­
gation has been completed and the results are being prepared for
publication.
_
. . . .
Precision clock.—The precision free-pendulum clock mentioned m
last year’s report, especially adapted to use with the photoelectric
cell, has been constructed and installed in the constant temperature
clock room. It has been found to give seconds signals of a higher
accuracy than those obtained from the Ricfler clock.
Effect of temperature changes on rates of watches.—Preliminary
results of a cooperative research indicate that watches equipped with
uncut, monometallic balance and elinvar hairspring can be more
accurately adjusted to compensate for temperature changes than can
the ordinary watch equipped with cut, bimetallic balance and steel
hairspring.
_
.
Cooperation icith Ilorological Institute.—Cooperation with the
Horological Institute of America in its efforts to improve the quality
of service rendered by watch repairmen has continued.
Density of creosote oils.—In cooperation with the preservatives
committee of the American Wood Preservers Association, volume
correction tables have been prepared for creosote oils and creosote
coal-tar solutions.

1.34

REPOET TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Density of chromic acid solutions.—The work on density of chromic
acid solutions has been completed and the results published in the
Journal of Research.
Ethyl alcohol tables.—A new series of ethyl alcohol density tables
on the basis of percentage by volume was prepared at the request of
the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists for publication in
their “ Methods of Analysis.”
Orifice meter tests.-—Data on several research projects involving •
orifice discharge coefficients and large capacity gas meters have been
reviewed and correlated. Pulsating flows are now under considera­
tion and the work done in this field is now being reviewed, prepara­
tory to outlining the scope of the research which will be undertaken.
Absolute determination of gravity at Washington.—Work has
been continued, but is not yet completed. One of three silica pendu­
lums under construction is ready for preliminary work, and a Shortt
clock has been installed and operated continuously for some months.
Spectroscopic investigations.—The arc and spark spectra and the
Zeeman effect of zirconium, leading to a complete analysis of its
spectral regularities, were obtained. Chlorine and bromine were
specially excited by the electrodeless discharge to obtain the spectra
of the singly and doubly ionized atoms. The hyperfine structure of
certain lines of krypton and xenon was investigated by both the
Fabry-Perot interferometer and the Lummer-Gehrcke Plate.
Laboratory intercomparison of methods for measuring ultra-violet
radiation.-—With the use of ultra-violet radiation for health purposes
the demand for a reliable method of measuring this very difficult
quantity has arisen. The bureau has cooperated with several other
laboratories in measuring the ultra-violet output of the same samples
of a specific type of lamp. Differences in the measurement by these
laboratories appear to arise both from the inconstancy of the lamps
and the inaccuracy of the measuring methods.
Photographic sensitometry.—The relation between photographic
sensitivity and development time for several different types of emul­
sions has been investigated by using the three most common methods
of measuring sensitivity. It is found that there is an optimum
development time for obtaining maximum sensitivity.
Liquefaction of helium.—Plelium was liquefied on April 3 for the
first time in the United States, and with it a temperature of --271.3°
C. (-456° F.) was attained, which is only 1.9° C.(3.4° F.) above the
absolute zero of temperature.
Liquid nitrogen.—The construction of a new nitrogen liquefier was
practically completed. The liquid nitrogen will be used for lowtemperature work with flammable hydrocarbons, which would be
dangerous if liquid air were used, because of the possibility of
explosions.
Preparation of pure oxygen for use in international comparison of
low-temperature thermometers.—This project required the design
and construction of elaborate apparatus, and approximately two
months of working time in its operation.
Specific heats at low temperatures.—In cooperation with the fixed
nitrogen research laboratory of the Department of Agriculture, a
project was undertaken for the determination of the specific heats of
nitrogen organic compounds down to solid hydrogen temperatures,

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

135

and for the calculation of the entropies and free energies of the
compounds from their specific heats. The construction of trie
apparatus was completed and the determination of the specific heat
of primary amyl ammonium chloride is under way.
_.
Oiliness of lubricating oils—The frictional characteristics of a
series of representative lubricating oils have been determined on the
Grooved Specimen, Herschel, Kingsbury, and Timken oilmess ma­
chines. The results indicate that quantitative values obtained on
each machine depend to a great extent upon the particular design and
mode of operation. They indicate also that a more certain control
of factors involved in oiliness tests is needed. This work was done
in cooperation with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers.
Determination of the formula of a hydrocarbon—A critical dis­
cussion of the measurements and calculations required m order to
determine the molecular formula of any hydrocarbon containing not
more than 100 carbon atoms has been published.
,
Standards of criteria for purity of hydrocarbons obtained from
petroleum.—Satisfactory criteria for the purity and identification ot
hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum have been established. _
Hydrocarbons from petroleum.—In cooperation with the American
Petroleum Institute the investigation dealing with the determination
of the composition of petroleum has been continued. The following
hydrocarbons have been isolated and the quantities of each present
in the petroleum have been determined: Ethane, propane, butane,
cyclopentane, pentanes (2), benzene, methylcyclopentane, cyclohex­
ane, w-hexane, 2, 3-dimethylbutane, 2-dimetliylpentane, 3-methylpentane, toluene, methylcyclohexane, «,-heptane, 2, 2-dimethylpentane,
xylenes (mixture), «-octane, «-nonane.
_
Variation of transference number with concentration.—A new mov­
ing boundary method has been developed by means of which it is
possible to measure the change in the transference number of a given
electrolyte with its concentration in aqueous solution.
Chemical nature of rubber.—The, investigation of pure rubber hy­
drocarbon has been continued in order to obtain photographic evi­
dence of crystallinity, to make combustion analyses of extreme accu­
racy so as to detect any possible slight differences m composition, and
to determine the molecular weight.
Painting plaster.—Information was collected and made available
concerning the failure of paint on plaster, with suggestions as to
possible causes of such failure and precautions necessary to reduce
the probability of failure of the decorative coating.
Accelerated tests of asphalts.—In cooperation with the Asphalt
ShinMe and Hoofing Institute, asphalt materials have been exposed
to an accelerated cycle resembling that used on paint. The results
obtained are similar to those produced by outdoor weathering.
Analytical reagent chemicals.—Sixty-three individual methods tor
the determination of various impurities in 18 reagent chemicals were
critically studied, as the bureau’s share in the preparation of specifixations for reagent chemicals by the American Chemical Society.
As a contribution to the study of the quality of analytical chemicals
a report was prepared on the results of tests of all reagents bought
by the bureau during a 2%-year period ended December, 1930.
Platinum metals—Progress has been made in the second phase
of the research on analytical methods for the metals of the platinum

136

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

group methods of separation. Work on the separation of osmium
was completed and published, together with the method for the de­
termination of osmium, completed last year. A method for the
strictly quantitative separation of iridium and rhodium from each
other has been nearly completed.
Pure metals.—The physical properties of nickel of the highest at­
tainable purity, 99.94 per cent with not over 0.001 per cent oxyoen,
have been determined and a report published. As part of the ^bu­
reau s cooperation with the alloys-of-iron research committee of
Engineering Foundation, the literature on pure iron has been criti­
cally reviewed and a monograph on the subject is in preparation
Laboratory work for preparing pure iron by precipitation and reduc­
tion methods is under way.
Thermal conductivity of metals.—A relatively simple comparison
method for the determination of thermal conductivity of metals at
elevated temperatures for commercial purposes has been developed
The thermal conductivity of pure metals and simple steels decreases
with increase of temperature in the range from 50° to 550° C.- for
high alloy steels, it increases. Transformation points in metals
nickel, can be readily located by thermal conductivity curves.
Magnetic change in iron —The electronic changes underlying the
magnetic change or A2 transformation in iron are being studied by
means of the /Fray spectrograph.
J
Elastic hysteresis research—Theoretical study has been made and
published of the vibration of elongated and short U-bars with spe­
cial reference to their use in determining elastic hysteresis. In the
experiments now in progress the results from tuning forks, U-bars.
and straight bars have been compared, and show that the use of the
elongated U-bar will be satisfactory, thus dispensing with the use
or the expensive tuning fork.
Information circular on zinc.—A comprehensive review of the
literature on zinc and its alloys has been completed. The results will
form the basis of a circular similar to previous ones on copper nickel
and aluminum.
’
’
Revision of Federal specification for industrial thermometers.—
7 ederal Specifications Board Specification 472A was revised accord­
ing to suggestions from the committee on thermometers and in co­
operation with the Navy Department.
Federal specifications for rubier, textiles, paper, and leather —
During the year the committee on rubber products and packing materials, whose chairman is a member of the bureau, has prepared 46
specifications, and the bureau has assisted in the preparation of 40
specifications for textiles, 14 for paper, and 2 for leather.
. Opffl ation clticL wictiTiieTKiTicG of buildings.—Xhe employees en^ao’ed
in the maintenance and operation of the plant are divided into three
Sj,°^Ps> T^z) P°wer plant, guard, and janitorial groups. The duties
of these groups, which include the operation and maintenance of the
heat and power plant, the policing of the bureau’s property, and
the routine cleaning in the various buildings, were carried out as
heretofore.
’
Miscellaneous repairs and alterations.—This work included in ad­
dition to repairs to buildings, such interior alterations as were neces­
sary to facilitate the work of the various laboratories. Extensive

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

137

alterations have been necessary in many buildings as a result of
shifting all shops to the north building. Interior painting was
continued and the excavation and fitting out of laboratory for optical
work in the basement of the south building was completed.
Construction of instrum,ents and apparatus.—The bureau s shops
constructed most of the special instruments and apparatus, including
blown-glass apparatus, required by the laboratories. In addition,
cabinetwork, and the repair of furniture and woodwork required in
the upkeep of buildings was taken care of, as heretofore. The neces­
sary shop work was performed on specimens submitted for test, and
standard steel and alloy samples were prepared. The alteration of
the north building was completed in March, and most of the shops
moved into this building, with a great increase in efficiency. Several
new machine tools were installed and machines formerly belt driven
were equipped with individual motor drives.
.
Additional research.—'Of the 138 projects carried by this fund, only
about 40 have been briefly described. A few others, which may be
mentioned by title, are: Development of seismometers, electrical timedistribution systems, dimensional stability of invar, effect of tempera­
ture on rate of watches, fluidity of oils at low temperatures, establish­
ment of color-temperature scale, methods of ultra-violet radiometry,
microscope objectives, physical properties of paints, efficiency of gas
ranges and water heaters, permeability of airship fabrics, and rubber
core binders for foundry sand.
EQUIPMENT ($163,000)

Alteration and addition to north building.—A new third story was
added to the north building, and many interior changes were made
to accommodate the various instrument and machine shops which
will be concentrated in this building.
Important purchases.—Important additions to the bureau s plant
and laboratory facilities have been purchased under this fund.
These include °
A new dead-weight testing machine for the engineering mechanics
section, with a capacity of 10,000 pounds in increments of 100 pounds.
An interchangeable quartz prism spectrograph of high resolving
power to be used by the spectroscopy section in the analysis and de­
scription of spectra in the ultra-violet.
A gas-fired steam boiler for supplying steam on a 24-hour basis to
chemical baths.
.
Harmonic analyzer to be used in the analysis Oi radio waves m
connection with experimental work on radio aids to air navigation.
A high-frequency radiotelephone set to be used in experiments
involving communication between airplanes and the ground.
An improved saccharimeter for the polarimetry section to be used
in determining the sugar content of solutions, especially in check
analyses for the Customs Service.
A set of electrical filters is being constructed for the sound section
and will be used in the analysis of noises. These were ordered during
the fiscal year but will not be delivered for several months.
Two large metallographic microscopes have been added to the
equipment of the section of optical metallurgy.

138

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE
GENERAL EXPENSES ($64,000)

Maintenance of mechanical 'plant.—The usual maintenance work,
such as replacement of piping, valves, and fittings has been carried
on. Extensive piping changes have been made in the north building
in converting it for the exclusive use of the shops.
Electrical construction and repair.—In addition to maintenance
work, extensive new electrical installations have been made as a re­
sult of shifting some of the shops and laboratories.
Plumbing and pipe work.—Routine work on existing piping sys­
tems was performed, as well as much new work, made necessary by
the many shifts in laboratories and in the refitting of the north
building.
Library books.—The net number of volumes accessioned was 1,184,
making the total number of accessioned volumes 36,403. Scientific
and technical periodicals received number 1,275.
IMPROVEMENT AND CARE OE GROUNDS ($19,400)

Improvement of grounds— Good progress has been maintained in
the improvement of the grounds by grading, seeding, sodding, and
the planting of trees and shrubs. The valley in the grounds fronting
on Connecticut Avenue has been filled, preparatory to putting in a
temporary road to the hydraulic laboratory. A new piece of perma­
nent road and walk was completed between the chemistry and wind
tunnel buildings. A storm and waste water sewer has been con­
structed along Van Ness Street.
TESTING STRUCTURAL MATERIALS ($320,000)

_City planning and zoning.—Reports based on surveys of city plan­
ning and zoning in the United States have been issued and show
widespread progress in the use of the recommendations of the ad­
visory committee on this subject. The study of subdivision regula­
tions has been continued. A pamphlet on the preparation of zoning
ordinances, designed especially to aid smaller municipalities, has
been completed and is being printed.
Home financing.—A detailed study of the experience of more than
5,000 purchasers of homes was completed, and the information ob­
tained on the financing problems of these buyers is being studied in
relation to data previously secured for issuance in a report.
Gare and repair of the house.—A. guide for householders who
wish to keep their property in good condition was printed; 15,000
copies have been sold, and to meet new demands, 50,000 additional
copies are being printed. The book has attracted much interest from
the press, local merchandising houses, national trade associations,
and educational institutions.
Cooperation with other agencies on building and housing prob­
lems.—Full or part time services of several members of the staff have
been devoted to cooperative studies with the President’s Conference
on Home Building and Home Ownership, which finds it most help­
ful to have the assistance of members of the bureau’s staff experienced
m the study of problems of home ownership, construction, finance.
City planning and zoning, and related subjects.

BUREAU OE STANDARDS

139

Absorption coefficients of acoustic materials.-—-Measurements have
been made of the sound absorption coefficients of acoustic tile, acous­
tic plaster, and other materials designed to reduce the reverberation
time of large rooms, Development of acoustic correctives has been
so active that frequent revision of the tables showing the absorption
coefficients has been necessary. These are now issued as letter cir­
culars, three having been released during the year.
Protection for Keating appliances.—Experiments on methods of
preventing fires from household heating and cooking appliances were
completed.
Tests of corrugated roofmg.—Strength, absorption, heat, shock,
and fire-spread tests were made, at the request of the Navy Depart­
ment, of corrugated cement-asbestos and asphalt-covered steel boards.
Durability of concrete aggregates.—The average resistance of the
commonly used concrete aggregates to the boiling and drying, freez­
ing and thawing, sodium sulphate and sodium chloride tests was in
the following order : Granite, trap, gravel, slag, limestone, and sand­
stone. Individual samples, however, varied greatly from this order,
one sample of limestone being as resistant as the average granite.
The absorption and porosity measurements were found to be of little
value as criteria for judging the ability of the aggregate to with­
stand disintegration.
Cast stone.—Freezing and thawing tests on cast stone samples have
been continued until the samples ' showed signs of disintegration.
The resistance to freezing and thawing ranged from complete fail­
ure in 25 cycles to specimens that showed the first small signs of
failure at 1,450 cycles. The average resistance to freezing of the
samples made by the wet-cast process was equal to the average resist­
ance of the specimens made by the dry-tamp process. The specimens
formed by vibrating showed greater than the average resistance to
freezing. A proposed Federal specification for cast stone has been
drawn up and submitted to the industry for comment.
Waterproofing compounds.—The incorporation of 50 different
waterproofing compounds in 1:3:6 concrete showed 16 per cent of
the compounds to be effective in reducing the permeability of the
concrete when it was subjected to a continuous water pressure of 20
pounds per square inch.
Fifty surface waterproofing materials coated on 1:2:4 concrete
were less absorbent than uncoated concrete for the first few hours
immersion in water. The most efficient coatings after one year s im­
mersion were asphalt emulsions and asphalt paints. Linseed oil,
China wood oil, and varnish were the most efficient transparent
C0?Aqgreqates for cinder concrete building units.—In cooperation
with the National Building Units Corporation, samples of cinder
aggregates from 60 plants are being tested to determine their grad­
ing, hardness, soundness, and concrete-making qualities.
Survey of the properties of common brick.—In cooperation with
the Common Brick Manufacturers Association samples of bricks
from 220 plants are being tested to determine their physical proper­
ties. Specification tests have been made on about (0 per cent or
the samples.

140

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Moisture 'penetration through brich and mortar.—Water under a
head of from 0 to 8 inches penetrated more rapidly through bricks
or mortar separately than through brick masonry specimens of the
same size, a marked reduction in the rate of penetration occurring
as the moisture passed from one material into the other.
Tests of Arlington Memorial Bridge.—Tests of one of the arch
spans of the Arlington Memorial Bridge at Washington, D. C., have
shown that the average temperature of the arch barrel has varied
•during two years from 28° to 85° F. The corresponding vertical
crown movement was 1% inches and the coefficient of expansion of
the arch barrel was approximately 0.0000065 per degree Fahrenheit.
Durability and strength of bond between mortar and brick.—
Masonry specimens of brick and mortar were subjected first to 50
freezings and thawings while saturated with water, and then to dry­
ing. The _durability of the bond of the mortar to the bricks de­
pended chiefly on the pressure on the mortar joints during exposure,
the type of mortar used, and the moisure content of the bricks when
set in the mortar.
Clay admixtures in concrete.—For concrete mixtures of the same
consistency as determined by a penetration test, the substitution of
clay either for 10 per cent of the volume of the cement or for 7y2
per cent of the volume of the sand, in concretes containing about 5
cubic feet of cement per cubic yard of concrete, caused a slight in­
crease in strength and a small decrease in the water permeability
of the concrete.
Cement.— (1) It was found that the solubility of a cement in sugar
solution was not a (Satisfactory index of its disintegration in sul­
phate solutions. (2) It has been found that CaO and 2Ca0.Si02
catalyze the decomposition of 3Ca0.Si02 into these products, and
that the rate of decomposition is a maximum at 1,175° C. (3) The
composition and melting points of the various anhydrous calcium
borates have been determined. (4) A study of the reaction of water
on the anhydrous calcium silicates ha,s shown that 3Ca0.Si02 and
beta 2Ca0;Si02 which have hydraulic properties give metastable so­
lutions which subsequently precipitate out hydrated calcium silicates
on approaching equilibrium. (5) The fields in which hydrated
alumina hydrated tricalcium aluminate, hydrated tricalcium alumi­
nate, and hydrated tetracalcium aluminate, respectively, are the
solid phases in the system Ca0.Al20 3- H 20, have been determined.
Lime.— (1) Particle size distribution of hydrated lime: To cali­
brate the .sedimentation apparatus, glass spherules have been sepa­
rated into fractions wherein most of the material is within 2 microns
of the average diameter. With this fractionated material check,
sedimentation curves have been obtained with the automatic record­
ing balance. (2) Soundness of finishing lime: The autoclave method
or testing the soundness of lime has been found to be in agreement
with correlating tests of the lime in plastered panels. (3) Federal
specification,s have been revised for quicklime and hydrated lime for
structural purposes.
Gypsum—(1) Volumetric changes of gypsum fiber concrete: It
was found that the expansions of specimens of neat gypsum at the
end of the fourteenth cycle of alternate drying and wetting ranged
from 0.03 to 0.12 per cent of the original dry length, and 0.15 to 0.31

BUREAU OE STANDARDS

141

per cent for those specimens containing 12.5 per cent of wood chips.
Specimens of the same materials £howed much smaller changes when
exposed alternately to air of low and high relative humidity. (2)
Federal specifications have been revised for calcined gypsum, gyp­
sum plaster, gypsum wall board, and gypsum plaster board.
Sand-lime brick.—It was found that both modulus of rupture and
compressive strength are more indicative of the resistance of ,sandlime brick to freezing and thawing than is total absorption. As a.
rule, sand-lime brick which had a rapid rate of absorption and high,
strength withstood freezing and thawing relatively satisfactorily..
This statement is without reference to total absorption.
Building stone.—Forty-three samples of stone, most of which
were limestone, were tested during the year in connection with the
study of building stones. Weathering tests are in progress on 74
limestones, 21 sandstones, and 16 granites. Considerable attention*
has been given to studying the underlying causes involved in thedestructive weathering of various types of stone.
Slate.—The investigation of the physical properties of slate from,
the important producing districts and the study of slate weathering,
are practically completed. This work has covered about 350 samples
of new and old weathered slate. A test procedure for determining
weathering characteristics has been developed which affords a means
for selecting durable slate. In cooperation with the Federal Specifi­
cations Board a specification for roofing slate has been prepared.
Masonry cements.—An investigation of all the masonry cements on
the market is under way. Workability, water-retaining capacity,
strength, volume change, and specific gravity of the pastes and mor­
tars are among the properties being studied.
Elastic ceme7its.—Apparatus has been developed and a procedure
established for the physical testing of pointing materials and slater’scements. During the year 153 samples have been tested for various
departments of the Government. This has afforded a more satis­
factory basis of acceptance for such materials as well as a means of
enabling manufacturers to control their products.
Effects of variations in composition on vitreous enamels.—The
fusibility of typical first-coat vitreous enamels is influenced more
readily by changes in the boric oxide-sodium oxide ratio than by
changes in the flint-feldspar ratio. The data obtained, when pre­
sented graphically, give a symmetrical figure. The fusibility
has been measured in the following four ways, and the same
general relationship to composition holds in all four cases: (a)
Coarse deformation tests; (5) “ fusion block” flow tests; (c)>
slumping temperature tests (by interferometer method); and (d)
“ button ” tests (observing dimensions of the resulting “ buttons
when cylinders of enamel powder are heated under standard condi­
tions). Equipment has been assembled, and special means of pre­
paring satisfactory specimens developed for measuring modulus of
elasticity, coefficient of expansion, and tensile strength. Over 10,000
specimens have been prepared for these tests, and the measurements
of expansivity with the interferometer have been nearly completed.
Cement reference laboratory.—The cement reference laboratory, a
cooperative project of the Bureau of Standards and the American,

142

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Society for Testing Materials, continued its eiforts to secure greater
uniformity and improvement in cement testing. The field inspection
of laboratories formed the greater part of the year’s work, 122 lab­
oratories having been visited. Requests for inspections during the
second tour of the inspectors have been received from 196
laboratories.
Branch laboratories and inspection of cement.—The bureau’s
branch laboratories, maintained at Northampton, Pa., for the testing
and inspection of cement; Denver, Colo., for the testing of cement
and concreting materials; San Francisco, Calif., for testing cement
and miscellaneous materials, together with the cement testing labo­
ratory in Washington, have been engaged in testing service for
Government purchasing agencies. During the year 2,3il,000 barrels
of cement, an increase of 42 per cent over last year, were sampled,
and 1,830,000 barrels were shipped.
A 4,000,000-pound precision hydraulic compression machine, for
testing concrete cylinders up to 3 feet in diameter, was installed at
the Denver laboratory, and equipment for testing textiles, rubber,
and leather was added to the branch in San Francisco.
Number of projects provided for.—In all, 43 research projects were
authorized under this fund during the fiscal year. The general
character of the work has been indicated in the preceding paragraphs.
TESTING MACHINES ($41,000)

Strength of welded joints in tubular members for aircraft.—In co­
operation with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and
the Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce, this investi­
gation has been continued, using (1) a type of gusset-reinforced joint
shown by previous tests to be most efficient, (2) joints heat-treated
after welding, and (3) joints made from thin-walled tubing.
Fatigue of alclad.—Flexural fatigue tests were made on two groups
M alclad sheets (approximately 0.1 inch thick) having core material
of 17ST and 17ST special aluminum alloy. The maximum fiber
stress (based on the total thickness of the sheet) for which longitudi­
nal specimens withstood 100,000,000 cycles of stress without failure,
was approximately 10,500 pounds per square inch for the alclad 17ST
and 16,000 pounds per square inch for the 17ST core material. For
the alclad 17ST special, the maximum fiber stress was about 12,800
pounds per square inch and 20,500 pounds per square inch for the
core material. The tests on alclad specimens which had been sub­
jected to 6, 12, and 18 months’ exposure to salt spray, gave results
which corresponded approximately to those on unexposed specimens.
The tests on the core material, exposed for the same time, gave results
corresponding to those obtained for alclad specimens.
Airship girders.—In cooperation with the Bureau of Aeronautics,
Navy Department, an investigation is in progress on factors affecting
the strength and rigidity of airship girders. Results of a series of
compression tests show that the strength of the girders is dependent
almost entirely upon the different types of critical instability. This,
tor some sizes and kinds of girders in the chord members, is torsion.
In compression tests of short lengths of girders in which the twist­
ing of the chord members alone was restrained, the strength of the
glider was increased over 40 per cent. If practicable designs are

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

143

found for longitudinal members having high torsional rigidity, the
strength of rigid airships can be considerably increased without
increasing the weight.
.
Fixation of airplane struts.—In cooperation with the .National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the Navy Department, a
series of chrome-molybdenum steel tubular struts of different lengths
has been tested in compression. The weight of aircraft structures
may be reduced as a result, since the action of elastically restrained
ends is now known more definitely.
.
Methods of locking screw threads.—Fiirty-one devices, representing
all manufacturers who cared to participate, were tested, including
nonproprietary devices, such as standard nuts, jam nuts, and slotted
nuts
withabout
cotter22pins.
Only
per cent of the devices showed appreciable differ­
ence in static torque-tension characteristics from that of the coarse
thread standard nut. In only one device was the screwing-off torque
greater than the screwing-on torque at all stresses.
Federal specification for wire rope.—The specification for wire
rope No. 297, promulgated by the Federal Specifications Board m
1925’ is now being revised to include some additional types of wire
rope required by Government departments, and to bring the tables
for strength into agreement with the values adopted recently by uiost
manufacturers. Information on the care and use of wire rope will
be included as a guide to users in obtaining satisfactory service from
this important engineering product.
.
7 , ,
Other investigations.—Seven research projects were conducted un­
der this fund, including studies of heat-treated bridge wire, measure­
ments of hardness, and development of special devices to be used in.
testing machines.
INVESTIGATION OF FIRE-RESISTING PROPERTIES ($30,000)

Spontaneous heating and ignition of materials. The research on
susceptibility of jute to spontaneous heating and ignition, conducted
in cooperation with the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils of the De­
partment of Agriculture and a committee of the Marine Under­
writers, was completed. As tested under a considerable range of
conditions, no heating from microbial action in excess of 59 C. was
obtained. Oxidizing oils, such as linseed oil and menhaden oil,
applied to jute and to cotton fiber, induced heating culminating m
ignition starting from initial temperatures m the range 30° to 50 C.
No significant difference was noted between the results obtained with
juteFire
andprevention
with cotton.
..................,m this field have been
and protection.—Activities
conducted mainly in conjunction with those of the Federal Fire
Council and the National Fire Protection Association. Assistance
was given in fire-hazard surveys of several Federal building groups
and in the preparation of a committee report on protection of records
from
.
Firefire.
tests of partitions.-—Experimental
work was initiated on a
series of fire tests of interior partitions. Sixteen fire endurance or
fire and water tests were made, the types tested including partitions
built of magnesite-wood fiber blocks, fire-retardant treated wood, and
of wood supports faced with gypsum plaster on plaster board.

144

REPOET TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Fire tests of welded steel floor construction.—Equipment for fire
tests of a welded steel floor construction, conducted in cooperation
with the American Institute of Steel Construction, was completed.
This provides means for applying fire exposure from above as well
as below on floor panels 13% by 18 feet.
Additional research work.—Of the 15 research projects conducted
under this fund, only 4 have been briefly described. Among the
others were: Fire tests of brick walls, fire-protection devices, exit
requirements, theater curtains, and standardization of fire-test
procedure.
INVESTIGATION OP PUBLIC UTILITY STANDARDS ($107,290)

Electrical codes.—-Manuscript was prepared for a new edition of
the National Electrical Safety Code, containing revised tables'' of
fiber stresses in wood poles as adopted by the American Standards
Association. A rejiort on low-voltage electrical accidents was pre­
pared for the National Safety Council and printed in its transactions.
Measurement of high voltages and large cwrrents.—Measurements
made at about 100,000 volts with the large absolute electrometer indi­
cated an agreement within 0.1 per cent with measurements made by
means of a voltage transformer and an electrodynamic voltmeter.
Refinements in the current-transformer testing equipment have mate­
rially increased the reliability and speed of this work. The upper
limit for alternating-current tests now is 6,500 amperes at 60 cycles
and 8,000 amperes at 25 cycles.
Surveys of telephone service in Government buildings.—Recom­
mendations as to the telephone service in Federal buildings in 17
cities have been made in cooperation with the Office of the Super­
vising Architect, Treasury Department. Recommendations for tele­
phone service have been made for the new buildings for the Depart­
ment of Commerce, the Department of Agriculture, Public Health
Service, and Federal Warehouse.
Standardization of gas service.—The bureau’s representatives have
served on six technical committees of the American Gas. Association
dealing with methods of test and performance of certain types of
appliances, on the corrosion of materials used in the construction of
gas appliances, and on other technical subjects. Assistance has been
given in connection with the proposed revision of the gas-fitting
regulations of the District of Columbia and the revision of the
National Fire Protection Association relating to the same subject.
Testing and analysis of fuel gases.—Improvements have been made
in the apparatus and methods employed for the analysis of gases and
these have been incorporated into complete analytical units of supe­
rior accuracy and convenience which are now to be produced com­
mercially. Commercial apparatus for the determination of carbon
monoxide has been examined and tested, and a series of analyses of
city gas was made for the Public Utilities Commission of the District
of Columbia during the change from manufactured to mixtures of
manufactured and natural gas.
Study of service standards for city gas supplies.—Existing State
regulations for gas utilities have been completely summarized. Ab­
stracting of the local service standards, both voluntary and required,
of several hundred gas companies and municipalities has been par­

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

145

tially completed. A partial study has been made of the economics
of the practice of “ reforming ” gases of high heating values to re­
duce their heating value before delivery. The improvement of
existing standards for the control of heating value, meter testing,
pressure control, the uniformity of the gas supplied, and service
extensions have also received attention.
Corrosion of ferrous pipe materials.—About 1,000 specimens of
ferrous pipe material's exposed to soil action for eight years have
been examined and a report on the results prepared. Little differ­
ence in the rates of corrosion of the various materials is apparent,
but the rates of corrosion differ greatly in different soils.
Corrosion of nonferrous pipe materials and coatingis.—Results of
the examination of about 2,000 specimens of nonferrous pipe mate­
rials exposed to soils four to six years indicate that copper and alloys
high in copper resist the action of nearly all soils very well. Zinc
coatings offer considerable resistance to soil action if sufficiently
heavy and properly applied.
TESTING MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS ($46,400)

Tests for Government departments.—An unusually large number
of tests were made for Government departments on paints, varnishes,
bituminous roofing and waterproofing materials, rubber goods, pack­
ings,. inks, typewriter ribbons, carbon paper, textiles, boiler waters
and compounds, detergents, chemicals, dental gold alloys, etc. Mis­
cellaneous materials were tested to determine their fire hazard to
guide the Steamboat Inspection Service in making rulings on the
transportation of commodities on passenger vessels. A large quan­
tity of mercury was purified for the use of the bureau’s laboratories
in research work.
Research.—Although this fund provides mainly for the testing of
supplies purchased by the Government, four research projects were
also carried on. These dealt with the turbidity method for determi­
nation of sulphur trioxide in Portland cement, paint and varnish
test methods, varnish resins, and preparation of isoprene.
RADIO RESEARCH ($85,700)

Primary frequency standard.-—The reliability of the equipment
was increased. Checks made against the Arlington time signals,
the Riefler and Shortt clocks of the bureau, and a quartz oscillator
standard of the Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York by means
of a wire transmission of an audio frequency, showed the standard
to be reliable in continuous service to better than a part in a mil­
lion.
Improvement of secondary frequency standards.—The perform­
ance of several temperature-controlled piezo oscillators was ¡studied.
They were found very satisfactory for controlling a transmitting set
of exceptionally constant frequency. An improved piezo oscillator
was constructed. Studies of the elasticity and vibration patterns of
piezoelectric quartz were continued.
Standard frequency dissemination.—The bureau extended and im­
proved its standard frequency service. The regular transmission of
eight frequencies per month was continued. Beginning on Janu84206—31

------------

10

146

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

ary 6, these transmissions were augmented by highly accurate trans­
missions on 5,000 kilocycles, two hours in the afternoon and two
hours at night on three days a month. These transmissions were con­
trolled by a secondary standard piezo oscillator and maintained with
an accuracy better than a part in a million. This work is a part of
a program for eventually providing one or more frequencies con­
tinuously for check and control purposes.
Measurements of radio field intensity.—Field intensity measure­
ments were made between Washington and Chicago on the 5,000kilocycle standard frequency transmitter. Daytime field intensity
measurements made on broadcast and airways phone transmissions
indicated that existing formulas for field intensity are not reliable
for overland paths at broadcast frequencies.
Improvements in radio measurement methods.•—Improved meth­
ods of measuring the frequencies of transmitted radio waves with
great precision were developed. New equipment for calibrating con­
densers, and an improved audio frequency oscillator incorporating
a piezo oscillator have been designed and built.
Character and cause of variations of radio wave intensity and
direction.—The technique of automatic recording of field intensities
was developed and applied to observing the synchronized transmis­
sions of certain broadcasting stations. The fading records taken on
the Byrd Antarctic expedition were analyzed and prepared for pub­
lication. They showed that for frequencies of about 9,000 kilocycles
per second over long paths the field intensity increased with the
increase of darkness over the path; as the frequency increased to
about 16,000 kilocycles per second the field intensity at first increased
with increase of darknes,s until the path was about half dark and then
decreased as the darkness increased.
Measurement of the height of the Kennelly-Heaviside layer.—
Using the echo method, the height of the Kennelly-Heaviside layer
was regularly recorded on frequencies from 590 to 10,000 kilocycles
per second. Beginning in June, 1931, Kennelly-Heaviside layer height
data were furnished to Science Service for' publication in the Ursigrams each week. Transmitting and receiving apparatus for this
work was developed so that pulses one ten-thousandth second in
length can be transmitted and recorded. Plans for an automatic
continuous recorder of Kennelly-Heaviside layer heights were
developed.
Miscellaneous.—Eighteen projects were provided for under this'
fund. Among those not included in the preceding paragraphs may
be mentioned: Improvement of radio standards of capacity, study
of short waves, characteristics of receiving sets, and power factor of
mica.
COLOB STANDARDIZATION ($15,800)

Transformation of color mixture data.—Methods for the deter­
mination of trilinear coordinates of color by visual photometric
measurements have been improved; also methods of computing domi­
nant wave length and colorimetric purity. Experimental data by
Wright on equivalent color stimuli have been transformed so as to
be more readily comparable with previous data. Methods of ex­
pressing tolerances in color specifications have been worked out.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

147

Standardization of Lovibond glasses.—Methods of measurement
have been improved, and 240 red glasses (making a total of 1,696
since January 1, 1928) were calibrated for use with 35 yellow, as in
the vegetable-oil industry. Attention is now being given to stand­
ardization of the glasses in other connections urgently demanded.
Standard glass filters for testing spectrophotometers.—The rapidly
increasing industrial use of spectrophotometers makes the establish­
ment of this service a matter of urgent importance. Preparations
have been made to issue filters of certified spectral transmission,
which may be used in testing the performance of spectrophotometers.
Standards for railway signal glasses.—Although the bureau has
made spectrophotometric tests of railway signal glasses for many
years, the standard glasses established by the American Railway
Association have heretofore been in private custody. These are now
being transferred to the bureau.
Miscellcmeous.—Fifteen research projects were conducted under
this fund. In addition to those mentioned, the following may be
listed : Life tests of lamps used for color-temperature determinations,
measurement of diffuse reflection, color of daylight, spectral reflection
of colored silk, and cooperation on new absolute standard of light.
INVESTIGATION OE CLAY PRODUCTS ($49,000)

Factors affecting the crazing of earthenware.—This investigation
has been extended to include individual ceramic raw materials and a
study of the effect of particle size. Data obtained indicate particle
size to be an important factor, and the relative reaction of the various
materials is shown by the following values: Feldspar, 2.5; lepidolite,
1.6; Cornwall stone, 1.4; clay, 0.4; flint, 0.05. Since it would be
impracticable to replace feldspar entirely with one or more other
fluxes, and since data on commercial ware show a fairly direct relation
between porosity and moisture expansion, it would seem logical to
correct susceptibility of earthenware to crazing by lowering the
absorption.
Special low-fire, white-ware bodies.—With the development of
means for heating electrically, the attention of the ceramic industry
has been directed to this source of heat, and a study was undertaken
to determine the possibilities of maturing white ware at, or below,
1,000° C. Wall tile, dry press plates, and cast ware were successfully
matured and glazed at 950° C. The specimens produced withstood
the autoclave test for resistance to crazing.
Feldspar and its effect on pottery bodies.—The final report has
been published in the Journal of the'American Ceramic Society.
Cutlery marking of chinaware.—A final report is in course of pub­
lication and will contain data of sufficient significance to justify the
careful control, or elimination, of sulphur in decorating kiln at­
mospheres, thus aiding in the production of glazed ware which will
not be susceptible to metal marking.
Changes in clay at high temperatures.—High temperature consti­
tutional changes of clay, determined petrographically and by X rays,
include complete dissociation of the clay molecule into silica and
alumina at temperatures below 900° C. These combine in part at
temperatures as low as 1,050° C. to form mullite.

148

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Study of refractories.—Preliminary data obtained at 1,250° C. on
17 different brands of fire-clay brick show the modulus of elasticity
to range from 70,000 to 300,000 pounds per square inch, and the
modulus of rupture from 50 to 670 pounds per square inch. Bricks
having either a very high alumina or silica content show much lower
plastic deflections than do bricks having an approximately equal mix­
ture. X-ray diffraction patterns established that the high rate of
thermal expansion occurring in most fired clays between 100° and
200° C. is governed by the percentage of cristobalite present. For
comparative purposes 23 brands of fire-clay brick were tested for
resistance to thermal spalling according to the requirements of the
two present standard methods and four modifications of these.
Resistance of metals to the abrasive action of plastic clay.—Tests
have been made on 19 metals and alloys to determine their wear
values. Also, the following fundamental factors have been deter­
mined : Relation between abrasion loss y and extrusion pressure x;
relation between water content w of the clay and extrusion pressure;
and relation between diameter d of the cylindrical orifice of the die
and the extrusion pressure. These equations are, respectively:
— = 0 / wxr= k ; and d?x=e. In the order from highest to lowest re­
sistance to abrasion the different types of metals and alloys tested
are as follows: (1) Chrome-cobalt-tungsten compositions; (2) car­
bon-cobalt-chrome molybdenum steels; (3) vanadium steels; (4)
high carbon steels; (5) cast irons; (6) rustless steels; (7) copper;
(8) soft brass.
Problems relating to saggers.—Data obtained on the thermal ex­
pansion, moduli of elasticity and rupture, porosity, computed outer
fiber strain, and plastic flow of specimen bars and small saggers prepared from each of 45 different sagger bodies fired at from one to
three different temperatures indicate that it is very important to
analyze the conditions of service under which saggers are to be used,
because in most cases it is impossible to prepare from the usual run
of clays sagger bodies which have properties ideally suited for lon­
gevity in ail types of service.
Thermal dilation of special refractories from 20° to 1,800° G.—
The linear thermal expansion was measured before and after heating
to 1,700° C. or higher of California magnesite, silica brick, and
Rhodesian, African, Grecian, and Indian chrome ores.
Properties of architectural terra cotta.—The investigation of terra
cotta was continued in cooperation with the National Terra Cotta
bociety. Several buildings were inspected to determine what defects
are developing in terra cotta in service. Laboratory research has
continued for improving the quality by better manufacturing meth­
ods and to improve methods of setting the material in the building.
Standard tests were developed and tentative specifications for terra
cotta were prepared. It was found that certain glazes expand, be­
cause of the action of water, in a manner similar to bodies.
Columbus laboratory—A study of the glassy bond present in fired
ceramic materials has been started by preparing glasses likely to be
formed by the constituents present and determining certain proper­
ties. Continued work on the properties of the colloidal separates of
both English china clay and Ohio shales shows some general corre­

BUREAU OE STANDARDS

149

lations, but certain exceptions made necessary a study of the replaceable bases present in the clays, with promising results. _In the tem­
perature range 0° to 1,200° C. a number of commercially ground
feldspars were found to give off relatively large volumes of water
vapor, acid, and other gases. A number of new points were located
in the multiple component system involved in the interaction of the
slags and clay refractories of boiler settings.
Additional projects.—A total of 10 research projects were provided
for by this fund. In addition to those mentioned, progress was made
•on the following: Physical properties of commercial English china
clays, causes of failure of boiler refractories, and energy changes
accompanying heating of clay materials.
STANDARDIZING MECHANICAL APPLIANCES ($ 5 1 ,3 2 1 )

Testing of engineering instruments.—Approximately 1,300 instru­
ments were calibrated, an increase of about 25 per cent over the pre­
vious year. In cooperation with the United States Geological Sur­
vey some experiments were made on meter equipment.
Postage metering and stamp vending devices.—The investigation
and testing of mail metering and similar automatic devices for the
Post Office Department have continued. There has been a rapid ex­
pansion in the development of machines of this nature, and the
volume of work has shown a marked increase.
Fire extinguishing appliances and equipment.—Fire extinguishing
appliances and systems have been tested for the Steamboat Inspec­
tion Service. Technical data on their effectiveness and reliability
have been supplied. This work showed a marked increase in the
past fiscal year.
Heating appliances for Government buildings.—A series of per­
formance tests of radiator room temperature control valves for the
new Commerce Department Building were made for the Office of
the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department. Perform­
ance tests of several types of radiator return line traps were also
made for the same office.
Elevator safety interlocMng devices.—Performance tests of ele­
vator interlocking devices for compliance with the recently adopted
“American Standard,” have been extended to include additional de­
vices. Results of these tests are used as the basis of approval by
Government departments, certain State governments, and a group of
•casualty insurance companies.
Investigation of propeller fans.—A study was made of the effect of
•certain entrance conditions on the performance of 2-blade propeller
fans and of the effect of increasing the number of blades from two to.
four. The results are described in the March, 1931, issue of the Journal of Research.
Plwnbing investigations.-—Investigations, partly financed by the
plumbing industry, combining an experimental study of flow in pipes
with field observations and measurements on plumbing systems in ac­
tual use, are in progress. A tower 100 feet high, surmounted by a
3,000-gallon tank and equipped with pumps and supply pipes deliv­
ering about 600 gallons per minute, has been erected and will provide
•equipment for measurements of capacity flow in sloping drains up to

(

150

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

6-inch diameters. A revision of those sections of the plumbing code
relating to drainpipe sizes was completed in May, and the revised
sections are being printed as a supplement to the report of the sub­
committee, pending the completion of the present investigations.
INVESTIGATION OF OPTICAL AND OTHER TYPES OF GLASS ($27,300)

Production.—Thirty pots of optical glass, embracing five different
kinds of glass, were melted. From these melts 37,955 blanks for
optical elements, weighing 3,001 pounds, were made for the Navy
Department.
Viscosity.—Viscosity measurements on six ordinary kinds of optical
glass have been completed. Eesults show that the viscosity between
1,000° and 1,400° C.increases in the following order: Dense flint,
medium flint, borosilicate crown, light barium crown, barium flint,
ordinary crown.
Composition and physical properties of glass.—Delations between
composition of certain soda-lime-silica glasses and their refractivities
(A -l) can be more accurately expressed by simple equations than
by exponential equations. The best solution obtained is (A -l) =
aA + hB+cC, in which A, B, and C are the percentages of silica,
soda, and lime, respectively, in the glass and a, 5, and c have the
following values in the indicated silica ranges:
Silica range

a

50 to 59.5 per cent...................................
59.5 to 73.75 per cent__________
73.75 to 100 per cent___ __________

0.004836
.004785
. 004584

6

C

0. 005491
.005568
.006127

0.007521
.007598
.007977

Specific volumes (V) of these glasses can be computed from
V =atA + 51Z?+ <?1(7+(71(72, A, B, and C having the same significance
as above and the values of the constants are:
Silica range
50 to 59.4 per cent___ ______
59.4 to 6 6 .3 per cent......................
6 6 .3 to 74. 9 per cent____ ______
74.9 to 100 per cent......................

ai

b,

Cl

0. 0042520 0. 0035370 0. 0025667
. 0043028 . 0034628 . 0025000
. 0043922 . 0032872 .0023190
. 0045400 . 002846a . 0017900

<h
0

. 0000061
. 0000040
. 0000025
. 0000194

Additional research.—-In addition to the two research projects
described in the preceding paragraph, eight other researches were
conducted under this fund, including : Properties of special glasses,
chemical analysis of glass, molding and annealing, and methods of
hardening glass.
INVESTIGATION OF TEXTILES, ETC. ($60,900)

i astness to light of dyed textiles.—In cooperation with the Ameri­
can Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists a series of stand­
ards was selected for the different degrees of fastness. The relative
fastness to light of 1,197 cotton, wool, silk, and weighted silk dvings,

BUREAU OP STANDARDS

151

representing 366 dyestuffs, when exposed to sunlight in the standard
“ sun test ” of the association, were tabulated and classified into 7
fastness classes.
Weighted silk.—An accelerated aging test for weighted silk was
developed. There is good agreement between the effects of exposure
of silk to a carbon arc light for a few hours under certain conditions
of temperature and humidity and those of exposure to a north light
for several months.
Standardization of knit underwear.—As the result of a general
conference of manufacturers, distributors, and users, the standards
for undergarments developed in cooperation with the Associated
Knit Underwear Manufacturers of America were approved as a com­
mercial standard. The consumer should now be able to purchase
underwear of proper size and fit regardless of where it was made or
the price paid for it.
Properties of knit fairies.—To obtain basic information on the
effect of variables on such properties of fabrics as air permeability,
thermal transmission, coefficient of friction (slipperiness), and mois­
ture permeability, comparative samples of knit underwear fabrics of
about 100 different constructions were tested. The results are now
being summarized and collated.
Special textile test methods.—A study of new apparatus for meas­
uring the thermal transmission of fabrics shows that- it is much sim­
pler to construct and to operate than the earlier apparatus, requires a
smaller sample for test, gives results more rapidly, and is compact
and portable. The values agree with those obtained at other labora­
tories. An instrument was constructed by which thickness can be
read directly for any pressure on the fabric from zero to a given
maximum.
Cotton fabric for parachutes.-—Parachutes made from cotton cloth
woven at the bureau and tested at Lakehurst by the Bureau of Aero­
nautics of the Navy Department, functioned nearly as well as silk
parachutes. Two 75-yard lengths of cotton parachute cloth have
been woven in the bureau’s mill and will be submitted to the Bureau
of Aeronautics for further trial. A report on the work has been
published by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
Mercerization of cotton for aeronautical purposes.—A mercerizing
machine for studies under strictly controlled conditions was built.
An experimental procedure was developed for studying the .factor»
of tension during mercerization, time, temperature, and concentration
of caustic.
Government papers.-—In cooperative research on paper currency
with the Bureau of Efficiency and Bureau of Engraving and Print­
ing, papers were made from highly-purified wood fibers which com­
plied with the currency paper specifications and which had satisfac­
tory printing qualities. Paper-making trials of pulp from redeemed
paper currency show that satisfactory paper pulp can be made from
this material. The addition of phosphoric acid to the gum of postage
stamps was found to improve the adhesion of stamps to the more
resistant types of envelope papers.
Paper-testing methods.—Methods of measuring grease,_ water,
and air resistance, and acidity of paper have been .standardized for
the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry. The

152

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

American Society for Testing Materials was assisted in the estab­
lishment of a standard procedure for determining the folding en­
durance of insulating papers. Progress was made in the study of
hygrometry as related to paper testing.
Standardization of commercial paper products.—The printing
quality of lithographic papers is being studied in cooperation with
the Lithographic Technical Foundation. As misregister is the most
important problem, the work has been confined mainly to plant and
laboratory studies of effect of variable humidity and tension. Paper
towels, insulating boards, and binders boards were also studied.
Paper-making' materials and processes.—Coating tests of domestic
caseins were made to assist the Bureau of Dairy Industry of the
Department of Agriculture in finding more suitable grading stand­
ards. _Assistance was also given the American Newspaper Publishers
Association and the Government Printing Office in correlating the
printing qualities of newsprints with their components.
Preservation of records.—An accelerated test, using heat, for de­
termining permanence of Government writing papers classifies them
in the same way as sunlight. In paper-making experiments with
highly purified wood fibers, papers were produced which compared
favorably in stability and strength with the Government permanent
record and currency papers. Data were obtained on the relation
of sizing materials and fiber beating treatment to the stability
of the papers. A survey of documents in public libraries 'shows the
chief external deteriorating influences to be acid pollution of the
atmosphere, high temperature, variations in atmospheric humidity,
light, and dust. Laboratory studies of effect of acid-polluted air and
of light are in progress. Tests of old publications stored in libraries
revealed the importance of purity of paper fibers if papers are to
resist deteriorating influences. The support of these studies by the
Carnegie Corporation and the Brown Co. was continued.
Scope of the work.—This fund provided for a total of 20 research
projects. The field covered is indicated in the preceding para­
graphs, the examples selected being typical.
SUGAR STANDARDIZATION ($95,000)

Preparation of crystalline ribose.—This sugar is of great impor­
tance in the study of the physiological processes of the human body,
but its cost is so high that but little attention has been paid to it. The
bureau has undertaken a study of ribose to reduce its cost and to
obtain information on its physical and chemical behavior and its
relation to other sugars. A quantity of pure sugar has been ob­
tained and an improved method of' preparation developed which
has resulted in a materially lowered cost.
Oxidation of sugars—A. new process has been developed for the
manufacture of sugar acids and their salts. When it is desired to
produce a salt the sugar is electrolytically oxidized in the presence
of a bromide and a base. The bromide is continuously regenerated;
hence a small amount will facilitate the oxidation of a large quan­
tity of sugar. Since the raw materials are cheap, the new process
has considerable commercial possibility for the manufacture of cal­
cium gluconate and similar products.
Tariff act of 1930.—Much time was devoted to the investigations
requested by the Congress during the drafting of the tariff act of

BUREAU OE STANDARDS

153

1930. In this act a radical change was made in the method of as­
sessing duty upon molasses. The component of chief value is the
total amount of sugar, and the new act orders the collection of the
revenue on the total number of pounds of such sugar. This pro­
cedure necessitates changes in methods employed. These methods
have been perfected, and in collaboration with the Bureau of Cus­
toms the necessary revision of the customs regulations has been made.
Method of levulose manufacture.—Gratifying results have been ob­
tained in experiments with the semifactory-scale plant for the pro­
duction of hard refined levulose. Portions of the plant were oper­
ated on a considerable scale and data secured to redesign unsatisfac­
tory equipment. Among the more important new pieces now com­
pleted and in operation are: Converter temperature control, automatic
defecator control, calcium levulate crystal grower, carbonator, and
filter assembly. A carload of artichoke tubers was furnished gra­
tuitously to the bureau by the Alabama Power Co., Birmingham, Ala.,,
and transported free of charge by the Southern Railway.
Other work.—Eighteen pieces of research were provided for under
this fund, including, in addition to those already described, oxi­
dation of sugars by bromine water, optical constants of sugar, determination of density of molasse,s, lime precipitation of levulose
and optical identification of sugars.
GAGE STANDARDIZATION ($50,000)

Certification of master gages.—The American Petroleum Insti­
tute’s grand and regional1 master cable tool joint gages have been
remeasured. Many of the ring gages were found to be outside of tol­
erances on lead of thread, and the American Petroleum Institute
arranged for correction of the gages by the gage maker. Complete
sets for two sizes of joints have been corrected and remeasured. The
remaining nine sets will be corrected and recertified during the sum­
mer and fall.
Gages for interchangeable ground-glass joints.—The manufac­
turers of ground-glass j oints replaced the original master plain taper
gages with more accurate gages made in this country. These were
checked and found to be satisfactory.
Cooperation with the National Physical Laboratory and the Phys­
ikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt.—Foreign manufacturers of oil­
field equipment are using A. P. I. standards to a large extent, and
the American Petroleum Institute has appointed both the National
Physical Laboratory of England and the Physikalisch-Technische
Reichsanstalt of Germany as official testing agencies for A. P. I.
gages made in Europe. This has led to considerable correspondence
between the bureau and these laboratories with regard to interpreta­
tion of A. P. I. gage specifications and standardization of methods
of test.
New facilities.—Equipment added includes 31 internal micrometers
for measuring plain-ring gages, attachment for measuring tapers on
pitch diameter of ring gages, and comparators for determining vari­
ations in roundness and straightness and for comparing gage blocks
and plug gages with an error of only two or three millionths of an
inch.

154

REPOBT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

INVESTIGATION OE RAILROAD AND MINE SCALES AND CARS
($102,300)

Master track scale calibrations.—Eighteen of the nineteen master
scales in service were visited and calibrated by direct application of
standard test loads. Minor modifications or adjustments were made
on 10 scales and all were left accurate within an “ adjustment toler­
ance ” corresponding to an allowable error limit of 0.01 per cent.
Railroad track scales.—A total of 1,030 scales were tested, the
greatest number ever covered in one year. Of these 75.9 per cent
were correct within the bureau’s tolerance which allows a mean maxi­
mum weighing error equivalent to 0.20 per cent of the applied test­
load values. The average maximum weighing error was 0.21 per
cent or but 0.01 per cent more than the allowable error limit. These
values, in comparison with the results for the preceding year, indi­
cate a higher proportion of correct scales but a slightly greater
average weighing error.
Track scales for weighing grain.—Tests were made of 97 track
scales utilized at grain elevators and mills for weighing carload con­
signments of grain. Slightly more than half were correct within
the special tolerance of O.iO per cent. A survey has shown that ap­
proximately half these scales are incapable of continuous maintenance
within the tolerance recommended for them by the Interstate Com­
merce Commission. (I. C. C. Docket 9009.)
Test-car calibrations.—At the master scale depot, Clearing Station,
Chicago, railroad track-scale test-weight car calibrations were made
for 13 different owning systems on 28 different cars. The total num­
ber of calibrations was 57. In addition, 23 track-scale test-weight
cars owned by railroads and industries which do not have access
to master scales were calibrated by direct comparison with standard
weight test loads in the field.
Paint coatings for test weights.—A study of the durability and
protective characteristics of various paints recommended for appli­
cation to 50-pound test weights is under way. Results thus far in­
dicate that the constancy of test-weight values is dependent more upon
conditions of handling and transportation than upon the nature of
the paint coating. Loss of weight usually results from abrasion and
chipping of the metal.
Contacts with technical bodies.—The bureau cooperated with the
National Scale Men’s Association and the American Railway Associ­
ation in drafting a code of specifications for track-scale test-weight
cars. Two new projects on which the bureau will cooperate with the
first-named organization are: Preparation of a code of rules for op­
eration and maintenance of track-scale test-weight cars, and definition
of what constitutes a proper test of a railroad track scale.
Mine scales.—lests were made of 140 scales in the coal-mining
sections of West Virginia, Maryland, Indiana, and Ohio. About 48
per cent were found correct within the allowable tolerance of 8
pounds per ton of applied test load. A conspicuous increase in the
proportion of correct scales is indicated. Improvement is most pro­
nounced in the States of Maryland and West Virginia.
Improvements in field equipment.—Testing outfit No. 1, in use since
1913, will be replaced by new equipment, strictly modern in all re­

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

155

spects and containing improved facilities for handling and mainte­
nance of weight standards. Testing outfit No. 3, which for some
time has been in poor mechanical condition, has been shopped for
replacement of journal bearings. This is expected to improve its
transportability and eliminate it as a real or apparent transportation
hazard. The outfit has been in steady service since 1918.
Postal scales and weighing.—At the request of the Post Office De­
partment, laboratory studies were made of the speed and accuracy of
weighing postal matter, and numerous samples of scales intended for
postal weighings were tested. Assistance was also given the Post
•Office Department in the development of purchase specifications for
postal scales and in the training of a field personnel which will con­
duct acceptance tests on new scales and routine service tests on scales
in use in post offices throughout the United States.
Cooperation with Government departments.—Frequent consulta­
tions have been held with representatives of Federal departments on
weighing and measuring problems and equipment, and numerous
weighing and measuring devices have been tested or examined for
these agencies, both in Washington and at Clearing Station, Chicago.
Cooperation with the States.—Formal State conferences were at­
tended in Illinois, Indiana (two), Maine, Massachusetts, New Jer­
sey, New York, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. The preparation of a
digest of weights and measures court decisions was continued.
METALLURGICAL RESEARCH ($61,000)

Aeration and submerged corrosion.—With, low oxygen contents the
rate of initial corrosion of iron increases as the oxygen increases.
With a high oxygen content a reversal occurs, and the rate of corro­
sion decreases with increase of oxygen. The pH of the water affects
the form of the curve. Slight but consistent differences were ob­
served with different compositions of iron and steel.
Copper roofing materials.-—In cooperation with the Copper and
Brass Kesearch Association a study of these materials is in progress.
Emphasis has been placed on corrosion failures, such as soldered
seams and pitting.
Copper-base ingot metals.—A study of typical copper-base casting
alloys is being conducted in cooperation with the Non-Ferrous Ingot
Metal Institute, with the object of classifying such alloys on the
basis of properties and thus simplifying specifications. The method
of pouring specimens is being studied.
Fluidity of liquid metals.—A method has been developed for de­
termining in the foundry the fluidity of any molten metal when cast
into a mold. The length of the spiral casting made under carefully
controlled foundry conditions has been found to be the most prac­
ticable test and to give very valuable information on the effect of
different casting variables such as pouring temperature, sand
“ temper,” etc.
Shrinkage of molten metals.—A method has been developed for
measuring the shrinkage of metals in casting, and in cooperation
with the American Foundrymen’s Association it has been applied to
measurements of cast iron.

156

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

Fatigue of metals—effect of inclusions.—A comparative study of
two methods for determining the endurance of metals—the rotary
beam and the axial-loading methods—has been made. The results
indicate that the latter is a more “ searching ” test for determining
the true endurance properties of material, such as rail steel, which
contains inclusions.
Bridge wire.—Laboratory tests of specimens of heat-treated car­
bon steel wire from failed bridge cables did not reveal any character­
istics to arouse suspicion, either in structure or properties. A method
has been developed for testing the entire wire in fatigue. The results
of fatigue and other tests on the entire wire indicate that the surface
characteristics contributed greatly to the “ spontaneous ” failure of
the wire under load. Long-time tension tests to demonstrate this
are under way. The effect of possible changes in the wire by aging
after heat treatment is being studied by thermomagnetic analysis.
Fatigue of metals.—In studying the effect of surface conditions
on the endurance properties of bridge wire it has been found that
galvanizing by hot dipping consistently lowers the endurance limit
of annealed or heat-treated carbon steel, while zinc coating by electro­
plating has the opposite effect.
Rail steel.—Transverse fissures appear to be an outgrowth of sec­
ondary brittleness. By retarding cooling of a rail, after rolling,
secondary brittleness can be minimized. Impact tests at high tem­
peratures have shown a parallelism between secondary brittleness
and low impact strength.
Spark testing of steel.—A chart showing the spark characteristics
of steels has been prepared.
Machinability of metals.—A report has been issued on the relation
between composition, heat treatment, and the machinability of steel
forgings.
Additional projects.—Sixteen pieces of research were conducted
under this fund. Ones not mentioned above, include: Study of
Preece test for zinc-coated wire, corrosion of nonferrous metals,
durability of screen wire cloth, effect of excessive cold working of
metals, and properties of platinum metals.
HIGH TEMPERATURE INVESTIGATION ($10,200)

Melting and pouring temperatures of gray iron impact speci­
mens.—The pouring of 380 test bars in 14 foundries was supervised,,
and pouring temperatures measured in cooperation with the Ameri­
can Society for Testing Materials.
Effect of elevated temperatures on micas.—The effect of tempera­
ture on the properties of 19 different kinds of mica, 12 of foreign and
7 of domestic origin, was determined.
Thermoelectric properties of platinum-rhodium alloys.—The studv
of the thermoelectric properties of the platinum-rhoclium alloys has
been completed.
Miscellaneous.—Work was also clone on the effect of atmosphere on
the freezing point of silver and on the establishment of a scale of
color temperature, based on the color of black bodies.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS
SOUND INVESTIGATION ($11,260)

157

Ultrasonic waves.—A research on the speed of transmission of
ultra-sonic waves through various solutions and suspensions has been
carried out. A report of this investigation, which is in a rather new
field, will be published in the Journal of Kesearch.
Sound-proof partitions.—The investigation oi wall and floor struc­
tures designed to prevent or minimize the passage of sound has been
continued. Noises resulting from direct impact with the partition,
such as the impact of uncushioned heels on a bare floor, are trans­
mitted more readily than air-borne sounds, and a special study has
been made of floor structures designed to minimize such sounds.
Other projects.—Six projects are carried by this fund. In addi­
tion to the two mentioned are: Acoustical properties of materials,
acoustics of auditoriums, standardization of tuning forks and bars,
and the photographic recording of sound.
INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ($225,000)

Storage battery construction and operation.—Paste mixtures from
special samples of oxides having coarse particle sizes have been
studied. Bismuth as an alloy in the construction of grids for storagebattery plates has not been found satisfactory. Automatic testing
equipment has been installed for testing storage batteries.
Bituminous pipe coatings.—Approximately 90 varieties of bitu­
minous pipe coatings are under observation. Methods of measure­
ment which are independent of the observer have been developed.
Examinations of specimens indicate that a large percentage of the
coatings as applied contain pinholes, absorb moisture, and have low
electrical resistivity after a year’s exposure to moist soil.
Cable design.—In cooperation with the United States Coast Guard,
a special submarine cable using rubber of low dielectric constant was
designed. Over the armor of the cable there is a rubber jacket hav­
ing properties similar to the tread of automobile tires. About 10
miles of this cable has been constructed and laid from Miami to a
neighboring lighthouse.
_
_
.
Properties of electrical' insulating materials.—A series of 17 com­
pounds containing sulphur from 0 to 32 per cent in steps of 2 per
cent, with pure rubber hydrocarbon, has been studied. The dielec­
tric constant and power factor were measured at temperatures rang­
ing from —80° to +260° C. at six frequencies between 60 and
1,000,000 cycles per second.
Wind pressure on structures.-—Papers on wind pressure on circu­
lar cylinders and chimneys, and on measurements on a model of a
mill "building have been published. A contract has been placed
for the construction of a model of one of the tall buildings recently
completed in New York City.
Orifice meter research.—The work of analyzing experimental data
has been continued and two papers have been prepared. The first
deals with the difference of behavior between liquids and gases, and
the second with experiments on the metering of large volumes of air.

158

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

Lag of aircraft thermometers.—The experimental determination
of the thermometric lag of the various types of thermometers now
used for measuring air temperature in aircraft was completed. With
proper allowance for design limitations the electric resistance ther­
mometer has a smaller lag than the bimetal and liquid-filled types.
Transfer of heat by convection.—A fundamental study of the phe­
nomenon of transfer of heat by convection was initiated, attention
thus far having been directed toward measurements of temperature
distribution in fluids in the immediate neighborhood of heated bodies.
An optical interference method, which utilizes the change of index
of refraction of fluids with temperature, is employed. Measurements
have been made of the temperature distribution in air surrounding
flat plates and heated cylinders of various sizes.
Thermal conductivity of insulating materials at ordinary tempera­
ture.—Investigation of the mechanism of heat flow in fibrous mate­
rials was completed and published in the Journal of Research. (R.
P. 243.) Useful data on the effect of arrangement of fibers and
density of packing on the thermal conductivity are presented in the
paper.
Pressure-volume-temperature relation of oil-gas mixtures.—In co­
operation with the American Petroleum Institute measurements have
been made of the volume and density of the liquid phases and the
density of the gas phases of three crude oil-gas mixtures at various
pressures and temperatures. The pressure range covered was 1 to
200 atmospheres and the temperature range 30° to 90° C.
Compressibility and thermal expansion of petroleum oils.—The re­
sults of this investigation, which was conducted in cooperation with
the American Petroleum Institute, were published in the November,
1930, issue of the Bureau of Standards Journal of Research.
Thermal properties o f oils.—This investigation has been carried
on in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute. Values
have been obtained for the specific heats of (1) gasolines from 30°
to 120° C., (2) gas oils from 30° to 180° C., and (3) lubricating oils,
from 30° to 200° C., which substantiate equation 5, page 26, Mis­
cellaneous Publication No. 97, and the equation for specific heat on
page 151, International Critical Tables, Volume II.
Vapor pressure of carbon dioxide.—Previous measurements at
temperatures down to —50° C. have been made at this bureau. The
range of observations has been extended to —78° C. Observations
below this temperature are not considered necessary since sufficiently
accurate measurements have been made at other laboratories. All
available data are being correlated.
Properties of organic liquids.—Using the methods and apparatus
previously developed for measurements of thermal properties of
water and steam, values were obtained for the heat content and lat­
ent. heat of vaporization of methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and benzene,
in the range 40° to 110° C. The results have been published in the
Journal of Research.
Heat of combustion of methyl alcohol.—With an improved type of
calorimeter the heat of combustion of liquid methyl alcohol at 25° C.
has been found to be 726.34± 0.20 int. kilojoules per mole. This
new value is about l ]/2 per cent higher than the highest previously
reported result and completely removes certain discrepancies occur­

BUREAU OE STANDARDS

159

ring in the thermodynamic data in connection with the process of
synthesis of methyl alcohol.
Heat of ionization of water—This has recently been recalculated
and the best value on the basis of existing data is 57,370 absolute
joules per mole at 18° C.
Gryoscopic constant of camphor.—Discordant values for this con­
stant have been reported in the literature. A new calorimetric deter­
mination of this quantity from the latent heat of fusion of pure cam­
phor has therefore been carried out.
Heat content of phosphorus pentoxide.—As a contribution to the
thermal data required in connection with industrial processes for the
manufacture of fertilizer from phosphate rock, a determination of
the heat content of phosphorus pentoxide between room temperature
and 800° C. has been carried out.
t
Phase equilibrium diagram for the system C rfi 3—Al20 3.—This dia­
gram has been determined and is characterized by complete miscibil­
ity of the two components in the crystalline state.
A dd in leather.—Leather tanned with quebracho-wood extract was
found more resistant to deterioration by sulphuric acid than leather
tanned with chestnut-wood extract. The influence of the degree of
tannage was slight. No significant difference was found in leathers
containing sulphuric acid, and to which 0, 10, and 20 per cent of cod
oil and tallow had been added after the acid treatment. The rate
of deterioration is greater with higher relative humidity. Commer­
cial leathers tanned chiefly with a blend of chestnut and quebracho
gave results between those obtained for leathers tanned with each of
the materials alone. Chemical methods for determining the hydrol­
ysis of the hide substance by sulphuric acid in these leathers gave
results which parallel the deterioration of the leather on aging.
Preliminary experiments show that the addition of salts to leather
containing sulphuric acid decreases the rate of deterioration, and
the addition of saturated oxalic acid solutions causes slight deteriora­
tion after six months’ aging.
.
Salt for curing skins.—Analyses of 30 samples of typical rock and
evaporated salts used for curing hides and skins show the salts to
have a high degree of purity. The data have been presented for
reference use in problems of damaging stains on hides and skins.
Fur-seal skins.—The thickness, tensile strength, stretch, and tear
resistance of fur-seal skins were determined to aid in developing
standards of quality.
.
Stress-strain recorder for rubber.—A simple and effective appara­
tus has been constructed for recording the stress-strain curves of
rubber both on extension and on retraction. The behavior of rubber
may be followed through any desired number of cycles of stress at
anv desired speed or elongation.
Repeated s t r e s s i n g of rubber.—The manner in which the stressstrain curve of rubber changes under various circumstances of stress­
ing and the mode and extent of recovery on resting have been
measured
Photoelastic analysis of stresses in rubber.—The photoelastic ef­
fect in rubber has been shown to be proportional to stress, as is known
to be the case for more rigid materials. Stress distribution around
models of pigment particles in transparent rubber is being in­
vestigated.

160

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

Thermal conductivity of metals.—A comparatively simple yet ac­
curate method and apparatus for measuring thermal conductivity
of metals up to 600° C. has been developed. Measurements have been
made on a few pure metals and on a number of steels and other
alloys, mostly of the heat-resisting type.
Thermal expansion of heat-resisting alloys.—The research on heatresisting alloys has been completed, and forms a valuable contribu­
tion to the literature on these alloys which are now being used exten­
sively where resistance to tarnish and weathering is demanded.
Heat-resisting alloys.—Cooperation with the joint research com­
mittee, American Society for Testing Materials, and American So­
ciety of Mechanical Engineers has been continued with emphasis on
the structural changes at high temperatures. Embrittlement by car­
bide precipitation at high tempei'atures has been studied with ref­
erence to the magnitude of the stresses to which the materials are
subjected.
High-temperature properties of metals.—As a basis of all com­
mercial alloys for high-temperature service the “ creep ” characteris­
tics of the Cr-Fe-Ni series have been studied. The effect of various
alloying elements for stabilizing austenitic steels has been studied
in cooperation with a manufacturer of such materials.
“ Gas content ” of metals.—Two reports were issued, one summariz­
ing in detail the analytical method. In the experimental work em­
phasis has been placed on the determination of “ gases ” in steel
deoxidized in a special manner and on “ abnormal ” steels for
carburizing.
Solubility of gases in m,étais.—A report on the carbon-oxygen solu­
bility product in liquid steel has been issued. The value, 0.0025, has
been found for this product, and 0.011 for the carbon-ferrous oxide
product. The lower results reported by another research laboratory
have been shown to be in error.
Quenching of steel.-—As quenching media for steels, intermediate
between water and oil, sodium silicate solutions appear much supe­
rior to glycerin and other solutions used commercially.
Wear resistance of metals.-—The behavior of heat-treated carbon
steels under abrasive wear by sand and under combined sliding and
rolling metal-to-metal wear has been studied. The effect of grain
size of the metal on its wear resistance and the influence of the
atmosphere surrounding the specimens are also being studied.
Wear resistance of chromium-plated gages.—The advantages of
chromium plating on gages of a simple shape have been clearly
shown, by tests in a special gaging machine.
Bearing bronzes.—In cooperation with a- manufacturer, the rela­
tion of the wear resistance of bearing bronzes to the temperature at
which they were cast has been studied ; likewise, the effect of iron as
an impurity in such bronzes. The most detrimental of the common
impurities appears to be antimony.
Journal-bearing performance.—In cooperation with the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, the distribution of hydrostatic
pressure in the oil film of a journal bearing has been determined.
Nine tests were made covering a fairly wide range of typical condi­
tions of operation.
Efficiency of gears.—In cooperation with the American Electric
Railway Engineering Association, the friction losses under various

BUREAU OE STANDARDS

161

conditions of operation have been determined for three types of
street-car reduction gearing. These include a single reduction, dou­
ble reduction, and worm gear.
Anodic treatment of aluminum.—A rapid method for determining
the quality of the coating, produced on duralumin by the anodic
process of oxidation has been developed. The usefulness of this
treatment as a preliminary before painting or varnishing has been
established.
Analysis of silver-plating solutions.—Detailed methods for the
analysis of silver-plating baths, including the determination of im­
purities and of their effects on the methods for other constituents,
have been developed.
Dimensional changes in the manufacture of electrotypes.—In
cooperation with the International Association of Electrotypers, the
conditions for producing electrotype plates of uniform dimensions
were defined. This information is especially useful in color printing,
where the corresponding plates must register accurately.
Crystallography of organic compounds.—The optical properties
of crystalline organic compounds have been determined for use in
later identifications by optical methods. A photomicrographic tech­
nique was developed for use, especially, at very low temperature.
Chemical microscopical examinations of special materials were car­
ried out. The optical constants, densities, solubilities, and inversion
temperatures of the formates of the metals in Group II were
determined.
Spectrochemical analysis.—Several hundred samples of materials
were analyzed, a large part of which were iridium and rhodium
sponges prepared by the bureau in an attempt to obtain these metals
in a higher state of purity than ever before accomplished. The ef­
fectiveness of the various chemical methods used was tested by
spectrographic analysis, leading to final products of almost spectro­
scopically pure metals. Entirely new descriptions of the emission
spectra, both arc and spark, of krypton, lutecium,_ytterbium, columbium, and rhenium were obtained; that of rhenium being entirely
new and serving, through the spectral regularities found, to deduce
the structure of this last element to be discovered.
Optical instruments.—By combining the principles of the military
range finder and the microscope, an optical depth gage has been de­
signed and constructed by which lengths in the direction of sight
may be measured with high precision. A sample instrument follow­
ing the same design has been built by an optical manufacturer for
use in assembling the sound reproducing mechanism of a motionpicture projector.
Photographic emulsions.—In the investigation of the principal in­
dependent variables of “ after ripening ” (ripening after washing),
the effects of temperature, bromide, and hydrogen ion concentrations
were tested on emulsions made by neutral and ammonia formulas,
with varying gelatin and iodide content at varying stages of ripen­
ing. Emulsions made with normal gelatin were compared with those
made with deactivated gelatin and known nuclear sensitizers. The
results support the chemical-reaction theory of ripening.
Atomic structure investigations.—It has been found that metals
bombarded by electrons even at potentials as low as one or two volts
84206—31

------------

11

162

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

emit a continuous spectrum extending through the visible and ultra­
violet region. Most metals give a nearly identical1spectrum which
is evidently analogous to the continuous X-ray spectrum. Silver
gives in addition a selective band of radiation corresponding per­
haps to characteristic X radiation. These results fill a conspicuous
gap in our knowledge of radiation processes and the atomic structure
of metals.
Identifications.—Unusually heavy demands for testing and advisory
service in this work have delayed' the research on standardization.
The bureau has made 22 official tests and was able to dispose of 16
additional requests by preliminary examination. In a single case
in which a defendant pleaded guilty to a charge of fraud in connec­
tion with a claim for refund on income taxes the Federal Govern­
ment was saved over $150,000 in principal and interest, and thou­
sands of dollars additional by avoiding the expense of trial of the
defendant. The plea of guilty was a direct result of identification
established by the bureau. Lectures were given before each of the
five groups of students trained by the Department of Justice as
special agents.
Research associates.—The following table gives the names of as­
sociations and manufacturers cooperating with the bureau under the
research associate plan, together with the number of associates and
the problems on which they are engaged:
T able 2.—R e s e a r c h

a s s o c i a t e s a t th e B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s

Assignedby—
ber
Specificproject12*8
Aluminum
Co. of America, NewKensington, 1 Fatigue ofalclad.
Pa. Association
American
ofTextile Chemistsand 2 Action
ofoflight
onstandards
silk; determination
Colorists, Lowell, Mass.
point
wool;
forfabrics.
fastnessofofiso-electric
dyed tex­
tiles;
tests
of
waterproofed
American
Bureau
of
Welding,
New
York,
1
Strength
of
welded
joints.
N. Y. Electric RailwayEngineering Asso­ 1 Lubrication and efficiencyof transmission gears.
American
ciation
Traction Co., Washington,
D.C.). (Capital
American
Electroplaters
Society, Chicago,
111.. 11 Face
Protective
American
Face Brick Association,
Chicago,
brickcoatings.
absorption and transverse compression,
111
efflorescence.
American
Foundrymen’s
Association,
Chi­
1
Shrinkage
in
metalsincasting.
cago, 111.Gas Association, NewYork, N. Y__ 2 Gas burner design;
American
tests ofof identifying
proprietary corrosive
pipe-line
coatings and methods
soils.
American
Institute
Steel Construction, 2 Formed
sheet steel floors; fire tests ofwelded steel
NewYork,Petroleum
N. Y. ofInstitute,
floor construction.
American
New
York,
13
Engineering
principles coatings;
in pipe-linethermodynamic
protection and
N. Y.
tests
of protective
properties
of
petroleum
hydrocarbons;
chemical
constituents
of petroleum.
American
Society
of
Mechanical
Engineers,
8
Thermal
properties
of
water;
lubrication
research.
NewYork,Society
N. Y. for Testing Materials, 2 Research in cement; testing.
American
Philadelphia,
Pa. and Roofing Institute, 2 Durability offelt fibers.
Asphalt
Shingle
New
York,
N.
Y.
Associated
ofproperties
underwearsizes;
America, Knit
Utica,Underwear
N. Y. Manufactures of 1 Standardization
specifications;
of knitdevelopment
underwearof
fabrics.
Atlas
Lumnite
Cement
Co., NewYork, N. Y. 21 Research
cement;wood
testing,
etc.
Brown
Co., Berlin,
N.Cleveland,
II.......................
Qualityofinpurified
fiber.
C.TheF.Bunting
Brush
Estate,
Ohio..........
1
Spontaneous
generation
of
heat.
Brass & Bronze Co., Toledo, 1 Properties ofbearing bronzes.
Ohio. &Carbon
Carbide
Chemical Co., NewYork, 1 Thermal properties ofliquids.
N. Iron
Y. PipeResearch
Cast
Association, Chicago, 1 Strength
ofcorrosion
location
ofcorrosive
soils, andproducts
statisticalofcast
studyiron,
ofcorrosion.
[
data.
.

163

BUREAU OE STANDARDS
Table 2 .— R e s e a r c h

a s s o c i a t e s a t th e B u r e a u o f S t a n d a r d s

—Continued

NumSpecificproject
Assignedbyber
Lubrication offinemechanisms.
Clock
Manufacturers
AssociationofAmerica,
Philadelphia,
Pa.
Spontaneousheating and ignition ofjute.
Committee
of
Marine
Underwriters,
New
York, N.Brick
Y. Manufacturers Association,
Strength
brick masonry; moisture transmission
Common
ofbrickofwalls.
Cleveland, Ohio.Fund Fellowship,
. NewYork,,
Combustion
inengine cylinder.
Commonwealth
N. Y.and Brass Research Association,
. New
Corrosion of copper roofingmaterials.
Copper
NewYork,
N.L.,Y.Co. (Inc.), NewYork, N. Y.
Use
ofclaysoflocking
in concrete
Cooper,
Hugh
Methods
screwmixtures.
threads.
Dardelet
Threadlock
Corporation, New
York,
N.
Y.
.
Fire
prevention
and
protection.
Gypsum
(inUnited
cooperation
with
FederalCo.,Association
Fire
Council,
States
Gyp­
sum
Henry
Klein
&
Co.,
and
N.
W.
Magnesite
Co.), Chicago,
111. Bedford, Ind.
Studytransfer
ofphysical
properties
ofBedford
Indiana
Limestone
Association,
Heat
between
solidstemperatures.
and
fluids. limestone.
Johns
Man
ville
(Inc.),
Man
ville,
N.
J_........
Properties
of
steels
at
high
The
Midvale
Co., Philadelphia,
Pa--------Properties
offibrous
dry cleaning
solvents; absorption of
National
Association
of Dyers# and
Cleaners,
liquids
byprevention
materials.
Silver
Spring,
Md.
,
Cause
and
of
defects
National
Association
of
Hosiery
and
Under­
ment
of specifications;
analysisinofhosiery;
hosierydevelop­
manu­
wear Manufacturers, NewYork, N. Y.
facturers’
problems.
Concrete
building
units.
National
Units Association, Phila­
delphia,Building
Pa.
Absorption
of acousticofmaterials;
pres­
National
Research
Council, Washington,
ervation ofcoefficients
records; properties
volatile liquid!
D. C.
fuels.
Investigation ofarchitectural terra cotta.
National
Society, New York,
N. Y. TerraIngotCotta
Properties ofnonferrous ingot metals.
Non-Ferrous
Metal
Institute,
Chicago,
111.
Constitution
and hardening
Portland
Cement
Association,
Chicago,
111—
Strength
ofbridge
towers. of Portland cement.
Port
of New York Authority, New York,
N.
Y.
X-ray investigations.
Radiological
Research Institute, St. Louis,
Mo.
Cooperative fuel research.
Society
of(inAutomotive
Engineers,
NewYork,
N.
Y.
cooperation
with
National
Auto­
mobilePetroleum
Chamber of Commerce and Ameri­
can
Properties
ofgaseousrmixtures.
E.Subcommittee
R. Squibb &onSons,Institute).
NewBrunswick,
N. J_.
Elevator
safeties
and^buffers.
Research,
Recommenda­
tions,
and
Interpretations
forY.the Elevator
Safety
Code,
New
York,
N.
current properties of insulating liquids;
Utilities Research Commission, Chicago, 111— Alternating
direct current properties of insulating liquids;
preparation of pure hydrocarbons.

N ote.—In several cases one individual represented two or more supporting organizations. The totai.
number
ofresearch associates stationed at the bureau onJune 30, 1931,was »o.ju —
Other research projects.—A total of 103 projects were carried by
this fund. Only a few of the most important have been described.
Thermal expansion measurements have been made on a great va­
riety of materials, steam turbine and internal combustion engine oils
have been studied, the efficiency of steam and hot water radiators has
been measured, and many investigations, not mentioned, have been
made on rubber, leather, and other industrial materials.

STANDARDIZATION OE EQUIPMENT ($235,000)

Facilitating the use of specifications.—Tnsts of sources of supply
of commodities guaranteed to comply with the requirements^ of r ederal specifications have been compiled for the use of agencies mak­
ing purchases out of Federal, State, county, and municipal tax
moneys. During the year the number of lists has been increased

164

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

from 271 to 335, the number of requests for listings from 8,175 to
13,267, and the number of firms registered on the lists from 2,892
to 5,161. Eleven lists of willing-to-certify manufacturers of com­
modities guaranteed to comply with certain commercial standards
have also been compiled. The number of these lists has been in­
creased from 10 to 21, the number of willing-to-certify firms from
199 to 628, and the number of requests for listing from 233 to 689.
The total number of requests for listings is 13,956, received from
5,789 firms.
Facilitating the marketing of specification-made goods.—Increas­
ing interest has been shown by organized producers and consumers,
and by individual manufacturers and purchasers, in the application
of the self-identifying quality-guaranteeing labeling system. Manu­
facturers are now using or planning to use quality-guaranteeing
labels, or their equivalent, for brooms, dental alloys, dry cell,s, fire­
proof safes, gypsum, ink (writing, colored, and indelible), library
paste, lime, linoleum, lumber, paint, paper (correspondence, carbon,
blue-print, and brown-print), pipe, Portland cement, rope, soap, tex­
tiles, and wall board.
Labels, many of them underwritten by trade associations, are also
being used in connection with commodities complying with commer­
cial standards for aromatic red-cedar closet linings; diamond core
drill fittings; brass, steel, and wrought iron pipe nipples; feldspar;
men’s pajamas; plate-glass mirrors; red-cedar shingles; staple porce­
lain and vitreous plumbing fixtures, Stoddard solvent; and wall
paper.
Labels are now in use to identify commodities complying with sim­
plified practice recommendations for : Abrasives, binder’s board, com­
position books, hard-fiber and soft-fiber twine, lumber, kraft sealing
tape, metal lath, paper grocers’ bags, school furniture colors, tile,
tissue paper, and woven wire fencing.
Nearly 100 trade associations and similar groups are using labels
to identify or guarantee commodities complying with their specifica­
tions, which are often identical or in complete harmony with Fed­
eral specifications, commercial standards, or simplified practice
recommendations.
Encyclopedia of specifications.—The second volume in the encyclo­
pedia of specifications series was published under the title Standards
and Specifications for Nonmetallic Minerals and Their Products.
It contains all nationally recognized standards, specifications, and
simplifications within its scope, presented either in full or by means
of abstracts, tabulations, or cross references. Methods of testing,
incidental to the formulation of commodity specifications, are in­
cluded and form an important part of the work.
Simplified practice recommendations.—Twenty new simplified
practice recommendations were developed by general conferences,
thus raising the total to 149, exclusive of one regional recommendation
and one limitation of variety recommendation. Both of the latter, and
117 of the 149 simplified practice recommendations, have been ap­
proved and accepted by the industries affected. Twenty-five recom­
mendations are in process of acceptance. Recommendations covering
115 commodities have been issued in printed form.
Revision and reaffirmation conference.—Their respective standing
committees reviewed 38 existing simplified practice recommendations.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

165

Of these, 32, or 84.2 per cent, were reaffirmed without change, and
6 were revised. During the previous year, 34 recommendations of
the 39 reviewed, or 85.3 per cent,_ were reaffirmed._
Adherence to simplified practice recommendations.—Surveys were
made of adherence in the production, distribution, and use of 13
simplified commodities. The acceptors reporting indicated that ap­
proximately 90 per cent of their volume conformed to the recom­
mendations. Similar surveys in 1930 showed that the percentage of
adherence for 25 commodities averaged approximately 87 per cent.
Preliminary conferences and variety surveys.—Twenty-nine pre­
liminary conferences were held for 21 different industries. Surveys
of existing diversification of product have been conducted by sim­
plified practice committee^ appointed by 11 of these industries, and
plans were started for similar activity by the other 10 groups.
Commercial standards.—There were 62 active projects in this field
at the close of the fiscal year. Eleven general conferences were held
covering: Cotton fabric tents; tarpaulins and covers; mopsticks;
seats for water-closet bowls; colors for sanitary ware; red-cedar
shingles; knit underwear (exclusive of rayon); circular flat-knit
rayon underwear; bag, case, and strap leather; plywood; Fourdrinier
wire cloth; and steel-bone plates. Announcements that the follow­
ing 11 projects had received a satisfactory majority of acceptances
were issued: Plate-glass mirrors; mopsticks; aromatic red-cedar
closet lining; boys’ blouses, waists, shirts, and junior shirts; wroughtiron pipe nipples (first revision); cotton fabric tents, tarpaulins, and
covers;Staple seats for water-closet bowls; colors for sanitary ware;
cotton goods for rubber and pyroxylin coated automotive fabrics;
red-cedar shingles; and knit underwear (exclusive of rayon).
Twelve commercial standards were issued in printed form follow­
ing a satisfactory acceptance by the industry: Interchangeable
ground-glass joints; staple vitreous china plumbing fixtures; stand­
ard ,scrcw threads; special screw threads; feldspar; plain and thread
plug and ring gage blanks; builders’ hardware (nontemplate); aro­
matic red-cedar closet lining; mopsticks; plate-glass mirrors; boys’
blouses, waists, shirts, and junior shirts; and wrought-iron pipe
nipples (first revision).
Safety codes.—Members of the staff have participated in the work
of the safety code correlating committee and other committees of
national scope. Revision of the safety code for elevators, dumb­
waiters, and escalators was completed, and text prepared for an ele­
vator inspector’s handbook. Codes for mechanical refrigeration,
window washing, and floor and wall openings were completed. A
revision was undertaken of the code for lighting school buildings and
the code for automobile brakes and brake testing. Work was con­
tinued on codes dealing with walkway surfaces; conveyors and con­
veying machinery; mechanical power transmission; and cranes,
derricks, and hoists. Assistance was given State and city officials
in the preparation of local regulations.
Bmlding codes.—The report, Recommended Minimum Require­
ments for Fire Resistance in Buildings, involving research in a
highly complex field, was completed and published. Revised work­
ing stresses for brick masonry, based largely on experimental work
at the bureau, were issued. Work was continued on the proposed

166

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

recommendations for exit requirements, involving studies of flow of
people on stairways, ramps, and in other locations.
Plumbing codes.—New recommendations for sizes of horizontal
branches, house drains, and house sewers were prepared. They are
expected to result, as they become incorporated in State and local
codes, in substantial economies to owners of buildings. Additional
work is under way.
Designing of optical systems.—New formulas and standardized
methods are being developed for the designing of optical systems.
This work includes the derivation of algebraic formulas for the
geometric aberrations of the first, seventh, ninth, and eleventh orders,
and direct algebraic methods by which the phase differences at the
image point corresponding to the geometric aberrations, may be
determined.
Number of projects.—Twenty-four distinct lines of work are
financed from this appropriation. Several of these, such as simpli­
fied practice and commercial standards, are made up of a large num­
ber of projects, reference to which has been made in the preceding
paragraphs. Other work covers specifications for dry cells, stand­
ardization of storage batteries, minimum requirements for lighting of
buildings, etc.
STANDARD MATERIALS ($10,800)

Distribution of standard samples.—During the year 6,506 samples
were distributed, having a sales value of approximately $14,433.50,
and approximately $10,200 worth of standard samples were added
to the salable samples on hand. These included ores, ceramic, and
metallurgical products, and pure chemicals. The number of samples
on hand at the close of the year was approximately 89,000, and their
value was $222,412, representing 95 different materials.
INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND X RAYS
($31,500)

X-ray protection.—An X-ray safety code was formulated and
published as Handbook No. 15. It deals with X-ray insulation of
operating rooms; X-ray and electrical insulation of X-ray equip­
ment ; protective devices for patients and operatives; fire precau­
tions, especially in the storage of, and types of photographic films
used; periodical tests; resuscitation from electric shock; and gen­
eral precautions as to personnel working conditions.
International X-ray standards.—The portable secondary standard
X-ray ionization equipment was improved in design, thoroughly
tested in the bureau’s laboratory and then in another laboratory in
this country, preparatory to a comparison with the national stand­
ards of Great Britain, Germany, and France, which is now under
way. It is anticipated that for the first time like values of the
Röntgen may be obtained by this equipment in the various countries,
and that it may be adopted as standard equipment at the Interna­
tional X-ray Conference in Paris.
Radium testing.—Twenty-four hundred preparations of radium more than double the number reported last year—totaling over
20,000 milligrams of the element, and fixing the sales value of about
$1,500,000, were tested.

BUREAU OE STANDARDS

167

Other investigations.—This fund provided for nine investigations.
In addition to those referred to in the preceding paragraphs, the
following may be mentioned: Photographic registration of alpha-ray
tracks; X-ray study of the iron atom; application of the Geiger
counter to cosmic rays; X-ray emission from thin targets; X-ray
scattering by materials similar to the human body; performance of
X-ray equipment used for radiological purposes; and electrical con­
duction in gases.
UTILIZATION OE WASTE PRODUCTS EROM THE LAND ($52,700)

Paper from wheat straw.—The efforts on this project have been
continued, but the results are not yet wholly satisfactory. Many
different methods of cooking straw to make paper pul'p have been
tried, but it seems that either the reaction is not sufficiently severe, so
that the pulp does not have the required degree of whiteness, or else
it is too severe, so that the yield of pulp is below the economic limit.
Insulating hoard from cornstalks.—This project has passed the
experimental stage and is now in commercial use. Semicommercial
work is being continued to improve the method of production and
to make the product more resistant to fire and water. A new type
of forming machine has been designed and placed in operation.
Pressed hoard from cornstalks.—If the mat of fibers used in mak­
ing insulating board is subjected to heavy pressure, the product is
hard, dense, and strong, and can be used as a substitute for lumber.
Laboratory studies to find the optimum pressure, time, and tempera­
ture, are nearing completion, and equipment for semicommercial pro­
duction is being designed.
Maizolith from cornstalks.—Further experiments are under way to
improve the method of manufacture, and particularly to find a better
way to dry the maizolith.
Xylose from cottonseed hull hran.—After several tons of xylose
were produced, the factory at Anniston, Ala., was closed. Samples
of xylose were sent to many medical laboratories to ascertain its
effect on the human system, but it will be at least a year before any
definite recommendations can be made. The industrial utilization of
xylose is being investigated, the first step being the production of
xylonic and trioxyglutaric acids for use in tanning and dyeing.
Starch from sweetpotatoes.—A new station was opened at Alabama
Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, Ala., in July, 1930, to investigate the
sweet potato as a source of starch for the southern textile industry.
However, there is no definite information on the kind of starch
needed. The uses of starch in various textile mills have been studied,
and laboratory tests developed to determine the suitability of the,
material.
Kraft paper from southern pine.—Another station was opened at
the University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa, in September, 1930. Im­
provement in the efficiency of the process of manufacturing kraft
paper from southern woods is the main object of the work. Analyti­
cal methods are being developed for identifying and measuring the
amounts of sulphur compounds present in the various wastes.
Refining cottonseed oil.—A cheap yet effective method has been
developed for refining cottonseed oil, which is so simple and inexpen­
sive that it seems feasible for the small oil press, or even for the

\

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

home. The oil produced is edible, and some soap is formed as a
by-product. An investigation of the extraction of oil from seeds
has also been started.
Analytical methods.—The analytical methods used for routine
purposes are not adequate for the type of research conducted under
this fund. Better methods have, therefore, been developed. A quan­
titative method for estimating xylose in the presence of glucose
has been published. Refinements of the usual methods of pH
measurement for estimating xylonic acid in the presence of trioxyglutaric acid have also been worked out and published.
Additional 'projects.—This fund was used for 14 projects. While
only a portion of them have been described, the general character of
the work is indicated.
INVESTIGATION OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES ($50,000)

Vapor loch.—Temperature measurements in airplane fuel systems
show that many airplanes now in service require gasoline with low
vapor pressure to insure freedom from vapor lock. Results of lab­
oratory experiments suggest improvements in fuel system design
which would permit the use of better fuels. Similar work with
automobiles points to improper design of fuel systems as the major
cause of vapor lock. As a result of this investigation, extensive
changes are being made in forthcoming models, which will go far to
minimize vapor-lock troubles.
Antiknock characteristics of fuels.—The octane number detona­
tion scale has been adopted as recommended practice by the Society
of Automotive Engineers. Approval of the test engine, developed
by the cooperative fuel-research steering committee, is expected to
follow completion of final tests now in progress. Definite proce­
dure for testing motor fuels has been tentatively adopted and will
soon be given final form. The objectionable feature of automobile
engine detonation is noise; that of aircraft engines is overheating
and mechanical shock. Recognizing this difference, the bureau
initiated cooperative research on methods of measuring detonation
of aviation fuels. The first symposium on this subject indicated
need for such research, the results obtained by different methods
being quite diverse.
Combustion in an engine cylinder.—Theoretical and experimental
studies of gaseous explosions in constant volume bombs have been
made to aid in interpreting recent stroboscopic observations of flame
movement and pressure development in an engine cylinder. Pre­
liminary measurements indicate that the progress and character of
the explosion in the engine may also be investigated by analysis of
the infra-red radiation through fluorite windows in the cylinder head.
Phenomena of combustion.—Using the soap bubble as a constantpressure bomb, the relation between explosion temperature and rate
of transformation in homogeneous mixtures of explosive gases at con­
stant pressure is being studied in cooperation with the National Ad­
visory Committee for Aeronautics.
Gumming characteristics of gasoline.—An investigation is in prog­
ress to develop significant test methods for determining the gum con­
tent of gasolines and its tendency to increase under storage conditions.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

169

Automobile brakes and brake testing.—The safety code for brakes
and brake testing, for which the bureau and the American Automo­
bile Association were joint sponsors, is to be revised in view of the
widespread use of 4-wheel brakes. The personnel of the revised sec­
tional committee for this project was approved June 4 by the coun­
cil of the American Standards Association.
Additional projects.—Only a few of the 17 projects under this fund
have been touched upon. Others include: Measurement or road performance of automobile engines, oxidation of carbon monoxide in the
exhaust, automobile spring suspension systems, causes of vibration of
motor vehicles, and improvement of headlights.
INVESTIGATION OF DENTAL MATERIALS ($10,000)

Cooperation with American Dental Association. The research as­
sociates of the American Dental Association and members of the bu­
reau have made personal contacts with about 3,000 members of the
dental profession through lectures, conferences, etc., in 19 cities well
distributed over the United States. Tests of material for the Gov­
ernment have been more satisfactory than in any previous year,
less than 10 per cent of the material supplied having been rejected,
as compared with 50 per cent last year. No change has been made
in the specifications. Many dental schools are inaugurating pro­
grams for investigating the properties of alloys, etc., supplied for
their use. Some of these schools have arranged for their teachers
to visit the bureau, thus insuring the fullest utilization of data on
methods of test, selection of materials, and other benefits.
TRANSFERRED FUNDS ($468,283)

Organizations and projects.—During the year funds were trans­
ferred from the following departments and independent establish­
ments of the Federal Government, covering the projects listed:

Bureau of Engraving and Printing: Electrodeposition; currency paper and
StS.QipS
Department of Commerce : Promotion of use of specifications ; aids to air
navigation; aeronautical engineering problems; aircraft engine testing; engi­
neering
research.
„ Colorado
_ , _ River Dam.
Department
of the Interior: Concrete testing for
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics : Aerodynamics ; aircraft power
plants; mercerization of cotton; embrittlement of duralumin and steel tubing,
identification
of steels. Airship girders; aircraft instruments;
.
, gas-cell„ fabrics,
.. . .
Navy Department:
identification of steels; embrittlement of duralumin; aircraft engine ignition,
effects of humidity on engine operation ; storage batteries ; optical glass.
Post Office Department: Characteristics of automotive vehicles for postal
service.
Smithsonian Institution : Safeguarding dome of Museum of Natural History.
Treasury Department: Radio receiving sets for the Coast Guard.
War Department: Gumming of gasoline; geared superchargers; substitute
for shellac ; substitute for sole leather ; nontin bearing metal ; development of
machine guns ; radio receiving sets ; experimental gages ; bomb ballistics.

Many of these projects were supported partly by bureau and
partly by transferred funds. The more important of these have al­
ready been described under the appropriate bureau funds. The in-

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REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

vestigations supported wholly by transferred funds resulted in the
following developments:
Air navigation facilities—radio.—In this field the bureau’s atten­
tion was devoted particularly to radiobeacon systems, means for
blind landing, and aircraft direction finders. Mention may be made
of a transmitter for the simultaneous transmission of radiotelephone
messages and visual type radiobeacon signals on the same radio fre­
quency; refinements in the design and calibration of the vibrating
reecl indicator; a new course indicator which gives the beacon course
indications on a zero-center, pointer-type instrument; a deviometer
wnich permits a pilot to follow any chosen course within 15° on
either side of the fixed beacon courses. Improvements in the system
of blind-landing aids include: A combined instrument which indi­
cates both lateral and vertical positions of the airplane as it lands;
an improved marker beacon for defining the landing field boundary;
a dual-control airplane equipped for blind flights on the system ;* a
simplified aircraft direction finder giving visual indications; a sym­
metrical longitudinal T antenna for aircraft, having better mechani­
cal and aerodynamic properties than the pole antenna. Work was
begun on a radio system to aid in preventing collisions when flying
under adverse visibility conditions.
Aviation lighting.—Photometric measurements and visibility tests
have been made on 24 and 36 inch airway beacons, code beacons,
boundary lights, traffic-control projectors, and flying lights. Ten­
tative specifications for red and green glasses for use in beacons,
boundary lights, and flying lights have been prepared. A trafficcontrol projector and a reflector, giving a desired light distribution
for flying lights on airplanes, have been designed and constructed.
Experiments on beacons flashing Morse code signals, and visibility
tests on colors for aviation use are in progress.
Control surfaces of airplanes.—A wind-tunnel study of the hinge
moments of ailerons at large angles of attack was completed with
the cooperation of the Aeronautics Branch of the Department of
Commerce and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
The results are described in N. A. C. A. Technical Report No. 370.
Measurements were also made of the yawing moments produced
by several rudders at large angles of attack.
Measurement of turbulence.—In cooperation with the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, a .study has been made of
methods of reducing turbulence in wind tunnels, and the results
published m N. A. C. A. Technical Report No. 392. The apparatus
for measuring turbulence has been further improved by extending
the frequency range, for which the response is uniform, to 4,000
cycles per second.
Reduction of noise in airplanes.—In cooperation with the Aero­
nautics Branch of the Department of Commerce, a set-up has been
provided for the .study 0f mufflers for airplane engines.
Crash-resistant tanks.—In cooperation with the Aeronautics
Branch various methods for making airplane fuel tanks less ,sus­
ceptible to failure in accidents are being studied. A new elastic
synthetic material for lining tanks offers some promise of success.
Type testing of commercial airplane engines.—Eleven radial engines, including 1 Diesel, 8 inverted in-line, 4 horizontal-opposed,

BUREAU OF STANDARDS

171

and 4 V-type engines, including a 12-cylinder inverted V, were
tested at the Arlington laboratory for the Aeronautics Branch.
Of the 27 engines received, 14 passed, 11 failed, and 2 were with­
drawn. Eight of the engines which failed were of new types, and
three had received one previous test each.
Effect of air humidity on engine ■ performance.—Tests made for
the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy Department show that power
always decreases with increase in air humidity. Injection of water
.spray into the combustion chamber gives high antiknock action
without loss of power when optimum timing of injection and spark
advance is employed. Further research at high compression ratios
is essential.
Aircraft instrument developments.—An improved fuel flow meter,
an electric resistance thermometer, four cartridge-type maximum
indicating accelerometers, two suspended head air-speed meters, an
angle of "attack indicator, an aircraft cour,se protractor, and a super­
charger pressure gauge were constructed for the Bureau of Aero­
nautics of the Navy Department. The construction and installa­
tion of the mooring force indicator for the airship Los Angeles
was completed. An investigation of damping liquids for aircraft
instruments was conducted for the National Advisory Committee
for Aeronautics.
Accelerometer for study of earthquakes.—In cooperation with the
Coast and Geodetic Survey an accelerometer Is under development.
It is intended, primarily, for obtaining records of ground move­
ments from which the forces on buildings, located within an earth­
quake area, may be calculated.
Radio receiving sets for Coast Guard.—Six receiving sets sub­
mitted as bid samples to the Coast Guard were tested. Specifica­
tions were prepared for new, improved apparatus for determining
precisely the electrical sensitivity, fidelity, and overload character­
istics of receiving sets.
Corrosion of storage-battery plates.—A. procedure for determining
the acetic acid content of storage-battery electrolytes has been devel­
oped. Apparatus has been assembled 'for measuring the electrical
resistance of storage-battery separators, and a series of measurements
made. Apparatus has been developed for estimating the rate of cor­
rosion by measuring the changes in electrical' resistance of lead-anti­
mony wires immersed in separator extract solutions.
High-frequency fatigue testing.—The series of high-frequency fa­
tigue tests being made on light aluminum alloys, in cooperation with
the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, is nearly com­
pleted. The results agree very well with those obtained by slower
methods.
Prevention of embrittlement of sheet duralumin by atmospheric
corrosion, and deterioration of magnesium alloys by corrosion.—The
fourth year of the 5-year program of outdoor-exposure tests under
three widely different climatic conditions has been completed. The
bad effect of improper heat treatment on sheet duralumin and the
relatively short life of most coatings have been established. Tests
of the materials which so far appear to be satisfactory will be con­
tinued. Magnesium alloys exposed to the weather at the bureau still
show good tensile properties after two years, although the coatings

172

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

soon lose their adherence. Tests in the typical marine atmosphere
proved to be too severe for magnesium.
Distinguishing airplane steel tubing of different compositions.—A
report was issued on several nondestructive tests for this purpose.
The spark test was of very great value in the case of only two compo­
sitions. Attempts to develop a simple chemical “ spot ” test were
fruitless, although a much more reliable and quicker analytical
method for molybdenum than that now in use was developed.
Gas-cell fabrics for airships.—Several wholly synthetic materials
have shown promise as possible substitutes for goldbeater’s skin, but
have not yet advanced to the production stage. Materials submitted
by manufacturers were examined and technical advice given.
Bearing alloys.—A cooperative study with the War Department
on bearing alloys containing little, if any, tin is in progress. The
properties at elevated temperatures of the important lead-base bear­
ing alloys have been determined, and observations are now being
made on sample bearings in Army trucks. In the study of leaded
bronzes particular emphasis is being placed on the use of addition
elements for improving the dispersion of the lead in bronzes con­
taining up to 50 per cent lead.
Substitute for shellac in food containers.—An investigation for the
War Department, and in cooperation with manufacturers of tin cans
used as food containers, developed the fact that shellac is not an
important or necessary component of the so-called “ lacquers ” and
enamels used on the inside of tin cans.
RECOMIÆENDATIONS

Patent policy—There is need for the establishment of a uniform
patent policy for the Government with respect to, patents developed
in the service. The patent policy of this bureau has always been
that patentable devices developed by employees paid out of public
funds belong to the public. The visiting committee, during the past
three years, has given most careful consideration to this subject and
strongly indorses the bureau’s policy o,f public ownership of such
patents. If this is thought by the administration to be desirable as
a general policy, I believe this end can be attained by the President
setting up through Executive order, as a condition of employment,
such regulations as may be deemed necessary.
Increasing demands.—Although the past year has been one of
lessened business activity, the demands for the bureau’s services, both
from the public and from the Government departments, have in­
creased. This is reflected particularly in requests for tests of in­
struments and materials, which have been greater than in any pre­
vious year. It is to be expected, with, returning prosperity, that these
demands will increase at an accelerated rate ; therefore it seems
but reasonable to make the necessary provisions in personnel, facili­
ties, and space that will be needed.
Building program.—As stated in previous reports, the most urgent
need is a new administration building, at a cost of about $400,000.
Ihis wouid relieve about 40,000 square feet of space in laboratory
buildings, badly needed for testing and experimental work, and would
also make provision for adequately housing the nonlaboratory func­
tions of the bureau, now scattered through the other buildings.

BUREAU OE STANDARDS

173

The second need is for a high-voltage laboratory of a_ size and
type and with the equipment to take care of an increasingly im­
portant field of standardization, testing, and research, in which this
Government is in arrears as compared with Great Britain, France,
Germany, and Japan.
Other building needs, which have been presented under a 5}?ear program, include an enlarged low-temperature laboratory, a fireresistance laboratory, and new buildings for mechanical engineering
and for high-precision testing in weights and measures.
Although some provision has been made for increased space in
the branch laboratories at San Franciscoi and Denver, to take care of
Government testing, it is anticipated that increased demands from the
Pacific coast for near-by service will render it desirable to provide
facilities at San Francisco for public testing.
Very truly yours,
G eorge K. B urgess,
Director, Bureau of Standards.

BUREAU OF FISHERIES
D epartment of C ommerce ,
B ureau of F isheries ,

Washington, July 1, 1931.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce.
D ear M r . S ecretary : I have the honor to submit the folloiving
report of the operations of the Bureau of Fisheries during the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1931.
The commercial fisheries of the United States and Alaska in the
calendar year 1929 furnished employment to more than 191,000 per­
sons, of whom 123,000 were fishermen and 64,000 were in the whole­
sale and manufacturing industries. The catch amounted to 3,567,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 pounds, returning to the fishermen $123,054,000. Commercial
fishermen conduct their operations on the high seas, along the entire
stretch of our extensive coast line, including Alaska, on the Great
Lakes, and in interior waters.
Angling is followed in practically all waters capable of support­
ing fish life, and interest in this recreational pastime has tre­
mendously increased. The Senate Special Committee on Conserva­
tion of Wild Life Resources estimates that there are 8,500,000 fish­
ermen or anglers in the country and that the value of fishing tackle
manufactured is approximately $25,000,000.
The national Bureau of Fisheries is concerned with the wise use
of this great natural resource and its maintenance and extension
without danger of exhaustion. The output of fish and eggs from its
8 8 stations and substations located in 35 States, Alaska, and the
District of Columbia approximated 7,122,000,000 during the fiscal
year ended June, 1931, and included marine, anadromous, and fresh­
water species of commercial importance, as well as the highly prized
game fishes. The bureau supplied 119 cooperative nurseries with
over 4,000,000 young fish, increased its own output of fingerling
fish by 28 per cent, and salvaged more than 182,500,000 fish in the
Mississippi River section. Dependence on it for fish for stocking
purposes was greatly increased because of the ruinous drought of
the preceding season, in which many streams completely dried up.
Added fish-cultural facilities provided for under the 5 -year con­
struction and maintenance program (act approved May 21, 1930)
are being established as rapidly as possible.
The bureau’s program of biological research included studies of
30 important food and game fishes, expansion of its program of
research in the fields of experimental fish culture and oyster farm inoand direct aids to the fishermen in forecasting the abundance of
certain species, in effecting means for lessening the destruction of
immature and undersized fish, and in determining what restrictions
were needed to conserve the supply. The completion of a modern
laboratory at Seattle, Wash., provides much needed facilities for the
174

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

175

Pacific coast biological staff of the bureau as well as for certain
of its other personnel and the staff of the International Halibut
Commission.
.
.,
In the field of animal nutrition the bureau, in cooperation witn
other agencies, has been enabled to make noteworthy and timely con­
tributions which have demonstrated the richness of domestic fish oils
in vitamins A and D, thus extending their use in animal feeding.
The relative feeding value of fish meals produced by the different
processes of manufacture has been indicated, and the trade shown
means for improving their manufacturing methods and eliminating
waste. The assistance given has been especially timely because of the
depressed fats, oils, and feeds markets and has resulted both to the
advantage of the fish-reduction industry in increasing the demand
for domestic products and to agriculture in making these products
rich in certain factors available at lower cost. To meet the growingdemands for investigations in this field, the bureau has been com­
pelled to establish a nutrition laboratory in Washington, D. C., which
is now in operation. There has also been set up a temporary fishery
products laboratory at Gloucester, Mass., at which point important
technological studies are being continued. In the collection of annual
statistics of the catch the bureau was able to cover all sections except
for certain fisheries of the Mississippi River.
.
Alaska •fishery laws and regulations for the conservation of its
fisheries have been executed vigorously in an effort to assure the
maintenance of this great resource. The seal herd breeding on the
Pribilof Islands has been built up until it now numbers considerably
in excess of 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 animals, and the current season’s killing of
surplus males is expected to approximate 50,000.
With the appropriation of the sum of $6,075, available March 1,
1931, for the balance of the fiscal year for the enforcement of the law
regulating the interstate transportation of black bass, as amended
and approved July 2, 1930, the bureau proceeded with all possible
promptness to organize a new division to perform the functions
imposed by the law.
.
In the calendar year 1930 the fish-canmng industry—the most
important process of manufacture—packed 576,685,000 pounds, valued
at $82,858,000. In excess of 80,000,000 pounds of fresh fish, valued
at $12,500,000, was prepared for the market by the packaged freshfish trade, and 139,297,000 pounds of fish were frozen. Secondary
fish products to the value of $23,721,000 were produced by the by­
products industries. During the previous year the production of
cured fish amounted to more than 1 1 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 pounds, valued at
$17,500,000, and in 1930 imports of fishery products for consumption
were valued at $50,830,000, while the value of domestic exports was
$17,276,000. In comparison with 1929, there were decreases in the
value of packaged fish, canned fish, secondary products, and imports
and exports, while the production of frozen fish increased.
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

REVISED NORTHERN PACIFIC HALIBUT CONVENTION
The investigations of the International Fisheries Commission pro­
vided for under the convention with Great Britain and Canada,
ratified October 21, 1924, have shown that the stock of northern

176

BEPORT TO THE SECBETABY OP COMMERCE

Pacific halibut is in a precarious condition, faced with ultimate
exhaustion, unless the fishery is properly controlled. It will be
appreciated that it is a complicated and difficult problem to exercise
adequate control over a living organism, and particularly so when
that organism is a species of fish inhabiting the depths of the ocean
over a coastwise stretch of more than 2,000 miles. Under this conven­
tion the commission was required to make recommendations to the
two Governments for concurrent action as to the regulations deemed
necessary for the preservation and development of the fishery. It
is a most difficult if not impracticable procedure to obtain considera­
tion of minor regulations by the Congress of the United States and
the Canadian Parliament each year. To provide a simpler, more
responsive system of control a revised convention with Canada was
signed on May 9, 1930, and became effective on May 9, 1931, by the
exchange of ratifications at Ottawa. It was proclaimed by the Presi­
dent on May 14, 1931, and contains the following articles:
A rticle I

The nationals and inhabitants and fishing vessels and boats of the United
States of America and of the Dominion of Canada, respectively, are hereby pro­
hibited from fishing for halibut (Hippoglossus) both in the territorial waters
and in the high seas off the western coasts of the United States of America, in­
cluding the southern as well as the western coasts of Alaska, and of the Do­
minion of Canada, from the first day of November next after the 'date of the
exchange of ratifications of this Convention to the fifteenth day of the following
February, both days inclusive, and within the same period yearly thereafter.
The International Fisheries Commission provided for by Article III is hereby
empowered, subject to the approval of the President of the United States of
America and of the Governor General of the Dominion of Canada, to suspend
or modify the closed season provided for by this article, as to part or all of the
convention waters, when it finds after investigation such changes are necessary
It is understood that nothing contained in this convention shall prohibit the
nationals or inhabitants or the fishing vessels or boats of the United States of
America or of the Dominion of Canada, from fishing in the waters hereinbefore
specified for other species of fish during the season when fishing for halibut in
such waters is prohibited by this Convention or by any regulations adopted in
pursuance of its provisions. Any halibut that may be taken incidentally when
fishing for other fish during the season when fishing for halibut is prohibited
under the provisions of this Convention or by any regulations adopted in pur­
suance of its provisions may be retained and used for food for the crew of the
vessel by which they are taken. Any portion thereof not so used shall be
landed and immediately turned over to the duly authorized officers of the De­
partment of Commerce of the United States of America or of the Department of
Marine and Fisheries of the Dominion of Canada. Any fish turned over to
such officers in pursuance of the provisions of this article shall be sold bv
them to the highest bidder and the proceeds of such sale, exclusive of the
necessary expenses in connection therewith, shall be paid by them into the
treasuries of their respective countries.
_
und®Pto°d that nothing contained in this convention shall
prohibit the International Fisheries Commission from conducting fishing onerations for investigation purposes during the closed season.
Article I I

Every national or inhabitant, vessel or boat of the United States of America
or of the Dominion of Canada engaged in halibut fishing in violation of the
preceding article may be seized except within the jurisdiction of the other
party by the duly authorized officers of either High Contracting Party and de„ 'Lth? officers.making such seizure and delivered as soon as practicable
to an authorized official of the country to which such person, vessel or boat be­
longs at the nearest point to the place of seizure, or elsewhere, as may be
agreed upon. The authorities of the nation to which such person, vessel or

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

177

boat belongs alone shall have jurisdiction to conduct prosecutions for the violation of the provisions of this Convention, or any regulations which may be
adopted in pursuance of its provisions, and to impose penalties for such viola­
tions; and the witnesses and proofs necessary for such prosecutions, so far as
such witnesses or proofs are under the control of the other High Contracting
Party, shall be furnished with all reasonable promptitude to the authorities
having jurisdiction to conduct the prosecutions.
A rticle III
The High Contracting Parties agree to continue under this Convention the
Commission as at present constituted and known as the International Fisheries
Commission, established by the Convention between the United States of
America and His Britannic Majesty for the preservation of the halibut fishery
of the Northern Pacific Ocean including Bering Sea, concluded^ March 2, 1923,
consisting of four members, two appointed by each Party, which Commission
shall make such investigations as are necessary into the life history of the
halibut in the convention waters and shall publish a report of its activities
from time to time. Each of the High Contracting Parties shall have power to
fill, and shall fill from time to time, vacancies which may occur in its representa­
tion on the Commission. Each of the High Contracting Parties shall pay the
salaries and expenses of its own members, and joint expenses incurred by the
Commission shall be paid by the two High Contracting Parties in equal
moieties.
The High Contracting Parties agree that for the purposes of protecting and
conserving the halibut fishery of the Northern Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea,
the International Fisheries Commission, with the approval of the President of
the United States of America and of the Governor General of the Dominion of
Canada, may, in respect of the nationals and inhabitants and fishing vessels and
boats of the United States of America and of the Dominion of Canada, from
time to time,
(«) divide the convention waters into areas;
(6) limit the catch of halibut to be taken from each area;
(c) fix the size and character of halibut fishing appliances to be used therein;
(d) make such regulations for the collection of statistics of the catch of
halibut including the licensing and clearance of vessels, as will enable the
International Fisheries Commission to determine the condition and trend of
the halibut fishery by banks and areas, as a proper basis for protecting and
conserving the fishery ;
(e) close to all halibut fishing such portion or portions of an area or areas,
as the International Fisheries Commission find to be populated by small,
immature halibut.
A rticle IV
The High Contracting Parties agree to enact and enforce such legislation as
may be necessary to make effective the provisions of this Convention and any
regulation adopted thereunder, with appropriate penalties for violations thereof.
A rticle V

The present Convention shall remain in force for a period of five years and
thereafter until two years from the date when either of the High Contracting
Parties shall give notice to the other of its desire to terminate it.
This Convention shall, from the date of the exchange of ratifications be
deemed to supplant the Convention between the United States of America and
His Britannic Majesty for the Preservation of the Halibut Fishery of the
Northern Pacific Ocean including Bering Sea, concluded March 2, 1923.
A rticle VI
This Convention shall be ratified in accordance with the constitutional
methods of the High Contracting Parties. The ratifications shall be exchanged
at Ottawa as soon as practicable, and the Convention shall come into force on
the day of the exchange of ratifications.
84206--31----- 12

178

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE
PASSAMAQUODDY POWER PROJECT

By joint resolution (Pub. Res. No. 83, 71st Cong.) approved
June 9, 1930, Congress authorized an appropriation to defray the
United States’ share of the expenses of an investigation, to be made
jointly by the United States and Canada, of the probable effects
on the fisheries of the proposed international developments to gener­
ate electric power from the movements of the tides in the Passamaquoddy and Cobscook Bays region. The President appointed Henry
O’Malley, Commissioner of Fisheries, and O. E. Sette, in charge of
North Atlantic fishery investigations of this bureau, as the United
States commissioners to conduct the investigations. Wm. A. Found,
Deputy Minister of Fisheries, and Prof. A. G. Huntsman, of the
Biological Board of Canada, were appointed to represent Canada.
The commission met on June 8 , 1931, in Montreal to organize and
to consider arrangements for initiating the investigation. Mr.
Found was chosen chairman and plans were made for the selection
of four responsible investigators to conduct investigations on zoo­
plankton, phytoplankton, oceanic chemistry, physical oceanography,
and fisheries. The investigations are planned along the following
lines:
1 . Detailed study of the occurrence of the herring in relation to
various environmental conditions as an indication of how its avail­
ability in the fishery might be affected by the construction of the
dams.
2 . A study of the abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton (as
a basis for fish life) in relation to the physical and chemical states
of the water in the Bay of Fundy and along the coast of Maine.
. 3; Detailed examination of existing hydrographic conditions as
indicating the relative importance of the water mixing at the mouth
of Passamaquoddy Bay as determining the physical and chemical
states of the water in the Bay of Fundy and along the coast of
Maine. The commission and investigative staff will be aided by an
advisory committee of four scientists. For Canada these are: Prof.
F. R. Hayes, zoological department, Dalhousie University, and Dr.
A. W H. Needier, in charge of oyster investigations; and for the
United States, Dr. H. B. Bigelow, director of the Woods Hole
(Mass.) Oceanographic Institution, and Prof. A. E. Parr, curator,
Bingham oceanographic collection, Yale University.
NORTH AMERICAN COUNCIL ON FISHERY INVESTIGATIONS
The council held its seventeenth meeting in Washington, D. C. on
November 6 and 7, 1930, with representatives from Canada, France,
Newfoundlandj and the United States present. The meeting con­
cerned itself with a wide range of subjects dealing with the practical
and scientific problems of our North Atlantic fisheries in keeping
with its purpose to coordinate the program of research along emu
nently practical lines. Reports on investigations of the cod, haddock
mackerel, herring, and squid fisheries, the Passamaquoddy power
project, ocean currents and temperatures, and fishery statistics were
received. Dr. Ed. le Danois, director of the marine-fisheries work in
r ranee, gave a very interesting account of the movement of North
Atlantic waters and their effects on the fisheries, and the Hon. H. B.

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

179

C. Lake, Minister of Marine and Fisheries of Newfoundland, empha­
sized the seriousness of the bait situation and need for assuring to the
fishermen adequate supplies of bait material. Dr. Harold Thomp­
son, a well-known investigator of the Scottish Fishery Board, who is
cooperating with the Newfoundland Government in working out a
program of fishery research, was present.
INTERNATIONAL COLONIAL EXPOSITION AT PARIS
In connection with the participation by the Government of the
United States in the International Colonial and Overseas Exposition
at Paris from May 1 through October, 1931, the bureau prepared an
appropriate display regarding the fishery and fur-seal industries of
Alaska. The articles assembled included a life-size reproduction of
a chinook salmon, models of salmon steaks and fillets, salmon and
clam cans and labels, a mounted fur seal, several dressed and dyed
fur-seal skins, and two fur-seal coats. Appropriate photographic
presentations were also included.
CONSERVATION OF WHALES
At one period the United States led all nations in the prosecution
of the whale fisheries. It still produces from one to one and a half
million gallons of whale oil and imports over seven million gallons,
making it a large consumer of this product.
During the past quarter of a century the prosecution of this fishery
on all seas has been greatly intensified. The development of floating
factory ships with a displacement up to 30,000 tons or more, some
of the larger with storage space for three and one-half to six million
gallons of oil, has made possible an intensive exploitation of the fish­
ery in Antarctic waters. The mother ship is accompanied by a fleet of
“ killers,” smaller swift vessels, to scour the seas and tow the catch to
the factory ship. On some of these factory ships there is provision
for hauling, the whales aboard for cutting up, thus greatly simpli­
fying reduction operations.
The world catch of whales increased from about 12,000 in the
calendar year 1920 to more than 27,500 in 1929, and the production
of whale oil increased from nearly 20,400,000 gallons to 93,400,000
gallons in this 1 0 -year period.
This intensified pursuit of whales in practically all seas of the
globe has aroused grave concern lest the supply be exhausted and
the investment in the industry, which has yielded over $60,000,000
in products in a year, be jeopardized. Because of the cosmopolitan
character of whales and the number of countries engaged in the
fishery, regulation would appear necessary by international agree­
ment. In Europe some provision for the study of the subject has
been made, and several nations have applied some restrictions on
the operation of their nationals. In this country the question is
receiving attention by the Special Committee on Wild Life Re­
sources of the United States Senate, the American Society of Mammalogists, and other conservation agencies.
Among the protective measures which should receive attention are
the prevention of the capture of certain of the rarer species, the kill­
ing of immature whales of whatever species, and the undue exploita­

180

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

tion of the fishery as a whole. It may be necessary to provide for
the licensing of whaling companies, setting forth the terms under
which they shall operate, including as complete utilization of the
animals killed as is practicable. It is also highly important that an
international agency be established for a more intensified study of
the trend of the fishery, the need for regulations, and the character
of regulations essential to prevent the exhaustion of the supply, with
as little interference with commercial operations as possible.
JAPANESE VESSELS IN BERING SEA
The summer of 1930 marked the advent of Japanese vessels in
Bering Sea waters adjacent to the Alaskan coast for the packing of
crabs. The floating cannery steamer Taihoku Maru, a vessel of over
7,000 tons, accompanied by the steam beam trawler Myogi Maru and
a number of power launches, was operated about 2 0 miles offshore
from Nelson Lagoon on the Alaska Peninsula. A pack of upward
of 2 0 ,0 0 0 cases of crabs was made. The trawler Kokusai Maru, a
vessel 118 feet in length, engaged in experimental fishing in Bristol
Bay waters 15 or more miles offshore in August, 1930, a small take of
cod, crabs, and halibut resulting. In addition, the Japanese Govern­
ment vessel Hakuyo Maru made a trip in 1930 to waters of Bering
Sea. This is a training ship of the Imperial Fisheries Institute of
Tokyo and is a modern steel vessel of about 2,000 tons. In the sum­
mer of 1931 the floating cannery Nagato Maru was engaged in the
packing of crabs in Bering Sea waters a few miles north of the
Alaska Peninsula.
DOMESTIC RELATIONS
aid to our island dependencies

Hawaiian pearl oysters.—At the invitation of the Territorial gov­
ernment of Hawaii, the bureau detailed its oyster expert, Dr. P. S.
Galtsoff, to an investigation of the newly discovered pearl-oyster
resources of Pearl and Hermes Reef for the purpose of developing a
conservation policy. Transported from Honolulu on July 15, 1930,
by the Navy mine layer ’W hippoorwill and accompanied by 3 Philip­
pine divers, Doctor Galtsoff spent 5 weeks in making a series of
biological investigations at 75 stations in the lagoon where the oysters
occur. Pearl oysters were found at depths from 10 to 47 feet, at­
tached almost exclusively to live corals. All oyster reefs examined
showed obvious signs of depletion. One-year-old oysters were very
few in number. The oysters spawn in July and August. It is esti­
mated that since 1927, when these beds were discovered, not less than
1 0 0 tons of shells (about 106,000 oysters) were taken; and, without
protection, the beds will be completely wiped out in a short time.
The closure of the beds to fishing for a period of 3 to 5 years was
recommended. Several hundred live oysters were brought back to
Honolulu and planted in Kaneohe Bay, where conditions appeared
su^able for their growth and propagation. An examination
of this stock made on April 17, 1931, disclosed that the oysters were
doing well, those examined having nearly doubled in size“ since they
were planted in the previous September. The Territorial government

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

181

is making arrangements to bring more oysters from Pearl and
Hermes Reef in the continuance of the restocking policy.
Fisheries of the Virgin Islands.-—R. H. Fiedler and N. D. Jarvis,
on May 2, 1931, were detailed to conduct a survey of the fisheries of
the Virgin Islands of the United States with a view to alleviating
the present economic plight of these islands. Work began on May
15, 1931, in St. Thomas, and the preliminary survey was completed
on May 30, 1931. The survey revealed that during the calendar year'
1930 the fisheries of the Virgin Islands of the United States em­
ployed 405 fishermen. Their catch amounted to 616,000 pounds of
fishery products valued at $49,080 to the fishermen. In making the
catch the fishermen used 1 motor boat, 38 sailboats, and 141 rowboats.
The gear employed consisted of 40 haul seines, 90 tangle nets (turtle),
113 cast nets, 297 lines, and 1,600 set pots. About one-third of the
total catch was made by set pots, one-third by seines, and one-third
by lines or other types of gear, and by hand. In addition, it was
determined that the industry in the islands is faced with the prob­
lem of marketing the catch now obtained rather than the lack of a
sufficient supply. There is reason to believe that there are many
times throughout the year when the local markets are glutted with
fish, making it impossible to dispose of the catch. Two plans ap­
peared feasible for relieving the situation. These are: (1) Expand
the market for fresh fish; ( 2 ) establish a local fish-curing industry to
replace imported cured fish. In order to further these plans Mr.
Jarvis remained in the islands for several weeks to conduct experi­
ments along these lines. These experiments have proved successful;
and if the findings are adopted it is believed that the economic wel­
fare of the fisheries of the islands will be materially improved.
FISHERIES CONFERENCES
On October 27 and 28, 1930, the bureau was represented at an im­
portant interstate fishery conference at Savannah, Ga., called by the
fish and game commissioner of Georgia to consider various fishery
problems of common interest to North Carolina, South Carolina,
Georgia, and Florida, with special reference to oysters, shad, and
shrimp. The conference adopted a resolution favoring extension of
private oyster culture and the application of modern methods of
oyster farming, also one favoring restriction of the shad fisheries,
protection of spawning grounds, and provision for escapement of a
sufficient spawning reserve.
At the invitation of the Commissioner of Fisheries,_conservation
officials and leading conservationists of Maryland, Virginia, West
Virginia, Pennsylvania, and the District of Columbia met at the
bureau on December 9,1930, to formulate a program for the rehabili­
tation of the game fishes, particularly the black bass, the control of
pollution, and the protection of the shad in the Potomac River.
Resolutions were passed recommending (1) uniform laws govern­
ing the fisheries in boundary waters; (2 ) measures designed to afford
the black bass proper protection; (3) effective laws for the protec­
tion of the shad; (4) the enactment of legislation by the States for
more complete sewage and trade waste disposal; (5) provisions for
cooperative study on means for disposing of industrial wastes; and
( 6 ) the prevention of the pollution of streams.

182

BEPOBT TO THE SECBETAEY OF COMMERCE

In providing effective cooperation with the Federal Government
in the enforcement of the black bass law it was recommended that the
States ( 1 ) prohibit the sale of black bass whether taken within or
without the State; (2 ) provide entire closure to fishing during the
spawning season of the bass; (3) prohibit the export of bass, allowing
the nonresident licensee to carry out a 2 -day bag lim it; (4 ) provide
a uniform size limit; and (5) provide a daily bag limit; and further
that the Federal and State agencies increase their output of young
bass to care for the demand from private cooperative agencies de­
sirous of rearing the young to fingerling sizes for stocking purposes
and for more generous plantings in the streams.
COOPERATION WITH STATES

With the work of the bureau extending into every State, coopera­
tive arrangements are frequently entered into with the various agen­
cies engaged in similar work. This prevents duplication of effort
and effects a considerable saving of money for all concerned.
In its limnological survey of Lake Erie the bureau has been aided
by the States of Ohio and New York. Similar arrangements exist with
Wisconsin in the lake work of that State. Cooperative arrangements
with Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas in the shrimp work have greatly
enlarged its scope, the two former States financing the operations of
two of the bureau’s vessels assigned to their waters. California is
assisting with the trout and steelhead salmon studies on the Pacific
slope. The oyster work of the bureau has been materially aided by
the cooperation of Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia,.
Oregon, and Washington. In the fish cultural work the Rocky
Mountain States have been very helpful in the program of restoring
the depleted streams of this' popular fishing section to former
abundance by mutually beneficial cooperative egg collecting and
rearing operations. In addition, cooperation has been received in
this work from many of the other States, notably Michigan, Minne­
sota, Washington, and Oregon. In so far as personnel is availableexpert advice has been freely granted to State and private fishculturists in the solving of their various problems. Exceptional
cooperation also has been received in the collection of statistics.
Many States furnish data so complete that only supplemental sur­
veys need be made by the bureau’s agents. In the enforcement
work of the new black bass law the bureau, on account of limited
funds, has had to depend on State help and cooperation to expedite
the program. This has been freely given, and many of the States
are assisting by allowing the appointment of their regularly em­
ployed State fish and game protectors to the cooperative position of
Federal black bass law inspectors, for which they receive no remu­
neration, thus rendering a distinct service in a very material way.
In addition to the States, the Navy Department, through the
transporting of supplies to the Pribilof Islands, has given valuable
and much appreciated aid and, together with the War Department,
has loaned vessels for other services as well. The United States
Forest Service and the National Park Service rely upon the bureau
for fish for stocking the streams and lakes in their reservations and
cooperate to the fullest extent.

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

183

FIVE-YEAR CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAM
The act of May 21, 1930 (46 Stat. 371), entitled “An act to
provide for a 5-year construction and maintenance program for the
United States Bureau of Fisheries,” authorized, among other
things, the establishment, during the fiscal year 1931, of fish cul­
tural stations in New Mexico, Louisiana, and Idaho; fish cultural
substations in Wisconsin, Montana, Colorado, and New Hampshire;
a fishery laboratory in the State of Washington; and an experi­
mental bass and trout station in Maryland or West Yirginia. A
total of $505,000 was authorized to be appropriated for the estab­
lishment of these projects. The second deficiency act, fiscal year
L930, appropriated $265,000 for the fiscal year 1931 to enable the
bureau to establish or to commence the establishment of these
projects.
Sites suitable for the establishment of the fish-cultural substa­
tion in New Hampshire and for the fishery laboratory in the State
of Washington were available on land already owned by the United
States and consequently their establishment was begun early in the
fiscal year and practically completed. The New Hampshire station
is located in the White Mountain National Forest near the town of
West Milan. The laboratory is located at 2725 Montlake Boule­
vard, Seattle, Wash., on land known as the “ Old Lake Washington
Canal right of way.”
Sites near Natchitoches, La., Leadville, Colo., and Charles Town,
W. Va., were acquired for the establishment of the stations in those
States and construction was begun during the year.
Sites near Dexter, N. Mex., Gooding, Idaho, and Lake Mills,
Wis., were selected for the stations to be established in those States;
but title to these sites was not perfected during the fiscal year, and
necessarily construction could not be begun.
PROPAGATION AND DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD AND GAME FISHES

INTRODUCTION
The operations of the fish-cultural division of the Bureau of
Fisheries include the propagation and distribution of marine and
fresh-water fishes. As a result of such activities during the fiscal
year 1931, 7,121,806,000 fish and eggs were produced and dis­
tributed. This represents a decrease in output of 448,677,000 as
compared with the preceding year.
Two important facts to be taken into consideration in comparing
the output of one fiscal year with that of another are the amount
of equipment employed and the size of the fish produced. The
equipment in operation during 1931 was essentially the same as in
1930. Carp propagation was suspended at the Put in Bay (Ohio)
station. Ponds for warm-water fishes were constructed in rice
fields in the vicinity of Orangeburg, S. C. At Pyramid Lake, Nev.,
extensive collections of black-spotted trout eggs were made. Black
bass ponds covering an area of approximately 4 acres were completed
at the Cape Vincent (N. Y.) station and placed in operation. These
changes were not of great magnitude, and the equipment employed

184

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

during the two years may be considered on an approximately equal
basis.
The experience gained in the planting of large fingerling and
yearling trout, salmon, and other fishes that can be reared to fingerling and yearling sizes has demonstrated that the distribution of
such fishes in the egg and fry stages should not be resorted to except
when lack of adequate facilities makes it imperative. The signifi­
cance of the planting of 1,0 0 0 large fingerling fish might easily over­
shadow the planting of many times that number of fish of the same
species in the fry stage. Because of this fact much of the expansion
of fish-cultural equipment and effort for the production of certain
fishes has taken place with the view to producing fish of larger
size rather than increasing the numerical output.
The continued efforts put forth by the bureau to produce larger
fish have resulted in the distribution of a greater proportion of the
output in the fingerling stage. Such increase in the fiscal year 1931
as compared with the fingerling production of the preceding year
amounted to 28 per cent. Since these larger fish require more space
and care than fish in the fry stage, it might be assumed that the
total production of the hatcheries in operation would be propor­
tionately reduced. As a matter of fact, however, only two species
of salmon—steelhead and chum—showed any appreciable decrease
in numbers as compared with 1930, while the chinook, sockeye,
humpback, and Atlantic salmons showed a substantial increase in
production. The output of the other salmons and trout handled did
not vary markedly from the figures of the preceding year.
There was an increased output of practically all the important
commercial and game species handled, and in the case of the shad,
herring, cisco, pike perch, and winter flounder such increases were
large. The decline in the total output may be ascribed largely to
a falling off in the production of cod and pollock, such decrease
amounting to 1,135,999,000. These species are distributed in the
egg and fry stages, and the egg collections are dependent upon the
weather conditions encountered rather than upon the efficiency and
effort put forth by the egg-collecting crews. Aside from the cod
and pollock operations, the fiscal year 1931 may be regarded as a
most successful year from a propagation and distribution stand­
point. The year’s output, classified according to the character of the
fishes handled, may be summarized as follows:
Game fishes:
Warm-water species—
Basses___________
Sunfish___________
Crappie___________
Pike and pickerel_
Catfish___________
Other____________
Cold-water species:
Trouts—
Brook________
Rainbow_____
Loch Leven__
Black-spotted_
Golden_______
Grayling__________
Landlocked salmon

Number

4, 370, 000
12, 653, 000
28, 549, 000
3, 927, 000
84, 521, 000

101, 000

16, 296, 000
13, 389, 000
16, 702, 000
16, 095, 000
' 25, 000
1, 003, 000
708, 000

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

185

Commercial fishes:
Anadromous species—
____
Shad
Striped bass-------:--------------------------------------------------Salmon—
Atlantic_______________________________________
Pacific_________________________________________
Interior waters (including Great Lakes) species—
Cisco______________________________________________

Number
19, 490, 000
50, 000, 000
9, 500, 000
3, 969, 000
175, 748, 000
157, 415, 000
63, 400, 000
25, 729, 000
195, 353, 000
298, 000
Yellow perch-------------------------------------------------------- __ 115,
138, 023, 000
115, 488, 000
Buffalofish________________________________________
Marine species—
___ __ 1, 525, 298, 000
Hnrl
- 447, 428, 000
240, 219, 000
668, 000
Winter flounder------------------------- ---------------------------- 3, 604,
10, 461, 000
25, 980, 000
7,121, 806, 000

PROPAGATION OF COMMERCIAL SPECIES
Marine species of the Atlantic coast.—As the fishes propagated
by the bureau in this section are extremely prolific, the eggs are
taken in immense numbers. Most of them are incubated in hatch­
eries and the fry liberated soon after hatching. However, the lowwater density experienced in some of the egg-collecting fields makes
it imperative to plant the green eggs on the spawning grounds im­
mediately after fertilization has been accomplished. A consider­
able increase may be noted in the distribution of haddock and winter
flounder. On the other hand, the production of cod and pollock
fell far short of the results with these species in the preceding year.
Pacific salmon.—The output of Pacific salmon was considerably
in excess of last year’s production. Owing to the more favorable
conditions existing on the spawning grounds in the Columbia Piver
and in California, the egg collections of the chinook salmon ex­
ceeded those of last year by more than 40,000,000._ More eggs of
the humpback salmon than last year were taken in the Afognak
(Alaska) field.
Anadromous species of the Atlantic coast.—A comparatively suc­
cessful year was experienced in the propagation of shad. A pro­
longed period of cool weather lengthened the spawning season, and
while the egg collections did not equal those in the spring of 1929,
they exceeded the take in 1930 by a substantial margin. Eggs of
the striped bass were again collected at Weldon, N. C., after a year
of no production in 1930. Atlantic salmon propagation was aug­
mented at the Craig Brook (Me.) station by the acquisition of
several million additional eggs from Canadian hatcheries, and at
Edenton, N. C. the 1930 take of herring eggs was surpassed by up­
ward of 70,000,000. _ .
Commercial species of intenor waters.-—Increases over 1930 ngures
may be noted in the 1931 distributions of the fishes coming under

186

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

this head. Pike perch and cisco showed large increases, the Put In
Bay (Ohio) station producing a very satisfactory output of the
former. The whitefish production exceeded that of 1930, due mainly
to more satisfactory working conditions in the Michigan field. Not­
withstanding the fact that carp propagation was suspended at the
Put In Bay station, a large increase in the carp output was made
possible through operations conducted at Bellevue and Guttenberg,
Iowa, in the La Crosse (Wis.) field.
propagation or game fishes
Although a number of the commercially important fishes are sought
by anglers for their sporting qualities, many of them are not in­
cluded in the category of game fishes. Only the trouts, basses, sunfish, crappie, catfish, pike, pickerel, grayling, and related forms are
comprised under that heading.
During the year difficulties were experienced at some of the pondfish stations on account of the prevailing drought. Large losses of
black bass and other pondfishes were also sustained because of the
varying weather conditions experienced during the spawning season.
Notwithstanding these handicaps, however, the year’s distribution
of the pondfishes was only slightly lower than in 1930. In all
sections a sufficient number of the various species was produced to
fill all applications on file and to allow for the utilization of an ample
surplus for carrying on extensive cooperative activities with States,
sportsmen’s organizations, and individuals.
RESCUE OPERATIONS
The extent of the rescue work in the Mississippi River territory
exceeded that of the previous year. The total of salvaged fish han­
dled in the fiscal year 1931 amounted to 182,534,861, and of this
number less than 1 per cent was used to fill applications outside of
the rescue district. Weather conditions were unusually favorable
during the season, and the number of fish rescued constituted a new
record. The results of the rescue work in the fields surrounding
the Fairport (Iowa) biological station were also very successful.
COOPERATIVE ACTIVITIES
The cooperative nursery system has become an integral part of the
bureau’s propagation work. Through its activities the bureau has
been enabled to extend materially the scope of its fish-cultural opera­
tions. The removal of large numbers of young fish to be reared at
the nurseries has reduced the mortality formerly resulting from the
crowded condition of the hatcheries and has made possible the con­
centration of effort in rearing the retained stock to a comparatively
large size prior to distribution. While the drought and other con­
ditions caused the suspension of activities at a number of these
establishments, the 119 in operation received for rearing during
the year a total of 4,109,622 young fish produced at the bureau’s
hatcheries.

BUREAU OE FISHERIES

187

STATISTICAL SURVEYS

The statistical work of the division of fishery industries includes
the collection and dissemination of biological and trade-fishery sta­
tistics. Continued progress was made toward the collection of annual
statistics of the entire country by the cooperation of State fishery
agencies and by the use of automobiles by agents. As a result, catch
statistics for 1929 were obtained for the fisheries of the entire United
States with the exception of certain fisheries of the Mississippi River
and tributaries.
FISHERIES OF THE UNITED STATES AND ALASKA

New England States.—In the calendar year 1929 the fisheries of
Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode
Island employed 17,160 fishermen, or 3 per cent more than in 1928.
The catch amounted to 694,286,086 pounds, valued at $29,072,566—an
increase of 15 per cent in the catch and 13 per cent in value as
compared with 1928.
In 1930 landings of fish by American vessels at Boston and Glou­
cester, Mass., and Portland, Me., amounted to 350,801,470 pounds as
landed, valued at $12,785,452—an increase of 7 per cent in volume
over 1929.
The catch of the mackerel fishery in 1930 amounted to 43,156,885
pounds, which is a decrease of 7 per cent as compared with 1929.
In 1930 the packaged-fish trade in New England decreased 7 per
cent in amount and 18 per cent in value as compared with 1929.
The sardine canners in Maine packed 1,399,212 standard cases,
valued at $4,459,071, during 1930—a decrease of 31 per cent in quan­
tity and 35 per cent in value as compared with 1929.
Middle Atlantic States.—In the calendar year 1929 the fisheries
of New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware employed
10,491 fishermen, or 5 per cent more than in 1926, the most recent
year for which statistics! are available prior to 1929. The catch
amounted to 190,772,611 pounds, valued at $14,137,608—an increase
of 14 per cent in the catch and 13 per cent in the value of the catch as
compared with 1926. Landings of fish at New York City and Groton,
Conn., amounted to 57,255,000 pounds in 1930, or 24 per cent less than
in 1929.
On the Hudson River the shad fishery was carried on by 243 fisher­
men in 1930, who caught 206,504 pounds of shad, valued at $33,372—
a slight increase over 1929.
.
Chesapeake Bay States.—In the calendar' year 1929 the fisheries of
Maryland and Virginia employed 18,470 fishermen, or 26 per cent
less than in 1925, the most recent year for which records are available
prior to 1929. The catch amounted to 274,673,437 pounds, valued at
$11,580,628—a decrease of 18 per cent in the catch and 17 per cent
in the value of the catch as compared with 1925.
In 1930 the shad and alewife fisheries of the Potomac River were
prosecuted by 608 fishermen, who caught 601,193 pounds of shad,
valued at $98,041, and 3,114,918 pounds of alewives, valued at $49,315.
South Atlantic and Gulf States.—In the calendar year 1929 the
fisheries of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Ala-

188

EEPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

bama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas employed 26,643 fishermen,,
or 7 per cent less than in 1928. The catch amounted to 535,394,869
pounds, valued at $14,903,945—an increase of 18 per cent in the
catch and a decrease of 7 per cent in the value as compared with
1928.
r
In 1930 sponges sold on the exchange at Tarpon Springs, Fla.,
amounted to 414,082 pounds, valued at $802,938. This is an increase
of 9 per cent in quantity and 14 per cent in value over 1929.
Pacific Coast States.—In the calendar year 1929 the fisheries of
Washington, Oregon, and California employed 19,992 fishermen, or
1 per cent more than in 1928. The catch was the largest and most
valuable on record, amounting to 1,034,433,666 pounds, valued at
$25,038,414—an increase of 47 per cent in the catch and 22 per cent
in the value over 1928.
In 1930 the total catch of halibut by United States and Canadian
vessels amounted to 49,408,000 pounds, valued at $4,974,000—a de­
crease of 1 1 per cent in quantity and 26 per cent in' value as com­
pared with 1929.
Lake States.—In the calendar year 1929 the lake fisheries (Lakes
Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan, Superior, and Namakan, Lake of
the Woods, and II ain y Lake) of the United States and Canada pro­
duced 114,826,907 pounds of fish and shellfish. Of the total, the
United States accounted for 85,389,467 pounds, valued at $6,787,750.
The total catch showed an increase in 1929 over 1928, due largely,
however, to a revised and more complete method of collection used
in the lake fisheries in 1929.
Mississippi River and tributaries.—During the calendar year 1930'
the catch of fresh-water mussel shells amounted to 59,490,000 pounds,
valued at $1,092,156—an increase of 9 per cent in the quantity and
a decrease of 18 per cent in the value as compared with 1929. The
pearl-button industry, centered in Iowa, manufactured pearl buttons
and various novelties from fresh-water mussel shells valued at
$5,007,419 in 1930. The fisheries of Lakes Pepin and Keokuk de­
creased in 1930 as compared with 1929.
MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS

Canned products.—During the calendar year 1930, 464 establish­
ments canned fishery products in the United States and Alaska
amounting to 14,767,186 standard cases (576,685,454 pounds), valued
at $82,858,261. This is a decrease of 18 per cent m the value as
compared with 1929. Salmon canned on the Pacific coast accounted
for 6,086,479 standard cases (292,150,992 pounds), valued at $42,835,953. This is 52 per cent of the total value. Sardines canned
in California and Maine and tuna and tunalike fishes canned in
California each accounted for 16 per cent of the total value. The
remainder of the production consisted principally of shrimp, clam
products, and oysters.
By-products.—During the calendar year 1930 by-products worth
$23,720,778 were manufactured. Excluding marine-pearl shell prod­
ucts, statistics for which were not included in 1929, there was a
decrease of 19 per cent in the value of the production. The most
important by-products were marine-animal meals and scrap, fresh­

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

189

water mussel-shell products, marine-pearl shell products, marineanimal oils, and oyster-shell products. Products of lesser impor­
tance were liquid glue, herring skins and scales, shark skins, fins,
and meat, agar agar, pickled whale meat, whalebone, and isinglass.
Cured products.—The production of cured fishery products in
the marine and lake sections of the United States and Alaska in
the calendar year 1929 amounted to 116,267,121 pounds, valued at
$17,822,253. Of this amount 72,842,774 pounds, valued at $7,038,425,
were salted; 36,490,815 pounds, valued at $9,446,612, were smoked;
4,746,634 pounds, valued at $1,214,205, were dried; and 2,186,898
pounds, valued at $183,011, were spiced. Mild-cured salmon was
the most valuable salted product, salmon the most valuable smoked
product, shrimp the most valuable dried product, and alewives the
most important spiced product.
Packaged fresh, frozen, and smoked products.—During the calen­
dar year 1930 packaged fresh, frozen, and smoked products were
produced in 128 plants operated in 15 States. The output amounted
to 80,013,572 pounds, valued at $12,579,664—a decrease of 5 per cent
in quantity and 15 per cent in value as compared with 1929.
Frozen products.—In the calendar year 1930 the freezing plants
in the United States and Alaska packed 139,297,228 pounds of fro­
zen fishery products, with an estimated value in the cold-storage
warehouses of $16,500,000. This is the largest frozen pack on rec­
ord and is an increase of 15 per cent over 1929. The most impor­
tant frozen products were the group consisting of cod, haddock, had­
dock fillets, hake, and pollock; salmon; halibut; mackerel; whiting;
and sea herring.
FISH-FARM ING INDUSTRIES IN THE UNITED STATES

As a continuation of the work started in the calendar year 1928
when the goldfish industry was surveyed, the fish-farming industry
was further studied in 1930 to include the trout and pondfish indus­
tries. It was found that there were 133 trout and 1 1 pondfish
establishments commercially active in 1929. The products marketed
in the trout industry were valued at $1,072,700, and in the pondfish
industry they were valued at $21,444.
FOREIGN FISHERY TRADE

The value of the United States foreign trade in fishery products
during the calendar year 1930 amounted to $68,105,230, of which
$50,829,653 represents the value of the imports for consumption and
$17,275,577 the value of exports. Compared with the previous year,
this is a decrease of 25 per cent in total trade, 24 per cent in the value
of imports, and 28 per cent in the value of exports.
TECHNOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS

The technologists of the division of fishery industries have been
conducting research mainly on problems relating to improvements
in methods of handling fresh fish, by-products and production
methods, net preservation, and the nutritive value of marine
products.

190

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
IMPROVEMENTS IN METHODS OF HANDLING FRESH FISH

During the year the bureau established a refrigeration laboratory
at the municipal fish market in this city for the purpose of continu­
ing preliminary studies on the evaporation of moisture from frozen
fish, the rusting of frozen fish, the losses incurred through leaching
of fish packed in ice, and the freezing of oysters. In the studies on
the evaporation of moisture from frozen fish, the samples of fish
were given several different treatments and stored in a constant tem­
perature approximating the conditions of a commercial freezer as
far as possible. One treatment showed up particularly well, re­
ducing the evaporation of moisture from 23 per cent in the untreated
fish to 5 per cent in the treated fish. In studying the losses incurred
through the leaching of fish packed in ice, preliminary experiments
indicated losses of as high as 4 pounds per ton over a period of 7
days. This, apparently, is not a great loss until it is multiplied
by the amount of fish handled in crushed ice over a period of a year.
It then begins to assume proportions which are really surprising.
It has been recognized for several years and should be emphasized
that these losses represent some of the most important constituents
of the fish from a nutrition standpoint, as the teachings contain
large quantities of the minerals and a part of the flavor of the fish.
During the past year experiments have been conducted on freezing
oysters. If rapidly frozen oysters could be introduced for consump­
tion in the summer months and the public induced to buy them,
the annual output of the producers could be materially increased.
Our experiments have demonstrated that oysters can be rapidly fro­
zen and placed in cold storage for several months without impairing
the taste.
At the time that the above-described experiments were being con­
ducted, at the request of the authorities of the District government,
our technologist offered suggestions which would tend to increase
the attractiveness of the municipal fish market. These dealt with the
sanitary conditions, improvements in refrigeration facilities for the
stores, and general recommendations.
BY-PRODUCTS AND PRODUCTION METHODS

Activities in this section of technology consisted in the comple­
tion of studies on the menhaden industry, manufacturing fish oils
of higher vitamin potency, cooking and pressing fish, and reduc­
tion of nonoily fish waste.
The menhaden studies disclosed means for the elimination of
wastage in the various stages of the factory process, the more
efficient operation of machinery, possible improvements in the de­
sign of existing machinery, and the introduction of new machinery.
It has been shown that menhaden press liquors contain approxi­
mately 2 2 per cent of the total solids of the original material, and
of this amount about 17 per cent is dissolved material and about 5
per cent is suspended material. Under present operating condi­
tions, all dissolved materials are discarded and only about onethird of the suspended materials are recovered. Yet, by treating
press liquors with a chemical coagulant, such as aluminum sulphate,

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

191

and passing the liquors through a pressure filter, the oil and water
emulsion is broken and all suspended and about one-third of the
dissolved solids may be recovered. Furthermore, such treatment
may be expected to give a greater oil recovery.
It was demonstrated that the type of flame drier used at present
in the industry causes a loss of over 1 0 per cent of the monetary
value of the scrap dried, and that the use of steam tube driers will
reduce the present loss in monetary value of dried scrap by over 50
per cent. In addition to this advantage, preliminary feeding tests
indicated that steam-dried menhaden meal has greater nutritional
value than the flame-dried product. Another important discovery
was the fact that storing of oil in open tanks at the factory causes
an increase in the free fatty acid content of the oil.
Special studies have been made of the effect of different methods
of manufacture on the quality and nutritive value of the finished
products. It has been shown that the intrinsic value of both fish
meal and fish oil can be greatly improved through changes in manu­
facturing methods. Heat and oxidation, both in intensity and dur­
ation, are the great destroyers of the nutritional value of foods and
feedstuffs. Therefore, any food manufacturing process which min­
imizes the destructive effect of heat and oxidation contributes
greatly to the quality and nutritive value of the manufactured pro­
duct in question.
NET PRESERVATION

Net preservation studies dealt with trap nets and gill nets.
Chemicals of the antioxidant class and bactericides were found to
be valuable materials, in general, for treating nets. The proper
handling of nets and preservative treatments, including the appli­
cation of preservatives to nets, was studied in order to cut clown
labor cost and to minimize fire risk.
So many factors enter into the problem of prolonging the life of
nets that these investigations have been pursued along four general
lines of study as follows: (1) Development of chemical preserva­
tives, (2) method of application of chemicals to textiles, (3) differ­
ences in deterioration by localities, and (4) yearly variability of
deterioration in one locality.
NUTRITIVE VALUE OF MARINE PRODUCTS

Marine products represent an important food supply. These
products are, generally speaking, rich in vitamins, and minerals in
quantity and variety.
Cooperative research with the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, on fish oils, fish meals, fish
flour, and oysters has been continued. Chemical and spectrographic analyses of the mineral elements in fish and shellfish meals
and kelp meals have been conducted at Johns Hopkins University.
A plan of cooperative research in the laboratories of the South
Carolina Food Research Commission at Charleston, S. C., has been
initiated in which a study is being made of the mineral content of
oysters with relation to the prevention and cure of nutritional
anemia. Various other cooperative tests with Federal and State agri­

192

REPORT TO THE SEOBETAEY OF COMMEBCE

cultural experiment stations have been provided to extend the
nutritional studies of marine products to farm animals.
The number of nutritional studies relating to and depending on
other phases of the bureau’s technological investigations, together
with demands for nutrition investigations from the industry, have
compelled the bureau to establish its own nutrition laboratory.
This has been done, and the investigations already under way are
taxing the facilities of this laboratory.
The outstanding contribution, resulting from research in this
field of technology, has been the demonstration of the richness of
domestic fish oils in vitamins A and D. The quantities of the abovedescribed American fish oils available at present are sufficient to
take care of any present or increasing future needs. The increased
utilization of these domestic fish oils for medicinal use and for
animal feeding will add to the economic wealth of this country,
benefiting both our agricultural and fishery industries, and will
lessen our dependence on foreign sources of supply.
Recently considerable interest has been shown in fish flour—a
product at the present time being prepared experimentally from
the edible parts, including the backbone, of fish remaining from
the filleting or packaged fish industry. This product is dried at a
low temperature, under vacuum, and ground into a fine meal or
flour. It has a pleasant taste, odor, and an attractive appearance.
It can be made cheaply, as it comes from raw material:which is
now either a waste or is converted into fish meal for animal feeding.
It may contain as high as 28 to 30 per cent of minerals, consisting
largely of calcium and phosphorus. Laboratory investigations and
baking tests, conducted by the cereal laboratory of the Bureau of
Chemistry and Soils in cooperation with this bureau, have demon­
strated that it is possible to incorporate 10 to 25 per cent of this
fish flour in bakery products of a palatable and nutritious nature
designed especially to appeal to children. Fish flour should be of
considerable value in bone growth. Arrangements have been made
with a public institution to make a special study of fish flour in the
diet of children. Cooperation of the District of Columbia medical
and dental societies has been extended to the bureau in connection
with these tests.
GLOUCESTER LABORATORY

The bureau has established a large field laboratory at Gloucester,
Mass., for the general conduct of technological research, including
the following activities: Refrigeration, smoking, canning, bacteri­
ology, by-products, and production methods. This laboratory has
been equipped for both chemical and technological research and
special equipment will be added from time to time as its research
activities are expanded.
The first experimental projects to be started are: ( 1 ) Studies of
improvements in methods of manufacture of fish flour and fish meal;
(2 ) an investigation of the vitamin potency and chemical charac­
teristics of haddock liver oil; (3) chemical studies of the refrigera­
tion of fish; (4) methods for smoking fish; and (5) bacteriological
studies aimed to improve fish products.

BUREAU OP FISHERIES

193

BIOLOGICAL FISHERY INVESTIGATIONS

The research activities of the scientific staff are addressed to the
conservation of the Nation’s aquatic food resources through encouraging and advising the States in their regulation of commercial
and sport fishing, in perfecting methods of water farming and fish
culture, and in providing the industries with sound and, in some
cases, advance information as to the trend of the supply of com­
mercial fishes. Major projects of research are conducted in each ox
the geographical interior and coastal sections of the United States.
Early in the fiscal year the division undertook an investigation of
the haddock fishery—the most important fishery of the New
England area. The fishery is subject to considerable fluctuations m
yield; and recent evidences of decline in abundance, coupled with a
tremendous expansion of the industry as a result of the packaged-fish
business, have given rise to fears of serious depletion in the fishery.
A comprehensive plan of investigation in the interest of conservation
and the proper development of the resource, involving studies of
changes in abundance of the stock and the possibilities of serious
depletion, has been adopted, but such studies require considerable
time for the production of results of practical value. Nevertheless,
one phase of the investigation already has yielded results which
uromise to have signal value to the industry. A new type of savings
trawl has been developed to permit the escape of virtually all fish
below commercial size limits without reducing the catch of market­
able fish. If this is adopted by the fishing industry, it should not
only accomplish material economies in operation of the fishing
vessels, but should be a positive factor in the conservation of the stock
of fish in the sea.
Near the end of the fiscal year an agreement was reached with the
California Division of Fish and Game for the conduct of a coopera­
tive investigation of the trout anci steelhead salmon situation in that
State, and it is anticipated that the investigation will eventually
include other Pacific coast areas. The streams of the western moun­
tains have become so popular with anglers and vacationists that they
are no longer able to withstand the strain of intensive fishing. New
and improved methods of fish culture, of stocking, and of regulation
must be devised and adopted to protect and augment the steelhead
salmon runs and the trout supplies of these waters, and an investiga­
tion has been planned under the auspices of the two organizations
uniting skill and material facilities on a large scale in the hope of
meeting the situation.
FISHERY INVESTIGATIONS OF THE ATLANTIC AND GULF COASTts

Investigations of the changing abundance of the more important
food fishes along the Atlantic coast and the causes of such changes
with their implications as to remedial measures have proceeded with
"ratifying results. Fluctuations in the mackerel fishery continued to
follow the principle of dominant year classes with a consistency that
promises increased accuracy of predictions as more seasons are added
to the experience upon which forecasts are based.
Much of the work at sea has been greatly handicapped through the
lack of a fisheries research ship capable of operating trawls and
84206—31— 13

194

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

performing related duties in connection with the various problems.
The rectification of this condition is urgent.
Continuation of the investigation of the shore fisheries of southern
New England and the Middle Atlantic States has confirmed the view
that fluctuation in yield of several important species is due to natural
causes largely. In the case of scup and butterfish, dominance of the
fishery by occasional exceptionally large broods is largely responsible
for variation in the yield. In the case of squeteague, the causes have
been found to be more complex and are not yet completely
understood.
Investigations were continued on the seasonal occurrence of pelagic
marine fish eggs and young fish at the entrance of Chesapeake Bay.
During 1930-31 records of the new winter trawl fishery, which has
developed recently off the Virginia and North Carolina coasts, were
secured. This fishery is of special interest, since it provides employ­
ment for a number of otherwise idle northern vessels, supplies an
important fresh-fish market in the seasons of scarcity, and opens to
exploitation the species of fish formerly caught only in the summer
season. In upper Chesapeake Bay an investigation of the striped bass
or rockfish has been undertaken to study the life history and habits
of the fish as a basis for regulations, which appear to be badly needed
for the protection of the supply.
To provide further fundamental information as to the lives and
habits of the important food fishes of the South Atlantic coast, studies
on the development of the young of the shore species were continued
at the Fisheries Biological Laboratory, Beaufort, N. C., where special
facilities for such studies are available. One report on this subject
was recently issued and another dealing with several species is near­
ing completion. At this station also improvements in the methods
of feeding young diamond-back terrapin have been developed.
Although of commercial importance for a half century, the shrimp
has achieved a place among the important fisheries only within the
past 10 or 15 years. The growth of this industry has been so rapid
and has reached such magnitude that grave fears as to the perma­
nency of the supply have been entertained by the industry, and the
investigation started during the last half of the fiscal year gives every
promise of providing the necessary information for the enaction of
regulatory legislation should that be necessary to insure continued
productivity of the resource.
A special study is being made in Georgia of the effects of the
shrimp trawl upon the food and game fishes of the area.
FISHERIES OF INTERIOR LAKES

Investigations of the commercial fisheries of the Great Lakes were
continued during the fiscal year 1931. Three different types of
research were carried on in the Great Lakes, viz, a study of the effect
upon the fish stock of commercial fishing gear and studies of experi­
mental gear designed to prevent the destruction and waste of under­
sized fish; investigations of the life histories of important commer­
cial fish of the Great Lakes; and limnological surveys in Lake Erie
to study the conditions of the environment affecting fish production..
Studies of the trap-net fishery in Lake Erie were completed during
the year and recommendations will be offered for an improved type'

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

195

of gear. Similar studies with gill nets were conducted in Green Bay,
Lake Michigan, and in Lake Huron. In Lake Michigan a compre­
hensive program of experimental fishing with gill nets at numerous
points typical of the entire lake has been continued, employing the
fisheries motor ship Fulmar, in an effort to perfect fishing gear which
will be effective for catching chubs without at the same time destroy­
ing a great number of immature lake trout. Experimental fishinggear studies have contributed much information on the life histories
of the important fishes taken, and such data accumulating as the
field work progresses will be of material value in the drafting of
fishery regulations by the various States.
Field studies on the international dispute concerning pike-perch
fishing in Lake Champlain were completed during the fiscal year,
and a report is in process of preparation.
In the Wisconsin lakes detailed studies of the rate of growth of
various food and game fishes were made by the bureau’s investigators
in the hope of correlating these data with the great mass of limno­
logical observations obtained by the Wisconsin Geological and Nat­
ural History Survey in a study of the factors affecting fish growth
and reproduction.
FISHERIES OF THE PACIFIC COAST AND ALASKA

The results of fishery investigations in Alaska are utilized
throughout the fishing season and from year to year in the formula­
tion and in the prompt application of fishery regulations over the
entire area in the interest of conservation. A knowledge of the
routes of migration of the important salmon runs, enumeration of
spawning fish passing weirs on their way to headwaters of streams
for propagation, and the age composition of the various runs are
essential to the bureau’s program of regulation of the fisheries.
During the fiscal year the third section of the report on the statistics
of the Alaska salmon fishery was completed for publication. This
report covers the statistics from earliest times to 1927 for the Prince
William Sound and adjacent territory.
An important contribution to the knowledge of the biology of the
Pacific herring was published during the year, and a second report
on the fluctuations in the supply of herring in Prince William
Sound has been prepared. The herring fishery has suffered deple­
tion in restricted areas, and scientific information obtained from
these studies has been of assistance in placing additional restrictions
upon the fishery to prevent exhaustion in areas now productive.
During May, 1931, another regular biennial census of the razorclam beds near Corclova, Alaska, was made to determine the state
of the resource, in order that canning operations in that vicinity may
be so regulated as to permit continued productivity of the beds.
In the United States, salmon investigations by the bureau have
been restricted to the Columbia Biver. One new marking experi­
ment dealing with land-locked salmon of that river was initiated
during the spring of 1931, and the records of recovered fish resulting
from previous marking experiments on other species were collected
and analyzed.

196

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE
FISH SCREEN AND FISH LADDER INVESTIGATIONS

The investigational work pertaining to the conservation of fish
by means of screens and ladders has been continued without in­
terruption. Field experiments with the electric screen have led to
the adoption of simplified and improved apparatus. The highly
satisfactory action of the electric screen in preventing upstream
migrants from entering tail race waters was maintained during the
past season. However, its effectiveness will never be 100 per cent,
and there is a tendency on the part of the public to be apprehensive
of the electric screen. On all new projects and wherever possible
elsewhere the recommendation of the bureau is for the mechanical,
revolving screen—a device which is unpatented and one which long
use has proved to be entirely effective and reliable. The bureau
continues to operate with success its electric screens in the Yakima
country, where it is now impracticable to install mechanical screens.
A development of the season’s work was the discovery of the im­
provement that can be effected in leading migrating fish to by-pass
channels by the use of lights. A survey has been made of fish-screen
problems in Montana, and the bureau now has under construction
a mechanical screen for the Jocko Canal and is preparing detailed
plans and specifications for a mechanical screen (the largest ever
constructed) on the Sun River Canal of the United States Reclama­
tion Service.
In the fall of 1930 the bureau designed and constructed two con­
crete fish ladders on Government projects, these being located at
Sprague River Dam in Oregon and at Wapato Dam in Washington.
Both structures are similar in design to the successful ladder built
by the bureau at Sunnyside Dam. During the winter the fish ladder
requirements of the State of Maine were examined and reported
on. In Idaho, special fishway problems received attention.
Considerable work has been clone in connection with hydroelectric
developments proposed or now under construction on streams sup­
porting migratory fish. Applications for power licenses have been
studied, field examinations made, and the proper fish-protective de­
vices specified. Miscellaneous activities of the investigation have
included engineering services in the preparation of designs for the
water supply at the proposed new Butte Creek hatchery and for the
new pumping equipment and distribution system at Clackamas
hatchery.
AQUICTTLTURAL INVESTIGATIONS

Facilities for investigations in the interest of fish culture were
materially increased during the fiscal year by improvements at the
Fairport (Iowa) station, where pond facilities were nearly doubled.
This station has become a prime factor in the bureau’s fish-cultural
activities, for the principles of black-bass culture which have been
developed here are being generally adopted throughout the country
at large wherever conditions are suitable. The output of fingerling
bass which resulted as a by-product of the experimental work was of
material aid in filling requests for fish for planting. Similar inves­
tigations to adapt the new principles to local conditions have been
undertaken at several of the fish-cultural stations, and studies are

BUREAU OP FISHERIES

197

being conducted in the Upper Mississippi Wild Life and Fish Refuge,
where it has been demonstrated that the sloughs and ponds adjacent
to the Mississippi River can be used to produce black bass in con­
siderable quantities.
.
.
Trout-cultural investigations were continued at the I lttsiord ( Vt.j
experimental hatchery where feeding experiments have been under
way for several years'. Additional foods have beeip tested, the most
striking results being obtained from the use of dried salmon eggs.
Commercial fish meals were also employed and superior rations have
been devised at material savings in cost over foods generally usecl in
hatcheries. Breeding experiments to develop brood stocks of superior
quality, which were begun several years ago, have been continued,
and experiments in stocking local waters with black-spotted trout and
Montana graylings have been notably successful. At this hatchery
the diseases of trout were also studied.
An investigation which promises to become of considerable impor­
tance has been undertaken on the diseases of the sea herring of the
coast of Maine.
An important part of the bureau’s pathological studies has been
conducted in numerous hatcheries throughout the eastern section of
the United States.
SHELLFISH INVESTIGATIONS

The bureau’s investigations of shellfish, a^ide from the razor-clam
census referred to in connection with Alaska fishery investigations,
include two distinct and totally unrelated projects. One deals with
the oyster fishery and the cultivation of oysters on the eastern and
western coasts of the United States as well as the Gulf area, and the
other deals with the fresh-water mussels of the Mississippi River and
the attendant problems of pollution.
_
( .
8 Oyster investigations were conducted during the fiscal year 1931 m
Southern New England, Chesapeake Bay, in various South Atlantic
States, and on the Pacific coast. A study of causes of mortality of
oysters in the lower Chesapeake Bay was finished and a preliminary
report issued. The results of this work, which began in May, 1930,
and which was carried out in cooperation with the Fisheries Commis­
sion of Virginia, show that the mortality of oysters in 1929-30 was
caused by the concurrence of a number of unfavorable factors,
namely, low oxygen tension in the water during the fall and winter
of 1929, planting oysters on soft bottoms, and overcrowded conditions
in some of the planted areas. The report stresses the necessity of
employment of better oyster-cultural methods, and outlines the gen­
eral policy for the development and maintenance of public reefs in
the State of Virginia.
The main difficulty in the South Atlantic States is the overcrowd­
ing of oysters by a new crop of seed oysters that set on the old ones.
It is planned to develop a method of control of setting whereby the
crowded conditions on the reefs can be overcome. In several localities
substantial areas of oyster bottoms were set aside for experimental
purposes.
In New York and Connecticut the work on the method of control
of starfishes and other enemies of oysters has been continued.

198

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Numerous experiments made with different toxic substances have
shown that positive results could be expected only with various
copper salts.
In cooperation with the State department of fisheries there has
been established at Olympia, Wash., a laboratory adapted for re­
search on problems of the oyster industry of Puget Sound. An
investigation of the effect of pulp-mill wastes on oysters, which has
been carried on since 1929, has been completed and the report is in
press. Present investigations deal primarily with the methods of
cultivation and the biology of the native oyster. An investigator
also was stationed on the Oregon coast to study local problems and
to assist in developing improved practices in oyster culture.
Investigations of fresh-water pearl mussels, which provide raw
material for the great American button industry, were conducted
from laboratory headquarters at the University of Missouri and at
various places along the Mississippi River and its tributaries from a
floating laboratory loaned by the United States Army engineers and
later purchased from them. These investigations are primarily
aimed at the perfection of new methods of mussel culture devised in
previous years’ studies to propagate fresh-water mussels by means
independent from fishes of the locality, which in nature must serve
as hosts during the parasitic stage of the development of mussel
larvae. Immediate adoption of this method of culture on a com­
mercial scale is prevented by the existence of sufficient pollution from
industrial and domestic sources in the entire upper Mississippi River
and in many of its tributaries to kill the young mussels. Accordingiy, ;l critical study of this pollution factor has also been under­
taken.
Surveys of other river systems, including those of Texas flowing
directly into the Gulf of Mexico, have resulted in discoveries of con­
siderable areas of river bottoms suitable for the propagation o f«
mussels.. A further survey is being organized to study the Missis­
sippi River conditions south of Keokuk Dam and along the Ohio and
Tennessee Rivers. In the course of this expedition with the floating
laboratory, quantities of mussel spawn will be propagated and
planted as suitable water areas are encountered. Plans have also
been made to establish a mussel-rearing station at the bureau’s
fish hatchery at Fort Worth, Tex., for the stocking of waters in that
region.
The War Department’s program calling for the construction of a
score of dams and a 9-foot ship channel in the upper half of the river
has aroused the fears and protests of fishermen and sportsmen
throughout the region. At the request of the War Department,
therefore, the bureau undertook a survey of the area involved in
order to ascertain what would be the probable effects upon the fish
and mussel fauna of the canal and water storage projects. A detailed
limnological survey was completed early in the fiscal year and a
preliminary report was presented to the War Department summariz­
ing the findings. This report pointed out that if pollution and silt­
ing of the river were first corrected, the canalization project would
not be harmful, and indeed might be beneficial to fish life in that
area.

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

199

ALASKA FISHERIES SERVICE
a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f i s h e r y l a w s a n d r e g u l a t io n s

The execution of the laws and regulations for the conservation of
the fisheries of Alaska was continued m accordance with the policy
adopted when the White law of June 6 , 1924, gave the Secretary of
Commerce broad powers with respect to control of the time, pi ace’
and method of commercial fishing. As salmon yield greater wealth
than any other natural resource of Alaska, particular attention was
given to conservation measures affecting this fishery. Extreme fluc­
tuations characterized the salmon runs m the calendar year 1930,
necessitating sharp curtailment of commercial fishing in some places
in order that no cyclical recurrence of the shortage might be caused
by lack of seeding of the spawning beds. The Commissioner of 1 îsheries was in Alaska for a number of weeks during the active salmon­
fishing season, giving personal attention to various fishery P™bk™sRevised fisheries regulations were issued December 18, 1930, to be
effective in 1931. These have since been modified by a number oi sup­
plementary orders, including the temporary closing during the 1931
season of certain areas in southeastern and central Alaska which will
eliminate the operation of some 150 traps The boundary of the
Yukon-Kuskokwim area has been extended and additional waters
in that area have been opened to limited commercial fishing or
^Twelve statutory employees and 232 temporary stream guards
and special workmen were identified with the patrol of the fashing
grounds in the calendar year 1930, in addition to the crews of 15
bureau vessels and 10 chartered boats. Launches were used by many
of the stream guards stationed at the mouths of salmon streams and
in other closed areas to prevent illegal fishing. As in the previous
season, a supplementary patrol by aircraft was maintained 1 1'Oixi
time to time, chiefly in southeastern Alaska during the weekly closed
^ Much was accomplished in the improvement of salmon streams by
the removal of obstructions that hindered the ascent of salmon to the
spawning grounds. The destruction of predatory species of fish that
feed upon young salmon was actively carried on m the Bristol Bay
region Territorial assistance in providing funds for these purposes
was of material advantage. At its 1931 session the legislature ap­
propriated $25,000 for continuance of this work during the next
two years.
ALASKA SALMON HATCHERIES

At the Government hatcheries at Afognak and on McDonald Lake
33,731,790 red-salmon eggs, 18,019,470 pink-salmon eggs, 100,000
chum-salmon eggs, and 123,904 steelhead-trout eggs were collected m
the calendar year 1930. Shipments totaling 16,262,776 pink-salmon
eggs and 3,055,000 red-salmon eggs in the eyed stage were forwarded
to Seattle for distribution. At the privately owned hatchery oper­
ated under the provisions of the Alaska fisheries act of June 26, 1906,
21,190,000 red-salmon eggs were collected.

200

REPORT TO THE SECEETAEY OE COMMEECE
SPECIAL STUDIES AND INVESTIGATIONS

Life-history studies of the Pacific salmons were continued, dealing
primarily with the red-salmon runs of Bristol Bay, Karluk, Chignik,
and Copper River, and the pink-salmon runs in southeastern Alaska.
To develop further information regarding migration routes approxi­
mately 3,500 salmon, chiefly pinks, were tagged and released from
traps in the vicinity of Cape Fox and on the east coast of Prince of
Wales Island. _ Weirs to count the escapement of spawning salmon
were operated in 26 typical salmon streams, of which 9 were in south­
eastern, 13 in central, and 4 in western Alaska. Investigations con­
cerning the Alaska herring were also continued.
PKODUCTS OF THE FISHERIES

Salmon products comprised about 70 per cent in quantity and 84
per cent in value of the total output of the Alaska fisheries in the
calendar year 1930. Approximately 93 per cent of the salmon prod­
ucts consisted of canned salmon, the pack amounting to 5,032,326
cases, or 241,551,648 pounds, valued at $29,694,898. As compared
with the pack of the preceding year, the output of canned salmon in
1930 showed a decline of 6 per cent in quantity and 27 per cent
in value. The heavy loss in value was attributable partly to the
generally lower level of prices and partly to the shortage of red
salmon. An unusually large proportion of the Alaska pack was
made up of pink salmon, the price of which fell to but one-third of
that of red salmon.
The quantity of herring products exceeded that of the preceding
year, the gain being reflected entirely in the output of the pickled
product. Prices on this commodity, however, as well as of meal and
oil, showed a considerable decline, and the total value of herring
products was the lowest since 1923. The halibut industry also was
severely affected by economic conditions; as a result of curtailment
of operations and of poor fishing in some localities there was a reduc­
tion of approximately 16 per cent in the quantity landed by the
Alaska fleet, while the value declined 32 per cent from that of the
preceding year. The production of clams and shrimps increased
in both quantity and value. Cod fishing from shore stations de­
creased considerably, while whaling and virtually all of the minor
fisheries were conducted on about the same scale as in 1929.
The total yield of the Alaska fisheries in the calendar year 1930
amounted to 370,990,360 pounds of products, valued at $37,679,049,
as compared with an average of 370,353,764 pounds, valued at
$48,042,667, for the 5-year period from 1925 to 1929, inclusive. The
value of the 1930 catch to the fishermen was approximately
$12,285,000, or about $4,297,000 less than in the preceding year.
There were 27,568 persons employed in the various branches of the
industry, as compared with 29,283 in 1929.
ALASKA FUR-SEAL SERVICE
GENERAL ACTIVITIES

An outstanding example of international cooperation is shown in
the splendid results achieved under the convention of 1911 for the

BUREAU OS’ FISHERIES

201

protection and conservation of the North American fur-seal herd,
which has its breeding grounds at the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.
Since 1911 there has been a steady growth of the herd, numbering
at that time about 125,000. There has also been a corresponding de­
velopment of facilities for the expeditious conduct of the work at
theSealing
Pribilofoperations
Islands. in the season of 1930 included
. . n , the
,, taking
. . . and,
curing of sealskins and the marking and reserving of an adequate
number of 3 -year-old male seals for future breeding stock, lo r
the first time there were no fall killings, as the plan has been
adopted to preserve in cold storage such seal meat as may be re­
quired for food by the natives during the winter. Attention was
given to the care of herds of blue foxes on St. Paul and St. George
Islands and to the taking of fox skins.
Good progress was made during the year m the construction ox
new buildings, the erection of a dock at East Landing, and the extension of improved roads. The new by-products plant, which was
begun in the spring of 1930, was completed; and equipment was
installed in the season of 1931.
, ., ,
The service of the new tender Penguin was of very material ad­
vantage in the conduct of the bureau’s work at the Pribilofs. A
number of voyages were made to Seattle during the year, as well as
frequent interisland trips and contacts with points along the
A staff of employees at the Pribilofs directed the work per­
formed by resident natives and by temporary native workmen from
the Aleutian Islands and the mainland who assisted with the work
in the summer. The temporary labor is employed at a specified
wage, but the Pribilof natives are virtual wards of the Government
who are provided with the necessaries of life, including medical
and educational aid, in return for their services. They receive cash
payments also, at the rate of 75 cents for each sealskin and $o tor
each fox skin taken, as well as some additional compensation tor
special services. At the close of the calendar year 1930 the native
population of the Pribilof Islands numbered 375 persons.
The annual supplies for the Pribilof Islands were transported
from Seattle, Wash., on the U. S. S. Sirius, through the cooperation
of the Navy Department. The vessel carried a shipment of seal­
skins on the return voyage. Assistance was rendered also by the
U. S. Coast Guard in patrolling waters frequented by the fur-seal
herd.
SEAL HERD

Computations showed a total of 1,045,101 fur seals in the_ Pribilof
Islands herd on August 10, 1930—an increase of 73,574 animals, or
7.57 per cent, over the corresponding figure for 1929.
t a k e of s e a l s k in s

In the calendar year 1930 there were taken on the Pribilof
Islands 42,500 fur-seal skins, of which 34,382 were from St. Paul
Island and 8,118 from St. George Island. This was an increase of
2,432 over the number taken in 1929.

202

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
M ARKING RESERVED SEALS

In the calendar year 1930 there were marked and reserved for
future breeding stock 6,539 three-year-old male seals, of which
4,918 were on St. Paul Island and 1,621 on St. George Island. In ­
cluded in the reserve also were a large number of seals of this age
class that were not taken up in the drives.
SALE OF SEALSKINS

Two public auction sales of fur-seal skins taken on the Pribilof
Islands were held at St. Louis, Mo., in the fiscal year 1931. On
September 15, 1930, there were sold 11,675 black-dyed, 8,307 log­
wood brown-dyed, and 99 miscellaneous unhaired and raw-salted
skins for a gross sum of $357,990.25. In addition 1 confiscated skin
dressed in hair brought $1 .7 5 .
At the second sale, held on March 30, 1931, 11,503 black-dyed and
9,568 logwood brown-dyed skins were sold for $453,699.75. At the
same time 137 black-dyed and 33 raw-salted Japanese fur-seal skins
sold for $3,172. These 170 skins were the United States Govern­
ment’s share of sealskins taken by the Japanese Government in
1929. There were also sold 2 confiscated fur-seal skins, which
brought $1 .
Special sales of sealskins authorized by the Secretary of Com­
merce in the fiscal year 1931 consisted of 110 black-dyed, 188 log­
wood brown-dyed, 50 raw-salted, and 16 miscellaneous skins for
display purposes, at a total of $10,068.74. All were taken at the
Pribilof Islands.
FOXES

The management of blue-fox^ herds on St. Paul and St. George
Islands as an adjunct to the fur-seal industry gives work to the
natives in the winter when sealing activities are at a minimum and
is the source of no little revenue to the Government from the sale
of the pelts.
Seven hundred and forty-five blue and 32 white fox skins taken
in the season of 1929-30 were sold at public auction in the fiscal year
1931. The blue pelts brought $26,743 and the whites $992, a total
In the season of 1930-31, 211 blue and 24 white fox skins were
taken on St. Paul Island and 678 blue and 2 white skins on St.
George Island, a total of 915 skins. Fifty foxes on St. Paul Island
and 313 on St. George Island were trapped, marked, and released
for breeding purposes. The breeding reserve includes also a con­
siderable number of foxes that were not captured during the season.
FUR-SEAL SK INS TAKEN BY NATIVES

Pursuant to the provisions of the North Pacific Sealing Conven­
tion of July 7, 1911, Indians under the jurisdiction of the United
States and Canada took 2,832 fur-seal skins which were duly authen­
ticated by officials of the respective Governments. Of these skins,

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

203

85 were taken by natives of southeastern Alaska, 450 by natives of
Washington, and 2,297 by natives of British Columbia. Through
the courtesy of the Interior Department the superintendent of the
Neah Bay Indian Agency authenticated the skins taken by Indians
of the State of Washington.
FUR-SEAL PATROL

A patrol of the waters frequented by the Pribilof Islands fur-seal
herd was maintained by vessels of the United States Coast Guard,
supplemented in the spring by two of the bureau’s fishery patrol
vessels which traversed the waters in the vicinity of Cape Flattery
and off the coast of southeast Alaska.
PROTECTION OF SEA OTTERS, WALRUSES, AND SEA LIONS

No changes were made in the regulations previously issued for the
protection of sea otters, walruses, and sea lions. The killing of sea
otters is prohibited at all times. There is a closed, season at all times
on walruses and sea lions, although certain limited killing is per­
mitted under specified conditions.
BLACK BASS LAW ENFORCEMENT

With the transfer of Talbott Denmead, formerly assistant United
States conservation officer of the Biological Survey, from the Depart­
ment of Agriculture to the Department of Commerce to fill the
newly created position of law enforcement officer, the new black bass
law enforcement division of the bureau was formally inaugurated.
The appropriation for the fiscal year 1932 will permit the bureau to
employ one more full-time inspector, and perhaps several part-time
ones, which positions will be filled in the near future.
With this small force it was found necessary to create the coopera­
tive position of deputy black bass law inspector, without salary, ap­
pointees to be generally limited to regularly employed State fish and
game protectors. While fully realizing that unpaid deputies are
not always satisfactory, it is felt that much can be accomplished in
this manner at present that could not be done in any other way. •
The law enforcement officer has visited and held important con­
ferences with State game officials and others in Pennsylvania, Min­
nesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, and the New England States relative to
the enforcement of the black bass law. Inspections of Baltimore
fish markets have been made regularly.
As the Federal statute is predicated on an infraction of State law,
it is essential that the various State laws relating to closed seasons,
limits, sale, and transportation of black bass be made readily avail­
able to all interested, including Federal and State officials, com­
mercial fishermen, fish dealers, and sportsmen. Bureau officials have
been steadily engaged for several months in a study of the game fish
laws of the 48 States, and rapid progress has been made. The largest
part of this rather complicated task is completed, and it will shortly
be possible to issue in printed form a synopsis of the State game fish
laws, along with the Federal black bass law and other data.

204

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY )F COMMERCE

Numerous reports of alleged infractions of the Federal black bass
law have been received from Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, Arkan­
sas, Alabama, Mississippi, and other States, but investigations in
most instances disclosed no violations of the Federal statute. In
several cases it was found that fish other than black bass were
involved, and in others violation of State law could not be proved.
An excellent spirit of cooperation was received from the State fish
and game departments, anglers, and others, and it is believed the law
will be reasonably observed after it receives publicity and its pro­
visions are fully understood. With this end in view numerous
articles have been carefully prepared and published in fish and game
magazines, the press, and other publications, covering the main
features of the law, its aims and objects; addresses and radio talks
by members of the bureau and others have explained the law, and
about 2,000 copies have been distributed. The general correspond­
ence resulting from this publicity has been large and covers many
subjects relating to game fish, and the bureau has received many
requests for advice and assistance in matters pertaining to game fish.
An excellent start has been made on the work in the three months
since the inauguration of the division, and it enters the fiscal year of
1932 better prepared to carry out the provisions of the law.
VESSEL NOTES

The Albatross II was engaged throughout the year in scientific
research work between Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, and Cape Hatteras,
N. C., between the shore line and continental shelf. Oceanographic
stations numbering 286 were made. Numerous 30 and 60 foot ottertrawl hauls were made. During the investigations there were tagged
352 cod, 280 haddock, 33 pollock, and flukes, sea bass, scup, butterfish, and croakers numbering 248 in all. At convenient times, be­
tween cruises, the vessel underwent various repairs at the Boston
Navy Yard. The work was under the direction of O. E. Sette.
The steamer Shearwater was engaged in fish-cultural work at the
Put in Bay (Ohio) station during the fall and spring months.
The steamer Phalarope was engaged as usual as a tender at the
Woods Hole biological station.
The Pelican which was launched at Newport News, Va., last June
is now at the Boothbay Harbor (Me.) station. It has been engaged
throughout the year in fish-cultural activities.
The bureau’s vessel Fulmar, a motor ship 102 feet long stationed at
Charlevoix, Mich., was assigned to investigative duty with the Great
Lakes scientific staff and has been fully equipped for experimental
fishing. The vessel has been engaged in experimental work on Lake
Michigan for the purpose of studying means of preventing the
destruction of undersized and immature fish by commercial nets.
Extensive biological data upon the life histories of these fishes and on
problems of their conservation were obtained. The investigations
continued from June to November, 1930, and were resumed again in
May, 1931. Experimental fishing stations were occupied weekly
throughout the season at numerous points distributed around the
margin of the lake.
Sixteen vessels of the Alaska service cruised more than 140,000
nautical miles in the fiscal year 1931, as compared with 118,570 nauti­

205

b u r e a u o f f is h e r ie s

cal miles in the previous year. The Penguin covered approximately
24,000 miles; the Crane, 15,000 miles; and the Brant and Teal each
about 13,000 miles.
, ., .
.
The Penguin newest and largest of the bureau’s Alaska vessels, was
used chiefly as tender for the Pribilof Islands, although some mcidental service was rendered the salmon-fishery investigations for two
weeks in September. This vessel has proved a highly satisfactory
addition to the Alaska fleet.
, n, 7
In southeastern Alaska the Widgeon, Murre, Auklet, and Petrel
were engaged in fishery protective work throughout the season.
Other vessels employed in that district for a time in the fall after
the close of fishing operations to the westward were as follows:
Crane, which had been on duty in the Alaska Peninsula region and
had transferred seasonal employees to and from Bristol Bay 5 Teal,
which patrolled waters of the Cook Inlet area during the summer ;
Scoter, engaged on Bristol Bay; Blue Wing, employed at Kodiak and
Afognak Islands; and Kittiwake, which was m the Seward-Katalla
district until September 10. The Eider and Red Wing were sta­
tioned in the Kodiak-Afognak district; the Ilis at Chigmk; the
Mergmser in the Ikatan-Shumagin district; and the Coot on the
Yukon Kiver. The Brant was used in general supervisory work and
made one cruise to the westward as far as Ikatan.
_ .
In addition to operations in connection with the fisheries m Alaska,
the Brant was engaged for several weeks in patrolling waters of
Neah Bay, Wash., and vicinity to enforce the laws for the protection
of the fur-seal herd during its migration northward. The Widgeon
performed similar duty off the coast of southeastern Alaska.
Nearly all of the Alaska vessels were given a general overhauling
during the winter, either at Seattle or at one of the Alaska ports.
The Blue Wing was extensively remodeled and was equipped with the
50-horsepower gas engine formerly in the Scoter.
APPROPRIATIONS

Appropriations for the bureau for the fiscal year aggregated
$2,631,885, as follows:

Salaries------------------ ----------------------- ------------------------------Miscellaneous expenses :
Administration----------------------------------------------------------Propagation of food fishes------------------------------------------Maintenance of vessels----------------------------------------------Inquiry respecting food fishes-------------------------------------Fishery industries-----------------------------------------------------Sponge fisheries--------------------------------------------------------Construction of stations---------------------------------------------------Enforcement of black bass law------------------------------------------Protecting seal and salmon fisheries of Alaska-------------------Upper Mississippi Wild Life and Fish Refuge— -----------;—
For improvements at the Fairport (Iowa) Biological Station.
By-products plant, Alaska------------------------------------------------

Very truly yours,

$860,310
4, 400
574, 000
169-, 500
172, OOO
87, 000
3,100
265, 000
6, 075
376, 500
25, 000
24, 000
65, 000

2, 631, 885

Commissioner of Fisheries.
H enry

O ’M a l l e y ,

LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE
D epartment of C ommerce ,
B ureau
L ighthouses ,

Washington, July 1, 1931.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce.
D ear M r. S ecretary : In response to your request I furnish the
following report on the work of the service during the past fiscal
year:
of

MORE IMPORTANT ACTIVITIES OF THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE
DURING THE YEAR

Work on the new Detour Light Station, under construction in
Lake Huron at the entrance to the St. Marys River, has reached a
point where a temporary light has been established, and the entire
project is expected to be completed during the present season. Ex­
tensive changes are being made in the aids to navigation in the St.
Marys River between Lakes Huron and Superior in connection with
the improvements in certain channels. Temporary additional lights
have been erected and new permanent aids are under construction.
During the year the further breaking down of the cliff on which
Cape Hinchinbrook Lighthouse, Alaska, stands has seriously endanered the station, and it is to be immediately rebuilt on a new site.
instruction of a light station at Anacapa Island, Calif., has pro­
gressed, the nature of the site considerably handicapping the work.
At Lehua Island, Hawaii, an automatic iight has been established
upon the highest point of the island and a pipe line installed from
the landing. Other important improvements include the modern­
izing of additional fog-signal stations on the Great Lakes, by the
replacement of old steam plants with new oil-engine power units and
modern air-operated signals.
During the year three new lightships and one lighthouse tender
were completed and placed in service. Four other tenders were
under construction at the close of the fiscal year, one being nearly
ready for delivery.
On June 30, 1931, there were 20,273 marine aids to navigation
maintained by the Lighthouse Service, a net increase over the pre­
vious year of 711. During the year 205 new automatic lights on
fixed structures were erected for marine use, and 63 lights were
changed from attended to automatic. At the close of the fiscal year
the total number of automatic lights on fixed structures for marine
service was 1,835 (in addition to which there were several partially
automatic lights). There were also 1,101 buoys with automatic
lights, or a total of 2,936 automatic lights in the Lighthouse Service.

g

206

BUREAU OE LIGHTHOUSES

207

The effectiveness of the radiobeacon system has been increased
during the year. As hereafter stated, 12 new beacons were estab­
lished, including 2 in Alaska, making the total now 90. Of these,
68 automatically broadcast their signals hourly. Synchronization
of stations in groups has been further carried out, largely eliminat­
ing interference. The system of synchronizing sound in air fog
signals with radiobeacon signals has been further extended, and
16 such distance-finding stations are now in operation. Charts
giving necessary data regarding radiobeacons have been revised and
reissued.
Airways facilities were further extended during the fiscal year.
Lighting installation was completed on about 2,283 additional miles
of airways, including the following routes: Big Springs-Fort Worth,
Kingsville-Houston, Kingsville-Waco, Nor folk-Washington, Columbus-Philadelphia, St. Louis-Indianapolis, Portland-Pasco, San
Diego-Los Angeles, and Washington-Pittsburgh. The additional
radio facilities established included 13 standard airway radio com­
munication stations, 43 aural type and 2 visual-type radio-range
beacons, a number of radio-marker beacons, and telephone-typewriter circuits aggregating over 3,000 miles. The visual system is
being installed along the midcontinental airway for trial under
actual service conditions. Because of changes in the routing and
scheduling of air mail and passenger-carrying lines, considerable
airway reconstruction was undertaken in order to provide more
direct courses and larger intermediate landing fields suitable to
the larger type of aircraft coming into general use.
Statements covering the works above mentioned in greater detail
and including various other works in hand during the year are
included under the appropriate heads following. Full information
as to airways is to be found in the report of the aeronautics branch
of the department.
AIDS TO NAVIGATION

During the year various improvements were made in the aids to
marine navigation. Sixty-eight lights were changed from fixed to
flashing or occulting; the illuminant of 10 lights was changed to
incandescent oil vapor; the illuminant of 47 lights (including 18
lighted buoys) was changed to acetylene; the illuminant of 73 lights
(including 2 lightships) was changed to electric incandescent; 12
radiobeacons were established; signals for distance finding were syn­
chronized at 12 stations; and 4 diaphones and 1 tyfon were estab­
lished at important fog-signal stations. Aids are discontinued from
time to time as the original need for them ceases, the number being
so discontinued during the past year totaling 894. As mentioned
elsewhere, the total number of aids to marine navigation at the end
of the year was 20,273.
In Alaskan waters 15 new aids were established, bringing the total
number to 867. This includes 336 lights, 25 lighted buoys, 5 radio,
beacons, 14 fog signals, 307 buoys, and 180 daymarks.
The aids to navigation in the outlying United States territory of
Guantanamo Bay, the American Samoan Islands, and the island of
Guam are maintained under the supervision of the naval com­

208

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

mandants by means of allotments made from Lighthouse Service
appropriations.
At the close of the year there were approximately 15,535 miles of
lighted airways in operation and 357 miles of day routes, with 350
intermediate landing fields, 1,725 airway beacons, 48 standard airway
radio-communication stations, 2 low-power broadcasting stations, 1
point-to-point station, 51 radio ranges, 24 radio-marker beacons, and
a telephone-typewriter system of communications totaling 9,500 miles,
with 178 telephone-typewriter stations. All of the equipment in
operation at the radio-marker beacons has been fitted for radio­
telephone transmission as well as for marker-beacon operation.
ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION

The other important construction projects completed during the
fiscal year, stated in order of districts, are as follows: Placing riprap
around the foundations of Cape Cod. Canal and Lynn Harbor Lights;
protecting the ends of the sea wall at Liston Range Front Light
Station, Del.; installing a radiobeacon at Cape Canaveral Light
Station, Fla.; constructing a stone jetty to protect the lighthouse at
Hillsboro Inlet, Fla., from erosion of the beach; installing an elec­
trically operated siren at Southwest Pass Light Station, La.; placing
two buoys and establishing three lights at Aransas Pass, Tex.; con­
structing a new power house at Rochester Harbor, N. Y .; replacing
the steam whistle at Forty-Mile Point Light Station, Mich., by a
type F diaphone; improving aids in the Columbia River; improve­
ment of aids in Grays Harbor, Wash.; constructing a wood pile
wharf and wood frame warehouse for the depot on Salmon Bay,
Seattle, Wash.; building a permanent roadway from Drakes Land­
ing.to Point Reyes Light Station, Calif.; establishing Kilauea Point
radiobeacon.
Important works in active progress at the end of the fiscal year
are as follows: New structures for light and fog signal at Great
Sait Pond, R. I.; installing new fog-signal apparatus at Delaware
Breakwater, Del.; making hurricane damage repairs at Bulkhead
Cut Range, Porter Bar, St. George Turn, and Apalachicola Range
Lights, Fla.; constructing concrete piers, piling, and boathouse for
Cleveland (Ohio) Light Station; construction of Rochester Pierhead
tower, N. Y.; building complete light station on submarine site at
Detour Reef, Mich.; erecting new structures for St. Marys River,
Mich.; improving and consolidating aids in Chicago Harbor, 111.;
replacing steam fog signal at Sturgeon Bay Canal Light Station,
Wis. , building new station at Cape Decision, Alaska ; constructing
a trail from Cape Hinchinbrook Light Station to English Bay; pur­
chase of property adjoining the Seattle Lighthouse Depot, Wash.;
establishment of light and fog signal at Bush Point, Wash.; improve­
ment of the illuminating apparatus at Cape Flattery, Wash.
IMPROVEMENTS IN APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT

The use of electricity for furnishing the current for lights and
power to operate sound signals and other light-station equipment has
materially increased during the fiscal year. The number of minor
lights in which the current for the lamp and for the operation of a
small flashing mechanism is furnished by a battery of primary cells

BUREAU OE LIGHTHOUSES

209

or dry cells has also increased. In most cases these replace oil post
lanterns. This permits the consolidation of a group of lights under
a single post light keeper. Several lighted buoys using electricity
from dry-cell batteries have been established experimentally, with
satisfactory results. At Aransas Pass radiobeacon station, in view
of the availability of generators for charging storage batteries,
12-volt storage batteries were purchased for near-by minor electric
lights, instead of using dry cells.
Experimental work has been in progress for some time to develop
a lamp for use in masthead lights of lightships that will give a beam
of light of sufficient vertical divergence so that the rolling of the
vessel will not eclipse the light, with possible confusion as to the
characteristic. As a result of these experiments, a lamp with special
filament has been developed which appears to meet reasonably the
requirements. This is a 1,000-watt, 110-volt lamp with 4-section
filament. In a 500-mm. lens the lamp gives a candlepower of 16,000,
with a vertical divergence of 15° at 10 per cent of the maximum
beam candlepower.
A type of commercial lamp using a mantle similar to the standard
i. o. v. lights has been installed at a number of minor stations hav­
ing resident keepers. It has about twice the intrinsic brilliancy of a
fifth-order improved oil lamp and consumes less kerosene. This
lamp is a relatively inexpensive improvement for stations where it is
impracticable or uneconomical to install a standard incandescent
oil vapor lamp or an electric lamp.
Four sets of double ranges have been established in the St.
Marys River to serve 2-way navigation in this important channel.
These double ranges show white daymarks with white lights to
approaching vessels and red daymarks with red lights over the
vessel’s stern. Acetylene is used as the illuminant in 400-mm.
lanterns.
In an increasing number of cases green lights have been used to
provide a distinctive light, and these have proved valuable where
there have been conflicting white lights.
At Navassa Island Light Station a pipe line 2,500 feet long for
conveying the acetylene gas from the landing to the light was
installed to economize the time and labor of maintenance. This light
can now be serviced in one day, a saving of two days over the old
system which required transporting the acetylene tanks to the light,
with a decrease in maintenance work of about 80 per cent
A device has been developed for automatically sounding an alarm
in the event that a radiobeacon is silent more than two continuous
minutes during its period of operation. This device is particular^
important in view of the present method of automatically operating
beacons for scheduled periods during each day, permitting the
keeper to attend to other duties, from which he is called by the alarm
in case of trouble.
The low-power radiotelephone previously developed in the eleventh
district has been materially improved. Equipment for five addi­
tional remote stations has been constructed. On recent tests con­
versations were carried on quite regularly at distances of 200 to 340
miles; however, the reliable range is considered to be much less than
these distances.
84206—31-

-14

210

EEPOET TO THE SECEETAEY OF COMMEECE

A signal controller governing all electric signaling operations at
a station has been developed and one type is now in use at seven
stations for synchronizing radiobeacon and sound signals. Other
types now being constructed provide for the code of the radiobeacon
and for flashing the light if electric.
As a result of the preliminary tests of synchronized radiobeacon
and sound fog signals, additional stations have been fitted for dis­
tance finding; this system has met with the approval of navigators
on the Great Lakes.
Fog signals having a diaphragm vibrated by compressed air or
electricity are being further introduced and tested. A smaller fogsignal apparatus in which the diaphragm is operated electrically has
also proved to be efficient as a minor fog signal. The replacement
of worn-out steam fog-signal plants has continued.
The replacement of wooden spar buoys by special type steel buoys
has continued. To insure greater safety, buoys in which tanks were
housed inside the buoy body without tank pockets are being converted
to the tank-pocket type, and buoys having portable gas connections
on the inside of the buoy are being changed so that these are now on
the outside of the buoy. To lessen danger of explosion in the buoy
body, the standard plans of all lighted buoys have been revised to
provide that hereafter all portable gas connections are to be on the
outside of the buoy.
Die-lock chain has now been put in use on several vessels. Service
tests of this chain have been satisfactory.
The astronomical clock has proved to be reliable and accurate and
its use in connection with lighted aids is being gradually increased.
The airway standard electric code beacon was improved by sub­
stituting two 360° sections of half height in the lower lens element
for the three 120° segments of full height used heretofore. This
newly designed lens made possible the elimination of the three verti­
cal astragals which obstructed the light beam to some extent. Mogul
prefocus sockets were substituted in rotating beacons, code beacons,
and course lights for the mogul screw socket for the purpose of assur­
ing accurate focusing of the light units at all times. A new type
boundary and obstruction light globe, considerably more efficient than
the old type globe, was developed. The new globe has an improved
vertical light distribution, in that the light transmitted to a pilot ap­
proaching at an altitude of 500 feet appears of equal intensity from a
point of 500 feet altitude and 4,000 feet distant to a point directly
over the light and 1,000 feet above it. The design of standard air­
way beacon towers has been improved to obtain a stronger and more
rigid structure, and provision has been made for the, installation of
course lights or a code beacon by the addition of an auxiliary plat­
form above the rotating beacon. Airport traffic signal lights have
been developed so that colored light code signals can be flashed to
pilots approaching landing areas. Time switches with special fea­
tures for use with 3 kilovolt-ampere engine-alternator sets have been
developed. A water-repellent and mildew-proof treatment has been
developed for wind cone sock fabric which will increase the life of
the material. New color schemes have been adopted for the painting
of airway structures in order to provide suitable contrasts with
ground colors prevalent in various sections of the country. New and

BUREAU OF LIGHTHOUSES

211

improved airway keepers’ quarters have been designed. A special
system of low-altitude side lighting was developed for use in the
Columbia River Gorge, where extremely low ceilings prevail at times.
The system adopted includes the use of stand-by lights fed by storage
batteries during periods of commercial power outages. A new direc­
tional arrow, fabricated of galvanized metal, has been developed.
This arrow can be moved readily, and as it is elevated several feet
above ground will be visible above all but exceptionally heavy snow­
fall. A new wind indicator has been developed which shows by
lighted wind tees both direction and velocity of the wind.
ADMINISTRATION

The general organization of the Lighthouse Service remained
unchanged throughout the year. An adjustment of the limits be­
tween the thirteenth and fifteenth lighthouse districts was made in
order that these districts might correspond with the Army Engineer
districts. The limit of the fifteenth district has been extended to
Grafton, 111., to include the Missouri River.
Appropriations for the maintenance of the Lighthouse Service
totaled $10,090,075 for the fiscal year 1931, and for special works
$1,424,000. These amounts are exclusive of appropriations for
airways, $7,944,000, of which $7,785,600 was allotted the airways
division operated through the Lighthouse Service.
The following funds were also allotted from department appropri­
ations: Printing and binding, $27,000; contingent expenses, $9,205.
The following amounts were received by the Lighthouse Service
and turned into the Treasury: From proceeds of sale of Government
property, $19,601.58; for rent of public buildings, grounds, etc.,
$4,091.31; forfeitures by contractors, $8,735.40; reimbursement for
Government property lost, destroyed, or damaged, $6,226.58; work
done for private interests by the Department of Commerce, $3,686.88;
total, $42,341.75.
A pamphlet on the buoyage system of the United States was
published during the year.
The act of March 3,1931. modified previous legislation, authorizing
the city of Fernandina, Fla., to use, for park purposes, certain
portions of the Amelia Island Lighthouse Reservation. The act
of February 26, 1931, authorized the Secretary of Commerce to
continue the system of pay and allowances, including allowances for
longevity, for officers and men on vessels of the Department of
Commerce that was in operation on July 1, 1929.
Installation of the new accounting system, mentioned in the last
annual report, was continued, and 10 districts are now making use of
it; important simplifications were introduced in this system as
originally planned, and in the cost keeping and classification of
expenditures system, in order to restrict this work so that it could
be done with existing personnel and to avoid a considerable ad­
ditional expense. The accounting system will be extended to the
other districts. It was designed by the General Accounting Office
and is being introduced with the cooperation of that office.

212

BEPOBT TO THE SECBETARY OP COMMEEOE
PERSONNEL

On June 30, 1931, there were 5,754 persons employed in the marine
work of the Lighthouse Service. This is an increase of 49 from the
number in 1930. The number of persons in the airways division on
June 30, 1931, was 2,117, making a total of 7,871 for both branches.
The United States Employees’ Compensation Commission gives the
number of reported cases of injury subject to compensation for the
calendar year 1929, of employees of the Lighthouse Service, as fol­
lows : Cases resulting in death, 5; cases resulting in permanent total
or partial disability, 4; cases of temporary total disability, 146.
Incidental to the regular work of the service, many opportunities
arise for rendering aid to those in distress because of the location of
light stations and vessels. During the fiscal year about 113 instances
were reported of saving life and property or rendering valuable aid,
often at great risk to the Lighthouse Service employees. Many of
these acts were specially meritorious, and some of the employees were
specially commended by the Secretary of Commerce.
LIGHTHOUSE DEPOTS

The work of the Lighthouse Service requires adequately equipped
lighthouse depots. Great importance is attached to the improve­
ment of these supply stations, where conditions indicate the neces­
sity. Substantial progress has been made during the fiscal year in
the program of improvement for lighthouse depots. At Portland,
Me., the construction of a complete new depot has been in progress
during the year. Negotiations are in progress for the purchase of
additional land adjoining the depot at Chelsea, Mass. A site for a
depot has been purchased at Bristol, B. I. A project for enlarging
the wharf area at the Woods Hole Depot, Mass., is under way. At
Staten Island, N. Y., the machine shop has been transferred to the
carpenter shop building, saving the expense of rebuilding the ma­
chine shop, and the carpenter shop has been placed, in the foundry
building; the old machine shop is used for needed storage space. At
Edgemoor Lighthouse Depot, Del., work of rebuilding the north
wharf is in progress. At Portsmouth Lighthouse Depot, Va., im­
provements are being made by providing steel bulkheads for the
north dock and laying concrete pavement in the storehouse. Plans
have been approved for improving the depots at Mobile, Ala., and
Galveston, Tex. At Buffalo Lighthouse Depot, N. Y., a protected
slip for vessels is under construction. At Seattle Lighthouse Depot,
Wash., a wood pile wharf has been constructed, also a warehouse, and
arrangements have been made for the purchase of land and a con­
crete building adjoining the present depot site. At Yerba Buena
Depot, Calif., the reinforced concrete warehouse, machine shop, and
power house have been completed. At Honolulu Lighthouse Depot,
Hawaii, the concrete storehouse and shop buildings have been
completed.
VESSELS OE THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE

The Lighthouse Service at the end of the fiscal year had in com­
mission 113 vessels.

BTJKEATT OF LIGHTHOUSES

213

Three new lightships and one tender were completed. Four new
tenders are now being constructed under contract; two will replace
the small tenders Birch and the Laurel, and the other two will be ad­
ditional tenders in the first and eighteenth districts.
During the year there were 38 cases of collision by vessels with
aids to navigation, tenders, and other lighthouse property. Where
the owners of such vessels were identified proper steps were taken
to obtain payment for the damage caused. One claim also arose
from damage by a lighthouse vessel to private property.
LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS
The new tender Violet, to replace the Holly, was completed and
placed in commission in the fifth district. It is proposed to replace
the Azalea in the second district with a duplicate of the Violet.
Plans have been prepared for a tender to replace the Pansy in the
third district, and for a small tender for the eighth district.
The conversion of the coal-burning tenders Orchid and Sunflotoer to oil burning is under way.
Lighthouse tenders during the year steamed a total of 495,4bo
miles on construction, maintenance, and inspection work, an aver­
age of approximately 8,692 miles for each tender. The total quantity
of fuel consumed by tenders during the year was 40,584 tons of coal,
121,459 barrels of fuel oil, 16,954 gallons of gasoline, and 5,892 galIons of kerosene. The total cost of maintenance of tenders during
the year was $2,220,018, exclusive of repairs which cost $286,545. _
At the end of the year 56 tenders were in commission, 2 of which
were undergoing repairs; of these 26 have radio compasses and 32
have radio communication.
The following tenders have been extensively overhauled during
the year: Heather, Ilex, Speedwell, Cypress, Magnolia, Sundew,
and Hyacinth.
The following was the number of tenders of the Lighthouse serv­
ice in commission on June 30 of the years specified, omitting vessels
not having regular crews: 1910, 51; 1915, 45; 1920, 55; 1925, 55;
1930, 55; 1931, 56.
There are, in addition, 11 small depot tenders without regular
crews.
The tender Laurel was sold on March 24, 1931, for $2,165, being
beyond economical repair.
LIGHTSHIPS
Lightships are maintained on 44 stations. At the end of the year
56 lightships were in commission, including 12 relief ships. They
averaged 262 days on station per vessel. The total cost of mainte­
nance of lightships during the year was $1,165,947, exclusive of
repairs which cost $178,009.
.
... , .
The remaining three of the six Diesel electric-propelled lightships
contracted for were completed and placed in commission. No. llo
on Frying Pan Shoals Station, N. C., July 18; No. 116 on Fenwick
Island Station, Del., November 12; and No. 117 on Nantucket Shoals
Station, Mass., May 4.

214

REPORT TO THE SECBETABY OE COMMEBCE

The following was the total number of lightships on June 30 of
the years mentioned: 1910, 68; 1915, 66; 1920, 62; 1925, 59; 1930, 57;
1931, 57. Lightship stations: 1910, 51; 1915, 53; 1920, 49; 1925, 46:
1930, 44; 1931, 44.
Of the present lightships 46 have propelling machinery, 10 are pro­
vided with sail power only, and 1 has no means of propulsion. One
lightship has no crew. The lightship stations may be classified as
outside, 28; inside, 9 (all in the second and third districts); and
lake, 7.
Three old lightships were sold during the year, being beyond
economical repair; No. 1 on November 24, 1930, for $251; No. 5 on
January 29, 1931, for $251; and No. 67 on December 30, 1930,
for $873.
’
’
Very truly yours,
G eorge R. P u tn a m ,
Commwsioner of Lighthouses.

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY
D epartm ent of C ommerce ,
C oast and G eodetic S u r v e y ,

Washington, July 1, 1981.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r . S ec r et a r y : In response to your request I furnish the
following report on the work of the bureau during the past fiscal year.
HYDROGRAPHIC AND TOPOGRAPHIC WORK

During the year topographic and hydrographic surveys, including
the triangulation necessary to control them, were made on the
Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific coasts of the United States, in Alaska,
Hawaii, and the Philippines. A brief outline of and statistics for the
various projects follows:
Atlantic coast.—The principal project on the Atlantic coast was the
continuation of the survey of Georges Bank, started during the latter
part of the previous fiscal year to meet demands from both the
shipping and fishing industries for modern detailed charts of that
locality. Work was carried on until October by the survey ships
Oceanographer and Lydonia and resumed in May by the Hydrographer,
Oceanographer, Lydonia, and Gilbert. This was the first assignment
of the new Hydrographer.
During the winter months the Oceanographer was engaged on sur­
veys in the Gulf of Mexico, east of Pensacola, Fla., while the Lydonia
and Gilbert were engaged on offshore surveys southeast of Cape
Canaveral, Fla.
During the first part of the year, the Natoma was engaged in making
surveys of the Hudson River, between Fort Washington and Tarrytown, N. Y. Nine topographic sheets of this locality were compiled
from aerial photographs. These surveys were undertaken primarily
to obtain the data necessary for the construction of two large-scale
anchorage charts required by the United States Navy. During the
last half of the year the Natoma was engaged in making surveys in
the vicinity of Port Royal Sound and Skull Creek, S. C. This work
was done in cooperation with the United States Engineers and the
Lighthouse Service.
The party on the Ranger was engaged on surveys in the vicinity of
Fort Pierce and Biscayne Bay, Fla., until February, at which time
the ship was decommissioned. The compilation of topographic
sheets from aerial photographs of the Florida east coast from Ormond
to Key Largo was completed, using the control furnished by the
party on the Ranger.
During a part of the year a shore party was engaged in making
surveys between Galveston Bay and Houston, Tex., necessary for the
construction of large-scale charts of that locality.
A shore party was engaged during part of the year in the execution
of control surveys in New York Harbor and vicinity.
215

216

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

A field examination was made and manuscript partly prepared for
a new edition of the Inside Route Pilot, New York to Key "West,
and work was started on a field examination for a new edition of the
Alaska Coast Pilot, Part I.
Pacific coast.—The party on the ship Guide continued the surveys
started near the end of the last fiscal year along the coast of Wash­
ington, north of Cape Elizabeth. The work was carried northward
to Cape Flattery. This project extends offshore to the 1,000-fathom
curve and includes a survey of the important approaches to Juan de
Fuca Strait and portions of the Strait never adequately surveyed.
A shore party completed^ new inshore topographic and hydrographic surveys on the California coast, from Havens Anchorage
southward to the proximity of Bodega Bay.
Control surveys were extended from Half Moon Bay southward to
Monterey Bay, Calif., preparatory to taking up detailed inshore and
offshore surveys along that section of the coast.
A shore party was engaged during a portion of the year in making
new surveys of the southern portion of San Francisco Bay. In con­
nection with this project, the region was photographed for the Survey
by the United States Army Air Corps.
Alaska.—The party on the ship Surveyor continued surveys along
the west coast of Kodiak Island. Work was extended during the
1930 season from Cape Ikolik southward through Sitkinak Strait and
included a survey of Olga Bay. This, combined with the previous
season’s work, completed the survey of Alitak Bay and tributaries.
During the present season, surveys are being extended eastward
along the south coast of the island toward Sitkalidak Strait. These
will include the western approaches of that strait as well as the east­
ern approaches to Sitkinak Strait. The results of last season’s work
will be shown on chart No. 8537, scale 1:80,000.
The party on the Discoverer continued surveys along the south coast
of Kenai Peninsula, westward from Aialik Bay. These were ex­
tended offshore to the 100-fathom curve and as far west as Port Dick.
They included a detailed survey of that bay, as well as of Nuka Island
Pass. The results of the work are now being applied to chart No.
8530, which area has now been entirely surveyed. During the pres­
ent season, this party is employed in extending the surveys southwestward across the passages between the Kenai Peninsula and
Afognak Island. Detailed surveys will be made of Windy Bay, the
area around the Barren Islands and around the west, north, and east
side of Shuyak Island. The season’s work will clear up several
reported dangers to navigation in the passage between Shuyak
Island and the Barren Islands.
The party on the Explorer continued the work in Behm Canal,
started during the latter part of the fiscal year 1930. More than half
of the waterway has been surveyed in detail, and it is expected that
the remainder will be completed during the present season.
Hawaiian Islands.—During the summer months, the party on the
Pioneer continued work on the project which calls for a survey of
the chain of shoals, reefs, and islets extending from the main group
of the Hawaiian Islands westward for a distance of 2,000 miles to
Midway Island. The importance of this area, never properly
charted, lies in the fact that this region is traversed by the principal
trans-Pacific steamer track. During the winter this party was en­
gaged on surveys in the vicinity of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui Islands.

217

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

Philippine Islands.—The parties on the ships Pathfinder, Fathomer,
and Marinduque continued work throughout the year on the north
and east coasts of Luzon Island, west coast of Palawan Island, and
in the Sulu Archipelago.
Hydrography, topography, and triangulation accomplished
Hydrography
Miles Area Num­
of
in ber of
sound­ square
ing miles sound­
ings
lines

Locality

8

Hudson River, N. Y--------------------Hudson River, N. Y. (air-photo re-

Topography
Length
of
shore­
line
sur­
veyed
in
miles

, 689 11,438 40,047
l 27 'i 89 i 751
15 11,444
795

Area
sur­
veyed
in
square
miles

95
17
4
91

38
9
1

12
108 49,827
Port Royal Sound, S. C....................... 1,461
1 605 1,382 7, 957
10 2
2, 509
2 12
26' 285
43
753
86
East Coast, Fla. (air-photo reduc734
4 1, 361
300 6 , 028
554
49
25 U , 812
109
Houston Ship Channel, Tex................ 359
73
63,386
48
110
San Francisco Bay, Calif---------------- 1, 238
Halfmoon Bay to Monterey Bay,
Calif
_________
Havens Anchorage to Bodega Bay,
73
20
41 12,089
Calif______________:___________ 543
Cape Elizabeth to Cape Flattery,
26
4,743 48,721
51
6 , 966
42,978
394
255
Behm Canal, Alaska____________ 2,903 2, 219
208
142
614 44,154
Kenai Peninsula, Alaska---------------- 5,115
331
310
Kodiak Island, Alaska------------------- 6,811 1,430 91, 755
Oahu to Laysan Island, Hawaiian
2
5
14, 696 64, 530 33,180
Molokai, Maui, and Lanai islands,
1
9
3, 665 2,451 43, 620
130
83
365 53, 733
North and east coasts, Luzon Island.. 4,383 1, 747
134,271
76
169
8 , 696
744 49, 758
49
91
Sulu Archipelago_________________ 6 , 003
5 1, 378
4
Manila Bay, Luzon Island------------ 186
T otal..------------- ---------------- 75,696 92,548 782,044 2,472 1,785
1

Wire drag.
Locality

Triangulation, first-order:
Wisconsin, La Crosse to Fond
Nebraska, Iowa, and Illinois,
Illinois, Cairo to Belleville arc---Illinois, Kentucky and Tennes­
see, Cairo to Nashville arc. —
Missouri, Cairo to Poplar Bluff
Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas,
ninety-fourth meridian arc.......
Louisiana and Mississippi,
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana,
Illinois, Missouri, and Iowa,
Mississippi River arc------------

Triangulation (second
and third order)
Num­
of
Length Area ber
geo­
of covered graphic
scheme in posi­
in square tions
miles miles deter­
mined
18
16

ill
22

98
30

10 0
1

66

306

250
7
70

45

231

67

35

12

68

20

12 1

29

71

267
79
7
5
2
1
2
54
96
58
178 1,900
420
71

9
105
75
7
94
57
74

600
3b4
296

15
51

812 5,197

1,207

68

46
12

GEODETIC WORE
Length Area
cov­
of
scheme ered
M ile s

150
550
125
160
110

350
240
700
290

S q . m i.

Locality
Triangulation, first-order—Contd.
North Carolina, Virginia, and
Texas, ninety-eighth meridianLaguna Madre connections---New Mexico and Texas, MexiCalifornia, Monterey Bay to

Length Area
of cov­
scheme ered
M ile s S q . m i.

3, 750
85
215
30
2 ,0 0 0
70
1,050
35
1,0 0 0
Total--------- -------------------- 2,895 34,040
4,000
Base lines, first-order:
7.8

1,650
6,150
1,625
1,700

2 ,10 0

5,900
2,900

6 .1

Kentucky, Pembroke...............-

5.1
4.2
6 .1

218

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE
GEODETIC W ORK—Continued
Locality

Length Area
covof
scheme ered

Base lines, first-order—Continued-. M ile s
Georgia, Hamilton............... ........ 8.7
Alabama, Union........................... 1 0 . 8
Mississippi, Forest_____I.II” ”
Louisiana, Monroe____________ 8.7
5.6
Louisiana. Shreveport_________ 6.5
Arkansas, Ashdown___________ 9.2
Mississippi, Pass Christian____
3.7
Louisiana, Schriever..................... 3.7
Louisiana, Baldwin___________ 3.8
Louisiana, Lake Arthur_______
6 .8
Texas, Winnie............................... 10.7
Texas, Palacios_______________ 1 0 . 0
California, Santa Ana_ ................
1.0
Total....... ................................. 118.5
Reconnaissance, first-order tri­
angulation:
Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas,
ninety-fourth meridian arc___ 300
Louisiana and Mississippi,
Shreveport to Forest arc_____ 240
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana,
and Texas, Gulf Coast arc........ 700
Illinois and Missouri, Missis­
sippi River arc_____________ 75
Illinois, Missouri, Iowa, Wis­
consin, and Minnesota, Mis­
sissippi River arc.___ ______ 420
Texas, ninety-eighth meridianLaguna Madre connections___ 30
New Mexico and Texas, Mexi­
can connection.......... ................. 70
California, Monterey Bay to
Mariposa Peak................... .
35
California, San Joaquin Valley.._ 325
Nevada and Oregon, Reno to
Lakeview arc______ ________ 175
Montana, Wyoming, and Colo­
rado, Billings to Grand Junc­
tion arc................... .................. 350
Total....................................... 2,720
Leveling, first-order:
Warsaw, Ind., to Leipsic, Ohio... 103
Highlands to Pleasantville, N. J.,
including spur lines to Beach
Haven and Barnegat City___ 117
Eugene to Redmond, Oreg_____ 116
Rainier, Oreg., to Kelso, Wash.. 14
Sea Isle Junction to Camden,
N. J............................. ............... 1 0 1
Elkhart, Ind., to Walton, Mich _ 302
Pendleton to Mount Vernon,
Oreg.............................................. 1 2 2
Rockton, 111., to Escanaba,
Mich........... ...................... ......... 340
Mount Vernon to Vale, Oreg___ 135
Grayling to Detroit, Mich_____ 203
Hebo to Salem, Oreg__________ 62
Drain to Reedsport, Oreg______ 57
Minneapolis, Minn., to Glasgow,
Mo.......................... ..................... 579

S q . m i.

Locality

Length Area
of cov­
scheme ered

Leveling,
Continued.
Ottumwafirst-order—
to Muscatine,
Iowa... M 81ile s
Mount
Vernon
to
Arlington,
______
___ 158
Oreg...__
159
Astoria
totoNewport,
Oreg........
Newport
Albany,
Oreg___
71
Ladysmith,
via Bay,
Wisconsin
Rapids,
to
Green
Wis__
198
Wisconsin
Rapids__to______
La Crosse, 109
Wis_____
NJackson,
Ky.,
to
Morristown,
Tenn_________
Murfreesboro,
Tenn., to___
Steven­_ 24490
son,
Ala..........................
Lathrop
Bakersfield, Tex__
Calif__ 232
Farwell
totoGap
Sweetwater,
Moccasin
to
Roanoke,
Va__ 224
186
Vicinity
of
San
Pedro,
Calif.
(revision)____________
Washington
toElBellevue,
D. C. . 5
Niland,
viaCalif,
Centro,
toearth­
Jacumba,
(rerun,
quake
investigations)..........
El(rerun,
Centro,earthquake
Calif., toYuma,
Ariz. 85
investiga­
tions)...........................
60
Seligman,
Mo., toward Kensett,
Ark___________
___
183
Nashville,
Tenn., to Florence, 130
Ala..............................
Grants
Pass,
Oreg., toward San 180
Francisco,Ferry,
Calif________
Harpers
Va.,alongto
Harrisburg,
Pa.,W.(rerun
old
transcontinental
line)___
106
Areatato Redding,
Calif____
152
Josephine
to
Blairsville,
Pa......
13
Clarksburg
to
Saltsburg,
Pa.....
12
Butler
to
Gallery,
Pa............
Abilene
toDel Rio,
Tex____
330
Philadelphia,
Pa.,numerous
to Lewes,
Del.,
including
spur
lines (part)___________
Crescent
City, Calif.,_______
to Reeds­ 175
port,
Oreg___
Winnemucca,
Nev., to Crane, 18880
Oreg.
(part)__________
Brady to San Antonio, Tex___ 13
Total.........................
Leveling,
second-order:
Tullahoma
Rockwood,
Medford
totoCrater
Lake, Tenn.
Oreg. 12234
(part)............................
Total..........................
Summary:
First-order triangulation____
2,895
First-order
base
lines______
118.5
First-order
triangulation,
recon­
naissance..__
________
2,720
First-order
Second-orderleveling...............
leveling............ 5,737
156

S q . m i.

2

3,200
2 ,10 0

5,900
675
4,600
215
2 ,0 0 0

1, 050
9,500
4, 500
11,750
45,490

20

34,040
45,490

The past year has been a notable one in the geodetic history of the
Survey. Beginning July 1, 1930, a much larger appropriation became
available for the geodetic work and, in consequence, great strides
have been made during the past year toward filling up the gaps which
exist in the control nets. In fact, at the present rate of progress the

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

219

first and second order control surveys will be completed in 10 or 11
years.
The plan being followed is to have first-order arcs of triangulation
and lines of levels spaced at intervals of about 100 miles with cross
arcs and lines for purposes of strengthening the nets and for use in
adjustments. The intermediate areas will be crossed by arcs of secondorder triangulation and by lines of levels of the second order.
Nearly 2,900 miles of triangulation were executed during the past
year, the greater part of which was designed to supplement the firstorder net of the eastern half of the country to the point where an
adjustment of the net could be made. Arcs were extended from La
Crosse to Fond du Lac, Wis., along the forty-second parallel in
Nebraska, Iowa, and Illinois; from Nashville, Tenn., through Cairo
to Belleville, 111.; from Cairo, 111., to Poplar Bluff, Mo.; along the
ninety-fourth meridian in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas; from
Shreveport, La., to Forest, Miss.; and along the Gulf coast from
Mobile, Ala., to Corpus Christi, Tex. These arcs completed all the
triangulation necessary for the adjustment of the net, and at the close
of the fiscal year the office work of the adjustment was being vigor­
ously prosecuted. It is expected that this adjustment will be com­
pleted during the fiscal year 1932 and that, as rapidly as possible, the
resulting data, which will be final, will be made available in the form
of published pamphlets.
The increased appropriation carries a provision that additional
personnel could be employed for the adjustment and computation of
the field observations and for the preparation of the resulting data for
publication. This has assisted materially in advancing the time at
which the data could be made available in final form.
A notable piece of cooperative work, during the fiscal year 1931, was
the execution of an arc of first-order triangulation along the Mis­
sissippi River, from Chester, 111., to St. Paul, Minn. This work was
undertaken at the request of the Chief of Engineers of the United
States Army and funds of that organization were transferred to the
Coast and Geodetic Survey to pay the field expenses of the work in
question. The work was started early in May at Chester, 111., and,
by the end of the fiscal year, had been carried to the vicinity of Dav­
enport, Iowa. Frequent connections wrere provided to the triangula­
tion stations of the Mississippi River Commission. When the tri­
angulation has been completed, which should be early in September,
1931, it will be possible to fit the detailed triangulation of the Mis­
sissippi River Commission into the first-order scheme executed by
the Coast and Geodetic Survey.
The Survey also cooperated with the Corps of Engineers by running
a line of first-order levels between Philadelphia, Pa., and Lewes,
Del., with some spur lines extending from the main line to points of
importance in engineering work. Part of the field expenses of this
line of levels were defrayed from funds transferred by the Corps of
Engineers. The work was nearly completed by the end of the fiscal
year.
A short arc of triangulation was extended from Monterey Bay to
Mariposa Peak in California for use in detecting possible earth move­
ments. The arc is similar to the two run last year and is a combina­
tion of a large first-order scheme with a smaller connected second-order
scheme running through it.

220

BEPOBT TO THE SECBETARY OF COMMERCE

In continuation of the plan to place all the triangulation of North
America on the same datum, a connection was made between the
Mexican and United States triangulation nets in the vicinity of El
Paso, Tex. The stations in United States territory were occupied by
an officer of the Survey, while observations at the Mexican stations
were made by a representative from the Bureau of Geographical and
Climatological Research.
Seventeen base lines were measured to control the lengths in the new
triangulation east of the ninety-eighth meridian. One of these base
lines is in Nebraska, 1 in Iowa, 2 in Illinois, 1 in Kentucky, 1 in
Georgia, 1 in Alabama, 1 in Arkansas, 2 in Mississippi, 5 in Louisiana,
and 2 in Texas.
A base line, 1 mile in length, was measured near Santa Ana, Calif.,
for use in connection with experiments, to determine the velocity of
light, conducted by the late Dr. A. A. Michelson.
A number of Laplace stations needed for the adjustment of the
eastern triangulation net were provided by an astronomical party,
which made observations for longitude, latitude, and azimuth in 14
States in the central and southern parts of the country.
About 6,000 miles of first and second order leveling were run during
the year. This work is located in various parts of the country and
distributed through 24 States.
The international variation of latitude station at Ukiah, Calif., was
continued in operation during the year and the station at Gaithers­
burg, Md., was being repaired in preparation for the resumption of
observations during the coming fiscal year.
TIDE AND CURRENT WORK

The work during the fiscal year 1931 included the operation of a
number of primary tide stations for the purpose of furnishing general
tidal control for the various regions, numerous secondary tide stations
for use in connection with hydrographic surveys, special tide and cur­
rent suveys in Narragansett Bay and Block Island Sound, and addi­
tional current observations at a number of localities.
Primary tide stations.—Throughout the fiscal year, 27 primary tide
stations were in operation, namely, 14 on the Atlantic coast, 3 on the
Gulf of Mexico coast, 6 on the Pacific coast, 2 in Alaska, and 2 in the
Hawaiian Islands. Three new stations were established during the
year—one at Newport, R. I., in October, 1930, on a cooperative basis
with the public works officer, Naval Training Station, the second in
December at Savannah, Ga., in cooperation with the United States
Army Engineers, and the third in April, 1931, at Washington, D. C.
The observations secured from these stations furnished essential
data for hydrographic control, the determination of accurate datum
planes, reducing the results of short series of observations to mean
values, furnishing information necessary for court cases, and for
determining secular changes in relation of land to sea.
Eleven of the 30 primary tide stations in operation at the close of
the year were handled on a cooperative basis with other Federal
agencies, eliminating the expense for observers. The following list
gives their location, cooperative stations being indicated by an
asterisk (*):

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

Eastport, Me.
Portland, Me.
Portsmouth, N. H.*
Boston, Mass.
Newport, R. I.*
New York, N. Y.
Atlantic City, N. J.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Washington, D. C.
Baltimore, Md.
Annapolis, Md.*
Hampton Roads, Va.*
Charleston, 8 . C.
Savannah, Ga.*
Mayport, Fla.*

Daytona Beach, Fla.
Jacksonville, Fla.*
Key West, Fla.
Pensacola, Fla.
Galveston, Tex.
La Jolla, Calif.
San Francisco, Calif.
Los Angeles, Calif.*
San Diego, Calif.*
Astoria, Oreg.
Seattle, Wash.
Ketchikan, Alaska.
Seward, Alaska.
Hilo, Hawaii*
Honolulu, Hawaii.*

Boston, Mass.
Atlantic City, N. J.
Baltimore, Md.
Norfolk, Va.
Charleston, S. C.

Key West, Fla.
Pensacola, Fla.
La Jolla, Calif.
San Francisco, Calif.
Seattle, Wash.

Eastport, Me.
Prospect Harbor, Me.
Portland, Me.
Portsmouth, N. H.
Boston, Mass.
Newport, R. I.
Ocean City, Md.
Annapolis, Md.
Hampton Roads, Va.
Mayport, Fla.

Jacksonville, Fla.
Daytona/ Beach, Fla.
Fort Lauderdale, Fla.
Key West, Fla.
Everglades, Fla.
San Diego, Calif.
La Jolla, Calif.
Santa Barbara, Calif.
Honolulu, Hawaii.

221

With the assistance of the United States Army Engineer Office, an
additional cooperative station will shortly be established at Miami
Beach, Fla.
Secondary tide stations.—Records were received from Prospect
Harbor, Me., Fort Lauderdale, Fla., Santa Barbara, Calif., and
Cordova, Alaska.
Sufficient information having been obtained for the present from
the gages located at Prospect Harbor, Me., Everglades, Fla., and Ocean
City, Md., these stations were discontinued January 7, April 16, and
May 26, respectively. During the year gages were established in
Richmond Inner Harbor, Calif., in the inner harbor of Los Angeles,
Calif., Newport Beach, Calif., and Rockland, Me.
Basic bench marks.—Arrangements have been completed for the
installation of a basic bench mark in the city park at Portland, Me.,
and, as soon as certain improvements are made, one will be established
in The Battery, New York City.
These marks are now located at the following cities:
Inspection of tide stations.—The following tide stations were
inspected during the fiscal year and levels run between tide staff and
bench marks:

Tide and current surveys.—The tide and current survey of Narragansett Bay and Block Island Sound was completed during the year.
Approximately 150 current and 25 tide stations were occupied by this
party. At each current station the half-hourly velocities and direc­
tions of the surface current were observed by means of the current
pole and line, and the velocities at three subsurface depths measured
by current meters. The data secured, together with all other avail­

222

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

able observational information for that area are being reduced, com­
piled, and correlated for publication.
Current observations in the vicinity of the Rockland, Me., trial
course were undertaken by the Coast and Geodetic Survey and the
Navy Department, with current meter, pole, surface float and sub­
surface float. Sixteen days of continuous observations were secured.
During June, a tide and current survey of Buzzards Bay was begun
where half-hourly velocities and directions of currents will be observed
at fully 100 locations.
Miscellaneous current observations.—During the year hourly current
observations were made on the Hen and Chickens, Brenton Reef, and
Vineyard Sound Lightships. From June to December, 1930, obser­
vations were made on the Cornfield Point Lightship. Current obser­
vations were also obtained in the Hawaiian Islands by the ship
Pioneer. These observations were made at anchorage and, when
practicable, covered periods of one or two days in the important
channels.
Density and temperature observations.—At 20 of the primary tide
stations, daily density and temperature observations were taken by
the observer in connection with his other duties. Similar observations
were taken in connection with the special tide and current surveys.
Summary of tide and current records received.—The following is a
summary of tide and current records received during the year:
Records received
Automatic tide gage_ __........................................................
Current______ _________________________
Level________________________________
Density and temperature....... ........ .......................
._____________________ ___________ _______ _

Stations Months
154
1G9

585
240

Days
1,437

Cooperation.—Continued encouragement is given to cooperation
with other organizations in carrying on tide and current work because
of the mutual benefits derived. At a number of tide stations, the
Survey provides instruments and instructions, and the cooperative
agency the shelter and an observer to give daily attention to the
tide gage. Such stations are subject to the usual inspection. Copies
of the records are available to both organizations, the original usually
being filed in the archives of this office. Another form of cooperation
consists in the exchange of tide and current data obtained independ­
ently by different organizations.
Cooperation with the United States Army Engineers has been es­
pecially valuable because of the need of both organizations for tide
and current data. During the past year, tide stations at Jacksonville
and Mayport, Fla., were so maintained with the office of the district
engineer at Jacksonville, and a similar station at Fort Screven, Savan­
nah, with the office of the district engineer at Savannah.
Valuable tide information was also received from the Navy, and
stations were maintained cooperatively with that department at
at Portsmouth, N. H., Newport, R. I., Annapolis, Md., Hampton
Roads, Va., and San Diego, Calif.
A tide station has been maintained at Honolulu, Hawaii, with the
surveyor of the Territory of Hawaii, and one at Hilo, Hawaii, with
the United States Geological Survey.

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

223

Other cooperative tide stations include one each at Cordova,
Alaska, by the Chamber of Commerce; Los Angeles, Calif., by the
Harbor Department; Prospect Harbor, Me., by Henry S. Shaw;
Fort Lauderdale, Fla., by the city authorities; Everglades, Fla., by
the Florida Railroad & Navigation Corporation; Richmond Inner
Harbor, by the Berkeley Water Front Co., San Francisco; and New­
port Beach, Calif., by the city engineer.
MAGNETIC AND SEISMOLOGICAL WORK

Alaska__
Arizona. .
California.
Colorado.
Florida__
Hawaii—
Idaho___
Kansas__
Maryland
Montana.

Magnetic stations occupied during the fiscal year
20

Nevada_________
Oregon--------------Philippine Islands
Porto Rico______
Utah____________
Washington_____
Wyoming_______
Total_____

1 North Carolina__

5
4
5
2
7
6
2

5

5
8
6
14
1
2

10

2

105

During the first half of the year, the object of the magnetic work
was to complete the occupation of repeat stations in order to determine
the change of the earth’s magnetism with lapse of time for the publi­
cation Magnetic Declination in the United States in 1930. Inci­
dentally, a number of stations which had ceased to be available were
replaced, to meet the needs of local surveyors. With the cooperation
of the Department of Development and Conservation of the State
of North Carolina, all defective stations in that State are being
replaced or put in good condition in anticipation of a new edition of
the publication Magnetic Declination in North Carolina.
Continuous photographic records of variations of the magnetic
elements were made at the five magnetic observatories, together with
the necessary observations, to convert these into absolute values.
At Cheltenham, Md., field instruments have been standardized. At
Tucson, Ariz., atmospheric electric observations have continued, and
earth current observations have been in progress since April with the
cooperation of the Mountain States Telephone & Telegraph Co. and
the Carnegie Institution of Washington. At Sitka, Alaska, prepara­
tions have been made for replacing the observatory instruments, and
auroral observations have been continued. Magnetic information was
furnished the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines at F airbanks, Alaska, in connection with the auroral program at that institu­
tion established through a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation.
Seismology—Seismographs were operated continuously at the
Sitka and Tucson observatories, at Honolulu in cooperation with the
University of Hawaii, and at Chicago in cooperation with the Uni­
versity of Chicago. Two Wenner seismometers have been established
at San Juan, where they have been in operation since January 1.
At Sitka, preparations have been made for the installation of Wenner
seismometers early in the next fiscal year. Seismographs have been
installed at the University of South Carolina, Columbia, S. C., and
at the Montana State College, Bozeman, Mont., with operation on
a cooperative basis.
The systematic collection of reports of visible and felt effects of
earthquakes has been considerably extended. The National Re­
search Council, through its division of geology and geography, the

224

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Jesuit Seismological Association, and other organizations, are cooper­
ating efficiently in the eastern part of the country, and there has
been a marked increase in cooperation with the San Francisco field
station of this bureau in the collection of information for the Pacific
coast region.
The various accomplishments of the Washington office are grouped
according to the divisions to which they relate, as follows:
CHIEF CLERK

This office continued general supervision over all matters relating
to personnel work; expenditures for office expenses, including purchase
of supplies for the Washington office and to some extent for the field;
care and custody in the library and archives of most of the original
field survey records, as well as printed publications acquired; main­
tenance of mechanical equipment of the Washington office; and the
custody and accounting for the receipts from sales of nautical charts,
airway maps, nautical publications, old property, etc.
The number of persons in the service of the Coast and Geodetic
Survey at the close of the fiscal year ended June 30, 1931, is shown in
the following table:
Civilian
Commis­
sioned Classi­
fied

Staffs

Washington office......... .................................
Total.....................................................

15
149
164

Unclassified

Total

Laborers Seamen Hands

234
70
3C4

4
4

524
524

203
283

253
1,006
11, 259

1 These figures do not include the 40 civilian employees on duty at the Manila field station and the 102
members of the crews of the ships Fathomer and Marinduque who, while paid by the insulae government,
operate under the jurisdiction of officers of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. There is therefore a total of
1,401 actually serving with the Survey.

There were received in the library and archives 102 hydrographic
and 69 topographic sheets, representing new surveys accomplished by
the Survey. Other additions included 2,156 charts, 2,276 maps; 701
blue prints (mostly of surveys by engineers of the United States
Army); 6,352 field, office, and observatory records; 310 photographs
and negatives; 575 prints; 350 lantern slides; and 642 books.
Receipts from the sale of nautical charts, airway maps, and nautical
publications prepared by the Survey totaled $72,394.95. Funds
realized from the sale of old property and miscellaneous sources
amounted to $1,704.56.
DIVISION OF ACCOUNTS

The regular annual appropriation for the Coast and Geodetic
Survey for the fiscal year 1931 amounted to $2,916,524. This amount
was supplemented by transfers from other departments, special
appropriations, etc., to the extent of $243,400, making a grand total

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

225

of $3,159,924. The actual disbursements during the period of the
fiscal year amounted to $3,154,967.43, distributed among the various
appropriations as follows:

Vessel and tender, 1928-29_____ _____________________________ $33, 455. 75
56. 67
Party expenses, 1929_________________________________________
Repairs of vessels, 1929______________________________________
52. 00
General expenses, 1929_______________________________________
31. 00
Repairs due to hurricane damage, 1929-30------------------------------2, 838. 55
Pay and allowances, commissioned officers, 1930_______________
68 , 611. 37
Salaries, 1930_______________________________________________
175. 65
Party expenses, 1930_________________________________________ 140, 447. 19
General expenses, 1930---------------------------------------------------------16, 603. 48
Repairs of vessels, 1930______________________________________
20, 671. 13
Pay, officers and men, vessels, 1930----------------------------------------- 153, 573. 01
Aircraft in commerce_______________________________________
3, 454. 70
Tender, 1930------------------------ --------------- ------------------------------32, 175. 00
War transfer to commerce____________________________________
2, 337. 83
Vessel and tender, 1930-31---------------------------------------------------- 106, 500. 00
Pay and allowances, commissioned officers, 1931_______________ 543, 385. 63
Salaries, 1931_______________________________________________ 511, 357. 52
Party expenses, 1931_________________________________________ 757, 720. 20
Repairs of vessels, 1931------------------- ------------------------------------74, 279. 34
59, 122. 58
General expenses, 1931---------------------------------------------------------Pay, officers and men, vessels, 1931---------------------------------------- 575, 329. 29
Aircraft in commerce, 1931___________________________________
34, 568. 47
11,279.94
War transfer to commerce____________________________________
Repairs of vessels, 1931-32---------------------------------------------------6 , 608. 63
Air navigation facilities, 1931------------------------------------------------332. 50
Total________________________________________________ 3, 154, 967. 43
DIVISION OF INSTRUMENTS

All instrumental equipment as well as the major part of the general
property used by the field parties of the Survey is supplied, by the
division of instruments. This involves the purchase, inspection, and
test of new instruments; the design and construction of new models
in its own plant; research into the development of new materials and
designs; and the maintenance of a large though simple accounting
system to record the transfers of this valuable property. This divi­
sion is also frequently called upon to assist other Federal agencies
and private organizations in the preparation of specifications for and
the inspection of new instrumental equipment of a wide variety of
types.
Changing conditions and advancements in scientific knowledge
require that the Survey in general and the division of instruments in
particular be constantly alert to adopt any advantageous improve­
ments and to make any changes in or devise new instruments that
will render better service or reduce cost of construction or operation.
Some of the more important improvements brought out during
the past year include the following:
Improvements in design and methods of constructing geodetic
level rods, so that the length of members of pairs of rods do not
differ by more than %ooo of an inch. This accuracy alone has made
possible a change in procedure resulting in an increase of approxi­
mately 15 per cent in leveling output.
A standard sextant was redesigned better to adapt it for horizontal
angle measurement for hydrographic surveying. Larger stellite
84206— 31— 15

226

REPORT TO THE SECBETARY OP COMMERCE

weatherproof mirrors were installed. A large low-power telescope
having a high light-gathering capacity was added, fitted with a
focusing clamp to prevent the eyepiece being jarred out of adjust­
ment when used in an open boat.
A seismograph recorder was designed and is now under construc­
tion which will provide for continuous operation at all times, in order
to insure proper recording of the initial earthquake impulse. This
recorder is operated on the ordinary electric-light circuit, but a
battery is provided to insure continued operation should the regular
current supply fail. In the event of an earthquake, the record will
be made continuously for 30 minutes, long enough for most practical
purposes.
Other instruments and improvements to existing types were brought
forth tending to increase accuracy, stability, ease of operation, or to
reduce costs.
Because of the great increase in field work in recent years, during
which time there has been but one regular employee added to the
division’s force, every effort has been made to systematize the work,
to insure an adequate supply of equipment, and to facilitate the
handling of supplies, so that instruments can be shipped to field
parties promptly.
DIVISION OF HYDEOGEAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY

All plans for field work and instruction for hydrographic and
topographic surveys are made in this division. The section of ves­
sels and equipment prepares plans for the construction of new ves­
sels and equipment and for the repairs to existing plant and equip­
ment. The coast pilot section makes field examinations and prepares
manuscripts for new editions of the various Coast Pilots, publishes
an annual supplement for 14 pilot volumes and prepares answers
to numerous requests for information. The training section is now
quartered on the ship Oceanographer, where newly appointed offi­
cers are given theoretical and practical instruction to fit them as
ship’s officers.
The construction of the new motor vessel Hydrographer was
completed in March, since which the ship has been active in the
survey of Georges Bank. The tender Gilbert was completed at
Sturgeon Bay, Wis., in September, 1930, and after the trip to the
Atlantic coast via the Great Lakes and the New York Barge Canal,
has been engaged in surveys on the Florida coast and Georges Bank.
Plans and instructions were prepared for a continuance of work
on Georges Bank, where four vessels are utilized. Improvements
have been made in portable radio acoustic sound ranging stations.
Field examination was made and the manuscript partly prepared
for a new edition of the Inside Route Pilot, New York to Key West.
The manuscript for a new edition of Alaska Coast Pilot, Part II,
was completed and sent to the printer. Work was started on a
field examination for a new edition of Alaska Coast Pilot, Part I.
Supplements were compiled and issued for 14 Coast Pilot volumes.
The office reduction of the phototopographic surveys of the coast
of Florida and the Hudson River was completed and the office re­
duction begun of similar surveys in the vicinity of San Francisco.

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

227

DIVISION OF GEODESY

The following important pieces of work were completed or in prog­
ress at the end of the fiscal year:

.—■
1. Arcs of first-order triangulation as parts of the general eastern adjust­
ment: Ninety-eighth meridian to Duluth, Minn.; forty-fourth parallel, ninetyeighth meridian to Fond du Lac, Wis.; forty-second parallel, ninety-eighth
meridian to Chicago Heights, 111.; thirty-ninth parallel, ninety-eighth meridian
to oblique arc; thirty-seventh parallel, ninety-third meridian to oblique arc;
thirty-fifth parallel, ninety-eighth meridian to Fort Smith, Ark.; ninety-eighth
meridian to Mansfield, La.; ninety-third and ninety-fourth meridians, Royalton,
Minn., to Beaumont, Tex.; Atlanta, Ga., to Shreveport, La.; Gulf coast, Mobile,
Ala., to Beaumont, Tex.; Mississippi River, St. Louis, Mo., to New Orleans,
La.; Lake survey, Duluth, Minn., to thirty-ninth parallel; Lake survey, Lakes
Michigan and Superior to Detroit, Mich.; Lake survey and Canada, Chicago,
111., to northeast Maine; Columbus arc, Sandusky to "Portsmouth, Ohio; Ken­
tucky arc, Portsmouth, Ohio, to oblique arc; Pittsburgh arc, Lake Erie to oblique
arc; Buffalo, N. Y., to Trenton, N. J.; oblique arc, Maine to Alabama; Vermont—
New York; and central New York.
2. Computation of 17 first-order base lines along the various arcs of tri­
angulation included in the eastern adjustment, and one base line in California.
3. Southeast Alaska: Adjustment of several small pieces of triangulation to
the main scheme work; adjustment of a traverse line from Icy Point to Lituya
Bay.
4. Completion of the adjustment of the triangulation of Los Angeles County,
Calif., to the North American datum of 1927.
5. Computation of a traverse line, about 30 miles long, established to connect
one of the permanent marks of the Mississippi River Commission to the firstorder triangulation net.
6 . Completion of the reduction of the triangulation in Haro Straits, Wash.,
to the North American datum of 1927.
7. Adjustment of the triangulation along the Pacific coast to the North
American datum of 1927.
C o m p u ta tio n a n d a d ju stm e n t o f leveling.—
1. Computation of 131 miles of first-order leveling run during the fiscal year
1930, the computation of which was not completed at the end of that year.
2. Computation of 5,073 miles of the first-order leveling run during the fiscal
year 1931.
3. Distribution of corrections through about 22,000 miles of old leveling to fit
it to the results of the 1929 general adjustment.
4. Adjustment of about 250 miles of third-order leveling for the United States
Engineer office at Louisville, Ky.
5. A preliminary adjustment of leveling in Oregon, to place elevations as
nearly as possible on the 1929 general adjustment prior to the completion of the
net in Oregon during the summer of 1931, after which final adjustment of the
leveling in Oregon will be made.
6 . Fitting new leveling to the 1929 General Adjustment.
C o m p u ta tio n o f a stro n o m ic a n d g ra v ity w ork .—
1. Azimuths: 35 stations in the United States.
2. Longitudes: 59 stations in the United States; 1 in Hawaii.
3. Latitudes: 44 stations in the United States; 1 in Hawaii.
4. Laplace azimuths: Computation of true geodetic azimuths at 59 Laplace
stations.
5. Isostatic reductions: Computation of the deflections of the vertical in the
meridian at seven stations and in the prime vertical at two stations in the United
States.
C o m p u ta tio n a n d a d ju stm e n t o f tr ia n g u la lio n

Investigations were carried on during the year in the following
subjects: Interior of the earth, earth tides, variation of latitude,
depth of isostatic compensation, and methods of reducing gravity
observations.

228

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

The following publications were issued by the division of geodesy
during the fiscal year:

Special Publication 5, Tables for a Polyconic Projection of Maps and Lengths
of Terrestrial Arcs of Meridian and Parallels (fifth edition).
Special Publication 171, World Longitude Determinations by the United
States Coast and Geodetic Survey in 1926.
Special Publication 172, First-Order Leveling in New Jersey.
Serial 502, First-Order Leveling.
Special Publication 173, Latitude Redeterminations.
DIVISION OF CHARTS

The major activities of the division of charts are the construction
and maintenance of nautical charts and airway maps, including the
review of field sheets, flight checks of airway map compilations, and
hand corrections. Much time is given to the distribution to the
public of charts, maps, and nautical publications which the bureau
produces, and the issue of data from the Survey’s files of original
sheets for the use of its field parties or the public, as well as miscel­
laneous reproductions for other Federal agencies.
There has been no recession in any activity during the year. Some
have increased. The total distribution of charts, maps, and nautical
publications of the Survey reached over 364,000 items, the largest in
its history. There has likewise been a large increase in the output
of airway maps which, however, is only to be expected in view of the
constant additions to the list of Commerce airway maps and the
growth of air transportation. The first three of the sectional series
of 92 maps were printed during the year, and a total of 28 strip maps
have been issued to date.
In addition to the publication of the Weekly Notice to Mariners in
conjunction with the Bureau of Lighthouses, the Survey issued 16
new nautical charts and 9 airway maps, shown in the following list of
accomplishments during the year just closed:

Nautical charts:
New________________________ ________________ _______ __________ 1 16
New editions___________________________________________________ 1 145
New prints_____________________________________________________ 373
Reprints, no change____________________________________________
81
Airway maps:
Sectional, new__________________________________________________
3
Strip, new______________________________________________________
6
Strip, reprints___________________________________________________
6

The nautical chart program for the ensuing year includes 13 new
charts, 3 reconstructions now in process, and several reconstructions
of southeastern Alaska charts, in addition to the regular maintenance
work required for existing charts. Airway map plans contemplate
the completion of 3 strip and 10 sectional maps.
The following table shows the distribution of Coast and Geodetic
Survey nautical publications and charts and airway maps; followed
by an analysis of the distribution of nautical charts, and separate
statements concerning the annual tide and current tables and the
tidal-current charts good for any year.
1

Includes 4 new and 4 new editions produced by the Manila field station.

229

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY
N a u t ic a l c h a rts, a ir w a y m a y s , a n d n a u tic a l p u b lic a tio n s d istrib u te d

Nautical Airway
charts maps

Fiscal year

311,699
290,188
1922
................ ................................. 215,509
1923
.......................................... 197,426
221, 543
230, 535
232, 286
246,836
241,880
249,499
034 312,349
1930................... ..........................-............. . 282,
1931 ................................................ .......... 286,168 18,138

Coast
pilots

Inside- Tide and Tidalroute current current
pilots tables charts
2,085 24,887
2,656 24,212
2,261 23, 673
1, 787 i 26, 788
1,788 29, 966
1, 727 29, 720
2,648 29, 561
1,994 31, 570
1,849 34,774
1,756 37,378
2,208 42, 737
1,909 50,306

15,261
8,728
6 , 235
6 , 610
5,917
5,733
6,328
7,859
7, 019
6,288
7,656
6,480

2

1,453
326
1,784

1 Current Tables issued as separate publications beginning 1923.
2 First publication issued in 1929. Good for any year.
3 Previously distributed by aeronautics branch.
A n a ly s i s o f n a u t ic a l ch art d istr ib u tio n

Fiscal year

Sold

1905 ........... .............. ............
1910
..................................
1915 ................................ -........
1925 ................................-............
1926 _______________ ______
1927 ______________________
1928 ............................................
1929
_______ ____
1930
_ _________________
1931...................................-............

42,719
52,068
57,060
124,845
10 2 ,0 11
132, 605
119,593
122,242
135,170
153,995
133,453

Official
Con­ Per cent
Per cent distri­ Per cent demned
bution
41.8
43.6
44.6
40.1
44.2
57.1
48.5
50.5
54.2
54.6
46.6

52,591
58,307
62, 327
173,929
111,552
85,171
111,383
106,654
103,391
110,151
132, 073

51.6
48.8
48.8
55.8
48.4
36.6
45.1
44.1
41.4
39.1
46.2

6,713
9, 019
S, 416
12, 925
16,972
14, 510
15,860
12,984
10,938
17,888
20,642

D istr ib u tio n o f tid e tab les a n d cu rren t tab les

■
United Atlantic
States coast,
and
North
Foreign America
ports

7.6
6 .8
4.1
7.4
6.3
6.4
5.4
4.4
6.3
7.2

102,023
119,394
127,803
311,699
230, 535
232, 286
246,836
241,880
249,499
282,034
286,168

1

Annual tide tables
Fiscal year

6 .6

Total

Pacific
coast,
North
America,
eastern
Asia, and
island
groups

Annual current
tables
A tlantic
coasr..
North
America

Pacific
coast,
North
America,
and Phil­
ippine
Islands

5,357 16,061
3,469
1920.
5, 678 14,957
3,577
1921.
5, 704 14,902
3,067
1922.
1,786
2,029
5,440 15,054
2,479
1923.
2 ,0 0 2
3,124
2,509
7, 097 15,234
1924.
2,474
2,452
15,849
6
,
727
2
,
218
1925.
1,763
3, 014
15,347
6 , 707
2,730
1926.
2,311
3, 722
6 ,934
15,911
2,692
1927.
2, 501
3,614
7, 281 17,009
2,377
1928.
4,040
3,492
7,276 16,896
3,257
1929.
3,099
4,054
8,462 16,889
2, 605
1930.
2,824
3,984
16,152
8,135
2,755
1931.i
i The distribution of the combined tide and current tables (pocket-size edition) issued to date for certain
waterways is not included herein but shown in the table following.

230

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

D istrib u tio n o f tid a l-c u rren t ch arts a n d a n n u a l pock et-ed ition tid e a n d cu rren t tab les

Animal tide and current tables
Fiscal year
1928-......... ..............................
1929______________________
1930_______ ________________
1931______________ ______

New Massa­ San
Puget
York chusetts Francisco Sound
Harbor Bay
Bay
1,992
956
1,134
9, 208

1,461
1,470
1,705

5,024
4, 725

758

Tidal-current charts
New
San
York Boston Francisco
Harbor Harbor Bay
1,453
326
416

555

813

DIVISION OP TIDES AND CURRENTS

The growing public demand for tide and current information is
responsible for the ever-increasing amount of work in the division of
tides and currents. Not only must the data secured from the various
comprehensive tide and current surveys made each year since 1922
be reduced, correlated, and published, but there must also be prepared
the tidal bench mark publications and the several annual tide and
current tables.
The manuscript of a special publication on Tides and Currents in
Long Island and Block Island Sounds was completed and work is
now in progress on two additional publications of this series—Hudson
River and Narragansett Bay. The publications of this series and the
year of issue are listed below:
T id e s a n d cu rren ts in h arb o rs

New York Harbor, 1925.
San Francisco Bay, 1925.
Delaware Bay, and River, 1926.
Southeast Alaska, 1927.

Boston Harbor, 1928.
Portsmouth Harbor, 1929.
Chesapeake Bay, 1930.

The list of annual tide tables was augmented by the addition of a
tide and current table for Puget Sound and Vicinity for the calendar
year 1931. Information on currents was included in all of the pocketsize tables for 1931 and their names changed from “ tide” to “ tide and
current” tables. They are therefore now issued for New York Harbor,
Massachusetts Bay, San Francisco Bay, and Puget Sound.
Tables showing the issue of the tide and current tables for the 12year
period
1920-1931,
shown on preceding page, is indicative of the
demand
for these
publications.
The Tide Tables, United States and Foreign Ports, for 1931 include
daily predictions for 92 reference stations and tidal differences and
constants for 3,830 subordinate stations. Two new reference stations,
Cristobal, Canal Zone, and Ketchikan, Alaska, are included, and
Immingham, England, substituted for Hull, England, in the 1932
edition.
_ In accordance with a cooperative arrangement for the exchange of
tidal predictions, daily predictions for the annual tide tables are now
exchanged between the Coast and Geodetic Survey and the following
organizations: British Admiralty, 20 stations; Canadian Hydrographic
Office, 4 stations; Deutsche Seewarte, 6 stations; Service Hydrographique, France, 4 stations; and Geodetic Branch, Survey of India,
5 stations.

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY

231

During the fiscal year tidal current charts were printed for San
Francisco Bay and Boston Harbor, these two publications being the
second and third of the series to be published for the more important
waterways. They are printed in colors, show for each tidal hour the
direction and velocity of the current throughout the area covered, and
may be used for any year. The tidal current series have proved valu­
able not only to the mariner but the engineer and scientist confronted
with problems involving the circulation of surface waters.
Work has progressed during the fiscal year on two tidal bench mark
publications, one for the State of Washington and the other for the
States of Maine and New Hampshire. The following list gives the
publications of this series already printed and the year issued.
T id a l bench m a rk -publications

California 1928.
New York, 1922.
New Jersey, 1929.
District of Columbia, 1925.
Massachusetts, 1929.
Rhode Island, 1926.
Oregon, 1930.
Connecticut, 1927.
DIVISION OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AND SEISMOLOGY

Terrestrial magnetism—Steady progress has been made in the
preparation for publication of observatory results. More than half
of the work necessary to prepare the 1925-26 series for publica­
tion was accomplished during the year. The amount of office^ work
has been curtailed considerably by the method of direct scaling of
the final values from the records, which is now made at all the ob­
servatories in accordance with the plan adopted some years ago.
The results of field observations in 1930 are now ready for publica­
tion and considerable progress has been made on the publications
Magnetic Declination in the United States for 1930, and Magnetic
Declination in Alaska in 1930.
The publication series giving information regarding the magnetic
declination for individual or groups of States will be added to shortly
by a publication covering the States from South Carolina to Louisiana.
The edition for California and Nevada is being revised.
A study has been given to improvements of instruments and
methods, and especially to the routine operation of observatories
with a view to producing uniformly good records with a minimum
effort. There has been gratifying cooperation in the study of ter­
restrial magnetism with a number of other organizations, notably
the Carnegie Institution of Washington, the Bureau of Standards,
the Naval Research Laboratory, and a number of transmission
organizations including radio broadcasting companies. Members
of the division have participated in the activities^ of various scientific
organizations, as officers and in the presentations of papers and
attendance at international meetings relating to these subjects.
Seismology.—The publication Earthquakes of the United States,
for a given year are being brought up to date with the issue of the
publication for 1929. The report for 1930 is also nearly completed.
Forty-six determinations of positions of earthquakes, and the
transmission of this information west to Manila and east to Europe,
were made during the year. Cooperation and advice have been

232

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

given to _universities and other organizations contemplating or
actually installing seismographs. Interpretations of records fur­
nished by such organizations have been made.
Through funds furnished by the Coast and Geodetic Survey, the
Bureau of Standards has started the development of a strong motion
seismograph to be used in recording strong earthquake motions. A
suitable automatic recorder is being developed by the division of
instruments of this bureau. Other useful instruments are being
developed by other organizations.
Very truly yours,
B. S. P atton , Director.

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION
D epartm ent op C ommerce ,
B u r e a u of N avigation ,

Washington, July 1, 1931.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r . S ec r etary : In response to your request I submit the
following report on the work of the bureau during the past fiscal year:
AMERICAN SHIPPING ON JUNE 30, 1931

On June 30, 1931, the merchant marine of the United States,
including all kinds of documented craft, comprised 25,471 vessels of
15,908,256 gross tons, of which 1,998 seagoing vessels of 9,922,771
gross tons were of 1,000 tons or over, compared with 2,105 vessels of
10,233,125 gross tons on June 30, 1930. Following is an analysis of
the ownership of seagoing tonnage compared with one year ago:
Steel

Ownership and date
Private ownership (500 gross tons
and over):
July 1, 1930...................................
U. S. Shipping Board (1,000 gross
tons and over):
July 1, 1931...................................
Total, 1930................................
Total, 1931............................................

N um ber

G ross to n s

478
397
1,927
1,865

2,663,879
2,239,153
9,871, 284
9,634,704

1,449 7, 207,405
1,468 7,395,551

Total

Wood
N um ber

482
400
482
400

G ross to n s

610,961
497, 753
610,961
497,753

N um ber

11,931
, 868

G ro ss to n s

7,818,366
7,893,304

478 2,663,879
397 2,239,153
2,409 10,482, 245
2,265 10,132,457

Of these totals 1,001 vessels of 5,488,939 gross tons were engaged in
the foreign trade and 1,264 vessels of 4,643,518 gross tons in the coast­
ing trade.
Since June 1, 1921, when our foreign trade reached its_greatest
volume, 10,699,596 gross tons, there has been a gradual decline, until
June 1, 1931, it amounted to only 5,623,300 gross tons, a falling off of
5,076,296 gross tons. The decrease in the foreign trade is due prin­
cipally to the scrapping of large vessels which belonged to the Shipping
Board and to changes from foreign to coasting trade because of greater
opportunities in that service.
Since June 1, 1921, the coasting trade, exclusive of the trade on the
Great Lakes, has increased 2,092,472 gross tons. During the same 10
years the total seagoing tonnage has decreased 2,983,824 gross tons.
During the year, 1,302 vessels of 386,906 gross tons were built and
documented, and on July 1, 1931, there were building or under
contract to build in our shipyards for private shipowners 105 vessels of
358,904 gross tons. The corresponding figures for 1930 were 1,020
233

234

EEPOBT TO THE SECBETAEY OP COMMERCE

vessels of 254,296 gross tons built and 291 vessels of 486,602 gross tons
under contract to build.
The new tonnage includes 7 steel passenger steamers of 63,155 gross'
tons, 3 steel steam ferries of 8,118 gross tons, 6 steel steam tankers of
49,390 gross tons, 1 steel passenger motor ship of 9,180 gross tons, 1
steel cargo motor ship of 1,112 gross tons, and 5 steel motor-ship
tankers of 44,407 gross tons, aggregating 178,138 gross tons. These
figures include only steel steam and motor vessels of 1,000 gross tons
and over, and of this total 161,700 gross tons are seagoing.
The total horsepower of these new vessels is 116,120 compared with
77,940 for the same class of vessels built during the year ended June 30,
1930.
On June 30, 1931, the laid-up seagoing tonnage of the United States
aggregated 389 vessels of 1,253,756 gross tons, as against 541 vessels
of 2,096,179 gross tons on June 30, 1930.
Details of the world’s laid-up tonnage, classification of American
vessels by size, service, and power, and of vessels launched and under
construction may be found in Merchant Marine Statistics for 1931, a
publication prepared by this office.
With the volume of the world’s merchant shipbuilding smaller than
at any time in the past four years, as reported by Lloyd’s for all prin­
cipal maritime nations (except Russia, from which no figures are
available), American shipbuilding has risen to a new high record for
postwar construction and, with the exception of the war period, it is
the greatest in its history. Approximately two-thirds of the world’s
decline is accounted for by the falling off of work in the shipyards in
Great Britain and Ireland, and Germany, Holland, and Japan also
report a considerable decline. France alone of all foreign countries
shows an increase in shipbuilding.
NAVIGATION LAWS

_Under section 4 of the organic act of this bureau, July 5, 1884,
directing the Commissioner of Navigation to investigate the opera­
tions of the laws relating to navigation and annually report to you
such particulars as may admit of improvement or require amend­
ment, the following is suggested:
LOAD LIN ES

The United States Senate through Resolution 345 requested you to
make a comprehensive study of load-line legislation in the coastwise
and intercoastal trade and on the Great Lakes, and present to the Con­
gress a tentative draft of a bill to effectuate your recommendations.
You prepared such a bill which was before Congress during the
last session but was not acted upon.
A load-line law for the coastwise trade seems desirable for the
protection of life and property. It also relieves the careful, conserv­
ative operator from the unfair competition of the small minority of
owners who may be tempted to give more weight to the possible profit
of the voyage than to the safety of the crew.
Vessels in these trades as a rule have not been marked with load
lines. Pending action by the Congress your technical committee is
making an exhaustive study of the requirements of vessels in the
coastwise and intercoastal trades in order that there may be pre­

BUREAU OP NAVIGATION

235

pared recommendations for the determinations of load lines for
vessels in those trades which will be in accord with safe established
practice.
For the Great Lakes a special committee has been appointed to
consider and make a careful study of various types and character of
vessels trading in those waters.
This preliminary study will enable the department, should the
bill become law, to advise owners in ample time regarding the regula­
tions for the establishment of such load lines. Compliance with the
law when it becomes effective may then be accomplished in an orderly
manner and without causing owners unnecessary expense.
The bill before Congress is practically identical with our present
load-line law except as to the vessels which it covers. The depart­
ment’s committees are endeavoring to so adjust the regulations under
the proposed law that the maximum safety to passengers and crew
may be secured without imposition of unnecessary hardships on
specialized trades.
COASTING TRADE

The transportation of passengers in our domestic trade on foreign
vessels is of growing importance. The phraseology of section 2 of the
act of February 17, 1898, covering this subject, permits the use of
foreign vessels in our domestic trade provided that they transport
passengers on sight-seeing tours from one American port to another
and return to the original port of departure by way of foreign ports.
It also permits foreign vessels to take on passengers, _for instance,
at New York, transport them on a voyage on the high seas, and
return to New York. Because of the differences of laws and condi­
tions governing foreign vessels on the high seas, this trade is increas­
ing. This invasion of our domestic trade apparently can be remedied
only by act of Congress.
IN SPECTIO N OF MOTOR SHIPS

The bureau again suggests the desirability of amending the steam­
boat inspection laws so as to cover fully the inspection of the increas­
ing number of large vessels propelled by internal-combustion engines.
The steamboat inspection laws originally contained in Title LII of the
Revised Statutes covered only sail and steam vessels. Later section
4426, Revised Statutes, applied to a limited extent to internal-com­
bustion engine propelled vessels.
It is very doubtful under existing law whether the Government
can compel the full inspection and equipment with life-saving devices
of motor vessels regardless of size.
There are in the United States 12,124 documented motor vessels
of 981,858 tons. Of this number, 143 of these vessels are 1,000 tons
or over, the total tonnage of these large vessels aggregating 604,263
tons. In addition to the above there are over 250,000 Americanowned undocumented motor vessels.
Because of their size and the waters which they navigate it doubt­
less would be an unnecessary hardship to extend all of the inspection
laws to these small vessels. It appears, however, that seagoing ves­
sels of 100 gross tons and over should be subject to these laws in the
interest of safety of life and property.

236

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON SAFETY OF LIFE AT SEA

This convention was signed at London on May 31, 1929, by 18
of the principal maritime nations. In the fall of that year it was pre­
sented to the United States Senate for ratification, but was not re­
ported out of the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations during the
last Congress.
It is important to the United States that this convention be ratified
as early as possible. The number of citizens of the United States in
international travel whose safety is affected by the terms of this
convention is perhaps as large as that of any other nation, and the
interest of the United States in the convention accordingly is corre­
spondingly great. It is hoped that this convention will be reported
out of the committee and ratified during the coming session.
INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON LOAD LINES

One of the outstanding events of the year, marking perhaps one of
the most important epochs in the history of the merchant services
of the world, was the signing of the International Load Line Conven­
tion in London in July, 1930. This convention was a fitting con­
clusion to the labors of the International Convention on Safety of
Life at Sea in the previous year.
The terms of the convention which were made public the early part
of September, 1930, have given general satisfaction. It is the con­
sensus of opinion that these new rules will raise the standard of safety
of the merchant shipping throughout the world. Emphasis is laid in
the convention for the safety of the crew in the performance of their
duties; also for securing and maintaining the effective closing of open­
ings in the weather decks and in the sides of ships. The oceans of the
world have been divided into weather zones regulating the loading of
ships operating in those zones.
This convention was ratified by the United States Senate on
February 27, 1931.
LOAD LINE ACT OF MARCH 2, 1929

The law requiring load lines on American vessels became effective
on September 2, 1930. For the first time in load-line history it is now
possible for American ships to enter foreign ports on a legal parity
with other ships rather than by virtue of international courtesy. The
rules and regulations adopted by the Secretary of Commerce under
the act are based to a considerable extent on a most exhaustive study
of ship construction and loading by a technical committee appointed
for the purpose in 1928 by the Secretary of Commerce. In these regu­
lations due consideration was given to and differentials made for the
various types and character of vessels and the trades in which they
are engaged.
These regulations also are in close accord with the conclusions
reached by the world’s leading load-line experts at an international
conference held in 1930 which was ratified by the United States
Senate in 1931.
There are approximately 1,500 vessels subject to this law. Up to
July 1, 1931, 1,189 of these vessels have applied for load lines and 479
load-line certificates have been issued.

BUREAU OE NAVIGATION

237

In the enforcement of the law, 122 vessels have been reported for
violation of the law or regulations. With the exception of 11 cases,
these violations have been due to inability to have the load line
marked promptly, or other conditions which warranted the depart­
ment in remitting the penalty. On 11 occasions, however, the condi­
tions required prosecution.
The work of placing the load lines is proceeding as rapidly as the
personnel of the assigning authorities and the movement of ships will
permit.
In considering action to be taken in connection with the mitigation
of penalties the department takes into consideration that this is a
new law, the time it takes for the agencies of the Government to assign
these load lines, and the steps the owners have taken to comply with
the requirements of the statute.
At the same time the safety of the ship and those on board is given
first consideration, and whether these vessels have load lines assigned
under our regulations or those of the British Board of Trade, such
load lines must not be submerged.
The Department of State is in communication with the maritime
nations of the world with a view to securing reciprocal acceptances
of load-line certificates as contemplated by section 5 of our act.
It is fortunate that the provisions of the act of 1929 made it pos­
sible for the United States so promptly to put into effect the principal
provisions of the international convention signed in London in
July, 1930. Seldom have technical experts reached so complete an
agreement as to the practical good sense of the principles adopted
as was the case in the London convention of 1930.
ADMEASUREMENT OP VESSELS

A committee of the League of Nations has been conducting an
inquiry since 1927 with a view to securing equality in practice in
applying the existing systems of tonnage admeasurement to ships
of all flags.
While the United States is not a member of the League of Nations,
practical suggestions made by the committee have been examined
in consultation with a representative of the United States who has
attended the meeting as an observer.
It is understood that further international consideration will be
given to the subject by the League of Nations during the coming
year. The importance of international uniformity in the admeasure­
ment of vessels is obvious.
ADMINISTRATION OP THE NAVIGATION LAWS

There has been presented to you the present unbusinesslike and
inefficient organization of the field service of this bureau in the
enforcement of the navigation laws.
At the beginning of our Government the administration of these
laws was intrusted to collectors of customs acting under instructions
of the Secretary of the Treasury, as those officers, located at every
port of entry, were easily accessible to shipowners and masters. ^
On the creation of the Department of Commerce this administra­
tion, which directly affects the movement of commerce, was trans­
ferred to this department, but the employees and machinery neces-

238

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

sary to such administration were left in the Treasury Department,
where they are now functioning under the direction of the Secretary
of Commerce.
This creates the anomalous situation of the employment by the
Treasury Department of personnel and the regulation of adminis­
trative machinery to perform duties under the jurisdiction of the
Department of Commerce and for which the Secretary of the latter
department is responsible.
It is becoming more and more evident that action in this matter
must be taken in the near future in the interests of our merchant
marine and merchant seamen.
The solution, of course, is the transfer to the Department of Com­
merce of the personnel of the marine divisions of the customhouses
which are engaged solely on navigation work and acting under the
direct instructions of the Bureau of Navigation. The disadvantages
as to our merchant marine of the present system are being empha­
sized as new laws are enacted placing in the Department of Commerce
added duties and responsibilities.
NAVIGATION PATROL SERVICE

In accordance with the bureau’s recommendation of last year
Congress provided for an addition to our inspection fleet which
permitted us to assign a vessel to the Great Lakes. This is an
important addition to our facilities, as on the waters of the Great
Lakes there are 987 documented vessels of over 2,600,000 gross tons,
and more than 32,000 smaller vessels carrying during the season
millions of our people in commerce and for pleasure.
The action of Congress also provided for the placing on Chesapeake
and Delaware Bays a more suitable vessel which enables us to conduct
with much greater efficiency the inspection work of those busy waters.
After nearly 20 years’ experience in the supervision of small motor
vessels, this bureau is satisfied that Congress has made ample pro­
vision for the safety of those on board, provided that there is a
compliance with the law. In this work the bureau has met with the
general cooperation of motor-boat owners and organizations, yacht
clubs, and motor-boat publications^ The work of the boats, together
with this cooperation, has resulted in a very general compliance with
the requirements.
This, together with the improved construction of these small vessels
and their engines, has resulted in a very material reduction in the
loss of life in such navigation and has given much impetus to the *
sport of motor boating.
ENFORCEMENT OF NAVIGATION LAWS

The work of general enforcement of the navigation laws throughout
the year has proceeded along regularly established lines. The
enforcement of the rules and regulations governing the movement of
vessels in the St. Marys River and the patrol of the course during
regattas and marine parades have been carried out by the Coast Guard
in its usual efficient manner. The same service again has been
active in inspecting small vessels for life-saving equipment and has
brought to the attention of the bureau many violations of the
navigation laws.

239

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION

584
509
163
83
49
37
167
185
27
39
15
4
47
400
9
48
9
95
187
828
228
28
511
9
26
315
129
47
86
170
6
2

72
22
232
23
91
Seattle........... .............................. 581
928
Wilmington, N. C ................ . 196
Total.................................. 7,187

38 399 14
29 257 40
1
87 39 1
5 65 2
1
33
10
4 11 8
3 12 0 12 3
3 71 45 1
4
21
3 13 1 0
1
3
4
1
27
16 74 51
7 2
1
8
13
4 4
5 33 35
4 69 13
14 362 180
109 29 1
10
13 1 1
3 256 75
4
5
2
5 17
3 155 2 0
4 61 19
35 5
1
79
4
26 4
4 4
72 40
10
5 7
4
66
13 226 70 2
4 516 75
9 119 29
190 3,364 953 8

2

1

j Miscellaneous

Numbering act

Surrendered license
| Seamen’s act
Anchorage and bt.
Marys River rules
| Passenger act
E n rollm en t ana
license
Entry and clearance
j Name on vessel
| Change of master
| Unlading
| Load line act

Total

Headquarters port

Motor-boat laws

Steamboat laws

During the year there were reported 7,187 violations of the various
laws we administer and on which the department acted in the miti­
gation or remission of penalties incurred.
The following table shows the enforcement of such laws by customs
districts and laws violated:

1
13
5 105 9
19 9 15 3 5 3 8 6 41
5
3
18 1
2
6
4
2
4 1
4
1
1
1
1
10
4
16
9
7 5 5
31 17
1
1
4
1
1
1
3 1
2
9
1
1
1
1
11
2
4
1
2
91 42 1 0 0
9 14
4
2*
1
10

30 4
39 19
140
13
9
4
4
23 7
1
6

10

I 118
4 33
4
2

2
2

5
170

10
1
1

1

60
49 Ï7
3 40 6
139 4

1
8
8

1

4

5
2

2
2

2

3 5 4 5 Ï
2
4 1 8
2
69 8 15 4
12
44 39 1
4
9 2
7 309 305 252 50
2

1

11

20

42
2
10
52 2 0
20
3 6
8
17 119 25
224 2
11
4
20
156 1,289 283

240

BEPOBT TO THE SECEETABY OE COMMEECE

The following table shows the work done by the various branches
of the Federal service engaged in the enforcement of the navigation
laws in comparison with previous years:
Headquarters port

Navi­
Local Cus­ gation
Kil­ Tarra­ Dixie Siwash Psyche Coast inspec­
Total kenny
gon
Guard tors toms inspec­
tors

Baltimore.......................
584 537
Boston............................... 509
Bridgeport.......................
163
83
Charleston.......................
49
Chicago..........................
37
167
Detroit........... ............. .
185
Duluth..............................
27
Galveston........................
39
Honolulu____ ________
15
Indianapolis.....................
4
Juneau..............................
47
Los Angeles___________ 400
Louisville____________
9
Memphis...........................
48
9
Milwaukee.......................
M obile............................
95
New Orleans.................... 187
New York___ ________ 828
Norfolk.............................. 228 130
Ogdensburg.....................
28
Philadelphia.................... 511 209
Pittsburgh........ ............. .
9
Port Arthur__________
26
Portland, Me.................
315
Portland, Oreg................. 129
Providence.................. .
47
Rochester..........................
86
St, Albans......................... 170
St. Louis...........................
St. Paul______ ______ _
26
San Antonio.....................
72
San Diego.........................
22
San Francisco................... 232
San Juan...........................
23
Savannah..........................
91
Seattle........................ ....... 581
Tampa............................... 928 1 2 2
Wilmington, N. C........... 196
88
Total........................ 7,187 1,086

252
84

12

34

20

51
17

2

3
3
46
135

15

16
10

2

194

10

130
166
10

24

45

90

71
225

50

298

231

706

38
41
292 1,395

3

6

16
3

10

13
29
141 2,692

346

Of the 7,187 violations reported, 2,613 were discovered by the
five patrol boats of the navigation service. These vessels operate
along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The record of the work of these
vessels is better shown by the fact that during the year they made
26,972 inspections. The number of violations found as compared
with the number of inspections is a fair index of the extent to which
the safety laws on small vessels are being complied with.
On July 1, 1931, there was placed in operation an additional vessel
enabling us to institute an inspection service on the Great Lakes.

241

BUEEATJ OF NAVIGATION

Following is a comparative statement of cases of violations of the
navigation laws, 1917-1931:
Port

1917 1918 1919 1920 ! 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931

170
265 500 663i 607
Baltimore------711
194 243 626;
Boston...............
287
200
50
32 95 97 18c 62 116
Bridgeport----143
111 168
Buffalo.............
192
28 109 40 44 68
Charleston___
171 97 179
144 88 119 252
Chicago.............
160
177 499 1, 096 141 32 154
Cleveland.........
62
27 40
56
Des Moines---184
146 142 122 168 67 245
Detroit..............
132 282 241 73
Duluth..............
1
Eagle Pass........
10
54 21 24 41
Galveston.........
Great Falls----18
Honolulu_____
54
Indianapolis....
40
Juneau---------10
Laredo............. .
178
137 109 192 125 183 185
Los Angeles....
64 35 57 29
128 50
Louisville........
62
67Ì 83 66 86
Memphis...........i- 84 18
79
82 18 81 133 33 14 334
Milwaukee___
109 52 98 122 301 203
Mobile---------779 294 467
315 221 501 487 849
New Orleans...
626 1,349
New York....... 1,292 583
8 21 2, 69813 1,475
22
Nogales............
682
430 181 814 618 846 680
Norfolk............
85 85
74 201 54 18
Ogdensburg...
Omaha.............
3
Pembina..........
406 166 532 600
Philadelphia.._
6 9 28 16 772221; 6241417
Pittsburgh----117 203 256 112 346
Port Arthur...
440
55 320
145 51 53 182
Portland, Me..
107 83 101
239 120
Portland, Oreg... 130
98
181
68 65 137 175
Providence........... 94 102
14 24 55 10 612
Rochester............. 44
96
29 1 1 3
St. Albans............
173 291 396 182 173 179
St. Louis_______
4
St. P aul..............
2 71 229 3410 2532
San Antonio.........
San Diego.............
223 765 466 213
San Francisco___ 196 151
19
8 14 10 14 291
14
San Juan----------- 12 41
163
77 68 149 165
Savannah............. 48 338
1,223
272
310
266 320
Seattle................. 318
1,303 1,247 1, 770 2,300 1,649
Tampa.................. 547 295
Wilmington, N.C 262 19 261 302 426 263 200
Total................. 7,569 4,749 8,173 10,667 10,706 11, 396 11,251

551 517 746 584
513 534 441 509
231 199 182 163
257 103 43 83
82 57 6 8 49
30 6 8 49 37
168 144 172 167
3
182 2 0 2 234 185
33 46 30 27
31 14 32
1
12
18 14 32 15
10
7 4 8 12 4
78 51 45 55 58 47
336
171 261 281 405
54 35 18 44 8 489
154 1 2 0 49 81 35
7 104 1 25 26 9
96 263 42 186 76 95
411 186 285 226 217 187
2,454 1,185 1,170 1,233 951 828
14 3 9 2
10
228
842 434 345 354 448
58 142 5C9 87 36 28
18 1 1 2
2
1
1
360 854 549 303 493 466 568 511
23 9
16 53 39 43
41 35 52
24 26
15 61 29 264
216 84
315
645 337
295 393 684 159
84 IOC 125 8 6 129
171 291 237
94 144 169 217 104 113 103 47
75 8 6
53 184 2242 13C 34 41
170
127 89 1 0 01 64 57 46 9 62
28 15 8 9 34 16 2722
232
284 281 238 277 227 327
10
23
26 25 2 2 23 25 105
91
126 67 47 6 C 95
581
564 755 328 36C 290 336
928
1,398 1, 690 1,519 1,609 1,075 977
152 78 312 282 333 218 196
9, 544 10,778 8,306 8,643 7,887 7,417 7,187

419 161
566 767
131 206
262 90
136 105
165 139
303 187
48
311 80
79 44
167 7«
3
16 45
2 4
130 106
131 127
26 2't
162 150
17 5
234 191
790 371
663 1, 625
7 12
412 375

300
800
131
24
82
76
97
83
42
57

361
833
310
34
110
97
84
184
38
26

PREVENTING OVERCROWDING OF PASSENGER VESSELS

The service of preventing the overcrowding of passenger vessels at
22 of the leading ports of the country proceeded effectively during
the year. This has resulted in the report to the bureau of few
violations of the law. Our inspectors are placed at the gangplank
with automatic counters and to a very considerable extent the master
relies on those counts to prevent the overcrowding of his vessel.
84206— 31-------16

242

REPOET TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The following table shows the counts made by the navigation and
customs services by ports:
Navigation

Port

Customs

Total

Counts Passengers Counts Passengers Counts Passengers

Buffalo_________________________
Duluth_________________________
Galveston.............................................
New York____________ _________
Norfolk_____________________
Philadelphia.......................................
Portland, Me___________________

1,916
29
417
879
9
113
18
66

367
249
6

Total, 1931.........................
Total, 1930.'...................................

245
,
, 491

6 2 11
6

598,927
27,371
290,153
321,828
861, 518
14, 780
3, 294
84,236
7,132
5, 502
57,306
40,273
1,127
11,268
32, 624
2, 357, 339
2,805,861

338
5
407
34
444
3
53
2

1,916
367
5
407
1,588
861
882
53
11
113
18
66
119
370
116
250
3
6
24
1,085
2,157
10,417
8,733

200,142
6,964
136,328
25,435
333,746
1,156
4,485
1,198

119 1,861,872
3
1,049
116
85,449
1
245
3
271
24
4,483
742
19,635
1,912
41,755
4,206 2,725,213
2,239 2,803, 721

598.927
228,513
6,964
136,328
315, 588
655,574
862,674
14,780
4,485
4,492
84,236
7,132
5,502
1,861,872
58,355
85,449
40,518
271
1,127
4, 483
30,903
74,379
5, 082,552
5.609,582

On 411 occasions during the year it was necessary for the inspectors
to stop passengers from going on board, the limit of safety having
been reached. This involved 93,993 passengers.
The bureau has found in the enforcement of the overcrowding law
as well as that of others of the navigation laws that there is a prac­
tically universal effort on the part of the masters of vessels to comply
with the safety requirements in spite of the temptation to produce
additional revenue through the carrying of excess passengers.
The following table shows in detail by ports these shut-offs:
July, 1930

August, 1930

May, 1931

June, 1931

Total

Passen­
Passen­
Counts Passen­
gers Counts gers Counts Passen­
gers Counts gers Count Passen­
gers
Baltimore..................
Boston___________
Chicago....................
Cleveland..................
Detroit__________
New York________
Norfolk___________
Seattle......................
Total, 1931.,..
Total, 1930________

4
4
30
4
3
7
26
78
79

3,300
5,010
5,004
4, 800
9^523
2,187
673
30,497
85,723

3 3, 800
2
3,300
7 8,400
7
257
280
158

3, 012
5; 287
24,951
31,704

5,900

1, 500

10

31
4 1,500
21
8,896

SHIPPING COMMISSIONERS

25, 062

49 37,045
58 36| 862

12

13,000
7,664
34, 585

283 5, 960
411
316 163,185

During the year 589,901 seamen were shipped, reshipped, and dis­
charged as compared with 650,673 the year before. The average cost
to the Government per man was 26 cents.
Collectors of customs acting at ports where shipping commissioners’
offices have not been established shipped and discharged during the

243

BTJKEAU OF NAVIGATION

year 39,772 officers and men as compared with 44,197 during the
previous year.
Of the 305,629 men shipped before shipping commissioners, 159,481
were native Americans and 53,046 were naturalized Americans;
212,527 in all, or 69.5 per cent.
In addition to these numbers, there are shipped in foreign ports
for the round voyage many seamen who do not appear before our
shipping commissioners. These numbers are not included in the above
figures.
The following table shows the aggregate work and salaries ot the
shipping commissioner service for the past 12 years:
Seamen
Average
shipped,
reshipped, Salaries cost per
man
and dis­
charged

Year

628,980 $89,949
650,840 99, 646
541,952 92,318
538,755 94, 476
94,476
555,633 123,726
552,124

$0.13
.15
.17
.17
.17
.2 2

Year
1926_____________
1927_____ ______
1928_____________
1929_____________
1930_____________
1931..........................

Seamen
Average
shipped,
per
reshipped, Salaries cost
man
and dis­
charged
534,493
561,061
547, 732
627,392
650, 673
589,901

$0.23
$123,183
.2 2
122,398
.23
123,961
.2 2
139,454
.23
147,873
.26
152, 003
—
—

During this year there was opened a new shipping commissioner’s
office at Portland, Oreg., the work of that port having grown to such
an extent that it was necessary to have specially qualified officers
in charge.
.
The work of the shipping commissioners extends so directly to the
welfare of the seamen, maintenance of discipline on shipboard, and is
is so intimately connected with the success of our merchant marine
that as the work of the various ports increases it will be necessary to
open from time to time new shipping commissioner’s offices.
During the year there has been turned over to shipping commis­
sioners $46,921.50 in unclaimed, deserters’, and deceased seamen’s
wages. The commissioners are under heavy bond and are responsible
for this money.
PASSENGER ACT OF 1882
The condition of the accommodations extended to steerage pas­
sengers in recent years is a very material improvement over that which
existed when the passenger act of 1882 regulating such transportation
was passed. Under that act Congress provided m detail for the space
to be provided each passenger, its ventilation and cleanliness, hospital
spaces, eating accommodations, the separation of the sexes, and general
supervision of moral conditions, medical facilities and attendance, &nd
in other ways so far as possible protected the health and welfare of its
future citizens.
The following table shows the number of steerage passengers
brought to our ports each year since 1926 on steam vessels inspected
for this purpose and the number of voyages made by such vessels:
Steerage
Steerage
Voyages passengers
Year
Voyages passengers
327,018
1,422
215,639 1929..................................... 1,334
326,767
275, 175 1930......................................... 1,347
1, 367
255,158
1,310
301,
223
1,384
1928-------------------- ---------Year

244

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

NAVIGATION RECEIPTS

The Bureau of Navigation has collected from all sources during the
year $2,323,865.32. This is a slight increase over the collections for
the previous year.
June 30—
1931.______________________ 2 _______
1930.................................. ............
1917........... ...........................................

Navigation
Tonnage duties Navigation
fees
fines
$1,777,612.64
2, 021, 295.94
1, 393, 743.16

PUBLICATIONS

Total

$205, 534.43 $340,718.35 $2,323, 865. 32
236, 781.02
62.593.23 2,320,670.19
159, 808. 03
49,962.37 1,603, 513.56

Publications of the bureau comprise the Navigation Laws (quad­
rennial with annual pamphlet supplements). Merchant Vessels of the
United States (annual), Code List of Seagoing Vessels (annual), and
American Documented Seagoing Merchant Vessels of 500 Gross Tons
and Over (monthly).
Appendixes and statistics of the merchant marine formerly printed
as a part of the bureau’s annual report are now published as a sepa­
rate document known as Merchant Marine Statistics.
The abov6 publications are no longer issued gratuitously, but are
for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C.
In addition to the above, the bureau issues regulations governing
the navigation of the St. Marys River, the establishment of load lines,
the admeasurement of vessels, the navigation and equipping of small
motor boats, the recording of mortgages and bills of sale, and regula­
tions governing regattas and marine parades.
Very truly yours,
A. J. T yr er ,
Commissioner of Navigation.

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE
D epartm ent of C ommerce ,
S teamboat I nspectio n S ervice ,

Washington, July 1, 1931.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r . S e c r etary : Herewith is submitted the report of the
Steamboat Inspection Service for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1931.
PERSONNEL

The following positions were embraced in the service at the end
of June, 1931 :
Central office:
Supervising Inspector General----------------------------------------------------Deputy Supervising Inspector General----------------------------------------Administrative assistant to the Supervising Inspector General--------Traveling inspectors------------------------------------------------------------------Clerks_________________________________ ________________________
Messenger______________________________________________________
Total, central office
Field:
Supervising inspectors---------Local inspectors of hulls------Local inspectors of boilers----Assistant inspectors of hulls..
Assistant inspectors of boilers
Clerks_____________________
Total, field.
Grand total.
IMPROVED SHIP CONSTRUCTION

1

j
I
1
°
*
11

47
47
97
96
109
407
429

h ulls and equipm ent

In previous annual reports, it has been pointed out how desirable
it would be to have the plans of hull construction passed on in the
central office and instructions given to the inspectors in the field as
to the details of this construction. The convention that was adopted
at the Conference on Safety of Life at Sea in London in 1929 embodies
a high standard of construction. That convention has not yet been
ratified by the Senate, but if it is ratified, details of hull construction
must receive increased attention on the part of the central office.
Especially is this true concerning the bulkheading of ships. If the
London convention is not ratified by the United States, it will become
necessary for the Board of Supervising Inspectors to formulate
245

246

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

regulations that will obtain the highest standard of construction
in the subdivision of ships. In either event, it will be necessary to
have stationed in the central office men technically qualified to work
out the regulations formulated, and to check their application.
The requirement for inclining various classes of ships has resulted
in obtaining safer conditions. This result has been accomplished by
traveling inspectors of the central office subjecting these vessels to
stability tests. This has not been an easy task, and to keep abreast
of the great number of tests conducted the inspectors have been
required to work long hours and on holidays and Sundays. Additional
men are necessary for this work.
If a fire occurs on a vessel while at her dock, help may be obtained
from the city fire-fighting apparatus, but the real problem to be faced
by the officers of a ship is the ability to fight a fire by themselves.
At the last meeting of the Board of Supervising Inspectors in January
1931, the board enacted a very important rule providing that—

On and after July 1, 1931, all passenger vessels shall be fitted above the bulk­
head deck with fire-resisting bulkheads which shall be continuous from side to
side
of the vessel and arranged to the satisfaction of the Steamboat Inspection
Service.
These bulkheads shall be constructed of fire-resisting material effective to
prevent for one hour, under the conditions for which the bulkheads are to be
fitted in the vessel, the spread of fire generating a temperature of 1,500° F. at
the bulkhead.

This rule was intended to bring the new tonnage of this country
abreast of the standard established by the conference at London in
1929. Its application is a big step forward in the direction of safety
and is one that is being favorably accepted by naval architects and
owners of vessels. The regulations should go further. In the annual
report for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1927, it was pointed out that
the time was at hand when naval architects should give attention
to the building of excursion steamers that were fireproof. The
same holds true with reference to ferry steamers. At the next meet­
ing of the Board of Supervising Inspectors in January, 1932, particular
attention will be given to these classes of vessels.
BOILERS AND MACHINERY
Statutes were enacted many years ago covering the material for
boilers and their construction and inspection. It is apparent that
such laws had their origin in the desire for safety. That need for
safety is still as great as when the statutes were enacted, if not greater,
but practices resulting from modern developments have made it
necessary to make many amendments, thereby affording greater
elasticity for future changes. Before additional legislation can be
recommended, it is necessary to complete the drafting of a boiler code
that has been in progress for several years. It is hoped this work will
be finished before the end of the fiscal year 1932. When it is com­
pleted, and the necessary legislation is enacted to make the code
workable, the regulations of the United States covering boilers and
machinery will be second to none in the world. In putting into effect
this new boiler code, it will be desirable to have the plans of boilers,
etc., reviewed in the central office. This will, of course, require a
force of men specially trained in boiler construction.

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE

247

SHIPS’ PERSONNEL
EXAM INATIONS FOR LICENSES

Representative standard examinations have been used for some
time, resulting in a greater degree of uniformity in the examination of
officers for vessels than was previously possible. However, the ideal
condition can not be obtained until the experience of the applicants
and the examination papers as well, are checked in the central office.
Without this check it is easy to see how 47 different boards of local
inspectors, situated in 47 different sections of the country, can reach
47 different conclusions. Under the present system, incorrect action
can be remedied only by appeal, and the central office should^ be in a
position to know that all original action was correct. This work
would, of course, require a specially trained force, but it would insure
greater uniformity and a higher grade of ships’ personnel.
OFFICERS AND CREW

The complement of officers and crew required on vessels should also
be checked to determine whether all vessels of the same class navi­
gating upon similar waters in the same kind of trade are required to
have the same number of officers and crew. This work would require
trained personnel.
ACTION AGAINST LICENSES

It is desired that uniform penalties be imposed on officers for like
offenses when different boards of local inspectors conduct investiga­
tions and trials. It will require checking in the central office to see
that sentences are correct and uniform. This work, if done, will
require additional personnel.
LESSONS LEARNED FROM DISASTERS

Thoughts of disasters are appalling and distressing. _ But regardless
of how seaworthy a ship may be, how specially qualified the officers
and crew may be, or how earnest is the endeavor to avoid accidents,
they do occur. Sometimes they occur through error of judgment;
sometimes through carelessness and inattention to duty; and sometimes through causes unknown. In the case of accidents occurring
through carelessness and inattention to duty, corrective action is
taken by attacking the licenses of officers found guilty._ Where the
cause is unknown, it should be possible to find it, and it is believed
this could be done if this bureau had sufficient personnel to review all
the known circumstances. This would require time and expense, but
the lessons thus learned would more than justify the effort and ex­
pense. In the case of disasters to the car ferries on the Great Lakes,
it was found desirable to raise the height of the sea gates, and this
has been and is being done. Weekly examinations of these car
ferries have indicated that there has been a material improvement
in the conditions.

248

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

EXPENDITURES
Salaries, office of the Supervising Inspector General and field
force------------------------------------------------------------------------------ $ 1, 133, 238. 34
92, 012. 80
Traveling expenses (actual)_________________________________
Rents, offices_______________________________________________
32, 426. 42
Furniture, instruments, stationery, supplies, and transportation
of same------------------- ---------------------------------------------- ------5, 925. 21
Telephone rents and telegrams_______________________________
6 , 999 . 03
Witness fees and mileage in cases of investigation_____________
155. 80
Ice, fuel, and electric light__________________________________
362. 44
Toilet service, laundry, soap, etc____________________________
272. 04
Janitor service_____________________________________________
150. 00
Notarial certifications_______________________________________
516. 44
Repairs-----------------------------------------------------------------230. 58
Miscellaneous______________________________________________
1 , 196. 83
Total traveling and miscellaneous expenses_____________
140, 247. 59
Salaries, 1931---------------------- ------- ---------------------- ------- ------- 1 , 133, 238. 34
Salaries, 1930_________________ _____-___ ___________________ 1 , 024, 943. 49
Increase, 1931_________________ __________ ___________
108,294.85
Contingent expenses, 1931_______________________ ___________
140, 247. 59
Contingent expenses, 1930___________________________________ 151, 991. 16
Decrease, 1931_______________________________________
11 , 74 3 . 57
32,426.42
Rents, 1931----------------------------------------------------------------------Rents, 1930-----------------------------------------------------------------------31 , 836. 37
590.05
Increase, 1931.____ _________________________________
Traveling expenses, 1931____________________________________
92, 012. 80
Traveling expenses, 1930________ _________ _________________
94, 308! 00
Decrease, 1931__________________________ ____________
2, 295. 20
140, 247. 59
Total traveling and miscellaneous expenses as noted above_____
Total salaries as noted above________________________________ 1 , 133 , 238. 34
Total expenditures for year ended June 30, 1931________ 1 , 273, 485, 93
Total expenditures for year ended June 30, 1930______________ 1 , 176, 934. 65
Increase, 1931___________ ___________________________
96, 551. 28

The above increase is due to increase in force.

HULLS AND EQUIPMENT STATISTICS

VESSELS INSPECTED AND CERTIFICATES OF INSPECTION ISSUED TO STEAM AND MOTOR VESSELS AND TO BARGES
Certificates of I nspection I ssued by D istricts

Supervis­
ing district

Domestic vessels
Local district

Total

Total
Seagoing barges
Gross ton­ Num­ Gross ton­
Num- Gross ton- Num- Gross ton­ Num­
ber
nage
ber
nage
ber nage ber
nage
34 246,656 495 1,516,403
7 14,461 461 1,269, 747
2
877
23
47,980
24 345,416
47
397,396
1
434
91
6
97
338,713
42,967
381,680
77
124,621
1
134,841
10 ,2 2 0
78
118 125,427 1,586 2, 755, 316 153 2,663,101 ., 739 5,418,417
104
2
188 106
26,698
26,886
64
64
7,674
7,674
357
51 44.962 357
743,677
743,677
335
246,619
60 56, 554 335
246, 619
654,829
374
654,829
8
7, 590 374
2
21,005
2,499
68
23, 504
3,435
67
1
84
8
84
54, 048
54,048
6,705
4
4,354
36
65, 517
36
65, 517
90
90
18, 697
18,697
64
64
7,725
7,725
99, 092 222
629,772
15 14,129 206
530, 680
16
8,964
3
1,947
4
4,049
35
38
10,911
24, 525
4
5,444
51
51
24, 525
57
5,689
57
8
36,141
36,141
63
90,352
63
90,352
9 10,553
6,260
30
6,260
30
6,872
34
6,872
34
10,849
56
10,849
56
43
5,760
43
5,760
80
80
20,785
20,785
6,168
6,168
25
25
6,562
6 , 562
35
35
2,622
94
92
2
189,050
186,428
10 2
323,023
102
323,023
134,898
44
134, 653
1
45
245
41
38,195
41
38,195
2
1
,
1
1
1
25
11,101
23
9,990
77
156,161
77
156,161
25,319
3
15,499
31
40,818
28
-..........1 ...............

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE

First_____ San Francisco, Calif___
Honolulu, Hawaii.........
Los Angeles, Calif____
Portland, Oreg......... .
Second___ New York, N. Y_____
Albany, N. Y................
New Haven, Conn___
Philadelphia, Pa-------Third____ Norfolk, Va__...........—
Baltimore, Md..............
Charleston, S. C-------Jacksonville, Fla-------Savannah, Ga..........—
Fourth___ St. Louis, Mo............
Dubuque, Iowa.........
Fifth.......... Boston, Mass.................
Bangor, Me__________
New London, Conn__
Portland, Me.................
Providence, R. I_____
Sixth____ Louisville, Ky__...........
Evansville, Ind______
Memphis, Tenn______
Nashville, Tenn__.........
Seventh__ Pittsburgh, Pa___.........
Cincinnati, Ohio_____
Point Pleasant, W. Va.
Eighth___ Detroit, Mich....... ........
Chicago, 111_________
Duluth, Minn_______
Grand Haven, Mich__.
Marquette, Mich____
Milwaukee, Wis_____
Port Huron, Mich___

Steam vessels
Motor vessels Passenger barges
Num- Gross ton- Num- Gross ton- Num- Gross tonnage
ber nage
ber nage
ber
344 1,170,791 1 1 0
84,495
722
4
17
46', 381
309,228
19 29,051
71
1
122'
416
1,667
538
15
61
2
1,822
1,299 2,446,232 167 181,835
19,505
14
7,193
90
1,360
6,314
30
34
510,076
75 188, 639
231
7', 809
2
620
139
181,636 134
614,278 125 32, 961
241
1,490
16,080
39
26
44' 662
54
2'681
22
' 134
4
28
61,029
801
67
17,896
23
34
1,149
30
6 ', 576
503,552
14
12,999
177
6
'782
4,133
25
17' 871
18
1,2 10
29
1,840
34
28', 612
15
76, 861
10
2'938
44
8
'997
22
5', 263
1
6,127
23
10
606
139
8
353
10' 496
48
5' 612
3
148
40
2
19', 241
13
961
583
65
5
192
20
5 ,976
1
6
133
109
28
6 ', 320
161,346
13 25,082
79
7
95
315,387
7 ,636
134,653
44
7
337
34
37,858
2
94
21
9' 896
11
154' 816
1,345
66
24', 373
'946 _____
22
6

Foreign passenger
steam and motor
vessels

249

Foreign passenger
steam and motor
vessels

Domestic vessels

Ninth.

Local district

Cleveland, Ohio___
Buffalo, N. Y......... .
Oswego, N. Y_____
Toledo, Ohio_____
Tenth.
New Orleans, La__
Galveston, Tex____
Mobile, Ala_______
San Juan, P. R___
Tampa, Fla..........
Eleventh.. Seattle, Wash_____
Hoquiam, Wash___
Juneau, Alaska____
St. Michael, Alaska.
Total, 1931.
Total. 1930____
Increase (+) or decrease (—)

Steam vessels

Motor vessels Passenger barges Seagoing barges

Total

Total

Num­ Gross ton­ Num­ Gross ton­
nage
ber
nage
Num­ Gross ton­ Num­ Gross ton­ Num­ Gross ton­ Num­ Gross ton­ Num­ Gross ton­ ber
ber
nage
ber nage ber nage ber nage ber
nage
100

187
21
72

221

100

93
11
16
144
7
7
5
4, 581
5, 062
-481

343,274
3 7,794
534,813
5 4,955
14,096
9
481
249,054
4
377
577,236
41
2,851
366,259
12
23,635
216,082
20
784
25,524
6 1,131
119
27,165
13
64 27,482
336,537
398
1 1,93822
504
21
1,492
512
10
9,793,927 1,237 672,667
11,075,836 1,152 599, 912
-1,281,909 +85 +72, 755

233
5,909
945

2,584
31,233
10,946

2

23
7

319
11, 217
10, 969
+248

979
1,809

103
194
30
76
269
136
120
17
29
211

8

29
15
335 352,214 6,172
367 392, 638 6 , 600
-40,424 -428

351,068
540,001
14, 577
249,431
588, 580
422,072
227,812
25,643
28,296
365, 317
420
4,251
2,004
10,830,025
12, 079, 355
-1,249,330

+20

2,153,053
5, 291, 6 8 8
89,678
2,028,846
1, 266, 760
10,830,025
12,079,355
-1,249,330

115 950,773 1,030 3,103,826
187 2,820,404 3,623 8,112,092
457
89,678
25
44,676 835 2,073,522
27 177,992 581 1,444,752
354 3,993,845 6,526 14,823,870
334 3, 696,023 6 ,934 15,775,378
+ 2 0
+297,822 -408 -951,508

10

7
18
9
12

44
6

354
334

351,068
562,965
16,812
249,431
681,454
507,190
227,812
79,220
28,296
665,415
420
4,251
5,416
21
7,420
3, 993, 845 6,526 14,823,870
3, 696, 023 6 ,934 15, 775,378
+297,822 -408 -951, 508
22,964
2,235
92,874
85,118
53, 577
300,098

103
204
37
76
287
145
120
29
29
255
8
29

Vessels I nspected, by Geographic D ivisions
Pacific coast.......................................................... 656
Atlantic coast_____ _____ _________________ 2,411
343
741
Gulf coast................................................................. 430
Total, 1931..................................................... 4,581
Total, 1930...................................... ......... ............. 5,062
Increase (+) or decrease (—) ........ ............. -481

1,987,747 244
4,556,365 730
83,507 1 1 0
1,979,566
67
1,186,742
86
9,793,927 1, 237
11,075,836 1,152
-1,281,909 +85

145,889
443,990
5, 340
49,047
28, 401
672, 667
599,912
+72, 755

3
4
4
2
6

19
19

857
12
2,442 291
831
233
6,854
32
11, 217 335
10,969 367
+248 -32

18,560 915
288,891 3,436
457
810
44, 763 554
352,214 6,172
392,638 6,600
-40,424 -428

REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Supervis­
ing district

250

VESSELS INSPECTED AND CERTIFICATE OF IN SPECTIO N ISSUED TO STEAM AND MOTOR VESSELS AND BARGES----C o n tin u e d
Certificates of I nspection I ssued by D istricts—Continued

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE

251

MISCELLANEOUS INSPECTIONS
Statement of steam vessels granted letters of approval of designs of
boilers, engines, and other operating machinery inspected under an
act of Congress approved June 9,1910, which vessels are not inspected
annually, only one inspection being made for letter of approval; hulls
of United States Government vessels inspected; and boilers in or for
United States Government steamers and buildings, and for other
United States governmental purposes.
Steam vessels
granted
letters
Gov­
of
approval ernment
Local inspection
vessels
distruct (port)
in­
spected
Num­ Gross
ton­
ber nage
1

14
1

3
Dubuque, Iowa-----

1
1

1

28
14
48

Point Pleasant,
W. Va

2
1

I

Gov­
ernment
boilers
in­
spected
42
36
40
49
152
14
11
56
68
155
42
20
16
232
74
66
13
9
60
18
147
52
137
61
63

Steam vessels
granted
letters
Gov­ Gov­
of
approval ernment
ernment
Local inspection
boilers
vessels
district (port)
in­
in­
spected
spected
Gross
Num­ ton­
ber nage
3

G rand H aven ,

4

Milwaukee, Wis__
Buffalo, N. Y ------Oswego, N. Y____

2
2

113
13

1
1

5
3
3
33
7

San Juan, P. R........
Tampa, Fla.............
Seattle, Wash.........
Hoquiam, Wash__
Total, 1931. ..
Total, 1930...............
Increase (+)
or decrease
........

111

Î

75

402
14 1,179
12

- 2

-777

2

9
90
96
— 6

19
37
11

18

11
20

4
4
9
186
79
124
12

2

30
3
2,205
2,203
+2

REINSPECTIONS
Local inspection Steam Motor Barges, Total
district (port) vessels vessels etc.
San Francisco, Calif. 233
Los Angeles, Calif. .. 23
13
Portland, Oreg.......... 1, 058
New York, N. Y___
Albany, N. Y............ 52
New Haven, Conn.. 20
Philadelphia, Pa___ 201
Norfolk, Va............... 61
Baltimore, Md.......... 86
Charleston, S. C___
Jacksonville, Fla----Savannah, Ga_____
St. Louis, Mo_____
Dubuque, Iowa........
Boston, Mass............
Bangor, Me...............
New London, Conn.
Portland, Me______
Providence, R. I___
Louisville, Ky...........
Evansville, Ind.........
Memphis, Tenn........
Nashville, Tenn........
Pittsburgh, Pa..........
Cincinnati, Ohio-----

78
4
1
131
26
49
50

Local inspection
district (port)

Steam Motor Barges,
vessels vessels etc.

Point Pleasant, W.
Va............................ 13
Detroit, Mich.......... . 83
34
Chicago, 111_______
18
Duluth, Minn..........
Grand Haven, Mich. 65
25
Marquette, Mich__
18
Milwaukee, Wis.......
Port Huron, Mich... 19
12
Cleveland, Ohio___
48
Buffalo, N. Y_____
19
Oswego, N. Y__.......
17
Toledo, Ohio............. 141
New Orleans, La---18
Galveston, Tex.........
Mobile, Ala............... 14
San Juan, P. R......... 15
12
Tampa, Fla............... 145
Seattle, Wash-------Juneau, Alaska-----Total, 1931.. 2,816
2,104
8 Total, 1930............
12
32

311
27
14
1,192
78
69
251
61
91
2
72
27
16
7
81
24
37
53
54
7
20
4

Total
13
99
42
18
69
28
26
31
12
50
49
22
198
40
19
19
18
195

661
357

3,501
2,477
1,024

252

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

CERTIFICATES WITHDRAWN OR REFUSED
Vessels from which certificates of inspection were withdrawn___________
Vessels refused certificates of inspection:
Domestic steam vessels_________________________________ ________
Domestic vessels propelled by gas, fluid, naphtha, or electric motor..
Domestic vessels and barges of over 100 gross tons carrying passengers
for hire, other than steam, motor, and sail vessels_______________
Total___ _______ _______ _____________________________________

5
66
11
1

83-

CARGO VESSELS EXAMINED TO CARRY PERSONS IN ADDITION TO CREW
During the year ended June 30, 1931, 1,004 cargo vessels were
examined to carry persons in addition to crew, under the provisions
of the act of Congress approved June 5, 1920.
NEW LIFE PRESERVERS INSPECTED
Kind

Block cork....................... ....................... .................................................
Balsa block.................................................................................... .
Kapok.............................................................. ...........
Total, 1931......................................................................................
Total, 1930......................................................................
Decrease....................................................................................

Inspected
112,132
8,830
116
121,078
208,604
87,526

Passed
111,344
8,812
116
120,272
207,221
8 6 ,949

Rejected
78818
806
1,383:
577

LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS INSPECTED AT FACTORIES
Kind
New balsa wood life buoys.................................................
New lifeboats.............................................................
New life rafts................................ .....................
New boat davits......................................................................

Inspected
5,427
517
502
263
337

Passed
5,389
513
502
263
337

Rejected
384.

WORK PERFORMED BY INSPECTORS IN CENTRAL OFFICE
Vessels inclined_______________________________________________________ 106Reinspections of vessels________________________________________________ 171
BOILERS
Boilers inspected:
Steel (riveted plates)__________________________________________ 9 ; 457
Iron (riveted plates)__________________________________________
’ 68
Pipe----------- ------------------ ------- ---------------------------------------------- 2,444
Total----------- --------------------------- ---------------------------------- 11,969
Boilers found defective:
Gave way under hydrostatic pressure—
Steel (riveted plates)_____________________________________
206
Iron (riveted plates)___________________________________”"_
3
Pipe---......... .............. ................ - -----------------------------------------6
Total------------------- ------------------ ---------------- -----------------215

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE

253

Boilers found defective—Continued
Defective from other causes—
Steel (riveted plates)------Iron (riveted plates)_____
Pipe____________________
Total_________________
Boilers condemned from further use:
Steel (riveted plates)--------------Iron (riveted plates)---------------Pipe_________________________
Total--------------------------Defects in boilers and attachments
Sheets_____________________
Heads_____________________
Steam and mud drums..------Flues and tubes_____________
Steam pipes-----------------------Stay bolts__________________
Braces_____________________
Other parts_________________
Total...
Tests of samples of steel and iron plates to be used in marine boilers,
other than material tested at the mills by assistant inspectors:
Samples tested--------------------------------------------------------------- --------Tests of samples of steel bars to be used as stays and braces: Samples
tested__________________________________________________________
Total

1, 570
16
177
1, 763

1, 094
429
77
60, 960
243
20, 129
367
18, 825
102, 124

MARINE-BOILER PLATES TESTED

Coatesville, Pa..............................-............... 134
Philadelphia, Pa............................................ 4
Pittsburgh, Pa................................................ 6

8
2

1

6
2

1
3
1
5
1
Total, 1931............................................. 27 18 8 1
Total, 1930..................................................... 43 29 13 1 "~2 ~ 8
Increase (+) or decrease (—)............. -16 - 1 1 -5 . . . . - 2 -7

Inspected

I Spoiled at
1
shears
Lamina­
tion
I E lo n g a ­
tion
Rejected

wo

JBend test

1

T en sile
strength
Surface
defect
Light
gauge
Heavy
gauge

Inspected by assistant inspectors at—

Accepted

Total

Plates rejected because of—

911 939
145 153
836 864
204 2 1 1
342 350
79 2,438 2,517
23
104 3,102 3,206
3
-664 -689
-3
-25
+ 2 0
28
8

___ 28
7
3 — 8

20

1
2
- 1

STEEL BARS AND FORGINGS TESTED
Forgings
Bars
Samples of bars Samples of forgings
Tested by assistant
inspectors at—
Tested Rejected Tested Rejected Accepted Rejected Accepted Rejected
'Coatesville, Pa...........
Total, 1931____

36
40
28
104

1

16

1

16

186
274
108
568

16
16

4
4

254

STATISTICS CONCERNING SHIP’S PERSONNEL
O FFICERS LICENSED
Steam and motor vessels
Masters
San Francisco, Calif......................................
Honolulu, Hawaii......................... ................
Los Angeies, Calif...........................................
Portland, Oreg_____ _______ __________
New York, N. Y _____________________
Albany, N. Y.................. ..............................
New Haven, Conn.........................................
Philadelphia, Pa______________ _______
Norfolk, Va____________ _____________
Charleston, S. C_____ ________ ________
Jacksonville, Fla______________________
Savannah, Ga...............................................
St. Louis, Mo............................................
Dubuque, Iowa...............................................
Boston, Mass_____ ______ _
Bangor, Me______ ____________ ______
New London, Conn___________________
Portland, Me____________________
Providence, R. I_____________________
Louisville, K y ______________ _______
Evansville, Ind..............................................
Memphis, Tenn..................
Nashville, Tenn__.............. .
Pittsburgh, Pa................ .............................
Cincinnati, Ohio_____ ________________
Point Pleasant, W. Va............................. .
Detroit, Mich.................................................
Chicago, 111___ ______________________
Duluth, M inn..................................... ........
Grand Haven, Mich________________ .
Marquette, Mich...........................................
Milwaukee, Wis....................................
Port Huron, Mich________________
Cleveland, Ohio............................................

365
26
110
51
1,080
47
27
189
99
208
22
58
27
28
8
148
18
29
39
39
13
13
16
14
31
21
10

71
40
15
23
8
61
46
70

Mates
Ocean

Inland

238
14
68
17
496
3
7
140
34
7
18

40

10

182
17
11
40
25

1

4
9

2
11

50
13
2
7
3
13
4
3
25
7
9
1
4
3
5
4
3
4
4
18
14
6

SecondAssistant
First- class
and Chief en­ and
Engi­
class
gineers special neers
pilots special
pilots
engineers
_
7
1
118
23
12
18
24
10

31

1
6

3
3
14
3
5
8

5
5

3
1
37
9
24
1
2
3
1
3
5
4
2
7 ________
5
1
1
9
1
8
1
5
8

8
6
22
20

19
11
11

1

5

33
20
59

2

3
5
2
5

2
1 1

48
1,413
89
15
245
119
19
36
52
32
47
44
23
13
29
15
40
17
42
68
110

Sail vessels of over
700 gross tons Masters
of barges
of over Total
gross
Opera­ Masters Chief 1 0 0tons
tors
mates

Motor vessels

305
14
52
730
20
5
137
58
13
52
13
5
9

24
354
20
15
90

1,118
55
145
741

16
43

126
466
370
91

10
20

267

2
2
10

12
8
2
1
1
2

193
135
133
43
103
69
46
87
51

17
10
4
3

10
22

56
48
70

43

3

3

5,411

1

4

4

1
86
12

15

54
10 2

430

REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Local district

Steam vessels

53
17
24
189
76
53
11
22

181
30
11
5
3,742
3,902
-160

1
10 2

62
34
4
16
89
25
7
1

1,774

2 ,0 0 2

-228

3
14
3
3
35
8
6
1

328
310
+18

37
11
11

27
6
7
6
2

3
680
733
-53

8
6

23
11
8

9
1
4
3

196
216
-2 0

10 2
20

27
228
95
76
8
19
113
10
6

3
4,357
4,421
-64

47
5
7
134
46
30
4
22
92
8
6

3
2,578
3, Oil
-433

13
5
5
78
37
20
10

31
89
5
24
4
1,420
1,531
- 1 1 1

117
159
72
150
240
146
37
193
312
11
169
35
8,786
7,871
+915

7

1
8

3
173

i
1

1
1

223
301
-78

3
4

15
10

+5

- 1

377
226
147
953
574
385
89
312
933
10 0
236
53
24,102
24,312
- 2 10

STEAMBOAT IN SPE C T IO N SERVICE

Buffalo, N. Y__...............................
Oswego, N. Y ----------------- -..........
Toledo, Ohio_____ ____________
New Orleans, La..............................
Galveston, Tex__............... . ............
Mobile, Ala......................................
San Juan, P. R-------------- ---------Tampa, Fla________ __________
Seattle, Wash__.................. .............
Hoquiam, Wash---- ------- ----------Juneau, Alaska.................................
St. Michael, Alaska. -------- -------Total, 1931..........................—
Total, 1930................- .................—
Increase (+) or decrease (—).

255

KEPOKT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

256

RESULTS OP ACTION AGAINST LICENSES

Licenses suspended__________________________________________________ 168
Licenses revoked____________________________________________________
8
Licenses refused_____________________________________________________ 182
Licenses canceled___________________________________________________
37
Violations of the law:
Cases investigated______________________________________________ 1, 126
Cases dismissed_________________________________________________ 835
Cases reported to district attorneys and chief officers of customs____ 148
Number of appeals from decisions of local boards--------------------------- 25
Decisions of local boards reversed by supervising inspectors--------------9
Decisions of local boards modified by supervising inspectors_________
8
Decisions of local boards sustained by supervising inspectors------------8
EXAM INATIONS FOR COLOR BLINDNESS

During the year ended June 30, 1931, 6,821 applicants for original
licenses and for renewals of licenses were examined for visual defects,
74 of whom were found color blind, or had other visual defects, and
were rejected, and 6,747 were passed. As compared with the pre­
vious year, these figures show a decrease of 602 in the number ex­
amined and of 535 in the number passed.
C ERTIFICA TES OP SERVICE ISSUED TO ABLE SEAM EN AND TO LIFEBO A T
MEN
Able Seamen
Issued by—

Applica­ Appli­ Certifi­
tions re­ cations cates
ceived rejected issued

Portland, Me..................
Providence, R. I.............
Detroit, Mich..................
Chicago, 111......................
Duluth, Minn.................
Grand Haven, Mich___

Applica­ Appli­ Certifi­
tions re­ cations cates
ceived rejected issued

INSPECTION DISTRICT—

INSPECTION DISTRICT

San Francisco, Calif.......
Honolulu, Hawaii...........
Los Angeles, Calif...........
Portland, Oreg................
New York, N. Y.............
Philadelphia, Pa______
Norfolk, Va......................
Baltimore, Md................
Charleston, S. C______
Jacksonville, Fla_...........
Savannah, Ga..................
Boston, Mass..................

Issued by—

614
113
•2 11
74
1,811
5
357
166
666
34
157
77
307
23
17
55
115
214
151
55
17

50
7

8
21

103
20

5
116
3
15
10
26
2

23
46
13
5
4

564
106
203
53
1,708
5
337
161
550
31
142
67
281
23
17
53
92
168
138
50
13

continued
Marquette, Mich............
Milwaukee, Wis.............
Port Huron, Mich..........
Cleveland, Ohio..............
Buffalo, N. Y_________
Oswego, N. Y..................
Toledo, Ohio....... ............
New Orleans, La.............
Galveston, Tex________
Mobile, Ala......................
San Juan, P. R ...............
Tampa, Fla......................
Seattle, Wash..................
Hoquiam, Wash.............
St. Michael, Alaska........
Total, 1931.............
Total, 1930........................
Decrease................

17
94
36
208
144
5
50
412
113
111
15
50
381
12
10

4
6,901
8,851
1,950

7

16
91
27
171
133
4
40
384
107
98
13
49
374

607
902
295

4
6,294
7,949
1,655

1

3
9
37
11
1
10

28
6
13
2
1
1

11
10

257

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE

CERTIFICATES OF SERVICE ISSUED TO ABLE SEAMEN AND TO LIFEBOAT
m e n — co n tin u ed
L ifeboat M en
Applica­ Appli­ Certifi­
tions re­ cations cates
ceived rejected issued

Issued by—
Local inspectors of vessels:
San Francisco, Calif__

Norfolk,*Va.'_...............
Savannah, Ga.............
New London, Conn...
Grand Haven, Mich..
Port Huron, Mich___
Cleveland, Ohio..........
Buffalo, N. Y ...
Tampa, F la................

194
96
13
345
6
15
48
27
195
3
249
73
1
154
35
35
53
139
187

5

8
2
1

14
6
35
8
22

59
19
24
1
82

5

Issued by—

Local inspectors of vessels-^-Continued.
194 Seattle, Wash...............
96 Hoquiam, Wash..........
13 Juneau, Alaska______
345 St. Michael, Alaska.__
6
Total by local in­
15
spectors_______
48
27 Navy Department:
195 Navy yards—
New York, N. Y___
3
Portsmouth, Va.......
249
Receiving
station,
68
1
Philadelphia, Pa..
TJ.
S.
Coast
Guard,
154
35 Treasury Department.
Coast
and
Geodetic
Sur­
35
53 vey, Department of
Commerce....................
139
187 Bureau of Lighthouses,
Department of Com­
8
merce.............................
2
Massachusetts nautical
1
14 school ship Nantucket.
New York State Mer­
6
30 chant Marine Acad­
emy...............................
8
22
Total, 1931.............
59
19 Total, 1930........................
24
Increase (+) or de­
1
82
crease (—)...........

Applica­ Appli­ Certifi­
tions re­ cations cates
ceived rejected issued
4,942 3,174
13
2
80
1

1,768
11
79

7,192 3,187

4,005

12 2
224
53
375
103
346
5,525 1, 659

322
24 3
3,866

8

8

10 2

22

22

701

230
30

14,666 5,825
14,546 6,231

8,841
8,315

—406

+526

931
30

21

21

+ 12 0

TRANSPORTATION AND LOSS OP LIFE
PASSENGERS CARRIED

During the fiscal year 305,219,538 passengers were carried on vessels
that are required by law to report the number of passengers carried.
Dividing this number by 71, the total number of passengers lost,
shows that 4,298,866 were carried for each passenger lost. In con­
nection with the prevention of overloading of vessels, 1,349,040
passengers were counted during the year by representatives of this
service.
LIVES SAVED

During the year, 1,065 lives were directly saved by means of the
life-saving appliances required by law.
84206—31------17

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

258

LIVES LOST ON VESSELS SUBJECT TO INSPECTION

Sh

3

»

Collision:

<£D
O

ÜO
o(h

Sixth

o
OM

Passengers

fc-.

Fifth
Passengers

sÖ
o

Fourth
Passengers

»

<D
oh

Third
Passengers

Passengers

Cause

Passengers

Second

First

O1

1

1
2
1

2
2

23

1

18
19
9 4
9

Miscellaneous:
Nonpassenger steamers--------------Total:
Passenger steamers------------- 32

1

3
9

1
6

14
2

2
2

2

6
22

1

3
1
1

3
1
2

1

6
17 1 2 6 3
49
46
13
32 55 17 58 6 16
73 52 16 61 6 25
Increase (+) or decrease (—)_____ -41 +3 + i -3 ........1 -9

O1

1

5
3
3

&
O2

&
o
Ou

1

2

8

&
Ou

6
2

+ 2

.
5>
+i
6

Total

3

1

*
O2
2'
1

1

Explosion7 escape of steam, etc.: Non-

10

1

Accidental drowning:

1

Suicide: *

1

2
2
1

3

11

15

1

Miscellaneous:

1

2

2
2
2

Increase (+) or decrease (—)........

1

8

Tenth Eleventh

Collision:

Total:
Nonpassenger steamers_____

1

5 2 2 43
-4 -19 -35

Passengers

1

o

Ninth
Passengers

Eighth
Passengers

Cause

Passengers

Seventh

1

2

Passengers

5

2

Accidental drowning:
Suicide:

9

Passengers

Explosion^ escape of steam, etc.: Non-

1

3
1

16
2
17
107
6
-4 -90

5
2

2

+ 2

23
23

1

4

5

5

47

2

5
2

7

1
10

1

2

25
7 27
12
12
42 1
+ ii -5 -15 -1

11
11
1
+ 10

16
71

13
1'
18.
5
6

3d
2
6

49
19
14
58'

25
199
71 224
136 355
-65 —131

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE

259

The total number of lives lost from all causes, passengers and crew,
was 295, a decrease of 196 over the previous year. Of the lives lost,
184 were from suicide, accidental drowning, and other causes beyond
the power of the service to prevent, leaving a loss of 111 fairly charge­
able to accidents, collisions, founderings, etc.
ACCIDENTS RESULTING IN LOSS OF LIFE
The total number of accidents resulting in loss of life during the
past year was 24, a decrease of 147 from the previous year. Enu­
merated by supervising inspection districts, accidents occurred as
follows: First, 2; second, 8; third, 1; fourth, 0; fifth, 2; sixth, 1; seventh,
1; eighth, 3; ninth, 2; tenth, 3; eleventh, 1.
The following disasters resulted in an unusually large loss of life:
On July 29, 1930, the steamer George J. Whelan, 1,289 gross tons,
while en route from Sandusky, Ohio, to Tonawanda, N. Y., loaded
with 1,611 tons of crushed stone, rolled over and foundered on Lake
Erie, about 23 miles east of Presque Isle Light. Fifteen lives were
lost. Vessel valued at $175,000. The case was investigated and
dismissed by the local inspectors at Buffalo, N. Y.
On September 1, 1930, the steamer Admiral Nulton, 3,545 gross
tons, and the fishing vessel Orient, 57 gross tons, collided one-half
mile N.-NW. magnetic from Sisters Island Light, British Columbia,
which accident resulted in the sinking of the Orient. Ten lives were
lost. The case was investigated by the local inspectors at San Fran­
cisco, Calif., and Lee G. Clements, second mate of the Admiral Nulton
was charged with unskillfulness, violation of section 4440, R. S.
Jurisdiction was transferred to Seattle, Wash., where the local inspec­
tors concluded the charge was not sustained.
On September 16, 1930, the steamer South Coast, 301 gross tons, left
the port of Crescent City, Calif., bound for Coos Bay, Oreg., and has
never been heard from since. Wreckage proved that this steamer was
battered to pieces on the rocks, but actual cause is not known, as there
are no survivors. Nineteen lives were lost. Vessel valued at $20,000.
The case was investigated and dismissed by the local inspectors at
San Francisco, Calif.
On September 26,1930, the motor vessel North Shore, 63 gross tons,
left Benton Harbor, Mich., for Milwaukee, Wis., and when it failed to
arrive a search was instituted and wreckage was found floating on the
Lake 30 miles northeast of Racine, Wis. No further trace of the
vessel has ever been found. Entire crew of six was lost. Estimated
loss $14,000. The case was investigated and dismissed by the local
inspectors at Milwaukee, Wis.
On November 8, 1930, the steamer Brooklyn, 333 gross tons, cross­
ing out over Eureka Bar, encountered heavy breaking seas which
filled the engine and boiler room, extinguishing the fires and rendering
the vessel helpless. It drifted up the coast for 3 miles where it beached
and was pounded to pieces by the heavy surf. The entire crew of 18
persons and 1 stowaway were washed overboard and lost, with the
exception of the chief mate. Vessel valued at $15,000. The case
was investigated and dismissed by the local inspectors at San Francisco,
Calif.

260

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE
VESSELS LOST

Steam vessels_______________________________________________________
M otor vessels________________________________________________________________
Sail vessels___________________________________________________________________B arges, e tc ____________________________________________________________________
T o ta l__________________________________________________________________

41
11
2
15
69

PROPERTY LOST
$46, 545
B y explosion or accidental escape of steam
2, 515, 304
B y wreck or founder_______________________
2, 488, 046
B y collision betw een vessels-----------------------1, 466, 835
B y fire_______________________________________
153, 361
B y sn ags____________________________________
3, 319, 507
Prom m iscellaneous cau ses_________________
T o ta l_______________ — ......................................................................................9, 989, 598

Very truly yours,

D ic k e r s o n N . H o o v e r ,

Supervising Inspector General.

PATENT OFFICE
D epartm ent of C ommerce ,
U nited S tates P atent O ffic e ,

Washington, July 1, 1931.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r . S ec r etary : I have the honor to submit the following
report of the business of the Patent Office for the year ended June 30,
1931:
The year just closed has been a very busy one in the Patent Office.
At the close of the preceding fiscal year the number of patent applica­
tions awaiting official action had reached 119,597, but with the 110
additional employees provided by Congress the applications have
been acted upon so much more expeditiously that the arrears at the
close of the present fiscal year number 92,203, a reduction during the
year of 27,394. Seven years ago the office made a record by reducing
the arrears 15,778 applications in one year with an increase of 100
examiners, but during the past year that record reduction of arrears
(with a similar increase of examiners) has been exceeded by over
11,000 applications. It is gratifying to note that in making this
reduction of 27,000 in pending applications there has been a corre­
sponding decrease in the time that applicants are compelled to await
action on their applications for patents, the average time being re­
duced nearly 3 months. This is illustrated by the following: On
June 30, 1930, of the 63 patent-examining divisions, there were only
3 divisions under 6 months; now there are 1 under 2 months, 3 under
3 months, 6 under 4 months, 18 under 5 months, and 41 under 6
months. There were then 33 divisions out of the 63 over 9 months
and 1 over 10 months; now each division is under 8 months. During
the summer vacation period, when so many of the employees are
absent it is impossible to make any gains, but by September the
force will again begin to make substantial gains and further reduce
both the number of pending applications and the time an applicant
must await official action.
The new system of supervision, recommended by the Cleveland
Patent Law- Association and approved in modified form by the
United States Bureau of Efficiency, has now been in operation for a
year and is giving very beneficial results. Under this system four
well equipped principal examiners were relieved from their duties
as examiners to form a supervisory board. As set forth in my last
anrm al report, these supervisors have established closer supervision
of the work of the 63 examining divisions by unifying and integrating
the work, by maintaining a well-organized system of training for new
examiners, by cooperating with the commissioner in forming a board
of promotions, and by making certain other changes in the methods of
procedure. Members of the bar from various sections of the country
give assurance that they can see a marked improvement in the char­
acter of the official actions made under the guidance of this board of
supervisors. This board is now considered a permanent feature of
the office administration.
261

262

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

The increase in the membership of the board of appeals has enabled
it to make material advances in its work. This board has now re­
duced the number of appeals awaiting action from 3,408 to 2,719, a
gain of 689 cases. In other words, while 357 interference appeals and
2,519 ex parte appeals, a total of 2,876, were made to this board during
the year, the board actually decided 495 interference cases and 3,070
ex parte cases. This has resulted in the time that an applicant has to
await the outcome of his appeal being reduced by more than one-half.
The large volume of work accomplished by the board of appeals may
be seen from the fact that whereas during the year only 185 appeals
were made from this oflice to the United States Court of Customs and
Patent Appeals, the board received, as above stated, a total of 2,876
appeals. While the ratio of these appeals to the number of cases acted
upon by the examiners has remained about the same, the total num­
ber of appeals has thus risen along with the increased number of ac­
tions by the enlarged examining corps. The board of appeals is also
making every effort to decide cases very promptly after the appeals
have been heard. This is both gratifying to applicants and an
economy of time of the board.
* The incoming new applications have decreased during the year
from the “peak year,” 1930, when patent applications with fees
numbered 91,430 and all applications numbered 117,790, to 84,097
for the patent applications and 106,893 for all applications. The
amendments to the applications, however, have increased, due to the
necessary response of the applicants to the greater activity of our
enlarged examining corps—the number of amendments in patent
applications having increased from 217,084 in 1930 to 227,748 in 1931,
an increase of over 10,000.
The incoming work of the trade-mark division has also suffered a
decrease, due partially to an increase of fees and to a change in prac­
tice in trade-mark applications resulting from decisions of the United
States Court of Customs and Patent Appeals which prohibit the
office from registering many trade-marks which were registrable under
the decisions of the Court of Appeals of the District of Columbia,
which had jurisdiction of appeals from the Patent Office until recently.
The receipt of fees for the last year has exceeded any year in the
history of the Patent Office. Effective June 1, 1930, Congress in­
creased the fees with the expectation that the office would be selfsupporting. This anticipation would have been realized had the
office received as many new applications during the past year as in
1930. But the decrease of 7,333 new patent applications made a dif­
ference of $183,000; a decrease of 3,500 trade-mark applications, a
difference of $52,500; a decrease in the number of printed copies sold, a
difference of $9,000; and a decrease of 5,000 deeds of assignment,
a difference of $15,000. These various items total $259,000, almost
equal to the deficit, $266,900.88, for the year. The previous deficits
were $608,378 in 1929 and $455,859 in 1930. Moreover, the applica­
tions which had been formally “ allowed” and in which the appli­
cants failed to pay the final or printing fee numbered 1,635 more than
in the previous year, thus causing a loss in revenue of more than
$40,000. The total receipts from all sources for this year amounted to
$4,565,377.08, whereas the expenditures amounted to $4,832,277.96.
Since the largest amount of fees ever before received was in 1930,
when the fees amounted to $4,096,825.43, it will be seen that the

263

PATENT OFFICE

receipts this year, amounting to $4,565,377.08, exceeded the previous
“ peak year” by $468,551.65.
It is interesting to note that during the fiscal year the office received
$403,562 from the sale of copies of patents, at 10 cents each, and in all
disposed of 6,385,910 of such copies, that the office made 978,955
photostatic copies at a profit of over $80,000, and that the receipts
from our recording office amounted to $171,000, the number of deeds
of assignment recorded being 52,436.
AIDING INDUSTRY

Except in the radio and moving picture fields, where because of
conflicting inventions it is dangerous to make applications “special”
in their order of examination, the office for a number of years has made
applications “ special” where as a prerequisite for taking the case out
of its turn and giving it immediate action, affidavits had been placed on
file obligating those making the affidavits to expend a certain amount
of capital if and only if a patent should be granted, thereby giving
employment to labor. Furthermore, such advancement in the order
of examination was given to applications only when a pledge was made
to report under oath, within three months of the allowance of the
application, showing (1) how much money had been expended in the
manufacture of the device, (2) the number of devices manufactured,
and (3) the extent to which manufacture has increased the employ­
ment of labor. During the year about 300 applications were so ad­
vanced. This practice of compelling applicants to make a sworn
return has not been in practice long enough to afford complete returns,
but it is interesting to note some of the returns that have been made.
The ones so far reported include the following:
Amount
invested
$7,000.00
2 , 0 0 0 .0 0
28, 500. 00
4, 000.00
101, 807.00
70, 000. 00
4,172.00
2 1 , 0 0 0 .0 0
183, 784.16
52, 634. 00
40,000. 00
80,000.00

Employment given to—
employees.
Orders placed in three different fac­
tories, amounting to 1 ,0 0 0 , 0 0 0 springs.
52 employees.
1 1 employees.
250 employees.
Number of employees not stated.
D o.
Weekly pay roll $355.
Installation not yet complete and employees not stated.
Pay roll, $6,300 per month.
Number of employees not stated. Additional pay roll to date, $6,778.81.
Force has been doubled but number
not stated.
12

Amount
invested
$2 2 , 0 0 0 . 0 0
70,000.00
150,000.00
25, 000. 00
106, 0 0 0 . 0 0
1 2 , 0 0 0 .0 0
50,000. 00
25, 500. 00
8 , 0 0 0 .0 0
255, 290.00
9,400. 00
27, 300.00
40,000.00

Employment given to—
35 employees.
Expects to “involve pay roll of from
$180,000 to $600,000 per year/’
65 employees.
9 employees.
Pay roll, $4,700.
3 employees.
30 employees.
2 0 employees.
1 0 employees.
304 employees.
30 employees.
25 employees.
Do.

The foregoing statistics, though covering only a short period of
time, emphasize acutely the necessity for bringing the Patent Office
up to date so that every application filed may be acted upon promptly.
Toward this end the office is bending all of its energies with a fair
promise of success as may be seen from the reduction in the last year
which, as above stated, was 27,000 applications, and a reduction as
compared with last year of almost three months in the average time
an applicant must wait for official action.
Following is an appendix giving the usual statistical information.

A PPEN DIX
STATISTICS
A p p lic a t io n s received d u r in g the f is c a l y e ar ended J u n e SO, 1981

1

With fees:
Applications for patents for inventions_________________ 84, 097
Applications for patents for designs____________________ 4, 147
Applications for reissues of patents____________________
463
— —------ 8 8 , 707
Applications for registration of trade-marks____________ 2 15, 144
Applications for registration of labels and prints________ 2, 866
------------ 18,010
Total, with fees____________________________________________ 106, 717
Without fees: Applications for inventions (act Mar. 3, 1883)_____ .___
176
Grand total_______________________________________ ________ 106, 893
A p p lic a t io n s f o r p a te n ts f o r in v e n tio n s w ith fe e s

Year ended June 30—
1922 _______________
1923 _______________
1924 ............................ ..
1925___________________
1926___________________

88,243
77, 645
76,024
77, 926
80,682

Year ended June 30—
1927___________________ 84,511
1928___________________ 88 , 482
1929________________ ___ 87,039
1930________________ ___ 91,430
1931________________ ___ 84,097

A p p lic a t io n s f o r p a te n ts, in c lu d in g r e is s u e s , d e sig n s, tra d e -m a rk s, lab e ls, a n d p r in ts,
w ith fe e s

Year ended June 30—
1922__________________
1923 ______________
1924 ______________
1925 ______________
1926__________________

113,597
100, 724
99, 574
103, 591
110,030

Year ended June 30—
1927 ______________ 113,783
1928_____________ _0___ 116,844
1929 ________ ________ ________ 114) 4
1930 ______________ 117, 569
1931____________ ______ 106,717

P a te n t a p p lic a t io n s a w a itin g actio n

June 30—
1922 __
1923 _______________
1924 _________ ______
1925 _______________
1926-__________________

67,367
72,475
60,334
44, 556
43,765

June 301927_________ ________ 64, 646
1928_________ ________ 106,575
1929_________ ________ 103,236
1930_________ ________ 119,597
1931_________ ________ 92, 203

P a te n ts w ithheld a n d p ate n ts exp ired

Letters patent withheld for nonpayment of final fees..........
Applications allowed awaiting payment of final fees______
Patents expired______________ _______________
Applications in which issue of patent has been deferred under sec. 4885 R. S
Applications in process of issue______________________ _______
Including applications in which fees were refunded and transferred,
i Includes 1,508 applications for the renewal of trade-mark registrations.
1

264

1930

1931

8,320
15,232
35,057
554
3,140

9,945
24,097
36. 315
355
3,561

PATENT OFFICE

265

P a te n ts g ra n te d a n d tra d e -m a rk s, lab e ls, a n d p r in ts reg istered

Prints.................................................................
Total........................................................

1927

1928

1929

1930

43,244
2,478
293
14,858
1,782
1,074
63,729

41,067
2,698
349
14,219
1,857
944
61,134

43,617
3,201
329
14,391
1,774
933
64, 245

49,599
2,598
374
13,897
1,610
723
68,801

1931
44,317
3,089
400
12,437
1,787
678
62,708

S tatem en t o f receip ts a n d e a r n in g s f o r the f is c a l y e a r ended J u n e SO, 1931

Unearned balance at close of business June 30,1930--------------------- $181, 718. 79
Receipts for fiscal year ended June 30, 1931------- $4, 507,140. 01
Receipts from sale of Official Gazette and other
publications through Government Printing
Office____________- ................................................
58, 237. 07
Total receipts_________________________________________ 4, 565, 377. 08
4, 747, 095. 87
Earnings:
$2, 098, 445. 00
Inventions, first fees.
52, 296. 00
Extra claims___
13, 830. 00
Reissues___________
46, 440. 00
Designs___________
21, 815. 00
Design extensions__
225, 645. 00
Trade-marks_______
14, 802. 00
Labels and prints__
T o ta l....______________________________ 2,473,273.00
Final fees_________________ 1, 111, 200. 00
Extra claims__________
25, 348. 00
Total.______________ ___________________ 1, 136, 548. 00
Appeals___________________
47, 240. 00
Oppositions_______________
7, 590. 00
Disclaimers_______________
1, 150. 00
55, 980. 00
Total____________________ __________
403, 562. 05
Printed copies, etc-------------14, 528. 25
Photoprints_______________
86, 201. 10
Photostats________________
90, 925. 10
Manuscript_______________
10, 107. 45
Certified printed copies, etc_.
Recording articles of incor­
767. 00
poration________________
Recording international
10 . 00
trade-marks_____________
1, 075. 00
Registration of attorneys----T otal.......................
607, 175. 95
Drawings________________________________
25, 622. 15
Assignments________________________________
171,710.80
Total_____ ____________________________ 4,470,309.90
Receipts from sale of Official Gazette, etc---58, 237. 07
4, 528, 546. 97
Total earnings______________
37, 863. 96
Refunded____________________
180, 684. 94
Unearned balance June 30, 1931
4, 747, 095. 87

266

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
E x p e n d itu r e s, f is c a l y e a r ended J u n e SO, 1931

Salaries____________________________________________________ $3, 428, 909. 18
Scientific library____________________________________________
7, 902. 92
Investigating public use_____________________________________
659. 18
Photolithographing:
Current issue________________________________ $72, 942.14
Reproduction_______________________________ 125, 721.46
Photographic printing_______________________ 18, 270.08
Photostat supplies__________________________ 38, 704.74
Dry mounts___ _____
2, 749.99
Total________
--------------258, 388. 41
Printing and binding:
Specifications___
836, 779. 11
Official Gazette..
161, 284. 83
Indexes________
9, 761. 64
T o ta l...------------- ------------------ --------------------------------- 1, 007, 825. 58
Miscellaneous----------------- -------------------------- -----------------60, 000. 00
Furniture and filing cases___________________________________
41, 671. 16
Contingent expenses, including telephones, stationery, postage on
foreign mail, etc----------------------- ------- -----------------------------26, 921. 53
Total
4, 832, 277. 96
R e c e ip ts a n d e x p e n d itu re s

Total receipts from all sources_______________________________ 4, 565, 377. 08
Expenditures--------------------------------------------------------------------- 4,832,277.96
Deficit------------------------------ -------------------------------------266, 900. 88
Total net surplus to date____________________________________ 5, 616, 827. 78
C o m p ara tiv e statem en t

June 30—

Receipts

1922................................................................
1923____________ ____________________
1924___________ _________________
1925-......................... ............................
1926-........................ ................ .
1927______________________________
1928___________________________
1929_________________________
1930-_______________ ________________
1931______________________________

Expenditures

Surplus

$2,894,286.58 1 $2,722,205.37 $172,081.21
3,026,486.36 1 3,112,022. 07
3, 042, 276. 22 1 3,273,341.37
3, 271, 253.89 3, 775,476.97
3, 457, 774. 53 3,857,952.11 -400,177.58
3, 524,155. 55 3, 769, 604.03
3, 705,338.31 3,839,771.66
3,783,481.65 4, 391,860.16
4,096,825.43 4, 552,685.41
4, 565,377.08 4,832, 277.96 -266, 900.88

* Including increase in compensation (bonus).
L itig a te d c a se s

Oppositions instituted_______________________________________________ 789
Cancellations instituted________________________________________ 135
Interferences declared (including 145 trade-mark)_IZIIIZIZZIIIIIIZ.I 1 983
Interferences heard (including 324 trade-mark)_______________________I ’ 621
Interferences disposed of before final hearing (including 784 trade-mark). 2, 309
Interferences disposed of after final hearing (including 317 trade-mark).. 617
Interferences awaiting decision (including 30 trade-mark)_________ __ _ 59
Oldest case awaiting decision, March 19, 1931.

PATENT OFFICE

267

To Board of Appeals:
Appeals in interference cases_____________________________________ 357
Ex parte appeals________________________________________________ 2, 519
2, 876
Appeals in interference cases disposed of__________________________ 495
Ex parte appeals disposed of_____________________________________ 3, 070
3, 565
Interference cases awaiting action________________________________ 209
Ex parte cases awaiting action___________________________________ 2, 510
2, 719
Oldest interference case awaiting action, April 23, 1931.
Oldest ex parte case awaiting action, April 16, 1931.
To the commissioner:
Appeals in trade-mark interferences______________________________
12
Appeals in trade-mark oppositions___________________________ - ___
85
Appeals in trade-mark cancellations______________________________
21
Appeals in ex parte trade-mark cases_____________________________
47
Interlocutory appeals___________________________________________
19
Total_______________________________________________________- 184
Petitions ex parte____________________ ____________________6, 703
Petitions inter partes_____________________________________ 141
--------- 6, 844
Total________________________________________________________ 7,028
Cases disposed of by commissioner:
Appeals in trade-mark interferences______________________________
12
Appeals in trade-mark oppositions---------------------------------------------82
Appeals in trade-mark cancellations_____________________________
20
Appeals in ex parte trade-marks-------------------------------------------------44
Interlocutory appeals___________________________________________
19
Total________________________________________________________ 177
Petitions_______________________________________________________ 5, 998
Total-------------- ------- ------------ --------------------------------- --------------6, 175
To Court of Customs and Patent Appeals of the District of Columbia:
Appeals in ex parte cases (including 8 trade-marks)------------------------ 186
Appeals in interference cases (including 3 trade-marks)-----------------58
Appeals in trade-mark oppositions_______________________________
29
Appeals in trade-mark cancellations--------------------------------------------12
Total________________________________________________________ 285
OTHER DETAILS OF BUSINESS FOR THE FISCAL YEAR

The volume of business received during the year included 88,707
applications for patents, reissues, and designs; 13,636 trade-mark
applications and 1,508 applications for renewal of trade-mark regis­
trations; and 2,866 label and print applications; 227,748 amend­
ments to patent applications, 7,527 amendments to design applica­
tions, and 20,079 amendments to trade-mark, label, and print applica­
tions.
The number of letters constituting the miscellaneous correspondence
received and indexed was 458,601. In addition, 38,076 letters were
returned with information.

268

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

The number of printed copies of patents sold was 3,959,622;
1,296,454 copies of patents were shipped to foreign governments, and
690,887 copies furnished public libraries. The total number of copies
of patents furnished was 6,385,910, including those for office use and
other departments.
The office received for record 52,436 deeds of assignments.
The drafting division made 546 drawings for inventors, and cor­
rected 20,127 drawings on request of inventors; 147,548 sheets of
drawings were inspected, and 20,824 letters answered.
Typewritten copies of 4,877,800 words were furnished at 10 cents
per hundred words. The office certified to 13,890 manuscript copies,
and furnished 8,984 miscellaneous certified copies. The office also
furnished 363,163 photostat copies of manuscript pages; 57,764
photographic copies, and 466,785 photostat copies of publications
and foreign patents, for sale; 9,973 photostat-manuscript pages; 99
certified manuscript copies and 3,549 photostat copies for Govern­
ment departments, without charge; 18,093 photostat and 13,693
photographic copies for use of the Patent Office; 17,563 photostat
copies for sale through photoprint section, and 527 photostats for
office use; also 99,302 photostats for assignments, grants, disclaimers,
and miscellaneous papers for official use; in all, 978,955 photostat
and 71,457 photographic copies.
Very truly yours,
T h o m as E . K o b e r t s o n ,
Commissioner of Patents.

BUREAU OF MINES
D epartment oe C ommerce,
B ureau of M in es ,

~Washington, July 1, 1931,
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce.
D ear Mr. S ecretary : In response to your request I furnish the
following condensed report on the work of the Bureau of Mines
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1931.
At the end of each division chapter, short paragraphs give con­
clusions and recommendations regarding the work of the division;
the most pressing future needs are listed among the recommenda­
tions.
FINANCES

Total funds available to the Bureau of Mines for the fiscal year
ended June 30, 1931, were $3,133,114.19. Of this amount $2,945,357.01 was spent, leaving an unexpended balance of $187,757.18,
mainly owing to uncompleted work in the helium program, result­
ing in the carrying over of $155,000 of helium-plant funds as au­
thorized expenditures for the fiscal year 1932.
On the regular work of the bureau $2,297,781.28 was expended
directly, this figure being subject to slight corrections owing to
unpaid obligations. In addition, for the helium program, which is
purely service work for the Army and Navy and has no part in the
regular work of the bureau, $663,544.19 was appropriated directly
to the bureau; and $166,000 was transferred from the Navy for the
purchase, at cost, of helium produced by the bureau for this mili­
tary-service branch.
Table 1 presents classified and complete information regarding
the financial history of the bureau since its transfer to the Depart­
ment of Commerce July 1, 1925. A complete statement of the dis­
tribution of congressional appropriations to branches and divisions
within the bureau and the expenditure of these funds in 1931 by
the various divisions of the bureau is given in Table 2.
Figure 1 shows the annual expenditures, exclusive of service items
and based entirely on regular duties and functions, and therefore
presents the truer picture of the bureau’s own activities since its
establishment. The annual expenditures of the bureau are illustrated in the curves shown in Figure 2.
269

270

D o Ll a r s

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

1911

1912

1913

1914

1915

I3!S

1917

1918

1919

1920

1321

1922

1923

¡9 2 4

1925

1926

¡927

1928

1929

j<--------------------------------------------------------^ D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e in t e r io r --------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------------D e p t , ot Co m m e rce

F ig u r e 1.

—Annual expenditures ot the Bureau of Mines since its organization (exclusive o£ service items)

1930

1931

1932
H

BUREAU OE MINES

DOLLARS

I

*
i
I

to

272

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

T able 1.— B u r e a u o f M in e s a p p r o p r ia tio n s a n d e x p e n d itu r e s , fisc a l y e a r s
e n d e d J u n e SO, 1926-1 931

Funds
Appropri­ Depart­ transferred
Total funds Unex­
ated to mental from other available
Fiscal year— Bureau
for pended
of allot­
expenditure balance
Mines ments 1 depart­
ments

Total ex­ Expenditures
exclusive of
penditures service
items *

1926
__ $1,875,010.00 $81,220. 0 0 $510,501.15 $2,466,731.15 $28,891. 78 $2,437,839.37 3$1,841,150.80
1927
__________
__________
1,914,400.00
94,443. 39 325, 000. 00 2, 333,843. 39 44, 871.29 2,288,972.10 1.926,910.12
1928
...............................................................
3,025,150. 00 113,266. 45 325,493. 46 3, 463,909. 91 4 723,491. 71 2, 740, 418. 20 1,997,509.91
1929
__ 3,444, 594. 67 103,000. 00 205, 500. 00 * 3, 753,094. 67 o 126, 679. 62 3, 626, 415. 05 2, 286,010. 39
1930............... 2,394, 886.38 123,300. 00 166, 2 0 0 . 0 0 7 2, 684, 386.38 8 135,145. 59 2,549.240. 79 8 2,217, 562. 61
1931
..... 2,847,414.19 119,200. 00 166,500. 0 0 io 3,133,114.19 » 187, 757.18 2,945,357.01 122,297,781.28
Total___ 15,501,455.24 634,429.84 1, 699,194. 61 17,835.079.69 1,246,837.17 16,588,242. 52 12,566,925.11
1932
__ 2,433, 765. 00 133,550.00 194,500. 00 13 2, 761, 815. 00
1 4 2, 247,045. 00
printing and binding, stationery, and contingent expenses.
Ii Includes
Service items include Government fuel yards, helium, and other investigations and services for other
departments.
3 Includes $122,229.39 for mineral resources originally budgeted to Interior Department.
4»Includes
Balance of $719,476.67, helium plants, reappropriated for expenditure in 1929.
balance of $719,476.67, helium plants, reappropriated for expenditure in 1929.
87Includes
Balance of $120,216.38, helium plants, reappropriated for expenditure in 1930.
balance of $120,216.38, helium plants, reappropriated for expenditure in 1930.
88Balance
of $102,354.19, helium plants, reappropriated for expenditure in 1931.
to adjustment until June 30, 1932.
1II0Subject
Includes balance of $102,354.19, helium plants, reappropriated for expenditure in 1931.
Balance of $155,000, helium plants, reappropriated for expenditure in 1932.
1132Includes
Subject to adjustment until June 30,1933.
balance of $155,000, helium plants, reappropriated for expenditure in 1932.
24Appropriations,
allotments, and transfers (exclusive of service items) as of July 1, 1931.

TECHNOLOGIC BRANCH

MECHANICAL DIVISION
Electricity in mines.—In return for permission to mark goods with
a plate showing approval of the United States Bureau of Mines,
manufacturers of electrical mining equipment submit their product
to this bureau to determine whether it complies with certain stand­
ards of construction designed to eliminate the more probable causes
of gas and dust ignitions. During the past year the bureau classed
as permissible 4 loading machines, 7 conveyors, 9 mining machines,
7 mine pumps, 2 rock-dust distributors, 2 junction boxes, 2 storagebattery locomotives, 1 flash lamp, 2 flood lights, and 1 electric cap
lamp, all using electric current.
A study of such permissible equipment has been made after it has
been put into service in 40 mines in Pennsylvania and 41 mines in
West Virginia. The resulting information has been transmitted to
manufacturers and improvements have been effected in design that
reduce accidents. During the year eight information circulars and
two bulletins were published giving the results of investigations on
the safe use of electricity in mines.
Removal of ash in molten form from boiler furnaces.—Burning
coal in pulverized form has introduced difficult problems in the col­
lection, removal, and disposal of ash. The introduction of a type of
furnace in which the deposited ash is tapped as fluid permits the use
of coals with ash of low fusion temperature, which previously could
not be used in pulverized-coal furnaces. The bureau has continued
its cooperation with the American Society of Mechanical Engineers,
investigating some of the factors of this method of operation. The
relationship between the composition of slag and the temperature at

BUREAU 0E MINES

273

which it will flow has been established. If the slag will not flow
at the temperature of the furnace, a flux must be added; the effective­
ness of such materials as are available for use as fluxes has been
determined, as well as the relation of the quantity required to the
composition of the slag. These problems have a bearing not only on.
establishing a wider market for certain coals but also on air
pollution.
.
Stoker 'firing of brickkilns.—The application of stoker tiring tobrickkilns has been studied in detail during the year, and an inves­
tigation has been continued to determine the effect of preheating air
on the combustion temperature in the fuel bed and to determine thecomposition and temperature of gases leaving the fuel bed.
Burning characteristics of domestic fuels.—The burning charac­
teristics of fuels used in domestic furnaces are being investigated;,
the investigation on coke has been completed.
Fuel-economy service.—The fuel-economy service for Government
plants has comprised power-plant studies, fuel-efficiency tests, fuel
studies for the proper selection of coal, acceptance tests for new
equipment, and consulting service on many problems for the Bureau
of the Budget and for various Government power-plant projects,
including the purchase of new equipment and the preparation of
specifications, all with the object of saving fuel. Typical results
follow:
.
, , to.
After a study of five Government projects,
ways were found
reduce installation expenditures $125,000 and still achieve equal or
better results. In a contemplated expenditure of $700,000 it was
found that $225,000 would do for the immediate future. Methods
were developed whereby V/j tons of coal a day were saved at one
plant. Recommendations were made concerning the most economical
fuel and most desirable type of fuel-burning equipment for about
30 different projects, and consulting service was furnished on mis­
cellaneous problems involving fuels in about 20 more projects. In
the selection of coal for use in the District various coals offered were
tested at about 25 local plants.
. .
Brakes for mine cars.—The mechanization of coal mining has
brought need for larger mine cars operated at higher speeds than
formerly. To supply necessary information for designing improved
braking equipment for such cars the bureau is determining the
suitability and relative friction characteristics of various woods for
brake blocks. A machine has been constructed that will measure
the friction factors and will test the durability of various woods
and other suitable brake-block materials. Tests of such materials
were continued during the year.
Fuel inspection and coal analysis.—The fuel-inspection section
advises Federal departments, and State and municipal governments,
if desired, regarding the purchase of coal; it collects and prepares
for publication information on the fuel value of coals of the United
States. The quality of coal delivered to Federal institutions and
certain State institutions is checked; coal is inspected and sampled
in the mines, at mine tipples, and sometimes at the point of delivery ;
and suggestions are issued as to the desirable method of sampling
coal. Analyses are sent to the interested parties, with comments
and recommend ations for settlement. By detection through analysis
84206— 31-------18

Branchor division

$14,023.18
10,195.00
17,940.79 $8,761.57
48,422.13 17,852.90
66, 362.92 26,614.47
48,053.43
92,087. 97 $11,449.96
29, 524. 99

66, 641.82
77,213.65
265,468.43 11,449.96

$6,252. 75 $2,732.66 $2,959.45 $13, 397. 60 $9,437.56
9,419.34 7,167.30 5, 820. 00
1,894.09
9,899.96 I 8,779.45 13,397.60 11,331.65
150,768.04
7,598.90

18, 632.83

82,, 289.82
848. 75

78, 369. 45
72,579. 52
129, 006.44
209, 341.46
5,189. 26
90,925.60

7, 598. 90 169,400. 87 156,138. 23 220, 480. 03 219, 932.04

$ 1, 000.00

80,114. 78
1, 000.00
81,114.78
0)

69, 651.04
28, 914. 78
2, 244.96
100,810. 78
91, 880.00 441, 660. 00 11, 460. 00
90,581.10 440, 947.11 11, 449. 96
1, 298.90
712.89
10. 04

310,169. 01
310,169. 01
333, 770.00 180, 250.00 165, 460. 00 234, 040. 00
570.00 82, 200.00
333,440. 00 179, 300. 83 165, 057. 68 233, 877. 63 231,
231, 263. 69 82,114.78
330. 00
949.17
402. 32
162.37
306.31

0)

REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

Office of the director................................
Office of the assistant to the director__
Administrative branch:
Office administration division.........
Information division.........................
Total................................................
Office of chief mining engineer................
Technologic branch:
Mechanical division_____________
Mining division...................................
Metallurgical division____________
Petroleum and natural gas division,
Experiment stations division______
Helium division..................................
Explosives division...........................
Total................................................
Economics branch:
Coal division___________________
Mineral statistics division________
Petroleum economics division.........
Rare metals and nonmetals division.
Common metals division...................
Office of principal mineralogist____
Total..................................................
Health and safety branch:
Health division...... .............................
Safety division......................................
Demographical division......................
Total..................................................
Total appropriations..................................
Total expenditures......................................
Unexpended balance.........................

Mainte­
Care,
etc., nance
Operating
Oil,
gas,
Expenses
and
Investigat­
Mining in­ mine
Mineral
buildings
General
rescue
Testing
and
oil
mining
operation
ing
mine
vestigations
mining in­ shale in­ experiment grounds,
and
expenses accidents in Alaska cars
and
fuel
Govern­
vestigations
stations
vestigations stations Pittsburgh ment
yardsfuel

274

T able 2.— B u r e a u o f M in e s e x p e n d itu r e s , fisc a l y e a r 1981

Branch or division

Economies
Helium in­ Investigat­
potash of mineral
vestigation ing
deposits industries

Helium Helium Helium
plants production plants,
1930-31

Printing Depart­ Geological
and bind­ ment con­ survey
tingent transfer
ing

Total
$14,023.18
10,195.00

Administrative branch:
Office administration division.................................. $6,102.50 $4,000.00 $19,645.42 $17,158.64 $7,613.18
6,102.50

4,000.00

19,645.42

17,158.64

7,613.18

7. 018. 37
1, 810.99
3,088. 30
2, 6 6 8 . 67
7, 274.45
8,708.78
::::::::::::
119.74
236,385. 55 134, 386.82 $177,500.0Ò
61,154. 59
851.43
236,385. 55 134,386.82 177,500.00 24,266. 28
Total.................................. ........ — ............... .......... 68,429.04 95, 500.00 —
Economics branch:
843.94
62.002.09
27,366.30
88,767.06
1,897.10
39, 783. 00
392.22
38, 294.65
325. 61
30.332.10
5,
254.35
Office of principal mineralogist......................... ........
30,825.17
264,433.25
Total............. -...........................................................
Health and safety branch:
565.12
22,172. 06 1
1 ...................
1, 745. 39
26, 545.00
Demographical division................ ........ .....................
1
| 24,482.57 j
26,545. 00
Total......................-.................... ...........................
00 1 0 0 , 0 0 0 . 0 0 311,580.00 408.544.19 166,000. 0 0 180, 0 0 0 . 0 0 87, 500.00 1 31,700.00
Total appropriations............................ ............................. 75,000.
Total expenditures________________ -............. ............ 74,531.54 99,500. 00 310, 623.67 253.544.19 142, 000. 00 177,500.00 87,446. 22 ! 31,678.61
21.39
53. 78
500. 00 j 956.33 2155,000. 00 24.000. 00 2, 500.00
468.46
Unexpended balance_______ ________________
2 Reappropriated for expenditure in 1932.
i Revolving fund.
95,500. 00

149,805.32
95,897.15
245, 702.47
49,479.65
270,173.09
$500.00 207, 995.25
204, 674. 26
219, 284. 58
277, 811.97
609, 546.70
79, 065.08
500. 00 1,868,550.93
62,846.03
116,133. 36
41, 680.10
38, 6 8 6 . 87
30, 657. 71
5, 254. 35
295, 258.42

BUKEATJ OF MINES

Total........................... -.............................................
Office of chief mining engineer.........----------------------Technologic branch:

$2,124.59 $31,678.61
5,321.39
7,445.98 31,678.61
426. 22

70, 216.16
361, 255. 85
30, 675.35
462,147.36
500.00 3,133,114.19
500.00 2,945,357.01
187, 757.18
ç ji

276

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

a saving has been made of subcontract coal delivered to the Govern­
ment. Samples have been taken in Maryland, Pennsylvania, Vir­
ginia, and West Virginia, and from 12 cargoes of coal at tidewater
piers. The cost of field sampling has been reduced approximately
50 per cent by the development of a sampling truck equipped for
mechanical preparation of samples and by other more efficient
methods. The truck made possible collection of some samples of
anthracite which were needed to answer the numerous inquiries from
Federal departments in connection with their coal purchases.
Each year the coal-analysis section analyzes approximately 10,000
samples of coal purchased by Federal, State, or municipal govern­
ments or samples collected in connection with bureau-research inves­
tigations. Commercial and industrial laboratories desiring to main­
tain a high standard of accuracy exchange check samples with the
Bureau of Mines. The bureau offers this service free.
Gas, coke, and by-products obtainable from coal.—In cooperation
with the American Gas Association, a method has been developed
for determining (under controlled conditions) the quality and quan­
tity of gas, coke, and by-products obtainable from coal, from both
low and high temperature ranges of carbonization. A preliminaryreport that describes the method (which uses from 80 to 100 pounds
of coal) and gives results has been published. When it is assured
that the results check with large-scale carbonization it is proposed
to make a survey of the typical coals of the United States by this
method. So far, 10 different coals from various parts of the country
have been examined. Several gas and coke companies have already
installed similar apparatus in their research laboratories. As a
mechanism for research, the method has many possibilities.
The carbonization of washed and unwashed coal, from one bed,
showed that washing improved the physical properties of the coke
and the yields of both gas and tar. A study to determine the effect
of inerts (such as fusain or mineral charcoal) on coking showed that
clean fusain, which floats in coal washing, could be mixed with one
type of clean coal and have no deleterious effect on the coke. A
comprehensive physical examination was made of tars and light
oils obtained at each carbonization temperature. For these studies
a column of solid coal about 1 foot square was cut from the top to
t;he bottom of each coal bed from which samples were taken. A.
detailed microscopic examination was made of visible components
of the coal, and the carbonizing properties of each were determined.
Duiing the year much interest has been displayed in classification of
coals. 1 he bureau has contributed methods of testing various quali­
ties and studies on chemical relationships in a large range of coals
Characteristics of coals.—During the year 1929-30, coal samples
were taken from every operating mine in the State of Washington,
this included seam samples in the mine, as well as samples of the
various sizes of coal as shipped. For the first time the bureau
applied tests to these coal samples, in a routine manner differino- from
the former methods of proximate and ultimate analysis, to determine
slacking, friability, agglutinating power, and low-temperature car­
bonization. An apparatus was devised for measuring the plastic
properties of coal when heated, and research was continued on the
development of methods of determining the temperature at which

BUREAU OF MINES

277

•coal becomes plastic and the degree of plasticity which it attains.
Studies have been made on methods of solvent analysis of coal, and
these methods are applied to all coals examined in the survey of gas
and coke making properties of American coals. The results have
been published.
Synthetic production of organic compounds from coal.—Modern
research is pointing out new methods and producing useful organic
■ chemical compounds, such as gasoline, alcohol, acetic acid, etc.,
directly, or almost directly, from chemical elements; for example,
methanol (synthetic wood alcohol) is produced from carbon mon­
oxide and hydrogen, synthetic grain alcohol from ethylene gas and
steam, and synthetic gasoline from carbon monoxide and steam.
Carbon monoxide, ethylene, and hydrogen in turn may be obtained
by carbonization or gasification of coal or from natural gas and
steam. The chemistry of these analytical processes is as yet not
well understood. Experimental research on the mechanism of these
reactions is expected to open new commercial possibilities. The
bureau’s research in this field is to furnish the theoretical basis for
industrial development. Several publications have been issued
during the year.
Conclusions.—The development of electrical mining equipment
that will promote safety has been greatly aided by the bureau’s
approval system and is on a much safer plane than it would have
been without such aid. A neutral proving ground, where safety is
the first requirement, has been acknowledged as helpful to both
manufacturers and users.
Recommendations.—Although service work such as the bureau’s
approval system, its inspection and analysis of fuels, and its fueleconomy work in Government plants yields the most immediate and
obvious returns for the money expended, nevertheless more lasting,
more far-reaching, and ultimately greater returns may come from
well-planned research work. These returns are far less apparent,
are rarely immediate, and may seem intangible, but they are none
the less real. As appropriations of fixed sums are made year by
year the proportion that can be spent for research work continually
decreases because of the natural growth of service work to which the
bureau has become committed. The future is thus robbed for the
sake of immediate gain. This situation is unfortunate. Its first
effect is to make us hesitate to undertake further service work, how­
ever useful it may be, since the money received from commercial
concerns in payment for this bureau’s work reverts to the Treasury
of the United States and is thus completely lost to the Bureau of
Mines, thereby decreasing our funds for research investigations by
the sums so represented. When research in any field in the min­
eral industries can be afforded by the Federal Government, it is
believed that increased appropriations for that purpose will be a
good investment for the future.
MINING DIVISION
The work of the mining division embraces in particular the de­
tailed study of present-day mining and milling practices as they
relate to economy of operation, prevention of waste, protection of

278

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

life and property, and the dissemination of knowledge among mine
operators and engineers.
As a direct and tangible result of this work, costs have been defi­
nitely reduced in some mines; safety has been promoted, especially
as regards falls of roof and coal in coal mines ; and recommendations
with respect to ventilation in a number of metal mines have been
followed.
Less tangible, but perhaps of greater aggregate importance in
many districts, are the many improvements in details of practice
made possible by the fund of information and data on practices in
other districts thus supplied to operators. Comparable data, corre­
lated and assembled on many individual operations, provide a yard­
stick by which each operator may measure the results of his own
methods and practices with those of other operators.
During the year 28 publications were issued on ore-mining methods
and costs, 21 on ore-milling methods and costs, and 9 on nonmetallic
operations, each dealing with an individual property. In addition,
seven summaries and one bulletin dealing with special mining prob­
lems were published.
Since the inception of the present program circulars have been
issued giving operating data and detailed information on companies
accounting for, roughly, 70 per cent of the annual output of copper
in the United States, 60 per cent of the lead and zinc production, 30
per cent of the iron production, and smaller percentages of other
metals. Twenty additional papers are now in press.
Geophysical methods of prospecting.—The geophysical section un­
dertook a study to determine, if possible, to what extent the various
methods of geophysical exploration would warrant field application
in various mineral and oil districts. Special emphasis was placed
on deposits of chromium, nickel, and iron. Results of these inves­
tigations show that the examined nickel and iron deposits are easily
amenable to these methods of exploration, both for reconnaissance
and for detailing the ore deposits, whereas chromium deposits deserve
further study.
The application of electrical methods developed by the bureau
indicate that oil pools in Kentucky have their own peculiar geo­
physical characteristics. Intelligent observations and application of
ground measurements will eliminate the drilling of many dry holes.
Laboratory work was applied to the technique of measuring small
angles with precision. This will form the foundation for the con­
struction of gravity variometers used for delineating oil structures.
To make available the latest domestic as well as foreign published
contributions to this new branch of science an abstract journal has
been issued monthly.
Cooperative work with the Canadian Geological Survey, the min­
ing department of Harvard University, and the General Crushed
Stone Co. has helped to extend the scope of this study.
In the past year, 3 technical papers, 13 information circulars, and
1 technical translation were issued.
Mining cmd preparation of nonmetallics.—The nonmetallic section
has continued its study of mining methods as applied to the non­
metallic industries. During the year 9 reports of individual op­
erations were published, covering mining methods used at 2 fluorspar

BUREAU OF MINES

279

mines, quarrying and crushing of stone at 3 cement-plant quarries
and at 1 crushed-stone plant producing trap rock, dredging and
treatment methods at 2 sand and gravel plants, and the milling of
feldspar at 1 plant. In addition to these, 7 other papers have been
prepared for publication, and 94 others are in various stages of
preparation through the cooperation of the industry. The reports
written by the operators record in technical detail the methods used
in mining and preparation, and give operating costs tabulated as to
operating steps. Costs are in dollars and cents as well as in units
of labor, power, and supplies. Reports, published and in progress,
cover the geographical area of the United States from Maine to
California, representing 27 States and Alaska.
The study of methods of mining is especially useful at this time
to disseminate technical information among operators whereby they
may analyze their own results, compare them with others, and by
adopting more efficient practices lower operating costs and lessen
wastage.
Mining methods, Central and Eastern States.—Most of the year
was devoted to the study of special mining problems and gathering
data thereon. Circulars were published on the following special
subjects: Shrinkage Stoping, Mining by the Top-Slicing Method
with Some Notes on Sublevel Caving, Underground Transportation,
and A New Signaling Device for Shaft Mines. In the first two
circulars mining methods were discussed from the standpoint of
their productive importance, their applicability to type conditions,
their advantages and disadvantages, variations in practice to suit
special conditions, and also as to cost analyses. The studies of this
section have revealed that methods unsuited to the conditions have
sometimes been employed; a more thorough understanding of the
principles involved, and the economics of the different methods,
should go far toward eliminating such mistakes in future.
A special study was made of the sampling and estimation of
ore deposits, and a manuscript on this subject is ready for publica­
tion as a bulletin. During the year, circulars were issued dealing
with five iron-mining operations and one copper-pyrite mine.
Contacts were made with important mining interests in Canada,
whereby four papers were prepared for publication (now in press),
and the assurance obtained of others to follow soon. Studies of
problems peculiar to mining at great depths were initiated, and
progress has been made in the work.
Mining methods, Western States.—Reports dealing with mining
practices at individual mines were published during the year; 16
such circulars were issued. Four dealt with copper mines, 2 with
gold, 1 with an iron mine, 1 with lead-silver, 1 with silver, and 7
with mines producing complex ores containing lead, zinc, copper,
silver, and gold. Seven similar papers were completed and are now
in press, and 11 others are in various stages of preparation.
Much attention was devoted to the study of special mining prob­
lems. The operating data and other information in the circulars
on individual mines have been correlated and, supplemented by
special field study of each problem under consideration, are serving
as a basis for the preparation of articles dealing therewith. One
such article, Shaft-Sinking Practices and Costs, has been completed

280

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

and is ready for publication as a bulletin. Papers on special prob­
lems as follows are nearly completed: Square-Set Method of Mining,
Cut-and-Fill Mining, and Methods and Estimated Costs of Mining
Shale.
Milling methods and costs.—During the past year an investiga­
tion of milling practices and costs at the principal metal mines of
the United States and at certain mines in Canada and Mexico was
given much attention. As a basis for the study of special problems
in milling, a number of papers on individual plants have been written
by the superintendents and engineers in charge. These papers de­
scribe the characteristics of the ore treated; tonnage handled by each
machine; and operating details of each step in the process, such as
crushing, screening, grinding, classifying, conveying, sampling, and
gravity and flotation concentrating. Following a description of the
material treated and the methods of treatment employed, in each
instance are given the percentage recovery of valuable mineral, the
cost of making this recovery for the entire operation and for each
stage of the process, and the consumption of supplies, labor, power,
and reagents per ton milled. During the year, 21 such papers were
published; 9 of these deal with copper ores, 2 with lead-silver, 3
with lead-zinc-silver, 3 with zinc-lead, 1 with a mercury ore, and 3
with gold ores. Eleven others are completed and ready for publica­
tion, and several more are in various stages of preparation.
Subsidence and ground movement.—During the year investigation
was continued of conditions of occurrence of ores and associated
formations, and their relation to failure of ground in open-cut and
underground operations. Field work was carried on in Idaho, Colo­
rado, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, Nebraska, and New Mexico.
Much fundamental information was collected upon which to base
•suggestions for precautionary measures to prevent uncontrolled col­
lapse of mine workings and surface subsidence which might threaten
the safety of life and property. The preparation of material for a
bulletin dealing with subsidence and ground movement in the copper
mines of the West, based on studies during the past two years, is
nearly completed. A paper dealing with the essentials of subsidence
and ground movement was completed for publication.
Methods and costs of mine ventilation.—The general program of
■ surveys of methods and costs of ventilating metal mines was con­
tinued during the year. Reports were made to operators regarding
possible improvements in underground air conditions and as to
methods of solving particular difficulties. In several instances recom­
mended changes were put into effect, with pronounced improvement
in air conditions at these mines.
Surveys were made of a group of six mines in the Michigan copper
district and of separate mines in South Dakota, Utah, and Nevada.
The results of similar previous surveys in Arizona copper mines
were published as Bulletin 330, and in the Coeur d’Alene mining
•district as Information Circular 6382. As a further result of the
surveys to date a general bulletin is being prepared, in which the
practical application to metal-mine ventilation of experimental data
gathered by the bureau and from other sources will be stressed.
Falls of roof in coal mines.—Falls of roof and coal are responsible
for the death of more than 1,000 miners annually and, in coal mines,
.account for practically 50 per cent of the total fatalities resulting

BUREAU OF MINES

281

from all causes. Investigations of this subject were continued, both
in Eastern and Western States.
In the East work was concentrated at mines in western Pennsyl­
vania and northern West Virginia. Reports of investigations were
issued on mines in eastern Ohio, as a result of earlier studies, and on
mines in the Greensburg-Latrobe Basins of Pennsylvania and of
Harrison County, W. Va. Similar reports on mines in Marion and
Monongahela Counties, Pa., and the Panhandle of West Virginia
are in final state of preparation for publication; three others, covering
mines in the Pittsburgh field, are being prepared. Confidential
reports, with recommendations relating to practices for prevention
of injury from falls of roof and coal, have been issued to 12 mines in
Pennsylvania and West Virginia.
In the West investigations were made in Utah and Wyoming. Co­
operative arrangements were established with operators and the State
mine inspector and Industrial Commission of Utah, under which
much progress was made in the advancement of safe mining prac­
tices there. In Wyoming the work of the bureau engineers has been
recognized as playing a prominent part in the adoption by large
operators of systematic timbering in the mines, with attendant reduc­
tion of mining hazards. Thirteen confidential reports, with recom­
mendations relating to practices for prevention of injury from falls,
were issued to the operators.
Search for domestic potash supplies.—The 5-year program of
potash exploration authorized by act of Congress of June 25, 1926,
will end with the completion of the contract for drilling holes No. 21
to No. 24, inclusive.
Since June, 1930, the drilling of holes 18, 19, 20, 22, and 23 has
been completed. These drill holes were situated as follows: No. 18,
in Loving County, Tex.; No. 19, in Lea County, N. Mex.; No. 20,
in Lea County, N. Mex.; No. 22, in Eddy County, N. Mex.; and No.
23, in Eddy County, N. Mex. Hole 21 is now being drilled in Lea
County, N. Mex., and within a short time operations at drill hole 24,
in Grand County, Utah, will be commenced.
Of the $100,000 appropriated for this purpose for 1931, $12,500’
was transferred to the Geological Survey to defray expenses of field
and laboratory work in connection with selection of drilling sites and
examination and analysis of core samples; and $12,251.80 was ex­
pended by the Bureau of Mines for salary and field expenses of the
bureau engineer in full-time charge of drilling operations and for
procuring a carload of polyhalite for shipment to the bureau’s lab­
oratory at New Brunswick, N. J. This left $75,248.20 for actual
drilling. The total drilling completed during the year was 8,817
feet 10 inches, at a cost of $69,187.57, or an average of $7.84 per foot.
The principal potash mineral encountered in the drilling is polyha­
lite, a sulphate of potash, magnesia, and lime. Pure polyhalite con­
tains potassium equivalent to 15.6 per cent of K20. Polyhalite bedsof possible commercial interest were found in holes 3, 6, 13, 14,
17, and 18. Important showings of carnallite (KMgCls.6H20)>
and sylvite (KC1) were found in No. 17 and No. 18. Langbeinite
(K ,S04.2MgS04) was also found in No. 17 hole.
During the year Bulletin 327, Potash Bibliography to 1928 (An­
notated), was published.

282

REPOET TO THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

Conclusions.—The work of the mining division has resulted in im­
provement in mining and milling practices, provided greater knowl­
edge of the applicability of certain geophysical prospecting methods,
and increased understanding of the principles of ventilation, ground
movement, and other subjects pertinent to the technology of mineral
exploitation. Safety and economy of operation have been enhanced
m measurable degree. More detailed information on mining and
milling methods and costs at most of the important operations in the
United States is now available than ever before, as a result of the
activities of the mining division. This has proved not only of dis­
tinct value to the mineral industry as a whole but of real assistance
m technical education as well. The work to date indicates the need
of further investigation along special lines and has provided a
groundwork for more advanced studies which could have been sup­
plied in no other way.
Among the problems upon which work was started late in the
year are : Gold dredging and hydraulic mining, mine accounting and
office management for medium-size mines, and methods and costs
of gold mining.
Government drilling has demonstrated the wide distribution of
potash minerals in the salt beds of the Permian Basin, since potash
was found in every hole drilled. While the holes are too far apart
to give evidence of the lateral extent of any one deposit, the occur­
rence of beds of mineable thickness sufficiently rich to be of possible
commercial interest has been proved. Several areas favorable for
commercial development have been indicated; others less favorable
were found, which may be eliminated from consideration and re­
garded as unpromising areas for prospecting.
Recouvrnendations.—During the coming year it is hoped that the
mining division may be given sufficient financial support to complete
its studies of individual operations, to undertake additional