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1923
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ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT
m gr,
He
OF THE

A- ? 7

1*1 ^ > 7 a, 6

SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
1923

PRICE, 20 CENTS
Sold only by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office,
Washington, D. C.
WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRIN TIN G OFFICE
1923

ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT.
[Septem ber 15,1923.]

Secretary of Commerce______________________________
Assistant Secretary of Commerce_____________________
Solicitor____________________________________________
Assistant to the Secretary___________________________
Private Secretary to the Secretary___________________
Chief Clerk and Superintendent_____________________
Disbursing Clerk____________________________________
Chief, Appointment Division__________________________
Chief, Division of Publications_______________________
Chief, Division of Supplies_________________________
Director of the Census_____________________________
Director, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce_
Director, Bureau of Standards_______________________
Commissioner of Fisheries___________________________
Commissioner of Lighthouses________________________
Director, Coast and Geodetic Survey-------- .----------------Commissioner of Navigation_________________________
Supervising Inspector General, Steamboat Inspection
Service----------------------------------------------------------------

H er bert H oover .
J . W alter D ra k e.
S t e p h e n B. D a v is .
W il l ia m It. S n y d e r .
R ic h a r d S. E m m e t .
E d w ard W . L ib b e y .
C h a r l e s E . M o l st e r .
C l iff o r d H a s t in g s .
T h o m a s F . M cK eo n .
W a l t e r S. E r w in .
W il l ia m M . S t e u a r t .
J u l iu s K l e in .
G eorge K . B u r g e s s .
H e n r y O ’M a l l e y .
G eo rge R . P u t n a m .
E . L ester J o n es.
D av id B . C a r s o n .
G eo rge U h l e r .

CONTENTS.
Introductory statements--------------------------------------------------------------Part I.—GENERAL ECONOMIC SITUATION DURING THE FISCAL YEAR.
The business situation___________________________________________
Prices______________________________________________________
Agriculture_________________________________________________
Financial review for the fiscal year________________________________
Foreign trade__________________________________________________
Part II.—ADMINISTRATIVE WORK OF THE DEPARTMENT.
Foreign-trade promotion__________________________________________
World surveys in agricultural products-------------------------------------------Foreign-trade statistics__________________________________________
Simplification and standardization________________________________
Housing and construction________________________________________
Commercial statistics___________________________________________
Coal__________________________________________________________
Radio_________________________________________________________
Fisheries______________ •-----------------------------------------------------------Russian relief---------------------------------------------------------------------------Colorado River Commission______________________________________
Conferences with commerce and industry--------------------------------------Part III.—INVESTIGATIONS INTO VARIOUS ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN
PURSUANCE OF THE ORGANIC ACT.
Railway consolidation___________________________________________
Invisible items In international trade______________________________
Unemployment due to the business cycle____________________________
Seasonal operation in the construction industries____________________
Investigation into foreign raw material sources-------------------------------Investigation of foreign competition and foreign markets in agricultural
products_____________________________________________________
Part IV.—LEGISLATION NEEDED.
Further reorganization of the Department of Commerce______________
Fisheries conservation___________________________________________
Pollution of coastal waters_______________________________________
Amendment, improvement, and revision of the navigation laws________
Transfer of the admeasurement of vessels from the Treasury Department
to the Department of Commerce________________________________
Load-line law __________________________________________________
Radio regulation________________________________________________
Aviation_______________________________
Federal taxes on Americans resident abroad and engaged in American
commerce____________________________________________________
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce_________________________
Bureau of the Census___________________________________________
Lighthouse Service______________________________________________
Adequate building for department_________________________________

m

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IV

CONTENTS.

P a rt V.—SPECIA L AND MORE D ETAILED REPORTS OF T H E D IF FE R E N T BU­
REAUS AND D IV ISIO N S OF T H E DEPA RTM EN T AND SPEC IA L RECOM­
M ENDATIONS OF T H E IR DIRECTORS.
A d m in is t r a t iv e D iv is io n s

of t h e

O f f ic e

of t h e

S e c r e t a r y _______________

Need for additional clerks_______________________________________
Need for a Government-owned building___________________________
Inadequate travel allowance_____________________________________
Disbursing office_________________________________________________
Appropriations and expenditures_____________________________
Estimates for fiscal year ending June 30, 1925_________________
Appointment division____________________________________________
Division of publications_________________________________________
Division of supplies_____________________________________________

Federal Real Estate Board__________________________________
Contracts and adjustments___________________________________
Traffic manager_________________________________________________
Department library______________________________________________
Office of the solicitor____________________________________________

B ureau

of t h e

C e n s u s __________________________________________________________

Wealth, public debt, and taxation, 1922----------------------------------------Tax-exempt bonds----------------------------------------------------------------Digest of laws relating to taxation and revenue_______________
National wealth_____________________________________________
Real property exempt' from taxation_________________________
Financial statistics of State and city governments-----------------------Institutional population--------------------------------------------------------------Inmates of institutions______________________________________
Care of children____________________________________________
Criminal statistics--------------------------------------------------------------Electrical industries_____________________________________________
Biennial census of manufactures-------------------------------------------------Vital statistics__________________________________________________
Forest products________ ________________________________________
Marriage and divorce-----------------------------------------------------------------Stocks of leaf tobacco---------------------------------------------------------------Cotton and cotton seed______ ____________________________________
Industrial and business statistics------------------------------------------------Annual, semiannual, quarterly, and monthly inquiries-------------------Leather statistics_______________________________________________
Statistical atlas------------------------------------------------------------------------Official Register, 1923---------------------------------------------------------------Monographs of the Fourteenth Census-----------------------------------------Estimates of population_________________________________________
Special censuses of population----------------------------------------------------Tabulations_____________________________________________________
Lists of illiterates---------------------------------------------------------------Preservation of records__________________________________________
Duplication in statistical work---------------------------------------------------Census of agriculture in 1925-----------------------------------------------------M ail___________________________________________________________
Economies______________________________________________________
Salary scale____________________________________________________
Distribution of information______________________________________

Page.

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CONTENTS.

V

Bureau of the Census—Continued.
Page.
Change in size of reports and weight ofpaper------------------------------- 9G
Recommendations for changes in census laws____________________ 9G
Stocks of leaf tobacco____________________________________ 07
Official Register__________________________________________ OS
Bureau of F oreign and Domestic Commerce________________________ 90
Changes among bureau executives______________________________ 100
Commodity divisions_________________________________________ 100
Functions and services common to all commodity divisions-------- 1(}0
Agricultural implements division___________________________ 101
Automotive division_______________________________________ 101
Chemical division________________________________________ 103
Coal division___________________________________________ — 103
Electrical equipment division______________________________ 104
Foodstuffs division_______________________________________ 105
Hide and leather division_________________________________ 100
Industrial machinery division----------------------------------------------- 100
Iron and steel division___________________________________ 107
Lumber division_________________________________________ 108
Paper division____________________________________________ 109
Petroleum division----------------------------------------------------------- 109
Rubber division_________________________________________ 110
Shoe and leather manufactures division----------------------------------- 111
Specialties division________________________________________ 112
Textile division___________________________________________ 113
Transportation division_____________________________________ 113
Investigation of raw materials and agricultural products____________ 114
Regional divisions_____________________________________________ 117
General characteristics of work_____________________________ 117
European representatives’ conference in Rome-------------------------- 117
Efforts and achievements of representatives in western Europe
and South Africa_______________________________________ 118
Western European division at Washington------------------------------ 124
Work of representatives in eastern Europe and Levant--------------- 125
Eastern European and Levantine division at Washington----------- 127
Field representatives in the Far East------------------------------------- 128
Far eastern division at Washington__________________________ 131
Activities of field representatives in Latin America------------------- 132
Latin American division at Washington_______________________ 130
Technical divisions____________________________________________ 137
Division of foreign tariffs__________________________________ 137
Division of commerciallaws________________________________ 137
Finance and investment division____________________________ 140
Division of research______________________________
Division of statistics---------------------------------------------------------- 142
Commercial intelligence division____________________________ 143
Administrative divisions____________ ,_________________________ 144
Editorial division_________________________________________ 144
Foreign service division------------------------------------------------------ 145
District-office service______________________________________ 140
Division of correspondence and distribution___________________ 147
Recommendations_____________________________________________ 148

141

vin

CONTENTS,

S t e a m r o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v ic e ______________________________________

Pas*.

Organization___________________________________________________

228
228

Stability tests___________________________________________________
Work of traveling Inspectors____________________________________
Oil pollution____________ :______________________________________
Gradual expansion______________________________________________
Reappointment of assistant inspectors____________________________
Desirable legislation____________________________________________
I n t e r A m e r ic a n H ig h C o m m is s io n __________________________________

229
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ELEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

S E C R E T A R Y OF COMMERCE.
D epartment of C ommerce,
O ffice of the S ecretary,

Washington, November 1, 1923.

To the P resident :
I have the honor to submit herewith for transmission to Congress
the Eleventh Annual Report of the Secretary of Commerce, in ac­
cordance with the provisions of section 8 of the organic act, as
follows:

Sec. 8. That the Secretary of Commerce shall annually, at the close of each
fiscal year, make a report in writing to Congress, giving an account of all
moneys received and disbursed by him and his department, and describing the
work done by the department in fostering, promoting, and developing the for­
eign and domestic commerce, the mining, manufacturing, shipping, and fishery
industries, and the transportation facilities of the United States, and making
such recommendations as he shall deem necessary for the effective performance
of the duties and purposes of the department. He shall also from time to time
make such special investigations and reports as he may be required to do by
the President, or by either house of Congress, or which lie himself may deem
necessary and urgent.

In order to comply with these requirements and for convenience
I have divided this report into the following sections:
I. The general economic situation during the fiscal year.
II. The general administrative work of the department.
III. Investigations into various economic problems in pursuance of
the organic act.
IV. Recommendations in remedy of obsolete legislation and to
meet new problems that have arisen in the department, that oui
commerce and industry may be advanced.
V. Special and more detailed reports of the different bureaus and
divisions of the department and special recommendations of their
directors.
1

Part I.-GENERAL ECONOMIC SITUATION DURING
THE FISCAL YEAR.
The Business Situation.
The fiscal year (July, 1922, to June, 1923) was marked by a
complete recovery from the great slump of 1921 in all branches
of industry save agriculture, and even in agriculture there was
some improvement. This recovery had found a special impetus
in the activity of building, railway, and other types of con­
struction resulting from postponement during the war. It
spread, however, to industry in general, so that the continuance
of business activity is not dependent upon the maintenance of
an equal measure of building construction hereafter.
The best measure of economic prosperity in industries other
than agriculture is the volume of production and transportation.
In these industries large production follows from active demand
and may readily be coincident with advancing prices. Agricul­
tural production is subject to decidedly different influences, as
the prices for its major products are dominated by the European
situation instead of our domestic needs, although full employ­
ment in this country at good wages has distinctly increased con­
sumption, particularly of animal products.
The marked improvement in industrial activity is clearly
brought out by the index numbers in the appended table of
statistics (Table 1, p. 11). Although the latter part of the pre­
vious fiscal year already showed a decided upward movement, the
manufacturing production of 1922-23 was nearly 25 per cent
greater than that of the preceding 12 months. As compared
with the bottom point of the slump, it showed an increase of
more than 40 per cent. Production of minerals, forest products,
and electric power, and construction of buildings showed ap­
proximately similar increases. The railroads hauled over onefifth more freight (ton-miles) in 1922-23 than in the preceding
fiscal year. All these indexes of economic activity for the
fiscal year stood materially higher than during the very pros­
perous year 1919.
Especially conspicuous, naturally, has been the increase in the
activity of those industries which manufacture chiefly articles
entering into new construction and equipment, the demand for
which is always peculiarly affected by waves of depression and
prosperity. Pig-iron production, for example, during the fiscal
2

3
year was nearly double that in 1921-22 and at a rate three and
one-half times greater than at the bottom of the slump.
Advance in the general business activity of the country ap­
peared practically continuous from month to month through­
out the fiscal year, and in most branches the close of the year
marked the highest point attained. The only important ex­
ception was in the letting of building contracts, which fell off in
the last five months of the fiscal year, partly because construction
is beginning to catch up with the deferred requirements and
partly because costs under the stimulus of demand had risen to
unduly high figures. There is no reason to anticipate, however,
that the decline in building activity will precipitate a general
depression.
P rices.—The business of 1922-23 was conducted on a dis­
tinctly higher level of prices than that of the preceding fiscal
year, though the level is still, as unquestionably it should be for
the best public interest, far lower than during the inflation of
the war and the postwar boom. In general, there has been
no feverish boosting of prices. Average wholesale prices dur­
ing the fiscal year were 10 per cent higher than in 1921-22,
5G per cent higher than in 1913, but 37 per cent lower than at
the peak of the postwar boom, in May, 1920. There was com­
paratively little fluctuation in the general level during the course
of the fiscal year, the higher average resulting chiefly from the
rather rapid increase which had taken place in the first half of
the calendar year 1922. The general wholesale price index
varied only from 155 in July, 1922, to 159 in April, 1923, and
down to 153 in June. The higher level of wholesale prices
during the fiscal year was shared by every group of commodi­
ties—not necessarily, of course, by every individual commodity—
including farm products and foods. (See Tables 2 and 3, pp.
11 and 12.)
Retail prices, as usual, lagged behind wholesale. The average
price for retail food was a little lower in the fiscal year than in
the preceding one. A slight advance, however, set in during the
summer of 1923. This situation of a moderate increase in whole­
sale prices, accompanied by stationary retail prices, gave stimu­
lus to industry.
A griculture.—The situation in certain branches of agricul­
ture continues unsatisfactory, though in most instances with
distinct improvement. It should be clearly understood that by
no means all branches of agriculture are suffering.
The fall in the prices of most major agricultural products
after the boom was exceedingly violent—some fell even below pre­
war levels. Taking all important agricultural products together—
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

4

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

including some showing much less decline—the wholesale price
index as compared with a pre-war base taken at 100, fell from 247
in January, 1920, to 114 in June, 1921, while all other com­
modities (including manufactured foods which are much affected
by farmers’ prices) fell from the same maximum to a minimum
of 154. A considerable advance in the average prices of farm
products began early in 1922. The average index for the fiscal
year under review was 139, or 10 per cent higher than the aver­
age for the preceding fiscal year and more than 20 per cent
higher than the minimum above mentioned. The advance was
greater than that in other commodities, but as compared with
normal pre-war ratios farm-product prices were still relatively
a good deal lower than the average prices for other goods. The
index for July, 1923, was the same as that for the July preced­
ing. Wheat and hogs were exceptions, the prices averaging
lower in 1922-23 than in the preceding year and lower at the
end than at the beginning of the year. Cotton and corn have
advanced materially. (See Table 2, p. 11.)
Unlike manufacturing and mining products, changes in vol­
ume of production on farms often do not reflect parallel changes
in the prosperity of the agricultural community. The demand
for most farm products is far less elastic than for most other
products. In any case agricultural production can not adapt
itself rapidly to changes in demand. The area planted to all
crops combined in the United States has shown only insignifi­
cant variations in recent years, although standing about 10 per
cent higher than before the war. Most individual crops also
show little variation in acreage, although there has been a mate­
rial decline in wheat acreage since 1919 and although cotton
acreage shows a considerable increase in 1923 over 1922. Xaturallv the farmer can not suddenly change either his aggregate
plantings or the proportion planted to the different crops.
Short-time variations in crop production are due more to
weather conditions than to human will.
Again, while large production and advancing prices are likely
to go hand in hand in the case of manufacturing and mining
industries, the opposite more frequenlty occurs in agriculture.
In the case of several of the important agricultural products the
prices are much more dependent upon conditions abroad, espe­
cially in Europe, than in the case of most manufactured and
mineral products. A conspicuous illustration is the fact that the
prosperity of the United States during the past year or two has
meant only a moderate increase in domestic demand for wheat,
so that its price has been primarily dependent upon the foreign
market.

5
The situation in most branches of agriculture seems to be grad­
ually adjusting itself. The partial recovery in foreign demand
for cotton has permitted a higher price for the crop of 1923 than
for that of 1922, in spite of an increase of 14 per cent in acreage
and an appreciable increase in production. While the prices of
hogs have been somewhat lower of late, the relatively high prices
of corn, which is chiefly fed to livestock, seem to indicate confi­
dence of cattle aqd hog raisers in the future. The dairy industry
in general is prospering, the demand for dairy products varying
more than that for most other agricultural products with general
movements of prosperity and depression in industry. As for
wheat, which is more dependent on foreign markets than any
other agricultural product and which is subject to greatly in­
creased competition from Canada and other foreign countries,
it seems necessary gradually to reduce acreage. Wheat planting
had been stimulated during the war more than that of any other
crop, increasing to a maximum over 50 per cent higher than the
average for 1909-1913. The acreage planted in 1923, though
one-eighth less than in the year preceding, was still about 15
per cent above that before the war. With the gradual growth
of domestic consumption, due chiefly to increase in population,
the output of the pre-war acreage could at present practically
all be consumed in our own country.
Financial Review for the Fiscal Year.
From the standpoint of financial conditions the fiscal year
under review opened auspiciously, chiefly as a result of the
marked revival in trade and industry that had been under way
for several months, despite the coal and other strikes then in
progress.
Much had been accomplished during the first half of the cal­
endar year 1922 in the liquidation of the frozen credits accumu­
lated in the previous year. The loans and discounts of the
Federal Reserve banks and of the member banks had reached a
minimum, while the returns of the reporting member banks of
the Federal Reserve system showed their largest investment
holdings up to that time. Rates on both call and time money
had fallen below 4 per cent.
The banks of the country as a whole, with the exception of
those in certain agricultural districts, were therefore in excel­
lent condition to meet the requirements of expanding produc­
tion and distribution of commodities. This condition continued
throughout the fiscal year. Bank loans and discounts began to
increase in the later months of 1922 and reached their maximum
in the middle of May, 1923, continuing substantially at this level
through June. Nevertheless, there were at all times ample bank­
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

6

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

ing accommodations to finance industrial and commercial re­
quirements, even at their peak.
Differences between the industrial and agricultural sections
of the country with respect to the revival of industry and the
use of bank credit are, however, to be noted. In April, 1922,
the proportion of the total volume of rediscounts of the reserve
banks which were made for banks in cities of 100,000 and over
and for banks in cities of less than 15,000 w.as approximately the
same, namely, 42 per cent; while in April, 1923, the proportion
for the large cities was 75 per cent and for the small cities
about 15 per cent. This change in proportions is largely a
reflection of the marked improvement in trade and industry as
compared with agriculture in the year ended April, 1923.
At the close of the fiscal year the banking situation continued
to be essentially sound. In the early months of 1923 the banks
had wisely restricted the extension of credit to the legitimate
needs of business and had thus played a large part in the pre­
vention of inflation which many feared would result from
the pronounced upward tendency of prices.
With reference to the Federal reserve banks, it is to be noted
that the marked increase in trade did not result in any extensive
use by the member banks of their rediscount privileges. While
the volume of discounted bills outstanding July 18, 1923, was
about 80 per cent higher than the amount reported for July 19,
1922, it was less than that reported at the close of January,
1922, and was only about 46 per cent of the monthly average
for 1921. Bills bought in the open market by the several reserve
banks increased about 23 per cent from July 19, 1922, to July
18, 1923. In other words, the total volume of bills discounted
and bills bought in the open market by the reserve banks
increased only from 592 millions to 989 millions from July
to July, a very moderate increase in the use of reserve-bank
facilities during a period of rapidly expanding business.
During the year the Federal-reserve note circulation increased
only about 85 millions; that is, from 2,157 millions in July, 1922,
to about 2,242 millions in July, 1923. Likewise, due to the con­
tinued influx of gold from abroad, the reserve ratio of the
reserve banks was maintained at a high level, being 76.6 per
cent on June 30, 1923, as compared with 77.9 per cent on June
30, 1922.
Gold continued to flow in throughout the year under review,
but at a greatly diminished rate as compared with the preceding
fiscal year, the respective values being about 235 millions and 441
millions. This decline in the inward gold movement is due
chiefly to the decline (nearly one billion dollars) in the excess

7
of exports of merchandise over merchandise imports. It is rea­
sonable to suppose that with this marked reduction in our favor­
able balance of trade, the inward movement of gold might have
practically ceased or might have been converted into one of out­
flow, had not the volume of foreign securities issued in this
country in the fiscal year declined to the lowest level since 1919.
The new foreign capital issues (that is, excluding refunding
loans) in the fiscal year ending June 30, 1923, aggregated about
395 millions, as compared with 932 millions in 1921 and 428 mil­
lions in 1920. Of the new capital issues in the fiscal year, about
142 millions were for Latin America, about 109 millions for
Canada, about 58 millions for Europe, 45 millions for the Far
East, and 41 millions for United States possessions.
The general level of the exchanges on New York, as shown by
the Federal Reserve Board Index, declined from 69 in the first
quarter of the fiscal year to 68 in the second quarter, to 67 in
the third quarter, and to 66 in the final quarter. The decline in
the general average is primarily a consequence of the unsettled
political and economic conditions in Europe. It is to be noted,
however, that sterling exchange rose steadily from $4.45, the
average for June, 1922, to about $4.70, the average for March,
1923, after which time there was a gradual decline, the average
for June, 1923, being about $4.61. On the other hand, the French
franc declined from an average of $0.0876 for June, 1922, to
$0.0630 in June, 1923. The average value of the German mark
fell in its headlong decline from about thirty-two one-hundredths
of a cent in June, 1922, to about one one-thousandth of a cent
one year later.
One of the important events of the year was the funding of
the British war debt to the United States Government, the first
of the allied debts to be funded under the act of February 9,
1922, creating the World War Foreign Debt Commission. The
settlement fixes the capital amount at $4,600,000,000 as of De­
cember 15,1922, which is equivalent to the amount of the original
advances with interest, less a cash payment of slightly over
$4,000,000. Payments on the principal commence with
$23,000,000 the first year and increase to a maximum of
$175,000,000 in the last two years of the 62-year period, with
interest on the unpaid balance at 3 per cent per annum to 1932
and at 3| per cent thereafter.
Foreign Trade.
Both the export and the import trade of the United States
during the fiscal year were in an essentially healthy condition,
with the improvement begun in the latter part of the preceding
REPORT 01' THE SECRETARY 01’ COMMERCE.

8

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

fiscal year continuing in export trade, and with a continuation of
the upward trend in the value of imports which had been
evident throughout the whole of 1921-22. The year marked a
closer balance between merchandise exports and imports, a bal­
ance more in keeping with our international position, than any
year since 1896.
Compared with the foreign trade of other countries, that of
the United States is in a very favorable position. The total gold
value of the exports of 10 of the other principal commercial coun­
tries of the world in 1922-23 was but 20.6 per cent greater than
in the calendar year 1913, while the exports of the United States
were 59.3 per cent greater. The import trade of the United
States for 1922-23 was 109.9 per cent greater than in 1913, com­
pared with an increase of but 15 per cent for the total of the same
10 countries. The favorable position of our foreign trade is
further shown by the fact that trade with the United States is a
more important factor in the foreign trade of nearly every im­
portant commercial country than it was prior to the war. The
value of our exports exceeds that of any other country, while
our imports are second only to those of the United Kingdom.
The following table shows the value of our merchandise ex­
ports and imports, the balance of trade, the net gold and silver
movement, and the total visible balance (merchandise and pre­
cious metals) for 1922-23 compared with preceding and pre-war
years.
[In millions of dollars.]
Merchandise.
Year ended June 30.

1910-1914 average...................................................
1921...........................................................................
1922...........................................................................
1923...........................................................................

Excess of exports (+ ) or of
imports (—).

Merchan­
Gold and dise,
Exports. Imports. Merchan­
dise.
silver. gold and
silver.
2,166
6,517
3,771
3,957

1,689
3,654
2,608
3,781

+477
+2,862
+ 1,163
+ 176

+38
-512
-449
-244

+515
+2,350
+714
-68

It must always be borne in mind that the great drop from
1921 to 1922 was more largely a drop in prices than in the
quantities of goods, as set out in my last annual report.
The increase in the value of 1922-23 trade over the preceding
year was 45 per cent for imports and 5 per cent for exports.
Compared with pre-war years, the value of imports was 124 per
cent and that of exports 83 per cent greater than the 1910-1914
average. The excess of exports over imports in 1922-23 was,

9
however, but $176,000,000 compared with over a billion dollars
for 1921-22, and an average of nearly one-half billion dollars
for the five years just before the war. Taking both merchandise
and precious metals together, there was a slight excess of imports
in 1922-23—$68,000,000 compared with an excess of exports in
1921- 22 of $714,000,000.
The “ invisible exchange ” has a most important bearing upon
the whole question of trade balances and is discussed more fully
in Part III of this report.
One of the outstanding features of our 1922-23 foreign
trade was the continued growth, during the first nine months
of the year, in both the value and volume of imports—a growth
that brought the value of imports in March, 1923, to a point
$57,000,000 in excess of exports, the first excess of imports in
any month since July, 1914. Imports in April and May though
lower than in March were still above exports, but since May
the decline in imports has been more marked and the first
months of the new fiscal year show an excess of exports again.
While each of the great commodity groups contributed to
this growth in imports, approximately 75 per cent of the gain
in 1922-23 over 1921-22 was due to the increasing require­
ments of our manufacturing industries for tropical and other
raw materials and partly manufactured goods growing out of
our increasing industrial activity. These increased imports
were largely noncompetitive in character such as raw silk,
crude rubber, fibers, furs, skins, and other tropical and semitropical products. Though Asia, South America, and Africa,
the continents largely supplying this material, showed the great­
est percentage increases, imports from both Europe and North
America were markedly larger than in 1921-22.
Exports of crude materials, partly manufactured goods, and
manufactures ready for consumption in 1922-23 showed sub­
stantial gains over the previous year but decreases in foodstuff
exports—especially marked in the case of crude foodstuffs—ap­
proximately offset the gains in the first two groups, and the net
gain in exports over 1921-22 was much more moderate than the
gain in import trade. Although exports of crude foodstuffs in
1922- 23 showed a marked falling off compared with the preced­
ing year, the value of this group was higher relative to pre­
war values than that of any other group, reflecting through the
lower relative prices of farm products an even gi’eater gain in
quantity. Increased demands for imported foodstuffs on the
part of Europe growing out of the curtailment of production in
Eastern Europe was responsible for this growth in food exports
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

68596—23----- 2

10

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

as compared with pre-war. Concomitant with the recovery of
agricultural production in Europe, a decrease in our agricultural
exports is, as was to be expected, occurring. That total exports
to Europe in 1922-23 were about the same in value as in the
previous year would indicate that exports of manufactured goods
and raw material to Europe are increasing as foodstuffs ex­
ports decrease. Exports to Asia were slightly below those of
1921- 22, while shipments to the Americas and Oceania showed
considerable increases.
A study of the influence of prices on values of the principal
classes of commodities for which quantitative data are available
(presented in Tables 4 and 5) indicates that higher prices in
1922- 23 than in 1921-22 were partly responsible for increases in
the year’s trade values. With 1922-23 trade valued at 1921-22
prices, imports would still show a considerable gain while ex­
ports would probably show a slight falling off compared with
the preceding year.
The huge export balances of the past few years were a war
abnormality, and were to be expected to disappear. Through
these balances, however, we have shifted from a debtor to a
creditor Nation, and the theory is now more or less generally
accepted that our hitherto normal excess of exports over im­
ports must ultimately shift to an excess of imports, as we have
large balances to receive in payment of interest. The gradual
reduction of the monthly export excess in 1922, culminating in
the spring of 1923 in four consecutive months in which imports
were larger than exports, does not necessarily mean that this
time has arrived. In comparing recent trends of exports and
imports it should be borne in mind that the extremely low im­
ports of the 1921 period of depression probably left stocks of
many items abnormally low, and the strong upward import
trend since reflects both a building up of larger stocks and
increased current requirements. On the other hand, rising
prices in the United States and gradual recovery of production
in Europe have been impairing the competitive power of
the American exporter, while the healthy domestic demand
for goods has made the American business man to some ex­
tent less keen for foreign markets. Furthermore, exports are
normally at a lower level during the first half of a calendar
year than in the fall months when the outward movement of
grain and cotton is the heaviest, and the January to June, 1923,
decline from the high figures of the previous October and No­
vember is not by any means an indication of a weakening ex­
port position. June, the last month of the fiscal year, witnessed
an approximate balance between exports and imports and the

11
first three months of the new fiscal year 1923-24 show both
a further falling off in imports and a gain in exports.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

T a b l e 1.— I n d e x e s

of

M a n u f a c t u r in g a n d M in e r a l P r o d u c tio n
V o l u m e o f T r a n s p o r t a t io n .
Average month,
iiscal year—

a n d of

Month of July—

1921-22

1922-23

1921

1922

1923

88
91
9S
112
92

108
118
117
136
107

74
92
87
101
6S

98
83
116
119
111

1C5
148
124
140
85

62
42
84
202
101
118
107

116
107
103
250
116
146

34
17
78
195
85
110
104

94
92
» 43
225
95
117
» 99

144
123
113
315
96
146
141

Index num bers, 1919— 100.

Manufacturing........................................................
Minerals...................................................................
Forest products.....................................................
Electric power........................................................
Building (contracts let)........................................
Index num bers, 191S—100.

Pig iron...................................................................
Copper.....................................................................
Bituminous coal....................................................
Crude petroleum....................................................
Cotton (consumption)..........................................
Pork.........................................................................
Ton miles of railroads...........................................

131

* Coal strike in progress.
T a b l e 2.— P r ic e s o f F a r m P r o d u c ts .
[Index numbers, 1913=100.]
Month of July—

Average for fiscal year—

Wholesale price averages:
Farm products.............................
All other products........................
Farm price averages:
Crops..............................................
Livestock.......................................
Wholesale prices of individual prod­
ucts:
Wheat No. 1, northern spring. . .
Wheat No. 2, red winter...........
Corn................................................
Cattle..............................................
Hogs...............................................
Butter (1919—100)........................
Cotton.............................................

1921

1922

1923

1920-21

1921-22

1922-23

160
198

126
154

139
167

119
15-4

135
168

135
160

158
137

10S
106

125
108

107
109

118
119

136
102

214
203
142
138
135
83
159

145
128
88
101
107
68
142

132
’ 125
116
117
100
76
203

150
125
98
99
116
66
97

142
117
103
114
121
62
175

111
103
137
125
89
70
225

12

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
T able 3.—G eneral M ovement

oe

P rices .

[Index numbers, 1913=100.]
Month of July—

Average for fiscal year—
1920-21

1921-22

1922-23

184
160
177
219
241
165
207
168
239
163
177

142
126
139
176
196
115
159
126
178
118
146

156
139
142
193
220
138
188
129
181
122
143

Wholesalo prices:
General average...........................
Farm products.............................
Food, etc.......................................
Cloths and clothing.....................
Fuel and lighting.........................
Metal and metal products.........
Building materials......................
Chemicals and drugs..................
House-furiiisldug goods.............
Miscellaneous...............................
Retail food prices................................

1921

1922

141
119
141
172
186
124
160
129
180
123
148

155
135
142
ISO
254
121
170
121
173
114
142

1923
151
135
141
193
183
145
190
128
187
121
147

4.— E x po r ts o f P r in c ip a l A r t ic l e s fo r w h ic h Q u a n t it y D a t a
a r e A v a il a b l e , 1910-14 A v era g e , 1921-22, a n d 1922-23, S h o w in g I n ­
f l u e n c e o f P r ic e o n T o t a l V a l u e .

T able

1910-14
average. 1921-22

Per cent in­
(+1 or
Value at 1910-14 crease
decrease
(—)
of
prices.
at 1910-14 Value
1922-23
prices.
quanti­
1922-23
ties at
1921-22
1910-14 1922 prices.
1921-22 1922-23
to
to
1923 1923

Grains and flour:

6,554,516 29,523,089 22,414,309
1,000 dollars........... 143,451 581,858 445,012
Meats:
1,321,454 2,179,087 2,256,654
1,000 dollars........... 147,026 2S9,466 304,254
Iron and steel:
1,626
1,663
2 164
1,000 dollars........... 84,048 114,187 117,226
Sugar:
1,000 pounds.......... 70,9S8 2,002,039 749,855
2,969 77,495 41,003
1,000 dollars...........
Tobacco, leaf:
451 888 229,472
1,000 dollars........... 44,686 156,773 77,846
Cotton, raw:
5,066
1 000 hales ..
8,532
6,542
1,000 dollars........... 551,890 596,379 658,983
Cotton cloth:
1,000 square yards'. 298,574 613,053 541,156
1,000 dollars........... 27,052 76,934 86,517
Lumber:
1,000 feet .
2,221,261 1,542,690 1,554,071
1,000 dollars........... 50,686 52,674 68,651
1 S tated in y ard s prior to Ja n u a ry , 1922.

649,508 493,126 +243.7 -24.1 441,562
239,700 248,232

+63.0; +3.5 297,878

64,616

63,175

-23.2 -2 .3 111,641

83,685

...............;............
31,344 +2,718.6 -62.6

28,494

54,227

27,537

79,397

423,257 327,757

+21.3 -49.3

-23.4' -22.7 461,817

55,175

48,740 -103.9; -12.7

67,645

35.173

35,434

52,838

1

-30.7

+.1

13

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
T a b l e 4.— E x po r ts

of P r in c ip a l A r t ic l e s fo r w h ic h
a r e A v a il a b l e , e t c .—

Continued.

Per cent in­
(+ ) or
Value at 1910-14 crease
decrease
(—)
of
prices.
at 1910-14 Value
1922-23
prices.
quanti­
1922*23
ties at
1921-22
1910-14 1922 prices.
to
to
1921-22 1922-23
1923 1923

1910-14 1921-22
average.

Coal, bituminous:
1,000 dollars...........
Mineral oil, refined:
Copper, refined:
Oil cake and meal:
Total (1,000 dol-

13,750:
34,455;

Q u a n t it y D a t a

15,954
97,523

13,036
67,915

32,950

39,885

1,553,330 2,421,3«) 2,821,437
110,514 304,249 324,482 169,497 197,006
630,734
94,892 101,623

802,472, 677,487
124,402 89,257

1,688,021 1,099,245 1,040,024
23,645 22,771 22,719

15,3S9

-5 .4 +22.0

'

82,961

+53.3 + 16.2 352,6S0

94,610

-18.4 ' - L O

82,626

14,560

-38.5 -5 .4

20,800

i
1,344,824 2,429,956 2,339,108 1,924,800 1,621,406

+20.8 -15.8 2,080,339

> Average for copper is average of years 1912-13 and 1913-H.

T able 5.— I mports of P rincipal A rticles for w h ich Quantity D ata
are A vailable, 1910-14 A verage, 1921-22, and 1922-23, S howing I n ­
fluence of P rice on T otal V alue .
|
1910-14
average. 1921-22

Sugar:
1,000 pounds............. 4,341,058
103,507
Rubber, crude:
105.736
86,345
Coffee:
1,000 pounds............. 899,339
101,455
Hides and skins:
1,000 pounds............. 531,636
1,000 dollars............... 104,582
Silk, raw:
23. 779
1.000 dollars...............j 77,058

Per cent, of in(4-) or
Value at 1910-14 ji crease
decrease ( - )
prices.
at 1910-14
prices.
1922-23
1910-14 1922
to
1921-22 1922-23 to
1923 1923

Value of
1922-23
quanti­
ties at
1921-22
prices.

8,464,329 8,422,483
200,774 365,101 194,679 193,727 +87.1 - 0 5 199,607
568,381
86,751

169,108 466,073 654,077 4-657.5 4-40.3 119,648

1,238,012 1,305,188
148,503 181,639 136,181 143,571 4-41.5 4-5.0 156,623
392,904
78,899

682. 886
140,392

78,581 136,577 4-30.5 4*1 3 .8 136,577

48,179
52,684
300,445, 405,796 156,100 160,695 + 108.5 + 2 0 328,746

14

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE,
T a b l e 5.— I m p o r t s

o f P r in c ip a l A r t ic l e s fo r w h i c h
a r e A v a il a b l e , e t c .—

Continued.

1910-14
average. 1921-22

Paper, newsprint:
Tobacco, leaf:
Wool:
Burlap:
Cotton, raw:
Tea:
Wood pulp:
Tin for blocks, pigs:
Copper, crude, refined,
and scrap:
1,000 dollars..............

Q u a n t it y D a t a

Per cent in(+ ) or
Value at 1910-14 crease
decrease
(—)
of
prices.
at 1910-14 Value
1922-23
prices.
quanti­
1922-23
ties at
1921-22
1910-14 1922 prices.
1921-22 1922-23 to
to
1923 1923

238,212 1,857,025 2,381,833
4, S04 71,466 86,974

37,141

47,637 +891.6 +28.2

90,510

54,699
31,690

67,225
57,049

75,783
69,225

38,981

43,954 +38.7 +12.8

64,264

207,585
39,259

255,087
45,649

525,473
162,095

47,571 113,979 + 190.3 + 155.7 110,839

293,383
29,421

489,629
40,949

570,654
65,292

49,863

57,065 +93.9 +14.4

46,794

110,957
20,651

179,165
43,958

236,092
60,640

33,325

43,913 + 112.6 +31.7

57,843

95,126
16,732

86,142
18,040

96,669
26,308

15,161

17,014 +2.0 + 11.0

20,204

472
14,631

902
49,60S

1,294
74,191

27,453

39,392 +169. 2 +43.4

71,184

106,134
41,511

100,429
28,9S0

151,941
53,400

39,167

59,257 +42.7 +51.2

43,911

276,065
37,016

274,182
33,016

527,695
73,596

35,644

48,600 +31.3 +36.4

63,323

Total above items:
1.000 pounds___ 8,340,532 16,041,067 18,726,712
1.000 dollars....... 708,662 1,204,087 1,933,757 1,355,920 1,759,458 + 148.2 +29.7 1,510,073

Part II— ADMINISTRATIVE WORK OF THE
DEPARTMENT.
For the detailed administrative work of the various bureaus, I
especially commend the statements of the bureau heads, contained
in Part V of this report, as showing great progress in fact and in
zeal during the fiscal year.
Aside from the routine work, a number of the special and more
important services undertaken during the fiscal year are particularly
referred to below.
Foreign-Trade Promotion.
The year under review has been one of marked expansion in
the activities of the department in promotion of American trade
abroad. The Director of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce informs me that during the fiscal year the services
of the bureau have been called upon in actual transactions of
export business totaling more than 400 millions of dollars. Some
conception of the volume of service called for is indicated in the
fact that the number of specific inquiries and requests for as­
sistance in foreign-trade matters received by the department are
now averaging in excess of 3,000 per day, or approximately four
times the average number received at the time the reorganization
of this service began.
In addition to the vast amount of regular work carried on by
the bureau, special surveys have been made during the fiscal
year, in cooperation with special committees of the various
trades, of markets in all parts of the world for American ex­
port commodities.
At a time when the economic position of the farmer has been
such as to render the agricultural problem in all its phases a
matter of deep concern to the Administration, the department
has been enabled, through the reorganization of its foreign serv­
ice and directing staff in Washington, to render especial service
in the promotion of export trade in agricultural products.
In the regular course of its work it has maintained a specialist
in food marketing in Europe, which takes 80 per cent of our
agricultural shipments, reporting constantly by cable upon
food requirements in the various countries. Particularly in
15

16

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

connection with the marketing of products of cooperative asso­
ciations, the department has been able to render a great deal of
assistance.
World Surveys in Agricultural Products.
One result of conferences held with committees representing
farmers’ associations, farm cooperatives, and exporters was a
request by them that the department undertake to make world
surveys of certain of the principal agricultural products, which
would enable them more accurately to estimate the world situa­
tion as to production, stocks, and consumption in these commodi­
ties from time to time. Such surveys have been started with
cotton, wool, sugar, and rice; while frequent surveys of grain,
potatoes, and other commodities are made by the department’s
representatives in Europe (which is the principal foreign mar­
ket for these products), and transmitted to the department by
cable for distribution to producers, exporters, and the interested
public in this country.
The world surveys on cotton, wool, sugar, and rice have been
issued periodically and have given in brief summarized form
the facts as to estimated world production, estimated world
consumption, and world stocks on hand. It is obviously not a
proper function for the department to attempt to interpret these
statistical tabulations, or to forecast future probable world pro­
duction or consumption. The purpose of the surveys is solely
to have an independent source give a purely fact analysis of the
world situation in these commodities at a given time. The value
of such facts to producers and exporters is indicated by the in• creasing demands for the permanent continuance of the surveys.
Foreign-Trade Statistics.
The transfer of the Bureau of Customs Statistics from the
Treasury to the Commerce Department on January 1, 1923, and
its subsequent reorganization, have effected a great improve­
ment in the service of foreign-trade statistics to the commercial
public. As a result of the increased equipment and personnel
provided from the deficiency appropriation, the issue date of
the reports has been advanced about two weeks, and since May
the import reports have been completed simultaneously with
those for exports.
The preliminary totals are now completed by the 13th of each
month, the reports by articles and countries by the 20th,
and copy for the import and export statements in the Monthly
Summary is now ready for the printer by the 24th.
Special monthly statements have been inaugurated showing
details by countries for some of the principal articles in the im­

17
port and export trade, including meats, fats, grain, hides,
leather, iron, steel, copper, other metals and metal products,
cotton, silk, wool, electrical and other machinery, automobiles,
canned goods, rubber manufactures, coal and petroleum, chemi­
cals, typewriters, sewing machines and other specialties, motionpicture films, etc. These special statements are furnished regu­
larly to a list of more than 12,000 of the commercial public who
have found the information necessary to the conduct of their
business.
Simplification and Standardization.
The work of the department in the various phases of elimina­
tion of industrial waste carried on in full cooperation with the
various trades has developed in many directions during the
fiscal year, and the progress made has been eminently satisfac­
tory.
At the beginning of the present Administration the depart­
ment had instituted a review of Federal purchasing specifica­
tions, in cooperation with committees from the various indus­
tries, with a view to a better formulation of standards simplifi­
cations and more accurate presentation of specifications in Fed­
eral purchases. Upon the establishment of the Bureau of the
Budget a Federal Specifications Board was created under the
budgetary powers, members of this department acting as chair­
man and secretary. The Federal Specifications Board has had
under review Federal specifications, and in their formulation
has not only made the necessary scientific investigations but has
called into consultation representatives of the manufacturing in­
dustries concerned, in order that Government purchases should
be properly adapted to the manufacturing processes and normal
stocks and materials of the country. A very considerable
amount of economy has thus been effected in the purchase of
Federal Government supplies.
With a view to further assisting in the elimination of national
waste along this line, a conference of the various State purchas­
ing agents met at the department during the fiscal year under re­
view. The result of this conference was a unanimous expression of
desire to cooperate in the unification of specifications being used by
State and municipal agencies, and to this end the conference
requested all possible assistance from the Federal Government.
There followed a more general conference on June 11, 1923, for
the purpose of considering the unification of purchase specifica­
tions from the point of view of both the producer and the con­
sumer. At this second conference was organized an advisory
REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE.

18

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

board to cooperate with the Department of Commerce and the
National Conference of Governmental Purchasing Agents in the
preparation of a dictionary or handbook of specifications. This
board, which is now working actively in preparation of Federal
specifications for general use in local government and institu­
tional buying, consists of official representatives of organizations
speaking for the State and municipal institutions; the producers
and consumers of such commodities as are purchased for govern­
mental consumption; and the standardization bodies having
national recognition.
As a specific example of the working out of standards in co­
operation with the industries may be mentioned the conference on
builders’ hardware. Thirty-five manufacturers, representing ap­
proximately 90 per cent of production in this field, are actively
cooperating in this work. During the fiscal year 10 meetings
were held, covering about 60 per cent of all the items in the
various phases of this industry, and the resulting recommenda­
tions az’e already being put into effect.
Another illustration is the Committee on Specifications for
Window and Plate Glass, composed of representatives from the
American Institute of Architects, National Glass Distributors
Association, Plate Glass Manufacturers, Sash and Door As­
sociation, wire-glass manufacturers, window-glass manufactur­
ers, and the United States Government. The result of the meet­
ing of this committee, held on December 19, 1922, was the
adoption of specifications for quality and sizes of plate and
window glass, including definitions.
As a part of the extended activity of the department in con­
nection with the elimination of national waste there is in
progress in cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute,
the Society of Automotive Engineers, and the National Automo­
bile Chamber of Commerce a series of investigations relating to
the conservation of motor fuels. Much of the technical research
was accomplished during the fiscal year, and the program is
progressing in a most satisfactory manner. Its completion
should bring great savings to consumers of motor fuels and
constructive conservation of one of our vital natural resources.
The erection in the department, as recorded in my last annual
report, of a new Division of Simplified Practice, has been amply
justified by the extent to which different industrial groups have
availed themselves of its technical and advisory services during
the fiscal year. During this period 54 conferences have been held
by different trade committees, at their request, with the depart-

19
mental experts engaged in this work. The total number of in­
dustrial groups now using this service of the department in de­
veloping definite steps toward simplification in their activities
is 125, representing 90 different fields of production and dis­
tribution. In the study and investigation which precedes recom­
mendations for simplification in any product the manufacturers,
distributors, and consumers of the product necessarily play an
equal part. Such action is, of course, wholly voluntary, and in
each case cooperation and agreement by the various factors pre­
cedes the adoption of simplified practice recommendations. It
follows that in the large majority of cases the simplification pro­
ceedings are still in the process of development. Eight definite
recommendations, however, have been consummated during the
period under review.
The following examples may be cited as showing the nature
of accomplished work in this field:
A conference held at the department on March 6, 1923, be­
tween representatives of the International Milk Dealers Associa­
tion, The Glass Container Association, The Cap Manufacturers
Credit Association, and the National Association of Bottle
Manufacturers unanimously recommended 3 sizes of milk bottles
for quarts, pints, and half pints, with one size opening for the
entire group. Before this constructive step milk bottles were
manufactured in 12 sizes for quarts, 13 sizes for pints, 14 sizes
for half pints, 10 sizes for quarter pints, and approximately
10 sizes of caps. The entire industry has accepted the findings
of the conference.
On March 27, 1923, paving brick, which had been reduced
from 77 to 7 typds and sizes at previous conferences, was further
reduced to a total of 6 sizes.
A general conference of manufacturers, distributors, and
users of asphalt at the department on May 28, 1923, reduced
the grades of asphalt from 88 to 9 varieties. At another con­
ference on the same day the sizes and varieties of hotel and
institutional china ware were reduced from 700 to 160. At a
general meeting of the industries concerned, held in the depart­
ment on June 21, 1923, the sizes and varieties of common brick
and face brick were reduced from a total of 73 to 1 recognized
variety of each type.
The annual value to industry and savings to the general
public which such simplifications assure, while difficult to
accurately estimate, run in the aggregate into many millions
of dollars, and their importance in the maintenance of our high
standards of living need not be emphasized.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

20

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Housing and Construction.
In connection with the disturbed housing conditions resulting
from suspended construction during the war, I referred in my
last annual report to a new division created in this department
to assist and cooperate with voluntary bodies engaged in develop­
ing home ownership. The department, through this division,
has during the fiscal year given active aid to a movement spon­
soring demonstration houses that have been equipped and opened
to the public in several hundred cities, usually by women’s
organizations in cooperation with business and civic groups.
The result has been to encourage wiser expenditure for house­
hold purposes. Associated in the Better Homes movement,
which you have headed, are eight Federal Government officials,
including two from the Department of Commerce, and repre­
sentatives of the principal national organizations of women’s
clubs, business men, architects, and bodies interested in child
welfare and public health.
Valuable educational work has also been carried on by the small
house service bureaus, which have been encouraged by this de­
partment, in providing at cost small-house plans designed by
competent architects.
At the request of many organizations interested in housing,
a handbook for prospective home owners was prepared in the
department during the year. Its value to the general public is
well indicated by the fact that its sales by the Superintendent
of Documents immediately ran into the hundreds of thousands.
During the period under review, the construction industry
has been confronted with the problem of meeting the extraordi­
nary demand for construction resulting from the suspension dur­
ing the war and the postwar slump, without hurtful inflation of
building costs. In March of this year the situation was such
that, in response to an inquiry from the late President, I recom­
mended that all but the most essential Government works and
public buildings should be deferred for the time being, so as
to give way to much needed private construction. Hundreds of
manufacturers, labor organizations, contractors, and the public
have concurred in this recommendation.
Increased interest has centered during the year on statistics
of activity, production of building materials, and the building
cost indexes that the department has been distributing, but the
inadequacy of the data available has been evident. The depart­
ment has been unable, on account of lack of funds, to meet the
demands on it for information that have come from many of
the most important business groups.

21
The need for elimination of waste in construction has been
recognized by practically every group concerned, and the mem­
bers of the department’s staff, and its funds, have been pressed
to the limit by requests for cooperation in work on building
codes, plumbing codes, simplification and elimination of dimen­
sional varieties of building materials, research on the use of
building materials, and studies of zoning and city planning
problems.
Commercial Statistics.
At the request of the various industries the department has
during the fiscal year materially improved and extended its serv­
ice in commercial statistics. The statistics included in the
Survey of Current Business now cover all of the basic industries
and consist of monthly reports on production and stocks, in addi­
tion to the annual and semiannual statistics which ai’e published,
giving data in detail for certain industries. The department has
been able during the year to make these statistics available to the
public in more current form by issuing to the daily and trade
press every two weeks in mimeograph form the latest statistics
that have been received. They are later coordinated in the
monthly issues of the Survey. It is only through the active
cooperation of the industries themselves that adequate current
statistical information can be recruited, and the development
of this service has, therefore, been due primarily to the business
man’s appreciation of his own need for current information on
the business trends of the Nation.
Coal.
The beginning of the fiscal year under review found the
Nation in the midst of its largest and most far-reaching coal
strike. The measures taken by the department to secure adequate
stocks of coal throughout the country before the beginning of
the strike on April 1, 1922, brought about the accumulation of
some 75,000,000 to 80,000,000 tons, the largest stock in our histoiy. The result was that the commerce and industry of the
country were sustained during the prolonged strike of five
months.
After the strike the accumulated demands and lack of trans­
portation made it necessary to organize distribution in order to
secure consumei’s against local shortages and restrain extortionate
prices. An organization of Lake shippers and State coal ad­
ministrators in the Northwest States was created with head­
quarters at Minneapolis and Cleveland to facilitate shipments
across the Lakes in provision for the winter.
report of t h e secretary of commerce .

22

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Upon the recommendation of this department, the President
on August 18, 1922, addressed Congress asking for legislation to
enable the Federal Government to cooperate in a more practical
and effective way with the States to control distribution and
prices. The prospect of relief in itself created an effective buy­
ing strike, and prices greatly receded.
On September 22 the coal legislation was enacted by Congress,
creating the office of Fuel Distributor, and conferring some
measure of authority upon the Interstate Commerce Commission
in restraint of unreasonable prices in interstate trade. It was
impossible constitutionally to extend Federal control to the
prosecution of profiteering or the control of speculation in coal
produced and distributed within State boundaries, or upon re­
sales of coal imported into a State. The responsibility for such
action rested upon the State authorities, and in some cases was
effectually cared for.
Upon my recommendation Mr. Conrad E. Spens, vice presi­
dent of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, was ap­
pointed Federal Fuel Distributor, and continued in office until
the crisis was passed some four months later.
The results of these activities may be summed up in the fact
that the price of spot bituminous coal at the mines during the
entire period from April 1, 1922, to January 1, 1923, averaged
$4.13 as against $6.66 in the same months of 1920, when vei'y
much less of an actual shortage existed.
Radio.
In March of this year the second National Radio Conference
was held at this department. The principal commercial, public,
scientific, and Government organizations interested in broad­
casting were represented. The purpose of the conference was
to endeavor to work out proposals for administrative action
which might in some degree reduce the great amount of in­
terference then existing, in the absence of enactment by Con­
gress of the new legislation to cope with the situation recom­
mended by the first conference held at the department during
the previous fiscal year. The result was a recommendation for a
reallocation of frequencies among the broadcasting stations, a
band from 1,350 to 550 kilocycles' (wave lengths 222 to 545
meters) being suggested for that service, and for new allocations
for amateur, exclusive Government, exclusive commercial, and
marine telephone use.
The recommendations were adopted by the department practi­
cally in their entirety, and have been put into operation with
the result that interference has been greatly reduced.

23
The Interdepartment Advisory Committee on governmental
radio broadcasting, which was an outgrowth of the First Na­
tional Radio Conference, and the chairman of which is an of­
ficial of this department, has during the year extended its scope
to include questions pertaining to Government radio communica­
tion in general, and is now known as the Interdepartment Radio
Advisory Committee. It is performing an important function
as a coordinating agency and advisory body to all of the par­
ticipating Government departments and establishments in their
use of radio communication, and particularly to this department
in its administration of radio law.
Facilities for the enforcement of the present law are wholly
inadequate. There are some 25,000 stations now sending radio
messages within our country or along our coasts. The law re­
quires the inspection of all these stations, and if this inspection
is to be sufficiently efficient to accomplish results in the character
of equipment and prevention of interference it must be per­
formed with reasonable frequency. To inspect these 25,000 sta­
tions the department now has a total force of 29 men, all that
can be employed within the limit of the appropriation. Mani­
festly, under such a condition, effective inspection is impossible.
Mention is made in Part IV of this report of the need for
new legislation suited to the tremendous growth in the radio
art.
Fisheries.
As was anticipated, very satisfactory results have been ap­
parent during this the first year in the operation of the fisheries
reservations already established in Alaskan waters. Effective
control of the situation has become possible, and a furtherance
of the principle and practice will result not only in continuing
the salmon fisheries in perpetuity but also in their rehabilitation
and development upon a scale heretofore attained only in the
peak years.
In administering the reservations the policy has been adopted
of imposing definite restrictions upon the number of operators,
fishing methods, the maximum amount of apparatus to be used,
length of season, and maximum pack. Due consideration has
been given the resources of each district, the fisheries concerned,
fishermen already established, previous output, and the economic
operation of the plants.
These general principles have been kept in view at all times
in the preparation of regulations and the issuance of permits.
In a district which could not safely support further expansion
of the salmon fishery, new plants and additional fishermen
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

24

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

have not been permitted. If fishing operations were already
conducted upon too extensive a scale, restrictions have been im­
posed that bear with equal weight on all concerned. The de­
partment has issued to each packer, large or small, fisherman,
fox farmer, or native of Alaska already operating within the
reservation, permits to continue fishery operations under cer­
tain prescribed conditions. Permits for the more extensive
operations have been issued in Washington; but in the case of
many local operators, agents of the department on the ground
and able to judge of conditions have been authorized to act.
These agents, who travel throughout the Territory, have been
able to handle cases in inaccessible districts with infrequent mail
service, and thus to carry out the department’s desire to per­
form its duties with as little inconvenience as possible to the
persons with whom it must deal.
A recommendation of legislative action to prevent further
depletion of the fisheries is contained in Part IV of this report.
Russian Relief.
The relief work in Russia of the American Relief Adminis­
tration, of which I am chairman, has been completed. This
work, which was undertaken with the approval of President
Harding and in cooperation with this department, was sup­
ported by congressional appropriations amounting to $24,000,000 and by funds from charitable and other sources of over
$45,000,000. Although the famine was broken in the summer
of 1922, when the American program reached its peak, relief
on a reduced scale was continued into the summer of 1923 to
meet the after-famine problems of destitute children and
disease.
In the course of the 23 months of operations, several billion
rations were distributed through more than 28,000 feeding points
established in 20,000 towns and villages, which were scattered
over an area of about 1,000,000 square miles. At the period of
most intense famine over 11,000,000 people were fed. Through
the food and clothing package delivery system and through the
medical relief work, which were not confined to famine areas,
American relief penetrated every section of European Russia.
Over a million and a quarter ten-dollar food packages and over
41,000 twenty-dollar clothing packages (purchased from the
American Relief Administration by persons in America and in
other countries for the benefit of relatives in Russia) were de­
livered in the course of the relief operations. Medical relief
was afforded to 15,000 institutions serving an area with a popu­
lation of 80,000,000. Other areas with a population of 25,000,000

25
were supplied from sanitary trains. All these varied operations
were carried on wholly under the direction of Americans, who
at the high point numbered about 200. Internal transportation
in Russia and other internal expenses, including payment of
the Russian staff, were met by the Soviet Government. All
overhead expenses were covered by the margin earned from the
food package operation, which also yielded a substantial sum for
general relief. The relief organization, furthermore, was instru­
mental in establishing the citizenship and effecting the repatria­
tion of nearly GOO Americans in Russia who desired to return
to this country.
All contracts and agreements between the American Relief
Administration and the Soviet Government were liquidated on
June 15, 1923, when all claims and accounts arising from the
activities of the American Relief Administration in Russia were
settled. This great and practical demonstration of the friend­
ship of America for the people of Russia did much more than
defeat the greatest famine in the history of that country. The
magnitude of the American relief program, the opportunities
for public service which that program offered, the demands
which it made on Russian official departments and services,
created an impetus to productivitj1, where stagnation existed.
The timely aid from a far country gave new courage to a
shaken people.
Colorado River Commission.
The Colorado River Commission, on which I represented the
Federal Government under appointment by President Harding
and acted as chairman, held its final sessions at Santa Fe,
N. Mex., from November 9 to November 24, 1922. On the latter
date the Colorado River Compact was signed by the representa­
tives of the seven States (Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada,
New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming) and approved by me as the
representative of the Federal Government.
The major purposes of the compact are to provide for the
equitable division and apportionment of the use of the waters
of the Colorado River; to establish the relative importance of
different beneficial uses of water; to promote interstate comity;
to remove causes of present and future controversies; and to
secure the expeditious agricultural and industrial development
of the Colorado River Basin, the storage of its waters, and the
protection of life and property from floods. To these ends the
Colorado River Basin is divided into two basins, and an ap­
portionment of the use of part of the water of the river is made
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

68596—23-----3

26

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

to each of them with the provision that further equitable ap­
portionments may be made.
The compact provides a basis for the carrying out of one
of the greatest of our national developments. The land under
irrigation in 1920 from the river and its tributaries amounted
to about 2,464,000 acres in the United States. It is estimated
that the irrigated land can be increased to over 5,000,000 acres.
Development of 5 million horsepower is a possibility. With
long-distance transmission all of this can probably be brought
into national use. One of the largest problems is the constant
threat of the lower river to break through its banks and to flood
the Imperial Valley, destroying prosperous communities with
property values of many millions of dollars. Such a break oc­
curred a few years ago and several million dollars wei’e expended
before the river was restored to its normal channel.
The successful negotiation of an interstate compact in settle­
ment of so important and complex a problem is significant in
that it marks the first time that so large a number of States
have been able to settle fundamental interstate rights by process
of treaty. The compact becomes effective when approved by the
legislatures of each of the signatory States and by the Congress
of the United States. The legislatures of six of the seven
States have now ratified it, only Arizona having failed to take
final action. Congressional action will doubtless await the
approval of all of the seven States.
Conferences with Commerce and Industry.
In connection with the services outlined above, and many
others, a total of 335 conferences were held during the fiscal year
by the Secretary and members of the department with commit­
tees of various branches of commerce and industry. Practically
all were held at the request of these bodies. Of these conferences
48 were on matters of transportation and fuel distribution; 101
on questions of foreign trade; 93 on specifications, standardiza­
tion, and simplification; 17 on housing and construction; 24 on
statistical questions; 7 on merchant marine and fisheries; and 45
on various general and special problems.

Part III.—INVESTIGATIONS INTO VARIOUS ECO­
NOMIC PROBLEMS IN PURSUANCE OF THE
ORGANIC ACT.
Under the provisions of the organic act the department has from
time to time made investigation and study of various important
economic problems confronting the country. The reorganization of
the departmental staff and the cooperation of the business community
in advancing information have contributed to make the undertaking
of such investigations possible.
Railway Consolidation.
The past year’s experience of the department in its relations
to transportation has shown even more emphatically than ever
before the necessity for the consolidation of the railways into
larger systems under private ownership, the principles of which
were established in the transportation act of 1920. The diffi­
culties of reorganizing the rate structure so as to secure simpli­
fication and to give relief in primary products—agricultural,
coal, etc.—by a fairer burden upon finished and LCL goods
are almost insuperable until the different systems are possessed
of more diversified traffic and until the weaker roads have been
absorbed. The necessity to establish railway credit and finance
on a broader foundation than sole reliance upon the issue of
mortgage securities; the necessity of provision for common
utilization of terminal and other facilities; the impossibility of
providing adequate rolling stock and particularly specialized
cars so long as the burden falls solely upon the strong roads;
the difficulties of more definite control of car service to meet
seasonal demands and routing; the insuperable problems of
equalization in car interchange; the slow progress in standard­
ization and maintenance of equipment—all point to the im­
minent desirability of early progress with consolidations, if we
are to have a transportation system adequate to the necessities
of the country and containing in itself the strength for annual
increase.
The policy of control of rates is fixed by National and State
legislation. This policy has superseded the theory that reason­
able rates are to be obtained through competitive action. The
27

28

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

idea of protection against excessive rates through the main­
tenance of competition is now dead. We should therefore secure
the largest possible benefits from consolidation into larger sys­
tems by securing consolidation in such fashion as will protect
and advance public interest.
The urgent importance of the early consummation of consoli­
dation warrants consideration of methods to expedite it. Under
the present provisions for wholly voluntary action subject to the
Interstate Commerce Commission, many consolidations are
likely to be long delayed. The difficulties of negotiation between
the members of the groups that will be established by the Inter­
state Commerce Commission; the complications arising from
varying priorities of securities affecting the determination of
terms of purchase by one railway line of the property of another;
the unwillingness of some lines to acquire or to sell others; the
questions of individuality; the difficulties of establishing by
negotiation the relative value of one property to another; the
necessity of holding capitalization within the limits of the actual
property values; the complexities and conflicts of State regula­
tion and laws—all these problems would find a great measure of
solution if the consolidated systems were allowed Federal incor­
poration and if after a lapse of some appropriate period for vol­
untary action the Interstate Commerce Commission were given
authority to create definite organization committees for each sys­
tem including representation from the public and from the compo­
nent roads. It should be the duty of such committees to develop
and perfect a plan of consolidation either through the exchange
of securities of the consolidated systems directly with the se­
curity holders of the component roads or by some other method.
I believe that under such auspices the security holders would
be willing voluntarily to make such an exchange. If a minority
should refuse, it would be entirely feasible to invoke condem­
nation and purchase of their securities for the consolidated
systems at an established fair value. Such a method would
permit the determination of the relative value of the different
railways considering both the physical properties and the often
lower total of their securities, and due account could be taken
of future as well as present conditions.
The ownership of some roads or terminals jointly by two or
more consolidated systems could be provided for, as there are
cases where such a solution would be most advisable in creating
more efficient transportation. The public interest could be safe­
guarded by limiting the total capitalization of consolidated sys­
tems to an amount not exceeding the physical value of the rail-

29
ways as determined by the Interstate Commerce Commission
under the transportation act as of June 30,1914, plus actual capi­
tal expenditures and deducting abandonments and depreciation
since that date. The total capitalization of many of the consoli­
dated railways would probably be less than the Interstate Com­
merce Commission physical valuation and certainly less than
their present nominal capital. An approach to the problem
through such organization committees is in accord with common
business practice, and if it were made possible it should result
in greatly expediting consolidations and in their perfection on
terms soundly protective of public interest and with an equitable
adjustment of relative values between the component roads.
Invisible Items in International Trade.
The increasing importance of the so-called “ invisible ” items
in American trade has rendered it necessary to have some com­
petent estimate as to their volume. Therefore, the department
undertook an exhaustive investigation covering the calendar
year 1922.
Our international balance sheet is not made up alone of the
values of our imports and exports of merchandise and precious
metals, which are capable of determination statistically month
by month. For the last two decades the volume of those transac­
tions which, for lack of a better term, are referred to as “ in­
visible ” exports and imports, has become of steadily increasing
importance.
These items, embracing the movement of capital, and the
movement of current items, such as interest, remittances of
emigrants, tourist expenditure abroad, ocean freights, and so
on, have now come to be of such a volume as to entirely dominate
what is known as the “ favorable” or “ unfavorable” trade
balance from merchandising account. For instance, for 1922
there was due us from foreign countries, from the excess of our
exports over our imports of merchandise, an amount of $754,000,000. However, when we take into account such “ cur­
rent invisible ” items as the movement of interest, remittances
to emigrants, tourist expenditure, ocean freights, etc., we find
that our citizens have sent to or spent in foreign countries a net
balance on these accounts of about $425,000,000 more than we
received on such accounts, and thus the balance due us is re­
duced to about $329,000,000. As affecting this sum we have
received about $240,000,000 net gold and silver imports, and in
addition there has been the invisible movement of loans and
credits. Thus the net balance on the year’s business due to us is
reduced to about $83,000,000. We had. however, large capital
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

30

KKPO lì T OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

operations during the year. We have exported capital in the
shape of purchases of foreign securities, etc., over and above the
imports of capital of the same character to the net amount of
about $609,000,000 during the year 1922. The only evident ex­
planation is that this sum (except for $83,000,000) represents
the funding of open obligations previously due to us.
A full comprehension of the invisible items and their approxi­
mate value is not only of profound importance in assessing our
international balance sheet, but no sound conclusion can be
made concerning the effect of foreign trade movements upon our
credit structure, or upon the ability of foreign countries to pur­
chase our commodities or to pay their debts, or upon exchange
rates, or upon the movement of gold, or the ultimate trend of
price levels compared with those of other nations, without some
comprehension: of our full balance sheet, including the invisible
items.
In this undertaking the department has had the full coopera­
tion of the principal banks, merchant houses, shipping com­
panies, statistical services of the Treasury, and other Govern­
ment agencies. It has had the advantage of the individual judg­
ment of many institutions and prominent men as to the weight
to be attached to the data obtained.
From the nature of things these movements can not be re­
corded statistically, so that the process is necessarily one of
estimation. The fact must be emphasized that such items are
merely estimates, with a varying degree of accuracy. Many of
them are subject to wide variation in judgment, and the result
may be in error 150 million dollars either way, although the
tendency is for over and under estimates on opposite sides of the
balance sheet to neutralize each other.
The following table is a short summary of the results arrived
at, broader details of which are given in the full report of the
investigation:
E stimated I nternation a l B alance

ok

P ayments , 1922.

[In m illions of dollars.]

CURRENT ITEMS.

Inward or credit movements (exports) :
Invisible items—
Governmental receipts from foreign nations___ 170
Interest on American capital abroad__________ 227
Freight payments receivable on exports_______ 71
------ 408
Visible items (goods)—Exports of merchandise________ 3,867
Total_________ ___________________ ________________ -._____ 4,335

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

31

Outward or debit movements (imports) :
Invisible items—
Governmental expenditures abroad------------------- 29
Interest payable on foreign capital in United
States______________________________________ 100
Freight payable on imports___________________ 64
Immigrants’ remittances and European relief— 400
American tourists’ expenditures-------------------------300
------ 893
Visible items (goods)—Imports of merchandise-------------3,113
Total____________________________________________________ 4,006
Net favorable balance------------------------------------------------------ 329
C.or.o AM) STT.VEB MOVEMENT.
Visible items (specie) :
Exports of silver------------------------------------------------ 63
Exports of gold__________________________________ 37
--100
Imports of silver------------------------------------------------ 71
Imports of gold-----------------------------------------------------275
----- 346
Net imports (specie)_____________________________________ 246
CAPITA!, MOVEMENT.

Inward capital items:
Foreign loans matured and paid---------------------------- 78
Foreign securities resold abroad------------------------------ 189
American securities sold abroad_________________ — 61
----- 328
Outward capital items:
New foreign bond issues in United States (exclud­
ing refunding loans)____________________________ 637
Foreign securities issued abroad but sold to the
United States-----------------------------------------------------326
American securities formerly held abroad sold to
United States__________________________________ 34
------ 997
Balance_____ — ---------------------------------------- ----------------

069

A distinction is made above in the “ invisible ” items for pur­
poses of discussion between “ current items ” and “ capital
movement” of somewhat the same character as that made be­
tween capital and revenue expenditures and receipts in business
operations. The items under the heading “ current items”
are likely to be more or less constant over long periods, whereas
specie and capital movements are likely to fluctuate widely from
year to year according to business conditions and the balances of
“ current items.”
It is obvious that there are wide changes in progress in our
international balance sheet for the year 1923 as compared with

32

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

1922. It is improbable that we shall have any considerable
merchandise balance in our favor. There has been a continued
movement against us in the current items of “ invisible ” ex­
change. There has also been a much smaller movement in the
export of capital. There has been a continued import of gold
despite this situation. The explanation of the latter possibly
lies in the fact that there has been a large export of our cur­
rency which is being held and used abroad, and there are some
evidences that many countries in Europe have been increasing
their open balances in the United States and their investments
in American securities, resulting at least partially from “a flight
of capital” from the fluctuating currencies abroad to our gold
securities.
This subject has become of so much importance in compre­
hensive understanding of our internationl trade and financial
relations that it is proposed hereafter to make the surveys within
the first 60 days after the end of the calendar year and incorpo­
rate them as part of the regular statistical service of the de­
partment.
Unemployment Due to the Business Cycle.
It was the view of the members of the Unemployment Con­
ference, which was held during the previous fiscal year under my
chairmanship, that certain suggestions for controlling extremes
of the business cycle so as to lessen the losses due to recurrent
periods of unemployment were worthy of serious consideration,
and that in any event a thorough study of the business phe­
nomena of booms and slumps would serve to advance public
knowledge and stimulate thought toward constructive solution.
Accordingly I appointed the following committee to undertake
an investigation and report : Owen D. Young, chairman of the
board, General Electric Co., Chairman; Joseph II. Defrees,
former president of U. S. Chamber of Commerce; Mary Van
Kleeck, Russell Sage Foundation; Matthew Woll, vice president,
American Federation of Labor; Clarence M. Wooley, president,
American Radiator Co.; Edward Eyre Hunt, secretary of the
President’s Conference on Unemployment, Secretary.
An exhaustive investigation was undertaken with the assist­
ance of appropriations toward its cost from the Carnegie
Foundation and with services contributed to the committee by
the Department of Commerce, the National Bureau of Economic
Research, The Russell Sage Foundation, The Federated Ameri­
can Engineering Societies, the United States Chamber of Com­
merce, the American Federation of Labor, the American Statisti­

33
cal Association, the American Economic Association, the Bureau
of Railway Economics, and a number of others.
The committee has prepared a constructive report after con­
sideration of the facts and views developed. The report repre­
sents a definite advance in economic thought and offers practical
constructive suggestions that should make for progress.
Broadly, the business cycle is a constant recurrence of irregu­
larly separated booms and slumps. The general conclusion of
the committee is that as the slumps are in the main due to the
wastes, extravagance, speculation, inflation, overexpansion, and
inefficiency in production developed during the booms, the stra­
tegic point of attack, therefore, is the reduction of these evils,
mainly through the provision for such current economic infor­
mation as will show the signs of danger and through its more
general understanding and use by producers, distributors, and
banks, inducing more constructive and safer policies. Further­
more, the committee has developed some constructive suggestions
as to the deferment of public work and construction work of
large public-service corporations until periods of depression and
unemployment. Such deferment, while in the nature of relief
from evils already created, would tend, both by the subtraction
of these works from production at the peak of the boom and by
their addition to production in the valley of depression, toward
the more even progress of business itself.
The report does not suggest panaceas or economic revolution,
but seeks to drive home the facts that the enlargement of judg­
ment in individual business men as to the trend of business and
the consequent widened vision as to approaching dangers will
greatly contribute to stability, and that the necessary informa­
tion upon which such judgment can be based must be systemati­
cally recruited and distributed.
The investigation shows that many firms have pursued such
policies and have come through the recent period of business
disaster with success and stability, and that ignorance of deter­
minable facts accounts for the disasters to many others.
Two specific recommendations directly affect action by the
Government. The first of these is that Government construction
should be so regulated that it may be deferred in times of in­
tense private construction and expedited in times of unemploy­
ment. The effect would be not only to secure more economical
construction for the Government but also to stabilize the con­
struction industries and to considerably mitigate unemployment
in periods of depression.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

34

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE.

The second recommendation is that the Government’s statis­
tical services on production, stocks, and consumption of com­
modities should be vigorously expanded so as to furnish the
basic material from which the commercial public may judge the
ebb and flow of economic currents.
The whole problem belongs to a vast category of issues which
we must as a Nation confront in the elimination of waste if we
are to maintain and incx-ease our high standards of living. No
waste is greater than unemployment, no suffering is keener or
more freighted with despair than that due to the inability of
those who wish to work to get jobs.
The report has created a very large amount of interest and
discussion throughout the country. The committee infoi’ms me
of favorable editorial comment noted in over 800 journals, and
favorable discussion amongst economic and commercial bodies is
still in progress. The public is indeed indebted to the com­
mittee and the large group of its coworkers in the conduct of an
investigation resulting in so much constructive thought.
Seasonal Operation in the Construction Industries.
The department undertook toward the close of the fiscal year
a survey of seasonal operation in the construction industries,
in cooperation with a strong committee from the industry, for
the purpose of determining how nearly it is possible to eliminate
the dull seasons which are characteristic of construction activi­
ties.
Previous surveys indicate that most construction activities
are concentrated in 7 to 10 months of the year, and that con­
tractors’ organizations and equipment men, architects, engineers,
building material producers, and others connected with con­
struction must usually remain idle for similar periods. This
idle time represents waste and direct losses to the construction
industries, the workers, and the public. The construction in­
dustries affect practically all other industries and all classes of
our population.
The present survey covers seasonal construction by regions
and kinds of structural work, to determine the dates of the
beginning and ending of the normal building season for various
types of work, such as road building, dwellings, apartments, and
business houses.
It also covers seasonal production in building materials, to
determine how far this is due to seasonal building operations
and trade customs and how far to climatic conditions.
The survey includes an examination of successful devices for
lengthening the construction season, in the hope that through

35
an examination of the facts and proposed remedies it will be
possible to suggest sound solutions and obtain general co­
operation in carrying them out.
Investigation into Foreign Raw Material Sources.
There are a number of necessary raw materials for the supply
of which we are predominantly dependent on imports from for­
eign countries. Possibly as a result of the war, but more particu­
larly during the past 18 months, there has been a growing tend­
ency for producers of these commodities to combine in control of
prices as against the American market. This is particularly the
case in nitrates, tanning extracts, quinine, rubber, sisal, tin, cork,
mercury, tungsten, and various minor minerals.
The effect of these price combinations in the consequent higher
cost to American consumers presents a most serious problem.
While we are vigorous in the control of price combinations in
respect to our own industries, we are of course powerless to reach
these foreign combinations through our antitrust laws.
Under authority of Congress, an exhaustive examination of
such combinations was undertaken by the department before the
close of the fiscal year to determine—first, the character and
extent of the combinations themselves; second, whether alterna­
tive sources for these raw materials can be stimulated and there­
fore natural competition induced; third, what relief can bo
obtained by stimulation of synthetic or substitute materials
within our own borders; and fourth, what protective or retalia­
tory legislation can be undertaken.
It is as yet too early to speak of the results of these inves­
tigations; but one effect has already been of the most practical
value, and that is that the notice given of the interest of the
American Government in these transactions has in definite cases
resulted in stemming the tide of advancing prices and has
induced more moderation and consideration on the part of such
foreign combinations.
Investigation of Foreign Competition and Foreign Markets in
Agricultural Products.
Under authority of Congress, an exhaustive investigation
was begun toward the close of the fiscal year into present and
probable future foreign competition in export markets for agri­
cultural products, and into the trends in demands for such prod­
ucts in foreign markets. An advisory committee, representing
the farm organizations and trades, was formed at the initia­
tion of the investigation.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Part IV.—LEGISLATION NEEDED.

The organic act includes the requirement that recommendations
be made of legislation to promote the effective performance of the
department in fostering and developing commerce and industry.
Many steps are needed for better administration and the public wel­
fare in revision of legislation that has not kept pace with our
national growth in matters directly connected with the departmental
activities.
Further Reorganization of the Department of Commerce.
The Department of Commerce was created “ to foster, pro­
mote, and develop the domestic and foreign commerce, mining,
manufacture, shipping, and fishing industries, and the transpor­
tation facilities.” Excluding all of the semijudicial functions
of the Government respecting these matters, and excluding the
Shipping Board, there are still a large number of functions of
the import designated in the organic act which are administered
outside the department. They lie in seven different departments
and independent agencies of such widely divergent major pur­
poses as the War and Navy. There is inevitable overlap, dupli­
cation, and lack of concentration of purpose. In the interest of
economy, efficiency of administration, and better service to the
public, all the functions of the Government of the character
enumerated in the organic act should be at once concentrated
in three different groups, ( a) industry, ( b ) trade, and (c ) navi­
gation, and each should be under an assistant secretary. Whether
each of these groups is brought into this department is secondary
to the necessity for the grouping itself in order to obtain con­
centration of purpose and elimination of overlap. Such a group­
ing is in the main recommended in the report to Congress on
Reorganization of the Federal departments, submitted by Presi­
dent Harding during the last session. Direct savings of upward
of $1,000,000 per annum in administration could be made under
a regrouping of this character, and many times this amount
given to the American people in increased values and service.
Fisheries Conservation.
To prevent further depletion of the Alaskan fisheries, I ear­
nestly recommend that legislative ratification be given to the
Alaska fisheries reservations which have been established and
36

37
are now in operation under Executive order, and that legislative
authority be given to the President, affirmatively empowering
him to create further reservations covering the remaining
Alaskan waters.
Pollution of Coastal Waters.
During the past year a large amount of data has been collected
relative to the pollution of our coastal waters, which results
largely from the unrestricted dumping in harbors or other in­
land waters of bilges of oil-burning ships. These data are
contained in a comprehensive report by the Bureau of Mines,
which is at present uncompleted, but which will probably be
in finished form for submission to the coming session of Con­
gress. It is a subject of great importance, for this pollution
menaces the safety, health, and comfort of large numbers of our
people.
Based upon the facts which will be available, I recommend
that legislation be enacted for its prevention.
Amendment, Improvement, and Revision of the Navigation Laws.
The navigation laws are badly in need of revision. Under­
acts of Congress providing for recommendations in this respect,
a large amount of work has been done and it had been hoped
that a complete plan of revision, bringing into harmony and
clarity the various provisions, might be ready for submission at
the coming session. The completion of this work has, however,
been delayed. It is of the greatest importance to the shipping
public, to the officials whose duty it is to enforce the navigation
laws, and to those actually engaged in the industry that the
codification of these laws be no longer delayed.
Transfer of the Admeasurement of Vessels from the Treasury De­
partment to the Department of Commerce.
The transfer from the Treasury Department to the Depart­
ment of Commerce of the staff of officers engaged in measuring
tonnage of vessels has been approved by both departments, anti
is essential to the uniform application of our admeasurement
laws and regulations so as to prevent discrimination against
American vessels and to bring our admeasurement system up to
the standard of other maritime nations. This work should be
performed by men selected because of their technical knowledge
of ship architecture and admeasurement and with the training to
solve the mathematical problems often involved.
Load-Line Law.
Load-line bills were introduced in the Sixty-seventh Congress,
but no legislation was enacted on the subject. It is imperative
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

38

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

to the welfare of our merchant marine that legislation substan­
tially similar to the laws of the European maritime powers on
this subject be enacted in the near future, inasmuch as our
cargo-carrying steamers are now allowed to clear from the
ports of these powers solely as an act of courtesy and not as a
matter of right.
A representative committee has been named to draft a suit­
able bill for presentation to the next Congress; and it is hoped
that during the coming session legislation upon this important
subject may be enacted.
Radio Regulation.
The rapid growth of radio communication makes necessary
an affirmative declaration by Congress of a governmental policy
in accordance with which the art is to be conducted and the
empowering of some agency to carry that policy into effect.
This can only be done through an officer with discretionary
powers and under regulations which will be made by him in con­
formity with the general terms of the law. I most earnestly
commend this matter to the attention of Congress.
Aviation.
During the past year the commercial use of aircraft has
increased to a considerable extent, though there is reason to fear
that in this respect the United States is not keeping pace with
some foreign countries. This method of transportation means
much to our economic and social progress and every encourage­
ment, legislative and otherwise, should be given to its develop­
ment. At the same time there should be created a proper system
for its regulation, having in view, primarily, the safety of life
both of passengers and operator’s, and the orderly conduct of
air navigation.
Federal Taxes on Americans Resident Abroad and Engaged in
American Commerce.
The income taxes imposed upon our merchants resident abroad
place them at a disadvantage in competition with the merchants
of other nations. Some relief is afforded by the provision that
the amount of taxes paid in the foreign countries may be de­
ducted from the income tax which is payable to the United
States, but this does not cover the entire problem. For in­
stance, American merchants in the Latin-American countries,
the Orient, and some European States pay our very high income
tax, while the amount deductible for taxes paid in those coun­
tries is very small. British and some other merchants resident

39
there pay no taxes to their home Governments, and thus the cost
of our doing business through merchants of our own nationality
willing to reside abroad in the cause of promotion of American
commerce is greater than that of our competitors or of our
doing business through foreigners. No sound continuous dis­
tribution of our goods can be built up unless our own merchants
are in the field selling goods upon service and contact as well
as upon price.
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.
The following items of legislation are recommended for the
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce:
1. Reclassification of the foreign service, providing that all
representatives abroad above the grade of clerk be classed as
commercial secretaries; be divided into classes according to
salaries; and be accredited by the Department of State in the
same manner as are the commercial attachés at present.
2. Legislation to simplify the handling of funds by the dis­
bursing agents of the bureau, and, as a result, to simplify the
whole process of accounting.
3. Legislation permitting the Secretary of Commerce to ac­
cept contributions of money for use in payment of expenses in
connection with a particular piece of work or investigation.
Bureau of the Census.
It is recommended that the law concerning the collection of
cotton statistics be amended so as to advance the dates for the
early reports on quantity of cotton ginned; that provision be
made for collecting information as to the several grades of cot­
ton held in the United States at different dates; and that the act
of August 7, 1916, providing for the collection of statistics of
the quantity of cotton, linters, etc., used in the manufacture of
guncotton and explosives be repealed, since this information,
originally demanded by war conditions, is no longer important.
With a view to avoiding duplication it is recommended that
the collection of data concerning the quantities of leaf tobacco
held by certain classes of manufacturers and dealers be trans­
ferred from the Bureau of the Census to the Bureau of Internal
Revenue.
It is recommended that the Official Register be discontinued,
and that instead the Bureau of the Census be authorized to
compile statistics regarding the civilian personnel of the Federal
Government. The Register costs about $50,000 per issue and
serves no sufficient purpose to justify this expense.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
40
Lighthouse Service.
The following items of legislation arc recommended for the
Lighthouse Service:
( a) Extension of the retirement law to cover (1) cases of
disability in the field personnel of the Lighthouse Service; (2)
retirement, in the discretion of the Secretary of Commerce, after
,‘50 years of service; and (3) retirement of persons attending
minor lights.
( b ) Provision of medical relief for light keepers at remote
stations inaccessible to Public Health Service hospitals, and
extension of Public Health Service treatment to employees on
lighthouse vessels.
( c ) Authorization of the payment of claims of lighthouse
employees for losses of personal property incident to their work.
(d ) Extension to lighthouse employees of privileges now
accorded to similar services respecting the purchase of commis­
sary supplies and transportation.
(e) Provisions for the protection of aids to navigation dam­
aged by passing vessels and making sums received in payment
for such damages available for the repair of aids.
Adequate Building for Department.
The department’s need for an adequate Government-owned
building to provide necessary additional space and in which its
now scattered bureaus may be brought together is so compelling
that I feel it must be given special mention in this report. Ex­
clusive of the Bureau of Standards, which is admirably housed
in buildings especially adapted to its work and which, therefore,
does not enter into the problem, there are approximately 1,980
employees of the department housed in the District of Columbia.
Only 800 of these are housed in the so-called main building (and
this building is rented), the other 1,180 employees being scattered
in three buildings, two of which are ancient structures, expensive
to operate and unsafe for the employees who are compelled to
work in them. The third is one of the temporary war structures,
which will be condemned within a year or two as unfit for
habitation. It is now being used by the Census and contains in­
valuable records dating back to the founding of the Govern­
ment which if destroyed could never be duplicated.
It is impossible to secure proper administration with the de­
partment so scattered over the city. Therefore, aside from the
total unfitness of the buildings, it must be obvious that sound ad­
ministration and efficient transaction of the public business de­
mand the assembling under one roof of the now scattered activi-

41
ties of the department. Moreover, all the buildings are badly
overcrowded. Additional space is imperatively needed. With
normal growth of the department, not to speak of possible addi­
tions arising from a regrouping of Government functions, it is
only a question of time before further services will have to be
moved from the present main building, with resulting further
disintegration and difficulties of administration.
The only cure for this whole situation is the erection of a mod­
ern Government-owned building adequate for the department’s
needs, and the economies in rent and better administration would
more than cover interest upon the Government outlay. The
construction of such a building would be sound economy.
Yours faithfully,
KEPOKT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

H erbert H oover,

68596—23——4

Secretary/ of Commerce.

Part V.—SPECIAL AND MORE DETAILED RE­
PORTS OF THE DIFFERENT BUREAUS AND
DIVISIONS OF THE DEPARTMENT AND SPE­
CIAL RECOMMENDATIONS OF THEIR DIREC­
TORS.
ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF THE OFFICE OF THE
SECRETARY.
D epartment of C ommerce,
O ffice of the C hief C lerk,

Hon. H erbert H oover,

Washington, July 1, 1928.

Secretary of Commerce.

D ear M r. S ecretary : In response to your request I furnish the
following condensed report of the work of the various divisions of
the Secretary’s office during the past year:
NEED FOR ADDITIONAL CLERKS.

The various divisions of the Secretary’s office are service units
for the entire department, the work of all bureaus filtering through
one or more of these divisions in the course of handling. These
divisions have for several years been undermanned, and while during
the past few years the work has greatly increased, and is still in­
creasing, there have been from 1919 to 1923, a period of five years,
but three additions to the personnel of the Secretary’s office—two
stenographers to the Secretary and one stenographer to the Assistant
Secretary. Additional help for all divisions is not only desirable
but imperative. Employees have cheerfully worked overtime in an
effort to keep the work current, but a continuation of this practice
is unfair to the employees and is not a satisfactory solution of
the problem. The work is constantly increasing, and a substantial
addition to the personnel is absolutely necessary to the proper con­
duct and dispatch of business.
NEED FOR A GOVERNMENT-OWNED BUILDING.

An ever-present problem confronting the department is the need
for a larger building to house its various bureaus and divisions. The
department has long ago outgrown its present quarters, a rented
42

43
building, and is constantly resorting to makeshift methods, which
do not tend to efficient functioning. The cramped condition under
which we are laboring of necessity retards the work and lessens
efficiency to a marked degree. The Commerce Building is virtually
crowded to the walls, and increased activities and the constant de­
mand for more space will soon necessitate the scattering of some
services in outlying buildings, which means a further impairment
of service. The remedy lies in the erection of a Government-owned
building for the department of sufficient size to comfortably house
its services now in the Commerce Building and those bureaus, except
the Bureau of Standards, as are quartered in separate buildings, the
nearest being more than a mile distant from the main building.
This is a real problem, and I can not too strongly urge that it be
given thoughtful consideration in the immediate future.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

INADEQUATE TRAVEL ALLOWANCE.

Attention is invited to the inadequate travel allowance for em­
ployees traveling on Government business. The present allowance
of $5 per diem actual, or $4 in lieu of subsistence, is insufficient.
Effort has been made to have the Congress increase the allowance,
but the recommendation has not received favorable consideration.
Under present conditions employees are compelled to defray a large
portion of their traveling expenses from personal funds. This is
unjust and should be remedied.
DISBURSING OFFICE.

APPROPRIATIONS AND EXPENDITURES.

The itemized statement of the disbursements from the contingent
fund of the department and the appropriation for “ General ex­
penses, Bureau of Standards,” for the fiscal year ended June 30,
1923, required to be submitted to Congress by section 193 of the
Revised Statutes of the United States; the itemized statement of
expenditures under all appropriations for propagation of food fishes
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, required by the act of
Congress approved March 3, 1887 (24 Stat. 523); the statement
showing travel on official business by officers and employees (other
than special agents, inspectors, and employees who, in the discharge
of their regular duties, are required to travel constantly) from
Washington to points outside of the District of Columbia during the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, as required by the act of Congress
approved May 22, 1908 (35 Stat. 244); the statement showing type­
writers, adding machines, etc., exchanged by this department, during
the fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, as required by section 5 of the

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE,
44
act of March 4, 1915 (38 Stat. 1161) ; and the statement in connec­
tion with the payment of increased compensation to employees of
this department during the first four months of the fiscal year end­
ing June 30, 1924, as required by section 7 of the act of March 1,
1919 (40 Stat. 1268), will be transmitted to Congress in the usual
form.
The table following shows the total amount of all appropriations
for the various bureaus and services of the Department of Com­
merce for the fiscal year ended June 30,1923 :
Bureau.

Allotments,
Deficiency fortifications Special act.
act.
act May 21,
1921.

Commerce
and Labor
act.

*344,250.00
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce........................................ 1.598.110.00
1.737.680.00
906.140.00
Steamboat Inspection Service........
Bureau of Navigation........................ 357.390.00
Bureau of Standards......................... 1.547.360.00
Coast and Geodetic Survey............. 2.176.975.00
Bureau of lighthouses...................... 8.351.790.00
1,206, S10.00
425,000.00

*9. 62

*344,259.62

679,572.23

$96,675.68

60.47
5.81
1,116.27 $133,800.00
37,681.23
3,080.00
26,266.38
5,000.00
195,370.82
38,750.00

Total.......................................... 18,651,805.00 978,832.83

110,007.92
1,844,399.00
141,880.00 1,954,406.92

2,374,657.91
1,737,680.00
906,200.47
370,728.05
1,682,276.27
2,217,736.23
8,383,056.38
1,402,180.82
463,750.00
19,882,525.75
1,844,399.00
21,726,924. 75

|
Net amount
Transferred . Transferred
available for
Total
to other de- : to retire­ transferred.
expenditures
partm ents. j m ent.
by this de­
partm ent.

........................j
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce___ $101,500.00
i

Steamboat Inspection Service...............................
Coast and Geodetic Survey...................................
Bureau of lighthouses............................................

13,332.24

141, S80.00

Grand total............................... 18,651,805.00 978,832.83
Bureau.

Total.

18,404.30
29,265.00 ;

$3,931.00
10,078.79
24,008.60
17.666.00
6,856.50
37.330.00
10,194.41
9.375.00
9.700.00

$3,931.00
114,578.79
24,008.60
17.666.00
6,856.50
37.330.00
28,598.71
3S, 640.00
9,700.00

281,309.60 19,601,216.16
1,844,399.0#
281,309.60 21,445,615.15

Total.................................................................

152,169.30

129,140.30

Grand total.....................................................

152,169.30

129,110.30

*340,328.62
2,260,079.12
1,713,671.40
888,534.47
363,871.55
1,644,946.27
2,189,137.52
S, 34-1,416.38
1,392,480.82
463,750.00

45
The disbursements by the authorized disbursing officers of the
department during the fiscal year ended June 30. 1923, arranged
according to items of appropriation, are as follows:
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

B y d isb u rs in g c le r k . D e p a r tm e n t o f C o m m erce.

Office of the Secretary:
Contingent expenses, Department of Commerce, 1921_________
Contingent expenses, Department of Commerce, 1922_________
Contingent expenses, Department of Commerce, 1923________
Rent, Department of Commerce, 1922_______________________
Rent, Department of Commerce, 1923_______________________
Salaries, office of the Secretary, 1922_______________________
Salaries, office of the Secretary, 1923_______________________
Total___________________________________________________
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce :
Commercial attachés, 1921__________________________________
Commercial attachés, 1922________ ^_____________ T_________
Commercial attachés, 1923__________________________________
Compiling foreign trade statistics, 1923_____________________
Compiling foreign trade statistics, 1923-24__________________
Enforcement China trade act, 1923__________________________
Export industries, 1922_____________________________________
Export industries, 1923_____________________________________
Investigating sources of crude rubber, 1923-24_______________
Promoting commerce. Department of Commerce, 1921_________
Promoting commerce, Department of Commerce, 1922________
Promoting commerce, Department of Commerce, 1923________
Promoting commerce, Far East, 1922________ ^_______________
Promoting commerce, Far East, 1923________________________
Promoting commerce, South and Central America, 1922______
Promoting commerce, South and Central America, 1923______
Salaries, foreign and domestic commerce, 1922_______________
Salaries, foreign and domestic commerce, 1923______________
Total_________________________________________ •_________
Bureau of Standards:
Air Service, Army, War transfer, 1921______________________
Armament of fortifications, War transfer, 1921______________
Aviation, Navy, Navy transfer, 1921________________________
Aviation, Navy, Navy transfer, 1923________________________
Color standardization, 1921_________________________________
Color standardization, 1922_________________________________
Color standardization, 1923_________________________________
Equipment, 1921________________ _________ i._______________
Equipment, 1922__________________________________________
Equipment, 1923 ---------------------------------------------------------------Experiments, ordnance, Navy transfer, 1921_____ *__________
Gauge standardization, 1922________________________________
Gauge standardization, 1923________________________________
Gauge standardization, War transfer, 1922__________________
General expenses, 1921_____________________________________
General expenses, 1922_____________________________________

$10. 72
8, 977. 23
133, 372. 00
5, 837. 50
61, 916. 66
7,998. 78
178,948. 94
397,061.883. 24
435. 90
13,940. 80
84, 763. 3G
9, 529. 55
15, 622.18
8,129. 92
358,181.15
19,752.51
1.37
6, 566. 35
117,683.67
754. 35
61,106. 99
734. 08
64, 092. 49
15,383.41
210,675.11
987,356.37
155.45
484. 00
16,136. 58
200. 51
. 21
1, 613. 98
8,289. 77
25. 80
16, 090. 88
40, 399. 40
060. 68
862.13
83, 947. 23
418. 38
67. 88
9, 514. 71

46

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Bureau of Standards—Continued.
General expenses, 1923__________________________________ $33, 259.06
High-temperature investigation, 1922-------------------------------404. 87
High-temperature investigation, 1923-------------------------------8, 716. 37
Improvement and care of grounds, 1922__________________
1,372.92
6,158, 56
Improvement and care of grounds, 1923--------------------------Industrial research, 1921------------------------------------------------ 143,193.19
Industrial research, 1922________________________________
162, 356. 50
195, 761.97
Industrial research, 1923________________________________
Investigation of clay products, 1922------------------------------1,474. 92
Investigation of clay products, 1923------------------------------22,107. 74
Investigation of fire-resisting properties,1922------------------5,152. 04
Investigation of fire-resisting properties,1923------------------21,137. 31
Investigation of mine scales and cars, 1921--------------------3. 25
Investigation of mine scales and cars, 1922--------------------375.72
Investigation of mine scales and cars, 1923----------------------7,311.49
Investigation of optical glass, 1921--------------------------------3, 280.54
Investigation of optical glass, 1922______________________
4, 867.35
Investigation of optical glass, 1923--------------------------------20, 486.94
Investigation of public-utility standards, 1922------------------4. 610.08
Investigation of public-utility standards, 1923------------------72. 998.36
Investigation of radioactive substances, 1923------------------7, 390.28
Investigation of textiles, 1922___________________________
588. 08
19, 509. 04
Investigation of textiles, 1923----------------------------------------Manufacture of arms, War transfer, 1921-22-------------------216. 86
Metallurgical research, 1922_____________________________
2, 839. 29
Metallurgical research, 1923-------------------------------------------32, 959. 31
Ordnance stores, ammunition, 1921-22----------------------------100. 00
Party expenses, Coast and Geodetic Survey, standards
161. 32
transfer, 1923________________________________________
Radio research, 1922____________________________________
2, 423. 46
26, 372. 92
Radio research, 1923 ___________________________________
Salaries, 1922__________________________________________
17,036.53
387,613.48
Salaries, 1923 __________________________________________
Sound investigation, 1922_______________________________
147. 83
Sound investigation, 1923_______________________________
3, 614. 02
Standardization of equipment, 1922_____________________
16. 697. 67
Standardization of equipment, 1923-------------------------------76, 740. 60
Standardizing mechanical appliances, 1921_______________
358. 40
Standardizing mechanical appliances, 1922---------------------2, 087. 74
Standardizing mechanical appliances, 1923---------------------12, 892. 63
Sugar standardization, 1922-------------------------------------------2, 345. 95
Sugar standardization, 1923-------------------------------------------32, 055. 81
Testing machines, 1922_________________________________
1,838. 81
Testing machines, 1923_________________________________
23,964.18
Testing miscellaneous materials, 1922----------------------------2, 085. 47
Testing miscellaneous materials, 1923____________________
24, 437. 66
Testing railroad scales, 1922_____________________________
2, 092. 41
Testing railroad scales, 1923_____________________________
34,420.19
Testing structural materials, 1922_______________________
13, 851. 96
Testing structural materials, 1923_______________________
153, 027. 05
7,573. 78
Standard materials, 1923______ _________________________
Total________________________________________________ 1, 759, 345. 50

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
47
Steamboat Inspection Service:
Clerk hire. 1922________________________________________
$8,964.33
Clerk hire, 1923__________________________ JL___________
99, 087. 29
Contingent expenses, 1921_______________________________
14. 08
Contingent expenses, 1922_______ ._______________________
22, 912. 26
Contingent expenses, 1923_______________________________
103,315. 59
Salaries, office of Supervising Inspector General, 1922____
937.15
21, 359.13
Salaries, office of Supervising Inspector General, 1923_____
Salaries, Steamboat Inspection Service, 1922_____________
48, 042. 96
Salaries, Steamboat Inspection Service, 1923___________
536, 043. 04
Total________________________________________________
840, 675. 83
Bureau of Navigation :
Admeasurement of vessels, 1922_________________________
275. 56
Admeasurement of vessels, 1923_________________________
2, 981. 43
Clerk hire, shipping service, 1922----------------------------------5, 263. 17
59,893. 98
Clerk hire, shipping service, 1923_______________________
Contingent expenses, shipping service, 1922______________
1, 759. 67
Contingent expenses, shipping service, 1923______________
7, 548. 38
3, 704. 62
Enforcement of navigation laws, 1922.__________________
Enforcement of navigation laws, 1923___________________
55,119. 20
Enforcement of wireless communication laws, 1922________
5, 277. 64
115, 065. 77
Enforcement of wireless communication laws, 1923________
Preventing overcrowding of passenger vessels, 1922_______
2,913. 27
Preventing overcrowding of passenger vessels, 1923----------8, 639. 05
1, 743. 98
Salaries, Bureau of Navigation, 1922--------------- ------- 1 ------Salaries, Bureau of Navigation, 1923-------------------------------37, 871. i}7
Salaries, shipping service, 1922__________________________
2, 300.05
26, 400. 34
Salaries, shipping service, 1923__________________________
Total________________________________________________
336, 757. 48
Bureau of Fisheries:
Buildings and water supply, Fur Seal Islands, Alaska-------378. 00
Fish hatchery, Washington______________________________
94. 25
Fish hatchery, Wyoming-----------------------------------------------101.16
Fish hatchery, Duluth, Minn., 1923_______________________
1, 868.29
Fish hatchery, Gloucester, Mass., 1923-----------------------------4,605.61
Fish hatchery, San Marcos, Tex-------------------------------------1, 254. 39
Fish hatchery. Yes Bay, Alaska, 1923-----------------------------6, 292. 11
Fish-rescue station, Mississippi River, 1923----------------------4, 566. 52
Investigating damages to fisheries----------------------------------343. 85
Marine biological station, Florida-----------------------------------214. 76
Miscellaneous expenses, 1921-----------------------------------------40. 41
Miscellaneous expenses, 1922-----------------------------------------73, 434. 61
Miscellaneous expenses, 1923------------------------------------------ 433, 301. 26
Miscellaneous expenses, 1923-24-------------------------------------2, 787. 88
Pay, officers and crew of vessel, Alaska fisheries service,
1923_________________________________________________
4, 341. 50
Protecting seal and salmon fisheries, Alaska, 1922-------------6,035. 70
Protecting seal and salmon fisheries, Alaska, 1923------------- 131, 321. 50
Protecting seal and salmon fisheries, Alaska,1923-24-------83,387. 24
Salaries, Bureau of Fisheries, 1922--------------------------------28,171. 01
Salaries, Bureau of Fisheries, 1923--------------------------------387,144.16
Total________________________________________________ 1,169, 684.21

48

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
Bureau of the Census:
Expenses of the Fourteenth Census, 1920-1922____________
Collecting statistics, 19i5_______________________________
Salaries, Bureau of the Census, 1923_____________________
Tabulating machines, 1923________ _____________________
Total-----------------------------------------------------------------------Bureau of Lighthouses:
Aids to navigation, Conneaut Harbor, Ohio________________
Aids to navigation, Delaware Bay entrance_______________
Aids to navigation, Florida coast_________________________
Aids to navigation, Fldrida Reefs, Fla____________________
Aids to navigation, Huron Harbor, Ohio__________________
Aids to navigation, St. Marys River, Mich_________________
Aids to navigation, Alaska______________________________
Detroit River lights, Michigan___________________________
Lighthouse depot, Detroit, Mich__________________________
Great Salt Pond Light Station, R. I_______________________
Spectacle Reef Light Station, Mich_______________________
Southwest Pass Light Vessel, Mississippi River, La________
Radio installation on lighthouse tenders__________________
Repairing and rebuilding aids to navigation, Gulf of MexicoRepairing and rebuilding aids to navigation, Seventh light­
house district, 1922-23_________________________________
Repairing and rebuilding aids to navigation, seventh and
eighth lighthouse districts_____________________________
1 Tender for third lighthouse district--------------------------------Vessels for Lighthouse Service___________________________
General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1921_______________
General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1922_______________
General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1923_______________
Salaries, Bureau of Lighthouses, 1922____________________
Salaries, Bureau of Lighthouses, 1923_____________________
Salaries, Lighthouse Service, 1922-----------------------------------Salaries, Lighthouse Service, 1923________________________
Salaries, lighthouse vessels, 1922-------------------------------------Salaries, lighthouse vessels, 1923-------------------------------------Total_______________________________________________
Miscellaneous:
Increase of compensation, 1921___________________________
Increase of compensation, 1922___________________________
Increase of compensation, 1923___________________________
Printing and binding, Department of Commerce, 1923_____
Total________________________________________________
Grand total__________________________________________

$237, 414. 44
673, 827. 98
730,145. 00
32, 794. 85
1, 674,182. 27
9. 86
18. 64
121.19
16. 98
27.18
36. 24
1, 641. 94
66. 39
19. 62
7. 37
61. 68
4. 46
4, 980. 27
66. 72
649. 72
10. 96
3, 061.15
385, 636. 57
803. 01
30, 383. 99
61, 085. 05
2, 706. 64
63, 488. 46
229.17
5, 748. 58
5.38
2, 714. 97
563, 602.19
. 67
30, 674. 82
686, 389.14
336, 937. 91
1, 054, 002. 54
8, 782, 668. 27

B y d isb u rs in g officers, L ig h th o u se S e r v ic e .

Aids to navigation, Alaska____________________________________
Aids to navigation, Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio-----------------------------Aids to navigation, Calumet Harbor, 111-----------------------------------

$69, 755.28
2, 008. 03
34, 738. 94

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

49

Aids to navigation, Chesapeake Bay, Md. and Va--------------------Aids to navigation, Conneaut Harbor, Ohio-----------------------------Aids to navigation, Coquille River, Oreg----------------------------------Aids to navigation, Delaware Bay entrance-------------------------------Aids to navigation, Fairport Harbor, Ohio-------------------------------Aids to navigation, Fighting Island Channel, Detroit River-------Aids to navigation, Florida coasts, Fla-----------------------------------Aids to navigation, Florida reefs, Fla------------------ ,------------------Aids to navigation, Huron Harbor, Ohio----------------------------------Aids to navigation, Indiana Harbor, Ind----------------------------------Aids to navigation. Keweenaw Waterway, Mich-----------------------Aids to navigation, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii-------------------------------Aids to navigation, Raritan Bay and connected waters, N. Y. and

$102.09
1,144. 29
4,023. 05
12, 312.70
28. 00
77. 7(5
3, 212. 20
1, 4(50. 88
143.47
20, 733. 07
109. 95
2, 922.27

80, 800. 74
N. .1_____________________________________________________________
2,903.10
Aids to navigation, St. Johns River, Fla-----------------------------------1,132.17
Aids to navigation, St. Marys River, Mich--------------------------------194.35
Aids to navigation, Washington and Oregon----------------------------341. 42
Depot for sixteenth lighthouse district-------------------------------------43,72S. 42
Detroit Lighthouse Depot, Mich---------------------------------------------San Juan Lighthouse Depot, P. R--------------------------------------------- 48, 09S. 58
4.66
Staten Island Lighthouse Depot, N. Y. (machine shop)---------------4, 441.67
Detroit River Lights, Mich----------------------------------------------------6,356. 80
Diamond Shoal Light Vessel, N. C-------------------------------------------3, 746.13
Fifth lighthouse district gas buoys.'----------------------------------------379. 53
Chicago Harbor Light Station, 111_____________________________
1, 001. 38
Galveston Jetty Light Station, Tex____________________________
179. 85
Great Salt Pond Light Station, It. I-----------------------------------------41.50
Point Borinquen Light Station, P. R----------------------------------------2,139. 02
Point Vincente Light Station, Calif-----------------------------------------9, 826. 68
Sabine Pass Jetty Light Station, Tex--------------------------------------229. 24
Sand Island Light Station, Ala-----------------------------------------------12, 733. 24
Spectacle Reef Light Station, Mich____________________________
8, 798. 46
Light-keepers’ dwellings---------------------------- ----------------------------2, 908. 99
Nantucket Harbor Fog Signal, Mass___________________________
6, 012. 23
Repairing and rebuilding aids to navigation, Atlantic coast-------9, 413. 33
Repairing and rebuilding aids to navigation, Gulf of Mexico_____
Repairing and rebuilding aids to navigation, seventh and eighth
4, 991. 21
lighthouse districts------------------------------------------------------------Repairing and rebuilding aids to navigation, seventh lighthouse
15, 614. 40
district, 1922-23.__________________________________________
Riprap protection for light station, third lighthouse district-------- 51,404. 73
360. 00
Southwest Pass Light Vessel, Mississippi River_________________
2, 538. 45
Tender for third lighthouse district___________________________
36,185. 09
Vessels for Lighthouse Service________________________________
6,004. 72
General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1921-------------------------------General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1922-------------------------------- 722, 996. 75
General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1923____________________ i, 431,386.12
2, 963. 72
Retired pay, Lighthouse Service, 1922_________________________
Retired pay, Lighthouse Service, 1923--------------------------------------- 83, 304. 30
00.00
Salnries, keepers of lighthouses, 1921--------------------------------------Salaries, keepers of lighthouses, 1922--------------------------------------- 85,344. 50
Salaries, keepers of lighthouses,*1923__________________________ .228, 341.93
4, 343. 82
Salaries, Lighthouse Service, 1922_____________________________
Salnries, Lighthouse Service, 1923_____________________________ 381,129. 17

50

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Salaries, lighthouse vessels, 1922_____________________________ $55, 532. 79
Salaries, lighthouse vessels, 1923______________________________ 1, 511, 035. 64
Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1921_______
. 48
Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1922_______
28,423.10
Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1923_______ 806,118. 79
Total____________ ,_____________________________________ 8,866,983.78
B y s p e c ia l d isb u rs in g a g e n t, C o a st a n d G e o d e tic S u r v e y .

Alterations to mine sweepers, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1922-23Alterations to mine sweepers, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1923----General expenses, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1922------------------General expenses, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1923------------------Geological Survey (Interior, transfer to Commerce), 1923_______
Party expenses, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1921----------------------Party expenses, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1922_______________
Party expenses, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1923_______________
Pay and allowances, commissioned officers, 1922-----------------------Pay and allowances, commissioned officers, 1923-----------------------Party expenses, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1923 (Interior, civil
transfer)__________________________________________________
Pay, etc., officers and men, vessels, Coast and Geodetic Survey,
1922 ____________________________________________________
Pay, etc., officers and men, vessels, Coast and Geodetic Survey,
1923 ____________________________________________________
Repairs of vessels, Coast Survey, 1922-------------------------------------Repairs of vessels, Coast Survey, 1923-------------------------------------Salaries, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1922--------------------------------Salaries, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1923--------------------------------Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1922----------Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1923-----------

$59, 961. 21
30. 283. 72
17, 698. 31
58,400. 58
184.88
2. 00
89, 299.15
406, 757.85
39, 894.93
373, 263. 22
788.73
78,984. 33
350, 371. 42
18,397.06
46,262.99
54. 71
282, 463. 40
16,249.51
144,378. 74

Total__________________________________________________ 2,013,696.74
B y s p e c ia l d isb u rs in g a g e n ts, B u re a u o f S ta n d a r d s .

General expenses, Bureau of Standards, 1923----------------------------------- $886. 84
Salaries, Bureau of Standards, 1923------------------------------------- ---------1,714. 37
Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1923------------------ 180. 00
Total____________________________________________________ 2,781. 21
B y c o m m e r c ia l a g e n ts o f th e d e p a r tm e n t in v e s tig a tin g tr a d e c o n d itio n s a b ro a d .

Commercial attachés, 1923--------------------------------------------------------$166,647.07
Enforcement of China trade act, 1923----------------------------------------- 3, 829. 35
Export industries, 1923________________________________________ 30, 507. 34
Investigating sources of crude rubber, 1923-24----------------------------- 4, 636. 74
Promoting commerce, Department of Commerce, 1923------------------ 220, 755. 06
Promoting commerce, Far East, 1923----------------------------------------- 84,420. 49
Promoting commerce, South and Central America, 1923----------------- 72, 645. 77
Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1923-----------6,877. 65
•

---------

Total___________________________________________________ 590,319. 47

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE.

51

B y s p e c ia l d isb u rs in g a g e n ts, B u re a u o f F ish e rie s.

Miscellaneous expenses, Bureau of Fisheries, 1923________________ $25, 543.43
Pay, officers and crew of vessels, Alaska fisheries service, 1923_____ 22, 631. 49
Protecting seal and salmon fisheries of Alaska, 1923--------------------- 41, 265. 49
Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1923_________ 4, 325. 35
Total____________________________________________________ 93, 765. 76

Warrants drawn on the Treasurer of the United States to satisfy
accounts settled by the General Accounting Office, State and Other
Departments Division, during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1923,
classified according to items of appropriation :

Office of the Secretary :
Contingent expenses, Department of Commerce, 1921------------$32. 72
Contingent expenses, Department of Commerce, 1922------------- 1,996. 01
Contingent expenses, Department of Commerce, 1923________
5, 510. 74
Certified claims—Contingent expenses, Department of Com­
merce, 1918_____________________________________________
7. 76
Total__________________________________________________
7, 547. 23
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce :
Commercial attachés, 1921-------------------------------------------------67. 76
Commercial attachés, 1922_________________________________
55. 60
Commercial attachés, 1923_________________________________
98.54
Enforcement of China trade act, 1923--------------------------------20. 67
Export industries, 1922____________________________________
1. 74
Export industries, 1923-----------------------------------------------------952. 93
Promoting commerce, Department of Commerce,1921------------42. 50
Promoting commerce, Department of Commerce, 1922----------336.36
Promoting commerce, Department of Commerce, 1923----------- 1, 079. 33
Promoting commerce, Far East, 1921----------------------------------24. 75
Promoting commerce, Far East, 1922----------------------------------56. 36
Promoting commerce, Far East, 1923----------------------------------566.75
Promoting commerce, South and Central America,1921--------46. 74
Promoting commerce, South and Central America,1922---------38. 21
Promoting commerce, South and Central America, 1923-------676.11
Certified claims—Promoting commerce, Department of Com­
merce, 1919____________________________________________
10. 01
Total__________________________________________________ 4, 074. 36
Bureau of Standards:
Color standardization, 1923-----------------------------------------------11. 84
Equipment, 1921__________________________________________
37. 38
Equipment, 1922__________________________________________
307. 08
Equipment, 1923__________________________________________
156. 09
General expenses, 1921____________________________________
1. 25
General expenses, 1922____________________________________
2, 053. 07
General expenses, 1923____________________________________ 17, 543. 23
Industrial research, 1921--------------------------------------------------554. 88
Industrial research, 1922--------------------------------------------------- 2, 446. 69

52

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Bureau of Standards—Continued.
Industrial research, 1923__________________________________ $1,259.19
Investigation of fire-resisting properties, 1922----------------------108. 40
Investigation of fire-resisting properties, 1923----------------------102.15
24. 00
Investigation of public-utility standards, 1922----------------------Investigation of radioactive substances, 1923-----------------------130.45
Investigation of textiles, 1922_____________________________
3.15
Investigation of textiles, 1923--------------------------------------------31. 99
Radio research, 1923_________________________________________
100.92
Standardization of equipment, 1922________________________
103. 20
Testing machines, 1923_______________________________________
463.81
Testing railroad scales, 1922_______________________________
275. 77
Testing railroad scales, 1923-------------------------------------------------- 1,109.28
Testing structural materials, 1922__________________________
70. 21
95. 93
Testing structural materials, 1923__________________________
Certified claims—
954. 51
Equipping chemical laboratory, 1919-20________________
National security and defense, military research, 1919___
8. 89
Total_______________________________________________ 27, 960.02
Bureau of Navigation:
Refunding moneys erroneously received and covered into the
Treasury_______________________________________________
1,307.27
4,316.70
Refunding penalties or charges erroneously exacted_________
Refund of navigation fees to Peninsular & Occidental Steam­
ship Co. (Private Act No.120, 67thCong.)________________ 7,717.20
Contingent expenses,shippingservice, 1922_________________
71.69
Enforcement of navigation laws, 1922______________________
71. 07
78. 25
Enforcement of wireless communication laws, 1922-----------Enforcement of wireless communication laws, 1923__________
70. 00
Certified claims—Preventing overcrowding of passenger ves­
sels, 1920_______________________________________________
4.96
Total_________________________________________________ 13,637.14
Steamboat Inspection Service:
.96
Contingent expenses, 1921------------------------------------------------Contingent expenses, 1922_________________________________
325.13
Contingent expenses, 1923_________________________________
220. 48
Certified claims—Contingent expenses, 1919-----------------------11.07
Total___________________________________________________
557. 6-1
Bureau of Fisheries:
Fish hatchery, Wyoming--------------------------------------------------535. 54
Fish hatchery, Duluth, Minn., 1923-------------------------------------88. 54
Fish hatchery, Gloucester, Mass., 1923______________________
1,418. 85
Fish hatchery, Yes Bay, Alaska, 1923_______________________
45. 09
Miscellaneous expenses, 1921______________________________
1.90
Miscellaneous expenses, 1922 --------------------------------------------- 4, 993. 55
Miscellaneous expenses, 1923______________________________
7, 635. 84
Protecting seal and salmon fisheries of Alaska,
1922---- 1,721.01
Protecting seal and salmon fisheries of Alaska,
1923___ 2, 715. 99

REPOET OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
Bureau of Fisheries—Continued.
Certified claims—
Miscellaneous expenses, 1918_____ ___________________
Miscellaneous expenses, 1919__________________________
Miscellaneous expenses, 1920__________________________
Total______________________________________________
Bureau of the Census:
Collecting statistics. 1923__________________________________
Expenses of Fourteenth Census, 1920-1922__________________
Total ..
____________________________________________
Coast and Geodetic Survey:
Alterations to mine sweepers, 1922-23--------------------------------General expenses, 1921_____ ______________________________
General expenses, 1922-----------------------------------------------------General expenses, 1923-----------------------------------------------------Party expenses, 1921--------------------------------------------------------Party expenses, 1922 ____________________________________
Party expenses, 1923--------------------------------------------Pay and allowances, commissioned officers, 1923-------------------Repairs of vessels, 1921___________________________________
Repairs of vessels, 1922-----------------------------------------»---------Repairs of vessels, 1923---------------------------------------------------Certified claims—
Party expenses, 1919__________________________________
Pay, etc., officers and men, vessels, 1919--------------------:—
Total______________________________________________
,
Bureau of Lighthouses:
Aids to navigation, Alaska-----------------------------------------------Aids to navigation, Delaware Bay entrance-------------------------Aids to navigation, Florida coast--------------------------------------Aids to navigation, Florida Reefs, Fla-------------------------------Fifth lighthouse district gas buoys-------------------------------------Diamond Shoal Light Vessel, N. C-------------------------------------Light vessels for general service----------------------------------------Radio installations on lighthouse tenders----------------------------Repairing and rebuilding aids to navigation, seventh nnd
eighth lighthouse districts----------------------------------------------Repairing and rebuilding aids to navigation, seventh light­
house district, 1922-23--------------------------------------------------Vessels for Lighthouse Service-------------------------------------------General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1921------------------------General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1922------------------------General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1923------------------------Salaries, keepers of lighthouses, 1922----------------------------------Salaries, keepers of lighthouses, 1923----------------------------------Salaries, lighthouse vessels, 1922----------------------------------------Salaries, lighthouse vessels, 1923----------------------------------------Certified claims—
General expenses, 1916-----------------------------------------------General expenses, 1917-----------------------------------------------General expenses, 1918------------------------------------------------

53
83.25
1.70
1. 60
19,102. 68
234. 00
11,276.27
11,510.27
9,573. 60
4. 66
487.14
1» 722. 81
24. 62
31, 620. 81
9,807.38
932.07
2, 879. 69
3, 697. 75
775. 86
7.46
9. 90
61, 543. 75
975. 64
202.20
7.11
29. 66
488. 25
97. 00
13,381.00
33. 70
20. 33
443. 40
40. 23
2, 430. DO
89, 085. 77
38, 626.17
433. 50
60. 67
3,719.84
4, 293.28
3. 04
40.75
5. 56

54

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Bureau of Lighthouses—Continued.
Certified claims—Continued.
General expenses, 1919________________________________ .$2,307.99
General expenses, 1920------------------------------------------------ 5, GOO. 89
40. 45
Salaries, keepers of lighthouses, 1907__________________
Total_______________________________________ ________ 101, 7S1. 33
Miscellaneous :
10. 07
Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1923___
Claims for damages by collision with light vessels__________
499. 00
Total__________________________________________________
515. 07
Grand total____________________________________________ 308,290.09
E xpenditures D uring th e F iscal Y ear E nded J une 30, 1923, on A ccount o f
A ll A ppropriations U nder th e Control of the D epartment , Giving the
T otal A mount E xpended by E ach B ureau .
Bureau.
Office of the Secretary..............................................
Bureau of the Census...............................................
Coast and Geodetic Survey....................................
Bureau of Fisheries..................................................
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce___
Bureau of Lighthouses............................................
Bureau of Navigation..............................................
Bureau of Standards................................................
Steamboat Inspection Service................... y ........
Total.................................................................

By special By General
By disbursing disbursing
clerk of the agents of Accounting
department. department.
Office.

Total.

5453,148.44
$7,517.23 $460,695.67
1,897,243.93
11,510.27 1,908,754.20
30,187.04 ?2,013,696.74
61,543. 75 2,105,427.58
1,274,486.84
93,765. 76 j 19,162.68 1,387,415.28
1,235,157.01 590,319.47 I 4,074.36 1,829,550.87
591,317.25 8,866,983.78 j 162,297.00 9,620,598.03
401,962.32
13,637.14
418,599.46
1,966,602.57
2,781.21 I 27,960.02 1,997,343.80
929,562.84
557.01
930,120.48
8,782,668.27 11,567,546.96 308,290.09 20,658,505.32

The following statement shows the expenditures during the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1923, on account of all appropriations under the
control of the department, giving the total amounts disbursed by
the various disbursing officers of the department and miscellaneous
receipts for the same period :
By the disbursing clerk, Department of Commerce, on account
of salaries and expenses of the office of the Secretary of
Commerce, the Bureaus of Foreign and Domestic Com­
merce, Navigation, Standards, Fisheries, Census, and Light­
houses, the office of the Supervising Inspector General,
Steamboat Inspection Service, salaries and expenses of the
Steamboat Inspection Service at large, and public works
of the Lighthouse aud Fisheries Service (shown in detail in
the first of the foregoing tables of disbursements)_________ $8, 782, 668. 27
By the authorized disbursing officers of the Lighthouse Serv­
ice--------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8, 866,983. 78
By the special disbursing agent, Coast and Geodetic Survey___ 2, 013, 696. 74
By the special disbursing agents, Bureau of Fisheries________
93, 765. 76
By the commercial agents of the department investigating
trade conditions abroad, as special disbursing agents______
590, 319. 47

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

55

By tlie special disbursing agents, Bureau of Standards----------$2,781.21
By warrants drawn on the Treasurer of the United States to
satisfy accounts settled by the Auditor for the State and
Other Departments______________________________________
308, 290. 09
Total_______________________________________________ 20, 658, 505. 32
MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS.

Coast and Geodetic Survey: Sale of charts, publications, old
63, 551. 50
property, etc_____________________________________________
Bureau of the Census: Sale of publications, etc----------------------419. 00
Bureau of Fisheries:
Sale of 41,075sealskins_________________________________
238, 068. 79
Sale of 1,8S4 fox skins_________________________________
164, 472. 97
Sale of seal-oil barrels__________________________________
238.15
Sale of 28 terrapins____________________________________
54.10
Meals furnished employees at isolated stations----------------2,946. 73
Sale of old property-----------------------------------------------------2, 886. 69
Reimbursement for loss and damage to Government prop­
erty_________________________________________________
50.39
Bureau of Standards:
37, 934. 30
Test fees______________________________________________
Reimbursement for damage to Government property---------3. 00
Steamboat Inspection Service: Sale of old property, etc----------246. 44
Bureau of Lighthouses:
44, 036.12
Sale of old property, etc-----------------------------------------------Reimbursement for loss and damage to Government prop­
4, 961. 07
erty___________________________________ -_____________
Sale of empty oil cans--------------------------------------------------2, 048. 43
Reimbursements by private concerns for work done_______
4, 980. 69
Rentals_________________________________;-------------------4, 420. 70
128. 60
Default in contracts-----------------------------------------------------Interest on debts due United States by individuals------------2, 678. 79
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce:
Photostatic work done__________________________________
13.35
Registration fees, etc., China trade act----------------------------375. 00
Office of the Secretary:
Sale of waste paper-----------------------------------------------------2, 723.17
Miscellaneous refunds__________________________________
1,078. 97
Bureau of Navigation:
Tonnage duties________________________________________ 1, 688, 786. 68
Navigation fees________________________________________
221, 078. 56
Navigation fines_______________________________________
36,914. 62
Reimbursement for loss of Government property---------------17. 02
Total_______________________________________________ 2, 525, 719. S3

The following unexpended balances of appropriations were turned
into the surplus fund June 30, 1923, in accordance with the act of
June 20, 1874 (18 Stat. 110-111) :
Salaries, office of the Secretary of Commerce, 1921-------------------Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1918----------Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1920-----------

$5, 891. 76
3. 48
10, 065. 50

56

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1921----------- $37. 354. 40
Increase of compensation, Department of Commerce, 1922----------- 59, 774. 05
Contingent expenses, Department of Commerce, 1921-----------------615.08
Kent, Department of Commerce, 1921--------------------------------------471. 53
Collecting statistics, Bureau of the Census, 1919-----------------------12. 06
Salaries, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, 1921---------- 15,532.08
Commerce,1915-------3. 76
Commercial attachés, Department of
Commercial attachés, Department of
Commerce,1917-------37.18
Commercial attachés, Department of
Commerce,191S_____
368.18
Commercial attachés, Department of Commerce, 1919______________
544.83
Commercial attachés, Department of Commerce, 1920______________
817.39
Commercial attachés, Department of Commerce, 1921----------------- 4, 648. 80
Promoting commerce, Department of Commerce, 1917----------------265. 54
Promoting commerce, Department of Commerce, 1918----------------- 1, 774. 40
687. 96
Promoting commerce, Department of Commerce, 1919___________
Promoting commerce, Department of Commerce, 1920___________
2, 988. 87
Promoting commerce, Department of Commerce, 1921___________ 20,981.41
Promoting commerce, South and Central America, 1918___________
139.48
Promoting commerce, South and Central America, 1919_____________
22.74
Promoting commerce, South and Central America, 1920____________
766.22
Promoting commerce, South and Central America, 1921_________
4, 211. 60
Promoting commerce in the Far East, 1919_____________________
. 30
Promoting commerce in the Far East, 1920_____________________
270. 76
1,109.82
Promoting commerce in the Far East, 1921____________ - _______
Salaries, office of Supervising Inspector General, Steamboat Inspec­
tion Service, 1921___________________________________________
330. 92
Salaries, Steamboat Inspection Service, 1921____________________ ' 20, 671. 39
Clerk hire, Steamboat Inspection Service, 1921__________________
2,188. 22
Contingent expenses, Steamboat Inspection Service, 1919________
1. 05
8,99
Contingent expenses, Steamboat Inspection Service, 1920________
Contingent expenses, Steamboat Inspection Service, 1921________
8, 410. 42
Salaries, Bureau of Navigation, 1921___________________________
1, 046. 32
Salaries, shipping service, 1921________________________________
1, 652. 00
1,465. 24
Clerk hire, shipping service, 1921________________________ _____
Contingent expenses, shipping service, 1921_____________________
154.15
Admeasurement of vessels, 1921_______________________________
11.98
Preventing overcrowding of passenger vessels, 1920_____________
15.88
Preventing overcrowding of passenger vessels, 1921_____________
22. 55
Enforcement of navigation laws, 1921__________________________
78.33
Enforcement of wireless communication laws, 1921______________
186. 48
Salaries, Bureau of Standards, 1921_________________________ ,_ 11 , 359 . 76
Equipment, Bureau of Standards, 1920______________ __________
2. 70
Equipment, Bureau of Standards, 1921_________________________
3, 957 .14
General expenses, Bureau of Standards, 1920___________________
43.14
General expenses, Bureau of Standards, 1921___________________
3,245. 65
Improvement and care of grounds, Bureau of Standards, 1921____
66. 49
Color standardization, Bureau of Standards, 1921______________
221.10
Equipping laboratory, Bureau of Standards, 1919-20____________
5.18
Gauge standardization, Bureau of Standards, 1921______________
1, 536. 09
High-temperature investigations, Bureau of Standards, 1921_____
36. 22
Industrial research, Bureau of Standards, 1919-20________________
1.38
Industrial research, Bureau of Standards, 1921______ ___________ 23,305. 27
Investigation of clay products, Bureau of Standards, 1921_______
481.59

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
Investigation of tire-resisting properties, Bureau of Standards.
1921_______________________________________________________
Investigation of mine scales and cars, Bureau of Standards.
1918-19_________________________ _____________ :____________
Investigation of mine scales and cars, Bureau of Standards, 1921_
Investigation of optical glass, Bureau of Standards, 1921________
Investigation of public-utility standards, Bureau of Standards, 1920_
Investigation of public-utility standards, Bureau of Standards, 1921 _
Investigation of railway materials. Bureau of Standards, 1921___
Investigation of textiles, etc., Bureau of Standards, 1921_________
Metallurgical research, Bureau of Standards, 1921_______________
Military research, Bureau of Standards, 1917-18______________ ___
Radio research, Bureau of Standards, 1921______________________
Sound investigation, Bureau of Standards, 1921_________________
Standardization of equipment, Bureau of Standards, 1921________
Standardizing mechanical appliances, Bureau of Standards, 1921_
Sugar standardization, Bureau of Standards, 1921_______________
Testing Government materials, Bureau of Standards, 1921_______
Testing machines, Bureau of Standards, 1921___________________
Testing miscellaneous materials, Bureau of Standards, 1921______
Testing railroad scales, etc., Bureau of Standards, 1919__________
Testing railroad scales, etc., Bureau of Standards, 1920__________
Testing railroad scales, etc.. Bureau of Standards, 1921__________
Testing structural materials, Bureau of Standards, 1919_________
Testing structural materials. Bureau of Standards, 1920_________
Testing structural materials, Bureau of Standards, 1921_________
Pay and allowances, commissioned officers, Coast and Geodetic Sur­
vey, 1921________________________ __________________________
Salaries, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1921______________________
Party expenses, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1921-----------------------General expenses, Coast and Geodetic Survey, 1921--------------------Pay, etc., of officers and men, vessels, Coast Survey, 1921________
Repairs of vessels, Coast Survey, 1921--------------------------------------Alterations to vessels transferred from Navy, Coast Survey, 1920-21
Alterations to vessels transferred from Navy, Coast Survey, 1921___
Salaries, Bureau of Lighthouses, 1921-----------------------------------Retired pay, Lighthouse Service, 1921--------------------------------------General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1917-------------------------------General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1918-------------------------------General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1919-------------------------------General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1920--------------- -----------------General expenses, Lighthouse Service, 1921--------------------- ----------Salaries, keepers of lighthouses, 1921----------------------------------------Salaries, lighthouse vessels, 1921----------------------------------------------Salaries, Lighthouse Service, 1921--------------------------------------------Nantucket Harbor fog signal, Mass------------------ ------------------------Aids to navigation, Florida Reefs, Flu--------------------------------------Aids to navigation, Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio-------------------------------Aids to navigation, Huron Harbor, Ohio-------------------------------------Aids to navigation, Keweenaw Waterway, Mich-------------------------Aids to navigation, Fighting Island Channel, Detroit River, Mich—
Point Jigero Light Station, P. R-----------------------------------------------Aids to navigation, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba-------------------------------Tender and barge for eighth lighthouse district--------------------------68596—23----- 5

57
$504. 57
. 70
3,236.52
81.48
4. 70
152. 95
248.12
112.12
145. 77
1. 00
194. 04
90. 32
5, 790. 75
377. 09
139.15
1, 415. 75
100. 51
83. 89
2. 25
6.13
528. 51
35. 74
68. 50
702. 74
100, 949. 41
10,717.58
28, 521.18
2, 037.10
92,054.59
4,140.41
34.39
744. 40
4, 326. 24
2,112.23
3, 579. 64
5, 849. 50
12, 226. 27
1,018. 97
43, 787. 41
5,950.22
13, 722. 86
8, 859. 84
19. 44
17.57
24. 51
16. 40
15.35
6. 09
578. 78
117. 52
90. 86

58

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Salaries, Bureau of Fisheries, 1921____________________________
Miscellaneous expenses, Bureau of Fisheries, 1919_______________
Miscellaneous expenses, Bureau of Fisheries, 1920_______________
Miscellaneous expenses, Bureau of Fisheries, 1921_______________
Buildings and water supply, fur-seal islands, Alaska_____________
Developing aquatic sources of leather, Bureau of Fisheries, 1921
Pay of officers and crews of vessels, Alaska fisheries service, 1921__
Protecting seal and salmon fisheries of Alaska, 1921____________
Biological station, Mississippi River Valley, 1920-21_____________
Fish hatchery, Bozeman, Mont_________________________________
Fish hatchery, Clackamas, Oreg________________________________
Fish hatchery, Washington____________________________________
Fish hatchery, Woods Hole, Mass., 1920-21______________________
Total---------------------------------------------------------------------------Armament of fortifications, Commerce transfer________________
Armament of fortifications (War transfer, fortifications act, May
21, 1920), 1921 _____________ B_____________________________ _
Aviation, Navy (Navy transfer under fortifications act May 21,
1920), 1921------------------------------------------------------------------------Experiments, Bureau of Ordnance (Navy transfer under fortifica­
tions act May 21, 1920), 1921________________________________
Testing structural materials, Bureau of Standards (Interior, civil
transfer under act of May 21, 1920), 1921____________________
Party expenses, Coast and Geodetic Survey (Interior, civil trans­
fer under act of May 21, 1920), 1921__________ ‘______________
National security and defense, commodity experts, 1919_________
Total--------------------------------------------------------------------------Grand total------------------------------------------------------------------

$40, 009.19
5. 43
103. 15
3, 962. 83
. 97
3, 394. 5S
4, 017. 95
196. 77
70. IS
5. 20
. 21
5.48
300. 20
658, 079. 07
64. 831. 70
21.99
3,554.67
4.61
367.36
3,164.14
373. 73
72, 318. 20
730, 397. 27

In the last nine years the Department of Commerce has turned
back unused into the Treasury the following amounts:

June
June
June
June
June
June

30,
30,
30,
30,
30,
30,

1915________ $247,482. 22 June 30, 1921________ $4, 042, 434. 38
1916________
227,941.92 June 30, 1922________
546, 440. 71
1917________
177, 995.27 June 30, 1923________
730,397. 27
1918________
149, 009. 51
Total__________ 7, 747,109. 66
1919________
476,045.10
1920________ 1,149,363.28

59

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
EST IM A T E S FOR FISC A L YEAR E N D IN G J U N E 3 0 , 10 2 0.
C o m p a r is o n B e t w e e n t h e I t e m s o f E s t im a t e s fo r t h e D e p a r t m e n t
m e r c e S u b m it t e d fo r t h e F is c a l Y ea r 1925 a n d A p p r o p r ia t io n s
F is c a l \ te a r 1924.

of Com ­
for t h e

[It should be noted that under appropriation for 1924 both the items for regular appropriations and bonus
should he taken together as a total expense for each item of the impropriation for that year and for com­
parison with the estimate for 1925, as the latter includes reclassification salaries which take the plare of
bonus allowances. The various amounts asked for as supplemental estimates are for the extension of
uecessarv activities or to prevent the impairment of services of the department: and in the case of the item
for the agricultural decennial census the supplemental estimate is to cover the tost of this census to be
taken under statutory authority and is an extraordinary and not a routine expenditure.)
Appropriations, 1924.
Bureau.

Estimates, 1925.

Regular.

Bonus.

Total.

Supple- i T , ,
Regular. mental.
10131 -

$169,350

$29,280

$198,630

09,900
68,000
401,500
768,750

$258.400
150,000
SS, 807
6S, 000
645,193

29,2S0

69,900
6S, 000
................ 645,193
461,500
79S, 030 1,210,460 ................. 1,210,460

232,510
225,000

34,560
5,2S0

267,070
230,280

277,5S0 ................
255,220 $94,7S0

277,580
350,000

379,100
150,000

0,480
13,960

385,680
163,960

458,170 ................
320,8S0 ................

45S, 170
320,880

200,000
200,000
550,000
38,000
50,000

7,104
5,280
51,840
960
4,320
J 1,920
i 5,712

207,104
205,280
601,840
38,960
54,320
401,920
5,712
1,500
15,000
28,120
11,200

285,710
284,930
720,850
31,260
165,560
100,000
146,580
1,500
50.000
54,940
33,120

16,456
15,520
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................
................

302,160
300,450
726.850
31,260
165,660
100,000
146,580
1.500
50,000
54,940
33,120

OFFICE OF SECRETARY.

Total
BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC
COMMERCE.

Commercial attachés.................................
Promoting commerce, Europe and
Promoting commerce, South and Central America............................................
Promoting commerce, Far E ast.............
Export industries......................................
Enforcing China trade act........................
Distribution in domestic trade...............
Investigating farm products 1..................
Raw m aterials1..........................................

1,500
15,000
25,000
10,000

Foreign trade restrictions.........................
Foreign buyers...........................................
Foreign trade statistics, economic abstreet......................................................... 150,000
Total.................................................. 2,626,110

3,120
1.200

................ $258,460
................ 150,000
................
88,807

1S9,360 400,000 .................1 400,000
2,807,206
3,592,300 126,756 j 3,719,056
181,096
39,360

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS.

Salaries.........................................................
Collecting statistics....................................
Tabulating machines.................................

802,340
895,000
35,000

Total.................................................. 1,732,340
1 Appropriations for rubber investigations.

989,980 ................ 989,980
810,000 ................ 810.000
42,620
42,620 ................
4,000,000 | 4,000,000
213,815 1,946,155 1,842,600 4,000,000 5,842,60®
143,280
67,215
4,320

945,620
961,215
39,320

60

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

C o m p a r is o n B e t w e e n t h e I t e m s o f E s t im a t e s fob t h e D e p a r t m e n t
m e r c e S u b m it t e d fo r t h e F is c a l Y e a r 1925 a n d A p p r o p r ia t io n s
F is c a l Y ea r 1924—Continued.
Appropriations, 1924.
Bureau.

of C o m
fo r t h e

Estimate*;, 1925.
Regular. Supple­
mental.

Regular.

Bonus.

$22,940
602,100
115,700
160,000

$2,880
54.800
22.800

$25,820
656,900
138,500
160,000

$27,960
657.500
138.500
160,000

900,740

80,480

981,220

983,960

$27,960
667.500
138.500
160,000
983,966

42,780
3,760
250
75,000

6,960
240
7,200

49,740
4,000
250
82,200

57,240
4,500
250
S2,200

57,240
4,500
250
82,200

10,000

2,880

12,SS0

18,000

18,000

139,200
30,600
70,000
10,000
3,000

16,120
1,920
14,440
240

38-1,590

50,000

155,320
32,520
84,440
10,240
3,000
434,590

215,760
38,520
8-4,440
10,240
3,000
514,150

215,760
38,520
81,440
10,240
3,000
514,150

396,500 66,080
75,000 ................
48,000
10,000
1,440
Test ing structural materials.................... 195,000 17,240
Testing machines....................................... 35,000
2,100
Fire-resisting properties...........................
25,000
2,400
Public-utility standards...........................
95,000
6,960
Testing miscellaneous materials.............
40,000
2,880
Radio communication research............... 40,000
2,8S0
Color standardization................................ 10,000
4X0
Clay products.............................................
30,000
2,6S0
Mechanical appliances............................... 30,000
1,680
Optical glass...............................................
25,000
1,680
Textiles......................................................
1,920
25,000
Sugar..........................................................
1,680
40,000
40,000 1 4,080
Mine scales.................................................
15,000
1,200
Metallurgical research.............................
40,000
3,120
High-temperature investigation...........
10,000
480
480
Industrial research..................................
150,000 10, .520
Railroad scales..........................................
2,160
40,000
Standardisation of equipment............... 1 100,000
3,600

462,580
75,000
48,000
11,440
212,240
37,400
27,400
101,960
42,880
42,880
10,480
32,680
31,680
26,680
26,920
41,680
44,0S0
16,200
43,120
10,480
5,480
160,520
42,160
103,600

522,760
75,000
48,000

522,760
75,000
48,000
11,460
272,560
51,960
49,700
132,010
80,760
81,010
20,600
54,200
53,000
32,380
77,SOO
67,840

Total.

Total.

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE.

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION.

Preventing overcrowding of passenger
Enforcement of wireless communies-

BUREAU OF STANDARDS.

Salaries........................................................
Equipm ent.................................................
General expenses........................................

247,560 $25,000
39,960 15,000
29,700 20,000
107,040 25,000
45,760 35,000
66,040 15,000
10,600 10,000
34,200 20,000
33,000 20,000
5,000
27,380
27,800 50,000
42,840 25,000
45,220
5,000
16,500
44,300 35,000
10,600 10,000
10,580
188,520 85,000
42,740 15,000
156,980

21,500
79,300
20,600
273,820
57,740
156,080

61

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
C o m p a r is o n B e t w e e n t h e I t e m s o f E s t im a t e s fok t h e D e p a r t m e n t
m e r c e S u b m it t e d fo r t h e F is c a l Y e a r 1925 a n d A p p r o p r ia t io n s
BYb o a l Y ea r 1924-—Continued.
Appropriations, 1924.
Bureau.
..
bureau

of

sta n d a r d s

Regular.

Bonus.

$10,000
10,000
20,000

$720
1,200
ISO

Total.

of C om ­
fo b t u b

Estimates, 1925.
Regular. «

Tota..

- c o n tin u e d .

Standard materials....................................
Radioactive substances............................

Total.................................................. 1,559,500
BUREAU OF LIGHTHOUSES.

OS, 290
General expenses........................................ 4,200,000
Salaries of keepers...................................... 1,300,000
Salaries, l ig h t h o u s e vessels...................... 1.650.000
Salaries, lighthouse service...................... 400,000
85,000
Public works.............................................. 713,000
Total.................................................. S, 410,290

$10,720
11,200
20,480

$10,840 $5,000 $15.840
11,500 10,000
21.500
11,100 ................. 11.100
50,000
25.000 25,000
10.000 30,000
40.000
50,000
50.000
50.000
50,000
173,117 173,117
50,000
.50.000
50.000
50.000
140.440 1,699,910 1,953,280 S5S,1I7 2,811,397
—
8,160
76,450
91,860
72,000 4,272,000 4,272,000
316,000 1,640,000 1, S20,000
460,000 2,110,000 2,210,000
43,600 443,600 515,000
85,000
95,000
713,000 866,800
929,760 9,346,050 9,870,660

................
91,860
128,000 4,400.000
................ 1,820.000
50,000 ; 2,260,000
................ 515.000
................
95,000
669, S00 1,536,600
. . . 1
847,800 jl0,718,4M

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.

Party expenses:
Atlantic coast......................................
Pacific coast.........................................

13S, 000
314,300
29.000
5,000
Magnetic work.................................... 1 134,560
Federal surveys................................... 1

Objects not nam ed.............................
Total, party expenses....................
Pay, officers and men, vessels.................
Salaries, office force...................................
General expenses........................................

1,920
4.800
420
360
2,300
................
15,000
210
.................
7,500
5,000
240
5,000
653,960 10,310
75,000
535, 200 119,000
524,005
291,230 43,440
88,1R4
1,680

Total.................................................. 2,107,579

139,920 159,920 31,080 191,000
319,100 3i9,100 60,400 379,500
29.420
29.000 ................
29,000
6 , 560
5.900
6,560 .......................
37,100 22,000
.59,160
136,920 j( 126,720
106,940 233,060
23, (XX)
23.000
15,210
15.000
10.000
10.000
7,500
7,500
7,.500 ................
3,000
.5,000
3,000
5,240
5,600 ................
5,600
664,270 711,860 2.53,420 964,980
75, (XX)
SO, 000 26,000 106,000
054,200 727,000 ................ 727,000
521,005 330,219
__ 536,219
334,670 402,380 ................ 402,380
89,864
89,000 ................
89,000
140,000 140,000
174,430 2,342,009 2,546,159 419,420 ! 2,965,579

G2

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

C o m p a r is o n B e t w e e n t h e I t e m s ok E s t im a t e s fob t h e D e p a r t m e n t
m e r c e S u b m it t e d fo r t h e F is c a i . Y e a r 1925 a n d A p p r o p r ia t io n s
F is c a l Y ea r 1924—Continued.
Appropriations 1924.
Bureau.
BUREAU OF FISHERIES.

Miscellaneous expenses...........................
Alaska general service.............................
Fish hatchery, Saratoga, W yo.............

1 Regular.

Bonus.

Total.

$152,160
31.630
554,020
165,000

$99.176
6,240
480

$551,336
37, 870
554,500
165.000

Total................................................ ; 1,202,810

ok C o m ­
fo r t h e

Estimates, 1925.
Regular. Supple­
mental.

1600,620
37,870
576,540
2.50,000
17,750
105,896 1,308,706 1,482,780

$40,000

Total.
$600,620
37,870
616,540
250,000
17,750

40,000 1,522,780

RECAPITULATION.

Oftice of the Secretarv.............................
768.750
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce....................................................... j 2,626,110
Bureau of the Census.............................. 1,732,340
900,740
384,590
Bureau of Standards............................... i 1,559,500
Bureau of Lighthouses........................... j 8,416,290
Coast and Geodetic Survey................... 2,167,579
Bureau of Fisheries................................. 1,202,810

2 9 ,2S0

181,096
213,815
80.480
50,000
140,440
929,760
174,430
105,896
33,551
Total................................................ 19,758,709 1,938,748

798,030 1,210,460
2,807,206
1,946,155
981,220
434,590
1,699,940
9,346,050
2,342,009
1,308,706
33,551
21,697,457

APPOINTMENT DIVISION.

1,210,460

3,592,300 126,756 3,719,056
1,842,600 4,000,000 5,842,600
983,960
983,960
514,150
514,150
1,953,280 858,117 2,811,397
9,870,660 847,800 10,718,460
2,546,159 419,420 2,965,579
1,482,780 40,000 1,522,780
23,996,349 6,292,093 30,288,442

The accompanying table shows, by bureaus, the number of perma­
nent positions in the department on July 1, 1923, and the increase or
decrease in each bureau as compared with July 1, 1922. The figures
do not include temporary appointments, nor do they include the
following appointments or employments not made by the head of
the department: Persons engaged in rodding, chaining, recording,
heliotroping, etc., in field parties of the Coast and Geodetic Survey;
temporary employments in field operations of the Bureau of Fish­
eries; mechanics, skilled tradesmen, and laborers employed in field
construction work in the Lighthouse Service. Enlisted men on ves­
sels of the Coast Survey in the Philippine Islands and officers and
men of the Navy Department employed on vessels of the Bureau of
Fisheries are also excluded. The total of these excluded miscel­
laneous employments and enlistments is approximately 3,515, as
compared with 4,022 for the fiscal year 1922. At the close of the
fiscal year there were 1,042 employees in the service of the depart­
ment serving under temporary appointment or employment.
The total number of permanent positions referred to in the accom­
panying table, together with the employments and enlistments just

63
mentioned, on July 1, 1923, was approximately 12,303, as compared
with 12,683 on July 1, 1922.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

In Dis­ Outside Increase
Statu- Nonstatu­ Total. trict of District (+ ) or de­
tory.
tory.
Colum­ of Colum­ crease
bia.^
bia.
(-).

Bureau.

Bureau of the Census......................................
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce..............................................................
Bureau of Standards......................................
Bureau of Fisheries.........................................
Bureau of Lighthouses...................................
Coast and Geodetic Survey...........................
Bureau of Navigation.....................................
Steamboat Inspection Service......................

127
604

Of4

127
1,548

127
792

756

-56
-116

164
295
420
56
325
<45
269

776
616
41
5,731
622
175
93

940
911
461
*5,787
947
220
362

504
872
69
40
337
40
14

436
39
392
5,747
610
180
348

• +345
-5 7
-1
-122
-31
-10
—4

.

-52
8,50S
'
1 Employees engaged in work in the field for a part of each year, with headquarters in Washington, are
treated as within the District of Columbia.
5 This increase includes the transfer from the Treasury Departm ent, Jan. 1, 1923, by operation of law.
of 121 employees of the Customs Statistics Bureau in New York, N. Y.
* Includes the following positions, appointm ent to which is not made by the head of the departm ent:
533 mechanics, skilled tradesmen, and laborers, employed in fiold construction work in the Lighthouse
Serviceand work of a similar character at the General Lighthouse Depot, Staten Island, N. Y.: 1,643 lam p­
lighters and light attendants, and 1,383 members of crews of vessels.
♦ Includes two stenographers and typewriters authorized by law for not exceeding six m onths each dur­
ing the year.
6 Does not include 111 positions in District of Columbia (129statutory and 12 nonstatutory), maintenance
foroe, transferred by operation of law, effective July 1, 1923, to the jurisdiction of the Superintendent of the
State, War, and Navy Departm ent Buildings.
S u m m a r y o f C h a n g e s in t h e P e r s o n n e l o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t fo r t h e F is c a l
Y e a r E nd ed J u n e 30, 1923.
8,998 ‘ 11,303

2,305

T otal.......................................................

2,795

.

Appointments.1
Permanent.

Bureau.

Com­ Ex­ Un­
peti- cepted. classi­ Total.
fied.
Uve.
48
71

2

348
178
75
294
55
Coast and Geodetic Survey..................
54
Bureau of Navigation............................
29
Total............................................... 1,152

178
5
13
3
4
6

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce.............................................
Bureau of Standards.............................
Bureau of Fisheries................................

211

3
841

53
912

531
216
96
297
678
72
12
29
910 2,273
5
33
8

Promo­ Reduc­
Tempo­ Grand tions. tions.
rary. total.
1
251

54
1,163

36
80

79
610
310
94
154
58
415
118
33
100
43
115
31
2
679 2,952

439
477
64
587
49
113
17
1,862

529
17
13
3
125
5
692

1Includes appointments of the following character: Presidential; by selection from civil-service certifi­
cate; under Execcutivo order; to excepted positions; by reason of transfer within the department, or from
other departments or independent establishments; and by reinstatement.

64

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

S um mart

of

C h a n g f .s in t h e P e r s o n n e l ok t h e D e p a r t m e n t
Y e a r E nded J u n e 30, 1923—Continued.

for t h e

F is c a l

Separations.2
Bureau-

From permanent positions.

Miscel­
From
laneous
tempo­ Grand changes.*
rary
Com­ Ex­ Unclas­
posi­ total.
peti­ cepted. sified. Total. tions.
tive.
.

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce -.
Bureau of Standards..........................................
Bureau of Fisheries............................................
Bureau of Lighthouses......................................
Coast and Geodetic Survey.............................
Bureau of Navigation........................................

55
77
73
194
61
342
36
36
12

Total..........................................................

886

Office of tlie Secretary......................................

...

77
7
13
5
2
59

15
738
5
30
5
6
16
8

72
815
155
231
79
353
54
103
12

1
91
47
83
38
96
29
50

73
906
202
314
117
449
83
153
12

1
81
203
63
17
94
29
53
8

165

823

1,874

435

2,309

549

2

1 Includes separations by reason of resignation, discontinuance, retirement, removal, death, transfer within
tho department, and transfer from the department to other departments or independent establishments.
* Includes reappointments by reason of change of station, name, designation; extensions of temporary ap­
pointments; and temporary promotions and reductions.

The turnover indicated by the preceding table is excessive. Twenty
years ago the normal turnover varied around 5 per cent, and although
it is now less than for several years past it is still a constant and
expensive drain on the service and results in a serious loss in effi­
ciency. The causes are obvious. When we see expert employees,
after gaining experience in the service, leaving for better paid
positions in the industrial world, when we note the constant unrest
among the ambitious and efficient employees, who see little oppor­
tunity for the advancement to which they are clearly entitled, we
can only assume that low compensations and discouraging outlook
for the future are the underlying forces of this drain and unrest.
Government employees at the statutory salaries offered are under­
paid. This is emphatically so in the scientific, professional, and ad­
ministrative classes, in which the turnover ranges from 50 per cent
upward. Such employees are eagerly sought after by the commercial
world, where the compensation is equitable and the outlook good.
It is not "Creditable to the United States, with its reputation for
wealth, to ask its employees to work for a compensation which, under
the prevailing high prices and the accepted standard of living,
keeps them harassed as to how to make both ends meet. An employee
who is constantly under a strain with regard to financial matters
can not be expected to give his best efforts to his occupation. Labor-

EEBORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

65

ers should be given a living salary. Clerical salaries below $1,200
per annum should be abolished, and the compensation of profes­
sional, scientific, and administrative officials should equal thoso paid
for comparable duties and responsibilities outside the Federal service.
The expectation is that classification on a basis of equal compensation
for similar duties will lead to a modification of the adverse condi­
tions referred to, but whether the necessary funds will be forth­
coming to make it effective is the crux of the situation.
Just as classification is anticipated to remove inadequate and dis­
criminatory salaries, so it is expected that the establishment of
efficiency ratings will give confidence to the Government employee
that if his efficiency is deserving of recognition he can look forward
to promotion with an approximate degree of certainty. While the
department has not yet put into effect definite regulations as to the
relationship between efficiency ratings and promotions, it is hoped
that the classification and efficiency movement will soon be placed on
a foundation sufficiently stable to permit of a fuller coordination.
Assertions are frequently made that the average Government em­
ployee gets 30 days annual and 30 days sick leave each year. A
study of the following table confutes such an allegation. During
the calendar year 1922 only 3 per cent of the department’s employees
made any approximation of doing so. In fact 31 per cent are
shown to have taken no sick leave whatever. The annual average
leave per employee was slightly over 28 days; sick leave less than
6 days :
Total.
Num­ Annual leave. Sick leave.
Total leave. Aver­
age,
ber.
1921.
Aver­
Aver­
Days. Aver­
age. Days. age. Days. age.
.
159 4,443 27.94 1,078 6.78 5,521 34.72 34.73
Office of the Secretary...........................
707 20,862 29.51 4,523 6.40 25,385 35.91 35. 59
Bureau of the Census............................
.
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
270 7,568 27.42 1,712 6.20 9,280 33.62 36.09
Commerce............................................
717 19,708 27.49 3,141 4.38 22,849 31.87 33.42
Bureau of Standards.............................
311 4.78 2,109 32.45 34.97
65 1,798 27.66
Bureau of Fisheries................................
32
928 29.00
157 4.91 1,085 33.01 36.38
Bureau of Lighthouses..........................
203 5,725 28.20 1,350 6.65 7,075 34.85 35.24
Coast and Geodetic Survev..................
217 6.58 1,086 32.91 37.03
Bureau of Navigation............................
33
869 26.33
11
321 29.18
44 4.00
365 33.18 34.11
Steamboat Inspection Service.............
Totals and averages.................... 2,203 62.222 28.24 12,535 5.69 71,755 33.93 34.78
Bureau.

N ote .—In the count of the annual leave all periods of one-half day and over were counted as a full day;
periods of less than one-half day were omitted.

66

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

The classification directed under the provisions of the act approved
March 4, 1923, carried on under the supervision of the Personnel
Classification Board, authorized thereunder, has been given consid­
erable attention by the department. Inconsistencies in aligning po­
sitions throughout the Government service have in the past been
frequent and demoralizing, and it was recognized that one of the
objects of classification would be to eliminate this want of conformity.
In order to accomplish this object in the department, on receipt of
the instructions of the Personnel Classification Board, a departmental
classification board was organized, consisting of representatives from
the Secretary’s office and from each of the bureaus. This board care­
fully considered the classification sheet furnished for each employee
of the department (excepting those of the Bureau of the Census,
which, by reason of special conditions, were transmitted direct to the
Personnel Classification Board), and initiated such changes as were
deemed appropriate.
The continued operation of the civil service retirement act accen­
tuates its shortcomings, to some of which I have called attention in
previous reports. A modification of the original law by the act of
Congress approved September 22, 1922, covers the cases of employees
who have rendered the requisite service for retirement annuity, but
who prior to reaching the retirement age are separated from the
service through no fault of their own. Under the retirement system
111 employees of the department have been retired with an average
annuity of $551.38. Of this number only 29 received the maximum
annuity of $720 per annum. If the object of the retirement legisla­
tion is to provide for the worn-out Government employees, it is
manifestly inadequate for the purpose. Another weakness in the
system is the fact that the higher paid employees have to suffer the
same per cent deduction as tliose at lower salaries, but can not
receive a greater annuity. The following example illustrates this
injustice: Employee A, young and ambitious, enters the service in
1920 at the age of 20 years. His average basic compensation is
$3,000. During the period of 50 years’ service under present condi­
tions he will have contributed $3,750 toward retirement. Upon
reaching the age of 70 he can receive an annuity of but $720. B, less
ambitious and efficient, enters the service in 1920 at the age of 40.
He serves only 30 years at an average salary of $1,400. During that
period he will have contributed but $1,050 to the same cause, yet
he may also receive a like annuity. The higher value in money and
services rendered in the former case receives no recognition whatever.

67
It is found that the cost of the retirement system is not as heavy as its
originators anticipated, and indications are that the system may be
applied with greater liberality than at present. Among the features
which might be considered are retirement after 30 years of service,
irrespective of age; a retirement annuity based upon length of
service and average compensation and compulsory retirement at the
maximum retirement age. While in some few cases retirement of
experienced employees of retirement age may be detrimental to the
service, the legislation permitting, under certain conditions, continu­
ance in active service is, I am afraid, in many cases dictated by senti­
ment rather than by good business policy and offers opportunity for
discriminatory treatment which should be eliminated.
To secure the requisite experts for certain functions organized and
extended during the year it was found advisable to look outside the
usual civil-service eligible registers and secure experienced indus­
trial administratives of established reputation to take charge of these
functions. The authorization of the Civil Service Commission was
necessary as a preliminary, and the liberality shown by the commis­
sion in these cases is greatly appreciated. If satisfied that the de­
partments desire was justified and that the person whose services
were sought possessed the necessary special qualifications, it per­
mitted his appointment. Such an attitude assisted the work to as
great a degree as ultraconservatism would have retarded it.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS.

The following table shows the expenditures for printing and bind­
ing during 1923, allotments of the appropriation for 1924, and esti­
mates for 1925 submitted to the department by its various bureaus,
offices, and services:

68

REPOET OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
Bureau, office, or service.

Estimates,
AllotExpendí1926.
tures, 1923. ments, 1924.

Office of the Secretary (Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Solicitor,.
chief clerk, and division of publications)..................................... $20,017.31 820.000 00 $20.000 09
900 00
900.00
920.39
Appointment division...................................................................
750.00
600.00
320.67
Disbursing office.............................................................................
1,500.00
1,000.00
1,429.13
Division of supplies........................................................................
97,322.67 110,000.00 131.300.00
Bureau of the Census............................................................................
37,000 00 42,788.40
35,892.07
Coast and Geodetic Survey.................................................................
16,000.00 20,000.00
16,456.32
Bureau of Fisheries...............................................................................
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce................................... 181,442.45 i 161,500.00 276,100.00
16,000.00 15,280.00
15,764. IS
Bureau of Lighthouses.........................................................................
7,000.00
6,500.00
6.539.74
Lighthouse Service........................................................................
21,788.12
20,000.00 22,575.00
Bureau of Navigation...........................................................................
9,000.00
7,000.00
5,524.15
Shipping and Radio Services.......................................................
37,000 00 65,000.00
34,101.09
Bureau of Standards.............................................................................
Office of the Supervising Inspector General, Steamboat Inspec­
1,000.00
1,000.00
79G.19
tion Service.........................................................................................
13,000.00 18,000.00
11,972.79
Steamboat Inspection Service.....................................................
S, 000.00
8,000.00
7, 4-14.99
Customs Service.....................................................................................
6,000.00
6,000.00
Reserve....................................................................................................
461,500.00 645,193. 40
Total..............................................................................................
Appropriation......................................................................................... i 3 403,750.00 » 461,500.00
1 Includes SI,500 transferred from the appropriation, -‘Printing and binding, Treasury Department,
1924,” authorized by Public Act 379, consolidating the work of collecting, compiling, and publishing sta­
tistics of foreign commerce of the United States in the Department of Commerce.
2 Estimated (June 30,1923); exact figures can not be stated until all work ordered in 1923 is completed
and billed.
s Includes a deficiency appropriation of $38,750.

The department’s policy of printing most of its publications in
small editions only and limiting tlieir free distribution to certain
classes, such as Government officials. Members of Congress, com­
mercial organizations, libraries, and educational institutions, has
diverted miscellaneous requests to the office of the Superintendent of
Documents, who maintains a sales stock of such publications so
long as there is a reasonably active demand for them. These copies
are sold at a nominal price, based on the cost of reprinting, from
electrotype plates. This distribution not only does not involve any
expense to the Government, as the amount received from sales fully
covers the cost of printing additional copies, hut eliminates a waste­
fulness usually incident to the free distribution of the maximum edi­
tions allowed by law.
The amount received from sales of the department’s publications
during 1922 was $115,211.60, as compared with $97,681.70 in 1921,
an increase of $17,526.90. or nearly 18 per cent. Figures for 1923
have not yet been compiled by the Superintendent of Documents.
Coast pilots, inside route pilots, tide tables, and charts are sold by

69
the Coast and Geodetic Survey; other publications of the department
are sold by the Superintendent of Documents.
The following statement shows the distribution of the depart­
ment’s publications on a sales basis for the years 1920, 1921, and
1922:
REPORT OF -THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Sales.

Copies.
1920

1921

Receipts.
1922

1920

1921

1922

By Superintendent of Documents:
Annual subscriptions............. 2, S43,658 2,371,228 739.808 119,151.90 $17,934.40 $34. 452.17
Through miscellaneous sales.. 152,314 1 300,376 227,039 30,609.75 ' 43,649.97 40,684.13
Total...................................... 2.99.1,972 ' 2,571,1»! : 967,447 49.761.65 61,584.37 75.136.30
By Coast and Geodetic Survey:
Coast pilots, inside route pilots,
tide, tables, and charts..............
35,902.47 36,100.33 40,075.30
Grand total........................... ............................................................. 85,664.12 97,684.70 115,211.60
1 Includes 120,000 copies of a series of small pamphlets known as Fisheries Ecomonic Circulars, hereto­
fore distributed free of charge.
2 Beginning in September, 1921, Commerce Reports were published weekly instead of daily. This
accounts for the decrease in the number of copies for 1922 as compared with preceding years,

DIVISION OF SUPPLIES.

The following is a brief report of the work undertaken and ac­
complished by the division of supplies along the line of simplifica­
tion, coordination, and standardization of methods of procedure and
forms relative to purchases, sales, contracts, and property account­
ability during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1923:
PURCHASES.

This office has maintained during the current fiscal year the cen­
tralized information pertaining to the department’s surplus property,
and has acted on all proposals for supplies and materials emanating
in its field services, in addition to handling these proposals in obtain­
ing clearance through the General Supply Committee and their
return to the issuing office.
In several instances surplus property in one branch of the de­
partment has been transferred to another branch of the department
or Government service which required it through this office. Two
boats have in this manner been obtained for the Bureau of Fisheries,
one from the Shipping Board and the other from the War Depart­
ment.

70

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

The chief of this division lias been appointed by the Chief Coordi­
nator, General Supply Committee, chairman of a committee to
investigate the method of Government purchases of Pintsch and
acetylene gases. This investigation will include transportation prob­
lems as well as those pertaining to the containers therefor.
The centralization of purchases authorized by the Secretary's let­
ter dated June 15, 1922, was in operation during the entire fiscal
year. While it has, of course, greatly increased the work along all
lines of this office, it is believed that very gratifying results have
been obtained and that efficient service has been given all branches
of the department. This efficiency has been maintained by the very
few experienced employees in the division, in spite of the handicaps
incident to the change in the department’s procedures and also the
tremendous turnover in the personnel of the office. There are but 19
employees assigned to this division and the turnover since July 1,
1922, has been more than 100 per cent. In this connection your at­
tention is invited to the following comparative statements showing
some of the greatest increases in the work of this division due to this
centralized purchasing:
Class oi work.
Requisitions received.....................
Proposals for Services, supplies, and equipm ents.............................................
Invitations to bid on services, supplies, and equipm ent................................
Orders issued.............................................................................................................
Vouchers passed for settlem ent............................................................................
Letters emanating from this office.......................................................................

1

1922 ! 1923
2,781 j 4,945
344
1,479
6,127
1,611
4,600 : 10,361
5,211 | 8,145
8,185 j 8,733

Increase.
P er cent.

79.1
329.9
280.3
120.5
56.0
6.6

The above work has necessitated 341 days of overtime labor by
the employees of the division of supplies during the fiscal year 1923,
and while it is estimated that a material saving during the current
year will be made due to improved methods of handling the depart­
ment’s appropriation, allotments, stock, and property records, I feel
assured that proper handling of the department’s work assigned to
this division necessitates an increase in the division’s personnel, and
that at least two additional clerks should be assigned to it.
FEDERAL REAL ESTATE BOARD.

The report of last year submitted by this office showed a reduc­
tion in rentals paid by this department for its field service for the
fiscal year 1923 over that paid during the fiscal year 1922 as approxi­
mately $20,000. The records of this office indicate that the depart­

71
ment will pay an increase during 1924 of $8,865 over the rentals
paid during the fiscal year 1923, as shown by the following report:
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

S tatement

of

R eal E state C hances , F iscal Year 1924.

Service and location.
Bureau of Lighthouses:
Detroit, Mich....................................................................
Steamboat Inspection Service:

Increase. Decrease.
$25
450
50
4,500

One additional room.
Additional space.
Do.
Moved from customhouse.

450

Additional space.
$660 Change of quarters.
Moved from customhouse.
1,800
Do.

3,900
Bureau of Navigation:

120

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce:

Reason.

1,500
540
11,985
3,120

Increase in rent.
660 Moved to customhouse.
Additional space.
Do.
3,120

8,865

1924 saving over 1922 rentals......................................

20,000
8,865
11,135

While there is an increase in the cost of rentals over that paid
for the last fiscal year, it is nevertheless true that the activities of
the Federal Real Estate Board through the department’s repre­
sentative effected a saving of approximately $11,135 over the rental
paid by the department before the organization of the board, and the
increase mentioned above has correspondingly decreased expenditures
of other branches of the Government service which, in the opinion of
the Federal Real Estate Board, would have been subjected to greater
inconvenience in renting outside quarters than this department
doing so.
CONTRACTS AND ADJUSTMENTS.

The department’s board of contracts and adjustments completed
their suggested forms for contracts, and these forms have been re­
ferred to the solicitor’s office for opinion. That office recently re­
quested the department board to go over these forms with their
representative, which suggestion was accepted and the form for gen­
eral construction work submitted by the interdepartmental board

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

72

for consideration was examined and this department’s suggestions
of changes have been returned to the interdepartmental board. The
other forms suggested by the department board will be considered
with the representative from the solicitor’s office at the earliest prac­
ticable date. As soon as these forms can be approved they will be
promptly submitted to the interdepartmental board for their con­
sideration.
TRAFFIC MANAGER.

The following is a statistical report of the traffic manager’s office
for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1923 :
Shipments.
mireau.

Coast and Geodetic Survey.............................................................
Division of supplies...........................................................................
Stock and shipping...........................................................................
Bureau of Lighthouses.....................................................................
Bureau of Fisheries...........................................................................
Steamboat Inspection Service........................................................
Bureau of the Census........................................................................
Bureau of Navigation.......................................................................
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce...............................
Bureau of Standards.........................................................................
Total..........................................................................................
Bureau.

Freight. Express. Parcel
post.

N um ber. N um ber. N um ber.

P oun ds.

641
300
631
4,S57
884
3
93
16
28
1,104
8,557

10
2

891,984
263,452
156,124
10,693,759
8,795,65-4
252
7,602
2,040
7,366
871,188
21,689,421

651
1302
631
5,001
927
3
93
16
28
1,118
8,770

144
43

14
213

Not on bill of lading.
On bill of
lading,
freight
Parcel
and
express. Freight. Express. post. Total.

6,280
S37,395

1,086
29,019
31,352,328 ‘284,097

236

1,580
47,248
88

627
11
302
549 ...............
54
2,191
7
8S0
3
91
16

3,844
52,996

27
554
5,240

13

11
38
o

3
75

1
59

82
2,745
2

...............
554
3,396

5
1

meetic Commerce........
Bureau of Standards___

Total
tonnage.

P oun ds. P oun ds. P oun ds. N um ber. N um ber. N um ber. N um ber.

826,757 64,991
258,252 5,200
Stock and shipping........... 146,995 7,549
Bureau of Lighthouse« — 10,603,300 43,211
Bureau of Fisheries........... 8,667,399 128,167
Steamboat In sp e c tio n
102
150
Service.............................
Bureau of the Census.........
4,63S 2,964
Bureau of Navigation........
1,210
830
(Vxist and Geodetic Survey

I^ess
carloads. Carloads. Total.

82
2,810
47
2
1
564
3,530

* Division of supplies made 10,306 purchases and only 302 of them purchased f. o. b. point of origin.
However, the department paid the freight charges in the price of goods on the 10,004 purchases.
Note .—Sleeping, parlor car, and steamship reservations, 1,048; sets of proposals considered, 252; letters
written, 2,456; and routing orders obtained from Federal Traffic Board, 154.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

73

DEPARTMENT LIBRARY.

The depart merit's library, which is the depository and center for
assembling all available data bearing upon the work of the depart­
ment, is becoming more valuable each year, and is one of the most
useful and important units of the department. It contains more than
100,000 books and pamphlets, and has long been recognized as the
most complete statistical library of the Government. It contains a
wealth of material to enable the research worker to study foreign
countries and their needs, as well as domestic conditions. Use of
the library during the past year has been the largest in its history,
and, though undermanned in its personnel, the fact that the work
was satisfactorily handled indicates the exertion and spirit of the
staff.
Eight hundred research workers from other Government depart­
ments, establishments, and business men used the library during the
year.
During the year 1,790 bound volumes and 1,373 pamphlets were
added; 3,288 books were catalogued: 14,636 cards were added to the
catalogue trays; 715 books were sent to the bindery; 1,885 weekly,
monthly, and quarterly periodicals, 99 different daily papers, and
57 foreign official gazettes were currently received, recorded, and
routed upon receipt to 2,077 individuals or divisions: and 872 books
were borrowed from the Library of Congress and other libraries.
'The library has prepared lists of books on various subjects for
research workers and lists of periodicals currently received.
A system has been devised by the library for routing periodicals
whereby they are not returned to the library until all persons on
the list have examined them and yet enables the librarian at all times
to locate any particular periodical. By this system a limited num­
ber of periodicals are made to efficiently serve a large number of
individuals.
In January, 1923, a branch library was installed in the Bureau of
the Census, which is housed in a building 11 miles distant from the
department proper. Its use has greatly improved the service to that
bureau and has more than justified its installation.
OFFICE OF THE SOLICITOR.

During the fiscal year ended June 30, 1923, 162 contracts, totaling
$912,940.41. together with 12 contracts of indeterminate amounts;
75 leases, amounting to $80,080.98; 21 revocable licenses, amounting
to $874; 18 deeds, involving the sum of $13,712; 87 contract bonds,
amounting to $216,674.22; and 71 official bonds, amounting to
$392,000, were examined (approved, disapproved, drafted, redrafted,
or modified).
68596—23----- 6

74

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

The number of legal opinions rendered, formal and informal
(memorandum), totaled 269; legislative matters handled which con­
cern the Department of Commerce (drafting and redrafting of bills,
reports relative thereto, etc.) numbered 27. Power of attorney cards,
authorizing agents to execute official and contract bonds for surety
companies, examined, totaled 1,895. In addition, 1,513 miscellaneous
matters, embracing everything submitted for the advice or suggestion
of the solicitor, or for the formulation of departmental action, not
including in the foregoing items, were handled by this office.
Very truly yours,
E. W. L ibbey,
Chief Clerk and Superintendent.

BUREAU OF THE CENSUS.
D epartment of C ommerce,
B ureau of the C ensus,

Hon. H erbert H oover,

Secretary of Commerce.

Washington, July 1, 1923.

D ear Mr. S ecretary: In response to your request I furnish the
following condensed report upon the work of the bureau during the
past year:
No other bureau is required by law to work under such pressure
for a period of three years to bring a great work to final conclusion
on a given date and immediately thereafter resume normal activity
with a greatly reduced force working under a greatly reduced per
capita compensation. During the year the bureau has been under­
going the readjustments incident to this violent change which oc­
curred on July 1, 1922. While the completed copy for all of the
Fourteenth Census reports was sent to the Government Printing
Office before the close of the year 1922, as required by law, neces­
sarily the proof for these reports had to be read and revised during
1923. Unfortunately there has been such a congestion of work in
the Government Printing Office that it was impossible to print all
of the census reports during the year, and on July 1, 1923, there still
remain five quarto volumes, including the Abstract, that have not
been printed.
In addition to the verification of the proof of the reports of the
Fourteenth Census, the bureau has during the year carried on its
regular investigations pertaining to births and deaths; finances of
States and cities; manufactures; production, distribution, and con­
sumption of cotton, cottonseed and cottonseed products; tobacco
stocks; electrical industries; wealth, debt, and taxation; institutional
population; and marriage and divorce. Special inquiries were also
made concerning animal and vegetable fats and oils; hides, skins,
and leather; boots and shoes; active and idle wool machinery; activ­
ity in the cotton-spinning industry; manufacture and sale of farm
equipment; clay and refractory products; glues and gelatins of
animal origin; lighting fixtures; paints and varnishes; sulphuric
acid and acid phosphate used in the fertilizer industry; wool con­
sumed by manufacturers; wool stocks; commercial stocks of coal;

7G

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

production, orders, and stocks of hosiery; sales and distribution of
mechanical stokers; wheat ground and wheat-milling products:
men’s and boys’ ready-to-wear clothing, garments cut; production,
orders, and shipments of malleable castings; leather gloves and mit­
tens; work clothing; cast-iron pipe; and sugar statistics. The
Survey of Current Business, which aims to be a reliable index of
current business conditions, has been issued each month and a
number of special detailed technical tabulations have been made to
obtain statistics required by other bureaus, independent commis­
sions, and associations.
The statistics of population are now shown with greater detail
than ever before. There is no other country that collects such de­
tailed information concerning its people. The use of census data as
a guide for legislation to regulate immigration, naturalization, sani­
tation, and other subjects has forced the bureau to extend its work
in many directions. Its activities have been so greatly extended that
it is impossible to cover all the subjects at the same time, and Con­
gress has wisely provided for a rotation of work so that certain dis­
tinctive investigations shall be made at certain periods in the time
intervening between the decennial censuses.
WEALTH, PUBLIC DEBT, AND TAXATION. 1922.

The bureau compiles decennially statistics showing the wealth of
the Nation as indicated by the estimated value of real and personal
property; also the total revenue, public debt, assessed valuation of
real and personal property, tax levies, and tax rate.
The statistics for taxes and other specified revenues cover every
political civil division having the power to collect revenues, in­
cluding the Federal Government, States, counties, cities of all sizes,
townships, school districts, and drainage districts, etc., whereas the
prior report was limited to the Federal, State, and county govern­
ments, and the governments of incorporated places with a population
of 2,500 ami over. The report will also contain complete statistics
for the public debt for all subdivisions having the power to incur
debt. In addition, it will show the assessed valuation of real estate,
the amount of tax levies, and the tax rates.
In order to secure this information it was necessary to make in­
quiry, either by mail or by personal visit, of all the various political
divisions, numbering about 60,000 in all. The plans for the collec­
tion of the statistics through the mail and by the agents in the field
were made prior to January 1, 1923, and the enumeration was com­
pleted by June 30, 1923. Although this census iff*broader in scope
than any heretofore made, the field work has been finished at a
much earlier date and at a much less expenditure than at any pre-

REPORT OF THE SECRETARV OF COMMERCE.

77

ceding enumeration. The preliminary reports are now being issued
and it is expected by the close of this calendar year to have the
result of the inquiry published. This will make the data public
more than a year earlier than those for the last census. 1912, were
published. This result has been attained by careful preparation,
the extensive use of the mail, and a reorganization of the field force.
'Fhe reports for 1922 will cover the following subjects: Public
debt (tax-exempt securities); assessed valuation and tax levies;
specified revenues; digest of laws relating to taxation and revenues;
estimated national wealth; and abstract of the five reports.
The report on public debt will contain detailed statistics for the
Federal Government, for all the States, counties, cities, and other
minor civil divisions, so that the rate of increase and the amount
of issue can be studied for the different sections of the country, and
the different classes of government.
TAX-EXEMPT BONDS.

While in some States a considerable proportion of this material
was secured at the State capitol, in many instances it was necessary
to go directly to the places, and the absence of complete records and
the use of antiquated accounting systems have added materially to
the cost of the work.
DIGEST OF LAWS RELATING TO TAXATION AND REVENUE.

To insure a complete canvass it was necessary to make, in advance,
a careful study and digest of the taxation and revenue laws of all
the States. This digest will shortly be issued as one section of the
report, and a considerable portion of the manuscript has already
been sent to the printer. This will be the only up-to-date report
covering the entire subject, and we expect it to satisfy the urgent de­
mand for definite information concerning the tax legislation of the
States and local governments.
NATIONAL WEALTH.

To complete the balance sheet of the Nation, the bureau is prepar­
ing an estimate of the true value of all tangible property, real and
personal, in continental United States, and, so far as possible, in the
outlying possessions, including botli taxed and exempt property held
by governments and by private corporations, associations, partner­
ships, and individuals.

78

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

REAL PROPERTY EXEMPT FROM TAXATION.

An estimate is being prepared of the value of all real property
exempt from taxation. Primarily it consists of the value of real
property and improvements thereon belonging to the Federal Gov­
ernment and States, counties, cities, towns, villages, school districts,
other districts organized as public corporations, and certain proper­
ties held under private ownership. These properties, classified as to
use, are devoted to educational, agricultural, religious, fraternal and
benevolent, correctional, charitable, curative, protective, and defen­
sive purposes, including also public utilities, general administration
buildings, and such miscellaneous properties as cemeteries, fish hatch­
eries and game farms, Indian reservations, and in certain States re­
forested lands.
FINANCIAL STATISTICS OF STATE AND CITY GOVERNMENTS.

The financial statistics of States and cities compiled annually
include the total and per capita receipt from revenues ; total and per
capita payments for expenses, interest, and outlays; total and per
capita indebtedness; estimated true value and assessed valuation of
property; and taxes levied, rates, methods of assessment, and other
financial matter. Descriptions of accounting terminology and sug­
gestions for uniform classification are also included.
These annual reports, which have been compiled by the Bureau of
the Census since 1902, constitute a valuable statistical history of the
income, expenditures, methods of taxation, and practically all finan­
cial data of the States and cities, showing the changes that are tak­
ing place in the total and per capita transactions.
INSTITUTIONAL POPULATION.
INMATES OF INSTITUTIONS.

The institutional population of the United States on January 1,
1923. was about 1,000,000, and a much larger number are taken care
of for varying periods during each year. A special census of this
element of our population is taken every tenth year, and the rapid
increase in the numbers committed to the institutions for the insane,
feeble-minded, epileptics, and juvenile delinquents to almshouses,
prisons, reformatories, jails, and workhouses, institutions and socie­
ties for the care and protection of children, institutions for adults or
both adults and children, and other institutions for defective, de­
pendent, or delinquent classes emphasizes the importance of the data.
Fully two-thirds of the institutions covered by the census are sup­
ported by the Federal, State, county, or city governments, and the

79
increase in the number of inmates necessarily adds to the govern'
mental expenditures.
The enumeration was made not only to ascertain the number of
men, women, and children committed to the institutions, but also to
obtain facts concerning the causes of commitment and other infor­
mation that might assist in the prevention of crime and a reduction
in the numbers cared for by the governments. Since the last census
there have been numerous laws enacted regulating the establishment
and maintenance of institutions, and many improvements have been
made in their management. The increasing interest in this subject
is evinced by the organization of associations, the establishment of
governmental boards and committees, and the number of individuals
who devote their time to the study of institutions and to devising
ways and means for reducing the numbers committed; also by the
improvement in the methods followed in the conduct of institutions
in general. Naturally, there was greater interest attached to this
census than to any previous enumeration, and the bureau was fortu­
nate in securing the cooperation and assistance of the organizations
and individuals associated with the different classes of institutions.
The reports show for the inmates of most of the institutions the sex,
age, marital condition, race, nationality, and numerous other facts
that will furnish the basis for a close and instructive analysis of the
social problems involved.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

CAIiE OF CHILDREN.

We have found it more difficult to collect satisfactory statistics
concerning the institutions for the care of children, adults, or both
adults and children, than for any other of the various classes of
institutions covered by this inquiry. There is no authentic list o*
these institutions, and in many localities there is apparently no law
or local ordinance governing their operations. They appear to be
organized and abandoned without special authorization of any char­
acter. The bureau has canvassed every known source of information
in order to prepare a complete list of the institutions of this class.
An extensive mail canvass was in operation for several months, and
it was supplemented by the use of special agents in the field.
Not only was it difficult to obtain the list of these institutions, but
in many cases there was apparently no satisfactory record made of
the children committed and their disposition. It was felt that in
many respects this branch of the investigation was of the greatest
importance, and every effort has been made to compile complete and
satisfactory statistics. It is regretted, however, that local laws and
4ordinances have apparently not been formulated to require these
institutions to keep proper records of their transactions.

80

REPORT OE THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
C R IM IN A L STA TISTICS.

It is hoped that the census will be of material assistance in study­
ing the causes of crime and in establishing preventive measures.
With these ends in view the bureau conferred with persons who are
especially interested in the subject and formulated schedules which
they thought would result in securing the essential information.
The statistics cover Federal and State prisons and reformatories,
county and city jails and workhouses, convict camps, and chain
gangs. There was very little difficulty in securing satisfactory sta­
tistics concerning Federal and State penitentiaries, but in many
States there are no satisfactory records concerning the commitments
to county and city jails or to convict camps and chain gangs.
As a preliminary to the regular census, an investigation was made
during July, 1922, to ascertain the number of persons in confinement
on July 1, 1922, as compared with July 1, 1917. This inquiry was
conducted almost entirely by mail and telegraph. The preliminary
press summary giving the results for the United States was issued
November 22, 1922, and the detailed report, in bulletin form, was
published April 14, 1923.
ELECTRICAL INDUSTRIES.

The canvass for the collection of data concerning the operations
of central electric light and power stations, electric railways, tele­
phones, and telegraphs was started promptly with the beginning of
the calendar year 1923. The field work was practically finished by
the close of the fiscal year, and we hope to publish the results before
January 1, 1924, thus making another record in the completion of a
big investigation. Peculiar importance is attached to this inquiry,
as the results will be used at the World Power Conference to be
held in London, England, during next July. The figures will show
the increase, during the last five years, in the use of electricity in
the United States for light, power, and other purposes.
It is regretted that the appropriations for this inquiry have never
been sufficient to enable the bureau to collect data concerning the
operations of isolated light and power stations. While the isolated
stations are not engaged in the production of electricity for sale,
and are operated primarily for the benefit of the activity with which
they are connected, such as hotels, factories, mines, mercantile estab­
lishments, vessels, private residences, etc., many of them are very
large, and have a much greater kilowatt capacity than many of the
central stations that are covered by the census. There are un­
doubtedly a greater number of these isolated plants than there are
commercial stations, and their inclusion in the census would add,
greatly to the value of the statistics.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

81

BIENNIAL CENSUS OF MANUFACTURES.

The passage of the law requiring a census of manufactures to be
taken biennially made it necessary to reorganize entirely the work
and make radical changes in the scope of that census and in the
methods of enumeration and tabulation, as well as in the style of
the printed reports. Heretofore it has required from 18 months to
2 years to secure satisfactory reports from all establishments covered
by the quinquennial census of manufactures. Manifestly, to take
a census every second year it would be necessary to shorten ma­
terially the time devoted to field work; otherwise it would be im­
possible to publish the results of an enumeration before beginning
work on the next, and before many years the results wotdd become
confused and be of no practical value.
The first enumeration under the new law (act of March 3, 1919)
covered the year 1921. While the bureau was still overburdened
with the work incident to the Fourteenth Census, it was necessary
to start at once with the reorganization. This was accomplished by
the following methods:
(1) By instituting a campaign to demonstrate to manufacturer's
the value of industrial statistics, both current and historical. This
was necessary because the great delay in taking the census was due
largely to the neglect of manufacturers to make their reports. Many
requests had to be made by mail and telegraph, and then by per­
sonal visit of an agent; and in many cases the agent had to wait for
several days before he could secure the report. This delay added
greatly to the expense of the work and detracted from the value of
the statistics. The campaign required considerable time and per­
sistent effort; in fact, it is still in progress and must be continued
indefinitely. The technical press and organizations of manu­
facturers have been of great service to the bureau in this respect.
(2) It was also necessary to confer with manufacturers, organiza­
tions, and the technical press with regard to the inquiries to be in­
cluded in the schedules. This required considerable time, but resulted
in a material reduction in the number of inquiries and the formula­
tion of a schedule which was more nearly in harmony with the
practical business methods of manufacturers.
(3) The number of establishments to be canvassed had to be ma­
terially reduced; otherwise the cost of the work would have been
prohibitive and the delay in the publication would nullify the re­
sults. The organizations and technical press naturally desired to
have reports secured from all establishments, both large and small.
At the census of 1919 there were 65,485 establishments reported, each
with products valued at less than $5,000. These establishments
formed 22.6 per cent of the total number, but they gave employment

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
82
to only 0.5 per cent of the wage earners, and their products formed
only 0.3 per cent of the total value of products. Their inclusion
increased the expense of the enumeration by about 25 per cent,
while the data for them added but little, if any, to the economic
value of the results. However, in order not to make, at the start,
too radical a departure from accepted census methods, a short form
schedule relating to average number of wage earners and total value
of products was adopted for the establishments with an annual
production amounting to less than $5,000. The results of the enumer­
ation of 1921 have demonstrated the wisdom of omitting from the
biennial census of manufactures all establishments of this size, and
this practice will be followed for 1923.
By resorting to the methods indicated and Snaking some changes
in practices, the field work for the census of 1921 was completed in
the main before July 1, 1922. This is a record never before attained
in taking the industrial census, but I hope we shall still further
reduce the time as the manufacturers become acquainted with the
value of the statistics and accustomed to preparing the biennial
reports.
The census of 1919 covered a year of industrial prosperity, while
that of 1921 covered a period of unusual business depression. There­
fore, a comparison of the figures for the two years fails to indicate
variations during periods of normalcy, but emphasizes the necessity
of collecting data at more frequent intervals. This necessity is being
met by the collection of monthly statistics on current business and
industrial transactions as described below (p. 85).

VITAL STATISTICS.

The collection and compilation of vital statistics is one of the most
important of the regular annual inquiries conducted by the Bureau
of the Census. For more than 20 years the bureau has been urging
the adoption by State governments of adequate legislation for the
registration of births and deaths; and as the States enact such legis­
lation and give satisfactory evidence of proper enforcement they are
included in the Federal registration area. Largely through the
efforts of the Bureau of the Census the death registration area has
grown from 10 States and the District of Columbia in 1900, com­
prising 40 per cent of the total population of the United States, to
38 States, the District of Columbia, and 14 cities in nonregistration
States in 1923, comprising 87 per cent of the total population. The
birth registration area, established in 1915, has grown from 10 States
and the District of Columbia in that year, with 31 per cent of the
total population, to 30 States and the District of Columbia in 1923,

83
with 72 per cent of the total population. Admission of a State to the
area, however, does not necessarily mean its permanent retention.
If a State repeals its good laws, or if State officials become lax, it
may be necessary to drop a State from the area. The Bureau of the
Census must, therefore, he constantly on the alert for backsliders
and retest the States from time to time. In the past year three
States were retested and happily all showed good registration.
We have also prepared a new edition of the Physicians’ Pocket
Reference to the International List of Causes of Death and a new
Manual of International List of Causes of Death, both based on the
last revision of the International List, which was made in 1920. Pre­
liminary work has also been started on new editions of the Standard
Nomenclature of Diseases and Pathological Conditions, Injuries,
and Poisonings for the United States and on the Index of Joint
Causes of Death.
The bureau has published 21 annual reports, giving detailed mor­
tality statistics, 6 annual reports giving detailed birth statistics, and 2
volumes of life tables showing expectation of life and related data
for the population of certain States.
The annual birth report shows for the registration area and for
the States and cities included number of births by sex, color, and
month of occurrence, births of white children by country of birth
of father and mother, total deaths, births per 100 deaths, birth and
infant mortality rates, deaths from important causes for the 12 subdi­
visions of the first year of life, and other statistical details.
The annual mortality reports show for the States and cities which
constitute the registration area number of deaths by month of occur­
rence, sex, color, nativity, parent nativity, age, and cause, and many
mortality rates.
The continued demand for authentic death rates for the last decade
gives full assurance that the special compilation, now in press, of
Mortality Rates, 1910-1920, will prove of very great value.
The Weekly Health Index, which has been published by the Census
Bureau since 1917, now gives mortality statistics for 72 cities. These
cities report weekly the. total number of deaths and the number of
deaths of children under 1 year of age, and these data are published
with death rates and infant mortality rates.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

FOREST PRODUCTS.

The collection and compilation of annual statistics for lumber,
lath, and shingles, and pulp-wood consumption were continued dur­
ing the fiscal year 1923 in cooperation with the Forest Service. The
cooperative agreement provides that certain employees of the Forest
Service should be appointed special agents of the Bureau of the

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
84
Census for the purpose of collecting reports and adjusting discrep­
ancies and errors before forwarding the reports to the Bureau of
the Census. This arrangement has proved to be economical, because
in many of the Western States the manufacturing plants are widely
scattered, and the cost of the field work has heretofore been unusually
high per establishment.
The National Lumber Manufacturers’ Association and the Ameri­
can Hardwood Manufacturers’ Association have cooperated with the
bureau in every way possible in the collection of these data.
MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE.

The statistics of marriages and divorces collected by the Bureau of
the Census now cover 42 calendar years, but there have been varying
periods of intermission in the work, so that the results do not form a
continuous and satisfactory history of this feature of our social life.
The first investigation covered the period from 1867 to 1886; the
second, the period from 1887 to 1906; a third covered the calendar
year 1916; and the present investigation the year 1922. It is hoped
that the inquiry can be carried on annually hereafter, as such an
arrangement will be much less expensive and in every respect more
satisfactory than occasional compilations.
An increasing number of States are compiling annual statistics
concerning divorces, and at this enumeration the reports were ob­
tained from State records for 10 States and the District of Columbia.
In all other States it was necessary to secure the data from county
records, and some county official was employed at a fixed compensa­
tion of from 10 to 25 cents for each divorce satisfactory reported.
By resorting to these methods it was possible to make a satisfactory
canvass at a comparatively slight expense.
The importance of publishing annually statistics concerning the
number of marriages and divorces is emphasized not only by the
great increase in the actual number of divorces granted each year
but also by the increase in the number per 100,000 population. In
1906 there were only 84 divorces granted to every 100,000 popula­
tion; in 1916 they had increased to 112 and in 1922 to 133 per 100,000
population. The actual number of divorces granted in the United
■ States increased from 9,937 in 1867 to about 145,000 in 1922. The
fact that the State governments are assembling statistics concerning
divorces is another indication of the importance attached to this
subject.
STOCKS OF LEAF TOBACCO.

During the year four reports were published showing quantities
of leaf tobacco held by manufacturers and dealers. These reports,
which are required by the acts of Congress approved April 30, 1912,

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

85

and May 10, 1916, present data of leaf tobacco held on the 1st day
of July and October, 1922, and January and April, 1923.
COTTON AND COTTONSEED.

The regular inquiries in regard to cotton and cottonseed were
conducted by the bureau during the year. There are 10 reports
relating to cotton ginned to specified dates during the ginning
season; 12 published monthly during the year giving cotton con­
sumed, imported, exported, and on hand, and active consuming
cotton spindles; 12 published monthly relating to activity in the
cotton-spinning industry showing the number of cotton-spinning
spindles in place, the number of active spindle hours, and tire aver­
age number of active spindle hours per spindle in place: 12 pub­
lished monthly giving cottonseed received, crushed, and on hand, and
of cottonseed products manufactured, shipped out, and on hand;
an annual bulletin on cotton production and distribution for the
season; and an annual pamphlet giving the statistics of cotton ginned
from the crop of the past year.
The cooperation which the bureau has received from the ginneries
and establishments from which the statistics are collected has in­
creased year by year and reports are now secured promptly from all
concerned.
INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS STATISTICS.

The development of statistics to show current transactions in in­
dustry and business has been an important feature of the work of the
bureau during the past two years. This is a new departure, and the
work has had to be coordinated with other activities in such a manner
as to cause the least additional expense and not interfere with the
orderly progress of other work. Prior to July. 1921. the onlv
statistics of this character collected by the bureau related to the
production, consumption, and stocks of cotton, stocks of tobacco,
and the consumption and stocks of animal and vegetable oils and
fats. By the close of the year this service had been extended so as
to show for nearly all the principal basic commodities the monthly
production, stocks, unfilled orders, sales, prices, imports, and ex­
ports. and also such business indicators as bank clearings, freight
carried, business failures, and other factors usually considered in
determining the policies to be followed in business transactions.
Some of the figures are furnished directly by the individual estab­
lishments to the bureau. Others are supplied by 90 trade associations
and similar organizations, by 34 technical periodicals, and in addition
figures on 111 subjects are taken from publications of 51 Federal,
local, and foreign Governments. The material is arranged in con­
venient form for ready reference and published in the monthly

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
86
Survey of Current Business, advance statements being distributed to
the subscribers to this journal. The circulation of the journal has
continued to increase during the year and on July 1 consisted of
5,435 paid subscribers, 1,300 newspapers and trade associations, and
650 representatives of the United States consular service, commercial
attachés, and other representatives of the Department of Commerce.
The cooperative arrangement with trade associations for the wider
dissemination of statistics has been broadened during the year to
include a number of new industries. On the other hand, a few trade
associations have discontinued their statistical work in favor of a
wider inquiry which the Bureau of the Census started, with the
cooperation of the whole industry. In the case of associations the
membership of which did not represent all of the manufacturers
involved, the bureau lias extended the inquiry so as to cover all or
substantially all of the establishments, thus perfecting the statistics
and making them more representative.
Many expressions of the usefulness of the Survey of Current Busi­
ness continue to come from business men. It has apparently won
a place of its own as an indispensable guide to the business man who
wants the facts set forth and summarized in their proper relation­
ship. In making available to the Survey of Current Business their
valuable data on various business movements, trade associations and
private organizations have greatly enhanced the value of this work,
and the assistance of all these organizations is hereby gratefully
acknowledged.

ANNUAL, SEMIANNUAL, QUARTERLY, AND MONTHLY INQUIRIES.

Statistics for various industries are collected for different periods,
depending upon the requirements of the laws and the demands of
the industry, as shown by the following statement :
Beet and cane sugar production and refining, including sales and stocks
(monthly).
Boots and shoes, production of (monthly).
Cast-iron pipe (monthly).
Clay and refractory products (annual).
Coal, commercial stocks (published at irregular intervals).
Cotton, production, as shown by reports of ginners at 11 specified dates
during the ginning season and at the end of the season.
Cotton, consumption (monthly).
Cotton, stocks at the end of each month.
Cotton, stocks for the entire work (annual).
Cotton spindles, active (monthly).
Cotton spindle hours, active (monthly).
Cottonseed, crushed (monthly).
Cottonseed products produced (monthly).
Cottonseed stocks at the end of each month.
Farm equipment, manufacture and sale (annual).

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
87
Fats and oils (quarterly).
Glues and gelatines of animal origin (annual).
Harness, leather, skivers, and sole and belting leather (monthly).
Hides, skins, and leather (monthly).
Hosiery, production, orders, and stocks (monthly).
Leather gloves and mittens (monthly).
Lighting fixtures, manufacture of (annual).
Lumber, laths, and shingles (annual).
Malleable eastings, production, orders, and shipments (monthly).
Mechanical stokers, sales and distribution (monthly).
Men’s and boys' ready-to-wear clothing, garments cut (monthly).
Paint and varnish, statistics of production (semiannual).
Pulp-wood, consumption of (annual).
Pyroxylin-coated textiles (monthly).
Rubberized cloth (monthly).
Sulphuric acid and acid phosphate used in the manufacture of fertilizers,
production (semiannual).
Sulphuric acid and acid phosphate used in the manufacture of fertilizers,
stocks on hand (semiannual).
Tobacco, stocks held by manufacturers (quarterly).
Turpentine and rosin, production and stocks (annual).
Vitreous sanitary china pottery (monthly).
Wheat ground and wheat-milling products (ntonthly).
Wool consumed by manufacturers (monthly).
Wool stocks (quarterly).
Work clothing (monthly).

There has been a continuous demand from the business community
as a whole for the extension of the collection of data for the principal
industries, and the above list indicates the extent to which the work
has developed.
LEATHER STATISTICS.

In accordance with the act of Congress approved June 5, 1920,
monthly reports were issued during the year showing the produc­
tion and stocks of leather, the production of boots and shoes, and
the stocks of hides and skins. In order to meet the requirements
of the industry, advance mimeographed reports on certain features
of the leather industry were issued at regular intervals. A number
of persons engaged in the industry felt that it would make these
reports more valuable if the data were extended to include statistics
of unfilled orders by tanners and by manufacturers of shoes; also
the stocks of boots and shoes in process of manufacture, and the
stocks of boots and shoes in the hands of shoe manufacturers, whole­
salers, and jobbers. But after conferring with representatives of
the industry it was decided that the present was not an opportune
time for the extension of the statistics in this manner.

88

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OK COMMERCE.

STATISTICAL ATLAS.

This volume, which has been in preparation during the year, con­
tains all of the charts, diagrams, and maps used in presenting the
statistics for the different branches of the census.
The first Statistical Atlas issued in connection with the Federal
census was published at the completion of the census of 1870 and
was prepared under the supervision of Gen. Francis A. Walker,
superintendent of census. After each of the subsequent censuses a
similar volume has been issued. The atlas of 1880, however,
although prepared by officials connected with the Census Bureau,
was published by Charles Scribner’s Sons, as the census appropria­
tion was exhausted. In 1890, 1900, and 1910 the Statistical Atlas
was published as one of the census volumes. It contains all of the
charts, diagrams, and maps that were used in illustrating the census
volumes and, in addition, a number of maps and charts that were
prepared especially for this publication. There has always been a
great demand for it on the part of educators, map makers, and statis­
ticians. The preparation of the atlas has necessarily been delayed
until after the completion of the census reports. The Statistical
Atlas of the Fourteenth Census will be ready for publication during
the year 1923.
OFFICIAL REGISTER, 1923.

This register of the names of the employees in the executive and
legislative branches of the Government has been printed biennially
since 1816, and since 1906 it has been compiled by the Bureau of
the Census, in accordance with the provision of an act of Congress
of June 7 of that year. In order to comply with the law the report
for 1923 must be published by December 1 of this year. It involves
considerable work, and a number of clerks have been employed on
it for several months. In addition to the information heretofore
collected, the Civil Service Commission requested certain data which
they considered essential for their purposes in making reports to the
Commissioner of Pensions, as required by the retirement act of May
22, 1920. In view of its great importance I agreed to secure this
additional information, and accordingly five new inquiries were
added to the card, namely: Year of birth, sex, total years of military
service, total years of other service, deductions made for retirement
fund. The size of the card which has heretofore been used was not
increased, and it is believed that little additional time will be re­
quired by the individuals or officials in making the returns, which
obtained in this way will save the expense of an independent and
costly inquiry. The work of securing the reports is now in progress,
and it is expected to complete it before this report is published.

89
When the cards have been used as copy for the printing of the Offi­
cial Kegister they will be released to the Civil Service Commission,
which is arranging to tabulate the answer to their inquiries. The
commission is planning to use our perfected tabulating equipment
for tabulating the data, reimbursing the bureau for all expenses
incident to the work required.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

MONOGRAPHS OF THE FOURTEENTH CENSUS.

Satisfactory progress is being made on the series of interpretative
studies or monographs referred to in my previous annual report, the
purpose of which, as I explained, is to meet the need for an adequate
analysis and interpretation of census figures in relation to live ques­
tions of the day. The monograph already published on Increase of
population in the United States, 1910-1920, which was prepared by
W. S. Bossiter, of Concord, N. H., has attracted much attention and
received many favorable notices in newspapers and magazines. Ex­
tended extracts have been reprinted and the subject matter has fur­
nished the basis for numerous newspaper editorials and articles.
ESTIMATES OF POPULATION.

In my last annual report I referred to the great demand for esti­
mates of the population not only for the United States as a whole
but also for the different States, cities, and counties, and the different
elements of the population in the years intervening between decen­
nial census years, and I described the method of preparing these
estimates. During the year we completed the tables giving the esti­
mates for all political divisions, which it is the intention to include;
the copy has been sent to the printer, and the bulletin will shortly
be ready for distribution. Press notices were issued during the year
giving the estimates for the States and the principal cities, and upon
request the estimates were furnished for any political subdivision
desired.
The bureau has been criticized for issuing these estimates of popu­
lation. Some cities contend that they do not show actual conditions
and that other methods could be used that would be more satisfac­
tory. The census advisory committee and other authorities have been
consulted and other methods have been considered, but it has been
decided that the purpose of the estimates is best met by the method
now in use.
SPECIAL CENSUSES OF POPULATION.

The statistics of population are used in some States to fix the
salaries of county and city officials or to regulate special tax assess­
ments. For example, in Illinois if the population of an incorporated
place as shown by the Federal census is less than 2,500 the State road
68A90—23-----7

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
90
when passing through the city must be constructed and maintained
at the expense of the State, but if the population exceeds 2,500 the
work must be done by the city. The population of Fairbury, 111., is
a case in point. It had a population at the Fourteenth Census of
2,532. As a State road was to be constructed through the city, special
interest was attached to the statistics of population. It was thought
by some of the citizens that there had been a slight decrease in the
population since the enumeration in January, 1920, and they peti­
tioned the bureau to make another enumeration. A special census
was accordingly taken as of August 14, 1922, and it was found that
on that date the population was 2,390.
In some localities the population increases so rapidly that special
enumerations are necessary in order to obtain totals that convey a
correct idea of actual conditions. The population of High Point,
N. C., increased so rapidly that the mayor of High Point requested
that a special census be taken of that city. Accordingly an experi­
enced employee of the bureau was designated as supervisor, and the
census was taken as of March 26, 1923, when 18 enumerators began
work. The work was finished and the totals made public on April 7.
A formal request for a special census of the population of Greens­
boro, N. C., was also made by the mayor on March 24, 1923. Upon
the completion of the work in High Point the office representative
proceeded to Greensboro and arranged to take the census of that city
as of April 16, 1923. The work began on that day with 32 enumera­
tors and was completed on April 28.

TABULATIONS.

Most of the tabulation work is done by the punch-card system,
cards being passed through electrically driven tally machines and
tabulators. These machines have been greatly improved within the
last two years and the field of their operation materially extended.
They are invented and constructed in the bureau, and therefore are
owned by the Government. It is my conviction that they could and
should be used by other departments, and that appropriation shoxdd
be made to enable the construction of a sufficient number to do all
of the tabulation work where the card system can be used to advan­
tage.
The utility of the census tabulating machines has been demon­
strated by the various special detail tabulations that have been made
by them during the year. These tabulations were made in coopera­
tion with other bureaus, or to supply information desired by individ­
uals or organizations, the bureau being reimbursed for the cost of
the service.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

91

LISTS OF ILLITERATES.

State superintendents of public instruction, departments of educa­
tion, and other State bureaus, as well as organizations, such as State
universities and the Federation of Women’s Clubs, and individuals
have during thè past two years instituted a campaign of education.
The publication of statistics concerning the number of illiterates
reported for the Fourteenth Census, as well as the investigations on
this subject, directed attention to the fact that the records of the
Bureau of the Census contained the names and addresses of all per­
sons reported as illiterate. Numerous requests were received for
lists giving these names and addresses. Unfortunately there was no
appropriation available from which to meet the expense of preparing
these lists; but several States appropriated money for this purpose
and employed a considerable force of clerks in the bureau copying
the names and addresses from the census reports. Numerous lists
were also furnished educational institutions and other organizations
in a large number of States, and the cost of this work was met by the
persons for whom the lists were prepared. It is believed that the
lists have been of material assistance in this campaign.
PRESERVATION OF RECORDS.

Congress having authorized the use of $30,000 of the amount ap­
propriated for the collection of statistics to bind and put in proper
shape the valuable records of the bureau, the work was started as
quickly as possible. These records, which are being used constantly
for reference, have been neglected for many years and were in very
bad condition. The schedules had to be placed in proper order and
arranged for binding before they were sent to the Government Print­
ing Office, and this work required 22 clerks for about eight months.
During the year there were 7,962 volumes bound and 994 rebound.
The volumes vary in size from 18 inches long, 14 inches wide, and
2 inches thick, to 25 inches long, 18 inches wide, and 2£ inches thick.
There are now a total of 14,695 bound volumes in the collection, re­
quiring 5,100 feet of shelving. In addition to the bound volumes
of the census schedules, there are 9,161 bundles of the family sched­
ules used at the census of 1890. These schedules occupy approxi­
mately 1,950 linear feet of shelving. The remainder of the schedules
of 1890 that were not destroyed during the fire in the Commerce
Building are now stored in such a manner that they are not avail­
able for reference. All of the census records that are in any condi­
tion for reference are now in the Census Building, and are more
conveniently arranged and in better condition than they have been
at any time before in the history of the bureau.

92
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
During the year the records were in constant demand, and 2,970
searches were made of them for genealogical data, information to
prove the birth and age of individuals, for criminal cases in court
in which the age of the person is of paramount importance, data
to establish pension and other claims, data to assist in the settlement
of estates, and information for various other purposes. These
records are also in constant use to establish the ages of children so
they can obtain certificates that will enable them to engage in gain­
ful occupations in certain States. About 4,000 letters were sent out
during the j'ear furnishing special information requested from these
records.
The population schedules giving the personal data for each indi­
vidual are the only records preserved indefinitely, and these now
increase so rapidly at each census that it will be impracticable to
retain them unless some better arrangement is made for their care.
All the other records—reports of manufacturers, farms, electrical
industries, deaths, births, etc.—are retained for a short time and
then destroyed.
DUPLICATION IN STATISTICAL WORK.

Following your instructions, we have, before undertaking to col­
lect data for any industry, made careful inquiry to ascertain if any
other branch of the Federal Government is engaged in similar work,
so that, while our activities have been extended, no duplication has
developed. Other bureaus have cooperated with us to avoid dupli­
cation, and two or three current inquiries have been turned over
to the Census Bureau because it was already collecting the same or
similar statistics. On the other hand, we have discontinued certain
work because it paralleled investigations being made by other offices.
If these methods are persisted in, they should finally result in a
greater unification of the nonadministrative statistical work of the
Government.
Technically there is very little duplication now going on, but
manufacturers and others think there is duplication because two
or more Government offices call on them for reports on related sub­
jects. For example, the Bureau of Labor Statistics collects monthly
statistics concerning the number employed and the rates of pay in
representative establishments; the Bureau of the Census collects
biennially data of the number employed during the entire year
in all establishments and the total amounts paid in wages. The
Geological Survey collects statistics concerning the quantity and
value of stone quarried, while the Bureau of the Census procures
information biennially in regard to the cutting and polishing of the
products of the quarries. The Bureau of Chemistry, of the Depart­

93
ment of Agriculture, secures reports of stocks of turpentine and
rosin on hand at distributing ports and in domestic consuming in­
dustries; the Bureau of the Census collects annually statistics of
pi’oduction and stocks in the hands of producers. The United
States Tariff Commission takes an annual census of the production
of dyes and other synthetic organic chemicals; this industry is also
covered by the biennial census of manufactures.
Of course, the same apparent duplication 'would exist if the work
were concentrated in one bureau. In that event, however, the inquiries
would all be made by the same office, which would thus eliminate some
of the confusion that now exists. On the other hand, it is contended
that the specialists in the Geological Survey, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, the Bureau of Chemistry, the Federal Reserve Board, and
other branches of the Federal service are better qualified to collect
the statistics they require than are the statistical experts in the
Bureau of the Census, and that their statistical work is of assist­
ance to them in their other activities. Nevertheless, the condition
leads to complaints similar to the following:
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

“ For quite a period of years we have been furnishing some department of
the Government information regarding prices. We believe it is the Department
of Agriculture. We never failed to make the reports, and on account of our
having furnished this information to that department for so long we feel that
it would be better if you would get this information now from some other
firm.”
“ We like to be accommodating on all these reports, but as we are now mak­
ing the same kind of reports to Atlanta and Louisville government agents
hope they will suffice.”
“ We believe it is entirely a duplication of effort, as the same information is
being assembled and distributed by the Federal reserve bank, and that is
being practically duplicated by the Federal Trade Commission.”
“ We could see but slight difference in the value of the material secured by
these returns, and to be fair to all we gave up making all returns.”

CENSUS OF AGRICULTURE IN 1925.

Section 31 of the act approved March 3, 1919, provides—

That there shall be in the year 1925, and once every 10 years thereafter,
a census of agriculture and livestock, which shall show the acreage of farm
land, the acreage of the principal crops, and the number and value of domestic
animals on the farms and ranges of the country.

To comply with this requirement it was necessary to prepare esti­
mates for the Budget for 1925. The census will cover the calendar
year 1924 and active field work must begin promptly with January,
1925. It is important that all preliminary arrangements be per­
fected so the canvass can be finished rapidly and the figures published
in time to be of greatest value. Accordingly, a committee was ap­
pointed, consisting of representatives of the Department of Agricul­

94
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
ture and the Department of Commerce, to decide upon the forms to
be used and the methods to be followed in taking the census. This
committee has had several meetings and substantial progress has
been made.
MAIL.

The total pieces of mail sent out from the bureau during the fiscal
year 1923 amounted to 3,593,584. Of this amount, 3,488,565 repre­
sented circular matter—that is, press summaries, schedules, ques­
tionnaires, and letters pertaining thereto—and 105,019 represented
the general correspondence of the bureau.
ECONOMIES.

The establishment of the Budget has brought home to the officials
of the bureau the necessity of giving careful attention to details.
Advantage has been taken of every opportunity to economize where
economy would not seriously affect the value of the work. The
principal economies have been affected by a reorganization of the
field force so as to reduce the number of agents required to collect
data necessary for the various enumerations that were in progress
during the year. This reorganization has effected a saving of
approximately $110,000 as compared with the cost of the same
investigations during previous years. A reorganization has also
been effected in the tabulation methods followed by the bureau, all
of the machine work being brought under the same control in one
division. The cost-accounting system of the bureau has been cen­
tralized and the number of persons engaged upon it materially
reduced. The style of the publications has been changed, reducing
the size of the volume from quarto to octavo.
SALARY SCALE.

The salaries in the Bureau of the Census have always been low
as compared with other bureaus of the Government service, and the
small increases provided during the decennial-census period, which
did not begin to cover the loyal and efficient service rendered by the
officials and other employees receiving them, should have been re­
tained for the bureau under the permanent organization. Ap­
parently acting on the assumption that these increases were intended
for the rush work of the decennial period only, drastic cuts in
salaries were made under the appropriation for the past fiscal year,
thus making it necessary to reduce the compensation of 466 em­
ployees on the permanent roll and 166 on the temporary roll, the
reductions affecting all classes of employees from the officials down
to the subclerical force.

95
It was impossible under these circumstances to retain many of the
j'oung and capable employees who were needed to build up our force
and who had received intensive training in census work and methods
during the decennial period. Moreover, some of our older and bestequipped experts and other employees who had remained during the
decennial-census period on the assumption that they would retain
the salaries they were then receiving, or secure better ones, became
discouraged and left the service. To meet this situation partially it
became necessary for the bureau to appoint temporary clerks, some
of whom remained only a brief time, the salaries being too low to
hold those who were eligible for appointment on the permanent roll,
while others (trained decennial-census clerks) were not eligible under
the civil-service rules for permanent appointment.
The cost to the bureau of this turnover since the reorganization,
which represents 24 per cent of its total force, can scarcely be meas­
ured. From the standpoint of the Government service as a whole,
there is, of course, a mitigating feature in that while the Census
Bureau has suffered other bureaus and departments have benefited
by being able to add trained census clerks to their forces. But as
the Bureau of the Census does not exist for the purpose of acting as
a training school for employees the condition is one that can scarcely
be borne with equanimity. It is to be hoped that under the reclassi­
fication act the greatest statistical bureau in the world will be pro­
vided with salaries sufficiently attractive to enable it to keep the
experts and other employees now on its rolls and to fill future
vacancies by the appointment of men and women who have qualified
at various universities and colleges along economic and statistical
lines.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

DISTRIBUTION OF INFORMATION.

The methods followed in giving publicity to census data have been
changed in many important respects. To be of greatest service, the
data must be distributed immediately upon the completion of the
totals. Some of the figures are compiled from telegraph reports and
the totals given to newspaper representatives and mailed to corre­
spondents throughout the country.
The system has also a great advantage in enabling the bureau to
issue press announcements or short summaries of data on various
subjects, which are printed widely in newspapers throughout the coun­
try, thus enabling the public to become familiar with valuable statistics
heretofore buried in the large volumes. I note with gratification
the very satisfactory results of my efforts to place these data before
the public with the least possible delay through the medium of press
announcements, and many letters have been received congratulating
the bureau on this service.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
90
A substantial result of this dissemination of census statistics by
the press has been a broadening interest by the public in all features
of census work and a growing knowledge of Federal activities, as
shown by the rapidly increasing volume and diversified character of
the bureau’s correspondence.
During the year ended June 30, 1923, 746 press summaries, with a
total edition of 1,671,525, were issued.
In addition to these press announcements, statistical statements on
business conditions were prepared each week in connection with the
Survey of Current Business and sent to the United States Chamber
of Commerce for distribution to its membership list of about 25,000;
and 28 statements of domestic business conditions were prepared and
sent out to newspapers, and also broadcasted by radio.
CHANGE IN SIZE OF REPORTS AND WEIGHT OF PAPER.

The size and bulk of census reports has been a subject of frequent
discussion and considerable criticism; and a result was the publica­
tion of an abstract of the census in octavo form (6 by 9 inches), de­
signed for the use of the general public who may not have access to
the main volumes, and containing all the statistical matter required
for ordinary use. An Abstract of the Census of Manufactures for
1914 was published in the same form, this volume taking the place
of the large octavo report formerly issued. The octavo form has
proved so popular that I have planned to have all future publications
of the Census Bureau prepared for printing in this size, where the
change will not require the omission of valuable comparative figures.
The first complete set of reports to be issued in this size will be that
of the Census of Manufactures for 1921, now going through the press.
A further feature of the Fourteenth Census reports was the use of a
thin, but substantial, paper, which greatly reduced the bulk and
weight of the volumes.
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR CHANGES IN CENSUS LAWS.

The law authorizing the collection and publication of statistics of
cotton ginned to specified dates was first enacted March 6, 1902, and
reenacted July 22,1912. It provides that the first report concerning
the quantity of cotton ginned shall relate to September 1, the second
to September 25, and the third to October 18. Since the law was first
enacted there has been considerable change in the quantity of cotton
ginned during the first part of the season. A much larger proportion
of the crop is now ginned prior to November 1 than foi’merly, and it is
believed that the requirements of the industry would be best served
if the dates to which the respective reports are to be made should be
changed in order to bring the data more closely into alignment w-ith

97
the industrial requirements. To accomplish this, section 2 of the
act of July 22,1912, should be amended to read as follows:
REPORT 01' THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Sec. 2. That the statistics of the quantity of cotton ginned shall show the
quantity ginned for each crop prior to September 1, September 1C, October 1,
October 16, November 1, November 16, December 1, December 16, January 16,
and March 1, and shall be published as soon as possible after these respective
dates. The quantity of cotton consumed in manufacturing establishments, the
quantity of baled cotton on hand, the number of active consuming cotton spin­
dles, the number of active spindle hours, and the statistics of cotton imported
and exported shall relate to each calendar mouth, and shall be published as
soon as possible after the close of the month * * *.

There is an insistent demand for information as to the several
grades of cotton held in the United States. As stated in my report
for last year, it is impossible to collect complete data of this charac­
ter under present conditions. I therefore renew my recommendation
that legislation on this subject as outlined in my last report be
enacted.
That portion of the act of July 7, 1916, providing for the collec­
tion and publication of statistics of raw and prepared cotton and
linters, cotton waste, and hull fiber consumed in the manufacture of
guncotton and explosives, and of absorbent and medicated cotton,
should be repealed. This legislation was enacted in order to ascer­
tain the quantity of cotton used in the manufacture of explosives,
etc., because of the great activity of these industries during the World
War. The necessity for the statistics has now passed.
STOCKS OF LEAF TOBACCO.

In previous reports I have recommended that the collection of
data concerning the quantities of the several types of leaf tobacco
held by certain classes of manufacturers and dealers required by
the act of Congress approved April 30, 1912, be transferred to the
Bureau of Internal Kevenue. That bureau now collects monthly
reports of the transactions in leaf tobacco from all registrants, and
by changing the forms somewhat could obtain all of the informa­
tion concerning stocks of leaf tobacco now collected by the Bureau
of the Census, thus avoiding duplication and the necessity of the
same concern reporting to two bureaus. Further, the law limits the
work of the Bureau of the Census to the collection of data from those
dealers in leaf tobacco having an average of 50,000 pounds at the
close of the four quarters of the preceding calendar year. It is im­
possible for the bureau to comply literally with the requirements
of this law; however, if the work is to be continued by the Bureau
of the Census, I recommend that the law be amended so as to require
the bureau to obtain reports from all registered tobacco dealers,
irrespective of their size. It is also recommended that this law be

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
98
amended so as to permit the reports to be sworn to before post­
masters and assistant postmasters. This amendment would save
considerable time and expense on the part of the persons required
to make the affidavit.

OFFICIAL REGISTER.

Since 1907 the Bureau of the Census, as required by law, has com­
piled and published biennially a volume giving the names of and
information concerning all the civilian employees of the Federal
Government, except those in the Postal Service. It seems to me
that it answers no important purpose; certainly its value does not
justify the expenditure of $50,000, the approximate cost of its
preparation and publication.
I accordingly recommend that a law be passed discontinuing the
preparation of the Official Register after the publication of the
edition for July 1, 1923, and authorizing the compilation and pub­
lication biennially by the Bureau of the Census of statistics of the
civilian personnel of the Federal Government.
Very truly yours,
W. M. S teuart ,
Director of the Census.

BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE.
D epartment of C ommerce,
B ureau of F oreign and D omestic C ommerce,

Hon. H erbert H oover,

Washington, July 1,1923.

Secretary of Commerce.

D ear M r. S ecretary: In response to your request, I furnish the

following condensed report upon the work of the bureau during the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1923. The bureau has expanded steadily
and consistently—entering new fields of activity, amplifying those
services already established, and supplying with greater effectiveness
the needs of the American business community for commercial data.
The bureau has felt that during the past year, when there has been
a gratifying increase in the domestic demand for commodities, it has
been especially essential to conduct a vigorous campaign for the
maintaining of persistent effort in the export field. Too many manu­
facturers are prone to neglect their foreign connections during peri­
ods of prosperity at home, and such a policy is likely to result in
incalculable harm, forfeiting the position previously built up and
alienating (perhaps permanently) the agents and merchants abroad.
The bureau has endeavored to prevent such untoward developments
by strengthening its service and constantly directing the attention of
American business men to the advantages of unremitting exertion in
the foreign markets.
The system of commodity divisions established during the pre­
ceding fiscal year has proved eminently successful. Several new
divisions have been created, and the work of the existing commodity
divisions has been systematized and developed, enabling them to re­
spond even more satisfactorily to the requirements of the industries
they serve.
The establishment of several new permanent foreign offices, the
increasingly close supervision exercised over such offices, and the
correlation of their work by such means as the Rome conference of
attaches and trade commissioners have given renewed energy to the
entire foreign service of the bureau and have made possible the
achievement of the notable results that are mentioned specifically in
succeeding pages.
Especially significant was the beginning of the special investiga­
tions into supplies of certain raw materials and the markets for
99

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
100
American agricultural products. These studies promise to be en­
lightening and of very great and definite value to some of tire most
important of American industries.
The details of these and many other bureau activities are pre­
sented in the various sections that follow.
CHANGES AMONG BUREAU EXECUTIVES.

With the assignment abroad of Leland Rex Robinson, Robert A.
Jackson was appointed assistant director of the bureau, entering
upon duty February 7,1923. The three other assistant director posi­
tions continued to be filled by O. P. Hopkins, Louis Domeratzky, and
Thomas R. Taylor.
Arthur S. llillyer was appointed as chief of the commercial intelli­
gence division. On October 14,1922, Harold Dotterer succeeded Nor­
man Meese as chief of the division of district offices, Mr. Meese becoming
assistant chief of the foreign service division, of which Walter L.
Miller was made chief. John Matthews, jr., was appointed chief of
the paper division on August 1,1922, succeeding Grosvenor M. Jones,
assigned to duty as chief of the newly created finance and invest­
ment division. Henry C. Campbell was made acting chief of the
research division on October 26,1922, succeeding George B. Roorbach.
Charles C. Concannon was appointed chief of the new chemical
division. Harry A. Curtis was placed at the head of the nitrogen
work and Louis F. Crossette of the sisal work. Frank Surface has
charge of the world survey of agricultural products undertaken by
the bureau. At the beginning of the fiscal year the previously
existing fuel division was divided into a petroleum division and a
coal division, with Henry C. Morris as chief of the former and
Francis R. Wadleigh of the latter.
Between June 30, 1922, and June 30, 1923, the number of persons
on the rolls increased from 522 to 935, or nearly 80 per cent. By
authority of an act of January 5, 1923, 122 persons in New York,
N. Y., were transferred from the Treasury Department to the
bureau’s roster as the section of customs statistics.
COMMODITY DIVISIONS.
FUNCTIONS AND SERVICES COMMON TO ALL COMMODITY DIVISIONS.

Each of the bureau’s 17 commodity divisions has supplied material
for a special section in Commerce Reports, the weekly magazine
of the department; has distributed numerous special circulars; has
prepared articles for trade journals; has sent out data on trade
opportunities; has increased the number of names on the bureau’s
Exporters’ Index; has prepared questionnaires to be answered by

101
Government representatives abroad; and has cooperated with com­
mittees of trade associations or other representatives of American
industry. The commodity, like the regional, divisions have aided
in the preparation of material for the department’s new Commerce
Yearbook.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS DIVISION.

George 13. Bell continued as chief of the agricultural implements
division, and George F. Kendall became assistant chief September
15, 1922. Close relations were maintained with the National Asso­
ciation of Farm Equipment Manufacturers. The division has con­
ducted much research work and has satisfied many requests for
direction and advice concerning foreign markets. To give a single
example, it laid out a plan (since successfully carried out) for in­
troducing pumps into Brazil. General articles published in Com­
merce Keports have included discussions of markets in the Philip­
pine Islands, Switzerland, Chile, Australia, Sweden, Mexico, Haiti,
Netherlands East Indies, Italy, Portugal, Algeria, and Esthonia.
Numerous other important articles have been supplied by the division.
The outstanding achievement of the division has been a survey of
the markets for pumps and farm lighting equipment throughout the
world. This has aroused keen interest and has brought about satisfac­
tory concrete results. A similar questionnaire on windmills was dis­
tributed. A study was made of the production of agricultural im­
plements and machinery in the United Kingdom, Belgium, Sweden,
Czechoslovakia, the Netherlands, Germany, and Italy. Trade in­
formation bulletins included Agricultural Implements in the Nether­
lands East Indies and British Malaya, Sale of Agricultural Imple­
ments in Foreign Countries, and Japan as a Market for American
Agricultural Implements and Machinery. It is planned to make
during the fiscal year 1924 surveys covering spraying apparatus,
dairy equipment, poultry equipment, and possibly other classes.
Another project to be carried out is the survey of the production of
implements in Australia.
AUTOMOTIVE DIVISION.

Gordon Lee resigned as chief of the automotive division December
15, 1922, to accept a position in the industry, and M. H. Hoepli has
been acting chief since that time. A reorganization of the division
was effected. Inquiries answered by the bureau on automotive sub­
jects increased from 17,700 in 1922 to more than 55,000 in 1923. In
a great many instances specific service by the division produced
tangible results in the form of sales made or agencies established.
With the aid of the division of commercial laws a number of claims

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
102
were amicably adjusted. Trade associations and leading manufac­
turers have recognized the division as one of the foremost sources
of automotive foreign-trade information. The Department of Com­
merce cooperated with the Bureau of Mines in the preparation of
several motion-picture films illustrating automotive methods and
products. Some of these films have been extensively and effectively
demonstrated in foreign countries. The automotive division has
supplied foreign offices of the Departments of Commerce and State
with considerable educational material.
Mr. Lee and Mr. Hoepli delivered numerous addresses before trade
bodies. Reports were made to the foreign-trade committees of the
automotive associations cooperating with the division, whose work
the associations unanimously indorsed. An increasing number of
trade lists have been sent to manufacturers. Two weekly press state­
ments, called the Automotive Press Digest and the Automotive
World News, go to about 150 trade papers, besides a large number
of newspapers. There is also a weekly Line Digest, with a circula­
tion of 1,800 copies.
The results of a 10-month investigation of the Far Eastern auto­
motive markets by Trade Commissioner William I. Irvine were em­
bodied in. the publications Japan as an Automotive Market and Auto­
motive Markets in China, British Malaya, and Chosen. A more gen­
eral review of the Argentine market, by Trade Commissioner George
S. Brady, was published in the form of a trade information bulletin.
Toward the close of the fiscal year an extensive investigation of India
as a market for automotive products was completed by Trade Com­
missioner C. C. Batchelder. Simultaneously two trade information
bulletins, covering the foreign markets for taxicabs and taximeters
and for motor fire-fighting equipment, were prepared by the division
on the basis of returns to a world-wide survey by means of question­
naires. The following monographs were prepared in the course of
the year on the basis of information available in the division : Auto­
motive Conditions in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru,
Uruguay, Venezuela, and Central America.
The division instituted world surveys, including revision of world
census for automotive vehicles, corrected to January 1, 1928; for­
eign markets for motor fire-fighting equipment, taxicabs, mechanical
tire-inflation equipment, accessories, parts, and equipment, motor
cycles, marine engines and motor boats, and aircraft; preferences
concerning passenger cars and motor trucks; automotive selling sea­
son ; quarterly sales survey, combined with a forecast of automotive
market conditions.
Plans have been made and activities started for expanding the
work along these lines: (1) Reclassification of Exporters’ Index;
(2) market analysis; (8) merchandising investigations; (4) for­

103
eign trade manual. The division has taken full charge of the for­
eign trade manual service, which work was initiated by the National
Automotive Chamber of Commerce and contributed to by the de­
partment during the previous year. The manual will cover, for
about 100 countries, the following subjects: Basic factors; business
practices; current conditions; laws and regulations; manufacturing;
trade lists; markets for accessories, aircraft, motor boats and marine
engines, motor cycles, trucks, parts, passenger cars, and servicing
equipment.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

CHEMICAL DIVISION.

The chemical division was established August 1, 1923, with C. R.
De Long as chief. Mr. De Long resigned October 31, 1922, and his
assistant, C. C. Concannon, is now chief. There has been mutual
assistance and valuable cooperation between the division and the
trade and export associations in the chemical industry. Articles
have been published in Commerce Reports relative to market situ­
ations in 26 chemical commodity groups and specific chemicals in
about 40 foreign countries. Analyses of the United States export
trade in chemicals and allied products are frequently published, as
well as import analyses from time to time. There has been a
steadily increasing number of business inquiries, most of these being
of a type demanding considerable research work. Approximately
once a month an article is prepared analyzing the American export
trade in the principal commodities. The division has given assistance
to American dye manufacturers. It placed in operation a method by
which import figures for all dyes and synthetic organic chemicals
coming into the United States through the port of New York could
be furnished to the industry very soon after the close of each month.
The industry regards this as an outstanding service.
On May 9, 1923, F. E. Breithut was appointed chemical trade com­
missioner to Europe. Interested persons have been supplied with
all available information on China wood oil. Active steps were taken
to locate supplies of white arsenic abroad. An extensive survey was
made of the use of pyroxylin paints.
A monthly cable is received from the commercial attaché at Berlin
giving German domestic quotations on various dyes and chemicals.
Export statistics by countries have been distributed for soda ash,
soda bicarbonate, sal soda, caustic soda, and bleach. Work is now
going forward on a world survey of paints and of “ biologicals ” and
“ medicináis.” Further constructive programs are in contemplation.
COAL DIVISION.

From the beginning of the fiscal year July 1, 1922, practically the
entire work of the coal division was in connection with the emer­
gency distribution of coal and related matters. At this time the

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
104
miners’ strike was at its height, with the result that no coal was
being exported from this country except small quantities to Canada.
This work was continued until the end of the strike, September 11.
On September 22, F. K, Wadleigh, chief of the coal division, was ap­
pointed assistant to the Federal fuel distributor, and the entire force
of the division was transferred to that office. Mr. Wadleigh con­
tinued, however, to handle the work of the coal division, H. C.
Morris being appointed acting chief for official purposes. On Janu­
ary 1 Mr. Wadleigh was appointed Federal fuel distributor, but he
has continued to handle all coal-division matters.

ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT DIVISION.

Compilation of data on all central power stations of the world
being in usable shape and nearly completed, special efforts were de­
voted toward developing better selling outlets abroad for American
electrical goods. Information was gathered concerning foreign en­
gineers, manufacturers’ agents, importing firms, and electrical deal­
ers. Special efforts were made to obtain the names of young manu­
facturers’ agents just starting in business who would be capable of
representing American firms on efficient terms. As a phase of this
work, and to obtain a more intimate knowledge of possible Euro­
pean competition, It. A. Lundquist, chief of the division, made a
short trip into Sweden, Germany, and England early in the fiscal
year. He also.secured information concerning the possibilities for
the sale of electrical household appliances in England and northern
Europe.
A special study of radio was made by S. H. Day, assistant chief,
and a trade information bulletin on that subject was issued. Clas­
sified lists of American radio manufacturers were prepared.
A revised edition of the Electrical Glossary was brought out by the
division. Many statistical statements have been issued showing
American exports as well as imports into foreign markets by coun­
tries of origin.
The division has secured and sent to manufacturers a considerable
number of specifications for electrical goods issued in foreign coun­
tries. As typical of this work there may be cited the distribution of
several different sets of specifications and forms for bidding covering
material for the huge Morwell project in Australia.
Progress has been made in obtaining data as to electrical stand­
ards and construction requirements of foreign countries. Close
contact has been maintained with the Electrical Manufacturers’ As­
sociation, and the division has also been in touch with a committee
selected by manufacturers of telephone equipment and with two
societies for electrical development.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

FOODSTUFFS DIVISION.

105

The work undertaken in cooperation with the National Canners’
Association, which included a complete survey of foreign food laws
and regulations affecting imported products, has been almost com­
pleted. Arrangements have been made for the establishment of a
tobacco section July 1, 1923. Analyses of international trade in
vegetable oils over a period of years have been completed. The Meat
Packers' Institute has been kept informed of foreign economic con­
ditions. Assistance was given to a national cocoa and chocolate
manufacturers' association, and the division cooperated with certain
of the large fresh-fruit and casein companies. Among the publica­
tions prepared in the division were: World Markets for American
Dried and Dehydrated Fruits and Vegetables, World Trade in Vege­
table Oils, Foreign Demand for American Malted Milk, World Pro­
duction and Trade in Figs and Dates, Manufactured Milk Industry
and Trade of the World, Latin American and Canadian Markets for
Canned Goods.
More than 70 special inquiries have been carried out, through
questionnaires and requests to foreign representatives of the Gov­
ernment. The subjects of these inquiries have been extremely varied.
To give only three examples out of many, there were investigations
of the methods of packing anchovies in France, Spain, Italy, Nor­
way, and Sweden; markets for dried fruits in Chosen, the Philip­
pines, Siam, and the Straits Settlements; and the production and
consumption of tobacco in China.
Alfred P. Dennis, who acts as special representative of the food­
stuffs division in Europe, has made a large number of reports on the
foodstuffs situation and crop conditions.
A staff of seven special research clerks has been established in the
division. In cooperation with the statistical division a wire service
has been established announcing weekly the exports of grain and
flour and shipments of Canadian grains through United States
ports. The statistical analyses of the sugar, cotton, and grain trades
throughout the world have been brought up to date and much im­
proved. There have been three regular weekly press bulletins,
Foodstuffs ’Pound the World, Foreign Notes on Meats, Fats, Oils,
and Livestock, and World Trade and Crop Notes. As news of
particular and immediate importance reaches the division from
abroad it is frequently released to the press at o’nce. During the
year 95 such reports were placed in the hands of Washington cor­
respondents and press associations, often within a few hours after
receipt.
E. G. Montgomery has continued as chief of the foodstuffs
division.
68596—23------8

106

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

HIDE AND LEATHER DIVISION.

The work of the hide and leather division has shown rapid
development, its services having more than trebled. A series of
articles was published on the important foreign tanning materials
used in the United States. There was a survey of resources of
domestic raw tanning materials and the production and consumption
of domestic tanning extracts. A study of world hide and skin pro­
duction and movement was undertaken, as was an investigation of
the international trade and local consumption of the principal pro­
ducing countries. The division has been studying the ways of
securing more standardized methods in the flaying, curing, and
grading of foreign hides and skins that come to this country. This
is regarded as a most important problem. There has been a study of
the take-off, curing, and merchandising of reindeer skins, of which
there is an increasing study in Alaska. Special studies have been
made of the increase in tanning production and capacity in Brazil,
Argentina, Chile, Great Britain, and France, and similar studies are
being made in all the important leather-producing countries. In
cooperation with the transportation division practical remedies for
theft and pilferage have been worked out.
Through the valuable assistance of the Salvage and Surplus Stocks
Bureau of the War Department the division has kept the industry
informed as to the inventories, reductions in stock, and proposed
auctions of leather and manufactured leather goods. Data have
been collected relating to the work being carried on in foreign coun­
tries by leather research laboratories. Much information has been
supplied to the American Sole and Belting Leather Tanners (Inc.).
There has been hearty cooperation with other Government bureaus.
Two very valuable trade information bulletins were issued, one on
Leather Industry and Trade of the Netherlands and the other on
Italy’s Leather Market. A survey of the leather industry of the
United Kingdom was prepared. A bibliography of the tanning
industry was compiled. Wilbur J. Page has continued as chief of
this division.
INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY DIVISION.

There has been a very great increase in the amount of work per­
formed by the machinery division. Between June, 1922, and June,
1923, the number of inquiries answered by the bureau on machinery
matters more than trebled. A special survey has been made of the
machinery dealers of the world by collecting reports showing the
qualifications, facilities, and limitations of the dealers in all foreign
cities. Efforts have been made to revise the export classification now
used in connection with statistics of machinery exports and certain

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

107

improvements have been instituted. The division is arranging for
the entire revision of the index showing the kinds of machinery
produced by various American manufacturers. A number of special
studies have been made, including statistical analyses of the world’s
trade in metal-working machinery, ice and refrigerating machinery,
woodworking machinery, flour-mill equipment, and other articles.
A survey of the highway-construction programs in all foreign coun­
tries, a similar survey of the ice and refrigerating plants of the
world, and a number of other tasks of like character have been
accomplished. The division has aided American machinery manu­
facturers in a great variety of ways, especially in the adjustment of
disputes. It has facilitated negotiations with officials of foreign
governments on many subjects. Walter H. Rastall is chief of this
division.
IRON AND STEEL DIVISION.

The iron and steel division has pointed out some of the weak spots
in the conduct of American export trade and has recommended cor­
rectives. It has urged manufacturers to seek export trade when
business at home is good. Promising markets were indicated. The
attention of the industry was called to the disadvantages resulting
from the necessity of transshipping goods in foreign bottoms in
order to reach certain foreign ports. There was an extraordinary
growth in the number of inquiries answered. A steel exporters’ in­
dex was started and grew rapidly. The chief of the division, Luther
Becker, made frequent visits to the leading centers. A world-wide
investigation of the market for industrial structural steel buildings
was carried out. Data involving the manufacture abroad of iron,
steel, and copper wire were collected. An investigation was made in
European countries to ascertain the character and extent of “ redevel­
opment ” work in sheet and pressed metal. Other studies concerned
wire rope, special steels, roofing materials, forgings, steel castings,
sprocket chain, etc. The division has been instrumental in selecting
proper foreign agencies for American manufacturers. Important
statistical statements have been issued monthly. Every important
foreign construction project has been investigated, and American
steel men have been kept informed of progress. Trade information
bulletins were issued on such subjects as German Iron and Steel In­
dustry, Areas of Steel-Plant Concentration in Great Britain, and
Market for Construction Materials in Brazil. Articles were con­
tributed to trade publications and the press.
Contact has been established with 51 trade associations having to
do with iron and steel and their products.
At the beginning of the fiscal year a mineral section, with James A.
Stader at its head, was organized as an integral part of the division,

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
108
to take over its activities.in connection with minerals and nonferrous
metals. Many reports resulting from studies of foreign mineral de­
posits were distributed. Trade information bulletins issued by the
section comprised World Trade in Cement, Fire-Brick Markets in
Latin America, Austrian Magnesite Industry, Fluorspar Resources
of the World, and Grecian Emery. A plan bas been initiated for a
register of American importers of minerals. The section has linked
up American buyers with foreign suppliers of raw products. Coop­
eration with trade associations was effected from the outset.
LUMBER DIVISION.

The outstanding achievement of the lumber division, of which
Axel H. Oxholm is chief, has been the compilation of a series of
reports on Methods of Handling Lumber Imports Abroad, obtained
by means of a questionnaire to consuls and Department of Commerce
representatives. A large amount of statistical data was added by
the lumber division to show the United States exports to each coun­
try and the imports of each country from all sources. The reports
have been issued in a series of trade information bulletins covering,
respectively, South America, North America outside of the United
States, Africa, Australasia, Asia, United Kingdom and northern
Europe, western continental Europe, and southern and eastern
Europe.
The lumber division has secured complete up-to-date lists of lumber
agents and importers in all important foreign markets. It has also
compiled information on arbitration practice in foreign lumber mar­
kets, together with lists of arbitration courts. The division has listed
1,160 exporters of lumber and lumber products on its Exporters’
Index, and during the year it secured from most of these firms a
detailed statement of the precise character of their exports. The
division has built up a file of foreign agents of American lumber
exporters and has recommended reliable connections in various cases.
There was issued the Directory of Exporters of American Lumber
and Wood Products, giving details of the business of about 1,500
firms. Another publication in the miscellaneous series was Stave
Trade in Foreign Countries. Trade information bulletins included
Parana Pine Lumber Industry of Brazil, Export Timbers of the
Philippines, and Lumber in Austria and Italy. A pamphlet on
Grade Marking of Lumber was prepared for and published by the
National Lumber Manufacturers’ Association.
Questionnaires were sent out covering such subjects as foreign
markets for cooperage stocks, box shooks, and railway ties. An
average of more than 125 business problems and questions pertaining
to the export of lumber are handled each week by the lumber divi­
sion, many of these involving much research work.

109
The chief of the division made recommendations concerning refor­
estation before the Senate Forestry Committee.
With the cooperation of the statistical division, monthly statistics
are issued covering the exports of lumber and wood products by
species, customs districts, and countries of destination. Foreign sta­
tistics also have been compiled and interpreted. Tables were issued
covering the conversion of Petrograd standards and of cubic meters
into American board feet.
In May, 1923, the industry formed a lumber advisory committee
to cooperate with the division, and its advice has proved valuable.
Mr. Oxholm, chief of the division, plans to sail early in July for
a comprehensive 15-months investigation of the lumber markets of
the Netherlands, Belgium. France, and Switzerland.ê
REPORT OP THE SECRETARY Or COMMERCE.

PAPER DIVISION.

The paper division was reorganized at the beginning of the fiscal
year, and on August 1,1922, John Matthews, jr.,was appointed chief.
There was a marked increase in the amount of work performed, the
outgoing correspondence for the year totaling 2,680 communications
in answer to inquiries. Two hundred items were prepared for Com­
merce Reports,- and most of these were reprinted in trade journals.
The division also prepared for various outside publications original
articles on the exportation of paper.
The bureau’s monthly statistical statements on exports of paper
were enlarged to include certain grades that had not previously been
covered, and the mailing lists were revised so that all concerns inter­
ested would receive the statements as issued.
The principal work of the year was a survey of the most promising
foreign markets for paper. These reports will be published as trade
information bulletins, one of which, Market for Paper and Paper
Products in Brazil, has already gone to press.
In conjunction with the commercial intelligence division, lists of
foreign importers and dealers have been checked up and revised.
Advice has been given to numerous concerns as to which of the
foreign markets are likely to prove most fertile fields for direct
personal solicitation. 'Others have been given the names of suitable
agents abroad. Through a survey conducted under the supervision
of the division, the manufacturers of a special composing machine
were furnished with information enabling them to conduct a world­
wide sales campaign.
PETROLEUM DIVISION.

Henry C. Morris remained as chief and H. F. Fox as assistant
chief of the petroleum division when the former fuel division was
divided at the beginning of the fiscal year. The division has ob­

110
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
tained much new data and is increasing its understanding of the
problems of the exporting companies, mainly as a result of the
information furnished the division concerning the specific petroleum
products shipped by the individual companies and the countries to
which they are exported. The special country lists enable the divi­
sion to distribute data most expeditiously and effectively.
The foreign representatives of this Government have supplied a
wealth of detail as to marketing conditions, foreign competition,
etc. Trade information bulletins were issued on the petroleum trade
and industry of the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Argentina, and
the Netherlands East Indies. Press statements have been distributed
giving brief summaries of some of the more valuable reports which
it was impracticable to disseminate generally in their complete form.
There was a steady service in statistics of production and distribu­
tion of petroleum products in foreign countries.
The division has started a file of current petroleum legislation in
the various producing or prospective oil areas of the world. This
file is currently complete for all South and Central American coun­
tries, and the work of preparing copies of the petroleum laws of
other countries is progressing favorably.
The compilation of data on which to base a comprehensive study
of price trends abroad is well started and regular distribution of this
information has begun. Special studies of the world’s supply and
consumption of individual petroleum products are being made. The
division is preparing a list of the various designations under which
petroleum products are shipped abroad, so that there may be an
agreement upon the export classifications.
RUBBER DIVISION.

The work of the rubber division with respect to the crude-rubber
situation is indicated in the section entitled “ Investigation of raw
materials.” The investigation of European markets for rubber goods
begun by P. L. Palmerton, chief of the division, in April, 1923, en­
riched the informational files of the division and led to the publica­
tion of various special circulars and of trade information bulletins
on the Market for Rubber Products in the United Kingdom and the
Market for Rubber Products in Belgium. A third bulletin was a
reprint of the report of a British committee appointed to advise on
measures to alleviate the serious crude-rubber situation in British
possessions. A very large number of mimeographed circulars has
been issued. Twelve of the division’s export handbooks on foreign
rubber-goods markets were issued during the past year, bringing the
total to 45. Preliminary work on seven others has been completed.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

I ll

The preparation of rubber-goods tariff schedules and trade lists of
foreign importers has proceeded satisfactorily; thus far complete
tariff schedules on 40 foreign countries have been issued and kept
up to date and 468 trade lists have been distributed.
The division has continued the issuance of advance statements
showing monthly, semiannual, and annual exports of various rubber
products, by countries of destination. As a result of a questionnaire,
the division has been able to advise American tire companies con­
cerning price conditions throughout the world. Cabled data have
strengthened this service. Information on tire-distribution methods
and trade practices has also been given out. A preliminary survey
of foreign markets for canvas rubber-soled footwear has been made.
The chief of the division has made several trips in the United
States conferring with persons in the rubber industry. There has
been close contact between the division and the Rubber Association
of America.
SHOE AND LEATHER MANUFACTURES DIVISION.

The activities of the shoe and leather manufactures division, of
which A. B. Butman is chief, increased threefold during the year,
with no increase in personnel. A questionnaire was sent out cover­
ing production, consumption, competition, etc., in foreign countries,
and the information thus obtained from Government representatives
abroad has been given to the trade in a variety of ways.
The division obtained data from American manufacturers as to
the kind of goods manufactured, whether or not these were exported,
the principal countries of destination, and whether or not the firm
was listed on the bureau’s Exporters’ Index or maintained a foreign
agency. The names of about 200 manufacturers were added to the
index.
The chief of the division held conferences in Boston, Philadelphia,
New York City, Rochester, Gloversville, Brockton, Chicago, San­
dusky, and Washington. Many persons inspected the bureau’s ma­
terial and were informed of its services. There has been cordial
cooperation with the National Boot and Shoe Manufacturers’ Asso­
ciation, the New England Shoe and Leather Association, the Na­
tional Association of Leather Glove Manufacturers, and the Whole­
sale Saddlery Association. In addition, the division has cooperated
with the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, the War De­
partment, the Census Bureau, the Tariff Commission, the Senate
Finance Committee, the Ways and Means Committee, several of the
foreign embassies and legations, and various Members of Congress.

112

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
SPECIALTIES DIVISION.

The specialties division, of which Henry H. Morse is chief, pro­
motes the sale abroad of more than 40 groups of commodities. One
important phase of its work has been the grounding of the small
manufacturer, inexperienced in foreign trade, in the elements of
exporting. Another has been definite assistance to large exporters in
finding new and additional outlets in foreign countries for their
products. A third has been the study of foreign markets for various
commodities included in the “ specialties ” group. A fourth form of
activity has been the handling of the results of an advertising ques­
tionnaire. In addition, special work of various kinds has been car­
ried out.
Trade surveys were made of the market for outdoor-amusement
devices in Latin America, metal beds in the Far East and Europe,
furniture trimmings and cabinet hardware in Latin America, gas
water heaters in all important countries, tent and awning hardware
in the leading markets, piano parts in important foreign manufac­
turing centers, school slates in Latin America and the British Col­
onies, and a large number of miscellaneous articles. A questionnaire
was also sent out regarding the character of American motion-picture
films abroad.
A survey of foreign advertising media and methods has been made
by means of a detailed questionnaire addressed to all American con­
suls. The American Association of Advertising Agencies has aided
in this work, which is now practically completed. A large amount of
foreign display advertising material was procured for the convention
of the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World.
A world survey of the cutlery market was made. A campaign was
instituted with respect to neglected markets. Many of the problems
now belonging to the division of domestic commerce were handled by
the specialties division, and a conference on the subject was held in
Washington.
Under direction of this division an exhibit entitled “ Export serv­
ice, step by step ” was prepared, showing by a series of 18 typical
letters, together with charts, tables, and a map, how an American
manufacturer, by submitting his export problems to the bureau, may
obtain information and assistance.
In December there was a conference at which a plan of cooperation
between the bureau and export commission houses was worked out.
The bureau can now furnish lists of commission houses, showing what
fields they cover and what lines they handle.
There has been active cooperation with trade associations, espe­
cially in the office appliance, pottery, bicycle, musical instrument,
motion picture, jewelry, stove, and hardware industries. A ques­

113
tionnaire was sent out regarding foreign markets for American bicy­
cles, and in the near future trade information bulletins on the various
markets will be prepared.
The 4,337 commercial inquiries which the specialties division an­
swered by letter during the year indicates an increasing interest in
its work.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

TEXTILE DIVISION.

The textile division has expanded its operations until it now has
contacts with about 50 trade associations. During the first quarter
of the fiscal year, E. T. Pickard, chief of the division, made a
study of textile conditions in Europe, including such centers as
Manchester, Liverpool, London, Havre, Paris, Lille, Strasbourg,
Mulhouse, Winterthur* Zurich, Milan. Rome, Vienna, Warsaw,
Lodz, Bremen, The Hague, Rotterdam, Brussels, and Ghent.
In the course of the year, officials of 20 trade associations visited
the Washington office for special conferences. In cooperation with
the chief coordinator of the Bureau of the Budget, the textile divi­
sion has helped the War and Navy Departments to dispose of sur­
plus textile stocks. An estimate of world wool production for 1922
was compiled. Two weekly bulletins are being issued, the Cotton
Service Bulletin and the Cotton Piece-Goods Bulletin. Regular cir­
culars are also being issued to the wool, knit-goods, and bristle
trades.
Comparisons of the weekly average prices of cotton gray cloth in
world markets were made throughout the year and cable quotations
from Japan and India have been initiated. Various other important
cable reports on textiles are received and published weekly, monthly,
or quarterly.
The Washington headquarters of the division and the bureau’s
district offices answered 64,000 textile inquiries, as compared with
18,000 in the fiscal year 1922. Outgoing letters from the Washing­
ton office totaled 14,500.
Certain of the information gathered by Mr. Pickard on his Euro­
pean trip was summarized in brief surveys, by countries, and
released to the daily press. The division’s trade information bul­
letins included Textile Market in Cuba, Cotton Industry of Peru,
Survey of Czecho-Slovak Cotton Industry, 1922, and Textile Indus­
tries of Belgium and the Netherlands.
TRANSPORTATION DIVISION.

The outstanding work of the transportation division during the
year was in connection with packing for export and the elimination
of theft and pilferage. John F. Keeley, the assistant chief, headed
this investigation, visiting 300 plants, in more than 30 industrial

114
RKPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
centers of the United States. The best methods of packing in use
were checked by scientific bodies. The results of the investigation
are being embodied in the form of a manual. Much advice on
proper packing was given to exporters.
Five lines of action were developed for the prevention of theft
and pilferage: ( a) Better packing, in accordance with specifications
to be published by the bureau; ( b) the bonding of stevedores,
receiving clerks, tally clerks, and others who handle valuable ship­
ments; (c) the amendment of Federal legislation so that stealing
from a railroad train, truck, warehouse, or other agency of transpor­
tation would be a Federal crime; (d ) the establishment of a central
bureau of information on pilferage cases; and (e ) the endeavor to
get foreign countries to carry out similar measures.
The division helped to get cars for the shipment, in this country,
of wheat, potatoes, apples, citrus fruits, grapes, cattle, etc. Plans
were made whereby a day’s time was saved on express shipments
from the Atlantic coast to middle western points. As regards the
ocean bill of lading used in the lumber trade from the Gulf ports,
the division was able to get a clause changed to suit southern lum­
ber interests. In connection with the American Railway Associa­
tion, the division was successful in having the embargo on automo­
biles for export raised at the port of New York.
The division’s routine work of answering inquiries doubled dur­
ing the year. Two trade information bulletins were printed. The
monograph on Steamship Services from United States Ports was
completed; Inland Water Transportation in the United States was
in page proof at the end of the year; Internal Communications was
sent to the printer; the revision of Government Aid to Merchant
Shipping was turned over to the editorial division ; the manual Pack­
ing for Foreign Markets was two-thirds completed; and substantial
progress had been made on a handbook of railways of Latin America.
Eugene S. Gregg is chief of the transportation division.
INVESTIGATION OF RAW MATERIALS AND AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTS.

In March, 1923, Congress passed a bill—

To enable the Department of Commerce to Investigate and report upon
the possibilities of developing the rubber-plantation industry in the Philippine
Islands and Latin America ; to investigate the conditions of production and
marketing of other essential raw materials for American industries, Including
nitrates and sisal ; and to investigate related problems in the development of
the foreign trade of the United States in agricultural and manufactured
products.

Under this act $357,700 was made available for the Bureau of
Foreign and Domestic Commerce, $42,300 for the Bureau of Stand­

115
ards, and $100,000 for the Department of Agriculture. Work was
begun immediately after March 4.
The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce is making a
thorough study of the sources of four raw materials—rubber, ni­
trogen, sisal, and tanning materials.
About $140,000 will be spent in connection with rubber. The
primary purpose is to study areas capable of producing rubber in
competition with the plantations in the Far East, where the exporta­
tion of rubber is under monopoly control. Field parties are being
sent to the Dutch and British plantations of the Far East, to the
Philippines, to the Amazon region, and to Central America. The
Amazon party is in charge of Commercial Attaché W. L. Schurz;
the Department of Agriculture is sending a cooperating party into
this region. David M. Figart has been sent to the Far East. For
the work in Central America J. T. Treadwell has been engaged.
The personnel for the Philippines has not yet been chosen. The
results of the work of the field parties are transmitted to the cruderubber section at Washington, which has been placed in charge of
Harry N. Whitford, professor of tropical forestry at Yale Univer­
sity. The Bureau of Standards is conducting studies of the possi­
bilities of reclaiming waste rubber and utilizing it for the manufac­
ture of tires and other products.
The main purposes of the nitrogen survey are to determine, so far
as possible, the extent to which our increasing requirements will be
supplied by corresponding increases of fixed nitrogen in the coke
and coal-gas industries, to study the Chilean nitrate industry from
an engineering standpoint to ascertain what changes might be made
in machinery or methods that would normally tend to lower the price,
and to inquire into the status of the air-nitrogen industry in the
United States and abroad. The aim is to lower the cost to Ameri­
can consumers and to determine the possibility of making this
country independent of foreign sources. Harry A. Curtis, professor
of industrial chemistry at Yale, has been engaged to direct the in­
vestigation. J. Foster Bain, chief of the Bureau of Mines, and H. S.
Mulliken have been sent to Chile, to stay about three months. A rep­
resentative of the Fixed Nitrogen Research Laboratory has been
sent to Europe to examine present processes and costs of production
of fixed nitrogen.
The sisal investigation consists primarily of a study of the present
control of production and distribution, although some effort is
being made to determine possible places of production other than
Yucatan. Louis F. Crossette, who is conducting the work, has
gathered certain facts not previously assembled. At the end of the
fiscal year he was on his way to Yucatan for a brief field study that
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
116
will be shared in by a representative of the Department of Agri­
culture.
The object of the tanning-material study is to determine the do­
mestic sources and stocks. For the last two or three months of the
fiscal year, therefore, this bureau and the Tanners’ Council have been
assembling, by means of questionnaires, all the facts in connection
with the domestic industry. This work has been placed in charge
of Wilbur J. Page, chief of the bureau’s hide and leather division.
By the end of the fiscal year complete figures were obtained on pro­
duction of domestic tanning extracts; detailed figures as to con­
sumption of extracts and barks were secured from more than 90 per
cent of the tanners of the country, and these figures were compiled
and reduced to bark tons, so as to be comparable with the production
figures. Through the cooperation of the Forest Service, new esti­
mates were obtained as to the stands of chestnut timber. Through
the aid of the Bureau of the Census and the lumber division figures
and estimates were furnished for the production and consumption of
chestnut timber. The advisory committee representing the Tanners’
Council decided that it was unnecessary to pursue an investigation
of tanning materials outside the United States. The sum of $12,000
has been transferred to the Bureau of Standards for technical studies
in connection with tanning-material compounds and processes.
The international agricultural-products study is founded upon the
very apparent need for more accurate information as to the possibili­
ties of selling farm commodities in export markets. Frank M.
Surface, who had been in charge of the Survey of Current Business
in the Bureau of the Census, was appointed to take charge of the
investigation. A committee comprising representatives of agricul­
tural organizations and exporters was appointed to direct the broad
lines of this work and to formulate constructive conclusions from
the results.
The first phase of the work is a statistical study designed to give a
background of fact with regard to our trade in the more important
agricultural products. A second phase deals with market practices.
Questions of the supply of credit in relation to the demand for it,
how exporters are financing their operations, questions of trans­
portation, storage, warehousing, port charges, ocean freight and
insurance rates, packing, distribution in foreign countries, etc., are
being studied. A third aspect of the work is a study of general
economic conditions in the industrial area of western Europe, which
forms the chief market for our agricultural products. So far as
possible, the staff of the department is being used in carrying on
these studies. A considerable portion of the work is being done by
divisions of the bureau, such as the division of foreign tariffs, the

117
transportation division, and the regional divisions. Alfred P.
Dennis, who has been special trade commissioner in Europe for
several years, has undertaken to interview foreign importers and
merchants in the chief markets of Europe to determine the practices
employed by them. For the study of general economic conditions,
H. B. Smith, who has been trade commissioner at Warsaw for sev­
eral years, has been assigned to the task of collecting and correlating
the information in the various European offices of the bureau and
of making additional studies along this line. E. G. Montgomery,
chief of the foodstuffs division, has gone to Europe to assist in the
investigation. Several experts have been added to the staff at
Washington.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

REGIONAL DIVISIONS.

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF WORK.

All the regional divisions have maintained regular sections in
Commerce Reports; have prepared for that magazine monthly re­
views of conditions in their respective territories, on the basis of
cabled reports from the bureau’s foreign representatives; have super­
vised, in general, the work of those representatives; have prepared
and distributed special and confidential circulars; have disseminated
data through commercial bodies, trade journals, and newspapers;
have conducted a great volume of correspondence and aided many
visitors; and have examined and utilized a mass of material appear­
ing in foreign publications. Assistance has been given to com­
modity divisions with respect to numerous broad commercial
problems.
Each of the foreign offices prepares regular and special reports
for the bureau; supplies information and advice in response to
specific inquiries by letter; satisfies the requirements of those who
call in person for data or for guidance; conducts such investigations
as seem timely and appropriate under existing economic conditions;
maintains close relations with the foreign Government; cooperates
with the American Embassy or Legation; and constantly facilitates
such contacts and connections as will result in increased sales of
American goods.
EUROPEAN REPRESENTATIVES’ CONFERENCE IN ROME.

The commercial attaches and trade commissioners in charge of
European offices (except those in Riga, Bucharest, Athens, and
Copenhagen) met in Rome for a conference the latter part of March.
O. P. Hopkins, assistant director of the bureau, and Alan G. Gold­
smith, chief of the western European division, were present. The
economic situation, especially as it affected American trade, was thor-

118
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
ouglilv discussed and reported to Washington. All administrative
problems involving the bureau’s foreign stall were taken up, and such
improvements as could be carried out at once were made on the spot.
The Washington representatives brought home with them the recom­
mendations of the group.
The Rome conference was timed to coincide with the meeting of
the International Chamber of Commerce, and the American Depart­
ment of Commerce officials were placed at the disposal of the Ameri­
can delegation in an advisory capacity. At a series of general con­
ferences they outlined the commercial, financial, and economic situa­
tion to the American delegation and also assisted individual busi­
ness men attending the meeting.
The bureau has decided to place subordinate offices in some of the
commercial and industrial centers of important countries. During
the fiscal year 1923-24 it has been planned to establish one at Barce­
lona, under the jurisdiction of the commercial attaché at Madrid,
and one at Milan, under the attaché at Rome; and to give the com­
mercial attaché in London facilities so that his commodity specialists
can maintain contacts with the industrial centers in the United
Kingdom.
To an increasing extent the bureau’s foreign representatives, dur­
ing the past year, have assisted not only American business men but
also prominent American Government officials. An exceptionally
large number of high officials, including Senators and Representa­
tives, have gone abroad on trips of investigation and have been given
valuable information and guidance.
EFFORTS AND ACHIEVEMENTS OF REPRESENTATIVES IN WESTERN EUROPE
AND SOUTH AFRICA.

Commercial Attaché Charles H. Cunningham was in sole charge of
the Madrid office except in January, February, and March, when he
had the help of Assistant Trade Commissioner O. S. Payne. He was
successful in finding suitable representatives in Spain for numerous
American firms. He induced the Spanish Government to send a
high official to the United States, instead of to some European coun­
try, for the purchase of about $150,000 worth of machinery. He saved
about $40,000 for American tire exporters by arranging for the entry
of shipments arriving without proper certificates of origin. He ob­
tained permission for the reexportation of some American specialties
without the payment of Spanish customs duties, thereby obviating
the payment of $14,000 for such duties and preventing the goods
from becoming a dead loss, as would have happened had they re­
mained in Spain. He brought about the postponement of the opera­
tion of a decree requiring tire manufacturers with branches in Spain

119
to furnish the Spanish Government with memorandums of all stocks
on hand, with identifying serial numbers which could be checked
against customs invoices, thus avoiding the payment of heavy fines
for noncompliance.
The major reports from the Madrid office included articles on lum­
ber, tariffs, automobiles, chemicals, commercial laws, transportation,
foodstuffs, specialties, rubber, electrical equipment, and iron and
steel. Of particular importance was a general survey of conditions
in Portugal. Several studies were made of Spanish taxation laws,
especially those affecting American concerns operating in Spain.
Visits of investigation were made to Portugal, northwestern Spain,
and Barcelona. The attaché received considerable assistance from
the American consuls in Spain. The American ambassadors have
continually called on Mr. Cunningham for assistance in various mat­
ters, especially in connection with customs regulations and the
negotiation of a new commercial treaty between Spain and the
United States.
Commercial Attaché Walter S. Tower has continued in charge of
the London office and has been supported, as previously, by Assistant
Commercial Attaché Candler Cobb, Trade Commissioners Alexander
V. Dye and Hugh D. Butler, and Assistant Trade Commissioners
H. B. Allin-Smith and W. M. Park. In addition, Trade Commis­
sioners Leland Rex Robinson and Alan Dawson did special investi­
gation work for a short period. The internal organization of the
office was the same as in the previous year. The members of the
staff have made frequent visits to the provincial commercial centers
of the United Kingdom, thus keeping informed on industrial and
trade conditions. In various cases the office has helped to adjust
commercial difficulties, while adjustments of outstanding claims were
secured in cases involving consignments of portable motors, books,
lumber, and machinery. Relief from excessive import duties and
refund of duties already collected (amounting to several hundred
pounds sterling) was arranged in the case of certain oil products.
There were successful intercessions in behalf of the holders of the
Chinese reorganization 5 per cent gold loan of 1913. The office
also secured, in the interest of the American lumber trade, an official
ruling that Oregon pine (Douglas fir) would be acceptable on ad­
miralty contract tenders. In many cases the office was instrumental
in obtaining representatives for American firms in Great Britain or
vice versa. There were forwarded to the Washington office for publi­
cation and distribution about 350 special reports, the character of
which may be illustrated by the few titles following: “ Representa­
tive wages and wage bases in Great Britain,” “ Foreign-credit
facilities in the United Kingdom,” “ The reorganization of railways
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REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
in Great Britain,” “ Economic position of the British farmer,”
“ Lower trans-Atlantic freights for machinery,” “ Methods of han­
dling American lumber imports,” “ The London market for Ameri­
can textiles,” “Areas of steel-plant concentration in Great Britain:
Their equipment and competitive advantages,” “ British livestock
situation and market for imported fats,” and “ British market for
women’s leather wearing apparel.” The reports and surveys from
the London office covered all the chief commodities, prices, unem­
ployment, legislation, and a limitless variety of topics.
Trade Commissioner Perry J. Stevenson remained in charge of the
Johannesburg office. Closer contacts were formed with South Afri­
can commercial interests, and American business interests relied on
the office to an increasing extent. For purposes of trade promotion
two trips were made to Cape Town, one to East London (and thence
to Port Elizabeth), and another to Bloemfontein. Thirty investi­
gations were made covering various important South African mar­
kets. The reports included “ Cotton goods in South Africa,”
“ Methods of handling lumber imports in Africa,” “ Shoe industry
and trade in South Africa,” “ Manufacturers’ agents in South
Africa,” “ South African motor trade,” “ South African market for
metal furniture,” “ Market for slates and slate pencils,” “ Oil in
South Africa,” “ New customs regulations,” “ South African banking
in 1922,” “ The asbestos industry in British South Africa,” and
“ Drill-steel discovery in South African gold mines.” A report was
prepared revising the monograph on markets for agricultural imple­
ments and machinery in South Africa. Numerous American manu­
facturers have been aided in securing agents and distributers for
their products. Other concrete results made possible by the office
included sales of complete ginning plant, tractors, motor cars, motor
trucks, automobile accessories, lantern projectors and slides, cotton
goods, and other lines. Mr. Stevenson was especially active in the
protection of American trade interests in connection with the South
African customs regulations. The office enabled American exporters
to conclude 49 agency agreements, the resultant sales (for which the
office is direct!}' responsible) amounting to $750,000.
Commercial Attaché H. C. MacLean has remained in charge of the
Rome office, with the aid of Assistant Commercial Attaché A. A.
Osborne. The work has resulted in actual savings of considerable
amounts to American business houses. Mr. MacLean has been suc­
cessful in effecting settlement of claims against Italian firms, in one
instance obtaining payment of an overdue account amounting to
about $13,000 for an American firm, and in another case obtaining
an increase of several thousand dollars in the amount offered by an
Italian company in settlement of its account with an American
house. At another time a reduction of the excessive rate of duty

121
charged on a shipment of American specialties was obtained.
Through the mediation of the attaché more speedy payment of an
account against the Italian Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs was
brought about. Notable assistance was given to prominent Ameri­
cans, including Government officials. Mr. MacLean and Mr. Osborne
have made several trips to northern Italy, the center of Italian indus­
try and foreign trade. The subject matter of the 125 special reports
from the Rome office included, among many other topics, careful
studies of the iron and steel trade of Italy, the automobile, cotton,
artificial silk, rubber, and leather industries, and the markets for
vegetable oils, lumber, agricultural machinery, automobile accesso­
ries, and ready-made clothing. Special attention has been paid to
public and private finance, in connection with which several ex­
haustive reports have been written. The situation of the railways
and the merchant marine has been analyzed. With the cooperation
of Italian attorneys of high standing, digests of the Italian laws
applying to foreign concerns doing business in Italy have been pre­
pared. A large amount of data regarding the citrus-fruit industry
and its by-products has been transmitted.
Chester Lloyd Jones assumed charge of the Paris office as com­
mercial attaché on September 25. He has been supported by Assist­
ant Commercial Attaché J. F. Butler and Assistant Trade Com­
missioners F. G. Singer and D. S. Green. It has been largely
through the work of the attachées office that American firms have
been enabled to obtain export licenses for goods bought by Ameri­
cans in the occupied territory of Germany. The office, in conjunct
tion with the embassy, worked out a plan of releasing these goods
for shipment, and Mr. Butler was detailed to take entire charge of
the work. Thus American firms have been saved from great finan­
cial loss. The office was instrumental in obtaining the admission of
an American product to France under a customs classification re­
quiring the payment of a lower rate of duty than that first imposed.
Through the efforts of the office, French manufacturers became in­
terested in a new American process for producing a special type of
cement; one of the largest factories in France is now making the
cement under an American patent. Through the attaché the failure
of certain foreign agents to represent adequately an American firm
was disclosed and suitable new agents for the company were found,
thus replacing a total loss by a lucrative business.
Commercial Attaché S. H. Cross has been in charge of the office
at Brussels, Belgium. The office was instrumental in obtaining a
radical reduction of the projected duty on automobiles and also
negotiated a notable reduction of the proposed tariff on American
prunes. The office also secured revision of revaluations made on im­
port shipments of American automobiles, considerably increasing the
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REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

sale of the vehicles ; one company was thus saved a large amount of
money. Another American company obtained control of an im­
portant explosive plant in South America as a result of information
obtained by the Brussels office in cooperation with one of the
bureau’s offices in South America. Numerous agencies were success­
fully placed for American products, including hosiery, cleaning com­
pounds, automobiles and accessories, soap, toilet articles, and other
specialties. Apart from 2 semiannual reports on the cotton indus­
try, the 65 special reports from Brussels covered, among other topics :
Agricultural-implements production, food regulation, commercial
law, Belgian shoe market, Belgian public finance, Government aid
to merchant shipping, handling of lumber imports, railroad freight
rates, markets for motor vehicles and bicycles, fire insurance, relation
of taxation to national income, the Franco-Belgian economic accord,
finance and equipment of the State railroads, the lead and zinc
industries, foodstuffs consumption, the market for stearic and oleic
acids, the status of silver currency, the cement industry, the button
industry, and the Belgian iron and steel industry during 1922.
Commercial Attaché C. E. Herring has continued in charge of the
Berlin office, being aided by Assistant Commercial Attaché Donald L.
Breed, Trade Commissioner Arthur J. Grey, and Assistant Trade
Commissioners W. T. Daugherty, O. S. Payne, E. M. Zwickel, M. L.
Goldsmith, and F. W. Allport. American business has been kept
constantly informed concerning the rapidly changing conditions,
correct analyses and forecasts being furnished. Considerable effort
was directed toward obtaining the release of American goods held in
the Ruhr district. Many American investigators who have called at
the office have been aided, especially valuable service being rendered
to the representative of a large American electrical company. Of
unusual value to the American business man have been the numerous
reports from the Berlin office, including, for example, “ The German
iron and steel industry,” “ The German industrial situation in June,”
“ Some factors affecting the cotton textile industry of Germany,”
“ Foreign investment in Germany,” and “ Labor, wages, and unem­
ployment in Germany.” An investigation of the German chemical
industry proved especially valuable. Mr. Herring, together with Mr.
Jones, of the Paris office, visited the Ruhr, and the two attachés pre­
pared a joint report, which has been the basis for much reference in
the bureau in replying to inquiries. Germany has been an attractive
buyer’s market, and the furnishing of information to American pur­
chasers has taken some time. Important services were rendered to
the visiting delegates of the United States Chamber of Commerce
and to the committee of international economic experts.
At Vienna Trade Commissioner William Ford Upson has been in
(barge, aided at various periods by Assistant Trade Commissioners

123
Allport, Zwickel, and Prentiss M. Terry. In a number of cases the
trade commissioner’s services resulted in definite monetary savings on
new business for American firms operating in Austria. He effected
the sale of $50,000 worth of American tobacco after five previous at­
tempts by others had failed. Despite many difficulties he brought
about the exhibition of an American cinema film at a retui'n of
$10,000 to the producer. He obtained a reduction of duty on a ship­
ment of American corn sirup. He was instrumental in securing the
unloading of several carloads of perishable meat products shipped
by an American packer which were held up by a strike of transport
employees and were in danger of spoiling; a Government guaranty
of protection under similar conditions in the future was obtained.
He was able to secure the removal of import restrictions on American
typewriters. The Vienna office kept Americans informed concerning
the various phases of the scheme.
The Prague office has been for various periods of the year under
the direction of three representatives—-Assistant Trade Commissioner
Owen S. Payne and Trade Commissioners V. A. Geringer and
H. Lawrence Groves. Much attention was paid to developing closer
relations between American firms and their agents in Czechoslovakia.
Disputes were settled, import licenses arranged, and customs duties
reduced; permanent reductions are expected in the duties on auto­
mobiles, machinery, and certain kinds of leather. American im­
porters were enabled to make connections with sources of supply
without the expense incident to a personal investigation. Two trips
were made, one to the Skoda works at Pilsen and to the glass factories
and breweries in that vicinity, and another to Sub-Carpathian Ruthenia, where negotiations are in progress leading to the investment
of $6,000,000 of American capital in a lumber development.
Trade Commissioner Howard W. Adams was in charge of The
Hague office until January, when direction was assumed by Paul S.
Guinn. The office has been active in the settling of commercial dis­
putes and was instrumental in the successful arbitration of a claim
by an American firm involving $82,000. Another disputed transac­
tion involving a considerable shipment of furs and skins was satis­
factorily terminated. Mr. Adams facilitated the importation of
American pumps into the Netherlands. Comprehensive reviews of
various Dutch industries have been made, and there have been com­
plete surveys of the shipping and shipbuilding industries, as well as
periodic reports on Dutch agricultural activities. Numerous repre­
sentatives of American firms have called on The Hague office, which
has created many financial and industrial contacts.
The Copenhagen office, covering Denmark, Norway, and Sweden,
has been in charge of Assistant Trade Commissioner Harry Sorensen.
Unusual activity has marked the work of the office, as American firms
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REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
124
have become increasingly interested in Scandinavian markets. About
150 profitable business connections were secured for American linns
by Mr. Sorensen. Agencies for the sale of American products were
obtained, among which representation for a large American metal­
lurgical concern and for a well-known American food-products com­
pany deserve special mention. Several commercial disputes were
settled through the services of Mr. Sorensen. The assistant trade
commissioner has attended various trade gatherings and fairs. The
situation in the important Scandinavian industries has been thor­
oughly covered by more than 500 reports sent in by Mr. Sorensen
during the year.
WESTERN EUROPEAN DIVISION AT WASHINGTON.

Alan G. Goldsmith continued as chief of the Western European
division at Washington. Through its advisory committee of bankers
and industrialists the division has maintained intimate contact with
problems in the European field confronting American manufacturers.
Close attention was given to the interallied debt settlement and the
reparation issue. The division made a special effort to work up in­
formation on fiscal conditions, especially the budgets and the foreigntrade situation in the countries of western Europe. The discussion
of budgets of western European countries by Douglas Miller was
issued as a trade information bulletin. The demands of American
business executives necessitated very specialized work on the labor
and unemployment situation in Europe. Such reports as “ Labor,
wages, and unemployment in Germany,” “ Representative wages and
wage bases in Great Britain,” and “ Establishment of branch fac­
tories in Germany ” were in great demand. In addition, special
articles in Commerce Reports, such as “ Unemployment in western
Europe,” by the chief of the division, were given wide publicity.
As the Western European division covers not only the countries of
western Europe but also the great majority of their dependencies in
Africa, information is compiled with a view to determining the
market for American products in such dependencies. The trade
information bulletin on Tanganyika was very well received and is the
forerunner of similar studies.
Almost 300,000 inquiries on western European matters have been
handled during the year by the bureau and its district and coopera­
tive offices. Statistics have been prepared for publication in the
Survey of Current Business.
Considerable work has been done in order to safeguard the com­
mercial interests of the United States through contact with other
departments of the service. Voluminous studies were prepared for
the Secretary of Commerce in connection with various missions com­
ing to this country in connection with the interallied debt.

125
The division has maintained very complete information on developments resulting from the Ruhr occupation and, in cooperation
with the Department of State and with the division of foreign
tariffs, has aided more than 100 American firms in executing con­
tracts that were held up on account of the occupation, and also in
reclaiming goods confiscated by the occupying forces.
Upon the conclusion of the conference of commercial attaches at
Rome in March, the chief of the Western European division made
a tour of inspection of the European offices. At the same time he
discussed economic and commercial problems with leading statesmen,
financiers, and business men. Upon his return he made important
reports. Mr. Goldsmith has also given considerable attention to the
liaison work with the War and Navy Departments.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

WORK OF REPRESENTATIVES IN EASTERN EUROPE AND LEVANT.

Acting Commercial Attache H. B. Smith was in charge of the
Warsaw office during the greater part of the fiscal year, but returned
to Washington about June 1 in preparation for an assignment in
Europe in connection with the world agricultural-products investi­
gation. Leighton W. Rogers will shortly be placed in charge at
Warsaw. Elbert B. Baldwin replaced Fayette W. Allport as
assistant trade commissioner there in August, 1922. The Warsaw
office has found the function of protecting American interests
against loss equally important with that of promoting trade. Nu­
merous reports on general conditions have been submitted, together
with such important special reports as those on the “ Polish timber
program,” “ Precautions to be observed in marketing in eastern
European countries,” “ Eastern Galician question and Polish oil
developments,” and the “ Polish textile industry and American re­
lations to it.” Mr. Baldwin prepared a report on the Austrian mag­
nesite industry. The Warsaw office aided important American con­
cerns in conducting business in Poland, and especially in transactions
with the Polish Government. One of these cases related to a con­
tract involving several million dollars’ worth of goods, and another
to negotiations for equipment valued at $750,000.
The Riga office (whose territory embraces Latvia, Lithuania, Esthonia, and Finland) was in charge, successively, of Trade Com­
missioners II. Lawrence Groves, Leighton W. Rogers, and Carl J.
Mayer. The monthly cables and the weekly and monthty mail re­
ports from Riga have been A-ery useful in setting forth economic
conditions and the prospects for American trade.
The bureau’s office in Bucharest, Rumania, has remained in charge
of Acting Commercial Attache Louis E. Van Norman. The office has
submitted economic and statistical information of much value, among

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REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

the special reports being “ The sugar shortage in Rumania,” “ Re­
vised Rumanian export and import taxes,” “ Rumanian-German war
reparations negotiations,” “ Funding Rumania’s foi-eign debt,” “ Ru­
mania’s industries,” and various reports dealing with lumber, petro­
leum, and agricultural products. It has protected American interests,
helped to collect claims, and advised as to trade and investment
opportunities. Mr. Van Norman made a tour of investigation in
the Banat and Transylvania, regions annexed to Rumania as a result
of the war.
Trade Commissioner Julian E. Gillespie was in charge of the Con­
stantinople office, but was absent for considerable periods at the
Lausanne Conference and on a trip to Angora, at which time the
work of the office was directed by Assistant Trade Commissioner
H. B. Barton. Mr. Gillespie cooperated closely with the American
member of the High Commission. He kept the bureau well informed
as to conditions affecting American trade and other interests and
has made special reports, such as the one on “ Marketing of iron
and steel products ” and several on the market for flour. Mr. Gilles­
pie’s trip to Angora, a region unfamiliar to most Americans, resulted
in the obtaining of much instructive infoi’mation. The Constanti­
nople office helped Americans to collect certain claims long overdue.
After the transfer of Commercial Attaché Paul L. Edwards from
Athens to Habana in June, 1922, the bureau had for some time no
representative at Athens. Meanwhile Mr. Edwards prepared an
extended report on the system of exchange control then prevailing
in Greece and reports on other economic, financial, and legal condi­
tions affecting American business men in dealings with Greece. This
was distributed as a special circular. In September, 1922, a perma­
nent post of the bureau was established at Athens and Acting Com­
mercial Attaché R. O. Hall took charge. Mr. Hall has built up an
efficient organization and has been very active in the promotion and
protection of American interests. Among the special reports may
be mentioned “American sales in Greece,” “ Greek exchange restric­
tions codified,” “ Bicycles in Greece,” “ Bankruptcy and insol­
vency laws,” “ Survey of Greek lumber market,” and “ Leather in
Greece.” Mr. Hall has given special attention to the possibility of
American investments in Greece. He has given aid in matters re­
lating to export permits, taxation, exception from exchange restric­
tions, claims for requisitioned goods, and the like. He has succeeded
in effecting postponements of awards upon various railway and other
supplies in order to give American merchants an opportunity to put
in their bids. Mr. Hall made an inspection tour in Macedonia,
Thrace, the Peloponnesus, and the Cyclades Islands.
After the Genoa and Hague conferences it became possible to fol­
low Russian relations adequately through the regular representa-

127
iives of the bureau in various posts, as well as through Soviet publi­
cations; consequently, the special field investigations regarding Rus­
sia were largely discontinued. Trade Commissioner Mayer remained
in the Far East till February, spending part of his time at Vladi­
vostok, part at Harbin, and making a brief visit to Chita. He
•obtained valuable information concerning the resources of Siberia
and the existing commercial and economic conditions in that region.
Among the most significant of his reports were those on “ The Chi­
nese Eastern Railway” and “An economic survey of the Russian
Far East.” Mr. Mayer helped an American concern to obtain an
important construction contract in Manchuria, and also protected
American rights as regards goods stored at Vladivostok.
Trade Commissioner Barton remained at Tiflis, Georgia, until
December. On returning to Constantinople he made an extended
general report on economic and commercial conditions in the Cau­
casian territory. He also furnished a number of special reports as
to lumber, manganese, petroleum, and other industries and branches
of commerce, translations of official decrees, extracts from local
periodicals, and the like.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

EASTERN EUROPEAN AND LEVANTINE DIVISION AT WASHINGTON.

As of July 1,1922, the Near Eastern division was consolidated with
the eastern European division under the title “ Eastern European
and Levantine division.” E. Dana Durand continued as chief, and
James A. Robertson became assistant chief of the reorganized divi­
sion and head of its Levantine section. Mr. Robertson resigned in
May, 1923.
It has been necessary for Americans to exercise unusual care with
regard to credits, terms of contracts, consignment stocks, and in­
vestments in the countries covered by this division, which has
answered many inquiries, both for general information and regard­
ing particular business problems. Besides revising reports from
Government representatives abroad, the division has compiled many
articles and circulars on the basis of official statistical and other
publications, foreign-trade periodicals, and similar material.
An extended article regarding government debt and note circu­
lation in European countries was prepared by the chief of the
•division and published in Commerce Reports. The division pub­
lished during the year about 15 special circulars and trade infor­
mation bulletins. The Levantine section prepared a handbook of
Tunis.
This division maintains an expert staff for the translation, com­
pilation, and analysis of material on Russia from Soviet and other
sources. It thus furnishes information that would otherwise be

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
128
practically inaccessible. The division aims to avoid controversy and
to present fairly statements from both sides, indicating clearly the
source.
In April a circular on “ Trade with Russia” was issued. During
the year, also, an extended abstract was made from a Soviet docu­
ment relating to pre-war foreign investments in Russia; this will be
published as a trade information bulletion. Work was begun on a
handbook of Russia and continued on the handbook of Siberia.
Various addresses have been made and conferences held by offi­
cials of the division. An extended memorandum as to Rumanian
finances was prepared for the Commission on Interallied Debts.
The chief of the division has acted, during the latter part of the
year, as chairman of a committee for the supervision of work on the
new Commerce Yearbook.
FIELD REPRESENTATIVES IN THE FAR EAST.

The commercial attaché to China, Julean Arnold, served for six
months on the China Tariff Revision Commission as chairman of the
American delegation, which was instrumental in securing the adop­
tion of a number of important amendments to the tariff rules. Fol­
lowing these conferences Mr. Arnold returned to the United States,
where he made a five months’ tour, visiting about 35 cities and mak­
ing about 100 addresses.
On the passage of the China trade act Trade Commissioner Frank
Rhea was appointed registrar, but he continued to act as the head
of the bureau’s China organization until the return of Mr. Arnold.
Mr. Rhea rendered practical service to a number of American firms
in the matter of claims against the Chinese Government for the
supply of railway equipment and materials. The Shanghai office
of the bureau handled a large number of inquiries from American
firms and rendered special assistance to many Americans visiting
China. It compiled 85 special trade reports, the more important
of which included “ Raw cotton imports into China,” “ Blast furnaces
and steel mills,” “ Electrical equipment in China,” “ Kinds of lumber
imported into China from America,” “ Siberian pine versus Oregon
pine in the China market,” “ Kerosene oil prices cut,” “ Bicycles in
China,” “ Motor-bus service in Shanghai,” and “ Electrical-equip­
ment trade during 1922.” Trade Commissioner Lansing W. Hoyt
made a special investigation of the iron and steel trade in China.
Since his return to China in May, 1923, Commercial Attaché Arnold
has assisted the legation in representations to the Chinese Govern­
ment regarding an agreement for the installation of a powerful
wireless station in Shanghai and substations in other sections of
the country.

129
In addition to the officials already mentioned, the bureau’s China
organization has included Assistant Trade Commissioner A. Bland
Calder at Coking and Assistant Trade Commissioners A. V. Smith,
Osborne S. Watson, John H. Nelson, and George C. Howard at
Shanghai.
The Tokyo office, in charge of Commercial Attaché James F. Ab­
bott, was active in the protection of American trade-marks against
infringement. On his own initiative the attaché protested 10 trade­
marks registered by persons other than the American owners. The
office also brought about the collection of claims by American houses
against firms in Japan. It mediated with the Japanese tax office
and obtained a reduction from $45,000 to $4,000 in the claim for
taxes against an American firm. A large cash-register company was
assisted in securing a modification of a customs ruling, reducing the
tariff rate on roll paper. A large chemical company was aided in a *
complex situation involving a fraudulent contract. A motionpicture company was assisted in preventing the showing of a stolen
film. Many letters were written in response to inquiries. Some of
the more important reports prepared by the Tokyo office were
“ Bicycles in Japan,” “ Japanese automotive imports,” “Agricul­
tural implements,” “ Market for ready-made clothing,” “Japanese
trade in iron and steel,” “Japanese imports of cotton yarn,” and
“ Foreign paper sales in Japan.” The commercial attaché was help­
ful to a number of American business missions to Japan. He has
had the aid during the year of Trade Commissioner Halleck A.
Butts and Assistant Trade Commissioner Paul P. Steintorf.
J. W. Sanger, the trade commissioner at Melbourne, Australia,
transmitted information on commercial, financial, and economic con­
ditions, political developments, and proposed tariff changes in Aus­
tralia and New Zealand. He conferred with representatives of im­
portant American interests, answered inquiries on a large number of
subjects, gave advice and letters of introduction to Australian busi­
ness men about to visit the United States, and furnished information
asked for by Australian Government officials. The Melbourne office
mediated in claims made by Australian importers of American goods
alleged to be unsatisfactory. An outstanding feature of the trade
commissioner’s activity was a week’s trip in September, covering
1,000 miles by rail and 300 miles by motor car, into the interior of
Victoria for the purpose of studying conditions there. Another week
was spent in Sydney, the commercial center of Australia, establish­
ing contacts with banks and large importers. The office has carried
on a publicity campaign by sending to the Australian press carefully
edited material on economic conditions in the United States and
Australia. Arrangements were made by which the receipt of New
Zealand statistics has been expedited. The following titles may be
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
130
mentioned as examples of the special reports submitted by the Mel­
bourne office: “Automotive market conditions in Australia,” “ Pearlshell and pearling industry in west Australia,” “Australian oil situa­
tion,” “ Market for malted milk in Australia,” “Australian market
for gas water heaters,” “ Water-power development projects,”
“ Credit conditions in Australia.”
With a view to enlarging the bureau’s activities in the Philippine
Islands and developing trade relations with the Dutch East Indies,
British Malaya, the Straits Settlements, Siam, and French IndoChina, Trade Commissioner John A. Fowler established an office at
Manila toward the end of 1922, with Edwin B. George as assistant
trade commissioner. Before going to Manila Mr. Fowler made a
complete tour of the outlying districts under the jurisdiction of his
office, subsequently submitting a special report on the conditions
^prevailing. Through cooperation with American consuls, the trade
commissioner arranged for a monthly cable service covering all his
territory. The Manila office was early called upon to furnish data
for the information of the Governor General concerning the advisa­
bility of establishing a board of trade in the Philippine capital; the
trade commissioner became a member of the temporary organization
later formed. Close cooperation with the Governor General’s office
has been maintained. Mr. Fowler made addresses before commer­
cial organizations on “ Conditions of business in the tropical Orient ’'
and on the subject of Manila as an entrepot for American trade in
the Orient. He stressed the importance to Manila business men of
the port’s development.
Trade Commissioner C. C. Batchelder returned to India in Octo­
ber, 1922, landing at Bombay, where he spent a short time studying
conditions and establishing contacts. Later, at Calcutta, whither he
was called by the arrival of Assistant Secretary of Commerce Huston,
Mr. Batchelder’s interviews with officials gave him a special insight
into Indian conditions. Early in November he opened the bureau’s
Calcutta office, being joined in December by Assistant Trade Com­
missioner Charles B. Spofford. In January Mr. Batchelder was
called to Madras, where he was successful in aiding an American
iirm in a dispute over railway supplies. The Mysore silk industry
was also studied with a view to a market for tractors. A special
investigation of the jute situation was made, eliciting the commen­
dation of American jute firms. Much time was spent in obtaining
data on credits and compiling lists for the bureau’s World Trade
Directory. Among the 75 longer special reports submitted, there
may be mentioned “ Political conditions in India,” “ Trade condi­
tions in Bombay, Calcutta, and Madras,” “ Selling goods in British
India,” “ Motor transport in Burma,” “ Building construction in

131
India,” “ Market for lumber,” “ The Sukkur barrage,” “ Paper trade
in India,” and “ Seasonal sales chart for the automobile market.”
Trade Commissioner Batchelder returned in March to the United
States, where he wrote reports, held conferences with bureau division
•chiefs, and interviewed business firms in New York and Boston.
Meanwhile the Calcutta office has been conducted by Mr. Spofford,
who has carried out independent researches and secured increased
■ business for American firms.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

FAR EASTERN DIVISION AT WASHINGTON.

During the year the Far Eastern monthly cable service was extended
to include reports from Siam, Indo-China, British Malaya, the Dutch
East Indies, and the Philippines, in addition to China, Japan, India,
Australia, and New Zealand, already covered. The reports have been
improved so as to cover pertinent developments in such commodity
fields as textiles, automobiles, foodstuffs, paper, iron and steel, etc.,
and more information on stocks, production, import and export
trends, and price variation is now being received. Some large banks
and business organizations have actually discontinued similar cables
from their field representatives and have come to depend entirely on
the bureau’s service.
Besides maintaining a regular section in Commerce Reports, the
Far Eastern division, of which Frank R. Eldridge is chief, has pre­
pared for the press a number of timely articles that have received
wide publicity. One of these, on “ Investments and sales in the
■ Orient,” pointed out the very close relationship between the invest­
ment of American capital and the extension of American trade.
Several press statements were issued on “ Economic conditions in the
■ Orient.” An article on “ Oriental demand for silver ” received very
wide publicity. This was followed by an article for a banker’s maga­
zine on “ How silver price movement affects China’s trade.” “ China’s
trade in 1922 ” was accurately forecast soon after the reports for the
third quarter were received. The division’s research facilities were
entirely relied upon in the preparation of an Economic Survey of
China, to be published under the auspices of the American Bankers’
Association.
During the year the division answered 2,872 direct inquiries on
business conditions in the Far East, an increase of 20 per cent.
The committee of prominent business men witli interests in the Far
East, formed to advise the department on important matters of Far
Eastern policy, has held numerous meetings and submitted many
recommendations.

132

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY.OF COMMERCE.
ACTIVITIES OF FIELD REPRESENTATIVES IN LATIN AMERICA.

The Buenos Aires office was in charge of Commercial Attaché
Edward F. Feely, except from March 4 to May 8, when he was
attending the Pan American Conference at Santiago. He was
assisted at Buenos "Aires by Trade Commissioner George S. Brady
and Assistant Trade Commissioner Clarence C. Brooks. This office
has become the most important center for commercial information in
Argentina. During the year about 1,000 American traveling men,
bankers, and other business representatives called there for data andto discuss their problems. The attaché arbitrated many disputes,
resulting in satisfactory settlements, and assisted in-the adjustment
of several claims, one of which involved the sum of $60,00(^ Through
the efforts of the office many connections between American firms
and local agents were made. These included the establishment of an
American taxicab company in Buenos Aires, resulting in the sale'.of
cars and taximeters worth $45,000 ; the starting of a business in road­
building machinery ; the importation of fruit from the west coast of
the'United States; and a connection in the wire trade which resulted
in an immediate order for $15,000 worth of material. Traveling
representatives of American firms were assisted in many ways, even
to the actual consummation of business. A Government order involv­
ing a large amount of money was secured through the intervention
of the attaché. Aid was given in negotiations for national and
municipal loans.
Through the efforts of the attaché permission was obtained for
the sale of an American brand of tooth paste that had been ques­
tioned by health authorities. A lower duty on cement was brought
about. The proposed petroleum legislation was carefully watched
and discreet pressure was exerted to prevent anything prejudicial
to American companies; this also applies to the new Argentine
tariff, which, as first proposed, would have raised the duty on cer­
tain American products, particularly automobiles. Argentine con­
suls were appointed to Los Angeles and Seattle after Mr. Feely had
brought to the attention of the Government the need for officers at
those points to facilitate the movement of products by the new
Shipping Board steamship service. Authorization also was ob­
tained for Argentine consuls at interior points in the United States
to visé through bills of lading on shipments to Argentina.
The work of the Bio de Janeiro office was directed by Commercial
Attaché W. L. Schurz, who had the assistance, for longer or shorter
periods, of Trade Commissioner R. M. Connell and Assistant Trade
Commissioners B. N. Noll, M. A. Cremar, and W. E. Embry. Much
time was given to the Brazilian Centennial Exposition which opened
in November and to the numerous congresses held at Rio. Mr.

133
Schurz lent his assistance to assure the success of the United States
industrial exhibition by arranging for the showing of various
American products. He aided Brazilian Government officials in
regard to standardization of products and in the organization of a
forestry service. The development of the new Brazilian tariff bill
was closely followed. The question of a customs duty on flour
sacks was satisfactorily arranged ; assistance was given an American
company in the matter of duty on razors; authorization for the
analysis of an American brand of baking powder (whose importa­
tion had been forbidden) was obtained; and much time was devoted
to the matter of tariff preferentials on certain American goods.
Difficulties in regard to the consignment of steel shipments “ to
order ” were satisfactorily arranged. The attaché aided a large
American automobile concern and an American steel company in
the matter of the reorganization of their trade with Brazil and their
methods of selling. Information and aid were given to an American
syndicate investigating the possibilities of developing northern
Brazil through large investments.
There were about 1,000 callers at the attache’s office seeking infor­
mation and advice. The office aided in negotiations for State loans ;
in arranging for payment for a steel order involving nearly $500,000 ;
was instrumental in establishing the importation of American fruit
to Brazil: assisted in obtaining a large order for machine guns and
rifles for an American company; and facilitated a large electrifica­
tion contract. Through the assistance of the office American com­
panies made local connections for the importation of many varied
lines. Contacts resulting in orders for American automobiles, hard­
ware and tools, school supplies, wire machinery, storage batteries,
and phonographs worth many thousands of dollars were formed.
The commercial attaché successfully arbitrated many claims involv­
ing insurance, attended to customs claims, arranged the payment on
a large order for locomotives, and protested against certain customs
regulations that operated to the disadvantage of American com­
panies.
On September 15 a suboffice to the Rio de Janeiro office was
opened in Sao Paulo under the management of Trade Commissioner
R. M. Connell, who has closely followed the coffee situation, sending
in special reports on the subject and cooperating with the American
coffee mission. Numerous reports on other subjects of interest to
American business were sent in, notably one on the woolen industry
of Sao Paulo. Mr. Connell cooperated with the representative of
an American construction company in obtaining the final payment
of $37,000 on certain work done in Sao Paulo, was active in obtain­
ing the settlement of a large insurance claim, and assisted the rep­
resentative of a large American automobile company in planning a
REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE.

134

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

sales organization for Brazil. He was consulted on many subjects,
including sales plans, agency arrangements, loans, electrification sup­
plies, investments in Sao Paulo, and railway conditions. Mr. Con­
nell visited, among other places, Santos, Rio Preto, and Porto Alegre
to study industrial conditions.
The office at Santiago, Chile, was in charge of Commercial At­
taché Charles A. McQueen until January 23, when he left for the
United States, since which time Assistant Trade Commissioner W. E.
Embry has been in charge. The activities of the office in settling
claims and arbitrating disputes between Chileans and Americans
have resulted in saving about $25,000 for the American firms without
disturbing the amicable relations between the parties. Many Ameri­
can commercial travelers have utilized the services of the office, and
representatives of companies in the United States have been put
in touch with Chilean firms; it is estimated that the business re­
sulting from the contacts amounts to more than $100,000. American
companies have been aided in negotiations with the Chilean Govern­
ment in connection with construction and other large projects. Much
time has been spent in preparing reports desired by the bureau and
in answering requests for information from firms and individuals
in the United States. A monthly bulletin on economic developments
was issued. A great deal of time was devoted to matters connected
with the Fifth Pan American Conference, held in Santiago in March.
Most of the 400 letters sent to the bureau dealt with commercial
subjects, such as legal requirements for contractors, the market for
various commodities, mail service between Chile and the United
States, the lumber industry in Chile, and the revision of the Chilean
tariff.
The Lima office has continued in charge of Acting Commercial
Attaché W. E. Dunn. The office has been active in following up
petitions on behalf of American firms for the refund of consular
invoice fees on orders placed prior to the deci'ee increasing such
fees, and also in connection with the Peruvian tariff, continual ef­
forts having been made to protect American interests. The office
secured the temporary suspension of the levying of a 25 per cent
fine for the omission of consular invoices on parcel-post shipments.
Through the efforts of the office an American livestock commission
made a visit to Peru which has resulted in an active interest in the
United States as a source of purebred stock. The removal of a
labor boycott against an American ship was obtained. The office
has inaugurated a statistical service showing imports through Cal­
lao, thus making detailed information available to American firms.
During the year the office handled 24 claims, for a total of about
$41,000; of this number 7 were definitely settled and 17 are still
pending. Four trips were made to important sections of Peru to

135
collect material for a Commercial and Industrial Handbook, on
which progress is being made.
Assistant Trade Commissioners John P. Bushnell and H. Bent­
ley MacKenzie have been, successively, in charge of the Mexico
City office. The political relations between the two Governments
have handicapped the work of this office, which, nevertheless, has
accomplished a great deal. A new series of weekly “ oil letters ”
to the bureau was inaugurated and 33 have been sent in. The as­
sistance of the office resulted in the establishment of an American
taxicab company in Mexico City and the purchase of 50 cabs in the
United States. The office helped in the obtaining of a large con­
tract for the supply of school equipment to the Mexican Govern­
ment. Several disputes over goods were settled. A number of
American lines were placed with local agents and representatives.
Contacts made possible by the office have resulted in actual sales
in a number of cases. Credit information supplied by this office has
been invaluable to American exporters, because of the disarranged
banking facilities in Mexico and the liquidation of a number of large
banks.
The Habana office has been in charge, successively, of Acting Com­
mercial Attaché Chester Lloyd Jones, Assistant Trade Commis­
sioner C. A. Livengood, and Acting Commercial Attaché Paul L.
Edwards, with the aid of Assistant Trade Commissioner Howard
H. Tewksbury. Much time was given to matters relating to the dis­
posal of goods remaining in the bonded warehouses, and, through
the activities of the office, satisfactory arrangements were made
for disposing of a certain amount of these goods. Moreover,
American exporters were saved hundreds of thousands of dollars
through representations made by the office resulting in a decree pro­
viding that rejected merchandise in bonded warehouses could be re­
shipped without the payment of duties. The office thoroughly ac­
quainted itself with the activities of the Bank Liquidation Com­
mission, so that it was able to act to protect American interests.
Representations were made to the Cuban Government concerning
pending legislation against which many American houses were pro­
testing. Seventeen memorandums were presented to the Cuban
Tariff Commission. Reports were compiled for, and other assist­
ance rendered to, the other offices of the United States Government
in Habana, particularly to General Crowder in connection with the
1 per cent sales tax. Matters pertaining to the Cuban sugar in­
dustry were investigated. Through the efforts of the office many
disputes were satisfactorily settled, and information was given
which resulted in profitable connections.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

L36

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
LATIN AMERICAN DIVISION AT WASHINGTON.

The chief of the Latin American division, Ralph H. Ackerman,
made a trip of inspection of the bureau’s offices at Lima, Santiago,
Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo, and Rio de Janeiro, making suggestions
as to improvements in efficiency. The division followed closely the
exchange situation in Latin America. Public finances were given
careful attention. There were analyses of the reawakened activity
in most lines M production, of political conditions as affecting the
economic situation, and of foreign trade movement.
Trade Commissioner P. L. Bell made a survey of the west coast
of Mexico and on his return to the United States was assigned to
duty in Porto Rico and the Dominican Republic; after a careful
survey of these countries he will be sent to Central America. Trade
Commissioner Carlton J ackson was sent to Caracas and other points
in Venezuela to make a general survey of conditions; after com­
pleting this work he will open an office at Bogota, Colombia. Trade
Commissioner Frank E. Coombs was detailed to Haiti to cooperate
with the American administration there and to gather material for
a revision of the bureau’s handbook on the West Indies; later he
was ordered to Cuba in connection with the investigation of sugar
production.
An active part was taken in the work to assure success of the
United States participation in the Brazilian Centennial Exposition.
The division cooperated in an investigation to ascertain the amounts
and character of investments in Latin America. A full analysis was
made of the effects of the Ecuadorean Finance Commission. Three
colonization projects were investigated to prevent losses by American
investors. Information was given to contracting firms studying
public works and industrial projects. Special investigations were
made of land companies in Mexico. An analysis of American mar­
keting methods and terms and of United States import and export
statistics was made at the request of the Inter-American High Com­
mission for the Mexican Government. Of far-reaching importance
have been a series of budget studies carried on by the division during
the year. Much material was prepared for the use of the American
delegation to the Pan American Conference at Santiago, on which
the chief of the division served as technical expert. The division
cooperated in the investigation of world production of sugar. Ma­
terial was prepared for the use of the Secretary of State on his visit
to Brazil. A monthly economic cable service from consular officers
in South America v'here the bureau has no representatives was inau­
gurated during the year.
A trade information bulletin was published on the Argentine
Petroleum Industry and Trade. A report on the nitrate industry of

137
Chile was prepared and circulated through trade journals. A revi­
sion of the handbook entitled “ South America as an Export Field ”
is under way.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

TECHNICAL DIVISIONS.

DIVISION OF FOREIGN TARIFFS.

The division of foreign tariffs, of which Henry Chalmers is chief,
gives advice on the conditions governing the shipment of goods from
one country to another, especially duties, documents, consular and
customs procedure and requirements, and all related regulations, re­
strictions, and charges. It supplies information concerning internal
charges or regulations in foreign countries affecting imported goods,
such as sales or luxury taxes, consumption or excise duties, and
quality standards officially established. It studies trade-mark ac­
tivities abroad and warns of infringements upon, or attempted un­
authorized registration of, American trade-marks. The division
keeps informed as to the licenses and fees to which commercial trav­
elers are subject abroad and the customs treatment of their selling
samples in each country. It advises with regard to the shipment of
advertising matter and samples abroad. It furnishes data as to the
export duties, restrictions, and regulations of foreign countries. The
division studies the economic conditions and commercial policies of
important foreign countries and gives close attention to commercial
treaties, reciprocal agreements, and preferential arrangements.
While enlarged facilities and staff have permitted more intensive
development of certain types of services, in general scope and range
the specific services rendered to American business during the past
year by the division of foreign tariffs have been essentially similar to
those performed in the liscal year 1922. There has, however, been a
marked increase in the volume of the regular work. The quantity
of outgoing mail shows an increase of about 30 per cent as com­
pared with the previous year and of more than 70 per cent as com­
pared with two years ago. The number of requests for information
or advice replied to by the division during the past year totaled
0,759, not including about 1,500 telephone inquiries, 600 visitors, or
the increasing number of special bulletins, notices, and circulars.
Most of the inquiries that were answered by letter necessitated a good
deal of research, and the greater number of replies were accompanied
by specially prepared statements or memoranda.
DIVISION OF COMMERCIAL LAWS.

There has been a constantly growing demand upon the services
of the division of commercial laws, of which A. J. Wolfe is chief.
In addition to manufacturers, exporters, and their legal advisers,
68596—23------10

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
138
other important auxiliaries of foreign trade, such as banks inter­
ested in the financing of foreign shipments, insurance companies, and
freight forwarders concerned with the problems of liability for dam­
age or loss in the carriage of goods at sea, and trade organizations
promoting improved methods in international commerce, have
availed themselves of the facilities of the division.
During the year just past the division was able to devote greater
attention to the preparation of bulletins dealing with the legal as­
pects of foreign trade, and to constructive work on important aspects
of international commerce. Trade information bulletins published
have included the following: Trading Under the Laws of Hungary,
Doing Business Under Japanese Company Laws, Insurance Regula­
tions in Mexico, New Insurance Laws of Costa Rica, Powers of At­
torney in Argentina, Agency Agreements in Foreign Trade, Legal
Aspects of Trade in Portugal, Protesting Drafts in Latin America
(four bulletins), Legal Aspects of Construction Enterprises in Latin
America, Protesting Drafts in Australia and New Zealand, Legal
Aspects of Construction Enterprises in Asiatic Countries, and Con­
tractors’ Requirements in France.
Through the efforts of the division, the attention of American
manufacturers has been directed to the necessity of closely examining
agenoy agreements for the merchandising of American products
abroad. A series of articles on this subject appeared in Commerce
Reports and the same topic was discussed in numerous conferences.
Many American manufacturers and exporters submitted contracts to
the division for review and suggestion.
The vital necessity of truth in advertising has been pointed out in
a series of addresses and articles. In the office of the division a con­
ference was held with the representatives of the Export Publishers’
Association, and as a result stringent measures were taken by the
publishers to eliminate unscrupulous advertisers and inaccurate
statements.
The arbitration of commercial disputes in foreign-trade transac­
tions made great headway. A conference on this subject was held
in the Department of Commerce. An inquiry into the laws on, and
facilities for, arbitration in foreign countries has been initiated by
the division, and the findings are being prepared for publication.
The division worked out, for the Tanners’ Council, a basis for the
arbitration of disputes arising from the sale of leather to foreign
countries. In various specific cases of importance the division of
commercial laws has successfully facilitated arbitration.
The protesting of drafts drawn upon buyers of American goods in
foreign countries and unpaid at maturity is a problem presenting
many difficulties. An investigation by the division of commercial

139
laws has resulted in the publication of a series of bulletins which
review the subject for every commercial country and offer the credit
man the first complete and accurate presentation. A tremendous
demand for these bulletins has developed.
The standardization of bills of exchange is a movement that is
being followed by the division. A form of trade acceptance was
worked out.
The division has kept American trade bodies and individual in­
quirers currently advised of developments in connection with the
proposed adoption of “ The Hague rules ” determining the liability
of cargo carriers in the carriage of goods by sea.
There has been cooperation between the division of commercial
laws and such bodies as the Chamber of Commerce of the United
States, the International Chamber of Commerce, the National For­
eign Trade Council, the Export Publishers’ Association, the Ameri­
can Manufacturers’ Export Association, the National Association of
Credit Men, the Chamber of Commerce of the State of New York,
the National Association of Manufacturers, and the American Bar
Association. A volunteer committee of American lawyers has been
exceedingly helpful not only with advice on foreign laws but also
with suggestions as to correct procedure and opportunities of service.
Practically every commodity division in the bureau has enlisted
the services of the division of commercial laws. Similarly, the
branch offices of the bureau currently refer to the division inquiries
on legal problems, collections, etc., and cooperate with it in foreigntrade adjustments. The division has handled 186 trade adjustments
of American firms against foreign concerns and 258 complaints of
foreign against American firms.
The chief of the division has made numerous addresses before
meetings and conferences. The work of the division has been com­
mended, in many instances, in trade papers and in the daily press.
The division has accumulated a collection of codes of all Latin
American Republics and a number of European and Asiatic coun­
tries. It also has in its files numerous reports from practically all
foreign countries on bankruptcy laws, consignment laws, bills of
exchange, powers of attorney, and judicial procedure.
The number of outgoing letters on subjects handled by the divi­
sion of commercial law's increased from 2,957 in the fiscal year 1922
to 10,030 in 1923 (including inquiries answered through district
offices).
Approximately 100 separate law firms and more than 500 individual
American concerns have made use of the division’s facilities in direct
correspondence. A number of foreign lawyers have offered volun­
tarily to cooperate with the division. The work of the division owes
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
140
much of its success to the cooperation of consular offices through
the courtesy of the State Department, as well as the constant readi­
ness on the part of the bureau’s field men abroad to aid in the de­
velopment of this service.
FINANCE AND INVESTMENT DIVISION.

The bureau’s finance and investment division was organized July
1, 1922, with Grosvenor M. Jones as chief. It was determined that
this new division should attend to all financial and economic ques­
tions that are international in scope and not limited to a specific
country, and to matters connected with the flotation of foreign securi­
ties in the United States, with the investment of American capital
abroad, and with the general aspects of foreign-trade financing.
The division acts as the principal liaison of the bureau with banks
and other financial institutions.
Much of the division’s work has consisted of research in connection
with requests from bankers and others for information regarding the
public debt, foreign and internal loans, currency, exchange, etc.,
of foreign countries. Many of these requests have involved extended
compilations and analyses of data.
The general economic and financial studies carried out during the
year have included the following: Compilation of data on the un­
funded credit balances due American bankers and industrial and
trading concerns as of July 1, 1921, and July 1, 1922; a study of the
balance of the international payments of the United States for the
calendar year 1922; manner of funding the debt of Great Britain
to the United States; changes in the monetary use of silver through­
out the world since 1914; compilation of data on the foreign invest­
ments of the United States; public finances of Chile; history and
status of the public debt and currency system of the Latin American
countries; British investment trusts; foreign-credit facilities of the
United Kingdom; foreign policies of British banks; financial review
of the United States in 1922.
Numerous circulars were sent to a special mailing list, many of
them being confidential and all of them dealing with matters of
importance to bankers and other financial agencies. Trade informa­
tion bulletins comprised British Investment Trusts, Foreign Credit
Facilities in the United Kingdom, Financial Review of Great Britain,
and British Banking: Foreign Policies of the “ Big Five” Banks.
Many of the requests addressed to the division have called for
special studies of a detailed character. A number of such studies
have been prepared for Members of Congress and for other branches
of the Government.

141
During the year the division wrote 2,236 letters, received 233 vis­
itors, and supplied information over the telephone in 1,248 cases.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

DIVISION OF RESEARCH.

The research division continued from the previous year its work
of (1) handling general economic and statistical research problems
not of a strictly regional or commodity nature; (2) preparation of
the annual issue of the Statistical Abstract of the United States;
and (3) services of a varied expert and technical character to other
divisions of the bureau.
The division began the preparation of the initial issue of a new
annual publication, Statistical Abstract of Foreign Countries. For
the first several weeks of the year the division handled the trade in­
quiries from the chemical industry, but since the organization of
the chemical division the research division has been relieved of all
strictly commodity trade-inquiry work.
Reviews of the trade of the United States with the world and an
analysis of world trade in 1922 have been published as trade infor­
mation bulletins. An article on commercial research as related to
the work of trade associations and one on the development and char­
acter of trade associations abroad were prepared for the depart­
ment’s handbook on Trade Association Activities. A series of com­
prehensive reports on the principal tanning materials have been pre­
pared in conjunction with the hide and leather division. Transla­
tions of the import and export schedules of Austria, Hungary,
Czechoslovakia, Switzerland, Germany, and Argentina have been
made and prepared for publication.
The division prepares the foreign-country material included in
the Survey of Current Business and regularly furnishes the statis­
tical data relative to the United States published in the Monthly
Statistical Bulletin of the League of Nations. It has also furnished
the United States statistics appearing in the Statesmen’s Yearbook
and other similar publications.
The division has prepared the 1922 issue of the Statistical Ab­
stract of the United States. A considerable amount of obsolete and
detailed material was eliminated and some new material added.
In the research division has been centralized the preparation and
execution of details of the Commerce Yearbook, a descriptive and
statistical summary of industrial, commercial, and general economic
conditions and developments in the United States and the world as
a whole.
A service has been maintained for the development of the graphi­
cal presentation of the statistical material of the bureau. Many
charts, maps, and display posters have been prepared. “ Executive

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REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
desk-book services” have been developed for several divisions; these
are series of loose-leaf charts and tables of current economic data.
The division prepared reference lists to published material of
the bureau and made brief reports of a miscellaneous nature called
for by other divisions. Another function has been translation from
foreign languages and explanation and interpretation of the char­
acteristics of foreign statistics.
DIVISION OF STATISTICS.

The most important event of the year in the statistical work was
the transfer on January 1, 1923, of the Bureau of Customs Statistics
at New York from the Treasury to the Commerce Department. This
places in the Department of Commerce the full control of the func­
tions of collecting, compiling, and publishing foreign-trade statis(ics. As a result of this step, figures are being published much more
expeditiously, and it will be possible to bring this service up to a
higher standard of real utility to the business community.
The statistical division compiles and prepares for publication
statements of imports, exports, vessels entered and cleared, and other
statistics of United States trade with foreign countries and noncon­
tiguous territories. The division also issues regulations and instruc­
tions to collectors of customs regarding the statistical reports. All
correspondence and inquiries pertaining to United States foreigntrade statistics are handled in this division.
The final revised edition of the new statistical classification of
imports, to conform to the new tariff law, was issued on November
15. Quantities as well as values are required for all items. The
number of separate classes in the monthly reports was increased
from 710 to 1,000. The increase in the classes shown in the quar­
terly reports is much greater. A revision of the export classifica­
tion, effective January 1, 1923, was made by discontinuing a number
of small classes and by adding several classes in the machinery,
electrical, and other groups.
About 200 special monthly typewritten and mimeographed statis­
tical statements, of more than 1,200 columns, showing complete
details of imports and exports by countries, are now issued, as com­
pared with 92 tables, with 440 columns, in the previous year. These
statements are mailed to more than 12,000 addresses, comprising
trade journals, commercial organizations, and private firms.
The division supplies figures to various other Government depart­
ments that need them in their work. The statistical division an­
swered during the year 9,677 inquiries pertaining to foreign-trade
statistics, nearly half of which consisted of letters. In addition,
13,853 statistical inquiries were handled by the branch offices of the

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

143

bureau. This is approximately double the number of inquiries
handled in the preceding year.
Weekly statements showing exports of grain and flour from the
principal ports of the United States have been issued since January
1, 1923.
Plans have been completed, subject to the approval of the Post
Office Department, to compile statistics of exports by parcel post,
beginning January 1, 1924.
In compliance with the demand fi’om the Central and Midwestern
States for statistics showing the exports from that region, a com­
pilation of exports by States of origin will be started next year.
John Hohn has continued as chief of the statistical division.
COMMERCIAL INTELLIGENCE DIVISION.

The work of the commercial intelligence division consists in gath­
ering, from all foreign trade centers, authentic information rela­
tive to potential buyers of American products, and in locating in
the foreign markets exporters of such raw materials as are essential
to American manufacturers. The sources of this information are the
Consular Service and the foreign representatives of the bureau.
The most notable constructive work of the division during the
year has been the development of the Directory of Foreign Buyers,
which now contains about 100,000 detailed reports, covering all the
data that the American exporter requires for a sales contact. Dur­
ing the past year 250,000 separate trade lists were furnished to
American business houses or organizations in response to direct
requests.
To serve more satisfactorily the needs of particular industries,
the field force abroad was called upon to submit specific data on
individual firms; for example, special stress was laid on automo­
tive and lumber industries; lists of foreign importers of automo­
tive products were improved to include makes of cars handled and
data as to selling organization, exhibition, storage, and repair
facilities; lumber exporters were supplied with data indicating the
specific kinds of lumber handled by foreign firms and whether such
firms could be classed as importers, commission merchants, con­
sumers, or agents. Similar improvements were undertaken in lists
sent to exporters of coal, leather, and rubber goods.
A new service was inaugurated whereby American exporters seek­
ing exclusive agency connections abroad can be furnished carefully
selected names of agents qualified to serve them.
The demands for detailed sales information regarding foreign
importers increased tremendously, 30,000 requests being received
during the past year; the reports furnished in response to these

144
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
requests contained valuable data concerning the business, organiza­
tion, financial and trade references, relative size, and general reputa­
tion of the firm, as well as other facts.
Confidential reports on foreign concerns resorting to unfair prac­
tices were supplied to trade organizations, banks, and business houses
which it seemed expedient to notify.
The National Association of Credit Men in one of its recent publi­
cations stated that the activities of this division are unique in Gov­
ernment work, and recommended it without qualification to the
attention and use of those members of the association engaged in
exporting.
A D M IN IST R A T IV E D IV ISIO N S.
EDITORIAL DIVISION.

Commerce Reports, the weekly commercial magazine of the de­
partment, has made noteworthy progress during the fiscal year 1923.
New features have been introduced. Among these are the two pages
of comment and counsel that have appeared at the beginning of each
issue since the 1st of January, 1923. A related feature, introduced
in the spring of 1923, is that of the brief “ messages to the trade”
which now appear at the head of sections devoted to commodity or
technical divisions. To enable the reader to grasp at once the salient
points in the more important informational articles, a system of
black-type summaries has been adopted. A department entitled
“ Queries of general interest,” appearing occasionally, enables the
bureau to answer briefly such questions as appear likely to interest t
relatively large number of readers. At various times a section of
“ Book reviews ” has been published.
At the beginning of June a new method of presenting the “ For­
eign trade opportunities ” in Commerce Reports was adopted. They
are now grouped according to the various commodities and are listed
very briefly, in tabular form, and in strictly alphabetical order.
The number of such trade opportunities published in the fiscal year
1923 was 4,290, as compared with 2,960 in 1922 and 1,926 in 1921.
A new “ Finance ” department and a department of “ Construction
news ” have been introduced in Commerce Reports, and the regular
features of the magazine have been appreciably strengthened.
Between June 30, 1921, and June 30, 1923, the number of paid sub­
scriptions to Commerce Reports nearly doubled, increasing from
4,761 to 9,071.
The number of reports received from the Consular Service (includ­
ing trade opportunities) rose from 29,535 in the fiscal year 1922 to
37,058 in 1923, and there was a proportionate increase in the reports
from foreign representatives of the Department of Commerce.

145
Probably the most important of the monographs handled by the
editorial division was the department’s publication on Trade Asso­
ciation Activities, prepared by L. E. Warford and Richard A. May,
under the supervision of the director of this bureau. This book of
368 pages describes the constructive work of the associations, in all
its branches and aspects. There are discussions of legislative activi­
ties, statistical compilation work, simplification and standardization,
cost accounting, credit and collection activities, trade disputes and
ethics, employee relations, insurance, public relations, traffic and
transportation, commercial research, industrial research, and Gov­
ernment relations. The investigation that led to the publication of
Trade Association Activities was undertaken jointly by the Bureau
of the Census, the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, and
the Bureau of Standards.
Among the other monographs edited, special mention should be
made of the six commercial handbooks on the Netherlands East
Indies and British Malaya, on the Mexican West Coast and Lower
California, on Rumania, on Tunis, on Palestine, and on Portuguese
East Africa. In all, six publications were issued in the special
agents series, eight in the miscellaneous series, and three in the
special consular series.
Seventy-nine trade information bulletins have been published
during the fiscal year 1923. The fact that their contents are of a
character to appeal to business men is evident from such titles as
The German Industrial Situation, Aspects of British Business, Com­
merce and Finance in Czechoslovakia, Petroleum Trade and Indus­
try of the United Kingdom, Foreign Markets for Radio-Telephone
Apparatus, Protesting Drafts in Latin America, and Selling Ameri­
can Goods in British India.
The work of the editorial division, of which Griffith Evans has
continued as chief, was very greatly hampered by the inadequacy
of the printing appropriation, and this situation was relieved only
by a deficiency appropriation which became available in March.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

FOREIGN SERVICE DIVISION.

The work of the foreign service division has materially increased
during the year and the staff has been augmented. Harold Dotterer
became chief of the enlarged division of district offices early in the
fiscal year, and Walter L. Miller took his place as chief of the foreign
service division. Norman S. Meese entered the foreign service divi­
sion as assistant chief to supervise the preparation of the quarterly
reviews of the work of the foreign representatives. This work has
been systematized and extended until at the present time these reviews
serve as the primary guide to the field officers.

146
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
During the fiscal year the bureau established new foreign offices
in Calcutta, Manila, and Sao Paulo (Brazil), while the office at
Vladivostok was closed.
The monthly cabled and mailed reports of economic conditions in
the United States, which is prepared in the foreign service division,
has become of such value to the foreign representatives that the allot­
ment for this cable service was increased and the length of the cable­
gram was doubled.
Early in the year a committee was organized, of which the chief
of the foreign service division was appointed chairman, to review
all inquiries which were being sent to more than one foreign office.
The functions of this committee have continued throughout the year,
and now all inquiries sent abroad are closely scrutinized in an effort
to coordinate the demands made upon the foreign service.
The enormous increase in cable communication between the bureau
in Washington and the foreign service has necessitated the establish­
ment of a cable section in the foreign service division.
DISTRICT-OFFICE SERVICE.

The fiscal year was started with 7 district and 23 cooperative offices
of the bureau. In July a new cooperative office was established in
the San Diego (Calif.) Chamber of Commerce, and in August a
regular district office of the bureau was opened in Atlanta, Ga. A
new district office was also opened in Philadelphia, Pa., in October,
making a total of 9 district and 24 cooperative offices.
There has been an increase of more than 100 per cent in the
number of commercial inquiries handled by the district offices, there
being 719,365 in the fiscal year 1923, as compared with 338,665 in
1922. The number of callers desiring information mounted from
51,497 to 63,561, while 178,153 trade lists and 325,051 sheets of re­
served information on trade opportunities were given out by the dis­
trict offices.
The need for the new district office in Philadelphia has been dem­
onstrated by the past nine months of its operation; the inquiries have
increased from 130 for the first week of October to more than 1,000
for the last week in June. In its work of educating the business com­
munity as to the services rendered by the bureau, the Philadelphia
office circularized its entire Exporters’ Index at least 12 times. This
new office has cooperated closely with numerous Philadelphia com­
mercial bodies.
The Atlanta Chamber of Commerce assigned space in its building
to the bureau’s new district office in that city, and that organization
has cooperated most cordially with the district manager.

147
Many business men from foreign countries were introduced to
firms in this country by the district offices, and in numerous instances
large orders and important trade connections have resulted.
All the offices are called upon to make special investigations in
•connection with the trade-complaint work of the division of com­
mercial laws. The endeavor is to effect an amicable adjustment
without antagonizing American exporters, and in more than half
the cases this result was attained.
The district offices in the port cities have arranged to have the
steamship companies display on their bulletin boards notices asking
foreign business men visiting the United States to call at the bureau’s
district offices.
Through arrangements made between district offices and various
radiotelephone stations foreign-trade information from the bureau
is now being broadcast throughout the United States.
The bureau contributed greatly to the success of the New England
foreign trade meeting, held in Boston in May. One day was de­
voted entirely to addresses and conferences by the director of the
bureau and division chiefs.
In the late fall of 1922 the Cleveland cooperative office arranged
a foreign-trade meeting for bureau representatives, at which the
director and seven division chiefs were present. It was attended by
many Cleveland business men and proved very successful. A second
meeting was held in April, and a few weeks later a similar meeting
was arranged by the Rochester cooperative office.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

DIVISION OF CORRESPONDENCE AND DISTRIBUTION.

This division, of which Royal H. Brasel has continued as chief,
comprises two distinct sections, “ correspondence ” and “ distribu­
tion.”
In the first-named section is centralized the supervision of the
incoming and outgoing correspondence of the bureau. About 136,000
incoming letters were routed in the division during the fiscal year
1923, as compared with 116,000 during the preceding year. Nearly
120.000 outgoing letters were examined during the year, against
102.000 in 1922.
The division carries on a correspondence of its own, including
letters relating to the administration of established policies; the
Exporters’ Index (a classified file of American firms and individuals
interested in foreign trade); requests for bureau publications, gen­
eral trade opportunities, and other confidential information; mixed
inquiries on various subjects; the general services of the bureau;
and subjects requiring the attention of three or more divisions.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
148
This division keeps records showing the volume of commercial
inquiries answered by the bureau and its branch offices in this country.
These show a remarkable increase as compared with the previous
year. The inquiries recorded for 1928 numbered 972,702, as com­
pared with 589,533 for the fiscal year 1922.
Requests for the information reserved from “ Foreign trade oppor­
tunity ” announcements totaled 332,127, or more than double the
number taken care of in 1922, which was 127,385. The number of
trade lists (of prospective foreign purchasers) supplied to American
business men increased from 71,900 to 181,049.
The distribution section has maintained mailing lists for the dis­
tribution of publications and circulars; has mailed each month
nearly 200 separate statistical statements, to more than 12,000
names; has distributed printed and mimeographed material to the
bureau’s 33 district and cooperative offices; and has supervised the
mechanical and physical details connected with the Exporters’
Index.
A revision of the bureau’s Directory of Commercial and Indus­
trial Organizations of the United States was prepared in this sec­
tion during the year, the new compilation showing more than 11,000
names.
A revision of the entire mechanical system of handling the Ex­
porters’ Index was devised, and the work of changing over the
index to conform to this new plan has progressed rapidly during
the latter part of the fiscal year. The new commodity classifica­
tion contains about 10,000 items, while the one formerly in use in­
cluded 4,200.
Confidential and special circulars sent out during 1923 numbered
1,065,006 copies, comprising 1,184 separate statements, as compared
with about 350,000 copies, involving 744 separate statements, in the
fiscal year 1922.
The number of copies of “ selling letters,” inviting attention to
special publications issued by the bureau, increased from 106,000
to 187,000.
A task of considerable magnitude completed during the year was
the revision of the mailing lists for special monthly statistical
statements.
RECO M M ENDATIO NS.

There are still a number of serious weaknesses in the bureau’s
service in spite of the extensive reorganization program which has
been in process since March, 1921. The following recommendations
are offered in this connection:
1. The field force should be considerably strengthened. The pres­
ent network of 30 offices abroad leaves uncovered by the bureau’s

149
staff at least 30 important trade centers in each of which American
merchants are demanding prompt and practical information and
advisory service, which we are not now in a position to give.
During the last two years the Washington staff has been developed
to a point where it is capable of giving expert direction to the foreign
staff in the collection of information desired by American business
men and of digesting and distributing such information when it is
received in Washington, but in the meantime the foreign staff Inis not
been proportionately strengthened with commodity and other ex­
perts to meet the demands of the trades as transmitted by the home
office. Funds should be made available at once to enable the foreign
offices of the bureau to meet the rapidly growing demands of the
business community, which are now coming in at the rate of over
3,300 inquiries a day, as against about 500 a day in 1920. All exist­
ing offices are seriously understaffed and new posts or branches are
needed at the following points:
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Europe :
Glasgow.
Dublin.
Liverpool.
Manchester.
Lisbon.
Marseille.
Lyon.
Hamburg.
Leipzig.
Christiania.
Stockholm.
Helsingfors.
Budapest.
Bilbao.
North and South America :
Ottawa.

North and South America—Continued.
Montreal.
Port au Prince, Haiti.
San Juan, P. R.
Caracas, Venezuela.
Central America.
Guayaquil.
La Puz.
Montevideo.
Valparaiso.
Para.
Trans-Pacific:
Aukland.
Hankow.
Harbin.
Singapore.
Bombay.

The regional divisions, which are charged with the guidance of the
field force in their respective areas, should be correspondingly
strengthened.
2. The district or branch offices in the United States, the “ service
stations ” of the bureau, are likewise far behind the Washington staff
in their expansion to meet the increasing requirements of business.
In fact, these offices will in the new fiscal year (1923-24) have the
first increase in their appropriations which has been given them
since 1921. Consequently they are almost literally swamped with the
demands of their local clients. The more than fourfold increase in
(heir work in the past two years, with less than 20 new clerks added
to the personnel of the 9 offices in that time, has been borne only
because of long hours of loyal devotion on the part of the staff.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
150
It is therefore recommended that a number of new offices be estab­
lished and that the old offices be strengthened along lines that
experience has shown to be urgent. It should be remembered that
the function of the district office is to maintain immediate and
personal contact with local firms actually engaged in foreign trade
and constantly confronted with problems upon which they need
prompt advice. The quality of the service rendered by these officeshas been improved immensely in the last two years, but the demands
upon them seem to multiply out of all proportion to the expansion
of their facilities.
3. The $50,000 appropriated for the creation of the division of
domestic commerce during the coming fiscal year will, without any
question, demonstrate the need for a service intended to eliminatewasteful practices in domestic commerce along lines somewhat simi­
lar to the help now rendered in foreign trade. Tire ability of the
bureau to take an effective part in recent crises in the coal industry
and in transportation because it had on its commodity staff highly
qualified experts in those lines has been convincing proof that equally
well-qualified experts in other commodities could render unique serv­
ice in the distribution field that would not in any way duplicate or
overlap the activities of any other organizations, public or private.
4. The statistical service of the bureau should be speeded up con­
siderably if it is to be of practical value to business. The bureau is
now announcing the exact imports of synthetic organic chemicals at
New York within 48 hours after the close of the month, and a some­
what similar service is given the manufacturers of certain electrical
supplies. This service has been very greatly appreciated by the
chemical and electrical industries, but there are 20 or more indus­
tries which are entitled to similar service. It is essential that in
competitive crises, such as are now apparent both at home and
abroad, the American manufacturer should have the speediest pos­
sible information on the shipments of his foreign competitors.
Furthermore, our statistical staff should be strengthened so that it
might prepare foreign trade figures covering parcel-post shipments
and exports by States of origin.
5. Although it is not thought advisable to multiply further the
number of independent divisions in the Washington office, it isobvious that certain existing divisions must be enlarged. Addi­
tional experts are badly needed to assist in the technical work of the
divisions of commercial laws and foreign tariffs, as changes in tariff
laws and other legislation vitally affecting American trade abroad
are taking place so rapidly that these two divisions are finding it
increasingly difficult to keep abreast of the demands made upon them,
by American exporters. There should also be added to the existing

151
commodity divisions a number of practical men from the industries
who can render specialized service to the exporters of several im­
portant commodities which are not yet covered adequately by the
staff, such as hardware, musical instruments, dyes and fine chemicals,
paints and varnishes, jewelry, and motor cycles.
6. Legislation is needed on several matters of interest to the
bureau. Our foreign agents should have more freedom in making
leases of office quarters in accordance with the local laws or customs.
The department should be authorized to accept contributions from
individuals and trade associations to cover in part at least the costs
of expensive special pieces of work. The expert accountants fur­
nished to the bureau through the courtesy of the Comptroller Gen­
eral, who have been reorganizing our auditing department, have
made valuable suggestions concerning legislation, with a view to
simplifying our accounting. The conclusion of my report last year
mentions the need of legislation authorizing the bureau to pay the
expenses of sending its experts, accompanied by necessary exhibits,
to participate in trade conventions, and also the need of legislation
authorizing the collection of a nominal fee for enrollment of export­
ing firms on the Exporters’ Index. Such legislation has not yet been
obtained.
Very truly yours,
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Julias K lein ,
Director, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce.

BUREAU OF STANDARDS.
D epartment of C ommerce,
B ureau of S tandards,

Hon. II errert H oover,

W a sh in g to n , J u ly 1, 1923.

S e c r e ta r y o f C o m m erce.

D ear M r. S ecretary : In response to your request, I am submitting

the following condensed report of the work of the Bureau of Stand­
ards during the past fiscal year:
GENERAL R ECO M M ENDATIO N S.

It has become more evident each year that there are certain funda­
mental needs of this bureau which must be met as soon as possible
if its activities are to be maintained on the high plane of efficiency
which it has always occupied. It, therefore, seems appropriate,
before reviewing the year’s work, to present for your consideration
the following general recommendations, which if carried out would,
in my opinion, greatly increase the efficiency of the bureau:
ADDITIONAL LAND.

The main entrance to the bureau’s property at present is through
privately owned land, and it is urgently necessary to acquire this
land between the present site and Connecticut Avenue to gain a suit­
able entrance and to make adequate provision for future development.
This land is increasing rapidly in value, and it is in the interest of
economy to purchase it at the earliest possible moment.
PO W ER PIxANT.

In the interests of economy and efficiency in the generation and
distribution of power and other facilities it is essential to erect a
centralized power plant for the bureau. The present power service
is in large part antiquated and is distributed among several build­
ings, which has been a necessary makeshift accompanying the growth
of the bureau. It has long been necessary that a single modern plant
be erected and equipped to meet the present needs and development
of the bureau.
152

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

153

CARE OF BUILDINGS.

The number of janitors, laborers, and watchmen necessary to care
properly for the buildings and grounds is quite inadequate, there
being, for example, at the bureau one janitor per 25,000 square feet
of floor space, as compared with the average of 1 per 10,000 square
feet in the Government service.
PERSONNEL.

The greatest need of the bureau is the securing and maintaining
of scientific and technical personnel of high grade to whom salaries
should be paid commensurate with those obtaining in competitive
occupations. It has been found impossible to fill certain very im­
portant positions in the bureau, including several division chiefs,
with the grade of men desired because of the low salary scale. It is
very important that the proposed new reclassification schedule be
put into effect at as early a date as possible to remedy this situation.
PRINTING AND PUBLICATION.

The expansion of the bureau, due to extended activities in the
specification field as well as the increase in normal output relating to
scientific and technical investigations, will require additional funds
for printing, and it is recommended that an effort be made to increase
the bureau’s allotment for this purpose, as it seems evident that it is
highly desirable to make available to industry, satisfactorily and
promptly, the results of the bureau’s work.
NEW LEGISLATION.

In view of the fact that questions of maintenance, operation, care,
and protection are so closely interrelated with the conduct of tech­
nical investigations in the laboratories that it is impossible, for ex­
ample, to distinguish between the fuel used for heating and lighting
and that for the conduct of experimental work, it is earnestly recom­
mended that the act of Congress approved February 13, 1923 (42
Stat. 1239), turning over these functions and appropriations to the
Superintendent of the State, War, and Navy Department Buildings
be repealed in so far as it relates to the Bureau of Standards.
The bureau is also interested in legislation relating to uniformity
in weights and measures, the use of clinical thermometers, the bet­
terment of railway track scales, and the uniformity of loaves of
bread on the basis of weight.
(>S5i)G— 23------11

154

REPORT o r THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
ADDITIONAL FDNDS FOR RESEARCH.

To keep pace with the urgent demands of industry for the sup­
port of fundamental research on which the progress of industry and
the prosperity of the country depend, it is highly desirable to urge
upon the Congress the need of supporting experimental research on
a more extensive scale at the bureau. It is well recognized that the
brunt of the cost of industrial research should be borne by industry;
nevertheless, there are many important problems of a fundamental
nature common to industry which can be handled best by the active
participation of a public research institution, such as the Bureau
of Standards; and it is in the public interest that many such prob­
lems be -developed by the participation in their solution of a govern­
mental laboratory. I am, therefore, urging substantial increases in
the estimates for the coming year.
RELATION OF THE BUREAU TO AMERICAN INDUSTRIES.

It is particularly gratifying to note the closer relations which are
growing each year between the bureau and the industries of the
country. Not long ago it was a matter of considerable difficulty to
obtain the cooperation of industrial groups in the small amount of
research work then carried on by the Government. Now problems
are presented to us by almost every industry of the country, and
their successful solution depends very largely on the degree of co­
operation between those presenting the problem and the bureau.
The former are the best judges of the commercial aspects of the
question and can give invaluable advice on the practicability of sug­
gested processes, while the latter is best qualified to lay the sound
foundation of scientific and technical data upon which the solution
of such questions depends.
As an illustration of the desire of industry to cooperate with the
bureau I may cite the case of the joint committee on welded rail
joints, of which I am chairman, which committee, through the
American Electric Railway Association, has raised $23,000 which is
being used to finance the construction of a test track and other
apparatus for research at the bureau. I am also chairman of the
joint committee for the investigation of the eifects of sulphur and
phosphorus in steel, a problem of great economic as well as metal­
lurgical importance; chairman of the Annual Conference of Instru­
ment Manufacturers and Users; and of the Annual Conference on
Weights and Measures.
The engineering public has also shown its confidence in the bureau
by electing me as president of the American Society for Testing
Materials, and also of the Society for Steel Treating, and an honor­
ary member of the American Foundrymen’s Association.

155
Approximately 100 conferences were held during the year between
representatives of industrial associations, the various branches of the
Government, and the Bureau of Standards for the solution of funda­
mental problems and for the, purpose of mapping out and directing
cooperative research programs. Several of these meetings were held
at the bureau, and in this way, besides discussing the immediate
questions at issue, an excellent opportunity was afforded manufac­
turers and others to become acquainted with the bureau’s research
facilities.
In line with this policy of closer cooperation a system of research
associates has been worked out and several of the most important
industries are maintaining such associates at the bureau for carrying
out particular investigations in which they are interested. In nearly
every case these research associates are supported not by a single
manufacturer but by a group through their trade association, and
the results which are published by the bureau are available to the
public at large. In this way the facilities of the bureau’s labo­
ratories and the experience of its scientific staff are made of benefit
to the maximum number of people throughout the country, and
incidentally men are trained for the industries in research methods.
There are at present stationed at the bureau 21 associates represent­
ing 18 industries.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

SPECIFICATIONS.

FEDERAL SPECIFICATIONS BOARD.

The Federal Specifications Board, of which the Director of the
Bureau of Standards is ex officio chairman, was organized under
authority of Circular No. 42, Bureau of the Budget, dated October
10, 1921. Its purpose is to coordinate and promote economy in the
procurement of materials and services used by the Government under
specifications prepared by the various branches thereof, and to avoid
duplication of effort between departments, thus making for the bet­
ter utilization of industrial resources.
The duties of the board are to select or compile, adopt, and pro­
mulgate standard specifications for the use of all departments and
independent establishments of the Government. Many members of
the technical staff of the Bureau of Standards serve on the various
committees of the board in the preparation of specifications. At the
present time there are 47 technical committees at work on the prin­
cipal commodities purchased by the various departments of the Gov­
ernment, and 62 standard specifications have been promulgated to
date, and many more are in process.

156

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
DICTIONARY OF SPECIFICATIONS.

At your suggestion, there was recently started at the bureau the
compilation of a dictionary or handbook of specifications for sup­
plies purchased by Federal, State, and municipal governments and
public institutions. For this purpose a comparison is being made
between the specifications prepared by the various departments and
independent establishments of the Federal Government and those
used by State and municipal governments, public institutions, and
the important national trade associations and technical societies.
Correspondence conducted with the purchasing agents of a large
number of municipalities and public institutions has given confirma­
tion and emphasis to the findings of the meeting of State purchasing
agents held in Washington on May 25, 1023, at which the need of
public purchasing agents for reliable, nationally recognized specifica­
tions was discussed, and it was voted unanimously to cooperate in
the selection, unification, or preparation of specifications for the
commodities purchased by the local governments.
In accordance with the recommendation of that meeting the
National Association of State Purchasing Agents is making a can­
vass to determine the more important commodities for which speci­
fications are urgently needed by the State purchasing agents. Sta­
tistics are also being gathered to show relative monetary value of
the commodities purchased by the Federal Government. As a result
of the conference on June 11 of representatives of various technical
and other national associations vitally interested in both the prepara­
tion and use of specifications, there was organized a committee to act
in an advisory capacity in carrying out the plans of collecting mate­
rial for and publishing the proposed handbook. The work is being
carried out in such a manner as not to duplicate any existing ma­
chinery for selecting, modifying, or preparing specifications, but
rather to utilize fully all such machinery and help it to become more
effective.
TRANSLATION INTO SPANISH OF THF. STANDARDS OF THE AMERICAN INSTI­
TUTE OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS.

The Bureau of Standards, at the request of the American Institute
of Electrical Engineers, has completed a draft of a translation into
Spanish of the Standards of the Institute (1922 edition). This draft
of the translation has been accepted by the standards committee of
the institute, which has authorized the printing and sale of the com­
pleted translations. The purpose of this edition will be to promote
foreign trade through a better understanding abroad of the technical
standards on which American electrical practice is based. The trans­

157
lation will be sold to the profession for use in Spanish-speaking
countries.
REPORT OF T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE.

COOPERATION WITH TECHNICAL ORGANIZATIONS.
NATIONAL SCREW THREAD COMMISSION.

This commission, of which the Director of the Bureau of Standards
is ex officio chairman, has been active during the past year, holding
monthly meetings, and has in preparation a second report.
NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR AERONAUTICS.

The director represents the Bureau of Standards on this committee,
which has the direction of the Government work relating to aero­
nautics.
There has been active cooperation with the American Engineering
Standards Committee and the National Research Council on many
questions of national importance in the engineering, scientific, and
technical fields. Many members of the bureau are also active on
numerous committees of the various technical and scientific societies.
SIMPLIFIED PRACTICE.

The work of the division of simplified practice has progressed
rapidly during the year, and it is particularly gratifying to note that
this has been carried out almost entirely in response to demands from
industry and business. Effort has been made to furnish information
which is of national importance, thus serving the maximum number
of industries.
Forty-five conferences have been held in Washington, many formal
addresses have been given at various other places, and 22 articles
published in the news, trade, and general press. In addition, the
division has been represented at 50 other meetings of business com­
mittees or conventions, and very great interest was shown in the work.
The series of simplified-practice recommendations now includes
nine items. Two of these, covering paving bricks and bedsteads,
springs, and mattresses, respectively, have been requested in printed
form by a very large number of interested purchasers, distributors,
and consumers. The remaining seven recommendations are in process
of formal acceptance, and it is expected that they will be published
in the early fall. The commodities covered are metal lath; paint,
varnishes, and containers; hotel chinaware; asphalt; face brick;
paper: and wire fence. In each of these cases very great reductions
have been made in the number of sizes and styles, which will hence­
forth be considered as standards.
In cooperation with the lumber industry, work is in progress on
the standardization of nomenclature, grades, and sizes, while the

158

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

makers of farm implements are carrying on a comprehensive program
on the simplification and standardization of their products.
Somewhat similar work is under way in cooperation with the hard­
ware merchants; distributors and users of glass, paper, metal, and
wood containers; and flag manufacturers.
A committee of the Hollow Building Tile Association has requested
the division’s assistance in reduction of types, sizes, and weights of
hollow building tile, and the Concrete Products Association and the
American Concrete Institute have presented their recommendations
for the reduction of variety and sizes of structural and partition
units made from concrete.
The formation of the American marine standards committee, at
the suggestion of the American Marine Association of New York,
N. Y., in cooperation with the division of simplified practice, opens
a large field of activity.
BUILDING AND HOUSING.

The work of the division of building and housing has been carried
out actively during this second year of its existence. Throughout its
activities, and particularly in connection with building codes, plumb­
ing codes, and citj7 zoning, the division has obtained the cooperation
of trade associations; professional, scientific, and civic societies; and
other bodies of citizens interested in construction, housing, and civic
improvement. The cooperation of such organizations has made it
possible for the division to accomplish a variety and amount of work
which would hav,e been impossible otherwise with the staff at its com­
mand, and has also made the results of maximum benefit throughout
the entire country. The building code committee published its first
report covering recommended minimum requirements for small
dwelling construction last January. It is expected that general adop­
tion of the code will result in substantial conservation of materials
and the saving of many millions of dollars. The code with its ap­
pendix forms a manual of housing construction that can be used as
a handy guide to good building practice by anyone at all familiar
with construction work.
The plumbing code committee practically completed its report on
installations for small houses, which will be published during the
fiscal year. It is believed that this report will furnish a scientific
basis for small-house installations which, if generally followed, will
insure sanitary systems and secure savings over the practice required
at present by the majority of codes.
The advisory committee on zoning completed and issued its stand­
ard State zoning enabling act which permits cities to zone. This was
used as a basis for bills introduced in 11 State legislatures early in

159
1923, and several of these acts were passed. It is hoped that the more
general use of this bill will simplify the legal status of zoning in the
United States.
The collection and publication of building-material prices and
other current statistics have met with increasing commendation from
the industry. A special study was also undertaken of the building
situation in March, 1923, and an article was pi’epared on construc­
tion in 1922, with a special section devoted to the housing situation.
At the close of the year an investigation of seasonal operation in
the construction industries was undertaken in cooperation with a
committee of the President’s conference on unemployment.
Assistance was given during last October and June to the “ Better
homes in America ” movement. Demonstration homes were con­
ducted in several hundred cities during each of these periods, and it
is believed that they had an important educational effect. A number
of articles for the guidance of home seekers was also prepared by the
division.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

W E IG H T S AND M EASURES.

One of the members of the staff of this division spent the greater
part of the year abroad studying the methods and equipment used
by other standardizing institutions and obtained information of very
great value. The national prototype meter was recompared at the
International Bureau of Weights and Measures and was found to
have maintained its length within the limits of measurement.
An important investigation is under way on the orifice meter of
the type used in measuring large quantities of natural gas. Special
equipment was necessary for this work, and this was taken care of
by the courtesy of the War Department through permission to use a
part of their equipment at Edgewood Arsenal. Preliminary tests
have been made and the investigation will probably go forward
rapidly during the coming year.
Good progress has been made in producing precision screws and
graduated scales. The object of this work is to produce screws of
such accuracy and uniformity of pitch as to make possible the con­
struction of a linear dividing engine for ruling scales and gratings
of higher accuracy than any now obtainable.
The bureau’s scale-testing equipments tested during the year 63G
railroad-track scales, 19 master scales, 140 mine scales, and 37 other
heavy-duty scales.
The accuracy of the railroad scales shows in general a slight im­
provement each year which is very gratifying, but there is still
room for betterment, particularly in certain sections. The bureau’s
work along these lines would be greatly facilitated by the provision
of a suitable, centrally located depot in which to house the Govern­

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
160
ment’s master track scale, and it is hoped that provision will be
made for this building during the coming year.
Assistance is being rendered to State and municipal weights and
measures officials and to manufacturers through the testing and in­
vestigation of commercial weighing and measuring devices. Un­
fortunately the bureau’s facilities are not adequate to carry on all
the work of this kind, which it would like to do. At present con­
siderable delay is unavoidable in testing devices submitted, while
the work, to be of maximum value, ought to be carried out promptly.
A bill has been introduced in Congress, largely through the effort
of the Scale and Balance Manufacturers’ Association, designed to
secure uniformity of types of weighing and measuring apparatus
for commercial purposes throughout the United States and giving
to the Bureau of Standards the power to approve apparatus of this
kind. This would result in increased protection to the general
public.
The Sixteenth Annual Conference on Weights and Measures, held
on May 21 to 24, was one of the most successful which has taken
place at the bureau. Delegates were present from many sections
of the country and papers on numerous important subjects were pre­
sented. In this way weights and measures officials become acquainted
with each other’s problems and with the work of the National Gov­
ernment. This goes a long way toward the securing of uniform
weights and measures laws throughout the country.
ELECTRICITY.

Particular attention has been paid during the past 3rear to the
revival of fundamental investigations, such as the fundamental meas­
urements of resistance, the ratio of the international to the absolute
henry, and the use of the absolute electrometer for high voltages.
The importance of the electrical work of the bureau in the indus­
tries is well illustrated by the lamp inspections through which the
Government’s purchases of incandescent electric lamps are con­
trolled, and the investigation and testing work on electric batteries,
of which a large amount is now being carried on. Although the
Government’s purchases of electric lamps were smaller than usual
this year, no less than 1,706 lamps, representing orders totaling
1,660,000, were subjected to life tests.
Radio communication is assuming a place of the first importance
in the electrical field, and naturally a large part of the time of the
division has been devoted to radio subjects. The bureau is endeavor­
ing to aid in the commercial standardization of radio equipment, a
progressive step of great importance and for which an excellent
opportunity exists in this field owing to the newness of the enfin

161
subject. Progress lias been made in the development of precise fre­
quency measurements and other investigations connected with the
reduction of radio interference. The work on electron tubes and
insulating materials will have a most important industrial appli­
cation.
Numerous important conferences on radio subjects were held, par­
ticularly the one on March 20 to 24, which mapped out a system for
administering radio laws.
As has been mentioned in the past, a part of the work of the
division of electricity covers allied subjects, particularly those related
to public utilities, and along these lines several important confer­
ences were held which, it is hoped, will bring about even closer and
more effective cooperation between the Bureau of Standards and
State authorities.
The mitigation of electrolytic corrosion is a serious question in
many localities, and the work which has been carried out and which
includes not only actual field surveys but also the development of an
improved earth-current meter is of very great importance.
In connection with safety codes, important progress has been
made in preparation of new editions of the National Electrical
Safety Code, and in the completion of a code governing logging
and sawmill operations, and portions of the aeronautical safety
code.
A great deal of attention has been given to gas-service standards
and the improvement of the efficiency and safety of gas appliances.
Considerable aid was furnished to municipalities by the bureau in
solving some of these problems, and it is believed that real progress
has been made in the elimination of faulty and dangerous appliances.
A revision of the bureau’s circular on electric-service standards
has been taken up and a complete survey of electric-lighting condi­
tions throughout the entire country, with the ultimate object of
standardizing equipment of this kind, is now well advanced.
The survey of the Bureau of Standards of the telephone service
furnished to the various branches of the Government in Washington
has resulted in improvement in the service and a saving of over
$62,000 in the amount spent. It is planned to extend this work to
cover broader fields during the next year.
REPORT OF T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE.

H EAT AND PO W ER.

The investigation of automobile brake linings, begun about two
years ago in cooperation with the War Department, has stimulated
manufacturers to continued improvement in their products. The
average brake lining sold at present has more than twice the use­
ful length of life of those marketed before this work was conducted
by the bureau.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
162
In connection with the program for the elimination of waste, work
has been continued on the measurement of heat transmission of typi­
cal wall constructions. This is one of the important outstanding
problems of the building industry, the correct solution of which may
lead to very large savings in the cost of building construction. Heat
transmission through closed air spaces, such as form a part of many
types of wall, is being given special attention.
The establishment by mathematical and experimental means of
a sound theory of atomic structure would be of immediate practi­
cal value in the whole range of technical research. Direct experi­
mental tests, including measurements of the energy required for the
different types of atomic disruption, and the study of the spectra of
the resulting radiations have been in progress for five years. The
measurement of radiations, beyond the range of spectroscopy, byelectrical methods has been continued, and several methods of ex­
citing radiation have been developed. A book on the Origin of
Spectra has been published in which a general view of the entire
subject is given.
Fire-resistive properties of building materials are being investi­
gated with the object of developing methods for obtaining the re­
quired degree of fire resistance at minimum cost and minimum sac­
rifice of other desirable properties. To be of maximum value, tests
must be made under practical conditions. A fire-test house is,
therefore, employed which from time to time is fitted out with the
various articles to be found in typical occupancies and is then burned
out. Measurements are made of the temperature reached and the
duration of the fire, as well as observations of the effect of the fire
on objects and material in the house.
The results of the fix-e tests are reduced to terms most directly
applicable in the design and construction of buildings and formu­
lation and enforcement of building and safety regulations.
The computation of tables and preparation of four major papers
describing previous experimental work on the thermodynamic prop­
erties of ammonia have been nearly completed. The portion of the
ammonia tables already published has been reprinted by practically
every journal devoted to the refrigerating industry, both in this
country and in Great Britain.
An investigation of the relative merits of heavy-duty truck axles
of o-ton rating and of various sizes, begun earlier under the aus­
pices of the motor transport division, Quartermaster Corps of the
Array, has been concluded and may lead to a redesign of axles for
military vehicles.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
OPTICS.

163

Experiments have been carried out which seem to corroborate
earlier conjectures that the process of annealing glass is not merely
one in w-hich the mechanical stress is relieved, but perhaps primarily
one which permits and facilitates the formation throughout of defi­
nite molecular aggregates which characterize well-annealed glass.
A number of the chemical elements have been brought into the
spectral series class which have heretofore, because of their very
complex spectra, eluded all attempts at correlation.
An interferometer method has been developed for measuring
refractive indices of samples no larger than 4 by 4 by 4 millimeters
to an accuracy of one in the sixth decimal place, thus affording an
effective means for investigating optical homogeneity and chemical
purity of materials, as also for calibrating standard refractive index
samples.
Two instruments of importance in photometry and colorimetryhave been completed, tested, and found to function satisfactorily.
One embodies the application of the principle of rotatory' dispersion
in producing what is effectively a specifically variable blue filter for
eliminating color difference in the photometry of different light
sources, and the other is a Very complete monochromatic colorimeter
which matches given colors by a given quality of white plus a definite
quantity of a pure spectral line.
Cooperation with the American sugar industry has been continued,
and progress is being made in solving one of the most important
problems confronting the beet-sugar producers, namely, utilization
of beet molasses.
Important work has been completed, and a paper is being published
on the visibility of radiant energy—that is. luminous efficiency—and
valuable work on the color grading of dyes and enamels has been
carried out.
A thorough investigation of airplane camera lenses was completed
for the Army Air Service, and some interesting data have been se­
cured on the heat absorption and retention of roofing materials.
Information has been published on a simple means for reducing
the heat radiation into a tent or building by the use of aluminum
paint on the inside of the roof.
CHEMISTRY.

The chemistry division has prepared a large number of specifica­
tions for paint, varnish, bituminous roofing materials, soaps and
other detergents, and rubber. Over 8,000 tests were carried out on
bid samples and deliveries by which the Government purchases are

REPORT OF T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE.
164
regulated. The saving in money to the Government through this
testing of its purchases is one of the most important services which
the bureau is able to render the various departments. This work,
while in some cases of a routine character, also involves the devising
and development of new methods of analysis covering all sorts of
materials.
During the past year some important work was also conducted on
methods for the analysis of platinum ores and alloys and other metal­
lurgical products.
In commercial electroplating it is important to secure as nearly
uniform distribution of the metal coatings as possible, especially
upon irregularly shaped articles. Solutions which produce good
distribution are popularly designated as having good “ throwing
power.” For copper solutions this property has been defined, and
methods of measuring and controlling it were devised. A similar
study of nickel solutions is in progress.
The internal structure of electrodeposits is important because it
largely determines those properties upon which the usefulness of the
coatings depends. Uncompleted investigations have led to the de­
velopment of a tentative theory of the mechanism of metal deposi­
tion and of a simple classification of the crystal types existent in
electrodeposition.
The investigation of methods of producing hydrogen for aero­
nautical purposes has been practically completed as far as its appli­
cation to aeronautics is concerned. A plant to supply Scott Field is
now being constructed by the Air Service according to our specifi­
cations. This plant will make hydrogen by the thermal decomposi­
tion of oil. which is the process best adapted to the intermittent
production of hydrogen on a moderately large scale. Work upon the
steam-iron process resulted in the development of an essentially new
method of hydrogen manufacture which gives promise of great in­
dustrial possibilities.
To meet an important need in the refrigeration and chemical indus­
tries, a detector for water vapor was developed which is intended
particularly for use in closed pipes. It depends upon the electrical
conductivity of a thin film of hygroscopic electrolyte. The present
instrument operates successfully over only a small range of vapor
pressure, but it appears feasible to make one that will operate suc­
cessfully over a wide range of humidities.

MECHANICS AND SOUND.

A study of elevator accident statistics shows that about threefourths of the accidents fatal to the public occur at the hoistway door.
A well-designed and reliable interlocking device will practically

165
eliminate accidents of this character. A series of tests of existing
devices has been made on an experimental hoistway at the Bureau
of Standards at the request of the city of Baltimore. The prelimi­
nary tests showed a surprisingly small number of interlocks capable
of meeting reasonable requirements as to reliability and durability.
The manufacturers of interlocks have taken great interest in this
work and have improved the opportunity to redesign their interlocks
to coiTect weaknesses which were developed, and the safety and
reliability of elevator interlocking devices have been greatly advanced
as a result.
The great need of information regarding the effectiveness of various
building materials in preventing the transmission of sound is evi­
denced by the volume of inquiries received from architects and
manufacturers of building materials. To meet this demand, a
“ sound chamber ” has been constructed in which the sound trans­
mission through panels representing standard types of building con­
struction can be measured. An essential part of the program which
has been completed is the development of highly sensitive apparatus
for the quantitative measurement of the sound transmitted by the
panels.
At the request of the engineering division of the Air Service
of the Army an extensive program has been carried on during the
year relative to the forces acting on airship models and the distribu­
tion of pressure over airship hulls, for use in connection with the
design of a semirigid airship now being developed by the above
service. From model investigations of this kind, carried out in the
wind tunnel, the performance and stability of the full-scale airship
can be predicted and the design so modified as to give the desired
performance, thus effecting a great saving in botli time and money.
At the request of the Navy Department, special attention has been
given during the year to the development of navigating instruments
for the new' Navy airship Z R - 1 . Twenty special instruments have
been constructed for use on this airship, including air speed meters,
landing altimeters, statoscopes, rate-of-climb indicator, turn meters,
gasoline-flow ipeters. and a pressure-alarm device for indicating
excessive pressure in the gas bag.
Government specifications for wood screws have been adopted and
47 per cent of the former sizes eliminated by joint action with the
industry. Comprehensive Government specifications for builders’
hardware are nearing completion. A number of committees of
manufacturers are rapidly standardizing builders’ hardware within
the industry and including hardware for hollow metal doors. A
report of test on the relative wearing value of ball-bearing ami
steel-bushed bronze butts has been issued.
REPO RT OE T H E SECRETARY OF C O M M ERCE.

166

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
STRUCTURAL ENGINEERING AND MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS.

Some very interesting work was conducted during the year on
special column sections of the type to be used for the new Delaware
River suspension bridge between Philadelphia and Camden. These
specimens were submitted by the Delaware River Bridge Joint Com­
mission, and in the testing of them a new form of electrical strain
gauge designed and constructed at the bureau was employed. The
investigation has resulted in some valuable information on the fail­
ure of a stiffened column section and the comparative action of
single and double webs in built-up steel columns.
The preliminary arrangements have been completed for a thor­
ough investigation in cooperation with the American Railway Asso­
ciation and the American Bureau of Welding of the tensile strength,
electrical conductivity, and impact resistance of various types of
welded rail joints. Special grips for use in the large testing machines
have been designed, and a circular track, containing joints of the
different types over which a truck will operate, is being laid down.
In cooperation with the American Bureau of Welding an investi­
gation has been completed on the strength of welded pressure vessels.
This work will be used by the American Society of Mechanical Engi­
neers in preparing a safety code for this class of construction.
The bureau’s work on the durability of concrete in alkali soils was
continued and several new lengths of experimental drain installed
near Montrose, Colo. Examinations were made of other drains and
concrete blocks which have been exposed for several years.
'Weathering tests are in progress on various typical building stones,
and experiments have been carried out to determine whether the
disintegration of stones produced by the crystallization of salt can
be employed as an accelerated weathering test.
An important investigation, in which commercial cement plants
have cooperated, has been carried out on the effect of burning and
composition on the properties of finished cement. The work, as
far as plant operation is concerned, was completed during the year,
and apparently some valuable data have been secured. This work
will cover a period of several years, so that all results will not be
available for some time, but it is expected that information of value,
particularly on the action of alkali on cements, can be reported each
year.
Work has been continued on synthetic tanning materials. Ob­
servations made during the year have shown that bv themselves
these substances are not suitable for making leather, since they lack
the filling properties of ordinary vegetable tanning materials. In
combination, however, synthetic materials have valuable properties,
and a thorough investigation along this line will be carried out.

167
Tests have been made on approximately 100 different makes and
sizes of tires to determine the power losses under various conditions.
Many tests have also been run on the endurance machines to get
some idea of the life of tires under conditions comparable to road
service.
Two very important investigations, from the industrial point of
view, which will be taken up during the coming fiscal year, and for
which research programs have already been mapped out, deal with
synthetic tanning materials and the use of reclaimed rubber.
An investigation will be conducted on the production of synthetic
tanning materials from coal-tar products, involving actual manufac­
ture and development of processes, with reference to methods of sulphonating, condensing, mixing, and diluting.
A thorough study will be made of the various methods of reclaim­
ing rubber, with the object of developing more efficient production
processes and a better quality of product. Investigations leading to
a more extended use of reclaimed rubber, involving practical tests
of rubber goods, especially automobile tires containing different per­
centages of reclaimed rubber, will be carried out.
The apparatus to be used in measuring the heat-retaining prop­
erties of fabrics has been completed and a description of it prepared.
The problem itself will require additional work, but when com­
pleted will give results of great value to manufacturers of blankets
and clothing.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com­
merce, an investigation was made of the use of rubber latex in paper.
The results indicated that this material had no definite effect on the
strength of the paper, and that certain difficulties existed in con­
nection with its use.
Some successful experiments were carried out on the making of
paper from flax straw, vast quantities of which are available in the
Northwest and in Canada. It is doubtful, however, if this material
can compete with more usual substances, with prices at their present
level.
A study has been made of methods to produce the quick setting
of lime, so that this material can compete on a more nearly equal
basis with gypsum. A mixture of ground quicklime and hydrated
lime has been found successful if made into building blocks at the
factory, since the mixture will not keep well when shipped.
Work has been continued on improving the plasticity of hydrated
lime, and this year special attention was paid to the development
of a process for producing finishing hydrate as the original product
instead of masons’ hydrate. It is believed that the question can
be solved successfully.
REPO RT OF T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE.

168

RKPORT OF T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE.

METALLURGY.

Substantial progress has been made, in cooperation with a joint
committee, in the determination of suitable and safe limits for
sulphur in steel: the investigation on rivet steel is about com­
pleted and the study of plate and forging steels is well under way.
An investigation is being carried out, with the advice of a com­
mittee representing industry and the Army and Navy, on the im­
provement of the durability, permanence, and process of manufac­
ture of precision steel gauges and on the resistance of various gauge
steels to wear.
The investigation of thermal stresses in car wheels was completed,
and the results published by the bureau.
A thorough study is being made of the corrosion of so-called noncorrodible steels, both in distilled water and dilute hydrochloric
acid. The work is still in progress and will be extended to include
other kinds of acids during the coming year.
Heretofore there has been a great deal of uncertainty in interpret­
ing the results of the nick-bend test for wrought iron. For this
reason an investigation is in progress to determine the exact meaning
of the different kinds of fractures which may be obtained from this
test.
The mechanical properties of metals at elevated temperatures are
being studied, this work including a study of the tensile properties
of steels of various carbon content and when alloyed with different
metals. Forging and compression tests of steel are also being car­
ried out.
In cooperation with the United States Naval Gun Factory, a large
number of lathe breakdown tests were made on high-speed steels
and a technologic paper has been issued on the subject.
The study of the resistance of steels to wear is being continued,
the various preliminary treatments which affect the wear of steel
have been studied, and it appears that maximum hardness does not
necessarily give the greatest resistance to wear.
The results of investigations on the mechanical properties in com­
pression of white bearing-metal alloys at normal and elevated tem­
peratures have been published.
Some very important work has been done in connection with the
determination of oxygen and hydrogen in metals, and the develop­
ment of the vacuum fusion method has been brought to a very satis­
factory stage. Progress has been made on the method for deter­
mining nitrogen in metals by fusion in vacuum and by absorption
of nitrogen in the evolved gases by metallic calcium vapors. The
metallurgical industries have shown great interest in these researches
on gases in metals.
♦

169
Some very pure platinum has been produced and studies have
been made of the various metals of the platinum group. In connec­
tion with this work several special studies of the refractories used
for crucibles in which the metals are melted, as well as improve­
ment in the furnaces used, have been made.
The investigation of foundry molding sands is progressing with
the active cooperation of a joint committee on this subject.
In cooperation with the War Department the erosion of machinegun barrels has been studied, and a series of physical and ballistic
tests was carried out on 25 alloy steels recommended as suitable for
service of this kind.
Work has been carried out on the development of light armor
plate in cooperation with the War Department, the particular prob­
lem being the preparation of specifications which will express in
physical terms the properties which such a plate should possess.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

CERAMICS.

In cooperation, with the United States Potters’ Association, an
investigation has been started on the effect of different compositions
and temperature conditions on finished chinaware. Specimens have
been fired at various plants and sent to the bureau for test. These
tests have shown the serious effects of under and over firing on the
finished bodies.
Service and laboratory tests have been conducted on tableware
with the object of preparing specifications for this material. In
this work valuable cooperation is being given by the American Hotel
Association and sets of china are being tested in service at several
prominent hotels.
The first phase of an important investigation of architectural
terra cotta is nearing completion. The physical properties of many
typical bodies have been determined. Striking differences in per­
meability have been shown, but no consistent relation between per­
meability and water absorption values has yet been worked out.
The work, which is being conducted in cooperation with the National
Terra Cotta Society, will be continued.
Many successful melts of optical glass have been made and at the
same time data have been accumulated on the complicated technique
of optical glass manufacture. Approximately 12,000 satisfactory
optical blanks were molded by the “ sticking-up ” process.
A study is being made of sheet metal enamels for kitchen ware to
determine the resistance of these wares to impact, acids, and quench­
ing, with the object of preparing specifications covering articles of
this class.
68596—23-----12

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REPORT OF T H E SECRETARY OF C O M M ERCE.

OFFICE.

The office work of the bureau is much more complicated than is
the case in most institutions because of the varied, technical character
of the subject matter handled and the extremely valuable property
which must be accounted for.
During the year the division handled the accounting for nearly
$2,OQ(),000 receipts and expenditures for equipment, supplies, per­
sonnel, travel, and general expense; had charge of the personnel
action and records for the staff of more than 900 members; and kept
the accountability records and actions affecting more than 100,000
pieces of apparatus, equipment, tools, and furniture, besides the pro­
curement, storing, and distribution of more than 4,000 varieties of
scientific and other supplies.
The incoming and outgoing mails of the bureau amounted to over
250,000 communications, and the work of the library, which now con­
sists of 25,000 volumes and 616 scientific and other periodicals, pub­
lished in 12 different languages, requires an unusual familiarity with
the scientific and technical literature of the entire world.
There is maintained a catalogue library of 15,000 volumes giving
information on the best sources from which to obtain almost every
variety of supplies.
A total of 91 publications in the various series of the bureau were
published during the year, and a great deal of editorial work was
carried on in connection with the preparation of new papers.
A large amount of general information which does not appear in
print is also furnished in answer to special inquiries, and during the
past year an unusually large number of questions by mail, telephone,
and personal visits were answered directly from the office. Several
more or less popular articles were also prepared dealing with the
bureau’s work.
ENGINEERING AND CONSTRUCTION.

As in the case of the office work, the engineering and construction
work carried on at the bureau is of a very complicated nature and
requires a plant much more elaborate than would be the case in any
manufacturing concern.
During the past year necessary repairs have been kept up and the
service considerably improved by the installation of certain electric
equipment, new boiler feed and fire pumps, and a refrigerating plant
in the industrial and kiln buildings.
The decentralization of the bureau’s power plant is, however, a
very great disadvantage and substantial improvement can be expected
only if a suitable central plant is provided.

171
A great many repair jobs in connection with the electrical, plumb­
ing, and steamfitting work about the bureau were carried out, and
some new equipment has been installed. Some of the construction
work completed has been quite elaborate, such as the installation
of foundations for the large testing machines in the Industrial Build­
ing, the building of a concrete sound screen, and the commencement
of the alterations on the bureau's high-tension laboratory.
Some work has been done on permanent roads and on the im­
provement of the bureau’s grounds, but the funds available have
not permitted very much progress along these lines.
REPORT OF T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE.

TESTS.

Approximately 128,000 tests were completed by the bureau during
the fiscal year; 30,000 thermometers were tested; 1,608 incandescent
lamps, representing 1,640,485 purchased by the Government, were
subjected to life tests; and 6.700 weights and 33 balances were ex­
amined to see if they complied with the tolerances of the bureau.
Sixty-two electrical measuring instruments, 10 wavemeters, 18 decremeters. 455 water current meters, and 100 aeronautic instruments
of various kinds were also tested. Cement tests totaled 5,200, and
3,447 tests were made on radium and radioactive materials.
The above listed materials and devices tested in the bureau’s
laboratories, selected at random from the complete test records, give
a very good idea of the variety and importance of this phase of the
bureau’s work.
Yen’ truly yours,
G eorge K. B drgess,
D ir e c to r , B u re a u o f S ta n d a r d s.

BUREAU OF FISHERIES.
D epartment of C ommerce,
B ureau of F isheries,
Hon. H erbert H oover,

W a sh in g ton , J u ly 1, 19^3.

S e c r e ta r y o f C om m erce.

D ear Mr. S ecretary : In response to your request I furnish the

following condensed report upon the work of the bureau during the
past year:
COMMERCIAL FISHERIES.

The depression that existed in the fisheries industries in 1921 was
to a considerable extent relieved in 1922 and was replaced in the
early part of 1923 by decidedly better conditions. In the New Eng­
land vessel fisheries in the calendar year 1922, 11.9 per cent fewer
trips were made than in 1921, but the catch increased 6 per cent.
During the spring of 1923 the catch was generally greater than for
the corresponding period of the previous year, and the price was
materially higher. In the canned salmon industry of the Pacific
coast there was an increase of 45.4 per cent in the number of cases
packed and 33.1 per cent in the total value of the product. This was
accounted for entirely by the large increase in Alaska of both quantitj7 and value, there being a marked decrease in the pack elsewhere.
Substantial increases also occurred in the sardine packs of Maine
and California, the tuna pack, and the production of fish oil and
other by-products.
A market survey was made of our largest fishing port, Boston,
Mass., which brought forth interesting and valuable facts. Perhaps
the most significant finding was that 56 per cent of Boston’s produc­
tion of fish is consumed in Massachusetts, and 89 per cent in Massa­
chusetts and neighboring States, to and including Pennsylvania,
indicating that the great inland potential market is all but untouched
and that any material increase in the total consumption of sea foods
must come largely from the development of markets in those parts
of the country more distant from the seaboard.
The reasons for the absence of a market for fish in the interior
appear to be lack of effective organization of the fish industry and
inadequate technical methods of delivering perishable fishery prod172

173
nets to these markets in such condition that they may command a
ready sale. It is for this reason that the work which has been in
hand for some time on refrigeration of fish is considered of much
importance. The effort to develop a process of freezing fish in brine,
mentioned in last year’s report, has been carried forward as rapidly
as extremely limited resources have permitted. The experimental
plant has been constructed and has been undergoing tests to deter­
mine its operating characteristics and to develop such changes and
improvements as may be necessary for meeting the exacting require­
ments for commercial use. The plant, which is essentially a tunnel
through which the fish are conveyed while showered with very cold
brine, operates continuously, and performs washing, freezing, and
glazing automatically and in thé minimum time. As it embraces
radical departures from previous attempts to apply the advantages
of brine freezing to fish, much experimentation has been necessary to
perfect some of the seemingly minor features.
The technological work on the preservation of nets has gone for­
ward satisfactorily. A new preservative—copper oleate—has been
found in the course of these experiments which promises to be de­
cidedly better than other materials previously used. During the
present season this preservative is being tried by many fishermen
in different localities and close watch is being kept on the results.
Certain objectionable qualities that have come to light in practice
are being studied with a view to eliminating them. These qualities
are the lubricating effect of copper oleate, which causes the knots in
the web to slip, and the tendency of the preservative to wash out.
It now appears that both difficulties may be satisfactorily overcome
by the addition of a small quantity of boiled linseed oil to the solu­
tion of copper oleate.
The technological work for the improvement of the methods em­
ployed in canning sardines has been continued without interruption.
The conclusion having been reached that the fry bath oil, used for
frying the sardines, imparts an objectionable taste to the product,
the problem was presented of devising means for packing the fish
without its use. Three substitutes for the fry bath in removing the
excess water from the fish have been suggested by the investigation
and tests of their comparative merits are still in progress.
Good progress has been made in the statistical work of the bureau.
Heretofore it has never been possible to canvass the fisheries of more
than a very small part of the country in any one year with the force
available, but the experiment is being tried of detailing for the work
men from the various hatcheries and other field stations of the
bureau at such times as they may be spared without detriment to
their regular duties. By following this course it has been possible
simultaneously to carry on canvasses of the Great Lakes, the Missis­
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

174
REPORT OF T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE.
sippi River and tributaries, the Pacific Coast States, and the shad
and alevvife fisheries of the Potomac River. In addition the canvass
of the canned products and by-products of the fisheries was carried
out and the results published in a bulletin which has attracted much
attention. The usual statistical bulletins were published, and also
the special bulletins covering the fisheries of New York, New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, and Delaware. The monthly reports showing the
amount of fish frozen and held in storage, supplied by the Bureau
of Markets and Crop Estimates of the Department of Agriculture,
have been published regularly. A quarterly canvass of the produc­
tion of oils from fish and marine animals, formerly conducted by
the Bureau of the Census, has been made by the Bureau of Fisheries
for the past year, and the results turned over to the Bureau of-the
Census for publication in its regular report on oil production.
ALASKA FISHERIES.

The salmon industry of Alaska returned practically to normal in
1922, after the very small output of the year previous, the larger
total pack being due principally to the greatly increased production
in western Alaska and an unusually large run of humpback salmon in
southeastern Alaska. The larger production embraced all lines of
the salmon industry, which again yielded 87 per cent of the entire
output of the fishery. There were commensurate expansions in prac­
tically all other fisheries in the Territory.
In 1922 the number of persons employed in the fisheries industry
of Alaska was 21,974, the active investment was $47,509,138, and the
total value of products was $36,170,948. The output of canned
salmon was 4,501,652 cases of forty-eight 1-pound cans each, valued
at $29,787,193, an increase of 72 per cent in quantity and 52 per cent
in value as compared with the previous year.
A force of 15 statutory employees, 3 special assistants, 20 members
of boat crews, and 60 temporary guards was engaged in fisheries
conservation in 1922, the largest number that has ever been employed
by the bureau for this work. While funds are more limited for the
season of 1923, an equally large force has been placed in the field,
but the period of employment of most of the men will be considerably
shorter. This staff has been augmented by the detail of employees
from other branches of the bureau's work for service during the
active salmon fishing season. In all, during the season of 1923. there
were engaged in connection with the work of the Alaska service 19
statutory employees, 25 men on vessels, and 69 stream guards and
other assistants.
The need for revision of the obsolete and inadequate laws under
which the Bureau of Fisheries is functioning in an endeavor to pro­
tect the fisheries of Alaska is becoming more urgent and obvious each

175
year. Laws adopted 17 years ago when the industry was compara­
tively small, and which were designed to facilitate development with
relatively little restriction, do not give broad enough control to enable
adequate protection to this natural resource now threatened with
depletion through overexploitation. The attention of Congress has
been called repeatedly to the need of a new fishery code for Alaska,
and bills have been introduced in successive sessions, but none has
become law. In the emergency which exists and pending the adop­
tion of adequate laws, the situation is being handled through the
power given under Executive orders creating reservations in the dis­
tricts where depletion of the salmon fisheries was most seriously
threatened.
In line with the policy inaugurated by the creation by Executive
order of February 17. 1922, of the Alaska Peninsula Fisheries Res­
ervation, a further step was taken by an Executive order of November
3, 1922, creating the Southwestern Alaska Fisheries Reservation,
including Bristol Bay, Kodiak and Afognak waters, and Cook Inlet.
Regulations governing fisher}’ operations in this reservation were
issued, and after the end of the fishing season of 1922 a few minor
changes were made in the regulations previously issued for the
Alaska Peninsula Fisheries Reservation. Permits were granted for
operations in 1923 in both of these reservations. Arrangements were
also made whereby applications for permits from local residents of
the reservations desiring to fish on a small scale were received and
passed upon by the bureau's representatives in the respective districts.
A study of the salmon fishery of the Kuskokwim River was made,
and a party remained over the winter in the Nushagak region to
investigate the salmon spawning grounds and ascertain the size of
the escapement in 1922.
Other investigations of the salmon are mentioned in the section of
this report dealing with biological inquiries.
A treaty between this Government and Canada, imposing a close
season on halibut fishing in waters of the Pacific Ocean, has been
ratified by Canada and. with a reservation, bv the United States.
Legislation by Congress is required to make the treaty effective. By
the terms of the treaty fishing for halibut is prohibited during the
period from November 16 to February 15 of each year, a distinctly
progressive step in the conservation of this great fishery. %
During the session of the Alaska Legislature early in 1923 a number
of bills and memorials having to do with the fisheries of the Territory
were adopted. One act of the legislature provided for the licensing
of all fishermen; another amended previous rates of license taxes im­
posed on the fisheries industry, considerable increases being made in
most instances, and especially in the case of the larger, operators;
REPORT OF T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
176
and a third act imposed close seasons on salmon fishing in certain
districts.
ALASKA FUR-SEAL SERVICE.

The estimate of the fur-seal herd of the Pribilof Islands as of
August 10, 1922, indicated there were 004,962 animals of all ages in
the herd, an increase of 23,519 over 1921. The total take of sealskins
in the calendar year 1922 was 31,156.
Before the beginning of killing in the current season 5,000
3-year-old male seals were branded on the back with a hot iron, thus
permanently marking the annual reserve of male seals required by
law and insuring that these animals may be distinguished during
succeeding seasons. In addition 5,000 3-year-old males were given
a temporary mark by shearing the hair on the head, so as to insure
their exemption from killing in the season of 1923; their size there­
after will protect them, as killings will be restricted to the 3-year-old
class. In fact, the entire 10,000 animals will be allowed to develop
to normal breeding age, subject only to natural mortality, and will
thus amply provide for future needs of the herd.
Improved methods of taking and curing have been extended to
practically all of the skins taken on St. Paul Island during the season
of 1923.
At two sales of sealskins from the Pribilof Islands held at public
auction by the Fouke Fur Co. in the fiscal year 1923, a total of 35,312
dressed, dyed, and machined skins, 164 raw, washed, and dressed
skins, and 37 raw, salted skins were disposed of, the gross proceeds
being $1,100,279.80. At the sale on October 9, 1922, 17,194 dressed,
dyed, and machined skins brought $535,967.50, and in addition 164
raw, washed, and dried skins and 37 raw, salted skins were sold for
$87.55; at the sale May 28, 1923, 18,118 dressed, dyed, and machined
skins brought $564,224.75.
In addition, 712 blue and 21 white fox skins from the Pribilof fox
herds, taken in the winter of 1921-22, were disposed of at the fall
sale in 1922. The gross proceeds of the sale were $67,310. The take
of fox skins in the winter of 1922-23 was 888 blue and 29 white pelts.
Twelve live foxes for breeding purposes were sold to fox farmers in
Alaska in the fall of 1922. The price was $175 per animal. Re­
serves of breeding animals were made on both islands.
A visit was made by the Assistant Secretary of Commerce and
party to the Pribilof Islands in July, 1922, for the purpose of in­
specting the work on the islands and particularly for observing seal­
ing methods. Visits were also made to the Russian and Japanese
seal islands, where tire herds now number approximately 18,000 and
20,000 animals, respectively. The Japanese herd is doing well, but
a comparison of the Russian herd with the rapidly growing Pribilof

177
herd strikingly shows the value of the protective measures adopted
in respect to the latter under the department’s supervision.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

BIOLOGICAL INQUIRIES AND EXPERIMENTS.

It is the function of the division of scientific inquiry to determine
what, if any, depletion of the fish supply had occurred, or whether
the conditions of operation of the fisheries are such as to make such
depletion likely, and, having determined such facts, to develop cor­
rective measures.
Correlatively there is imposed on the division the duties of dis­
covering and developing new sources of supply of economic aquatic
plants and animals and improving the methods of aquiculture. Its
problems are, in brief, those fundamental to the utilization of the
natural resources of sea, lake, and stream to the utmost extent com­
patible with a sustained supply. Their solution involves knowledge
of the life histories of not only the useful animals themselves but of
those other organisms which, as food, enemies, and competitors, im­
portantly affect their welfare. The interrelations of these biological
phenomena and the physics and chemistry of the waters are exceed­
ingly complex, but having regard to the primary purposes of the
work the bureau during the past year has confined its investigations
almost exclusively to the study of the immediate life histories of the
economic animals and direct experiments relating to them. In some
cases the choice of fields of study has been dictated by the character
of the training and experience of the available personnel, other
equally or more important investigations being deferred because of
the need of peculiar ability and experience not represented in the
small scientific staff.
One of the most important series of studies is that concerned with
the life history of the several species of salmons of the Pacific coast,
some of which, largely by reason of overfishing, are decimated or
even in danger of economic extinction in certain streams. During
the summer and fall of 1922 special studies were made of the salmon
of the Alaska Peninsula Fisheries Reservation to determine the ade­
quacy of the present regulations governing the fisheries. New infor­
mation concerning the oceanic migrations of the red salmon was
obtained by marking about 4,000 of the fish with aluminum tags and
noting the localities at which the fish were again caught. The de­
tails of this experiment have been published. In addition, several
important spawning areas were investigated and material was col­
lected for continuing the studies of the life histories of the fish.
Investigations of the salmon run in Karluk River were continued
and the count of red salmon entering the river indicated that the run
was much smaller than in 1921 and there were correspondingly fewer
fish on the spawning beds. Counts were made of the salmon ascend­

REPO RT OF T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE.
178
ing Chignik River. As in Karluk River, this work will be continued
over a series of years as a basis for determination of the permissible
commercial catch.
During the year many adult fish, resulting from planting 100,000
marked young sockeyes in the Columbia River, were recovered.
These fish were hatched and reared from eggs brought from the Yes
Ray hatchery of the bureau in 1920, and the number of fish recovered
indicates that fish culture, as applied to this species, has a material
effect on the total supply in the river. These fish differ from the
native salmon of the same species in both external appearance and
in the quality of the flesh.
An investigation also was made of the location of the present
spawning grounds of the blueback salmon of the Columbia River
basin, many of the well-known areas formerly used having been made
inaccessible by dams erected for power and irrigation developments.
Canning industries utilizing the native clams and crabs have been
recently established in Alaska and promise to develop to considerable
importance. While no depletion of the supply of these shellfish has
manifested itself, the history of similar fisheries elsewhere has shown
the danger to be of such consequence that studies have been initiated
for the determination of the steps which must be taken to minimize
the danger.
The comprehensive study of the whitefishes and their relatives of
the Great Lakes has been continued. The biological problems in­
volved in this investigation are difficult and require much time for
their solution, but the economic importance of this family of fishes
is so great, the fish-cultural operations applied to them so extensive,
and the information previously available so meager that a large pro­
gram for their study is fully justified.
Work on the compilation of the data accumulated by long con­
tinued studies on the Atlantic salmon and smelts was resumed during
the year on the return to the bureau’s service of the assistant for­
merly engaged on it.
For a number of years the director of the Museum of Comparative
Zoology of Harvard University has courteously lent the service of
one of his capable assistants for the study of the biological and
physical conditions which affect the fisheries of the Gulf of Maine,
a very important reservoir of sea food. Many data on certain phases
of the research already have been published, and near the end of the
fiscal year a voluminous report on what is known of the life history
of the fishes of the region was completed.
During the year about 1,500 drift bottles were dropped on three
lines running seaward from Cape Elizabeth, Cape Cod. and Sandy

179
Hook. The recovery of a large number of these was reported and as
opportunity occurs others will be released. The purpose is to obtain
more specific information concerning the currents controlling the
distribution of fish food and eggs and therefore, to a large degree,
of the fishes themselves. Similar work, which will supplement the
results of the bureau’s activities, is being conducted by the Canadian
Government, which is also cooperating informally in the tagging of
codfish, haddock, and related commercial fishes, employing methods
and for purposes similar to those which have been described in con­
nection with the Pacific coast salmons.
As a part of the same comprehensive project for elucidating the
significant facts in the life histories of the important food fishes
of the North Atlantic coast, and to serve as a basis for determining
the past, present, and prospective effects of the methods employed
in their capture, other studies have been inaugurated on both sides
of the, international boundary line, and the data acquired by the
respective investigations will be made mutually available.
Progress has been made on the study of the data and material ac­
cumulated in the fisheries survey in Chesapeake Bay, which have
been assigned to specialists in the respective subjects. This sur­
vey repeats in a more limited but nevertheless important field the
general plan pursued in the Gulf of Maine investigations.
Near the close of last fiscal year a hydrographic and biological
survey of Long Island Sound was undertaken by the steamer F ish
H a w k for the purpose of determining, if possible, the reason for
the failure of the oyster crop in those waters. For a number of years
past the formerly important and remunerative oyster industry in
Long Island Sound has labored under difficulties that have threat­
ened its very existence, and investigations directed to the oyster
itself have not been conclusive as to the causes. The oyster in this
region is on the verge of its natural habitat and any slight adverse
change in the conditions of its environment may be sufficient to tip
the balance against its survival. The investigations conducted for
several years past have shown that the microscopic free-swimming
larvae of the oyster are subject to excessive mortality and it is
hoped that the precision of the methods used in the survey may
throw light on the causes, and, if they be remediable, suggest
measures for correcting them. The direct studies of the oyster re­
ferred to in previous reports were continued, and near the close of
the year experiments were undertaken to develop a method of oyster
culture which might remove the delicate oyster fry from the in­
fluence of the untoward conditions which prove fatal in the natural
environment.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Construction and Repair of the
Navy Department the bureau assumed supervision of investigations
REPORT OF T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE.

180
REPORT OF T H E SECRETARY OF C O M M ERCE.
of the nature of the fouling of vessels’ bottoms and the conditions
which control its character and extent. The work is carried on
partly at the bureau’s laboratories and partly at the navy yards
where vessels are docked.
Complaints having arisen that pelicans were unduly destructive to
(he trout in Yellowstone Lake and were to a considerable extent nul­
lifying the effects of trout culture there, an investigation was made
which indicated the allegation to have substantial basis and that
some reduction in the number of these predatory birds is advisable.
The fish pathologist has practically determined the cause of high
mortality among fingerling trout at many of the bureau’s stations
and other hatcheries to be a unicellular organism that infests the
intestines and the intestinal lining, particularly of young fish. He
has also apparently determined the cause of the sterility of black
bass and other fishes at certain of the bureau’s pond stations. The
more difficult work of finding and applying remedies remains to be
done.
Experiments and investigations on mosquito control through the
agency of fishes have been conducted, as in several previous years,
in cooperation with the Bureau of Public Health Service, resulting
in material increase in knowledge of thé subject, practical applica­
tion of which has reduced the prevalence of malaria in certain
areas.
The laboratory at Fairport, Iowa, has been operated as usual, but
those at Woods Hole, Mass., Beaufort, N. C., and Key West, Fla.,
have been seriously crippled by lack of both personnel and operating
funds.
A number of other activities were engaged in which will be re­
ferred to in the commissioner’s report to the Secretary.
PROPAGATION OF FOOD FISHES.

During the fiscal year special effort has been made to maintain the
maximum production of fishes of commercial importance and, as
far as economically possible, to apply the curtailment made neces­
sary by the smaller appropriation to those species which are valued
primarily for purposes of sport and but secondarily as food.
Nevertheless the limitation of funds and experienced labor has
imposed difficulties which it has not been possible to overcome, and
it has been necessary not only to refrain from undertaking opera­
tions in certain new and promising fields, but to abandon egg col­
lections in some places which in former years have proved highly
productive. The inhibitions thus imposed, together with rigorous
weather conditions during the spawning season in certain regions,
especially *the Great Lakes and the Pacific coast, reduced the output
of some species materially below that of the preceding year; but, on

181
the other hand, the marine stations of New England collected, by
far, more cod eggs and planted more yonng cod than in any previous
year in the bureau’s history.
For some years the policy of the bureau has been to rear more
of the fish it hatches, particularly the salmons, to a size at which
they are better fitted to care for themselves when liberated, and in
response to the effort to this end the output of fingerling fish was
more than 20 per cent greater than in the preceding year.
The bureau’s supply of eggs of the commercial fishes, with the
exception of the Pacific salmons, whose peculiar life history makes it
impossible, is derived almost entirely from fish captured for the
market and already doomed to destruction. The eggs carried by
these fish would die with the parents, and their salvage through the
agency of fish culture is therefore a definite addition to the reproduc­
tive capacity of the species affected.
The product of the season’s work in the salvage of stranded food
fishes from overflowed lands in the upper Mississippi River Valley
was about 20 per cent smaller than that of the previous year, owing
to the comparatively light snowfall in the drainage basin during the
preceding winter and the consequent failure of the river to attain
flood stage at the spawning period. Under these conditions practi­
cally all of the fishes spawned in the smaller pools in close proximity
to the main river. In the fall of 1922 the river was at a lower stage
than at. any time since the bureau’s operations in rescue work were
instituted, and the salvage crews followed the receding waters and
removed the innumerable fishes left stranded in depressions of the
river. The number of fish rescued during the year was in excess of
139,000,000.
An important branch of the bureau’s activities on the upper Mis­
sissippi River is the infection of salvaged food fishes with the glochidia, or larvae, of pearl mussels. The existence of the pearl-button
industry of this region, representing a large invested capital and
giving employment to thousands of persons, is dependent upon the
maintenance of the supply of fresh-water mussels, and the mussel
cultural operations of the, bureau are an important agency to that
end. During the year mussel glochidia to the number of 2,1(12,047,000
were attached to salvaged fishes before liberating them in the river.
It is believed that in some parts of the United States the output of
the Federal hatcheries has about reached the desirable maximum in
the production of game and food fishes for interior waters and that
the work with these species begun by the General Government should
now, in many instances, be taken up and carried on by the individual
States for the maintenance of the supply of fish within their-respec­
tive boundaries. The greater part of the output of such fishes from
the Federal hatcheries should henceforth be applied to stocking
BEPO RT OF T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE.

REPORT OF THU SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
182
waters of the national parks, forests, and other areas under the juris­
diction of the United States. The existence of a vast area within
this classification makes it important that the General Government
continue the propagation of fishes suitable for those waters.
A policy of stricter scrutiny of applications for basses and other
so-called warm-water fishes has been adopted with the purpose of
preventing expenditure for the introduction of the species in waters
not suited to them or which already are amply supplied with a suffi­
cient stock for maintaining the supply if adequately protected. This
policy has increased the effectiveness of the bureau’s work and ma­
terially reduced the cost of distribution as compared with former
years. In some cases it has involved refusal to supply fish for large
streams and lakes which already contain in reasonable abundance the
species applied for, and an expression of appreciation is due to Sen­
ators and Representatives who have given this policy their support.
In such cases the paramount importance of legislation for the con­
servation of the fish has been urged on the applicants, and a material
improvement in the public attitude toward this matter is noticeable.
In some cases fishing reserves have been created, and in some States
laws have been passed prohibiting fishing for a period of years in
waters recently stocked by the bureau.
The economic and sociologic value of well-stocked fishing streams
is becoming more generally recognized by State authorities and the
public, and there is more general appreciation of the fact that to
maintain or improve the existing supply of fish well-considered effort
to that end is essential.
The spirit of cooperation between the bureau and the States,
which lias shown a marked improvement within the past few years,
is now becoming a factor of importance. Very material assistance
was rendered during the past year by a number of State fisheries
authorities in the propagation and distribution of fish. The bureau
has been able in numerous instances to participate in the collection
of eggs at valuable field stations established and developed as a con­
sequence of such cooperative assistance.
The services of certain men in the bureau’s employ have been
temporarily loaned to State authorities from time to time, and also
to fishing organizations, for the purpose of assisting in the inspection
of hatchery sites and to advise regarding methods to be employed in
the propagation and distribution of fish. The incentive to increased
fish-cultural effort thus afforded by the bureau is resulting in a most
favorable reaction on its work by relieving to an appreciable extent
the heavy demands upon the Federal hatcheries for fish.
During the year consignments of eggs of various species of fish
were furnished to several foreign governments, with the view of

183
replenishing and renewing the brood stock in depleted waters, and
in several cases surplus eggs of certain species were exchanged for
spawn of other species not available in this country in quantity.
Some reorganization of the fish-cultural work was made during
the year and a number of changes in methods put into effect. Such
changes have enabled the bureau to approximate the average output
of recent years, and at a lower unit cost, notwithstanding the pre­
vailing increase of about 67 per cent in the cost of labor and materials
required to carry on the operations.
The output of fish of all species during the year amounted in
round numbers to five billions, the total being about 10 per cent
below that of last year. The reasons for the decrease already have
been mentioned.
Very truly yours,
REPORT OF T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE.

H enry O’M alley,
C o m m issio n e r o f F ish eries.

LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE.
D epartment of C ommerce,
B ureau of L ighthouses,

W a s h in g to n , J u ly 1 , 1983.
Hon. H erbert H oover,
S ecreta ry/ o f C o m m erce.
D ear Mr. S ecretary : In response to your request I furnish the
following condensed report upon the work of the service during the
past year:

MORE IMPORTANT ACTIVITIES OF THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE
DURING THE YEAR.

Noteworthy progress has been made during the year in the utiliza­
tion of radio signals for navigation purposes. Three additional
radio fog signals have been established in the United States—Cape
Henry, Va.; Diamond Shoal Light Vessel, N. C.; and Blunts Reef
Light Vessel, Calif., off Cape Mendocino. This makes a total of
eight such stations in commission. Five more stations are being
equipped, all on light vessels—Boston, Mass.; Nantucket Shoals,
Mass.; Five Fathom Bank, Del., off Delaware Bay; Swiftsure Bank,
Wash., off the Straits of Fuca; and Columbia River, Oreg. Great
interest in this subject is being taken by foreign lighthouse author­
ities as mentioned elsewhere in this report, and installations of vari­
ous types of radio beacons have been or are being made in France,
Norway, Spain, England, Scotland, and Holland. A large number
of foreign ships, including many of the large trans-Atlantic vessels
and a number of vessels in this country have been, or are now being,
equipped with radio compasses or direction finders. These instru­
ments are in extensive use, furnishing in fog, with proper precau­
tions, bearings approaching the accuracy of visual bearings, and
available at greater distances.
Automatic apparatus is extensively used in the Lighthouse Serv­
ice. Steady progress has been made in the substitution of automatic
apparatus at old stations and its installation at new stations, result­
ing in a large annual saving in maintenance, as well as increased
efficiency, as stated elsewhere in this report. At the end of the fiscal
year out of the 4,047 coast and lake lights, 1,665, or 41 per cent, were
184

REPORT OP T H E SECRETARY OP CO M M ERCE.

185

automatic, an increase from 14 per cent in 1911 Automatic fog
bells are also being installed where they will sufficiently serve the
purpose of navigation. This Lighthouse Service has in commission
more automatic apparatus than that of any other country.
Some portions of the personnel of the Lighthouse Service have
long been in urgent need of readjustment of salary schedules, as has
been set forth fully in previous annual reports. An important step
•toward such relief is the enactment of the classification act of March
4, 1923. The results of this act will not take effect until another
fiscal year, but the principles and methods it establishes for the ad­
justment of the difficult problem of fair compensation should be of
great value in improving the civil service, though it does not remove
some of the special difficulties and inequalities affecting the Light­
house Service.
The following are the more notable lighthouse construction works
during the year: Automatic lighthouses were built on Molasses
Reef and Pacific Reef in two important unlighted stretches of
the Florida Reefs. A large part of the improved scheme for lighting
Raritan Bay, N. J., was accomplished about a month after the funds
were available. Preparations were made for the construction of the
lighthouse and fog signal at Cape Spencer, Alaska. Many other im­
portant items of lighthouse and depot construction, protection, or
improvement were completed or in progress during the year, as de­
tailed elsewhere in this report.
Such progress has been made during the year in meeting the needs
for replacement of worn-out vessels of the Lighthouse Service that it
is possible to reduce the shipbuilding program. This has been
accomplished by the construction of light vessels and tenders for
which appropriations have been made in recent years, by the recon­
ditioning as tenders of vessels taken over from the War Depart­
ment, and by the discontinuance of two light-vessel stations. Shortly
after the close of the year, on August 24, 1923, new light vessel N o .
106 was placed on Nantucket Shoals Station. One of the light
vessels now under construction will be equipped with a Diesel engine.
During the year eight high-grade Diesel engines were transferred
to the Lighthouse Service from the War Department surplus prop­
erty, and the use of these will be an important saving in equipping
vessels.
The commissioner visited the lighthouse services of several Euro­
pean countries toward the end of the fiscal year and also at the
International Navigation Congress in London met the representa­
tives of other lighthouse organizations. There was a free inter­
change of information, and the results will be valuable both for
the technical data obtained and for the mutual interest developed
in the international importance of lighthouse practice and engineer68596—23-----13

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
186
ing. A further account of foreign lighthouse work is given elsewhere
in this report.
At the end of the fiscal year the Lighthouse Service was main­
taining a total of 16,888 aids to navigation, a net increase of 513
during the year. Of the total aids 5,942 are lighted and 8,518
are floating. There are 650 aids in Alaska, an increase of 66 during
the year.

LEGISLATION NEEDED.

PROVISIONS FOR RETIREMENT FOR DISABILITY AND OTHER CHANGES IN
LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE RETIREMENT LAW.

For the persons in the Lighthouse Service covered by the act of
June 20, 1918, it is very desirable that the retirement provisions be
extended to cover cases, not due to vicious habits or misconduct,
where an employee is found to be disabled for useful service before
reaching the age fixed in the act. Because of the responsible and
arduous character of much of the work, especially on vessels and
at light stations, such provisions will add materially to the efficiency
of the service and relieve cases of serious hardship now arising.
There is provision for retirement of persons incapacitated for duty
in the Coast Guard and in the Army and Navy. In the general
civil service retirement law of May 22, 1920, there is provision for
retirement, after 15 years’ service, for disease or injury not due
to vicious habits. Persons coming under the lighthouse retirement
act of June 20, 1918, are the only ones in the military or civil service
of the Government to whom some such provision does not now
apply, and legislation is needed to remedy this. Some other modifi­
cations in the retirement law are desirable in the interest of efficient
»rganization.
EXTENSION OF MEDICAL RELIEF FOR LIGHT KEEPERS.

Light keepers are now entitled to medical relief at hospitals and
stations of the Public Health Service. These hospitals are, how­
ever, inaccessible for a large number of light keepers who are sta­
tioned at remote or isolated points. Equal benefits should be ex­
tended to all light keepers and legislation is needed to provide
medical relief for all, and this has been concurred in by the Public
Health Service and the Secretary of the Treasury.
OTHER MEASURES FOR RELIEF OF PERSONNEL.

Legislation is needed to permit the adjustment, within a moderate
amount, of claims by lighthouse employees for loss or damage to

187
personal property, such as clothing, furniture, etc., caused by storms,
collisions, or fire at light stations, depots, and on vessels. Legisla­
tion is also needed to give corresponding employees of the Lighthouse
Service certain necessary privileges now accorded by law to similar
services, including the purchase of commissary supplies, transpor­
tation of families and of household effects when ordered to change
station permanently, and transportation on Army transports.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

PROTECTION OF AIDS TO NAVIGATION.

Legislation is needed for the better protection of aids to naviga­
tion. Such aids, especially those located in the water, are often
damaged by passing vessels, and it is difficult in many instances to
locate the party at fault. More stringent requirements are neces­
sary as to failure to report such injuries, etc. Sums received in pay­
ment should also be made available for repair of aids.
SUBSISTENCE ALLOWANCE.

The present allowances authorized by law for subsistence while
traveling on official business are quite inadequate in many cases, and
persons whose duty requires them to travel are compelled to per­
sonally pay a portion of the expenses. Furthermore, in many cases
Congress has in recent years authorized higher rates of travel allow­
ance for various branches of the Government service, introducing
unjust inequalities. There is the same need for readjustment and
equalization in this matter that there was in the salary schedules.
ECONOMIES EFFECTED IN THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE.

A general statement on this subject was contained in the last
annual report. Additional data and economies effected during the
last fiscal year are reported as follows:
INSTALLATION OF AUTOMATIC APPARATUS.

During the fiscal year 1923 the lighting apparatus was changed to
automatic at 30 stations (of which 22 had resident keepers) at a cost
of $43,214, resulting in a saving in operating cost of $34,022, or 76
per cent per annum on the cost of the changes. The number of
keepers at these stations has been reduced from 50 to 15, a reduction
of 35 keepers. Acetylene apparatus was installed at 27 of these sta­
tions and electric at 3 stations (1 light vessel station is mentioned
separately and not included above).
More complete figures have now been obtained for the results of
the change to automatic apparatus from the commencement of this

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
188
work, nearly all accomplished since 1910. Including the fiscal year
1923, 559 stations (of which 98 had resident keepers) have been
changed to automatic at a total cost of $513,570, resulting in a saving
in operating cost of $164,127, or 32 per cent per annum on the cost
of the changes. The number of keepers at these stations has been re­
duced from 473 to 167, a reduction of 306 keepers (of whom 121 were
resident keepers). Acetylene apparatus was installed at 431 of these
stations, electric at 86, oil gas at 41, and city gas at 1.
The change to automatic apparatus also increased the efficiency of
the lights and in some instances the changes were made for greater
efficiency, without other saving.
Some particular cases of savings by installation of automatic appa­
ratus are these: August 22, 1922, Sabine Bank Light Station, La.,
Was changed to an unattended light, saving $5,409 per annum, and
discontinuing the services of four keepers; March 17, 1923, Bishop
and Clerks Eight Station, Mass., was changed to an acetylene unat­
tended light, saving $3,904 annually, and three keepers discontinued.
REPLACEMENT OF LIGHT VESSEL BY BUOY.

A light vessel in the entrance to Chesapeake Bay was replaced on
November 3,1922, by a specially designed gas buoy, having acetylene
gas light and fog bell operated by carbon dioxide gas pressure. The
cost of the buoy was $8,921, but the annual net saving in operation is
$15,000 per annum.
DISCONTINUING OF AIDS NO LONGER NEEDED.

An important saving of $26,269 annually was made February 17,
1923, by discontinuing Pollock Rip light vessel and Monomoy light­
house, which were rendered unnecessary by the opening of the new
Pollock Rip Channel, dredged by the United States Engineers, giv­
ing a straight channel through the shoals off Cape Cod.
The system of anchorage buoys in Philadelphia Harbor was dis­
continued at a saving of $500 annually.
The Parris Island, S. C., range lights were discontinued at a sav­
ing of $1,250 annually.
Five of the twin lighthouse stations on the coasts of Maine and
Massachusetts are each being changed to a single flashing light of
increased efficiency, with an ultimate annual saving of about $8,000:
one of these changes was completed during the year.
Plans have been approved for extensive changes in range lights
and other aids to navigation in New York Harbor, which will result
in a material saving in annual maintenance, with more efficient serv­
ice to shipping.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

189

VESSELS.

Two of the mine planters transferred from the War Department,
and mentioned in the last annual report, have been actually recon­
ditioned and put into service as the lighthouse tenders S p r u c e and
S p e e d w e ll. The total cost of the work was $96,743. The cost of
building two new vessels of equal value is estimated at $585,301,
representing a net saving to the Lighthouse Service of $488,558.
From War Department surplus eight- Diesel engines have been
transferred to the Lighthouse Service and will be installed in light
vessels as new vessels are constructed or old power units require
replacement, with an ultimate saving of $288,000 over the cost of
new engines.
LIGHTHOUSE DEPOT SITE AND BUILDINGS.

The transfer by the War Department of a site and buildings for
a lighthouse depot at Norfolk, Va., effects a saving in the cost of
establishing the depot authorized bj^ Congress of about $155,000 and
a saving of over $200,000 to the Government, considering the value
of the old site that will be relinquished.
PURCHASE OF ILLUMINATING OIL.

Economies in illuminating oil, through the purchase locally of
suitable grades of commercial oil, the installation of tanks at sta­
tions, and the delivering of oil in bulk, have been further extended,
the districts reporting savings of $36,257 this year on this account.
This is in part, but not entirely, additional to the saving reported
last year.
PURCHASE OF SUPPLIES IN LARGE QUANTITIES.

By accumulating district requisitions, so as to make purchases
in large quantities, savings have been effected of $33,245 on glass
buoy lanterns and $19,644 on acetylene cylinders bought during the
year, as compared with former costs.
Numerous other economies are reported by the lighthouse dis­
tricts, as, for example, the purchase of chain, machinery, and other
war surplus property, the use of steel pipe for post light dolphins,
the conversion of old buoys to improved types, the substitution of
electrical power for fog signals, the use on vessels of refrigerating
plants instead of purchasing ice, the use of secondhand equipment
and materials in construction, construction by force account instead
of contract, thp use of motor truck to save time of tender, and other
transportation economies.

190

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

FOREIGN LIGHTHOUSE SERVICES.

During the latter part of the fiscal year a trip of inspection of
lighthouse work abroad was made by the commissioner. Lighthouse
service headquarters were visited at Stockholm, Sweden; Chris­
tiania, Norway; Paris, France; and London. England, and confer­
ences were held with the supervising officers and engineers of these
services. In several instances laboratories and supply depots were
shown. The principal plants manufacturing lighthouse apparatus
were inspected at Stockholm, Paris, London, and Birmingham, and
conference also was held with manufacturers of radio navigational
apparatus. The lighthouse exhibits at the exposition at Goteborg
were examined.
A number of other lighthouse representatives were also met at the
International Congress of Navigation, which was held in London in
July, 1923, and which the commissioner attended as one of the
American delegates designated by the Secretary of State. One of
the topics considered by this congress was “ Principal advances
made recently in lighting, beaconing, and signaling of coasts.
Standardization of the languages of maritime signals.” In con­
nection with this lighthouse topic there were representatives pres­
ent or papers presented from 15 different countries or separate
lighthouse authorities: Belgium, Denmark, France, Great Britain,
Humber Conservancy, Iceland, Ireland, Italy. Japan. Netherlands,
Russia. Scotland, Spain, Sweden, and United States. This is prob­
ably a larger number of lighthouse interests than have heretofore
come together. Fifteen reports on lighthouse subjects were pre­
sented to the congress and printed separately, in both English and
French. These included a paper by the commissioner on “ Recent
progress and improvements in aids to navigation in the United
States." Because of the wide interest shown and the international
aspects of lighthouse work, the desirability was suggested of more
full discussion of lighthouse problems, and of giving more opportu­
nity for this at future meetings of the International Navigation
Association, which is the only present means for conference and dis­
cussion on lighthouse engineering and practice.
D. W. Hood, M. Inqt. C. E., engineer in chief to the Corporation
of Trinity House, in his general report on the lighthouse papers,
gave the following summary and conclusions:

As regards the luminary for optical apparatus, authorities are generally
agreed that for buoy and beacon lighting, and in many instances for secondary
lights, acetylene gas, either in an open-flame burner or with an incandescent
mantle, is the most popular form of illuminant where electricity is unobtain­
able. That dissolved acetylene gas, however, should be invarably used is open
to question, ns where a long luminous period is required or where the light

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

191

is watched or semiwatched, the study of economy points to the fact that auto­
matic generation of the gas in situ must be fully considered.
For larger optics an incandescent mantle on a pertoleum-vapor burner is
the most suitable illumlnant, unless electricity can be readily obtained at rea­
sonable cost, when the incandescent electric-filament lamp may advantage­
ously be employed.
The need for continued development in the illumination of lighthouses has
not in the least diminished, and in no circumstances must it be neglected in
the endeavor to develop Hertzian or acoustic fog warnings. The greater its
power the more penetrative will be the beam from the lighthouse, and the
greatest security is afforded to the mariner by providing a signal which he may
see and recognize with his eyes.
Little has been said in the reports about the combination of aerial and
maritime lights, and your general reporter is of opinion that such a study is
worthy of this conference in order to avoid separate aerial and maritime light­
houses on the coast.
In connection with acoustical fog signals, authorities generally recognize
the superiority of the siren or diaphone over other types.
Position finding by wireless is destined to be one of the most important navi­
gational aids of the future, whether employed alone or in conjunction with
sound to obtain synchronous signals.
Various countries have different direction-finding systems of their own;
nevertheless the problem of the most effective type should be investigated,
not by each country individually, but by common international agreement, and
it appears to your general reporter that a system applicable to stations both
ashore and afloat which employs a wireless beam whose direction is ascer­
tained by the navigator himself is the primary basis for such investigation and
development.
In the matter of standardization of seamarks, your general reporter does not
psopose to make any comment except to state that several authors are of opin­
ion that the ideal has not yet been reached.
Finally, it is considered that the following questions should be submitted to
the Congress for discussion:
1. The uses of reinforced concrete in the construction of lighthouse towers.
2. Modern ideas on the proper length of the flashes of lights exhibited from
lighthouses.
3. A uniform method of the calculation of lighthouse intensities.
4. The establishment of combined aerial and maritime lights on the coast.
5. Modern lighting equipment for light vessels.
6 . The advantages and disadvantages of dissolved acetylene gas and acety­
lene gas generated in situ.
7. Primary fog signals and compressing plant.
8 . Unwatched fog signals ashore and afloat.
9. The establishment of an international commission to investigate and con­
sider the most suitable radio direction-finding system with the consideration
of the most suitable wave length.
10. The reconsideration of the international adoption of a uniform system of
buoyage and day marking.

Full technical notes on the observations of this trip and the data
presented at the congress at London have been prepared for the in­
formation of the engineers of this service. The following are the
general facts of most importance:

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
192
Radio for fog-signal purposes is the subject of first interest, and
there is a general appreciation of the possibility of further important
developments. Actual installations of radio fog signals have been
made or are in progress in France, Spain, Norway, Scotland, Eng­
land, and Holland, though in no country has this work gone so far
as in the United States. The desirability of having the instrument
for getting the radio bearing located on the ship was emphasized by
all. The progress made in this direction is considerable, as about
100 foreign vessels are now equipped or being equipped with radio
direction finders.
Automatic lighting apparatus is continuing to be extensively intro­
duced, and this is „now being extended to more important stations,
though in the latter case the stations are not made entirely unat­
tended, but one keeper retained, and the apparatus is expensive. Dis­
solved acetylene gas is generally used, and there are a number of
service installations where higher illuminating power is obtained by
a lens revolved by the gas pressure and by the burning of a mixture
of acetylene and air under an acetylene mantle with automatic mantle
exchanger.
More complicated systems than in this country have been intro­
duced in the distinguishing characteristics of automatic lights and in
light sectors.
Incandescent electric lamps are being greatly developed in some
countries for automatic lighting at unwatched or semiwatched sta­
tions even of primary importance. Large light bulbs, approximating
1 foot in diameter, are in use with spirally wound filaments in gasfilled bulbs. The large current required is supplied from commercial
sources or by automatic power units at the station. In some of the
apparatus, particularly that for the coast of Holland, where this
system is being extensively introduced, the electric light has a reserve
gas light which is automatically swung into focus or set in operation
in another lens on the failure of the electric light.
Light vessels in some countries are being more generally equipped
with propelling power and Diesel engines are being used, but the
installation of propelling power is not universal. The use of un­
attended lightships does not appear to have materially increased.
Expensive apparatus for the obtaining of high candlepower and
maintaining the lens horizontal is being installed on some lightships.
Fog signals are recognized as of primary importance for the pro­
tection of navigation, but aside from the use of radio the prin­
cipal advance noted was the further introduction of automatic ap­
paratus for minor signals, such as bells. Explosive signals are used
to some extent abroad, but the advantage of small installation cost
is offset by the continuous manual attention required.

193
In incandescent oil vapor lamps the use of the autoform. or soft
mantle, has been introduced.
The utilization of coast lighthouses for aerial navigation is being
considered, but little has been done as to modifications for this pur­
pose, if any are needed.
On the standardization of seamarks, there was difference of
opinion as to its practicability. There is, of course, no doubt that a
uniform system for the significance of buoy colors and shapes, light
colors, etc., would be desirable, but this value must be weighed
against the cost and difficulty of changing systems already widely
used and understood. A first step in this direction should be a study
and comparison of the existing systems of all countries, which does
not now appear to be available.
This trip was made under instructions from the Secretary of Com­
merce, with credentials from the State Department. Very courteous
consideration was received from the officers of the various lighthouse
services and the others interested in lighthouse work. In 1845 rep­
resentatives of the United States visited Europe and brought back
valuable data on lighthouse work, and the last inspection trip abroad
for this purpose was in 1909 by two representatives of the Light'
house Board. The commissioner also informally visited Trinity
House in London in 1911. The results of the present inspection are
considered valuable in the technical data gathered, in the direct con­
tact established with organizations and engineers working along the
same lines and meeting similar problems, and in the development of
international interest in the improvement of lighthouse systems.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

A ID S TO NAVIG ATIO N.

During the fiscal year ended June 30,1923, there was a net increase
of 513 in the total number of aids to navigation maintained by the
Lighthouse Service. There wits a net increase of 128 lights, 25 gas
buoys, and 368 unlighted aids, and a decrease of 2 light vessels, and
8 float lights. On June 30, 1923, there were maintained by the
Lighthouse Service 16,888 aids to navigation, including 5,942 lights
of all classes and 596 fog signals (not including 153 buoys with
whistles and 397 buoys with bells), of which 7 are radio signals,
6 are bells operated automatically by gas, and 46 are submarine
signals. A large part of the numerical increase is due to additional
minor beacons in the seventh district.
During the year 74 new aids were established in Alaska. Nineteen
new lights were established, also 50 unlighted buoys and 5 beacons.
The total number of aids to navigation in Alaska on June 30,1923,
was 650, being a net increase of 66 over the preceding year.
Improvements in aids to navigation in the service generally have
been made during the year, as follows: Twenty-five fixed lights were

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
194
changed to flashing or occulting; the illuminant of 1 light was
changed to incandescent oil vapor; the illuminant of 58 lights (in­
cluding 1 light vessel and 28 lighted buoys) was changed to acetylene ;
the illuminant of 27 lights (including 1 light vessel) was changed to
electric incandescent; 508 aids to navigation of the various classes
stated were discontinued during the year. The discontinuance of
further aids is under investigation from time to time as the original
necessity for their maintenance ceases, and in that event they are
promptly put out of commission, in the case of lights with the ap­
proval of the Secretary of Commerce.
Fog signals were established at seven important stations, and the
fog signals at eight important stations were improved by the installa­
tion of more efficient apparatus.
General repairs required for upkeep of aids to navigation in
efficient working condition were continued during the year so far as
available funds permitted, but the funds available were not sufficient
for the proper upkeep of this large amount of public property.
Various special works were actively carried on during the year,
including the establishment of important light and fog-signal sta­
tions, the construction of new light vessels and tenders, improve­
ments in systems of fixed aids and buoyage, etc.

ADMINISTRATION.

The general organization of the service remained unchanged
during the fiscal year.
The appropriations for annual maintenance of the Lighthouse
Service for the fiscal year 1924 were $54,000 less than for the pre­
ceding year and $134,530 less than the estimates submitted. The
reduction of appropriations has necessitated the deferring of much
important and necessary repair work which has been accumulating
on account of higher costs. The appropriations for public works in
the act of January 5, 1923, were for the first time made in a lump
sum, subject to the approval of the Secretary of Commerce, instead
of separately for specific projects. This method of appropriation
permits meeting the most urgent needs within the limit of funds
available as they may exist at the time work is undertaken.
Shortly after July 1, 1922, the arrangement was carried out with
the Navy Department for transferring to the Lighthouse Service
the radio stations, with their equipment, that had been established
on light vessels, as mentioned in the lastYeport. This arrangement
places the operation of these stations and the entire personnel on
light vessels under one control, which tends to increase efficiency.
The radio equipment on 44 light vessels was transferred, on 25 of
which the Lighthouse Service will maintain radio stations, these

195
being the outside stations, where communication is most important
both in safeguarding the lightships and in rendering aid to other
vessels.
With the rapid advance in the use of the radiotelephone light­
house keepers have been encouraged to install radio sets both for
entertainment and for their usefulness. Experts at the bureau have
devised an efficient but inexpensive radio set which keepers can readily
install, and have prepared and distributed circulars of instructions
and advice, with drawings, etc. An amateur radio club has been
organized, composed of lighthouse employees interested in the sub­
ject, for the assistance and encouragement of the personnel in radio
work.
Substantial increases in the pay of officers and crews of vessels
were granted in May and June, 1923, by the United States Shipping
Hoard, the Inland and Coastwise Waterways Service, the Lake Car­
riers’ Association, and other shipping interests. To retain its crews
the Lighthouse Service has necessarily had to make corresponding
adjustments, and increases in pay thus far granted to members of
crews alone have amounted to about $130,000. No general adjust­
ment of officers’ pay has been practicable as yet, but this is a matter
requiring consideration.
The seventh conference of superintendents of lighthouses was
held in Washington October 23 to 26, 1922, and was attended by all
the superintendents of the coast and lake districts and other officers
of the service. Many technical and business problems in the work
of the Lighthouse Service were considered, and the work of the
conference was conducted largely through committees designated in
advance.
A paper on “ Recent progress and improvements in aids to naviga­
tion in the United States ” was prepared for presentation to the
International Congress of Navigation at London in July, 1923, and
a new edition of The United States Lighthouse Service was issued
during the year.
The Lighthouse Service participated in the Marine Show at the
Grand Central Palace in New York, N. Y., in November, 1922, with
an exhibit featuring some of the interesting apparatus used in the
service. The exhibit was under the charge of the superintendent of
the third district and his assistants and attracted much favorable
attention.
Systematic inspections of the service, both on its technical and its
business sides, were continued during the year. The superintendent
on general duty and the examiner visited most of the lighthouse dis­
tricts, and special inspections were made by the commissioner and
other officers from Washington.
REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

196
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
Various economies effected in the maintenance of the service have
been mentioned under that head.
There has been effective cooperation with other branches of the
Government in many ways, and the personnel on vessels and at sta­
tions are encouraged to render aid to those in distress.
ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION.

The more important items of construction completed during the
fiscal year were the Nantucket Harbor Fog Signal Station, Mass.;
purchase of additional gas buoys and equipment for improvement
of aids to navigation in the fifth district; the establishment of Pacific
Reef Light and Molasses Reef Light, aids to navigation, Florida
Reefs, Fla.; construction of a dwelling at Dry Tortugas Light
Station, Fla.; improvements to the ranges and construction of dwell­
ing, Guantanamo, Cuba; improvements to aids to navigation, Huron
Harbor, Ohio; the transfer from the Shipping Board of a double
dwelling and its site for the use of the keepers at Lorain, Ohio:
improvements to aids to navigation, St. Marys River, Mich.; con­
struction of a keeper’s dwelling at Yaquina Head, Oreg.; improve­
ments to Coquille River Light Station, Oreg.; and the establishment
of new aids and improvements to existing aids to navigation, Wash­
ington and Oregon.
Other important works in active progress at the close of the fiscal
year included the following: Transfer of keeper’s dwelling at Ned
Point to Wings Neck Light Station, Mass.; improving aids to navi­
gation in the Hudson River, N. Y.; placing riprap protection about
certain light stations in the third lighthouse district; establishing
and improving aids to navigation in Raritan Bay and connected
waters, New York and New Jersey; improving aids to navigation,
Delaware Bay entrance; constructing wharf and boathouses for the
combined use of the third, fourth, and fifth lighthouse districts at
Lewes, Del.; repairing and rebuilding aids to navigation, Atlantic
coast, damaged by storm and ice; aids to navigation on the eastern
shore of Chesapeake Bay and tributaries; preparations for a new
depot at Fort Norfolk, Va., to replace the one now at Portsmouth,
Ya.; establishing and improving aids in St. Johns River, Fla.; re­
pairing and rebuilding aids to navigation, seventh and eighth light­
house districts; repairing and, rebuilding aids to navigation in sev­
enth lighthouse district; repairing and improving aids and establish­
ing new aids to navigation on coasts of Florida and in approaches
to Key West, Fla.; establishing a light and fog signal at Sabine
Pass Jetty Light Station, Tex.; placing riprap protection at Sand
Island Light Station, Ala.; providing a right of way at Point Borinquen Light Station, P. R.; constructing a new wharf at lighthouse
depot, San Juan, P. R.; improving aids to navigation at Conneaut

197
Harbor, Ohio, and Erie Harbor, Pa.: preparation for completing
work in Detroit River; placing protective belt about Spectacle Reef
Light Station Pier, Mich.; preparations to place a protective belt
about Stannard Rock Light Station Pier, Mich.; improvements at
Detroit lighthouse depot; improvements at Chicago Harbor, 111.; im­
proving aids at Indiana Harbor Ind.: improving aids at Calumet
Harbor, 111.; purchasing a site for a new keeper’s dwelling at Manito­
woc, Wis.; establishing and improving aids at Ludington, Mich.;
establishing new aids and rebuilding Guard Islands and Point Re­
treat Light Stations, Alaska; preparation for establishing a light
and fog signal at Cape Spencer, Alaska.
REPORT .DF THE SECRETARY OX' COMMERCE.

IM PR O V E M E NT S IN APPARATUS AND EQ U IPM E N T.

Important progress has been made in the installation and use of
radio fog signals for protection of navigation in fog. Investigation
is in progress, with the cooperation of the Bureau of Standards,
with a view to lessening or eliminating the effect of interference.
To this end a tube transmitter operating with continuous wave will
be installed at one of the new stations.
The radio telephones established at Cape Sarichef and Scotch Cap
Light Stations, Alaska, are now operating successfully, and have
proven very valuable in the maintenance of these stations, facilitat­
ing landings, etc. Radio telephones are also being established at
two stations in the eleventh district and one station in the eighteenth
district.
Automatic lighting apparatus is being extensively introduced,
using both acetylene gas and incandescent electric lamps, with a con­
siderable resulting saving, as detailed under “ Economies.” A trial
is being made of the use of compressed acetylene in post lanterns in
the fifth district which promises good results.
Investigations and experiments were continued during the year
toward the adoption and use of primary electric batteries and small
incandescent lamps for minor lighted aids, with so much success that
12 sets of this illuminating apparatus were constructed and dis­
tributed for actual trial in service at certain points throughout the
United States. An aid of this type was established at Blackistone
Island, Md., in December, 1922, and has operated satisfactorily.
The incandescent oil vapor lamp at Cepe Henry Light Stntion.
Va., was replaced by an electric incandescent lamp showing a flashing light, increasing the candlepower from 22,000 to 80,000. This
increase was effected by the use of a specially designed spherical
mirror in combination with the electric lamp, which was adjusted in
the old lens so that it approximately inclosed the foci of the different
zones. Commercial current is used but there are emergency gener­
ating plants in case of interrupted service.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
198
A hygroscopic controlling device for fog signals in use experi­
mentally at Lazaretto Lighthouse Depot has not failed to operate
during fog or weather of low visibility during the year. The first
service application of this apparatus is being made at Lambert Point
Fog Signal Station, Ya., in connection with a 1,000-pound bell and
electric fog-bell striker.
A large buoy was equipped with a fog bell automatically operated
by a gas-pressure striker and established in Chesapeake Bay at the
entrance to Craighill Channel, making it possible to convert Balti­
more Light, a large attended caisson light and fog-signal station, to
an unwatched light without fog signal. Other installations of this
automatic fog bell have been made.
Remote-control fog-signal plants at the end of long jetties, on
breakwaters, and at isolated places on shore, contiguous to light,
stations in commission and from which weather conditions at the
point to be protected can be observed, are being established as funds
will permit.
Improvements have been made to the gong buoy mentioned in the
last annual report. It has received favorable comment.
The special can and nun buoys mentioned in previous reports have
proven more satisfactory than the spar buoys they are to replace
in that they do not lie down in shallow water at low tide, become
sodden with water or submerge, and are not liable to damage by ice.
They are neater and more distinctive in appearance than spar buoys.
A special type of dolphins, made of steel piping instead of wood,
has been developed. They are not carried away annually by the ice,
as are the wooden dolphins, which require rebuilding each spring,
do not require an unwieldy pile driver to put them down, and are
easily and quickly put in place by a gasoline-engine-driven jet
pump. Material for three beacons and the jetting outfit can be
carried on a 30-foot power boat, whose crew can put them in place
and paint them in three hours.
The thermit process of welding was successfully used in repairing
a broken casting of one of the bearing piles of York Spit Light
Station, Va., which had been damaged by collision. This was accom­
plished successfully by the Lighthouse Service force without the
employment of specialists.
The use of small valveless scaling tools using compressed air, in
place of the larger standard tool, has continued to give satisfaction
with economy.
Special attention is still being given to the installation of storage
tanks for kerosene at depots and light stations and the purchase of
kerosene locally in bulk, though most of this work has now been
accomplished.

199
On June 30,1923, 315 light stations had telephone connections, this
being an increase of 14 during the year.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

PERSONNEL.

On June 30, 1923, there were 6,020 persons employed in the Light­
house Service, including 92 technical, 153 clerical, and 5,775 employees
connected with light stations, vessels, and depots. This is a net
increase of 36 during the fiscal year. This service is charged with
the maintenance of aids to navigation along 40,580 statute miles of
general coast line and river channel.
Of the positions in the service, 56 are statutory and 5,964 are paid
from lump-sum appropriations. Of the latter, however, the average
base pay of the lightkeepers (1,416) is fixed by law at $840.
The annual report of the United States Employees’ Compensation
Commission for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1922, gives the number
of reported cases of injury subject to compensation for the calendar
year 1921 of employees of the Lighthouse Service, sustained while
in the performance of duty and resulting in death and disability, as
follows: Cases resulting in death, 6; cases resulting in permanent
total or partial disability, 3; and of temporary total disability, 82.
This number as compared with that for all other branches of the
department combined, for the period stated, indicates the hazardous
nature of the field work of the Lighthouse Service. It is believed
that the authorized maximum compensation for disability on account
of injury is too low, and that congressional action is desirable to pro­
vide a more adequate scale of compensation for employees who have
lost their earning power because of disability through injury sus­
tained while in the performance of duty.
The classification act of March 4, 1923, when it becomes effective,
will be of great value in increasing the efficiency of the Lighthouse
Service.
COST-KEEPING SYSTEM AND RESULTS.

A cost-keeping system has been continued in effect throughout the
fiscal year. The costs are based on the actual expenditures during
the fiscal year, whether of money or supplies. The information from
this cost-keeping system is useful in furnishing information as to
the disposition of all appropriations for this service, in preparing
estimates, planning work, effecting economies, and comparing the
efficiency of different districts, vessels, light stations, apparatus,
methods, etc.
LIGHTHOUSE DEPOTS.

The lighthouse depots are a very essential feature of the efficient
conduct of the work of the Lighthouse Service; they are the supply,

200

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

repair, and vessel headquarters for the various districts. The depots
are 'well distributed along the coasts of the country, but it is im­
portant that various improvements be made from time to time to
facilitate the work of a growing branch of the Government. These
include closer communication between the district offices and the
main depots, at times requiring the relocation of the depots; installa­
tion of railway spurs and increasing railroad facilities; keeping the
depot shops abreast of the times by installation of modern tools and
appliances; improvements in trucking facilities; improvements in the
storing of supplies and apparatus; rearrangement of wharves and
slips; etc.
Provision is needed for improved depot facilities in several of the
districts, in addition to the above, particularly at or near Newport,
R. I.; Key West, Fla.; Honolulu, Hawaii; and New Orleans, La.
Additional funds are needed for the completion of the important
depots at Boston, Mass.; Charleston, S. C.; Ketchikan, Alaska; and
Goat Island, Calif.
In addition to the above, there will be needed in the future a new
depot in the first district to replace that at Little Diamond Island,
which is inconveniently located; another depot at Rockland, Me., to
break the distance between Little Diamond and Bear Island depots;
dredging at the entrance to Woods Hole depot, Mass.; complet­
ing the improvements to wharves and providing new storage build­
ings at the general depot, Staten Island, N. Y.; rebuilding the
wharves, etc., at Edgemoor depot, Del.; an office building for the
depot at San Juan, P. R.; and improvement to the wharves at Goat
Island depot, Calif.
VESSELS OF THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE.
REPLACEMENT OF VESSELS.

Important progress in providing for the replacement of old and
worn-out vessels has been made during the year. The five light
vessels, N o s. 106 to 110, being constructed under the appropriation
of March 4, 1921, are nearing completion, and it is expected that they
will all be placed on station during the coming year, with a rear­
rangement of light vessels which will permit of condemning the
following vessels which are considered as no longer safe, and not
worth the expense of repair: N o . 20, Cross Rip, Mass.; N o . 11, Scot­
land, N. J .: N o . 34, Charleston, S. C.; N o . 3, Handkerchief, Mass.;
N o . 4, Relief, second district. The company responsible for the
sinking of light vessel N o . 51 on April 24, 1919, has arranged for the
building of the hull of a light vessel to replace it; this vessel N o .
I l l . is under construction and will be equipped with a Diesel engine
now available, and will permit the condemnation of N o. 4$, Cornfield

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

201

Point. This provides for light vessels urgently requiring replace­
ment within, the next three years, with the exception of X o . 70, San
Francisco, Calif., which is included in the estimates; N o . 23, Earn
Island, Conn., which will shortly be replaced by a gas buoy; and
N o . 56, North Manitou Shoal, Lake Michigan, for which a substitute
would be available under the estimate for building a lighthouse on
Martins Eeef, Lake Huron. Urgent requests have been received for
light vessels to be placed off Barnegat, N. J., Grays Harbor, Wash.,
and St. Johns Kiver, Fla. The first of these was included in the
estimates on which Congress acted in authorizing the construction
of light vessels in the act of June 5, 1920, and in appropriating for
light vessels in the act of March 4, 1921; it is expected that provision
can be made for placing one of the older vessels at this station in
the rearrangement of vessels above mentioned.
Two of the mine planters transferred from the War Department
are being reconditioned, and these tenders, the L o tu s and I le x , with
some rearrangement of vessels, will be used to replace the following
tenders worn out in service and not worth further repair: L ila c ,
ninth district; and LIo ily and A r b u tu s , fifth district. The river
tenders G o ld e n ro d and O le a n d e r can be kept in service only a short
time longer; these will be replaced by the G re e n b rie r, now being built
under the appropriation of June 12, 1917, and the W illo w , for which
plans are prepared, to be built under the appropriation of January
5, 1923.
Four small concrete vessels were transferred to the Lighthouse
Service from War Department surplus in October and November,
1922. Each of these vessels is equipped with two 450-horsepower
Diesel engines of superior make. These engines with their auxiliary
machinery will be of great value in equipping new light vessels and
replacing deteriorated power units, and possibly also for lighthouse
tenders of suitable size; the value of the engines is estimated a.t
$288,000. The hulls will be disposed of for other use.
From careful estimates and examinations as to the conditions and
further serviceability of vessels of the Lighthouse Service it is found
that in addition to those provided for by vessels now building, six
light vessels and four tenders should be replaced within the next five
years. As it will require from two to three years after appropriation
is made before vessels are available for service, funds should be
provided now for two new vessels and the reconditioning of several
others.
LIGHTHOUSE TENDERS.

The lighthouse tenders during the year have steamed a total of
483,881 nautical miles, or an average of approximately 7,700 miles for
each tender, in the work of maintaining buoys, carrying supplies
6850&—23------14

REPORT OE THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
202
and construction materials to stations, supplying light vessels with
coal, water, etc., also transporting officers and employees to stations
or on inspection duty; as well as duty in cooperating with other
Government services, and the saving of life and property when
occasion required.
The reconditioning of two large mine planters transferred from
the War Department to this service has been completed and these
tenders were placed in commission as follows: The S p r u c e (for­
merly the C ol. G a rla n d N . W h is tle r ) in the third district in De­
cember, 1922, and the S p e e d w e ll (formerly the J o h n V . W h ite ) in
the fifth district in April, 1923. The reconditioning of two more is
now under way at the third district depot; the L o tu s (formerly the
C ol. A lb e r t T o d d ) and the I le x (formerly the G en . E d w a r d K i r b y ) .
No other new tenders were added, but the old tender M y r tle ,
which had been laid up during the year as being unserviceable, was
sold for a nominal amount.
The tender G re e n b rie r is under construction for the Ohio River.
The act of January 5, 1923, appropriated $240,000 for construct­
ing, purchasing, or equipping lighthouse tenders and light vessels.
It is proposed to use the greater portion of this amount for the
construction of the side-wheel steam-driven tender W illo w , for use
in the fifteenth district on the lower Mississippi River to replace the
tender O le a n d e r which is now in very poor condition.
Owing to especially severe ice conditions in New England last
winter, the tenders of the first district were called on for unusually
difficult work, being continuously employed breaking ice, releasing
shipping, and transporting mails and passengers, when not engaged
in regular duties, and the tenders of the second district had very
heavy duty in maintaining the important aids to navigation.
At the end of the year 30 tenders were equipped for radio com­
munication, and 4 tenders were provided with radio compasses; 56
tenders in all were in commission.
LIGHT VESSELS.

The Lighthouse Service maintains light vessels on 47 stations.
During the fiscal year 61 vessels were in commission, of which 14
are relief vessels, and they averaged 257 days on station for each
vessel. Many of these light vessels have passed the age of useful
service, and some of them are in such condition as not to warrant re­
pairs from an economical point of view.
New light vessel N o . 106. the first of the five light vessels con­
structed under the appropriation of $1,000,000 made by the act of
March 4, 1921, was completed during the fiscal year, equipped for
station on Nantucket Shoals, Mass., and was placed on station on
August 24, 1923. The four other vessels appropriated for under

203
this act were all under construction at the end of the fiscal year and
ranged from 81 to 98 per cent completed.
New light vessel N o . I l l , now being constructed by the Standard
Oil Co. for the Government, replacing a light vessel sunk by a
barge belonging to that company was, at the end of the fiscal year,
15 per cent completed.
Two light vessel stations were discontinued during the year, Tail
of the Horseshoe (replaced by a buoy), November 3, 1922, and Pol­
lock Rip (no longer needed), February 17, 1923. Martins Industry
light vessel was moved about 14 miles to station off Savannah River,
and renamed S a va n n a h .
At the end of the fiscal year radio apparatus was maintained on
20 light vessel stations and on 6 relief vessels, the apparatus on 20
vessels having been removed as of no further practicable use. There
are 5 light vessel stations equipped with radio fog signals.
The following was the total number of light vessels and stations on
June 30, of the years named:
REPORT OF

THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

Light
Light
vessel
vessels. stations.

Year.
1910...............................................
1915...............................................
1916...............................................
1917...............................................
1918...............................................

68
66
66
68
67

5-1
53
53
53
52

Year.
1919...............................................
1920...............................................
1921...............................................
1922...............................................
1923...............................................

Light
Light
vessel
vessels. stations.
65
62
64
61
61

50
49
49
49
47

Of the present light vessels 38 have self-propelling machinery and
22 are provided with sail power only. One has no means of pro­
pulsion.
SAVING OF LIFE AND PROPERTY.

Incidental to the regular work of the service many opportunities
arise for rendering aid to those in distress because of the location of
the light stations and vessels. During the fiscal year 115 instances
of saving life and property or rendering valuable aid wTere reported,
often at a great risk to the lighthouse employees. Many of these
acts were especially meritorious, and the employees were individu­
ally commended by the Secretary of Commerce.
Very truly yours,
G eorge R. P utnam ,
C o m m issio n e r o f L ig h th o u se s.

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY.
D epartment of C ommerce.
C oast and G eodetic S urvey,

W a s h in g to n , J u ly 1 , 1923.
Hon. H erbert H oover,
S e c r e ta r y o f C om m erce.
D ear Mr. S ecretary: In response to your request I furnish the
following condensed report upon the work of this bureau during
the past fiscal year, with some of its most urgent needs:
The organic act establishing this bureau was approved February
10, 1807. In it the President was authorized and requested to cause
a survey to be taken of the coast of the United States for completing
an accurate chart of every part thereof. The provisions of this act
have been modified and added to from time to time until at present,
broadly speaking, the functions of this bureau are to make surveys
of the coasts of the United States, Alaska, and our island possessions
in order to produce data for accurate charts which will show the
coast lines and such topography as is necessary for the needs of the
navigator, the depths of the water along these various coasts, with
such accompanying coast pilots, sailing directions, and tide tables
as are necessary to enable the mariner safely to travel these waters.
It is also the duty of this bureau to establish magnetic meridian
lines, to make gravity observations, and to furnish for surveyors,
engineers, and others fundamental elevations and geographic posi­
tions in the interior of the United States and its possessions.
I am submitting below a condensed report, subdivided by classes
of work as outlined above, on the accomplishments of this bureau
during the past fiscal year.

HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS.

NEW EQUIPMENT AND APPARATUS.

The steamers D isc o v e re r and P io n e e r mentioned in my report of
last year, as having been transferred to this bureau from the Navy
Department (the arrangements of the transfer being made by the
Bureau of the Budget), have been engaged in survey work during
the entire year. These vessels have proven economical and efficient
surveying units and better adapted for surveying purposes, even
204

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

205

more so than was anticipated. The other vessel, the G u id e (trans­
ferred in the same manner), has been altered to fit it for surveying
duty and is now at the Brooklyn Navy Yard where a sonic depth
finder is being installed, as well as a subaqueous sound-ranging ap­
paratus for the determination of the ship’s position while sounding.
The problem of making hydrographic surveys along the Pacific
coast is difficult, as in the winter time when clear weather exists, gales
are severe and frequent and a very small percentage of time can be
utilized for survey work. During the summer, fogs are prevalent
and the work is greatly delayed and the unit cost increased thereby.
Experiments in the past have been carried on for the determination
of a ship’s position from radio compass stations, but these positions,
while adequate for navigation, did not meet the requirements in
accuracy necessary in hydrographic surveying. An officer of this
service, who had experience in the Navy during the war in the ex­
periments carried on for the detection of submarines, suggested the
possibility of the determination of the ship’s position by subaqueous
sound ranging. This officer made an intensive study of the problem
and, with the cooperation of the Bureau of Standards and the Army
authorities at Fort Wright, devised an apparatus which is being con­
structed by the Bureau of Standards. It is believed this equipment
will serve the purpose of accurately determining a ship’s position
while engaged in sounding during foggy weather. This equipment
is nearly completed and will be installed on the steamer G u id e. Ex­
perimental work will be done on this coast prior to the sailing of the
G u id e for the west coast. With the installation of the sonic depth
finder developed by the Navy, the function of which is the determi­
nation of depths by the reflection of the sound waves from the bottom,
and the installation of the instruments for determining the ship’s
position by subaqueous sound ranging, the G u id e will be the most
modern survey vessel afloat.
GENERAL OUTLINE OF HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYS ACCOMPLISHED.

Along the Atlantic coast hydrographic surveys -were made at the
entrances to Chesapeake Bay, the Cape Fear River, off the coast of
Florida in the vicinity of St. Augustine, and on the Gulf coast, in the
vicinity of the Mississippi River Delta and the Chandeleur Islands,
and Sabine Pass, Tex.
The completion of the much-needed drag work along the New Eng­
land coast, the necessity for which was mentioned in my report of
last year, was commenced during the latter part of the fiscal year.
On the Pacific coast, surveys were made of San Diego Harbor, and
off the coast of southern California, including a detailed survey of
Cortez Bank, which is approximately 40 miles offshore. Offshore

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
206
surveys were also made in the vicinity of Coos Bay and a detailed
survey of Suisun Bay was also accomplished.
A survey of Lake Tahoe, a lake on the eastern slope of Sierra Ne­
vada Mountains, was made during the summer of 1922. This lake is
about 21 miles long and 12 miles wide; its elevation is over 6,200 feet
above sea level, the water is quite deep, about two-thirds of the water
area being deeper than 1,200 feet. The greatest depth obtained was
1,640 feet.
In southeastern Alaska, surveys were made of portions of Clarence
Strait, Ernest Sound, and Zimovia Strait; wire-drag survey of Lynn
Canal, Cross Sound, and Icy Straits; detailed survey of Icy Bay;
and offshore hydrography in the vicinity of Cape Ommaney. In
southwestern Alaska, surveys of Shelikof Strait in the vicinity of
Portage Bay and work in the vicinity of Cape Pankof were accom­
plished. A detailed survey of Kaehemak Bay was in progress at the
end of the year.
In 1914 a wire-drag survey of the main ipside steamship routes
of southeastern Alaska was commenced. This exceedingly important
work will be completed during this summer. At the end of the fiscal
year the deep-water channels have been dragged as far west as Cape
Spencer. This marks the completion of one of the most important
surveying projects of Alaska, as practically all vessels entering and
leaving the Territory pass through these waters. In the past, the
stranding of many vessels, resulting in the loss of lives and much
property, in these much-traveled waters emphasizes the importance
of this work. It is reasonably certain that all pinnacle rocks along
these routes have been found and accurately located.
In the possessions of the United States, a wire-drag survey of
Vieques Sound, P. It. (requested by the Secretary of the Navy), was
nearly completed, only two weeks’ work remaining to finish this
project. In the Philippine Islands, surveys were made in the Sulu
Archipelago, off the west coast of Palawan Island, and in the vicinity
of Sarangani Bay.
An important accomplishment was the deep-sea sounding done by
the two new vessels, the D isc o v e re r and P io n e e r , on their way from
the east coast to the west coast. These soundings are of value to
science and add greatly to the completeness of the navigational
charts. They were accomplished at practically no additional cost
over and above that of transferring the vessels to the Pacific coast.
The L y d o n ia , on the trip from the west coast to duty on the east
coast, also made similar deep-sea soundings. The work of these three
vessels has added materially to the knowledge of the depths of waters
on the usual track of vessels proceeding from coast to coast of the
United States via the Panama Canal.

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

207

ADDITIONAL
VESSELS.
m

The addition of the three vessels mentioned gives the bureau an
adequate equipment for offshore hydrography. A vessel of about
500 tons is needed to replace an old vessel now being operated on
the east coast and unsuitable, on account of age, for survey work.
A small vessel of approximately 5-foot draft is urgently needed for
the surveys of the inland waterways along the Atlantic coast. The
importance of these waterways is increasing greatly and the bureau
lacks the proper equipment to make the much-needed surveys of
them. In Alaska three small vessels, approximately 70 feet in length,
are needed to work in conjunction with the larger survey vessels, the
former to do the work close inshore, which is extremely dangerous
and expensive to execute with the larger and more expensive vessels.
GEODETIC ACTIVITIES IN 1923.

The field work on geodetic operations followed, as usual, three
general lines, namely, triangulation to determine geographic posi­
tions, leveling for elevations, and astronomical and gravity observa­
tions to be used in adjusting triangulation and in supplemental
investigations.
The precise triangulation completed, principally in New Mexico,
Colorado, Idaho, Montana, California, Washington, and Alaska, had
a total length through the schemes of 720 miles and covered an area
of 23,840 square miles. An additional 300 miles of preliminary and
secondary triangulation was completed, with an area of 1,740 square
miles. Seven precise base lines were measured, with a total length of
74.5 miles, each having a probable error of less than 1 part in 1,000,000.
Lines of precise leveling, totaling over 1,400 miles, were run in
15 different States and in Alaska, and elevations were determined for
over 1,000 permanent bench marks.
Each of the parties engaged on precise triangulation determined
the astronomic azimuth of a number of lines in its scheme, and in
addition an astronomic party was in the field during the greater part
of the year observing longitude and latitude and determining the
intensity of gravity at a number of points in the United States and
Alaska. A gravity party was engaged for four months on special
investigations in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas to determine the
extent to which gravity observations could be used to indicate the
subsurface structures of the earth in the vicinity of salt domes and
oil wells.
In Washington the office force of the division of geodesy was
engaged in computing the final results of the field observations, pre­
paring the resulting data for publication, answering the numerous
requests for information, and carrying on special investigations.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
208
Answering the requests for information consumed 18 per cent more
time than during the fiscal year 1922 and 60 per cent more than
during the fiscal year 1921. This increased demand for geodetic data
makes it imperative that the results of the field work be published
as rapidly as possible, and 40 per cent more time was spent in the
preparation of data for the printer than during 1922. A number of
important publications were issued during the year and others are
nearing completion.
GEODETIC SURVEYS NEEDED.

The great need for extending the precise triangulation and level­
ing in the United States in order to complete the necessary control
systems is indicated by the presence of large areas within which there
is either no precise triangulation or no precise leveling. The sizes
of these areas are startling when one considers the recommendation
of the Board of Surveys and Maps that precise horizontal and ver­
tical control be extended as rapidly as possible to an extent that
no point should be moi'e than 50 miles from a horizontal and vertical
control station.
The areas in continental United States entire]}' lacking in precise
triangulation total more than 1,250,000 square miles, and the areas
without any precise leveling total more than 950,000 square miles.
This discloses rather poor progress in the making of control sur­
veys of the United States at the present time. It is true that much
precise triangulation and precise leveling have been done in the
United States, but it must also be remembered that we have 3,000,000
square miles, the covering of which is a large undertaking, and in
order to accomplish it appropriations of funds must be in propor­
tion. It has been said that we should not expect this country to be
advanced as far in its control surveys as a small area like Japan,
France, and other countries. This argument does not seem sound,
for certainly a square mile of our area is just as important to us as
a square mile of any of the other countries is to its inhabitants. The
area of the United States is more than eleven times that of the Japanese Empire and it is about fourteen times that of France. Certainly
our country can afford the control surveys, which to complete would
require about $4,000,000. A single enterprise, such as a power or
irrigation project, would cost as much, and those projects can not be
properly planned and executed without an accurate knowledge of
the country such as is given by accurate maps based on precise
control.
When it is realized that the completion of the precise control sys­
tems of the country could be completed within the next 10 or 15
years at a very moderate cost per year, to the great benefit of the

209
States, counties, and cities of the country, we are forced to the con­
clusion that it would be wise administration to have this work ex­
pedited. Many millions of dollars are spent annually on highways
alone, and yet it has been stated that if the country were completely
surveyed topographically and these surveys were based on precise
fundamental control systems the saving in a few years in the con­
struction and maintenance of the highway system would pay for com­
pleting the topographic map.
There is a branch of surveying, coming into use to a greater extent
each year, which has much commercial and industrial importance.
This is the surveying from airplanes in conjunction with city plan­
ning, water-power development, drainage investigations, extension
of highways and railroads, and high tension lines, and for many
other purposes.
The office of the Coast and Geodetic Survey is frequently called
upon by commercial firms making such surveys and maps from
airplanes for control data. In some instances the data in question
can be furnished, but in many others nothing is available. Where
control data are available it is a very simple matter to make the pho­
tographs and place them in their proper geographic positions, thus
making a map resulting from aerial photography fit into the gen­
eral map system of the country. Without control surveys these
airplane surveys and maps are not properly coordinated with sur­
veys and maps of the surrounding country.
In the interest of the cities and industrial and commercial enter­
prises, which are benefited by the surveys and maps made from the
air, the control surveys should be carried on at a more rapid rate
than has been the case in the past.
The Coast and Geodetic Survey was called on to cooperate with
the commissioners named by the Supreme Court of the United
States for the Texas-Oklahoma boundary in order that the surveys,
made to show the exact location of the boundary, might be made ac­
cording to the most approved methods. Engineers of the Coast and
Geodetic Survey were assigned to the work of carrying precise tri­
angulation along the boundary, the field expenses of which were paid
by the funds available to the commissioners. This work was started
in the late spring of 1923 and will be completed early in the fiscal
year 1924.
This is the first instance of a State boundary having precise con­
trol for the detailed surveying operations, but it is believed that the
results accomplished by the commissioners in having such control
surveys will lead to the employment of precise control in connection
with other State boundary surveys which may be made in the
future.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
210
There is urgently needed an appropriat ion with which to pay the
salaries of temporary mathematicians and computers to make a com­
putation and adjustment of the triangulation which has been ex­
tended along the Mississippi and other rivers by the Mississippi
River Commission, the Missouri River Commission, and the Corps
of Engineers of the Army. The triangulation in question was exe­
cuted some years ago in connection with river improvement and con­
trol, and while this triangulation has met the requirements for those
purposes, it can be made of great value in other engineering work,
including surveying and mapping. But, in order that it may be
available, the longitudes and latitudes of the triangulation stations,
and the azimuths and distances between each two continguous sta­
tions, must be placed on the North American or standard datum.
The triangulation data along these rivers would then be in harmony
with the general control system of the country, and maps based on the
river work would properly fit into the general map system of the
country without those gaps, overlaps, and offsets which are inevitable
where all of the triangulation of a large area is not coordinated into
a single system. Appeals from other Government organizations
making surveys and maps indicate clearly that the results of the
triangulation of the rivers mentioned above are needed by them in
carrying on their operations. The cost of making the computations
and adjustments and printing the results of the river triangulation
would be very small as compared with the benefits derived. As
Congress has charged the Coast and Geodetic Survey with the duty
of extending fundamental control systems over the country, it is
logical that the Coast and Geodetic Survey should be directed to
make the computation and adjustment of the river triangulation in
question, rather than that it should be done by some other organi­
zation or organizations which are not charged with extending con­
trol surveys over the country for general use.
There is immediate and urgent need for a substantial increase in
the office force of the division of geodesy of the Coast and Geodetic
Survey, in order that the results of control surveys may be made
available to the public in published form shortly after the field
observations have been made. There has been a decided increase in
the money made available for geodetic work in the interior of the
country and along the coasts during the past decade, but there has
been no corresponding increase in the number of mathematicians
and computers who are engaged.on the computation, adjustment, and
publication of results. The cost of the computation and publication
of triangulation and leveling data is very small as compared with the
cost of the field work, and it is good business to make the results

211
available to the public as soon as possible after the completion of
the field •work.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
MAGNETIC WORK.

The magnetic observations at Vieques, P. R.. Tucson. Ariz., Chel­
tenham, Md., Sitka, Alaska, and near Honolulu, Hawaii, have been
in operation throughout the year and continuous records have been
secured on the magnetographs and seismographs. The necessary
absolute observations and scale-value determinations have also been
made. These records have been used to reduce the field results to
standard values and they also furnish material needed for the study
of the yet unsolved problems of terrestrial magnetism.
In the field especial attention has been given to the inspection and
replacement of defective magnetic stations for the use of local sur­
veyors in standardizing their magnetic surveying instruments. The
magnetic survey of Florida was completed, and similar work was
started in Georgia and Tennessee, and will be extended into North
and South Carolina during the next fiscal year. Replacement work
was also done in Mississippi, Arizona, and California. Special ob­
servations were made in cooperation with the Bureau of Mines to
determine the practicability of locating so-called nonmagnetic iron
ore by precise magnetic methods. It was found that the needle is
affected by such masses of ore, but not in such a degree as to provide
a reliable method of location. The occupation of repeat stations
was carried on in the Pacific Coast States, southern tier of States
from Washington to Louisiana, and also in the north tier of States
from the Dakotas to Michigan. New stations were established in
South Dakota.
Studies in terrestrial magnetism made during the last few years
indicate the need for continued observations by existing organiza­
tions. This applies to both field and observatory results. The possi­
bility of discontinuing one observatory in order to reduce the expense
of operation was carefully considered. It was found that field work
could not be properly standardized if any of the existing observa­
tories ceased to function. It was the opinion of this bureau that
the work of all the observatories is absolutely essential to the solu­
tion of the extremely difficult problems of the earth’s magnetism.
Various scientists were consulted, and in every case the opinion was
that there should be more, rather than fewer, magnetic observatories,
operated with the same standard as that maintained by the Coast
and Geodetic Survey.
A canvass of county surveyors has been carried to such a point
that the bureau is now in correspondence with more than 1,000
county and other surveyors, and has received reports on the state of
preservation of 21 per cent of its approximately 3,700 magnetic sta­

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
212
tions. This represents a distinct advance in insuring the furnish­
ing of up-to-date information to the public. The need for the mag­
netic results of this bureau on the part of great numbers of local
surveyors has been clearly brought out and the effort to bring this
matter to their attention has been much appreciated by such local
surveyors.
MAGNETIC SURVEYS IN ALASKA.

During the past fiscal year the magnetic declination was deter­
mined at a large number of triangulation stations in southeastern
Alaska and areas of local disturbances were investigated. In Lynn
Canal and in Ernest Sound, Clarence Strait, an investigation of the
areas of local disturbance was made. The latter area has not been
mentioned in any existing publications.
Complete magnetic observations are needed along the western
shores of Alaska and in the interior. With the increasing develop­
ment of the interior, magnetic survey methods have in many cases
proved advantageous, until more accurate methods can be used, pro­
vided the declination is accurately determined. At present, mag­
netic stations are found only along the main line of travel, and
there are vast areas where no observations have been made. Obser­
vations are needed in the Aleutian Islands to meet the needs of
commerce from the Pacific coast to the Orient, which passes just
south of these islands.
The Coast and Geodetic Survey has maintained an observatory at
Sitka since 1902. Continuous observations have been made of the
magnetic declination, dip, and intensity without break since that
time. The disturbances known as magnetic storms which affect the
direction and intensity of the magnetic elements occur with great
frequency in Alaska. These storms are apparently related to unusual
difficulties in submarine-cable transmission and also to operation of
radio stations.
SEISMOLOGY.

Since the landing of the early settlers five major earthquakes have
occurred within the United States and the adjacent area of Canada,
and many minor earthquakes. Major earthquakes have occurred in
Alaska and Porto Kico since these regions have come under the
jurisdiction of the United States. The occurrence of earthquakes
is of vital importance to a portion of the Pacific coast region. Many
earthquakes have occurred in regions where they were not expected
and where it was the general belief that no earthquakes would occur.
'The importance of earthquake study is evidenced by a special inves­
tigation now being made in California by cooperation with the Car­
negie Institution, State universities, and this and other Government

213
bureaus. It is expected that the investigation will make it possible
to predict earthquake occurrence in a general way, and especially to
designate areas where special precautions in construction should be
used and where buildings of large proportions and great dams should
be avoided.
In order to study earthquakes instruments known as seismo­
graphs must be operated at fixed observatories. They should be of
the highest type, continuously operated by the most skilled observers
in order that the earthquake records may be correctly interpreted.
This bureau has operated seismographs at five widely separated sta­
tions for 18 years, but as the work has been supplemental to magnetic
work the stations have not been of high class.
It is proposed to equip the magnetic observatories at Tucson, Ariz.,
and Sitka, Alaska, with new instruments of high grade, thus making
them first-class seismological stations. These are selected as being in
relatively quiet regions near to regions of great activity in the
present or near past.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

TIDAL OBSERVATIONS.

For general hydrographic control for navigation, and for the
determination of sea-level changes, automatic tide gauges were kept
in operation throughout the year at six stations on the Atlantic coast,
three stations on the Gulf coast, four stations on the Pacific coast, one
station in Alaska, and one station in the Hawaiian Islands. In con­
nection with hydrographic surveys short series of tidal observations
were made at various points along the coast. A comprehensive tidal
and current survey of New York Harbor was carried out jointly with
the United States Army Engineers’ Office, first district, New York.
In cooperation with the Bureau of Lighthouses current observations
were made on six light vessels stationed along the Atlantic coast and
one light vessel on the Pacific coast. The new field automatic tide
gauge has been fully tested out and is to be used in the field work
of the Coast and Geodetic Survey during the coming fiscal year.
TIDAL AND CURRENT SURVEYS OF IMPORTANT HARBORS.

Comprehensive tidal and current surveys of our larger harbors
are needs of outstanding importance. The increased size and draft
of the vessels of modern commerce make necessary the expenditure
of considerable sums in the improvement of our harbors, and this in
turn means that the engineer engaged in harbor improvements must
have at hand the data concerning the characteristics of the tides and
currents in the various harbors. It is important to note that because
of the highly specialized nature of tidal and current work the Coast

214
REPOST OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
and Geodetic Survey is the only agency in the Government which is
looked to for tidal and current information.
To the navigator a knowledge of the times of slack water and other
characteristics of the curent in a harbor is of importance in the berth­
ing of large vessels. To meet this need the Coast and Geodetic
Survey has begun the issuing of current tables for the Atlantic and
Pacific coasts of the United States. These tables give in advance
the times of slack water for every day of the year at a number of
our most important harbors and differences for several hundred sec­
ondary ports. The information in the current tables is based on
such data as wex-e at hand; but for really accurate current tables
comprehensive current surveys must be made to furnish the neces­
sary data for the predictions.
The concentration of population in our cities bordering the tidal
streams of our important harbors makes the disposal of sewage an
important matter. In the plans made for sewage disposal a knowl­
edge of the tides and currents in the harbor in question is essential.
In this connection the Coast and Geodetic Survey is asked to furnish
the tidal and current data which will permit of the calculation of
flood and ebb volumes and the characteristics of the currents in
various harbors.
NEW YORK HARBOR.

Congress, l’ealizing the importance of this work, made a begin­
ning for the fiscal year 1923 by a modest increase in the appi’opriation for tides and currents for the purpose of carrying out a com­
prehensive tidal and current survey of New York Harbor. The
field work was carried out during the early part of the fiscal year
1923 in cooperation with the United States Engineer Office, first
district, New York, and the computations are now being made in
the division of tides and currents of the Coast and Geodetic
Survey.
The l'esults of this tidal and current survey are to be embodied
in a publication dealing fully with the tidal and current phenomena
of the waters constituting New Yox'k Harbor. The data will not
only permit more accurate advance predictions of the tides and
currents, but will also enable the Coast and Geodetic Survey to
furnish infonnation of value to the engineer, the mariner, the
scientist, and the public generally, information which the public
looks to the Coast and Geodetic Survey to furnish as the agency of
the Government dealing with tides and related matters.
SAN FRANCISCO HARBOR.

It is planned to take up the various important harbors in turn,
and in the early part of the fiscal year 1924 a comprehensive tidal

215
and current survey of San Francisco Harbor and its tributaries is
to be made. The field work of this survey is to be made in coopera­
tion with the United States Engineer Office, ninth district, San Fran­
cisco, Calif. In every case it is intended to cooperate fully with
the United States Engineer Office, for this cooperation permits more
effective and more economical means of carrying out the tidal
and current surveys.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

SUBSURFACE CURRF.NTS.

In the investigation of the flow and ebb of the current the velocity
and direction of the subsurface currents are important features.
Current meters for the determination of the velocity of subsurface
currents have been known for a number of years and are well de­
veloped, but the determination of the direction of the subsurface
currents has heretofore necessitated the use of delicate and expensive
instruments. During the past year the Coast and Geodetic Survey
has devised a simple and relatively inexpensive device for determin­
ing the direction of the subsurface currents, which is known as a
bililar suspension indicator. This was tried out in the New York
Harbor current survey last year, and an improved form is now being
made for use in San Francisco Harbor.
CHARTS AND PUBLICATIONS.

One of the best evidences of the bureau’s service to the public is
through the issue of its charts. Although the demand has fallen
off somewhat since the war peak, it is still much above that of pre­
war times. These charts and other nautical publications of the
bureau can be obtained direct from its Washington office, the bureau’s
field stations at Boston, New York, New Orleans, Seattle, and San
Francisco, or through any of the 140 authorized agencies which are
located in the principal ports of the United States and possessions,
as well as in some foreign countries.
These agencies are placed with commercial linns or individuals
directly concerned in shipping interests, marine equipment or sup­
plies and constant supervision is exercised over them through re­
turns and inspections. The greatest effort is made by this bureau to
prevent the sale or even free issue by any of its agents of superseded
or obsolete charts, and rigid conformation to the terms of contracts
is demanded.
An expeditious means for supplying information for correcting
charts for all important changes and of advising of new prints and
editions of charts and other nautical publications by this bureau is
afforded by the weekly Notice to Mariners, published jointly by the
Coast and Geodetic Survey and the Bureau of Lighthouses. An

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
216
added feature to these notices, instituted in May, 1923, in cooperation
with the Bureau of Lighthouses and the Hydrographic Office, con­
sists in publishing in bold-face type the numbers of charts to which
hand corrections will be made showing the informat ion contained in
each notice.
PRESENT STATUS OF CHART CONSTRUCTION.
ATLANTIC COAST.

The reconstruction chart program for the Atlantic coast is par­
tially accomplished and now awaits completion of additional surveys.
The modification of existing charts of the West Indian Islands is
dependent on the surveys now in progress, after the completion of
which certain harbor charts of the Virgin Islands will be required.
PACIFIC COAST.

On the Pacific coast the existing series conform to the latest speci­
fications, the work on the charts being limited to the correction of
the present charts from new surveys by this and other organizations.
ALASKA.

A series of new charts of the waters along the west coast of Prince
of Wales Island is being expedited as rapidly as the surveys are
received. General reconstruction of Alaska charts is still postponed
pending completion and adjustment of the precise triangulation and
of various subordinate loops radiating therefrom.
For western Alaska the problem consists in the application of new
surveys to existing charts.
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS.

'Fhe first charts printed in Manila after the establishment of the
printing plant were made in February, 1922. During the fiscal year
1923 no less than 22,200 charts were printed from this plant, in addi­
tion to the reproduction of one of the Philippine Islands topographic
maps. Since the establishment of this plant new charts and new
editions of charts are transferred to aluminum and reproduced long
before the smooth drawings could reach Washington for the same
process. Thus the charts are placed in the hands of the public at a
much earlier date.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
SMALL CRAFT CHARTS. ATLANTIC COAST.

217

For the convenience of yachtsmen and owners of small craft a
new series of charts is in project, covering the inside water route
from Norfolk to Key West. This series will consist of 10 charts,
22 by 30 inches, printed on bond paper, each containing a number of
strips from 6 to 8 inches wide. The strips are assembled largely
from the published series of 1: 80,000 charts.
The route as described in the inside route pilots will be shown by
a heavy red line and the soundings will be charted in feet. Certain
outside areas on the coast where the route passes through open
waters will also be included.
This series will further meet the demands of the yachtsmen and
small-craft owners in that the charts may be cut into strips and
carried in folders which will readily adapt themselves to limited
spaces.
PURCHASE OF DUTCH HARBOR.I

I again urge the purchase of Dutch Harbor as a supply base for
vessels of this bureau and other Government organizations operating
in Alaskan waters. This bureau has always paid high prices for
coal and fuel oil for its vessels in the vicinity of Dutch Harbor
and there is always an uncertainty as to whether an adequate supply
can be obtained from any source. With Dutch Harbor as a supply
base there is every reason to believe that adequate supplies could be
stored there for all Government needs and that the ultimate cost
would be far less than under present arrangements.
Very truly yours,
E . L ester J ones ,
D ire c to r , C on st a n d G e o d e tic Survey.
G8596— 23------15

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION.
D epartm ent of C om m erce,
B u r e a u o f N a v ig a t io n ,

W a sh in g to n , J u ly 1, 1923.

H o n . H er b e r t H oover,

S e c r e ta r y o f C o m m erce.

D ear M r. S ecretary: In response to your request I furnish the

following condensed report of the work of the bureau during the
past year:
American shipping registered for the foreign trade and enrolled
and licensed for the coasting trade, including the fisheries, on June
30, 1923, comprised 27,254 vessels of 18,329,980 gross tons, compared
with 27,358 vessels of 18,462,968 gross tons on June 30, 1922, a de­
crease of 104 vessels of 132,988 gross tons.
Lloyd’s Register of Shipping gives the total seagoing steel and iron
steamers and motor vessels owned by the principal maritime coun­
tries on June 30,1923, as 57,939,000 gross tons, of which Great Britain
and Dominions have 21,296,000 gross tons and the United States is
second with 12,416,000 gross tons (excluding the Great Lakes).
Of the above tonnage, 902 Shipping Board vessels of 3,813,404
gross tons and 216 privately owned American vessels of 512,587 gross
tons were laid up on June 30, 1923.
On January 1, 1923, according to the Chamber of Shipping of the
United Kingdom, there were laid up at the principal ports of the
United Kingdom 403 ships of about 1,064,000 gross tons. This may
be compared with 712 ships of about 1,961,000 gross tons laid up on
January 1, 1922.
Following is a brief analysis of our shipping on June 30, 1917, as
the United States entered the war, at the close of the fiscal year 1922,
and on June 30, 1923:
Seagoing.
jo

_

Grand total.
No. i Gross tons.

1923.. 27,254 ! 18,329,980
1922.. 27,358 18,462,968
1917.. 26,397 8,871,037
218

Shipping board
(over 1,000 gross
tons).
No.

Gross tons.

1,498 6,861,241
1,711 7,6S6,973
76,100
19

Privnte owners
(over 500 gross
tons).
No.

Gross tons.

2,035 0,242,547
1,933 5,664,323
1,552 3,564,160

r at . s.
N o. i Gross tons.

No. j Gross tons

2,720 I 2,758,401 21,001 1 2,467.791
2,745 2,723,857 20,969 j 2,387,815
3,001 2,779,087 21,825 j 2,451,630

219
On June 30, 1923, there were building in American shipyards, in­
cluding the Great Lakes, 208 vessels of 173,305 gross tons as compared
with 105 vessels of 204,544 gross tons on June 30, 1922.
On June 30, 1923, the tonnage under construction in the world
dropped from 7,400,000 in 1919 to 765 vessels of 2,543,856 gross tons,
including, according to Lloyd’s Register, 1,382,960 for the United
Kingdom and British Dominions; 301,199 for Germany; 170,866 for
France; and 72,767 gross tons for Japan. Of these vessels under con­
struction 11 are over 20,000 tons, the larger number, 340, being under
2,000,tons; the average throughout the world is a little over 3,300
gross tons.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

LOAD LINE.

It is proposed to bring to the attention of Congress during the
coming session the growing necessity for load-line legislation.
The question is one which dates back to the Middle Ages. The
records of the Italian Republics show that the agitation against
overloading was not unknown at that time, and to secure safety for
the crew and cargo it was found necessary to place some restrictions
on the more careless owners. As stated in Lloyd’s Gazette, the more
modern history of this question dates from 1875, when the British
merchant shipping act prescribed that all foreign-going vessels must
have the load line marked on each side. The position of this mark,
however, was not specified, but left entirely to the discretion of the
owner, who could alter it at the beginning of any voyage. This
condition was unsatisfactory. The problem was one of considerable
complexity, and after long consideration the load-line committee of
the board of trade submitted tables of freeboard giving the maximum
loading which could be permitted with safety in cargo-carrying
vessels. It was not until 1890 that the British load-line act was
passed making it compulsory for the position of the load-line disk
to be fixed in accordance with the board of trade tables.
These freeboard tables were revised in 1905, permitting vessels to
load deeper than formerly, and as revised are still in force. Mean­
while, various other shipping countries adopted standards of free­
board which are accepted by the board of trade if substantially
equivalent to the British standards. In all other cases foreign vessels
trading with the LTnited Kingdom are required to have a British
freeboard.
The board of trade appointed a committee in 1913 to review the
question and frame tables and regulations based on the most recent
knowledge and experience. The report of the committee published
in 1916 deals with practically every phase of the question.
The bill to establish load lines for cargo vessels (H. R. 3621) passed
our House of Representatives unanimously in October, 1919, but was

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
220
not reported out of committee in the Senate. It is a measure needed,
first, in the interest of safety and, second, in the interest of the com­
mercial standing of our great fleet of ocean-going cargo steamers.
Solely out of courtesy other nations have refrained from applying
to vessels of the United States their laws relating to load lines.
These arrangements, however, can not be expected to continue in­
definitely.
RADIO COMMUNICATION.

Of the many services performed by radio, unquestionably the
marine service is the most valuable, where it is employed as a life­
saving device to summon aid in the event of an accident endanger­
ing the safety of the vessel. There are numerous instances on record
in the department where its use has been the means of saving the
lives of the passengers and crew. The radio inspectors of the
Department of Commerce are required to give first consideration to
the inspection of radio installations on American and foreign vessels
clearing from our ports. During the fiscal year 1923 there were
11,298 such clearances and 6,936 inspections, as compared with 10,240
clearances and 6,071 inspections in 1922. The number of inspections
should be increased. To do this, additional men are needed at ports
not now covered.
An illustration of the value of this inspection work is shown in
a recent report from the Boston office. Upon inspection of the radio
installation on a vessel about to clear it was found that the emer­
gency source of power (storage battery) was inefficient and a new
battery was required. This vessel ran aground on this voyage. It
was necessary to extinguish the fires to prevent the boilers exploding,
which discontinued the ship’s main source of power and left the stor­
age battery as the only means of operating the radio transmitter to
send the S O S call and other messages which brought assistance and
saved all persons on board. The vessel has been reported as a total
loss.
Supplementing the regular ship radio service, there has been estab­
lished free medical service for mariners. Any ship equipped with
radio can secure medical advice from another vessel having a surgeon
on board or from a coast station cooperating with the United States
Public Health Service. The value of this service and particulars
concerning specific cases treated have been noted frequently in the
newspapers.
Our transoceanic communication system is materially strengthened
by the nine radio circuits across the Atlantic and Pacific and addi­
tional circuits to Central America. It is estimated by radio-operat­
ing companies that from 20 to 30 per cent of the message traffic
across the Atlantic and 50 per cent of the trans-Pacific business was

221
handled by radio in 1922. Obviously this forms an important
service supplementing cables both in peace and war, safeguarding
against interruption in service, and is a competitive check which
should tend constantly to improve the service at the lowest prac­
ticable rates.
Radio broadcasting continues to hold the interest of the public in
this country and is to a limited extent gaining recognition in other
countries. We have now 573 broadcasting stations, as compared
with 382 a year ago. The first broadcasting license was issued in
September, 1921. In foreign countries there are but 63, Canada
having 30 of these.
The permanency of this means of disseminating to the public news,
entertainment, and instruction seems assured. It is not reasonable
to expect a continuation of the rapid growth of broadcasting sta­
tions. Improved apparatus, greater care in providing high-class
programs, and closer supervision by the radio inspection service to
minimize the interference should guarantee a continued growth in
the audience.
In order to secure the most successful and extended use of radio
in the future legislative action along lines recommended to Congress
last year is essential. It is becoming more difficult each year to
apply the existing law of 1912 to services which not only did not
exist but were not contemplated when the present law was enacted.
For the purpose of considering what could be done from an admin­
istrative point of view to lessen the amount of interference in radio
broadcasting the Secretary of Commerce called a conference which
met in Washington on March 20. As far as practicable the recom­
mendations offered by thp conferees have been put into operation
with encouraging prospects of resulting in considerable improvement
There is no abatement in amateur activity. The number of
licensed amateur transmitting stations has increased from 15,504 in
1922 to 16,570 on June 30, 1923. Serious effort is being made by the
amateurs to improve their apparatus so as to reduce interference
and increase the efficiency of their stations. Annually these experi­
menters conduct trans-Atlantic tests with European amateurs. The
last test was in December, 1922, when 315 were successful in getting
their signals across to Great Britain, France, and Switzerland. The
record compiled by the American Radio Relay League shows that
each of the nine radio districts had a successful representative.
Few realize the importance of our amateur auxiliary communica­
tion system which can be put into immediate operation and tempo­
rarily provide a means for dispatching trains, giving flood warn­
ings, and transmitting emergency messages to and from sections
temporarily deprived of wire facilities.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
222
To perform satisfactorily the constantly increasing duties in this
branch of the service it is essential that a larger appropriation be
provided. Such work as the inspection of ship stations for the
safety of life, the inspection of broadcasting stations to prevent in­
terference and permit simultaneous operation, and the inspection of
amateur stations to prevent interference with the broadcast listeners
and with commercial and ship stations are some of the important
duties which should not be neglected.
MOTOR SHIPS (INTERNAL COMBUSTION).

On July 1, 1923, American documented seagoing vessels of this
type of 1,000 gross tons and over (excluding the Great Lakes) aggre­
gated 52 vessels of 139,593 gross tons.
Existing laws covering the inspection and manning of this class
of vessels are unsatisfactory. Passed when these vessels were small
and not in general use, section 4426 of the Revised Statutes is inade­
quate to the present large motor ships, especially those carrying only
the owners’ merchandise, while there is no provision for tWe inspec­
tion of or licensed officers on motor tug boats.
An amendment to these laws will be presented for your considera­
tion, the bureau deeming action along these lines essential to safety
and uniformity in our inspection system.
ADMEASUREMENT OF VESSELS.

The highly technical work of this service, handicapped by the
necessity of its performance by admeasures and employees selected,
appointed, and paid by another department, is increasing in dif­
ficulty and volume.
Constant effort is being made by the adjuster of admeasurements
and through instructions issued by the bureau to unify and stand­
ardize this work. Uniform application of our laws and regulations
is essential to prevent discrimination against American vessels and
bring our admeasurement system up to the standard of other mari­
time nations. In order to accomplish this result effectually it doubt• less will be necessary, as stated in my report last year, to reorganize
this service based on shipbuilding lines rather than on customs dis­
tricts, and secure the employment of men specially trained for thisservice.
This service affects over $2,000,000 direct revenue to the Govern­
ment in addition to all Panama Canal tolls, all vessels passing
through that canal being taxed on the basis of our admeasurement.
Sufficient importance has been attached to this work by maritime
nations to justify them in requiring long apprenticeships before
permitting the actual admeasurement of a vessel and the establish-

223
ment of an elaborate system of review by a highly trained central
authority. In the United States much of this work is performed
by men with a limited knowledge of the law and regulations and
less knowledge of ship architecture or the mathematical training to
solve geometrical problems often involved.
These officers are appointed primarily as customs officers and
selected because of their familiarity with such duties, the work of
admeasurement being incidental thereto. They have no reasonable
opportunity or incentive to thoroughly acquaint themselves with
admeasurement technicalities.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

ENFORCEMENT OF THE NAVIGATION LAWS.

The various services of the department and the customs service of
the Treasury Department reported during the year 11,251 alleged
violations of the navigation laws. The notable increase from 497
reported violations of the steamboat-inspection laws and the sea­
men’s act last year to 1,100 for 1923 is due principally to the seamen’s
strike on the Great Lakes during the fall of 1922.
The enforcement of the numbering act of June 7, 1918, is contin­
uing successfully, 166,413 undocumented motor boats having been
recorded as of June 30, 1923. In the New York district there are
22,776 of these numbered vessels, Tampa, Fla., the next largest dis­
trict, having 12,309 such vessels. The importance of the act is par­
ticularly apparent in the Florida district, where it is estimated by
the customs officere that a large proportion of these vessels are en­
gaged in smuggling liquors and aliens from near-by islands. With­
out these identifying numbers a check on this illegal traffic would
be much more difficult. The same conditions apply along the Cana­
dian frontiers.
During the past year I have personally visited many of our ports
on the Atlantic seaboard, the Great Lakes, the rivers, and the Gulf
of Mexico. On these waters not less than 200,000 motor boats of
varying size carry millions of people yearly in commerce and for
pleasure. This is perhaps the most dangerous form of navigation.
Fire from gasoline, damage from floating or hidden obstructions,
and danger of collision with larger vessels all emphasize the neces­
sity for the equipment and navigation of these vessels as required
by law. The majority of motor-boat owners, for their own protec­
tion, carry this equipment, but there are about 10 per cent of such
owners who fail to do so or who navigate their vessels recklessly,
without regard to the rules of the road, endangering all others in
their vicinity.
The Atlantic seaboard and the Gulf coast are fairly well patrolled
by our five inspection vessels, which go into every harbor, inlet, and
bay from Eastport, Me., to Galveston, Tex. Last year these five

224
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
vessels made 31.691 inspections and reported 5,504 violations of law.
In addition to the revenues from fines imposed in these cases these
five vessels cooperate with the Internal Revenue Bureau in the col­
lection of taxes on pleasure vessels, thus producing directly and
indirectly a revenue, which otherwise would not be collected, at least
equal to the entire cost of their operation.
EXTENSION OF INSPECTION SERVICE.

Our inspection service, outlined above, covers only the Atlantic
and Gulf coasts. On the Great Lakes, where there arc 24,588 small
motor vessels already numbered, and doubtless many which have not
complied with the law, on the rivers with their 14,145 such vessels,
and the Pacific coast with 16,351 numbered vessels, the department
has no water facilities for this work.
The employment of our inspection vessels on the coast has proven
eminently successful in safeguarding life and the collection of rev­
enue. I believe that a similar service on the Great Lakes, the rivers,
and the Pacific will be equally successful.
Because of the short season on the Lakes, the peculiarities of navi­
gation on the rivers, and the long distances between ports on the
Pacific, I propose asking Congress for an appropriation of $250,000
for the purchase and operation for the year of 10 fast 45-foot motor
inspection boats, to carry a crew of three men each, and capable of
covering a wide radius of action in harbors and the more protected
waters. If the experience of these vessels is similar to the results
obtained by those already in operation, they should be a source of
revenue to the Government, and thus the means of safeguarding
without cost the lives of multitudes of our people who use these small
vessels for pleasure and business.
In addition to inspecting small vessels they would do much to
insure the proper manning and equipment of the large steam vessels
and prevent their carrying a dangerous excess of passengers.
This service has directly to do with the safety of lives and property,
and I feel justified in strongly urging its extension.
SHIPPING COMMISSIONERS.

During the year 538,755 officers and men were shipped, reshipped,
and discharged before shipping commissioners, compared with 541,952 for the previous fiscal year and 378,772 for the year 1914. The
average cost per man was 17 cents, the same as for 1922 and also 1914.
Collectors of customs acting at ports where shipping-commissioner
offices have not been established shipped and discharged during the
year 28,642 officers and men, as compared with 47,200 officers and

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

225

men during the previous year. American consuls shipped and dis­
charged during the year 52,896 men.
Of 276,093 officers and men shipped before shipping commissioners
116,325 were native Americans, 41,015 naturalized Americans. 156,340
in all, or 56 per cent, compared with 54 per cent the previous year.
For many years it has been the practice of the bureau to recom­
mend the establishment of a shipping commissioner’s office at ports
where for a consecutive number of years the collectors of customs
acting as shipping commissioners have shipped and discharged in
excess of 1,000 men. The increase in the work at Mobile, Ala., and
Portland, Oreg., has been such as to require shipping offices at those
places. At Mobile in 1920 there were 12,340; in 1921, 13,943; and in
1922, 7,505 men shipped and discharged. At Portland, Oreg., 4,688
in 1920, 4,907 in 1921, and 6,362 men in 1922 shipped and discharged.
The number of questions arising for adjudication in such a large
volume of business requires the attention of a shipping commissioner
trained to the law and the customs of the sea. The shipping com­
missioners serve in a semijudicial capacity, their findings as to ques­
tions of fact being by statute made final.
The service at present is underpaid, both shipping commissioners
and their deputies. We can not expect to secure men qualified to
carry on independent offices requiring intimate knowledge of one of
the large titles of our statutes, judicial temperament, unusual judg­
ment, and the assumption of large responsibilities at salaries in many
instances less than is being paid to clerks.
The Government service, in order to secure the best material,
should hold out to young men the possibility of their making such
services their life work. The appropriation for deputy shipping com­
missioners, however, has for years carried a restriction that no man
in that service may he paid more than $1,600 a year. Iiow can we
expect an energetic, ambitious young man to enter and remain in
such a service? He has no incentive to perfect himself, to become
an expert in his line. It is an antiquated provision and should be
removed.
PREVENTING OVERCROWDING OF EXCURSION STEAMERS.

During the fiscal year 1923 passengers were counted on 9,524
trips of excursion steamers, the number of passengers aggregating
6,143,081. Of this number navigation inspectors made 6,579 counts
of 3,006,588 passengers. On 403 occasions it was found necessary
to stop passengers going on excursion boats, the limit of safety hav­
ing been reached. This involved the safety of 250,819 passengers.
The importance of this service in its direct relation to safety to
life is growing each year. The public is entitled to the protection of

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
226
the laws they have placed on the statute books and to a considerable
extent rely on that protection. So far as the limited facilities will
permit, the work is being well done. The cooperation of the great
excursion industry of the country is, of course, general, without
which the department and its small force of inspectors would avail
little. In this, as in all other laws enforced by this bureau, the steam­
boat owner is found diligent to comply with such laws, the deliberate
violation being the rare exception.
NAVIGATION RECEIPTS.

The receipts from tonnage duties during the fiscal year amounted
to $1,688,786.68, including $11,957.60 alien tonnage tax and light
money, compared with $1,843,148.34 collected from the same sources
last year. These taxes and also the navigation fees and fines are col­
lected by the collectors of customs in the administration of laws
through the Bureau of Navigation. The receipts during the past
year compared with those of the previous year and 1917, the last
pre-war year, were as follows:
Tonnage
duties.

June 30—
1923
1922
1917

Navigation ! Navigation
fees.
fines.

$1,688,786.68
' 1,818,330.70
1,393,743.16

$221,678.56
200,445.80
159,808.03

Total.

$36,914.62 $1,947,379.86
56,443.44 2,075,219.94
49,962.37 1,603,513.56

The Bureau of Navigation is a revenue-producing bureau. The
collection of this revenue, however, is but incident to the great work
of enforcing the laws under its jurisdiction. The figures are inter­
esting in showing a source of revenue and also the close relation of
the bureau’s work to the shipping industry of the country.
NAVIGATION APPROPRIATIONS.

The appropriations for the bureau for the past fiscal year com­
pared with those for the years ended June 30, 1922 and 1917, were
as follows:
June 30—
1923.............................
1922.............................
1917.............................

Bureau.
$42,789
42,780
37,780

Shipping
service

Tonnage
adjust­
ment.

Counting
passen­
gers.

$110,600
115,200
74,425

$3,760
3,760
3,000

$10,250
15,250
18,250

Naviga­
tion
laws.
$60,000
60,000
26,500

Wireless
laws.

Total.

5130,000
80,000
45,000

$357,390
316,990
204,955

227

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

It will be noted that the only material proportionate increases in
these appropriations are for enforcement of the navigation laws due
to acquiring three additional inspection vessels from the Navy at the
close of the war and that for the enforcement of the wireless law
due to the unprecedented development and use of this means of com­
munication, especially for broadcasting. Congress through new legis­
lation has considerably increased the scope, responsibility, and im­
portance of the work, while the clerical force and compensation rolls
have remained nearly stationary. This has resulted in the loss of
most of our trained men and the bureau is more and more handi­
capped by the inexperience of most of its administrative force. This
work, however, is thoroughly systematized and I feel justified in re­
porting to you that the Bureau of Navigation, with its limited forces,
is carrying on its functions with a degree of efficiency perhaps never
excelled in its history.
Very truly yours,
D. B. C arson ,
C o m m issio n e r o f N a v ig a tio n .

9

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE.
D epartment or C ommerce,
S teamboat I nspection S ervice,

W a sh in g to n , J u ly 1 , 1923.

H on . H erbert H oover,

S e c r e ta r y o f C om m erce.

D ear M r. S ecretary : In response to your request, I furnish the

following condensed report upon the work of the bureau during the
past year:
ORGANIZATION.

The following positions were embraced in the Steamboat Inspection Service at the close of business on June 30, 1923:

At Washington, D. C.:
Supervising Inspector General_____________________________________ 1
Deputy Supervising Inspector General (who is Acting Supervising
Inspector General in the absence of that officer)__________________ 1
Private secretary to the Supervising Inspector General______________ 1
Clerks_____________________________________________________________ 10
Messenger________________________________________________________ 1
In the service at large:
Supervising inspectors_____________________________________________ 10
Traveling inspectors______________________________________________ 3
Local Inspectors of hulls___________________________________________ 46
Local inspectors of boilers_________________________________________ 46
Assistant inspectors of hulls________________________________________ 75
Assistant inspectors of boilers______________________________________ 75
Clerks to boards of local inspectors_________________________________ 92
Total______________________________________________________ 361

The boards of local inspectors at Burlington, Yt., and Apalachi­
cola, Fla., and the supervising inspectorship at Pittsburgh, Pa., have
been discontinued by the department, and efforts are being made
to have these positions abolished by congressional action. On July
1, 1922, four additional assistant inspectorships were made avail­
able, the same having been created by law, two at Mobile, Ala.,
and two at Galveston, Tex.
«

STATISTICS.

The force inspected and certificated 7,653 vessels, with a total gross
tonnage of 14,982,850, of which 7,316 were domestic vessels, with a
total gross tonnage of 11,659,374, and 337 were foreign passenger
228

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

229

steam vessels, with a total gross tonnage of 3,323,476. Of the do­
mestic vessels, there were 5,941 steam vessels, 790 motor vessels, 19
passenger barges, and 566 seagoing barges. There was an increase
of 110 in the total number of vessels inspected and an increase of
1,050,973 in the total gross tonnage of vessels inspected as compared
with the previous fiscal year. There were 755 cargo vessels exam­
ined to carry persons in addition to crew under the provisions of the
act of Congress approved June 5, 1920. Letters of approval of
designs of boilers, engines, and other operating machinery were
granted to 32 steam vessels, with a total gross tonnage of 971. There
were inspected for the United States Government 50 hulls and 1,983
boilers. There were 2,774 reinspections of steam vessels, motor ves­
sels, and barges.
Licenses were issued to 25,052 officers of all grades. There were
examined for visual defects 7,917 applicants for license, of whom 23
were found color blind or with other visual defects and rejected.
Certificates of service were issued to 10,456 able seamen and 890 were
rejected. Certificates of efficiency were issued to 14,913 lifeboat men
and 4,234 were rejected.
Steel plates for the construction of marine boilers to the number oi
2,689 were inspected at the mills and a large amount of other boiler
material was inspected. There were examined and tested 166,434
new life preservers, of which number 4,398 were rejected. There
were 478 wooden life floats inspected, of which none was rejected.
There were inspected 6,860 cork ring life buoys, of which number
149 were rejected. There were inspected at factories 425 new life­
boats, of which 9 were rejected. There were inspected at factories
104 new life rafts, of which 1 was rejected. There were tested by
firing 20 line-carrying guns, all of which passed.
The total number of accidents resulting in loss of life was 197.
The total number of lives lost was 247, of which 59 were passengers.
Of the lives lost 166 were from suicide, accidental drowning, and
other similar causes, leaving a loss of 81 as fairly chargeable to
accidents, collisions, founderings, etc. There was a decrease of 19
in the number of lives lost as compared with the previous fiscal year.
Passengers to the number of 323,130,362 were carried on vessels
required by law to make report of the number of passengers carried.
Dividing this number by 59, the total number of passengers lost,
shows that 5,476,785 passengers were carried for each passenger lost.
The number of lives directly saved by means of the life-saving
appliances required by law was 907.
STABILITY TESTS.

The rule adopted by the board of supervising inspectors in Janu­
ary, 1922, with reference to stability tests has proved most valuable

230
REPORT OE THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
and efficacious, and it is not a question open to debate or dispute as
to the wisdom of this rule. Eighteen stability tests were conducted
by the traveling inspector who has headquarters in the central office,
and in the conducting of these tests as little inconvenience as possible
has been occasioned the vessels, the very best service possible being
rendered.
WORK OF TRAVELING INSPECTORS.

There are at present three traveling inspectors in this service. One
has his headquarters at San Francisco. Calif., one at Cleveland, Ohio,
and one in the central office at Washington. The traveling inspector
with headquarters at San Francisco, Calif., during the fiscal year made
reexaminations of vessels on the Pacific coast in the local districts of
Seattle, Wash.. Portland, Oreg., and San Francisco and Los Angeles,
Calif., and at the end of the fiscal year was ordered to report at New
York City to conduct inspections of vessels along the upper Atlantic
coast. The traveling inspector having his headquarters at Cleveland,
Ohio, made reexaminations during the fiscal year of vessels on the
Great Lakes and at the end of the fiscal year was ordered to the
south Atlantic coast. The work is arranged in this manner so that
the traveling inspectors may not only take care of their own work
but may gain a perspective of inspection in the different parts of the
country and be in a position to make reports to the central office, en­
abling it to improve the standard of inspection and increase uni­
formity.
OIL POLLUTION.

A question that has received the attention of this service has been
the matter of oil pollution of the navigable waters of the United
States. This matter has been receiving the attention not only of
authorities in this country but of those in Europe as well. This
service has cooperated and collaborated with the Bureau of Mines,
Department of the Interior, with a view to obtaining data that will
put the authorities of this country in possession of facts that will
enable them to make intelligent recommendations at any inter­
national conference that may be held, having in mind the thought
of preventing pollution of navigable waters. This question touches
the interests of all of the people, especially from the standpoint of
health.
GRADUAL EXPANSION.

Reference was made in the last annual report to the necessity,
proceeding in conformity with the wishes of the President, of this
service doing its part in the matter of retrenchment, and of the
discontinuing of 39 assistant inspectorships, as well as the super­
vising inspectorship at Pittsburgh, Pa., and of the closing of the

231
offices of the local inspectors at Burlington, Vt., and Apalachicola,
Fla. That procedure resulted in a saving of $83,475.06 without
impairing the efficiency of this service. While that be true, it is to
be remembered that shipping is gradually recovering, and just a3
rapidly as it does recover it will be necessary to have increased
numbers in the inspection force to maintain the efficiency of this
service.
So far as the clerical force of this service is concerned, it has always
been undermanned; and were it not for the faithful service rendered,
this service would not be able to keep abreast of the work and give
efficient service to the public. There will be three additional clerk­
ships for the field available July 1, 1923, and it is possible that more
will have to be asked for in the near future.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

REAPPOINTMENT OF ASSISTANT INSPECTORS.

In discontinuing the 39 assistant inspectorships in this service it
was necessary to discontinue the services of 36 assistant inspectors,
and as vacancies occur these men are being given preference in the
matter of appointment. Since July 31, 1921, when these men were
dropped, 22 have been reinstated, 3 have declined reinstatement, and
there are still 11 to be reinstated. It is hoped that within the next
year or 18 months it may be possible to reinstate this remaining num­
ber. This possibility may come about as a result not only of the
usual turnover of force but also as the result of possible gradual
expansion of the inspection force.
DESIRABLE LEGISLATION.

There is certain legislation that is desirable for this service.
That which is very essential is the amendment of sections 4433 and
4418, Revised Statutes, in regard to the working and hydrostatic
pressure of boilers. It is necessary that the rules and regulations in
this respect be made modern, but they can not be made modern until
authority is given by Congress.
It is also desirable that section 4404 of the Revised Statutes be
amended so as to provide that the supervising inspectors of this serv­
ice be included under the classified civil service.
Again, it is desirable that sections 4404 and 4414, Revised Statutes,
be amended so that the number of supervising inspectors be reduced
from 11 to 10 and the offices of the local inspectors at Burlington, Vt.,
and Apalachicola, Fla., be abolished. The object in reducing the
number of supervising inspectors from 11 to 10 is to abolish the office
of supervising inspector of the seventh district located at Pittsburgh,
Pa., for the reason that this office is not necessary. The work of the
seventh district since the death of the last supervising inspector of

232
REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE.
that district has been satisfactorily performed by the supervising
inspector of the sixth district, located at Louisville, Ivy.
On account of the small amount of work in the district of Burling­
ton, Vt., it could easily be taken over by another board of local
inspectors. When vacancies happened in the positions of the two
local inspectors by the retirement of one and the death of the other
the work of the office was taken over by the local inspectors at Albany,
N. Y., in March, 1922, and has since been carried on by that board
without impairment of the efficiency of the service and with an esti­
mated annual saving of $5,500.
This same condition is also true of the work in the district of
Apalachicola, Fla.; and the work of that office was taken over by the
local inspectors at Mobile, Ala., and has since been performed by that
board without impairment of the efficiency of the service and with
an estimated annual saving of $4,500.
Very truly yours,
G eo. U hler ,
S u p e r v is in g I n s p e c to r G en eral.

INTER AMERICAN HIGH COMMISSION.
I nter A merican H igh C ommission,

W a s h in g to n , J u ly 1 , 1923.

Hon. H erbert H oover, Chairman,
U n ite d S ta te s S e c tio n , I n te r A m e r ic a n H ig h C o m m issio n .
M y D ear M r. C hairman : In the period comprised between J nlv
1, 1922, and June 30, 1923, the United States section of the Inter
American High Commission held two meetings, one on October 14,
1922, the other on January 10, 1923.
The first one was devoted to the study of the program to be fol­
lowed during the winter, with special attention to some of the major
problems, like exchange and protection of trade-marks.
No acceptable plan for the stabilization of exchange in the Ameri­
can Continent has yet materialized, but the educational results of
the discussions on this matter have been considerable. The disastrous
effects of unsecured issues of paper money upon exchange are now
generally recognized, and it is agreed that a depreciated currency
is never beneficial in the long run to the domestic industries of a
nation. Opinion is practically unanimous that exchange can best
be improved by rigid economies in both Government and private
expenditures.
In view of the existing difficulties in having the convention for
the protection of trade-marks, signed in Buenos Aires in 1910, put
in force in all the American countries, a special study was made
of that document with a view to reform it, taking into account the
objections submitted by Latin American countries.
The section also studied the subjects of The Hague Rules of 1921
on bills of lading, enforcement of commercial arbitration awards,*
customs and port procedure, standardization of commodity classifi­
cation and mechanical specifications, and the cooperation of the Inter
American High Commission with the Fifth International Confer­
ence of American States, which was to meet in Santiago de Chile in
April of this year. In the meeting of January 10, further reports
on exchange and banking, trade-mark protection, commercial arbi­
tration award treaties, and The Hague Rules of 1921 on bills of lad­
ing were submitted, as well as special reports on customs and port
procedure and industrial and commercial standardization.
A letter from the Secretary of State requesting suggestions in rela­
tion to the Fifth International Conference of American States was;
68596—23----- 16

233

234
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.
read, and it was decided to send the Secretary of State memoranda
along the lines of work done by the commission and to concentrate
the efforts of the United States section in the preparation of material
for this conference.
The report on trade-mark protection was accompanied by a pro­
posed convention to take the place of that signed in Buenos Aires in
1910. This proposed convention was accompanied by explanations
of the changes suggested. Through the central executive council
it was distributed among the other national sections, and in this way
the field was prepared for a profitable discussion of the subject at the
Fifth Pan American Conference.
As a result of the resolutions taken at this session, memoranda
were prepared on Topics I, V, VI, and XI of the program of the
Fifth International Conference, to wit:
(a) Convention for the protection of trade-marks.
( b ) Convention on literary and artistic copyright.
(c ) Improvement of ocean transportation facilities.
(d ) Intercontinental railroad and motor transportation.
(e ) Policy, laws, and regulations concerning commercial aircraft;
the advisability of an international technical commission on the loca­
tion of standard landing places, the determination of aerial routes,
and the formulation of special customs procedure for aircraft.
(/) Cooperation of the Governments of the American Republics
in reference to all kinds of wireless communication in America, and
by means of agreements for its regulation.
({/) The uniformity of customs regulations and procedure.
( h ) The uniformity of shipping and insurance documentation.
(i ) The uniformity of principles and interpretation of maritime
law.
(j ) The uniformity of nomenclature for the classification of mer­
chandise.
(A) Uniform parcels-post procedure and consideration of the Pan
American parcel post convention.
(Z) Advisability of adopting conventions in order to make effective
Resolution XVII, voted by the Second Pan American Financial
Congress which assembled at Washington in January, 1920.1
(?n) Consideration of the best means to promote the arbitration of
commercial disputes between nationals of different countries.
Mainly as a result of the efforts of the Inter American High Com­
mission, a new convention for the protection of trade-marks was
signed in Santiago de Chile. It is incumbent on the Inter American
1 T his resolution reads as follow s : “ R e s o lv e d , T h at i t being in the in te re st of all
nations th a t there should be th e w idest possible d istribution of raw m aterials, the im ­
p o rtatio n of such m aterials into auy country should not be prevented by prohibitive
duties.”

235
High Commission to promote its ratification and enforcement in all
the Continent. Resolutions recommending the publication of uni­
form statistics of foreign trade and the publication of a handbook
on customs regulations are the result of studies of the Inter American
High Commission ; the handbook referred to is to be published by the
central executive council of this organization.
The Fifth Pan American Conference passed a resolution -which
reads :
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE.

R e s o lv e d , To ask the Inter American High Commission to cooperate toward the
drawing up and enforcement of the program of the International Conference
of American States in so far as it bears directly on purposes and work of the
Inter American High Commission.

On account of this resolution the Inter American High Commis­
sion has had to enlarge its original program, adding to it the reso­
lutions taken by the conference in all matters having economic
implications. In this connection special mention must be made of
the preparation for various technical conferences to be held at
dates and places to be determined by the governing board of the
Pan American Union. The most notable of these are, respectively,
conferences on motor roads, on standardization of specifications of
merchandise, on electrical communications, and on commercial
aviation.
The staff of this office has continued to work on the preparation
of a report on company laws on the American continent. The part
covering the laws of Latin America is complete. It was necessary
to suspend the publication of the part corresponding to the United
States on account of the probability that important changes will be
made in the law of the State of New York this fall. The informa­
tion relating to Latin American laws will be published separately
from that dealing with the laws in the United States.
The staff was also engaged in studies preparatory to a report on
admiralty law. It is expected that this report will be ready by the
middle of this fiscal year.
The United States section is also engaged in the collection of eco­
nomic information for the members of the different group com­
mittees and for other persons who might be interested in it. The
secretary is more and more frequently called upon by the other
sections for material, opinions, or suggestions relating to the eco­
nomic, financial, and commercial problems which form part of the
field of activities of the Commission.
Respectfully,
G uillermo A. S hkrwell,

o

S e c r e ta r y .

I

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