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SPECIAL
COLLECTIONS

EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
............................... ..

OF

THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

BEA LIBRARY

FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED JUNE 30, 1930

EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT

OF THE

SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
1930

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRIN TIN G OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1930

F o r s a le by t h e S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n ts , W a s h in g to n , D. C,

P ric e 40 c e n ts

ORGANIZATION OF T H E D E PA R TM EN T
(Oct. 31, 1930)

Secretary of Commerce______________________
Assistant Secretar}' of Commerce_____________
Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Aeronau­
tics ______________________________________
Solicitor____________________________________
Administrative Assistant to the Secretary_____
Statistical Assistant to the Secretary__________
Chief Clerk and Superintendent_______________
Disbursing Clerk____________________________
Chief, Appointment Division_________________
Chief, Division of Publications________________
Chief, Division of Supplies.__________________
Director of Radio___ ________________________
Director of the Census______________. ________
Director, Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com­
merce____________________________________
Director, Bureau of Standards________________
Commissioner of Fisheries____________________
Commissioner of Lighthouses_________________
Director, Coast and Geodetic Survey__________
Commissioner of Navigation______ ___________
Supervising Inspector General, Steamboat In­
spection Service._____ _____________________
Commissioner of Patents____________________ _
Director, Bureau of Mines_________ __________
ii

R obert P atterson L amont .
J u liu s K l e in .
C la ren ce M. Y o u ng .
E phraim F. M organ .
M alcolm K e r l in .
E . D ana D uran d .
E dward W . L ib b e y .
C harles E . M o l ster .
E dward J . G a r d n er .
T homas F. M cK e o n .
W alter S. E r w in .
W illiam D. T e r r e l l .
W illiam M. S teu a r t .
W illiam L. C o o per .
G eo rge K . B u r g ess .
H en ry O’M alley .
G eo rge R . P utnam /
R. S. P atton .
^
A r t h u r J. T y r e r . •
D ickerso n N . H oover /
T homas E. R o b ertson .
S cott T u r n e r .

CONTENTS
Pass-

Introductory statement______________________________________________
vu
Economic review------------------------------------------------------------------------------vrrr
Prices---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------xi
Agriculture_____________________________________________________
xn
Construction____________________________________________________
xnr
Transportation--------------------------------------------------------------------------xv
Banking and finance____________________________________________
xvi
Foreign trade-----------------------------------------------------------------------------xix
Elimination of waste________________________________________________
xxn
Construction and home ownership------------------------------------------------ x x i i
Domestic marketing service_____________________________________
xxv
Simplified practice______________________________________________ xxvn
Certification and labeling________________________________________ xxvrn
Commercial standards__________________________________________ xxix
American marine standards-------------------------------------------------------xxx
Scientific research______________________________________________
xxx
Utilization and conservation of natural resources_________________ xxxi
Human safety__________________________________________________ xxxvi
Progress in development of civil aeronautics--------------------------------------xr.i

CONDENSED REPORTS OF BUREAUS
Ch ie f

Clerk

and

S u p e r in t e n d e n t

In te rn a tio n a l E xposition a t Seville,
S p a in ____________________________
D isbursing office____________________
A ppoin tm en t divisio n_______________
Division of p u b licatio n s____________
D ivision of supplies________________
Traffic office------------------------------------D epartm en t lib r a r y ________________
S olicito r's office____________________

Pago

Page
1
1
3
8
4
4
5
0

A er o n a u t ic s B r a n c h

O rganization an d fu n ctio n s________
A ir reg ulation service______________
Insp ectio n s e rv ic e _______________
Licensing d iv is io n _______________
E n g in e-testin g sectio n___________
A irw ays d iv is io n ---------------------------N avigation facilitie s on civil a ir ­
w a y s___________________________
E ngin eerin g lay o u t of airw a y s____
In te rm e d ia te lan d in g fields--------A irw ay beacon lig h ts-------------------W eath er service and com m unica­
tio n s__________________________
R adio e q u ip m e n t________________
M aintenance of a ir w a y s __________
Im provem ents in airw ay s lig h tin g
e q u ip m e n t_____________________
A eron au tic developm ent service_____
A eronautic in form ation d iv ision_
A eronautics research d iv ision____
A irp o rt s e c tio n ___________________
A irw ays m apping sectio n________
Special research com m ittees______

6

C

7

9

16.
18

19

19
21

20

27
29
30
33
33
39
43
44
47

A dm inistrative d iv isio n _____________
Sum m ary and co n clu sio n ___________

60
03

R adio D iv is io n

L e g isla tio n _________________________
Radio inspection service-----------------R adio te s t c a rs _____________________
P u rc h ase of ad d itio n al c a rs ______
Mobile sta n d a rd s on radio te s t
c a rs------------------------------------------F ield -stre n g th w ork______________
M onitoring b ro ad castin g sta tio n s ___
C onstant-frequency m onitoring s ta ­
tio n —
Secondary s ta n d a rd s of frequency_
R adio for a v ia tio n __________________
Radiobeacons and radio com passesA utom atic alarm signal device______
R adio com m unication______________
Police ra d io ________________________
A m ateu rs________________ - _________
P erso n n el----------------------------------------In te rn a tio n a l conferences___________
In te rn a tio n a l radio a c c o u n tin g -___-

58
68
59
59

60

00

00

01

03
03
04
04
05

00
00
00

B urea u o f t h e C e n s u s

In tro d u c tio n _______________________
W ork of en u m eratio n _______________
Census of po p u latio n _______________
Census of unem ploym ent----------------CensuB of ag ricu ltu re, 1930________
Census of m a n u fa c tu re s___________
Census of m ines and q u a rrie s______
C ensus of d istrib u tio n _____________
III

08
70
77
78
78
81
82
83

CONTENTS

IV
V ital s ta tis tic s -------------------------------M arriag e and divorce----- ---------------A nnual census of in stitu tio n s---------F in an cial sta tis tic s of S ta te and city
g o v e rn m e n ts--------------------------------

Page
£3
gy
8«
87

S urvey of C u rren t B u sin ess------------Q u arterly , m onthly, and sem im onthly
in q u ire s --------------------------------------C ard p unching and ta b u la tin g mach in es----------------------------------,-------I n d u s tria l an d business s ta tis tic s ---B ureau

op

F obbiqk and
C ommerce

88
88
90

D om estic

I n tro d u c tio n -----------------------------------Dom estic business s itu a tio n ---------T he decline in foreign tr a d e ---------U nited S ta te s loss p a r t of w orld
re c e s sio n ---------------------------------T h e b u reau ’s dom estic com m erce
P ra c tic a l app licatio n of d iv isio n 's
s t u d i e s ------------------------------------C osi-o f-d istrib u tio n re se a rc h e s—
C red it extension an d business
fa ilu re s________________________
Com m ercial survey of New E ng-

93
93
94
94

98
99
99

O tber regional s u r v e y s ----------------101
102
In d u stry s u rv e y s ------------------------Periodic publications of the d iv i­
sion --------------------- ------------------- 102
O utlet for business resea rch ---------10 2
T he sm all-business section___—
103
D ollars-and-cents re tu rn s in foreigntrad e p ro m o tio n --------------------------103
AU fo r firm s in all p a rts of th e
U n ited S t a t e s --------------------—
108
Needed expansion of b u reau’s a c tiv i­
t i e s , - ' ________________________
111
The F oreign Commerce S e r v i c e - ---114
T angible an d in tan g ib le benefits to
com m erce, .... — -----------------114'
C oordination and unification of
field w o rk ---------------------------------llo
Foreign experience sh ared d irectly
w ith p u b lic -----------------------------llo
W ork of th e d istric t offices--------------116
Record num ber of services la s t
y e a r ___________________________
116
Face-to-face co n tact betw een b u ­
reau and p u b lic ---- ------------------117
R6le of the cooperative office in
tra d e pro m o tio n — --------- 117
New offices and ad d itio nal perso n ­
nel called fo r -------------- 118
C oncrete com m odity service for A m er­
ican in d u strie s------------ -----------118
1X8
A eronautics trad e d iv isio n . _ ---A g ricu ltu ral im plem ents d iv is io n ..
119
122

Page
Specialized technical services to busi­
ness— C ontinued.
D ivision of foreign t a r i f f s .- D ivision of regional in fo rm atio n —
Division of s ta tis tic a l research ----

140
242
143

T ra n s p o rta tio n division
---New record se t in difficult period___

145
147

B ureau

op

Standards

G eneral a c t i v i t i e s ______
_
149
S alaries - _— --------------- - —
154
E quipm ent _
____- _ —
162
162
G eneral expenses — -- -------- Im provem ent and care of g ro u n d s—
163
T esting s tru c tu ra l m a te ria ls
____
163
T esting m a c h in e s________
167
In v estig atio n of tire-resistin g pro p er­
ties — _ _
_________
— _____
168
In v estig atio n of public-utility sta n d ­
a rd s ____________________
168
R adio research - _______________ __
Color sta n d a rd iz a tio n ____ — _ _
In v estig atio n of clay p ro d u cts___ _
S tan d ard izin g m echanical a p p lia n c e s.
In v estig atio n of optical g lass____—
In v estig atio n of textiles, e tc ___- _

170
171
172
174
174
175

Gage sta n d a rd iz a tio n ---- _ In v estig atio n of m ine scales and
c a rs------- _ — — __
____ M etallurgical r e s e a r c h _
__— .
H igh-tem perature inv estig atio n _

178

In d u stria l r e s e a r c h ______ ____ .
T estin g ra ilro a d -tra c k and o th er
scales
______
__________ - _
S tan d ard izatio n of equipm ent___188
S tan d ard m a te ria ls _______ ___ - _
In v estig atio n of radioactive sub­
stan ces and X ra y s - _______ __
Utilization of w aste products from
In v estig atio n of autom otive e n g in e s.
In v estig atio n of den tal m a te ria ls___
P ow er-plant equipm ent _ _______ T ra n sfe rre d funds _____ - _____
_
Acknow ledgm ents an d recom m enda­
tio n s ---------------------------------------- ---

178

179

180

181
187
191
191
193
194
194
195
198

B u rea u o f F i s h e r i e s

In te rn a tio n a l re la tio n s .
— _ _
N o rth Pacific h a lib u t c o n v e n tio n .
Sockeye salm on co n v en tio n .
.
P assam aquoddy pow er p ro je c t____
In te rn a tio n a l F u r T rad e E xhibi­
tio n and Congress a t L e ip zig -_
D om estic r e l a t i o n s ______________

Five-year construction and mainte-

200
200
201
202
202
203

125

12(5
127

D evclopm ent of fish screens and
fishw ays
. . .
. . . .
U pper M ississippi H iver s itu a tio n .
Special S enate com m ittee on wild
life resources ..
.. -

12 8

A d m in istratio n of fishery law s and

P ap er division _______ ____
___
Rubber d iv isio n ---------------------Shoe and
le a th e r
m an u factu re s

130
131

A laska salm on h atc h e rie s_. . . _
Special stu d ies and in v estig atio n sP ro d u c ts o f the f is h e r ie s ______ __

Specialized technical services to b u si­
ness __............. ........... _ .
Commercial intelligence d iv is io n ..
D ivision of com m ercial law s
___
Division of correspondence an d

iar>
135
136

T ake of sealskins
. .
M arking reserved seal«
Sale of se a lsk in s. _
F 'o x es---. .
F ur-seal skins taken by

_
____
. ______
n a tiv e s_

212
212
213

E d ito rial d i v i s i o n ________ _____
F inance and investm ent d iv isio n __

139
139

P rotection of sea o tte rs, w alruses,
an d sea lio n s-- .
______

213

E lectrical equipm ent d iv isio n -----Foodstuffs d i v i s i o n - _____________
H ide and le a th e r division- — —
In d u stria l m achinery d ivision-------Iron-steel-liardw are division _ —
M inerals d iv is io n ------- ------

__

123

. . __

207
208
209
210
210

210

212

9.19

V

CONTENTS
Biological fishery in v estig atio n s_____
A q u icu ltu ral in v estig atio n s______
F ish eries of th e A tla n tic a n d Gulf
co asts_________________________
F ish eries o f th e Pacific coast and
A laska ------------------------------------F ish eries of th e G reat L akes_____
In te rn a tio n a l in v estig atio n of th e
L ake C ham plain fishery d isp u teShellfish in v estig atio n s___________
S ta tistic a l su rv ey s_________________
M an u factu red p ro d u cts___________
F rozen fish---------------------------------Packaged fresh , frozen, and smoked
fish____________________________
Foreign fishery tra d e _____________
New E n gland S ta te s -------------------Middle A tla n tic S ta te s ___________
Chesapeake Bay S ta te s ___________
S outh A tla n tic S ta te s-----------------Gulf S ta te s______________________
Pacific C oast S ta te s ______________
L ake S ta te s______________________
M ississippi R iver and trib u taries«
Technological in v e stig a tio n s________
N et p re se rv a tio n _________________
B y-p ro d u cts______________________
N u tritiv e value o f fishery p ro d u ctsIm proved h an d lin g of fresh and
frozen fish-------------------------------O yster m ark et su rv ey ____________
P ro p a g atio n and d istrib u tio n of food
and gam e fishes----------------------P ro p ag atio n of com m ercial speciesGam e fishes______________________
Rescue o p e r a tio n s _______________
C ooperative a c tiv itie s_____________
Vessel n o tes________________________
A p p ro p ria tio n s_____________________

Page
213
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210

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21S
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222

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225

220
220

227
229

L ig h t h o u s e S e r v ic e

A ctiv ities d u rin g y ear______________
A ids to n a v ig atio n _________________
E ngin eerin g co n stru ctio n ____________
Im provem ents in a p p a ra tu s and
e q u ip m e n t_______________________
Ju risd ic tio n of th e L ighthouse Serv­
ice—
A d m in is tra tio n -------------------------------P erso n n el__________________________
L ighthouse depots _________________
Vessels of th e L ighthouse Service_
L ighthouse te n d e rs_______________
L ig h ts h ip s -----------------------------------

230
232
232
233
235
237
237
238
238
239

C o a st and G eo d etic S u r v e y

H yd ro g rap h ic an d topographic w o rk Geodetic w ork______________________
M agnetic an d seism ological w ork ___
T ide an d c u rre n t w ork_____________
C hief clerk--------------------------------------D ivision of h y d ro g rap h y an d topog­
rap h y ____________________________
Division of geodesy________________
Division of c h a rts _________________
Division of te rre s tria l m agnetism
and seism o lo g y ___________________
Division of tid es an d c u rre n ts _____
D ivision of acco u n ts_______________
In stru m e n t divisio n________________

240
244
240
247
250
250
251
252
253
254
250
250

B u rea u o f N avigatio n

A m erican ship p in g on Ju n e 30.
1 9 3 0 _____________________________
N avigation law s____________________
C oasting t r a d e ___________________
In te rn a tio n a l convention on safety
of life a t sea_________________ 1
In te rn a tio n a l convention on load
l in e s ___________________________
Load line a c t of M arch 2. 1929__
A dm easurem ent of vessels_______

258
259
259
260
260
200
201

Pago
N avigation law s— C ontinued.
New inspection vessel for th e
G reat L akes-----------------------------E nforcem ent of the navigation law sP re v en tin g overcrow ding of passen­
ger vessels_______________________
S hipping co m m issio n ers____________
P assen g er a c t of 1882_____________
N avigation r e c e ip ts ________________
P u b licatio n s-------------------------------------

262
262
266
268
268
269
269

S t e a m b o a t I n sp e c t io n S e r v ic e

P erso n n el___________________________
E xpansion of force________________
Lessons from d isa ste rs_____________
Inclin in g te sts of vessels---------------H arbor line changes_______________
Revision of boiler ru le s_____________
M otor-vessel inspection_____________
E x p en d itu res_______________________
N um ber, class, and tonnage of ves­
sels inspected____________________
M iscellaneous inspections----------------R ein sp ectio n s---------------------------------Cargo vessels exam ined to carry per­
sons in addition to crew ________
M arine-boiler plates te s te d --------------S teel b ars to be used as sta y s and
braces te s te d _____________________
New life preservers inspected----------Inspections a t fa c to rie s-----------------Officers lic e n s e d ____________________
C ertificates of service issued to able
seam en---------------------------------------C ertificates of efficiency issued to
lifeboat m e n -------------------------------Lives lost on vessels subject to in ­
spection ---------------- ---------------------Lives saved______________________ —
A ccidents resu ltin g in loss of life ---P assen g ers c a rrie d --------------------------E x am in a tio n s for color b lin d n ess—
W ork perform ed by inspectors in cen­
tr a l office------------------------------------M iscellaneous re p o rts----------------------

270
270
271
273
273
273
273
274
274
277
277
278
278
278
278
279
280
282
282
283
284
284
285
286
286
286

P a t e n t Of f i c e

S ta tis tic s ---------------------------------------O ther d etails of business for the fis­
cal y e a r-------------- ------------------------

291
291

B urea u o f M in e s

F in a n c e s ---------------------------------- ------P ro p e rty -----------------------------------------R ecom m endations----------------------------P rin c ip a l activ ities durin g th e year_
W ork of the technologic b ra n c h -------M echanical d iv is io n ---------------------M ining d iv is io n --------------------------M etallurgical d iv is io n -----------------P etroleum and n atu ral-g as d iv i­
sio n ____________________________
E xperim ent sta tio n s division-------E xplosives division----------------------Helium d iv is io n ------------------------- Office of th e chief m ining engi­
neer ___________________________
W ork of th e economics b ran ch --------Coal d ivision_____________________
Division of m ineral s ta tis tic s -------P etroleum econom ics division-----R are m etals and nonm etnls divi­
sion—
Com m on-m etals d iv is io n --------------W ork of th e h ealth and safe.ty
branch ------------------------------------H ealth division__________________
S afety d iv is io n ---------------------------W ork of ad m in istrativ e branch — ...
Office ad m in istratio n division -------Inform ation d iv is io n -------------------I n t e r -A m e r ic a n H ig h C o m m is s io n -

206
302
302
301
307
307
312
316
322
330
334
836
338
340
340
341
341
343
343
344
344
347
348
348
348
350

EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL REPORT
OF THE

S E C R E T A R Y OF C O M M E R C E
D epa rtm en t
O f f ic e

of C o m m e r c e ,
of t h e S e c re ta r y ,

Washington, November 4, 1930.
To th e P r e s i d e n t :
I have the honor to submit herewith the Eighteenth Annual Report
of the Secretary of Commerce in the following parts :
Economic Review.
Elimination of Waste.
Progress in Development of Civil Aeronautics.
Condensed Reports of Bureaus.
The Director of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce in
his report has discussed in detail our foreign trade for the past year
and for that reason a separate review of that subject has not been
submitted.
As the Fifteenth Decennial Census was taken as of April 1, 1930,
the Director of the Bureau of the Census has embodied in his report
detailed information concerning that enumeration as well as the
several other censuses taken at the same time. Therefore, special
attention is invited to the report of that bureau.
The report has been prepared for transmission to Congress as
required by the organic act of the department.
Very sincerely,
R. P. L a m o n t ,
Secretary of Commerce.
VII

»

ECONOMIC REVIEW
Notwithstanding the decided decline in business activity which
began in November, 1929, the total output of commodities and ser­
vices in the fiscal year ended June 30, 1930, was very large. Com­
parison of the conditions during the year with those of the year
immediately preceding, which had been a period of exceptionally
high activity, gives a misleading impression. Most of the business
indicators for 1929-30 compare favorably with any earlier year.
The most comprehensive measure of the volume of industrial pro­
duction is the general index of output of manufactured and mineral
commodities compiled by the Federal Reserve Board. This index
for the fiscal year just closed averaged 110 as compared with the
average for the three calendar years 1923-1925 taken as 100. It was
about 6 per cent lower than in the fiscal year 1928-29, but slightly
higher than in any of the three years, 1925-26 to 1927-28, and de­
cidedly higher than in any still earlier year.
The closing months of the fiscal year 1928-29 had witnessed un­
precedented activity in our factories and mines. The index of in­
dustrial production for June, 1929, stood 25 per cent above the aver­
age for 1923-1925. Activity continued high for the first few months
of the last fiscal year; it fell rather sharply in November and D e­
cember, remained more or less stationary from January to May,
and again fell decidedly in June. As a consequence the index for
June, 1930, was about 20 per cent lower than in June, 1929.
Major economic indexes
[Based on calendar years 1923-1925=» 100]
Volume of output
Year ended June 30 and month

1920...............................................
1921...............................................
1922...............................................
1023...............................................
1924...............................................
1925...............................................
1926..................................... .........
1927...............................................
1928...............................................
1929...............................................
1930...............................................
June, 1928.....................................
June, 1929.....................................
June, 1930.....................................

Value ot sales

Railroads, Electric Building D epart­
M anu­
facturing Minerals
ton-miles power contracts ment
produe- produc­
revenue produc­ let in 37 stores
tion
freight
States
tion
tion
90
72
75
98
97
99
107
108

106

117
no
i 111
i 129
* 101

82
83
69
93
101
98
99
114
103
111
110
1 101
i 113
« 100

96
90
79
96
97
98
105
111
104
110
104
100
109
92

70
72

88

95
102
116
129
138
154
163
140
155
155

90
46
74
91
93
95
122
108
116
112

81

142
110
73

Mail­
order
houses

88
92
85
94
99
100
104
106
107
109
108
104
106
95

106
75
64
82
92
103
118
120
131
166
186
137
176
166

i Adjusted for seasonal variations and for differences in the number of working days in the month.

The indexes for production of manufactured goods show substan­
tially the same movement as the general index of industrial produc­
tion, as might be expected from the fact that manufactured goods
V III

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

IX

dominate in this general index. The separate index for mineral
production for 1929-30 showed much less change from the preceding
year, and there was also much less change during the course of the
year itself. By reason of the continued large production of coal and
petroleum, which are the major factors in the general index for
minerals, the combined index for the fiscal year as a whole was only
1 per cent lower than for the preceding fiscal year and about 31/2
per cent below the peak figure of 1926-27. Mineral output in June,
1930, was about l l 1/^ per cent lower than in the corresponding month
of the previous year. There had, however, been marked reductions
in output of copper and zinc.
The following table shows the relative output (in terms of quan­
tity, not value) of a number of major manufactured and mineral
commodities for the fiscal year 1929-30 as compared with the two
preceding fiscal years. In a majority of cases the production last
year was less than the year before, although there were several ex­
ceptions. On the other hand, more than two-thirds of the items
listed show greater production than in 1927-28:
Production indexes

Product

Year ended
June 30,
1929-30, com­
pared with—

Product

1927-28 1928-29
Flour..................... 1...........................
Pork products (including lard)___
Beef....................................................
Cotton goods (mill consumption
of cotton).......................................
Wool goods (mill consumption of
wool)......................................... .
Bilk (deliveries of raw silk to mills).
Paper-board boxes...........................
Newsprint (consumption)..............
Boxboard..........................................
Shoes..................................................
Cigarettes..........................................
Coal (bituminous)...........................

103.0
97.3

91.0

100.4
100. 1
100. 7

90.2

90.0

90.1
103.9
122.1
112.8
107.7
100.1
119.2
105.4

90.9
100.3
105. 0
107.1
9.8. 2
99.7
105. 2
97.5

Year ended
June 30,
1929-30, com­
pared with—
1B27-28 1928-29

Coke..................................................
Copper (smelter)..............................

Zinc...................................................

;
!
i

;
!

Pig iron.............................................
Steel ingots.......................................
Cement (Portland)..........................
Crude petroleum..............................
Gasoline.............................................
Rubber tires (casings).....................
Plate glass (polished).......................
Automobiles.....................................
Foundry equipment (new orders)-.
Machine tools (new orders)............
Electric current................................

112.0
105.0
90.3
109.9
110.5
98.3
109.6
130.9
90.2
119.2
123.3
132.9
114.7
118.1

99.9
80.2
94.8
95.0
90.7
98.3
103. 1
110.4
72.7
100.4
80.9
04.6
70.2
10«. 9

The traffic of railroads was naturally affected by the decline in
the production of commodities, but the ton-mileage carried by the
railways in the fiscal year 1930 has been surpassed in only three
other years. Traffic in June, 1930, was about one-seventh less than
in the same month of 1929.
The industry most affected by the recession of business was that
of construction, which had already begun to decline during the
fiscal year 1928-29. The value of construction contracts let during
the year ended June, 1930, was less than in any other fiscal year
since 1921-22, and over 14 per cent less than in the preceding fiscal
year.
The production of electric power in the United States normally
shows a rapid increase; the increase in the fiscal year 1929-30 was
less than usual, and there was no substantial change in output be­
tween June, 1929, and the corresponding month of the year just
closed.

X

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

One of the noteworthy features of the year’s business was the
continued demand for consumers’ goods, reflected in the fact that
the value of department-store sales, notwithstanding somewhat lower
prices of commodities, was only very slightly less than the peak
figure of 1928-29, while the mail-order houses and 5-and-10-cent-store
chains continued to increase their sales, largely as a result of the
establishment of new department stores by the mail-order concerns
and of the increase in the number of stores in the chains. These
indicators, however, show declines in June, 1930, as compared with
the preceding June.
The somewhat reduced activity of manufacturing and mining
industry during the fiscal year just closed was accompanied by a
smaller employment of labor and an increase in part-time work.
The average number of wage earners employed in factories during
1929-30, according to the index of the Department of Labor, was
3.7 per cent less than in the preceding year, and the amount on the
pay roll fell somewhat more, or by 5.3 per cent, the difference in
these two percentages being due, not to lower rates of wages, but
to greater prevalence of part-time operations. The number of
workers on the pay rolls at the close of the fiscal year was about 13
per cent less than in June, 1929, while the amount of the pay roll
had declined about 7 per cent. It is a noteworthy fact that practi­
cally no cuts in v-ages have been made by employers as a result of
the recession of business. This stands in marked contrast with the
practice in previous similar recessions. It marks the widespread
conviction that permanent progress in prosperity is dependent on
liberal wages and consequent large buying power on the part of
the masses of the people, and that recovery from any temporary
setback will be promoted bv the same policy.
The fundamental cause of the rise in the standards of living,
which has characterized every decade of our national existence, is
the advance in efficiency of production. The output per man has
greatly increased by reason of greater skill and intelligence on the
part of the workers, improvement in methods of organization and
management, progress in science and invention, and greatly increased
use of capital as an aid to human labor. In the report of this depart­
ment for 1927-28 statistics were given showing the relative number
of workers and relative quantity of goods and services produced in
the four branches of manufactures, agriculture, mining, and railway
transportation. These showed marked gains in productivity per
person employed for recent years as compared not merely with the
beginning of the century but with the year 1919. For the 30-year
period these gains ranged from about 57 to 115 per cent in the differ­
ent branches, and since 1919 they ranged from 10 to 40 per cent.
Still further advance has been made since 1927.
This progress in production per man during recent years is con­
clusive evidence that the advance in economic activity has not been
wholly or even chiefly a mere upswing in the business cycle to be
followed by an equally great downward movement. It has marked
a permanent achievement, and when the present recession is over
the same upward movement will unquestionably be resumed. The
causes at work are for the most part of a cumulative character, so
that it may be said that each forward step leads to another step in
the same direction.

EEPOET OF THE SECEETAEY OF COMMEBCE

XI

PRICES

The steadiness of price levels which had characterized most recent
years was broken by a very considerable decline during the last fiscal
year. For the year as a whole the wholesale price index of the
Department of Labor (converted to the base 1923-1925 as 100)
averaged 91.9 as compared with 96.7 during 1928-29, a decline of
about 5 per cent. For the group of farm products the decline was
slightly greater, while the two groups of foods and commodities,
other than farm products and foods, averaged about 3 per cent below
the preceding year.
The decline in wholesale prices set in during October, 1929, the
index for September being only insignificantly lower than the peak
for July. Between September and June, 1930, the general index fell
almost 11 per cent, and the decline continued in July, although no
further drop occurred in August or September. The reduction in
prices was much less precipitous than that which occurred in 1921.
Indeed, although it took julace during a shorter period of time, the
total amount of the drop was but little greater than that which
occurred between March. 1923, and June. 1924.
The decline in prices was shared by all three of the great groups
of commodities but was e s p e c i a l ^ marked in farm products. The
index for this group fell about 17 per cent between September and
June and fell &y2 per cent further in July, though it has since
shown some recovery. The index for all commodities except farm
and food products, consisting chiefly of manufactured goods and
minerals, had remained substantially unchanged from April, 1927,
to October, 1929. From October, 1929, until June, 1930, it fell
about 7y2 per cent. A ll of the 8 classes of nonagricultural com­
modities set forth in the statistics of the Department of Labor have
declined in price; the change has been particularly conspicuous in
the textile, metal, and miscellaneous classes, the last mentioned being
largely dominated by rubber which has shown a very rapid drop in
price.
The decline in prices in the United States is part of a world-wide
movement. The price indexes of several of the leading foreign
countries have shown even a greater fall. As is normally the case,
the reduction in prices in this and other countries, has been more
conspicuous in raw materials than in manufactured goods. This is
the natural result of the fact that wages constitute a larger propor­
tion of the cost of advanced commodities than of those of simpler
form and that wages seldom fall as rapidly as prices; in fact, in the
United States they have practically not fallen at all during recent
months.
Retail prices normally show less variability than wholesale prices,
partly because they are more fixed by custom and partly for the
same reason that manufactured goods show less variability than
raw commodities. For the fiscal year 1929-30, as a whole, the cost
of living index compiled by the National Industrial Conference
Board averaged slightly lower than for the preceding fiscal year.
The index scarcely began to fall before December and the total de­
cline between November and June was about 5 per cent.

XII

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

Wholesale and other priées index , fiscal years 1922-1930
[Based on calendar years 1923-1025=100]
Item

1922

1923

1924

1925 1926

Wholesale prices:
General average.......................... 92.2 100.5 97.4 99.8 101.8
Farm products............................ 88. 1 94.1 95.3 103.7 103.3
Foods............................ .............. 91.8 96.8 95.8 101.3 107.3
Other products....... ........ ........... 96.7 104.5 98.9 98.0 99.6
Hides and leather products... 100.5 103.8 97.2 101.0 98.3
Textile products....................... 88.1 99. 2 99.7 98.6 96.5
Fuel and lighting..................... 99.2 115.8 96.8 97.1 102.7
Metals and metal p roducts... 99.6 100. 3 101.5 98.3 94.4
Building materials................... 88.7 102.6 100.9 97.3 96.7
Chemicals and drugs.............. 104. 8 100. 5 98.6 99.7 100.8
House furnishing goods.......... 99.2 101.2 101.5 98.6 96.2
Miscellaneous........................... 95.7 96. 7 94.6 95.6 111.6
Farm prices..................... .............. 86.0 93.0 95.0 102.0 103.0
Retail foods..................................... 97.5 95.4 97.8 100.1 108.0
Cost of living:
101.1 98.3 100.5 100.1 103.2
96.5 98. 4 98.1 100.6 101.4

June,
1930 June,
1929 | 1930

1927

1928 1929

96.1
93.7
103. 0
94.5
97.5
88.1
99.8
93.6
93.6
97.6
93.4
91.4
93.0
105.0

95.8
101.9
104.3
90.8
114.6
88.9
86.5
92.2
88.3
95.4
93.1
86.7
99.0
102.6

96.7
102.2
306. 0
91.0
109.9
88.0
87.0
96.9
92.4
94.6
91.6
79.4
08.0
103.3

91.9
97.2
103.2
88.2
102. 5
82.0
83.7
95.2
91.6
91.0
90.9
78.7
96.0
103.8

101.9

99.8

99.4

99. 4
97.0

100.6 98.6 98.7

95.7
100.5
104. 5
90.9
104.1
85.8
87.4
98.9
92.5
92.8
91.5
79.8
97.0
103.3

86.2
86.5
95.7
83.7
98.7
75.6
80.2
89.7
86.4
88.4
91.1
73.9
89.0
98.7

AGRICULTURE

The crops harvested in 1929, the most basic factor in the agricul­
tural situation for the fiscal year 1929-30, were of approximately
average magnitude, the general index of quantity produced being
about. 4 per cent below the peak figures of 1928. The prices at the
time of harvest were about at the average point of recent years, and
to the extent that farmers marketed their crops shortly after harvest,
their income was approximately normal. Prices of farm products
declined materially later in the fiscal year, as already pointed out.
The Department of Agriculture calculates the aggregate value of
farm products on a calendar-year basis. According to these calcu­
lations the gross income of the farmers from crops and animal prod­
ucts in 1929, excluding duplication due to the feeding of crops to
animals, was nearly $12,000,000,000, slightly less than in 1925 but
somewhat greater than in most other recent years and about 1.1 per
cent larger than in 1928. As compared with 1928 there was a de­
crease in the value of crops, but an increase in that of animal prod­
ucts, the latter figure being greater than in any other year covered
by the tabulations. It is estimated that the cash income from farm
sales amounted to $10,147,000.000 in 1929 which was slightly higher
than the income in 1928 and also somewhat above the average of the
past five years.
Estimated farm value of products, gross income and cash income, calendar years
1924-1929
[Value in millions of dollars]
Item

1924

Crops:
Farm value......... ....................................................... 10,537
Gross income............................................................... 6.240
Cash income................................................................ 5,570
Animal products:
Farm value....... _.................................................... __ 5.0S6
Gross income............................................................... 5,166
Cash income................................................................ 4,137
Grand total (excluding duplications):
Gross income........................................................ 11,406
Cash income.............. - ........................................ 9,707

1925

1926

1927

1928

10.008
6,225
5,505

9,285
5,540
4,870

10,078
5.902
5,270

9.800
5,737
5,091

9,498
5,681
5,007

5,820
5,819
4,655

6,078
6.010
4,856

5,978
5,797
4,683

6,205
C. 061
4,965

6,426
6,243
5,140

12.043
10,160

11,550
9,726

11,699
9,954

11,798
10,056

11,924
10,147

1929

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XIII

The 1929 output of corn, wheat, oats, rye, potatoes, and barley
was somewhat below the average of other recent years. That of
tobacco and hay was well above the average. Cotton production was
larger than in any other year except 1925 and 1926.
A severe drought occurred during the summer months of 1930,
extending over a large area. It was most severe in a belt running
from the Atlantic coast to the Missouri River and extending some
distance north and south of the Potomac and Ohio Rivers. There
was relatively little injury in the grain-producing States of the
Northwest, while in the mid-West the yield of corn was cut below the
average. The drought had little effect on the production of wheat.
Although the country’s feed crops are considered sufficient, a large
amount must be shipped into deficit areas. The President’s drought
conference is coordinating the efforts of various agencies in the alle­
viation of the abnormal conditions caused by the drought.
The results of the elaborate census of agriculture, taken in April,
1930, are of course not yet available. The only item thus far
reported is that of the number of farms, which was 2.3 per cent
less than in 1920. It is probable that there has been an even greater
decrease in the number of persons living on farms and the number
engaged in agricultural occupations. The increase in the efficiency
of agriculture, which has been continuous throughout the history
of the country, but perhaps especially marked since the close of
the World War, has made it possible to supply the needs of a grow­
ing population without increasing the number working on the land.
A constantly larger proportion or the people have thus been able to
devote their efforts to producing more highly elaborated commodities
and services characteristic of advanced standards of living. Farm
products are for the most part necessities of life, and it is natural that
the demand for necessities should expand little, if any, more rapidly
than the number of inhabitants of the country. On the other hand,
the demand for many classes of manufactured commodities is almost
unlimited, and new and more highly elaborated articles of manufac­
ture are constantly being introduced so that the total consumption
of factory products increases, with the growth of efficiency in pro­
duction, much faster than the population.
CONSTRUCTION

Although, as already stated, construction considered as a whole
was much less active in 1929-30 than in most recent years, the activity
of public-works construction and public utilities was the greatest
ever recorded except during the World War.
The total value of reported contracts for all types of construction
in 36 States (the far-western States are not covered by the returns)
for the fiscal year was 14 per cent less than in 1928-29, while the
floor space decreased 28 per cent. On the other hand, the value of
contracts for public works and utilities was 11 per cent greater than
the year before.
The most marked decline was in residential building, which had
already shown some decrease during the preceding fiscal year; the
value of residential contracts let in the 36 States during 1929-30 was
40 per cent less than in the preceding year, while the amount of floor
space decreased 43 per cent. During the summer and early autumn

XIV

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

o f 192!) the strong demand for capital for stock-market speculation
made it difficult to obtain credit for home building on reasonable
terms. After the November drop in the stock market credit became
easier, but meantime the demand for new houses has been reduced
by the unfavorable business situation.
The most recent surveys of vacancies in the various cities have indi­
cated that the number of unoccupied dwellings is not excessive and
that, owing to the curtailed amount of new building, the unoccupied
space is being diminished. With the abundance of funds seeking
investment and the recent decreases in the prices of building mate­
rials, it appears that a definite revival in residential construction
should not be far distant.
The extraordinary volume of construction projects for public
works and utilities during the fiscal year, as a whole, was due almost
wholly to the record made during the first six months of 1930, when
special efforts were being put forth by the Federal, State, and local
governments, and by the privately owned utilities to carry out large
programs as a part of the general stabilization program. The au­
thorities concerned were able to take advantage of low rates of inter­
est for obtaining necessary loans, and of the lower construction costs
that have prevailed.
The large volume of construction in public works and public utili­
ties resulted in the cement shipments being practically as great as
they were in the preceding fiscal year.
For the first time since 1923, movements in building material prices
and building costs have been of sufficient magnitude to warrant
special mention. After the temporary peak in prices in the spring
of 1923 the tendency was, on the whole, slightly down until late in
1927. when there was an upturn lasting until 1929. Wholesale prices
of building materials dropped 10 per cent in the first eight months
of 1930 which was much larger than in the most recent years.
The cost of buildings and other construction work has also been
lessened during recent years as the result of various technical im­
provements in construction methods and machinery. The reduced
cost of building due to these factors is sometimes overlooked in
comparing the prices of houses and other buildings, because of the
tendency to incorporate in the buildings a higher quality of finish
and more elaborate equipment.
Construction contracts awarded in 86 States, fiscal years 1988-0)30
[Source: F. W. Dodge Corporation]

Value (millions of dollars)

Floor space (millions of square
feet)

Class
1928

1929

|

1930

1928

!

1929

1930

T otal....................................................

6,329

5,990

5,148

1 877 i

J 847

i 608

Residential.....................................................
Public works and public utilities................
Industrial and commercial..........................
All other.........................................................

2,712
1,256
1,394
967

2,281
1,250 ;
1,571
888 i

1,365
1,387
1,492
903

536

468

268

212 !
130 ;
1

257
122

215
124

* Floor space of public works and public utilities not included.

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XV

Construction statistics, fiscal years 1922-1930
[Based on calendar years 1923—
1925—100]
Item

1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930

Indexes of volume of business:
Construction contracts awarded—
Value, including public works and public utilities
Floor space of buildings »................................. ............
Residential construction—
Value i ..............................................................................
Floor space 1................................................................ .
Public works and public utilities, value 1.......................
All other construction—
Value 1........................................ ...................................
Floor space 1....................................................................
Price indexes:
Frame-house materials, retail._____ ___ ___________
Building-material prices, wholesale.................. ..............
1 36 States.

o
o

(>)
(’)

88
92

101
95

129
122

130
107

133
116

126
112

109
81

m
o
m

(*)
0
(*)

75
79
73

82
78
89

109
104
103

98
87
128

105
99
138

88
86
137

53
50
152

(>>
(>>
71

St
90

72
75
93

85
80
105

110
98
108

113
94
113

106
94
116

111 108
10-4 93
118 116

e>
89

99
103

103
101

98
97

97
97

95
94

90
88

SS
92

88
92

1 Comparable data not available.

TRANSPORTATION

The net operating income of Class I railways (which represents
about 98 per cent of the total railway business) during the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1930, was less than in the previous year, but
was greater than in 1927-28. The volume of freight traffic handled
(ton-miles of revenue freight) from July to December, 1929, prac­
tically equaled the figures for the corresponding period of 1928.
For the entire fiscal year the revenue ton-mileage was about 5 per
cent less than in 1928-29, but about 1 per cent greater than in
1927-28.
Reflecting continued increased efficiency the traffic of 1929-30 was
handled with fewer employees, fewer freight cars, and fewer loco­
motives than in any other year of similar volume of business. The
use of larger cars and more powerful locomotives, permitting the
handling of heavier trains, has tended gradually to raise the average
amount of freight carried per person employed on the railroads. In
the last fiscal year the average weight oi revenue ton freight hauled
per train was 799 tons, fractionally less than in 1928-29, but com­
paring with 776 tons in 1927-28 and 656 in 1921-22. The new cars
and locomotives that are being added from time to time are of much
larger capacity than those installed 20 or 30 years ago or even 10
years ago.
Although the proportion of total revenue from passenger service
has been decreasing for some time, the railways are continually add­
ing improvements in the way of added facilities and comfort to the
traveling public. Economies in the conduct of passenger service
have also been introduced without lowering the quality of the
service.
In fact, the quality of service furnished by the railways, as well
as other public carriers, has continued to improve and is now better
than at any other time in the history of the country. Car shortages
have become rare occurrences. At present it takes only from onehalf to two-thirds as long to move goods a given distance as it did
a decade ago. The increasing efficiency with which traffic is handled
has enabled producers to make quicker deliveries and distributors

XVI

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

are able to carry smaller stocks and to turn over their capital more
quickly.
The national forecasts of the Regional Advisory Boards have
served admirably in indicating business trends and have proved of
great value to industry in determining future activities.
The railroads have performed useful service in relieving drought
conditions during the past summer by issuing low-rate tariffs for
animal feed and livestock moving in and out of the drought-stricken
areas, and for rail carriage of water where needed.
Operating statistics of Class I railways fiscal years 1922-1930
[Source: Interstate Commerce Commission and Bureau of Railway Economics]
Item

1922

1925

1926

1927

1928

1929

1930

|
Freight ton-mileage (millions):
Revenue............................................... 313,439 396, 621 427,385' 419,285 420,312 447, 024 423, 067
Nonrevenue......................................
38,097 40, 760 43, 39S: 46,192 44,33C 44,763
42,643
Tons of revonue freight originated
(thousands).............................. -.......... 940, 056 1,210,118 1,273, 048'], 351, 076 1,246,228 1, 320, 086 3,280, 828
Cars loaded (thousands)........................
40, 058 49,078
51,905 53, 627 50, 576 52,716
50, 394
Net tons per train, average....................
650
731
752
776
803
786
799
Net tons per loaded car, average...........
20.8
26.7
27.0
27.0
26.8
26.9
27.6
Average daily car surplus...................... 272, 756 252,410 218, 779 213,154 303,408 232, 378 326, 719
Average daily car shortage....................
2,410
295
435
287
133
57
44
Bad-order cars, average number_____
339, 36fl 194, 519 172, 252 144,668 141, 508 142, 672 141, 796
Bad-order locomotives, average num­
ber 1............................... .......................
15,704
11,514
9, 302
10,478
8, 880
8,343
8,103
Employees, average number................. 1,643,000 1,765,000 I, 782, 733 1, 798.495 1,711,200 1,679, 553 1, 639, 881
Total operating revenues (thousands
of dollars).............................................. 5, 508,169 6,011,86-1 6,325,158|6,442,387 6,096,483 6,334,043 5,976,001
Net operating income (thousands of
dollars).................................................. 818,345 1,033, 760 1,194,832; 1,209, 535 1,074,341 1,294,470 1,088, 473
i Includes switching and terminal engines.

The merchant marine act of 1928, providing for enlarged loan
funds and overseas mail contracts, has resulted in a steady advance
of our merchant marine. Shipbuilding has substantially increased
and privately owned merchant marine is being developed, while the
Government is steadily retiring from the business. A ll important
trade routes from the TJnited States to other parts of the world are
now being served Avith American owned and operated ships—25
private companies now operate 79 lines, 44 from the Atlantic sea­
board, 14 from the Gulf, and 21 from the Pacific coast. The amount
of tonnage under construction on July 1, 1930, increased 187 per
cent over that on July 1, 1929.
During the past year considerable progress has been made in the
development of inland waterways. A notable event occurred after
the close of the fiscal year when the Seventy-first Congress, on July
3, 1930, passed the largest and most comprehensive rivers and harbors
bill in the history of waterway legislation. This act provides for a
total of 178 neAV projects and the preliminary examination and survey
of 389 other projects at an estimated cost of $400,000,000. Improve­
ments in all sections of the country are provided for and substantial
progress is being made on the projects now under way.
BANKING AND FINANCE

Financial conditions in the United States were dominated by the
security market. The fiscal year opened with stock quotations still

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

XVII

rising rapidly, after years of an almost uninterrupted “ bull market.”
The total market value of all stocks listed on the New York Stock
Exchange increased from $77,265,000,000 in July to $89,670,000,000
in September—a 16 per cent appreciation in two months. The col­
lapse of stock prices in October and November, however, brought the
market value of these listed stocks down to $63,590,000,000 as of
December 1, a drop of almost 30 per cent. An average of 30 leading
industrial stocks showed a decline of about 48 per cent between Sep­
tember 3 and November 13. Only the action of a hurriedly organ­
ized banking syndicate and the admirable preparedness of the Fed­
eral reserve banks prevented a still more serious collapse of our
security market.
A marked advance in stock quotations occurred during, the first
quarter of the calendar year 1930. Approximatelj'’ half of the 1929
decline was made up, and the industrial averages were almost as high
as in the corresponding period of 1929. This rally, however, was
followed by a second decline, the value of all listed stocks falling
from $76,075,000,000 at the end of March to $63,890,000,000 at the
close of the fiscal year, or not very much above the level tor the end
of November.
The collapse of the security market was followed by an almost
complete cessation in new financing; issues brought out during
November totaled only $280,000,000 as against the all-time record of
$1,300,000,000 in September. When activity in the flotation of new
securities was renewed during the first quarter of 1930, corporations
seeking new capital turned to bond issues in view of the unpopularity
of new stock issues and the improvement in bond prices. New bond
issues floated during that quarter totaled $1,867,000,000, a figure more
than a half billion higher than in the corresponding period of 1929.
Stock issues during this same three months’ period aggregated only
$ 110,000 ,000 .

The fiscal year closed with the rediscount rate of the Federal
Reserve Bank of New York down to 2y2 per cent, the lowest rate
ever established by a Federal reserve bank. Rates on call loans and
renewals were down to 1 ^ per cent; while 90-day bankers’ accept­
ances were bid at 1% per cent, the lowest since" 1924. These low
money rates resulted from security liquidation, slackened business
activity, and heavy gold imports, as well as from the cheap-money
policy of the reserve banks. In accordance with that policy these
banks bought securities, thereby releasing credit funds to the banks.
Government securities held by those institutions, amounting to only
$147,000,000 in July, 1929, were increased to $446,000,000 by
December and had reached $590,000,000 on June 30, 1930.
A factor that is generally regarded to have had a most disturbing
effect upon the money market was the volume of nonbanking funds
placed in brokers’ loans. It was these funds that created the danerous expansion of brokers’ loans during the early part of the past
seal year, and their sudden withdrawal aggravated the credit dif­
ficulties following the stock-market crash. During the fiscal year
call loans decreased from $7,071,000,000 to $3,728,000,000, or by over
$3,343,000,000, a large part of which shrinkage resulted from the
withdrawal of nonbanking funds.

f

18038— 30------ ii

XVIII

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

The trend of commercial banking is indicated in a combined
statement of the “ reporting” member banks of the Federal reserve
system as of June 18, 1930.
Between June 19, 1929, and June 19, 1930, loans secured by stocks
and bonds show an increase of $1,233,000,000, or 16.7 per cent. As
nonsecured loans (mainly commercial) decreased $648,000,000 or 7
per cent, during the same period, total loans recorded an expansion
of $585,000,000, or 3.5 per cent. There was a small increase in invest­
ments, bringing total “ loans and investments ” up to $23,118,000,000,
as compared with $22,298,000,000 as of the same date in 1929.
During the same period demand deposits increased by $698,000,000
and time deposits by $504,000,000.
In addition to investment-trust issues it is reported that the in­
crease in “ loans on securities ” also represents loans to insurance
companies necessitated by the increased demand for policy loans.
A substantial part of these loans may have also been on large vol­
umes of securities, which were being held by various financial insti­
tutions for higher market values. The liquidation of loans other
than those secured by stocks and bonds represents both a retirement
of commercial loans contracted last fall to carry securities during
the market crash, and a shifting from direct to indirect borrowing
in order to take advantage of exceptionally low open-market rates.
The trend toward chain and group banking, banking consolida­
tions, and the expansion of branch banking was again evident dur­
ing the past fiscal year. The merging of important banking insti­
tutions in our larger cities has resulted in a marked reduction in the
number of banks as well as a large-scale concentration of banking
resources. As a result of one of these mergers, the largest bank
in the world is now domiciled in the United States.
The broad demand for prime short-term investments, together
with low rates, has greatly increased the use of the banker’s accept­
ance as a means of financing. Outstanding acceptances at the close
of the fiscal year were $192,000,000 greater than a year ago, a marked
contrast to the large decline in direct borrowings from banks for
commercial purposes during the same period. Most of the increase
was represented by the $178,000,000 growth in “ foreign ” acceptances,
a measurement of the greater use of American credits to finance the
storage of goods abroad or their shipment between foreign points.
Because of the decrease of our foreign trade during the fiscal year,
there was a shrinkage in acceptances based on imports and exports.
The $1,305,000,000 of acceptances outstanding as of June 30, 1930,
however, was the highest ever recorded at the close of a fiscal year.
Foreign securities publicly offered in the United States during
the first three months of the past fiscal year amounted to only
$79,655,000 (net nominal), the lowest total for any corresponding
quarter in six years. This decline is ascribed to the diversion of
investment funds into security speculation and to the resultant rise
of money rates both here and abroad. During the last three months
of 1929 the $133,540,000 of foreign financing indicated a gradual
return to the volume of recent years; and this trend became even
more pronounced during the first six months of 1930, when foreign
capital issues underwritten here exceeded the total for the entire

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XIX

calendar year 1929 by almost $100,000,000. The sudden decline in
our capital exports during the first half of the fiscal year is commonly
blamed for part of the recent sharp decline in American exports and
for part of the business recession in foreign countries.
The inflow of gold which had been uninterrupted during the spec­
ulative boom was abruptly halted during November and Decemner,
at which time there was a net outflow of about $110,000,000. The
movement of gold, however, has been decidedly in our favor during
the first half of 1930—net gold imports during that period totaling
approximately $213,000,000. The greater part of this increase in
our gold stock took place during February, March, and April, over
$60,000,000 coming in during each of these three months.
Despite the enormous acceleration of the number of check pay­
ments in the autumn of 1929, during the increased liquidation of
security holdings, the total value of bank debits recorded a decrease
of 21/2 per cent from the preceding year, declining from the record
high of $865,000,000,000 for the year 1928-29 down to $843,000,000,000 for the total of the past fiscal year. This was the first decline in
the total value of all check payments for a great many years. Some
part of this decrease compared with the preceding fiscal year was
undoubtedly caused by the relatively inactive state of business during
the period following the stock market crash.
The United States Government again maintained its rapid retire­
ment of the public debt. The interest-bearing public debt was
brought down to $15,866,000,000 on June 30, 1930, a reduction of
about $738,000,000 during the year. This compares with the debt
reduction of $679,000,000 during 1928-29. The excess of ordinary
receipts over total expenditures chargeable against ordinary receipts
was $183,789,000 for the fiscal year 1929-30, about the same surplus
as was recorded during 1928-29.
EOKEIGN TKADE

The recession in general business activity which has appeared in
the United States during the last fiscal year has been world-wide;
indeed, in several important foreign countries recession had begun
even earlier than in the United States. The reduced buying power
of the world naturally resulted in a decline in the exports of the
United States as it did also in the exports of practically every other
important country. Correspondingly, the reduced buying power in
the United States itself cut down our imports from the rest of the
world during the last half of the fiscal year. 1929-30. The decline
in the value of our exports and imports was greater than that in the
quantitative volume as the result of the lower prices of commodities,
particularly conspicuous in the import trade.
The total value of exports (including reexports of imported goods)
in the fiscal year 1929-30 was $4,684,000,000. This was $678,000,000.
or 12.6 per cent below the record figure of 1928-29. It was, however,
only 5.5 per cent less than the average value of exports for the 5vear period from 1924—25 to 1928-29, and when account is taken of
the lower price levels the exports were quantitatively somewhat
greater than the average of that 5-year period.

XX

BEPOET OF THE SECEETABY OF COMMEECE

Foreign trade of the United States
[Millions of dollars]
Per cent change
in 1930 from—

Year ended June 30—
Item

Exports ol United States merchandisc....... .............................................
Exports, including reexports...............
Imports, merchandise..........................
Excess of exports (+) or imports (—):
Gold................................................
Quantitative index eliminating the
effect of price variations (19101914=100):
Exports of United States mercnandise......................................
Im ports...........................................

19101914

1922

1927

1928

1929

1930

1928 ; 1929

2,130
2,160
1,689

3,700
3,771
2,008

4,867
4,968
4, 252

4,773
4,877
4,147

5,284
5,374
4,292

4,618
4, 694
3,849

- 3 .3 ! -12. &
- 3 .8 ! -1 2 .0
- 7 .2 ! -1 0 .3

-{-477 + 1,163
+ 17 -441
-8
+20

+716
-148
+21

+730 +1,082
+498
-155
+17
+20

+845
-223
+18

117
134

175
180

100
100

174

184

193
2021

173
200

- .6
-10.4
+8. 7 i - 1 .2
{

The value of imports decreased somewhat less than that of exports;
they amounted to $3,849,000,000 as compared with $4,292,000,000 in
1928-29, a decline of 10.3 per cent. The decline as compared with
the average for the fiscal years 1924-25 to 1928-29 was 8.3 per cent.
It is estimated that the average price level of imported commodities
during the fiscal year was about 9 per cent lower than in the preced­
ing year, and no less than 18 per cent lower than in the preceding
5-year period. There was, therefore, relatively little decline in the
quantity of imports as compared with 1928-29, and a considerable
increase as compared with the average for the 5-year period.
The reduction in exports was shared by all four of the major
economic classes, foodstuffs, crude materials, semimanufactures, and
finished manufactures, but was relatively greatest in foodstuffs and
crude materials, and least in finished manufactures. As a conse­
quence, the share of finished manufactures in the total of our exports,
which has risen almost constantly throughout the recent decades and
recent individual years, rose still further in 1929-30, reaching very
nearly half (49.6 per cent). Finished manufactures are less subject
to variations in demand and especially less subject to variations in
price than the less advanced products and are consequently a stabiliz­
ing factor in our export trade.
There was also a decline as compared with 1928-29 in the imports
of each of the four major economic classes. The most marked re­
duction, in terms of value, was in the class of crude materials, a fact
chiefly, if not wholly, attributable to the decided drop in the prices
of many of the leading commodities of this group. Just as with
exports, the imports of finished manufactures, although falling off
in absolute value, showed a relative gain, amounting to 23.8 per
cent of the total imports in value as against 22.4 per cent in the pre­
ceding year.
Although cotton continued to be our largest single export in
value during 1929-30, machinery was a close second. The quantity
of cotton exported fell materially and its value still more, whereas
the value of machinery sold abroad reached a record total, notwith­
standing the depressed"business situation in foreign countries. There

XXI

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

was also an increase in the exports of petroleum and its products.
The reduced buying power of the world was, however, reflected in
a reduction of more than one-third in value of exports of motor
vehicles, which fell from second to fourth rank among our export
commodities. Among the major import articles the most conspicu­
ous declines in value appeared in coffee, rubber, aud sugar, all of
which fell materially in price, while in the case of rubber and sugar
there was also a reduction in the quantity imported.
Trade with all the great trade areas of the world in both directions
was smaller in value last year than the year before. In exports,
reductions were particularly conspicuous in the case of South Amer­
ica, northern North America, Asia, and Oceania, and less pronounced
in the case of Europe, Latin North America, and Africa. There
was less difference among the continents with respect to the per­
centage of decline in value of imports. The most marked reduction
was in our purchases from Asia, which fell about 10 per cent in
value, chiefly by reason of lower prices of the major commodities
brought from that continent.
Foreign trade of the United States
[Millions of dollars]
Year ended June 3 0 19101914

1922

1927

1928

1929

1930

1928

1929

1,350
816
320
302
121
48
25

2,0 6 8
1,703
551
536
480
84
52

2,394
2,575
797
869
587
216
106

2,322
2 ,5 5 5
871
831
568
174
111

2.397
2,977
999
970
686
193
129

2,173
2, 621
830
848
666
160
116

- 6 .4
- 1 .3
- 4 .7
+ 2 .2
- .4
- 7 .7
+ 5 .0

- 9 .3
- 1 5 .3
- 1 6 .9
- 1 2 .6
- 1 7 .4
- 1 6 .9
- 9 .9

421
713
342
654

IT 144
933
412
1,211

877
1,321
694
1,976

824
1.174
714
2 ,0 6 2

806
1,239
730
2,508

658
1.031
637
2,293

- 2 0 .1
- 1 2 .2
- 1 0 .8
+ 1 1 .2

- 1 8 .4
- 1 6 .8
- 1 2 .8
- 8 .9

830
853
119
435
259
17
23
398
595
307
389

831
1,777
310
679
705
31
52
635
927
407
639

1,257
2,995
486
1,049
1,315
59
86
968
1,651
759
874

1,258
2, 889
492
1,039
1,215
54
90
969
1,541
746
892

1,302
2,889
516
1,089
1,223
57
104
971
1,510
849
961

1,188
2,661
488
949
1,097
40
88
837
1,309
785
918

- 5 .6
- 7 .9
- 1 .0
- 8 .6
- 9 .7
- 2 5 .4
- 2 .2
- 1 3 .6
- 1 5 .0
+ 5 .2
+ 3 .0

- 8 .8
- 1 1 .0
- 5 .6
- 1 2 .8
- 1 0 .3
- 2 9 .8
- 1 5 .6
- 1 3 .8
- 1 3 .3
- 7 .6
- 4 .5

average
TOTAL EXPORTS, INCLUDING REEX*
PORTS OF FOREIGN MERCHANDISE

To—
Europe................................................
All other continents..........................
Canada and Newfoundland.........
Latin America...............................
Asia.................................................
Oceania...........................................
Africa..............................................
•EXPORTS OF UNITED STATES MER­
CHANDISE

Foodstuffs.............................................
Raw materials......................................
Semimanufactures................................
Finished manufactures........................
GENERAL IMPORTS

From—
Europe................................................
All other continents..........................
Canada and Newfoundland.........
Latin America...............................
Asia.................................................
Oceania...........................................
Africa..............................................
Foodstuffs.............................................
Raw materials......................................
Semimanufactures................................
Finished manufactures........................

ELIMINATION OF W ASTE
Many of the activities of the agencies functioning under the aus­
pices and authority of the Department of Commerce are of im­
portance in the general campaign aimed at the elimination of un­
necessary waste. Prominent among these activities from the point
of view of waste elimination are those relating to the production,
distribution, and utilization of manufactured commodities, and to
the operation and control of equipment involving hazards to life
and property.
Mechanical equipment which is capable of functioning but which
remains idle, and laborers willing to work but remaining unem­
ployed, represent definite economic loss. In the elimination of waste
of this kind the Department of Commerce has been especially active.
CONSTRUCTION AND HOME OWNERSHIP

The Government’s program of cooperation with public and private
agencies in regard to outstanding problems of the construction in­
dustry and home ownership has been signalized by two outstanding
developments, both closely associated with the department.
The first of these was the movement to hasten certain types of
construction, notably new public works and utilities projects, and
repairs and maintenance to existing buildings of ail types. This
was part of the general program to help sustain business and em­
ployment after the collapse in security prices in the autumn of 1929.
The second was the initiation, announced shortly after the close
of the fiscal year, of the President’s Conference on Home Building
and Home Ownership. This conference is to be held after several
months of preparation, during which committees will be engaged in
studying and reporting on the many different problems involved.
In addition to these and other activities which are discussed in this
section, the construction industry has been aided by the depart­
ment’s work on standardization and simplification of building ma­
terials, improved wood utilization, and scientific investigations o f
the manufacture, uses, and properties of building materials which
are described elsewhere in this report.
Planning and control of public works.—Reference was made in
last year’s report to the study of the planning and control of public
works undertaken by this department in cooperation with the Na­
tional Bureau of Economic Research and the Committee on Recent
Economic Changes of the President’s Conference on Unemployment..
The fact-finding survey, which w-as completed last autumn, developed
certain conclusions which were used when the President’s stabilization
program was initiated. It was clearly brought out that, although
the usual course at such times had been for local governments to
follow- a policy of retrenchment, there is a growing recognition of
the numerous and obvious advantages (from the standpoint of busi­

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXIII

ness stability) in having public-works construction proceed more
actively during periods when general business and employment are
slack.
The President’s appeal to governors and to State and local offi­
cials under them for the “ energetic, yet prudent” pursuit of needed
public-works projects was highly successful, as is mentioned in ihe
Economic Review. In order to aid in coordinating the work of
the Federal Government bureaus carrying on construction and the
efforts of State and local governments, the division of public con­
struction was established, and immediately availed itself of the
preparatory work and experience which had been accumulated in
the department.
On the basis of data obtained from the governors in regard to
public works and from the national business survey conference
in regard to public utilities, it was learned that more than $7,000,000,000 worth of new construction, including some other capital
expenditures for improved plant and equipment, together with cer­
tain items of maintenance and repairs, would be undertaken during
the year. Latest indications are that this program is being carried
through. During the first six months of 1930 it appears that at
least $1,700,000,OdO worth of work was undertaken or executed by
public authorities and a like amount by the utilities, a sum $400,000,000 in excess of that during the corresponding period in 1929.
The Class I railroads alone report having spent $118,000,000 more
for additions and betterments during the first half of 1930 than in
the same period of 1929.
The success attending this effort to support the economic structure
at a period of crisis, when failure would have plunged the Nation
into a much more serious situation, is an encouraging step in the
general program for greater stabilization of business and of employ­
ment and should lend strength to the department’s continued
efforts, through the development of improved statistics and other
means, to place construction on a more stable basis, both seasonally
and from year to year. In this connection the department is en­
couraging the compilation of adequate periodic local real-estate and
building-vacancy surveys, a movement which has gained consider­
able strength during the past year or two.
Home building and home ownership.—The department’s activi­
ties designed to promote home ownership on a sound economic basis
have been guided during the past fiscal year with special reference
to laying a groundwork for the President’s Conference on Home
Building and Home Ownership. This conference was formally set
in motion shortly after the close of the fiscal year through the
appointment by the President of a planning committee with the
Secretary of Commerce as chairman.
The expenses of organizing the conference are being met from
funds which have been privately contributed, and many private or­
ganizations, including trade associations, professional societies, and
civic bodies, have offered their cooperation in carrying out studies
of important problems.
Much material in the Bureau of Standards, especially in its di­
vision of building and housing, and in other bureaus of the Com­
merce and other Federal departments will be of particular assist­
ance to the various committees in getting under way promptly. In

XXIV

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OE COMMERCE

preparing a pamphlet, Care and Repair of the House, which has
been completed, a considerable mass of material relating to the va­
rious parts of the house and its fundamental equipment, such as
heating, lighting, plumbing, and refrigeration, was consulted, ana­
lyzed, and listed in convenient form for future reference in con­
nection with other phases of home building. This particular
pamphlet is designed to aid home owners in keeping their houses
in good repair and in an attractive condition. At the same time,
it snould help» them to reduce their repair bills, which amount to
several hundred million dollars a year.
Again, the elements of small-house construction, as they affected
present building practices, and standards recommended for various
parts of the house by different agencies were all surveyed in some
detail in connection with writing up the results of a field survey
of small-house construction. A considerable amount of material
has also been assembled on one of the central problems of the con­
ference—home financing. Financing above the limits of the cus­
tomary first mortgage—a field in wliich bonuses, fees, commissions,
and extra charges are the rule—is believed by many competent au­
thorities to present one of the greatest opportunities for direct sav­
ings to the home buyer or home owner. Furthermore, serious
fluctuations in the supply of credit available to home owners con­
tribute to instability in real estate, and in business and employment
generally. Satisfactory solution of these matters should contribute
to greater stability in home property values, and go a long way
toward enabling families to own their homes on a sound basis.
U niform ity of local building codes.—Each year brings a new list
of municipalities which, because of growth in population or other
causes, find it advisable to adopt formal building regulations. In
addition, numerous cities and towns decide to overhaul their existing
regulations so that they may conform more closely to advances in
engineering knowledge and to modern conceptions of what consti­
tutes proper provision for health and general welfare. To such
places the recommended minimum requirements of the department’s
building-code committee, composed of nationally known architects
and engineers, offer a source of information that can be used with
confidence. That this is appreciated is attested by the hundreds of
applications for the recommendations and for related data. During
the past year, contacts with building officials and code-revision com­
mittees have been made closer, in part as a result of field work, and
this has permitted orienting the department’s activity so as to facili­
tate its most effective application.
Planning and zoning.—There continues to be a growing demand
for the department’s services on the part of municipalities and other
political units actually concerned in planning and zoning problems.
The extension of interest in regional planning has been a particu­
larly notable development in recent years. There are now more than
50 official and unofficial regional planning commissions or organiza­
tions throughout the country, representing a population oi more
than 39,000,000 and a land area of 96,000 square miles.
Zoning ordinances have been adopted by more than 900 cities,
towns, and villages, and included in that number are 61 cities having
more than 100,000 population each. Zoning enabling legislation has

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXV

been adopted by 46 States and the District of Columbia. A Standard
State Zoning Enabling Act, prepared by the Advisory Committee
on City Planning and Zoning in 1923, has been used by the legis­
latures of 35 States in the enactment of 54 zoning laws. There is a
trend now toward extending zoning beyond the limits of municipali­
ties into outlying rural areas, anti regional, county, and township
zoning laws are being adopted.
The department’s Standard City Planning Enabling Act, pub­
lished in 1927, by the adoption of which States may confer adequate
city-planning powers on municipalities, and which also contains
regional planning provisions, has served as the basis for 11 acts in
eight States. The effect of the development of city planning and
zoning has been far-reaching and undoubtedly has resulted in a
reduction of the huge wastes which not infrequently have been caused
in the past by the improper location of buildings and public
improvements.
DOMESTIC MARKETING SERVICES

The Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce has achieved
distinct success during this past year in its work of isolating and
treating those individual sources of marketing waste which in the
aggregate are costing the country perhaps $10,000,000,000 annually.
These wastes arise from a multitude of causes, but it has been found
possible to locate many of them specifically and, in cooperation with
industry, to work out formulae for their reduction on a practical
scale.
Among these causes are excessive expenditures in sales-promotive
effort without adequate information as to prospects; haphazard
procedure in retail merchandising arising out of extravagant
services, unwise credit methods, and insufficient attention to cost
records ; indifferent or total absence of stock control ; insufficient
data as to national stocks of goods and the channels through which
they move; and disorderly marketing, with resulting gluts and
famines.
Known causes of wastes in marketing by no means constitute all
costly leaks which exist in our distributive system; but as a recog­
nized result of these wastes, there is too great a difference between
the price paid to the producer and the cost to the ultimate consumer,
and too many distributors who either fail in business or operate
on a dangerously narrow margin. The operations of the domestic
commerce division to eliminate waste have a double function : To
find causes of waste and to assist American business in removing
them as they are found.
Practically every American industry in every section of the coun­
try is now calling on the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com­
merce for assistance with those problems which influence the eco­
nomic distribution of commodities. Out of this voluntary relation­
ship there has developed a cooperative program embracing, among
others, the following practical features:
Cost stxulies.—Far-reaching benefits resulting from the depart­
ment’s analyses of distribution costs have already been reported by
distributors who have applied these findings to their own establish­
ments. The investigations into wholesale and retail distribution

XXVI

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

have actively gone forward for several lines of trade, including
groceries, hardware, dry goods, paints and varnishes, electrical
equipment, and specialties. Out of these studies has crystallized
a definite method of functional cost allocation, which may easily
be adopted by any member of the trade in determining the profit­
ableness of his own individual commodities, customers, or services.
In all of these investigations the examples of economies, actually
effected through practical application of the principles so disclosed,
have had a salutary influence throughout that whole trade. The
lessons have been convincing because in every case they have been
supported by facts.
An outstanding effort toward the elimination of waste in distribu­
tion is the Louisville grocery survey, which is still under way and
is being reported in a series of preliminary releases described in
another section of this publication. This survey is regarded as the
most comprehensive fact-finding investigation that has ever been
undertaken with regard to the distribution of commodities. The
Louisville grocery survey has led to a broad movement for trade
betterment through waste-eliminating operations that has acquired
nation-wide proportions. The Louisville Board of Trade has stated
that the grocery survey had a minimum value of $100,000 to the
city of Louisville alone. The really significant thing about this
$100,000, however, is that the results of this special research which
produced it can be applied just as directly to distribution problems in
other cities and in other trades.
R etail credit survey.—An annual waste of nearly $1,000,000,000 is
said to be attributable to credit losses. Last year’s report described
the domestic commerce division’s effort to reduce this loss through
a survey of retail credit practices, in cooperation with the National
Retail Credit Association. The results of this survey, published in
three sections, have recently been made available to the public, and
from retailers in various sections of the country statements are
already being received which indicate a tendency toward greater care
in investigating applicants for credit. Because of its obvious practi­
cal uses, and at the instance of the national association, it is now being
continued on a semiannual basis.
Industrial surveys.—The results of preliminary studies of the e f­
fects of age and condition of productive equipment on profits reveal
both a clear need for extension of these types of industrial surveys
to every trade where the problem is important, and their value in
the general program of waste elimination. There has been a brisk
demand for copies of such reports as have been published, covering
investigations of the equipment used in the blue-print and allied
industries, iron foundries, and knitting plants.
Regional commercial surveys.—The domestic regional division
provides two types of badly needed background data. The first type
involves the measurement of potential consumptive capacity of exist­
ing marketing areas within the United States. The effort here is
to show the territory which may be served economically from estab­
lished distributing points without regard to geographical State
boundaries, and to show, for each such territory, the pertinent in­
dexes of buying power and consuming ability. The Market Data
Handbook, which the bureau was able to compile, fills a long-felt
want in making possible the more scientific and practical adjustment

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXVII

of selling and advertising campaigns to logical, really profitable sales
territories and classes of consumers.
Three editions of this handbook have been exhausted in a single
year, and there are now more than 8,000 copies in use.
The second type of regional study undertakes to ascertain and
diagnose lim iting factors in given regions which may be obstructing
economic progress. For example, the tendency toward migration of
the textile industry from New England produced a vital local need
for a definite determination of desirable industrial readjustments,
opportunity for development of substitute enterprises, etc. For an­
other example, the shifts in agricultural production in the South
brought about by the ravages of crop diseases and the rapid indus­
trialization of many sections have completely changed the basic eco­
nomic structure of that entire region. In both these cases the
bureau’s regional-survey staff has been able to compile the pertinent
facts most helpful toward practical solutions of these important
regional problems.
SIM PLIFIED PRACTICE

As business becomes more and more complex, individual plants
and factories expand to meet added demands upon their facilities.
Competition urges the production and handling of an increased
number of different commodities, and stampedes each commodity
into taking on new shapes, sizes, and immaterial variations. The
problems of all departments become burdensome until the point is
reached where sales analyses are mandatory for the good of all.
Such surveys unmistakably reveal those varieties of product which
bring in a profit and those which are losing propositions. Net prof­
its depend upon rapidity of turnover and frequency of reinvested
capital. “ Frozen capital ”—money that is tied up in slow-moving
stock—is to be avoided. There are individual manufacturers and
distributors that have eliminated considerably more than threefourths of their varieties without anything but good resulting from
their action.
During the past nine years the division of simplified practice, serv­
ing as a coordinating agency for manufacturers, distributors, and
consumers seeking to minimize the waste resulting from excessive
diversity in sizes, dimensions, and immaterial differences of com­
modities. has aided the affected industries in the promulgation of
113 simplified-practice recommendations; 15 of these were completed
during this past fiscal year.
This record shows that industries have manifested a growing desire
to work with each other in solving problems of mutual interest.
Also, it shows that distinct industries are finding it increasingly
practicable to work together toward the common end of eliminating
avoidable waste. It has been found that such cooperation is par­
ticularly significant because the producers in one industry are con­
sumers of the products of other industries. Such collaboration
should aid in promoting stability in the production and exchange
■of goods.
Sustained interest in the simplification movement is indicated by
the high average adherence accorded recommendations now in effect.
Eighty-four per cent of the output of commodities covered by the

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REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

29 simplified practice recommendations that were reviewed this
fiscal year, as revealed by statistical reports from the participating
manufacturers, conformed to the recommended sizes, dimensions,
and varieties.
The average of the yearly adherence figures for the last nine years
is very nearly 84 per cent.
Simplification is being applied in the solution of problems of dis­
tributors as well as those of production. A field study of wrapping
and purchasing methods involving 84 department stores in 17
cities is now being made. It is estimated that the present cost of
handling and distributing packages in the stores of the country is
about $90,000,000 annually, so that a small percentage in saving
would represent a large amount in money.
CEBTIFICATION AND LABELING

In cooperation with governmental specifications-using agencies
(Federal, State, county, and municipal), with other consumers and
with producers and distributors, the Federal specifications and ap­
proved commercial standards have been brought to the attention of
the interested producers and a large number of users of commodities
covered by these specifications and standards, through the medium
of the certification plan and the accompanying self-identifying qual­
ity guaranteeing labeling plan.
To assist in broadening the field of supply of commodities pur­
chased under Federal specifications and expanding the mass pro­
duction, mass distribution, and mass consumption of these commodi­
ties, the National Bureau of Standards has compiled complete lists
of manufacturers desirous of accepting contracts based on certain of
these specifications and willing to certify to purchasers, upon re­
quest, that the commodities delivered under these contracts comply
with the requirements and tests of the specifications. Lists of “ willing-to-certify ” manufacturers corresponding to 281 Federal speci­
fications and commercial standards have already been compiled.
More than 9,000 requests for listing have been received from about
3,000 manufacturing firms.
At the suggestion of the Chief Coordinator these lists have been
distributed to the purchasing agencies of all Federal Government
departments and establishments. They have also been distributed
to about 25,000 additional public purchasers for all of the States,
counties, and cities throughout the country, all municipalities having
the commission form of government, and to more than 500 pur­
chasers for colleges.
In accordance with the self-identifying, quality guaranteeing label­
ing plan, a firm desiring to bring effectively to the attention of the
noncontract or “ over-the-counter ” buyer, at the time of making a
purchase, commodities guaranteed to comply with the requirements o f
certain nationally recognized specifications places on the individual
commodities or their containers labels which definitely identify both
the specification and manufacturer or the trade association which
holds itself responsible for the guaranty.
Labeling plans in one form or another have been in operation for
many years, and identifying labels (some carrying guaranties) are
being advocated by about 100 national technical societies and trade

EEPOET OF THE SECEETAEY OF COMMEBCE

XXIX

associations, many of whom maintain inspectors for making their
labels effective. Recent investigations have revealed the fact that
many firms manufacturing goods on a mass-production basis are
willing to make use of quality guaranteeing labels provided they can
be assured of sufficient demand for goods thus labeled.
COMMERCIAL STANDARDS

To-day, more than ever, business is turning the spot light into
every nook and cranny in order to discover and correct evils and
wastes previously overlooked or neglected. It is house-cleaning time
for industry, and management is endeavoring to make a thorough
job of it. While distribution is receiving considerable attention,
there is also a manifest interest in methods of marketing, particularly
means of assuring skeptical buyers that the materials delivered are
of satisfactory and serviceable quality.
In the present perplexing market of novelties and color, individual
buyers and even professional purchasing agents are finding it in­
creasingly difficult to distinguish between items of real merit and
products built for “ appearance only.” It is natural, therefore, that
the buyer and the purchasing agent are both seeking authoritative
and dependable criteria of quality and are welcoming certificates
from reputable producers that the quality of the goods equals or
exceeds the commercial standard specification.
The trend during the past decade, on the part of professional
purchasing agents, toward full indorsement of specifications as a
basis for buyirlg, has resulted in an increasing diversity of purchase
specifications. The extended variety of specifications for a given
commodity has increased the complexity of the situation and placed
added obstacles in the way of continued mass production.
In other industries intense competition and the gradual recession
of prices have resulted in a step-by-step lowering of quality, until
in some instances entire industries are threatened with obliteration,
because the public is losing confidence in the quality or suitability
of the materal delivered.
Many industries have recognized these trends toward a demand
on the part of the consumer for assurance of quality; toward in­
creasing diversity of specifications; and toward an avoidance of
that loss of good will which results from undercutting quality to
meet a price. Instead of sitting idly by and meekly accepting the
situation, forward-looking groups are taking the initiative in the
establishment of commercial standards as a basis for purchase
recommended by entire industries, and as a foundation for market­
ing the commodity and restoring public confidence in its service
value.
The commercial standard, developed and established by industry
itself, under the observation of the Federal Government, accepted in
writing by producers, distributors, and consumers alike, printed and
promulgated by the Department of Commerce after acceptance by
a satisfactory majority and without active opposition, satisfies all
phases of the situation and offers an authoritative and dependable
basis for marketing and purchase by all elements directly concerned.
During the year, as a result of general conferences, wide publicity
in trade papers, and general circulation for written acceptances, the

XXX

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

success of 16 commercial standards was announced. Twelve of the
standards were issued in printed form during the same period.
In general, it may be said that the standards cover nomenclature
and definitions to facilitate a better understanding between buyer
and seller; dimensions, tolerances, weights, physical, and chemical
characteristics, color fastness, and other items, as a basis for daily
trade.
AMERICAN M ARINE STANDARDS

Aided by facilities and services contributed by the Department o f
Commerce and the United States Shipping Board, the American
Marine Standards Committee promotes the elimination of waste in
the construction, operation, and maintenance of ships and port facili­
ties b}' formulating and promulgating standards of design and
practice where such are deemed of economic importance.
As of July 1, 1930, the membership of the committee comprise 360
member bodies, including shipyards, ship repair and docking estab­
lishments, ship owners and operators, naval architects, marine engi­
neers, ana various educational, commercial, and governmental inter­
ests related to marine industry. During the year ended June 30,.
1930, there were promulgated 22 standards relating to ship and
machine construction and operation. The committee is national in
scope and carries on its activities in cooperation with the nationally
recognized organizations doing similar work. Serving as advisory
members on its executive board are representatives of the American
Institute of Electrical Engineers, American Society of Civil E ngi­
neers. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, American Society
for Testing Materials, National Bureau of Standards, and National
Fire Protection Association. Its representatives serve on sectional'
committees of the American Standards Association.
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH

Bureau of Standards.—In carrying on its researches for the Fed­
eral Government the National Bureau of Standards cooperates ef­
fectively with American industries through the medium of itsadvisory committees and its “ research-associate ” plan. Advisory
committees representing 14 national associations and 24 additional
groups, both organized and unorganized, are now aiding the bureauin the formulation of research programs by advice and discussion,,
and by reviewing the results.
Ninety-six research associates are maintained at the bureau by 41
separate organizations which are being assisted in conducting scien­
tific researches on important problems affecting their industry or
specialty.
Through an extensive cooperative investigation on the high-tem­
perature properties of railroad rails, it has at last been found that,
owing to the low ductility of certain kinds of steel at the temperature
at which rails are rolled, there is a tendency for the formation o f
nuclei which may later develop into transverse fissures.
Under the auspices of the American Society for Testing Mater­
ials there has been established at the bureau a cement reference labo­
ratory with the object of inspecting the numerous cement-testing
laboratories of the country and of instructing them in the use of uni-

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXI

form testing apparatus and in standardizing test methods. The
services of the laboratory are available to everyone interested, and
many requests have been received from cement producers all over
the United States for the services of the laboratory’s inspection
force.
A continuing investigation which has led to important results dur­
ing the past year has been that on the development methods for the
fractionation of petroleum and the identification of its constituent
hydrocarbons. Several publications have been issued on this subject.
In cooperation with the American Petroleum Institute, the Amer­
ican Gas Association, the Underground Pipe Products Institute, and
the Cast Iron Pipe Research Institute, the bureau has begun an ex­
tensive field investigation of coatings for protecting underground
pipe. The work has been in progress only a short time, but the get­
ting together of these various interests is in itself a real step in
advance and will undoubtedly lead to most important results.
A new laboratory for the type testing of airplane engines has been
completed at Arlington, Ya. The completion of this laboratory with
three torque stands has greatly speeded up the important work of
testing each new type of commercial airplane engine for the Aero­
nautics Branch of the Department of Commerce. Four torque stands
soon to be installed will take care of all present demands of the
laboratory. The vital importance of this work to the public will be
appreciated when it is remembered that of 52 engines received for
test during the past year, 26 passed, 23 failed, and 3 were withdrawn.
A new and more accurate standard of radio-frequency has been
developed. B y means of a special installation of quartz oscillators
and auxiliary machinery, it is now possible to measure radio-fre­
quency with an error of only 2 parts in 10,000,000. This is of the
greatest importance, since the maintenance of transmitting stations
closely on their assigned frequency is essential with the present close
grouping of high-power transmitting stations.
There has been established, on a satisfactory basis, a new absolute
standard of light, which it is hoped will eventually supplant the
artificial standards (such as carbon-electric lamps) now used. This
standard involves a measurement of the brightness of a surface of
pure metal, such as platinum, at its freezing point. While simple in
theory, the development of this standard to a satisfactory working
basis has involved many difficulties.
The work on establishing a series of standard filters by which light
from artificial sources can be changed in character so as to duplicate
daylight has met with great success, and one of these has been recom­
mended for adoption as an international standard for the production
of artificial sunlight by the Seventh International Congress on
Photography.
UTILIZATION AND CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

Mineral.—In cooperation with the American Gas Association, the
Bureau of Mines has developed a method and apparatus for deter­
mining the gas-making, coke-making, and by-product-making prop­
erties of American coals. The properties of the coal as shown, not
only by the usual chemical analysis but by new and less usual 'physi­
cal and chemical tests and microscopic examination, are being corre­
lated with the carbonization results.

XXXII

REPORT OP THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

For the purpose of assisting in differentiating between bituminous
and subbitmninous ranks of coal, the bureau is cooperating with a
sectional committee of the American Standards Association in de­
veloping an accelerated test for determining the slacking or weather­
ing properties of coal. Friability tests for determining the resistance
to breakage of coal are also being developed.
During the past year the bureau has greatly improved the methods
and apparatus for air elutriation of fine powders.
Investigations conducted by the Bureau of Mines have resulted in
the accumulation of much valuable information regarding our re­
sources in helium, the nonimflammable gas, the use of which in
lighter-than-air dirigibles is considered so essential from the point of
view of safety. A source of supply of the gas in quantity sufficient
for the needs of the Government has been located in the Texas field.
Products of the soil.—The utilization of waste-land products is an
important field of industrial research in which the Bureau of
Standards is active.
Wastes from the corn and sugar-cane plants are similar in nature
in that they involve the stalks and leaves, and the cob in the case
of corn. A t least 100,000,000 tons of these products are commercially
available annually in the United States but are wasted and await the
call for conversion into valuable products. The cornstalk consists of
a very light inside pith and an outside fibrous shell. The pith is
being converted into insulating materials resembling cork products.
The fibrous shell is being made into a variety of crude and refined
cellulose products, including a horny product called maizolith, which
is suitable for making gears, bushings, electrical fixtures, and other
products requiring toughness, strength, and electrical insulating
properties. The shell fibers are converted into wall board for
insulating the walls and ceilings of houses. They may be water­
proofed and fireproofed. They may be painted and can also be
covered with plaster for interior finish. The thick boards may
be used to insulate the interiors of refrigerator cars, household
refrigerators, and ice houses. The wet, loose, porous sheets may be
steam heated under pressure to form a strong cornstalk lumber.
Similar products made from bagasse have wide markets.
In the semicommercial plant maintained by the Bureau of Stand­
ards in cooperation with Iowa State College at Ames, Iowa, the
process ftf making wall board from cornstalks has proved so satis­
factory that it is now in commercial use. At the bureau’s plant
a board one-half inch thick and twice as strong as any on the market
was made from what has heretofore been a waste product.
The cornstalk fibers give good grades of pulp with proper chemical
and physical treatments. Newspapers and book papers have thus
been made. As side products, xylan adhesives and carbon black
are obtained. When further refined, the pulp yields a high-grade,
pure alpha cellulose, which has been used to make transparent
glassine papers, viscose, and rayon textiles.
The cotton plant is the source of millions of tons of waste such as
the stalks, burs, leaves, seed hulls, and their adhering short fibers
or fuzz. Only the cottonseed hulls find use, namely, as a low-grade
cattle feed or roughage. More than 1.500,000 tons of cottonseed
hulls are produced annually in this country. Work by the Bureau

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXHI

of Standards has developed commercial possibilities for separation
Rnd utilization of the fuzz and the broken shells called cottonseed
bran. The fuzz or very short cotton fibers can be readily purified
by chemical treatments to form pure alpha cellulose suitable for
manufacture into rayon, nitrocellulose films and plastics, and lac­
quers, cellulose acetate, and high-grade paper.
The hull bran has been found to contain about 40 per cent of
pentose sugars, especially xylose. Although this sugar has been sold
for $100 a pound, laboratory and semicommercial work by the bu­
reau has shown that it can be made on a practical scale for less than
25 cents a pound. Work is under way to convert the xylose into
sugar acids like citric and tartaric acids, lactic and acetic acids,
alcohol and acetone, furfural, and other products by chemical and
fermentation methods. Its possible use in human and animal foods
is being investigated in cooperation with medical and animal experi­
menters.
Cottonseed bran can be used in manufacturing many kinds of
molded products such as electrical fixtures, rollers, chair backs, table
tops, and the like.
Straws and hulls from wheat and oats and other cereals are wasted
annually to the extent of tens of millions of tons. Work is under
way to convert the straw into high-grade pulp and paper products.
Already they are used in low-grade papers and box boards. Oat
hulls are the source of the new and widely used commercial chemi­
cal, furfurol, entering into plastics and binders for abrasive wheels
and electrical apparatus. The straws offer possibilities for produc­
tion of producer gas for household use by fermentation, combustion,
and distillation methods.
Fisheries.—New uses for the various products of the fisheries have
been developed by the Bureau of Fisheries.
As a result of its study of the methods of manufacturing fish meal,
fish oil, and related by-products, the bureau has demonstrated that
the adoption of the low-temperature drying process; in preference
to drying by intense heat, would reduce loss o f material and provide
higher-quality fish meals.
For instance, scientific research and carefully controlled feeding
experiments by the bureau’s chemists and technologists have dem­
onstrated that steam and vacuum-dried fish meals have a greater
nutritional value than flame-dried fish meals.
The bureau is urging the use of fish meal as a feedstuff rather
than as a fertilizer. Nutrition studies have shown that the method
of manufacture frequently has more influence on the nutritional
value of the meal than the nature of the raw material.
Nutrition research, not only on fish and shellfish meals, but on
other marine products, both for human and animal consumption, is
contributing a great deal toward the establishment of new dietary
standards.
As an example of work along these lines, chemists of the Bureau
of Fisheries and the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, through a
cooperative research program, have shown that salmon, sardine (or
pilchard), and tuna oils now used in the arts and industries are a
cheaper source of vitamins for animal feeding, as the oils are now
prepared, than cod-liver oil. Recommended improvements in the
18038—30------ m

XXXIV

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

methods of production of these fish oils, soon to be published upon
completion of the work, will probably increase their vitamin content.
Recent experiments by the bureau also have shown that marine
products are not only an excellent source of such minerals as cal­
cium and phosphorous, but also contain the less common elements
which play an important role in nutrition.
Filleting, packaging, refrigeration, and other modern methods of
handling fresh fish at their source have created new problems in
connection with the utilization and conservation of our natural re­
sources from the sea, with resultant rapid strides of progress in the
elimination of waste in these industries. When fish were shipped
“ in the round,” the housewife discarded the fish cuttings into the
garbage can, thereby wasting a potential animal feed of unexcelled
nutritional1 value. Now this refuse is concentrated at the points
of production and is being converted into fish meal, oil, and other by­
products of considerable commercial importance.
The bureau’s efforts toward conservation of the aquatic resources
of the country are more effective in Alaska, where actual control
of the fishery industries is exercised by law. Through continued
vigilance and judicious modification of fishery regulations, a high
degree of success is obtained in assuring an escapement of 50 per
cent of the total salmon run, permitting an adequate number of
spawning fish to reach the head waters of rivers to seed the spawn­
ing beds. Progress is being made through scientific studies to de­
termine the maximum return from a known spawning, with the re­
sult that the industry is permitted to take greater quantities of
adult fish for canning than heretofore without endangering the
food supply. As a result of the fearless conservation policy, highly
productive runs of salmon are being maintained, and those already
depleted show signs of eventual rehabilitation. B y encouraging the
States to enact such legislation as will prevent the destruction of
immature and undersized fish and that will outlaw unusually de­
structive fishing practices, the bureau has done much to further
conservation throughout the country.
The development of the science of water farming has also acted
as a conservation measure. Through improved methods of rearing
of warm-water pondfishes, waste-water areas have been recovered
for food production and means for increasing the productivity of
waterways are being devised.
Improvements in methods of rearing fish in hatcheries are also
being made through the control of diseases by improved diets per­
mitting the rearing of fish to larger sizes before releasing them in
streams and through the production of superior strains of brood
stock showing rapid growth, yielding a large number of eggs, and
possessing disease-resisting qualities.
Active conservation measures are applied to the prevention of the
destruction of young seaw'ard-migrating salmon by the entering of
irrigation ditches. Improved types of fish screens have been in­
stalled on various reclamation projects, assuring the safe passage
of fish to the sea.
Increased utilization of the natural supply of food fish in the sea
will result from predictions of variations in abundance. In the
North Atlantic mackerel fishery, the great abundance of mackerel

BEPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXV

during the current season was foretold during the early spring, with
the result that preparations were made to harvest and distribute the
crop to better advantage.
Wood utilization.—During the past fiscal year the National Com­
mittee on Wood Utilization carried on 14 different projects relating
to the elimination of waste in the manufacture, distribution, and con­
sumption of wood products.
On the basis of answers to questionnaires sent to sawmills and
woodworking factories in North Carolina, the committee prepared
a report entitled “ Survey of Nonutilized Wood in North Carolina,”
showing the locations of 32,000 carloads of wood waste. This tabu­
lation gives the names of the mills, and the kind, species, and quan­
tity of each wood-waste item. The printed report accompanying
these tables gives constructive suggestions on the subjects of reducing
wood waste to a minimum and profitable disposal of wood-waste
products. During the year another similar survey has been carried
on in the State of Maryland.
The committee’s work on the utilization of discarded wooden con­
tainers was continued. One hundred and fifty thousand bulletins of
of its You Can Make It series were sold, and wood-utilization con­
tests were staged in many States. The manuscript of a new bulletin
entitled “ You Can Make It For Camp and Cottage” was sent to
the printer during the latter part of the fiscal year.
In order to make chemically treated lumber—which is resistant
to decay and insect attack—available to the average small consumer,
the committee, in cooperation with the Ohio Retail Lumber Dealers
Association, has arranged for the wholesale and retail distribution
of this commodity. The committee has published a booklet entitled
“ Treated Lumber—Its Uses and Economies,” which demonstrates
how this material may be used on the farm and in building and con­
struction, thereby decreasing the expenses of upkeep and repair and
extending the life of the structure. The Ohio project is now to be
extended into other States, and the committee plans to have it car­
ried on as a nation-wide undertaking.
In the wood-construction field the committee has cooperated with
the Federal Board for Vocational Education and has compiled a
handbook to be published shortly under the title of “ Light Frame
Construction.” This book has been prepared for the benefit of car­
penters and builders.
The committee is also working on a smaller publication entitled
“ How to Judge a House.” This booklet, destined for the nontech­
nical, prospective home buyer, analyzes features of construction and
design in connection with the average small house, the object being
to enable the nontechnical consumer to check up on his purchase
o f a home.
The committee is now compiling a handbook on wooden airplane
hangar construction, to be based on the fire tests conducted at the
Bureau of Standards during the spring of 1930, under the auspices
of the Fact-Finding Committee on Automatic Sprinkler Protection
for Airplane Hangars. The National Committee on Wood Utiliza­
tion participated in these tests.
Following successful tests of Scandinavian gang saws, introduced
into this country through committee efforts, a bulletin entitled “ Test

XXXVI

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

of Scandinavian Gang Saws on the Pacific Coast ” was published.
This gives detailed information in regard to this venture on the
Pacific coast.
The manufacture of ready-to-use small-dimension stock is an im­
portant phase of efficient wood utilization. The committee has made
a field study of this subject and has published a booklet under the
title of “ Small Dimension Stock—Its Seasoning, Handling, and
Manufacture.” This book analyzes the most efficient methods of
producing small dimension stock. It will soon be followed by
another booklet written for the consumers of this class of lumber.
A systematic drive was made during the year, in cooperation
with trade and professional associations, to direct the attention of
lumber buyers to the protection afforded them in specifying grademarked lumber in their purchases.
The preliminary work has been done on the compilation of the
manuscript of a booklet entitled “ How to Judge Furniture.” The
construction of furniture and its design will be given adequate treat­
ment so as to enable the nontechnical furniture buyer to judge fur­
niture values.
H UM AN SAFETY

In mining.— In making recommendations on standard mining
practice to the mining industry, the Bureau of Mines bases its
formal decisions on the findings of its mine safety board, which
is made up of representatives of the different technical divisions
of the bureau.
Much information of value in solving problems confronting mine
operators is being developed by the Bureau of Mines. In this
bureau’s experimental mine the relative explosibility of coal-mine
dust from different mines of the country is tested from time to time
to ascertain the proper means of preventing coal-dust explosions.
Tests are being made of the factors in general rock dusting for the
prevention of coal-dust explosions, for the purpose of modifying the
code on such dusting formulated by the Bureau of Mines and
approved by the American Standards Association.
Electrification of the coal-mining industry has created new haz­
ards. The bureau is constantly conducting tests of various types
of electrical equipment used in mines with a view to the development
of “ approved ” designs that eliminate these hazards as much as
possible. As faultily designed miners’ lamps have caused many
mine explosions, the bureau has led the way in the development of
“permissible ” lamps which are far safer than those previously used.
The permissible type of explosive, the use of which is rapidly being
extended throughout the mining industry as a result of tne bureau’s
tests and educational campaign, is also much safer than other types
of explosives.
With a view to complying with regulations for the operation of
coal mines on the public domain, the Bureau of Mines and the Bureau
of Standards are carrying on a cooperative investigation relating to
the strength of mine stoppings that will resist explosions.
Definite routine tests to determine the safety of gas masks when
worn in known concentration of various mining and industrial gases
have been adopted by the Bureau of Mines. The bureau has con­
ducted courses of instruction in standardized methods of mine rescue

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

xxxvn

procedure and has given demonstrations in the proper use and limi­
tations of rescue apparatus. Its handbook on self-contained, minerescue, oxygen-breathing apparatus has been revised, enlarged, and
reissued. Its manual of instruction in first aid has also been revised,
enlarged, and reissued.
For a number of years the bureau has fostered the holding of a con­
siderable number of contests to train miners in methods of first aid
to the injured. More than 100 of these contests are now being held
annually with the cooperation of the Bureau of Mines personnel.
Members of the staff of the Bureau of Mines have participated
actively in the work of the mining standardization correlating com­
mittee functioning under the procedure of the American Standards
Association.
The factory and the home.—Members of the staff of the Bureau
of Standards have taken an active part in the work of the Safety
Code Correlating Committee and in committees preparing safety
codes for various industries.
A new edition of the Elevator Safety Code, of which the Bureau
of Standards is a sponsor, was prepared during the year.
In cooperation with the General Federation of Women’s Clubs,
the Bureau of Standards made a survey of accidents in the homes of
club women in North Carolina, as part of a movement to reduce acci­
dents in the home.
B y sea and air.—Of the several agencies of the Department of
Commerce that are charged with the duty of maintaining safety in
travel by water and air, the Bureau of Navigation and the Steamboat
Inspection Service deal with the safety of travel on merchant vessels,
while the Bureau of Lighthouses and the Coast and Geodetic Survey
deal with both water and air navigation.
The Bureau of Navigation, through its fleet of inspection vessels,
navigation inspectors, and marine divisions of the customhouses, en­
forces the law covering life-saving equipment and navigation, in
accordance with the rules of the lane, of over 250,000 small vessels,
and assists in the enforcement of the law covering the equipment and
navigation of every vessel operating in our foreign and coastwise
trade; it enforces the rules governing the patrol of the course dur­
ing regattas and marine parades, and through the operation of its
navigation inspectors, in cooperation with other services, prevents
the overcrowding of excursion steamers; it enforces the St. Marys
River rules affecting a commerce larger than that which passes
through the Suez Canal.
Under the direction of the Steamboat Inspection Service a commit­
tee is working upon the draft of a boiler code that will represent
the best modern practice in boiler construction, inspection, etc. In
accomplishing this work, the committee is taking the best from all
present boiler codes, so that when the new code is completed all
boilers can be constructed to the code.
As a part of its contribution to safety by sea and air, the Bureau
of Lighthouses has replaced all obsolete spark transmitters on light­
house tenders with the latest type of tube or modulated continuouswave transmitter and has continued the practice of replacing wornout steam fog-signal plants with more modern equipment.
Improvements are being made in the light from the masthead
of lightships, by increasing the divergence of the beam.

XXXVIII

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

During the year, 30 low-power radiobeacon transmitters operating
on 60-cycle current and emitting signals at from one to five tones
from 400 to 1,600 cycles were installed at harbor approaches and at
points of lesser importance. The radiobeacons are operated for
a definite period each hour during clear weather.
To enable the navigator to determine his distance from a radio­
beacon station at any time when he can hear a sound signal, syn­
chronized radiobeacon and sound-in-air signals have been installed
at six stations, including the one at Cape Henry, where the first
installation was made in 1929.
To increase safety in servicing the many gas buoys in the Light­
house Service, acetylene gas buoys having tanks or flasks within
the body of the buoy are being modified so that these buoys will all
be provided with gas-tight steel pockets for individual flasks with
capacity little more than the flask itself, thus avoiding opportunity
for dangerous explosions due to accumulation of gas within the
large inclosure of the buoy body. The gas piping is changed to
run outside of the buoy body.
The establishment of Poe Reef Light Station and Fourteen Foot
Light Station in Lake Huron, near the track of steamers, taking
the place of Poe Reef Light Vessel and Cheboygan Point Light
Station, adds materially to the safety of navigation. Poe Reef
Light Station exhibits a light throughout the year and is a greater
safeguard than the lightship it displaces, both at the close of navi­
gation in the fall and opening of navigation in the spring.
The net increase of 555 aids to navigation during the year, in­
cluding 141 new automatic lights, 75 gas buoys, 14 radiobeacons, 51
fog signals, and 249 unlighted buoys, etc., has materially added to
the safety of navigation both for the increasing number of larger
and faster vessels and similar types of vessels on inland routes.
That the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey is recognized
as a leader in hydrographic and geodetic theory and practice is
shown by the fact that its standards and specifications for this kind
of work are being adopted by other nations.
In its magnetic work the survey is cooperating actively with the
department of terrestrial magnetism of the Carnegie Institution of
Washington, and the international meteorological committee of the
Commission on Terrestrial Magnetism and Atmospheric Electricity.
The nautical charts of the Coast and Geodetic Survey constitute
an important part of the equipment essential to the safe navigation
of all ships. Over 700 in number, they represent a shore line, includ­
ing indentations, of more than 103,000 miles. As it is obviously
impossible to portray graphically all data of vnlue, a series of 12
volumes of Coast Pilots furnish the mariner with the additional
information needed with respect to ports, harbors, and natural
features.
The remarkable strides made by this country in commerce and
industry, with an increasing number of ports and larger ships, and
the great changes which have taken place, particularly along the
south Atlantic and Gulf coasts due to erosion and deposition and to
improvements of waterways, have constantly necessitated a revision
of previous surveys and an extension seaward of the areas so sur­
veyed, in the interests of human safety. The rigid requirements of
to-day, therefore, stipulate an exactness of detail, made possible

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XXXIX

in a large measure by modern equipment, that was as impossible as
it was unnecessary years ago.
The large, sw ift vessel of to-day, representing not only a large
investment but carrying a passenger list of 2,000 and more, operates
on an exacting schedule that makes no material allowance for fogs,
shoals, and other menaces to navigation. With a modern nautical
chart showing the configuration of the bottom in detail, the naviga­
tor can without reducing speed fix his position from underwater
landmarks by means of an electrical depth-registering device just
as he uses other aids and outstanding visible topographic features on
approaching land, also shown on his chart.
The mariner is likewise enabled to maintain his schedule by the
published predictions of tides and currents as well as the advance
publication of current charts for certain ports. The latter, already
published for New York Harbor, will shortly be issued for San
Francisco Bay, to be followed by similar data for other harbors. In
thick weather, particularly in a large port congested with traffic,
accurate knowledge of the velocity and direction of the current and
the time of occurrence of slack water, where sw ift and dangerous
tidal currents exist, is a further insurance against possible loss of
life.
The chart contains information regarding the variation of the
compass, in the form of “ compass roses,” on which the direction
of the magnetic north, or the direction indicated by the compass, is
shown in its relation to the true north. The annual change of the
valuation is also given, so that the mariner may make allowance for
the change between the date of issue of his chart and the date of its
use. This information is based on observations of the earth’s mag­
netism at numerous places all over the country and in the adjacent
water areas, from which the variation of the compass may be
ascertained at any desired place.
Airway maps, compiled to meet the special requirements of the
aviator, are also issued by the Coast and Geodetic Survey. The
unusual demand for these maps is indicative not only of the growth
of aviation but of the amount of dependence placed upon this aid
to safety by those who fly over unfamiliar territory.
The soundings shown on nautical charts, as well as the topo­
graphic features on these charts and the airway maps, would con­
stitute a danger rather than a safeguard unless shown with geo­
graphical correctness. These positions are therefore accurately fixed
by means of a basic geodetic control survey, whereby by means of
triangulation and precise leveling thousands of so-called stations
throughout the United States will eventually be established and fur­
nish a rigid framework upon which details of all maps and charts
and engineering work may be constructed.
Cutting the loss from major disasters is of the utmost importance
as our country becomes more densely populated and the possible loss
increases. In the case of earthquakes, the Coast and Geodetic Survey
is conducting studies of their actual movements in the region of
greatest intensity, to meet the needs of the engineer and architect
in designing earthquake-resistant structures.
Along streets and highways.—In carrying forward its program
aimed at the reduction of highway traffic accidents, the National
Conference on Street and Highway Safety revised and brought down

X L

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

to date model acts and ordinances to serve as guides in the prepara­
tion, during 1931, of State and municipal laws relating to traffic.
In the spring of 1930 five new committees of the National Confer­
ence on Street and Highway Safety completed their reports. These
committees dealt, respectively, with the subjects of (a) protection of
railway grade crossings and highway intersections, (6) maintenance
of the motor vehicle, (c) measures for the relief of traffic congestion,
(d ) traffic accident statistics, and (e) uniform traffic regulation.
The committee on uniform traffic regulation made a review in the
light of the most recent experience of the various standards which
had previously been developed in connection with the conference
work—-the Uniform Vehicle Code for States, the Model Municipal
Traffic Ordinance, and the Manual on Street Traffic Signs, Signals,
and Markings.
The reports of these five committees, including the above-men­
tioned standards codes as revised, were reviewed by the Third Na­
tional Conference on Street and Highway Safety, which was held in
Washington, May 27-29, and was participated in by public officials
and private citizens representing all parts of the country and all
interests concerned in motor traffic, including delegates appointed by
the governors of 42 States. The conference considered all of these
reports and adopted a summary of recommendations, including the
findings of all conference committees and of the general meetings
held in 1924,1926, and 1930. This summary is printed in a pamphlet
entitled “ Ways and Means to Traffic Safety,” which, together with
the reports of the committees and the revised standards, has been
widely distributed.
Substantial progress is being made in the adoption of the confer­
ence standards. Although only a few of the State legislators met
in 1930, 25 States have now enacted laws based on the Uniform
Vehicle Code. The Model Municipal Traffic Ordinance has been
put into effect in all municipalities in New Jersey, New York, and
Wisconsin by State legislation, while it has been adopted by numer­
ous cities and towns in other States, as has the Manual on StreetTraffic Signs, Signals, and Markings.

PROGRESS IN DEVELOPMENT OF CIVIL
AERONAUTICS
In addition to its regular duties of examining aircraft and airmen
for license; maintaining and extending the Federal airways system;
assisting communities in the selection of airports; conducting re­
search on problems of air navigation, including aeronautic radio:
enforcing the Air Commerce Regulations; determining the causes of
civil aircraft accidents; and furnishing the public with information
pertaining to civil aeronautics, the Aeronautics Branch of the De­
partment of Commerce during the fiscal year 1929-30 developed and
placed in effect the follow ing:
1. Regulations requiring operators of scheduled interstate passen­
ger air-transport services to obtain from the Secretary of Commerce
a certificate of authority to operate such services. The certificate
will be issued only to those operators who comply with the regula­
tions and the interpretations thereunder.
2. Regulations providing for approval by the Department of Com­
merce of gliders as to airworthiness and for the licensing of gliders
and glider pilots.
3. Regulations providing for the examination, test, and issuance
by the Department of Commerce of approved type certificates for
parachutes and also for the creation of a “ parachute rigger’s license.”
The examination, test, and issuance of approved-type certificates for
parachutes are made upon application by the manufacturers of
parachutes.
Regulations providing for the examination and rating by the
Department of Commerce of civilian schools giving instruction in
flying, as to the adequacy of the course of instruction, as to the
suitability and airworthiness of the equipment, and as to the compe­
tency of the instructors, were promulgated shortly before July 1,
1929. However, the certificates of approval were not issued until
the fiscal year just closed.
Under its program of airways development, the Aeronautics Branch
during the last fiscal year lighted 3,321 miles of airways, established
and lighted 56 intermediate landing fields, and installed and oper­
ated 218 standard revolving beacon lights for the guidance of airmen
after dark. Five thousand six hundred and fifty miles of airways
were equipped with automatic telegraph typewriter circuits which
collect and disseminate weather information along the airways, and
13 radio broadcasting stations were placed in operation for the
broadcast of this weather information to planes in flight at regular
intervals, both day and night. Two radio range beacons, which
guide pilots along the airways by means of radio signals, also were
placed in operation, and 27 were completed to the point where serv­
ice operation will be started between July 1 and September 1, 1930.
As the foregoing aids to air navigation not only have justified
their existence but have proved to be indispensable from the standm

XLII

EEPOET OF THE SECEETAEY OF COMMERCE

point of safety and reliability of aircraft operation, funds available
from current appropriations have been allocated to provide more
of these facilities. During the current fiscal year 3,000 miles of
additional airways will be lighted, 33 radio range beacon stations will
be established, 2,800 miles of automatic telegraph typewriter cir­
cuits will be placed in operation, and 20 radio-communication sta­
tions will be installed. Upon the completion of these 20 additional
radio-communication stations there will scarcely be a square mile
of area in the United States (where flying is a regular activity) in
which a pilot can not receive broadcasts of weather information while
in flight.
Airport specialists of the Aeronautics Branch engaged in 871 con- ferences with cities and municipalities, assisting them in the selec­
tion of sites and supplying information as to the requirements for
the development of suitable airports.
A t the close of the fiscal year 1929-30 the status of active licenses
and approvals, issued by this service following examinations and
inspections, was: Licensed planes, 6,684; unlicensed planes, 3,089;
licensed pilots, 13,041; licensed mechanics. 8,843; aircraft holding
approved-type certificates, 334; engines with approved-type certifi­
cates, 54; propellers with approved-type certificates, 174; aircraft
approved for license but without approved-type certificates, 230;
approved civilian schools giving instruction in flying, 45.
Under its aeronautic development program, the Aeronautics
Branch organized special cooperative research committees which un­
dertook studies of such subjects a s :
1. The effectiveness of the automatic application of water in con­
trolling airplane hangar fires.
2. The development of standard signal systems for airports which
will be suitable for both day and night use for controlling traffic on
and in the vicinity of airports and for communicating special infor­
mation to pilots.
3- Aeronautic radio research now in progress and of those radio
problems the solution of which will assist in bringing about the
highest degree of safety and reliability in air transportation.
4. Hazards that might be developed in the vicinity of airports
through the construction or existence of buildings, smokestacks, radio
towers, and similar obstructions to air navigation.
5. The problems involved in airport drainage and surfacing. In
this latter study, the Aeronautics Branch has the cooperation of the
American Engineering Council and the American Hoad Builders
Association.
The comparatively new aeronautic industry, along with many of
our older industries, became involved in the general depression which
occurred last fall and winter. This, together with expansions and
extensions which had been made in greater proportions than are
acceptable as sound business practices, resulted in the withdrawal
from the industry of the insecure and the unprepared who rushed
into aeronautics to supply a demand that did not live up to their
anticipations.
While the manufacturing phase of the industry has not produced
as many planes during the fiscal year just ended as it did in the

REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

XLIH

previous period, scheduled air transportation continued to expand in
accordance with carefully laid plans and now renders a distinct
service to the Nation. Its future under the provisions of the Watres
Air Mail Act is indeed promising.
Free from the uncertainties of inflated securities, free from overenthusiastic support and activity by elements not thoroughly schooled
in the economics of manufacture, production, and marketing, com­
mercial aeronautics stands to-day as a young industry with bright
prospects, provided it follows the same course that has marked the
success of the older established industries and institutions.

\

CONDENSED REPORTS OF BUREAUS
C H IE F CLERK A N D S U P E R IN T E N D E N T

D epartm ent
O f f ic e of

of C o m m e r c e .
t h e C h ie f C l er k ,

Washington, July 1, 1930.
The honorable the S ecretary of C o m m e r c e .
D ea r Mr. S e c r e t a r y : Although demands were unusually heavy
upon all divisions of the Secretary’s Office during the year, the
personnel responded to a marked degree and enabled us to give
satisfactory service to all branches of the department. Overtime
work performed by 63 employees amounted to 341 days.
Lack of sufficient space to properly care for the needs of the de­
partment was a continuing handicap to efficient administration. The
early completion of the new Commerce Building, however, enables
us to see in the near future the end of this perplexing problem.
INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION AT SEVILLE, SPA IN

The department participated in the Ibero-American Exposition at
Seville with the United States Government group from May 9, 1929,
to June 21, 1930. A ll bureaus were represented; those activities
thought to be of value or interest to modern Spain being emphasized.
Among these were commercial aviation, radio services, mining, scien­
tific standards, and the department’s services touching the merchant
marine and foreign trade.
Industrial and commercial America was presented by means of
an extensive assortment of educational motion pictures. These were
exhibited daily at free shows in the motion-picture theater. Indus­
trial subjects on miniature films were also shown on two continuous
automatic projectors within the department’s exhibit.
The department’s exhibits were awarded 24 prizes— including 7
awarded to commercial collaborators-—namely, 2 grand prizes, 9
medals of honor, 9 gold medals, and 4 silver medals.
DISBURSING OFFICE

The table following shows the total amount of all appropriations
for the various bureaus and services of the department for the fiscal
year ended June 30. 1930:
18038— 30

1

1

2

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE
"
Bureau

Bureau of Foreign and Domestic

Printing and binding:
All bureaus except Patent Office.

Annual
appropriation
act

Deficiency
act

$752,200. 00
6,416, 620.00
460,000. 00

$259, 700. 66
30,000. 00

4, 539,923. 00
18; 900; 000. 00
1.187.220.00
352, 040.00
2,506, 746. 00
2.515.860.00
11,349,980.00
1, 958, 550. 00
3,333,800. 00
2.249.670.00

Special
act

$752,200.00
6, 676,320. 00
490,000. 00

5, 740, 000. 00
4,948. 00
17, 415. 00 $2,192. 67
21,326.48
420.000. 00
20,000. 00
105, 666. 67
205.000. 00

615,000. 00
1,100,000. 00

34, 300. 00

68,237,609. 00

6,858,356.15

Allotments
by other
depart­
ments

Total

________

4, 539,923.00
24, 640,000. 00
1, 192,168.00
371,647.67 :
2, 506, 746. 00 $215,847.66
2, 537, 186. 48
3,600.00
11,769,980.00
1,978,550.00 i
3,439,466.67 !
2,454, 670. 00
254,200.00
649,300. 00
1,100,000.00

2,192. 67

65, 098,157. 82

473, 647.00
1

Disbursements during the year ended June 30, 1930, from appro­
priations and from funds transferred from other departments were
as follow s:
Appropriation for—
Bureau

Radio Division.......................................... ............
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce......
Bureau of the Census.............................................
Steamboat Inspection Service...............................
Coast and Geodetic Survey...................................
Bureau of Fisheries................................................

1928 and
prior years
$13,678.62
113,519.14
83, 088. 36
6, 795. 00
182.54
10.00
4,335.25
5,187. 42
5,263. 56
238. 01
213.36
20,439. 39

T otal.............................................................. 252,950.65

Total
1929

1930

$619,122. 05 $2,166,440.08
5, 183,835. 75
1,337,437.63
73,097.42
456, 696. 83
317,920. 39 4, 409,950.99
247,878. 38 14,334, 258. 56
1,150,228.33
111,459. 63
349,632. 50
29,817.87
386, 025.70 2,580, 665. 07
2,115,905. 77
535, 304.41
797, 781. 32 10,720,229.50
327,327. 74 2,110,347. 37
315,257.45 3,304,083. 45
320,237. 51 3,687,455.37

$2,799,240. 75
6,634, 792. 52
612,882.61
4,734,666. 38
14, 582,319.48
1,261,697. 96
379,450.37
2,971, 026. 02
2,656,397. 60
11,523,274.38
2,437,913.12
3,679,554. 26
4, 028.132.27

5,418,667. 50

58,301, 347.72

52,629, 729. 57

The miscellaneous receipts for the fiscal year are shown below, by
bureaus.

Coast and Geodetic Survey: Sale of charts, publications, old prop­
erty, etc____________________________________________________
$75, 713. 89
Bureau of F isheries:
240, 777. 92
Sale of fur-sealskins_____________________________________
Sale of fox skins___________________________________________
32, 029. 80
922.38
Sale of otter skins________________________________________
Meals furnished employees at isolated stations---------------------681.31
Sale of old property, etc---------------------------------------------------2,803.78
Bureau of Standards:
Test fees___________________________________________________
72, 370. 54

Miscellaneous refunds_________________________________

811. 00

Steamboat Inspection Service: Sale of old property--------------------

89. 76

3

CHIEF CLERK AND SUPERINTENDENT

Bureau of Lighthouses:
Sale of old property---------------------------------------------------------$1,562.19
K ent____________________________________________________
4 29S. 77
Government property lost, destroyed, or damaged----------------5, 898,44
4. 360. 03
Work done_______________________________________________
Sale of land and buildings------------------------------------------------15,010. 31
Miscellaneous refunds_____________________________________
1,377. 76
Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce:
Registration fees, etc., China trade act____________________
1, 625. 00
Sale of publications______________________________________
3,786. 35
Sale of old property---------------------------------------------------------2, 693. 55
Miscellaneous refunds_____________________________________
54. 79
Office of the Secretary :
Certification fees (37 Stat. 497)___________________________
381.00
Sale of strip maps (Aeronautics Branch)__________________
3,130.10
Penalties for violation air trafficrules---------------------------------5,705.00
Miscellaneous refunds_____________________________________
304. 29
Patent Office : Patent fees_____________________________________ 3, 990, 042. 25
Bureau of M ines:
Analyzing samples________________________________________
6. 712. 00
Sale of gas from helium plants____________________________
7,193. 54
Rental of pipe lines----------------------------------------------------------17, 500.00
Sale of property---------------------------------99, 812. 27
1, 821.15
Miscellaneous refunds_____________________________________
Bureau of the Census: Sale of property________________________
591.00
Radio Division : Miscellaneous refunds_________________________
57. 90
Bureau of Navigation:
Tonnage tax______________________________________________ 2, 021, 295. 94
Navigation fees___________________________________________
236,781.02
Navigation fines__________________________________________
62, 593. 23
Miscellaneous refunds_____________________________________
24. 50
Miscellaneous: Refund of gasoline tax__________________________
1,209.37

,

Total

6, 921, 523. 03
APPOINTMENT DIVISION

At the close of the year the personnel of the department num­
bered 26.955 (15,969 permanent and 10,986 temporary). Of the
total number, 9,418 are employed in the District of Columbia and
17,537 constitute the field force.
The number of employees retired on annuity during the year under
the civil service retirement act was 32—19 by reason of age and 13
on account of disability. The average annuity of those retired under
the act is $854.57. Under the Lighthouse Service retirement system
38 were retired for age with an average annuity of $1,062.81 and 17
on account of disability with an average annuity of $1,255,37. A
total of 841 employees have been retired under the two systems to
the close of June 30,1930.
DIVISION OF PUBLICATIONS

The following statement shows for the fiscal years 1929 to 1931,
inclusive, the amounts available for printing and binding and the
unexpended balances of the appropriations for 1929 and 1930.

4

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

1929
Services other than Patent Office:1

1931

1930

* $649,300.00
3 634,685. 72

$715, 000. 00
715,000.00

$645,000. 00

14,614.28
Patent Office:

« 1, 140, 235. 77
1,042,353.42

1,100,000. 00
3 1,097, 621. 72

97,877.35

2,378. 28

**
1,100,000.00

1 Does not include the Bureau of the Census for 1930 or 1931. During the decennial census period (1930.
1931, and 1932) the cost of printing and binding for that bureau is paid from appropriations for the Fifteenth
Decennial Census.
* Includes $34,300 contained in the first deficiency act, fiscal year 1930.
3 Estimated. Exact figures can not be given until all work ordered is completed and billed.
4 Includes $235.77 credited to appropriation by reason of a payment by private corporation for cost of
printing two briefs.

Total receipts from sales of the deioartment’s publications for the
fiscal year 1929 (the latest period for which complete data are avail­
able) were $677,045.17, compared with $651,926.48 for 1928. The
following table presents the details in comparison for the two years
by selling agencies and issuing offices:
Receipts
Sales
192$
By the Superintendent of Documents: Miscellaneous sales and subscriptions..
By Coast and Geodetic Survey: Coast pilots, inside route pilots, tide tables,
current tables, charts, and airway maps..........................................................
By Patent Office: Specifications of patents, reissues, etc., trade-mark section
and decision leaflet of Official Gazette, and classification bulletins and
definitions.............................................................................................................
Total ............................... ...........................................................................

1929

$238,103.15

$231,376. 56

62, 057.33

67,390.91

351,766.00

378,277.70

651, 926.48

677,045.17

DIVISION OF SUPPLIES

Following the practice of former years, through the cooperation of
the Chief Coordinator’s Office, surplus material, comprising labora­
tory equipment, helium cylinders, boats, generators, office devices,
etc., was obtained from surplus stocks of other departments to the
value of approximately $513,000 without transfer of funds.
TRAFFIC OFFICE

In cooperation with various bureaus of the department and the
Federal coordinating agencies the traffic office has been able to effect
substantial savings in both freight and passenger transportation
costs, quoting in advance rates, fares, and charges, together with
proper method of preparing shipments in order that contracting,
shipping, and traveling officers could protect their appropriation.
Passengers have used round-trip, reduced, or through rates, and
have also taken advantage whenever possible of Government-operated
ships. Freight has moved by ships of this and other departments,
and land-grant rail routes have been used whenever possible.

CHIEF CLERK AND SUPERINTENDENT

0

DEPARTMENT LIBRARY

The department library contributed largely to the success of in­
formational undertakings of the department. While most of its en­
deavors are hidden in the mass of statistical matter published by the
department, the research work of the library can be measured by the
department’s output of studies and world-trade surveys, a single one
of which may require the use of several hundred books. (Demands
upon the library are steadily increasing, but its usefulness is greatly
hindered by lack of space.)
The department library is one of the most active of all Government
libraries and perhaps the leading of all reference libraries. It has a
collection of books and periodicals on commerce and related sub­
jects unsurpassed in Government or other libraries. Upon its shelves
are books to the number of 145.000 and periodicals and newspapers,
to the number of 2.307.
SOLICITOR’S OFFICE

During the year 613 contracts, 1,120 leases, 28 insurance policies,
22 revocable licenses, 19 deeds, 226 contract bonds, 65 annual bid and
performance bonds, and 101 official bonds were examined and ap­
proved. disapproved, drafted, redrafted, or modified. The num­
ber of legal opinions rendered, formal and informal, totaled
309; legislative matters handled which concerned the Department
of Commerce numbered 242; power of attorney cards authorizing
agents to execute official and contract bonds for surety companies
totaled 3,975. In addition, 10,755 miscellaneous matters embracing
everything submitted for advice or suggestion of the Solicitor, or
for the formulation of departmental action, not included in the
foregoing items, were handled by the Solicitor’s Office.
Very truly yours,
E. W. L ib b e y ,
Chief Clerk and Superintendent.

AERO NA UTIC S BR AN CH

D epartment
O f f ic e

of t h e

A s s is t a n t S ecreta ry

of

C ommerce ,

fo r

A e r o n a u t ic s ,

Washington, July 1, 1930.
The honorable th e S ecreta ry o f C o m m e r c e .
D ear Mr. S ecretary : In compliance with your request, the fol­
lowing report is submitted describing the state of air commerce and
briefly summarizing the activities of the Aeronautics Branch of the
department during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1930.
ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS

The air commerce act of 1926, which charged the Secretary of
Commerce with the responsibility of promoting and regulating air
commerce, and which created an additional Assistant Secretary of
Commerce to administer the details of this work, marked the be­
ginning of a comprehensive, organized effort to establish aeronautics
as a substantial factor in the general transportation scheme of the
Nation.
Shortly after the approval of the air commerce act by the Presi­
dent, the Aeronautics Branch was organized. On June 30, 1930,
it completed its fourth year of activities. The Aeronautics Branch
has created new divisions and sections when necessary in order to
execute the various provisions of the act.
As a result of the increased activities, it was found necessary in
November, 1929, to decentralize further the duties of the organiza­
tion. Previously, all the activities were coordinated under the direct
supervision of the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Aeronautics,
the Director of Aeronautics being in immediate charge.
Under the new plan, the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for
Aeronautics is assisted by three executives—the director of air regu­
lation, the chief engineer of the airways division, and the director of
aeronautic development. These three officials are responsible to the
Assistant Secretary, as are the chiefs of the administrative division
and the helium section.
The Assistant Secretary as chairman, and the three executives con­
stitute the executive board of the Aeronautics Branch which formu­
lates all policies affecting the plans and activities of the branch.
The functions of the three principal agencies of the Aerpnautics
Branch follow.
A IR REGULATION SERVICE

The air regulation service of the Department of Commerce en­
deavors to protect the flying public and the aeronautic industry by
eliminating as far as possible insufficiently trained pilots and unair6

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

7

worthy aircraft. The air commerce act of 1926 charges the Secretary
of Commerce not only with the promotion of civil aeronautics but
also with its regulation.
The fundamental principle of the act, however, is to afford the
aeronautic industry every possible opportunity to regulate itself.
From the beginning, the industry has cooperated with the Federal
Government. The regulatory functions of the Aeronautics Branch
of the Department of Commerce are coordinated under the director
of air regulation. Under his direction are three main divisions:
The inspection service, the licensing division, and the engine-testing
section.
IN S P E C T IO N SERVICE

The inspection service activities and the variety of the phases of
field work in connection therewith have increased to the extent that
this service now constitutes one of the two divisions under the direc­
tor of air regulation. Under his direction it is responsible for the
entire field program of testing, inspection, and approval for license
of commercial aircraft; the examination and approval for license of
airmen; the inspection and approval of schools and repair stations;
the investigation of civil aircraft accidents; and the field enforcement
of the Air Commerce Regulations and the Air Traffic Rules. More
specifically it is charged with the following duties:
Inspection and testing of airplanes for approved type certificate,
inspection and testing of gliders for approved type certificate, in­
spection of aircraft repair stations for approved repair station cer­
tificate, inspection of civilian flying schools for approved school cer­
tificate, inspection of airplanes and gliders for license and renewal of
license, inspection of repairs made to damaged aircraft, inspection of
factories building approved-type aircraft, examination and flight
testing of pilots for license, examination and flight testing of pilots
for flying instructors ratings, flight testing of pilots for passenger
carrying ratings in various classes and weights of aircraft, examina­
tion of ground school instructors for license, examination of me­
chanics for license, field investigation of accidents in civil aeronau­
tics, investigation of reported violations of the regulations, field en­
forcement of the Air Commerce Regulations and the Air Traffic
Rules.
Inspectors employed to carry out the foregoing duties are of two
general classes: (1) Pilots of unusual qualifications who, on account
of the nature of their work, must have not only expert flying ability
and a thorough knowledge of airplanes and airplane construction
but also sufficient tact and diplomacy properly to meet the public
and carry out the work of examining pilots and mechanics and of
inspecting aircraft in the field. Inspectors in this class who have
other special qualifications, such as executive ability or a knowledge
of engineering or flight training, are selected to fill the positions
of supervisors, aeronautical engineering inspectors, and aeronautical
school inspectors. (2) Airplane inspectors stationed in the various
aircraft factories are selected for their intimate knowledge of struc­
tural details in the manufacture of aircraft and need not lie pilots.
The pilot inspectors are subdivided into four classes: Supervising
aeronautical inspectors, aeronautical engineering inspectors, aero­
nautical school inspectors, and aeronautical inspectors.

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

8

A t the close of the fiscal year, the inspection service had in its
employ a total of 90 inspectors, 75 of whom were (pilot) aeronau­
tical inspectors and 15 (factory) airplane inspectors. Owing to
limited appropriations for the fiscal year of 1931, the service was
faced with the necessity of dispensing with 6 aeronautical and air­
plane inspectors so that the total at the beginning of the ensuing
fiscal year will be 84 inspectors. While this total is greater than the
figure shown in the annual report for 1929, the amount of work
accomplished has increased to a much greater extent than the num­
ber of men employed.
The inspection service is current with its work regarding the
handling of all types of applications. It has been necessary con­
stantly to improve methods of operation, by accelerating action on
applications, and by increasing the efficiency of examination and
test procedure. Part of this has been possible through the delega­
tion of more authority to the district supervisors.
The results of the changes in connection with the issuance and
renewal of pilots’ licenses which became effective during the past
year have been thoroughly gratifying. The rating of pilots for
passenger-carrying privileges according to weights and types of air­
craft has raised the standard of flying ability among pilots of these
classes with the consequent increase in safety to the flying public
who ride as passengers.
The flying-school regulations, which became effective just before
the beginning of the last fiscal year, have brought satisfactory devel­
opment in this field. Forty-four schools have been issued approved
school certificates during the year, and the graduates of these schools
have shown a marked improvement in ability over those trained by
unapproved methods.
The development in aircraft design and performance has also
advanced substantially during the past year, owing in part at least
to the critical testing of the various models by the engineering
inspectors.
The efficiency of the inspection service could be further increased
by the use of more airplanes. There are now more than three in­
spectors for each airplane, and the result is that the majority of
travel must necessarily be by rail, thus greatly retarding the work
of inspection. Obviously, the bulk of the inspectors’ work is located
at the various airports. This necessitates not only rail transpor­
tation but other means of travel from the rail terminals to the
airports.
T able 1.— Applications, inspections, and examinations, fiscal year 1930, compared

with 1929

Item

1930

j

1929

Applications ior—

Mechanic’s license.................................................................................................. ......

304
2
118
21
7,385
2,218
5
44
4,943

!
i
;
I
|
j
1

186
0
0
0
4,740
727
0
0
4.0S3

AERONAUTICS BRANCH
T a b l e 1.— Applications,

9

inspections, and examinations, fiscal year 19S0, compared
with I.9S9— C o n tin u e d
Item

Applications for—Continued.

Inspection of repairs after accident which required submission of engineering d a ta ...
T otal...........................................................................................................................

1930

1929

12,089
10,902
272
353
232
689
612

6,822
0
0
0
0
456
503

40,189

17, 517

» The pilots’ ratings were estimated as one and one-half times the number of active transport and limited
commercial pilots who require at least 1 rating to maintain the status of their licenses. Many pilots have
several ratings, each of which required a test flight with an inspector before issuance.
L IC E N S IN G D IV ISIO N

The licensing division is responsible for the preparation and is­
suance of all aircraft, pilot’s and mechanic’s licenses and their re­
newals ; for the transfer of title to aircraft assigned Department of
Commerce numbers; for the issuance of certificates of airworthiness
for export of aircraft to be exported to foreign countries having
reciprocal agreements with the United States; for the validation of
such certificates and the maintenance of all files and records pertain­
ing to the foregoing; for determining whether aircraft which are to
be made eligible for license are of proper structural design; for ex­
amining pilots and student pilots as to their physical and mental
fitness for flying before they are licensed, checking by periodic
examination of those who are already licensed; for handling the
technical phases of enforcing the air commerce regulations, as well
as the investigation of violations of the air commerce act of 192G,
the Air Commerce Regulations, and the Air Traffic Rules, for the
assessment of penalties, and for acting in a general advisory capacity
in all matters pertaining to air law; and for determining the causes
of all civil aircraft accidents.
This division is divided into five units, as follows: Medical section,
registration section, enforcement section, accident board, and engi­
neering section.
MEDICAL SECTION

The work of the medical section during the past fiscal year has
been approximately 50 per cent greater than during the previous
year. The number of physical examinations certified increased
from 28,478 in the fiscal year 1929, to 43,902 in the fiscal year 1930.
Comparative figures for the two years follow:
1929
Original examinations, trained pilots.................................................................................
Reexaminations, all classes....... _.......................................................................................
Total.............................................................................................................

1930

3, 709
8,013
16,756

2,701
18,595
22,606

28,478

43,902

10

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

From the figure showing 2,701 original examinations for trained
pilots in 1930 it would appear that the number of trained pilots is
growing less. The opposite is the case, however. Practically all
those who received training other than as licensed students have been
provided for. The trained-pilot class now comes from the student
class. Inasmuch as their student examinations are their original
examinations, their numbers do not appear under “ trained pilots,
original examinations ” but under “ students.” Their first examina­
tions as trained pilots, therefore, appear under “ reexaminations.”
I t will be seen that the number of examinations under this heading
of original examinations is rapidly decreasing, and should eventually
reach zero.
While the number of students is much greater for the past fiscal
year than for the previous one, the number of students has been less
during the past six months than during the same period a year ago.
In the first six months of 1929 there were 9,477 students while in the
same period in 1930 there were 8,007. However, during May and
June of 1930. there were more students examined than during the
same months a year ago.
In addition to the 44,000 examinations received, 532 have been
rechecked and certified for a higher grade on the basis of the same
examinations.
Contact has been made with the inspection service on more than 100
doubtful cases to determine the advisability of granting waivers.
Inasmuch as all the old-time pilots long since have been taken care of,
the policy has been not to grant waivers as freely as has been done
heretofore. The wisdom of a more stringent policy has been cor­
roborated by the statistical work previously reported.
A summary of this statistical work shows clearly that a student’s
ability to learn to fly decreases directly as his deviations from the
physical normal become greater. I f he has disqualifying defects
his chances of progressing to even a private license are so low as to
be unworthy of consideration.
In the licensed pilot group, the accident rate, the number of pilots
having accidents, and the fatality rate are all far higher in the group
that, shows deviations from the physically normal.
The number of medical examiners increased from 704 on June 30,
1929, to 816 on June 30, 1930. Medical examiners have been given
authority to issue student permits direct. While the new student
procedure and the new method of field renewal of licenses have re­
lieved the department of much work in the Washington office, they
have not relieved the medical section to any extent.
Physical qualifications for glider pilots and lighter-tlian-air pilots
have been adopted during the past year.
A thorough revision has been made of Physical Standards for
Airplane Pilots and the Supplementary Guide for Medical Exam­
iners. Both have been incorporated into one pamphlet, and it is
now in press.
The medical director attended the third annual meeting of the
Pan-American Medical Association at Panama City, Panama. Steps
were taken at that meeting to obtain further medical examiners in
Central and South America and the West Indies.
There are now extraterritorial examiners in Alaska, Hawaii, P hil­
ippines, Panama, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Brazil, and Trinidad. Ap-

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

11

pointments will be made shortly in Guatemala and other points in
South America. Arrangements have been made to accept the m ili­
tary examinations of Argentina and Chile.
REGISTRATION SECTION

The volume of work of the registration section increased 53 per
cent during the past fiscal year. This increase was due primarily
to a natural growth in incoming applications for the various classes
and types of licenses.
At present Canada and Colombia are the only foreign countries
with which the United States lias reciprocal agreements whereby
aircraft may be imported and exported for commercial operation.
However, during the year a new policy with reference to issuance
of certificates of airworthiness for export was effected with a view
to assisting manufacturers in the sale of approved-type aircraft in
any foreign country whether or not a reciprocal agreement was in
effect with such country. Manufacturers have indicated that this
procedure has been of material assistahce both in the sale and the
licensing of aircraft in the country to which exported. Certificates
of airworthiness for export were issued to a total of 129 aircraft
exported to all countries, an increase of 18 per cent over the previous
year. More than 90 per cent of the aircraft exported under these
certificates were delivered to Canada.
T abi .k 2 .— United

Item
1922

Planes................
Engines.........
Parts for planes.

States exports of aeronautical products, calendar years
li>22-l!)80
Number

37
147
___

Total value...

Value

Item

Number

Value

1927:
Planes................
Engines.............
Parts for planes.

$848,568
484,875
570,117

494,930

Total value...

1,903,583

1928:
Planes...............
Engines.............
Parts for planes.

102 j 1,759,653
179 i 604,826
....... ! 1.240,244

$156,630
72,819
205,481 |1

1923:
Planes................
Engines.............
Parts for planes.

48
80
. . ..

309,051
65,558
58,9-19

Total value...

....

433,558

Total value...

. 3,664,723

1924:
Planes...............
Engines............
Parts for planes.

59
112,738
HO 1 219.009
___ ! 165,926

1929:
Pianos...............
Engines.............
Parts for planes.

354 Í 5.574,480
321 ! 1,375,697
___ 2,252,203

Total value...

798,273

Total value...

; 9,202,380

80
511,282
73
170,793
__ * 101.584

1930 (first half):
Planes...............
Engines---------Parts for planes.

180 j 2,811,482
183 ; 832,784
___ : 1,035,354

Total value...

___ ! 4,079,020

1925:
Planes................
Engines.............
Parts for planes.
Total value...
1926:
Planes................
Engines.............
Parts for planes.
T otal v alu e...

....I
50
297
___

783,059
303,149
573,732
150,329
1,027, 210

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

1 2

During the fiscal year, a total of 66,097 licenses, license renewals,
title transfers, and export certificates was issued as against
a total of 42,408 for the previous year. The renewal of licenses and
the transfer of titles now constitute a major portion of the total work
of the section. This work, entirely additional to the original
issuance of licenses, has grown to where it now constitutes 42 per
cent of the total volume of work. Table 3 shows the steadily
increasing rate at which applications have been received and the
constantly increasing volume of work necessitated by license renewals
and the transferring of title to aircraft formally assigned Depart­
ment of Commerce license numbers.
T able 3.— Total applications received and licenses and certificates issued
1927
Item

1928

1930

1929

Increase
Increase
Increase Grand
over
over
over
total
­ previous
Number N umber previous Number previous Num
ber
fiscal
fiscal
fiscal
year
year
year

Aircraft:
License applications received...... ........................
Licenses issued....................

1,123
147

3,422

Identification applications
received.............................
Identifications issued..........

288
237

362
460

Pilots:*
Applications received.........
Licenses issued....................

1,331
1,328
65
2,039

1,812
112

3,488
2, 632
808

92
2,250

Student pilot permits is-

1,728

Per cent
205
1,075

2, 682

Glider pilot applications

4,740
4,379
727

Per cent

Per cent
49
213

56

16,670
12,785
3,005

4
4
18
41

8,407
8, 191
303
13,839

39
153

7,385
6,531
2,278

3,328
3,256
109
4,906

150
145
68
141

3, 460
3, 370
129
6,894

6,822
5,137
4, 687

96
95
480

12,089
10, 360
9, 367

77 : 24, 211
102 18,241
100 14,862

15,868

¿491

21,191

34 ! 39,741

44
39

44
39

..............

Mechanics: *
Applications received.........
Licenses issued....................

1,626
99

2,919
2,806

80
2,734

4,083
3,264
75

T otal.................................

6,444

25, 248

364

61,381

40
16

4,943
3,719
2,219

21
14
2,859

13,571
9,888
2,294

143 94,018

53

186,091

» Private, limited commercial, industrial, and transport.
* Airplane and engine.

Much difficulty has been experienced in keeping current the issuance
of licenses, license renewals, and transfers of title. Whereas the
volume of work has increased 3,332 per cent over July 1, 1927, it
has only been possible to increase the registration personnel 400
per cent.
During the year an additional volume of work was necessitated by
rewriting all classes of pilot licenses in accordance with the procedure
of renewing these licenses in the field. Out of the 12,800 active
licenses outstanding, approximately 3,000 licenses were rewritten
prior to expiration, and the remainder were taken care of upon
expiration. This work will not reoccur until five years hence.
With the renewal of pilot licenses in the field it was thought that
the work of this section would be materially reduced. However,
this reduction has not materialized owing to the fact that renewals

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

13

have increased 100 per cent over the fiscal year 1929 and, therefore,
office procedure increased accordingly.
In an effort to eliminate confusion surrounding the procedure for
transferring title to airplanes assigned Department of Commerce
numbers an entirely new system of transfer of title has been devised.

1930

A record, transfer, and reassignment form is being mailed to the
owners of aircraft along with the license or identification mark.
This form is self-explanatory and when properly completed and
returned to the' Department of Commerce, constitutes sufficient evi­
dence of sale to support transfer of title to a new owner.
A system has been developed whereby aircraft may be registered in
the names of purchasers who have financed their purchase through

14

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OP COMMERCE

credit agencies. So far the system has worked out satisfactorily to
all concerned.
Although a marked saving has been effected through improved
office routine and the utilization of modern equipment, the volume of
work has continued to grow faster than the personnel could handle
it with promptness. A resume of the work shows that 66,000 original
and renewal applications were received and acted upon. This repre­
sents an increase in voluihe of work of 60 per cent.
ENFORCEMENT SECTION

The enforcement section handles the technical phases of enforcing
the Air Commerce Regulations, as well as the investigation of
violations of the air commerce act of 1926, the Air Commerce Regu­
lations, and the Air Traffic Rules. It prepares the assessment of
penalties and acts in a general advisory capacity in all matters per­
taining to air law.
For the period covered by this report there have been 612 violations,
183 assessments of civil penalties, 164 suspensions, 22 revocations of
licenses, 7 denials of licenses, 148 reprimands, $3,675 collected, 10
public hearings, and 13 cases referred to the Department of Justice.
T able 4.—Analysis of enforcement of air commerce regulations July 1, 1929, to

June 30, 1930

Civil penalties
Repri­ Suspen­ Revo­
Total
number Number Amount mands sions cations
assessed collected

Nature of violation

'
Unlicensed pilot flying licensed
Flying without navigation lights.
Flying without identification

T otal...................................

De­
nials

Dis­
missals

IOC
133

42
19

$862.50
475.00

16
40

36
32

79
13

42
3

762. 50
50.00

26
6

6
1

11
270

5
72

125.00
1, 400. 00

6
54

89

18

3

34

183 3,675. 00

148

164

22

7

88

612

Public hearings held............................... ... _
Cases referred to Department of Justice...

9
41

3
1

1
3

4

....
....

10
13

New regulations governing scheduled operations of interstate
passenger air-transport services, schools giving instructions in fly­
ing, parachutes, and gliders, together with the department’s policy
of rigid enforcement of all regulations, have had a marked effect
on the work of this section.
The section collaborates extensively in the preparation of State
aeronautical legislation. Much effort is also devoted to coordina­
tion work, involving interpretations of the regulations in States and
municipalities where the Federal regulations have been adopted
and are being enforced by local authorities.
The year has introduced a number of new problems in connection
with the operation of airports, such as matters of securing the re­
moval or marking of obstructions and conflicts between owners
of adjoining land and aii’port officials. In past years this type of
difficulty was seldom encountered, but with the present develop-

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

15

merits of the industry problems of this nature are continually
arising.
The section has made a compilation of State aeronautical legisla­
tion, and every effort is exerted to keep current information on
State aeronautical legislation, since requests for it are constantly
received. The section also strives to secure advance copies of all
proposed legislation both State and municipal. These are carefully
studied and the proponents of the measures are advised if changes
are desirable.
ACCIDENT BOARD

The purpose of the aircraft accident board is to analyse and de­
termine the causes of all civil aircraft accidents. The board con­
sists of at least two experienced pilots, a flight surgeon, an aero­
nautical engineer, a lawyer versed in air law, and a statistician,
thus assuring that any contributing factor to an aircraft accident
will be covered by expert knowledge.
For statistical purposes, reports on aircraft accidents are divided
into three classes as follow s:
(1) Accidents.—This group includes all aircraft accidents involv­
ing death or serious injury to persons and all accidents wherein the
damage incurred by the aircraft is sufficient to necessitate an in­
spection of repairs before being reflown.
(2) Mishap.—This group includes all aircraft accidents not in­
volving death or serious injury to persons and where damage in­
curred by the aircraft is not sufficient to necessitate an inspection
of repairs before being reflown.
(3) No accident.—This group includes all accidents to aircraft
not incurred in flight, such as hangar fires, floods, windstorms, etc.
It is the aim of the Department of Commerce to secure reports
on all accidents to civil aircraft of the United States. I f a review
of these reports discloses any apparent structural weakness of the
aircraft, any incompetency in piloting, any irregularities of regis­
tration or any apparent violation of the air commerce regulations,
such delinquencies are immediately brought to the attention of the
proper office for suitable action.
All aircraft accidents are analyzed in strict conformity with the
method outlined by the special committee on aircraft accident analy­
sis and published by the National Advisory Committee for Aero­
nautics in Report No. 357. This method was developed by the
special committee as a basis for the classification and comparison
of aircraft accidents which would conform to a standard and be
universally comparable for both civil and military accidents.
The aircraft accident report form has been carefully revised to
meet the various changes in operating conditions and to secui'e sta­
tistical information. In addition to the aircraft accident report,
a system has been developed whereby the Department of Com­
merce inspectors submit preliminary reports on all accidents occur­
ring in their respective territories. This preliminary report pro­
vides sufficient information for the immediate suspension of a license
where damage incurred bv the aircraft is of sufficient magnitude to
render its operation unsafe.
Facts brought out by accident analysis continue to play an im­
portant part in the constant development of safer aircraft and more

16

REPORT TO THE SECRETARY OF COMMERCE

competent pilots, and constitute a useful and valuable check on the
effectiveness of the air commerce regulations.
ENGINEERING SECTION

The primary function of the engineering section is to determine
whether aircraft which are to be made eligible for license are of
proper structural design. The fulfillment of this function necessi­
tates a detailed examination of the structural strength of new and
repaired aircraft, as well as an investigation of the suitability and
airworthiness of the various component parts and accessories which
are used in aircraft. These parts and accessories include propellers,
engines, arrangement of power-plant installations, pontoons, wheels,
and various patented devices which may be applied to aircraft.
What is known as an approved-type certificate is issued to air­
craft manufacturers meeting certain stipulated requirements. This
entitles the manufacturer to build aircraft in exact accordance with
an approved model; such aircraft are then eligible for commercial
license. In order to obtain an approved-type certificate, the manu­
facturer must first submit complete technical data, together with
stress analyses and blue prints of his aircraft. These plans are
carefully checked for required strength and adherence to accepted
engineering practice. This requires the attention of aeronautical
engineers who are familiar with all the mathematical processes of
aircraft analysis and design and technicians who are authorities on
all the structural details and types of construction that can be ap­
plied to aircraft.
During the past fiscal year 164 approved-type certificates were
granted to airplanes; 29 approved-type certificates were granted for
engines; and 146 approved-type certificates were granted for pro­
pellers. In addition 140 different types of airplanes were examined
and approved for license without being granted an approved-type
certificate; 232 cases of repairs to damaged aircraft were investi­
gated; 67 sets of drawings were examined and sealed for approved
repair stations; and a large number of miscellaneous parts, such
as pontoons, patented nuts, flexible hose connections, etc., were in­
vestigated. The total number of approvals granted to airplanes,
engines, and propellers during the fiscal year amounted to 479.
This is almost twice the number of approvals granted during the
previous year, and is more than six and one-half times the number
granted the year before that. In addition to these there were a
large number of revisions to existing approvals, which were duly
considered and acted upon.
The volume of incoming work is increasing steadily and shows no
signs of diminishing. (See fig. 3.) Although the number of newtype airplanes being-produced decreased during the latter part of the
year, the number of repairs, alterations, and special modifications
affecting those in service, increases steadily. A total of 3,465
technical subjects were considered during the year as compared to
1,140 during the previous year.
ENGINE-TESTING SECTION

The testing of commercial engine types to determine their suita­
bility for use in licensed aircraft has been carried on at the Arlington

AAO BfBB/O O B B B O B B /O A L B /V B & /B S ~/A/C O A?/A/G

AERONAUTICS BRANCH

IS O LL/M B O B /A/C O M /A/G ASO BB B O B
B/<3CAL. BBAB /9£9 -30

( E A /G /A /E E & /A /G )
F igubb 3

18038—30------2

17

18

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

engine-testing laboratory where two torque-stand testing units have
been in continuous operation throughout the year. In August, 1929,
a temporary third stand was installed, and in December, 1929, this
was replaced by a third standard testing unit. In May, 1930, the
testing staff was temporarily increased, and each of the testing units
was operated on a 2-shift basis.
As a result, the testing of engines is practically up to date, and
a test date is usually available within two weeks after the manu­
facturer meets the preliminary test requirements. To care for fu­
ture demands, a fourth testing unit is being provided at Arlington,
and air-cooling equipment, which will permit the dynamometer cali­
bration of air-cooled engines up to 400 horsepower, is to be installed
at the Bureau of Standards.
Tests were undertaken during the year on 52 engines, and of this
number 26 passed, 23 failed, and 3 were withdrawn. The engines
which failed included 10 new types and 4 which had received at
least one previous test. Seven engine types failed two or three
times during the year whereas several others passed on retest after
an initial failure. The most common sources of major failure were
as follows: Crank shaft (4), crank case (4), cylinder (3), piston
seizure (3), and exhaust valve (3). Only 8 of the 23 engines which
failed completed half of the 50-hour endurance test. While the
percentage of failures has decreased somewhat, more extensive devel­
opment work by the average manufacturer before he submits an
engine for test should result in fewer failures and retests with a
material saving in cost to the Government.
A IR W AY S DIVISION

The establishment and maintenance of aids to air navigation is
carried on by the airways division, organized within the Bureau of
Lighthouses, and, so far as practicable, through the regular district
organizations of the Lighthouse Service of the Department of
Commerce.
The airways division has been organized into four sections—sur­
veys, construction, communications, and radio. The survey section
determines airway routings, selects sites for beacons and landing
fields, and concludes all negotiations for licensing these sites and for
conditioning the fields for use by aircraft. The construction section
arranges for the purchase and shipment of all lighting equipment
and supervises its erection and installation under contract or by
airways division field forces. The communications section selects,
establishes, and supervises the operations of airways weather-report­
ing stations and airways communications stations. The radio sec­
tion designs, procures, and supervises the erection and installation
of radio equipment for communications stations and radiobeacons.
Maintenance of the intermediate landing fields and beacon lights
is accomplished mainly by the district organizations of the Bureau
of Lighthouses to which have been added the necessary special
personnel.
Only two maintenance organizations, in addition to the regular
lighthouse districts, have been required to maintain efficiently the
airways extending from the Mississippi and Missouri River Valleys

AERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

19

to the eastern borders of California, Oregon, and Washington.
These have been located at Salt Lake City, Utah, and Fort Worth,
Tex., in charge of airways engineers and are concerned solely with
the maintenance of aids to air navigation.
The divisions of finance, law and property, and personnel of the
Bureau of Lighthouses function in their respective spheres of action
for the airways division, thus obviating the necessity for special
units.
N A V IG A TIO N F A C IL IT IE S ON C IV IL AIRW AYS

The 1930 construction program included the establishment of
lighting on approximately 3,100 miles of airways, all extensively
used for scheduled flying at night. These airways were: MiamiAtlanta (Miami-Jacksonville section), Washington-Cleveland, Salt
Lake City-Great Falls (Salt Lake City-Pocatello section), PortlandSpokane, Brownsville-Fort Worth, Brownsville-Houston, NorfolkWashington, St. Louis-Columbus (St. Louis-Indianapolis section),
Columbus-Philadelphia, and San Francisco-Seattle (Redding-Portland section).
Thirteen airways radio communication stations and 26 radio range
beacons were constructed, and automatic telegraph-typewriter cir­
cuits for collection of weather and aircraft movement reports were
placed in service on 5,650 miles of airways.
At the close of the fiscal year there were 13,500 miles of lighted
airways in operation, with 319 intermediate fields, 1,477 airway
beacons, 303 airway weather-reporting stations, 35 airways radio
communication stations, and 9 radio range beacons. Twenty-seven
more radio range beacons were practically completed but were not
in service operation. In addition there were under contract, with
the work of installation in various stages of completion, 1,728 miles
of airways on which are being established 36 intermediate fields and
223 airway beacon lights. The 1,728 miles under construction in­
clude: Brownsville-Fort Worth, Brownsville-Houston, ColumbusPhiladelphia, Nor folk-'Washington, Portland-Spokane, St. LouisColumbus, and Washington-Cleveland.
Surveys of the following airways for lighting in the fiscal year
1931 were under way in June, 1930: San Diego-Los Angeles, San
Diego-El Paso, El Paso-Fort Worth, and Jacksonville-ltichmond.
E N G IN E E R IN G LA Y O U T OF AIRW AYS

Between the given terminals or intermediate airports as desig­
nated by the Interdepartmental Committee on Civil Airways and
the executive board of the Aeronautics Branch, airways are laid out
oil as near straight lines as the topographical features of the region
will permit. A strip approximately 25 miles wide throughout the
length of the route is subjected to a careful scrutiny from the air to
determine the location of the best flying country, the principal roads,
railroads, centers of habitation, and other natural aids to flying or
to the maintenance of beacons and landing fields. These studies are
supplemented by a ground survey for corroboration of and addi­
tions to the data obtained from the air survey; and the route which
offers the most advantageous combination of directness, good flying

2 0

R E PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

F ig d bb

AERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

21

terrain, and proper maintenance facilities, is recommended to the
consideration of the executive board of the Aeronautics Branch.
At this time the layout of radio range beacons to furnish radio
direction is planned, and such revisions of the recommended route as
may be found necessary for suitable location of radiobeacons is
determined. Following approval by the executive board of the route
as recommended or revised, the intermediate landing fields are
tentatively selected and surveyed, and their recommended location
reported to the executive board for approval.
The practice has been to select landing fields at intervals of 30
miles, directly on the airway center line if possible, and at least
within the equisignal zone of the radiobeacon. This practice is
likely to be modified in the future to conform with the requirements
for a certificate of authority to operate scheduled interstate pas­
senger air-transport service. These requirements include provisions
that there shall be fields of sufficient size and at intervals not exceed­
ing 50 miles for landing and taking off the largest commercial
aircraft.
In many parts of the country it will be practicable to use 50-mile
spacings for intermediate fields, but in the rougher territory and in
sections subject to frequent poor-visibility conditions, fields located
at closer intervals may be found necessary.
After approval by the executive board, specific field locations are
licensed and beacon light sites between fields are selected. The
standard spacing of beacon lights has been 10 miles; but, in accord­
ance with the regulations governing the operation of scheduled inter­
state passenger air-transport services, and in view of the proposed
use of the more powerful 36-inch beacon lights in place of the
standard 24-inch searchlight, the standard spacing will be increased
to 15 miles in the better flying regions.
Beacon light sites vary slightly from standard line and spacing in
order to secure advantages of roadside location and commercial elec­
tric power, and also to secure for the sites the advantage of as high
an elevation as practical, so that intervening ground elevations may
not block the view from one beacon to the next. When the
topography is such that this is impossible, elevations between ad­
jacent regular beacons are marked with auxiliary beacons or blinkers
of lower candlepower, so that light-to-light vision may always be
maintained unless atmospheric conditions prevent.
Airways are designated by the* first letters of their terminal cities
and read from south to north and west to cast. Thus, O-C for
Omaha to Chicago, L A -S F for Los Angeles to San Francisco. All
field and standard beacon sites are known by numbers which, by the
addition of zero, indicate their approximate mileage on the airway.
Thus, a field 32 miles from the starting point of an airway is No. 3:
a beacon light 585 miles from the starting point is No. 58. Beacon
lights other than standard are given numbers corresponding exactly
to their mileage.
IN T E R M E D IA T E L A N D IN G FIELD S

Where landing fields and airports are nonexistent, and where
safety demands the establishment of fields, the Department of Com­
merce establishes and maintains intermediate landing fields. The

2 2

R E PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

%

intermediate landing fields are occupied by the Government under
terms of a license providing for the right to carry out construction
work incidental to the establishment, preparation, and operation of
the fields; also the right of the aeronautical public to use the facilities
with rights of ingress and egress and other privileges consistent with
the purpose for which the intermediate fields are established.
The size of such intermediate landing fields, grades, surface con­
ditions, crops, etc., are in accordance with the department’s standard
practice and are provided within available appropriations made by
Congress for this purpose. The intermediate landing fields are
boundary lighted, equipped with airway beacon lights and wind in­
dicators, and otherwise marked for identification and usage by air­
craft. The average cost of the lighting installation is approximately
$5,000 per field.
The standard intermediate field in low altitude provides two land­
ing strips or runways of a length of 2,000 feet and width of 600'
feet, approximately at right angles to each other, with one strip
lying in the direction of the prevailing wind. Such a field has an
area of 47 acres. In the higher altitudes (above 4,000 feet) the
standard length for landing strips is 2,500 to 3,000 feet. Landing
strips may form a T, L, or + and the inner angles at the junctions
of the strips are usually beveled oil to provide additional diagonal
landing space for use under conditions of strong cross winds. In
many cases it is possible to secure triangular or square fields giving
the desired runway lengths in all directions. In rough country it is
often possible to secure only one landing strip, in which case an
attempt is made to increase the width of such a 2-way field suf­
ficiently to permit landing diagonally into strong cross winds.
Intermediate landing fields are licensed for occupation from year
to year, with option for renewal for periods of 5 to 10 years, and
for an indefinite period beyond this term subject to termination upon
G months’ notice by either party. Options for purchase by the Gov­
ernment within the period of the license are obtained when circum­
stances indicate that the field is likely to become a permanent and
indispensable aid to air navigation.
The average rental cost of intermediate landing fields is $4.71 per
acre per annum throughout the United States, but this includes an
acreage in fields furnished at a nominal sum by municipalities and
in fields established on public lands of the United States. Beacon
light sites are similarly licensed. £he average cost being $4.63 per
site per annum.
Rules for the operation and usage of intermediate landing fields
have been revised during the past year. Owing to the constantly
increasing public interest in air transportation, the department has
found it possible to establish many intermediate fields on a coopera­
tive basis, whereby the city or town at which the field is located, or
some civic or commercial organization of the city, rents or purchases
the field and licenses it to the department at a reduced or nominal
consideration, or conditions the field licensed directly from tlm owner
by the department, or both. A large number of the intermediate
landing fields established during the past year have been the result
of cooperative arrangements, with considerable saving in expense
to the Government. A t the close of the fiscal year, 319 intermediate
landing fields were being maintained by the airways division.

AERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

23

AIKAVAY BEACON L IG H T S

Airway beacon lights have been established at approximately 10mile intervals from airport to airport on all lighted airways. Every
third beacon light is on an intermediate field, according to standard
practice. Alterations of the direction of airway courses generally
occur at fields, and the beacon lights between fields are established
as near as possible on the air line from field to field.
The standard beacon light consists of a 1,000-watt searchlight fitted
with a 24-inch precision parabolic mirror giving 1,000,000-beam
candlepower. An electric motor of one-sixth horsepower rotates the
searchlight at six revolutions per minute. Each beacon light is
fitted with an automatic-lamp changer and tvro electric-lamp bulbs.
In case one lamp burns out, the stand-by lamp is automatically
placed in circuit and in focus within a fraction of a second.
Two course lights are mounted on the tower platform just below
each searchlight, one pointing forward and one pointing backward
on the airway course. The course lights are 500-watt searchlight
projectors fitted with special cylindro-spherical mirrors and 18-inch
doublet lenses, giving a beam of 15° horizontal and 8° vertical spread
of 100,000-beam candlepower when fitted with aviation red or
green lenses. Red lenses are used at beacon light sites and green
lenses at intermediate landing fields. Each course light, in alterna­
tion (while the main beam of the beacon is swinging through the
opposite 180° of arc) flashes its code signal, which corresponds to
its number on the airway. Code signals run from 0 to 9. The pilot
must know on which 100-mile section of airway he is flying in order
to identify the site.
The beacon is mounted on a skeleton steel tower, the standard
height of which is 51 feet. Towers of standard construction are,
however, available in 20, 02. 75, and 87 foot heights for use where
conditions indicate desirability of heights other than 51 feet. At
the top of each tower is a 6-foot-square platform with guard railing,
providing an opportunity for airway mechanicians to work on the
lights with ease and safety.
A concrete directional arrow 54 feet in length, which points to
the next higher-numbered beacon, is constructed on the ground at
the base of the tower. The tower rises in the center of the arrow.
On the chrome-yellow feather end of the arrow the beacon light site
number is painted in black characters. At all fields and at beacon
lights where local generating sets are required, a small power house,
10 by 14 feet, forms the feather end of the arrow. At fields which
do not require local generators the houses provide storage facilities
for emergency equipment.
Gasoline-engine driven electric-generating sets, where required,
are furnished in duplicate, with thermostatic relay controls which
will automatically start either generator if it becomes too cold during
daylight hours and stop it when the temperature of the cooling water
shall have risen to a predetermined value. This cycle is repeated,
depending upon outside temperatures, so that starting of the plant
at sunset is facilitated.
Astronomic electrically driven time, clocks are installed at all bea­
con lights to switch on the commercial current or start the engine
generator at sunset and switch off the current or generator at sunrise.

24

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

For use as auxiliary lights, or in lieu of standard beacon lights at
standard spacings, the airways division has designed and installed
other types of beacon lights which work effectively. Dioptric lan­
terns of 300 and 375 millimeters diameter have been used with single
acetylene burners, with clusters of 3 acetylene burners, and with 500watt electric lamps. Another standard unit is a double-ended range
lantern fitted with two 18-inch doublet lenses similar to the courselight lenses, using a double acetylene burner light source.
In some cases wind-driven electric generators are used to furnish
current for the light source. B y utilizing the wind energy in this
fashion it is possible to install full automatic clock-controlled beacon
lights on points of extreme inaccessibility without the necessity of
providing supplies of gasoline, oil, or acetylene gas. Such units
require renewal of a small amount of lubricating oil and battery
water but once in six months. When lesser units are used in place
o f standard beacon lights to mark the airway center line, the stand­
ard spacing is reduced to 3y2 miles, by which arrangement the lower
candlepower is offset by the shorter spacing, resulting in practically
equivalent effectiveness.
There were 1,477 beacon lights of all types in operation at the close
o f the fiscal year.
T able 5.— S c h e d u le d a i r w a y o p e r a tio n s f o r c a le n d a r y e a r 1 9 2 9
CO

Operator

Routes operated

,

CO

o*

O
toa

S

S

Boeing Air Transport.
Brower’s Air Serv­
ice.
Colonial Airways
Corporation:
Canadian Colonial Airways.
Colonial A i r
Transport.
Colonial Western Airways.
Capitol Airways...
Continental Air
Express (Inc.).
Curtiss
W right
Fying Service.
Delta Air Service..

Eastern Air Transport (Inc.).
Embry-Riddle___
Ford Airways........

San Francisco~C hicago........

_ 'O

Si

Sa

a2

o c.
Atlantic C o a s t New York-Atlantic C ity ...
Air wavs.
CliiTr.nl Ball (Inc.). Cloveland-Pittsburgh..........
Cleveland-Washington, D.

s?

CJ

ä

K

1

4,010

193

12
6

106,077
49.916

62
608

12 2, 761,174

2,860

Wichita-Omaha....................

3

M, 700

0

0

0

1, 786 97,027 3290,951. 34
0
0
0
27,047 1, 797, 506 3,661,515.40

62

0

0

0

New York-Montreal............

12

219, 570

964

4,717

New York-Boston..............

12

237, 143

4, 796

1,300

116,095

348,238. 74

Iiidianapolis-Detroit............
Los Angeles-Alameda..........

12
6
6
6
6

385,908
84
30, 722 1,207
13,050
102
31,100
218
203,040 3,403

446
0
300
1,700
0

102,083
0
0
0
0

113,296.84
o
0
0
0

0

19,328

1,245.00

Chicago municipal airportGrant Park Kamp, Chi­
cago.
Dallas-Shreveport................
Shreveport-M'onroe..............
Monroè-Jackson...................
Jackson-Meridian.................
M eridian-B irrningham.........
New York-Atlanta...............
Atlanta-M iami.....................
( 'incinnati-C hicago..............
Detroit-C hicago....................
Detroit-Butïaib.....................
Seattle-Bremerton................

3
6
6
6
4
4
12
12
12
12
12
6

963

0

«

«

27,985
30
0
0
0
14, 350
22
0
0
0
10, 410
81
0
0
0
8, Ai t
12
0
0
0
12,768
15
0
0
0
650, 779
0
0 341,593 1,024,777. 27
514, OI3
0
0 121,333
177,125. 09
394,042
772
420 79,364
116, 600.17
120, 935
0 800, 134
0
0
121,570
0 809, 302
0
0
54,425 17,192
6,153
0
0

Gorst Air Transport (Inc.).
Interstate Airlines (’hicago-A llanta...................
12 599,442 1.252
0 98^067
76,491.61
Evans vil le-St. Louis............
(Inc.).
12
0
«
(■)
«
1 Mail carried or revenue to contractor on individual foreign air-mail routes not available but the total
pounds of mail carried and money paid these contractors is included in the totals of the “ Mail (pounds)"
and “ Mail payments“ columns.
* Included in total of operator.

25

AERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

Mail pay­
ments

cS

P-*

Mail
(pounds)

O
Ma
H
£°

PI X p r e s s
(pounds)

Miles ílown

Routes operated

co

j

Operator

M onths
operated

T able o.— S c h e d u le d a i r w a y o p e r a tio n s f o r c a le n d a r y e a r 1 9 2 9 — Continued

Kohler Aviation
Corporation.
Mamer Air Transport.
Mason & Dixon
Air Lines (Inc.).
M id-C on tin en t
Air Express.
Middle States Air
Lines (Inc.).
Midwest Airways
Corporation.
N a t i o n a l Ai r
Transport (Inc.).
N a t i o n a l Parks
Airways (Inc.).
Nevada Airlines
(Inc.).
New Orleans Air
Line,
N o rth w est Airways (Inc.).
Pacific Air Transport.
Pan American Airways.

Pan A m e r i c a n
Grace Airways
(Inc.).

Grand Rapids-M ilwaukee..

4

46,077

371

0

0

0

Spokane-Portland.................
Portland-Seattle....................
Cincinnati-Detroit................

9
I
4

82,375
4.800
56,380

575
20-1
70S

0
0
246

0
0
0

0
0
0

Denver-El Paso....................
Denver-Kansas City............
Akron-Detroit......................
Akron-Pittsburgh.................
Waterloo-Des Moines..........

3
2
3
3
6

IOS. 670
47, 461
25, 740
9,800
26, 200

329
39
209
12
346

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

New York-Chicago...............
Chicago-Dallas,....................
Salt Lake City-Great Falls.
Salt Lake City-Pocatello...
Los Angeles-Reno.................
Reno-Las Vegas....................
New Orleans-Pilottown___

12 1,348,405
12 1,232,781
11 436,482
6
57,440
5 135,802
2
13,505
12
71,310

i
0
1,682
59
443
35
0

69,489 1,618,288 81, 350, 444. 10
4,153 390,957 1,174,141. 97
171,6x59.92
0 69,373
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
o
«

Chicago-Minneapolis...........
Milwaukee-Green Bay.........
I/)s Angeles-Se&ule..............
Oakland-San Jose.................
M iami-Habano.....................
M iami-Nassau....................
Miami-San Juan...................
Miaml-Cristobal...................
San Juan-Param aribo..........
Cristobal-Curncao................
Brownsville-Mexico City__
Cristobal-GuayaquiL...........
Guayaquil-Mo'lleñdo............
Moliendo-Santiago................

12
12
12
12
12
7
12
12
3

4,703
(■)
3.224
o
4,619
556
2,596
1,990
25
23

1,045 179,376
«
(■)
2,695 253,437
(>)
o
0
0)
C 0)
0
o
0
(>)

Buenos Aires-Montevideo...
Guatemala-San Salvador....
Los Angeles-San Francisco-.
I,os Angeles-San Diego........
P i t t s b u r g h - N e w a r k via
Philadelphia.
Rapid C ity -H u ro n .............

fi

1C

(

C>
5
2
1
5
3

701,585

m

812, 596
(>)
239.996
45,787
441.677
527,802
41.095
51, 868
245,481
57. 781
111,828
51,92«
17,568
1.350
374, 360
47,520
131,391
3,500

c
1,036
0
0
0
0
620
3,160
30

c
0
c
c

2,647

c
c

0
0
0
C
0

0)
1)
0)

o

0)
0)
(>)

493,109.95
(*)
721.456.22
(>)
c>
(>)
0)
(')
o
0)
C)
(■)
(■>

1

0)
<>)

0
0
Pickwick Airways
0
0
(Inc.).
0
fi
0
P ittsb u rg h Ai r­
0
2
0
ways (Inc.).
Rapid Air Lines
40
0
0
2
48. 000
16
(Inc.).
Southwest Air Fast Tulsa-D allas-.......................
C
9 151.980 2 , sor,
0
0
Express.
C
0
Tulsa-Sweetwater.................
7 143,250 3. 637
0
Tulsa-St. Louis.... .................
0
9
176.414 1,327
c
c
Tu Isa-Kansas City...............
9 114,102 1. 661
c
0
0
Tulsa-Oklahoma C ity..........
43.920 1.488
0
0
0
5
0
Dallas-Wichita Falls............
c
0
3
25.620
893
Seagull Airlines Salt Lake City-El y...............
322
0
4
18,860
0
85
(Inc.).
S eattle Victoria Seattle-Victoria .....................
445
12
21,218
11
o
(<)
Air Mail (Inc.).
S o u t h e r n Ai r
Transport Corporation:
Gulf Airlines__ New Orleans-Athmta...........
C 86,616
151,516.01
12 339. 352
lí
Houston-New Orleans.........
42,146. 80
12 208.972
35
(J 42,146
Texas Air Trans- D allas- B r ow nsv i1le...............
0. 83.671
241,763.96
12 MO, 635 1,485
port.
c 45,30i
131,186.84
lì
307, 243
672
0
0
Dallas-El Paso... ..................
0
6 2071268
901
Standard Airlines Los Angeles-El Paso .............
1,980
0
0
11 507,892 3, 549
(Inc.).
Stout Air Service Detroit-Cleveland.................
0
12 136,016 5,687l
2,383
0
(Inc.).
0
121 197,453 3,954
18,603
0
Detroit-Chicago. .................
T. A. T.-Maddux Columbus-Waynokn............
0
0
0
fi 267, 144 1,535
Air lines.
0
0
0
Los Angeles-Clovis...............
fi 278, 210 850
0
Los Angeles-Agua Caliente,.
0
0
fi 187, 480 10,173!
14,333!
0
0
Los Angeles-San Francisco..
12 890,610 23.200
0
Los Angeles-Phoenix............
6
0
(!)
(>)
«
i Mail carried or revenue to contractor on individual foreign air-mail routes not available but the tola
pounds of mail carried and money paid these contractors is included in the totals of the “ Mail (pounds) ' *
and “ Mail paym ents" columns.
*Included in total of operator.

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

Transport.
United States Air- Kansas City-Dcnver.......... .
ways (Inc.).
Universal Aviation
Corporation:
Brani if Airlines Tulsa-Oklahoma City..........
Division.
Oklahoma City-D allas........
Oklahoma City - Wichita
Falls.
Wichita Falls-San Angelo...
Tulsa-Sem inole....................
Oklahoma C it y-Amar illo....
Central Airlines Wichita- Kansas C ity—.......
Division.
W ichita-Tulsa.. .................
Wichita-Oklahoma City___
Continental Air- Cleveland-Louisville............
lines Division.
Northern Air- Chicago-Minneapolis......... .
lines Division. Chicago-Cleveland...............
Chicago-Kansas City._____
Kansas City-Garden C ity...
Robertson Divi- St. Louis-Chicago...............
sion.
St. Louis-Omahn..................
Varney Air Lines Salt Lake City-Pasco...........
(Inc.).
Pasco-Seattle-Spokane.........
Wedell \\ illiams New Orleans-Shreveport__
A ir S e r v i c e New Orleans-St. Louis........
New Orleans-Grand Isle__
(Inc.).
West Coast Air Seattle-San Francisco..........
Transport Corporation.
W estern Air Ex- Los Angeles-Salt Lake C ity.
press (Inc.).
Los Angeles-San Francisco..
Los Angeles-Kansas C ity ...
Pueblo-C hcyenne.................
Los Angeles-Avalon.............
Los Angeles-Agua Caliente.
W ichita Falls......... Wichita-Kansas C ity...........
Yellow Cab Air- Kansas City-M inneapolis...
ways.
Canadian and Latin-American air mail (U. S.
contract) i ».
Total............ .......................... - ....................

12
5

462,409
95,110

5

56,667

12
12
3

(»)

1

Bay City-Chicago.................
Detroit-Cle velan d .................

Mail pay­
ments

Thompson Aeronautical Corporation.

Ma i l
(pounds)

Routes operated

Express
(pounds)

Operator

Passengers
flown

S c h e d u le d a i r w a y o p e r a tio n s f o r c a le n d a r y e a r 1 9 2 9 — Continued

1 Miles flown

T able 5 .—

Months
operated

26

0
461

442
2,936

173, 232
0

$154,102. 66
0

0

0

515

0

0

0

288,905
91,390
27,375

7,086
1,009
517

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

3
3
3
6
12
5
12

39,752
28,650
11,280
109,944
203,651
40,374
356,993

378
546
76
1,466
2, 577
353
500

0
0
0
0
0
0
45, 646

0
0
0
0
0
0
95, 840

0
0
0
0
0
0
116,872. 53

<4
<12
7
7
12
12
12
4
5
5
1
12

9,800
153,276
147, 518
68, 217
381,903
308,678
491,411
93, 790
30, 700
24,200
2,200
276,152

95
2,345
1,051
357
2,511
969
0
0
181
82
203
3,955

0
0
0
10,140
1,039
0
0
0
0
0
0
171

0
0
0
0
78,077
65, 279
236, 083
52,909
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
197,610. 71
51,197.31
706,399. 40
4, 759. 82
0
0
0
0

12
12
12
12
12
6
6
4

760, 405
388,841
f>19. 529
166,685
88,412
13, 629
44, 625
37, 790

1,300
5,018
2,324
161
6,524
627
1,140
387

21,687 757,685 2, 272, 976. 80
747
0
0
1,017
0
0
42. 98,828
82,027. 69
14,243 :
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

(*)

«

» 100,000

672,433 3,168,906. 56

...... 25,141,499 173,405 1,866,8797,772,014 17,042,520. 71

1Mail carried or revenue to contractor on individual foreign air-mail routes not available but the total
pounds of mail carried and money paid these contractors is included in the totals of the “ Mail (pounds)”
and “ Mail paym ents” columns.
* No report.
* Information for first 3 months not available.
* This item of 100,000 miles has been listed to make allowance for the fact that the Aeronautics Branch
has been unable to secure reports from several air-transport companies that were operating at some time
during the last 6 months of 1929.
* Does not include mail carried or revenue from mail carried under contract with other Governments.
W E A T H E R SERVICE A N D C O M M U N IC A T IO N S

During the fiscal year, the United States Weather Bureau estab­
lished pilot-balloon service at 8 additional stations, making a total
of 53 stations of this type. The majority of these are located at air­
ports and furnish information at frequent intervals during the day
and night to collecting centers along the airways. Reports are also
received from more than 200 first-order Weather Bureau stations
twice daily. These, in combination with the upper-air reports, are
utilized in making aviation forecasts which are transmitted through
the medium of automatic telegraph-typewriter and radio communi­
cation stations to all pilots using the airways.

A ERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

27

During the fiscal year the Weather Bureau established 120 special
airways weather reporting stations in addition to the 110 already in
operation.
Additional automatic telegraph-typewriter circuits have been es­
tablished for weather-reporting service, comprising a system 5,650
miles in length with 120 stations.
Information as to weather conditions in the areas adjacent to an
airway is of considerable value in forecasting changes to be expected
directly on the airway within the ensuing 2 or 3 hours. For this
purpose some 60 Weather Bureau stations have been established from
150 to 200 miles on either side of the transcontinental airway and
approximately the same distance apart. Reports are being received
from each of these stations at 4 principal collecting centers at 3-hour
intervals, day and night. A résumé of conditions in the geographi­
cal area surrounding each collecting center and a short-range forecast
are compiled by an official of the Weather Bureau and transmitted
to all airways radio stations within the sector, for simultaneous
broadcast. This service is to be extended to other areas during the
fiscal year 1931. A ll meteorological stations along the frequently
used airways are being rapidly provided with full-instrument equip­
ment, including sounding balloons and ceiling lights.
Likewise the volume of radio and automatic telegraph-typewriter
traffic on the airways communication system requires closer super­
vision and direction than can be given by the airways traffic super­
visor at Washington. Accordingly the communications system has
been divided administratively into seven districts, each under oper­
ating direction of an assistant airway traffic supervisor. Assistant
airway traffic supervisors are at present stationed at the airways
communication stations at Hadley Field, New Brunswick, N. J. ;
Cleveland, Omaha, Salt Lake City, Oakland, St. Louis, and Atlanta.
At the close of the fiscal year 238 licensed radio operators were
on duty at the airways communication and radiobeacon stations.
RADIO E Q U IP M E N T

The standard type airways radio communication station com­
prises a 2-kilowatt radio telephone and telegraph transmitter with
motor generator, line amplifier, and microphones, which operate on
frequencies from 190 to 500 kilocycles and is used for broadcasting by
voice to airplanes and for point-to-point communication with simi­
lar radio stations; a 400-watt crystal-controlled high-frequency
radiotelegraph transmitter for point-to-point communication on fre­
quencies from 3,000 to 6,000 kilocycles; an intermediate-frequency
receiver 75 to 1,000 kilocycles; a high-frequency receiver 2,000 to
15,000 kilocycles; and, where required, emergency power equipment.
The emergency power equipment consists of gasoline-enginc-driven
generating sets of three different sizes, depending upon requirements
2.3, 5. and 20 kilowatts. These are used for furnishing electrical
current for radio transmission, station lights, and tower obstruction
lights.
During the past year 15 standard stations were erected at the
following locations: Washington, Richmond, Greensboro, N. C.,
Spartanburg, S. C., Atlanta, Boise, Pasco, Wash., Albany, N. Y.,
Buffalo, Boston, Tulsa, Fort Worth, Medford, and Portland, Oreg.,

28

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE

and Seattle. Six of the foregoing stations replaced temporary sta­
tions that had previously been established at Fort Worth, Washing­
ton, D. C., Richmond, Greensboro, Spartanburg, and Atlanta. The
temporary station at Oklahoma City is still in operation. These
stations, with the exception of Oklahoma City, broadcast weather
information on hourly schedules by radiotelephone to aircraft in
flight along the airways. One temporary radio station was estab­
lished at Murfreesboro, Tenn., to provide weather broadcasting
service pending the establishment of standard installation.
At the close of the year 35 standard broadcasting stations were
in operation at the following locations: Los Angeles, Fresno, and
Oakland, Calif.; Medford and Portland, Oreg.; Seattle, W ash.; Reno
and Elko, N ev.; Salt Lake C ity; Rock Springs and Cheyenne, W vo.;
North Platte and Omaha, Nebr.; Iowa City; Chicago; Bryan and
Cleveland, Ohio; Bellefonte, Pa.; Hadley Field, New Brunswick,
N. J . ; Boise, Idaho; Pasco, W ash.; La Crosse, W is.; Wichita, Ivans.:
Fort Worth, Tex.; Tulsa, Okla.; Kansas City and St. Louis, Mo.;
Atlanta, G a.; Spartanburg, S. C .; Greensboro, N. C .; Richmond, Y a .;
Washington, D. C.; Buffalo and Albany, N. Y .; Boston, Mass.; and
Key West, Fla. A standard station at Buffalo was 90 per cent
complete at the end of the fiscal year and will be placed in operation
about October 1, 1930. In addition, temporary radio stations were
in operation at Murfreesboro. Tenn., and Oklahoma City. Two
auxiliary stations equipped with intermediate and high frequency
transmitting and receiving equipment were in operation at Strevell.
Idaho, and Pleasant Valley, Nev., where, because of remote location,
no other form of communication is available.
On June 30, 27 aural-type radio range beacon stations were
approximately 95 per cent complete, and it is expected that they
will be placed in operation about September 1, 1930. At the
beginning of the fiscal year seven aural-type radio range beacons
were in operation at New Brunswick. N. J .; Bellefonte, Pa.;
Cleveland; Goshen, In d .; Sterling, 111.; Des Moines, Iow a; and Key
West, Fla. Two additional beacons were placed in operation at
Boston and Chicago during the year.
Seven visual-type radiobeacons were constructed at the lighthouse
depot at Deti-oit, Mich., and an experimental installation was made
at Detroit. Experience with this installation indicated that the
equipment as designed was suitable for the purpose intended: and
a second visual beacon is in the process of installation by the air­
ways division at Bellefonte, Pa., for practical service trials.
Radio marker beacons consisting of 7%-watt single and double
frequency automatic transmitters, with an effective range of from
3 to 5 miles, were installed at Numidia and Brookville, Pa.,
Toledo and Bryan, Ohio; Lansing, Mich.; Cicero and
Aurora, 111.; and Iowa City, Iowa. In addition, an experimental
installation was made at Vickery, Ohio, with a modified transmitter
capable of being operated as a radiotelephone transmitter as well
as a marker-beacon transmitter. Experience with this installation
indicates the feasibility of utilizing the marker-heacon equipment
for maintaining communication with radio-equipped aircraft pass­
ing over marker-beacon stations. A high-frequency receiver capable
of receiving telephone signals on a frequency of 3,106 kilocycles is

A ERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

29

added to this installation for reception of transmission from the
plane.
In order to test the efficiency of operation of the radio equip­
ment, two of the airways division airplanes carrying radio-receiv­
ing equipment have been in practically continuous use for this work,
and valuable data have been obtained.
An agreement was effected with the War Department whereby
certain frequencies heretofore allocated to the Bureau of Light­
houses were exchanged with certain War Department frequencies
so that all the channels in the 250 to 285 kilocycles frequency band
are available for use by the Department of Commerce for the broad­
casting of weather information. This arrangement practically
doubled the frequencies available for this work, and has improved
the radio service through elimination of other station interference. N
Cooperation with the manufacturers of radio equipment has re­
sulted in the production of receiving sets capable of operating on
these frequencies, so that standard aircraft receiving equipment now
includes the frequency range from 230 to 460 kilocycles.
A conference with representatives of the Canadian Department of
Marine and Fisheries was hold in New York City to consider fre­
quency assignments so as to eliminate interference between the air­
ways radio service of the two countries. Representatives of the
Aeronautics Branch, Federal Radio Commission, and State Depart­
ment attended.
Experimental 2-way communication service between aircraft and
ground stations was inaugurated on the Chicago-New York airway
during the fiscal year. An air-transport company operating over
this route equipped its planes with radiotelephone transmitters for
communicating with airway radiotelephone stations along the route.
Receiving stations were established, at points remote from the trans­
mitter for this service, at Maywood, 111., Cleveland, Ohio, and Hadley
Field, New Brunswick, N. J. The purpose of this experimental
service was to determine the practicability and utility of intercom­
munication between aircraft and ground, and to aid the air-transport
operations in determining the type of equipment required for both
ground and aircraft use.
M A IN T E N A N C E OF AIRW AYS

Airways equipment, upon being installed by the airways division,
is assigned to the Lighthouse Service district offices for maintenance.
Ai rways mechanicians are assigned to patrol 175-mile sections. They
are provided with % to 1% ton panel-body motor trucks, equipped
with spare parts and tools for taking care of practically any service
or emergency repair job required on any type of airway lighting
equipment. Airway mechanicians make their rounds and check over
each beacon light at least twice a month.
At landing fields remote from habitation and where hourly auto­
matic telegraph-typewriter weather reports are furnished, airways
keepers are on duty 24 hours daily. At other fields part-time care­
takers are employed.
At the close of the fiscal year, 29 airways engineers, 95 airways
mechanicians, and 955 keepers, caretakers, and attendants were em­
ployed in the maintenance of 13,504 miles of airways.

30

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OP CO M M ERCE
IM P R O V E M E N T S I N AIRW A Y S L IG H T IN G E Q U IP M E N T

A 36-inch rotating beacon was designed primarily for use in the
Southwest, where visibility is good and commercial current and
caretakers are scarce. The new beacon employs a lens system in
each end of a 36-inch drum with a single 1,000-watt incandescentlamp light source, projecting a high-power beam in excess of
1,000,000 candlepower from each end of the drum. Each optical
system consists of an inner and outer prismatic lens, the outer
lenses of each doublet being clear and the inner lenses clear or col­
ored as desired. With a dear-leans system at one end and a coloredlens system at- the other the beacon will show a clear and colored
flash of high candlepower during each 10-second c.ycle. Heretofore
colored flashes have been obtained through the addition of course
lights employing 500-watt lamps as light sources. The new beacon
will make possible a reduction in load of 500 watts on each site,
without sacrifice to the color characteristics.
Other developments in airways lighting equipment brought about
during the past fiscal year were:
Further improvement in the illumination of the standard wind
cone through the use of a full parabolic reflector installed in the
base of the cone; design of a new motor-driven sign flasher, utiliz­
ing cam-operated tilting mercury tubes for obtaining desired code
flashes; installation of amber lenses on course lights at intermediate
fields was discarded and green was adopted as the standard color;
further improvements in the astronomic-dial time switch, and in the
standard control cabinets; development of a ventilator system for
the standard code beacon so that 500-watt lamps can be used as
light sources without undue heating of the 300-millimeter Fresnel
lenses (with this improvement the airways code beacon becomes a
very satisfactory unit for airport u s e ); use of a monoplane filament
instead of the semicylindrical type used heretofore in the standard
1,000-watt, 110-volt, T-20 beacon lamp.
Service tests of 3 KVA, single-phase full automatic engine-genera­
tor sets for use at sites where commercial current is not available,
and where distances between power plants and beacon lights require
transmission of power at high voltages, have resulted in the adop­
tion of this unit as standard for this type of installation, and its
serious consideration for adoption as an automatic emergency power
supply source at fields operated on commercial current.

T

able

6 . — A i d s to a i r n a v ig a tio n

ESTABLISHED AND O PER A TIN G JU N E 30, 1930

Service trucks *

Telephone

Radiobeacon 3

Marker beacon

Others

©
a
3
&

Communication

Average
rent
[ Automatic tele1graph typewriter

P-.

Flashing
Number

r<

2”©
d
©

24-inch
revolving
Average
rent

'S
o

Rent
Per acre

Acreage

Total

Ter field

Total

; Total

Airports »,1

2©
c:
©

Obstruc­
tion lights

Weather
Radio
stations2 stations 3

Beacons

305 7 3 116 38
23 7.7
1
832 277
$82.00 $0.099
23 $1.22
4
15 $1.33
51 3.6
6.56 9 14 394 24.6
871.7 62.3
5,091.00 5.8.5
51 2.23
2 15 3 1 2
2 None.
1 4
788 14 19 457 26.9
139 7.2 1, 027. 05 60.4
76 7.89
7,863. .50 7. 66
4 3.00
9 4 6 1
23 8
210 7 2
56 28
19 9.5
154
1,250.00 8.15
8 3. 19
1
1
a
120 2 4 119 30
371.2 92. S
1,877. 00 1.58
2
12 1.331____
740
683
34
20
155 4.5 1,843.6 54.2
19,280.00 10.46
73 21.27
5 6.25 22 1 5 5 G 26 7
472 8 10 213 21.3
53 5.3
42 27. 40
425.7 42.5
5, 2C9.00 12.24
1 2
7 2.14 . . . .
6 3
40
1
274 5 6 Î5Ï 25
12 6
25 4. 84
1 1 2
322.00 53.66 4, 710. ÒÒi14.62
3
2
459 10 10 220 22
71 7
543.18 54. 3
2, 006.00 3. 69
38 4. 58
2
4 2
8 3
....
134 3 1
30 30
3 3
106.64 106.6
533.20 5.00
7 34.43
4
1 1
1
545 7 13 265 20.4
84 6.5
4, 230.00 6. 36
665
51
48 12.71
30 6.33
9 4
4
455 8 9 174 19.3
62 7
4,411.00 9.81
30 11.50
4 2 1 1 4 2
449.50' 49.9
5 7.00
158 3 3
81 27
14 4.7
1,426. .50 10. 00
11 2.09
142.65 47.5
4
2 1
2
228 4 6 184 30.7
32 5.3
410
68.3
1, 704.00 4.15
21 1.52
4 2
2
34
1....
1
1
3 2.00
670 5 23 548 23. 8
27 1. 1 3,971
172. 6
2, 637. 50 .66
47 1.23
22 2
1 8
79 .40
380 12 8 173 21.6
29 3. fi
701.32 87.7
5,234.00 7. 46
33 4.40
4 .25 13 19 3
2 3
367
170 19
9
6C 6.6
416.19 46.24
2,778. 00 6. 68
8 3
1 1
1 3
29 12. 76
631 15 11 291 26.5
48 4.4
93-1.00 1.20
6 1
779.00 70. S
46 2. 13
2 3. 00
2
362 10 1
33 33
11 n
540. 00 12.00
1
17 6.23
4 3
68.2 68
63 5 1
27 27
5
45
1
1
45
1.00 .022
5 .80 : : : : : :
226 2 7 162 23
49 7
302. 14 43. 1
21 8.57
5 3. 40
2,175. 00 7. 20
2 1
3
30
201! 12 3
40
13
1,081.00
90
115
38.3
9.40
20 7. 25
2 2
6 2
10 1.20 8
142 4 3
77 26.3
36 12
130
3.00 .02
1
43
12 5. 17
2 10.00
5 2
4
431 10 10 211 21
61 6
26 9. 46 8 3 3 2 3 6 7
476.8 47.7
5,480.00 11.49
36 7. 53
7 4. 43
200 6 5 117 23
14 3
1
1
455.3 91
1,941.00 4.26
17 9.47
2 1
150
4 134 33.5
456
114
4 4.00
1,223.31 2.68
14 6. 21
11
1
1
14 3.5
943 11 25 599 24
41
2,410
1
8,097.62 3.36
96.4
78 5.41
23 .95 is
3 5
7
* All airports are established, maintained, and operated through public or private enterprise and not by the Federal Government.
* The totals for weather stations and radio stations, as shown, are not the totals of the figures given, as one unit frequently serves two or more airways and is listed two or more
times.
8 One radio communication station and one radiobeacon are located at Key West, Fla., providing service on the Key West-Habana Airway, which is not listed.
* The totals for service trucks as shown are not the totals of the figures listed, as there are spare service trucks not definitely assigned to specific airways.

A E R O N A U T IC S B R A N C H

Albuquerque-Wichita..................................
Atlanta-Chicago...........................................
Atlanta-New York.......................................
Brownsville-Fort Worth.............................
Brownsville-Houston...................................
Chicago-New York......................................
Chicago-Twin Cities....................................
Chicago-Twin Cities cutoff.....................
Cincinnati-Chicago......................................
Cleveland-Albany........................................
Cleveland-Detrôtt........................................
Dallas-Kansas City......................................
Kansas City-Chicago...................................
Kansas City-Om aha............................. ......
Kansas City-St. Louis.................................
Los Angeles-Albuquerque............. ............
Los Angeles-Salt Lake.................................
Los Angeles-San Francisco..........................
Louisville-Cleveland....... ............................
M iami-Atlanta.............................................
Michigan Airways........................................
Milwaukee-Green Bay................................
New Orleans-Atlanta..................................
New Y ork-B oston.....................................
New York-Montreal....................................
Omaha-Chicago............................................
Pueblo-Cheyenne.......................................
Salt Lake-Great Falls..............................
Salt Lake-0m aha.........................................

Boundary
lights
Number

Airway

Miles lighted

Intermediate fields

CO

6 .— A i d s

CO

to a i r n a v ig a tio n — Continued

to

ESTABLISHED AND O PER A TIN G J U NE 30. 1930—Continued

135

92 5.4
25 12.5
6 1.5
7 1
13 3
5 2.5

10

1

33

319 7,690

13,459
T o ta l....................................................13,459

33

4

24.1 1,467

4

844.2
96
166. 72
347.2
264. 5
129.25
35.5

4.59 24,554.24

50
48
41.7
43.4
66
64.6

7, 583. 00
1,370.00
203.00
2,801.00
1,551. 00
370.00

35.5

1.00

77.21 115,679.88

8.99
14. 27
4.86
8.06
5.86
2.86
.028
4.71

51 $3.06
63 3. 21

12 $2.00
90 2.42

¡7

8!
a

70 6.55
10 1. 00
13 1.27
25 16.40
15 2.13
2

13 5.60

15
7

17 ;

5
19

7 11.14
1,099

5.28

3.00

378

. 95 . . . .

Total.......................................................

312

5

5

226
415
138
198

2
11
3
2

6
7
3
7

357 I 5
235 ; 4

11
4

197

5

20 r
"ÏÔ T

2 .
4 L

4

078 . . . . 47

151

36 .

9 ;
1
1i
2

2 I
2. 73 120 i?» :

U N D E R CON STRUCTION AS OF J UNE 30, 1930
Brownsville-Fort Worth (Kingsville-Waco
section)..........................................................
Brownsville-Houston ( Kingsville-Houston
section)..........................................................
Columbus-Philadelphia...................... ...........
Nor fol k- Washington.......................................
Portland-Spokane ( Portland-Pasco)...........
Salt Lake-Great Falls (Pocatello-Great Falls)
(day fields)....................................................
St. Louis-Indianapolis....................................
Washington-Cleveland (Washington-Pitts­
burgh)............................................................

4

Radio

Others

22
37.5
26.5
21
29
26

I Automatic tele- :
; graph typewriter

373
75
106
168
117
52

$4,059. 75 $3.11
5,936. 50 2.08

: Average ;
1 rent

17
2
4
8
4
2

93
123.8

Number

19
4
2
6
2
2

1,303
2,847. 7

Flashing

Average
rent

66 4.7
96 4

24-inch
revolving
Number ]

24
28.6

Per acre

334
657

i Total

14
23

! Per field
i

4
6

S
o
b

Rent

Acreage

Total

Per field |

<

Per field

i2
§

Obstruc­
tion lights

Total

560
670
166
762
135
134
275
162
76

Boundary
lights
Number

Salt Lake-Pasco.....................................
San Francisco-Salt Lake.......................
Battle M ountain-Parran cutoff.......
San Francisco-Seattle............................
8t. Louls-Columbus...............................
Portland-Spokane (Pasco-Si>okane section).
St. Louis-Chicago..........................................
St. Louis-E vans ville... ..................................
Tulsa-Ponca City............................................
Washington-Cleveland (Pittsburgh-Clcveland)............................................................. .

Miles lighted

Airway

Weather
stations

Beacons

Intermediate fields

9 : 7 131

107

R E P O R T TO T H E S E C R E T A R Y O F C O M M E R C E

SSMäft-

T able

AERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

33

AERONAUTIC DEVELOPMENT SERVICE

The aeronautic development service embraces all activities in
connection with assisting communities in the selection and develop­
ment of airports, the rating of airports, the promotion and correla­
tion of aeronautic research, the publication and dissemination of
aeronautic information, the publication of air-navigation maps and
airway bulletins, and the general promotion work of the department
looking toward the development of civil aeronautics.
The service is divided into an aeronautic information division, an
aeronautics research division, an airport section, an airways-mapping section, and a section devoted to special research committees.
A E R O N A U T IC IN F O R M A T IO N D IV ISIO N

The contact office between the aeronautic industry and the general
public with the Aeronautics Branch is the aeronautic information
division, which division is charged with many of the promotion
duties covered by the air commerce act of 1926. Specifically these
duties include:
1. T h e p u b lic a tio n a n d d is s e m in a tio n o f c u r r e n t in f o rm a tio n r e l a ti n g to civil
a e ro n a u tic s th ro u g h th e se m im o n th ly p e rio d ic a l, A ir C o m m erce B u lle tin .
2. T h e p u b lic a tio n o f a ir w a y b u lle tin s — lo o se -le a f s h e e ts d e sc rib in g a ir p o rts ,
D e p a rtm e n t o f C o m m erce in te rm e d ia te la n d in g fields, a ir w a y s , a i r m a rk in g s ,
m eteo ro lo g ical c o n d itio n s , a n d o th e r d a ta e s s e n tia l to a i r n a v ig a tio n .
3. T h e p r e p a r a tio n a n d Is su a n c e of n o n p e rio d ic p u b lic a tio n s k n o w n n s A e ro ­
n a u tic s B u lle tin s , w h ic h a r e p u b lish e d fro m tim e to tim e on specific p h a s e s of
civil a e ro n a u tic s o f b o th a te c h n ic a l a n d n o n te c h n ic a l c h a r a c te r .
4. T h e p r e p a r a tio n a n d d is s e m in a tio n o f in f o rm a tio n fo r th e a e r o n a u tic tr a d e
jo u r n a ls a n d n e w s p a p e rs m a in ta in in g sp e c ia l a e r o n a u tic co lum ns, d e p a rtm e n ts ,
or sectio n s.
5. T h e c o m p ila tio n a n d p u b lic a tio n o f s t a ti s ti c s co v e rin g a c c id e n ts to civil
a i r c r a f t a n d o th e r s t a ti s ti c s on th e m a n u f a c tu r e a n d o p e ra tio n o f c iv il a ir c r a f t .
0. T h e g e n e ra l p ro m o tio n w 'ork o f th e D e p a rtm e n t o f C o m m erce e n c o u ra g in g
th e d ev e lo p m e n t o f civ il a e ro n a u tic s in th e U n ite d S ta te s .

During the past fiscal year this division lias been reorganized.
The airport activities, heretofore included in the work of the divi­
sion, have been concentrated in a special section known as the airport
section, which is directly responsible to the director of aeronautic
development.
The activities of the aeronautic information division now are
distributed as follows: Editorial section, statistics and distribution
section, airway bulletin section, and aeronautics reference library.
EDITORIAL SECTION

One of the most important functions of the editorial section is
the publication of the Air Commerce Bulletin, a semimonthly
bulletin which goes to a mailing list of some 13,500 individuals,
aeronautical clubs, libraries, airports, corporations, and others
interested in aeronautics. The chief function of this bulletin is to
make available to the aeronautic industry and the flying public
accurate and official information which is collected and dissemi­
nated by the Aeronautics Branch.
The editorial section participates in the compilation and prepara­
tion of technical and nontechnical Aeronautics Bulletins which are
published or revised at intervals by the aeronautic information
division.
18038—30------3

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

34

In keeping with the aeronautic promotional obligations of the
Aeronautics Branch, this section also assists in the preparation of
personal and radio addresses and articles for newspapers and maga­
zines on various phases of civil aeronautics.
STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTION SECTION

The statistics and distribution section is responsible for the com­
pilation, analysis, and dissemination of all statistical data and other
useful information on the various phases of civil aeronautics for
the Aeronautics Branch. Among the most important of these are
civil aircraft production, aircraft operation, aircraft accidents and
casualties, and aids to air navigation; the preparation of statistical
data; the coordination of information with other Government de­
partments and organizations associated with aeronautics; the han­
dling of correspondence that does not strictly pertain to the technical
work of some other office of the branch; contacting the aeronautic
industry and the general public, either by personal interview, corre­
spondence, or through the distribution of publications of the branch.
A ircraft 'production.—Statistics concerning aircraft products for
the calendar year 1929 were gathered by the Bureau of the Census,
but are not yet available for publication. Comparable data for
the calendar years 1919-1928 appear on page 62 of the annual report
of this office for the fiscal year 1929.
A complete and current file containing copies of all airplane
licenses and identification marks issued by the Aeronautics Branch
has been established in this section for several purposes—one of
which is to obtain current estimated production of new aircraft in
advance of the usual census which is taken at the close of the year
by this section.
The first report of estimated airplane production from January 1
to June 30, 1930, based on the Department of Commerce licenses,
identifications, and reports from the Army and Navy, is set forth
below.
T able

7 .—Estimated

airplane production, January 1 to June SO, 1930

M o n o p la n e s :
O pen c o c k p it ( la n d p la n e ) —
1 p l a c e --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 190
2 p l a c e _______________________________________________________
64
3 p l a c e ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17
C a b in
1
2
3
4
5

271

T o ta l o p e n ____
(la n d p la n e ) —
p l a c e -------------p l a c e _________
p l a c e -------------p la c e -------------p l a c e --------------

1
54
17
144

2
30

6 place________

120
17

7 to 10 p la c e ___
O ver 10 p la c e __
T o ta l c a b in ___
F ly in g b o a t s ------------C o n v e rtib le s_________
A m p h ib ia n s _________

T o ta l m o n o p la n e s ___________________________________________________
> 2 m u ltie n g in e p la n e s.

* 6 m u ltie n g in e p la n e s.

• 5 m u ltie n g in e p la n e s.

562

35

A ERO N A U TICS B R A N C H
B ip la n e s :
O pen c o c k p it ( l a n d p la n e ) —
1 p l a c e ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11
2 p la c e _________________________________________________________ 180
3 p l a c e --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 299
5 p l a c e ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3
C abin
3
4
6
7

T o ta l o p e n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------( l a n d p la n e ) —
p l a c e ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------p l a c e ------------------------------------------------- :----------------------------------p l a c e ________________________________________________________
p l a c e _______________________________________1------------------------

493
1
1
4
2

T o ta l c a b in _____________________________________________________
F ly in g b o a t s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C o n v e rtib le s_________________________________________________ ;__________
A m p h ib ia n s____________________________________________________________

S
18
49
*30

T o ta l b ip la n e s ______________________________________________________

598

P la n e s m a n u f a c tu r e d f o r e x p e rim e n ta l p u rp o s e s f o r w h ic h c o m p lete in f o r­
m a tio n is n o t a v a ila b le __________________________________________________
M ilita ry a ir p la n e d e liv e rie s ________________________________________________
A irp la n e s e x p o r t e d _________________________________________________________

' 17
359
’ 148

G ra n d to t a l---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1, 684

Aircraft operation.—Statistics on aircraft operation were compiled
during the year for both scheduled and miscellaneous flying.
Excellent results have been obtained with the new scheduled aircraft
operation report forms which were revised to include such items as
passenger miles flown, gasoline and oil consumption, and information
as to the system used by the transport companies in paying pilots
and mechanics. The foregoing were in addition to the regular items
which include routes operated, flying equipment used, trips scheduled
(attempted and completed), miles flown, and passengers and express
carried. A complete file of operation reports by 6-month periods
for each air-transport company has been established for reference
purposes.
T a b l e 8 . — Scheduled

airways operations statistics, July-Dccctuber, 1929
Item

Passenger miles flown...........
M iles flown............................
Passengers carried.................
Eipress carried......................
Pilots on detail......................
Mechanics on detail..............
Other operating personnel...
Total personnel.....................
Pilots’ pay:
Base.................................
Kate per mile, day.........
Rate per mile, night.......
Base and other total.......
Mechanics’ and riggers' pay:
Monthly...........................
Hourly.................
Trips possible........................ .
Trips attem pted.....................
Trips completed....................

* 8 m ultiengine planes.

Amount

pounds..

Operators
reporting

22,094,693
15,840. 161
120,932
890, 660
562
1, 182
601
2,345

41
45
45
45
42
42
41
41

$189.00
$0. 05
Ï0 .10
$550.00

39

$157.00
$0. 74
38,669
35, 772
34,294

39
39
12
42
42

®1 m ultiengine plane.
m o n th ^ £°1930ClUde p lan es m an u factu red d uring 1929 t h a t w ere exported durin g first 0

36

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE
T a b le 8 .—Scheduled

airways operations statistics , etc .— C o n tin u e d
Item

Operators
reporting

Amount

Percentage of attem pted trips completed............................................................
95.9
Average hours flown per month per pilot............................................................
71
Equipment:
Number of planes...........................................................
495
Value................................................................................................................. $10,434,589.22
Revenues:
Passenger.......................................................................................................... $2,521,874.38
M ail........................................... *..................................................................... $9,762,076.57
Express and freight......................................................................................... 1 $90,543.16
Miscellaneous................................................................................................... j
$590,969.84

42
39
43
43
41
45
41
41

C ivil aircraft accidents and casualties.—One of the most important
subjects handled by this section was the analysis of statistics on civil
air accidents and casualties for the two six months’ periods of the
calendar year 1929. The statistics for each period included figures
covering the years 1927 and 1928 which made available comparative
figures for the years 1927,1928, and 1929.
The accident statistics are constantly being enlarged upon and
every effort has been made to procure and compile such data as
would be most useful to insurance, indemnity, and finance companies,
as well as the aeronautic industry and others interested in the
promotion of safety in aeronautics.
There is a record of 1,698 accidents in 1929 as compared with
1,122 in 1928. The accident statistics for the first six months of 1930
are now being compiled. W hile the total number of accidents for
1929 represents an increase over the previous period, it must be
borne in mind that the amount of flying increase^ in even greater
proportion than the number of accidents.
T a b l e 9. —Civil

,, *

air accident data, 1927-1929

JanuaryDeccmber,
1927

July-DecemJanuaryber, 1928
Junc, 19281

Januar yJune, 19291

July-December, 1929

Miles flown in scheduled trans­
port operation............................
Miles flown in miscellaneous op­
erations, including student in­
struction and experimental
flying...........................................

5,870,489

4,484, 612

6,188,838

9, 201,338

15,940,161

*30,000,000

12,000,000

48,000,000

47,000,000

63,000,000

Total miles flown, all serv­
ices....................................

35,870,489

16,484,612

54,188,838

56, 201, 338

78,940,161

Total accidents, all services____
692
•278
430
774
924
Miles flown per accident, all
services.................................
*129,031
38,337
78,308
72, 612
85,433
Total accidents, scheduled trans­
port operations..........................
.»
35
51
61
76
Miles flown per accident,
scheduled transport opera­
tions.................................. .
'234,820
128,132
121,350
150,842
209,73#
*It should be borne in mind that weather conditions during the last 6 months of the calendar vear are
more favorable for flying than during the first 6 months, hence in making comparisons figures for correspon ding periods should be used in each case.
*T h e figure of 30,000,000 miles listed under miscellaneous operations for 1927 was estimated from reports
recei ved on flying operations for 1928 as no operations report was made for 1927.
•The 1927 figures should not be used for comparative purposes as the accident reports for that period
apparently were incomplete due to the fact that the inspection service was in the formative stage with
a shortage of field personnel to carry on the work. For the same reason there were doubtless some unre­
ported accidents in 1928.

37

A ERO N A U TICS B R A N C H
T able

9 .— C i v i l

a i r a c c i d e n t d a t a , 1 9 2 7 - 1 9 2 9 —Continued

JanuaryDecember,
1927
Total accidents, miscellaneous
operations..................................
Miles flown per accident,
miscellaneous operations.._
Total fatal accidents, all services.
Miles flown per fatal acci­
dent, all services.................
Total fatal accidents, scheduled
transport operations.................
Miles flown per fatal acci­
dent, scheduled transport
operations............ ..............
Total fatal accidents, miscellane­
ous operations............................
Miles flown per fatal acci­
dent, miscellaneous opera­
tions.....................................
Total number pilot fatalities, all
services.......................................
Miles flown per pilot fatal­
ity, all services....................
Total number pilot fatalities,
scheduled transport operations.
Miles flown per pilot fatal­
ity, scheduled transport
operations........................ .
Total number pilot fatalities,
miscellaneous operations........
Miles flown per pilot fatal­
ity, miscellaneous opera­
tions....................................

JanuaryJune, 1928

July-I>ecember, 1928

JanuaryJune, 1929

July-December, 1929

*253

395

641

713

848

* 118, 577
*99

30,380
97

74,883
130

65, 919
127

74, 292
183

*362,328

169,944

416, 837

442,530

431,367

*4

5

7

9

15

»1,467,622

896,922

884,120

1,022, 371

1, 062, 677

*95

92

123

118

168

*315,789

130,435

390,244

398, 305

375,000

*61

69

92

87

140

*588,041

238, 907

589,000

645, 992

563,858

»4

4

5

9

14

*1,467, 622

1,121,153

1, 237, 768

1,022,371

1,138,583

»57

65

87

78

126

*526,316

184,615

551, 721

602, S64

500,000

* The 1927 figures should not be used for comparative purposes as the accident reports for that period
apparently were incomplete due to the fact that the inspection service was in the formatlvo stage with a
hortage of flold personnel to carry on the work. For the same reason there were doubtless some unre­
ported accidents in 1928.

As a result of a careful study, a new accident statistical analysis
form was prepared to care for the additional data which were consid­
ered of importance. In order to procure the additional data, this
section coordinated with the accident board of the licensing division
with a view to revising the basic civil aircraft accident report. The
accident report has been revised and this section now is able to com­
pile, commencing with the first six months period of 1930, far more
useful and valuable statistics on civil aircraft accidents and
casualties.
Correspondence and distribution of publications.—The volume of
correspondence continued to increase during the year. As many as
800 inquiries per month were answered by dictated letters by this
section alone, while a monthly average of 4,500 other requests of
various types were answered by information embodied in official
bulletins which were transmitted to the inquirers with suitable form
letters.
The foregoing figures indicate an increase of 15 per cent in let­
ters written by this section and an increase of 40 per cent in the
number of requests answered by bulletins. The average number of
Aeronautics Bulletins and Air Commerce Bulletins distributed on
request each month was approximately 25,000, and application
blanks for pilot and plane licenses, etc., numbered 6,000 monthly.
The accompanying list of Aeronautics Bulletins which are pub­
lished by the aeronautic information division indicates the nature

38

HEPOKT TO T H E SECBETARY OF COM M ERCE

and scope of the publications available for use in answering requests
for aeronautical information and for general distribution:
1. Civil aeronautics in the United
States (undergoing revision).
2. Airport design and construction (in
preparation).
3. Aeronautics trade directory.
4. Air marking.
5. Airports and landing fields.
6. Aeronautic publications.
7. Air commerce regulations.
7a. Airworthiness requirements of air
commerce regulations.
7b. School supplement of air commerce
regulations.
7c. Regulations governing entry and
clearance of aircraft.
7d. Parachute supplement of air com­
merce regulations.
7e. Air commerce regulations govern­
ing scheduled operation of inter­
state passenger air transport
services.
8. Airway map of the United States.
9. Establishment and certification of
aeronautical lights and instruc­
tions for marking obstructions to
air navigation.
10. List of air navigation charts.

11. Establishment and operation of D e­
partment of Commerce interme­
diate landing fields.
12. Aircraft engine testing.
13. Civil air accidents and casualties.
14. Relative lift distribution in any
biplane.
15. Air traffic rules.
16. Airport rating regulations.
17. Airport management.
18. State aeronautical legislation and
compilation of State laws.
19. Aviation training (undergoing re­
vision) .
20. Suggested city or county aeronau­
tics ordinance and uniform field
rules for airports.
21. Trend in airplane design as indi­
cated by approved-type certifi­
cates (in preparation).
22. Gliders and gliding.
23. Medical examiners of the Aeronau­
tics Branch.
24. The Federal airways system (in
preparation).
25. Reduction of airplane noise.

General information and statistics.—In line with the policy of
the branch in making official public records readily available, this
section has installed a complete file of airplane licenses and identifi­
cations and pilot licenses. Files are also being kept on all types of
airplanes, engines, propellers and pontoons for which the depart­
ment has issued approved-type certificates, together with all aircraft
and engines eligible for licenses without approved-type certificates.
From these records the section is issuing daily and weekly reports of
engineering notices on aircraft and engine approvals and also the
quarterly statistical statement compiled on the status of aircraft,
pilots, and mechanics by States.
AIRWAY BULLETIN SECTION

The chief function of this section is to compile airway bulletins—
illustrated loose-leaf sheets describing airports, Department of Com­
merce intermediate landing fields, special warnings of unusual con­
ditions that might affect the safety of flight, airways of the country,
meteorological conditions, and other data essential to air navigation.
Airway bulletins contain two maps, one of the airport itself show­
ing wincî rose for the locality concerned, the immediately surround­
ing terrain, dimensions of the landing area, obstructions to ap­
proaches, markings, positions of available facilities, etc., and the
other showing the airport’s location with respect to near-by rail­
roads, rivers, and the supporting community. In addition, the text
portion of these bulletins gives the name of the airport, its class,
method of operation, latitude and longitude, altitude above sea level,
description of surface and runways, location and nature of obstruc­
tions, methods of marking and identification, description of lighting
equipment, accommodations for aircraft and air travelers, meteoro­

AERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

39

logical data, and other information desired by pilots or aircraft
operators.
During the past year 378 new airway bulletins were issued, 161
revised, and 260 reprinted. These airway bulletins are distributed
to a mailing list of 3,500 individuals, organizations, and others
interested.
A total of 1,041 airway bulletins has now been published and data
are now in hand on 305 additional airports that are to be made the
subjects of future bulletins. Also there are some 800 airports in
operation or under construction, information on which is now being
solicited by the section. A t present airports are being established
at the rate of approximately 60 a month and bulletins are being
completed at the rate of 45 a month. During the past year ap­
proximately 2,400,000 copies of these bulletins have been distributed.
During the fiscal year 1930 the airway bulletin section maintained
communication with more than 5,000 chambers of commerce,
municipal airport committees, civic officials, airport owneis, aircraft
operators, and others actually engaged in or directly interested in
the operation of airports. Approximately 16,000 letters were written
to these and other contacts soliciting information concerning air­
ports. In addition, some 3,000 letters of a general nature requesting
specific information relative to airport and allied matters were
answered.
AERONAUTICS REFERENCE LIBRARY

The aeronautics reference library has been used extensively the
past fiscal year, not only by the Aeronautics Branch but also by per­
sons outside the branch who were compiling data on or were con­
ducting research work in aeronautics. The reference work more
than doubled that of the previous year.
Complete files of current Aeronautics Bulletins and Air Commerce
Bulletins and, so far as possible, complete sets of old Information
Bulletins are contained in the library for reference purposes.
Close cooperation has been maintained by this library with the
aeronautics trade division of the Department of Commerce as well
as with libraries in Washington, from which material is often
borrowed.
The library received 3,780 publications during the past year; 594
magazines and reports were indexed, 148 documents and 71 books
were catalogued.
AERONAUTICS RESEARCH DIVISION

The aeronautics research division is engaged in a research pro­
gram directed toward the development and improvement of aids to
air navigation and the promotion of safety and comfort in flight,
including such activities as research on aeronautic radio; investiga­
tions of aeronautic lighting; wind-tunnel studies; soundproofing of
airplane cabins; reduction of noise from engines and propellers;
research on special airplane-engine problems; and investigations on
the strength of airplane joints and fittings. This division is sub­
divided into a radio secton, a lighting section, an aircraft-engine
section, a wind-tunnel section, and an engineering section.

40

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE
RADIO SECTION

Eesearch in the use of radio in aeronautics dealt particularly with
the further development of a visual-type radio range beacon system
for course navigation on the civil airways, the development of a
complete system of radio aids to facilitate blind landing of aircraft,
and work on direction finders for aircraft, receiving equipment on
aircraft, and airplane-engine ignition shielding.
Visual-type radio range beacon system.—The experimental work
on visual-type radio range beacons, capable of serving 2, 4, or 12
courses, was completed. The sharpness of the beacon courses was
increased from ± 2 ° to ± 1 °. Improvements were effected in the
methods employed for fitting the courses to several airways simul­
taneously. Interference with other services caused by power radia­
tion from the beacon on harmonics of the station carrier frequency
was reduced to a negligible degree. Considerable improvement in
the operation of the vibrating-reed course indicator used in the re­
ception of signals from the visual-type beacon was obtained. In
particular, the power required for operating this instrument was
reduced fourfold. The accuracy of the measuring equipment for
calibrating and adjusting the reeds was very much increased.
The visual-type radio range beacon is soon to undergo service tests
on the civil airways. Seven beacon transmitters, constructed by the
airways division, are scheduled for early installation on important
air routes. In these installations, the radiobeacon and radiotelephone
stations will both operate on the same radio-frequency, one service
being interrupted for the other. Work was begun on a transmitting
circuit arrangement which shows good promise for supplying both
services simultaneously on the same radio-frequency.
Blind-landing aids.—The radio range beacon system serves to
guide aircraft between important airports along a given airway
regardless of weather conditions. However, means for permitting
the safe landing of the craft under conditions of poor visibility
are required before scheduled air-transport operation can become
independent of the weather. A complete system of radio aids wThich
show's very good promise of permitting routine blind landing was
developed and set up at the College Park, Md., experimental flying
field. This system includes three elements to indicate the position
of the aircraft in three dimensions as it approaches and reaches
the instant of landing. Lateral position (that is, the landing field
runway direction) is given by a lowT-power radio range beacon, em­
ploying small multiturn loop antennas. Longitudinal position (that
is, approach) is given by marker beacons. Height is given by an
inclined ultrahigh-frequency radio beam, which effectively marks
out the proper landing path. The weight of the additional equip­
ment required on the airplane is only 15 pounds.
Direction tinders.—A direction finder permitting aural or visual
indication or the direction of the received signal was developed and
tested in the laboratory. This model is now ready for flight testing.
A ircraft receiving equipment.—An automatic volume-control de­
vice for use in the reception of signals from the visual-type beacon
was developed, thereby relieving the pilot of the duty of controlling
the receiving set sensitivity as the distance of the airplane from the
beacon station is varied.

A ERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

41

A filter circuit arrangement (for connection in the receiving set
output) was developed for use in receiving simultaneous radiotele­
phone and radiobeacon signals. This device directs the reed fre­
quencies to the reed indicator and the speech signals to the head
telephones.
A study was made of various types of receiving antennas for air­
plane use, the results obtained confirming the superiority of the
vertical mast antenna developed by this division.
Airplane-engine ignition shielding.—Contact and cooperation with
the aircraft and radio industries in the development of engine igni­
tion shielding equipment was maintained. A commercial shielding
assembly patterned after an assembly developed by this division met
with marked success.
LIGHTING

SECTION

Several series of tests on airway beacon lights, including photo­
metric measurements and visibility observations, have been in
progress throughout the year. Photometric tests on 24-inch standard
airway beacons equipped with (a) silvered-glass mirrors, (b) metal
mirrors, and with several types of lamps and several types of cover
glasses for each type of mirror have been made.
Visibility tests f rom fixed stations, at approximately 3, 6, and 8
miles and from the air on the Washington-New York airway, were
made on a number of different beacon lights. For these tests the
lights were mounted on the roof of the east building of the Bureau
o f Standards. Candlepower measurements were also made on the
several lights tested. As a result of the various candlepower meas­
urements a revision of the candlepower values given in the airport
beacon requirements of the Airport Rating Regulations was prepared.
Navigation lights for airplanes.—A design for an improved navi­
gation light giving greatly increased candlepower has been worked
out. A sample light has been constructed and a brief description
with diagrams was published in the Air Commerce Bulletin, dated
March 15, 1930. This work has been done largely in cooperation
with the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department.
Boundary lights.—Distribution measurements on the standard re­
fracting boundary-light globes as well as over-all efficiency measure­
ments have been made. The question of the color and the density
for the red boundary-light globes is not definitely settled. The meas­
urements made during the year show that the amount of light trans­
mitted by different samples tested varies from about 4 to 15 per cent,
showing an improvement in efficiency of light transmission of nearly
4 to 1.
A visibility test of gaseous discharge tube lamps—red, green, and
blue—submitted as samples for use as boundary lights, was made by
having 16 observers record their observations taken at two dis­
tances of approximately 700 and 3,200 feet, respectively. At the
same time this group also observed the standard clear, red, and
green refracting boundary-light globes. The gaseous discharge
tubes, blue in color, were found unsatisfactory, Being readily con­
fused with green.
W ind indicators.—The improved reflector system designed for
use with illuminated wind indicators, referred to in last year’s
report, has been adopted by the airways division as standard equip­

42

REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

ment for wind indicators. Fabrics for use in wind cones have been
obtained from several manufacturers. These fabrics have been
treated so as to make the material itself more luminous when the
interior of the cone is illuminated. An experimental installation has
been made at the Naval Air Station, Anacostia, D. C., and a few
observations taken.
Specifications for the colors of aviation glasses.—Measurements
are in progress to determine, if possible, limits for the preparation
of specifications for green and red glasses for use in airway and
airport signal devices and for navigation lights on airplanes. This
investigation is incomplete.
AIRCRAFT ENGINE SECTION

The aircraft engine section is engaged in experimental work
which has to do chiefly with (1) perfecting mercury scales used to
measure engine torque and (2) developing improved methods of
correcting the observed torque for the slip-stream action. This
windage effect can be eliminated if it is possible to use an air­
straightening grid of suitable design between the propeller and the
engine. The effect of grid thickness, size of opening, and over-all
grid size are matters which can be determined only by actual experi­
ments. The magnitude of the windage correction may also be deter­
mined by using another engine to spin the test propeller and measur­
ing the torque due to the slip stream above. Both methods must
be tried out and checked by dynamometer calibration of the engine
used.
W IND-TUNNEL SECTION

The aerodynamic characteristics of the conventional types of con­
trol at large angles of attack of the airplane (corresponding to low
air speeds) have been further studied by measuring the hinge mo­
ments of several ailerons of varying span on a Clark Y and USA 27
wing section. The work was carried out in the 10-foot wind tunnel
of the Bureau of Standards on models of 60-inch span and 10-inch
chord. This investigation, together with the measurements of roll­
ing and yawing moments for the same ailerons (described in N. A.
C. A. Technical Reports 298 and 343), completes the study of conven­
tional ailerons as originally outlined.
Attention has now been directed to the study of rudders at large
angles of attack. This problem is more complicated because a large
interference effect is to be expected from the body. A number of
models have been constructed and the required apparatus has been
assembled.
The great majority of airplanes submitted to the Aeronautics
Branch for approval make use of conventional types of control.
The importance of a full study of the conventional control is there­
fore self-evident. Especially is it important to ascertain whether
the safety of the airplane can be increased by small modifications of
the standard type or by a suitable choice of shape and size.
ENGINEERING SECTION

During the past year a number of additional measurements were
made on the sound transmission of single panels, using types of con­

A ERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

43

struction and materials found in present-day airplanes. Equip­
ment has been developed for measurements on the transmission of
sound through the walls of the cabins of airplanes in flight and a
number of tests were made. A t the present time the apparatus is
not adapted to absolute measurements of sound intensity or to the
comparison of the absolute intensities within the cabins of different
airplanes.
The information at hand has been made available to the industry
by means of a paper presented at the fourth national aeronautic
meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and by
publication in the Air Commerce Bulletin of May 1 and September
15, 1930. Recently, a comprehensive account of the work has been
prepared for publication as an aeronautics bulletin, which contains
(1) a brief review of some fundamental phenomena of sound, (2)
methods of measuring sound, (3) the soundproofing of airplane
cabins, and (4) some work bearing on the reduction of propeller
noise and the muffling of engines.
Strength of welded aircraft joints.—The fuselages and other parts
of airplanes are in many cases made of chrome-molybdenum steel
tubing, involving many joints. About 90 per cent of these joints
are welded, using an oxyacetylene torch. A comprehensive study
of this type of fabrication of aircraft structures has been under­
taken. The welder who prepared the experimental joints for test
qualified under a procedure prepared by the American Bureau of
Welding, and the program was prepared in cooperation with nu­
merous representatives of the aeronautic industry. The first report
of the work, covering the strength and efficiency of 40 types of
welded joints, is now in course of publication by the National Ad­
visory Committee for Aeronautics.
AIRPORT SECTION

The airport section was reorganized December 2, 1929, and took
over the duties previously handled by the field service section of
the division of airports and aeronautic information. In general,
the airport section is the point of contact between the Aeronautics
Branch and the private and public airports of the country.
The number of airports and landing fields in the United States
on June 30, 1930, was as follow s:
Municipal airports__________________________________________________
Commercial airports________________________________________________
Department of Commerce intermediate fields_________________________
Army airdromes____________________________________________________
Naval air stations (including Marine and Coast Guard)_____________
Marked auxiliary fields________________
Fields for miscellaneous Government activities_______________________

500
558
306
05
14
210
2

Total---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1,655
Proposed airports______________________________________________ ____ 1 , 053
Airports and landing fields having night-lighting equipment___________
583

Field advisory service.—The work of this section includes confer­
ences with States, counties, municipalities, and civic and trade or­
ganizations desiring assistance in the selection of airport sites and
requesting information regarding the requirements for the develop­
ment of suitable airports. A small group of airport specialists are

44

KEPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OP COM M ERCE

available for this service, which is rendered without charge upon
request. These men are routed throughout the United States on
carefully planned itineraries—the usual procedure calling for the
inspection of a number of sites, perhaps a talk before a civic or­
ganization at noon or in the evening, and a conference or series of
conferences with officials interested in the development of the air­
ports and desiring information regarding the requirements of the
airport rating regulations of the Department of Commerce. These
specialists urge the importance of having experienced engineers make
comprehensive studies and prepare plans for complete airport de­
velopment, in order that every dollar invested in the project may be
expended to the best advantage. It should be understood, of course,
that the Department of Commerce representatives do not render
this engineering service.
Rating of airports.—The Aeronautics Branch is charged under the
air commerce act of 1926, with the examination and rating of air
navigation facilities available for the use of aircraft in the United
States as to their suitability for such use. Under this authority
the requirements for the various airport ratings granted bv the Gov­
ernment have been promulgated and set forth in detail for the use
of any airport desiring a rating. To date two airports have been
rated, the Pontiac (Mich.) municipal airport and the Denver (Colo.)
municipal airport, both receiving the highest (A - l- A ) rating. The
fact that the majority of airports are, to-day, far from finished
projects accounts in a large measure for the small number of air­
ports rated. In many instances the airport authorities are develop­
ing an airport to a point where it will meet the requirements for a
high rating as rapidly as funds permit. A large number of applica­
tions for ratings have been received, but in nearly every case where
they were checked and the applicant advised wherein the airport
failed to meet the requirements for the rating desired, it was re­
quested that the application be held in abeyance until such time as
the additional required work could be completed.
Work of a special nature.—Numerous conferences are held in the
Washington office with State and local officials and individuals and
companies interested in airport development or in the manufacture
of the varied equipment that is required by a modern airport. The
airport rating regulations have to be kept abreast of changes in the
rapidly moving industry. Considerable work has been done by the
section on the preparation of an Aeronautics Bulletin to be entitled
“ Design and Construction of Airports.”
The amount of money invested in airports and the anticipated
expenditures for 1930 and 1931 should be of considerable interest
and value to the industry. Questionnaires have been sent to the air­
ports of the country requesting detailed information about their
investments. For several months a pressing follow up has been
conducted to the end that the figures may be as complete and com­
prehensive as possible.
AIRWAYS M APPING SECTION

This activity of the Aeronautics Branch is carried on by the air­
ways mapping section at the Coast and Geodetic Survey. The maps
compiled by this section are published on a scale of 1 to 500,000, or

AERO N A U TICS B RA N CH

45

about 8 miles to the inch. The maps published to date, usually
referred to as “ strip maps,” cover strips 80 miles in width and from
200 to 400 miles in length—the size of each sheet being 11 inches
wide and 24 to 48 inches long, a very convenient form and size which
can be readily folded for use by the pilot. The sale of airway maps
was taken over by the section during the year.
During the fiscal year 1930? this section started work on the pro­
gram to issue a series of sectional area air-navigation charts cover­
ing the entire United States. This program has since been modified
somewhat to bring it into accordance with the latest recommenda­
tions of the committee on aerial navigation maps which were
approved by the Board of Surveys and Maps of the Federal Govern­
ment at its November meeting. The revised program calls for a
total of 92 maps.
The maps are printed in color, the better to express such various
features as streams, elevations, airports, flight courses, and mag­
netic variations. During the year the number of Department of
Commerce airway strip maps was increased from 11 to 22, while
the actual distribution of these 22 maps expanded 340 per cent over
the previous year. Also, reprints with corrections to date were
made of 11 strip maps.
It is considered desirable to continue the compilation and print­
ing of certain strip maps for the use of the flying public before
this particular form of map is abandoned for the larger area maps
called sectional United States airway maps. The strip maps are
prepared more quickly than the sectional maps and will serve those
who travel along the main airways. These strip maps can be em­
bodied later as portions of sectional maps.
The demand for airway maps has increased so rapidly that the
number of maps printed for each edition has been raised from 500
in 1927 to 2,000 copies at present.
Sectional United States ainvays maps.—No sectional map has
been published as yet, but six are nearing completion. The plan
for the publication of this series of United States airway maps
contemplates that they are to conform in general to the limits and
nomenclature of the International Map of the World, generally
known as the “ millionth-scale map.” A unit of the international
map comprises 4 degrees of latitude and 6 degrees of longitude.
Two units of the airway mapping program will equal one unit of
the international plan, each unit being 2 degrees of latitude and
6 degrees of longitude.
To distinguish between the two units the northern one is to be.
called “ upper.” and the southern one “ lower.” The words “ upper ”
and “ lower ” have been used because “ north ” and “ south ” have
already been employed in the world scheme—for example,
there is a North K -16 and a South K-16 as related in position to
the Equator. The first sectional United States airway map to be
published will be North K-16 lower (Chicago sheet), although
likely the word “ north ” may be omitted from the map. The plan
for the United States (fig. 5 ), entitled “ Index U. S. Airway
Maps,” shows the maps under construction. The scale is to be
1 to 500,000.

46
REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

47

A ERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

One of the first maps of the United States airway map series
thought desirable to publish is the International Map K-17 upper,
which includes the important cities of Detroit, Buffalo, and Mont­
real. The cooperation of Canadian officials, especially the Hon. J.
D. Craig, director general of surveys, has aided materially in this
work.
Mileages.—The measurement of distances between airports or
between centers of cities for the air mail service of the Post Office
Department, for air-transport operators, the aeronautic development
service of the Aeronautics Branch and others was continued, and
the file of such distances is now quite extensive.
Distribution of airway strip maps and charts.—The number of
maps distributed by the Department of Commerce for the fiscal
years 1929 and 1930 follow s:
1929
3,529
9, 870
956
Total.............................................................................................................

14,355

1930
12,004
13,657
731
26,392

The increase in total sales in 1930 over the number of sales in
1929 amounts to practically 84 per cent.
The smaller number of Navy aviation charts issued during 1930
as far as this list shows is explained by the fact that after September
18, 1929, the larger orders were filled by the Hydrographic Office
and only a few were sold by the Coast and Geodetic Survey.
SPECIAL RESEARCH COMMITTEES

The Aeronautics Branch has organized a number of special coop­
erative research committees under the chairmanship of the director
of aeronautic development for the purpose of investigating and
reporting upon certain outstanding problems as follow s:
FACT-FINDING COMMITTEE ON CONTROL OF AIRPLANE HANGAR FIRES BY AUTOMATIC
APPLICATION OF WATER

The fact-finding committee on control of airplane hangar fires
by automatic application of water was organized following a series
of conferences between representatives of the aeronautic industry
and the National Board of Fire Underwriters to consider the board’s
proposed code for the construction and protection of airports, which
include requirements dealing with automatic sprinklers. The pur­
pose of the committee was to plan and conduct tests to determine
the practicability of applying the principle of automatic issue of
water from sprinkler systems to control fires in airplane hangars.
Its membership comprised representatives of the Aeronautics
Branch, the Army Air Corps, the Bureau of Aeronautics of the Navy
Department, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, the
Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America, the National
Automatic Sprinkler Association, the National Board of Fire Under­
writers, and the Underwriters’ Laboratories.

48

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

The tests were conducted from April 22 to May 2. The committee
has completed its report, which will be published and made available
to the public without charge.
LIAISON COMMITTEE ON AERONAUTIC RADIO RESEARCH

Realizing the vital importance of the application of radio to
aeronautics and the necessity of coordinating governmental and
industrial research in this field, a liaison committee on aei’onautic
radio research was organized in January, 1930, for the purpose of
making a survey of research activities and focusing such research
on the early solution of the most pressing problems with the
minimum duplication of effort.
This committee consists of representatives of the Aeronautics
Branch and the Bureau of Standards of the Department of Com­
merce; the Army Air Corps; the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy
Department; the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics;
the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of America ; the American
Air Transport Association; the Institute of Radio Engineers; the
National Electrical Manufacturers’ Association; and the Radio
Manufacturers’ Association.
The work of the committee is divided into the following: (1)
Survey of research in progress on aeronautic radio problems;
(2) survey of problems on which research should be undertaken or
accelerated; and (3) recommendation of agencies to carry on the
work outlined in (2).
Soon after its organization the committee began its surveys and
studies, the results of which are presented in its first report published
by the Aeronautics Branch on June 1, 1930.
The liaison committee on aeronautic radio research is a standing
committee which will continue its studies and investigations. It is
believed it will render a valuable service not only to governmental
and industrial research agencies, but to the entire aeronautic industry
by directing research and experimentation toward radio problems
the solution of which is most important to the advancement of
aeronautics.
COMMITTEE ON AIRPORT ZONING AND EMINENT DOMAIN

The organization of a cooperative committee on airport zoning
and eminent domain on March 11, 1930, was the result of many
requests received from city officials, airport managers and engineers,
and others interested in the development of adequate airports, for
information and suggestions as to suitable airport-zoning ordinances
to insure protection to the flying public against hazards that might
be developed in the vicinity of airports.
This committee consists of representatives of the Aeronautics
Branch, the Bureau of Standards, and the advisory committee on
city planning and zoning of the Department of Commerce; the air
transport section and the airport section of the Aeronautical Cham­
ber or Commerce of America; the committee on aeronautical law of
the American Bar Association; the National Conference on City
Planning; the Planning Foundation of America; and the United
States Chamber of Commerce.

A ERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

49

The committee is now engaged in a comprehensive series of studies
covering the problems involved in the protection of airports against
developments tending to jeopardize the safety of operations and
otherwise reduce their effectiveness.
COMMITTEE ON STANDARD SIGNAL SYSTEMS FOB AIRrOKTS

In an endeavor to bring about uniformity in the matter of airtraffic control, a committee on standard signal systems for airports
was organized in December, 1929. This committee is composed of
representatives of the Aeronautics Branch and Bureau of Standards
of the Commerce Department; the Army Air Corps; the Bureau of
Aeronautics, Navy Department; the National Advisory Committee
for Aeronautics; and the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce of
America.
An extensive survey of existing methods of traffic control was
made. Questionnaires were sent to all the major airports of the
country and suggestions were invited from all persons interested.
The general reaction to the survey was that the studies -were timely,
and that a solution of the problem of traffic control at airports was
vital to the advancement of the industry.
An investigation w7as also made of the systems in use at foreign
airports, including Croydon, England; Tempelhof, Berlin; and
Le Bourget, Paris.
The questionnaires were digested and tests (both day and night)
were made at Bolling Field, Washington, D. C., of a number of
types of equipment.
As a result of its studies and tests the committee feels that the
problem of traffic control is one that will be constantly changing
with the advancement of air transportation, and one which will
require constant w’ork and study as conditions change. The com­
mittee is now preparing its preliminary report setting forth its
findings and recommendations. This report will be printed by the
Aeronautics Branch and made available to all who may be interested.
COMMITTEE ON AIRPORT DRAINAGE AND SURFACING

The absence of uniform and thorough applications of adequate
drainage and surfacing for airports has been responsible for acci­
dents to planes in landing and taking off from airports and landing
fields, for delays and interruptions in departures and arrivals or
aircraft, and has involved the wastage of thousands of dollars in
time and money in connection with airport projects.
To undertake the solution of the problems of drainage and sur­
facing in so far as they relate to airport engineering and construc­
tion, the technical resources of the American Engineering Council,
the American Road Builders’ Association, and the Aeronautics
Branch have joined into one group, and these organizations have
designated representatives to serve on a committee on airport drain­
age and surfacing organized in June, 1930.
SPECIAL COMMITTEE ON AIR-SPACE RESERVATIONS

To bring about proper coordination and uniformity of porcedure
in the matter of air-space reservations to be set aside by Executive
18038—30------ i

50

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

order for national defense or other purposes, as provided under
section 4 of the air commerce act of 1926, on November 15, 1929,
the Assistant Secretary invited the War and Navy Departments to
designate representatives to serve on a special committee to study
this matter.
This special committee made a careful study of the problem and
rendered its report, which recommended that air-space reservations
be divided into two classes: (a) Air-space reservations set aside by
Executive order, and (6) certified high-explosives danger areas.
The report also recommended that the three Assistant Secretaries
for Aeronautics of the War, Navy, and Commerce Departments,
respectively, be constituted a board to consider all applications for
such air-space reservations and submit them to the President with
suitable recommendations. This recommendation was transmitted
to the President by the Secretary of Commerce on February 18, 1930,
and approved by the President on the same date.
AD M IN ISTR A TIV E DIVISION

The administrative division, composed of a personnel unit, an
accounting unit, a files unit, and a supply unit, is the service organ­
ization for the various divisions and sections of the Aeronautics
Branch. The division is specifically charged with the handling of
all budget, appropriation, and accounting matters; the handling of
appointments of personnel and personnel records; the maintenance
of central file records; the purchasing of and accounting for all
property, including special aeronautical equipment of all kinds; and
all other general administrative work relating to the operation of
the branch.
Funds for carrying on the work of the branch are appropriated
under two titles, “Aircraft in commerce ” and “Air navigation facil­
ities.” The appropriation “Aircraft in commerce” is used for sal­
aries and traveling expenses of inspectors engaged in the inspection
and licensing of aircraft and airmen; for salaries of employees
necessary to carry on the work in the Washington office, and for
the testing of aircraft engines and for conducting certain research.
The appropriation “Air navigation facilities” is used primarily
for the construction and maintenance of civil airways. A portion
of this appropriation is, however, used for research work looking
toward the development of aids to air navigation.
Following is a tabulation of the amounts that have been appropri­
ated under these two heads since the Aeronautics Branch began to
function:
Fiscal year
1927 ».......................................................................................
1929*............ ..........................................................................
1930........ ................................................................................
1931.........................................................................................

Aircraft in Air naviga­
commerce tion facilities
$250,000
700,000
859,500
958,000
1, 260, 830

$300,000
3,091,500
4,659,850
5,458,620
7, 944,000

Total
$550,000
3,791,500
5, 519,350
6,416, 620
9, 204, 830

1Second deficiency act, fiscal year 1926, approved July 3,1926.
*Includes under “ Aircraft in commerce,” $72,500 appropriated by the second deficiency act of 1928 and
$85,000 appropriated by the second deficiency act of 1929 and under "Air navigation facilities,” $1,000,000
appropriated by the second deficiency act of 1928.

51

A ERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

During the last fiscal year numerous additional tasks were imposed
upon the branch including the inspection of scheduled interstate
passenger-carrying air lines for certificates of authority to operate;
the flight testing of pilots for passenger-carrying ratings in various
classes and weights of aircraft; the inspection and testing of para­
chutes for approved-type certificates; and the examination of para­
chute riggers for licenses. In addition to these specific tasks, the
services rendered to the aeronautical public in the form of current
statistical and general information on commercial aviation has been
materially increased. These increased activities, together with the
constantly increasing volume of work made necessary by the renewal
o f licenses previously issued, have combined to increase approxi­
mately 100 per cent the total volume of work to be performed.
During the fiscal year 1930 the personnel was increased approximately 10 per cent. The handling of so large an increased volume
o f business with such a relatively small increase in personnel was
only possible through much overtime work and the most rigid appli­
cation of efficiency principles as well as the elimination of all phases
of the work not absolutely essential to the accomplishment of the
task at hand. The personnel paid from the appropriation “Aircraft
in commerce ” for the past four years is as follow s:
District of;
Columbia! Field

Date
June 30, 1927 ......................................................................................
June '¿0, 1928...........................................................................................
June 30| 1929...........................................................................................
June 30^ 1930 ..........................................................................................

51
104 ;
140
160
_______ !_

Total

37
08
127
150

88
172
273
316

During the year all airplane engines of the Aeronautics Branch
have been overhauled at the Department of Commerce depot at
Bolling Field, Washington, D. C., which depot was completed about
the close of the last fiscal year. By this work, the average cost of
the major overhaul of an engine was reduced to one-half the
former cost.
A complete and uniform filing system has been worked out for
all field offices, and a set of administrative memoranda, describing
in detail the procedure to be followed in the execution of administra­
tive problems arising in the field, has been prepared and distributed
to the field offices for their reference and guidance.
During the year the Aeronautics Branch purchased $121,000
worth of accountable property, which included 12 airplanes and 5
airplane engines.
T a b l e 10. — P r o g r e s s o f U n i t e d S t a t e s c i v i l a e r o n a u t i c s i n s t a t i s t i c s

[Data for first half 1930 not available at this time]
1926

1927

1928

1929

AIR TRANSPORT

Airplane miles flown daily,"average for the year..
Passengers carried...'......
Express and freight carried.......................lbs..
Airplane miles flown with mail1.....................

4 ,3 1 8 ,0 8 7
11,830
5,782
1 ,7 3 3 ,0 9 0
* 4 ,2 4 0 ,4 0 7

i All air-mail routes, whether domestic or foreign.

Includes all mail routes, whether Government or contract.

5 ,8 7 0 ,4 8 9
10,083
8 ,6 7 9
2 ,2 6 3 ,5 8 0
* 5, 543, 578

10,6 7 3 ,4 5 0
29,242
49,713
1 ,8 4 8 ,1 5 6
7 ,8 4 0 ,2 9 0

2 5 ,1 4 1 ,4 9 9
08,881
173,405
1 ,8 6 6 ,8 7 9
14,8 0 9 ,1 6 6

52

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OP COM M ERCE

T able 10. — P r o g r e s s o f U n i t e d S t a t e s c i v i l a e r o n a u t i c s i n s t a t i s t i c s —Continued

1926

1927

1928

1929

AIR t r a n s p o r t —c o n ti n u e d

Total mail carried 1....................................... lbs..
»810,855
377,206
Mail carried by contract1..........................do---Mail income to contractors 1................................
*$765, 549
Miles of mail airways, Dec. 31 '*..........................
8,039
Average mail income per scheduled round tr ip «_
$295
Average mail load in pounds per scheduled
round trip 4.........................................................
112
Average income per pound of contract m a il4---$2.03
Average mail income per contract mile flow n...
$0.39
8,404
Miles of all airways in operation, Dec. 31...........
Airways in operation, Dec. 3 1 ...........num ber..
« 18
* 18
Lines in operation, Dec. 31........................ do---Mail operators, Dec. 31.............................. do---s 15
6
Passenger operators, Dec. 31......................... ......
All operators, Dec. 31........................
num ber..
8 18
Total revenues, all operators........ .......................
«$765, 549
Average passenger-mile rate.................................
$0.12
Airplanes in service and reserve..........num ber..
Value of abov.........................................................
Pilots employed.........................
num ber..
Total personnel employed....................................
Passenger and express income..............................

* 1,654,165
1,270,299
*$2,643,454
7,832
$654
273
$2.08
$0,625
9,122
22
23
16
14
19
»$2,643,454
$0.106
128
8$1,838,462
107
462

4.063.173
7.772.014
7.772.014
4.063.173
$7,432,721
$17,042,521
14,561
26, 597
$994
$1,205
489
617
$2.03
$2.01
$0.9-1
16,667 ......... 36,'555
47
65
63
97
22
21
31
30
37
35
7$8,349,817
$0.11

325
•$7,000,000
10308
” 1,496
i* $599,059

.........$5.'12
»525
• 500

• $ 12, 000,000

• 2,000

MISCELLANEOUS

Airplane miles flown....................................... j 1118,746,640 » 30,000,000 i* 60,000,000
6,988
4,468
Miles lighted airways, Dec. 31......................... j
2,041
2,314
1 ,2 7 7
Under construction....................................j
2,108
1,188
760
Electric and gas beacons, Dec. 31....................
612
134
210
Lighted intermediate fields, Dec. 31...number..;
92
2
Radiobeacon stations, Dec. 31................do----i....................
29
19
17
Radio c o m m u n ic a t io n s ta tio n s , D e c . 31..do__
206
202
207
Weather Bureau regular stations, Dec. 31........
95
23
12
Weather Bureau airways stations, Dec. 31.......
54
8
Private light beacons, Dec. 31..... ....................
5,605
3,242
or pen
10,528
Student permits, issued or pending........ do.
545
96
Approved models of airplanes..L . ..........do.
21
13
Approved models o f engines................... do.
4,156
Airplanes licensed.................................. do..
2,299
2,164
851
Airplanes identified.....................
do..
18
States with regulatory legislation..................
13
10
States with “ uniform State law” only..........
10
3
States with miscellaneous legislation........... .
3
17
States with no legislation............................
22
368
Municipal airports, Dec. 31............................. j.
240
263
365
Private and commercial airports, Dec. 31......... L
Navy airports, including Marine Corps, Dec. 31. l
17
17
Army, National Guard, and reserve airports, |
64
62
Dec. 31........................................................ ..
340
Marked auxiliary fields, Dec. 31...................... L
320
921
Proposed airports, Dec. 31............................... 1....................
422
4,346
Production of airplanes.................... number..
1,186
1,995
Value of airplanes............................................ $8,871,027 $14, 504,999 $43,812,318
Total value of all air products.......................... $17,694,905 $21,161,853 $64,662,491
162
63
Exported airplanes..........................................
50
$3,664,723
$1,903,583
Exports (airplanes, engines, and parts)........... $1,027,210
U 400
Concerns engaged in air industry... .number..;
600
900
Government consumption, airplanes (Army, ;
857
etc.).................................. ...........number..1
532

11 110, 000,000

12,448
1,352
1,311
285

34
207
200
114
10,215
20,400
279
35
6,685
3,155
20
19

1

8

453
495
14
235
1,413
*

6,200

•$75,000,000
»$

100, 000,000

354
$9,202,385
» 1,500
•700

I All air-mail routes, whether domestic or foreign.
*San Francisco-Chicago operated by post office until June 30, 1927; Chicago-New York, by post office
until Aug. 31, 1927. All subsequent mail carried by contract.
4 Domestic only as foreign mail is carried on a mileage basis.
*Inc. udes post office.
« Mail income only. No data on passenger and express in c o m e .
7Includes all reports on mail revenue, also passenger and express revenue from all but 5 operators.
» Reports from 20 of the 22 operators.
• Estimate.
10Reports from 33 of 35 operators.
II Reports from 27 to 33 of the 35 operators.
11 Reports from 21 of 35 operators.
11Estimate based on reports.

AERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

53

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION

The aeronautic industry.—Manufacturers of aircraft, who are
just as skilled in the principles of business economics as they are in
designing, constructing, and flying aircraft, are paying strict atten­
tion to the needs and desires of an intelligent and discriminating
aircraft market. They are making every effort to design and pro­
duce aircraft which their experience and studies have indicated are
what the public wants. At the same time they are projecting plans
continually on new developments, new designs, new features in an
effort to keep in the van of public desire.
Cities and towns are continuing to realize more and more that air
transportation plays a very definite and important part in our na­
tional transportation scheme. These foresigh ted communities not
only are establishing and encouraging the establishment of airports,
but are taking steps to develop them to the fullest extent of existing
knowledge and experience. This is particularly true of the air
terminals in the larger cities that now are serving air lines both
day and night as well as those that are in an advantageous position
to render such service.
The passenger air transport lines are constantly making inroads
into that large group of people who could travel by air but for one
reason or other have elected to remain with surface transportation.
Those air lines that rendet a service clearly advantageous in time
over other means of travel or which advantageously augment surface
transportation are doing a substantial business, and the tendency
points to continued increase.
When the provisions of the Watres Air Mail Act are given full
force and effect, this legislation will have two outstanding stimulat­
ing features on the industry and also will be beneficial to the public:
First. Air mail will be extended to various parts of the country
not now being served, by the utilization of existing air passenger
transport lines.
Second. It will assist materially in the establishment of a more
comprehensive passenger service throughout the Nation by placing
present air mail carriers in the passenger-transportation business.
These two features should contribute to the building up of the
passenger air transport industry to the point where there should be
no question about the completeness and fitness of service available
for any proper demand that may arise.
For the purpose of surrounding air lines engaged in the scheduled
transportation of passengers in interstate commerce with all possible
safeguards and with the view to providing air transportation with
virtually the same uniformity of operation as is now enjoyed by the
major railroads and steamship systems, there was prepared and
promulgated during the year a supplement to the Air Commerce
Regulations requiring the operators of scheduled air passenger trans­
port services in interstate commerce to obtain from the Secretary
of Commerce a certificate of authority to operate such service.
The certificate of authority will be issued only to those operators
who effect complete compliance with the new regulations and the
interpretations thereunder. When placed in full operation and
effect, these regulations, which constitute a standard or code of mini­
mum requirements governing the operation of scheduled interstate

54

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

air passenger routes, are expected to bring about unprecedented
records for safety and reliability in this phase of civil aeronautics.
Air-mail

o p e ra tio n s ta tis tic s

;

T a b l e 1 1 .—

1 C. A. M . No. 1

January-June, 1930 (inclusive)

1
2
3
4
5
8
9
LI
12
36
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
32

Domestic routes

Miles of service
ctually
Scheduled» Aflown

Boston-New York...............
Chicago-St. Louis................
Chicago-Dallas.....................
Sait Lake City-San Diego..
Sait Lake City-Pasco..........
Seattle-Los Angeles.............
Chicago-Minneapolis..........
Cleveland-Pittsburgh.........
Cheyonnc-Pueblo................
Clevelaud-Louisville.. __
New York-Chicago.............
Chicago-San Francisco.......
New York-Atlanta..............
Albany-Cloveland...............

JanuaryJune,1929
(inclu­
sive),
Total
Revenue revenue
weight of Amount paid per
per sched­
mails dis­ to contractor uledsched­
mile uled mile
patched
Pounds

75,501
181,064
655,479
409,045
340,351
370,704
465,037
79,941
68,218
318,708
599,929
1,330, 808

Dallas-Brownsville..............
Atlanta-New Orléans..........
Chicago-Cincinnati.............
Atlanta-M iam i....................
Great Falls-Salt Lake City.
Bay City-Chicago...............
St. Louis-Omaha.................
New Orléans-Houston........
Chicago- Atlanta..................
Pasco-Seattle........................

85,813
200,784
746,954
439,366
390, 594
386,108
490,903
90,684
75,505
134,314
682,001
1,417,800
494,697
143,039
116,268
192,322
175.088
204.670
279,409
234,137
303,708
293,514
316,037
319,539
189,416

Total............................

8,202,670

266,048
229,384
273,746
276,783
115,288
298,229
176,253

59,275
27,216
204,445
417,770
130,615
124,053
107,324
30,794
41,843
36,234
809,141
925.485
213, 765
31,698
18,272
43i006
52,915
34,073
88,396
29,606
87,783
81,632
25, 203
57,804
83,028

$138,986.88
83,544.36
592, 425. 51
1,014,475.72
367,041.34
339,215.93
294,971.41
92.384.07
34,711.27
44,094.53
662, 570. 54
1,872,920.49
640,943. 99
35,184.04
52,804.07
124, 287.70
92,600.81
50,089. 78
128,757. 47
73,272. 73
77,989.97
64,020.61
25,190.15
44.852.51
7,472. 57

$1.62
.42
.79
2.38
.94
.88
.60
1.19
.46
.33
.98
1.32
1.30
.26
. 45
.65
.53
.24
.46
.31
.26
.22
.22
.14
.39

$2.39
.75
.92
3.16
1.49
.84
.55
2.50
.48
.35
.9?
1.38
1.62
.35
.60
.65
.44
.51
.39
.37
.28
.13
.20
.14

7,542,416

3,761,376

6,954,808. 45

*.85

>1.00

444,213

128,725
112,992
182,073
169,740
174,157

1 C. A. M . = Contract air mail.
2 Miles scheduled as estimated by Post Office Department on basis miles of route times trips scheduled,
Actual miles flown on regular schedule plus ferry and test mileage amounts to practically the same as sched*
uled mileage.
9 Average revenue per scheduled mile for the total of all contract air-mail routes.

In regard to the safety feature of civil aeronautics, we are hopeful
that suitable legislation, dealing with the investigation, recording,
and publication of the causes of accidents in civil air navigation in
the United States, will be enacted. Such legislation should give!
the department more authority with respect to the procedure sur­
rounding the investigation of civil aircraft accidents than now exists.
This is desirable in order that the department may effect more:
complete investigations of such accidents.
While progress in the manufacture and sale of aircraft for mis-1
cellaneous use has not continued so rapidly in the last six or eights
months of the fiscal year as during the fore part of the year, it is
gratifying to note the continued development of scheduled air
transportation of mail, passengers, and express.
Of the 13,000 pilots holding all types of Department of Commerce
licenses at the close of the fiscal year, approximately 600 were em­
ployed on the scheduled air mail and passenger lines. These air­
line pilots are paid on the basis of quality, and the longer they serve
on a particular air line, or on air lines in general, the more valuable
they become to the operators.

A ERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

55

The number of pilots not employed on schedule air-line opera­
tions was close to 100 per cent more than the number of licensed
airplanes on record at the close of the year.
From the point of view of the Aeronautics Branch, this is not
an undesirable situation. In fact, it is indicative of a better mar­
ket for aircraft and indicates quite clearly the existence of a poten­
tial market. The Aeronautics Branch has no definite means of de­
termining how many of the licensed pilots not engaged in scheduled
air-transport work undertook training for Federal licenses as an
educational or avocational activity. Neither does it know how many
licensed pilots are waiting for further developments in aircraft and
engines, both from the scientific and financial viewpoint.
The light-powered airplane offers a possibility for greater pri­
vate, sport, and recreational flying, and its further development
doubtless will reach many licensed pilots whose activities might be
restricted to the minimum requirements necessary to hold their li­
censes. Furthermore, it should reach countless thousands who either
have never flown before or who have turned to gliding as a medium
offering initial possibilities for developing air sense and acquiring
certain fundamentals of flight.
The light-powered airplane should be of particular service and
advantage to those who have passed through the various stages of
gliding and now are looking further into the field of flight.
The Aeronautics Branch foresaw the possibility of light-powered
airplanes with limited or restricted range and performance many
months ago, and, in an effort to encourage their development, it
waived the requirements for approval of their power plants and
propellers on the ground that such power plant and propeller as will
be used in light aircraft will be “ merely an auxiliary and not a
necessaiy essential to safe flight.”
In the general field of air transportation, two features are out­
standing: One is the increase in international operation of airplanes
and the other is the commercial possibilities of lighter-than-air craft
On June 30; 1930, planes operating on schedule in the United
States were flying 90,187 miles per day. Planes owned and operated
by commercial companies in the United States were flying 12,995
miles per day on schedule to Canada, Mexico, the West Indies, and
Central and South America. The total domestic and foreign sched­
uled daily mileage flown by American aircraft (103,182) represented
an increase of 34,153 miles flown per day over the corresponding
period last year.
The world flight of the Graf Zeppelin and its numerous Atlantic
crossings, coupled with the flight to Canada of the British airship
R-100, served to renew confidence in the commercial possibilities of
lighter-than-air travel for long distances, and particularly trans­
oceanic.
In addition to its regular duties of examining aircraft and airmen
for license; maintaining and extending the Federal airways system;
assisting communities in the selection of airports; conducting research
on problems of air navigation including aeronautic radio; enforcing
the Air Commerce Regulations; determining the causes of civil air­
craft accidents; and furnishing the public with information per­
taining to civil aeronautics, the Aeronautics Branch of the Depart-

56

REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

ment of Commerce during the fiscal' year 1929-30 developed and
placed in effect the following :
1. Regulations requiring operators of scheduled interstate passenger air­
transport services to obtain from the Secretary of Commerce a certificate of
authority to operate such services. The certificate will be issued only to those
operators who comply with the regulations and the interpretations thereunder.
2. Regulations providing for approval by the Department of Commerce of
gliders as to airworthiness and for the licensing of gliders and glider pilots.
3. Regulations providing for the examination, test, and issuance by the
Department of Commerce of approved-type certificates for parachutes and also
for the creation of a “ parachute rigger’s license.” The examination, test,
and issuance of approved-type certificates for parachutes are made upon appli­
cation by the manufacturers of parachutes.

Regulations providing for the examination and rating by the
Department of Commerce of civilian schools giving instruction in
flying, as to the adequacy of the course of instruction, as to the
suitability and airworthiness of the equipment, and as to the com­
petency of the instructors, were promulgated shortly before July 1,

1929. However, the certificates of approval were not issued until the
fiscal year just closed.
Under its program of airways development, the aeronautics branch
during the last fiscal year lighted 3,321 miles of airways, established
and lighted 56 intermediate landing fields, and installed and oper­
ated 218 standard revolving beacon lights for the guidance of air­
men after dark. Five thousand six hundred and fifty miles of air­
ways were equipped with automatic telegraph-typewriter circuits
which collect and disseminate weather information along the airways,
and 13 radio broadcasting stations were placed in operation for the
broadcast of this weather information to planes in flight at regular
intervals both day and night. Two radio range beacons, which guide
pilots along the airways by means of radio signals, also -were placed
in operation, and 27 were completed to the point where service
operation will be started between July 1 and September 1, 1930.
As the foregoing aids to air navigation not only have justified
their existence, but have proved to be indispensable from the stand­
point of safety and reliability of aircraft operation, funds available
from current appropriations have been allocated to provide more

AERO N A U TICS B R A N C H

57

of these facilities. During the current fiscal .year, 3,000 miles of
additional airways will be lighted, 33 additional radio range beacon
stations will be" established, 2,800 miles of automatic telegraphtypewriter circuits will be placed in operation, and 20 radio com­
munication stations will be installed. Upon the completion of these
20 additional radio communication stations, there will be scarcely
a square mile of area in the United States where flying is a regular
activity, that a pilot can not receive broadcasts of weather informa­
tion while in flight.
Airport specialists of the Aeronautics Branch engaged in 871 con­
ferences with cities and municipalities, assisting them in the selection
of sites and supplying information as to the requirements for the
development of suitable airports.
At the close of the fiscal year 1929-30, the status of active licenses
and approvals, issued by the Aeronautics Branch following examina­
tions and inspections, was: Licensed planes, 6,G84; unlicensed planes,
3,089; licensed pilots, 13,041; licensed mechanics, 8,843; aircraft
holding approved-type certificates, 334; engines with approved-type
certificates, 54; propellers with approved-type certificates, 174; air­
craft approved for license but without approved-type certificates, 230;
approved civilian schools giving instruction in flying, 45.
Under its aeronautic development program, the Aeronautics
Branch organized special cooperative research committees which
undertook studies of such subjects as:
The effectiveness of the automatic application of water in controlling air­
plane hangar fires.
The development of standard signal systems for airports which will be suit­
able for both day and night use for controlling traffic on and in the vicinity
of airports and for communicating special information to pilots.
Aeronautic radio research now in progress and of those radio problems the
solution of which will assist in bringing about the highest degree of safety
and reliability in air transportation.
Hazards that might be developed in the vicinity of airports through the
construction or existence of buildings, smokestacks, radio towers, and similar
obstructions to air navigation.
The problems involved in airport drainage and surfacing. In this latter
study, the Aeronautics Branch has the cooperation of the American Engineer­
ing Council and the American Road Builders Association.

From the beginning, the Aeronautics Branch has adhered to a
policy leading to a realization of the following principles: (a ) Air­
worthy aircraft, adequately equipped and efficiently maintained;
(b) flown by competent pilots; (c) over suitably equipped airways;
(d ) in conformity with standard air-traffic rules.
Since this policy has proved to be absolutely sound, it undoubtedly
offers the best way of cooperating wdth the industry and the bring­
ing about of public acceptance and use of properly established air
commerce. Therefore, it will continue to be the basis for planning
the activities of the Aeronautics Branch in the promotion and regu­
lation of civil aeronautics, authorized bv the air commerce act of
1926.
Very truly yours,
C larence M. Y oung ,

Assistant Secretami of Commerce.

RADIO DIV ISIO N
D

epartm ent of

C ommerce,
R adio D iv i s i o n ,

Washington, July 1, 1980.
The honorable the S e c r e t a r y o f C o m m e r c e .
D e a r M r . S e c r e t a r y : In response to your request I furnish the
following condensed report of the work of the radio division during
the past fiscal year, including references to related developments
which have taken place during that period.
LEGISLATION

In an act approved December 18, 1929, Congress extended the
administrative control of the Federal Radio Commission over radio
communication until such time as may otherwise be provided for by
law.
Senate Joint Resolution 176 was introduced on May 12, 1930,
providing for the transfer of the functions of the radio division of
the Department of Commerce to the Federal Radio Commission.
This resolution was passed by the Senate. A favorable report was
made on the resolution by the Merchant Marine and Fisheries
Committee of the House, but no further action has been taken on
the measure.
House Joint Resolution 337 was introduced on May 19, 1930, and
referred to the Committee on Merchant Marine and Fisheries. No
report was made on the resolution by the committee. This resolu­
tion provided for the transfer of the functions of the radio division
of the Department of Commerce to the Federal Radio Commission.
House bill 12948, transferring the functions of the Federal Radio
Commission to the radio division of the Department of Commerce,
was introduced June 13, 1930, and referred to the Committee on
Merchant Marine and Fisheries.
On April 18, 1929, Senate bill 6 was introduced. This bill provides
for the regulation of the transmission of intelligence by wire and
wireless; the creation of a commission on communications to take
oyer the present duties of the Federal Radio Commission, the radio
division of the Department of Commerce, and related duties now
under the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission.
This measure was referred to the Committee on Interstate Commerce,
where extensive hearings were held. As a result of these hearings
the provisions of this bill are now being revised.
RADIO INSPECTION SERVICE

Although greater demands are made upon this service each year
and the surveys require more time because of the larger and more
complicated radio installations on ships, the percentage of inspec­
tions as compared with clearances has not diminished. In 1926
58

RADIO D IV ISIO N

59

there were 13,009 clearances and 9,197 inspections. In 1929 there
were 15,023 clearances and 10,715 inspections. In 1930 there were
15,595 clearances and 11,334 inspections. As the radio installations
on the ships included in the above figures are required by law as a
safeguard against loss of life, a larger percentage of inspections should
be made. The estimates for the 1932 appropriation will provide for
the establishment of inspection offices at the following ports : Miami,
Fla.; Savannah, Ga.; San Juan, P. R .; and Galveston, Tex., from
which ports a considerable number of ships are clearing without
inspection. During the last fiscal year new' offices were established
at Portland, Oreg., and Denver, Colo. It was planned to establish
new offices in Hawaii and Alaska this year, but this may not be
possible because of the increasing work at existing offices.
Of the 2,173 American vessels equipped with radio, only about 10
per cent of them come under the provisions of existing law, the
remaining 90 per cent, which are voluntarily equipped, should receive
more inspectional attention. Inspections developed 382 defects in
the radio installations on ships during the year and these were
remedied before the vessels departed. During the previous year
there were 335 such defects reported.
Examinations were given 5,363 applicants for commercial operators’
licenses and 3,993 applicants for amateur operators’ licenses as com­
pared with 3,477 commercial operators and 3,173 amateur operators
during the previous year. There were 1,287 inspections made of ship
stations for license as compared with 1,102 the previous year. Inspec­
tion of land stations during the past two years increased from 1,154
to 1,897. Inspections were made of 251 amateur stations as com­
pared with 229 the previous year.
Undoubtedly more attention should be given to the inspection of
broadcasting and other stations on land. Such inspections would de­
velop much information of value to the Federal Radio Commission
to guide it in determining its action on applications for renewal
licenses, hearings, etc. Many of the unlicensed stations reported to
be in operation would be discovered during these inspections, and
other violations might be detected. This extension of activity will
necessitate increased personnel. It is obviously not possible to
accomplish this with the present force, which has worked 10,003 hours
overtime during the past year.
During the year 1929, 1,075 inspection trips were made and 372
cities visited, while in 1930, 1,577 inspection trips were made and
534 cities visited.
RADIO TEST CARS
PU RCH A SE OF ADDITIONAL CARS

Orders have been placed for two additional test cars for use in
the Boston and Seattle districts. When they are delivered each
district, with the exception of New York, will be supplied with a
test car. As a result, much radio-inspection work which would be
impossible of accomplishment can be performed expeditiously and
efficiently. Some years ago almost all of the radio-inspection work
was centered around the large seaports. To-day it extends to every
city of importance and many of the small towns throughout the
country. This wide distribution of activity necessarily requires a

60

R E PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY O F CO M M ERCE

larger force of inspectors, better traveling facilities, and transporta­
tion of more apparatus. The use of test cars materially aids in
coping with the increasing demands made upon the division.
M O BILE STANDARDS ON RADIO TEST CARS

Owing to the large number of broadcast and other stations sharing
channels of operation throughout the United States, very serious
heterodyne interference is constantly experienced. With many
stations operating on the same channel, it is obviously not possible
to make measurements of frequency at remote points on any of these
stations. In order to handle such a situation, the six radio test cars
in service are being equipped with mobile secondary standards of
frequency. The cars will travel continually through the districts,
measuring the frequencies of the stations that are of low power and
are on heterodyne channels. In this way it is hoped to reduce
materially the interference experienced on national and regional
channels in the broadcast band, and to make sure that stations
remain within their assignment.
It is expected that all of the mobile units will have been installed
and will be in operation by November 1.
FIE L D -ST R E N G T H W ORK

The radio test cars are equipped with field-strength measuring
apparatus. During the past year there were a number o f . fieldstrength studies made on radio broadcast and other types of trans­
mitting stations. These studies were made to determine the reliable
service area about the station and whether the station was using the
amount of power authorized by the Federal Radio Commission.
With this apparatus it is possible to measure the power of a trans­
mitter without going to the station to make an inspection.
During the past year a number of studies were made with the fieldstrength sets on the test cars to determine the ratio of signal strength
between harmonics and the assigned fundamental frequency. Several
such studies were made for Government agencies to determine
whether the transmitting apparatus they wore planning to purchase
complied with the specifications covering the amount of permissible
harmonic energy radiated.
It is believed that if the power of broadcast stations were assigned
on the basis of field-strength studies considerable good would result,
and in many cases the power of stations might be increased or reduced
with beneficial results to the public. During the coming fiscal year
it is planned to survey many of the broadcast stations and to make
measurements of parasitic radiations which are known to be causing
serious interference with high-frequency stations.
M ONITORING BROADCASTING STATIONS

Monitoring work during the past year has been confined almost
entirely to broadcasting stations. The apparatus in use, which was
designed and built by men in the service, has a limited frequency range
which does not extend much above or below the broadcasting b a n d 550 to 1,500 kilocycles. During the year 45,695 frequency measure­
ments were made. Of this number 44,923 were of broadcasting

RADIO D IV ISIO N

61

stations, 302 of stations other than broadcasting, and 470 of stations
in foreign countries. The number of stations involved in these
measurements were 380 broadcasting, 174 other than broadcasting,
and 30 foreign stations. There were 1,020 measurements made
showing deviations of 500 cycles or more from the frequency assigned
to the stations. Of tills number there were 344 measurements show­
ing deviations from 1,000 cycles to 5,000 cycles, 16 measurements
showing deviations from 5,000 cycles to 10,000 cycles, and 22 meas­
urements showing 10,000 cycles or above. Last year 22,450 measure­
ments were made and of this number there were 2,451 deviations of
500 cycles or more. This marked improvement in frequency stability
is evidence of the efforts being made by station operators to improve
the efficiency of their stations in tills respect, together with the
increased monitoring work done by the field force.
During the coming year the new monitoring apparatus will be in
use. Then it will be possible to measure all the usable frequencies
and a much greater number of stations. To get full benefit of this
new apparatus and to meet the demands made for measurements of
commercial and Government stations, a considerable increase in per­
sonnel is essential.
CONSTANT-FREQUENCY MONITORING- STATION

For a number of years supervisors of radio have been seriously
handicapped in the work of enforcing the radio-communication laws,
and in many cases have been unable to carry out the requests of tho
Federal Radio Commission, due to the lack of proper apparatus, or
due to the lack of apparatus capable of measuring the frequencies of
transmitting stations with a high degree of accuracy. With the ap­
paratus in use in the past there was always some doubt as to just
what degree of accuracy of measurement was obtained, and it was
difficult, if not impossible, for the various offices to check their meas­
urements with one another. This condition led to a survey by the
supervisor of radio at Detroit, Mich., of the methods used in making
highly accurate frequency measurements. The views of many of the
foremost radio engineers were obtained.
It was determined that the proper method to pursue in monitoring
all classes of radio-transmitting stations in the United States and its
possessions was to erect, somewhere in the approximate geographic
center of the country, buildings in which to house the delicate
frequency-measuring apparatus, and the sensitive radio receivers.
It was essential that this site be well removed from manufacturing
centers, telephone and telegraph lines, high-voltage transmission lines,
and other possible sources of interference with reception. A site ap­
proximately 7 miles west of Grand Island, Nebr., comprising 50 acres
of land in the form of a square, was finally obtained, without cost to
the Government. The selection of this site was made only after
careful investigation of reception conditions in the States of Kansas,
Missouri, Nebraska, Iowa, and Illinois. At this location there is
little or no man-made interference, and stations in foreign countries,
as well as transmitting stations in continental United States, were
regularly received without difficulty.
The 50-acre site selected is a quarter of a mile north of the Lincoln
Highway, on level, sandy, prairie land. There are no telephone,

62

R E PO E T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

telegraph, railroads, power lines, or residences within 3 miles of the
site.
In addition to the two buildings it was necessary to install a
sewage-disposal system, a water-supply system, and an electric-light
plant. Fear was felt that through use of local power lines interference
from devices operating on the power line many miles away would be
conducted onto the reservation and picked up by the receivers. In
investigating many of the complaints in 1927 it was found that in­
ductive interference on high-voltage power lines was frequently carried
75 or 100 miles. With a local power plant and the placing of all power
and telephone cables underground adequate protection against this
type of interference is assured and the station is entirely independent
of any outside source of power.
To be assured of 24-hour reception every month in the year special
antennae were constructed for the reception of all radio stations oper­
ating between the frequencies of 60,000 and 10 kilocycles. These
special antennae were necessary so that measurements could be made
when static during the summer season was especially severe, and when,
with an ordinary type of antennas it would be impossible to do fre­
quency-measuring work. Four antennae of the multiple-doublet type
were erected on the reservation and cover the high-frequency bands.
This type of antenna is especially directive. They were so arranged
that two of them point to London, England, for use in the reception
of high-frequency stations in eastern United States and Europe, and
two similar antennae are pointed to Porto Allegro, South America, for
the interception of high-frequency stations in southern United States,
Central America, West Indies, and South America.
For the reception of broadcast stations and other services operating
within the intermediate-frequency bands, a special antenna of the
directive type, known as a “ Beverage” was erected. This antenna
points to New York City and is intended to receive broadcast and
other stations in the United States. Later it is hoped that a similar
type of antenna can be erected pointing in a westerly direction to
San Francisco for the interception of broadcasting and other stations
on the west coast. In addition to the antennae just described, four
single doublets, one vertical, and one general purpose antennae were
constructed for general all-around reception. It was not intended
that they would have any highly directive properties. These
antennae are for the interception of high-frequency stations. For the
interception of signals on frequencies between 200 and 10 kilocycles
two large loops, at right angles, 250 feet long and 40 feet high, on a
side, were erected. With this loop it is intended that reception of
low-frequency stations throughout the United States and the world
will be possible.
All antennae referred to above are suspended on 60-foot cedar poles,
and all —excepting the loop and general-purpose antennae— are located
a considerable distance from the buildings, out in the open. Signals
are brought from these antennae to receivers through long, 4-wire
transmission lines which have been especially constructed with great
care and precision.
Temporary power facilities in the form of three 2-kilowatt Kohler
lighting plants were arranged for with the airways division of the
Bureau of Lighthouses. With this temporary power equipment in
position for service, it was possible to begin the installation of the radio

EADIO D IV ISIO N

63

receivers, storage batteries, standards of frequency, and other equip­
ment. This work has been pressed as rapidly as possible, and the
receiving equipment is now 80 per cent installed.
The apparatus installed consists of one standard of frequency hav­
ing an accuracy of one part in a million, and one secondary standard
having an accuracy of one part in a hundred thousand. In addition
to these two standards there are, at the present time, a total of five
receivers. Two of these receivers operate on a frequency of 30,000
to 1,500 kilocycles, two operate on frequencies from 1,500 to 100 kilo­
cycles, and one receiver operates on frequencies from 100 to 10 kilo­
cycles. With these receivers it will be possible to measure all of the
usable radio frequencies in the spectrum.
During tests of the apparatus while being installed, over 300
broadcast stations were received, as well as a number of other services
in continental United States. In addition to this, reception of sta­
tions in Chile, Canada, Cuba, Portugal, France, England, Philippine
Islands, Hawaii, Argentine, Peru, Netherlands, Brazil, Panama,
Costa Rica, Nova Scotia, Russia, and many other places in the world
are regularly recorded.
The monitoring of stations operating on the frequencies which
can be measured by this station will cover the following classes of
service: Transoceanic; telegraph and telephone; marine, operating
on high, low, and intermediate frequencies; marine coastal; aircraft;
aircraft ground stations; various point-to-point services; broad­
casting; amateur; television; and facsimile.
The two buildings are of brick and concrete construction, and were
finished and finally accepted by the Government in March of this year.
Efforts are being made to have the station in full operation by
November 15, 1930.
SECONDARY STANDARDS OF FREQUENCY

To supplement the frequency-measuring work to be done by the
station at Grand Island, Nebr., nine secondary standards of fre­
quency stations are being installed at the following places: Boston,
Mass.; Baltimore, Md.; Atlanta, G a.; New Orleans, La.; Los Angeles
and San Francisco, Calif.; Portland, Oreg.; Chicago, 111.; and Detroit,
Mich. While these secondary standards of frequency will have
neither the range nor the accuracy of the station at Grand Island,
with them it will be possible to monitor or measure the frequency of
many of the stations in those particular areas.
The apparatus at the office of the supervisors of radio at Boston,
Chicago, and Baltimore arc installed and in operation. The installa­
tions at Detroit, Atlanta, and New Orleans will be completed within
the next 60 days, and by November 1 all of the secondary standard
installations at the places enumerated above will be installed and in
operation.
RADIO FOR AVIATION

During the past year considerable thought has been given to types
of radio apparatus suitable for use on airplanes and the qualifications
which should be possessed by radio operators on planes.
Several of the air transport companies have established and operate
their own two-way communication service between ground and

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R E PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

plane along their respective routes. Licenses have been issued to 66
aeronautical stations and construction permits have been issued for
23 more which will make 89 aeronautical stations in operation within
a short time. Last year there were 97 planes equipped with apparatus
not including planes of the Army and Navy. Now there are 215
planes so equipped.
In order that life may be properly safeguarded the radio apparatus
on passenger-carrying planes should receive the same attention as is
now given to the radio equipment on merchant vessels.
RADIOBEACONS AND RADIO COMPASSES

Installation of radiobeacons and radio compasses continues to
increase. There are in operation now 26 radiobeacons on the Atlantic
coast, 18 on the Pacific coast, 7 on the Gulf coast, and 29 on the coast
of the Great Lakes, a total increase for the year of 15. In other
countries there are a total of 80 beacons, as compared with 57 the
previous year.
Radiocompasses are now in use on 832 commercial vessels under
the United States flag, an increase of 114 during the year, and on
United States Government vessels there are now 436 as compared
with 375 last year, making a total of 1,268 on vessels of the United
States. There are 2,285 foreign vessels so equipped as compared
with 1,942 last year.
AUTOMATIC ALARM SIGNAL DEVICE

During the year 755 inspections were made of vessels equipped
with automatic alarms which are being used on foreign vessels,
mostly British. Reports were made to the division that the device;
had responded 1,210 times to signals not intended to actuate the
apparatus.
Last year the Coast Guard purchased two sets of this apparatus.
Arrangements are being made to install one of these sets on a vessel
on the Great Lakes where it can best be subjected to practical tests
to determine its efficiency.
The Radiomarine Corporation is developing an alarm device which
it is hoped will be ready for practical tests on the Great Lakes before
this year’s navigation season closes.
RADIO COMMUNICATION

During the year there has developed an increased demand for
additional radiotelephone facilities both for international commu­
nication between this country and Europe and for communication
with ships. The latter is a new service which, according to present
indications, will grow to a considerable extent. Large ocean liners
are now being equipped with radiotelephone apparatus as an addi­
tional convenience for the ocean traveler. Such equipment provides
a means for conversation from ship to ship or ship to home or office
on land.
POLICE RADIO

There is an increasing realization of the value of radio as used in',
connection with police work, both State and municipal. New York

RADIO D IV ISIO N

65

City obtained a limited commercial station license in 1920 which
authorized emergency communication with the police-patrol boat.
Since early in 1922 the Pennsylvania State Police Department has
made use of radio for quick point-to-point contact and later broad­
casting police information. The Detroit Police Department used a
broadcasting station as early as 1922. Since 1925 Dallas, Tex., has
used a broadcasting station for contact with both the police and fire
departments. In 1929 there were 12 police-broadcasting stations.
There are now 20 such stations licensed; construction permits have
been issued for 25 more, and 3 applications for construction permits
are pending.
AMATEURS

After 18 months’ operation under the restricted wave bands im­
posed by the Washington treaty of 1927, the amateurs are operating
as satisfactorily as could be hoped for, considering the great number
of amateur stations in these narrow bands. This is due, for the most
part, to improved technical methods and apparatus devised partic­
ularly to meet the new conditions. Amateurs show increasing tech­
nical skill. Amateur voice transmission on high frequencies was
given impetus by the opening of the band from 14,100 to 14,300 kilo­
cycles for telephony as well as telegraphy. Numerous stations have
effected satisfactory international telephony. Many of the better
radiotelegraph stations have been in communication with upwards of
70 countries. There is an increasing interest in the investigation of
the communication possibilities of the ultrahigh frequencies above
28,000 kilocycles.
Amateurs of the United States have long been noted for their
excellent self-policing. In this connection it is interesting to noto
the establishment of an organized nation-wide, standard-frequency
system to make available to amateurs, both in this country and abroad,
calibration signals of known frequency, to aid amateur stations in
keeping within their allotted bands. Three stations, transmitting on
regular schedules, have been set up in laboratories at South Dart­
mouth, Mass., Elgin, 111., and Los Angeles, Calif. The Elgin and
Los Angeles installations are equipped with secondary-frequency
standards checked by the Bureau of Standards; the South Dart­
mouth installation possesses a primary standard. The American
Radio Relay League states that all transmissions are accurate to
more than 0.01 per cent; measurements of the South Dartmouth
transmissions indicate an accuracy for that station of approximately
0.001 per cent. This standard-frequency system is part of a program
instituted by the league for an increased appreciation of frequency
precision and accuracy of control by amateur operators; its good
effects are already apparent.
Amateur cooperation with expeditions continued on an increased
scale; there were also additional instances of cooperation with civil
authorities in local storm emergencies. The pursuit of amateur radio
continues to constitute a valuable training school for skilled radio
personnel for industry and the art generally. The amateurs’ record
of public service, their spirit of cooperation, and their demonstrated
national value have continued to justify the policy of this Govern­
ment toward them.
18038—30----- 5

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REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

During the year there was an increase of 2,165 amateur stations.
This is the largest year’s increase since 1922. Last year there were
16,829 licensed amateur radio stations. There are now 18,994. In
1920 there were 5,719 amateur stations.
PERSONNEL

The division’s personnel is inadequate to perform promptly and
completely the duties imposed upon it. For the next fiscal year a
larger appropriation is being requested to remedy this condition. In
the field force there are 9 supervisors, 68 inspectors, and 57 clerks
assigned to 20 offices. Estimates for next year contemplate the em­
ployment of 9 supervisors, 121 inspectors, and 75 clerks, and the
establishment of 6 additional offices.
INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCES

The International Radiotelegraph Convention of Washington, 1927,
established an international technical consultative committee for
radio communications for the purpose of studying technical and re­
lated questions having reference to these communications. Its
function is limited to giving opinions on the questions submitted by
the participating administrations or private enterprises and to which
it has given study. The first meeting of this committee was held at
The Hague, Netherlands, in September, 1929, and was attended by
representatives of the United States. Preparations are being made
to submit proposals for consideration at the next conference to be
held at Copenhagen, Denmark, May 26 to June 6, 1931.
The International Radiotelegraph Bureau at Berne, Switzerland,
has notified all administrations to prepare propositions concerning
the International Radiotelegraph Convention and the two sets of
regulations (general and additional) annexed thereto, in preparation
for the conference to be held in Madrid, Spain, in 1932.
INTERNATIONAL RADIO ACCOUNTING

The activities of the accounting section of the radio division in
the settlement for international radio tolls during the fiscal year
may be summarized as follows :
Number of accounts handled:
On hand July 1, 1929______________________________________
Received during year______________________________________

756924

Total.................................. ....................................................................
Settled and cleared.-______ ________ _______________________

1,680
1,111

Accounts on hand and unsettled June 30, 1930____________

569

Financial operations required to complete activities summarized:
Cash balance July 1, 1929______________________ ___________ $44, 519. 81
Collections during fiscal year of 1930_____________ _____ _____ 83, 343. 26
Total__________________________ _____ ________ __________ 127,863.07
Disbursements during fiscal year of 1930___________________ _ 86, 912. 24
Cash balance, June 30, 1930_______________________ _____ _

40, 950. S3

RADIO DIVISION"

67

It will be noted that while there was a decrease of 176 in the num­
ber of accounts received during 1930 over 1929, there was an increase
of 66 in the number of accounts settled and cleared. Certain coun­
tries agreed to combine into single documents accounts which for­
merly, without advantage, had been rendered separately. During
earlier years, delinquent administrations frequently rendered accounts
covering as many as 18 or 20 months, but now accounts are submitted
with sufficient regularity to assure that the maximum number of
accounts received from one country at no time exceeds 12 during the
year, or one for each month’s traffic. The increase in the number of
accounts settled and cleared is due to improved methods which made
it possible to adjust all accounts of long standing. Of the 569 un­
settled accounts on hand, 330 are ready for settlement and will have
been cleared from the records by August 30, 1930.
Very truly yours,
W. D. T e r r e l l ,
Chiej, Radio Division.

B U R E A U OF TH E CENSUS

D epartment of C ommerce ,
B ureau of t h e C ensus ,

Washington, July 1,1930.
The honorable the S ecretary of C ommerce .
D ear M r. S ecretary : I submit the following report of the work
of the Bureau of the Census during the fiscal year ended June 30,
1930.
INTRODUCTION

It is naturally a great satisfaction to be able to report that the
task of taking the Fifteenth Decennial Census of the United States !
has been successfully completed. One can safely say that it has been j
the most comprehensive statistical survey ever undertaken by this or :
any other nation, whether measured by the scope and detail of the
inquiries, or by the number of persons employed on the work, or by
its cost, or by the mass of data which it has accumulated.
The population enumerated in this census, covering continental
United States and all outlying territories and possessions except the
Philippine Islands, is approximately 125,000,000; and the territory
covered is about 3,628,000 square miles.
The “ taking ” of the census, as the term is here used, covers the \
collection of the basic data—the securing of the answers to numerous
inquiries relating to individuals, farms, factories, mines, and trading, !
and other enterprises, covering the subjects of population, agricul­
ture, manufactures, irrigation, drainage, distribution, and unemploy- ;
ment. The bureau is now facing the task of tabulating and publish­
ing the data, which task must be completed by December 31, 1932. :
There are approximately 20,000,000 schedules being handled, checked,
and coded, preparatory to transcribing the data to punch cards.
A t the close of the fiscal year there was a force of 5,032 employees
in the bureau, compared with 925 employees on July 1, 1929. Of the i
present force 90 per cent are engaged on the Fifteenth Census work.
One great problem involved in the work of the bureau during the
past fiscal year has been to carry on its regular periodical inquiries ¡;
and at the same time detail a sufficient portion of the experienced
force regularly employed on these inquiries to organize and conduct i
the Fifteenth Decennial Census. This has resulted in a decided re­
duction in the number of experienced persons employed in collecting,
tabulating, and compiling the annual statistics of births, deaths, mar­
riages, divorces, financial transactions of State and city governments,
the biennial census of manufactures, current statistics of cotton
ginned, active and idle spindles, and production and stocks of numer­
ous commodities. Many of the experienced persons regularly em-i
ployed on these investigations were diverted to the preliminary and
68

BU REA U OF T H E C E N SU S

69

other work incident to taking the decennial census of population,
agriculture, manufactures, distribution, mines, quarries, irrigation,
drainage? and unemployment.
The Fifteenth Census Act, while it specified the main subjects to
be covered by the census, left the question of detail to the discretion
of the Director and the Secretary of Commerce under the provision
that “ the number, form, and subdivision of the inquiries in the
schedule shall be determined by the Director of the Census with the
approval of the Secretary of Commerce.” The matter of adding
new questions to the schedule or eliminating questions included in
previous censuses is one which requires the judgment of experts and
must be very carefully considered from several angles.
On this important matter of selecting and limiting the questions
on the schedules the department sought the best counsel available.
The subject was considered and discussed in meetings of committees
of economists, statisticians, experts, and others, and also in corre­
spondence or interviews with individual persons interested in some
particular question or subject covered by the census. Advisory con­
ferences were called by the Secretary of Commerce to consider the
scope and formulation of the schedules—one conference on popula­
tion, another, with a different personnel, on manufactures, a third on
distribution, and a fourth on unemployment. In formulating the
agricultural schedule, the bureau was in constant conference with
representatives of the Department of Agriculture.
The accuracy of the enumeration as regards the count of the
population and completeness of the canvass was promoted by the
requirement that the local supervisors should give publicity to the
total for each political subdivision; by securing the cooperation and
assistance of local organizations, such as the chambers of commerce,
boards of trade, and business clubs; and by investigating, as far as
possible, all complaints or allegations that a defective enumeration
had been made.
To prepare the people of the United States for the coming census
and to inform them in regard to it, President Hoover issued a proc­
lamation announcing the taking of the census, reminding the people
that it was their duty under the law to answer the census questions
and assuring them that the data would be used for statistical pur­
poses only and that no disclosure would be made regarding any
individual person or his affairs. The proclamation was printed in
23 different languages with a total edition of more than half a
million copies and was widely distributed through the supervisors
and in other ways. With the cooperation of the Postmaster General
it was posted in the post offices throughout the United States.
The bureau sought to avail itself of every reasonable and legit­
imate means of giving publicity to the census, such as newspaper
articles, distribution of pamphlets or leaflets, radio talks, news reels,
motion pictures, etc. A circular letter telling about the census and
carrying the principal questions on the population schedule was sent
to school-teachers, with the request that they explain the census to
the school children.
Briefly summarized, the work of taking the census consisted in—
X. Establishing the boundaries of 575 supervisors’ districts. Each district
contained a territory in which a supervisor would be responsible for the enumer­
ation of the population and tiie collection of the statistics of agriculture,
irrigation, drainage, and any other subjects that might be assigned him.

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R E PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

2. Subdividing each supervisor’s district into enumeration districts not too
large to be canvassed by the enumerators within the time tixed by the law and
the regulations of the department.
3. The formulation of the schedules of inquiries covering the subjects to
toe included in the census as defined by la w ; and the preparation of the instruc­
tions and numerous forms required for the conduct of the field force. There
were more than 400 printed schedules and forms used for this purpose, with a
total edition of over 07,000,000 copies, besides a large number of mimeographed
letters and forms distributed to the supervisors.
4. Selection and appointment of supervisors and enumerators. Each appli­
cant for appointment to these positions was required to fill out a schedule
designed to test his qualifications for the work.
5. Distribution of blank copies of schedules and other questionnaires and
instructions to the field force.
6. The holding of conferences with the supervisors. These conferences were
held in the principal cities of the United States, and, for the first time in the
history of census taking in this country, the Director of the Census thus came
in personal contact with every supervisor.
7. Instructions on the part of the 575 supervisors to the enumerators who
were appointed to make the canvass in over 120,000 enumeration districts.
8. The selection and appointment of the oifice force that would be required
in the office of each supervisor. This force consisted of 4,302 employees.
9. Making arrangements with the Indian Bureau for the Indian agents to act
as, supervisors for Indian reservations.
10. Making similar cooperative arrangements with the War Department, the
Navy Department, and the State Department, as well as with the Bureaus of
Lighthouses, Fisheries, and Navigation of the Department of Commerce.
1 1 . Establishing cooperative arrangements with the chambers of commerce,
the boards of trade, business clubs, newspapers, and prominent citizens, through­
out the United States.
12. Giving publicity to the fact that a census was to be taken and appealing
to every person to cooperate witli the bureau in its endeavor to make a perfect
enumeration.
13. Supervising the work of the supervisors, enumerators, and agents em­
ployed throughout the United States during the enumeration which extended
from April 1 to July 1.
14. Slaking arrangements for the announcement by the supervisors of the total
imputation and number of unemployed in the different political subdivisons
of their respective districts. This was the first time in the history of census
taking in the United States that arrangements of this character have been
made.

By July 1, the bureau had announced the population of 745 cities
of over 10,000 inhabitants each out of a total of about 940; and of
1,821 counties out of a total of 3,098. And, of course, large numbers
of smaller cities, townships, and other political subdivisions were
also announced by that time. In all, the bureau made over 70,000
announcements before July 1. At the corresponding date following
the census of 1920, only 221 cities had been announced and no
counties.
WORK OF ENUMERATION

Establishing erwineration districts.—In the preparations for the
census one of the most difficult and important tasks is the division of
the territories of the United States into enumeration districts not too
large to be canvassed by the enumerators within the time limit fixed
by law, namely, two weeks in cities and one month in the rural dis­
tricts. During the greater part of the past fiscal year approximately
250 persons employed in the bureau have been engaged in completing
and perfecting the enumeration district plans.
To make sure that the districts were clearly defined, descriptions
of the enumeration districts were sent to the supervisors for review,
and the supervisors were authorized to visit county seats and other

BU REA U OF T H E C E N SU S

71

places in their districts, if necessary, for the purpose of consulting
with local officials in checking over the maps and description of the
enumeration districts. The material was then returned to the
bureau with the supervisors’ comments and suggestions of changes,
if any were found desirable. After further stud}' in the bureau, the
maps, descriptions of the 120,105 enumeration districts or plans of
division, with the rates of pay indicated thereon as finally approved,
and assignment sheets were again forwarded to the supervisors for
their information and guidance in the conduct of the enumeration.
The political changes in county organization and changes of city
boundaries immediately preceding and during the census made it
necessary to be making changes continuously, even during the
progress of the work.
The areas assigned to enumeration districts in cities were designed
to be large enough to occupy the enumerators’ time for about 2 weeks
and to contain an average of approximately 1,800 persons. In rural
areas the districts or assignments were made large enough to occupy
the time of the enumerators for about 80 days. In rural sections the
population in the average enumeration district was considerably less
than 1,800, but the enumerators were required to fill out schedules for
all the farms in their districts as well as for the population. The dis­
tricts were laid out in such fashion that even the smallest incorporated
place formed an enumeration district by itself, this plan having been
followed in order to make sure that separate returns would be made
for the population of every incorporated place, no matter how small.
The territory outside the incorporated places was likewise so divided
that every township or “ balance of township” formed one or more
enumeration districts, and in no case were parts of two townships
placed in the same enumeration district. Where the enumeration
districts were very small, the supervisor was permitted to assign two
or more districts to the same enumerator, the bureau having suggested
to each supervisor certain combinations of districts that might
conveniently be made.
Large institutions, such as prisons, hospitals, etc., were made
separate enumeration districts and were enumerated in most cases
by employees of the institutions. In a few of the larger cities, apart­
ment houses having 100 or more apartments were made separate
districts and were handled in the same way as the larger institutions.
Military posts and naval stations likewise were generally made
separate enumeration districts, and officers and enlisted men were
appointed as the enumerators.
Appointment of supervisors.—In 1920 the number of supervisors’
districts was 372. The average population of the district was
284,168, and each supervisor, on the average, had charge of 234
enumerators. It was thought that to get the best results the super­
visors’ districts should be reduced in area and in population.
Accordingly, the number of supervisors’ districts at this census was
increased to 575; giving an average population of 213,388 per district
with an average of 208 enumerators.
The country was divided into supervisors’ districts of appropriate
size as regards population and area with headquarters located in
cities, which, from the standpoint of transportation facilities and
accessibility to all parts of the districts, were considered the most
convenient points from which to supervise the enumeration.

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R E PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

As soon as the boundaries of a supervisor’s district had been
decided upon and the headquarters fixed, the bureau proceeded with
the appointment of the supervisor, limiting the choice to persons
resident in or near the city in which the headquarters were establish­
ed. Each candidate was required to fill out an application blank
giving his (or her) business training, and other data indicating
qualifications for supervisory work such as that required of a census
supervisor; and in order that the applicant, before accepting the
appointment, might be fully informed of the practical nature of the
duties, each candidate was required to fill out the population test
schedule (also in rural sections, the agricultural test schedule), and
to read the pamphlet, Instructions to Supervisors, which outlined the
procedure to be followed at the various stages of the field canvass.
The total number of supervisors appointed, exclusive of those
selected for special service, was 575, which included 30 women as
compared with 5 women employed as supervisors at the 1920 census.
A supervisor for Indian reservations was especially appointed for
supervising the enumeration of Indians; and wherever the best results
could be obtained through cooperation with the Office of Indian
Affairs employees of that service were appointed as local supervisors
and enumerators. There were 39 Indian agents employed on this
work, and their services were eminently satisfactory. They collected
not only the statistics required for the census of population, but also
those for the censuses of agriculture, distribution, manufactures, ir­
rigation. and drainage, wherever advisable. The Indian Bureau co­
operated very effectively with the Census Bureau, and the general
impression is that this cooperation has resulted in a more complete
enumeration of the Indians on reservations than at any preceding
census. Special efforts were also made to enumerate the Indians not
on reservations, and statistics will be compiled to show the total In ­
dian population of the United States.
Securing quarters and equipment.—The supervisor was instructed
to secure, without cost to the bureau, through cooperation with the
local Federal Business Association, adequate quarters and office equip­
ment if available from any Federal, State, county, municipal office,
or civic organization, such as chambers of commerce, boards of trade,
etc. From one or more of the sources referred to the supervisors
in 346 districts were able to secure without cost to the bureau the
space required, and in 141 districts all of the equipment needed.
In 229 districts it was necessary to rent quarters, and for 434
districts the bureau was obliged to rent or purchase the equipment or
portions thereof.
Handling correspondence.—The establishment of supervisors’ and
enumerators’ districts, determination of enumerators’ rates of pay,
preparation of instruction of supervisors and enumerators, shipment
of schedules, forms, and stationery, and the numerous other details
required for organizing and providing with the necessary quarters,
office equipment, and supplies, the large field force needed for the
census of population and agriculture involved a large volume of
correspondence with the supervisors and others. This correspondence
reached its greatest proportions between December 1, 1929, and May
31, 1930, during which period the bureau dispatched 56,284 type-

|

!

]

:

j

BU REA U OF T H E C E N SU S

73

written letters, 6,598 telegrams, and 411,887 multigraphed letters and
other forms, or a monthly average of 79,128 letters, telegrams, and
forms, equivalent to a daily average of about 3,000.
Shipping schedules.—A ll schedules, blank forms, and supplies
needed by the supervisors were mailed in packages and wooden boxes,
as conditions required, the boxes being retained by the supervisors
and used for the return of the completed schedules to the bureau.
The total number of separate shipments, the greater portion of which
were mailed during the months of February and March, was 29,211,
and consisted of 119,145 packages and 10,792 boxes. These ship­
ments required the use of 480 reams of wrapping paper, 4i/^ tons
of twine, and 9,000 mail sacks. The quantity of the principal sched­
ules mailed to the supervisors was as follows :
Population________________________________________ 2, 673, 399
Agriculture________________________________________ 10, 512, 410
Unemployment--------------------------------------------------------099, 038
Incidental livestock not on farms----------------------------4S9,930
Special fruits and nuts-------------------------------------------922, 429
Irrigation No. 1----------------------------------------------------309,138
Supplemental, blind and deaf mute---------------------------2S4, 273
Supplemental, Indian population------------------------------355, 550
T o ta l_______________________________________ 16,146,167

Office force for supervisors.—For each supervisor’s district the
bureau authorized the appointment of one chief assistant, one ste­
nographer, and one general office clerk. These appointments were
not made generally until February or the first part of March, but
in some districts the supervisors found that there was a considerable
amount of work to be done at an earlier date, especially in con­
nection with handling applications for appointment as enumerators.
In these cases the bureau, upon request of the supervisor, authorized
the employment of such stenographic and clerical assistance as was
deemed necessary, and fixed the pay at hourly rates, the total com­
pensation being usually limited to the sum or $100. There were 71
supervisors’ clerks appointed for temporary service on this basis
with compensation ranging from 25 cents to $1 per hour when
actually employed.
The office clerks were appointed at per diem rates for time
actually employed, and as a rule the chief assistant was appointed
at $6 per diem, the stenographer at $5 per diem, and the general
office clerk at $4 per diem. Exceptions to these rates were made in
certain large districts or districts in which conditions were un­
usual; and where the number of enumerators employed in a super­
visor’s district was very large, or where other conditions made
the work especially difficult, additional assistants and clerks were
authorized. Employment of extra help as a rule was limited to
a period of about 10 days during the actual enumeration.
The number of supervisors’ clerks employed at the peak of the
canvass was approximately 3,000, and the total number appointed
was 4,302, with compensation ranging from $2.50 to $10 per diem,
when actually employed. In addition to the clerks, it was neces­
sary to appoint 99 janitors and other subclerical employees for
some of the districts. These subclerical employees were appointed
at varying rates of compensation.

74

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

Appointm ent of enumerators.—A fixed rate of pay was allowed
the enumerator for each person reported on the population schedule
and for each farm on the agricultural schedule. The rates of pay
were determined by the bureau after a thorough study of population
density, farm density, and transportation, with due regard for the
length of time required. The usual rates were 4 cents or 5 cents for
each person enumerated and 40 cents or 50 cents for each farm, but
under exceptional conditions rates as high as 20 cents per person
and $5 per farm were authorized. The rates were intended to be
high enough to enable an enumerator of average industry to earn
from $5 to $8 per day during the period of the enumeration. Flat
rates of pay were established for special schedules as follow s: 2 cents
for each person enumerated on the unemployment schedule, 2
cents for each person enumerated on the blind and deaf mute sched­
ule, 5 cents for each place reported on the schedule for incidental
agricultural production and livestock, 10 cents for each special fruits
and nuts schedule, and 10 cents for each irrigation and drainage
schedule.
The enumerators were appointed by the supervisors in conformity
with the provision of the census act permitting the Director of the
Census to “ delegate to the supervisors authority to appoint enu­
merators.” General instructions with respect to the qualifications of
applicants and for filling out the appointment certificates, oaths of
office, vouchers and other forms required, were contained in the
pamphlet Instructions to Supervisors, supplemented from time to
time bv special instructions. To assist the supervisors in the selec­
tion of competent persons as enumerators, a test was prescribed for
applicants, who were permitted to take such tests at their own homes.
This test consisted of filling out, in addition to an application blank
with questions concerning the applicant’s personal characteristics,
education, training, and experiences, a population test schedule, and
also, in rural districts or districts in which there were likely to be 10
or more farms, an agricultural test schedule. The facts to be entered
on the test schedule were supplied in the form of a narrative descrip­
tive of the families and farms in a hypothetical community. One
incidental advantage of the test was that it made it reasonably certain
that each person appointed as enumerator had studied the instruc­
tions, since no one could fill out the schedule satisfactorily without
carefully studying the instructions for taking the census as supplied
to each candidate.
Prior to March 1, the test schedules were mailed directly to the
applicants from the bureau and were returned to and graded in the
bureau. Lists of candidates who made a satisfactory showing were
sent to the supervisors, together with the applications and test sched­
ules as filled out and rated. During the month of March, however,
on account of the nearness of the census date, it was necessary for the
supervisors to examine the applications and rate the test schedules
filed with them.
The total number of enumerators’ applications with test schedules
mailed out by the bureau, the number returned by applicants, and
the number rated as satisfactory were as follows: Applications with
population test schedules mailed out, 336,891; agricultural test sched­
ules mailed to applicants in rural sections, 85,156; population test

BU REA U OF T H E C E N SU S

75

schedules returned to the bureau by applicants, 197,952; agricultural
test schedules returned to bureau, 39,250; population test schedules
rated as satisfactory, 157,016; agricultural test schedules rated as
satisfactory, 37,378.
For districts in which there were a considerable number of foreign­
ers not able to speak English it was sometimes necessary to employ
interpreters to assist the enumerators. There were 291 interpreters
appointed, with rates of pay varying from 40 cents per hour to $10
per diem.
Instructing supervisors and enumerators.—Instructions for carry­
ing out the numerous details connected with the enumeration and for
securing complete and accurate answers to the questions on the
different schedules were carefully worked out in advance and were
contained in the printed pamphlets Instructions to Supervisors and
Instructions to Enumerators. These instructions were supplemented
from time to time, as the work progressed, by written instructions
relative to specific features of the canvass. Oral instructions were
also given the supervisors at conferences between them and the
Director of the Census, held during the months of January, Febru­
ary, and March in the following cities: Washington, D. C., New
Orleans, Dallas, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Helena, Min­
neapolis. Omaha, Denver, Kansas City, Mo., St. Louis, Chicago,
Atlanta, Memphis, Cincinnati, Detroit, New York, and Boston.
With one exception, all the supervisors attended some one of these
conferences.
Payment of field force.—To facilitate payment of the compensation
of supervisors’ clerks and enumerators during the period when the
field work reached its maximum proportions, special disbursing
agents were designated with headquarters at Chelsea, Mass.; Charles­
ton, S. C .: New Orleans, La.; Dallas, Tex.; Chicago, 111.; Milwaukee,
W is.; St. Louis, Mo.; Salt Lake City, Utah; Portland, Oreg.; and
San Francisco, Calif. Six of these disbursing agents were super­
intendents of the Lighthouse Service, and four were regular employees
of the Bureau of the Census. Pay rolls for the supervisors’ clerks
and vouchers for enumerators for all supervisors’ districts in 34
States and for 2 supervisors’ districts in Michigan, were paid by
these special disbursing agents. The pay rolls and enumerators’
vouchers for all other districts, as well as all vouchers for purchases,
rentals, and expense accounts of the supervisors for all districts,
were paid from Washington by the disbursing clerk of the Depart­
ment of Commerce.
Announcing population.—Upon completion of the enumeration in
each district, the supervisors were required to have a careful examina­
tion of the schedules made in order that corrections might be made
and omissions supplied, if required, before the schedules were for­
warded to the bureau.
The population of each county, city, ward, town, village, and
township or other civil division, and the number of farms, was
announced by the supervisors before the schedules were sent to
Washington, in order that the returns might be made available
to the public at an early date and that any complaints or criticisms
might be investigated by the supervisors while the schedules were
still in their possession and before the enumerators had been paid
off and discharged.

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R E PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

In these preliminary announcements the 1920 population returns
were also given for all areas for which comparable figures were
available, so as to show the change in population during the decade.
Cooperation w ith other Federal bureaus or departments.—
Arrangements were made by the bureau for enumerating, through
cooperation with other bureaus, persons who could not readily
be reported by the regular enumerators; and where employees of the
Department of Commerce and other branches of the Federal service
were employed and were required to devote a considerable portion
■of their time to securing the data, such employees were appointed,
in accordance with authority contained in the census act, as super­
visors, supervisor’s clerks, and enumerators, and were compensated
for the service they rendered to the Bureau of the Census.
Em ploym ent of letter carriers.—It has been suggested at each
census from 1880 to 1930 that the letter carriers should be used
to take the census of population. This is the first time that the
lawr permitted the employment of letter carriers for this purpose.
A number of them were appointed as enumerators, and their work
developed many reasons why their services could not be satisfactorily
utilized. Among them was the fact they could not enumerate the
population on the regular schedules by enumeration districts in
the order that they have been enumerated for many censuses.
The letter carriers employed in the District of Columbia secured
individual returns. These returns had to be copied on the popu­
lation schedules by clerks in the office. This not only added very
materially to the cost, probably doubling the amount paid the enu­
merators in the other districts in the District of Columbia, but it
gave rise to the usual errors made in copying.
Field work of the census of distribution and manufactures.—The
field work in connection with the census of distribution, manufac­
tures, and mines and quarries was carried on by the same personnel
under the direction of the field division of the Bureau of the Census.
The supervisors of the population census had charge of collecting
returns for these inquiries in rural districts and in all cities and
towns which had a population of less than 250,000 in 1920. They
were authorized to employ the necessary number of special enu­
merators to collect returns from the distributors, manufacturers, and
operators of mines or quarries, and to divide the territory for this
purpose into enumeration districts considerably larger than the dis­
tricts assigned the population enumerators. The method of canvass
was approximately the same; that is, the enumerators were required
to make a personal canvass in the commercial or industrial areas.
In cities of over 10,000 population the enumerators were paid a per
diem rate, usually $4, for days actually employed. But in smaller
cities and country districts they were paid a fixed rate, usually 50
cents for each schedule returned. In cities having a population over
250,000 the work was made under the supervision of experienced and
trained employees of the Census Bureau, detailed from the Wash­
ington office, to take sole charge of the enumeration within the cities
to which they were sent and at the same time to instruct the popula­
tion supervisors and the special enumerators in regard to the conduct
of the work in the surrounding territory.
The personnel used in taking the census of distribution comprised
75 chief special agents, 509 supervisors of the population census, and

BU REA U OF T H E C E N SU S

77

approximately 8,000 special enumerators. Returns were obtained
for approximately one and three-quarters million wholesalers and
retailers, and one-quarter million manufacturing establishments,
mines, and quarries.
Census of outlying Territories and possessions.—The census of
population and of agriculture for Alaska, Hawaii, Porto Rico,
Virgin Islands of the United States, Panama Canal Zone, Guam, and
Samoa were made to conform, in a general way, to the census on
these subjects for continental United States. The census date was
April 1, 1930, except for Alaska, where the census was taken as of
October 1, 1929, on account of climatic conditions. The total num­
ber of enumeration districts in these Territories and possessions was
approximately 1,700.
CENSUS OF POPULATION

One of the most important tasks accomplished during the fiscal
year was the determination of the form of the population schedule
to be used for the Fifteenth Decennial Census. Numerous sugges­
tions for additions and changes were received. They numbered
about 40, though perhaps not more than 12 or 15 were such as to
warrant serious or extended consideration.
A committee of 16 members met at the invitation of the Secretary
of Commerce to discuss various questions involved in the formu­
lation of the 1930 population schedule, including most of the sug­
gestions noted above. As a result of the recommendations of the
special population committee and of extended discussion by mem­
bers of the staff of the Census Bureau itself, the 1930 schedule was
finally established.
One of the greatest difficulties of the census of population is that
of enumerating people at their residence or “ usual place of abode.”
An absent-family schedule was provided for the enumeration of
families temporarily away from their usual place of residence at the
time of the census, the idea being that this schedule would either
be filled out by such families prior to their departure if they were
leaving shortly before April 1 or, if they had already gone and
their temporary address was known, would be mailed to them to be
filled out and returned by mail to the local supervisor.
As a counterpart to the absent family schedule the bureau devised
a nonresident family schedule. This was to be used where families
were found temporarily residing in a locality but claiming per­
manent residence elsewhere. These schedules were sent directly to
Washington, where they were allocated to the city or other locality
which the family claimed as its place of residence.
Something over 10,000 of these nonresident family schedules were
turned in, representing about 22,000 names. Of the 17,000 names
thus far checked from these schedules, about 15,000 have been added
to the population of the places which they claimed as their usual
places of residence and about 2,000 were found to have been already
enumerated there. This is the first time in the history of the census
that this plan for transferring nonresidents to their usual place of
residence has been applied. It is of interest to note that about 45
per cent of the nonresident schedules were received from two
States—California and Florida.

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R E PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

CENSUS OF UNEMPLOYMENT

The first formal conference on the subject of the unemployment
schedule was held on July 3, 1929, on which date 12 persons repre­
senting various organizations and interests were called together for ;
this purpose by the Director of the Census. On July 15 a more ex- ]
tensive committee, comprising 22 members, met at the Department
of Commerce on the invitation of the Secretary, and discussed a
tentative form of the special schedule for unemployment which had
been drawn up for the occasion.
The unemployment schedule as finally made up was divided into
two main sections, one containing inquiries with regard to persons
who were reported as entirely out of a job and another for persons
who were reported as having a job but for some reason not at work
on the day preceding the enumerator’s call. Inquiries were made
of both classes as to how many weeks the person had been idle and
as to the reason for not being at work. Provision was also made
on the schedule for the transcription of information as to sex, color,
nativity, age, marital condition, occupation, etc., from the regular
population schedule.
CENSUS OE AGRICULTURE, 1930

For 90 years a census of agriculture has been taken in connection
with the decennial censuses, beginning with a small number of ques- ;
tions on a single schedule in 1840 and developing into a number '
of schedules containing a multiplicity of questions. A mid-decen­
nial farm census was taken for the first time in 1925, having been
authorized by the act providing for the Fourteenth Decennial Cen­
sus, that of 1920.
In the census of agriculture, 1930, the information was returned
on 16 schedules: The general farm schedule, 2 supplemental sched­
ules for special fruits and nuts; 2 schedules for incidental agricul­
tural production and livestock, poultry, and bees not on farms or
ranges; 2 special schedules for sheep for use in 13 western States;
2 schedules on irrigation; 1 schedule on drainage, and 6 schedules on
horticulture.
The preparation of the general farm schedule to be used in the
census of 1930 was begun June 29, 1928. A tentative form of the
schedule was prepared and copies were sent to officials of the De­
partment of Agriculture, State agricultural colleges, and to others
known to be especially interested. More than 2,000 requests for
additional inquiries were received. These covered a wide range,
including items of expenditures connected with farm operations,
facilities and conveniences in the farm home, purchases and sales
of domestic animals together with the farm slaughter and sales
of hides and skins, special questions for certain crops for which
separate questions had not been included in the schedule, and an
insistent demand that the subtropical fruits be accorded more space
than had been given to them at any previous census.
Numerous conferences were held with officials of the Department
of Agriculture to determine the scope of the schedule.
A number of questions new to the farm census were placed on the
general farm schedule, the more important being those calling for
the value of the farmer’s dwelling house, amounts expended for pur­

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79

chase of electric light and power and purchase of farm implements
and machinery, number of days in 1929 the farm operator worked
for pay at jobs other than farming, number of electric motors and
stationary gas engines, number of combines, and movement of farm
population from city to farm and farm to city during the year, also
the questions relating to value of products of the farm which were
included in the final revision of the schedule.
A series of questions were included, designed to show the amount
of money received from the principal classes of products of the farm,
including also the value of products of the farm consumed by the
farm family and the receipts from boarders, lodgers, campers, etc.
The introduction of these questions laid the foundation for a classi­
fication of farms and farm data by total receipts and also a classi­
fication by type of farming as shown by the operations conducted on
the farm in 1929. The official schedule for the census of agriculture
in the Fifteenth Decennial Census, being the thirteenth edition of the
schedule, contained 353 questions.
Sample schedules were prepared and distributed to farmers
through county and State representatives of the Department of
Agriculture, through the agricultural associations, and through the
agricultural press. Many were sent directly from the bureau to
farmers living in counties having no county agent of the Depart­
ment of Agriculture, the names being secured from the farm sched­
ules returned in the census of 1925. The bureau also supplied
thousands of copies to members of Congress to distribute among their
constituents. About 4,500,000 schedules were placed in the bands
of farmers to aid them in making prompt and accurate replies when
visited by the enumerators.
The experience of the bureau on the farm census of 1930 indicates
that the schedule is too complicated. For its field work in the gen­
eral census, the bureau must depend upon an army of inexperienced
enumerators, hastily organized and instructed, the term of service
being limited in most cases to one month. Under these conditions
the farm schedule should be limited to such questions as the average
farmer can answer readily.
Special fruits and nuts schedules.—To meet the demands of the
growers or fruits and nuts, produced principally in California and
Florida, two supplemental schedules were prepared. One of the
schedules, containing 128 questions, was prepared for use in counties
in California, Arizona, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington; the other
schedule, containing 102 questions, was prepared for use in counties
in Florida, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. Through
the use of these two schedules the bureau has secured data for more
extended statistics relative to the orchard fruits, grapes, subtropical
fruits, and nuts of these regions than it has been possible to publish
as the result of any preceding census.
Livestock and crops not on farm s or ranges.—At each decennial
census, beginning with that of 1900, the census of agriculture has
included an enumeration of livestock not on farms or ranges, so as to
cover those numerous instances in which cows, horses, and hogs are
kept on premises which are not farms. At this census, this inquiry
was extended to include poultry and bees; also crops of all kinds,

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R E PO E T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

including fruits, vegetables, plants, and flowers, produced for sale
on places that are not classified as “ farms,” if the amount sold
amounted to $50 but less than $250 in value.
It is a somewhat difficult matter to draw the line between what
is a farm and what is not. After considerable discussion, it was
decided to adhere to the definition adopted at preceding censuses,
under which a farm is any tract of land of 3 acres or more on which
agricultural products are produced, or a tract of less than 3 acres
which produces agricultural products to the value of $250 or more.
Census of sheep.—The enumeration of sheep in the Western States
has always been a subject of special concern because of the difficulties
encountered in locating migratory flocks and allocating them to the
proper geographic units. To guard against errors of omission, dupli­
cation, or faulty allocation, the bureau, with the assistance of the
representatives of the Department of Agriculture in the 13 States in
which difficulties have been encountered, obtained lists of sheep
owners from county assessment rolls, sanitary lists, grazing-permit­
tee lists, and such other sources as were available. Copies of these
lists, which cover 438 counties, were sent to the supervisors, who sup­
plied enumerators with such parts of the lists as pertained to their :
respective enumeration districts.
Two special schedules were devised. One was an enumerator’s
sheep record, on which was to be briefed the data shown on the
general farm schedule with a statement showing the county in which
the sheep were in April 1. 1930. and the county in which they ranged
during the greater part of the year. The other was a special
sheep schedule to be sent to owners of sheep by supervisors in cases
where the enumerator reported that he was unable to find an owner
whose name appeared on the list furnished him. B y means of these
two schedules the State representatives of the Department of Agri­
culture, in cooperation with the supervisors of census, were able to
render valuable assistance in allocating to proper geographic units
the sheep that during the year cross county lines and State lines,
discovering duplications in reporting, anfi securing information
concerning flocks for which reports had not reached the supervisors.
Unit prices of fan n products.—It has been the custom in recent
censuses for the bureau to secure from the Department of Agriculture
the price per established unit (bushel, pound, etc.) which was received
by farmers in the several counties of the United States, these prices
being used by the bureau in computing the value of crops, livestock,
and livestock products, the quantity of which was reported on the
farm schedule. This results in a material saving in both field and
office, and is deemed to produce results as accurate as could be secured
by calling for values on the general farm schedule. In continuation
of this policy an agreement was entered into on August 9, 1929,
between the Bureau of the Census and the Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, providing that each bureau bear half the cost of securing
the unit-price figures, the bureaus detailing employees and furnish­
ing equipment and supplies. The agreement provided that the work
should be completed on or before September 1, 1930.

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81

Irrigation, and drainage.—The subdivision of irrigation and drain­
age was organized on July 1. 1929. Index cards were written from
reports received at the census of 1920 and from lists supplied by
postmasters, State and county engineers, and other local officials upon
request. From these index cards, lists of enterprises were prepared
by counties and assembled by supervisors’ districts for office and
field use.
The census of irrigation is confined to 19 of the Western States.
Two schedules were used in these States, one for enterprises serving
less than 5 farms and one for enterprises serving 5 or more farms.
Only one schedule is used in the drainage census, data on drainage
being secured on it for 36 States, omitting some of the Eastern States.
Horticultural census.—As the general farm schedule did not in­
clude extensive inquiries on horticulture, the various trade organi­
zations and others interested requested that a horticultural census for
1930 be taken by mail. Six schedules were prepared under the fol­
lowing titles: Florists, Nurseries, Bulbs, Seeds, Mushrooms, and Blue­
berries (including Huckleberries).
The Department of Agriculture has cooperated with the bureau
and assisted in obtaining the names and addresses for the mailing list.
The bureau has corresponded with all trade organizations using every
possible channel to supplement the mailing list and has secured
approximately 75,000 names of establishments to which schedules
will be sent.
CENSUS OF MANUFACTURES

In preparation for the census of manufactures for 1929, the Secre­
tary of Commerce appointed an advisory committee whose member­
ship of 25 comprised manufacturers, economists, statisticians, students
of labor conditions, and others interested in the census statistics.
This committee, after careful and intensive study, made certain
recommendations to the Bureau of the Census in regard to the forms
of schedules to be used. All these recommendations were adopted.
In all, 167 special schedules, covering 243 industries, were used,
whereas at the 1927 census there were 152 such schedules, covering
226 industries. The general schedule, which was used in canvassing
88 of the less important industries, carried 12 inquiries, 11 of which
were identical, or nearly so, with the corresponding inquiries on the
special schedules.
It had been the practice at former censuses to call for data on pro­
duction rather than on sales, but the advisory committee recom­
mended that the schedules for 1929 should call1for data on sales and
not on production, inasmuch as many manufacturers are able to re­
port sales more readily than production. This recommendation was
adopted with reference to the general schedule and most of the special
schedules; but the provision for production data was retained in the
schedules for a number of basic industries, especially those in which it
was feared that the proposed change might seriously affect the com­
parableness of the statistics with those for previous years.
In order to obtain the information needed for the purposes of
the census of distribution, an inquiry calling for data on sales
through several different channels was added to the manufactures
18038— 30-------6

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REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

schedules, and most of those schedules which did not already carry
inquiries as to quantities and costs of specified materials consumed
were expanded for the collection of data of this character. This
elaboration of the schedules had the effect of delaying the canvass.
Naturally, if a manufacturer receives a schedule which calls for a
large amount of information of a detailed character, he is much
less likely to fill it out and return it promptly to the bureau than
he is to send in promptly the data called for by a relatively simple
schedule.
The receipt of the returns was delayed also by the necessity
of employing the same force of canvassers on the manufactures, the
mines and quarries, and the distribution censuses. The number of
establishments covered by the census of distribution (over 2,000,000)
was ten times as large as the number of manufacturing establish­
ments (slightly more than 200,000).
As a result of the delays arising from these two causes, only
155,989, or 74 per cent, of the net total of 210,000 returns had been
received by June 30, 1930. In the motor-vehicle industry the out­
standing returns represented 75 per cent of the total value of
products.
Furthermore, the work of preparing the returns for tabulation
was materially increased by the two special inquiries referred to
above, which were added to the manufactures schedules for the
purposes of the census of distribution. In a great many cases these
inquiries were not answered, or were incorrectly or incompletely
answered, even by manufacturers who supplied in full and in satis­
factory form the remainder of the information called for; and
this necessitated a large amount of correspondence which other­
wise would not have been required. It has been roughly estimated
that the correspondence in regard to these two inquiries represents
at least one-third of the total correspondence in connection with the
correction and completion of the manufactures returns.
In recent biennial censuses of manufactures the schedules have
been distributed by mail, and following the usual practice blank
schedules were mailed soon after January 1 to 191,866 establish­
ments w'hich had reported at the census for 1927 and to approxi­
mately 90,000 others whose names had been obtained from various
sources.
CENSUS OF M IN IS AND QUARRIES

The census of mines and quarries for 1929 is one of the decennial
censuses of the mineral industries, the first of which was taken in
1840. In the main, data for number of establishments, time in oper­
ation, wage earners, wages, cost of supplies and materials, value
of products, power equipment, and fuels consumed have been col­
lected at each census beginning with that taken in 1880. Data for
capital, land holdings, rents, royalties, and taxes, as well as
a detailed breakdown by kinds of employees, were omitted at the
present census, and inquiries as to distribution of sales, equipment
purchased, and mobile power equipment have been added to the

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83

schedule. The sand and gravel industry was canvassed, for the first
time, in connection with the census of mines and quarries.
The canvass has been conducted under the same plan as that
adopted for the census of manufactures. The mailing list was the
same as that used by the Bureau of Mines in its annual canvass
covering mineral production. Schedules were mailed to estab­
lishments operating 28,044 plants. On June 30, 14,943 returns had
been received, of which 7,920 were acceptable. Since that time a
check with the returns of the Bureau of Mines has accounted for
many plants as idle, abandoned, or too small to be covered by the
census of mines and quarries.
CENSUS OF DISTRIBUTION

The reasons for the inclusion of distribution in the census were
given in my report for the fiscal year 1929.
The law authorizing the census of distribution was enacted only
a few days before the beginning of the fiscal year 1930. Conse­
quently, during that fiscal year a very large part of the groundwork
for this new phase of the decennial census was prepared in addition
to the actual inauguration and conduct of the first stages of the work.
An experimental census of distribution covering the operations of
retailers and wholesalers had previously been taken in 11 cities in
1918; and a census covering purchases of manufacturers had been
taken in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. These pieces of work, in addition
to their immediate value, afforded some basis of experience upon
which to proceed in planning the national census. A material and
worthwhile amount of work had also been done relative to the
schedules to be used, notably the retail schedules. An outstanding
feature of this preliminary work was the adoption of a simplified
schedule for small concerns and the use of a longer and more complex
schedule, showing commodity sales, for larger establishments which
were able to furnish such information and which conducted a large
share of the nation’s merchandising.
In order to determine the data that should be collected and the
most constructive method of presenting the statistics, conferences
were continued with representatives (associations and individuals)
of the various branches of distribution. Early in the year a general
advisory committee, with its executive committee, was established
to give advice concerning the conduct of this work. With the advice
of this committee, which broadly represented the leading authorities
in the field, and others intimately versed in the problems, 10 schedules
were prepared for use in taking this census. Thus there were estab­
lished distinctive and separate questionnaires for the retail trade,
the wholesale trade, and the purchase of commodities by construction
companies. In addition, it was finally determined to include the
operations of hotels and restaurants in the census of distribution.
Furthermore, to make this census comprehensive, information re­
garding the sales made by manufacturers was needed. To meet this
need special questions calling for information from manufacturers
relative to their sales differentiated among different types of sales
outlets were included in the schedules for the census of manufactures.

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

84

Following are brief descriptions of the forms of the 10 schedules
which have been used in collecting the data on distribution :
Title

Use

COMBINATION SCHEDULE

Combined retail and
w holesale schedule
(short form).

To be used to canvass all stores and other distributing agencies in rural districts
and cities and towns having fewer than 10,000 inhabitants.

RETAIL SCHEDULES

Retail schedule (short

To be used for all retail outlets, in cities having 10,000 inhabitants or more,
which are unable to give sales by commodities.

General retail schedule .. Long-form schedule to be used for retail establishments (except food and drug
stores, and automobile and a c c e s s o r y establishments) in cities having 10,000
inhabitants or more, which can furnish detailed data regarding sales by com­
modities.
Grocery, delicatessen,
co n fectio n ery , and
and other food stores.

Long-form schedule to be used for all retail food outlets, in cities having 10,000
inhabitants or more.
Long-form schedule to be used for all retail drug stores, in cities having 10,000
inhabitants or more.

WHOLESALE SCHEDULES

General whol esal e
schedule.

To be used for all wholesale establishments (except wholesale food stores) in
cities having 10,000 inhabitants or more.

Wholesale food products. To be used for all wholesale distributors of food products in cities having 10,000
inhabitants or more.
SPECIAL SCHEDULES

Automobile schedule___ To be used to canvass retail and wholesale distributors of new and used auto­
mobiles. Also to be used for the following establishments: Gasoline tilling
stations; retail distributors of tires and tubes, batteries, and automobile parts
and accessories; automobile service and repair shops and shops which repair
automobile tops, bodies, batteries, tires, and automobile accessories. Not
to be used for storage garages which have no sales and which do not conduct
a service or repair business.
To be used for all hotels having more than 25 guest rooms. Hotels with fewer
than 25 guest rooms are not to be canvassed. Hotels are to be canvassed by
mail and are not to be visited by enumerators unless they receive special
instructions from the supervisor.
Construction in dustry,.. To be used for all general and subcontractors engaged in the construction of
buildings, bridges, roads, railroads, etc., who did work of this character to the
value of $25,000 in 1929.

To carry on the work of the census of distribution successfully,
six men who were familiar with the several branches of distribution
were appointed as experts, each in charge of a particular branch of
this work.
The field work in connection with the census of distribution has
been conducted by the field division of the Census Bureau. It was
estimated that returns would be secured from somewhat over 2,000,000 concerns. The majority of these are, of course, comparatively
small establishments. A t the end of the fiscal year returns had been
received from 1,500,000 retail and wholesale establishments and coun­
try buyers, 100,000 construction contractors, and 17,000 hotels.
As these returns have been received they have been examined to
insure consistency in the answers to the various questions, and con­
siderable correspondence has been necessary in order to complete the
reports from some of the more important concerns. The tabulation
work is now organized. It is expected that the publication of reports

B U REA U OF T H E C E N SU S

85

from the first run of cards will be started in August. The informa­
tion presented in this preliminary publication will cover the total
net sales of the establishments, the inventories, employees, and
salaries and wages, classified according to kind of business, by States,
counties, and cities.
V IT A L

S T A T IS T IC S

At the end of the fiscal year the Federal registration area for
deaths covered 46 States, the District of Columbia, 1 city in South
Dakota, 8 in Texas, and Hawaii and the Virgin Islands. South
Dakota was not included in the registration area because it has not
adopted a registration law that conforms with the requirements of
the Census Bureau, and while Texas has such a law, the completeness
of its enforcement has not yet been determined. In all probability a
test will be made during the coming fall, and it is hoped that the
State will enter the registration area before the close of the calendar
year. For the same reasons South Dakota and Texas were not in­
cluded in the registration area for births, which at the end of the
fiscal year included 46 States, the District of Columbia, and Hawaii.
The work of securing copies of certificates from State registration
offices has proceeded satisfactorily throughout the entire area, and by
June 30,1,386,219 copies of certificates of deaths, and 2,169,057 copies
of certificates of births had been received for the calendar year 1929.
For 1928, 1,378,675 transcripts of certificates of death were re­
ceived, and the death rate established at 12.0 per 1,000 population.
This rate was slightly higher than the rate for 1927, the increase
being due largely to the increase in deaths fi'om mfluenze, the
pneumonias, and diseases of the heart.
The tabulation of 2,220,187 birth transcripts for 1928 was also
completed, showing a rate of 19.7 per 1,000 population—the lowest
rate recorded since 1915, when it was 25.1 for the registration area,
which was established in that year.
On the invitation of the Government of France, a conference was
held in Paris during October, 1929, to revise the International List
of Causes of Death. This conference was attended by representa­
tives from 32 nations, and there were also present 7 representatives
o f international organizations. The United States was represented
by Dr. T. F. Murphy, of this bureau, and 5 other delegates. Preced­
ing the conference, the health section of the League of Nations had
done considerable work tending to the perfection of the List of
Causes of Death that would be used in compiling vital statistics for
the different governments. The revised list, as established at the
conference, will be used as a standard guide for the next 10 years
for all the countries represented at the conference.
In addition to attending the International Conference at Paris,
the chief statistician for vital statistics attended a number of con­
ferences at which the method of collecting and compiling vital
statistics was discussed. The biennial convention in Milwaukee of
the American Nurses’ Association, the National League of Nursing
Education, and the National Organization for Public Health Nurs­
ing, Inc., was one of the most important of these conferences. The
bureau has also been cooperating with the National Conference on

86

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

Street and Highway Safety and the White House Conference on
Child Health and Protection, the Association of State and Terri­
torial Health Officers, and the New England Health Institute.
These conferences have all tended to establish greater accuracy in the
collection and compilation of statistics and greater uniformity in
their presentation.
The establishment of new birth and death rates, of course, awaits
the establishment of final population figures of the census of 1930.
The change in the form of the standard certificate of death makes
it necessary to publish and distribute another edition of the
Physicians’ Pocket Reference, which is generally used throughout
the United States by physicians and others responsible for the
preparation of the death certificates required by the laws of the
several States.
Since the new standard certificate of death contains new inquiries
relative to occupation corresponding to those on the population
schedule, it was deemed advisable to prepare a Pocket Reference of
Information on Occupations, similar in size and purpose to the
Physicians’ Pocket Reference.
The bureau has prepared a number of official and semiofficial tables
concerning births and deaths, and has furnished a great deal of infor­
mation on these subjects to foreign nations and to associations and
others in the United States. Vital statistics compiled by the bureau
are being used more generally, and the demand for special and
detailed data on certain features is increasing monthly. To advance
the publication of the most important features of the work, the
bureau issued multigraphed statements covering births, deaths, infant
mortality, and automobile fatalities. The Weekly Health Index,
which is issued each Wednesday, gives the number of deaths in each
of the large cities for which telegraphic reports have been received,
and the 4-week summary of automobile fatalities, based upon tele­
graphic reports, which shows the number of fatalities from 78 of the
largest cities, with a total population of about 33,000,000.
MARRIAGE AND DIVORCE

The statistics of marriage and divorce continue to be received by
the public with a high degree of interest. The preliminary sum­
maries, which are issued for the individual States in advance of the
annual report and as rapidly as the data are received from the
county officers, are given close study. This is especially true of
localities where rigid State laws have been enacted in an effort to
curb hasty marriages, or to make the granting of a divorce more
difficult. The reports for the surrounding States are carefully
scanned by the press of the country with a view of ascertaining
whether the border counties show marked changes in figures, ana
the results observed are commented on at length.
It is unfortunate that lack of uniformity in the information re­
corded by the officials issuing marriage licenses in the various States
prevents the publishing of anything further than the actual number
of marriages performed in the United States each year, by States
and counties, as many requests for additional data are received—

BU REA U OF T H E C E N SU S

87

particularly data relative to the number of marriages performed
each month and the age of the contracting parties. This latter item
is of utmost importance in the study of child mortality statistics.
Fairly uniform information on a number of items relative to divorces
granted and marriages annulled is obtained from court records.
The statistics of marriages are now obtained from some office of
the State government in 29 States, and the statistics of divorces are
likewise obtained from State officials in 16 States. In the other
States county officials furnish the information.
On June 30, 1930, the work of securing the information with re­
gard to marriages and divorces in 1929 was about 96 per cent com­
plete, reports having been received for 1,161,261 marriages, 197,741
divorces, and 4,346 annulments, as compared with a total of 1,182,497
marriages, 195,939 divorces, and 4,237 annulments, for the year 1928.
Preliminary press statements have been issued for 35 States.
AN NU A L CENSUS OF INSTITUTIONS

The annual census of institutions covering State prisons and re­
formatories, State hospitals for mental diseases, and State institu­
tions for feeble-minded and epileptics, lias been continued by the
collection of data for 1927, 1928, and 1929 from the heads of most of
the institutions concerned, and from State administrative agencies,
which have for the most part given commendable cooperation.
The tabulation of data pertaining to feeble-minded and epileptics
for 1926 and 1927 has been finished.
The collection of data for the 1928 report for hospitals for mental
diseases is finished and tabulation is under way. There still remain
a few missing reports for 1928 both for the prisons and for the
institutions for feeble-minded and epileptics. The blanks for the
1929 reports were sent out the first of May.
FINANCIAL STATISTICS OF STATE AND CITY GOVERNMENTS

The decennial census work has not interrupted the annual collection
of the financial statistics of State and city governments, although in
the last decennial census the compilation of these statistics was
suspended during the year in which the census was taken (1920) and
only partial reports were published for the following year. The
publication of the reports covering the year 1928 has, however, been
somewhat delayed by the necessity of waiting for revised estimates
of population required as a basis for showing per capita figures.
These estimates could not be made until the results of the population
census were available. At the close of the fiscal year the work of
compiling the statistics of 1929 was about 35 per cent compiled for
the States and 40 per cent for the cities.
In previous annual reports reference has been made to the plan of
having the census schedules filled out by local officials, thus relieving
the bureau from the necessity of detailing experts from the Washing­
ton office to do that work. This plan which, when first adopted in
1925, covered only 1 State and 17 cities is now in operation in 40
States and 170 cities.

8 8

REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE
E L E C T R IC A L

IN D U S T R IE S

This census has been taken at 5-year intervals since 1902. The
canvass covering activities in 1927 was made in 1928, and the work
of compiling the statistics and preparing them for publication had
been brought to practical completion by the dose of 1929. The
reports on telegraphs and telephones were sent to the printer in
September of that year, but, because of the pressure of the Fifteenth
Decennial Census work, the completion of the text for the electric
light and power and the electric-railway reports was delayed until
about the close of the fiscal year 1930.
SU RV EY

OF C U R R E N T

B U S IN E S S

The Survey of Current Business, consisting of monthly and weekly
statistical reports on the trend of various kinds of business, was
issued regularly by this bureau until June 12, 1930, at which date
it was transferred to the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce
in order to consolidate it with the work and preparation of the Com­
merce Yearbook in that bureau. The Survey of Current Business
brings together the current reports of business activities issued by
this bureau, as well as those compiled by other Governmental agencies
and by representative private organizations, including trade asso­
ciations. At the time of transfer it contained 1,800 individual statis­
tical series, covering approximately 480 commodities.
QUARTERLY,

M ONTHLY,

AND

S E M IM O N T H L Y

IN Q U IR IE S

The list of these inquiries, whose results are published in 69 series
of reports, is too long to justify presentation here. The extensive
compilations of statistics on cotton and cottonseed, wool, leather, and
wheat and flour, described in previous annual reports have been car­
ried on as usual.
An increasing number of monthly reports based upon primary data
collected direct from business and industrial establishments have
been compiled and published. These reports have been mimeo­
graphed as specific units of information and released directly in this
form to the press and to those establishments which supply the data.
As a rule, they are published monthly and show production, sales,
stocks, and unfilled orders. The demand for this type of current
reports is increasing rapidly. During the fiscal year eight new
inquiries were inaugurated, and several others have been undertaken
since the close of the year, or are likely to be undertaken in the near
future. The eight new inquiries are as follows:
( / ) A u t o m o b i l e f i n a n c i n g ( m o n t h l y ) .—This inquiry, which covers number of
cars and volume of business in dollars handled by automobile-financing organ­
izations, was undertaken at the request of the National Association of Finance
Companies. The number of reporting companies increased during the year
from 338 to 455, and the scope of the inquiry was enlarged to cover wholesale
financing of dealers' stock as well as retail financing. This inquiry affords
almost the only authentic information in regal'd to installment sales of auto­
mobiles, and supplements the motor-vehicle production figures, which have been
publish (Hi montlily for nearly 10 years.
(2) O i l b u r n e r s ( m o n t h l y ).—The oil-burner canvass, undertaken at the re­
quest of the leading manufacturers, originally covered 50 companies. A con­
siderable number of additional manufacturers have begun to report.

89

BU REA U OF T H E C E N SU S

(3) P a i n t , v a r n i s h , a n d l a c q u e r ( m o n t h l y ).—This inquiry, which had been
carried on semiannually until June, 1928, was suspended until the beginning
of the fiscal year 1930 and was then resumed on a monthly basis. The inquiry
has been simplified so that it now covers total sales only.
(If) P l a s t i c p a i n t s , c o l d r i o a t e r p a i n t s , a n d c a l c i m i n e s ( m o n t h l y ) .-—The manu­
facturers of these classes of paints, who had formerly been canvassed semi­
annually together with manufacturers of other paints, varnishes, etc., requested
the compilation of separate statistics of their sales by quantity and volume.
The first compilation was completed within the fiscal year 1930, but the report
was not issued until July
(5) P l u m b e r s ' w o o d w o r k ( m o n t h l y ).—This inquiry, undertaken at the re­
quest of the Plumbers’ Woodwork Institute, covers 17 manufacturers whose
output constitutes at least 80 per cent of the total for the industry. The
initial report, which was compiled before the close of the fiscal year and was
issued in July, 1930, supplements the other current sanitary-ware reports,
namely, those on enameled-iron sanitary ware, vitreous-china plumbing fix­
tures, and porcelain plumbing fixtures.
(6) P r e p a r e d r o o f i n g ( m o n t h l y ).-—Incomplete statistics on the production
of prepared roofing has been published in tiie Survey of Current Business for
some time. Within the fiscal year these were supplanted by substantially
accurate and complete statistics covering each month of the period from
January, 1928, compiled from data supplied by 36 manufacturers whose out­
put constitutes practically the total production of prepared roofing. Mem­
bers of the Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Association report through the asso­
ciation, and nonmembers send their reports directly to the bureau.
(7) P u l v e r i z c d - f u e l e q u i p m e n t ( m o n t h l y ) .—This inquiry, which was needed
in order to enable the bureau to compile statistics supplementing those on steel
boilers and mechanical stokers, which had been published monthly for some
time past, was begun at the request of the Pulverized Fuel Equipment Asso­
ciation. It covers, as far as is known, every manufacturer of this type of
equipment.
(S) R a n g e b o i l e r s ( m o n t h l y ).—Thirteen manufacturers, whoso output rep­
resents practically 80 per cent of the total production, now cooperate In this
Inquiry, which was undertaken at the request of lending producers.
CARD P U N C H IN G

A N D T A B U L A T IN G

M A C H IN E S

The increase in the subjects covered by the census and the increase
in the detail now included over that heretofore covered, as well as
the great diversity of data required by additional subjects, made it
necessary to reorganize the tabulating force of the entire bureau.
This force is now concentrated in two divisions. One is responsible
for punching all of the cards and the other for tabulating the cards
on the electric machines.
The tests of punching machines made in 1929, developed the fact
that the mechanical key punch machine was far superior to the
pantagraph machine used in the preceding censuses for the punching
of the individual cards and that the electric duplicating key punch
would increase the production of the cards punched from the general
farm schedules materially. The duplicating key punch will also be
used for punching cards from the censuses of distribution and manu­
factures. The mechanical key punch will be used for punching the
cards for the census of the unemployed and also the cards that will
carry the statistics for the tabulation of families.
Due to the use of these punches and the improved mechanical
equipment installed to assist the operatives in their work an increased
production per clerk is expected of more than 100 per cent over that
in preceding censuses. That this anticipated increase in the average
number of cards punched will be realized is seemingly justified by the
record to date. The average number of cards punched per day per
clerk to June 30 for the 1930 census is 1,078, as compared with 512

90

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

cards on the same relative date in the 1920 census. When all oper­
atives have become experienced, and the work is at the peak, it is
expected that the average number of individual cards punched per
day per clerk will be approximately 2,000 as compared with 864 in
1920.
The total individual cards punched and available for tabulation at
the close of the fiscal year was 1,845,575, as compared with 95,662 on
the same relative date in 1920.
In the past few years a new sorting machine has been developed
by the mechanical laboratory which, apart from basic principles, is
quite different from any sorting machine ever used by the bureau.
Chief among the improvements is the methods of conveying the cards
to the various boxes. This is done by a series of small rollers that
carry the cards along and deposit them in appropriate boxes at the
rate of about 400 per minute. Other improvements over the old-type
machine are greater card capacity in card bins; elevators in card
boxes to keep cards in place; an automatic stopping device to prevent
cards from tearing in case of a jam; and a check counter that regis­
ters the total number of cards sorted. The new machine is also
equipped with a full-width sorting block by means of which any
column on the card may be sorted by merely moving the brush.
A number of improvements have been made in the mechanical and
electrical features of the tabulating machines, the principal improve­
ments being the placing of an additional starting switch on the front
of the machine so that it may be started or stopped from either side,
and the changing of the construction of the counters to permit
greater accuracy and longer life.
The various kinds of work in the tabulation division will require
the use of a minimum of 166 sorting and tabulating machines. This
will constitute the largest plant of its kind in the United States, in
fact, in the world.
INDUSTRIAL AND BUSINESS STATISTICS

Until the beginning of the present century the only comprehensive
industrial satisfies which had been compiled by any agency. Federal
or other, were the decennial census statistics on manufactures and
mines and quarries. When the Census Office was established on a
permanent basis in 1902 it was charged with the duty of taking quin­
quennial censuses of manufacturing industries and of electric light
and power plants, electric railways, telephones, and telegraphs, and
of collecting and publishing, at frequent intervals during each crop
season, statistics showing the amounts of cotton ginned to specified
dates. Since 1905 monthly reports on the supply, distribution, im­
ports, and exports of cotton have been prepared and published; the
compilation of monthly statistics on cottonseed and cottonseed prod­
ucts was begun in 1916; and from time to time other inquiries made
at intervals ranging in length from a week to a year were inaugu­
rated. Beginning with 1921, the census of manufactures was placed
on a biennial basis: the census of agriculture has been taken quinquennially since 1920; and the first comprehensive census of distribu­
tion was taken as a part of the decennial census of 1930.
Thus,, during the 28 years that have elapsed since the Census
Bureau came into existence as a permanent organization, the scope

BU R E A U OF T H E C E N SU S

91

of its inquiries covering industry and commerce has been greatly
extended. Moreover, most of these inquiries are now made at much
more frequent intervals than formerly, and a number of them—
those made at annual or shorter intervals—are what may be called
continuous,” in that each canvass covers the entire period which
has elapsed since the close of that covered by the preceding one.
(Each canvass made at intervals of two years or more covers indus­
trial or other activities during only a single year.)
As a result of these numerous censuses or surveys, a great mass of
statistical information is made available for the use of industrial
and business men generally. Much of this information has a per­
manent value; but its immediate value—its value as a guide in
planning sales campaigns, in deciding whether to increase or decrease
production, etc.—depends upon promptness of publication and dissi­
pates rapidly with the passage of time. In order that the industrial
and business statistics may be of maximum value for this purpose,
preliminary summaries should be published within a few weeks
after the close of the periods to which they relate. This is done in
the case of the cotton-ginning statistics, which are published eight
days after the close of the periods covered; and the corresponding
lapse of time for some of the monthly summaries is only a week or
two. In other cases, however, the delay in publication is greater, and
the amount of this delay increases with the amount of detailed in­
formation presented in the reports. As a rule the Bureau of the
Census is able to publish a preliminary report covering a certain
inquiry or branch of an inquiry—for example, one of the 331 manu­
facturing industries—within a very short time after complete and
correct returns have been received from all persons or establishments
canvassed. In fact, practically all the delay in the publication of
preliminary census reports may be accounted for as the result of two
causes, and only two: (1) The failure of the persons canvassed to
supply promptly the information called for, and (2) their indiffer­
ence and carelessness in answering the inquiries on the schedules,
which render it necessary for the bureau to obtain by correspondence
the additional data needed. It is no exaggeration to say that if all
the bureau’s schedules were returned promptly, and if all inquiries
were answered completely and correctly the publication of the census
statistics would be advanced many months—in some cases more than
six months.
It may be pointed out here that the censuses of industry and busi­
ness fall into two general classes: (1) Those which are comprehensive
and detailed, covering the entire field with as close an approach to
thoroughness and completeness as possible; (2) those which cover
some one item or a few related items regarding production, sales,
stocks, etc. These two classes of inquiries differ sharply from each
other and serve different purposes. The former have a permanent
value, and promptness of publication, although desirable, is not abso­
lutely essential'. The value of the latter, on the other hand, lies
mainly in promptness of publication; and if the reports do not be­
come available in time to enable industry and business to use them as
guides in planning their activities in the immediate future, they fall
short of serving their purposes. The distinction between these two
classes of inquiries should be kept clearly in mind by those who are

92

REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

interested in the census statistics. It is possible to collect and com­
pile comprehensive statistics; it is also possible to collect and compile
statistics and publish them promptly; but it is not possible to com­
bine these two features—comprehensiveness and promptness of publi­
cation—in the same census.
It can not be too strongly emphasized that if business and industry
want statistics published promptly enough to be of real current
value, business and industry must cooperate with the Bureau of the
Census in doing two things: First, simplifying the questionnaires so
that the data called for can be supplied readily and easily; second,
filling out these questionnaries and mailing them to the bureau
promptly instead of waiting until after several “ reminders ” have
been sent.
Very truly yours,
W. M. S t e u a r t ,
Director of the Census.

BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE

B ureau

of

F

D e p a r t m e n t of C o m m e r c e ,
o r eig n a n d D o m e st ic C o m m e r c e ,

Washington, Ju ly 1,1930.
The honorable the S ecreta ry of C o m m e r c e .
D ear M r . S e c r e t a r y : Our country, like most of the countries o f
the world, has just closed a difficult trade year. There has been no
fault in the merchandise nor lack of skill in salesmanship. Com­
plicated economic conditions, world-wide in scope, represent the
fundamental factors back of the recession.
In this situation the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce,
believing the Government could aid materially in the stabilization of
business by contributing statistics and sound information on world
trade movements and events and by providing factual bases on which
domestic merchandising could build for the future, expedited the
gathering and distribution of facts and figures, increasing its cable
service on conditions abroad by 25 per cent and strengthening all of
its statistical and informational services; and on behalf of domestic
commerce it rushed to completion those researches which could be
hurried.
Immediate response from the business public was seen. Requests
upon the bureau were a thousand a day more than in the preceding
year; for the fortnight ended June 28 they numbered 78,000, for the
full year 3,632,000, a record total; and evidence of the practical value
of the assistance offered came when firms which had sought the
bureau’s aid (but only 7 per cent of the number regularly served)
reported more than $50,000,000 in new business and savings thus
made possible.
DOMESTIC BUSINESS SITUATION

Although the decline in our domestic industry and commerce was
ushered in by the stock-market crash of October, 1929, that event
itself was preceded by a significant and world-wide falling off in
the price of nearly every important raw material. This decline in
raw-material prices is still in progress, but there is reason to believe
at the writing of this report that the bottom is being reached. So
long as raw materials continue to drop, industry will continue to
purchase for current consumption only, hoping for still lower prices.
This, of course, results in reduced activity and unemployment.
There is abundant evidence that the inventories in most industries
of both raw and finished products are at a very low level. As soon
as some confidence is established that raw-material prices have
reached bottom, we may expect to see these industries purchasing
to bring their inventories up to normal, and manufacturing activity
will likewise increase, with resulting relief to unemployment.
93

94

REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

Throughout this period of decreased activity consumer buying in
most lines seems to have been well maintained. The sales by de­
partment stores declined less than 5 per cent in dollar value for
the first six months of 1930 compared with January-June of 1929.
I f account be taken of the lower price levels of this year, it is reason­
able to assume that the quantity of goods moving into consumption
through these outlets was but little less than in the preceding year.
Food sales have apparently been somewhat larger in volume than
a year ago. Sales of such commodities as jewelry and furniture
have been decidedly smaller.
T H E DECLINE IN FOREIGN TRADE

Our foreign trade during the past fiscal year showed an appreci­
able decline in contrast with the usual increases of recent years.
The fundamental cause was the world-wide business recession. Other
countries likewise have seen their exports and their imports fall off.
Exports of domestic products in the year ending June 30, 1930,
were some 13 per cent below those of 1928-29, or $4,618,000,000
against $5,284,000,000; imports were 10 per cent less, $3,849,000,000
as compared with $4,292,000,000. Losses appear in all classes of
exports and imports and in the trade with all the geographic divi­
sions of the world, as shown by the table below.
Decrease 1
Commodity classification

Decrease 1

j— ------- -------------- |
Exports Imports
P e r cen t

P e r cen t

Geographic classification

Semimanufactures...............
Finished manufactures___

16.8
32. 8
8.6
12.8
8.6

13.3
12.0
16. 2
7.6
4.5

................
................
................
Asia......................... ................
Oceania................... ................
Africa.......................

T otal...........................

12.6

10.3

Total............. ................

Exports

Imports

P e r cen t

P e r cen t

9.3
12.4
20.8
17.4
16.8
9-9

8.8
11.5
9.0
10.3
29.8
15.6

12.6

10.3

1 Decrease (dollar basis) in fiscal year 1929-30 when compared with total for 1928-29.

While a considerable part of the decline in the case of exports,
and still more in the case of imports, was due to lower prices, there
were actual decreases in the quantities of many leading commodities.
UNITED STATES LOSS PART OF WORLD RECESSION

The results of diminished exports are sometimes plain to see,
especially in industries which export a large proportion of their
output, in unemployment and passed dividends; the underlying
causes often are obscure to the casual observer. The factors which
have brought about the decline in our trade are largely of a world­
wide character and represent only in part conditions and events in
the United States.
For some years past prices for the foodstuffs and raw materials
which constitute the major source of buying power of many countries
have been tending downward, thus lowering their ability to buy
imported commodities. Of certain of these commodities there has
been overproduction, and excessive stocks have accumulated. The

FO R EIG N AND DO M ESTIC COM M ERCE

95

speculation in American securities, which culminated in October,
1929, is commonly believed to have exerted also a disturbing in­
fluence on foreign buying power for American products. The sharp
rise in rates in the New York money market curtailed the flotation
of foreign loans in this country and at the same time attracted here
a very large volume of foreign short-term funds, and these condi­
tions lessened the ability of many countries to finance their industries
and commerce and in some cases made the maintenance of the ex­
change value of their currency difficult or impossible. In a number
of individual foreign markets special factors have exercised a serious
influence—for example, the collapse of the Brazilian coffee valoriza­
tion scheme, with the consequent great fall in the price of coffee,
which constitutes the major export not only of Brazil but of several
other Latin American countries.
It seems probable that the bottom in raw-material prices will scon
be reached, and when an upturn comes we may expect to find the
buying power of foreign countries increased. Meantime the sub­
sidence of the American stock market has not only relieved the
stringency in credit for industry and commerce in this and other
countries, but has brought about great activity in foreign-loan
flotations in the United States. The resultant ease in money rates
has already afforded much relief in the economic depression and
will no doubt serve to shorten its duration.
The following summary of economic conditions in the foreign
markets where we buy and sell will enable one better to gauge tlie
significance of the year’s declines in our exports and imports:
EUKOl’H

In Europe the calendar year 5920, considered a» a whole, was the most
favorable since the war, just as was the ease in the United Stntes. Indus­
trial activity was greater in nearly every country than the year before. Unem­
ployment was less prominent than in 5928, though the average for the year
was rather heavy in Germany, the United Kingdom, and a few other countries.
A scarcity of laborers had even developed in one or two countries (especially
in France). Good crops, particularly of cereals, proved of advantage to the
farmers, despite somewhat reduced prices, while the consequent smaller re­
quirements for imported grain promised improvement in the trade balances of
Europe with the rest of the world. Government finance in most countries
was strengthened, with tax reductions in France and Belgium. The outstanding
adverse factors were the general weakness of the textile Industries (except
rayon), the tendency toward price declines, the weakness of the domestic
market, notably in Germany and the United Kingdom, and in certain countries
high interest rates resulting from the American stock speculation, and a mod­
erate repercussion after the break in stock prices in the autumn.
Recent months in Europe, as in the United States, have witnessed a recession
in foreign trade and in domestic industry and commerce. The recession varies
in degree, being less severe in France and Scandinavia, and most severe in
Germany and Great Britain.
In the Scandinavian and Baltic countries, Denmark in particular, low
prices for certain export products were the only adverse factor of importance
during the first half of 1930, and these were largely counterbalanced by cor­
responding decreases in prices of essential imports. Industries in the Nether­
lands and Belgium were fairly well sustained early in 1930 by the strength
of the domestic market derived from earlier prosperity; but the former was
affected by the poor agricultural situation and the slump in prices of colonial
raw materials (rubber and tin) which narrowed its export markets, and the
latter by the gradual decline in export demand with its reflection on domestic
prosperity. France continued to benefit from strong domestic demand and the
1929 reductions in tax rates; indices of general business were equally as good
in the first half of 1930 as in the corresponding months of 1929, but failed

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to show a continuation of the previous improvement. Exports shrank in the
first half of 1930, but as imports declined in greater degree the net result was
not notably depressive.
Great Britain has been, perhaps, the chief sufferer, because of its dependence
on foreign trade; curtailment of its Latin American and far eastern markets,
largely as a result of low prices for the primary products of these regions,
has figured prominently in the increasing industrial slackness. The main diffi­
culties in Germany have been internal. Italy has suffered to some extent from
reduced export demand and from low prices for exportable agricultural prod­
ucts but has profited from last year’s good cereal crops in the way of lower
import requirements, and the general situation is not appreciably worse than
a year ago.
CANADA

Developments in Canada have been greatly influenced by those in the United
States and have followed them more or less closely. Progress in mining, even
in the face of lower mineral prices, has served to offset somewhat the agri­
cultural depression. In the Maritime Provinces general business compares
favorably even with last year’s levels; Ontario and the Prairie Provinces—tile
former because of the concentration of industry there, the latter on account
of the wheat situation—seem to have felt the depression more keenly than
other sections.
LATIN AMERICA

Throughout the entire Latin American area, from Mexico to Tierra del
Puego, not a single region escaped the effect of the depression. In general,
it may be said that the falling off in the -world demand for the major export
products of Latin America and the constantly increasing production of these
commodities there and, in some cases, in other parts of the world were the
decisive elements in the situation.
In Mexico, political and social factors aggravated the unfavorable economic
conditions, as did also falling prices for silver and other metals. In Central
America the decline in coffee prices was the major adverse factor. In Cuba,
which is nearly 90 per cent dependent on sugar and sugar by-products as a
source of revenue in foreign trade, prices lower than they have ever before
been in history, owing to world overproduction of beet and cane sugar, brought
about a major depression. In the other islands of the West Indies low prices
for sugar, coffee, cacao, and other articles of commerce were the leading
unfavorable factors.
In Colombia, fiscal difficulties added to the difficulties caused by low coffee
prices. In Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru, declining prices for all the major
agricultural and pastoral products, including coffee, cacao, bides and skins,
and cotton, exercised an adverse effect upon the situation, which in Peru
was aggravated by declining copper prices. Bolivia's difficulties arising from
a drastic drop in tin prices were increased by fiscal difficulties. In Chile
competition from synthetic nitrogen fertilizers, declining nitrate prices (with
a corresponding loss in revenues), the fall in copper quotations, and softness
in the markets for agricultural products were the major elements in the
current depression. Argentina suffered from poor crops and declining prices
for cereals and wool. The slackening of demand for Argentine beef in the
British market caused by the depression in England is bringing about a
decided weakness in meat and meat products. Uruguay was adversely af­
fected by the same factors operating in Argentina, the drop in wool prices
being particularly important. Paraguay suffered chiefly from the depression
in Argentina and in other neighboring markets for its goods. Brazilian de­
pression is attributable chiefly to the collapse of the coffee valorization program,
to financial difficulties, and to the decline of the milreis.
FAR EAST

At the beginning of the fiscal year China seemed marked for improvement
in economic as well as political conditions. However, military activities in
Manchuria later brought trade almost to a standstill, and in the last half of
the year military activities on a wider front throughout Central China, the
most productive region, resulted in the most serious dislocation of trade since

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97

1925. Moreover, the heavy reduction in the price of silver greatly depressed
China’s import trade, while disrupted lines of communication and heavy tax
exactions throughout the interior curtailed export trade. China’s trad e and
economic situation has rarely been more uncertain than in recent months.
The only present redeeming feature is th a t throughout the Yangtze Valley
and Ch.ua generally the new crops of w heat and rice are reported as of
unusual volume and a t least average quality.
The retrenchm ent policy of the Japanese Government, together w ith finaneial and industrial readjustm ents preparatory to lifting the gold embargo,
retarded business and deepened industrial depression in Jap an during the
last half of 1929; and following the removal of the gold embargo on Jan u ary
11, 1930, conditions became more depressed as a result of the world-wide
recession in commodity prices and slackened demand in domestic and foreign
markets. In d ustrial production was greatly curtailed and unemployment in­
creased. Im port trade during the first half of 1930 was affected by the re­
trenchment policy, while the decline in silver, as well as the increased Indian
tariff on cotton textiles, retarded exports to China and India. Some improve­
ment is expected in export trade during the last half of 1930, but the general
outlook for business and industry is not favorable.
Overproduction and low prices for leading export products rendered Philip­
pine business uncertain in the second half of 1929, and w ith no improvement
in world m arkets and w ith further price declines depression became general
in the first half of 1930. The banks became increasingly cautious in giving
credit extensions, and general purchasing power continued to shrink. The
consequent reduction in demand for imported goods resulted in keen com­
petition, and several im portant failures. Although merchandise stocks were
considerably reduced by May, 1930, improvement was not sufficient to cause
substantial increases of im port orders.
The year was m arked by uncertainty in A ustralia’s progress. W heat and
wool prices reached very low levels, unemployment increased, overseas loan
markets were unfavorable, and an exchange situation developed which placed
a heavy penalty on the importer. In an effort to correct the situation an
emergency tariff measure was adopted which drastically cut im ports and gave
promise of cutting down somewhat the large adverse trade balance. The out­
look is not satisfac to ry ; unemployment is still a m ajor problem, commodity
prices are still low, and the exchange situation has not improved to any
great extent.
New Zealand began the year in high spirits, but ns the months passed
falling commodity prices caused business men to retrench. In sympathy with
the A ustralian exchange situation, New Zealand exchange became difficult
to obtain, and im porters were paying the highest premium in years for drafts.
The outlook, while not satisfactory, is better than for A ustralia.
At the beginning of the fiscal year Indian conditions appeared satisfactory,
but by the end of 1929 prices for most of India’s export products had begun to
decline and internal disturbances throughout the country interfered with the
normal trend of business. D uring the early months of 1930 prices continued
to fall, disturbances became more widespread, and by June business in most
lines was practically a t a standstill. The outlook is not encouraging though
crop propects are good.
Rubber prices in Ceylon declined during the fiscal period to a point where
small profit w as left for plantation owners and efforts were being made to
adjust the cost of production to the new price levels. Banks were restricting
credits and many bankruptcies were occurring throughout the island. The
outlook depends upon commodity prices and the ability of rubber plantations
to adjust production costs downward.
Unfavorable conditions in rubber and tin m arkets caused a general business
depression in Malaysia about the middle of 1929, which continued unabated.
Import trad e showed the effects of curtailed retail buying. Heavy stocks
accumulated, collections were slow, and dealer demands for credit extension
made the financing of imports difficult. A ttem pts a t restriction In output of
rubber and tin were ineffective in the main, and exports of both commodities
during the first half of 1930 were heavier than in the corresponding period of
a year previous. In Jav a prolonged drought in 1929 reduce«] the output of
many native crops and caused unusually heavy Imports of staple foodstuffs.
By the middle of 1930 the situation was somewhat relieved by a more favorable
rice crop.
1S038—30----- 7

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REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OP COM M ERCE

With this world picture in mind, the losses in our foreign trade
take on their rightful relative proportions.
THE BU R EA U ’S DOMESTIC COMMERCE WORK

Several years of research in the field of domestic commerce came
to fruition at a time when the need for the factual bases thus laid
was intensified by the uncertain state of domestic trading. Comple­
tion of a dozen or more of these studies at this juncture was par­
ticularly fortunate. Outstanding among the reports appearing in
1929-30 were the Market Data Handbook of the United States, which,
unsolicited, won the Harvard award in advertising research; two
volumes of the Commercial Survey of New England, a research de­
clared to be of great value in the future development of that section;
and a volume of similar scope on the Commercial Survey of the
Pacific Southwest.
The Market Data Handbook was released on December 4, 1929,
and within three weeks the entire first sales edition of 3,000 copies
was disposed of; a second printing of 3,000 copies was sold practi­
cally before it was off the press, and sales are being well sustained
on the third printing. This Handbook, which has been enthusiasti­
cally commented upon by marketing and advertising authorities,
was designed to meet the demand for statistical information upon
which to base economical marketing and advertising operations. A
unique feature is that not only were data from governmental sources
included, but also statistics furnished by eight private organizations,
and not hitherto published, were generously contributed to the mak­
ing of what is probably the most comprehensive compilation of its
kind.
The National Retail Credit Survey, giving the experience of more
than 23,000 retail merchants in 27 different lines of trade and with
annual sales in excess of five billion dollars, was another useful pub­
lication of the year.
Numerous other researches which have proved of unusual value to
the groups sponsoring them also were brought to completion last
year.
PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF DIVISION’S STUDIES

Publication of the results of the Louisville grocery survey of the
receding year has led to a broad movement for trade betterment.
faterial from that report has been republished by trade associations
and leading trade magazines; local programs for improvement of
store arrangement, store record keeping, and retail merchandising
have sprung up in various sections of the country. A t the present
moment a member of the domestic commerce division is acting as
adviser to a group in the food trade which is putting on a store­
remodeling program at Jacksonville, Fla.
Several associations have passed resolutions commending the De­
partment of Commerce for carrying on business analysis of this sort.
The Louisville Board of Trade stated that the grocery survey had
a minimum value of $100,000 to the city of Louisville alone; one
ri vate correspondent placed this value at half a million dollars.
avorable statements concerning it have come in from all sections
of the United States, most European countries, and from other parts
of the world.

S

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FO R EIG N AND DO M ESTIC COM M ERCE

99

Other evidences of appreciation of the bureau’s services in behalf
of domestic commerce are seen in the numerous requests for speeches
before trade associations and other commercial groups; although
seriously handicapped by lack of travel funds, more than 200 ad­
dresses were delivered the past year. The greatly increased amount
of space devoted in trade journals and business papers to discussion
of the domestic-commerce work, even to reprinting many of the
bulletins in full, is still other evidence of the growing recognition of
what the bureau is achieving.
C O ST -O F-D ISTR IB U TIO N RESEARCHES

Extension of the bureau’s work in the field of distribution-cost
analysis to include the detailed study of a wholesale dry-goods house,
a wholesale paint and varnish house, and an electrical-appliance
establishment aroused keen interest. The study of wholesale drygoods merchandising was completed in January of this year and the
report thereon is expected to be released soon. The wholesaler whose
business was used as the laboratory for the study was then distrib­
uting over 17 States but is now confining his sales efforts to 3, with
resulting increases in net profits.
A preliminary report on the paint study was issued in February;
the final report will appear during the current month. The paint
wholesaler whose business was analyzed has reorganized his selling
force and cut many superfluous commodity items from his stock.
The president of the Paint Manufacturers’ Association declared that
this paint survey was worth at least a million dollars to the industry.
A preliminary report on the electrical study was made in May, and
the manuscript of the final report is almost ready. The electrical
wholesaler whose operations were studied has faced the fact that his
sales policy was founded on sales volume, without rigorous selection
of outlets. He has started on a new program that calls for the
bifilding up of stable and well-rounded outlets throughout his
territory.
In all of these cases the example of the wholesaler studied has
been very effective in getting other merchants to adopt more efficient
methods of operation.
Decided benefits have been reported from various sections of the
country as a result of studies based on the data obtained in the Louis­
ville grocery survey. New studies have been published since the
release of that report, namely, Census of Food Distribution, Selling
Coffee Through Retail Stores, and Selling Cereals Through Retail
Stores. A pamphlet dealing with retail-store arrangement, entitled,
“ The New View of the Retail Store,” presented findings from the
grocery and paint surveys. Another small bulletin, covering costallocation procedure followed in all studies to date, was prepared
under the title, “ Method of Cost Allocation in Distribution
Accounting.”
CREDIT EXTENSION AND BUSINESS FAILURES

It is believed that an important factor of our prosperity of recent
years has been the use of credit in retail merchandising. A sur­
vey of retail credit practices, published in three reports, has just
been made available to the public. A striking fact brought out by

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REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE

this survey is the wide variation in practice existing among stores
of the same kind. Numerous individual stores were found with
credit loss percentages twenty-five times as great as those of other
stores; some stores were found with percentages of returned mer­
chandise ten times as great as those of other stores, and some with
collection percentages half as large as others.
Another significant finding was the comparatively low collection
percentages of many retail establishments. The regular chargeaccount collection precentages of department stores indicated that
the average time accounts receivable were outstanding approximated
214 months. While this was the average, there were numerous in- f
dividual stores with collection percentages indicating that their
accounts receivable were outstanding for an average of 120 days, j
Reports from 3,355 retail establishments of all kinds indicated that
the open-account collection figure for the whole country was 44.1
per cent, which means that the average length of time open accounts
receivable were outstanding for all types of stores was 68 days.
Reports from 597 establishments, inducting department stores, fur­
niture stores, automobile dealers, electrical-appliance stores, and mis­
cellaneous establishments show that the installment collection per­
centage for the whole country was 13.5 per cent, which means that
this type of account was outstanding a little over seven months.
The study of credit extension and business failures made as a
part of the Louisville Grocery Survey confirmed the importance
of knowing where good business practice ends and sympathetic
tolerance of unpaid accounts begins. To what extent should the
retailer’s account be nursed by the use of credit? When does it
cease to be a constructive, business-building factor and become an
agency of ultimate destruction? It is of vital importance to both
>arties to the credit transaction to know, for in failure both parties
ose. One grocer studied failed owing more than 50 creditors, of
whom the majority were wholesalers, jobbers, and manufacturers;
another owed 40 creditors, among whom were wholesalers with un­
paid bills amounting to $400 and $500 each. I t was found that
losses were principally the result of carrying accounts for merchan­
dise under conditions and to an amount unwarranted by the facts,
had the creditor known and considered them for guidance. Only
10 per cent of the original capital with which the grocers established
their business was in the form of credit extension from the whole­
salers from whom their stock was obtained. In the majority of the
failures studied the business had been established with the owner’s
own capital.
A like investigation of credit extension and business failures has
been made more recently in Philadelphia. This study showed that
credit losses in Philadelphia were a comparatively small factor as
a cause of failure among the retail grocers of that city, since credit
is extended carefully and collections watched closely by the whole­
salers. There is a great deal of cooperative wholesaling in Phila­
delphia; that is, the function of the wholesaler is performed by
associations of retailers. These associations extend credit to their
members on a weekly basis and penalize overdue accounts; the
wholesaler requires the retailer to meet his bills promptly, and the
retailer is thus forced to exercise care in extending credit to his
customers.

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101

COMMERCIAL SURVEY OF NEW ENGLAND

Last year a series of studies was completed regarding industrial
and commercial operations in New England. For the convenience of
the user these studies were published in separate volumes entitled
“ The Industrial Structure of New England,” “ The Commercial
Structure of New England,” and “ The Market Data Handbook of
New England.” Not only has this work proved valuable in the
direct application of the information to the shaping of marketing
policies, but numerous instances have been reported of adapting the
technique and method of these studies to other problems and to other
localities.
The Industrial Structure of New England presents in Part I the
natural characteristics and resources of the area and analyzes the
basis of agricultural production; Part II gives an analysis of trans­
portation, power, and fu el; and Part II I the factors affecting indus­
trial production in New England. The Commercial Structure of
New England anatyzes distribution within the 13 major distributing
areas of New England, contains chapters on wholesaling, retailing,
consumer buying habits, the food markets of that section, and com­
mercializing recreational resources. The Market Data Handbook of
New England (not to be confused with the handbook covering the
entire United States) is a working manual that has been used ex­
tensively in laying out sales quotas, routing salesmen, and determin­
ing areas which can profitably be handled.
At the request of New England business organizations, a survey
was undertaken by the bureau in October, 1929, designed to secure
information on the nature and value of New England’s foreign trade,
its destination, methods of shipment, points of export, and other
pertinent matters useful in developing a program of sound trade pro­
motion in foreign markets. The report will be published early in the
current fiscal year. It will provide small and large manufacturers
alike with basic facts that will aid them in extending their foreign
markets. This survey completes the special studies o i New England
which have been in progress the past tnree years.
OTHER REGIONAL SURVEYS

The Commercial Survey of the Pacific Southwest, the third in
the series of regional studies, is in press. Numerous requests for
it have already been received.
Two other regional surveys are in progress, one of the Pacific
Northwest and one of the Gulf Southwest. Field work on the Pacific
Northwest has been completed and the manuscript is in process of
preparation. The material gathered in the Gulf Southwest survey
will be presented in a number of bulletins as rapidly as possible;
certain of the studies have been made and w ill soon be issued under
the titles, “ The Production and Distribution of Petroleum in the
Gulf Southwest)” “ The Distribution of Hardware,” and “ The Dis­
tribution of Dry Goods.” In the dry-goods survey 72 wholesalers
and 376 retail outlets participated; in the hardware survey, 100
wholesale houses and 443 retail outlets. The two studies will be
replete with information on the expense of operating, methods of
sales promotion, problems of buying and selling, stock control, adver­

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REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

tising, elements of competition, and analyses of the market areas
served.
These survey reports are finding a distinct place in the literature
of the business world as guides to intelligent planning and sound
commercial practice.
INDUSTRY SURVEYS

At the request of the International Association of Blue Print and
Allied Industries a study was made of the problems affecting distri­
bution in those industries and a report published giving the total
volume of business and an analysis of operating costs and net
income. The survey showed not only that small orders were un­
profitable, but that the minimum size of order that could be handled
with profit was much larger than members of the industry had
previously estimated.
The Survey of Gray Iron Foundries was released in December,
1929. A somewhat similar study concerning machinery used in the
knitted-outerwear industry was conducted in Philadelphia; the final
report, prepared jointly with the industrial machinery division, was
released in June, 1930.
PERIODIC PUBLICATIONS OF T H E DIVISION

The 1930 edition of Market Research Agencies, a compilation of
public and private agencies carrying on research bearing upon do­
mestic marketing, indicates an increase in the number of agencies
working in this field and a higher character of researches and
greater scope of subject matter.
Another service of the domestic commerce division which has
attracted unusually favorable comment has been the issuance of a
multigraphed bulletin under the title, “ Domestic Commerce.” This
periodical attempts to cover briefly the significant developments
in marketing and distribution. It is prepared with the idea of get­
ting before the busy executive the important activities in this field,
with references which will enable him to follow up those in which he
is particularly interested. Thousands of commendatory letters
attest the success with which the bulletin is meeting.
OUTLET FOR BUSINESS RESEARCH

The various departments of the Government and nongovernmental
organizations compile a vast amount of research material which can
be applied to business and would more generally be put to practical
use if the average business man knew where to find the particular
material which bears on his specific problem.
Because of the widespread recognition of the obvious need for a
central clearing house for results of authoritative business research,
there functions within the domestic commerce division a special
section to which domestic-trade inquiries are sent after first being
routed to the appropriate commodity division, if a commodity is
mentioned. This section endeavors to analyze, in relation to sub­
ject named, available information from all authoritative sources; to
coordinate the results of business research which will apply to each
question; and to put the inquirer in touch with experts in any depart­

FO R EIG N AND DO M ESTIC COM M ERCE

103

ment of the Government whose work bears upon the problem sub­
mitted. The transfer of the Survey of Current Business from the
Bureau of the Census to the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce will greatly facilitate these services.
Each year has seen a steady increase—last year, one of 20 per
cent—in the demand for this type of assistance.
T H E SMALL-BUSINESS SECTION

The small-business section, created to establish and maintain con­
tact with such mercantile interests as were not already provided
with channels of approach to bureau benefits, is meeting with in­
creased demand for the service it has to offer. Its energies were
directed last year largely to the cultivation of the Negro business
factors of the country, since this group represents a people with a
minimum of such contacts. However, its work is not confined to
that group. The foreign-born merchants have been accorded atten­
tion which has been well received. The general American business
units in the smaller brackets have been furnished some assistance
with equally gratifying results.
DOLLARS-AND-CENTS RETURNS IN FOREIGN-TRADE PROMOTION

Although the work of the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com­
merce in the domestic field is of great and growing importance, the
promotion of export trade, which formerly was almost its sole
activity, continues to constitute its largest field of service.
More than $50,000,000 worth of new business and savings in the
foreign-trade field in a year when new business and savings had
special significance—these are known accomplishments by the bu­
reau; but they comprehend only a few of the past year’s activities,
for they take no account of those intangible services which make up
so large a part of the labors of all units of the bureau organization.
As “ intangibles ” can be listed the furnishing of information on
foreign markets in general or on the suitability of a particular prod­
uct to a particular locality abroad; assistance in adjusting commercial
misunderstandings; explaining foreign tariff classifications, rates,
and regulations; aiding in foreign trade-mark registration; advising
of the financial standing and business integrity of foreign buyers
and agents; and many other services which, because of their nature,
preclude even an estimate of their value but which nevertheless repre­
sent in their totality a vast saving to business.
The typical examples of actual sales or savings in export trade
which follow illustrate the range of industries served.
Agricultural implements.—In Italy bureau offices were successful
in opening new markets for agricultural tractors; one American
firm reported an export business there last year of $41,000.
Airplanes and airplane parts.—Shanghai is an airplane market
of great potentiality and therefore the scene of strong foreign com­
petition. One Michigan firm reported that with the help of the
bureau it had sold to the Chinese Government $132,000 worth of its
planes.
Six airplanes with a value of $150,000 were sold in the Netherland
East Indies last year by a New York exporter. The part the bureau

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REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

played in this sale is adequately expressed by the American company:
“ It is very probable that the contracts might not have been obtained
had it not been for the services which your organization was able to
extend.”
Automobiles, -parts, and accessories.—By arranging an agency with
a firm in Czechoslovakia the Prague office made possible an export
business of $10,000 for a Michigan manufacturer of automobiles.
In the same manner the Montreal office assisted in the sale of $15,000
worth of motor trucks in Canada.
A Belgian dealer in automobiles, unable to secure a satisfactory
representation of an American car, was put in touch with an Indiana
manufacturer. In its confirmation of this service the American
company placed the business done through this connection at $80,000.
The trade commissioner at Calcutta assisted a Michigan motor
corporation to establish an agency in India and in less than a year
a $25,000 business has been done.
One large Illinois firm, organized for the exportation of all types
of motor vehicles and their parts and accessories, has established
through bureau aid 12 new foreign contacts and reports a business
last year of $150,000 from them. Another American firm engaged
in the sale of driving lights places the value of the business secured
last year through the assistance rendered by the bureau at $50,000.
Bank fixtures.—A Texas manufacturer of bank fixtures found an
outlet for his products in near-by Mexico through the cooperation
of the American commercial attache at Mexico City. He lists his
sales to that country at $23,000.
Canned meats.—With the aid of the bureau organization a firm
whose factory is located in Louisiana shipped to Mexico, Guatemala,
and Colombia $10,000 worth of canned meats.
Chemicals.—A New York company has exported $100,000 worth
of chemicals to an agent in Italy who was secured through the efforts
of the Milan office. Bureau assistance enabled an Illinois firm to
export $40,000 worth of cleansers and to make five new foreign
connections.
A firm in Georgia places a value of $600,000 upon the results
obtained through bureau cooperation and gives as a specific instance
the securing by the Helsingfors office of a. Finnish agent with whom
business in chemicals amounting to $260,000 was done during the
year.
Citrus fru its.—A company which exported fruit juice worth
$25,000 to England last year writes: “ The department has been
invaluable to us in the formation of plans and methods of contact
abroad.” A Florida dealer reports that through bureau efforts he
exported 5,000 cases of grapefruit, with a value of $25,000, to Canada
last year. Exportation of $105,000 worth of canned grapefruit to
Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, and South Africa and 22 new
foreign connections provide another example of the tangible returns
to American business of the bureau’s efforts to encourage the export
of agricultural and horticultural commodities.
In reporting business of $31,000 in citrus fruits and juices, made
possible through bureau efforts, another Florida grower added:
“ Wish to take this opportunity to thank you for the service which
you are rendering the canners of this State.”

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105

Confectionery.—A Tennessee candy manufacturer was assisted in
exporting $30,000 worth of his products to South Africa, Egypt, and
Germany last year.
Cooperage.—A Texas cooperage firm established connections in
Scotland, France, and Spain, and reports that it has done an export
business of $130,000 in the last year.
Cosmetics.—Commenting on a Canadian agency connection that
was made through the Winnipeg office an American manufacturer of
cosmetics says: “ While our contract with this firm was signed just
3 months ago, it was not until 10 days ago that we got things ready
for business. In that short interval they have sold $500 worth of
our products. We expect to do about $12,000 per year business with
them.”
Cotton.—B y aiding a Texas cotton firm in the establishment of
four European connections the bureau made possible an export
business of $1,000,000. Another southern cotton dealer sold to an
agent in Greece, who was suggested by the Athens office, $25,000
worth of raw baled cotton.
Cotton lintei'S.—Through the assistance of the commercial attaché
at Berne and the cooperation of the Atlanta district office, a Georgia
organization shipped $26,800 worth of cotton linters to Switzerland.
Cotton waste.—A southern manufacturer marketed $10,000 worth
of cotton waste in Germany through an agent suggested by the
Berlin office.
Electric refrigerators.—The commercial attaché’s office in Tokyo
secured a representative in Japan for a large American manufacturer
of electric refrigerators from whom orders amounting to $25,000 have
been received. Another exporter of electric refrigerators gives
$69,000 as his business with a French firm recommended by the Baris
office.
Fishery products.—The Tokyo office made possible the exporta­
tion to Japan of $93,000 worth of sea food by one Texas concern.
Flour.—Through six new connections established with bureau aid
a southwestern milling company exported $100,000 worth of flour
to Europe, the Caribbean area, and the Far East. A Texas miller
reports that assistance from the commercial attache at Berlin enabled
him to sell $10,000 worth of flour to Germany.
Seven new foreign connections in Latin America, which were
secured through the cooperation of bureau representatives there,
were reported by a western flour mill to have made possible an export
business last year of $425,000. The Panama office was able to suggest
an agency for American flour and in less than a year 22,000 sacks
have been exported, valued at $35,500.
Fruits other than citmcs.—As a direct result of representations
made by the commercial attaché in Warsaw, for the first time the
Polish import contingent for American fruit was increased to a
point that makes it possible for our exporters to meet the demand
in that country. The increase in these contingents ranges from 50
to 200 per cent.
Thirty-two thousand dollars worth of canned fruit was sold by
one Michigan exporter to a Finnish firm suggested by the commer­
cial attaché at Helsingfors; in the same manner $60,000 worth of

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fresh apples was sold to the same country by a western fruit grow­
ers’ association.
Glassware.—A glassware manufacturer reports orders totaling
$50,000 through six new foreign connections made at the suggestion
of bureau representatives.
Industrial machinery.—F ifty thousand dollars is reported by a
Kansas manufacturer of industrial machinery as the amount of
export business done with Argentina and South Africa through the
aid of bureau offices there.
Lard and bacon.—A Finnish agent, secured through the action
of the Helsingfors office, purchased last year $25,000 worth of Amer­
ican lard and bacon.
Leather.—Eighty-five thousand dollars worth of leather sold to
eight new foreign connections represents the benefit to one Michigan
tanner from bureau cooperation.
Livestock.—Formerly the breeding cattle imported into Brazil
came almost exclusively from Europe. Due to the efforts of the
Rio de Janeiro office, however, Jersey cattle valued at $10,000 were
exported in one transaction to that country last year.
Four connections in Latin America arranged through bureau of­
fices have resulted in the sale of $16,000 worth of horses and mules
by a western company.
Machines and machinery.—Greek agents suggested by the Athens
office have purchased $125,000 worth of excavating machinery from
one American exporter.
Motion-picture apparatus.—The Wellington office brought to the
attention of a New Zealand firm the desirability of an agency for
talking-picture reproducing apparatus, and as a result a business of
$160,000 has been transacted to date.
Motion-picture cameras and projectors have entered the markets
of Switzerland. Germany, France, and India to the value of $35,000,
and the American manufacturer securing these orders gives the bu­
reau full credit.
Motor cycles.—Two of the bureau’s foreign offices were able to
make connections for an American motor-cycle manufacturer through
which he has done a business of $60,000.
Naval stores.—An export business of $280,500 in naval stores to
Argentina, Chile, and Italy resulted from the cooperation of bureau
offices in those countries. Forty thousand dollars worth of rosin
was shipped from Alabama to Japan, Denmark, and Belgium to
agents suggested by Foreign Commerce officers stationed there.
Paper and paper products.—With the encouragement of bureau
offices, Latin America bought $15,000 worth of Louisiana paper last
year.
Petroleum.—■
“ Especially in India your services [in the sale of
petroleum products] have been such that we are at present doing
a business m excess of a million dollars,” is another testimonial to
the ability of the foreign offices in trade-promotion work.
The Paris office was instrumental in securing for an American
petroleum company an agency with which $250,000 worth of business
nas been done.

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107

Pharmaceutical products.—Dental cream and pharmaceutical prod­
ucts -worth $125,000 have been sold by two American exporters to a
Canadian agent whose selection was suggested by the Toronto office.
Potatoes.—During the summer of 1929 it became apparent that
western Canada would have a short potato crop. The deficit was
partially made up by the importation of 200 carloads of American
potatoes arranged by the Winnipeg office with the aid of five dis­
trict offices.
Radio equipment.—The Buenos Aires office aided an Illinois radio
exporter in obtaining an agent in that city. The success of this con­
nection is indicated by the statement of the American firm: “ We
have done about $30,000 worth of radio business with them since the
agency was established three months ago.”
Rice.—Argentina, Denmark, Netherlands, and Chile have proved,
during the past year, potential markets for American rice. One
Louisiana firm alone reported $200,000 in sales to these countries
through bureau efforts.
Rubber and lubber products.—A Massachusetts rubber company
estimates the value of the assistance rendered by the bureau at $27,000. Another New England firm gives $455,000 as the amount of
business directly resulting from bureau activities.
Sardines.—An American firm shipped 200 cases of sardines to
an agent in Chile who refused to accept the documents. Since these
sardines were actually in prime condition on arrival, the Santiago
office was able to dispose of the entire shipment, which, if left in the
customhouse much longer, would have been a total loss to the exporter.
Shoes.—A Boston footwear concern gives $35,000 as the aggregate
of business done in Europe through bureau information and service.
Steel products.—A New York manufacturer credits the Buenos
Aires and Rio de Janeiro offices with the sale of $20,000 worth of
steel products to merchants in Argentina and Brazil.
Speedboats.—Bureau field men helped one manufacturer of speed­
boats to secure 10 new foreign representatives and transact a business
through them of $326,000.
Sugar.—A southern refiner writes: “ We were about to ship sugar
on consignment to Scandinavia, but information from the bureau
and other sources indicated the inadvisability of doing so and thereby
saved us probably $50,000.”
Textiles.—The largest amount reported by any single textile estab­
lishment was $685,000, which a Carolina company gave as the value
of export business secured directly or indirectly as a result of infor­
mation supplied by the bureau.
A textile agency established by an Illinois export house on the
recommendation of the trade commissioner at Johannesburg has
resulted in a yearly business of $15,000 with South Africa.
Through the action of the trade commissioner in Toronto a North
Carolina hosiery mill was placed in touch with a prospective agent,
arrangements closed, and $15,000 worth of goods sold in Canada
in less than a year, with prospects of continued and larger business.
The attention of a Danish importer was called by the Copen­
hagen office to the practicability of an agency for American knitted
underwear. As a result, he is now doing a yearly business of $30,000.

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Eight thousand dollars worth of jute bagging was exported to
Canada last year by a Virginia concern at the suggestion and with
the cooperation of bureau offices in the Dominion.
Tobacco.—Suggestions of Foreign Commerce officers in China and
England have resulted in $100,000 worth of tobacco being sold to
these two countries by one American firm.
Through the efforts of the Bucharest office the Rumanian govern­
mental tobacco monopoly placed a trial order for American ciga­
rettes. No American cigarettes had previously been on the market.
With the initial and additional orders this represents a business of
$10,000 to date, with very good possibilities for the future.
~Well-drilling machinery.—In India and China $10,000 worth of
well-drilling machinery has been sold by an Iowa manufacturer
through the assistance of bureau personnel there.
Y a m s.—The Santiago office was instrumental in securing an agency
in Chile for a large southern manufacturer of yarns. At the close
of the year the American firm reported resulting business at $72,000.
Miscellaneous.—The trade commissioner in Hamburg succeeded in
arranging a connection between a merchant in that port and a west
coast exporter and $10,000 worth of chicken, duck, and goose feathers
was exported.
Through prompt action and cooperation on the part of the Buda­
pest office an American firm of contractors was awarded the con­
tract for the construction of 8 miles of road in Hungary at a figure
of $263,000.
One steamship company, speaking of its export trade in citrus
fruits, w rites: “A t least 50,000 boxes may conservatively be credited
to data secured through the Jacksonville office.” At an average value
of $4 per box, this new business was worth $200,000. Another steam­
ship company writes: “ The benefits * * * have increased busi­
ness to such an extent that it has warranted the increase of services
we are rendering this port,” and gives $150,000 as the value of new
business accruing from bureau efforts.
The Toronto office helped to establish a Canadian agent for Ameri­
can foodstuffs such as meats, macaroni, rice, and cereals; $355,000
worth of business has been done during the past year.
A ID FOB FIKMS IN ALL PARTS OF THE U NITED STATES

The bureau’s activities extend to all States of the Union. The
producer and exporter of commodities in every section lias the ad­
vantage of its sendees, and the brief list of transactions cited below
show’s that they have been quick to avail themselves of these facilities.
Alabama commodities that were exported last year through bureau
efforts include knitted underwear to the Union of South Africa, rosin
to Japan, Belgium, and Denmark, wheat flour to Latin America,
and lumber to practically every part of the world. Arkansas rice
wTas exported to Cuba and Great Britain, piston rings to Rumania
and New Mexico, and hardware to Great Britain and the Netherlands.
The services of the bureau wore much used by west coast mer­
chants last year, and California exported redwood timber and canned
fish to Java and the Straits Settlements, tractors to Belgium, radio
equipment to South Africa, electric-lighting fixtures and canned
foodstuffs to China, oil burners to Sweden, olives to Canada, fresh

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109

apples to Europe, dried fruit to Argentina and the Gold Coast
(West A frica), and adding machines to India. Honey was exported
Irom Colorado to Germany, United Kingdom, and France, silver-fox
furs have been sent abroad, and beans shipped to Cuba. Connecticut
exports included brass goods to Argentina, hardware specialties and
tools to Norway, and rubber specialties to Canada and the British
West Indies.
The bureau was instrumental in the selling of Delaware linoleum
and other floor coverings to New Zealand, China, Australia, South
Africa, and Porto Rico, lacquers, paints, varnishes, and insecticides
to Colombia, and cotton sheet linters to Italy.
Florida citrus fruits went to practically every fruit-importing
country of commercial significance, but bureau aid to the State did
not stop there, as a record of lumber to Panama, United Kingdom,
and Germany, sponges to South America, asphalt to Peru and Brazil,
and machinery to Cuba would indicate.
Georgia sent cotton waste to Europe, walnut timber to the Nether­
lands, and tallow and grease to Cuba.
Illinois shipments included crusher machinery to the Netherlands
and New Zealand, poultry brooders to England, furnaces to Canada,
automobiles to Belgium, Cuba, and the Straits Settlements, outboard
motors to Poland and Egypt, electric washing machines to New
Zealand, silk hosiery to Argentina, pistons to the Netherlands, Java,
and Germany, and confectionery to Africa. Cereals and grains from
Iowa were imported by Guatemala and Colombia merchants at the
instance of Foreign Commerce representatives located in these
countries; also, fountain pens and mechanical pencils were sent to
South Africa and Manchuria, concrete-pipe machinery to Australia,
gasoline, oil, and gas-tank fittings to Canada, and hoists to
Argentina.
Kansas sold razor-blade sharpeners to Latin America, flour to
Venezuela, Cuba, British Honduras, Italy, and Colombia, batteries
to France and Belgium, and glassware to the West Indies and Pan­
ama. Kentucky tobacco and cigarettes were put on the market in
Switzerland and Canada, truck bodies w’ere shipped to Canada,
machinery and lumber to the Union of South Africa, and agricul­
tural implements to Italy.
Louisiana hosiery found buyers in Peru and Colombia, caulking
cotton was sold in Canada, and softwood lumber to South America.
Shipments of Maine granite were made to several foreign coun­
tries. Maryland business concerns found markets in China and
Peru for paint; in Rumania, Denmark, New Zealand, Latvia, Egypt,
and the Sti’aits Settlements for portable electrical tools; in Java for
fertilizers; and in France for petroleum and petroleum products.
Michigan exporters disposed of rubber shoes to Czechoslovalda,
Denmark, Sweden, and Uruguay, phonograph records to Sweden,
pharmaceutical specialties to France, tires to Java, vacuum cleaners
to Canada, metal-working machinery to Germany, motor cycles and
parts to Norway and Greece, electrical instruments to South Africa
and Peru, silk hosiery to Panama, lumber to Scotland, and automatic
stamping machines to Sweden. Michigan manufacturers also estab­
lished agencies for and made sales of engineers’ supplies in New
Zealand, humidors in Canada, electrical appliances in Sweden, and

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REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE

feedstuff's in Venezuela. Minnesota paper was sold to Canada, feed­
stuff's to Europe, industrial machinery to Latin America and Aus­
tralia, farm tractors to Germany, marine motors to Netherland
East Indies and Chile, poultry to South Africa, fur-bearing animals
to Sweden and the Netherlands, medicines and perfumes to Latin
America, wheat flour to Finland and Venezuela, and canned peas and
corn to England and Canada. One M ississippi manufacturer sold
truck bodies in Cuba, and another sold iodine products to Egypt,
Latin America, and Italy. M issoun paints found a market in Mexico,
fire bricks in Norway, Canada, France, and Italy, motor cars in Man­
churia and Denmark, X-ray and dark-room equipment and airplane
arts in Canada, electric fans in India, and shoe machinery in
lexico.
From Nebraska index tabs went to India and Chile, ice-making
and refrigerating machines to several foreign countries, concrete
mixers to South Africa, automobile tools to France, Switzerland,
and Peru, and incubators to Argentina. Soap and toilet prepara­
tions from New Hampshire have been furnished to Canada and en­
gineers’ supplies to Germany. New Jersey exports made possible
through assistance extended by the bureau include paints and var­
nishes to Colombia, toilet preparations to the Union of South Africa,
wax paper and beverages to Latin America, refrigeration machinery
to India and the Straits Settlements, and leather cloth to the Orient.
A New Mexico firm reports extensive shipments of alfalfa meal to
Scotland and England. Shipments of New York chemicals have
been made to the Netherland East Indies and Canada, naval stores
to Japan, paper products to China and the Philippines, steam shov­
els to Europe and South Africa, gasoline stoves and heaters to Latvia
and Rumania, snow plows to Poland, rubber-manufacturing machin­
ery to Europe, China, Japan, and Mexico, paste to England, and
electric-lighting appliances to Australia, New Zealand, and Latin
America. The bureau made possible the exportation from North
Carolina of mercerized cotton yarn to Australia, Argentina, Uru­
guay, England, and the Scandinavian countries, crushed oyster
shells to England and Belgium, glassware to Cuba, hosiery to Can­
ada and Cuba, and tobacco to Belgium and Germany. North Da­
kota sent carloads of potatoes to Canada.
Satisfactory distributors were found for Ohio producers of cutlery
and kindred lines in Latin America and Asia; spark plugs in Den­
mark, Switzerland, and Italy; paint-spraying equipment in Europe
and Africa; windmills and towers in Argentina and Greece; lime
in Cuba; industrial machinery in Australia and South America;
and motor vehicles in Paraguay. Flour was purchased by Cuba
from Oklahoma, as were also large quantities of glassware by Latin
America; and Oregon concerns shipped swimming suits to Chile
and the Straits Settlements and lumber to Europe.
Pennsylvania manufacturers have opened up, with bureau aid,
new markets for ventilating equipment in China; heavy jacks in
India; machines and tools in France; pipe and pipe fittings in Can­
ada and Guatemala; transmission belting in England; brass prod­
ucts in Java; fruit in Europe; mine appliances in Brazil, Japan,
China, and Turkey; electrical products in England, Australia, and
Africa; vending machines in Canada and Uruguay; rubber products
in Germany; and glassware in Australia, the Philippines, China, and

K

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111

Latin America, and an agency was established for a Pittsburgh
manufacturer of gas masks in Turkey.
Rhode Island snipped to Canada automobile accessories, hardware
and hardware specialties, and belt hooks.
Glassware from South Carolina was sent to Cuba, as well as
yarns to Canada and lumber to Italy.
Sales of Tennessee lumber were concluded with merchants in all
parts of Europe and in Japan; hosiery was sold in Peru and Nor­
way; cooperage in England, Canada, and Cuba; cotton in Europe;
agricultural implements in the West Indies; stoves in Canada; shoes
in Mexico and China; and paint in Spain. The State of Texas
benefited from bureau services through sales of oak staves to France;
wheat flour to Latin America and the West Indies; industrial and
mining chemicals to Mexico; camp furnishings, tents, and awnings
to Colombia; lubricating oils to Porto Rico; tank cars to Canada and
Mexico; sulphur to Australia and Europe; cotton to Greece and
northern Europe; extracts and flavoring sirups to Mexico; rice to
South America and Greece; canned shrimp to Germany and Italy;
livestock to Guatemala; fire-fighting equipment, groceries, paints, and
roofings to Mexico; and hardware to Central America.
The bureau assisted honey exporters of Utah in establishing agen­
cies in Germany, England, and France, and also was successful in
finding connections abroad for a manufacturer of automatic stamp­
ing machines.
Last year bureau aid made possible the shipment to Canada of
building materials, musical instruments, and hotel supplies manu­
factured in Vermont. Virginia marketed fruits in Europe, trunks
and hand luggage in Argentina, furniture in Central and South
America, tobacco in Europe, stoves in Canada, peanuts in the West
Indies, rails in South America, lumber in the Netherlands and Nor­
way, and paper and paper products in South Africa.
Cargoes of lumber to the United Kingdom, continental Europe,
Australia, South America, and China; flour to Hawaii; locks to
Japan; felt hats to South America; and candy to Java represent
but a few of the results obtained by exporters in the Slate of Wash­
ington. W est Virginia firms were assisted in exporting marble to
Canada, agricultural implements to Poland, glassware to the
Dominican Republic, radio equipment to Porto Rico, and dyestuffs
to Argentina. Wisconsin cranes and hoists went to Ita ly ; aluminum
products to Denmark; milling machinery to Hungary; electrical
equipment to China and New Zealand; hosiery to Australia; auto­
mobile jacks to Turkey, Czechoslovakia, and Germany; tractors to
Italy; other agricultural implements to France; filing cabinets to
Norway; batteries to Peru; concrete mixers and centrifugal pumps
to Canada, Egypt, and Turkey; rubber clothing, boots and shoes to
Sweden and Germany; and malted milk to New Zealand.
NEEDED EXPANSION OF BTJBEATT’S ACTIVITIES

Demands upon the bureau for assistance in solving some of the
perplexing problems which confront American business men in their
domestic trading far exceed the funds available in the appropriation
for Domestic Commerce. The majority of these requests represent
problems which business men themselves are unable to solve either

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REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

individually or through their trade associations. There is real need
for a governmental organization which can gather certain types of
information and in which the public has complete trust as to the
confidential treatment of the returns and lack of bias in their analysis.
Trade associations and other business groups would gladly aid finan­
cially in much of this work if the Secretary of Commerce were
authorized to accept contributions under proper safeguards. I f this
authorization could be obtained, it would conserve public moneys and
greatly enlarge the usefulness of the bureau. Authorizations of this
nature are in force in the Department of Agriculture, the Bureau of
Standards, and other governmental units.
One of the major problems before business to-day is the rising cost
of bringing commodities from the producer to the consumer. These
costs have been mounting for several years, and in a considerable
measure they offset the savings effected through lowered production
costs. The work of the bureau during the past year in developing
methods by which the distributor may know what it costs him to
handle individual commodities and to perform individual operations
has met with widespread approval. There is urgent need for more
research along these lines, and the success already attained in this
field would seem to justify a material strengthening of this work.
Because of an overproduction in the industry, during the past year
the aeronautics trade division of the bureau was called upon on
numerous occasions for assistance in domestic marketing problems.
Requests for help in export-sales promotion are so heavy that it has
been impossible to devote to domestic sales matters the attention
which their importance warrants. W ith additional personnel in the
division more time could be spent in the field organizing this phase
of the district office work, endeavoring to have remedied some of
the present sales practices which are a detriment to the industry, and
compiling information upon which the industry can base sales cam­
paigns.
Another field as yet untouched by the aeronautics trade division but
for which there has been a demand is the making of a survey with
regard to potentialities for passenger, freight, and express traffic for
the airlines. Data of value in this connection could be obtained by
means of aeronautics specialists in the district offices.
Organization of a travel unit for the purpose of encouraging
foreigners to visit the United States and of bringing foreign com­
mercial groups here would do much to stimulate our invisible exports
and at the same time expand visible exports by establishing new and
closer business relations. It would also stimulate travel on ships
flying the American flag.
'The dependence of the major industrial nations upon sources of
supply located outside their political domain has been the cause, in
recent years, of a determined effort on the part of practically all
such nations to obtain commercial control of strategic mineral de­
posits throughout the world. Subsidies in one form or another have
been granted by many governments as an aid to their nationals in
securing and maintaining control of certain essential minerals.
Manufacturers and consumers in the United States who are obliged
to import a large part of their raw-material requirements are now
seeking, by purchase of deposits or investment in mining properties
in foreign countries, to assure their companies of adequate future

FO R EIG N AND DO M ESTIC COM M ERCE

113

supplies. The bureau, through its trade commissioners, can be of
considerable assistance in facilitating the efforts of American mining
and manufacturing companies.
In last year’s report it was indicated that the bureau was desirous
of making more extended studies of the present and future supply
and supplementary sources of the raw materials that now represent
two-thirds of our chemical imports. The requisite appropriation
was not available to carry on these basic studies in connection with
the hundreds of items involved. It is nevertheless a problem of such
consequence that the bureau’s desire for research in this field is
reiterated.
The American lumber industry, eighth among industrial groups
in value of output and the producer of one-half of the world’s sawn
lumber, is well supplied with production data but is much in need
of a great deal more distribution information than now available.
Particularly does the trade want an annual quantitative survey of dis­
tribution, by States, that will embrace movement through retailers
and consumption by railroads and by all important factory indus­
tries as well as in construction. Special surveys of distribution costs
and the effect of seasonal factors on sales also are desired.
During the past year the bureau carried out surveys of potential
buyers in the United States for two important lines of industrial
machinery, plotting the country by industries using the particular
articles under study. There are indications that the bureau will be
called on for much more of the same kind of research in the future,
and provision for it should be made. It is hoped that through (he
use of census and other data it will be possible to analyze industry’s
purchases of machinery and to develop other similar indices, some­
times on the dollar basis, sometimes on the basis of density of indus­
trial activities per square mile, and finally to issue maps and other
tabular data that will guide sales managers in establishing selling
and advertising policies and assist them in the elimination of some
of the wastes with which they now struggle.
The junk pile lias within the last few years had a serious, but at
times unrecognized, effect upon the consumption of primary nonferrous metals. The inability of producers to forecast accurately
the tonnage of secondary metals that may enter the market at any
given time and the apparent unwillingness of the various factions
involved to cooperate, to the end that accurate market data of value
to all may be available, open to the bureau a new avenue for service.
There is pressing need for an immediate marshalling of all in­
formation relating to potential traffic bearing on present and pro­
posed inland-waterway projects. Abundant pledges of cooperation
by private interests have been received. Were funds to be provided
for undertaking a survey of this character, the work could be car­
ried out conjointly with the War Department.
The fertilizer industry is becoming so important in the United
States that a separate section should be set up in the bureau to look
after its interests and provide increased informational services.
The urgent requests of the industry for more information can not
be met by the staff now available for this purpose.
One of the most important industries centered in the South is the
production of turpentine and rosin, the major items among “ naval
1S038— 30------8

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REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE

stores.” The South supplies 60 per cent of the world demand for
these two products. Changing conditions have affected sales, which
to-day are only two-thirds of what they were 30 years ago. The
trade has asked the bureau to undertake a survey to discover causes
and remedies for this situation.
Familiarity with the standard specifications promulgated by
foreign countries is necessary to the successful marketing of many
commodities abroad. Lack of acquaintance with the language in
which the specifications are issued often handicaps the American
exporter seeking to extend his business to these areas. Additional
personnel to review, translate into English, and prepare for publica­
tion selected foreign commodity specifications would permit the
bureau to provide this specialized service to American industry.
THE FOREIGN COMMERCE SERVICE

The bureau was represented abroad last year by 56 offices main­
tained in the principal trade centers of 44 countries, to which were
assigned 188 members of the Foreign Commerce Service. This per­
sonnel consisted of 37 commercial attaches, 23 assistant commercial
attaches, 54 trade commissioners, 52 assistant trade commissioners,
and 22 American clerks.
Changing conditions in the United States during the year, with
resultant uncertainty, caused the American business community to
call upon the Foreign Commerce Service as never before. In one
activity alone, that of answering direct inquiries received from
individual concerns requesting market information and assistance in
establishing connections with agents or purchasers abroad, a gain of
28 per cent was noted; over 40,000 of these “ trade letters ” were
prepared.
The 4,672 prescribed periodic cables from the foreign offices during
(he year enabled the bureau to pass on to American business men
timely information concerning the economic situation and market
data for specific commodities throughout the world. These cabled
advices were supplemented by mailed reports which aided the ex­
porters of the United States in keeping abreast of conditions abroad
affecting their particular interests.
TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE BENEFITS TO COMMERCE

The direct monetary benefits accruing from the work of the field
officers were most substantial. Elsewhere in this report specific
accomplishments are referred to and typical cases that have been
brought to the bureau’s attention .are cited. In this connection it
should perhaps be noted that the field offices were of assistance in
establishing more than 1,600 new agency and sales connections abroad
for American exporters last year.
In the category of activities whose results are intangible might be
placed the supplying of advance information which has prevented
useless expenditure upon sales campaigns, the saving of losses where
goods had been ordered or consigned, and friendly intercession where
the difficulties surrounding a transaction had already become in­
volved. All of these have a very real value but one not measurable
in definite figures.

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115

COORDINATION AND U N IF IC A T IO N OF F IE L D W ORK

Throughout the year continuous and effective endeavor was made
to further coordinate the work of the Foreign Commerce Service
with the domestic work o f the bureau organization. As a conse­
quence, the district offices in this country and the field offices abroad
have become more intimately linked, making the whole bureau
organization a more closely knit unit.
In line with this desire for coordinated and unified effort, four
regional conferences of Foreign Commerce officers were held during
the year. The first of these was at Buenos Aires in January, when
representatives from a number of the offices in! Latin America
gathered to discuss problems of mutual interest.
The Canadian
offices held a meeting at Ottawa early in March; and in May two
gatherings were convened, one in Stockholm for the four offices in
the Baltic-Scandinavian area and one at Panama City for the Car­
ibbean and other Latin American offices which had not participated
in the conference at Buenos Aires. These regional meetings have
been productive of ideas for more efficient methods of dealing with
the problems which continually arise, and are of further distinct
benefit in helping field officers to become familiar with conditions in
areas outside but contiguous to the territory to which they are
assigned.
FO REIG N E X P E R IE N C E SHARED DIRECTLY W IT H

1‘U B L IC .

Field officers upon returning to the United States for leave or
reassignment visit the principal commercial centers and confer witli
individuals and organizations interested in foreign trade. In t his
way the valuable facts and impressions which they have gathered
abroad are made directly available to the public. That these oppor­
tunities to obtain first-hand information are greatly appreciated
is evidenced by the growing demand for such conferences. During
the past year 39 returned Foreign Service officers visited an average
of 12 cities each, and held an average of 26 interviews in each place,
besides giving talks by radio and addressing export clubs, chambers
of commerce, and other trade organizations.
Another means utilized to promote personal contact between
the bureau and industry is by letters of introduction for Americans
traveling abroad on business and for foreign buyers visiting the
United States. The bureau and district offices issued 465 such let­
ter's to persons in this country, and these were presented at one
or more of the foreign offices where every effort was put forth to
supply needed local information, make introductions to local firms,
and aid in other ways. Conversely, the foreign offices issued 411
letters of introduction to buyers in their territories contemplating
travel in the United States, and these prospective purchasers upon
arrival were put in touch by the Washington and district offices
with firms which could supply their wants. There were also
numerous trade delegations and other visiting groups of foreign
business men for which bureau personnel planned itineraries and
•otherwise facilitated the establishment of contacts while in the
United States.

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REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

During 1929-30 a greater number of officers left the Foreign
Commerce Service to accept other positions than in any year since
1925. More than half of the men thus lost to the organization were
of the rank of commercial attache or trade commissioner. Although
replacement of so large a percentage of trained personnel creates
a special problem in the administration of the bureau, it neverthe­
less has its gratifying aspect also, since it can be considered a tribute
by American business to the high caliber of the men we are sending
to promote its interests overseas.
WORK OF THE DISTRICT OFFICES

The bureau started the fiscal year with 29 district and 48 cooper­
ative offices throughout the United States. In September new dis­
trict offices were established at Buffalo and Dallas, but no additional
cooperative offices were opened.
Essentially, the district office is the Bureau of Foreign and D o­
mestic Commerce in miniature. In its particular territory it is
the stimulator and developer of foreign trade; it brings the indi­
vidual manufacturer and merchant into immediate and personal
contact with the bureau’s work; it “ retails” the information which
the bureau at Washington “ wholesales.” In carrying out its func­
tions it is constantly interesting in the technique of foreign-trade
American firms which have not previously had a share in our Na­
tion’s exports. One Delaware firm, after explaining that the bureau
office had been worth $25,000 to it in new sales and savings, stated:
“ We owe our entry and participation in foreign trade wholly to
the suggestion and cooperation of the Wilmington district office.”
RECORD N U M B E R OF SERVICES LA ST YEAR

.The 31 district offices in 1929-30 rendered 3,214.278 commercial
services, compared with 2,944,890 in the preceding year, the record
number up to that time. Tbis total includes the distribution o f
911,537 copies of “ foreign-trade opportunities,” which have to do
with specific openings throughout the world for American business
men to sell goods or to establish commercial relations, reported by
consular officers of the Department of State and the personnel of
the Foreign Commerce Service. Many firms have indicated volun­
tarily to the bureau that these trade leads have resulted in very satis­
factory foreign business, and some go so far as to say that their entire
export business is founded on this service. As a New England man­
ufacturer wrote : “ This company is to-day shipping into 48 foreign
countries where we have established good connections, and we are
pleased to state that our success has been due solely to the foreigntrade opportunities received from your department.”
“ T rade lists,” which supply the names and addresses of importers
in foreign countries to whom it is possible for American exporters
to sell goods, were distributed to the number of 698,196 last year.
These lists cover every country of the world and practically every
line of business. Regarding the effectiveness of this type of service
a manufacturer of chemicals says : “ Our annual export business now
runs considerably over a half million dollars a year. Your depart­

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117

ment has contributed in large measure toward the building up of
this business, and we are leaning heavily upon you now to maintain
it. As you know, we are constantly drawing upon you for trade lists
and other information.” An electrical manufacturer w rites: “ Last
year we increased our overseas business approximately 25 per cent,
a large proportion of this increase, we know, being the result of the
lists that we received from the bureau.”
FA C E -T O -FA C E CONTACT B E T W E E N B U R EA U AND P U B L IC

One hundred and fifty-three thousand persons visited the district
offices last year. Many of them brought complicated export prob­
lems for solution; some came to confer with Foreign Service repre­
sentatives of both the Department of Commerce and the Department
of State, and others came to meet foreign business men traveling in
this country to purchase American products. The district office per­
forms a distinct service in bringing together foreign buyer and local
seller, local manufacturer and foreign agent. An Ohio firm informs
the bureau that one shipment, made as a result of being put in touch
with visitors from abroad by a district office, amounted to $180,000.
Personal contact of a different, but very effective, character is
achieved in the foreign-trade meetings which the district and coop­
erative offices arrange. These meetings are conducted along the lines
of a convention, with group and individual conferences, to which
exporters bring their problems for consideration by bureau experts
sent out from Washington and the Foreign Service. In nearly every
case the program is arranged and the bulk of the preliminary work
is done by the manager of the local office.
Meetings of this kind were held the past year at Boston, Houston,
Jacksonville, Atlanta, Birmingham, Dallas, Wichita, St. Louis, Los
Angeles, Cleveland, Buffalo, Charlotte, and other cities. As an index
of their value, the following is quoted from a letter received from a
southern correspondent:
I think it would be an injustice if I did not personally tell you how (treat was
the contribution of the Houston district office to the success of the Southwest
Foreign Trade Conference recently concluded here. Your men very efficiently
carried far more than their share of the burden, and to them is due the honor
for making the second convention three times as large as the first one.
ROLE OF T H E COOPERATIVE O F F IC E I N TRADE PROM OTION

The cooperative offices which are maintained in 48 commercial
organizations throughout the United States contribute materially to
the success of the bureau. They work very closely with the district
offices. The effectiveness of their activities is seen in known results.
Last year certain of the firms served by the cooperative office main­
tained in the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce reported the securing
of nearly $400,000 worth of business through the aid furnished by
that office; likewise the office maintained in the import and export
bureau of the Association of Commerce in Baltimore was credited
with $335,000 worth of new business by its contacts; and firms
furnished with bureau information by the cooperative office in the
Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce report business abroad to the
extent of $120,000 directly traceable to this assistance.
Thus it will be seen that the bureau through its chain of district
and cooperative offices is linked up with all the more important

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REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

industrial centers of the country, and that these 79 “ service sta­
tions ” play an important part in the expansion of the Nation’s
foreign trade.
N E W O FFIC ES A ND A D D ITIO N A L P E R S O N N E L CALLED FOR

How rapidly demands upon the district offices are mounting has
been pointed out. It is necessary that further assistance be provided,
as well as increased funds for travel. At the present time there is
not a sufficient sum available for travel use, which means a serious
curtailment of the productivity and effectiveness of these offices.
The district offices must receive some relief if they are to cope
successfully and expeditiously with the increased work devolving
upon them.
New district offices should be established to round out the districtoffice service; and funds should be provided also for placing assist­
ance in some of the more important cooperative offices where fully
equipped district-office service is not thought necessary.
CONCRETE COMMODITY SERVICE FOR AMERICAN

INDUSTRIES

AERO N A U TICS TRADE D IV ISIO N

In its first year as a separate member of the bureau organization
the aeronautics trade division, which previously had functioned as
a section of the transportation division, faced problems of unusual
complexity. Even with a curtailment of output before the financial
crisis of October, 1929, the American aircraft industry found itself
overproduced toward the close of the calendar year, with consequent
keener interest in export outlets and resultant heavy demands upon
the division for assistance. A conservative estimate indicates that
the division was associated in some way—through its own initiative
or in its capacity of clearing house for work accomplished in behalf
of the industry by foreign offices of the Departments of Commerce
and of State—with 50 per cent of the aeronautic exports during
the fiscal year 1929-30.
Because of the newness of the industry there are lacking both the
background of trade experience and the cumulative data available to
older activities. To meet the need for foreign-market information
a Handbook for the Aeronautic Exporter was prepared by the divi­
sion and published by the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce, the
industry’s national organization. This Handbook is a loose-leaf serv­
ice of basic data on each foreign market, with weekly supplements
that keep the information current. It contains, in addition, for the
use of the inexperienced exporter, a section on export procedure, cov­
ering foreign import duties, documentation, marine insurance, finan­
cial arrangements and credit, distributors’ and dealers’ agreements,
and kindred topics, and another on “ How to develop an export
business ” which discusses circularization of prospective distributors
and purchasers, advertising, demonstrations, choice of traveling
representatives, and types or distributive agencies.
Although its principal work was in the foreign field, the division
was called upon for advice in connection with the domestic market
because of the general sales depression. One of the largest holding
companies in the industry was aided in a survey to ascertain the

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proper locations for servicing facilities. W ith the cooperation of the
bureau’s field officers, the division was instrumental in bringing two
foreign aeronautical missions to the United States and was inti­
mately associated with their reception and the planning of suitable
itineraries.
The division has become the outstanding source of information
on foreign aeronautics. A ll pertinent foreign developments are
reported in its weekly Foreign Aeronautical News, and special ar­
ticles of greater length appear in Commerce Reports. Bulletins on
airports in Latin America, Canada, and Italy were prepared and
the first-mentioned has already been printed. Maps of airways in
Latin America and Canada and lists of air services in the Dominion
and the southern Republics were published. The foreign chapter
of the Aircraft Yearbook of the Aeronautical Chamber of Com­
merce again was compiled in the division, and many contributions
were made to other books and periodicals.
On the average, 90 replies a week were made to special inquiries on
aeronautical subjects from American exporters, banks, trade organi­
zations, and other private interests. The information on foreign
governmental regulations and reviews of economic conditions abroad
supplied by the division were found particularly useful to Ameri­
can companies in the extension of their services to other countries.
AGRICULTURAL IM P L E M E N T S D IV ISIO N

A greater volume of business than in any year in the history of
the industry was recorded by the agricultural-implement manufac­
turers of the United States in 1929-30. Production reached $600,000,000, an increase of about 15 per cent over the preceding twelve­
month; and exports approximated $150,000,000, an increase of 10
per cent. On the whole, the trade wras exceptionally steady and the
industry reaped the harvest of years of careful manufacturing and
merchandising, both at home and abroad.
The agricultural implements division has played a major part in
expanding the foreign trade in farm implements to its present large
proportions. Over 250 specific trade opportunities for implement
sales abroad were distributed through the division last year and
resulted in new business for many firms. One manufacturer closed,
with the cooperation of the bureau’s foreign staff, an agency agree­
ment for the sale of tractors in Italy that brought an initial order
for six machines and will lead to an estimated $30,000 worth of sales
in the first year.
Publication in Commerce Reports of the results of the survey of
the implement situation in 20 leading world markets evoked much
favorable comment from the trade. A bulletin on the market for
dairy and barn equipment in South Africa was issued during the
year, and one on tne manufacture and sale of farm equipment in the
United Kingdom will be released shortly.
Through the medium of special circulars, articles in Commerce
Reports, and shorter items in the division’s Implement and Tractor
Notes the industry was kept currently informed of developments in
the foreign implement situation. Excellent reports were received
from consular officers, one of particular worth being a monthly report
from the American consulate at Cobh, Irish Free State, on exports

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REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

of Irish tractors. This circular, the only available official publica­
tion dealing with the manufacture and sale of Irish tractors, was
in great demand by persons both within and without the implement
industry.
More frequently during the past year than ever before calls were
received from representatives of implement manufacturers about to
embark on sales campaigns in foreign markets. The division had
opportunity, too, during the year of giving assistance to American
investment houses.
AUTOM OTIVE D IV ISIO N

Although production and exports in the automotive field during
the year just closed were below those of 1928-29, bureau services to
the industry increased 13 per cent, reflecting growing recognition
of the automotive division as an outstanding source of authoritative
marketing information. Because of the industry’s special need this
past year for quick facts, the division arranged with the automotive
associations of the United States to transmit to them, on the same
day as received from abroad, certain classes of trade news, the asso­
ciations in turn to communicate this immediately to their members.
Thus the information was but one or two days old when received by
the manufacturers and exporters.
Five times as many special publications in the Trade Information
and Trade Promotion series and twice as many special circulars
calling the industry’s attention to particular trade opportunities
were prepared by the division as in the preceding year, and increased
circulation was obtained for its numerous regular statistical releases,
the demand for the two annual studies, World Production of Auto­
mobiles and World Census of Motor Vehicles, being now world-wide.
So far as known, no compilations similar to these two are published
by any other country. Additional sheets were distributed lor inclu­
sion in the division’s Automotive Foreign Trade Manual, a loose-leaf
foreign-marketing service kept current at all times.
Pioneering work through special automotive trade commissioners
and the foreign staffs of the Departments of Commerce and State
produced results of particular value. Advice from one of the bu­
reau’s South American offices led to an order for 96 trucks valued
at $120,000; a trade opportunity submitted by a consular officer
enabled a firm to sell $100,000 worth of motor boats; a dealership
established through bureau aid was productive of an initial $30,000
order. Extension of these efforts, already begun, to markets now
relatively undeveloped but potentially important will pave the way
for later sales.
Statistics on foreign highways are being collected in greater
volume and detail than ever before, making it possible for the high­
ways section of the division to render real service in connection with
the forthcoming International Road Congress to be held in Wash­
ington in October, 1930, and to act as a clearing house for stimulating
universal interest in good roads.
Much has been done to consolidate closer relations with the indus­
try by frequent trips to manufacturing centers and attendance at
conferences and like gatherings by the personnel of the division, and
returning Commerce and consular officers have contributed to this

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same end by addressing automotive groups and conferring with
company officials.
C H E M IC A L D IV ISIO N

Anticipation of approaching events is perhaps the greatest present
need of the chemical industry and the outstanding type of service
which the chemical division of the bureau is called upon to render,
made necessary by the increasingly important role wiiich the science
of chemistry is playing in every line of industrial activity. Syn­
thetic products are being developed to replace natural products at
so rapid a pace that unpleasant economic consequences can easily
overtake established commercial enterprises if the trend is not fore­
seen and properly appraised.
Because of this necessity for keeping abreast of the march of
events abroad as well as at home, one of the principal services of
the chemical division has been the supplying of information relative
to competitive activities throughout the world, but especially in
Europe. A steady flow of technical and commercial news of this
character has been released in the form of weekly issues of World
Trade Notes on Chemicals and Allied Products, more than 2,000
separate references to trade conditions having been thus published
during the past year.
Further to anticipate the need for fundamental data, compre­
hensive surveys on paints and varnishes, polishes, toilet preparations,
prepared medicines, dental preparations, veterinary products, es­
sential oils, and explosives were issued as special mimeographed
circulars. Domestic industry benefited greatly through these activi­
ties by being kept fully advised of developments in similar fields
abroad. At the same time, the feature of foreign-trade promotion
was stressed, with the result that overseas shipments of staples have
been maintained and markets for many new products have been
found—as an example, plastic paints, practically a new item, whose
exports have reached gratifying proportions. The new Capital
Theater in Singapore, one of the finest playhouses in the East, was
decorated with American paint at a cost of $35,000, and the Alhambra
Theater in the same city has just been renovated and decorated
throughout with American paint. American tooth pastes and shav­
ing creams set the standard the world over. French products offer
the keenest competition, but the quality of American toiletries is
becoming known and shipments are increasing even to European
markets; and with the growing conception of personal hygiene larger
sales may be looked for in less highly developed localities.
Bulletins on Germany, Great Britain, France, Italy, and Switzer­
land were added last year to the series of reviews begun earlier to
meet the insistent demand for information on the part of bankers,
economists, and others both within and without the chemical field,
and bulletins now in press cover Poland and Czechoslovakia. In
order the better to evaluate the foreign competitive situation, a
further intensive study is under way analyzing the relative export
positions of the United States and Germany in the world chemical
trade.
Fertilizer developments, with particular reference to new plantfood materials and the development of synthetic nitrogen and domes­

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DEPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

tic potash resources, are given constant attention by the chemical
division. An exhaustive study of potash resources and synthetic
nitrogen production in Europe was made during the year by the
chief of the division, and the assistant chief is at present in South
America studying the Chilean nitrate situation.
Special attention was devoted during the past year to the chemical
problems of the South and West. The division was instrumental
in organizing an International Naval Stores Conference to promote
the interests of southern turpentine and rosin. The ravages of the
Mediterranean fruit fly stimulated research into the industrial utiliza­
tion of citrus fruit; in cooperation with the bureau’s Jacksonville
office the chemical division furnished Florida growers with market
data and other assistance which led to the establishment of citrusoil plants and the manufacture of fertilizer material from the final
residue. The work of several preceding years in assisting the de­
velopment of a domestic tung-oil industry in the Gulf States was
carried on with increased energy and with distinct evidences of ulti­
mate success. Creation of a relatively small but flourishing chemical
industry on the west coast has been aided, and it is evident that
heavier demands will be made upon the division in the future from
that part of the country.
Domestic distribution problems continue to be of significance in
the work of the chemical division. A beginning has been made on a
retail drug store survey in St. Louis, to be carried out in conjunction
with the domestic commerce division of the bureau.
ELECTR IC A L E Q U IP M E N T D IV ISIO N

“ I am fully assured of the unquestioned value of the radio figures,
and consider the quarterly survey to be a very fine example of the
possibilities of cooperative statistical work. At the present time
I know of nothing which equals it.” So wrote an official of the
National Electrical Manufacturers Association concerning the quar­
terly survey of radio dealers’ and wholesalers’ stocks and sales, con­
ducted jointly by that organization and the electrical equipment divi­
sion of the bureau. Froin sales figures received, quotas by trading
areas could be suggested.
Several subsidiary studies have developed coincidentally—one
showing in great detail operations of radio dealers located in differ­
ent parts of the United States, another to indicate what the radio
industry means to the industries furnishing the raw materials. En­
couraged by the success in the radio field, the division has inaugu­
rated a similar survey of electrical heating appliances.
Minor studies were made of the materials entering into the manu­
facture of different electrical appliances and of uses for fractional
horsepower motors. Cooperation with the panel-board section of
the National Electrical Manufacturers Association has proved of
mutual benefit, the division acting as a clearing house for quarterly
figures on orders booked by manufacturers not members of the asso­
ciation.
These activities were confined to the domestic field. Regarding
activities that related to foreign trade, the services begun in pre­
vious years were continued and expanded in 1929-30. Eight special
circulars, giving electrical current characteristics (type, source,

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123

available supply, etc.) for Uruguay, Egypt, Netherland East Indies,
Cuba, Venezuela, Lithuania, Latvia, and Porto Rico, were issued,
bringing up to 21 the number of countries for which these details
have been published. It is hoped soon to combine all this material
and data for the remaining countries of the world into a single
volume that should be of unusual value to the American exporter
of electrical appliances. Revision of the very popular bulletin on
World Markets for Radio Apparatus is about completed and the
new edition will appear early in the present year. Another publi­
cation that was well received by the industry was the tabulation
showing the relative value of foreign markets for electrical goods;
this is being used as a standard reference work by a large number of
exporters.
Another important service is that which now gives to American
exporters a complete story each month of our foreign shipments
of electrical equipment, made possible by combining 20 separate
mimeographed reports into one, effecting also a saving of three to
four weeks in time. The special monthly circular on exports of
electrical goods from Germany was supplemented last year, through
the cooperation of the industry here, by similar figures from Great
Britain, and an effort is being made to obtain this type of informa­
tion from the other European manufacturing countries.
A gratifying increase is noted in the number of items appearing
in the trade papers of other countries which are based upon the news
releases on electrical developments in the United States sent to the
bureau’s foreign offices weekly through the courtesy of the National
Electric Light Association.
Close cooperation has been given American telephone manufac­
turers in securing concessions for the operation of foreign telephone
systems, and to other American companies interested in the op­
eration of foreign public utilities. In several instances, the divi­
sion has supplied data on electrical wiring codes in use in the United
States which have been employed by foreign countries as a guide in
drawing up their own electrical codes, making it possible for Ameri­
can manufacturers to market their products in those areas.
Specifications covering purchases to be made by the State Elec­
tricity Commission of Victoria, Australia, continue to be distributed
by the electrical equipment division with entire satisfaction, and
last year specifications of the Egyptian Government also were
handled.
FOODSTUFFS D IV ISIO N

Research occupied much of the time of the foodstuffs division
last year. Some of the work was a continuation and expansion of
activities already under w ay; much of it was new.
To the series of studies on food production and consumption in the
United States were added a survey of the mayonnaise industry and
one conducted in cooperation witn kraut manufacturers, and their
continuance as regular division activities is probable, as may also
be the case with the survey of the jelly and jam industry now in
progress. The division has just finished a study covering 30-year
trends in the consiimption of different classes of foodstuffs, and the
assembling of data on per capita consumption for this period is
finished. Means should be found for keeping this information cur­

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REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OP COM M ERCE

rent, so that the trend curve from year to year can be plotted for
the benefit of the trade.
Among the domestic-distribution studies, a new project was under­
taken for the National Confectioners’ Association on cost of dis­
tributing candy by manufacturers. All the statistical work has been
done, and the information developed is now being analyzed by classes
of goods and by territories. Extension of this t}7pe of research to
other food manufactures is highly desirable.
The collection of monthly statistics on candy production has been
improved. This work supplements the data presented in Confection­
ery Distribution in the United States, one of the major publications
issued by the foodstuffs division last year.
Plans have been worked out whereby the studies of wholesale
grocery distribution costs (first undertaken two years ago) will be
carried out cooperatively with groups of wholesale grocers desirous
of making use of the new methods of cost analysis which have been
developed. Arrangements were made the past year with the Ohio
Wholesale Grocers’ Association and the Ohio State University for
setting up cost analyses in that State. As its contribution, the food­
stuffs division aided in making the first analysis of two or three
houses, and it is expected that the Grocers’ Association and the State
University will carry on the work in the future. It is hoped to make
similar arrangements in other States.
During the year a preliminary study was made of the cost of ware­
housing by wholesale grocery warehouses and a foundation laid for
research on retail delivery costs. In both cases striking differences
in cost of operation were discovered, and further work is needed in
these fields. These and other of the domestic activities of the divi­
sion were carried out in collaboration with the domestic commerce
division.
The second of the handbooks on foreign tariff and import regula­
tions affecting foodstuffs, a joint activity of the foodstuffs and tariff
divisions, was released under the title “ Canned Foods in Europe,”
and like the first of these handbooks (Fresh Fruits and Vegetables)
published the preceding year has proved very useful to the trade.
Part II I of this series, entitled “ Canned Foods in the Western Hemi­
sphere,” is now in press. It is hoped to continue this work until all
foodstuff commodities are covered.
The citrus-fruit trade commissioner appointed last year completed
a study of the principal agencies in Europe engaged in fruit distribu­
tion, with special attention to the distribution of and the prevailing
methods of advertising and promoting trade in citrus fruits. A
study was made, too, of the statistical information available in the
principal ports and arrangements perfected for expanding the cable
service on receipts and sales of citrus fruits in the leading European
markets. During the year the division expanded its cable service on
a number of other commodities, particularly fresh fruits, vegetable
oils, and rice, and a fairly complete service of cable advices on stocks,
prices, and market trends is now available on these.
Other surveys in the foreign field begun or finished last year
include one of the margarine industry and one of the ice-cream indus­
try of Europe; a study of the soap industry in Latin America; and
a world survey of markets for fruit juices and fruit sirups. Besides

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125

these and numerous other trade information bulletins, the division
issued monographs on the Tobacco Trade of the Netherlands and
Netherland East Indies, Foreign Trade in Fresh Fruits, and the
Coffee Industry in Brazil.
The tobacco section of the division was active throughout the year,
securing foreign connections for the industry in the distribution of
leaf tobacco and its products. Bureau information also led to the
sale last year of certain brands of cigarettes and smoking tobacco in
six new countries.
The fur-animal industry—a phase of the livestock industry com­
ing within the purview of this division—has grown rapidly in the
past decade, and considerable interest has been aroused not only
in the exportation of American breeding stock but also in current
developments in foreign countries. To meet this need, world data
are now being collected and furnished to about 250 breeders of fur­
bearing animals in the United States.
H ID E A ND L E A T H E R D IV ISIO N

Accurate, timely information supplied by the hide and leather
division enabled the American tanning industry early to visualize
the problems brought about by depressed world conditions last year
and to so put its house in order that its financial and statistical posi­
tion to-day undoubtedly is improved and the industry looks with
confidence to the future.
By intensive, well-directed effort American leather manufacturers
secured their fair share of the reduced volume of international trade
and obtained a wider-than-usual distribution of their products.
American leather is now being sold in 100 countries. The series of
analytical studies of world markets in Commerce Reports was con­
tinued and enlarged, and a 300-page review of the International
Trade in Leather (among many other useful bulletins issued) was
published as Trade Promotion Series No. 103. The general sta­
tistical services of the division also were considerably expanded.
Through the efforts of the Advisory Committee of the Tanners’
Council of America and encouragement from the division, an active
export committee was organized in the council during the year.
The work of the leather-trade commissioner in Europe has been of
increasing value to the tanning industry from the standpoint of
technical developments and the expansion of foreign trade. Much
help was received also from the assistant trade commissioner in
Shanghai, China, who kept tanners in touch with conditions in the
Far East, aided materially in securing better agency connections, and
advised on merchandising methods best suited to that area.
Compilation of the World Raw Stock Manual, which was delayed
this past year by lack of personnel, will be a major activity of the
division in 1930-31 and when completed will present a summary of
the livestock population, the trend toward increase or decrease of
herds, and the international flow of trade in raw stocks for every
country producing hides and skins in commercial quantities. Speci­
men sections of the manual have been pronounced by executives of
the industry a most valuable indicator of world production and
movement of raw hides and skins.

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REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

The division has maintained its interest in the marketing of
reindeer skins from Alaska and has cooperated in the study of the
utilization of the by-products of that industry. It has also been
actively engaged in the study of new processes of tanning, both in
Europe and in the United States, and has been called upon for
much assistance and information along this line. Study of new
foreign supplies of vegetable tanning materials was continued in
cooperation with the leather section of the Bureau of Standards,
and of future domestic supplies of these materials in cooperation
with the Department of Agriculture and the committee of the
American Leather Chemists Association. The work of the inter­
departmental (Agriculture and Commerce) committee on the conser­
vation of domestic raw hides and skins has received international
notice. Much preparatory work was done during the past year,
which should bear excellent results in the near future.
INDUSTRIAL, M A C H IN E R Y D IVISION

Since 1922 the curve of American industrial-machinery exports
has been generally upward, and for the fiscal year just closed ship­
ments reached the record figure of $263,390,000. This showing is
indeed gratifying in view of the trade retrogression that was every­
where apparent; even Great Britain—a dominant factor in the
world machinery trade—did not maintain its previous year’s total.
Machinery manufacturers and exporters are calling more and more
upon the bureau for assistance; last year there was in increase of
27 per cent in these requests.
On the domestic side, the machinery division, in collaboration with
the domestic commerce division, conducted a survey of the me­
chanical equipment in particular industries, its relation to excess
factory capacity, the trend in depreciation, and the influence of
obsolescence. Much valuable information was developed. The
division also made special analyses of the domestic marketing of
machinery which already have proved of inestimable value to manu­
facturers in arriving at correct sales policies and in eliminating
waste in distribution. These studies are attracting the interest of
a very broad community, and it would seem that there will be a
demand for much additional work of this character.
Of the established activities of the division, the Construction
News service, by which American concerns are informed promptly
of large construction projects all over the world, is becoming more
highly appreciated; the mailing list therefor, which was 1,294 in
November, 1929, has increased to over 1,600 with no circularization
on the part of the division.
During the year the division published bulletins on the machinery
markets of Mexico, Netherland East Indies, and Italy; sawmill and
woodwofking machinery in Mexico, Guatemala, Panama, Cuba,
Porto Rico, Turkey, Greece, Egypt, South Africa, Australia, New
Zealand, Philippine Islands, British Malaya, Netherland East Indies,
Scandinavia and the Baltic States, Canada, and South America;
dairy equipment in the United Kingdom and continental Europe;
and a general review of foreign markets for irrigation machinery
and equipment.

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IR O N -S T E E L -IIA R D W A R E D IV ISIO N

In the calendar year 1929 the United States export trade in iron
and steel products reached its highest level since the war, exceeding
3,000,000 gross tons in volume and $200,000,000 in value. In the
six months since then the effects of the general world depression have
become apparent, and for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1930, the
American export aggregates were 2,671,000 tons and $178,100,000—
declines of 14 per cent in tonnage and 11 per cent in value from
1928-29, despite which the United States maintained its relative po­
sition in the world export trade in iron and steel and suffered less
from this drop in overseas shipments than countries more dependent
upon foreign outlets. The iron and steel division increased its serv­
ices to the industry 12 per cent over the preceding year and was
active in rendering assistance in the sales of wire mesh for construc­
tion use, nonskid floor plates, oil stoves, razor-blade sharpening de­
vices, scrap iron and steel, and tree supports in addition to its work
witli the more familiar classes of material. Exports of hardware
and allied products reached a total value of $66,964,000.
Studies of world resources and supplies of iron ore also were an
important feature of the year’s work. The American industry as
a whole is displaying unusual interest in foreign ore deposits, espe­
cially those not now being actively exploited, and the division re­
peatedly was called upon for information concerning known de­
posits throughout the world. Another phase of the division’s ac­
tivities which is steadily becoming more prominent is that having to
do with the sources of the imports of steel-consuming countries;
broad studies have been made in response to specific inquiries from
the industry, and the material developed has met with a most
gratifying reception.
The division assists the industry in maintaining its domestic mar­
ket through the medium of statistical analyses of the monthly im­
port trade. Approximately 75 reports of this character are issued
regularly, besides many others prepared in response to individual
requests. This, of course, is in addition to the constantly growing
activity of the division in handling inquiries which relate solely to
domestic commerce.
Four trade information bulletins were published during the year
under the titles Iron and Steel Trade and Industry of Great
Britain, Iron and Steel Industry and Trade of Canada, Mar­
kets for Fuel Oil Burners in Canada and Latin America, and
Markets for Fuel Oil Burners in the Eastern Hemisphere. Two
others, which y ill be off the press early in 1930-31, are devoted, re­
spectively, to a survey of the markets of the Western Hemisphere
for cooking and heating appliances and to a study of the Czecho­
slovak iron and steel industry and trade.
L U M B E R D IV ISIO N

The lumber division expanded and expedited its press-release serv­
ice on export and import trade conditions and foreign lumber de­
velopments with gratifying results last year, bringing about a wider
appreciation of the advantages of export outlets for American
lumber mills.

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REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OE CO M M ERCE

A bulletin on Douglas fir, issued the previous year as the first
of a series for foreign distribution by exporters, proved so popular
that tlie trade has itself paid for a Spanish translation thereof for
use in Spanish-speaking countries, and this is now in press. Manu­
script for a similar bulletin on southern pine has been completed,
and other woods will be covered later. These bulletins on the prop­
erties and uses of American woods, prepared in cooperation with
the National Committee on Wood Utilization and written from the
foreign consumer’s viewpoint, will aid greatly in extending foreign
sales.
Bulletins on lumber-buying methods in South America and in
Germany, Spain, and Italy were issued and a like study for South
Africa was prepared by field officers. The lumber-trade commis­
sioner in Buenos Aires supplied numerous special reports and is at
present at work upon a review of the lumber trade of Argentina and
Uruguay.
The important service of aiding American exporters to secure sat­
isfactory agency connections abroad has been continued. The divi­
sion possesses the most complete file in the country of lumber ex­
porters and foreign agents, and from it last year made 794 agency
suggestions, most of which resulted in new, replacement, or trial
connections. As lumber imported into the majority of countries is
sold through foreign agents on yearly or longer contracts, the value
of this service is at once apparent.
The work of the lumber division has been closely correlated with
that of the National Committee on Wood Utilization of the Depart­
ment of Commerce. The experience of both organizations is avail­
able to inquirers with trade problems. Studies by the committee on
wood construction, treated lumber and timber, short lengths, smalldimension stock, seasoning, and sap stain have been called to the
attention of exporters and of architects, engineers, consumers, and
importers abroad; and a special study nearing completion on tropical
construction will be similarly handled. Considerable information
on the domestic lumber trade has been assembled, preliminary to
studies of distribution within the United States to be undertaken
when funds become available.
M IN E R A L S D IV ISIO N

A feature intangible in a sense but accounting for a considerable
amount of the time of the minerals division last year was the in­
crease in requests for division specialists to serve in a consulting
capacity in matters (usually of an emergency character) involving
problems of international scope. In this respect, silver, copper,
asbestos, petroleum, and anthracite producers manifested a decided
interest in the services of the bureau.
The mounting number of inquiries from the trade—consumers and
importers of essential raw materials of which the United States
has an inadequate supply—prompted the publication of market
analyses on tungsten, nickel, mercury, manganese, and antimony;
and mica, certain grades of which are regularly imported to meet
industrial demands, was discussed in International Trade in Mica.
A revised edition of International Trade in Petroleum and Its
Products, a world statistical compilation which is prepared annually

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129

by the minerals division at the direct request of the trade, will appear
early in 1930-31.
The preparation of a handbook on The World Coal Industry with
Special Reference to International Trade in Coal was completed and
it is now at the Government Printing Office. A series of articles on
fuel and power facilities in Latin America was prepared for Com­
merce Reports. At the request of the trades involved the following
mimeographed circulars are now released regularly :
Chinese Shipments of Antimony to the United States, issued
monthly, based on data received by cable from China.
Special Cement Bulletin, a monthly statistical tabulation of United
States imports and exports of Portland cement, with current in­
formation covering foreign markets and industrial activity in
producing countries.
International Coal Trade Situation, a monthly résumé of foreign
market news.
Foreign Petroleum Statistics, a monthly tabulation of production
and trade statistics of foreign countries.
World Retail Gasoline and Kerosene Prices, a quarterly tabulation
of current quotations throughout the world.
M O T IO N -P IC T U R E D IV ISIO N

The motion-picture section was raised to the status of a division
on July 1, 1929. This change was entirely administrative and in­
volved no essential change in the scope or method of its work, which
as in the year previous called for much readjustment to the changed
conditions brought about by the production and exhibition of sound
films. This development is now stabilized; but further scientific
discoveries involving the more effective application; of color in film
production, the use of wide film, and the public experiments on
television are beginning to cause further readjustments nearly as
great and will continue to do so for some time to come.
Requests made upon the division continue to mount, be in" in
1929-30 some 25 per cent more than in the preceding year. These
represented a wider range of services than ever before, including
the furnishing of much foreign market data to companies manu­
facturing recording and reproducing apparatus and pertinent infor­
mation as to the type of foreign-language version of talking pictures
required in different markets abroad.
The motion-picture equipment section extended its field of contacts
and contributed a number of publications to that branch of the
industry, including a survey of prospects for equipment sales in the
Far East. The assistant chief of the division, who is in charge of
this section, took a prominent part in organizing the Convention of
the Society of Motion Picture Engineers held in Washington last
May, and his services in the cause of better film projection were
publicly recognized by the Projection Advisory Council.
The industrial and educational work of the division is centered
in a nontheatrical section. This section greatly increased its work
and is rapidly becoming a standard authority on sources and distri­
bution outlets for films of this type. Its Composite List of Non­
theatrical Film Sources has been revised and extended, and consider­
able information has been put out in pamphlet form based on the
18038—30------9

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REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

replies to a questionnaire sent to schools last year. An advisory
committee of 10 members has been created in this branch of the
trade, and with its cooperation a questionnaire is being prepared
through which it is proposed to procure data on business films.
The motion-picture trade commissioner again performed work of
outstanding value, not only by the submittal of over 200 market and
statistical reports, but also by aid rendered branch managers of
American film companies in Europe. Difficult legislative situations
in certain continental countries were made the basis of a special
advisory and reporting service. In September, 1929, the commis­
sioner visited the United States and in company with the chief of
the motion-picture division held numerous conferences in New York
and Hollywood with members of the industry, during the course of
which he outlined the changed conditions in Europe brought about
by the sound film.
The foreign offices of the bureau were especially zealous in advising
on new film regulations in effect or contemplated in their territories.
Their aid was particularly valuable in securing, among others, a
$150,000 Spanish contract for an American manufacturer of sound
apparatus, and clearance for $300,000 worth of sound equipment of
an American company which had been denied import permits in
a country of Europe.
The volume of general published material of the division com­
pared favorably with that of previous years. Information on Eu­
rope was brought up to date with the issuance of the European
Motion Picture Industry in 1929, and a series of bulletins covered
the Latin American field. There were, besides, 54 foreign market
bulletins on particular phases of the film industry, and numerous
special articles were contributed to the trade press. The division’s
weekly press service now embraces 102 newspapers and magazines,
and distribution of the periodical release covering nontheatrical
films is rapidly expanding.
Special services rendered during the year included aid in the re­
vision of the foreign section of the Film Year Book; a survey of the
more remote markets of the world where silent films still command
major distribution; close cooperation with the Bureau of the Census
in preparing the biennial questionnaire on film production; advice
in the organization of the export department of a film distributor;
and similar aid to a distributor of sound-reproducing apparatus.
P A PER D IV ISIO N

Continued expansion in the output of nearly all grades of paper
marked 1929-30. Our exports of paper products increased in total
value during the first half of the year, but declined slightly in the
second half. In the newsprint field an international group that in­
cludes producers in the United States has concerned itself with pro­
duction and markets in an effort to stabilize conditions.
The industry here was actively assisted by the paper division in
finding outlets" for its products abroad, the largest individual num­
ber o f inquiries probably relating to wall and insulating boards.
Matters connected with domestic marketing also received much
attention.
Division cooperation with manufacturers and exporters has been
actively maintained through the trade associations in the paper in­

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131

dustry, and close contact has been established with one of the asso­
ciations devoted to the interests of the printing trades. Several
manufacturers of printing equipment and supplies were aided in
marketing their products and selecting representatives abroad.
Mergers took place among makers of printing and lithographing
inks, and the export offices of these new organizations were given
assistance in their foreign-trade problems.
Articles of current interest appeared at regular intervals in Com­
merce Reports and at the same time the division’s weekly news re­
lease was approximately doubled in size. A bulletin on the paper
trade and industry of Japan was published, and one on Australia
and New Zealand partly completed. Additional bulletins covering
portions of Europe and the Near East are to be prepared for issu­
ance during the current year, and a new series discussing world
markets for specific items is to be begun. Preparation of a glossary
of paper export terms in several languages also is to be started in
cooperation with the bureau’s foreign offices early in 1930-31.
A small increase in the personnel of the division will, it is hoped,
permit a number of other new projects to be undertaken in collabo­
ration with the various foreign and district offices of the bureau and
with the trade associations interested.
RUBBER DIVISION

The high records of the rubber industry established in 1928-29 were
followed in 1929-30 by general decreases. Crude-rubber consump­
tion declined 15 per cent; tire production was less by 23,000,000 cas­
ings, or 27 per cent, and sales were 15,000,000 casings, or 19 per cent,
lower. Tire manufacturers’ inventories, however, -were smaller at
the end of June, 1930. by about 3,500,000 than on June 30, 1929. and
replacement sales did not suffer the same severe decline registered
in original-equipment sales. The other branches of the rubber-man­
ufacturing industry were affected similarly, but not to the same
extent, curtailed production of motor vehicles having practically no
influence on these lines. Remedial action by the rubber industry
during the past year included (a) mergers of small producers into
large units, (b) plant economy and the discontinuance of inefficient
plants, (c) diversification of production and the manufacture of arti­
cles required by established customers, and (cl) better and more effi­
cient methods of distribution, with the entrance of large manufac­
turers into the role of retailer.
The rubber division continued its various statistical-information
services to exporters, manufacturers, crude-rubber importers and
dealers, and rubber reclaimers. These services comprise statistics
and special studies covering the international trade in rubber prod­
ucts; crude-rubber shipments, absorption, and stock statistics; and
regular periodic surveys in behalf of manufacturers, embracing con­
sumption and stocks of crude and reclaimed rubber and retail tire
and rubber footwear stocks at the beginning and end of the usual
purchasing season. The crude-rubber statistical services, particu­
larly, were well received.
One of the helpful accomplishments of the division last year was
the securing of a 33pj per cent reduction in ocean freight rates for
rubber Wellington boots from the United States to Great Britain,
thus enabling American exporters to compete on equal terms with

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R E PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

continental manufacturers for the British trade in this important
item. The saving in freight should amount to approximately $50,000
annually.
During the year the division issued a trade information bulletin
entitled “ South American Markets for Rubber Sundries and Spe­
cialties ” and a 7-part monograph entitled “ Foreign Markets for
Rubber Boots and Shoes and Rubber Heels and Soles, besides weekly
circulars and news letters on world movement of and developments in
crude rubber and weekly and monthly circulars covering foreign
markets for all classes of rubber manufactures. Mimeographed ma­
terial consisted of 377 circulars, 126 statistical statements, and 43
corrections to the division’s loose-leaf manual of foreign import
duties on rubber manufactures.
S H O E A M ) L E A T H E R M A N U F A C T U R E S D IV ISIO N

While the work of the shoe and leather manufactures division, in
the main, followed established lines last year, the increase in the num­
ber of firms listed on the Exporters’ Index and the eagerness with
which the division’s advice is sought when foreign problems arise
clearly indicate the trade’s recognition of the service the bureau is
rendering. The division has always stressed direct-sales service to
the manufacturer and exporter through specific sales leads, aid in
planning foreign sales campaigns, and the extension of existing
markets for American leather manufactures. This has resulted
in much good—and much new business—to the shoe and allied
industries.
One of the outstanding achievements of the year was the organiza­
tion in New England and in Brooklyn of export committees of shoe
manufacturers. These groups, advised by the chief of the division,
will work for the promotion of the shoe export trade. Another
encouraging development of the year was the larger number of in­
quiries relative to foreign markets for shoemakers’ supplies, such as
findings and polishes, and for miscellaneous leather goods. A care­
ful study of potential outlets for wares of this kind caused many
more manufacturers than heretofore to take advantage of the bu­
reau’s foreign trade opportunity service.
With the cooperation of the bureau’s field staff and consular offi­
cers of the Department of State, the division carried out special sur­
veys covering hoots and shoes, trunks, bags and suitcases, harness
and saddlery, and miscellaneous leather goods in other countries.
The data thus collected were published in Commerce Reports, in
foreign market bulletins, and as special circulars.
The arrangement made by the division with the National Boot
and Shoe Manufacturers’ Association and the New England Shoe
and Leather Association to mimeograph information compiled by the
division and distribute it to the industry, without expense to the
bureau, has proved exceedingly helpful.
SPECIALTIES DIVISION

American specialties set a new high figure in exports for the last
calendar year, reaching a total of $200,500,000, or $17,500,000 above
1928, indicating the growing importance of this group of unrelated

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133

items in the overseas trade of our country. Although the first half
of the calendar year 1930 showed a certain falling on from the peak
levels of 1929, some gains were made, and the total for the fiscal year
was not unsatisfactory in comparison with other classes of exports.
In additiok to the more important lines, such as business equip­
ment, glass, sporting goods, toys, musical instruments, books, and
scientific instruments, there figured in this trade bottle caps, calen­
dars, playing cards, cigarette holders, soda fountains, shaving
brushes, handcuffs, posters, vacuum bottles, post cards, and many
other products. It is particularly noteworthy that a high ratio of
exports to production is maintained in some of the specialty indus­
tries, notably office appliances, dental goods, musical instruments,
and photographic materials.
As in other years, the division actively assisted manufacturers en­
tering the export field in feeling out the possibilities for the sale of
their merchandise and in finding new outlets for goods already estab­
lished in world markets, and requests for help of this kind increased.
There was a large demand, too, for the general trade-information
service maintained by the division, for foreign-agency service, and
for information on foreign advertising media and methods from
American manufacturers, exporters, and advertising agencies. The
trade-opportunity work of the division was improved by sending
special supplementary notices to manufacturers as a means of getting
the requirements of foreign buyers filled in a satisfactory manner
without undue delay. A results file maintained in connection with
this service shows that orders were placed ranging from $100 to
$30,000.
Work was started on a digest and analysis of the trade information
which has been received within the past few years on a wide variety
of specialty articles. Trade data have been summarized commodity
by commodity and incorporated in bound digests that are to be made
available on a loan basis. It is planned to keep these digests up to
date. Announcement of the completion of each one will appear in
Commerce Reports.
The division assisted in several domestic-commerce surveys, in­
cluding that of the blue-printing industry and of the jewelry indus­
try, and regularly maintains statistics with respect to the domestic
business trend in certain specialty lines.
Cooperation with the various specialty associations in the study
of foreign and domestic trade problems was continued. At present
the division is cooperating with the American Olympic Games Com­
mittee in securing from foreign countries lists of sporting and
athletic associations that may participate in the 1932 Olympic events.
This, with related information, will be highly useful to exporters
of athletic and kindred goods. In certain lines, notably furniture,
soda fountains, hotel equipment, and coin-operated machines, the
division made particular effort to stimulate the interest of exporters,
either because of opportunities which seemed to offer or because ot
the activity of European competitors. Results appear to be worth
while, particularly in the case of coin-operated machines, where a
number of initial orders are directly traceable to the division’s labors
and total exports are running nearly a third ahead of a year ago.

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REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

On account of the unrelated character of the many commodities
covered, the specialties division has endeavored to develop closer
contacts with manufacturers and to give to each one individual
attention in the light of his own peculiar problems.
T E X T IL E D IV ISIO N

The world-wide depression which has faced the textile industry,
particularly the cotton branch, for several years has caused com­
petition in foreign markets to become unusually keen, with business
going largely to the country of lowest production costs. Promoting
the sale of American textiles abroad accordingly is fraught with
more than ordinary difficulty. Although United States textile man­
ufactures continue to be exported in substantial volume, foreign
demand has been confined more and more to articles of recognized
superiority in style, fit, quality, or durability. The textile division
has intensified its efforts to find new export outlets for American
textile products, but has met, in many cases, with increasing sales
resistance. Trained specialists have been assigned to certain areas
to promote the introduction of new lines and the sale of those already
established there.
Through its close contact with the various domestic trade associa­
tions the division has been able, in many, instances, to refer specific
trade opportunities submitted by field officers of the Departments of
Commerce and State to firms equipped to supply the articles desired
and to insure thereby the satisfactory culmination of business. Fur­
thermore, numerous samples were forwarded to the bureau's foreign
offices for inspection by prospective buyers and agents in their terri­
tories. An effective supplement to these services has been the dis­
semination of pertinent information on current conditions and trends
in textile producing and consuming countries through the medium
of bulletins dealing with specific commodities, such as raw cotton,
yarns, cotton piece goods, wool and wool manufactures, knit goods,
silk and rayon, linens and laces, miscellaneous vegetable fibers, and
wearing apparel. Developments of interest to laundry owners and
dry cleaners also were covered in a bulletin issued by the division
last year.
Substantial economies in Government textile purchases have been
effected in recent years through standard commercial specifications
devised by the technical committee on textiles of the Federal Speci­
fications Board. The chief of the textile division is chairman of
this committee. In compliance with instructions from the Chief
Coordinator that all existing Federal specifications be revised, to
secure greater uniformity and to insure maximum returns on Govern­
ment expenditures for supplies, the textile committee completed the
revision of about one-fourth of the outstanding textile specifications
last year.
The division continued to collaborate with the Cotton Textile
Institute (an organization of cotton manufacturers representing
about 20,000.000 spindles) and the Department of Agriculture in
the search for new and extended uses of cotton. Last year particular
emphasis was laid on direct promotion of sales of cotton articles
bv stimulating consumer demand, and to this end four bulletins,
The Automobile Trunk. The Athletic Field Tarpaulin, The Play
Tent, and Speaking of Vacations, were issued. More than 200

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articles of cotton, suitable for use in vacations throughout the year,
are listed in the last-named pamphlet, of 'which approximately
425,000 copies were distributed to consumers through department
stores and other retail outlets handling sporting and vacation
supplies. This phase of the division’s work has attracted favorable
attention abroad. Cotton merchants and manufacturers in Great
Britain are emulating the example thus set and attempting to increase
the use of cotton goods through various publicity methods aimed to
reach the ultimate consumer.
The United States Government was represented officially at the
First International Fur Exposition held in Leipzig, Germany, last
year. The division’s fur section prepared data and charts showing
the development of fur dressing and dyeing in the United States,
fur manufacture, and foreign trade for the American exhibit. The
textile division also cooperated with the Bureau of Fisheries of the
Department of Commerce and the Biological Survey of the Depart­
ment of Agriculture in the issuance of a 50-page illustrated booklet
on the fur resources of the United States for use at Leipzig.
SPECIALIZED TECHNICAL SERVICES TO BUSINESS
COM M ERCIAL IN T E L L IG E N C E DIVISION

Development of the World Trade Directory of foreign buyers
continues to be the most constructive work of the commercial intelli­
gence division. The credit for building up this file of detailed reports
on nearly 450,000 foreign firms belongs mainly to American consular
officers, but the field men of the Department of Commerce also
have contributed. During the past fiscal twelvemonth 31,299 reports
were added to the file, exclusive of revisions; revised reports are
being received constantly—last year 52,778 of them. It is of interest
that during the same period 155,027 supplementary reports were
received from American exporters, banks, and credit-reporting
agencies on their individual experiences with foreign firms.
Because of the unique character of these World Trade Directory
reports, it is apparent that they play an important part in the
activities of American exporters in the expansion of their foreign
sales. Last year 161,474 requests for these reports were received,
and the demand continues to grow. About 60 per cent of the requests
could be answered promptly out of the division’s master file in
Washington; the remaining 40 per cent required further information
from the field. A heavy burden is placed on Foreign Service officers
who must both gather facts for new reports and keep up to date the
thousands of reports now on file; and ways and means should be
found to expedite this work. This file has added interest when it
is realized that it contains reports not only on foreign firms believed
to be reliable, but also those regarded as unreliable.
The trade-list service, the oldest activity of the division, which
charts foreign markets with respect to selling channels, now em­
braces 3,200 commodities and the names and addresses of 675,000
foreign importers, wholesalers, commission merchants, and large
retailers, 185,000 foreign manufacturers, and 135,000 members of the
professional class—physicians, surgeons, dentists, architects, and
engineers. Last year 160 new lists were compiled and published
and 648 were revised and reprinted. Seven hundred and forty-

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R E PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

one thousand of these lists were sent out upon specific request in
1929-30.
The foreign-trade opportunities coming to the bureau from con­
sular and Commerce officers abroad are checked in the commercial
intelligence division against its records prior to publication in Com­
merce Reports. Last year 9,013 were thus checked.
The service of suggesting suitable agents abroad has been much
improved. Now, specialists in the division carefully select foreign
agent distributors on whom a wealth of information has been de­
veloped with respect to sales experience and lines handled. While
figures are not the best gauge, nevertheless the 3,922 inquiries that
were given careful research and analysis last year attest the value of
this activity.
The division is now prepared to supply current information with
respect to credit conditions in other countries, particularly those
areas where business is below normal; a digest based on cabled
advices appears weekly in Commerce Reports. Three times monthly
special reports are made to banks and credit-reporting agencies in the
United States with respect to foreign firms in financial difficulties and
those with which dealings are deemed hazardous or which resort
to fraudulent and unethical practices. At all times the division is
in position to furnish American exporters reliable and available
sources of foreign credit information to aid in rating the foreign
buyer as a credit risk.
A study of buying terms for basic commodities current in the
trading centers of the world has been completed and is available
to exporters generally. This is a virgin field of endeavor. A more
intensive study is planned, and much of the material then gathered
will later be published.
D IV ISIO N O F CO M M ERC IA L LAW S

The past year’s work of the division of commercial laws evidences
the value of an informal medium through which cooperation may
be extended toward the solution of such international legal problems
as codification of laws, double taxation, protection of industrial and
intellectual property, nationalistic trends in insurance and labor
laws, and of those difficulties that arise in individual transactions in
the foreign trade.
The Latin American legal section of the division continued its
cooperation with the Comision Revisora del Codigo de Comercio
de Chile. A new chattel-mortgage law was adopted by Chile based
upon information placed before that commission, and other important
revisions in consonance with advanced principles of American legisla­
tion are under consideration. Original studies were made concerning
the liability of common carriers in 18 Latin American countries.
Another original undertaking was checking for legal phraseology
and content the first English translation of Las Siete Partidas (a
thirteenth century compilation of Spanish laws which forms the
groundwork of the various codes of every Spanish American
country), to be published under the auspices of the American Bar
Association; and cooperation was extended the Bar Association of
the City of New York in the preparation of its second publication

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137

on installment sales in Latin America. Encouraged by the fact that
the bulletin on Trading Under the Laws of Argentina obtained a
wider sale than any previous legal publication of the division, a
similarly comprehensive study for Peru has been completed. Other
publications of this section include special circulars on the laws of
Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, and Peru.
Considerable increase in the work of the European legal section
was occasioned by the contemplated or actual establishment of sub­
sidiaries and branch factories in foreign countries, involving prob­
lems of incorporation and taxation. Numerous firms were informed
regarding the legal requirements pertaining to doing business abroad,
resulting in substantial savings to them in taxes, license fees, and
royalty arrangements, and, among other matters, regarding foreign
laws regulating the hiring and discharging of employees. Within
the past year personal study of tax matters, with particular reference
to double taxation, was made by a member of this section who visited
the principal European countries. As a result of this research,
material has been prepared for a bulletin dealing with the exceed­
ingly complex subject of taxation of business in France. Similar
information concerning German and Belgian systems of taxation
was also obtained and is now being prepared for publication.
Special circulars were issued on trading—particularly from the view­
point of taxation and company law—in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria,
Great Britain, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, and Spain.
The industrial property and copyright section has found such
demand for information on protection against trade-mark piracy
that a weekly Trade-Mark Application Service has been instituted.
Despite continued publicity, through bureau publications and other
media, manjr American manufacturers fail to protect their industrialproperty rights in those civil-law countries which ordinarily grant
such rights to the first applicant. Special studies were undertaken
toward informing American owners of the working requirements of
foreign countries affecting patents. In the field of copyrights, new
questions have arisen by reason of radio broadcasting and talkingpicture developments. Many other forms of unfair competition
have come to the attention of this section; but, while all possible
cooperation has been extended in individual cases, comprehensive
study of the underlying problems has been delayed by lack of per­
sonnel. Material has been gathered for a monograph on Protection
of Trade-Marks in Latin America, and special circulars have been
issued relative to current trade-mark, patent, and copyright legisla­
tion in China, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico, Spain, Turkey, and
Venezuela.
The work of the trade adjustment and insurance and labor laws
section increased 56 per cent last year. As a trade barometer this
increase, following one of 65 per cent the year before, indicates con­
tinuing economic depression in many foreign countries, causing
“ legally honest” purchasers to seek escape from contractual obliga­
tions. Through investigation and action upon complaints of foreign
customers, American prestige and reputation for observance of
proper trade practices has been maintained; through like attention
to complaints against foreign firms, recoveries have been effected

138

R E PO R T TO T H E SECEETAEY OF COM M ERCE

for American exporters by payment, repossession of merchandise,
or sale of stranded shipments. Many similar adjustments have been
effected in matters handled directly by the. bureau’s foreign offices.
Lack of personnel precludes the functioning of the insurance and
labor laws subdivision of this section as a separate unit although
the nature of its work is in no way related to that of trade adjust­
ments. Insurance developments within the past year were char­
acterized by nationalistic enactments creating State monopolies,
taxing premiums paid to other than national companies, and re­
quiring such companies to maintain investments in the legislating
country. In three known instances information furnished by the
insurance and labor laws section enabled American insurance com­
panies to make proper representations toward safeguarding their
interests. Special study has been made of certain fields looking to
the expansion of American insurance undertakings through the
establishment of agencies or the purchase of existing companies.
Among the section’s publications of the year were bulletins on legal
provisions governing the admission of American companies into
foreign countries and employers’ obligations under such forms of
social insurance as workmen’s compensation and industrial accident
and incapacity benefits, including the very comprehensive French
social-insurance law.
D IV ISIO N OF CORRESPONDENCE AND D ISTR IB U TIO N

Supervision of the incoming and outgoing correspondence of the
bureau is centralized in the correspondence section of the division
of correspondence and distribution. Besides the actual routing of
incoming correspondence and the review of outgoing letters prepared
by the commodity, technical, and regional experts of the bureau,
the correspondence section is given oversight over the uniform and
consistent treatment of similar problems by the different units at
Washington and in the field, appropriate cooperation between the
several divisions of the bureau in Washington and between the Wash­
ington organization and the field staffs, the efficient handling of
correspondence, and like subjects.
During the year ended June 30, 1930, 214,630 letters were received
in the correspondence section at Washington and routed to the ap­
propriate units, and 245,444 outgoing letters were reviewed; besides
which an outgoing correspondence comparing favorably in volume
with that of many of the service divisions of the bureau was carried
on in connection with the division’s own work, letters and forms sent
in answer to specific inquiries numbering nearly 15,000 last year.
Progress has continued in the line of reduced letter writing through
wider use of form letters.
The two main functions of the distribution section are (a) the
elimination of duplication of material and (Z>) the distribution of
the proper material to persons interested in the bureau’s services. A
large number of straight mailing lists come under the supervision
of this section, but the main list, where duplication and proper dis­
tribution have to be constantly supervised, is the Exporters’ Index—
that highly classified list of 25,000 eligible American firms and
individuals interested in foreign trade which forms the basis of the
bureau’s distribution of commercial information.

FO R EIG N AND D O M ESTIC COM M ERCE

139

A new policy, that of making—with congressional approval—a
nominal charge for the periodical mimeographed statistical state­
ments distributed on some 350 separate mailing lists, has resulted
in an elimination of wastage of material to contacts not really
interested in the particular service. A considerable saving has also
been effected through the distribution section’s supplying the dis­
trict offices of the bureau with addressed envelopes covering classified
contacts in each territory as carried in the master files here in
Washington.
E D IT O R IA L D IV IS IO N

The intensifying of all the statistical and informational activities
of the bureau last year meant a corresponding increase in the quan­
tity of published matter; for, notwithstanding the many points of
personal contact which the bureau has with the commercial com­
munity, in the main it must depend upon the printed word to carry
to the public the information it has gathered.
The output of the editorial division in printed and mimeographed
material during 1929-30, accordingly, was larger than for any pre­
vious fiscal period. Besides the regular publications—Commerce
Reports, Commerce Yearbook, Statistical Abstract, Commerce and
Navigation, and the Monthly Summary—135 special publications,
ranging in size from 20 to 600 pages, were issued. Included among
the latter were voluminous reports on the marketing and trade
surveys conducted by the bureau in the domestic field; of this series,
the Market Data Handbook of the United States has been declared
one of the most important works in the domain of applied economics
issued during the year.
The greater use of illustrations in bureau publications is meeting
with a very favorable reaction, though further extension of the use
of graphs, charts, and maps is checked by lack of personnel to
prepare them.
F I N A N C E A N D IN V E S T M E N T D IV IS IO N

Prospective underwriters of foreign bond issues, exporters con­
templating sales to foreign governmental units, banks seeking for
eign correspondents or desiring to deposit funds abroad, and con­
cerns affected by bankruptcies of foreign financial institutions or
by unstable foreign exchange sought the assistance of the finance
and investment division in large numbers. Abnormal exchange
conditions gave rise to numerous inquiries by exporters and others,
as did also the unsatisfactory fiscal state of several areas, notably
in Latin America. Fact finding on fiscal conditions abroad on
behalf of the Department of State was an important new feature
of the year’s work. During the latter half of the year the chief of
the division served as special financial adviser to the American
ambassador at Habana.
In addition to its regular mimeographed releases and an unusual
number of special articles in Commerce Reports, the division issued
13 trade information bulletins and also completed a handbook on
American Underwriting of Foreign Securities covering the period
1914-1929. Among the more important of the bulletins were those
on French Experience with Defaulted Foreign Bonds and The Price

140

REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OP CO M M ERCE

of Silver; the latter was reprinted in the Congressional Record. The
annual bulletin on America’s balance of payments (a survey of the
year’s operations in dollar exchange) was still further improved by
refinements in estimating the invisible items of our foreign trade.
Certain of the year’s activities were offshoots of the balance-ofpayments work. The division completed the manuscript of Pro­
motion of Tourism in Foreign Countries; in April the Federal re­
serve banks began to accept Canadian bank notes from member
banks without charges for collection—a practice proposed by the
division in order to reduce the heavy discounts often charged on
these bank notes and thereby to encourage Canadian visits to this
country. Lastly, at the suggestion of the finance division the United
States Bureau of Immigration began compiling more complete data
on the departures of American citizens from seaports.
Early in the fiscal year the division began a census of American
“ direct investments ” abroad; the results will be published shortly.
D IV IS IO N O P F O R E IG N T A R IF F S

I f the nature and volume of inquiries on subjects within the scope
of the division of foreign tariffs received in the bureau and the
various district offices from American firms in the course of the last
year can be taken as an indication, (here has been a substantially
intensified interest in foreign-trade problems, at least in so far as the"
customs tariffs and trade regulations of foreign countries are
involved. The major proportion of this growth has been in the
inquiries answered by the district offices from the material prepared
for them by the division in Washington. The number of inquiries
handled in Washington does not show a corresponding growth, but
the development may be seen in a change in the character of inquiry
received. There has been a much larger proportion of that type of
inquiry w'hich submits an entire problem for consideration, or indi­
cates in some other way a new or renewed interest in foreign markets
and a hope of possibly overcoming certain barriers by a more
complete understanding of their nature.
A rather distinct feature of many inquiries has been the question of
possible tariff advantages to be gained by the building of branch
factories in certain foreign countries, particularly' Canada, to cover
not only the local markets but also markets in certain other foreign
countries. These inquiries have indicated a rather widespread mis­
conception as to the tariff status of American goods abroad.
This prompted the issuance of a brief circular summarizing the
tariff advantages and disadvantages of American products in com­
peting for foreign markets. The w'ide demand for this circular in
various sections of the country' indicates the useful purpose it has
served.
The customary activities of the division in aiding to prevent diffi­
culties arising out of foreign tariff laws, customs and pure-food
regulations, and the like and in salvaging as much as possible when
such difficulties have been experienced have been continued. There
has been the usual volume of requests for an explanation of the exact
nature of foreign regulations which are not perfectly understood in
their application to the exporter’s specific articles or problems or on
which he has received incomplete or inaccurate information. There

FO R EIG N AND DO M ESTIC COM M ERCE

141

have also continued the usual requests for assistance in obtaining a
more definite or perhaps a more favorable classification under the
tariff of some foreign country; as well as complaints that for one
reason or another difficulties have been experienced and fines or
excess duties levied for infraction of some foreign requirements. In
a number of cases it has been possible, with the aid of the American
commercial attache, trade commissioner, or consul stationed at the
foreign port, to obtain a remission or refund of part or even the
whole of such excess duties or fines.
There has been the customary cooperation with the Department
of State in discussing the terms of commercial treaties under nego­
tiation, and with other departments in regard to matters of common
interest. There have also been during the year a number of inter­
national conferences of particular interest to the division of foreign
tariffs, because of the nature of their subject matter, including the
Pan American Conference on Customs Procedure and Port Formali­
ties at Washington, held under the auspices of the Pan American
Union; the conference at Paris, in December, 1929, with reference
to the putting into effect of the International Convention for the
Abolition of Import and Export Restrictions and Prohibitions,
which had been ratified by the United States in September; and
the conference for concerted economic action, more popularly known
as the Conference for a Tariff Truce, held in Geneva under the
auspices of the League of Nations in February and March, 1930,
to which the United States was not a party, but the deliberations
of which were necessarily of interest.
During the year the chief of the division visited Canada to study
at first hand matters of Canadian tariff and customs procedure.
There has been progress in the issuance of publications on which
the staff of the division has been working, including Preparing
Shipments to Canada which has received widespread distribution,
and further numbers in the series of studies of foreign tariffs and
regulations affecting agricultural products. There have already
been issued in this series handbooks on Fresh Fruits and Vegetables
and Canned Foods in Europe. Further numbers, including Canned
Foods in the Western Hemisphere and one covering canned foods
in Asia, Africa, and the Orient are ready for early publication.
A further development of the division’s services which is worthy
of mention has been the establishment of close contact with certain
trade organizations having offices in Washington, with a view to the
prompt dissemination through those organizations to the trade of
news of current and prospective changes in foreign tariffs and trade
regulations, more promptly and sometimes in greater detail than is
ordinarily possible or convenient through the regular media of pub­
lication, such as the “ Tariffs and trade regulations ” column in
Commerce Reports. This means of informal yet very effective co­
operation has been especially developed with the local office of the
National Automobile Chamber of Commerce, where it has been of
substantial assistance in the prompt dissemination to the automotive
trade of the news of changes or pending changes of interest to that
industry. Similar cooperation is offered to any other trade or­
ganizations with which such local relations can conveniently be
maintained.

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REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE
D IV IS IO N O F R E G IO N A L IN F O R M A T IO N

Exporters, manufacturers, and bankers find it essential to ob­
serve continually foreign-market trends, the operations of our com­
petitors in neutral markets, conditions affecting purchasing power,
and the general effect on industry and trade of governmental meas­
ures, labor conditions, and numerous other factors. The division
of regional information follows these trends, maintaining up-to-date
files of information on general economic conditions and tendencies
that may affect American business possibilities abroad. It fre­
quently furnishes data that serve as a background to the more spe­
cialized information supplied by the commodity and technical divi­
sions of the bureau.
The division has maintained mailing lists of organizations and
individuals interested in specific regions, and to these it has sent the
weekly Russian Economic Notes, Commercial Notes on Canada,
China Monthly Trade Report, Japan Economic Letter, and circulars
on miscellaneous subjects, including a complete revision of the cir­
culars on cost of living for Americans in foreign countries. Pub­
lication in Commerce Reports of the weekly and monthly cables
and radiograms continued, in addition to a great many special arti­
cles originating in the division or based on reports from the field
officers of the bureau and the Department of State. At the end of
the calendar year, extensive cables were published giving résumés of
the economic position of leading foreign countries.
Once a month a survey of economic conditions in Europe was pre­
pared especially for the use of the Bureau of Agricultural Eco­
nomics, Department of Agriculture. Monthly cables were dis­
patched to the field offices of the bureau in the Far East for the
special use of American chambers of commerce and American trade
organizations in that part of the world. Through the National
Automobile Chamber of Commerce, the automotive industry was
furnished with a special cable service.
A publication of special significance completed during the year
was the handbook on the United Kingdom. Work is progressing on
a somewhat similar handbook covering France. Handbooks of this
character have been found to be of great value to exporters already
established abroad or perhaps without experience in the particular
area treated. Work is now under way for a complete revision of the
extensive Commercial Travelers’ Guide to Latin America.
In collaboration with the division of statistical research, the For­
eign Commerce Yearbook for 1929 was prepared, the division of
regional information contributing the discussion of economic trends
and outline of business conditions in the countries included.
The trade information bulletins embraced subjects such as Bud­
gets of European Countries, Economic Review of Finland, Trends
in Japan’s Trade and Industry, Chain Store Developments in Great
Britain, etc. In 1928-29 a publication entitled “ United States Trade
with Latin America for 1927 ” met with such popular appeal that a
similar work covering 1928 was released this past year. A fifth
edition of Employment for Americans in Latin America and a third
edition of Employment in the Far East were published in answer
to a steady demand for information of this character. Over 35.000
copies of these bulletins have thus far been distributed.

FO R EIG N AND DO M ESTIC COM M ERCE

143

In accordance with a Senate resolution, a comprehensive report on
American branch factories abroad and the significance of the sub­
ject to American industry is being prepared in cooperation with the
finance and investment division, contributory information for this
report being received from the field officers of the bureau and the
Department of State. A preliminary article on the subject was
prepared for Commerce Reports by the chief of the division of
regional information.
Developments in the international cartel situation were closely
followed by the division, an extensive library and file of data per­
taining to this subject being maintained. At the start of the fiscal
year the division chief attended the fifth general congress of the
International Chamber of Commerce at Amsterdam and took advan­
tage of this trip to Europe to make direct studies of European
cartels and various economic problems associated with them. He had
an opportunity of discussing these topics with leading European
industrialists, foreign government officials, and United states Gov­
ernment representatives in European countries.
The chief of the Latin American section of the division visited
five port cities during the year with a view to advising city authori­
ties and business men on possibilities of developing Latin American
trade, saving them heavy expense of individual investigation and
possible expenditure of funds in the wrong direction. Section chiefs
on the other areas were similarly called upon to address export
meetings and trade organizations, and to discuss with individual
business men the problems involving their particular regions.
D IV IS IO N

O F S T A T IS T IC A L R E S E A R C H

The division of statistical research was particularly active during
the past year. Following the stock-market crash of October, 1929,
there came to the bureau urgent requests for statistical information
and analyses which would assist in judging business cycles and give
that long view so needful for commercial restabilization. One of
the publications of the division, the Commerce Yearbook, proved
particularly useful in this emergency, and the demand for it quickly
exhausted the entire 1929 edition of both Volume I, which surveys
business conditions in the United States, and Volume II, which
presents like data for about 65 foreign countries, and in the prepara­
tion of which the division of regional information collaborates.
There was a steady call, too, for the Statistical Abstract, another
regular annual publication of the division, designed more especially,
however, for the careful student of economics who desires statistical
material in much detail. The preparation of these three volumes
is a major work of the division.
Analyses of the foreign trade of the United States by quarters
and by calendar and fiscal years published in Commerce Reports
or trade information bulletins made general information on our
overseas movement of merchandise, and its significance, currently
accessible; and in addition numerous analyses were made by the
division, at the direct request of business men, regarding production,
distribution, employment, and other phases of economic activity
such as trend behavior of prices since 1920 and world potential

144

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OE COM M ERCE

consumption or use of specific commodities or services, based on
United States standards of living.
The Survey of Current Business, formerly published by the Bureau
of the Census, was transferred to the division in June. The joining
of the staffs and facilities of the Survey of Current Business with
those of the statistical research division should make it possible to
provide business men and economists with an unequaled statistical
service.
Among the new publications of the year was a Handbook of
Foreign Currency and Exchange, now in press, which will doubtless
be found extremelj7 useful as a ready-reference manual for bankers,
economists, and business men.
Geographic services to exporters and technical and trade-promo­
tion services to map publishers comprised the larger part of the
geographic section’s activities. Nearly 400 studies were made for
exporters to supply them with data on climate, soil, or topography
or a geographic analysis of a trade region. This information was
utilized by them in planning their selling activities more effectively.
For map publishers 32 important studies were made, besides many
of smaller scope, and a special-circular service regularly supplies
them with new material for their maps and atlases and with tradepromotion information. In the last-named activity the foreign
service division is cooperating.
The translation section turned into English nearly 5,000 pages of
text from 14 foreign languages and rendered into German, French,
Spanish, Portuguese, and Italian 260 pages of English test. As in
the past, specifications for public bids on private and governmental
work in foreign countries were made available, through translation,
to American manufacturers and exporters. Outstanding among the
larger pieces of translating work were the new Mexican Labor Code,
the French social insurance law, Lower Finow (Germany) canal
lifting construction (new engineering technique), and the new Italian
consumption tax law.
D IV IS IO N O F S T A T IS T IC S

Collection of data relating to the foreign trade was one of the first
statistical services undertaken by our Government. Year by year
this service has been expanded and improved, until now the annual
Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States and the
monthly Summary of Foreign Commerce are indispensable in any
study of our commercial position. Preparation of these two pub­
lications is a major activity of the division of statistics. Compilation
of the master tables is done in the section of customs statistics at New
York from export declarations and import entries forwarded to it
from all customs ports in the country; elaboration of these tables
and their preparation for publication are handled in the Washington
offices. To make Foreign Commerce and Navigation even move use­
ful to the business community it is proposed, beginning with the
calendar year 1930, to enlarge the scope of the two principal tables
therein (Nos. 3 and 4, giving exports and imports by articles and
countries) by expanding them to cover a 5-year period instead of a
single year as heretofore.

FO R EIG N AND DO M ESTIC COM M ERCE

145

Other regular services of the division comprise some 250 mimeo­
graphed statements showing monthly movements of selected articles
by countries or customs districts. Requests upon the division for
general and specific information were 50 per cent heavier than in
1928-29.
A special publication of the division last year was a new Schedule
A, giving the statistical classification and rates of duty for imports
under the tariff act effective June 18, 1930. This new schedule,
which was prepared in collaboration with the Tariff Commission,
was distributed to collectors of customs on June 21.
For several years past the division has carried on a campaign of
education having for its object perfection of the export statistics
of the United States as to classification of commodities. Group
totals are correct within narrow margins; but shippers have not infre­
quently called attention to discrepancies between their actual exports
and the figures as published for specific articles. Inquiry disclosed
that most of these variations were caused by incomplete descriptions
or wrong quantities and values in export declarations, especially in
those prepared by forwarding agents at seaports from railroad or
steamship bills of lading. Furthermore, discrepancies have been
noted in the published export figures for finished manufactures that
were due to the minutely specialized subdivision of the statistical
classifications which the industries themselves have asked for.
Highly refined technical classifications can not always be differen­
tiated by persons outside the particular industry, and statistical
clerks at customhouses, not possessing specialized knowledge of the
thousands of commodities described in export declarations, some­
times err in classification when the export document has not been
carefully made out. To accomplish the accuracy that is both
desirable and desired, it is essential—
1. T hat exporters who have exact knowledge of the goods prepare the export
declarations in their own offices, instead of passing the task on to shippingagents at seaport or border points whose only source of inform ation is the
general description given in the bill of lading;
2. T hat the instructions in statistical export classification Schedule It as to
countries of destination, quantities, values, and descriptions of articles be care­
fully observed and correctly entered in export declarations (Customs Form
7525) ; and
3. T h at the statistical class number of Schedule B be inserted by the ex­
porter himself in the last column of the declaration, instead of leaving its
insertion to statistical clerks a t customhouses, who may, through lack of techni­
cal knowledge, insert a wrong class number.
T R A N S P O R T A T IO N

D IV IS IO N

The past year was notable for the progress made in special research
relating to transportation and communication. These two—trans­
portation and communication—are elements vital to the conduct of
every business; and the studies that are being carried out by the
transportation division of the bureau are not only receiving recogni­
tion from organizations and individuals having a major interest in
the particular subject under analysis, but they are proving of value
to interlocking and subsidiary activities as well.
Research into what is practically a virgin field, that of traffic man­
agement in industry, was undertaken at the request and with the gen18038—30----- 10

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REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE

orous cooperation of the Associated Traffic Clubs of America, the
regional advisory boards of the American Railway Association, and
the National Industrial Traffic League. A handbook based on the
data developed by this study will appear shortly under the title
“ Industrial Traffic Management: A Survey of Its Relation to
Business.”
The inland waterways section of the division published a Directory
of Inland Waterway Lines of the United States, which met a longfelt w ant: and the section, cooperating with the domestic commerce
division, made substantial progress in gathering basic material rela­
tive to the economics of inland-waterway transportation with special
reference to operating costs, this survey necessitating considerable
field work. Publication of the report thereon is scheduled for the
current fiscal year.
The shipping Section continued in Commerce Reports the semi­
annual reviews of economic trends in the shipping industries of the
maritime countries of the world. Special surveys of various aspects
of the foreign shipbuilding industry were undertaken for the Na­
tional Council of American Shipbuilders. This information has been
valuable also to the Committee on Reducing the Differentials in Ship­
building Costs Here and Abroad, which was appointed by the Second
National Conference on the American Merchant Marine. The chief
of the transportation division is a member of this committee and
serves also on the Committee for Increasing Patronage of American
Ships and the Committee for Aid to Cargo Vessels not Benefitted by
Mail Contracts.
Three publications released by the division last year had reference
to foreign ports; this research represents a joint work of the United
States Shipping Board and the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic
Commerce. Two of the completed reports related to the ports of
Liverpool and Hamburg; the entire first edition of the remaining
one, Foreign Bunkering Stations, has already been exhausted and
its revision, for reissuance, is under way. Research regarding our
foreign trade with Latin America through the ports o f Argentina,
Brazil, and Uruguay will supply the subject matter of monographs
to appear during the current year.
Marked progress has been made in the study relative to Govern­
ment aid to merchant shipping. The results of this research, com­
prising a complete historical review of subsidies and subventions by
foreign governments to their ocean transportation lines, will be pub­
lished soon.
The foreign railway section of the division continued to promote
sales abroad of railway equipment—for the transportation division
functions as a commodity as well as a technical unit of the bureau
organization—placing numerous manufacturers in touch with for­
eign agents. It analyzed railway finances for American firms inter­
ested in bidding on construction projects in other countries. A com­
prehensive handbook on the railways of Chile was published as Part
I I I of the Railways of South America series.
In its export-packing work the division continued to advise ex­
porters regarding this important phase of exporting. During the
year several plants were visited by division specialists and assistance
furnished in designing satisfactory containers. Cooperation was

FO REIG N AND DO M ESTIC COM M ERCE

147

continued with the railways and express agencies in further reducing
loss and damage claims through proper packing and stowage.
The division is cooperating with the Bureau of Public Roads of
the Department of Agriculture in a motor-truck survey, based on
information supplied by truck operators, that should prove of value
in determining cost factors, radius of operation, and classes of
commodities moving by this form of transportation.
The communications section rendered assistance to business inter­
ests and communications companies. In securing press rates and
“ collect ” privileges on cable and radio traffic from all foreign offices
of the bureau the section made possible greater economy in the ex­
penditure of public funds for these purposes.
The chief of the transportation division is serving as a member
of the subcommittee on ocean-mail contracts of the Interdepart­
mental Mail Contract Committee. As a result of ocean-mail con­
tract requirements, shipbuilding in the United States has increased;
it is estimated that approximately 10,000 men are employed in ship
construction to-day, because of Government aid in the development
of an American merchant marine, who would not otherwise have
found such employment. Gross tonnage of merchant vessels of 100
tons or more building on July 1, 1927, totaled 219,000; on July 1,
1928, 264,000; on July 1, 1929, 170,000; and on July 1, 1930, 476,000
gross tons. A number of steamship companies have recently re­
ported that, owing to their strengthened position through ocean-mail
contracts, they have obtained more advantageous results from their
ocean-steamship conference efforts. These “ conferences ” compre­
hend agreements covering freight and passenger rates, regulations,
and practices for a stipulated period.
A publication of the division that has been particularly helpful to
the ocean-mail contract subcommittee is Ocean Routes in the united
States Foreign Trade, in the preparation of which the division of
regional information of the bureau gave most valuable aid.
NEW

RECORD SET IN

D IF F IC U L T P E R IO D

Year by year Congress has continued to show its confidence in the
work which the bureau is doing in behalf of American commerce and
industry by larger allotments of funds. Last year the 7 per 'cent
increase in the bureau appropriation—the total being $4,906,323,
against $4,603,357 for 1928-29—was matched by a 9 per cent increase
in the number of services (3,631,558, against 3.342,118) rendered by
bureau offices in the United States—for no numerical record is kept
of the services of the foreign offices, although the funds to maintain
them are included in the sums just named—and a 19 per cent gain
in known new foreign business and savings ($50,545,242, against
$42,651,854) for which the bureau was given credit by the reporting
firm; to accomplish which there was an increase of less than 2 per­
cent in total personnel (1,446, against 1,426).
Allocation of bureau services by subjects covered makes plain the
growing appreciation by the commercial community of what the
bureau is striving to accomplish.

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REPORT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

Fiscal year ended June 30—
Class of service

Total services rendered 1...............................
Commodity:
Aeronautics trade........ ...........................
Agricultural implements.................. .
Autom otive............................................
Chem ical................................................
Electrical equipment..............................
Foodstuffs..... ..........................................
Hides and leather...................................
Industrial machinery.............................
Iron, steel, hardware..............................
L u m b e r.................................................
M inerals.................................................
Motion pictures......................................
Paper..................................... .................
Rubber...................... .............................
Shoe and leather manufactures.............
Specialties................................................
Textiles....................................................
Technical:
Commercial intelligence 4......................
Commercial laws....................................
Finance and investment........................
Foreign tariffs______ _____ ______
Statistical research..................................
Statistics (foreign trade)........................
Transportation........................................
Miscellaneous9...............................................
Foreign trade opportunities:
Number published »....................... ......
Number of cases in which reserved information was furnished »*..................
Trade lists, u number of copies furnished
on request................................................
Special informational circulars (mimeographed), number of copies distributed..

1926

1927

1928

1929

1,973, 524

2, 421, 563

2,770,773

3, 342,118

* 3, 631, 558

ra

29,753
228, 727
119,613
133,462
155,301
16, 858
117,200
221, 252
91, 393
28,172
»
11,785
14,260
7,148
4 185,667
106,590

to
53,444
214,806
122,300
109,947
180,867
26, 300
90,937
213, 949
118,472
54, 503
(<)
21,861
21, 790
12, 744
« 134,637
124, 332

<*>
73,463
236,060
126,007
117, 788
226,445
28, 200
94, 709
216,975
112,450
80,026
(o
27, 326
23,893
14, 740
* 149,748
129,139

89,591
251,392
146,122
142, 526
247,092
36,122
139,304
236,550
128, 782
92,258
«
34, 970
31,660
21,492
8 189, 597
166,855

43,937
88,641
283,065
170, 581
157,420
252,371
29,122
176,375
264,318
145, 263
84, 587
31,379
32, 693
27,185
23,325
210,216
185,863

00
16, 318
20, 578
30,031
o
50,749
» 25,806
>• 362, 861

(o
16,934
27,743
43, 160
(0
37,874
8 36, 506
if 758,407

o
24, 543
37,304
66, 962

119,582
32, 161
43,732
89, 732
«
77, 367
8 76,160
>0949,071

160,245
39,624
46,341
109,287
48,060
114,766
58, 649
848,245

m

54,166
8 55,956
»0874,873

1930

5,380

5.088

5,904

7,218

7,070

437,059

578, 343

713,805

885, 213

915, 058

578,524

537,144

568, 696

690,372

740,823

3,327,120

2, 583, 725

3,659, 725

3,626,135

3, 579,176

I Does not include services rendered by the foreign offices of the bureau nor by the cooperative offices main­
tained by the bureau in chambers of commerce and boards of trade in the United States.
* Included in thus total are 441,719 services rendered in behalf of domestic commerce, contrasted with
265,375 for the preceding year.
* Included in “ Transportation."
4 Included in "Specialties."
* Includes " Motion pictures. ’ *
4 Washington headquarters only.
1 1ncluded " Miscellaneous. ”
* Includes "Aeronautics trade."
* Services not identified under a specific group.
10 Includes “ Commercial intelligence" and "Statistical research."
n Foreign trade opportunities are specific openings for business in other countries notice of which is sent
to Washington by the Foreign Services of the Departments of Commerce and State and published in the
bureau’s weekly publication, Commerce Reports.
»* Confidential information relating to trade opportunities distributed only to persons and firms listed
on the bureau’s Exporters' Index.
II Lists of importers, wholesalers, commission merchants, large retailers, etc., in foreign countries.

In achieving the results shown in the above tabulation much help
was received from other branches of the Government, for all of which
the bureau makes grateful acknowledgment, but particularly for that
accorded by consular officers of the Department of State. Steps
were taken during the year to coordinate the commercial activities
of the overseas representatives of the Departments of Commerce and
State, and regulations were adopted which will prevent duplication
of work and at the same time assure that every American firm which
requires assistance abroad will receive the most efficient service from
the combined facilities of the two departments.
Very truly yours,
W illiam L. C ooper, D irector

.

B U R E A U OF ST A N D A R D S

D e p a r t m e n t of C o m m e r c e ,
B u r e a u of S tan d a rd s ,

Washington, July 1, 1930.
The honorable the S ecreta ry of C o m m e r c e .
D ear M r . S e c r e t a r y : I submit herewith a brief report upon the
work of the Bureau of Standards during the fiscal year ended June
80, 1930. The various outstanding accomplishments are grouped
according to the subjects for which the Congress had made specific
appropriations.
G E N E R A L A C T IV IT IE S

Cooperation.—In addition to the several hundred governmental,
scientific, technical, and industrial organizations which help to make
the bureau’s work effective, 38 industrial associations and individual
firms take part in the bureau’s research program directly through
97 research associates stationed in the various laboratories.
Personnel.—In September, 1929, R. M. Hudson, assistant director
in charge of commercial standardization, resigned to accept the posi­
tion of technical adviser to the New England Council with head­
quarters in Boston. As of July 1, 1930, J. S. Taylor will be pro­
moted to chief of the division ol building and housing. Mr. Taylor
has been connected with this division since its establishment in 1921.
and has served as its acting chief since 1928.
The regular staff at the close of the fiscal year numbered 1,055 em­
ployees. With miscellaneous assignments, the grand total was 1,101
persons, an increase of 89 as compared with last year. The turnover
was 22.2 per cent. There were 645 promotions and reclassifications
to higher grades, and the average salary, $2,450, increased by $37.
The contributions of members of the bureau’s staff to scientific and
technical progress have received public recognition in several cases.
The degree of doctor of science was conferred on W. W. Coblentz
by the Case School of Applied Science for his contributions in the
field of radiometry, while the same degree was conferred by Stevens
Institute of Technology upon N. S. Osborne in recognition of his
research work on the physical properties of ammonia and steam.
The director of the bureau was elected an honorary member of the
Imperial Japanese Society of Mechanical Engineers on the occasion
of the International Engineering Congress at Tokyo. E. C. Crit­
tenden is serving as president of the United States National Com­
mittee of the International Commission on Illumination. A gold
149

150

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OP COM M ERCE

medal was awarded to the Bureau of Standards for its part in the
exhibit of the Department of Commerce at the Ibero-American
Exposition held at Seville, Spain, in 1929.
Visiting committee.—The present personnel of the committee is:
W. R. Whitney, John R. Freeman, Gano Dunn, S. W. Stratton,
and Charles F. Kettering. The committee held one meeting at the
bureau, advocating the establishment of a national hydraulic labo­
ratory, the purchase of additional land, the making of desirable alter­
ations to buildings, and preparing a patent policy.
H ydraulic laboratory.—An advisory committee on the design,
scope, and problems of the National Hydraulic Laboratory, consisting
of representatives of the interested Government departments and a
number of prominent hydraulic engineers, has been appointed. Ten­
tative designs are now receiving consideration. It is expected that
the laboratory will be finished by July, 1931.
The new laboratory will have three principal functions: (1) It
will carry out fundamental investigations on all types of hydraulic
phenomena to increase the accuracy of flow coefficients and to extend
our knowledge of these phenomena; (2) it will conduct model studies
of proposed hydraulic structures to determine the form which is most
effective and least expensive to build and maintain; (3) it will con­
duct routine tests on all kinds of hydraulic instruments, meters, and
accessories, and develop and improve such equipment.
International relations.—The International Committee on Weights
and Measures at its meeting in June, 1929, took definite steps toward
putting electrical units on a new basis and decided also to take up
the problem of the measurement of light. The action on electrical
units followed exactly the recommendations made by the bureau to
(he International Advisory Committee on Electricity and approved
by that committee. The effect will be to make the electrical units
concordant with mechanical units as based on the fundamental centi­
meter-gram-second system.
A meeting of the Advisory Committee on Electricity was held
June 23-25, 1930, in Paris. The bureau submitted recommenda­
tions on photometric units and methods, including a proposal that
the complete radiator (“ black body ”) at the freezing point of
platinum be adopted as the primary standard of light.
Two members of the bureau’s staff served as technical advisers
to the American delegates at the first meeting of the International
Technical Consulting Committee on Radio Communications held
at The Hague in September, 1929. This committee, which is to
meet at 2-year intervals, deals with scientific and engineering
problems arising under the International Radiotelegraph Conven­
tion.
The first international steam-table conference held in London,
July 8-12, 1929, and the second conference held in Berlin, June
23-27, 1930, at the time of the Second World Power Conference
were attended by two representatives of the bureau. The first con­
ference adopted a master steam table, with values and tolerances,
which will serve as a gage to judge published tables for accuracy.
Instead of the kilocalorie, as defined by the London conference, the
bureau has suggested the use of the true joule and kilojoule as heat
units, in conformity with existing laboratory practice.

B U REA U OP STANDARDS

151

For the Berlin conference a complete report of the bureau’s work
on heat content of saturated water and steam up to 270° C., and
on latent heat of vaporization in the range 100° to 270° C., was
available in printed form.
Three papers were presented at the World Power Conference at
Berlin, June, 1930, entitled “ Scientific Research in the United
States on Gasoline Engines,” “Volatile Liquid Fuels,” and “ Gov­
ernment Interest in the Advancement of Standardization.”
Resistance thermometers have been intercompared at the National
Physical Laboratory, the Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt,
and the Bureau of Standards, in connection with work on the inter­
national temperature scale.
Values obtained at four laboratories (National Physical Labora­
tory, Physikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt, Nela Research Labora­
tory, and Bureau of Standards) for the melting point of palladium
have been found to lie within a range of 4° C., thus justifying the
adoption of 1,555° C. for the international temperature scale.
Standard cells have been exchanged with the national labora­
tories of Great Britain, Japan, and the Union of Socialist Soviet
Republics.
A source of error in a mica condenser measured at the National
Physical Laboratory and the Bureau of Standards was traced to
damage received in transit, the actual capacitance measurements of
the two laboratories being in good agreement.
The director of the bureau attended the World Engineering Con­
gress held at Tokyo, Japan, in November, 1929, and presented a
paper on precision machines and instruments for the measurement
of length. In addition to presenting the paper and presiding over
several sessions of the congress he served as one of the official dele­
gates of the National Screw Thread Commission and eight other
national bodies.
Visitors.—The bureau has been honored by many distinguished
visitors from all over the world, among whom may be mentioned
Profs. Masao Kamo and S. Jimbo and Dr. Seizo Saito, of Japan;
Profs. Heinrich Barkhausen, Beno Gutenberg, Ludwig Prandtl,
T. H. von Ivarman, D. F. Korber, and E. H. Schulz, and Dr. Karl
Maybach, of Germany; Prof. Ernst F. Petritsch, of Austria; Dr.
M. Chatelain, head of the Central Bureau of Weights and Meas­
ures; Dr. Richard Vieweg and Prof. E. A. Chudakov, of the Union
of Socialist Soviet Republics; Drs. Tranquillo Zervi and Umberto
Savoja, of Italy; Dr. Bengt Kjerman, of Sweden; Mr. Bernard
Bruit, of France; Prof. Robert K. Murphy, of Australia; Prof. H.
Bolognini, of Argentina; Prof. P. H. Hermann, of Holland; and
Prof. W. Baldwin Fletcher, of England.
In addition to these individuals, the officers and graduating stu­
dents of the Japanese Naval Academy, the Japanese Lighting Mis­
sion, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (in connection
with their fiftieth anniversary celebration), a special delegation of
professors and students from the University of D elft, Holland, the
Society of Motion Picture Engineers, a delegation of Swiss electri­
cal engineers and metallurgists, and many other groups have visited
the bureau’s laboratories. The records snow visitors from such dis­
tant places as Calcutta; Formosa; H arbin; and Tashkent, Turkestan,
besides practically every country in Europe and America.

152

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

Weights and measures conference.—The twenty-third meeting of
the National Conference on Weights and Measures was held under
the auspices of the bureau on June 3 to 6, 1930. Two important
additions were made to the general specifications for weighing
scales; antifriction elements must be used where necessary and pro­
vision made for adjusting the balance condition of scales. Minor
changes were made in the codes for liquid-measuring devices and
lubricating-oil bottles. A complete code for odometers was adopted
in tentative form and will come up for review and final action next
year. One amendment to the code for grease-measuring devices was
adopted.
A beginning was made in the development of a code of specifica­
tions for automatic-indicating scales, and it is anticipated that this
subject will be given consideration at several future meetings.
By resolution, the conference condemned the use of small-diam­
eter, tall bottles with integral spouts and no vent for dispensing
lubricating oil, and approved the use of a chemical treatment to
reduce the dust from coal, provided the treatment does not in­
crease the weight per ton by more than 30 pounds, and provided
such coal is advertised as “ chemically treated ” coal.
Technical papers on many weights and measures subjects were pre­
sented, and a special demonstration of gasoline-metering devices was
given for the benefit of the delegates.
Conference of State u tility commission engineers.—The eighth an­
nual conference of State utility commission engineers was held at
the bureau on June 5 and 6. Committee reports were presented on
rural electrification standards, depreciation and obsolescence, rate
decisions, uniform types of rates, and charges for fire protection.
The technical papers covered radio interference; submetering; trends
in high-tension transmission practice; investigation of complaints by
commissions; definitions in connection with utility appraisals; dis­
tribution extension rules applicable to electricity, gas, and water: im­
provements in rural telephone service; trends in urban transporta­
tion; future of electric railways; and a discussion of a questionnaire
on gas-service standards.
Conference on street and highway safety.—The bureau took an
active part in the national conference on street and highway safety
called bv the Secretary of Commerce, and submitted several recom­
mendations for traffic control.
Federal Fire Council.—This organization was formed at a con­
ference of Government representatives called by the Secretary of
Commerce on April 3, 1930, to function in advisory and informative
capacity on matters relating to fire prevention and protection arising
in connection with Government activities. While the period has
been required largely for organization and preparatory detail, sev­
eral requests for assistance from departments and establishments
have received attention.
American Standards Association.—The bureau has continued its
close cooperation with this association. The bureau is sponsor for
81 standardization projects and is represented on 14 committees hav­
ing for their object the formulation of American standards.

B U E E A U OF STANDARDS

153

National Screw Thread Commission.—The activities of the com­
mission have been directed principally along lines calculated to bring
its screw-thread standards into wider and more effective use. The
latest report of the commission (Bureau of Standards Miscellaneous
Publication No. 89) has been subdivided into three sections and re­
published as separate pamphlets covering: I. Standard Threads; II.
Special Threads; and III. Plain and Thread Plug and Ring Gage
Blanks. These are intended primarily for shop use. They have also
been submitted to industry, through the division of trade standards
for acceptance as commercial standards.
American Gage Design Committee.—The report of this committee
(Bureau of Standards Miscellaneous Publication No. 100) has met
with wide acceptance and approval by manufacturers and users o f
limit gages. Its wide use has resulted in substantial savings in
industry.
Federal Specifications Board.-—This board, of which the Director
of the Bureau of Standards is ex officio chairman, has promulgated
its six hundred and fifty-first purchase specification. A large part
of the research and experimental work on which these specifications
are based is performed in the bureau’s laboratories, and the chair­
manships of many of the board’s committees are held by members
of the bureau’s staff.
Relations to Goveimment departments.—The bureau is authorized
to receive funds for specific research projects from other depart. ments, and in pursuance of this policy in the past year the bureau has
received $436,387 for the support of 37 projects representing work
for 10 Government establishments. In addition, the usual consult­
ing, specification, and testing work has been carried on for almost
every branch of the Government.
Publicity, bureau reports.—The number of research papers pub­
lished in the Bureau of Standards Journal of Research was 106.
Including articles in the Journal, and all other papers in the regular
series of the bureau, the total number of publications released during
the year was 182. About 240 papers were published in outside
journals. The Technical News Bulletin and the newly established
Commercial Standards Monthly have been issued each month. The
latter has attained a paid circulation of over 5,000. There have
been released to the press 218 short accounts of interesting achieve­
ments. The fourth annual number of the Standards Yearbook was
published in March.
Testing.—Table 1 gives a summary of the bureau’s test work for
the past year. The total number of tests completed was 200,726,
and the fee value $683,614.51. The corresponding figures for 1929
are 173,512 and $544,402.33. In 1928 the tests numbered 132,213
with a fee value of $465,116.82.

154

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

T a b l e 1.*— N u m b e r s o f t e s t i t e m s , d e t e r m i n a t i o n s , a n d f e e v a l u e f o r t e s t s com ­
p l e t e d d u r i n g t h e f is c a l y e a r e n d e d J u n e 8 0 , 1 9 8 0

Numbf r oltest iten is for—
Kind of instrument or material, class of
test, or nature of service rendered

Electrical standards, instruments, and
f materials.......................................................
Electric lamps and lighting equipment.......
Length-measuring devices.............................
Gages and gage steels.................. ..................
Haemacytometers, sieves, thermal expansion, etc........................................................
"Weights and balances.................................. .
Timepieces..................................... ................
Volumetric apparatus....................................
Hydrometers.......... ........................................
Laboratory thermometers.............................
Pyrometers, calorimeters, etc........................
Insulating materials.......................................
Fire-resisting materials..................................
Fuels and lubricants....... ............................ .
Automotive equipment, etc..........................
Optical instruments and materials...............
Radioactive materials....................................
Engineering instruments and appliances---Aeronautic instrum enta...............................
Physical properties of engineering materials.
Sound producing and measuring instrum en ts..........................................................

Total Number
Govern­
number of deter­
of
test
ment de­ Bureau
mina­
of
items
tions
Publio partments Stand
and State
institutions ards

784
286
131
2,061
3,382
4, »09
28
259
9,746
522
2,719
27, 271
176
52
9
246
10
603
20
1,228
118
50
22
130

2,762
8, 990
4,536
2,093
11,518

1 24.913.02

5,169
7,869
1,097
340
48
471
15,155
38
1,131
467
477
4,519
695
100, 648
'308
82
91
16
4
68
209
1,843
176
47
46
153
1,028
1,609
1, 240
1
1, 135
30
752
16
22
3, 120
46

18, 577
17, 643
30,558
A, 013
31,197
2, 061
562
18,900
402,512
4; 126
69
174
9,966
410
337
2,802
2,508
1,191
1,288
3, 540
32
6,345

11,443.35
7,333.60
49,461.50
'768.50
11,258.45
1,359.50
774.00
10,020. 30
13,424.70
3^ 844.50
765.00
7, 136.00
16, 636.00
4, 157.00
67,785.00
6,121.70
2,803.00
5, 567.00
17, 292.00
10, 225.50
175.00
14,964.60

368
4
508
4
213

1, 660
1,768
1,069
33
4,938
571
10
1, 105
73,377
50
23
55
1,388
119
46
272
1, 589
11
987
686

127
1.132

2,944

Cement, concreting materials, lime, etc.......

35

Miscellaneous ceramic materials..................
Rubber............................................................
Textiles...........................................................
Paper.................................. ............................

16
I
23
12
136
2
16
19
7,251

Total...................................................... 62,348

131,204

Paint, varnish, and bituminous materials..
Chemical analysis of metals..........................
Chemical tests of miscellaneous m aterials..
Distribution of standard samples.................

1,787
4,214
4, 443
277
2,714

635
4,210
3, 649
142
440

25
27
301
770
269
77
86
306
11,959
109
2,095
1.425
6,105
1,427
602
1,974
372
1,162
336

15

Fee value

1
147
198
347
20
56
76
44
200
3
805
346
33
187
27
5
7,174

41
174
301
968
616
77
106
362
12,070
153
2,311
1,429
6,933
1,785
738
2,009
575
1,208
7,592

$15,955.25
24,679.00
2,712.25
2,557.35

S15.00
52
2,310.68
887
752.50
602
5, 544.09
3,710
7,143. 75
7, 059
632.50
330
437.00
208
3,372.00
1,334
56, 430 • 156, 032. 00
2,096.00
611
7,957
15,982 00
25,423. 50
10,613
31,078.25
15,848
15,851.00
5,689
3,870.00
2,5-10
42,585. 92
15, 937
7,019.75
2.361
11,771.60
4,287
16, 764.00
79

200, 726 * 725,964 • 683,614.51

1 Includes fee value of $5,480.02 for inspecting 2,005,406 incandescent lamps at various factories for other
branches of the Government.
* Includes fee value of $47,049 for sampling, testing, and shipping 3,315,116 barrels of Portland cement
and 50,200 barrels of masonry cement.
1 Of these totals 195,124 determinations were for the public, fee value $72,251.45; 510,507 determinations
were for the Government departments and State institutions, fee value $567,771.27; 20,333 determinations
were for the bureau, fee value $43,591.79. The number of test items, and determinations necessary in
connection with the bureau’s own work of research and standardization, with the resulting fee values, is
not included in these totals.

S A L A M E S ( $ 6 8 6 ,1 4 6 )

This fund provides for personal services of administration and
operation; the establishment, upkeep, and comparison of stand­
ards; the development of methods of test, as well as most of the
testing; and for the determination of fundamental constants of

B U B E A U OF STANDARDS

155

importance in physics, chemistry, engineering, and technology not
otherwise provided for.
Standard wave lengths.—As possibly more suitable as a funda­
mental unit of length than the wave length of the red radiation
from cadmium, the wave lengths of the stronger lines of krypton
and of xenon have been compared with neon standards by inter­
ferometer methods; the average deviation of an observed wave
number from the calculated value is less than 1 part in 20,000,000.
Special material for line standards.—The steel mentioned in the
annual report for 1929 proved to be unsatisfactory because of in­
clusions, flaws, and excessive thermal expansion. A systematic
search of stainless steels finally located in a 14 per cent chromium
and one-half per cent carbon steel a material which appears to be
satisfactory from the five standpoints of polish, homogeneity, hard­
ness, thermal expansion (practically same as platinum), and re­
sistance to corrosion.
Comparisons of length standards.—The work of intercomparing
the bureau’s meter bars has been continued, special attention being
given to the decimeter intervals of the subdivided meter bars and
to a group of 7 decimeter bars, 3 of which belong to the bureau and
4 to cooperating universities. All 7 of these bars were from the
same oi-iginal series issued by the International Bureau of Weights
and Measures.
The intercomparison of the bureau’s platinum-iridium meters
having been completed, the following relations have been deter­
mined and will be regarded as official until such time as new cer­
tificates may be issued by the International Bureau of Weights and
Measures:
M 27= 1 m —1.40 ¡x +(8.620 + 0.00177 T^XlO-'T.
as reported by the International Bureau,
M 21- M 2 7 = + 5.07 fi at 23° C.
M 1 2 - M 2 7 = + 4 .4 9 ^ at 23° C.
¿1/ 4 - M 2 7 = - 4 .2 9 ¡x at 23° C.
as determined at the Bureau of Standards.
Many comparisons of high pi’ecision were also made on 4-inch
scales and 1-decimeter scales ruled by the interferometric methods.
Graduation and calibration of circles.—Three 9-inch circles for
first-order Coast and Geodetic Survey theodolites and six 6%-inch
circles for second-order theodolites were graduated.
Methods of length measurement.—The high precision now being
obtained with the bui’eau’s longitudinal comparator made advisable
an investigation of computational methods proposed for the deter­
mination of corrections to the subintervals of a graduated line
standard.
Defects inhei'ent. iix Guillaume’s abbreviated method, which has
been used at the bureau for several years, have been pointed out by
various writers. The computational methods of Dziobek and Leman
axe being studied, and although the work is not yet completed, it
appears that the average variation of the results of Guillaume’s
simplified computation from these two results is about 0.02 micron.

156

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF CO M M ERCE

im provem ent in accuracy of end standards.—A set of 11 standards
submitted by a manufacturer, ranging by steps of millionths of an
inch from a nominal length of 0.100000 to 0.100010 inch, were tested
and all found correct within a maximum error of three ten-millionths
of an inch in planeness and parallelism of ends, and in length.
Weights and measures testing.—Many yard and meter bars, steel
tapes, base-line tapes, level rods, sieves, haemacytometers, and other
standards, instruments, and devices of this character have been
tested. The longitudinal comparator has enabled the bureau to
make comparisons and calibrations of length standards with high
precision and remarkable rapidity.
Seconds signals from a pendulum by use of a photo-electric cell.—
Seconds signals from the pendulum of the bureau’s Riefler clock, by
the use of a photo-electric cell, have been in successful use in three
of the laboratories. A new precision clock designed by the chief of
the time section, and especially adapted to use with the photo-electric
cell, is now being constructed.
Cooperation w ith Ilorological Institute of Amenca.—Repaired
watches, submitted to the institute by individuals as a part of an
examination for certification as qualified watch-repair men, have
been tested, as heretofore.
Specifications for stop watches.—Assistance has been rendered in
preparing Federal specifications for stop watches.
Class volumetric apparatus and hydrometers.—The quality of
volumetric apparatus submitted for test has remained high, 98 per
cent of that submitted having been found qualified for test, and
94 per cent of that tested having passed the test for accuracy of
graduation.
Density of aqua ammonia.—The necessary material and apparatus
for determining the density and thermal expansion of anhydrous
ammonia and of various percentages of aqua ammonia have been
obtained and the work will be undertaken in the near future.
Density of chromic-acid solutions.—Density determinations have
been made on several samples of chromic acid.
Orifice meter tests.—A group of tests were made in Los Angeles,
Calif., on orifices in 16, 8, and 4 inch lines, particular attention being
given to large-diameter ratios and high-discharge velocities. The
results are very consistent and give additional information on the
effect of the expansion factor upon the discharge coefficient.
Chromium plating, platinum plating, and nichrome for weights.—
Chromium-plated weights given a service test behaved about the
same as other electroplated weights of the same type. Old analyti­
cal weights plated with platinum have not been found constant,
most of them showing a gain. In order to obtain data on the use­
fulness of nichrome tor weights preliminary plans have been made
for investigating this material.
Lacquer for weights.—Additional tests of insulating lacquers have
not developed any which are radically different from those pre­
viously investigated. Tests on weights 23 years old show that age
has no tendency to change the behavior of shellac lacquer.
Improvement in constancy of weights.— The investigation on vari­
ability of weights with changes in the humidity of the air has re­
duced the percentage of variable weights on the market and has

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definitely prevented many laboratories from receiving seriously vari­
able weights that would otherwise have been sold to them.
Maintenance of standard weights.—About 200 of the standard
weights of the mass section of the bureau were recalibrated. This
is nearly live times as many as were recalibrated during the preceding year.
Equipment for testing weights.—A new high-precision 200-g bal­
ance constitutes a valuable addition to the equipment of the sec­
tion. A high-grade new balance of 50-pound capacity has also
been placed in use.
Ratios of international electrical units to absolute units.—A con­
siderable number of measurements have been made with the recon­
structed llosa-Dorsey-Miller current balance to determine the value
of the international ampere in absolute units, but no final value has
been reached. Another type of apparatus for the absolute measure­
ment of current, known as the Pellat current balance, has been de­
signed and partially constructed.
Measurements of inductance preliminary to determining the value
of the ohm have been nearly completed on a solenoid wound on a
porcelain cylinder, and two additional solenoids have been con­
structed, one on a pyrex-glass form, the other on a fused-quartz
form. These latter solenoids have been made with extreme care and
every precaution is being taken in the measurements, with the expec­
tation that the final result will be accurate within 1 part in 100,000.
Standards of electromotive force.—Improvements have been made
in the standard cell equipment including the design and construc­
tion of a new laboratory room especially adapted to the purpose.
Additional space has been provided for the increased amount of
testing now required, refrigeration is available for holding the
temperature of the baths to a constant value in summer, and a new
and better pil bath has been constructed for the cells which consti­
tute the primary standard. In moving the primary-standard group
from its old location no perceptible change in its value has been
introduced, check measurements in the old and new locations agree­
ing on the average to within four ten-millionths of a volt. Several
comparisons have been made with the national laboratories of Eng­
land, Germany, and Japan. Complete data are not available in all
cases, but the results indicate the same relative standing of the
units as before.
Inter comparison of resistance standards.—Three resistance stand­
ards of the new type developed by the bureau were measured at
the British and German national laboratories. The results indicate
that the unit of electrical resistance as maintained by the three
laboratories is in agreement within two or three parts in a hundred
thousand.
Magnetic testing and research.—An investigation on the stand­
ardization of magnetic permeameters was completed. Work was
also done on testing with intense fields and on testing with alter­
nating currents at low inductions. In the field of magnetic analysis,
experiments were carried out on the relation between magnetic
properties and impact strength, and a study of the phenomena
associated with the tempering of heat-treated bridge wire was
started, using the methods of thermomagnetic analysis.

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Standards of candlepower.—Four blue glass photometric filters
that had already been measured at the Physikalisch-Technische
Reichsanstalt and the National Physical Laboratory were measured
by three independent methods, and complete reports were submitted
to the cooperating laboratories in England, France, and Germany.
The glasses have been forwarded to France for measurement at the
Laboratoire Central d'Electricite. Carbon-filament standard lamps
have also been sent to the national laboratories of England, France,
Germany, Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, and Japan for inter­
national check measurements.
W aidner-Burgess standard of light.—The experimental work in
connection with the setting up of this standard has been completed,
the technique and procedure having been refined to a point where
the operation is mere routine. A thorough study has shown that
the standard is reproducible, practical, convenient to operate, and
inexpensive. The final result obtained is that an opening 1 square
centimeter in area in a black body at the freezing point of platinum
emits light equivalent to 58.84 international candles.
Constant of gravitation.—This project lias been completed and
will be given publication in the bureau’s Journal of Research within
a short time. The mean result obtained is 6.6670 X10~8 in c. g. s
units.
Absolute determination of gravity at Washington.—Preliminary
work with brass pendulums has been completed. From the results
obtained designs for several pendulums of fused quartz have been
prepared. A Shortt clock has been installed for the time measure­
ments necessary.
Elastic hysteresis research.—The source of the discrepancy in the
values of the elastic hysteresis modulus, when obtained by measuring
the deflection of bars under load and by observing the damping of
tuning forks, has been finally located. The results by the two
methods agree when, in the static method, the load is applied to
both prongs of the tuning fork and the point of loading is selected
in accordance with the results of a theoretical study.
Platinum metals.—A simple and accurate method was developed
for the determination of osmium. It is now possible to determine
each of the six metals of the platinum group with satisfactory
accuracy if they have been separated from each other. Completion
of a system of methods of separation is the next phase of the research.
A method was developed for preparing spectrographically pure
iridium, but it is not satisfactory, either as to speed or yield, for
the preparation of reasonably pure iridum in quantity. The very
pure metal is needed for other phases of the work on the properties
of the platinum metals.
Some modifications were made in the previously developed method
for the purification of osmium. It is possible to prepare any one
of the six metals in any desired degree of purity.
Metallographic technique.—Many requests have been received for
permission to copy the automatic metallographic polishing machine.
Using this machine, abrasives and polishing methods suitable for
various materials have been studied.
Pure metals and their alloys.—A publication was issued on the
properties of rhodium and the methods for mechanically working
it. Additional data on the physical properties of nickel of the

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highest attainable purity and of thorium have been obtained. In
cooperation with the alloys-of-iron research committee of Engineer­
ing Foundation a critical review of the literature on the preparation
and properties of pure iron has been undertaken. The study of the
A2 (magnetic) change in pure iron by means of the /8-ray spectro­
graph has been continued.
Testing of thermometers.—About 94 per cent of approximately
100,000 clinical thermometers submitted for test were eligible for
certification. Tests are now made in conformity with Commercial
Standard CS1-28 except for Government purchases under other
specifications.
Gas thermometry.—A new manometer was developed for the
measurement of gas pressures up to 1.5 meters of mercury with a
precision comparable to that attainable in length measurements.
Two glass cells, each 6 centimeters internal diameter to minimize
capillarity, are connected by a flexible, water-jacketed tube. The dis­
tance between the cells is determined by gage blocks. The position,
of the mercury surface relative to the cell is determined with a pre­
cision of about 0.0001 millimeter mercury by means of a special
instrument developed and constructed for this work at the bureau.
It employs a radiofrequency oscillating circuit which is very sensi­
tive to small changes in electrical capacitance.
Low-temperature cryostat.—An improved cryostat, capable of
automatically maintaining temperatures as low as —150° C., con­
stant to better than 0.01° was constructed for use in intercomparing
laboratory standards and for use in routine testing.
Application of the glass electrode for pH measurements.—The
degree of acidity, commonly expressed as “ pH ,” is important in
many chemical processes, including electroplating. The hydrogen
and quinhydrone electrodes and colorimetric indicators previously
used in these measurements are not applicable in the presence o f
oxidizing agents. Eesults thus far obtained indicate that the “ glass
electrode ” may be applicable to chromic-acid baths and other oxi­
dizing solutions.
The cliloroplatinate-chloroplatimte electrode.—The electromotive
force of this electrode has been found to correspond to a reversible
chemical equilibrium. The electromotive force has been measured
and the free energy of the reaction determined.
Thickness of adsorbed films of liquids.—Measurements of surface
tension of soap solutions have shown that there is no evidence for
the existence of thick plastic films on the surface of such solutions.
An investigation of the viscosity of liquids in very fine capillarity
recently completed has shown that there is no rigid absorbed layer
thicker than 0.02 micron on glass or platinum surfaces when covered
with liquid, a conclusion of fundamental importance in connection
with lubrication.
The molecular weight of hydrocarbons.—An improved VictorMeyer apparatus has been designed and constructed. By making
two determinations, one at 1 atmosphere and the other at 0.5 at­
mosphere, it is possible to determine the molecular weight with an
accuracy of about 0.3 of a unit.
Chemical nature of rubber.—Very pure rubber hydrocarbon has
been prepared in the gel form. B y cooling an ethereal solution o f

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this pure rubber the hydrocarbon is deposited in a crystalline form.
Combustion analyses have been completed and apparatus is in
course of construction for molecular weight determinations and for
obtaining photographs of the crystalline rubber.
Detergents.—Information was collected and made available on the
preparation and uses of various types of polishes. A circular of
information on washing and cleaning materials and their applica­
tions was also prepared.
Analytical reagent chemicals.—Fifty-seven individual methods for
the determination of various impurities in 30 reagent chemicals were
studied and in many cases modified or replaced by better methods.
As in other years this work formed a substantial part of the prepa­
ration of specifications for reagent chemicals by the American
Chemical Society.
Accelerated weathering tests.—It has been found that the simple
cycle of continuous exposure to light from a carbon arc with peri­
odic spraying with water gives valuable information on pigmented
coatings, bitumens, etc., but is too drastic for varnishes and other
transparent coatings.
D urability of spar varnish.—Outdoor exposure starting at two
different seasons of the year, laboratory tests, and accelerated weath­
ering tests on a large number of commercial and experimental var­
nishes showed that 'while the durability of spar varnish veries greatly,
depending on the season exposed, the relative durability of a series
of varnishes is quite constant. The accelerated weathering cycle
detected the poor varnishes but did not differentiate between good
and very good varnishes. The kauri reduction test gave fairly good
indications as to durability. Varnishes meeting the Federal speci­
fication are above the average in durability, -while those made from
some of the modern synthetic resins -were better than varnishes of
the same oil content made from rosin, ester gum, or kauri.
Softening point of bituminous materials.—A method based upon
a modification of previously used apparatus and procedure for deter­
mining the softening point of materials which have no definite melt­
ing point has been developed.
Physical tests for grease.—The Bulkley consistometer has been
found useful in studying the properties of grease. Tests have also
been made with a long metal capillary under high pressures showing
that the curve for rate of flow of grease, when plotted against inlet
pressure, passes through a maximum due to the consistency of the
grease being made stiffer under high pressures.
Standard analytical methods.—The bureau cooperated with the
American Society for Testing Materials in the preparation of meth­
ods of analysis for steels, cast irons, and various paint materials, in
the preparation of specifications for sampling sheet steel and ferro­
alloys and tentative specifications for glazier’s putty, in exposure
tests on the stability of foundry coke, and in investigations on the
hiding power of paints and pigments and the tinting strengths of
pigments.
Methods for silvering glass.—In connection with the preparation
o f a new circular on silvering glass, considerable work has been done
in refining and improving the technique and sim plifying the for­
mulas in order to make success in their use more certain and less

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dependent upon previous experience. The new circular will give
methods for the chemical deposition of silver, copper, platinum, and
lead sulphide, and for the production of mirrors by cathode sput­
tering and by the condensation of metallic vapors on glass.
Effect of ultra-violet rays on the transparency of special window
glasses.—Exposure to the mercury arc diminishes the ultra-violet
transmission of these glasses more than exposure to the sun. It has
been found that exposure of these glasses to the sun, after their
exposure to the mercury arc, raises their ultra-violet transmission
above the minimum value obtained with prolonged exposure to the
sun. In 17 out of 20 samples, comprising 6 different makes of
special window glasses, the recovery was from 1 to 6 per cent above
the minimum value obtained by exposure to the sun alone. This
recovery appears to be produced by radiation of wave lengths in
the region of 365 millimicrons.
Construction of instruments and apparatus.—The bureau’s shops
constructed many special instruments for the laboratories, including
high-grade blown-glass apparatus, and cabinet work such as cases
for instruments, besides repairing furniture and woodwork required
in the general upkeep of the buildings. Metal specimens for rou­
tine tests were machined, and the preparation of standard steel and
alloy samples was carried on as before. Apparatus built included
the following: Seven resistance standards, air-cooled resistor for
current balance, resilience meter, double automatic polishing ma­
chine, high-frequency oscillator, wool meter (including optical
parts), cathode-ray oscillograph, revolving circuit breaker, nicker
photometer, marginal relay, two reflectoineters, beat-frequency os­
cillator, electrostatic voltmeter, hook gage, variable-voltage trans­
former, expansivity furnace, and an abrasion machine.
Other projects.—In addition to the work described in the fore­
going paragraphs, some progress has been made on the following:
Determination of the regularities in the arc spectrum of titanium
and zirconium, Zeeman effects of spectral lines, the “ Raman ” effect,
density changes and refractive index changes produced in glass by
various heat treatments, filters for changing the color temperature
of incandescent sources to mean sunlight, standards for index of
refraction, aberrations of astronomical objectives, act ino-electrical
and photo-electrical properties of substances, infra-red absorption
spectra of selected compounds, resonance radiation excited by higher
series lines, thermal expansion of glass at high temperature, measure­
ments of the difference in index of refraction in striae and the
surrounding glass, problems of aerial mapping, thermal conductivity
of metals, revision of tests of clinical thermometers, construction
of special platinum resistance thermometers, correlation of data
on thermal properties of methane, precise measurements of pres­
sures from 1 to 100 atmospheres, measurement of diophantine quan­
tities. preparation of equipment for liquefying helium, platinum
resistance thermometry at low temperatures, alloys of platinum
metals for resistance thermometry at low temperatures, establish­
ment of a practical laboratory scale of temperatures in the range
below liquid-air temperatures, standardization of capillary tube vis-

180:»—30----n

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cometers, rotation viscometers, “ bleeding ” test for greases, reclama­
tion of used oils, preparation of circulars of metallurgical infor­
mation. particularly on zinc and cadmium.
EQUIPMENT ($88,000)

Im portant purchases.—Several important additions have been
made to the bureau’s laboratory and plant equipment.
Nine large cylindrical weights of 1,000 pounds each with operating
mechanism were purchased for the bureau’s 100,000-pound dead­
weight testing machine.
A 3-stage electrically driven compressor for pressures up to 500
pounds per square inch, to be used in the liquefaction of helium,
was purchased for the low-temperature laboratory.
A new quartz spectrograph was added to the equipment of the
spectroscopy section, while an interchangeable glass spectrograph was
purchased for the atomic physics section.
Equipment purchased for the radio section included an aircraft
radiobeacon receiver, a short-wave aircraft radio-transmitting set,
and a large storage battery of 125 cells.
The surface condenser and auxiliary equipment for the new 750kilowatt turbo-alternator was purchased and installed in the new
central power plant. Two storage batteries of 60 cells each, one
having a capacity of 240 ampere-hours and equipped with Plantetype plates, and the other with a capacity of 400 ampere-hours with
pasted plates, were also purchased for the bureau's plant.
A 750-horsepower electric motor and high-pressure fan were pur­
chased for the automotive power-plants section. These will be
installed in one of the existing altitude chambers to be used in
connection with dynamometer testing of air-cooled engines.
A spectrophotometer was added to the equipment of the colorim­
etry section, and a new drying box and auxiliary equipment were
purchased for the semicommercial levulose plant.
A 5 by 8 inch double-geared laboratory rolling mill -was bought
for the metallurgical division, and a precision bench lathe with 38inch bed and 8-inch swing has been purchased for the instrument
shop.
The equipment of the gage section has been increased by the pur­
chase of 36 sets of internal micrometers with master rings.
In addition, a large amount of smaller equipment has been added
to the bureau’s power plant, shops, and laboratories.
GENERAL EXPENSES ($64,000)

Maintenance of mechanical plant.—The usual maintenance work,
such as the replacement of piping, fittings, valves, etc., has been car­
ried on. A number of changes have been made in piping layouts to
facilitate connection to the new power plant.
Electrical constmotion and repair.—The usual maintenance work
on the electrical installations has been carried on, and a great number
of new electrical installations incident to laboratory expansion have
been made.
Plumbing and pipe work.—In addition to the usual maintenance
work on existing pipe work, new extensions to steam, water, gas, air,

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and vacuum lines were made incident to the installation of new labo­
ratory equipment. A new water main has been installed to supple­
ment the water supply. Many changes in the pipe work in the north
building have been necessary on account of the alterations to be
made in that building.
Library books.—The number of volumes accessioned was 1,784
(previous year, 1,639), and 101 were canceled, making the total num­
ber of accessioned volumes 35,554. Scientific and technical periodicals
received number 1,247, as compared with 1,056 last year.
IMPROVEMENT AND CAKE OF GROUNDS ($14,400)

Good progress has been made in improvement of the grounds by
grading, sodding, and planting of shrubs. The fill at the east end
of the industrial building has been completed and will be seeded this
fall.
TESTING STRUCTURAL MATERIALS ($268,150)

City 'planning and zoning.—Surveys of city planning and zoning
laws and ordinances showed further progress in the use of the bu­
reau’s recommendations. A pamphlet on the preparation of zoning
ordinances was prepared.
Construction economics.—An extensive study was made of the
planning and control of public works, and from December on several
staff members aided in the department’s work of coordinating the
activities of Federal, State, and local officials in expediting publicworks construction.
Home -financing.—A preliminary report has been written on the
basis of field work regarding the volume of mortgage writing and
cost of administration.
Survey of small-house construction.—A digest of data obtained
through a field survey made last year in 31 cities has been prepared
for publication.
Care and repair of the house.—A handbook for home owners and
those interested in keeping their property in good condition was pre­
pared. It gives simple and specific directions for home repair work
and describes tools and materials needed.
Cooperation w ith other agencies on building and housing prob­
lems.— Cooperation was continued -with Federal and State agencies
and with thousands of local governments and private organizations
concerned with building and housing. City planning and zoning,
building codes, and home-ownership problems were taken up jointly
with bodies such as Better Homes in America with its 6,500 local
committees and organizations representing architects, engineers,
business, civic, and other groups.
Plumbing investigation.—An extension of the plumbing investi­
gation carried out in 1921-1923 for the building-code committee of
the Department of Commerce has been undertaken in cooperation
with the industry to include pipe sizes and design of systems for
tall buildings.
Preliminary observations and measurements were made on (1) the
capacities of drains and (2) the loads carried by the drains under
actual service conditions in five large buildings in New York City
and in two of the larger Government office buildings in Washington.

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Other data pertaining to the loads on plumbing systems in actual
service were obtained. An extensive experimental program is
planned for the current year.
Building codes.—A survey of the amount and character of com­
bustible contents of typical fire-resistive buildings in Washington,
D. C., was made as an aid in classification from the fire-hazard
standpoint.
Experimental work to determine the inherent fire hazard and
protection required for household heating appliances was nearly
completed. This was preceded by a survey of existing conditions
in residences and apartments and examination of premises where
fires from stoves, furnaces, and their pipes have occurred.
Cement reference laboratory.—The cement reference laboratory,
a cooperative project of the Bureau of Standards and the American
Society for Testing Materials, conducted inspections at 175 labora­
tories. Apparatus was tested, methods demonstrated, and miscel­
laneous data collected. This information is proving valuable in
outlining further work of the laboratory. Requests for inspection
have been received from 194 laboratories, indicating a widespread
interest in this work.
Branch laboratories and inspection of cement.—The branch labo­
ratories at Northampton, Pa., Denver, Colo., and San Francisco,
Calif., all test cement, while the Denver laboratory also tests con­
creting materials and the San Francisco laboratory makes miscella­
neous chemical and physical tests. Cement-inspection service was
established at six plants. During the year 1,628,187 barrels were
sampled and tested and 1,255,947 barrels shipped to Government
projects.
Diatomaceous silica.—The effect of adding diatomaceous silica to
concrete has been studied. The materials ranged from 7.5 to 34.7
pounds per cubic foot, and most of the material submitted was
composed very largely of diatoms. The addition of diatomaceous
silica requires the use of more mixing water, the lighter the silica
the more water required. Diatomaceous silicas tend to produce a
lower strength in concretes of equal flows, but permit a larger flow
without the separation of the constituent materials of the concrete.
Waterproofmg compounds.—Concrete test specimens containing
integral waterproofing compounds subjected constantly to a 20
pound water pressure showed in most cases only a slight permea­
bility at the end of one year. After drjnng in the air of the labora­
tory for one month permeability generally increased. At the end
of a year the majority of these treatments were of little value.
About one-third of the specimens were considered to be sufficiently
effective for practical use.
Cast stone.—Some very unusual characteristics were exhibited
by samples of cast stone. The modulus of rupture ranged from
200 to 1,500 pounds per square inch. The compressive strength of
the best specimen was 23,000 pounds per square inch, and the strength
for all specimens 1,500 pounds per square inch. The maximum
48-hour absorption was 13.5 per cent, and the minimum 2 per cent.
The resistance to freezing and thawing ranged from complete failure
within 40 cycles to specimens that exhibited no signs of disintegra­
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Durability of concrete aggregates.—No one test appears to be
suitable for determining the durability of all types of concrete ag­
gregates exposed to freezing and thawing. Petrographic analysis
may be used to advantage in determining the merits of the material.
The presence of clay in certain forms, such as laminae, seems to
cause early disintegration in certain types of rock.
Concrete masonry units.—Tests on 50 samples of concrete masonry
units gave compressive strengths from 400 to 2,000 pounds per
square inch of gross area. There seemed to be no relation between
absorption and compressive strength except that usually the sand
units had the greatest strength ana least absorption while for cinder
and haydite blocks the reverse was true.
The weights of sand blocks varied from 125 to 150 pounds per
cubic foot, and cinder units from 70 to 100 pounds. Haydite were
the lightest, ranging between 70 and 85 pounds per cubic foot.
Phase study of tlie system C a 0 - S i0 2- B 20 z .—A study of a por­
tion of the CaO-SiO 2- B 20 3 system has shown that the presence of
small amounts of B 20 3 in dicalcium silicate lowers the refractive
index, and also lowers the temperature of the inversion from the
beta to the alpha form.
Reaction of water on calcium aluminates and calcium aluminate
cements.—The study of the mechanism of the reaction of water on
one domestic and seven foreign calcium-aluminate cements, and the
ternary compound 4C a0.A l20 3.Fe20 8 shows that these cements re­
acted with water to form a metastable solution in the early periods
which approximated the composition of monocalcium aluminate.
The boundaries wherein these solutions occur have been determined.
Clays as admixtures in concrete.—In cooperation with an engineer­
ing firm an investigation of the value of clay admixtures in concrete
has been undertaken.
Survey of common brick.—In cooperation with the Common Brick
Manufacturers Association samples of brick from about 200 plants
are being tested to determine their compliance with specifications.
Test of large concrete cylinders.—In connection with the design
and construction of dams by the Aluminum Co. of America,
twenty-three 24 by 48 inch concrete cylinders were fabricated and
sent to the bureau for testing. It was found that Poisson’s ratio
for the concrete was about 0.15 for all stresses within the range
from 0 to 1,000 pounds per square inch.
Tests of the Arlington Memorial Bridge.—Continuous records of
the temperatures of the concrete in one of the main arch spans are
being obtained. The average temperature of the arch has varied
between 28° and 80° F. Measurements of the deformations and
deflections of the arch barrel caus< ’ ’
'
’
’ ”
before and after the construction
made to determine the effect of the restraint of the superstructure
on the deformations of the arch.
Transmission of water through brick masonry.—The durability
of bond between brick and mortar may be improved by finding and
using mortars which, under any conditions, undergo relatively small
volume changes. It is believed" that there are several ways in which
this may be accomplished without any material increase in labor or
building cost.

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Properties of sand-lime brick.—In determining weathering ability,
partial immersion as well as total immersion absorption data have
been obtained together with the bulk volume and density of the
bricks. Freezing and thawing cycles on these bricks are now being
made to find whether there is any' correlation between absorptive
properties and resistance to freezing and thawing.
Manufacture of gypsum products.—Properties of gypsum fiber
concrete: Volumetric changes of gypsum fiber concrete made from
■five different lots of calcined gypsum are being studied. Setting
expansions range from 0.06 to 0.40 per cent. W ithin the tempera­
ture range of 25° to 45° C. the thermal coefficient of expansion of
the neat gypsum specimens is about 160X10"7 and that of the fiber
concrete containing 12.5 per cent wood chips about 130X10~T.
Lime investigation.— (a) Soundness of hydrated lime: Steaming
a paste of hydrated lime in an autoclave at 120 pounds pressure
has proven most satisfactory to determine the soundness of hy­
drated lime. It is hoped that the method may also be made appli­
cable for testing the soundness of pulverized quicklime.
(b) Particle-size distribution of hydrated lime: The particlesize distribution of hydrated lime is being studied by determining
the rate of sedimentation of lime in anhydrous normal butyl alcohol.
(c) Specifications for chemical lime: llecommended specifications
for quicklime and hydrated lime for use in soap making have been
published.
Elastic pointing materials.—A special apparatus which has materi­
ally simplified the testing process has been designed and built to
determine the effectiveness of these materials in masonry joints
when subjected to tensile stresses.
Slate.—Samples of roofing slate were secured from old buildings
where they had been exposed under service conditions for periods
ranging from 12 to more than 100 years* This has afforded con­
siderable information on the nature and causes of slate weathering.
Some deposits of slate in this country seem to be very resistant to
destructive weathering agents, while others may not be good for
more than 25 years of service.
Blistering of vitreous enamels on gray cast iron.—This work in
cooperation with the American Ceramic Society shows that “ blister­
ing ” irons possess a much narrower range of temperatures within
which the enamel can be burned without blister formation than do
nonblistering irons. The range of suitable firing temperatures for
a given iron corresponds with a decrease in the rate, or a cessation
o f the oxidation of carbon from the surface of the iron. Rapid
oxidation of carbon from the surface is believed to reduce the pres­
ence of temper carbon,” a very finely divided carbon formed
immediately in the breakdown of cementite and previous to ag­
glomeration to the coarser “ graphite carbon.” In general, the re­
moval of the surface layer from a “ blistering ” iron renders it “ nonblistering ” in its behavior when enameled.
Chemical testing and methods of analysis.—Samples of structural
materials were tested for various branches of the Government.
These included Portland cement, cast irons, steels, alloy steels,
ferro-alloys, brasses, bronzes, bearing metals, boiler plugs, Monel
metal, and light aluminum alloys. Several improved and more
rapid test methods were developed.

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TESTING MACHINES ($41,000)

Hardness testing of metals.—During the past two years, a large
number of steel specimens, having high Brinell numbers, have been
tested. The results have been used in the derivation of formulas for
the relation between the llockwell and the Brinell numbers. The
new formulas do not differ greatly from earlier formulas published
by the Bureau of Standards but give the metallurgical industry more
reliable methods of obtaining the Rockwell number from the Brinell
number or vice versa. Recommendations have likewise been pre­
pared covering the use of the Brinell machine, which should secure
greater uniformity in test results from different observers.
Electrically welded steel tubing.—The physical properties of
tubing made from sheet steel containing from 0.08 to 0.25 per cent
carbon, in which the longitudinal seam was welded under pressure
by the electrical-resistance method were determined. Seven different
tests were applied, which showed that the properties of the base
metal (the metal not affected by the welding operation) can be used
in determining the working stresses for different structural uses of
tubing made by this process.
Flat plates under edge compression.—In the pontoons or floats of
seaplanes and in the outer covering of airplane fuselages flat plates
are subjected to compressive forces in the plane of the plate. In
order to determine the loads such plates can carry, an investigation
was conducted in cooperation with the Aeronautics Branch. Tests
were made on four different materials—nickel, duralumin, stainless
iron, and Monel metal, having thicknesses up to 0 095 inch, a length of
24 inches (direction of load), and -widths up to 24 inches. It was
found that the plates could be subjected to an increase of load after
they had begun to buckle and that especially in the thinner and wider
specimens it was possible for the plate to carry many times its theo­
retical buckling load under uniform thrust without permanent
deformation.
Fixation of struts.—The strength of tubular steel struts as used
in airplane fuselages, loaded in compression and with their ends
restrained, is being determined in cooperation with the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the Navy Department.
Various conditions of end support, varying from no restraint to
infinite restraint are being used, and it is expected that the results
of this investigation will enable designers to reduce the weight of
aircraft structures with safety.
Welded structures.—In cooperation with the structural steel weld­
ing committee of the American Bureau of Welding, tensile tests
have been made of 125 large welded joints, as an aid in determining
safe working stresses when designing welded structures.
Torsional properties of tubing.—An investigation of the torsional
properties of tubes for aircraft structures has been undertaken in
cooperation with the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department.
The first tests are being made on standard sizes of chrome-molyb­
denum steel tubing up to 2 inches in diameter and up to 0.065 inch
thick. These specimens fail by buckling after permanent deforma­
tion of the material has begun. These results will enable designers
to estimate closely the torsional strength of tubular members of
aircraft.

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Specifications for em pty shipping containers.—With the coopera­
tion of the Forest Products Laboratory and the industry, tentative
specifications have been prepared for solid-fiber boxes, corrugatedfiber boxes, nailed and lock-corner wooden boxes, plywood boxes,
and wire-bound boxes. Specifications for sheet-steel drums and for
cylinders for compressed gases are in preparation.
INVESTIGATION OP FIRE-RESISTING PROPERTIES ($30,000)

Furnace for fire tests of walls and partitions.—A new gas-fired
furnace for conducting fire tests of wall and partition constructions
was completed which accommodates specimens 11 feet high and 16
feet wide and in which loads up to 350,000 pounds can be applied.
Tests of fire-detecting systems.—Tests were made of five automatic
fire-detecting systems for the Steamboat Inspection Service to deter­
mine their acceptability under the law requiring their installation
on passenger vessels.
Fire tests of roofing materials.—Data on fire tests of roofing ma­
terials in common use were prepared for publication. These included
new materials, and similar materials from roofs 5 to 30 years old,
as well as new and weathered roofings covered or impregnated with
fire-retardant compounds.
Spontaneous heating and ignition of materials.—Determinations
of ignition temperature and susceptibility to spontaneous heating of
various materials have been made at the request of other Government
departments, using available equipment and methods. Additional
fundamental test methods for this work are being developed.
Research on the susceptibility to spontaneous heating and ignition
of jute is being conducted in cooperation with the Bureau of Chem­
istry and Soils of the Department of Agriculture and a committee
of the Marine Underwriters. The results indicate that jute presents
no greater hazard from this standpoint than other materials that are
generally regarded as presenting at the most a low hazard.
Other active research projects.—Plans for temporary equipment
for fire tests of welded steel floor constructions, to be conducted in
cooperation with the American Institute of Steel Construction, were
completed. Fire tests were made of columns protected by precast
and poured gypsum. Work was continued on the report giving
results of compression tests of steel and cast iron at high tempera­
tures. Fire, impact, and loading tests were made of insulated safes
to obtain data for revision of Federal specifications. Tests were
made to determine the effectiveness of fire-retardant surface treat­
ments for wood scaffolding.
Technical assistance was given in connection with tests of sprinkler
systems in airplane hangars, conducted by the Aeronautics Branch,
and in the formation of an organization of Government officials
concerned with fire prevention.
INVESTIGATION OF PUBLIC-UTILITY STANDARDS ($107,290)

Measurement of high voltages and large currents.—The large
absolute high-voltage electrometer was operated in some preliminary
trials at 90,000 volts and showed the expected sensitivity. Modifi­

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cations have been made to reduce air-current disturbances. A special
microscope has been constructed for determining the location of the
attracted disk relative to the guard ring.
A standard current transformer and accessory apparatus, which
have been completed, raise the possible range of testing from 2,500
to 6,000 amperes.
Electrical codes.—Assistance was given in completing the revision
of the Wisconsin State Electrical Code. The preparation of a pic­
torial edition of the National Electrical Safety Code was continued.
In cooperation with a national committee, specifications for testing
line insulators of more than 750 volts were completed. Assistance
was rendered the International Electrotechnical Commission on
regulations for overhead transmission lines and the National Board
of Fire Underwriters in revising the National Electrical Code.
Protection against lightning.—Miscellaneous Publication No. 95,
entitled “ Protection of Electrical Circuits and Equipment against
Lightning,” was issued. Assistance was given the National Fire
Protection Association in the preparation of a report dealing with oil
tanks, and an investigation was carried on in the oil fields of
California, Oklahoma, and Kansas.
Government telephone service.—The bureau’s work on telephone
service has been directed almost entirely to the planning of efficient
and economical service for Government offices in Washington and
elsewhere, and to the defense of damage suits involving very large
claims for telephone equipment used here and abroad during the war
period.
The first unit of a group of dial private-branch telephone exchanges
planned to serve in a properly coordinated and throughly modern
manner the executive departments and establishments in Washington
was put into service May 31. For the new Commerce Building,
which will house all of that department’s activities except the Bureau
of Standards, a consolidated, combination dial and manual, privatebranch exchange has been designed.
Detailed studies were carried out for the Budget Bureau on the
telephone service for Federal agencies in cities outside of Wash­
ington, and recommendations were made for Asheville, Chicago,
Fargo, Kansas City, San Diego, San Francisco, and Springfield, 111.
Underground corrosion.—About 3,000 specimens of pipe materials
have been removed from 70 locations. Their condition and that of
the soil in which they were buried are being determined. This is
part of a 12-year project now two-thirds completed.
Field tests of 50 protective coatings in 29 soils have been started
with the cooperation of coating manufacturers, the American Gas
Association, and the American Petroleum Institute, who will bear
about two-thirds of the expense of the investigation.
Tlotel ranges.—The efficiency of ovens and cooking tops of hotel
gas ranges was measured and a limited amount of work was done
on domestic electric ranges to assist Government institutions, such
as hospitals, barracks, etc., in the selection of such equipment.
Corrosion of materials for gas-oven linings.—A large number of
materials have been tested by an improved method. The corroded
materials have been submitted to a committee of the American Gas
Association, which contributed to the research as an aid in preparing
specifications.

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Domestic range burners.—An investigation of the optimum design
of domestic gas-range burners for using carbureted water gas was
conducted to find how design factors differ when using water gas
as compared with propane and butane previously studied.
Use of propane in the Lighthouse Service.—It has been found that
propane burners could be substituted for the kerosene burners now
used for the larger lights with a simplification of equipment re­
quiring less attention from the operator, and with the same efficiency
in terms of candlepower-hours per thousand British thermal units.
The greater cost of propane at the present time probably makes its
substitution for kerosene inadvisable except possibly for unattended
stationary lights.
TESTING MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS ($46,400)

A great variety of tests were made for Government departments
on paints, varnishes, roofing and waterproofing materials, rubber
goods, packings, inks, typewriter ribbons, carbon paper, textiles,
boiler waters and compounds, detergents, chemicals, gold alloys, etc.
Miscellaneous materials were tested to determine their fire hazard
to guide the Steamboat Inspection Service in making rulings on
the transportation of commodities on passenger vessels.
RADIO RESEARCH ($85,700)

Prim ary frequency standard.—A primary frequency standard with
an error of one part in several millions, consisting of four special
piezooscillators of great accuracy, has been in operation for several
months. Currents are furnished by this standard at 100,000, 10,000,
1,000, 100, and 10 cycles per second, and seconds impulses are given.
These accurately known frequencies can be made available for meas­
urement purposes in most of the bureau’s buildings. The frequencies
of the four piezooscillators are found to increase at the rate of about
one part in a million per month.
Secondary frequency standards.—Some of the causes of erratic
behavior of temperature-controlled piezooscillators constructed by
the bureau have been eradicated by improvements in design. Two
of the best piezooscillators maintain their frequencies from day to
day within ± 1 part in a million. The frequencies of this group of
piezooscillators have been found to increase about one or two parts
in a million per month.
Standard frequency dissemination.—Regularly scheduled trans­
missions of eight frequencies per month were sent out for the use of
all those interested in accurate frequency calibration. The accuracy
of these transmissions is better than 0.0i per cent.
Intercomparison of frequency standards of various laboratories.—
The frequency standards of several foreign countries were intercompared by carrying a piezooscillator to the different laboratories
and by measurements on a quartz light resonator circulated by
Japan. The latter measurements showed the national standards of
four nations to be in agreement within 0.002 per cent.
Measurement of radio field intensity.—Field intensity measure­
ments made at frequencies from 550 to 5,400 kilocycles per second
over distances up to 3,200 meters over fresh water show that 15 per

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cent of the signal is absorbed at 1,500 kilocycles and about 50 per
cent is absorbed at 5,400 kilocycles. Measurements of transmissions
from broadcasting and Government stations at distances up to 270
kilometers show that the absorption at a distance of 270 kilometers
is 99 per cent for a 760-kilocycle transmission and 90 per cent for
a 338-kilocycle transmission.
Variations of radio wave intensity and direction.—Measurements
with an automatic fading recorder at the Kensington field station
show that magnetic storms do not affect the received intensity but
increase atmospherics. The eclipse of April 28, 1930, did not affect
the records.
Height of the Kennelly-IIeavyside layer.—Oscillographic records
made on pulse signals sent by NK F on 4,045 kilocycles and 8,650
kilocycles show the virtual height of the Kennelly-Heaviside layer
to be from 225 to 250 kilometers on 4,045 kilocycles and about 290
kilometers on 8,650 kilocycles. A 100-kilometer layer was also ob­
served on the lower frequency. The height of the layer changes dur­
ing the day and is affected by magnetic storms.
Studies of piezo-electricity.—The modes of vibration of crystalline
quartz plates of various cuts have been studied by observing the pat­
terns formed by lycopodium powder on the surfaces of the plates.
The air currents emanating from the periphery of a vibrating cir­
cular plate have been utilized to determine the angle of vibration o f
the plate. The experimental work has been accompanied by a theo­
retical study of the problem of free vibrations of an elastic solid.
Radio-frequency power factor of mica.—Power-factor measure­
ments between 100 and 1,000 kilocycles per second were made on 34
samples of domestic and foreign mica for the Bureau of Mines for
use in a report to the War Department.
COLOR STANDARDIZATION ($15,800)

Filters for the reproduction of sunlight and daylight and the
determination of color temperature.—A series of filters reproducible
from chemical specification has been developed for use in photo­
graphic sensitometry, colorimetry, and photometry. One has been
recommended for adoption as a standard of artificial sunlight by the
Seventh International Congress of Photography. Others are being
considered for adoption as standards by the suDcommittee on colorim­
etry of the International Commission on Illumination.
Theory of reduction of mixture data in colorimetry.—A paper on
the mathematical treatment of physical properties which determine
the colors of reflective and transmissive materials and on the data
which give the properties of the average normal eye has been
published.
Standardization of Lovibond glasses.—Two hundred and twentyfive Lovibond red glasses sul
" 11 users have been compared
with the bureau’s standard
addition, 36 glasses submitted by the makers, Tintometer (L td.), of England, and 19 belong­
ing to the American Oil Chemists’ Society were compared with the
standards.
New color comparator for incandescent lamps.—The experimental
conditions affecting accuracy of comparison or two colors have been

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studied, and a comparator designed for incandescent lamps has
been constructed. It has been found that the precision is about
double that obtainable with the comparator previously used.
Miscellaneous.—Lack of space prevents more than mention of the
following investigations on which work has been done during the
year: Analysis of color stimuli in terms of dominant wave length
and purity, selection of a standard neutral stimulus for colorimetric
purposes, color specifications for railway and traffic signals, diffuse
reflection and its measurement, and standard data on reflection of
various materials.
INVESTIGATION OF CLAY PRODUCTS ($49,000)

Crazing of semiporcelain dinner ware.—The effect of composition
and physical structure on changes in volume, as produced by reac­
tions oi water-permeable bodies with moisture, as well as the nature
of the reaction itself, are being studied with the autoclave. It
appears that bodies of more than 2 per cent water absorption will
undergo a sufficient change in volume when subjected to moisture
to rupture or craze a glaze coating. Feldspar may undergo greater
volume changes than clay matter and a temperature of at least 240°
C. is required to remove the moisture causing this change in volume
and to complete the accompanying volume contraction.
Cutlery marking of chinaware.—Permanent marking of chinaware
by cutlery appears to be due to the formation of an extremely thin
layer of lead sulphate on the surface of the glaze during the manu­
facture of the ware. One manufacturer was able to produce ware no
longer susceptible to this cutlery marking by substituting an elec­
trically heated muffle for the firing of his decorated ware.
S tudy of feldspar.—A tentative commercial standard classification
for feldspar has been established. The suggested specification is
entirely technical in nature and is based on an investigation of 19
commercial feldspars which has been carried on for several years.
S tudy of fire clays.—Data obtained on 26 representative fire clays
show that their thermal expansions after firing at 1,400° C. may be
greater or less than after firing at 1,155° C., depending on their com­
position. The moduli of elasticity and rupture of the clays are
generally greater after firing at 1,400° C. than after firing at"l,155°
C. The percentage increase is greater in highly siliceous clays than
in aluminous clays. The plastic deflections of the clays are also
less in the siliceous type of clays than in the aluminous.
Problems relating to saggers.—It has been found that the life
of saggers made from individual bodies is directly related to small
changes in porosity, but because of the importance of other proper­
ties, which have also been determined, the porosity of a series of
different bodies apparently does not bear an important relation to
their life when subjected to thermal shock.
Effect of variations in composition on vitreous enamels.—Two vitre­
ous enamels having identical calculated melted compostions, but dif­
fering in their raw batch mixtures, were prepared. The cone forma­
tion temperatures of the two resulting enamels differed by approxi­
mately 40° C. Additional heat treatment at the temperature of
preparation (1,250° C .), was given and records obtained of the cone

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deformation temperatures and indices of refraction. These indicate
that the initial difference in properties is due to a more stable condi­
tion than that of mere arrested reaction.
Resistance of metals to the abrasive action of plastic clay.—Com­
parative wear values of 12 metals and alloys have been studied
with the following results, the resistance of a chrome-nickel-tungsten
composition being used as unity: Carbon-cobalt-chromium, 2.3;
average for several cast irons, 30.9; carbon-chromium-nickel steel,
39.1; electrolytic copper, 161; and manganese-zinc bronze, 276.8.
Casehardened metals are not suitable for continuous abrasive resist­
ance. As soon as the outer layer is worn away the successive layers
become less wear resisting.
Hollow-ware dies.—This investigation has shown that within rea­
sonable limits both “ core” and “ d ie ” length have a more marked
effect on power consumption than taper without a proportional
improvement in the column structure. Hollow-ware dies that are
too short produce columns with serious defects. Taper affects the
column structure more than it does power consumption and rarely
should be less than 3° for both cores and die.
Compressible lubricants such as steam and air are far more effi­
cient, easier to control, and less liable to damage the product than
liquids, such as water and oil.
Properties of architectural terra cotta.—In cooperation with the
.National Terra Cotta Society, about 190 buildings containing terra
cotta were inspected to determine the serviceability of this ware.
Laboratory research is being conducted to improve the structure of
this material and to develop better methods of manufacture and
setting.
Ceramic bodies (except mixtures containing blast-furnace slag),
with high-moisture absorptions, developed considerable expansion.
Bodies with low absorptions composed of pure clay and feldspar
developed practically no moisture expansion, while those composed
of clay, feldspar, and more than 20 per cent silica developed con­
siderable moisture expansion. By adding magnesite the resistance
of a ceramic body to moisture expansion was improved. Additions
of whiting, iron oxide, and titanium oxide were not as beneficial as
magnesite.
It was found that crazing caused by moisture expansion of bodies
can usually be prevented by proper manufacturing control.
Colunibus laboratory.—As the result of experimental work on 118
glazes and glasses, it is now possible to approximate by calculation
values of tensile strength, Young’s modulus of elasticity, and mean
linear coefficient of expansion or a glaze in the temperature range
from 25° C. to the lower limit of the critical range. The investiga­
tion of English and domestic china clays and kaolins is nearing
completion. The separation and study of collodial material has
been applied to the investigation of representative alluvial and glacial
clays, the data indicating that slaking time, tempering water, drying
shrinkage, and “ green” modulus of rupture tend to increase with
increase in the quantity of colloidal matter. A new method has
been developed for studying the relative resistance of refractories
to slag attack in boiler settings.

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STANDARDIZING MECHANICAL APPLIANCES ($29,300)

Testing of engineering instruments.—The number of calibrations
o f water-current meters and other engineering instruments now ex­
ceeds 1,000 per year. Experimental work was done in cooperation
with the United States Geological Survey in the development of
new standard suspension arrangements for water-current meters.
Investigation of 'propeller fans.—In cooperation with a manu­
facturer the performance of 2-blade propeller fans has been meas­
ured for a wide range of pitch-diameter ratios and the results of the
measurements prepared for publication in the Journal of Research.
Fire-extinguishing appliances.—The testing and investigation of
fire-extinguishing appliances, principally for the Steamboat In­
spection Service, has been further extended to include additional
devices and new types of equipment. The volume of this work
has more than doubled in the past year.
Elevator safety interlocks.—Additional commercial interlocking
devices have been tested, and the data made available to certain
regulatory bodies, as, for example, the Federal Government, certain
State governments, and casualty insurance companies. These per­
formance tests have recently been adopted, substantially in the form
originally developed, as a part of the American Standard Code for
Elevators.
Automatic postal machines.—Cooperation has continued with the
Post Office Department in the technical study and testing of auto­
matic postage-vending and postage-metering machines from the
standpoint of mechanical design, accuracy, and reliability for use
by the Government.
Numbering machines.—Numbering machines of the lever type have
been tested for compliance with Federal specifications. Performance
specifications are being developed for numbering machines of other
types.
Thermostatic radiator traps.—The new Government construction
program requires a great many thermostatic radiator return line
traps, and an unusually large number of tests of these traps have
been made during the year.
INVESTIGATION OF OPTICAL GLASS ($27,300)

Production of optical glass.—Thirty-one pots embracing six dif­
ferent kinds of optical glass wrere made in attempts to improve
melting procedures and to obtain consistently satisfactory quantities
of good glass.
Blanks numbering 12,552 and weighing approximately 2,670
pounds were molded and annealed, the majority being used by the
Navy Department.
Viscosity of glass.—Four hundred and six viscosity determina­
tions have been made on five kinds of optical glass. The most
probable values, as shown by graphical analyses of data, are as
follows:

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Viscosity (poises) at—
Kind of glass
1,200° C.

1,300° C .

8,510
6, 840
3, 390
2,140
2,100

1,514
858

403
234
221
253
190

149
94
120
no
93

607
672
490

1

1, 100° c .

d
0

Barium flint...........................................................
Light barium crown................................................
Borosilicate crown...................................................
Medium flint..........................................................
Dense flint..............................................................

i,ooo0 c .

74
60
100
50

54

Physical properties of glass as affected by thermal treatment
(including annealing) .—Tentative values for the increases in refractivity and density of dense barium crown glass have been found to
be respectively 0.000057 and 0.00044 per degree centigrade decrease
in the effective annealing temperature. This temperature is deter­
mined by the character of the annealing and is essentially that
temperature at which the glass is in physiochemical equilibrium;
that is, continued annealing at this temperature causes the glass to
show no further increase or decrease in either density or refractivity.
Gases dissolved in glass.—More satisfactory methods have been
developed for determining the gases in glass which can be removed
at high temperature by evacuation. Since these gases probably
have appreciable effects on the properties of the glass and may be the
undetermined cause of serious difficulty in the working, the develop­
ment is of considerable importance.
Relations between chemical composition, density, and index of
refraction of glasses.—Data obtained from the index of refraction,
density, and composition of 40 glasses of the soda-lime-silica series
lead to the conclusion that the index of refraction (N ) and density
(D ) of these glasses can be computed from the following:
N =a+b+c
D = a' + b' + c'
a = 0.042712 (A)0 79487—0.2
6 = 0.0153 5 -0 .0 0 8 3 7
c = 0.017219 0 -0 .0 0 1 0 3
a' = 0.07977 A ( 8 6 .5 - A)0 42107+ 2.203 A
b' = 2.0150 ( 5 - 0 . 5 ) ' 005
c' = 0.03415 C

(€- 0.04743

in which A, B, and G are the percentages of silica, soda, and lime
in the glass.
The composition of any glass of this series can be determined from
its index of refraction and density.
Weathering of sheet glass in storage.—A study of this problem
has been undertaken to determine, if possible, the conditions neces­
sary to prevent the fogging or surface deterioration of window glass
during storage and the consequent loss to manufacturers of many
thousands of dollars annually.
INVESTIGATION OF TEXTILES, ETC. ($53,900)

Silk weighting.—In cooperation with the Silk Association of
America, National Retail Dry Goods Association, National Better
Business Bureau, the American Home Economics Association, and

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other national bodies, technical studies have been made on the effect
of tin weighting on the properties of silk. It was found that not
only the amount of weighting, but also the method of applying it,
the construction of the fabric, and other factors have an important
influence on serviceability. The effect of diffuse light on weighted
silks was studied. A standard method for determining the amount
of weighting on silk was developed.
Cotton fabric for parachutes.—In cooperation with the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, improvements were made in
cotton fabric for parachutes, which increase the resistance to tear.
At the present time, at least two commercial firms are producing
fabric suitable for parachutes.
Coarse fabrics {bagging, etc.).—In studying the requirements of
specific uses in the coarse-fabric field, a systematic study of the
relationship between the properties and the twist, yarn number, and
construction was made. This investigation required the making of
320 fabrics in the bureau’s cotton mill.
Textile test methods.—A simple method has been devised for
specifying the slipperiness or smoothness of a fabric by measure­
ment of the coefficient of friction between two pieces of the material.
A “ flexometer ” for measuring the energy required to fold the
fabric and the energy which is recovered when the sample is al­
lowed to unfold has been built. This gives data on the tendency to
wrinkle. It is believed that the flexometer can also be applied to
the evaluation of draping quality. An apparatus for rapidly meas­
uring the thermal transmission of fabrics has been built.
Permanence of papers.—The testing of representative current
commercial writing and printing papers in reference to their prob­
able stability has been practically completed. Progress wTas made
in the preparation of similar types of papers in the bureau’s paper
mill. These papers will have a definitely known history, and the
chemicals and mechanical processes used in their preparation are
being varied to measure their effect on paper stability. W ith a
fund granted by the Carnegie Foundation, extensive surveys of
library storage conditions and a study of their effects on papers are
being made. The information so far gained shows that the degree
of purity of papers and their strength are the important factors
in their permanence.
Government papers.—-Additional information was published on
the currency-paper study. Various treatments for protection of the
paper money against surface wear, which is now the main limiting
factor in its life, were investigated. In the cooperative investiga­
tion with the Bureau of Engraving and Printing on postage stamps,
the type of paper used was found to be the most important factor
affecting adhesion of stamps. Through experimental studies, a
thinner and more flexible paper was developed. Since the adop­
tion of this type of paper, complaints respecting nonadherence of
stamps have decreased to a satisfactory minimum.
Paper testing methods.—A report wras published on the burstingstrength test, including a discussion of the alleged variables in this
test, and precautions were suggested for minimizing the effect of
the more significant variables. An additional publication on the
standard type of folding tester was issued. Progress was made in

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obtaining information on the application of hygrometry to the spe­
cial conditions of laboratory testing. The cooperative work with
the Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry on the
development of official association paper-testing methods resulted
in the completion of a method for unimpregnated roofing felt, and
revision of the methods for paraffin, starch, and fiber composition.
Miscellaneous.—Additional work under this fund has included an
investigation of substitutes for chromium in dyes (for the War De­
partment), the development of a white stainless mineral oil for knit­
ting machines, studies of several new materials, including New
Zealand flax, for paper making, and the establishment of standards
of quality for several paper products.
SUGAR STAN D ARD IZA TIO N ($75,000)

The structure of the sugars.—In the bureau’s study of the molecu­
lar structure of sugar a number of new compounds and methods have
been found, among which were (1) a method for separating methyl
glycosides which yielded two crystalline methyl gulosides, and (2)
a method for deacetylation by means of a small quantity of barium
methylate which gave monoacetylglucosido-mannose, a representa­
tive of a new type of sugar derivatives. The general problem of a
possible relation between optical rotation and atomic dimension was
attacked, and what is known as the fluorating process for sugars was
studied. Four new crystalline compounds of levulo.se were prepared.
Crystallographic studies of the sugars.—The identification of crys­
tals and the“determination of their crystallographic properties has
become an indispensable aid to the advancement of knowledge in the
carbohydrate field. The bureau’s facilities for this work have been
extended, including microphotographie work and the actual grow­
ing of perfect crystals under controlled conditions. A study of crys­
talline turanose, a little-understood rare sugar, has been completed.
Standardization of sugar products.—The problem of suitable speci­
fications and standards for commercial sugars has long been one of
the outstanding problems in the sugar industry. Numerous repre­
sentative samples of white granulated sucrose were carefully studied
by means of spectrophotometrie analysis, and existing knowledge of
the small but all-important amount of color remaining in these socalled white products was materially extended thereby. It is ex­
pected that these data will be of assistance in the classification of
commercial sugars according to color. An important by-product of
this work was the simplification and improvement of some methods
used in sugar colorimetry.
Hard refined levulose production.—Portions of the bureau’s plant
for the semicommercial production of levulose were placed in opera­
tion and studies made of the functioning of various steps in the
process. Several new pieces of equipment were developed. Con­
stant improvement has been made in a system of analyses of levulose
products, and the densities, rotatory powers, and refractive indices
of pure levulose solutions have been determined. Two new crystal­
line difructose anhydrides have been discovered. Approximately 50
tons of artichokes were extracted and the juice concentrated to fur­
nish a continuous supply of material for factory experimentation
1S038—30----- 12

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Miscellaneous.—In addition to the items described above, progress
has been made on the following investigations: The rotation and
rotation dispersion of rare sugars for certain wave lengths of light;
spectrophotometric measurement of the color of soft sugar; prepara­
tion of pure sugars; a standard sugar color, its absorption spectrum,
luminosity, and classification; an optical method for the identification
of various sugars; the lime precipitation of levulose and its crystal­
lization from aqueous solution; preparation of ribose; identification
and properties of unknown constituents of hydrolyzed inulin; the
polysaccharides of the Jerusalem-artichoke and similar plants; inves­
tigation of the relation of optical rotation to atomic dimension; and
the application of the fluorating process to sugars.
GAGE STANDARDIZATION ($40,000)

Certification of master gages.—The measurement and certification
of the accuracy of the dimensions of master gages has constituted a
large part of the work, and, as in other recent years, the master gages
of the American Petroleum Institute have constituted an important
item. The measurement of the grand and x'egiona) masters of
American Petroleum Institute rotary tool joint gages has been
practically completed. The principal manufacturers of sucker rods
are now supplied with approved gages. Increased tolerances (not,
however, inconsistent with approved gaging practice) are now being
used on these gages. Master gages were also submitted by many
automobile manufacturers, and there was a 70 per cent increase in the
number of precision gage blocks tested.
New equipment.—A comparator for long gage blocks and end
standards up to 60 inches in length and a lead-testing device were
designed and constructed in the bureau’s shop. An improved lead­
testing device for large thread plugs and rings was made, and a
device for measuring angular displacements or spacing, to an accuracy
of about 5 minutes of arc, was purchased.
Method of gaging fish nets.—At the request of the Bureau of Fish­
eries an investigation has been started of methods of gaging the mesh
of gill netting. P relim inar results show that “ as fished ” condition
rather than the factory condition should apply when making
measurements.
Interchangeable ground-glass joints.—Nine sizes of joints have
been adopted as commercial standards for chemical glass apparatus.
All have a taper of 1 in 10 on diameter. Steps have been taken to
secure gages of the required accuracy for use as masters.
IN V E STIG A TIO N OF M IN E SCARES AND CARS ($13,400)

Tests of mine neales.—The mine-scale testing equipment was
operated in the eastern coal fields. Tests were made of 185 scales
used for weighing coal or clay at the mine. Sixty-three scales, or
84.1 per cent, were within the tolerance, while 122, or 65.9 per cent,
were found to be incorrect. Installation practices and operating
conditions at mines are not favorable to maintenance of weighing
machinery within current tolerances.

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Protective coatings for heavy weights.—Research was begun on
adequate corrosion protective coatings for industrial test weights of
large denomination. The condition of a great number of weights
treated with a variety of recommended protective coatings and sub­
jected to practical conditions of use will be recorded from time to
time.
METALLUBGICAL BESEABCH ($51,000 )

IIcat-treated bridge wire.—The strength necessary in wire for the
cables of suspension bridges may be developed by cold working or
by heat treatment. Wire of the former class is, however, used ex­
clusively for this purpose, since attempts to use heat-treated wire
have been unsuccessful. Various tests, including thermomagnetie
analyses, endurance, and other mechanical tests have been made on
rejected heat-treated wire. The work will be continued with special
attention to the effect of surface conditions arising in the zinccoating operation upon the stability of the wire under various con­
ditions of stress.
High-speed tool steel and the machineability of steel.—A report
has been issued on the characteristic behavior of tools of high-speed
steel containing various addition elements, of which cobalt is the
only one which appears to be beneficial in its effect. A report w'as
also published on the method for studying the behavior of tools
when used for finishing cuts. A similar report on the behavior of
sintered tungsten carbide lathe-cutting tools has been published.
Rail steel.—The tensile properties of rail steel at temperatures
ranging from normal room temperature to one somewhat below the
rolling temperature of the rails have been studied, and the probable
relationship determined between the low' ductility observed at the
elevated temperature—“ secondary brittleness ”—and the develop­
ment of transverse fissures in the rails later in service.
Further work is in progress on rail steel of various compositions
and heat treatment in the endeavor to establish the cause of the
phenomenon of “ secondary brittleness.”
Fusible boiler plugs.—Changes have been recommended in the
specifications for fusible-tin boiler plugs, one, which has received
the approval of the Steamboat Inspection Service, being that maxi­
mum impurities in the tin filling of 0.7 per cent will be allow’ed
instead of 0.3 per cent as heretofore.
Properties and new uses for bismuth.—In cooperation with one of
the large producers a study has been made of bismuth and some of
its alloys. This little-used metal possesses some interesting prop­
erties which should make it of value indust rially.
Foundry materials awl methods.—Cooperation with the Steel
Castings Research Bureau in the study of steel castings has been
continued. The problem of “ liquid shrinkage” of cast metals (in
cooperation with the American Foundry men’s Association) has in­
cluded a study of methods for determining the volume changes
undergone by metals cooling from the liquid state to room tempera­
ture. Data obtained permit construction of the complete specific
volume-temperature curve from room temperature to a temperature
considerably above the melting point of the metal. These tests
are being applied in a practical manner to a variety of cast irons.

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The test for determining the ability of molten metal to fill a mold
completely has been modified and greatly improved.
Metals of the platinum group.—The study of the refractories for
use in melting metals of the platinum group has been completed,
while that on the properties and mechanical working of the rhodiumplatinum alloys is nearly finished.
Additional research projects.—In addition to the items already
mentioned some progress lias been made on a revision of specifi­
cations for copper-base casting alloys, on a study of the effect of
impurities on bearing bronzes, on exposure tests of art bronzes, en­
durance tests of metals, test methods for foundry sands, accelerated
corrosion testing, corrosion of locomotive boilers“and a study of the
crystal structure of metals.
HIGH-TEM PERATURE INVESTIGATION ($10,200)

Freezing point of platinum.—The freezing point of pure platinum
was found to be 1,773° C. on the international temperature scale. It
is estimated that the result is not in error by more than 2° C.
Freezing point of bismuth.—The freezing point of bismuth of
very high purity was determined with a platinum resistance ther­
mometer as 271.3° C. on the international temperature scale.
Thermoelectric properties of metals and alloys.—The electromo­
tive force against platinum of a series of platinum-rhodium alloys
with rhodium content from 1 to 100 per cent was determined last
year from 0° to 1,200° C. This year the investigation has been
extended to include a series with rhodium from 0.001 to 1 per cent.
The electromotive force against platinum of nickel of very high
purity and of spectroscopically pure zinc and cadmium was deter­
mined from 0° C. up to the melting points of these metals.
Investigation of pyrometer protection tubes.—The rate of passage
of air through the walls of pyrometer protection tubes at a series of
temperatures up to 1,300° G. was determined for 51 primary tubes
of 14 different types and 17 secondary (metal) tubes of 8 different
types, representing practically every type of pyrometer tube used
in this country.
The investigation showed that, in general, if a tube was gas-tight
at room temperature, it was practically gas-tight up to the maximum
temperature at which the tubes were tested.
Miscellaneous.—Other investigations under way include: Deter­
minations of freezing points of several metals, correlation of high
temperature tests of dental gold alloys, effect of high temperature
on mica and special refractories, and methods for making ceramic
shapes for laboratory use.
SOUND INVESTIGATION ($11,260)

.4caustic properties of building materials.—An improvement in
method has been effected by which sound-absorption measurements
are taken by means of instruments, eliminating the variable human
ear as a factor. The study of soundproof walls for airplane cabins
lias been continued, and some 20 combinations have been tested.
These have not given better results than those tested last year and
described in the bureau’s Journal of Kesearch for May, 1929.

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Ultrasonic leaves.—Experiments have been conducted on the
speed of ultrasonic waves in certain liquids. By means of measure­
ments of this character it is possible to determine the adiabatic com­
pressibility of a liquid and of a solid suspended in a liquid in which
it does not dissolve.
INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ($204,000)

Storage-battery construction and operation.—Attention has been
devoted to the use of lead oxides whose physical and chemical
properties have been the subject of previous study. Experimental
work has been done on pasting formulas, pickling, and formation
of storage-battery plates. Batteries have been assembled from these
plates and tested for electrical characteristics. Equipment for the
automatic control of such tests, by which it is hoped to increase the
output but decrease the labor of making the tests, has been designed.
Insulating liquids.—Four insulating liquids of high purity have
been prepared, namely, pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane.
Apparatus for measuring the conductivity of liquids after distilla­
tion in a vacuum has been assembled and tested.
Landing altimeter.—Altimeters of the aneroid type were tested for
drift, seasoning, secular error, and temperature errors with special
reference to their use during the landing of aircraft. Flight tests
were also made. When using sensitive altimeters of the best quality
now available and applying such of the instrumental corrections as
are determinate, a residual uncertainty equivalent to about 40 feet
in altitude was found to exist.
W ind pressure on structures.—Additional measurements of wind
pressure nave been made on the power-plant stack, and a paper has
been prepared giving all the information available on the wind
pressure on circular cylinders and chimneys.
Measurements of the distribution of wind pressure over a model
of one type of factory building at several angles to the wind have
been completed in the 10-foot wind tunnel. The wind force on a
model of a wooden oil derrick lias been measured.
Orifice-meter investigations.—In cooperation with the American
Gas Association further experiments have been made on natural
gas at high pressures and on the effects of pipe size. The Chicago
tests of large gas meters with air have been analyzed and a report
on them is in preparation.
Heats of combustion of hydrogen, methane, and carbon mon­
oxide.—With a new’ and improved type of calorimeter the heats of
combustion of the above gases have been measured with a high
degree of precision. Preliminary values to whicli certain small
corrections have yet to be applied are as follows :

Internationa! joules per mol 30° C.

Best v alu e..........................................................................................
Average deviation............................................................................ per cent..
Maximum deviation...............................................................................do___
Difference from previously accepted values.........................................do___

Forma­ Combus­ Combus­
tion of
tion of
tion of
U jO
cn«
CO
285,610
18
- 0 .0 2
05

- .0 5

282,900

7
0.0 3
.0 7
- . 45

889,600

5
0 .0 3
.0 7
+ . 75

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Pi'operties of steam.—Values have been obtained for the heat
content of saturated water from 0° to 270° C., and for latent heat
of vaporization and heat content of saturated steam from 100° to
270° C.
Gas analysis.—Several improvements in apparatus for volumetric
gas analysis have been developed, including a method of controlling
the flow of mercury into the burette, a pipette in which the gas is
forced through a perforated platinum plate into the absorbing re­
agent in the form of very fine bubbles, a compensator with the
manometer inclosed to reduce fragility, and improved means for
cleaning the contact and opening the compensator to air, a new
method of lighting the meniscus to permit greater accuracy in
reading volumes, and several details of mounting.
Thermal conductivity of insulating materials at ordinary tem­
peratures.—An important feature of this work is the demonstration
that the arrangement of fibers has a very large effect on the insulat­
ing value of a mass of packed fibers.
Work in cooperation with the American Society for Testing Ma­
terials showed that samples of rubber-graphite compositions are
suitable standards for the comparative measurement of the thermal
conductivity of electrical insulating materials.
In cooperation with the Celotex Co. the temperature coefficients
of conductivity, through the range —30° C. to +80° C., of a num­
ber of typical insulating and building materials were determined.
Theory of heat conduction.—A note on the theory of heat con­
duction, published in the Journal of Research, outlines a method
whereby the solution of many problems of steady heat flow with
variable conductivity can be obtained directly from the solutions
of the same problems with constant conductivity.
Heat transfer through building walls.—Heat transfer through a
number of types of walls used for dwelling houses and other small
buildings has been measured. The thermal resistances of the vari­
ous components of completed walls have been determined, so that
the insulating value of any particular combination can be calcu­
lated.
Properties of petroleum products.—In cooperation with the
American Petroleum Institute, measurements have been made of
the compressibility and thermal expansion of 14 petroleum oils at
pressures 1 to 50 atmospheres and temperatures 0° to 300° C. Prac­
tical working tables have been prepared whereby the change in
volume of an oil with temperature and pressure may be determined
readily with a knowledge of specific gravity and viscosity at stand­
ard temperatures.
Oiliness of lubricating oils.—Experiments on the Herschel oili­
ness machine have confirmed the existence of a finite speed at which
there occurs a maximum coefficient of friction. Further studies
with this machine have shown an average reduction of 20 per cent
in the friction of mineral lubricating oils due to the addition of 2 per
cent of fatty acid.
Engine tests of lubricating oils.—Refinements in the methods used
for standardizing tests on lubricating oils were made for the Quarter­
master Corps of the Army. Engine-operating conditions are auto­
matically recorded throughout the test periods.

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J ourrial-bearing 'performance.—In cooperation with the American
Society of Mechanical Engineers, the effect of the length of the
bearing and closeness of fit on friction losses has been determined
for a series of 21 different sets of jouimal bearings.
Cutting fluids.—Scientific analysis of 12,000 returns from 68 of the
largest users of cutting fluids showing current machine-shop practice
has be.en completed and reported to the American Society of Mechan­
ical Engineers, as a step in a cooperative program for improving
the efficiency of metal-cutting operations.
Wear-resistant alloys.—The behavior of identical materials when
subjected to “ wear ” in a variety of ways has been studied to estab­
lish reliable test methods for determining relative wear resistance
of metals. The results emphasize the importance of fitting the test­
ing procedure to the conditions of wear in service.
Heat-resisting alloys.—Cooperative work has continued with the
American Society for Testing Materials and American Society of
Mechanical Engineers in correlating test results obtained by work« ers in a number of different laboratories on identical metallurgical
products. Results of long-time tension tests of metals at high tem­
peratures have been coordinated with similar short-time tests. Data
on the suitability of various materials for the construction of appa­
ratus for high-temperature service were published.
Solubility of gases in metals.—The equilibrium relations existing
between carbon and oxygen in liquid iron at 1,550° to 1,600° C.. and
the relation between the carbon and oxygen content of the liquid
iron and the composition of an overlying gaseous mixture of CO
and C 0 2 at a total pressure of 1 atmosphere have been studied using
the vacuum-fusion and the “ residue ” methods of analyses developed
by the bureau.
Quenching media for steel.—Sodium silicate—“ water glass ”—has
been used to quench steel. The results indicate that it is a useful
quenching medium with a “ cooling velocity” intermediate between
water and oil.
Abrasion tests for rubber.—Standard abrasion-test methods for
rubber have been established involving the development of a stand­
ard and easily reproducible comparison compound. In order to
check the uniformity of the different lots of standard compound an
abrasive track sufficient for several thousand tests without appreci­
able change has been installed. By maintaining standard test
samples at all times for comparison it should be possible to include
an abrasion test in several of the Federal specifications where such
a test is much needed.
Antioxidants in rubber compounds.—A series of aging tests has
been made on rubber compounds containing commercial antioxidants.
The results show that under practically every condition to which
rubber compounds are ordinarily subjected, these materials retard
deterioration, although under some of these conditions the effect
is much more pronounced than in others.
Effect of hum idity and temperature on the properties of rubber
compounds.—In cooperation with the American Chemical Society, an
Outline of Standard Laboratory Procedure for the Preparation and
Physical Testing of Rubber Samples has been published.

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Acid in leather.—The investigation of the effects of sulphuric acid
on vegetable-tanned leather shows that leather tanned with one of
the catechol tanning materials possesses a high degree of resistance
to deterioration by acid, while leather tanned with a pyragallol
tanning material shows a low resistance. The influence of the degree
of tannage on the deterioration by acid has been studied; and,
although the high degree of tannage leathers deteriorate more rapidly
the influence of this factor is not as great as the type of tanning
material. The rate of deterioration rapidly increases with relative
humidities above 80 per cent. Grease content influences deteriora­
tion but little even for leathers containing from 10 to 20 per cent
of cod oil and tallow. It has been shown that certain leathers take
up sulphur groups from polluted atmospheres in sufficient quantities
to cause deterioration, thus demonstrating the need for means of
preserving leather which was ;originally satisfactorily made. A
laboratory test to determine the hydrolysis of leathers wlien digested
with acid has been devised and the results obtained follow very
closely the trends shown in the actual aging tests.
*
Sole leather.—Chrome leather which has been retanned with vege­
table tanning materials will wear from 25 to To per cent longer than
ordinary vegetable-tanned leather, depending upon the extent of
the retannage. Those heavily retanned so as to resemble more nearly
vegetable-tanned leather showed the least increase in comparative
wear. Further work has been started to determine whether the
added durability of heavily retanned leathers may not be obtained
more economically by using curried or flexible vegetable leathers.
Specifications and properties of leather.—It has been found that
in the case of split leathers the grain portion possesses very little
strength since the strength-giving fibers lie in the flesh portion.
The failure of many leathers in service is attributed to excessive
splitting off of these strength-giving fibers and emphasizes the
need of careful attention to splitting on the part of the tanner and
shoe manufacturer.
Properties of electrical insulating materials.—It has been found
that the electrical properties of rubber slowly change with time when
there is a sudden change in temperature or pressure.
Heterogeneity of pyrex glass.—Refractive index measurements on
various prisms cut from a pyrex glass disk show that a striated nonoptical glass may be very uniform in its average optical density and
indicate that such optical measurements may be made with high
precision and thus be used to supplement or replace mass-density
determinations which have been used almost exclusively when inves­
tigating variations in the properties of commercial glasses.
New instrument for testing photographic lenses.—Good progress
has been made on the design and construction of a new lens-testing
apparatus which, by a series of exposures on a single plate, will give
complete information regarding the performance of a photographic
lens. This is very important in connection with airplane mapping.
Resolving power and sensitivity of motion-picture film.—Repre­
sentative developer formulas of the types recently coming into use
for reduction of “ graininess ” of motion-picture films were investi­
gated for their value in spectrography and other scientific uses de­
manding the optimum combination of resolving power and sensitivity.

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It was found that resolving power is not susceptible to any consid­
erable improvement by development methods.
Spectral sensitization of photographic materials.—The spectral
sensitization produced by bathing photographic plates with mixtures
of two important dyes used for this purpose, pinacyanol and pinaflavol, was investigated. Conditions causing coagulation of the dye
bath and changes in relative and absolute effectiveness of the two
were determined.
Specific gravity balance.—The development of the improved spe­
cific-gravity balance was completed. The new equipment was given
a trial in field use, and has been adopted as the official standard by
the Natural Gasoline Association of America.
The phase equilibrium diagram for the system Cr20 a- S i 0 2.—The
diagram has been determined and is characterized by complete non­
miscibility of the two components in the liquid state. The melting
point of Cr20 3 has been determined in an oxidizing atmosphere and
found to be 2,140° C., a value materially higher than any previously
' reported.
Spectrochemical analysis.—Besides numerous spectroscopic tests
of metals, alloys, precipitates, etc., researches on the structures of
certain spectra have given information as to the lines which may be
expected to be most sensitive for this purpose. New descriptions of
the spectra of lutecium have made an analysis of their structures
possible. This is the first of the 14 rare-earth elements to succumb
to this method of analysis.
Atomic structure investigations.—Studies of the photo-electric
effect in metal vapors, particularly cæsium vapor, have shown that
the sensitivity extends far beyond the range predicted by theory.
The mechanism of this anomalous sensitivity is found to involve a
photochemical reaction between the atoms which are excited by
absorption of light and other atoms, and the constants of these
reactions have been studied.
Identifications.—Increased attention has been given to the identi­
fication of questioned documents, bullets, and firearms which have
been or are to be submitted in evidence in cases in which the United
States Government is a party at interest. The testimony of the
bureau’s experts has been directly responsible for saving the Gov­
ernment very large sums of money.
Thermal resistance of nickel-chromium-iron alloys.—Most of the
alloys investigated have been found resistant to heat up to 1,000° C.
Thermal expansion of carboloy.—Data on the thermal expansion
of carboloy, a tungsten carbide containing cobalt, have been ob­
tained at various temperatures between 20 and 400° C.
Additional projects.—Progress has also been made on the follow­
ing investigations : Regularities in spectra, development of a stereo­
scopic thread gage, refractive changes produced by heat treatment
of glass, recombination of ions and electrons, vapor pressure of car­
bon dioxide, specific volume of carbon dioxide, expansion and com­
pressibility of crude oils saturated with methane, spontaneous gen­
eration of heat in materials, measurement of thermal conductivity
of metals at high temperatures, specific heats of organic materials
at low temperatures, standard methods for testing brake linings,
antifreezing liquids for automobile radiators, consistency of plastic

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materials, standardization of hardness of grease, fluidity of oils at
low temperatures, load-carrying capacity of journal bearings, ef­
ficiency of gears, combustion of carbon monoxide, heat capacities
of aqueous solutions, factors involved in silver plating, microscopy
of organic compounds for identification purposes, development of
thermal expansion apparatus, and precision screw cutting and rul­
ing machine.
Research associates.—Table 2 gives the names of associations and
manufacturers cooperating with the bureau under the research asso­
ciate plan, together with the number of associates and the problems
on which they are engaged.
T a b l e 2. — Research

Assigned by—

associates at the Bureau o f Standards
Specific project

American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists,
Assisting in study of methods for test­
W. E. Hadley, secretary, care of Clark Thread Co.,
ing fastness to light of dyed fabrics.
Newark, N. J.
American Chemical Society, rubber section, Mills Build1 Physical testing of rubber.
lng, Washington, D. C.
American Dental Association, 58 East Washington Street, :
2 J Study of dental materials.
Chicago, 111.
American Electric Railway Association, R. H. Dalgleish,
1 Lubrication of journal bearings.
president, Capital Traction Co., Washington, D. C.
American Face Brick Association, 130 North Wells Street,
2 I Face brick absorption and transverse
Chicago, 111.
compression; efflorescence.
American Foundrymen’s Association, Cleveland, O hio...
1 Liquid shrinkage in metals.
American Gas Association, 342 Madison Avenue, New
3 Research on gas; corrosion of pipe lines.
York, N. Y.
i f
American Institute of Steel Construction, New York, N .Y .
1 Fire tests on battle deck floor construc­
tion.
American Petroleum Institute, 250 Park Avenue, New
8 Properties of petroleum products.
York, N. Y.
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 29 West
7 Steam-table research and high-tem­
Thirty-ninth Street, New York, N. Y.
perature measurements.
American Society for Testing Materials, 1315 Spruce !
2 Research in cement; testing.
Street, Philadelphia, Pa.
American Standards Association, 29 West Thirty-ninth
3 Development of instruments and
Street, New York, N. Y.
methods for testing elevator-safety
equipment.
Asphalt Shingle and Roofing Institute, 2 West Forty1 Relative values of different fibers used
fifth Street, New York, N. Y.
in roofing felts.
Associated Knit Underwear Manufacturers of . America i
l Standardization and simplification of
(Inc.), 329 Main Street, Utica, N. Y.
underwear sizes; methods of menufact ure.
Atlas Luxnnite Cement Co., 25 Broadway, New York,
2 Research in cement; testing, etc.
N. Y.
Brown Co., Berlin, N. I I .......................................................
2 Permanency of paper.
Bunting Brass & Bronze Co., 715-755 Spencer Street, :
2 Testing of bronze.
Toledo, Ohio.
Bureau of Efficiency, Washington, D. C ..............................
1 Routine testing of paper.
Cast Iron Pipe Research Association, 566 Peoples Gas
1 Investigation of causes of soil corrosion.
Building, Chicago, 111.
1 Heat transfer of building-insulating
Celotex Co., 645 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, 111___
materials.
Cerro de Pasco Copper Corporation, 44 Wall Street, New
1 Development of new uses for metallic
York, N. Y.
bismuth.
Committee on Glass, E. C. Sullivan, chairman, Corning
1 Physical properties of glass.
Glass Works, Corning, N. Y.
Common Brick Manufacturers of America, 2121 Guarantee
2 Moisture transmission of brick walls.
Title Building, Cleveland, Ohio.
1 Corrosion of copper roofing materials.
Copper and Brass Research Association, 25 Broadway,
New York, N. Y.
3 Use of clays in concrete mixtures.
Cooper, Hugh L., Co. (Inc.), 101 Park Avenue, New York, ’
N. Y.
Cotton Textile Institute (Inc.), 320 Broadway, New Y’ork,
1 Study of specific uses for cotton mate­
N. Y.
rials.
Dardelet Thread Lock Corporation, 120 Broadway, New
3 Locking devices for screw threads.
York, N. Y.
1 j Study of physical properties of Bed­
Indiana Limestone Association, Bedford, Ind.....................
ford limestone.
International Association of Electrotypers, Dan A.
1 Plating of electrotypes.
Hoynes, 1760 East Twenty-second Street, Cleveland,
Ohio.
1 Investigation of spontaneous ignition
Marine Underwriters’ Committee, 82 Beaver Street, New
of jute fibers, etc.
York, N. Y.

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T able 2.— Research associates at the Bureau of Standards — C o n tin u e d
Assigned by—

Num­
ber

Specific project

Midvale Co., Philadelphia, Pa.

1 Properties of metals at high tempera­

National Association of Glue Manufacturers, J. R. Powell,
secretary, care of Armour Glue Works, 1355 West Thirtyfirst Street, Chicago, 111.
National Association of Hosiery and Underwear M anu­
facturers, 334 Fourth Avenue, New York, N. Y.
National Lead Co., 105 York Street, Brooklyn, N. Y....... .
National Research Council, Washington, D. C...................

1

National Terra Cotta Society, 19 West Forty-fourth
Street, New York, N. Y.
Non-Ferrous Ingot Metal Institute, 308 West Washington
Street, Chicago, 111.
Portland Cement Association, 111 West Washington,
Street, Chicago, 111.
Society of Automotive Engineers, 29 West Thirty-ninth
Street, New York, N. Y.
E. R. Squibb & Sons Co., New Brunswick, N. J ................
Steel & Tubes (Inc.), 224 East One Hundred Thirty-first
Street, Cleveland, Ohio.

tures.
Use of glue in paper siting.

2 : Study of methods of manufacture of

hosiery and knitted goods.

1 Research in pigments.
11 Radio; insulating materials; deteriora! tion of paper; gumming of petroleum;
j mechanics, etc.
3 : Investigation of architectural terra
j cotta.
I ! Nonferrous ingot metal research.
8 ! Constitution and hardening of Port! land cement,
7 j Cooperative fuel research.
2 ! Investigation of antifreeze mixtures.
1 ; Tension, compression, elongation, dej formation, etc., tests of tubes.

TESTING RAILROAD-TRACK AND OTHER SCALES ($48,900)

Calibration of test cars.—Fifty-five calibrations were made on 17
self-contained and 8 compartment-type track scale test weight cars at
the master-scale depot at Clearing. 111. In 17 of the calibrations the
cars were found to be heavy and in 38 the cars were found to be
light. The average error of self-contained cars was 9.5 pounds and
that of compartment-type cars was 58.6 pounds.
Cooperation w ith industrial technical groups.—The bureau co­
operated with the National Scale Men’s Association, the National
Scale and Balance Manufacturers’ Association, and the American
Railway Engineering Association in the development of specifica­
tions for railway-track scales and test-weight cars.
Formal committee contact has been maintained with the American
Railway Engineering Association on matters relating to railway
weighing machinery and methods of use.
Master-scale tests.—Sixteen of the 19 master-track scales in the
United States were calibrated. One master scale at Reading, Pa.,
was retired and replaced with a new installation.
Railroad-track scales.—Eight hundred and fifty railroad-trackscale tests were conducted, an increase of about 15 per cent over the
preceding year and about 20 per cent over the fiscal year 1928.
Of the scales tested 71.8 per cent were within the bureau’s tolerance
of 0.20 per cent. The average weighing error for the scales tested
was 0.21 per cent, or slightly more than the above-cited tolerance.
The figures are substantially the same as those for recent years.
Scales owned by railroads generally exhibit better weighing perform­
ance under test than those owned by industry or commercial or­
ganizations. The differences may be ascribed to the fact that the
railroads maintain special departments to keep their weighing equip­
ment in proper order.
The comparative standing of the eastern, southern, and western
districts with regard to the proportion of correct scales is represented
by the respective values, 72.3, 64.4, and 79.3 per cent.

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Track scales for weighing grain.—A separate analysis made of
test results for 41 track scales in grain-weighing service indicates
that on the basis of the 0.10 per cent tolerance, 21 scales, or 51.2 per
cent of the total, were correct. For the entire group, the average
weighing error was 0.14 per cent. Comparatively few track scales in
grain-weighing service even at terminal markets conform to the
type specified for this work, whereas in other lines, such as in the
“ origin ” weighing of coal at Great Lakes ports, nearly all scales
are of approved-specification type. Out of 27 of such scales tested
85 per cent were correct within the regular tolerance of 0.20 per
cent.
Test-car calibrations in field.—The weights of 24 track scale test
cars were restandardized for railroads or industries which do not
have master-scale facilities.
Track-scale census.—The railways of the country were circularized
to secure a revised census of railroad-track scales and the returns will
be used in revising the office records and in working up a new map
system. The returns indicate that the number of track scales now in
use is roughly 25 per cent less than in 1925 when the last census
was taken. There are now approximately 3,800 railroad-owned
scales and 5,200 industry-owned scales.
Cooperation with States in weights and measures matters.—For­
mal State conferences were attended in California, Illinois, Maine,
Massachusetts, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, and Penn­
sylvania; informal conferences were held with officials in Con­
necticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Nebraska, Nevada,
New Hampshire, New Jersey, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Utah, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming, travel in
these cases being largely incident to attendance at formal meetings.
Preparation of a digest of weights and measures court decisions
has been continued, and a publication was issued describing equip­
ments in use by officials for the testing of large-capacity scales.
Cooperation w ith other Government departments.—Frequent con­
sultations have been held with representatives of other Federal
departments on weighing or measuring problems and equipment, and
numerous weighing and measuring devices have been tested or
examined for these agencies, both in Washington and at Clearing.
STANDARDIZATION- OF EQUIPMENT ($220,000)

General conferences on simplified practice.—Fifteen general con­
ferences were held to adopt simplified-practice recommendations.
Simplified-practice recommendations covering 113 commodities have
been approved and adopted by the industries affected, while others
are in the process of acceptance. Printed recommendations have
been issued for 100 commodities.
Revision and reaffirmation conferences.—Thirty-nine conferences
of the standing committees took place to consider the desirability of
revising existing simplification programs. Thirty-four recommen­
dations, or 85.3 per cent of the total number reviewed, were
reaffirmed, without change, for another year. This compares favorably with the figures for last year, during which 31, or 75.5 per cent,
of the 41 recommendations reviewed were reaffirmed.

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Adherence to simplified practice recommendations.—Surveys of
production, distribution, and use showed that the average adherence
to simplified practice recommendations covering 25 commodities was
8G.7 per cent. In 1929, the percentage for 26 commodities averaged
85.43.
T able 3 .—Degree of adherence determined by actual survey
S. P.
R.
No.

1
2
4
10
11
12
13
14
15
24
30
31
43
49

Commodity

Paving brick................................... .
Bedsteads, springs, and mat tresses. Milk bottles and milk-bottle caps...
Structural slate.................................

Degree ; S. P.
R.
of ad­
herence No.

Per cent 1
87.8
91
SO. 4
79
90. 5
89.5
63.7
94.5
95.6
91. 3
100
99.5
83.7
98.2

55
62
63
66
67
68
73
76
77
88
98

Commodity

Tinware, galvanized, and japanned
ware.................................................
Metal spools.......................................
Metal and fiber flash-light cases.......

Degree
of ad­
herence

Per cent
90
99
43
7a 9
58
93
91
89
80. 0
96.5
96.6
86.7

Variety surveys in progress.—Upon request, 34 preliminary con­
ferences were organized for 32 different industries. In consequence,
surveys of existing overdiversification of product were instituted by
simplified-practice committees appointed by 16 of those industries.
Similar activity is contemplated by the other 16 groups.
Simplified practice and distribution.—Simplification of materialhandling equipment and containers in general has recently received
attention. A field study of wrapping and packing methods and
supplies used in department stores is in progress. Upon request, the
bureau has surveyed 34 department stores, located in 17 cities
throughout the United States.
Directory of governmental laboratories.—As the result of a re­
quest from the War Department, the chief coordinator arranged for
the preparation by the bureau of a classified list of all governmental
laboratories, facilities, etc., available for the testing of supplies and
materials for the purchasing officials of the various governments.
Encyclopedia of specifications.—Manuscript for the second volume
of the encyclopedia series, entitled “ Standards and Specifications
for Nonmetallic Minerals and Their Products,” was revised to bring
it down to date and will soon be published. This is a companion
volume to Standards and Specifications in the Wood-Using Indus­
tries, already published, and Standards and Specifications for Metals
and Metal Products, the manuscript of which is now in preparation.
Cooperation with public purchasers.—In its compilation of the
Encyclopedia and the Directory of Commodity Specifications, and
in collecting material for the Standards Yearbook, the bureau has
established contacts with more than 25,000 public purchasers.
Facilitating the use of specifications.—In order to facilitate the
use of Federal specifications and commercial standards by govern­
mental purchasing agencies, there has been sent to these agencies
names and addresses of more than 3,000 “ willing-to-certify ” manu­
facturers. The following commodities are now covered: Abrasives

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and polishing materials; brick, common; brushes and brooms; build­
ers’ hardware; cement, Portland; commercial standards; dental and
surgical supplies; electrical supplies; lire extinguishers and liquids;
floor coverings; glass; heat-insulating materials; inks; leather goods;
lime and plaster; liquid-measuring devices; lumber, softwood; pack­
ing and gaskets; padlocks; paints and paint materials; paper; pipe
and pipe fittings; refractories; ribbons, typewriter; road and paving
materials; roofing, bituminous, and waterproofing; rope, wire;
safes, burglar-resisting; scales, railroad track; scales, weighing;
screws, wood; soaps and scouring compounds; tableware, silverplated; textiles; and tubing, metallic.
Commercial standards.—Five general conferences were held, cov­
ering the following subjects: Plain mohair-upholstery plush, redcedar closet linings, plate-glass mirrors, interchangeable groundglass joints, and feldspar.
A satisfactory majority of acceptances have been received to
warrant the success of the following 16 projects: Diamond-core
drill fittings, plain and thread plug and ring gage blanks, builders’.
hardware (nontemplate), builders’ template hardware, dress pat­
terns, men’s pajamas, foundry patterns of wood, standard screw
threads, special screw threads, standard weight malleable iron or
steel screwed unions, feldspar, interchangeable ground-glass joints,
domestic and industrial fuel oils, hickory golf shafts, wall paper, and
staple vitreous-china plumbing fixtures.
The 12 following commercial standards have been issued in printed
form: Wrought-iron pipe nipples (CS6-29), standard weight malle­
able iron or steel screwed unions (CS7-29), builders’ template hard­
ware (CS9-29) brass pipe nipples (CS10-29), regain of mercerised
cotton yarns (C S ll-2 9 ), domestic arid industrial fuel oils (CS1229), dress patterns (CS13-30), men's pajamas (CS15-29), wall
paper (CS1C-29), diamond-core drill fittings (CS17-30), hickory
golf shafts (CS18-29), and foundry patterns of wood (CS19-30).
Safety codes.—In cooperation with a committee of national scope,
a new edition of the Elevator Safety Code has been prepared.
Members of the staff have participated actively in the work of the
safety code correlating committee and in sectional committees pre­
paring and revising safety codes for various industries. Revisions
of the factory-lighting code and the code for abrasive wheels were
completed by such committees. Work was continued on codes dealing
with walkway surfaces; conveyors and conveying machinery; cranes,
derricks and hoists; mechanical refrigeration; industrial sanitation:
mechanical power transmission; and traffic signs and signals.
Assistance was given various States in the preparation of local regu­
lations. A survey of accidents in the homes of club women in North
Carolina was made as a preliminary to a movement in cooperation
with the General Federation of Women’s Clubs to reduce accidents
in the home.
Heating radiators.—The original program of work on cast-iron
tubular-type radiators was completed. This included determinations
of effectiveness and heat dissipating ability of the various commercial
sizes of radiators of this type. The general conclusion was that the
size and style influenced the effectiveness, but not to any great ex­
tent. Apparatus was constructed with which to test radiators of
the fin-convective type.

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Algebraic computation of spherical aberration.—The investiga­
tion of algebraic methods for computing the aberrations of lenses
has been continued. For spherical aberration a new system of
formulas has been developed. These are in a form suitable for use
with a computing machine.
Dry-cell standardization.—The qualification tests made primarily
in connection with Government purchases have been continued*
and have included samples from practically all makers of dry cells
in this country. The mechanical equipment for controlling the
tests makes it possible to test a large number of batteries with a
minimum amount of labor. Results of these tests have served as a
basis for a revision of the American Standard for dry cells and
also for a revision of the Federal specification.
Specifications for storage batteries.—Automotive storage batteries
are now covered by a specification which was completed and ready
for transmission to the Federal Specifications Board at the close o f
the year. Progress has been made in the preparation of a standard
specification for sulphuric acid and battery electrolyte.
STANDARD MATERIALS (§10,600)

During the year 7,592 samples were distributed, having a sales value
of $16,764, and approximately $73,073 worth of standard samples were
added to the salable samples on hand. The standard samples include
ores, ceramic and metallurgical products, and pure chemicals, and
are used to check methods of chemical analysis that control the
manufacture and sale of metallurgical, ceramic, and agricultural
products; to calibrate scientific instruments; and to further research
in methods of analysis. A direct result of the use of the samples
is a saving of thousands of dollars a year through improved manu­
facturing operations and the avoidance of costly disputes based on
faulty analyses. The standard sample fund is unique in that the
return to the United States Treasury in fees and accumulated stocks
of salable samples has always far exceeded the appropriation.
INVESTIGATION OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES AND X RAYS
(§31,500)

Cosmic radiation.—Certain results of experiments using three
Geiger-Mueller tube counters placed vertically one above the other,
with a strong magnetic field introduced between the two lower
counters, are interpreted as indicating that cosmic radiation consists
of electrified particles with velocities corresponding to 10° volts,
accelerating potential.
Development of X -ray standards.—A service for the precise cali­
bration of X-ray dosage meters has been established, and a number o f
instruments have been calibrated for cancer hospitals.
A portable secondary standard X-ray ionization equipment of
weight and volume about one-fifteenth that of the standard equip­
ment has been developed for comparing the standards in this coun­
try and abroad—a condition heretofore impossible of attainment with
sufficient accuracy.

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Study of X -ray generators.—In cooperation with a number of
manufacturers an investigation of X-ray equipment, including that
in hospitals, is in progress.
Measuring high direct-current potentials of X -ray generators.—Up
to the present, the spark gap has been used almost exclusively for
this purpose, with inadequate accuracy. An equipment of the volt­
meter-multiplier type with an error of only two-hundredths of 1
per cent has been devised, constructed, and found entirely satis­
factory for measuring the rippled voltage furnished by X-ray
generators.
Radium testing.—Eleven hundred and seventy-three preparations
of radium, totaling nearly 10,000 milligrams of the element, and
fixing a sale value of about $650,000 were tested; also, 67 samples of
luminous material were measured for brightness.
Other investigations.—Progress has also been made on the follow­
ing investigations: a-ray tracks in various gases; a possible relation
between the energy levels and the magnetization of an iron atom;
dosage measurement in X-ray therapy; the nature of the action of
the Geiger counter; quality determination of X rays; cathode-ray
dosimetry; X rays from thin targets; deflection of cathode beams by
thin metal foils; functioning of X-ray equipment; and study of
mechanism of electrical conduction of rarefied gases.
UTILIZATION OF WASTE PRODUCTS PROM THE LAND ($52,700)

Utilization of cornstalks and wheat straw .—In the manufacture of
wall board from cornstalks, new types of machinery have been tried
out in a successful effort to find the best-suited equipment for this
purpose. Wall board has been made having a thickness of onehalf inch and twice as strong as any insulating board on the market.
An insulating board 2 inches thick without lamination has been
made for use in refrigerators.
From a process developed at the bureau a material called “ maizolith ” has been produced from cornstalks, which has many character­
istics of hard rubber or vulcanized fiber.
The work on the manufacture of paper from straw pulp is being
continued in an effort to improve the quality of the paper produced.
Samples of pulp have been forwarded to Washington and made
into paper and the paper tested. New quarters have been estab­
lished and new equipment is being installed for the continuation of
this work.
Manufacture of xylose.—In cooperation with the University of
Alabama, the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, and the Alabama In­
dustrial Development Board, a semicommercial factory was success­
fully operated at the plant of the Federal Phosphorus Co., Anniston,
Ala., for the manufacture of xylose from cottonseed-hull bran, and
other raw materials such as peanut shells and corncobs.
By a process developed in the laboratory in Washington, xylose
was manufactured at the rate of 100 pounds per day. The crude
xylose was given a purification and recrystallization treatment which
rendered it 99.99 per cent pure.
Samples of xylose have been forwarded to individuals and con­
cerns all over the world who are cooperating in the investigation of

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193

its possible use in the dyeing and tanning industries, in foodstuffs,
in explosives, for manufacture of chemicals, of alcohol to be used as
solvent for lacquer, etc.
Miscellaneous.—A preliminary investigation of artichoke tops was
conducted and a very good grade of board was obtained therefrom.
The utilization of sugars from the waste products of corn was
studied as well as the separation of glycosides by means of calcium
chloride addition compounds.
INVESTIGATION OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINES ($26,500)

Automobile-engine acceleration.—From tests made in cooperation
with the American Petroleum Institute, the National Automobile
Chamber of Commerce, and the Society of Automotive Engineers
with the portable spark accelerometer on a number of representative
automobile engines at the laboratories of the companies manufac­
turing them, it was concluded that the effect on acceleration of fuel
volatility is qualitatively independent of engine design.
Antiknock characteristics of fuels.—To secure uniformity in ex­
pressing antiknock value, the subcommittee on methods of measur­
ing detonation, appointed by the cooperative fuel-research steering
committee with which the bureau is cooperating, has recommended
that all laboratories be invited to express their present knock-rating
scales in terms of octane numbers. The octane number of a gasoline
is defined as the number of parts by volume of iso-octane that must
be added to 10 parts of normal heptane to produce a blend of
equivalent detonation characteristics.
The antiknock investigation is now the major problem of the
joint motor-fuel research supported cooperatively by the American
Petroleum Institute and the National Automobile Chamber of Com­
merce through the Society of Automotive Engineers.
Vapor lock, in airplane fuel systems.—It has been found that for
gasoline which does not contain appreciable amounts of propane
the vapor-locking temperature is equal at sea level to the American
Society for Testing Materials 10 per cent ¡mint and decreases about
2° F. for each 1,000 feet altitude. The effect of weathering of the
gasoline on the vapor-locking tendency has also been studied. Data
on temperatures which exist in fuel lines during flight are being
secured through cooperation with the Army, the Navy, and the
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.
Gumming characteristics of gasoline.—Gum in gasolines may
cause objectionable deposits in the intake manifold and on the
intake valves. The bureau is making a study of the gumming char­
acteristics of gasolines on behalf of the Army Air Corps. New
methods of test are being developed since the present procedure is
not satisfactory.
Phenomena of combustion.—Upward of 3,000 photographic rec­
ords of the progress of the gaseous explosive reaction as it occurs
at constant pressure in a soap bubble used as a bomb have been
analyzed to determine the effect of pressure on the rate of the
reaction. The experimental data show that for a charge of given
18038—30------13

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proportions the linear rate of propagation of the reaction zone within
the explosive gases is constant and independent of pressure, and that
as a result the rate of molecular transformation is proportional to
pressure.
Combustion in an engine cylinder.—Equipment for making strob­
oscopic observations of flame movement and simultaneous measure­
ments of pressure development in an engine cylinder has been used
to obtain diagrams showing the movement of the flame in all parts
of the combustion chamber and the variation of pressure during
burning. Such data correlate the more fundamental studies of the
gaseous explosive reaction at constant pressure with actual engine
performance. The work is in cooperation with the National Ad­
visory Committee for Aeronautics.
¡Supercharging of aircraft engines.—Altitude chamber performance
tests of a Curtiss D-12 engine equipped with a Roots-type super­
charger, having a critical altitude of 5,000 feet at 2,000 revolutions
per minute, were made for the Army Air Corps, and tests with a
geared centrifugal supercharger are in progress.
Oil recommendations.—A statistical study has been made of the
various grades of oil recommended by the automotive vehicle manu­
facturers and oil refiners for about 200 makes of trucks, tractors,
and passenger cars and the results summarized in convenient form
for practical use and published by the Chief Coordinator.
Miscellaneous.—Work on the following projects is under way:
Standard tests for fuels for automotive engines, tests of fuel vola­
tility, tests of miscellaneous devices for automotive transportation,
and motor-vehicle tax ratings.
INVESTIGATION OF DENTAL MATERIALS ($5,300)

Government purchases of dental golds, amalgam, alloys, etc.,
having an estimated value of $100,000, have been tested. About
half this amount has been rejected as unfit for use in service. Re­
placements have been made and approved. Specifications have been
prepared for dental investments and a thorough test made of all
investments on the market. Assistance has been given dental schools,
manufacturers, and testing laboratories interested in equipping for
this type of research. Lectures and clinics have been given in Wash­
ington, New York, Boston, Des Moines, Chicago, and Columbus.
One of the most satisfactory aspects of this program is the move
by a number of manufacturers to guarantee certain of their products
to comply with the specifications adopted by the American Dental
Association, through cooperation with the bureau.
POWER-PLANT EQUIPMENT ($100,000)

The boiler-room equipment was completed and that section of the
plant was put in full operation at the beginning of the heating
season. The principal units of permanent equipment in the engineroom section of the plant have been installed and will be put in
operation within a short time.

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TRANSFERRED FUNDS ($436,387)

Organization and projects.—During the year funds were trans­
ferred from the following branches of the Government covering the
projects listed :
Aeronautics Branch, D epartm ent of
Commerce
Air-navigation aids.
Aeronautical research.
Bureau of Engraving and P rinting:
Electrodeposition.
Paper currency and stamps.
Coast and Geodetic Survey : Making of
special castings.
Coast G uard : Development of radio­
receiving sets.
National Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics :
Aerodynamic problems.
Embrittlem ent of duralum in.
Duralumin and steel tubes.
Aeronautic power plants.
Substitutes for parachute silks.
Navy D epartm ent :
Airship girders.
A ircraft instruments.
Gas-cell fabrics.
Carbon and chrome steel.
Corrosion investigation.
Aeronautic fabrics.
Airplane ignition systems.

Navy Departm ent—Continued.
H um idity research.
B attery testing.
Submarine storage batteries.
Production of optical glass.
Post Office D ep artm en t: Development
of accelerometers.
Steamboat Inspection S ervice: Firealarm systems.
United States Shipping Board :
Studies of petroleum.
Miscellaneous engineering and physi­
cal investigations.
Miscellaneous chemical investiga­
tions.
W ar D epartm ent:
Gasoline investigation.
Superchargers for airc ra ft engines.
Em brittlem ent of duralum in.
Radio apparatus for signal service.
Friction and lubrication studies.
Substitutes for leather.
Substitutes for chromium.
Nontin metal.
Experimental gages.
Development of machine guns.

Many of these projects were supported partly by bureau and
partly by transferred funds. The more important of these have
already been described under the appropriate bureau fund. Impor­
tant investigations supported wholly by transferred funds include
the following:
Air-navigation facilities—Radio.—In cooperation with the Aero­
nautics Branch, experimental work on the 2, 4, and 12 course visualtype radiobeacons was completed. The sensitivity of tiie vibratingreed indicator was increased fourfold. The development of a new
transmitter for the simultaneous transmission of radiotelephone mes­
sages and visual-type radiobeacon signals on the same radio-fre­
quency was begun. An automatic volume-control device for use in
the reception of visual beacon signals was developed, thereby reliev­
ing the pilot of the duty of controlling the receiving-set sensitivity.
A complete system of radio aids showing good promise for blind
landing of aircraft was developed.
Contact and cooperation with the aircraft and radio industries in
the development of engine ignition shielding was maintained. A
commercial shielding assembly patterned after an assembly devel­
oped by this bureau met with marked success. A direction finder
permitting aural or visual indication of the direction of the received
signal was developed.
Lighting of airports and airways.—Photometric measurements
have been made on 24-inch beacons, code beacons, and gaseous-dis­
charge tube beacons, and observations of their visibility have been
made from fixed stations and from airplanes. Observations on sev­
eral types of boundary lights have been made from two distances

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by 16 observers. Experiments on the lighting of wind-indicator
cones have been continued, and measurements are in progress on
aviation red and green signal glasses, for the purpose of preparing
specifications.
Radio-receiving sets for the Coast Guard.—Apparatus was pur­
chased and developed suitable for determining the electrical sensi­
tivity, selectivity, fidelity, and overload characteristics of radio-re­
ceiving sets. The sets tested include 9 submitted as bid samples to
the Coast Guard, 3 high-frequency sets for the Navy, 1 intermediatefrequency set for the Bureau of Lighthouses, 4 aircraft radio sets
for the aeronautic research division, and 1 set purchased by this
bureau.
Corrosion of storage-battery plates.—Corrosion of the positive
plates in certain submarine batteries has led to a study of the effects
of organic material and the conditions under which corrosion of the
plates may occur. Conflicting evidence on the effect of acetic acid
in storage batteries has been explained, and a method for the deter­
mination of small amounts of acetic acid in the presence of large
amounts of sulphuric acid has been developed.
Type testing of commercial airplane engines.—The engine-testing
laboratory at Arlington is operating at full capacity and a fourth
torque-stand unit will be added to provide for probable increased
demands. Of 52 engines received for test during the year 26 passed,
23 failed, and 3 were withdrawn. This work is supported by the
Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce.
Effect of spark character on ignition ability.—In cooperation with
the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics and the Bureau of
Aeronautics of the Navy Department, the relative effectiveness of
ignition sparks has been compared by determining the amount of
chemical reaction which takes place when different sparks are passed
through an explosive mixture of oxygen and hydrogen at low
pressure and liquid-air temperature.
Effect of air humidity on engine performance.—An improved
form of psj’chrometer has been developed as a by-product of this
work, which is in cooperation with the Navy Department; action to
obtain a Government patent will be initiated.
Engine power tests have been made, extending the range of hu­
midity from 1 to 80 millimeters mercury pressure of water vapor.
These tests accord with the oxygen-content hypothesis. Results in­
dicate an increase in effectiveness of tetraethyl lead as a knock sup­
pressor at increased humidities. Especial attention was given to the
possibility of changes of humidity causing error in knock rating.
Aircraft-instrument developments.—A strut thermometer of the
electric-resistance type, an improved suspended-head air-speed meter
of the commutator-condenser type, and a maximum indicating ac­
celerometer were constructed for the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy
Department. A mooring-force indicator for the airship Los An­
geles and a suspended Pitot static-head air-speed meter are under
development, investigations to provide a basis for the specification
of performance of banking indicators, magnetic compasses, and
tachometers -were conducted. A standard vibration board vras de­
signed and constructed for the purpose of testing aircraft
instruments.

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Reduction of noise in airplanes.—In coopei'ation with the Aero­
nautics Branch of the Department of Commerce, studies have been
made of the possibilities of reducing noise in airplanes.
Aileron investigation.—In cooperation with the National Advisory
Committee for Aeronautics and the Aeronautics Branch of the D e­
partment of Commerce, the effect of variation of chord and span of
ailerons on rolling and yawing moments at high angles of attack
has been studied.
High-speed airfoil tests.—In cooperation with the National A d­
visory Committee for Aeronautics, the aerodynamic characteristics
of eight airfoils of circular-arc section were determined at speeds
up to and slightly above the speed of sound. These airfoils are
more efficient at high air speeds than ones of conventional type, and
are therefore of advantage in designing high-speed propellers.
Investigations of wind-tunnel turbulence.—In cooperation with the
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics the significance of
measurements with the hot-wire anemometer has been investigated
by studying the transition from laminar to eddying flow around a
thin flat plate parallel to the wind.
High-frequency fatigue testing.—In cooperation with the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, seven air-driven, high-fre­
quency fatigue machines are now operating at frequencies of approx­
imately 200 cycles per second. Each test bar is subjected to 200,000,000 cycles of stress if failure does not occur before this limit is
reached.
Flat plates under normal pressure.—At the request of the Navy
Department, an apparatus was designed and built for testing speci­
mens representing pontoon construction by subjecting them to a
normal water pressure.
Strength of welded aircraft joints.—To assist the Aeronautics
Branch of the Department of Commerce, the strength and efficiency
of 40 types of acetylene-welded fuselage joints made of chromemolybdenum steel tubing were determined. The use of gusset plates
welded to the tubes increased the strength about 30 per cent in the
case of some types of joints.
Distinguishing steel airplane tubing of different compositions.—
Preliminary work with the Bureau of Aeronautics and the National
Advisory Committee for Aeronautics indicates that a magnetic test
and a spark test may give satisfactory results as rapid nondestructive
methods for distinguishing between plain carbon and chrome-molyb­
denum steel tubing. A simple chemical “ spot test ” appears to be
impossible.
Prevention of embrittlement of sheet duralumin by corrosion and
of deterioration of magnesiwn alloys by corrosion.—Results of 3-year
exposure tests closely confirm laboratory tests in showing the superi­
ority of pure aluminum as a coating material for duralumin and
of the necessity of proper heat treatment if maximum corrosion
resistance is to i>e obtained. Laboratory tests have shown the decided
advantage gained in coating aluminum alloys by giving the surface
a preliminary treatment by the anodic oxidation process. Experi­
ments show that coating magnesium-alloy specimens to resist atmos­
pheric corrosion is a more serious problem than in the case of
aluminum alloys.

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Bearing alloys.—In cooperation with the War Department, a
study has been started of lead-base and tin-base bearing alloys for
Army trucks. The work will be extended to include the copper-lead
bearing materials.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The Congress has recognized the need of several projects rec­
ommended in previous reports by making due provisions and ap­
propriations. Thus, the regular appropriations for 1931 contain
increases over 1930 for salaries, grounds, structural materials, me­
chanical appliances, textiles, sugar, gages, metallurgy, industrial
research, standardization of equipment, automotive engines, railroad
scales, and dental materials, totaling $263,925. Appropriations for
new projects in 1931 include $350,000 for the hydraulic labora­
tory, $75,000 for addition to the shops building, and $400,000 for
additional land. Provision was also made for stationing a medical
officer of the Public Health Service at the bureau to eliminate
health hazards in certain lines of work and care for emergencyaccident cases.
Radio stations.—There is pending in the Senate an authorization
which has passed the House, making provision for two radio sta­
tions at locations removed from extraneous influences. These sta­
tions are needed (1) for transmitting continuously standard signals
to enable broadcasting stations to check at will their wave lengths
and (2) for experimental purposes, particularly with reference to
short-wave phenomena.
New buildings.—The present buildings of the bureau are greatly
overcrowded, and it is urgently recommended that adequate pro­
vision be made for expansion. The most urgent need is for an ad­
ministration building, costing about $400,000, which would free cer­
tain spaces greatly needed in laboratory buildings as well as pro­
viding adequate accommodations for the rapidly expanding work
of the standardization group and also for the administrative and
other general functions of the bureau, including library and con­
ference rooms.
Provision has been made for additional space in Federal build­
ings at San Francisco and Denver.
There has been previously submitted a 5-year building program,
which includes provision for a high-voltage laboratory, fire-resist­
ance laboratory, extension of the dynamometer laboratory, an en­
larged low-temperature laboratory, and new laboratories for me­
chanical engineering and high-precision testing in weights and
measures.
As the demands for the bureau’s services grow, provision should
be made, in Washington and the branch laboratories, to meet these
needs by increasing the facilities and personnel engaged in research
and testing.
Very truly yours,
G eorge K. B u r g ess ,
Director, Bureau of Standards.

BUREAU OF FISHERIES

D

epa rtm en t of C om m erce,
B u r e a u o f F is h e r ie s ,

Washington, July 1, 1930.
The h o n o r a b le the S e c r e t a r y o f C o m m e r c e .
D e a r M r . S e c r e t a r y : I have the honor to submit the following
report of the operations of the Bureau of Fisheries during the fiscal
year ended June 30, 1930.
There is much evidence of an intensified interest in the future
welfare of our fisheries. Sportsmen’s organizations are concentrating
their efforts to provide better angling, to overcome the evils of pollu­
tion, and to obtain the passage of State and Federal laws which will
more adequately conserve this great natural resource. Commercial
fishermen are taking a greater harvest from the waters than ever
before, are introducing greatly improved methods, and are revealing
a greater interest in the proper conservation of this resource as a
sound economic policy. State governments are giving more and
more attention to legislation affecting the fisheries, and State execu­
tives are revealing greater interest in the selection of capable adminis­
trators in their departments of conservation. The State Department
has negotiated with Canada a revised convention for the preservation
of the halibut fishery of the North Pacific Ocean and a convention for
the preservation and extension of the sockeye salmon fisheries breeding
in the Fraser River system, which now await ratification by the
Senate. Greater cooperation is requested from tho bureau by other
Federal agencies in the heavier stocking of the waterways on public
lands with game fish and in working out a stream-stocking policy to
insure good fishing to the millions of our people who visit our national
parks and forests annually. Congress has also revealed a greater
interest in fishery problems in tho passage of a 5-year construction
and maintenance program for the Bureau of Fisheries, an amended
black-bass law of much broader power, provision for tho study of the
probable effect on the fisheries of the proposed power project in
Passamaquoddy Bay, and by the Senato’s action in creating a special
committee on the wild life resources of the country.
The Bureau of Fisheries finds a reflection of this intensified interest
in the increased demands for fish for stocking waters, for additional
fish-cultural facilities, and aid to a greater number of private organiza­
tions interested in the cooperative rearing of fish for stocking local
streams. This is also true of the demands for scientific investigations
to disclose the need of stronger conservation measures; for studies of
every important fishery to reveal its condition and trend; for an
expansion of its investigative program with respect to such aquicultural pursuits as oyster farming, fish farming, and the control and
prevention of diseases. Likewise more intelligent interest is being
shown in the solution of the problems of the commercial fisheries,
improvements in methods of manufacturing and merchandising, in the
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use of by-products, and in the conduct of fundamental investigations
with respect to processes, nutrition, and uses.
The success of the bureau’s efforts in rehabilitating the fur-seal
herd breeding on the Pribilof Islands, from 130,000 animals to
1.000. 000 in less than 20 years, and in saving the important Alaskan
salmon runs from exhaustion has received much favorable comment.
For the first time in 40 years the killings of fur seals on the Pribilofs
in 1929 exceeded 40,000 animals.
The output of the bureau’s fish-cultural service in the stocking of
streams exceeded 7,570,000,000 fish and eggs as compared with
7.060.000. 000 in 1929.
The commercial fisheries of the United States and Alaska are in a
sound economic condition. They furnish employment to more than
125,000 commercial fishermen and 4,000 persons engaged in the trans­
portation of the catch. The annual harvest is in excess of 3,000,000,000 pounds, for which the fishermen receive $116,000,000. Edible
fishery products constitute over 2,600,000,000 pounds for sale in the
fresh state or for manufacture. In the fresh-fish trade of 1929, 84,397,000 pounds were prepared in packaged form valued at §14,813,000,
and 121,543,000 pounds of fishery products were frozen. In the can­
ning trade—the most important process of manufacture—the pack
amounted to 689,447,000 pounds, valued at $101,065,000. The output
of cured and smoked fishery products is estimated at 150,000,000
pounds valued at $12,000,000, and the output of fishery by-products
was valued at $23,768,000. This included fish oil, meal, lime and
grit from oyster shells, buttons from fresh-water mussel shells, and
many other products. Imports of fishery products were valued at
$66,566,000 and exports at §23,830,000. In 1929 as compared with
1928 there were substantial increases in the output of packaged and
frozen fish, canned fishery products, by-products, imports, and exports.
IN T E R N A T IO N A L R ELA TIO N S
NORTH PACIFIC HA LIBU T CONVENTION

The International Fisheries Commission provided for under this
convention has issued two reports on its work. The first entitled
“ Report of the International Fisheries Commission Appointed under
the Northern Pacific Halibut Treaty” (Bureau of Fisheries Docu­
ment No. 1073) contains various recommendations which are believed
necessary for the saving of this great fishery. The second report
entitled “ Life History of the Pacific Halibut: (1) Marking Experi­
m ents” was published in Canada and is available only through the
commission.
The results of the commission’s investigations reveal that the
abundance of fish on the older halibut banks is now only one-sixth
of that 20 years ago. Indications are that the decline in abundance
on the newer banks continues at a rapid rate, and on the older banks
the stock is at the minimum level upon which the fleet can exist. In
fact in places the vessels are now dependent upon other less desirable
species. Marking experiments indicate that on the British Columbia
banks 40 per cent of the stock of commercial sizes is removed yearly.
The residual immature population migrates but little and only by a
random scattering movement, averaging less than 20 miles for the
period between tagging and recapture. A much smaller percentage of

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the large mature fish of the Alaskan banks is caught annually. These
migrate along the coast of the Alaskan Peninsula, averaging about
200 miles between tagging and recovery. These studies demonstrate
the independence of the stocks of market fish on the Alaskan banks
from the Canadian banks and support the previous recommendations
of the commission.
To ascertain the spawning grounds, the abundance and direction
of drift of eggs and larvae, and the source of supply of fish populating
the various banks and their interdependence, it has become necessary
to make a series of tow-net hauls. During the early part of 1929 a
large series of such hauls were made in the Gulf of Alaska and between
Cape Flattery and Dixon Entrance, especially on the Goose Island
grounds. In 1930 other series of hauls were made in Hecate Strait
and Dixon Entrance and off the coast of Queen Charlotte Islands.
A study of the first series in the Gulf of Alaska indicates the presence
of larvae well out in the gulf, although they were much less abundant
than they were along the edge of the continental slope of the Alaskan
coast. Hauls made in May along the Canadian waters were much
too early to reveal the possible influx of larval fish from Alaskan waters
and later more extensive collections became a necessity.
Because of the inadequacy of the existing convention as revealed
by the commission’s investigations and the urgent need for putting
the commission’s recommendations into effect, negotiations for a new
convention were initiated, and on May 9, 1930, a revised convention
was signed at Ottawa. When ratified by the United States Senate
this will supplant the convention concluded March 2, 1923.
SOCKEYE

SALMON

C O N V E N T IO N

For many years efforts have been made to work out arrangements
for the rehabilitation of the sockeye salmon run of the Fraser River
system, British Columbia, through the medium of an international
convention with Canada. The convention signed on March 27, 1929,
referred to in the last annual report, was subsequently withdrawn and
another convention, which has for its purposes the protection, pres­
ervation, and the extension of this fishery, was signed on May 26,
1930. The convention covers the sockeye-salmon fishery in the waters
contiguous to the State of Washington and the Province of British
Columbia, the territorial waters off the coasts of Washington and
British Columbia, and the high seas adjacent thereto— the waters
covered being defined in the convention. The International Fisheries
Commission of six members, provided for in the convention, is charged
with the duty of making a thorough investigation into the natural
history of the sockeye salmon. It is authorized to construct and
maintain hatcheries, and is empowered to prescribe the size of mesh
of the gear used. The convention is concluded for a period of 16
years, after which it is subject to termination on notice of 1 year
given by either Government.
In 1913 the pack of sockeye salmon in Puget Sound was 1,673,099
cases and in the Fraser River area the pack of Canada was 684,596
cases, making a total of 2,357,695 cases. In 1929 the pack was only
111,898 and 60,393 cases, respectively, making a total of 172,291 cases.
The prompt ratification of this convention is important to permit of
international cooperation in the rehabilitation of this very important
fishery.

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POW ER

O P

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PR O JEC T

The proposed damming of Passamaquoddy and Cobscook Bays to
develop hydroelectric power may adversely affect the fisheries of the
Bay of Fundy and the coast of Maine. A subcommittee of the
North American Committee on Fishery Investigations reported on
December 12, 1928, as follows:
J . That in its opinion if the proposed construction is carried out, the weir
fisheries for herring inside tiie dams will be almost wholly eliminated.
2. That it is recognized that the effects on the fisheries outside the dams,
predicted in the report on the subject presented by Doctor Huntsman, may
follow, but the committee as a whole is not prepared to forecast whether these
results will or will not follow, believing that a fuller investigation is necessary.

It is agreed that the peculiar hydrographic conditions in the vicinity
of Passamaquoddy Bay result in the upwelling of deep water from the
Gulf of Maine, bringing with it abundant stores of dissolved chemicals
necessary for the production of a wealth of plant and animal life
which are the basic food supply of fish. The abundance of these
microscopic forms is believed to be responsible for the remarkable
concentration of the herring and pollock fisheries in Charlotte County,
New Brunswick, and the adjacent coast of Maine. There are grounds
for belief that the installation of the proposed dams may so change
natural oceanographic circulation as to materially reduce the pro­
duction of fish food and influence the spawning of the herring and thus
may have an important effect on these fisheries.
In 1928 the catch of fish in the general region which may be affected
amounted to 190,000,000 pounds valued at nearly $5,000,000. Of
the total, 130,000,000 pounds were herring and 10,000,000 pounds
pollock.
On September 20, 1929, the Canadian Government proposed an
investigation by the joint efforts of the two Governments, requiring at
least two years of field observations at an estimated cost of $45,000
per annum.
An appropriation of $22,500 for meeting the United States share of
expenses for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1930, was made by
Congress.
IN T ER N A T IO N A L

FUR

TRADE

E X H IB IT IO N

AND

CONGRESS

AT

LE IPZ IG

A joint resolution of Congress approved March 21, 1930, author­
ized participation by the Government of the United States in the
International Fur Trade Exhibition and Congress held in Leipzig,
Germany, in 1930. An appropriation of $30,000 was granted for
the preparation, transportation, and demonstration of an exhibit
portraying the development of the fur industry in the United States
and the production, conservation, and utilization of fur as a natural
resource.
The joint display of the Department of Agriculture and the Depart­
ment of Commerce was a modern presentation of fur resources and
conservation measures and compared favorably with showings by
other nations. The display of the Department of Commerce had to
do chiefly with the fur-seal activities of the Pribilof Islands, as admin­
istered through the Bureau of Fisheries, and included mounted fur
seals and blue foxes, fur-seal skins, an allegorical presentation show­
ing how international cooperation saved the Alaskan fur-seal herd from

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extinction, lantern slides automatically shown, colored transparencies,
and motion pictures. Appropriate descriptive literature, printed both
in English and German, was prepared for distribution to interested
persons.
It is felt that the exhibit and congress have been of genuine benefit
in stimulating interest in the fur resources of the United States.
DOMESTIC RELATIONS
F IV E -Y E A R

C O N S T R U C T IO N

AND

M AIN TEN A N C E

PROGRAM

For several years there has been strong support of a measure spon­
sored by Congressman White, of Maine, chairman of the Merchant
Marine and Fisheries Committee, to provide a 5-year construction
and maintenance program for the bureau. Such an act was approved
May 21, 1930 (Public, No. 240, 71st Cong., H. R. 7405). This act
authorizes additional appropriations for new fish-cultural stations
and substations, three new laboratories, and two new distribution
cars, to the amount of 81,885,000. It also authorizes annual increases
in the appropriation for the division of fish culture of 8100,000 for
the 5-year period and increases in present appropriations for the
divisions of scientific inquiry and fishery industries by not to exceed
8300,000 and 8175,000 per annum, respective^. Under the provi­
sions of the act the bureau may cooperate with States, counties,
municipalities, individuals, and public and private agencies, organ­
izations, and institutions, and may accept donations of lands, funds,
and other aid to the development of this program. The provisions
for an orderly development of its fish-cultural and other agencies will
have a far-reaching effect in pfacing the bureau in position to meet
the demands made upon it, and the provisions for increased personnel
will be extremely helpful in building up a staff of experts capable of
coping with the situation.
The act follows:
[ P u b l ic — No. 240— 71 st C on giiess ]
[H. R. 7405]
An Act To provide for a five-year construction and maintenance program for the United States Bureau
of Fisheries
B e i t e n a c te d b y th e S e n a te a n d H o v s e o f R e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f th e U n ite d S ta te s o f
A m e r ic a i n C o n g r e s s a s s e m b le d , That there are hereby authorized to be appro­

priated during the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1930, such amounts as may be
necessary for—
(1) The establishment of a fish-cultural station in each of the following States,
at a cost not to exceed the amount specified: New Mexico, $50,000; Louisiana,
$50,000; Idaho, $60,000.
(2) The establishment of a fish-cultural substation in each of the following
States, at a cost not to exceed the amount specified: Wisconsin (in the southern
part of the State), $50,000; Montana, $35,000; Colorado, $35,000; New Hamp­
shire (in the White Mountain Forest), $25,000.
(3) The establishment of a fishery laboratory in the State of Washington, at
a cost not to exceed $125,000.
(4) The establishment of experimental and bass and trout stations in the
State of Maryland or West Virginia at a cost not to exceed $75,000.
S ec. 2. There arc hereby authorized to be appropriated during the fiscal year
beginning July 1, 1931, such amounts as may be necessary for—
(1)
The establishment of a fish-cultural station in each of the following States,
at a cost not to exceed the amount specified: Alabama, $50,000; Indiana, $50,000;
Tennessee (in the middle division of the State), $50,000; Pennsylvania (including
a substation), $100,000.

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(2) The establishment of a fish-cultural substation in each of the following
States, at a cost not to exceed the amount specified: South Carolina, or the en­
largement of Orangeburg Station in said State, $25,000; Texas (in the western
part of the State), $35,000; New York, $35,000.
(3) The purchase of Mill Creek station in the State of California, at a cost not
to exceed $20,000.
(4) The purchase and repair of the Rogue River substation in the State of
Oregon, at a cost not to exceed $35,000.
S ec. 3. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated during the fiscal year
beginning July 1, 1932, such amounts as may be necessary for—
(1) The establishment of a fish-cultural station in the State of Florida, at a
cost not to exceed $60,000.
(2) The establishment of a fish-cultural substation in each of the following
States, at a cost not to exceed the amount specified: Maine (including enlarge­
ment of Craig Brook station), $50,000; Virginia (in the eastern part of the State),
$75,000; Minnesota, $50,000.
(3) The establishment of a fishery laboratory in the State of Texas (on the
Gulf coast of the eastern part of the State), at a cost not to exceed $75,000.
(4) The purchase or construction of a steel fish-distribution car, at a cost not
to exceed $75,000.
S ec. 4. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated during the fiscal year
beginning July 1, 1933, such amounts as may be necessary for—
(1) The establishment of a fish-cultural station in each of the following States,
at a cost not to exceed the amount specified: Nevada, $60,000; Illinois, $75,000;
New Jersey, $75,000; a fish cultural substation in Mississippi (in the southern
part of the State), $50,000.
(2) The purchase or construction of a steel fish-distribution car at a cost not
to exceed $75,000.
S ec. 5. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated during the fiscal year
beginning July 1, 1934, such amounts as may be necessary for—
(1) The establishment of a fish-cultural substation in each of the following
States, at a cost not to exceed the amount specified: Ohio, $35,000; Kansas,
$35,000; North Dakota, $35,000; Georgia, $35,000.
(2) The purchase and repair of the Little White Salmon station in the State
of Washington, at a cost not to exceed $35,000.
(3) The establishment of a fishery laboratory in the Territory of Alaska, at a
cost not to exceed $50,000.
(4) The establishment of an experimental and bass and trout station in the
Pisgah National Forest or in the Great Smoky National Park in the State of
North Carolina upon the acquisition of said park by the United States, at a cost
not to exceed $35,000.
S ec. 6. (a) The stations, substations, and laboratories authorized by sections
1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 shall be located in the States and parts thereof and in the Terri­
tory specified, at such suitable points as may be selected by the Secretary of
Commerce.
(b) Any appropriation made under authority of sections 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 may
be expended for the purchase of sites, and the purchase of equipment, the con­
struction of buildings and ponds, and for such other expenses as may be inci­
dental to the cost of the establishment, purchase, or enlargement, as the case
may be, of the station, substation, or laboratory in question.
(c) No part of an appropriation made under authority of sections 1, 2, 3, 4,
or 5 shall be expended in the construction, purchase, or enlargement of a station
or substation until the State in which such station or substation is to be located
shall have by legislative action accorded to the United States Commissioner of
Fisheries and his duly authorized agents the right to conduct fish hatching and
fish culture and all operations connected therewith in any manner and at any
time that may by the commissioner be considered necessary and proper, any
laws of the State to the contrary notwithstanding. The operation of any sta­
tion, substation, or laboratory established, purchased, or enlarged under authority
of this Act shall be discontinued whenever the State ceases to accord such right;
and such operation may be suspended by the Secretary of Commerce whenever
in his judgment State laws or regulations affecting fishes cultivated are allowed
to remain so inadequate as to impair the efficiency of such station, substation,
or laboratory.

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(d)
That the authorizations herein given in sections 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 with
reference to appropriations for certain specified years are for the purpose of indi­
cating priority proposed to be given the various projects enumerated therein,
but shall not be held to require the appropriations therein enumerated to be made
in the years specified, and the appropriations enumerated are likewise authorized
in prior or subsequent years in annual or supplemental appropriation Acts.
Sec. 7. There are hereby authorized to be appropriated, in addition to all
other amounts authorized by law to be appropriated, not to exceed the following
amounts during the fiscal years specified:
(1) For the purpose of providing adequate maintenance costs and personnel
for the Division of Fish Culture, Bureau of Fisheries: Fiscal year beginning July
1, 1930, S100,000; fiscal year beginning July 1, 1931, $200,000; fiscal year be­
ginning July 1, 1932, $300,000; fiscal year beginning July 1, 1933, 8400,000;
fiscal year beginning July 1, 1934, $500,000. Of each amount authorized by this
paragraph to be appropriated, not more than 30 per centum is authorized for
salaries at the seat of government and elsewhere.
(2) To meet the demand for fundamental knowledge regarding our great com­
mercial fisheries and for developing the natural cultivation of oysters, mussels,
and other mollusca, and the improvement of pond cultural, the encouragement
of fish conservation in the waters of the Great Lakes and other waters, and other
operations of the Division of Inquiry, Bureau of Fisheries, respecting food fishes,
sufficient annual additions to increase present appropriations by not to exceed
$300,000 per annum at the conclusion of the construction program authorized in
this Act. Of each amount authorized by this paragraph to be appropriated not
more than 40 per centum is authorized for salaries at the seat of government and
elsewhere, and not to exceed $10,000 in any year for a survey of the fisheries of
the Hawaiian Islands.
(3) To provide for the proper husbandry of our fisheries, improvements
in methods of capture, merchandising, and distribution of our fishery harvest,
including saving and utilization of waste products, and other operations of the
Division of Fishery Industries, Bureau of Fisheries, sufficient annual additions
to increase present appropriations by not to exceed $175,000 per annum at the
conclusion of the construction program authorized in this Act. Of each amount
authorized by this paragraph to be appropriated not more than 40 per centum
is authorized for salaries at the seat of government and elsewhere.
S e c . 8. In carrying out the provisions of this Act the Bureau of Fisheries
may cooperate with States, counties, municipalities, individuals, and public and
private agencies, organizations, and institutions, and may accept donations of
lands, funds, and other aid to the development of this program.
Approved, May 21, 1930.
B LA C K -B A SS

LE G ISL A T IO N

The act of May 20, 1926, designed to regulate the interstate trans­
portation of black bass, proved to be impracticable of enforcement.
During the second session of the Seventy-first Congress, at the re­
quest of a congressional committee, the bureau made a careful study
of the subject and aided in drafting a comprehensive corrective
measure which was adopted by the Congress at the close of the fiscal
year. This act will be effective on and after July 2, 1930. The act,
among other things, provides in substance that it shall be unlawful
for any person to deliver or knowingly receive for transportation, or
knowingly to transport, any black bass, if (1) such transportation is
contrary to the law of the State from which such black bass is or is
to be transported, or (2) such black bass has been either caught, killed,
taken, sold, purchased, possessed, or transported, at any time, con­
trary to the law of the State in which it was caught, killed, taken,
sold, purchased, or possessed, or from which it was transported ; and
that no person shall knowingly purchase or receive any such black
bass which has been transported in violation of the act.
The act also provides that all interstate shipments of black bass
shall be clearly and conspicuously marked and show the names and

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addresses of the shipper and consignee; that all black bass transported
into a State in interstate commerce shall be subject to the operation
and effect of the laws of that State to the same extent and in the same
manner as though the fish had been produced in such State, and shall
not be exempt therefrom by reason of having been introduced therein
in original packages or otherwise; and makes provision for the con­
fiscation of illegal shipments of black bass, not only on conviction of
the offender but. upon the judgment of the court that the same were
delivered, transported, purchased, or received in violation of the act.
Authority to enforce the act and to make such regulations as may
be necessary to carry out its purposes is vested in the Secretary of
Commerce. As soon as funds are provided by Congress steps will be
taken to carry out the provisions of the act. A copy of the act
follows.
[ P u b l i c —No. 495— 71 st C o n gress ]
[S. 9411
An Act To amend the Act entitled “ An Act to regulate interstate transportation of black bass, and for
other purposes," approved M ay 20,1926
B e i t e n a c te d b y th e S e n a te a n d H o u s e o f R e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f th e U n i t e d S ta te s o f
A m e r i c a i n C o n g r e s s a s s e m b le d , That the Act entitled “An Act to regulate the

interstate transportation of black bass, and for other purposes,” approved
May 20, 1926 (U. S. C., Sup. I ll, title 16, secs. 851-856), is amended to read as
follows:
“ That when used in this Act the word 'person' includes company, partnership,
corporation, association, and common carrier.
“ S e c . 2. It shall be unlawful for any person to deliver or knowingly receive for
transportation, or knowingly to transport, by any means whatsoever, from any
State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, to or through any other State,
Territory, or the District of Columbia, or to or through any foreign country,
any large-mouth black bass (Micropterus salmoides) or any small-mouth black
bass (Micropterus dolomieu), if (1) such transportation is contrary to the law
of the State, Territory, or the District of Columbia from which such black bass
is or is to be transported, or (2) such black bass has been either caught, killed,
taken, sold, purchased, possessed, or transported, at any time, contrary to the
law of the State, Territory, or the District of Columbia in which it was caught,
killed, taken, sold, purchased, or possessed, or from which it was transported; and
no person hhall knowingly purchase or receive any such black bass which has been
transported in violation of the provisions of this Act; nor shall any person
receiving any shipment of black bass transported in interstate commerce make
any false record or render a false account of the contents of such shipment.
“ S ec. 3. Any package or container containing such black bass transported or
delivered for transportation in interstate commerce, except any shipment covered
by section 9, shall be clearly and conspicuously marked on the outside thereof
with the name ‘Black Bass,’ an accurate statement of the number of such fish
contained therein, and the names and addresses of the shipper and consignee.
“ S ec. 4. All such black bass transported into any State, Territory, or the
District of Columbia for use, consumption, sale, or storage therein, shall upon
arrival in such State, Territory, or the District of Columbia be subject to the
operation and effect of the laws of such State, Territory, or the District of Colum­
bia to the same extent and in the same manner as though such fish had been pro­
duced in such State, Territory, or the District of Columbia, and shall not be
exempt therefrom by reason of being introduced therein in original packages or
otherwise.
“ S ec. 5. The Secretary of Commerce is authorized (1) to make such expendi­
tures, including expenditures for personal services at the seat of government and
elsewhere, and for cooperation with local, State, and Federal authorities, including
the issuance of publications, and necessary investigations, as may be necessary
to execute the functions imposed upon him by this Act and as may be provided
for by Congress from time to time; and (2) to make such regulations as he deems
necessary to carry out the purposes of this Act. Any person violating any such
regulation shall be deemed guilty of a violation of this Act.

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“ S e c . 6 . ( a ) Any employee of the Department of Commerce authorized by
the Secretary of Commerce to enforce the provisions of this Act (1) shall have
power, without warrant, to arrest any person committing in the presence of such
employee a violation of this Act or an}- regulation made in pursuance of this Act,
and to take such person immediately for examination or trial before an officer
or court of competent jurisdiction; (2) shall have power to execute any warrant
or other process issued by an officer or court of competent jurisdiction to enforce
the provisions of this Act or regulations made in pursuance thereof; and (3) shall
have authority, with a search warrant issued by an officer or court of competent
jurisdiction, to make search in accordance with the terms of such warrant. Any
judge of a court established under the laws of the United States or any United
States commissioner may, within his respective jurisdiction, upon proper oath or
affirmation showing probable cause, issue warrants in all such cases.
“ (b) All fish delivered for transportation or which have been transported, pur­
chased, received, or which are being transported, in violation of this Act or any
regulations made pursuant thereto, shall, when found by such employee or by
any marshal or deputy marshal, be summarily seized by him and placed in the
custody of such persons as the Secretary of Commerce shall by regulations pre­
scribe, and shall, as a part of the penalty and in addition to any fine or imprison­
ment imposed under section 7 of this Act, be forfeited by such court to the United
States upon conviction of the offender under this Act, or upon judgment of the
court that the same were transported, delivered, purchased, or received in
violation of this Act or regulations made pursuant thereto.
“ S ec. 7. In addition to any forfeiture herein provided, any person who shall
violate any of the provisions of this Act shall, upon conviction thereof, be pun­
ished by a fine not exceeding $200, or imprisonment for a term of not more than
three months, or by both such fine and imprisonment, in the discretion of the
court.
“ S e c . 8 . Nothing in this Act shall be construed to prevent the several States
and Territories from making or enforcing laws or regulations not inconsistent with
the provisions of this Act, or from making or enforcing laws or regulations which
shall give further protection to large-mouth and small-mouth black bass.
“ S e c . 9. Nothing in this Act snail be construed to prevent the shipment in
interstate commerce of live fish and eggs for breeding or stocking purposes.”
Approved, July 2, 1930.
DEVELOPM ENT

OF

FISH

SCREENS

AND

FISH W A Y S

Under the, act of Congress approved May 1, 1928, the bureau was
directed to determine the best means of preventing the destruction of
fishes in irrigation ditches, canals, and other works. During the two
years of investigation substantial progress has been made in the solu­
tion of the problem.
In the small to moderately large diversions, the most practical and
economical type of mechanical fish screen consists essentially of a
cylinder of heavy wire-mesh material placed in an appropriate sup­
porting structure and made to revolve on a horizontal axis in the direc­
tion of the stream flow, the motive power being furnished by a paddle
or bucket wheel placed in the ditch below the screen. In addition
it is provided with the necessary by-pass channel for return of the
fish to the main stream. The type found to be the most practical
was that adopted by the Oregon Game Commission and the Washing­
ton Division of Fisheries.
As a result of continued experimentation, the electric fish screen
for large diversions has been developed to a stage where it is successful
in diverthg upstream migrating fish from tailrace waters; it has been
of value also for diverting downstream migrants from intakes, but
further experiments are needed to increase its efficiency, simplify its
des:gn, and reduce its cost. Additional experiments should be made
to determine the best type of current and the best voltage values to
be specified for electric screens.

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During 1928 practically all fish ladders in the States of Washington,
Oregon, Idaho, and Montana were inspected and studied. Observa­
tions were made of the habits of migratory fish to discover the basic
principles which should govern the design of fishways. In 1929,
practical application of these principles was made in the construction
of a new fish ladder at the Sunnyside Dam near Yakima, Wash.,
which revealed the efficiency of fish ladders of large pool design. In
addition, the design of a new fish ladder for the Sprague River Dam
near Chiloquin, Oreg., was begun, studies made of Canadian data on
the subject, and several proposed power sites were inspected, including
the study of models and designs of fish ladders for the purpose of
determining more definitely the requirements at these projects. The
examination of proposed power projects and the prompt giving of the
specifications necessary for fish-protective structures are of vital im­
portance. The bureau has received very helpful cooperation from
Federal and State authorities, power interests, and other agencies.
U P P E R M ISSISSIPPI RIVE R SITUATION

The upper Mississippi River situation with respect to mussels, fin
fisheries, pollution, the possible effects of flood control and improve­
ments to navigation, and the importance of properly developing the
aquatic resources of the Upper Mississippi Wild Life and Fish Refuge
presents a very serious and complex problem.
Only a few areas from Lake Pepin, Minn., to Quincy, 111., are still
productive of mussels in a commercial way. The evidence indicates
that conditions in the Mississippi River within this area are no longer
suitable for the development of the glochidia, and the mussel fishery
of this region appears to be doomed to economic exhaustion. From
Minneapolis to the lower end of Lake Pepin the fisheries situation is
bad, the catch of fish in the lake declining from 3,572,000 pounds in
1922 to 386,000 pounds in 1929. On February 4, 1930, the metropoli­
tan drainage commission of St. Paul and Minneapolis reported the
oxygen content of the lake water as two and two-tenths parts per
million at Frontenac, Minn., near the upper end of the lake, and two
and seven-tenths parts per million at Lake City in the lower section.
Thus in the upper end of the lake, at least, the oxygen content dropped
below the safety point for the maintenance of fish life. Observations
on a number of sloughs along the upper Mississippi River in Minnesota
and Wisconsin show a reduction of oxygen content below the safety
point. The conditions of the river cited above appear to be due largely
to the joint action of pollution and erosion silt.
Conservationists have stressed the possible dangers to aquatic life
which may occur through changed conditions resulting from the con­
struction of darns and the dredging of deeper navigation channels in
this area, and have urged that arrangements be made so that biolo­
gists of the Bureaus of Fisheries and Biological Survey will be afforded
cooperative arrangements for the purpose of calling attention to
these potential dangers and suggesting the need for remedial changes.
For example, sudden changes in water level may prove very destruc­
tive to fish life and detrimental to the birds and mammals of the
region. This may impair the value of the Mississippi Wild Life and
Fish Refuge, as well as nullify the compacts entered into with the
Legislatures of Minnesota, Iowa, Wisconsin, and Illinois and ratified
by Congress.

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The bureau has reorganized its staff of biologists and rearranged its
program of investigations in this upper Mississippi River area to
reveal with greater definiteness the conditions which obtain and the
steps necessary to restore the productivity in mussels and fish. It
has cooperated also with the Engineer Corps of the Army in consid­
ering plans of improvement of navigation to provide more stable
conditions and, if possible, to improve the situation with respect to
wild life and fish.
SPECIA L SE N A TE COMMITTEE ON WILD L I F E RESOURCES

On April 17, 1930, there was appointed (under S. Res. 246) a special
committee of five Senators to investigate all matters pertaining to
the replacement and conservation of wild life with instructions to
report its findings to the Senate as soon as possible. The studies
have to deal with a vast range of subjects, including the fishes of the
Atlantic, Pacific, Gulf, and inland waters, and the fur-seal and
fishery industries. At the conclusion of its exhaustive studies, which
will extend over a period of more than a year, the committee plans to
recommend to the United States Senate any changes or additions
that they consider necessary in or to existing laws pertaining to
conservation.
ALASKA FISHERIES SERVICE
ADMINISTRATION OF F IS H E R Y LAWS AND REGULATION S

Under the White fisheries law of June 6, 1924, which virtually
gives the Secretary of Commerce authority to prescribe when, where,
and how commercial fishing may be conducted in the waters of
Alaska, steady progress has been made toward stabilizing the fisheries
industry— the most important economic resource of the Territory.
While regulations will not prevent fluctuations resulting from condi­
tions that can neither be foreseen nor controlled, the results achieved
in the six years since the passage of this act leave no room for doubt
as to the value of the conservation measures that have been in effect
during that time.
Of primary importance in preventing depletion of the fisheries is
the securing of an escapement sufficient for the adequate seeding of
the spawning beds. This is brought about by means of weekly
closed periods and closed seasons during which all commercial fishing
ceases, by limitation on the quantity and kind of gear that may be
used, and by the establishment of closed areas wherein commercial
fishing is prohibited. Such control necessitates constant observation
of conditions in all districts throughout the fishing season so that
prompt modifications may be made in existing regulations to meet
unforeseen developments with respect to the volume of the runs.
Coincident with the enforcement of regulations to assure the
escapement of at least 50 per cent of the salmon runs is the work of
removing log jams and other barriers that prevent the fish from
ascending the streams. Predatory enemies of the salmon are destroyed
where it appears that their depredations are taking an undue toll of
purposes.
18038— 30-------14

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C O M M E R C E

In 1929, 12 statutory and 216 temporary employees were engaged
in the patrol of the fishing grounds in addition to the crews of 14
vessels belonging to the bureau and 10 chartered vessels. Many of the
temporary employees provided their own launches. An airplane
was used experimentally for the first time in connection with the
fisheries patrol in southeastern Alaska, and the advantages of air­
craft as an auxiliary patrol were demonstrated.
During the active salmon-fishing season the Commissioner of Fish­
eries spent several weeks in Alaska, including a visit to the Pribilof
Islands, keeping in close touch with all important matters pertaining
to the fisheries industry. Modifications of existing regulations were
made on his recommendation from time to time as the season advanced.
On December 19, 1929, revised regulations to be effective in the
following calendar year were issued.
ALASKA SALMON H A TCH ERIES

At the Government hatcheries at Afognak and on McDonald Lake
38,095,120 red-salmon eggs, 2,650,000 pink-salmon eggs, and 150,000
steelhead-trout eggs were collected in 1929. From these collections,
shipments of 4,553,200 red-salmon eggs and 1,021,000 pink-salmon
eggs in the eyed stage were forwarded to Seattle in October. At
the privately owned hatchery operated under the provisions of the
Alaska fisheries act of June 26, 1906, 11,760,000 red-salmon eggs were
collected.
SPECIAL STUD IES AND INVESTIGATIO NS

An important factor in the conservation of the fisheries is the secur­
ing of scientific knowledge of the life history and habits of the various
species. This work was continued in Alaska during 1929. A detailed
discussion of the various activities will be given later in this report.
Weirs for counting the numbers of salmon ascending to the spawn­
ing grounds were maintained in 20 typical salmon streams, of which
6 werft in southeast, 12 in central, and 2 in western Alaska. Through
the operation of such weirs the ratio of escape to catch is established
and valuable information is acquired as to the probable return from
a known escapement. Observations of the condition of the spawning
grounds were made in all districts.
PRODUCTS OF T H E F IS H E R IE S

In 1929 salmon products, which comprise upward of 80 per cent in
value of the Alaska fishery products, amounted to 272,244,435 pounds
valued at $42,524,845. This is somewhat less than the output for the
preceding year when 308,691,203 pounds of salmon products valued
at 817,487,763 were prepared; but it compares favorably with the
average of approximately 265,570,000 pounds, valued at $39,312,586,
for the 5-year period from 1924 to 1928, inclusive. About 95 per cent
of the salmon products in 1929 consisted of canned salmon, the pack
amounting to 5,370,159 cases valued at $40,469,385.
r\T h e quantity of herring products exceeded that of any preceding
year except 1925, but a large percentage consisted of meal and oil
because of the unusually small size of the fish taken. The value of the
herring products was the lowest since 1924. There was a considerable
increase over the previous year in the amount and value of the halibut

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211

taken by the Alaskan fleet. Whaling was conducted on about the
same scale as in recent years. Of the several minor fisheries, the
output of clams showed the greatest increase.
The total value of all fishery products of Alaska in 1929 was
$50,795,819, as compared with $54,545,588 in the preceding year and
an average of $45,941,358 for the 5-year period from 1924 to 1928,
inclusive. Of this total, $42,524,845 represented the value of the
salmon output; $4,422,605, halibut; $2,794,084, herring; $502,081,
whale products; $203,656, clams; $200,312, shrimps; and $148,236,
miscellaneous fishery products. The value of the catch to the fisher­
men was approximately $16,582,000, or about $761,000 less than in the
preceding year. There were 29,283 persons employed in the various
branches of the industry, as compared with 31,086 in 1928.
The extent and condition of the Alaska fisheries in 1929 and of the
activities of the bureau under the laws and regulations for the pro­
tection of the fisheries are covered in detail in the annual report of
the Alaska service for that year.
A LASKA

F U R -S E A L

S E R V IC E

G EN ERA L A C T IV IT IES

The Government management of the Pribilof Islands fur-seal herd,
under conditions brought about by the North Pacific Sealing Con­
vention of 1911, has resulted in a gradual and steady increase in the
number of animals, making it possible to secure more pelts of surplus
males in successive seasons without detriment to the growth of the
herd. The increase in the annual killings has given rise to the question
of more profitable disposition of the seal carcasses— the main utiliza­
tion of wdiich heretofore has been as food for the fox herds on the
islands, although some reduction of meal and oil has been accom­
plished at various times. Accordingly, the erection of a modern by­
products plant was begun in the early summer of 1930.
Under the direction of the bureau’s staff of employees, sealing
operations on the Pribilof Islands are performed by the natives. The
upkeep and replacement of buildings and the extension of improved
roads are given due attention each year, the work being carried on
chiefly when sealing activities are not pressing. The care and feeding
of the blue-fox herds on St. Paul and St. George Islands provide
additional occupation during the winter. In return for their services
the native population, consisting of 368 persons, are furnished food,
clothing, and shelter, as well as schools and medical aid. Further
compensation is made in cash at the rate of 75 cents for each seal­
skin and $5 for each fox skin taken, with some additional payments
for special services.
The need of a new vessel to serve as tender for the Pribilof Islands
had been felt for some time, the Eider having become inadequate
both by reason of its limited capacity and because of its long service
in the exposed waters of Bering Sea. A new power vessel, Penguin,
designed especially for such service, was built in the fiscal year 1930
and is proving to be well adapted for the duties required. The
Penguin sailed from Seattle on May 5 on its maiden voyage to the
islands, carrying seasonal employees of the bureau and about 185
tons of supplies.

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O P

C O M M E R C E

Through the cooperation of the Navy Department the annual
supplies for the Pribilof Islands were transported from Seattle, Wash.,
on the U. S. S. Sirius, and the sealskins and fox skins then ready for
shipment were brought back on the return voyage.
SEAL H ERD

The computed number of animals in the Pribilof Islands fur-seal
herd on August 10, 1929, was 971,527— an increase of 100,014, or
11.48 per cent, over the corresponding figure for 1928.
TA K E OP SEA LSK IN S

In the calendar year 1929 there were taken on the Pribilof Islands
40,068 fur-sealskins, of which 33,216 were from St. Paul Island, and
6,852 from St. George Island. This was an increase of 8,969 over
the number taken in 1928 and is the largest take of any year since 1889.
MARKING R ESER V ED SEALS

In 1929 the number of 3-year-old male seals marked for the breeding
reserve was 8,085, of which 6,430 were on St. Paul Island, and 1,655
on St. George Island. The marking was done by shearing a patch
of fur, and on St. Paul Island 200 of the animals so marked were also
branded with a hot iron.
SALE OF SEA LSK IN S

Two public auction sales of fur-seal skins taken on the Pribilof
Islands were held at St. Louis, Mo., in the fiscal year 1930. The
first was on September 30, 1929, when 5, 022 black-dyed and 9,000
logwood brown-dyed skins were sold for a gross price of $349,648.
At the same time 142 logwood brown-dyed and 10 raw-salted Japa­
nese fur-seal skins brought $3,486.50. These 152 skins were the
United States Government’s share of sealskins taken by the Japanese
Government in 1928. In addition, 2 confiscated fur-seal skins,
dyed logwood brown, were sold for $33, and 5 confiscated sea-otter
skins were sold for $963.
At the second sale, held on April 7, 1930, 8,011 black-dyed and
6,035 logwood brown-dyed skins were sold for $319,290, and 4
confiscated skins (2 dyed logwood brown, 1 dressed in hair, and 1 raw
salted) brought $16.50.
Special sales of sealskins, authorized by the Secretary of Commerce,
in the fiscal year 1930 consisted of 125 black-dyed and 75 logwood
brown-dyed skins at a gross price of $8,807.86. All were taken at
the Pribilof Islands.
FO XES

The care of foxes on the Pribilof Islands is incidental to sealing
operations, requiring attention only during the winter months.
Five hundred and forty-four blue and nine white fox skins taken
in the season of 1928-29 were sold at public auction on September
30, 1929. The blue pelts brought $35,865 and the whites $556, a
total of $36,421.

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In the season of 1929-30, 193 blue and 31 white fox skins were
taken on St. Paul Island and 552 blues and 1 white on St. George
Island, a total of 777 skins. Seventy-two foxes on St. Paul Island
and 546 on St. George Island were trapped, marked, and released
for breeding purposes. Additional foxes, not caught in the traps,
were also included in the breeding reserve.
FU R -SE A L SK IN S TA K EN BY NATIVES

The privilege of taking fur seals at sea under specified limitations
is granted to natives of the Pacific coast by the provisions of the
North Pacific Sealing Convention of July 7, 1911. Before the seal­
skins can enter into commerce they must be authenticated as having
been lawfully taken. One thousand five hundred and eighty-six
fur-seal skins taken in 1929 have been authenticated by the Govern­
ment, 995 of which were taken in the offshore waters of southeastern
Alaska and 591 in waters off the coast of Washington. Through the
courtesy of the Department of the Interior, the latter skins were
authenticated by the superintendent of the Neah Bay Indian Agency.
An official report stated that 3,383 fur-seal skins were taken by
natives of British Columbia in 1929.
FU R -SE A L TATROL

As in previous years, a patrol for the protection of the fur seals
and sea otters in the waters of the North Pacific Ocean and Bering
Sea was maintained by vessels of the United States Coast Guard.
Two of the bureau’s vessels were likewise engaged in the fur-seal
patrol during the spring migration of the herd.
Under date of September 24, 1929, there was issued a revised
(second) edition of the circular containing the laws and regulations
for the protection of fur seals and sea otters, which embodied the
Executive order of January 14, 1929, naming each of the bureau’s
vessels in the Alaska service as authorized to take part in the furseal patrol.
PRO TECTION OF SEA OTTERS, W ALRUSES, AND SEA LIONS

Revised regulations for the protection of walruses and sea lions
were issued as of May 1, 1930, extending the closed season on these
animals for another 2-year period. Permission to kill the animals
under certain restricted conditions previously set forth was con­
tinued. The killing of sea otters is prohibited at all times.
B IO L O G IC A L F IS H E R Y

I N V E S T IG A T IO N S

The division of scientific inquiry during the fiscal year 1930 con­
tinued biological investigations of the fisheries intended to promote the
conservation activities of the various States, to foster and encourage
aquiculture, and to aid industry in the proper ut lization of aquatic
food resources. The division’s most important function is the acquir­
ing of fundamental knowledge of the fisheries—marine, commercial,
fresh-water, or sports— to serve as the basis for so regulating the take
that an adequate breeding stock will be maintained, assuring con­
tinued productivity of the supply. In addition to prohibitory or

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regulatory recommendations, investigations are conducted as a means
of increasing the output of the hatcheries and of more wisely directing
the planting and stocking system. Studies have also been conducted
on the problem of increasing the productivity of natural water areas
and on fish farming in small lakes and ponds.
Major projects of research are conducted in each of the geographical
sections and coasts of the United States and the more important
interior waters, covering some 28 important commercial and game
fishes, as well as studies of organisms related to these species either as
food or as enemies.
Outstanding progress has been made in the aquicultural investi­
gations that are concerned primarily with increasing the output of
hatcheries and the stocking of interior waters with food and game
fishes. Of more direct benefit to the commercial fisheries are the
investigations on shellfish culture, particularly in the farming of
oyster bottoms and in the investigation of the commercial fisheries
of the North Atlantic. A most direct method of conservation of the
salmon of the Pacific Coast States is preventing the destruction of
millions of young salmon entering irrigating canals while migrating
to the sea from the spawning places in the headwaters of the rivers.
The bureau’s installations of experimental screens at the mouths of
irrigating ditches are proving particularly effective.
AQUICULTURAL IN V ESTIG A TIO N S

The division’s fresh-water investigations in aquiculture are included
under four headings: Expérimentai trout culture, experimental bass
culture in ponds, experimental fish culture in the Upper Mississippi
River Wild Life and Fish Refuge, and studies on the pathology of
hatchery fish. Several years’ experiments in the use of various sub­
stitutes for fresh meat in the diet of brook trout have culminated in
the adoption of an ideal ration that includes diy meals with the regu­
lation beef liver and beef heart diet in sufficient quantities to reduce
the total cost of feeding by about 50 per cent. These perfected rations
not only produce excellent growth in the fry and fingerlings but reduce
mortality to a minimum and permit the holding of trout at hatcheries
until greater size is reached before planting. Experiments on selec­
tive breeding are also under way that give promise of producing a
superior strain of brood stock that is rapid growing, disease resisting,
and above the average in egg production.
At the bureau’s pond-culture station, experiments on the rearing
of black bass have been equally successful. Better and more efficient
methods have been devised for propagating and rearing the warmwater game fishes, such as the large and smallmouth black bass, the
white and black crappie, and the bluegill sunfish. By the proper
use of minnows as forage fish and by the fertilizing of ponds with
commercial and chemical fertilizers, the bureau has produced as high
as 11,500 fingerling bass per acre, and one of its ponds has averaged
8,500 per acre for three years.
In the Upper Mississippi Wild Life and Fish Refuge a number of
sloughs and ponds in the overflowed lowlands of the river valley
have been prepared for intensive fish production, and detailed limno­
logical observations on the abundance of fish and the character of
fish food available in the area have been made. One of the most

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FISHERIES

serious difficulties in fish culture of the region is due to the rank
growth of aquatic vegetation. Chemical treatments have been
devised which will destroy the coarser plants without injury to the
fish or interference with the food supply. Such treatments are being
applied to the ponds in the refuge and will have practical application
to pondfish culture throughout the country.
The bureau’s pathologist has continued his studies on the diseases
of trout and has rendered invaluable service not only to the bureau’s
hatchery superintendents through the diagnosis and treatment of
disease in hatcheries, but to many State and private fish-culturists.
This line of work is so productive that plans are laid for its expan­
sion as rapidly as funds will permit.
F IS H E R IE S

OF

THE

A TL A N T IC

AND

GULF

COASTS

Fundamental studies on the factors that affect the abundance of
fish in the great commercial fisheries of the Atlantic seaboard have
been undertaken during the past two years with the aid of the fish­
eries steamer Albatross I I and a staff of shore observers. Studies of
the chemical and physical condition of the water and its contained
floating life have been made at various seasons of the past year in
order to j udge the success of spawning of various important species and
the influences that control their migrations. A comprehensive report
on the migrations and biology of the cod of southern New England is
now in press, and rapid progress has been made on studies of the
stock of mackerel. The erratic appearance and disappearance of
huge stocks of mackerel in Atlantic waters is now known to be due
to variations in actual abundance resulting from the occurrence of
successful spawning at fairly infrequent intervals, and it has been
possible to predict with increasing accuracy the commercial runs of
the following season.
Investigations of the shore fisheries of southern New England and
the Middle Atlantic States, begun two years ago, indicate that
similar causes control the abundance of other important species and
that the decline in productivity of the squeteague, or weakfish, in
rec ' ears is the result of natural rather than artificial causes.
of the understanding of the biology of these food fishes
depends upon a knowledge of their early life history. A deliberate
attack upon this problem has been made in ¿onnection with the ocean­
ography of the North Atlantic region by extensive collection and
study of the eggs and larvse obtained in the surface waters and in a
program of collections in the South Atlantic region at the Beaufort
biological station.
On the Gulf coast, studies of the fauna have been continued with
the aim of eventually producing a manual of the marine fishes that
will give descriptions of the species and the pertinent facts in their
life history, habits, and economics.
F IS H E R IE S OF T H E PA CIFIC COAST AND ALASKA

Investigation of the commercial fisheries of the Pacific coast and
Alaska have been restricted to the salmon runs of Alaska, to the
completion of salmon-tagging experiments on the Columbia River,
and continuation of the Alaska herring studies. New investigations

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during the year included a study of the homing instinct of pink salmon
in Alaska, an investigation of the red salmon of the Copper River,
and a study of the red-salmon runs of the Bristol Bay district. The
compilation and analysis of the statistics of the salmon fisheries of
central Alaska were completed during the year. Intensive investiga­
tions of the red-salmon run of the Karluk River were continued as a
part of the general program of determining the normal return from
known escapements of spawning fish.
In the Chignik River, the Copper River, and in certain sections of
Bristol Bay similar investigations are under way. In undertaking
an investigation of the pink salmon in southeastern Alaska, the most
pressing problem was the early settlement of the question of the
relative strength of the homing instinct in this species. Forty-six
salmon streams were visited and data collected.
Field work on the Columbia River was restricted to the recovery
of mature fish that had been marked years before as fingerlings to
determine how long the fingerlings should be held at hatcheries before
planting. The experiment further substantiated the parent stream
theory, but failed to indicate any advantage of one age of liberation
over another.
The bureau has published a very complete report on the herring
fishery of Alaska, in which the occurrence of distinct racial units in
the stock is demonstrated and the relation of catch composition to
fluctuations in abundance with a summary of the evidence of deple­
tion is presented.
F IS H E R IE S OF T H E GREAT LAKES

Investigations of commercial fisheries of Lake Erie and Lake Huron
were continued. The study of the relative destructiveness of gill
nets and trap nets of various sized meshes was completed and served
as a basis for the new regulations passed in Ohio. They also served
as a basis for the revision of the commercial fisheries laws in Michigan
and Indiana, and for recommendations offered to Wisconsin, Min­
nesota, and New York. As a result of the bureau’s continued effort,
all the States bordering the Great Lakes except Minnesota have now
introduced the recommended method of collecting fishery statistics
showing the daily catch together with the amount of gear employed.
Cooperative investigation of the limnology of Lake Erie to discover
normal conditions favoring fish growth as well as possible effects of
pollution or other factors limiting fish production, undertaken jointly
by the bureau and the States of Ohio and New York and private
institutions, was completed during the year, and data are being com­
piled and analyzed. In addition, the bureau cooperated directly
with the Ohio division of fish and game in conducting an intensive
limnological investigation of the western end of Lake Erie in connec­
tion with the studies on the distribution of larval and postlarval fish
and the possible effects of pollution.
IN T E R N A T IO N A L IN V ESTIG A TIO N OF TH E
D ISPU T E

LAKE

CHAMPLAIN

FISHERY

Personnel of the Bureau of Fisheries cooperated with Canadian
investigators in an investigation of the fisheries of Lake Champlain
to settle the dispute between the sportsmen of the United States and

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the commercial fishermen of Canada, all of whom exploit the pike
perches as sports fishes in the United States waters and as a commer­
cial fishery in the Missisquoi Bay region of Quebec. The chief
features of the biology of these species will be determined in order to
judge the interdependence of the waters on both sides of the inter­
national boundary in the hope of reaching an amicable settlement of
this old controversy.
SH E L L FISH IN V ESTIG A TIO N S

Oysters.—Oyster investigations during the past year consisted in
the experimental study of oyster culture in New England, Georgia,
Texas, and Washington, in a study of the physiology of adult and
larval oysters, in a study of the effect of pulp-mill waste on oysters
of the Puget Sound, and in an investigation of the biology of the
natural enemies of the oyster such as the oyster drill and starfish.
Several years’ investigations of the oyster fishery resulted in a number
of publications recently issued. Much interest has been aroused in
the oyster industry by the development of a new and more efficient
type of oyster spat collector, consisting of a cement-coated paper
crate resembling egg crate partitions, with the result that this method
of increasing seed oyster production is being generally adopted by
the industry.
Studies of oyster culture in lower Puget Sound, begun last year,
indicated that the beds in Oakland Bay were being destroyed. A
hydrobiological and a physiological investigation was undertaken to
determine the cause of this failure. Laboratory tests showed that
waste sulphite liquor from a pulp mill in the vicinity would kill
oysters or interfere with their feeding activities. On the basis of
calculations of the amount of liquor dumped into the bay during the
past two years and from tidal studies it is estimated that the bay
contained sulphite liquor in sufficient concentration to produce such
toxic effects. A preliminary report was prepared in which it was
recommended that sulphite liquor be excluded from waters in which
oysters are produced.
Studies on the control of starfish pests on the oyster beds of Long
Island Sound give promise of developing an efficient treatment for
killing the starfish soon after the spawning of these animals in the
spring by means of copper sulphate. Because of the practical
importance of this work the investigation will be continued.
Fresh-water mussels.—Investigations of improved methods of mussel
culture were continued during the early part of the fiscal year. A
thoroughly successful laboratory method for artificial propagation of
the valuable fresh-water mussels has been hindered in large-scale pro­
duction by the extensive pollution of the upper Mississippi River
system. An extensive survey of the waters of Arkansas, Louisiana,
Texas, and northern Mexico, as well as tributaries of the Mississippi
farther north, was undertaken to discover areas suitable for the
extension of mussel culture, and a systematic effort was made in the
spring of 1930 to secure a breeding stock free from the effects of
pollution and suitable for obtaining spawn for incubation.
The scientific staff engaged on these problems has been reorganized,
field headquarters have been established at the University of Missouri,
Columbia, Mo., and experiments have been undertaken to test the
suitability for artificial culture of mussels from widely spread localities.

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A study of the effects of pollution upon the fresh-water mussel and a
survey of the streams in the Middle West yield information of direct
value in stocking these waters with food and game fishes, and it is
intended to expand activities in this direction as rapidly as funds will
permit.
S T A T IS T IC A L

SU RVEYS

The statistical work of the division of fishery industries included
the collection and dissemination of biological and trade-fishery statis­
tics. Further progress was made toward the collection of annual
statistics of the entire country by greater cooperation with State
fishery agencies and by the use of automobiles by agents. As a result,
catch statistics for 1928 were obtained for the fisheries of the New
England, South Atlantic, Gulf, Pacific Coast, and Great Lakes States.
MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS

Canned products.—During 1929, 497 establishments were engaged
in the canning of fishery products in the United States and Alaska.
The total production amounted to 689,446,781 pounds net weight,
valued at $101,065,055. This is an increase of 5 per cent in value
compared with the respective value of the production in 1928. Salmon
canned on the Pacific coast, mainly in Alaska, accounted for 6,990,682
standard cases (335,552,736 pounds), valued at $56,085,697. This is
55 per cent of the total value of all products canned in 1929. Sardines
with a production of 5,857,016 standard cases (234,543,345 pounds),
valued at $18,894,943, accounted for 19 per cent of the total value.
Sardines were canned in California, Maine, and Massachusetts. Tuna
and tunalike fishes with a production of 1,504,306 standard cases
(36,103,344 pounds), valued at $9,873,453, accounted for 10 per cent
of the value. Tuna and tunalike fishes were canned only in California.
The remainder of the production consisted principally of shrimp,
oysters, clam products, and mackerel.
By-products.—Duiing 1929 by-products of the fisheries worth
$23,767,656 -were manufactured. The most important were 15,353,057
gallons of marine-animal oils, with a value of $6,801,619; 142,681 tons
of marine-animal meals and scrap with a value of $6,801,362; fresh­
water mussel shell products, such as buttons and novelties, valued at
$6,144,515; and 334,766 tons of oyster-shell products, such as lime
and crushed shell for poultry, valued at $2,524,499. The remainder,
valued at $1,495,661, consisted of such commodities as herring skins
and scales, shark skins and fins, fish flour, agar agar, glue, and various
miscellaneous products.
FROZEN FISH

In 1929 there were 122 plants in the United States and Alaska
freezing fishery products and 168 cold-storage warehouses which
stored frozen-fishery products. The quantity of fish frozen amounted
to 121,542,589 pounds, with an estimated value in the cold-storage
warehouses of $15,000,000. The average monthly holdings amounted
to 55,900,000 pounds in 1929, or 17 per cent over the 5-year average
of monthly holdings. The freezing plants are capable of packing
about 3,617,000 pounds of frozen fish per working day, and the coldstorage warehouses are capable of holding a maximum of 209,660,000
pounds of fishery products at one time.

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PACKAGED FR E S H , FRO ZEN, AND SMOKED FISH

Packaged fresh, frozen, and smoked fish were produced in 112
plants (27 more than in 1928) operated in 12 States. The output
amounted to 84,396,505 pounds, valued at $14,812,987, which repre­
sents an increase of 29 per cent in amount and 51 per cent in value
when compared with the trade in 1928. It is estimated that 212,000,000 pounds of whole round fish were utilized.
FO R EIG N FIS H E R Y TRADE

The value of the United States foreign trade in fishery products
during 1929 amounted to $90,395,769, of which $66,565,599 represents
the value of imports for consumption and $23,830,170 the value of
exports. Compared with the previous year, this is an increase of 13
per cent in total trade, in the value of the imports, and in the value of
the exports, respectively.
N E W ENGLAND STATES

In 1929 the fisheries of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts,
Connecticut, and Rhode Island employed 16,659 fishermen, or 11 per
cent more than in 1924. The catch amounted to 603,598,050 pounds,
valued at $25,619,904. This is an increase of 48 per cent in the catch
and 36 per cent in value of the catch as compared with the quantity
and its value in 1924.
Vessel fisheries.—In 1929 landings of fish by American vessels at
Boston and Gloucester, Mass., and Portland, Me., amounted to
327,096,327 pounds as landed, valued at $13,051,704, and were larger
than the amount and value of the landings for any one year for which
there arc records. Of this amount, 187,203,733 pounds were haddock.
Mackerel fishery.—The mackerel fishery showed a sharp recovory
from the decline in 1926 to 1928. The total catch amounted to over
46,000,000 pounds and was 49 per cent greater than the previous yoar.
The gain was due to the appearance of a new year class, which fur­
nished nearly 21,000,000 pounds of small mackerel.
Packaged-fish trade.—Packaged-fish trade in New England, cen­
tering at Boston and Gloucester, Mass., and Groton, Conn., expanded
during 1929, and the increased production over 1928 was about 50
per cent.
Canned sardines.—The sardine canners in Maine and Massachu­
setts packed 2,025,801 standard cases, valued at $6,897,946 during
1929. Production was about the same as in 1928, but the value was
considerably less.
MIDDLE ATLANTIC STATES

According to the latest general canvass of the fisheries of these
States (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) made
for 1926, the situation can not be considered as giving reasons for
optimism as the production of many of the staple fish showed heavy
declines as compared with 1921. Landings of fish at New York
City and Groton, Conn., amounted to 75,325,000 pounds in 1929.
This is somewhat more than in 1928. The production of menhaden
in 1929 was somewhat under that for 1928.

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Shad fishery.—On the Hudson River the shad fishery was carried
on by 241 fishermen and yielded 56,480 shad winch weighed 196,745
pounds, valued at $30,683 to the fishermen. This represents a de­
cline of 29 per cent both in number and value as compared with the
production in 1928.
C H ESA PEA K E BAY STATES

The Virginia menhaden industry recovered somewhat from the
poor year of 1928, and produced a larger quantity of scrap and meal,
but the value barely exceeded that for 1928. There was a smaller
oil production soiling at a lower price in 1929 than in 1928, with the
net result that the total value of the menhaden industry in Virginia
in 1929, in spite of increased production, was about the same as in
1928. This situation reveals the need for improved methods in the
manufacture of menhaden meal and oil with a view toward the pro­
duction of a higher quality product.
Conditions in the oyster industry were little changed, although
distribution has not yet kept pace in some parts of the country. The
crab industry had one of its best years in 1929, according to the
reports of persons in the trade. The production of packaged fish in
1929 about equaled that for 1928.
Shad fishery.—In 1929 shad and alewifc fisheries of the Potomac
River were prosecuted by 773 fishermen. It yielded 317,253 fish
that weighed 1,052,284 pounds, valued at $141,589 to the fishermen.
Compared with the yield for 1928 this is a decrease of 56 per cent in
number, 49 per cent in weight, and 34 per cent in value.
SOUTH ATLANTIC STATES

In 1928 the fisheries of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,
and the east coast of Florida employed 11,882 fishermen, or 3 per cent
more than in 1927. The catch amounted to 258,440,435 pounds,
valued at $6,027,154, which is a decrease of 1 per cent in catch and
an increase of 6 per cent in value when compared with 1927.
The production of canned shrimp in 1929 was somewhat higher
than in 1928. The menhaden industry, which is rapidly becoming a
factor in the fisheries of these States, showed a considerably increased
production in 1929 over that in 1928.
GU LF STATES

According to available records for 1928, the fisheries of Alabama,
Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and the west coast of Florida have been
exceeded only in 1927, from which year they decreased 2 per cent in
amount and 1 per cent in value. They employed 16,356 fishermen,
or 8 per cent more than in 1927. The catch amounted to 191,007,176
pounds, valued at $9,866,263. The production of canned shrimp in
1929 was about the same as in the previous year, while the production
of canned oysters was considerably in excess of the pack in 1928.
Florida sponge fishery.— In 1929 the quantity of sponges sold on the
exchange at Tarpon Springs, Fla., amounted to 378,514 pounds, valued
at $706,645. This is a decrease of 8 per cent in quantity and 3 per
cent in value compared with the transactions in 1928.

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PA CIFIC COAST STATES

In 1928 the fisheries of Washington, Oregon, and California pro­
duced 693,484,447 pounds of products, valued at $20,512,772. Com­
pared with 1927 this is a gain of 6 per cent in the quantity of the catch
and a decrease of 8 per cent in its value. In making the catch 19,733
fishermen were employed, which is 4 per cent less than the number
employed in 1927.
In 1929, a good year, the pack of salmon was 92 per cent greater
than the previous year, the larger pack of humpback or pink salmon
in Puget Sound constituting most of the increase. Compared with
1927, the previous “ good” year, there was an increase of 8 per cent in
the pack.
The pack of sardines in California was the largest on record, both in
quantity and value, and amounted to 3,831,215 standard cases valued
at $11,996,997, which is an increase of 38 per cent in quantity and 24
per cent in value, compared with 1928. The production of canned
tuna in 1929 was the largest on record and amounted to 1,504,306
standard cases valued, at $9,873,453. This is an increase of 24 per
cent in quantity and 18 per cent in value over the pack of the
previous year.
The mackerel canning industry in California continued to expand in
1929, the production amounting to 592,451 standard cases, valued at
$2,428,058. This is an increase of 52 per cent in quantity and 50 per
cent in value when compared with the pack during 1928.
Halibut fishery.—In 1929 the total weight of the catch of halibut as
landed by United States and Canadian vessels amounted to 55,490,000
pounds, valued at $6,698,000. This is about the same as the amount
of the catch in 1928, but a little more than for the years 1925 to 1927.
Of the total landings 84 per cent were taken by United States craft
and 16 per cent by Canadian craft.
LAKE STATES

In 1928 the lake fisheries (Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, Michigan,
Superior, and Namakan, Lake of the Woods, and Rainy Lake) of
the United States and Canada produced 92,913,909 pounds of fish.
Of the total, the United States accounted for63,368,467 pounds, valued
at $5,960,784. This is the smallest catch on record and the decrease
can not be attributed to a decline in the catch of any one species,
for practically all show a decline compared with their respective
catches for 1927. The catch of ciscoes revealed the most serious
decline; that in the United States in 1928 barely exceeding 600,000
pounds compared with a catch of about 35,000,000 pounds in 1918.
A decrease occurred in the catch of every lake except Ontario. The
Canadian catch amounted to 29,545,442 pounds, which is slightly
less than the catch in 1927. The declining yields in the lake fisheries
should prove an incentive to the various State authorities and the
fishermen to promulgate wise conservation measures for preventing
further decline in this important resource.
M IS S IS S IP P I R IV E R AND T R IB U T A R IE S

The yield of fresh-water mussel shells in 1929, used in the manu­
facture of pearl buttons and novelties, amounted to 54,352,000
pounds valued at $1,324,919. This is a decrease of 6 per cent in

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quantity and an increase of 4 per cent in value compared with the
production and its value in 1922. The pearl-button industry, cen­
tering in Iowa, manufactured pearl buttons and various novelties
from fresh-water mussel shells, to a value of $6,144,515 in 1929. The
fisheries of Lakes Pepin and Keokuk show decreased yield in 1929
compared with that in 1928.
T E C H N O L O G IC A L

IN V E S T IG A T IO N S

The division’s technologists have been conducting research mainly
on problems relating to the manufacture of fish meal and oil, the
feeding value of marine products, the handling and transportation
of fresh and frozen fish, and the preservation of nets.
N E T PR ESER V A TIO N

In the study of trap-net preservation, selected new treatments
have been tested on trap-net and gill-net threads in many fishing
waters throughout the country. As a result certain essential prin­
ciples of preservation applicable to all localities have been established.
Technical development of gill-net preservatives has followed
scientific study. Several fishermen have used gill nets treated with
brown or green colored preservatives with results comparable to the
fishing power of white nets.
BY-PRODUCTS

Menhaden.—The bureau’s technical study of the menhaden in­
dustry included the determination and evaluation of the losses of
material encountered in the reduction process and studies of methods
applicable to the present process whereby such losses could be re­
duced. The various recovery methods studied indicate that either
all or a considerable portion of press-liquor losses may be recovered
at a profit. The same is true of the oil now lost. Studies on methods
of drying press cake show that present dryer losses may be reduced
over one-half by drying in a high-capacity steam dryer, and the re­
sultant dried material is of better quality and has a greater nutri­
tional value. Studies also indicate that a considerable reduction in
the cost of raw material would result from proper storage conditions
aboard vessel.
Reduction of waste from nonoily fish.—Studies on the reduction of
this type of material show that it may be reduced in one operation
with some success if dried under reduced pressure. Most desirable
results were obtained by reducing the size of the initial charge and
having scraping blades on the agitator come in direct contact with
the dryer walls.
Waste fish and sharks.—Studies on the utilization of waste fish and
sharks in amounts too small to warrant investment in mechanical
reduction equipment, show that such material may be reduced from
the raw state by acidulation and solar drying. By this simple pro­
cedure, many fishermen without any considerable effort or expense can
realize a profit from material that is now little more than a nuisance.
N U T R IT IV E VALUE OF FIS H E R Y PRODUCTS

Research in the nutritive value of fishery products has consisted of
the following: (1) A joint study by this bureau and the Bureau of
Chemistry and Soils of the Department of Agriculture of the vitamin

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potency of fish oils involving results of considerable interest to both
the agricultural and fishery industries recently completed; (2) comple­
tion of a series of experiments at Johns Hopkins University involving
the study of fish meals of different varieties and methods of manu­
facture on a comparative basis and as sources of animal protein; (3)
practical feeding tests in which various lcinds of fish meals and shell­
fish meals are being fed in the rations of dairy cows; (4) continuance
of cooperation with the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils in the study
of vitamins in oysters and in fish meals; and (5) cooperative practical
feeding tests conducted by various Federal and State agricultural
experiment stations in which the feeding value of marine products is
being studied.
IM PROVED HA NDLING OF FRESH AND FRO ZEN FISH

Several methods are being tried for the prevention of “ rust1' on
frozen fish in cold storage. Preliminary work seems to indicate that
some of these may prove satisfactory.
Methods for the prevention of losses incurred in weight and food
and mineral values of fish packed in contact with crushed ice are
being studied.
The bureau’s agent in Boston has suggested the use of a platform
for unloading the vessels at the fish pier to eliminate forking and
excessive labor; the use of an improved filleting table in the packing
houses; insulation of the holds of vessels; and improved methods for
preserving cod livers aboard vessel.
OYSTER M ARKET SURVEY

During 1929 the bureau conducted a survey of the wholesale and
retail marketing of oysters. This was made in cooperation with the
Oyster Growers and Dealers Association of America (Inc.) and certain
State officials.
In this survey 1,393 housewives and 127 dealers were visited in 14
cities in 13 States in the section of the country cast of the Rocky
Mountains. Of the consumers interviewed it was found that 86.8
per cent use oysters from 1 to 122 times per year. The average per
capita consumption in all the cities surveyed was found to bo 4.2
pounds annually. The most popular size of container was found to
be 1 pint. Friday was found to be the busiest day of the week and
December was the busiest month of the season for the sale of oysters.
P R O P A G A T IO N A N D D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F O O D A N D G A M E F I S H E S

The summary of output of fish and eggs from the various fishcultural stations constitutes a source of gratification in that a new
high record has again been established. The total of 7,570,482,300
shows an increase of almost 500,000,000 over the production for 1929.
While the increase is very largely accounted for by an augmented
output of marine forms, the eggs of which are available in tremendous
quantities, there was also an increase in practically all the gamo
varieties and certain of the other commercial forms. It is noteworthy
that the production of most varieties was held close to previous levels
despite a marked increase in the output of fingerling or larger fish,
which require extended space and normally reduce the numerical
output of the hatcheries. The output of fingerlings for 1930 was

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250,170,300, representing an increase of practically 85 per cent over
that of the previous year. The following tabulation indicates the
production of the various groups of species:
S u m m a r y o f o u tp u t

Game species______________________________________________
205,
147,000
Commercial species (interior waters)_________________________
524,
120,900
Commercial species (anadromous)_____ _____
304,
140,100
Commercial species (marine)________ ________ . . . ____________ 6, 511, 367, 000
Miscellaneous species----------------------------------------------------------25,
707,300
Total_______________________________________________

7,570,482,300

While the above-mentioned increases were achieved partly through
more intensive and efficient utilization of existing facilities, several
new stations were placed in production. A limited distribution of
trout and bass was obtained at the Crawford (Nebr.) substation.
The new Valdosta (Ga.) and Fort Worth (Tex.) substations furnished
miscellaneous warm-water fishes for distribution. During the year
the substation located at Creede, Colo., was constructed and a stock
of trout eggs secured for incubation, in addition to the operation of
several field egg collecting stations using this point as a base.
During the fiscal year a steel distribution car with a capacity of
300 pails was completed by the builders.
The development of a new pond-cultural substation at Tishomingo,
Okla., was initiated but owing to the destruction of a temporary dam
by a flood no fish-cultural wTork could be carried on. The work of
developing the bureau’s fish-cultural plant in the Yellowstone Park
has continued, with the completion of the hatchery building and
living quarters.
PRO PA GATION OF COMMERCIAL SPEC IE S

Marine species of the Atlantic coast.—The production of these sta­
tions accounts for the greater portion of the numerical output of the
entire fish-cultural service. Increases wrnre recorded over the previ­
ous year’s production of winter flounder, while the cod and haddock
figures are slightly below those of 1929. The distribution of 15,500,000
mackerel fry represents an expansion of work which has previously
been carried on in a small way at the Woods Hole (Mass.) station. In
connection with the work with all of the marine species it was possible
to incubate the greater portion of the eggs, planting the fish in the
fry stage and reducing the plants of eyed eggs.
Pacific salmon.—As a whole the output of the commercial species
of Pacific salmon was materially below" that for 1929. The only
forms showing increased distribution were the humpback and steelhead salmons. In the consideration of these activities it should be
borne in mind that there is a certain periodicity in the runs of Pacific
salmon which accounts for marked fluctuations in the hatchery
operations from year to year without signifying any particular de­
crease in the stock of fish. For example, 1930 wras a "pink salmon”
year in Puget Sound, increasing the distribution of humpback salmon
or pink salmon from l,852,000lin 1929 to 6,302,000 in 1930.
Anadromous species of the Atlantic coast.—In contrast with the very
successful 1929 season with shad at the new Fort Humphreys (Va.)
station, the 1930 output wras virtually a total failure. While there

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appears to have been a considerably reduced run of shad in the
Potomac River, water conditions arising from prolonged dry weather
apparently affected the normal spawning habit, so that practically
no eggs were obtainable from the available run, which in good years
has furnished from 50,000,000 to 70,000,000 eggs. The Fort Hum­
phreys station had a normal season in the propagation of yellow perch.
No striped-bass eggs were secured from the cooperative work with
this species in North Carolina, probably for the same reason which
affected the shad activities. The Craig Brook (Me.) station conducted
the propagation of Atlantic salmon along the same lines as in previous
years, although a larger percentage of the eggs was assigned to the
Maine State hatcheries.
Commercial species of interior waters.—The important fishes in­
cluded in this group were distributed in numbers showing a material
increase over that of the previous year. Despite the fact that the
bureau’s Cape Vincent (N. Y.) and Put in Bay7 (Ohio) stations were
able to secure whitefish eggs only in greatly reduced numbers, the
aggregate production of whitefish for the entire group was over
50.000. 000 in excess of that in 1929. The increase was almost
entirely derived from the Michigan stations. An output of over
31.000. 000 lake trout likewise indicates an increase over the previous
year. The Michigan stations also contributed the bulk of this in­
crease, the activities at the Duluth (Minn.) station having been sharply
curtailed by a period of stormy weather at the height of the spawning
season. The cisco or lake herring showed a very noticeable decline
from the 1929 output. While the propagation of pike perch on Lake
Champlain was conducted under weather conditions which materially
reduced the output, the total production of this form for the entire
group of stations was practically doubled. The Put in Bay station
enjoyed a particularly successful year with this species. Average
success attended the propagation of buffalofish and carp.
GAME F IS H E S

In reporting its game-fish distribution the bureau includes in this
category only7 the trouts, landlocked salmon, and the warm-water
ponafishes, comprising the basses, sunfish, crappie, catfish, pike,
pickerel, etc. It is true that the pike perch, the lake trout, ana the
steelhead salmon are equally sought as game fish in many sections
of the country. Inclusion of these varieties in the list of game
species would consequently double or treble the output of this class.
It is among the game fish hatcheries that the greatest expansion of
facilities has occurred, and this expansion is reflected in an increased
output of all forms excepting the black-spotted trout, smallmouth
black bass, and the grayling.
In developing its program to become independent of all outside
sources of egg supply the bureau has established several new collect­
ing stations for eggs of wild trout in the Western States. The
Meadow Creek (Mont.) auxiliary of the Bozeman (Mont.) station
again eclipsed previous records with the Loch Leven trout, securing
over 19,000,000. All station brood stocks of trout have been in­
creased in number and the substation for the production of brooktrout eggs, located at York Pond, N. II., virtually doubled its output
of the previous year. Of the total distribution of the game varieties
1S03S—30---- 15

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not more than 6,500,000 were distributed in the fry stage, the re­
mainder comprising egg shipments or fingerling fish ranging up to
legal size.
In spite of the fact that the cooperative nurseries created a new
demand for close to 4,000,000 trout eggs and fry, the bureau has been
able to keep practically up to date with the applications for trout.
In many instances it has been possible to furnish greatly increased
numbers of fish on the usual applications from territories adjacent
to the hatcheries. In most cases average success has been attained
in the propagation of warm-water varieties in the Southern States.
The Fairport (Iowa) station provided a large number of bass for
distribution as a by-product of its experimental work. The in­
creased output for the previous year at the Orangeburg (S. C.) station
has been maintained. The necessity of transporting rescued fish
from the Mississippi River into Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota,
and North Dakota was obviated by a splendid output from the
Miles City (Mont.) substation, operated in conjunction with the
State of Montana.
RESCU E OPERA TIO NS

After the inactivity of the previous year in the Mississippi River
rescue field, natural conditions during the fall of 1929 were such as to
permit of extensive operations and over 160,000,000 fish were handled.
As usual, shipments on applications to other waters amounted to less
than 1 per cent of the total number of fish handled.
COO PERATIVE A CTIV ITIES

Wherever the bureau’s activities have contact with those of other
Federal bureaus or departments, mutually helpful relationships have
been established. The Forest Sendee has furnished a detailed sur­
vey showing the requirements for restocking waters in all the principal
national-forest areas as the result of conferences looking toward the
development of a program for meeting these requirements. The
National Park Service has worked with the bureau in closer harmony
in connection with the creation of new hatcheries and rearing facilities
in both Yellowstone and Glacier Parks. A bureau employee has been
placed in full charge of all fish-cultural work in the parks and has been
detailed to make surveys of all the important national-park areas
for the purpose of working out a coherent stocking policy.
In view of the expansion of fish-cultural work in most of the States
there has been a closer liaison between ¡those agencies and the bureau.
The propagation of commercial species in Michigan was particularly
successful and the whole-hearted cooperation afforded by the State
department of conservation contributed largely to these results.
The State of Virginia is embarking upon an ambitious fish-cultural
program and the bureau has been able to assist in various ways.
The construction of an extensive bass-cultural establishment by the
State of Arkansas has continued at a rapid rate, under the direction
of the bureau’s superintendent at Mammoth Spring, Ark.
Tho work of restocking with both game and commercial species
has been materially' furthered by the harmonious relationships main­
tained with the States of Washington, Oregon, Wyoming, Minnesota,
North Carolina, South Carolina, Maine, and others. With the coop­

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eration of the Indian Service and the State of Nevada the bureau took
over the fish-cultural work in connection with the propagation of
black-spotted trout at Pyramid Lake. An employee of the bureau
was detailed to participate in a survey of the inland hatcheries of
the State of Ohio. Additional requests for assistance from a num­
ber of other States could not be fully met due to lack of facilities.
The cooperative nursery program whereby sportsmen’s associations
operating hatcheries or nursery ponds receive fish from the bureau’s
hatcheries for rearing to larger size has been standardized and con­
stitutes a routine activity. During the fiscal year a few of the older
nurseries discontinued operations for various reasons and additional
ones were taken on, so that the total of 123 now conducted represents
an increase of approximately 10 over the previous year. These organ­
izations were furnished a total of 3,827,700 fish and eggs, largely of
the trout species. In view of this heavy demand upon the bureau’s
trout production it has been necessary to exercise greater care in
establishing new nurseries and to require that natural facilities be
proper and adequate for the purpose. This has necessitated refusal
to cooperate in some instances and termination of the cooperative
arrangement already existing in others. Effort has been made toaugment the number of bass nurseries and to extend the field of the-se
operations into States and sections previously not touched to over­
come the present "spotty” distribution in a few States.
In a number of States where the bureau conducts no cooperative
nurseries the States are carrying on this work very successfully and
there is little» or no demand for the bureau’s participation. Two o f
the establishments in New York and Pennsylvania are complete
hatchery units incubating eggs and carrying on all the functions of a
regular hatchery, with an employee of the bureau in charge.
it is believed that while the assignment of fish to individual nur­
series may be decreased and the establishment of new units may fail
to keep pace with the rate set during the earlier years, the output of
large-sized fish will be materially increased by the standardization
of procedure.
V ESSEL N O TES

The Albatross I I continued her scientific research work, with head­
quarters at Woods Plole, Mass. During the year the vessel was
engaged in operations between Cape Ann, Mass., and Cape IIattcrasr
N. C., with the exception of one cruise between the continental
shelf and Bermuda, which was discontinued on account of pump
trouble developing. Oceanographic stations numbering 273 were
made between Cape Ann and Cape Hatteras, varying in distance
from a few miles to 180 miles offshore. At convenient times between
cruises throughout the year the vessel underwent various repairs at
the Boston Navy Yard. The vessel cruised 13,017 miles.
The steamer Shearwater was engaged in fish-cultural work at the
Put in Bay (Ohio) station from November 1 to December 15 and
from March 1 to June 1. In addition to this regular work she was
engaged in fishery investigations on Lake Erie.
The steamer Phalarope wras employed as usual as a tender at the
Woods Hole biological station, except for a period of a few weeks in
the spring when she was at the Fort Humphreys station on the
Potomac, in connection with shad investigations.

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The Gannet, Plover, and Canvasback, three boats which have been
in the service of the bureau for approximately 25 years, have been
condemned and will be disposed of. The Gannet, which was used at
the Boothbay Harbor (Me.) station, is being replaced by a new
vessel named the Pelican. This vessel is being constructed at
Newport News, Va., and will proceed to the Boothbay Harbor station
for duty. This new vessel is 78 feet in length, 10 feet 3 inches in
depth, and 18 feet in breadth, with draft 5 feet. She is equipped
with a 150 horsepower full Diesel, direct reversible engine.
Sixteen vessels of the Alaska service cruised more than 116,000
nautical miles in the fiscal year 1930. Of these, the Crane covered
about 14,000 miles, the Brant 13,000 miles, and the Teal about 11,000
miles.
A new power vessel, Penguin, designed especially to serve as tender
for the Pribilof Islands, was built at Seattle, Wash., and sailed on its
initial voyage to the islands early in May. The Penguin is 130 feet
in length and 27 feet in breadth and is of very sturdy construction to
withstand the severe weather and ice conditions encountered at times
in Bering Sea. Power is furnished by a 400-horsepower full Diesel
engine. The Eider, formerly tender for the Pribilofs, was transferred
to fisheries patrol work in the spring of 1930 and assigned to the
Kodiak district.
Throughout the 1929 season the Auklet, Murre, Petrel, and Widgeon
patrolled the fishing grounds of southeastern Alaska. Other vessels
participated in the patrol of that district in the fall after their return
from duty to the westward, as follows: Crane, which had been stationed
in the Alaska Peninsula area and had also been used to transfer
seasonal employees to and from Bristol Bay; Teal, which had main­
tained the patrol on Cook Inlet; Scoter, engaged on Bristol Bay; and
Kittiwake employed in the Seward-Katalla district. The Blue Wing
and Red Wing were used at Kodiak and Afognak Islands; the Mer­
ganser in the Ikatan-Shumagin district; the Ibis, at Chignik; and the
Coot on the Yukon River. The Brant was engaged in general super­
visory work and made one cruise westward as far as Unalaska.
In addition to work in connection with the conservation of the
fisheries in Alaska, the Brant was engaged in a patrol of waters off
Neah Bay, Wash., during the spring migration of the fur-seal herd,
and the Petrel performed similar duty in the vicinity of Sitka, Alaska.
After the close of fishery activities in the fall, the Brant, Crane,
Teal, Eider, Kittiwake, and Scoter sailed for Seattle, where they were
given the necessary overhauling, and repairs were made in prep­
aration for the next season’s work.

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FISHERIES

A P P R O P R IA T IO N S

Appropriations for the bureau for the fiscal year aggregated
^2,218,550, as follows:
Salaries________________________________________________________
Miscellaneous expenses:
Administration_____________________________________________
Propagation of food fishes___________________________________
Maintenance of vessels_______
Inquiry respecting food fishes________________________________
Fishery industries__________________________________________
Protecting sponge fisheries__________________________________
Protecting seal and salmon fisheries ofAlaska______________
Upper Mississippi wild life and fish refuge________________________
For improvements at the La Crosse(Wis.) station_________________
Power vessel for Alaska fisheries_________________________________

$823, 300
4,
524,
152,
108,
53,
3,
370,
25,
10,
145,

400
000
000
000
750
100
000
000
000
000

2, 218, 550

Very truly yours,
H

enry

O ’M

alley,

Commissioner oj Fisheries.

LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE
D epa r tm en t of C ommerce ,
B ureau of L ig h th o u ses ,

Washington, July 1, 1930.
The honorable the S ecretary of C om merce .
D ear M r . S e c r eta r y : In response to your request I furnish the
following report upon the work of the service during the past fiscal
year.
M ORE IM PORTANT ACTIVITIES OF THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE
DURING THE YEAR

An extensive project for improving aids to navigation in Lake
Huron, near the Straits of Mackinac, was completed. This included
the establishment of a modern light and fog-signal station on a
submarine site at Poe Reef, marking the northerly side of the passage,
and the establishment of a light and fog signal at Fourteen Foot
Shoal, to mark the southerly side of the passage at its westerly end;
also the establishment of a gas buoy off Cordwood Point, and other
improvements. The Poe Reef and Fourteen Foot Shoal light and
fog-signal stations take the places of the Poe Reef Lightship and the
Cheboygan Point Light Station, and add materially to the safety of
navigation, with a substantial reduction in the cost of maintaining
aids in this locality. Work was in progress on the construction of a
new light station at Detour, in Lake Huron, at the southerly entrance
of the St. Marys River. The new light and fog-signal "station at
Lansing Shoal, Mich., was completed, having been in commission
during part of the preceding fiscal year. The construction of an
important light and fog-signal station at Anacapa Island, Calif., was
in progress, and work was started on the construction of a primary
light and fog-signal station at Cape Decision, Alaska.
Other important construction work in progress during the year
included the improvement of aids at the approaches to the Cape Cod
Canal, Mass.; the placing of steel-pile groins to protect the shore in
the vicinity of Cape Hatteras light station, N. C.j and the erection of
a sea wall at Harbor of Refuge light station, Del. ; new range lights
at Tampa Bay, Fla., and at Boca Grande, Fla.; the establishment of
a modern fog signal at the entrance to Southwest Pass, Mississippi
River, La.; improvements in aids in Sabine Pass and the approach
to Port Arthur Canal, Tex.; extensive repail's of hurricane damage in
Porto Rico; and improvements in aids in the St. Marys River, Mich.
The Livingstone Memorial Lighthouse, at Detroit, which was built
lay subscription, having been completed, lighting equipment was
installed by the Lighthouse Service. Plans for a new depot at Portland, Me., were prepared, a site selected, and an agreement made for
its purchase.
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Four new lighthouse tenders were under construction during the
year, two of which were completed and the other two nearly com­
pleted. Six new lightships were under construction; four of these
were completed and delivered and the other two were nearly com­
pleted.
On June 30, 1930, there were 19,556 marine aids to navigation
maintained by the Lighthouse Service, a net increase of 555. During
the year 141 new automatic marine lights on fixed structures were
established, and 93 lights were changed from attended to automatic.
At the end of the fiscal year the total number of automatic marine
lights on fixed structures was 1,714 (not including some partially
automatic), and in addition there were 1,035 buoys with automatic
lights, or a total of 2,749 in the Lighthouse Service.
The radiobeacon system was further extended, and the effectiveness
and amount of service was increased during the year. Fourteen
additional radiobeacons were established and 17 stations were under
construction. The total number in operation at the end of the year
was 78. Radiobeacons for the two approaches to the Panama Canal
were installed during the year. Interference between beacons li9?
been largely eliminated through synchronization of groups of signals
and the use of different frequencies for adjacent groups. The hourly
operation of radiobeacons has been extended, greatly increasing their
usefulness. Charts showing information regarding radiobeacons were
published.
Continued progress was made during the fiscal year in extending
airways facilities. Lighting installation was completed on about 3,300
additional miles of airways including all or portions of the following
routes: Brownsvilie-Fort Worth, Brownsville-IIouston, Miami-Atlanta. Salt Lake-Great Falls, Washington-Cleveland, AlbuquerqueWichita, Atlanta-Chicago, Chicago-Twin Cities, Cleveland-Albany,
Michigan, Milwaukee-Green Bay, New- York-Montreal, PortlandSpokane, Salt Lake-Pasco, San Francisco-Seattle, and St. LouisEvansville. Radio communication facilities were installed on approx­
imately 2,500 additional miles of airways, and radiobeacon service
extended over approximately 1,800 miles of ainvays. These addi­
tional facilities included 32 standard airwmys radio stations, 1 pointto-point airways radio station, and 2 airways radio range beacons.
Twenty-six aural-type radio range beacons were under construction
at the close of the year. As the result of a service trial of the teletype
weather reporting circuit between New' York and Chicago, this system
of collecting weather information was adopted as standard. Telephone-typewTiter circuits, aggregating 5,650 miles,, were placed in
official operation along civil airway« for the purpose of transmitting
weather reports from intermediate points to airway radio stations
for broadcast to aircraft by radiotelephone. Airplane movements
are also reported over these circuits. A total of 120 telephone-typewuiter stations were placed in operation on the following circuits:
New York-Cleveland, Cleveland-Chicago, Chicago-Oinaha-Kansas
City-St. Louis-Springfield, Omaha-Cheyenne, Cheyenne-Salt Lake,
Salt Lake-San Francisco, San Diego-San Francisco, San FranciscoPortiand, St. Louis-Cleveland, and Richmond-Boston.
Statements covering the works above mentioned in greater detail
and including various other works in hand during the year are included
under the appropriate heads following.

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AIDS TO NAVIGATION

During the year various improvements in aids to marine navigation
have been made. Twelve fixed lights were changed to flashing or
occulting; the illuminant, of 6 lights was changed to incandescent oil
vapor; the illuminant of 36 lights (including 6 lighted buoys) was
changed to acetylene; the illuminant of 23 lights (including 2 light­
ships and 1 lighted buoy) was changed to electric incandescent; 14
radiobeacons were established; and 4 diaphones and 4 oscillators and
nautophones were established at important stations. The discon­
tinuance of aids is under investigation from time to time as the original
necessity for their maintenance ceases; 1,212 aids to navigation of
various classes were discontinued. As previously reported, the total
number of marine aids at the end of the year was 19,556.
In Alaska 41 new aids were established, and the total number is
now 854, including 324 lights, 24 gas buoys, 2 float lights, 3 radio­
beacons, 14 other fog signals, 309 buoys, and 178 daymarks.
The aids to navigation in the outlying United States territory of
Guantanamo Bay, the American Samoan Islands, and the island of
Guam are maintained under the supervision of the naval commandants
by means of allotments made from appropriations for the Lighthouse
Service.
At the close of the year there were approximately 13,500 miles of
lighted airways in operation, with 319 intermediate landing fields,
1,477 airways beacons, 298 airways weather-reporting stations, 35
airways radio stations, 9 radio range beacons, 3 point-to-point airways
radio stations, and, as stated before, 5,650 miles of telephone-type­
writer circuits, including 120 telephone-typewriter stations.
In connection with the inspection of airways aids to navigation by
airplane, it is planned to furnish each maintenance district with an
airplane for inspection purposes, two such planes having been assigned
to the superintendent of lighthouses, San Francisco, Calif., and to the
airways engineer, Fort Worth, Tex. The airways division will also
cooperate with the Coast and Geodetic Survey by furnishing an air­
plane and a pilot from time to time in survey work conducted by that
service.
ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION

The more important construction projects completed during the
fiscal year stated in order of districts are as follows: A galvanizedmetal storehouse at Edgemoor Lighthouse Depot, Del.; an acetylene
light established at Bellevue Range Front, Del.; new roof installed
on three bays of main storehouse, Portsmouth Lighthouse Depot, Va.;
acetylene-gas lanterns installed on six structures in Back Creek, Md.;
eight interlocking-steel groins built at Cape Hatteras Light Station,
N. C .; a double dwelling for assistant keepers constructed and the
keeper’s dwelling and a storehouse remodeled at Jupiter Inlet Light
Station, Fla.; range lights to mark cuts B and D completed at Tampa
Bay, F la.; extensive repairs carried out at several light stations in the
seventh district made necessary by hurricane damage; the important
light and fog-signal station at Southwest Pass, La., completed;
repairs due to hurricane damage at several light stations in the eighth
lighthouse district, including the wharf at Mobile Point Lighthouse,
Ala.; the inclined roadway at Mona Island Light Station, P. I.; and

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hurricane damage repairs at several stations in the ninth district
completed; the important light stations in the Straits of Mackinac,
Poe Reef, and Fourteen Foot Shoal completed and placed in com­
mission; 12 acetylene-gas buoys installed in the Saginaw River, Mich.;
reconstructing and improving the structures at the Michigan Island
Light Station completed; three automatic lights and two gas buoys
were established in Alaska; project for improving aids in the Columbia
River completed; Grays Harbor Bar and Grays Harbor Entrance
Range electrified.
Important works in active progress at the end of the fiscal year are
as follows: Plans and specifications for a complete new depot at
Portland, Me.; 11 structures for lights on Lake Okeechobee, Fla.;
repairs to light stations due to hurricane damage in the ninth district;
work of erecting 13 towers in the St. Marys River; plans for an im­
portant light station at Detour, M ich.; site graded, dock and tramway
constructed, and camp buildings erected for light and fog-signal
station at Cape Decision, Alaska; plans for construction of a wharf
and warehouse for a lighthouse depot at Seattle, Wash.; plans for
constructing a flashing acetylene light at Bush Point, Wash.; a con­
crete warehouse and machine shop of same material at Goat Island,
Calif.; preliminary work for important light station on Anacapa
Island, Calif.
IMPROVEMENTS IN APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENT

Tlie extension of commercial power lines, the design of dependable
small generators, and the increased number of radiobeacon installa­
tions have made it practical and economical to increase further the
use of electricity for furnishing the current for lights and power to
operate sound signals and other light-station equipment. Minor
electric lights in considerable number have been installed in which the
current for the lamp and for the operation of the flashing mechanism
is furnished by several primary cells or dry cells. In displacing oil
lanterns by this apparatus the cost of maintenance is practically
eliminated, and on the acetylene lights the cost of equipment reduced
about $175. The primary electric outfits can be furnished complete
for about $55 each. Experimental installations of such flashing
lights are being tested on buoys also, with a view to their more ex­
tended use where practicable.
Considerable study is still being given to the proper electric light for
rapidly revolving lenses and for lightship lanterns. Improvements
in the present electrical equipment on several lightships have been
made and others are projected. Interesting experiments are under
way to improve further the light from the masthead of lightships by
increasing the divergence of the beam. At several light installations
where storage batteries are provided for auxiliary electric-current
supply, a relay system has been devised to cut in and out automatically
the rectifier charging the battery.
Three light stations in the service are now equipped with windelectric plants for furnishing current. At Kalae Light Station, Ha­
waiian Islands, because of the almost constant winds it has been found
practicable to give the battery a lower charging rate, and keep it in
an almost charged state.
During the year equipment was provided to replace all obsolete
spark transmitter’s on lighthouse tender’s with the latest type tube or

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modulated continuous wave transmitters, in compliance with the 1927
International Radio Conference. Further improvement in the design
of transmitters to provide greater frequency stability, as well as com­
pactness and ruggedness for service on lightships, has been made.
A continuous wave transmitter was permanently installed at Cape
Henry Lighthouse for observation and test as opportunity permits.
Tests of last year indicate that the design and the principle are feasible
pending the modernizing of existing ship’s radio compasses. A special
low-power radiobeacon transmitter was also developed for use at
harbor approaches and at points of lesser importance. These trans­
mitters were designed to operate on 60-cycle alternating current and
to emit signals at any one of five tones from 400 to 1,600 cycles.
This differentiation of tone will be tested as a third method of dis­
tinguishing between radiobeacon stations, in addition to characteristic
and frequency. Over 30 transmitters of this type were built and
installed during the year. A policy was adopted to operate all radio­
beacons, with minor exceptions, for a definite period each hour during
clear weather, this being made possible by the development of suc­
cessful clock control and automatic operation. This is being carried
out as rapidly as the equipment can be installed. In this connection
an alarm system, which will inform the keepers of any failure of the
automatically operated radiobeacons during the operating period,
has been developed with very satisfactory results.
Two more isolated stations in the service were interconnected and
placed in touch with the shore through the installation of radio­
telephones of low power. These installations are proving very valuable
in the efficient operation of the stations and are also a potent factor in
keeping up the morale of the personnel.
Synchronized radiobeacon and sound-in-air signals, similar to the
installation at Cape Henry in 1929, have been installed at five other sta­
tions and are being further tested. By this means the navigator is
able to determine his distance from the station at any time when he
can hear the signal.
A further test was conducted during the year of a system previously
developed of remote control of fog signal by radio. The device has
been permanently installed at an important station and is in constant
use to control the operation of a fog signal at a near-by station. This
apparatus makes it practicable to place an efficient minor fog signal
out at the point of danger and control it from shore.
A number of fog signals of the vibrating-disk type are in com­
mission, and these types of signals are being further investigated.
The replacement of worn-out steam fog-signal plants with more
modern equipment has been continued during the year. At Manitou
Island Light Station the diaphone fog signal has recently been fitted
with two resonators, a vertical mushroom horn and a long flared
horizontal horn. Alternate blasts are sounded on each; the signal
from the mushroom horn for all directions of the compass, and from
the long-flared horn for maximum audibility in the direction of the
most used shipping lane.
A number of acetylene-gas buoys having tanks within the open
body of the buoy were converted to provide pockets for the tanks
individually with capacity for little more than the tank itself, thus
avoiding opportunity for a dangerous accumulation of gas within a
large iuclosure in the event of a leak, a serious accident having

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resulted during the year from this cause. The piping of many gas
buoys has also been changed so that all portable gas connections can
be made outside the buoy body. Whistling buoys are being equipped
with the improved type valve referred to in the last report. The
replacement of wooden-spar buoys by the special type steel buoys is
being steadily extended.
The important lighthouse at Navassa Island has been made com­
pletely automatic, effecting a yearly saving of about $7,500.
A new type of die-lock chain for lightship moorings has been under
test during the last year with satisfactory results.
The use of automobile trucks for servicing land stations and for
carrying on other district work has been extended.
Development of eqidpment for use on lighted airways is being con­
tinued. Further improvement was obtained in the illumination of
the standard wind cone through the use of a full parabolic reflector
installed in the base of the cone. A new motor-driven sign flasher
was designed utilizing cam-operated mercury tubes for obtaining
desired code flashes. Amber lenses on course lights installed at inter­
mediate fields were discontinued and green adopted as the standard
color. Further refinements were made in the astronomic dial time
switch. Improvements were made in the standard control cabinets.
A ventilator system was developed for the standard-code beacon, so
that 500-watt lamps can be used as light sources without undue
heating of the 300 m/m Fresnel lenses for use as the standard auxiliary
airport beacon. Arrangements were made for the use of a mono­
plane filament instead of the semibarrel type used heretofore in the
standard 1,000-watt, 110-volt, T-20 beacon lamp, reducing the
aviation lamps to a single standard for all purposes. Service tests
were made of 3KVA single-phase full-automatic engine-generator sets
for use at sites where commercial current is not available and where
distances between power plants and beacons require transmission of
power at high voltages.
JURISDICTIO N OF THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE

The United States Lighthouse Service is charged with the estab­
lishment and maintenance of aids to navigation and with all equip­
ment and work incident thereto on the sea and lake coasts of the
United States, on the rivers of the United States so far as specifically
authorized by law, and on the coasts of all other territory under the
jurisdiction of the United States, with the exception of the Philippine
Islands and Panama. The total length of coast line and rivers under
the United States Lighthouse Service, measured by steps of 3 miles,
is approximately 40,635 statute miles.
ADM INISTRATION

The general organization of the service remained unchanged
throughout the year.
The extension of automatic apparatus for operating lights was
continued, also the grouping of minor lights under the care of fewer
attendants and the discontinuance of unnecessary aids where practi­
cable. There was a saving in maintenance resulting from the replace­
ment of the Poe Reef Lightship with a fixed structure.

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C O M M E R C E

The total appropriations for the maintenance of the Lighthouse
Service for the fiscal year 1930 was $9,719,980 and for special works
$1,911,000, of which amount 181,000 was a deficiency appropriation
for hurricane damage. These amounts are exclusive of appropria­
tions for airways, in the total sum of $5,533,320, of which $5,367,370
was allotted the airways division, Lighthouse Service.
Systematic inspections of the service, both on its technical and
business sides, were continued during the year, including stations,
vessels, depots, etc.
Cooperation with other branches of the Government service has
been continued. The personnel on vessels and at stations are encour­
aged to render aid to those in distress, and many cases of assistance
and rescues at sea have occurred during the year. The Lighthouse
Service has cooperated with the Census Bureau in making disburse­
ments for the current decennial census.
The Lighthouse Service sent an exhibit to the Seville Exposition,
consisting of a large map of New York Harbor, showing aids to navi­
gation; also a model of Kilauea Point Lighthouse in the Hawaiian
Islands and a number of mounted photographs. A diploma of honor
was awarded this service.
Radiobeacon charts have been published by this service for distri­
bution to navigators and others interested, covering the North Atlan­
tic coast; the Pacific coast, with Alaska and the Hawaiian Islands;
the Great Lakes; and North America. These give details as to all
radiobeacons within these areas maintained by the United States as
well as by Canada.
The President appointed H. D. King, superintendent of lighthouses,
fifth district, to be Deputy Commissioner of Lighthouses, to succeed
John S. Conway, who was retired.
An International Lighthouse Conference, the first that has been
held, took place in London in July, 1929, at which the United States
was represented by Commissioner Putnam and by Superintendent
Yates and Superintendent Rhodes. This conference, which included
representatives of the lighthouse authorities of 24 countries, was
informal, its purpose being the exchange of information and the dis­
cussion of problems affecting lighthouse systems.
A new accounting system has been installed in the twelfth and
fifth districts. These installations were made as tests of a uniform
system of accounting for the Government service, designed by the
General Accounting Office; it is proposed to make similar installations
in other district offices as early as practicable. The new system has
also been introduced in the bureau’s office in Washington.
A pamphlet of working instructions was prepared for certain units
of the airways division of the Lighthouse Service, including portions
of the Instructions to Employees of the Lighthouse Service, with
further instructions specially applicable to the airways work.
The act of June 24, 1930, provides that light keepers and vessel
officers and crews, who during their active service were entitled to
medical relief at hospitals and other stations of the Public Health
Service, may be given such relief after retirement as is now applica­
ble to retired officers and men in other branches of the Government
service, under joint regulation to be prescribed by the Secretary of
the Treasury and the Secretary of Commerce.

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237

The act approved June 18, 1930, authorized the purchase of a
site for a lighthouse depot near Seattle, Wash., the purchase of ad­
ditional land for the depot at Chelsea, Mass., and also extended pre­
vious authorizations of depot sites to include Narragansett Bay, and
the vicinity of Rockland, Me. This act also provides for the trans­
fer of the old lighthouse at Cape Henry, Va., to the Association for
the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities.
The closing of navigation last fall on the Great Lakes was marked
by unusually severe storms and cold weather, which greatly inter­
fered with the work of removing buoys, and did some damage to
aids to navigation. The Narrows Light Station, in Boston Harbor,
was destroyed by fire on June 7, 1929.
PERSONNEL

On June 30, 1930, there were 5,704 persons employed in the marine
work of the Lighthouse Service. This is a reduction of 69 from the
number in 1929 and 316 from the maximum number in 1923.
Although there has been a steady increase in the number of aids
to navigation maintained, the increasing use of automatic apparatus
has made it possible to effect a net reduction of 7 keepers and 31
light attendants and lamplighters during the year.
The number of persons in the airways division on June 30, 1930,
was 1,579, making a total of 7,283 for both branches.
The United States Employees' Compensation Commission gives the
number of reported cases of injury subject to compensation for the
calendar year 1928 of employees of the Lighthouse Service as fol­
lows: Cases resulting in death, 3; cases resulting in permanent total
or partial disability, 5; cases of temporary total disability, 146.
Three employees were killed by an explosion on a lighthouse tender
and there was one case of accidental death by drowning during the
fiscal year. There were 315 casualties during the same period re­
sulting in more or less serious injuries of employees on vessels and at
light stations, etc.
Incidental ty the regular work of the service, many opportunities
arise for rendering aid to those in distress because of the location
of light stations and vessels. During the fiscal year about 113 in­
stances were reported of saving life and property or rendering val­
uable aid, often at great risk to the Lighthouse Service employees.
Many of these acts were especially meritorious, and some of the em­
ployees were specially commended by the Secretary of Commerce,
and in one outstanding case (the rescue of a drowning woman by a
seaman on a lighthouse tender), the matter was brought to the at­
tention of the Secretary of the Treasury with recommendation that
the rescuer be awarded a life-saving medal in recognition of his
bravery.
LIGHTHOUSE DEPOTS

During the fiscal year important improvements were carried out
at several lighthouse depots. At Edgemoor, Del., a galvanized metal
storehouse 40 feet wide by 82 feet long was erected for housing the
district stores. Plans have been approved to remodel the present
foundry at the lighthouse depot, Staten Island, to provide a carpenter
shop, and to move the present machine shop from the old building
into the carpenter shop, connecting the two buildings by a viaduct.

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At Portsmouth Lighthouse Depot the old wooden-trussed roof over
three large bays of the main storehouse was removed and replaced
with steel roof framing covered with a corrugated protected metal
roof. A reinforced concrete warehouse and machine shop are under
construction at the Goat Island Lighthouse Depot, Calif. At Hono­
lulu Lighthouse Depot, Hawaii, a reinforced concrete storehouse and
shop building and an oil house were built.
New depots are under consideration near Rockland, Me., and in
Narragansett Bay. The purchase of additional land to extend the
site of the lighthouse depot at Chelsea, Mass., has been authorized.
At South Portland, Me., a site has been purchased where the principal
depot of the first district and the district office will be located. Build­
ing plans are being prepared. Preliminary plans have been prepared
for a depot at Salmon Bay, Seattle, AATash.
VESSELS OF THE LIGHTHOUSE SERVICE

The Lighthouse Service at the end of the fiscal year had in com­
mission 112 vessels. The situation as to the replacement of obsolete
and old vessels has been greatly improved. Five new lightships and
two tenders have been completed during the year. Two tenders are
being constructed under contract, which will result in the replace­
ment of lightships No. 1, No. 5, No. 13, ATo. 41, No. 67, and ATo. 70,
and the tenders Poinsettia, Water Lily, Laurel, and Holly. These
vessels are beyond economical repair for this service.
LIG H TH O U SE T EN D E R S

Plans have been prepared for a new steel tender to replace the small
wooden tender Birch which is beyond economical repair. Preliminary
plans have been started for two new tenders for the eighth district.
A new tender is also needed for the third district to replace the
tender Pansy.
The tender Sundew was transferred from the seventh district to the
tenth district and assigned to duty on Lake Ontario, §nd the tender
Elm was transferred from the third to the eleventh district.
Lighthouse tenders during the year steamed a total of 502,048
miles in the various maintenance, construction, and inspection work,
an average of approximately 9,128 miles for each tender. The total
quantity of fuel consumed by tenders during the year was 66,501
tons of coal, 90,457 barrels of fuel oil, 16,406 gallons of gasoline, and
1,810 gallons of kerosene. The total cost of maintenance of tenders
dining the year was $2,303,816, exclusive of repairs which cost
$404,491.
The new tender Althea, which replaced the tender Water Lily, and
the new tender Poinciana, which replaced the tender Poinsettia, de­
stroyed by explosion, were completed, the former being placed in
commission during the fiscal year.
New Scotch boilers were installed in the tender Hibiscus.
The tender Palmetto was converted to Diesel-engine propelled, re­
sulting in greater economy of operation.
The tender Ivy was converted to an oil burner during the year,
resulting in an increased steaming radius and other economies.

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239

At the end of the year 55 tenders were in commission, 3 of which
were undergoing repairs; of these 21 have radiocompasses and 31
have radio communication.
The following tenders have been extensively overhauled during
the year: Ivy, Hibiscus, Kukui, Sunflower, Magnolia, Cypress, M ay­
flower, Iris, and Anemone.
The following was the number of tenders of the Lighthouse Serv­
ice in commission on June 30 of the years specified, omitting vessels
not having regular crews: 1910, 51; 1915,45; 1920, 55; 1925,55;
1926, 56; 1927, 57; 1928, 56; 1929, 55.
There are 10 small depot tenders without regular crews.
The tender Water Lily was condemned, after being found beyond
economical repair, and was sold July 2, 1930, for $401.
L IG H T SH IPS

Lightships are maintained on 44 stations. At the end of the year
57 lightships were in commission, including 13 relief ships. They
averaged 262 days on station per vessel. The total cost of main­
tenance of lightships during the year was $1,112,254, exclusive of
repairs, which cost $212,730.
The lightship station at Poe Reef, Mich., was discontinued August
15, 1929, on the completion of the new light and fog-signal station,
and the lightship (No. 99) was then transferred to the twelfth dis­
trict. Lightship No. 98 was transferred from the twelfth to the
second district.
Three of the six new Diesel electric-propelled lightships building
under contract were completed during the year; the first, Aro. 100,
was placed in commission on Blunts Reef Station, Calif., on Febru­
ary 10, 1930. The second, No. 118, was placed on Swiftsuro Bank
Station, Wash., on June 15, 1930. The third, No. 115, for Frying
Pan Shoals, N. C., was placed on station July 15, 1930.
The following was the total number of lightships on June 30 of the
years maintained: 1910,68; 1915,66; 1920,62; 1925,59; 1926,56;
1927,57; 1928,56; 1929,55; 1930,57. Lightship stations: 1910,
51; 1915, 53; 1920, 49; 1925, 46; 1926, 46; 1927, 45; 1928, 46;
1929, 45. Of the present lightships 44 have self-propelling ma­
chinery, 11 are provided with sail power only, and 2 have no means
of propulsion.
Lightship No. 70 was condemned, after being found beyond eco­
nomical repair, and was sold on May 21, 1930, for $710.
Very truly yours,
G eorge R. P utnam ,
Commissioner of Lighthouses.

COAST AND GEODETIC SURVEY
D epartment of C ommerce ,
C oast and G eodetic S urvey ,

Washington, July 1, 1930.
The honorable th e S ecretary of C ommerce.
D ear Mr. S ecretary : In response to your request I furnish the
following report upon the work of the bureau during the past fiscal
year.
HYDROGRAPHIC A ND TOPOGRAPHIC WORK

During the fiscal year 1930, hydrographic, topographic, and con­
trol surveys were made along various sections of the Atlantic, Gulf,
and Pacific coasts, including Alaska, Hawaiian Islands, and the
Philippines. To perform these surveys, which comprise 41 separate
projects, 27 survey units were employed.
A brief summary of the surveys accomplished or in progress at
the close of the year is given below:
Atlantic coast.—The necessary surveys were completed to make
possible the construction of two new general charts between Cape
Canaveral and Jupiter Inlet, Fla. These charts, Nos. 1246 and
1247, will replace Nos. 162 and 163 of the old series. In connection
with this project the ground control necessary for the reduction of
air photographs was established and the new charts will include the
phototopography. The work on this project was accomplished by
the parties on the Lydonia, Ranger, and Natoma.
From July to November the parties on the Lydonia and the
Ranger were engaged on new surveys off the Delaware and Mary­
land coasts. This work extended offshore to the edge of the conti­
nental shelf and represents part of a general resurvey of the section
of the coast lying between the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays.
Air photographs have also been recently taken of this region and
the necessary ground control was established for that section along
which the parties worked. During this same period the party on the
Natoma made several surveys in Chesapeake Bay necessary in the
investigation of reported changes in the charts.
The first assignment of the Oceanographer, which was acquired
in January, was on the Gulf coast of Florida. Work was started
here on a comprehensive survey of the region east of Pensacola.
This project was discontinued in May in order to take up work with
the Lydonia on Georges Bank during the summer months. Work
will be continued on the Gulf project during the winter.
A wire-drag survey of Long Island Sound was started near the
end of the fiscal year. The necessity for this work has been recog­
nized for several years, but it was not until this year that funds
have been available. A wire-drag examination was made of a re­
ported shoal area in the vicinity of Ambrose Lightship.
240

C O A S T

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S U R V E Y

241

Inland waterway surveys were made in Chesapeake Bay, in Lynnhaven Roads, Norfolk Harbor, Elizabeth River, Va., and in St.
Andrews Bay, Fla.
A field examination was made of Delaware and Chesapeake Bays
for a revision of the Atlantic Coast Pilot, Sandy Hook to Cape
Henry. An examination was also made of the inland route through
New Jersey for a new edition of the Inside Route Pilot, Coast of
New Jersey.
A party in the launch Elsie made an examination of the inside
route from Charleston, S. C., to New York.
Owing to the increased interest in yachting, the demand for in­
formation concerning the inside route from New York to Key West
has materially increased. There has also been a big increase in the
sale of Coast Pilots covering the coast from St. Croix to Sandy
Hook. This is also probably accounted for by the increased demands
of the yachtsman.
Pacific coast.—Complete new offshore surveys were extended along
the California coast from the vicinity of Cape Mendocino southward
to Pigeon Point by the parties on the ships Discoverer and Pioneer.
The same parties also completed the inshore work except for the
section between Bowens Landing and Point Reyes and between Halfmoon Bay and Pigeon Point. Work on the former of these two
sections was taken up near the end of the fiscal year by an inde­
pendent party using the chartered launch Rogue.
The party on the ship Guide having returned from a 2-year assign­
ment in the Hawaiian Islands took up. near the end of the fiscal
year, an extensive project on the Washington coast. This consists
of complete new offshore and inshore surveys from a junction with
previously completed work in the vicinity of Cape Elizabeth north­
ward to Juan de Fuca Straits. The control was established and the
topographic work completed for a considerable portion of this proj­
ect earlier in the fiscal year by an independent shore party.
The party on the motor vessel Westdahl took up, as the first assign­
ment of this new vessel, complete new surveys in Santa Barbara
Channel and completed the work contemplated in time to join the
Discoverer, as a tender, for work in southwest Alaska.
A party using the chartered launch Rogue completed topographic
and inshore hydrographic surveys inside of completed offshore work
from the vicinity of Crescent City southward to Cape Mendocino.
This project also included a wire-drag survey of the anchorage in,
and the approaches to, Crescent City Harbor, as well as revision
surveys in Humboldt Bay.
Two parties were engaged during several months of the year in
extending new schemes of coastal triangulation for the control of
hydrographic and topographic surveys between Cape Mendocino
and Rockport and between Point Reyes and Fort Bragg, the inter­
mediate section between Rockport and Fort Bragg having been
accomplished earlier in the year by subparties from the ship
Discoverer.
Alaska.—The party on the ship Surveyor accomplished a large
amount of field work along the northwest and west coasts of Kodiak
Islands. Detailed surveys were made of Zachar, Spiridon. Larsen,
Uganik, South Arm, Alitak, and Deadman Bays, as well as that
1803&—30---- 10

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O F

C O M M E R C E

portion of Shelikof Strait which had not been adequately surveyed.
During the present season the Surveyor is continuing operations on
the west coast of Kodiak Island. Its season’s work will include a
complete and detailed survey of Sitkinak Strait. The results of
the surveys around Kodiak Island will be published on new charts
on a scale of 1 to 80,000.
The party on the ship Discoverer' is engaged during the present
season in making new surveys along the south coast of the Ivenai
Peninsula between Aialik Bay and Chugaeh Islands. These will
include detailed surveys of Nuka Island Pass, Port Dick, and Windy
Bay and will furnish the data for the construction of new and more
detailed charts of that locality.
The party on the ship Explorer, cooperating with the United
States Army Engineers and with the United States Lighthouse
Service, accomplished a new survey of Wrangell Narrows. This
project included the location of all the permanent aids to naviga­
tion in the narrows and the extension of surveys through Beecher
Pass and Duncan Canal southward into and along the north coast
of Sumner Strait as far west as Mitchell Point. This party also
completed the surveys necessary to obtain data for the construction
of large-scale charts of Keku Strait and extended control surveys
from that locality southward along the west coast of Sumner Strait.
During the present season the party on the Explorer is engaged in
obtaining the data necessary for the construction of larger-scale
charts of Behm Canal and its tributaries. Demands for such charts
have increased with the proposed extension of steamer routes to
include these scenic passages.
During the past year three connections were completed between
the first-order scheme of triangulation through southeast Alaska
and the Alaska-Canada boundary triangulation. These connections,
which rigidly fix the Alaska-Canada boundary on the North Ameri­
can datum, were made through Taku Inlet, Stikine Strait, and
Behm Canal.
Hawaiimi Islands.—The party on the ship Guide (July to Sep­
tember) and the party on the ship Pioneer (April to June) continued
work on the project which calls for a survey of the entire region
between the main group of the Hawaiian Islands and Midway
Island. This area, embracing a chain of shoals, reefs, and islets,
which have never been properly charted, is over 2,000 miles in
length and parallels the main steamship tracks between Honolulu
and the Orient. The new charts resulting from the detailed surveys
being made will undoubtedly shorten the steamship tracks and effect
considerable saving in time and expense to trans-Pacific shipping.
More than 50 per cent of this project had been completed at the
end of the fiscal year. During the month of September the party
on the Guide made detailed surveys of the anchorages and approaches
to Honuapo and Punaluu, Island of Hawaii, to meet the demands
for large-scale charts of these roadsteads.
Philippine Islands.—The parties on the ships Pathfinder, Fathonier, and Marinduque continued work throughout the year in the
following' localities : North and east coasts of Luzon Island; south
coast of Palawan Islands; Tawitawi Island, Sulu Archipelago; south
coast of Mindanao Island.

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243

S U R V E Y

Hydrography, topography, and, triangulation (second and third order ) per­
formed during year
Hydrography

Locality

Entrance to Ambrose Channel, N. Y.
Cape Henlopen to Fenwick Island,
Lowes to Ocean City. Del. and Md_.

Length
of
Area Length
Miles of; Area Num- shore
surof
soundin
ber of
line
veyed, scheme
ing
square sound- surin
in
lines
miles
ings
veyed, square miles
in
miles
miles
863
3

900
1

2,460
140

823
1,148
669

85
1,235
52

18,604
13,512
16,177

49
25

11

158
2,543
2, 054
2, 910

2 10, 233
8
£ 971
653 29,879
1,118 62,645
766 50,859

23
128
37
50
39

9
9

574

752

1,413
181
237
1,612
7, 277
6,847
89

137 55,744
9 7,655
47 5,265
564 6,448
4,380 57, 206
6,309 42, 244
7 1,755

5
31
15

3

68

46

11

4

100

Cape Canaveral to Sebastian, F la---Fort Pierce to Jupiter Inlet, Fla........
East coast of Florida (air photo reShark River and Whitwater Bay to
St. Andrews Bay, Fla..........................
E ast of Pensacola, Fla.........................
Point Reyes to Pigeon Point, Calif...
Point Arena to Point Reyes, Calif__
Gualala, Calif........................................
Crescent City to Cape Mendocino,
Calif...................................................
Cape Elizabeth to Cape Johnson,
Wash....... .........................................
Cape Elizabeth to Destruction IsBehrn Canal and Stikine River,

Triangulation (second
and third order)

Topography

734

113 25,989

1,044

225

864

79

10,113

....

81

1

1

2
8

20

Area
ed,in
miles

Number of
geographic
tions
determined

10
20

10

8

49
14
89
35
95

26
33
50
38
59

12

5

5
17

7
6

35
5

7
9
17
9

10

108
60

250
128

150
98

14
40
10

36

12

24

187

69

59

115

42

115

18

.............

20,258

154

56

64
35
36

188
96
203

132
35

74
977
1,678
980

40,406
8,032
51, 736
16,932

79
45
224
61

24
14
315
36

58
37
60
78

106
231
157
471

171
41
81
84

48, 654

28,901

8

1

42, 600
6,409

21,760
41,504

66

90

71

1,025

18

1,076

20,429

93

235

46

300

19

1,361 104,192

161

85

Total............................................ 71,433 120,399 780,049

2,273

1,913

863

3,651

1,164

Beilin Canal, Alaska............................

Wrangell Narrows, Duncan Canal,
and Sumner Strait, Alaska.............. 1, 231
Kenai Peninsula, Alaska..................... 1,452
Kodiak Island, Alaska......................... 3,951
Do.......................... ......................... 2,068
Oahu, westward and vicinity of
Hawaii. Hawaiian Islands............... 11,289
Oahu Island to Gardner Island,
Hawaiian Islands.............................. 6,820
North of Luzon and Mindanao, P. I. 7,200
East coast of Luzon and Palawan,
P. I ..................................................... 1,349
Sulu Archipelago and Mindanao,
P. I .................................................... 4,504

21

1

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O F

C O M M E R C E

GEODETIC W O R K
[July 1, 1929, to June 30,1930)
Length
of

scheme

Triangulntion, first-order:
New York, Pennsylvania, and
New Jersey, Buffalo-Trenton
arc.............................................
Illinois, Missouri, Kentucky,
Arkansas, Tennessee, Missis­
sippi, and Louisiana, Missis­
sippi River a r c ........................
Georgia, Alabama, and Missis­
sippi, Atlanta-Shrevoport arc.
California, Bear Lake to thirtyfifth parallel a rc ......................
California, Point Reyes to Great
Valley....................................... .
Total.

Area
cov- 1
ered

Miles Sq. mi.
325

3,450

615

4, 900

340

4,300

105

2,000

45

1, 450 I

1,430

16,100 j

Traverse, first-order:
Louisiana, LaBarre to Torras...
Louisiana, Kentucky, and Ar­
kansas, connections to Missis­
sippi River Commission sta­
tions..........................................

10

Total......................................

33

23

Base lines, first-order:
Ohio, Portsm outh.......................
California, Lucerne Valley.........
Now Jersey, Princeton...............
Pennsylvania, Knoxville...........
Missouri, East Prairie................
Mississippi, Stovall....................
Arkansas, Chicot........................
Louisiana, Mounds....................
Louisiana, New Roads.............. .
Louisiana, Gramercy................. .
Louisiana, New Orleans..............
Missouri, Rogersville................. .
Iowa, Corydon.............................

5.3
8.7
5.3
3.8
10.3
7.2
5 8
5.4
6.8
7.5
4.7
12 .1
5.0 !

Total.......................................

87.9 !

: Length Area
of
cov­
scheme ered
Reconnaissance, first-order trian­
gulation:
Pennsylvania and New Jersey,
Canton to T renton..............
Iowa and Nebraska, forty-second
parallel arc.................................
Wisconsin, La Crosse to Fond

du Lac...................................

Miles Sg. 77if*
160

2,260

175

2,100

110

1,500

Illinois, Cairo to thirty-ninth
parallel arc..................... ...........
Missouri, Cairo to Charleston...
Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennes­
see, Cairo to Nashville..............
California, Lucerne Valley to
thirty-fifth parallel arc..............
California, Point Reyes to Great:
Valley.........................................

110

20

1,440
180

160

1,700

75

1,600

45
T otal..........................................I 885
Leveling, first-order:
Taylor Springs, N. Mex., to !
Pueblo, Colo., in progress at j
the beginning of the fiscal year ;
(102-14=148)............................. 148

1,450
12,230

Colorado Springs to Denver,
Colo.......................................

80

Colorado Springs to Cheyenne
Wells, Colo., 171 miles of single

line........................................

Philadelphia to Harrisburg, Pa.
Shelbyville to Vincennes, i n d ..
Washington to Petersburg, Ind.
Wabash to Huntington, ln d ___

Washington to Indianapolis, Ind
Total.................................
SummaryFirst-order triangulation............
First-order traverse...................
First-order base lines.................

First-order triangulation, recon­
naissance.................................. .

First-order leveling.................. .

86

117
149
16
19
112

430
33
87.9

16,100

885
727

12,230

It can be seen from the preceding table that a large part of the
control surveys executed during the fiscal year 1930 were in the
eastern half of the United States. This is in accordance with the
statement made in the 1929 report that additional arcs of triangula­
tion would be extended in the eastern part of the United States dur­
ing the fiscal years 1930 and 1931, in order to adjust the triangulation
in that region in one unit, in a manner similar to that of the western
adjustment made three years ago. When completed, the two ad­
justments will give all triangulation stations in the United States
permanently fixed geographic positions to which all future surveys
will be coordinated. It seems certain that the triangulation neces­
sary for the eastern adjustment will be completed in the fiscal year
1931.
The important arc along the Mississippi Hiver was executed at
the request of the Corps of Engineers of the United States Army and
under financial cooperation with that organization. The purpose of
this arc is to serve as a basis for the detailed topographic and floodcontrol surveys along the river. It also forms a part of the netAvork of first-order triangulation oA'er the eastern half of the United
States.

C O A S T

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245

A double observing party was used on the Mississippi arc and
excellent progress was made in spite of difficult terrain, poor roads,
and exceptionally high trees. The arc extends from Cairo to New
Orleans, a distance of 615 miles, and was completed in six months.
Connections were made at intervals of approximately 15 miles to
stations of the Mississippi River Commission in order that the old
surveys could be coordinated with the new ones. Because some of
the stations were difficult to recover and almost inaccessible, five of
these connections were made by traverse.
Another important arc of first-order triangulation was the one
extended across New York and Pennsylvania, from Buffalo, N. Y.,
to Trenton, N. ,J. This divided a large loop of the eastern network
of triangulation into two smaller loops, in preparation for the ad­
justment of the triangulation of the eastern half of the country. A
double observing party vras used on this arc also.
On both of the arcs mentioned above the Bilby portable steel
towers were used. The Mississippi River arc was an especially
severe test of the towers, as the high trees made necessary an average
height of tower of 126 feet, and at one station a height of 156 feet
was used.
In connection with earthquake studies in California two arcs of
triangulation were completed in that State. In order to have the
stations rather close together in the fault zones, where the larger
earth movements are likely to occur, each of the arcs is a combina­
tion of a large first-order scheme with a smaller connected secondorder scheme running through it. This gives exceptionally accurate
positions for the stations near the faults, and it should be possible,
in the future, to detect rather small earth movements by reobserving
the triangulation after the lapse of several years or following an
earthquake in the region.
Thirteen bases were measured during the year, of which 7 were
along the Mississippi River arc of triangulation, 2 on the ninetythird meridian arc, 2 on the Buffalo-Trenton arc, 1 in California,
and 1 in Ohio near the southern end of the first-order arc extending
from the thirty-ninth parallel to Lake Erie. The observations for
horizontal directions on the last-named arc were completed early
in the fiscal year 1930.
In preparation for an unusually extensive program of triangu­
lation for the fiscal year 1931, reconnaissance surveys were made
over several projected new arcs of triangulation, mostly in the eastern
half of the United States. One of these arcs is along the forty-second
parallel from the ninety-eighth meridian to a point south of Chicago,
one is an east-and-west arc across the central part of Wisconsin and
three of them are short arcs radiating north, east, and west from
Cairo, 111.
A number of Laplace stations needed for the eastern adjustment
were provided by an astronomical party which made observations for
longitude, azimuth, and latitude in eight States in the northern part
of the country, east of the Mississippi River.
About 725 miles of first-order leveling were run during the year.
Two lines were run in Colorado, one in Pennsylvania and four

246

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O F

C O M M E R C E

rather short lines in Indiana. The work in Indiana was requested
by the Corps of Engineers of the United States Army, for use in
flood-control operations, and was financed from flood-control funds.
Only one gravity party did field work during the year. Six
stations were occupied in the Bahama Islands and one in Florida, in
cooperation with the international expedition to the Bahamas under
the auspices of Princeton University.
The international variation of latitude station at Ukiah, Calif.,
was continued in operation during the year.
M AGNETIC AND SEISMOLOGICAL W ORK

Magnetic stations occupied during the fiscal year
___ - _ - _ 5
A lab am a____
Alaska .
ea
Arizona . __
5
California
_____
_______ 21
Colorado_
_____
2
Conner-Hon!
2
2
Delaware____ ______
4
Florida__ _
Hawaii _ __
__ ______
— 9
Kansas
il
Maine _ ____ __
5
_________
4
MarylandMassnclinspffs
_________
3
Minnesota ________
— ____
5

M ontana

2

Nebraska _

a

_

N pw H am p sh ire

New Jersey

Npw HfpYiiY»

__ _____

_____
___
___

North Dakota_
Oregon

Pennsylvania__

- ____
___
_____
_______

i
i
4
5
6
1
2
3

Texas — _____ _ _
10
Wyoming----- ------------1
,
Total
_______ 141

The primary object of the year’s magnetic work has been the
occupation of repeat stations in order to determine the change of
the earth’s magnetism with lapse of time. The special aim has been
to complete during the calendar year 1930 the secular change data
covering the period 1925-1930 needed to prepare the publication
entitled, “ Magnetic Declination in the United States in 1930.”
Incidentally, a considerable number of stations which had ceased
to be available have been replaced to meet the needs of local
surveyors.
Continuous photographic records of the variations of the magnetic
elements were made at the five magnetic observatories, together with
the necessary absolute observations and scale value determinations.
Considerable progress was made in improving the instrumental
equipment. At Cheltenham (Md.) field instruments have been
standardized and variometers have been tested and adjusted. Work­
ing conditions at San Juan (P. It.) have been much improved by the
erection of an office building and garage to replace those destroyed
by the hurricane of 1928. At Tucson (Ariz.) atmospheric electric
observations have been made continuously since September. 1929.
with the cooperation of the Carnegie Institution of Washington and
the United States Army Signal Corps. At Sitka (Alaska) special
auroral observations have been continued. There has been coopera­
tion with the Alaska Agricultural College and School of Mines' at
Fairbanks (Alaska), where a station for the observation of auroras
has been established through a grant from the Rockefeller
Foundation.

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247

Seismology.—Seismographs were operated continuously at the
Sitka and Tucson observatories, at Honolulu in cooperation with
the University of Hawaii, and at Chicago in cooperation with the
University of Chicago. Provision was made in the new office build­
ing at San Juan for the installation of two Wenner seismometers,
and observations at this station, which were stopped by the 1928
hurricane, will be resumed early in the next fiscal year. At Sitka
a Wood-Anderson seismometer lias been in use temporarily, to find
whether a Wenner seismograph could be operated without serious
interference from microseisms. Cheltenham has been used merely
as a station for experiment and test, because of the nearness of the
well-equipped station at Georgetown University.
Arrangements for the systematic collection of reports of visible
and felt effects of earthquakes have progressed very satisfactorily.
The National Research Council, through its division of geology and
geography, the Jesuit Seismological Association, and other organi­
zations are cooperating efficiently in the eastern part of the country,
and the collection of information for the Pacific coast region has been
centralized at the San Francisco field station of this bureau. Con­
siderable study has been given to two important earthquakes, the
one of September 12, 1929, in western New York, and the one of
November 18, 1929, on the Grand Banks, which did great damage
to trans-Atlantic cables.
TIDE AND CURRENT WORK

The tide and current work during the past year comprised the
operation of a number of primary tide stations for the purpose of
furnishing general tidal control for the various regions; the opera­
tion of numerous secondary tide stations for use in connection with
hydrographic surveys; the establishment of basic bench marks at
several of the primary tide stations; the carrying on of special tide
aq,d current surveys in Long Island Sound and the Hudson River;
and the securing of additional current observations at a number of
localities where the information was needed.
Prim ary tide stations.—Throughout the fiscal year 22 primary
tide stations were in operation, 13 on the Atlantic coast, 3 on the
Gulf coast, 4 on the Pacific coast, and 2 in Alaska. In September,
1929, an additional primary tide station was installed at Eastport,
Me. In the operation of these stations it has been aimed to secure
not only observations that would furnish data for hydrographic
control but in addition furnish also data for the determination of
accurate datum planes, for reducing the results of short series of
observations to mean values, for furnishing the necessary data for
court cases, and for determining secular changes in relation of land
to sea. Particular attention was paid to the standardization of
instruments and to the maintenance of fixed zeros of tide staff.
Of the 22 primary tide stations, 5 were operated on a cooperative
basis with other governmental organizations, so that no expense for
observers was incurred at any of these 5 stations. Under the ar­
rangements made, these stations are functioning in a very efficient

248

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OF

C O M M E R C E

manner. In the following list, primary tide stations which are
operated on a cooperative basis are marked by an asterisk (*).
P rim a ri/ tid e sta tio n s

Eastport, Me.
Portland, Me.
Portsmouth, N. II.*
Boston, Mass.
New York, N. Y.
Atlantic City, N. ,T.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Annapolis, Md.*
Baltimore, Md.
Hampton Hoads, Va.*
Charleston, S. C.
Mayport, Fla,*

Jacksonville, Fla.*
Daytona Bench, Fla.
Key West, Fla.
Pensacola, Fla.
Galveston, Tex.
La Jolla, Calif.
San Francisco, Calif.
Astoria, Oreg.
Seattle, Wash.
Ketchikan, Alaska.
Seward, Alaska.

At the end of the fiscal year arrangements were being made to
establish a new primary tide station at Newport, R. L, on a coopera­
tive basis.
Secondary tide stations.—In addition to the primary tide stations
listed above, records for practically the entire year have been re­
ceived from gauges located at Prospect Harbor, M e.: Ocean City,
N. J .; Fort Lauderdale, Fla.; Everglades, Fla.; San Diego, Calif.;
Los Angeles, Calif.; Cordova, Alaska; Honolulu, and Hilo, Hawaii.
During the year a gauge was installed at Santa Barbara, Calif.
Excepting Ocean City and Santa Barbara, the above gauges are
maintained through cooperative arrangements with other organiza­
tions. Short series of tide observations at 146 other tide stations
have been taken in connection with hydrographic work.
Basic bench marks.—During the year basic bench marks were
established at eight primary tide stations so that now such basic
bench marks have been installed at the following primary tide
stations:
Boston, Mass.
Atlantic City, N. J.
Baltimore, Md.
Norfolk, Va.
Charleston, S. C.

Key West, Fla.
Pensacola, Fla.
La Jolla, Calif.
San Francisco, Calif.
Seattle, Wash.

Arrangements are being made for the installation of basic bench
marks during the coming year at New York City and at Daytona
Beach, Fla.
/ aspect ion of tide stations.—The following tide stations have been
inspected during the fiscal year and levels run between tide staff
and bench marks. The importance of frequent inspections in the
operation of the primary tide stations is recognized and all oppor­
tunities afforded for such inspection by field parties at distant sta­
tions have been embraced.
Portsmouth, N. H.
Portland. Me.
Prospect Harbor, Me.
Boston, Mass.
New York, N. Y.
Atlantic City, N. J.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Ocean City. Md.
Annapolis, Md.
Charleston. S. C.

Hampton Roads, Va.
Pensncola, Fla.
Everglades, Fla.
Galveston, Tex.
San Diego, Calif.
La Jolla, Calif.
Honolulu, Hawaii.
Hilo, Hawaii.
Seattle, Wash.
Ketchikan, Alaska.

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249

S U B V E Y

Current, and tide surveys of harbors.—In continuing the program
of tide and current surveys of important harbors, Long Island
Sound and Hudson River were completed during the fiscal year,
observations at 130 current stations and 30 tide stations being made.
The results have been tabulated and reduced and the manuscripts
for publication are nearing completion.
In the last month of the fiscal year 1930 a tide and current survey
of Narragansett Bay was begun. This will be completed in the
coming fiscal year.
Miscellaneous cun'ent observations.—In connection with the bydrographic work of the survey, observations at 14 current stations were
made. These observations furnish data at places where no informa­
tion was previously at hand.
Density and temperature observations.—At a number of our
primary tide stations daily density and temperature observations
are taken by the tide observer in connection with his other duties
at the tide station. Density and temperature observations are also
taken in connection with our special current and tide surveys of
harbors.
Summary of tide and cun'ent records received.—The following is a
summary of tide and current records received in the office during
the year.
Stations
Automatic tide-gauge records.
Miscellaneous tide records___

135
44
C

Months j
525 Density
17 j
72 !

Stations
and

temperature

2«
295
129

Months

190
* 1 ,1 2 0

1 Days.

Cooperation.—In carrying on the tide and current work there is
continued encouragement given to cooperation with other organiza­
tions because of the mutual benefits to be derived. At a number of
our tide stations this office provides the instruments and instructions
for operating the same, while the cooperative agency provides a
shelter for the equipment and also supplies an observer to give daily
attention to the tide gauge. The cooperative stations are subject
to the same inspection as stations maintained wholly by this survey.
Copies of the records are available to both organizations and usually
the original records are filed in the archives of this office. Another
form of cooperation consists in the exchange of tide and current
data which have been obtained independently by different organi­
zations.
Cooperation with the Army engineers has been especially valuable
to this survey because of the need of both organizations for tide and
current data. During the past year a considerable amount of tide
data for the Hudson River and Long Island Sound has been sup­
plied by the district engineers in New York and Providence. Title
stations at Jacksonville and Mayport, Fla., are maintained coopera­
tively with the office of the district engineer at Jacksonville.
Valuable tide information is also received from time to time from
the Navy Department and tide stations maintained cooperatively
with that department are located at Portsmouth, N. H., Hampton
Roads, Va., and San Diego, Calif. A primary tide station at An­

250

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S E C R E T A R Y

O P

C O M M E R C E

napolis, Md., is maintained in cooperation with the Naval Academy
and in addition to serving as a primary tide station is also used for
the purpose of instructing midshipmen in tidal work.
A tide station at Honolulu is maintained cooperatively with the
surveyor of the Territory of Hawaii in charge, and one at Hilo,
Hawaii, with the United States Geological Survey.
Other cooperative tide stations operated during the past year
include 1 at Cordova, Alaska, by the chamber of commerce of that
city; 1 at Los Angeles, Calif., by the harbor department; 1 at
Prospect Harbor, Me., by Henry Southworth Shaw; 1 at Fort
Lauderdale, Fla., by the authorities of that city; and 1 at Ever­
glades, Fla., by the Florida Railroad & Navigation Corporation.
The accomplishments of the Washington office during the fiscal
year, by divisions and sections, follow.
CHIEF CLERK

The principal duties of this division are the upkeep of the mechan­
ical equipment of the Washington office of the bureau; the super­
vision of the expenditures for office expenses, including the purchase
of supplies for the office and to some extent for the field; the care
and custody of most of the original records of the field surveys, as
well as the library of printed publications; the general supervision
of all matters relating to the personnel work, including reports of
leaves of absence; the custody and accounting for the receipts from
the sale of charts, publications, etc.
In the library and archives 129 hydrographic and 116 topographic
sheets, each representing new surveys made by the bureau, were
received. Other additions were blue prints (mostly showing surveys
made by Army engineers), 724; maps, 2,907; charts, 2,168; field,
office, and observatory records, 4,601; photographs and negatives,
251; prints, 441; lantern slides, 133; and books, 583.
The total number of permanent and temporary employees in the
office and field forces, which includes commissioned officers and all
employees appointed through civil-service certification, i s : Office
force, 236; field force, 213; total, 449. These figures do not include
the persons engaged as rodmen, chainmen, heliotropers, and others
in the field parties, nor seamen on vessels.
The receipts from the sale of charts and nautical publications
repared by the bureau amounted to $80,093.75. The funds realized
rom the sale of old property, work done, and miscellaneous sources
amounted to $1,890.49.

P

DIVISION OF HYDROGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY

All plans for field work and instructions for surveys are prepared
in this division. Plans and specifications for new vessels and survey­
ing equipment as well as repairs are also prepared and the construc­
tion of new vessels and launches is supervised. The coast pilot
section prepares manuscripts for new editions of the various Coast
Pilots and gets out an annual supplement for each volume. This
section also prepares answers to the many requests for information
referred to the division.
The construction of the tender Westdahl was completed and the
vessel is now employed in surveys of the Alaska coast, operating as

C O A S T

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251

a tender to one of the larger vessels. Construction was continued on
the motor vessel H ydrographer and the tender Gilbert.
The former yacht Corsair was taken over and put into service with
practically no alteration except for the installation of surveying
equipment:. The vessel was renamed the Oceanographer and at the
close of the fiscal year was actively engaged in the survey of Georges
Bank. The training section is now quartered aboard the Ocean­
ographer where the newly appointed officers are given practical and
theoretical training to fit them as ships’ officers.
Plans and instructions were prepared for a complete and accurate
survey of Georges Bank. New equipment for radio acoustic sound
ranging was designed and put in successful operation for this work.
Extensive improvements were made in the echo-sounding instru­
ments installed in the various vessels on both the Atlantic and
Pacific coasts. Experiments were continued looking toward the
development of a shallow-water echo-sounding apparatus.
Field examinations were made and new editions were brought
out for two of the pilot volumes, and the manuscript for one of
the Philippine Island Pilots was revised. Work was started on an
office revision of the Alaska Coast Pilot, Part II.
Work was continued on the office reduction of the photographic
topography along the east coast of Florida.
DIVISION OF GEODESY

The following important pieces of work were completed during
the year or Mere in progress at the end of the fiscal year:
C o m p u t a t i o n a n d a d j u s t m e n t o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p i e c e s o f t r i a n g u l a t i o n .—
1. Southeast Alaska : Triangulation in the following areas : Mary Island to
Port Simpson, Holkham Bay, Crawfish Inlet, Tlevak Strait, Stephens Passage,
Chatham Strait-Salisbury Sound-Cape Ommaney-Cross Sound, Portlock Harbor,
Warm Spring Bay. Bed Bluff Bay, Tebenkof Bay, Port Lucy, Patterson Bay,
Port Malmesbury. Port Walter. Table Bay, Port Conclusion, Port Armstrong,
outside coasts of Baranof and Kruzof Islands, Davidson Inlet, Icy Strait, Meares
Passage. Keete Inlet, Excursion Inlet, Cross Sound to Lituya Bay, Port
Frederick, Stikine River, Itevillagigedo Channel, Sumner Strait, Duncan
Canal, and Behm Canal.
2. Readjustment of the first-order triangulation net east of the ninety-eighth
meridian; preliminary work only.
3. Preliminary computation of the triangulation nlong the Mississippi Iliver
between Cairo, 111., and New Orleans, Da.
4. Reduction of the triangulation in Ilaro Strait, Wash., to the North Ameri­
can datum of 1927.
5. Reduction of the triangulation in Los Angeles County, Calif., to the North
American datum of 1927.
C o m p u t a t i o n a n d ■ a d j u s t m e n t o f l e v e l i n g .—
1. Computation of 727 miles of first-order leveling located in New Mexico,
Colorado, Pennsylvania, and Indiana.
2. The adjustment of the combined level nets of Canada and of the United
States, involving nearly 70,000 miles of leveling.
C o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a s t r o n o m i c a l a n d g r a v i t y w o r k .—
1. Azimuths : 35 stations In the United States.
2. Longitudes : 10 stations in the United States.
3. Latitudes : 4 stations in the United States.
4. Laplace azimuths : Computation of true geodetic azimuths at 15 Laplace
stations.
5. Isostatic reductions: Computation of the reduction for topography and
isostatic compensation at 18 gravity stations in the United States, in the
Bahama Islands, and in the West Indies. Computation of the deflections of
the vertical in the meridian and prime vertical at 7 stations in the United
States and along the Atlantic coast.

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0. Gravity computations: Computation of 2 0 gravity stations in the United
States, in the Bahama Islands, and in the West Indies, and of various stand­
ardizations and experimental work at Washington, D. C.

Investigations were carried on during the year in the following
subjects: Interior of the earth, earth tides, methods of reducing
gravity observations, and variation of latitude.
The following publications were issued by the division of geodesy
during the fiscal year:
Special Publication 150, Triaugulation In Hawaii.
Special Publication 8, Formulas and Tables for the Computation of Geodetic
Positions (seventh edition).
Special Publication IDS. Bilby Steel Tower for Triangulation.
Special Publication 159, The Bowie Method of Triangulation Adjustment as
Applied to the First-Order Net in the Western Part of the United States.
Special Publication 160, Triangulation in Colorado (1927 datum).
Special Publication 101, First-Order Leveling in Hawaii.
Special Publication 164, First-Order Triangulation in Southeast Alaska.
Special Publication 166, Geodetic Operations in the United States, January
1, 1927, to December 31, 1929.
Special Publication 169, First-Order Leveling in Alaska.
DIVISION OF CHARTS

During the year 272,000 charts were printed and 204,000 distrib­
uted (sold or issued for official use). These are the biggest figures
since the peak years of and immediately following the war. Chart
sales have increased 50 per cent in five years. Tide Table distribu­
tion increased 44 per cent; Current Tables, 45 per cent; Coast Pilots,
33 per cent; Inside Route Pilots, 22 per cent, in the same period.
The bureau’s airway map work does not go back five years, but the
past year shows proportionately larger increase in distribution.
For the program of sectional airway maps the general limits and
nomenclature of the International Millionth Map of the World have
been adopted. The first map of this series will soon be published.
A

c c o d i ¡>l' g h m e i i t s ,

1930

Chat ts, new____________________________________________________________ 17
New editions_______________________________________________________ 129
New p rints________________________________________________________ 371
Reprints, no change_________________________________________________ 80
Airway maps, new______________________________________________________ 11
Reprints___________________________________________________________ 11
Weekly Notices to Mariners, in collaboration with the Bureau of Lighthouses.
C h a rts

and

p u b lica tio n s

Year

1820..
1821..
1622..
1823..
1821..
1025..

1926..
1927..
1928..
192«..

1 Previously distributed by Aeronautics Branch.

d istrib u te d

Inside j Strip
Route ; airwayPilot j maps

oast
j Charts jt CPilot
311,699
290,188
215,509
197,426
221,543
! 230,535
i 232,286
246.836
241,880
249,499
282,034

ij
:

:
!

;

1

;

15,261
8,728
6 , 235
6,610
5,917
5,733
6,328
7,859
7,019
6,288
7,656

i

S
i
:

2.085
2,056
2,261
1,787
1.7S8
1.727
2,648
1,994
1,849
1,756
2,208

1

!

1

!
;

)
:
:

C O A S T

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253

S U R V E Y

A n a ly s is o f c h a r t d is tr ib u tio n , n u m b e r o f co p ies, a n d p e r c e n ta g e o f to ta ls

Year

Sold

1905..........................................................
1910_____ _________ _____________
1915..........................................................
1920..........................................................
1925..........................................................
1926..........................................................
1927.........................................................
1928..........................................................
1929..........................................................
1930..........................................................

42, 719
52.068
57,060
124, 845
10 2 ,0 11

132, 605
119, 593
122, 242
135,170
153,995

•
Per
cent
41.8
43.6
44.6
40.1
44.2
57.1
48.5
50.5
54.2
54. 6

Official
distribu­
tion
52,591
58,307
62,327
173,929
111,552
85,171
111,383
106,654
103, 391
110,151

Per
cent
51.6
48.8
4S.8
55.8
48.4
36.6
45.1
44.1
41.4
39.1

Con­
demned
6,713
9,019
8,416
12,925
16,972
14, 510
15,860
12, 984
10, 938
17,888

Per
cent
6 .6

7.6
6 .6

4.1
7.4
0.3
6.4
5.4
4.4
6.3

Total

102,023
119,394
127,803
311,699
230, 535
232,286
246,836
241, SS0
249, 499
282,034

Program. 1931.—In addition to maintenance of existing charts and
maps and the publication of Notices to Marinefcs, there are projected
11 new charts, 4 reconstructed charts, 7 new strip airway maps, and
5 sectional airway maps.
DIVISION OF TERRESTRIAL MAGNETISM AND SEISMOLOGY

Terrestmal magnetism.—Good progress has been made in the
preparation for publication of the observatory results. The results
for 1923 and 1924 are now published for Cheltenham and Honolulu.
The manuscript for Sitka, covering the same period, is in the hands
of the printer, and that for Tucson and Vieques is nearly ready for
publication. The work to be done on the results for later years has
been much reduced by the adoption of the improved method of
reading hourly values.*
The results of field observations in 1929 have been submitted for
publication, thus keeping this part of the work up to date. The
publication entitled “ United States Magnetic Tables and Charts
for 1925 ” has been issued and preparation of the similar publica­
tion for Alaska for 1930 is well advanced. A paper on The Mag­
netic Declination in the Philippine Islands, prepared in this office,
was published at Manila.
The preparation of publications giving information regarding the
magnetic declination for individual States or groups of States was
delayed by lack of personnel, but one covering the States of Dela­
ware, Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee
was issued and correction sheets were prepared for some of those
published previously.
A third edition of Directions for Magnetic Measurements was
issued. It is being used extensively by the Carnegie Institution of
Washington and by observers in other countries.
Much study has been given to the further improvement of instru­
ments and methods of observation, involving design and testing of
instruments and parts and the preparation of specifications for
installation, housing, and operation.
Some attention has been given to the broad problems of terrestrial
magnetism and there has been full cooperation with national and
international organizations engaged in the study of these problems.
Members of the division have participated in the activities of various
scientific organizations, both as officers and in the presentation of
papers.

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Seismology.—The form of the principal seismological report issued
by the bureau has been changed so as to bring about a considerable
saving in the work of preparation, without detracting from its
value to those making use of the results. This has been done after
consultation with other organizations making instrumental investi­
gations so that methods may be uniform in so far as this is desirable.
Thirty determinations of the position of earthquakes and the
transmission of this information west to Manila and east to Europe
were made during the year.
Plans have been made to modernize equipment at all stations as
rapidly as possible. A seismograph intermediate in sensitivity be­
tween existing instruments has been developed and built, to meet a
need which has been felt for some time.
Cooperation and advice have been given to universities and other
organizations contemplating the installation of seismographs.
Study has been made of the problem of securing information as
to what happens in the central region of an earthquake, to meet the
needs of the engineers called upon to design structures for places
subject to earthquakes.
DIVISION OF TIDES AND CURRENTS

Growing hydrographic activities and an ever-increasing demand
on the part of the public for tide and current information have
increased from year to year the office work of the division of tides
and currents. Comprehensive current and tide surveys were begun
in 1922 and have been continued each year since that date. The
reduction, correlation, and publication of all tide and current data
for the areas covered by these surveys, together with the preparation
of tidal bench-mark publications and the increasing scope and num­
ber of the annual tide and current tables, have greatly increased
the volume of work. For years the need for additional office per­
sonnel to meet the increasing demands made upon the division has
been apparent. This need has now become imperative, as the reduc­
tion and publication of valuable data are being delayed by the lack
of a sufficient force.
Special Publication Xo. 1G2, Tides and Currents in Chesapeake
Bay, the seventh of a series on currents and tides in the important
waterways of the United States, was issued during the fiscal year.
Work has progressed during the year on two additional publications
of this series, one covering Long Island Sound and the other the
Hudson River. The publications of the series which have been
issued to date are listed below:
C u r r e n t s a n d t i d e s in h a r b o r s

No. 111.
No. 115.
No. 123.
No. 127.

New York Harbor. 1025.
San Francisco Harbor, 1925.
Delaware Bay, 1020.
Southeast Alaska, 1027.

No. 142. Boston Harbor, 1928.
No. 150. Portsmouth Harbor, 1929.
No. 1G2. Chesapeake Bay, 1930.

Special Publication Xo. 163, Tidal Bench Marks, State of Oregon,
received from the printer during the fiscal year, is the eighth of a
series containing descriptions and elevations of tidal bench marks
along the coasts of the United States. The ninth publication of the

C O A S T

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255

S U R V E Y

series, covering the State of Washington, was in process of prepara­
tion at the end of the fiscal year. The following publications of
this series have been issued :
T id a l bench m a r k p u b lic a tio n s

No.
No.
No.
No.

83.
119.
128.
136.

New York. 1922.
District of Columbia, 1925.
Rhode Island, 192G.
Connecticut, 1927.

No. 141.
No. 148.
No. 155.
No. 163.

California. 1928.
New Jersey, 1929.
Massachusetts, 1929.
Oregon. 1930.

Special Publication No. 154, Instructions, Primary Tide Stations,
which was prepared as a supplement to Special Publication No. 139,
was received from the printer during the fiscal year. This publi­
cation contains instructions pertaining to the operation of a primary
tide station and the preliminary reduction of the records.
The list of annual tide tables was augmented during the year by
the addition of a tide table for San Francisco Bay which was first
issued for the year 1930. The table of subordinate stations in the
Tide Tables, United States and Foreign Ports, was completely re­
vised for all foreign ports. The table of subordinate stations in the
Current Tables, Pacific Coast, was revised to include additional
data.
The following table, showing the issue of the tide tables for each
fiscal year for the 10-year period 1921-1930, is indicative of the
demand for the tables:

Fiscal year

1921...
1922...
1923........................
1924.......................
1925.......................
192Ö.................. .
1927...
1928...
1929...........
1930.......................

United
New York
Pacific
States and
Atl ntlc
Foreign Coast Tide Coa^t Tide Harbor
Tide
Tables
Ports Tide
Tables
Tables
Tables
3,577
3,007
2,479
2,509
2,218
2,730
2,692
2,377
3,234
2,605

14,957
14,902
15,054
15,234
15,849
15, 347
15,911
10, 990
16,887
16,889

5,678
5,704
5,440
7,097
6 , 727
6 , 707
6 ,934
7, 225
7,266
8 ,457

1,992
956
1,134

Boston
Harbor
Tido
Tablas

1,461
1,470

San Fran­
cisco
Bay Tide
'lables

5,024

Total

24,212
23,073
22,973
24,840
24, 794
24,784
25,637
28,584
29,804
35,57«

The following table shows the number of copies of the current
tables issued for the fiscal years 1923 to 1930, separate current tables
having been issued in 1923 for the first tim e:

Fiscal year

1923...................
1924...................
1925....
1926...................

Atlantic
Coast
Current
Tables
2,029
3,124
2,452
3,014

Pacific
Coast
Current
Tables
1,780

2,002

2,474
1, 763

Total

3,815
5,126
4,926
4, 777

Fiscal year

1927.....................
1928.....................
1929.....................
1930.....................

Atlantic
Coast
Current
Tables
3,722
3,614
3,492
4,054

Pacific
Coast
Current
Tables
2,311
2,501
4,040
3,098

Total

6,033
6,115
7,532
7,152

The United States and.Foreign Ports Tide Tables for 1930
include daily predictions for 89 reference stations and tidal dif­
ferences and constants for 3,803 subordinate stations. Three new

256

R E P O R T

TO

T H E

S E C R E T A R Y

O F

C O M M E R C E

reference stations—Swatow, China; Southampton, England; and
Cuxhaven, Germany—were included in the 1931 edition.
In accordance with a cooperative arrangement for the exchange
of tidal predictions, daily predictions for the annual tide tables
are now exchanged between the Coast and Geodetic Survey and
the following organizations: British Admiralty, 20 stations; Cana­
dian Hydrographic Office, 4 stations; Deutsche Seewarte, 6 stations;
Service Hydrographique, France, 4 stations; geodetic branch, Survey
of India, o stations.
During the fiscal year the second of the series of tidal current
charts was prepared for publication.
DIVISION OF ACCOUNTS

The regular annual appropriation for the Coast and Geodetic
Survey for the fiscal year 1930 amounted to $2,515,860, which amount
was supplemented by transfers from other departments, special
appropriations, etc., to the extent of. $210,426.48, making a grand
total of $2,726,286.48. The actual disbursements during the period
of the fiscal year amounted to $2,677,281.31.
INSTRUM ENT DIVISION

This division supplies all of the instrumental equipment and the
major part of the general property used by the ships and shore
parties in their field work. Its functions are varied in that it is
required to design and develop such new instruments and equipment
ns are desired in order to maintain or increase the accuracy of the
field surveys and to reduce the costs. In this work the bureau is
recognized as a leader throughout the world and the inventive and
development activities of this division are of the greatest importance
to the bureau’s well-being.
Because of the precision with which the bureau’s surveys must be
carried on,, the instruments designed must embody correct scientific
principles; and continuous care is exercised to keep in touch with
all developments in the scientific and engineering world, to insure
that any new development which might be applicable to the bureau’s
work will be made use of. This may be illustrated by the rapid
increase in the use of radio and its allied mechanisms in the survey’s
work, which has resulted in the development of radio acoustic
ranging for locating positions far offshore and in measuring the
ocean’s depth by electrosonic methods. A few years ago equipment
of this sort was entirely foreign to the bureau’s work.
The division also services and stores instruments and other
equipment, has charge of recording transfers of material between
parties and the Washington office, and also accounts for material at
the bureau’s headquarters.
These various functions were successfully carried on during the
past year and a number of new and improved instruments were
brought out, the more important being:
1.
Tide gauge.—This instrument has been under constant develop­
ment for several years, and a number of decided improvements were
made during this past year; more notably, a clock assembly which

C O A S T

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257

can be removed without the use of tools and a new magazine and
take-up rolls for the record sheet.
2. Registering sheave.—A new registering sheave for sounding
was designed with a more easily read counter, which will allow
measurements to be made directly to 0.1 of a fathom, and the position
of this counter is so arranged that it can be read much more easily
than those used in the past.
3. Telescope cross-wire material.—An interesting development
during the year was the invention of a method of producing very
fine fibers of glass which may be used to replace the conventional
spider-web material previously used. Spider threads are weak and
are apt to change their length when moistened, with the result that
they lose their straightness. Similar threads of glass are very
strong, very black in the field of view, and are practically unaffected
by temperature and moisture. They are also much easier to install in
the telescope than the spider thread.
4. Graduated circles foi' theodolites.—Experiments were conducted
with the plating with chromium of the silver used on the graduated
circles for theodolites. The silver used must be very soft and is easily
scratched and tarnished. The plating with the hard material,
chromium, gives a surface which does not tarnish and which is not
easily scratched in the ordinary course of handling. The chromium
also has a very pleasing appearance under the instrument’s
microscope.
5. Tide-gauge pulleys.—Tide gauges are connected to the sea by
means of a wire passing over pulleys and connected to a large float.
Friction in the pulleys, or other resistance due to them, causes an error
in the measurement of the rise and fall of the tide. A new type of
pulley was designed which has a large wheel, is very free-running,
and is equipped with a device to prevent the jumping of the wire
from the pulley and is so designed that new wire may be easily
installed.
Very truly yours,
It. S. P a t t o n , Director.
18038—30------17

BUREAU OF NAVIGATION

D

epa rtm en t of C om m erce,
B u r e a u of N av ig a tio n ,

Washington, July 1, 1930.
The h o n o r a b l e t h e S e c r e t a r y o f C o m m e r c e .
D e a r M r . S e c r e t a r y : In response to your request I submit the
following report upon the work of the bureau during the past fiscal
year.
AMERICAN SH IPPIN G ON JUNE 30, 1930

On June 30, 1930, the merchant marine of the United States, includ­
ing all kinds of documented craft, comprised 25,214 vessels of 16,067,725 gross tons, of which 2,105 seagoing vessels of 10,233,125
gross tons were of 1,000 tons or over, compared with 2,256 vessels
of 10,724,030 gross tons on June 30, 1929. Following is an analysis
of the ownership of seagoing tonnage compared with one year ago:
Ownership and date

Steel

Private ownership (£00 gross tons
Number
and over):
July 1, 1929....................................
1,433
July 1, m o ....................................
1,449
U. S. Shipping Board (1,000 gross
tons and over):
July 1, 1929....................................
628
Julv 1,' 1930....................................
478
Total, 1929................................
Total, 1930.................................

2,031
1, 927

Gross ions

7,018, 726
7, 207,40;>

Wood

Number

520
482

Total

Gross tons

643, 770
610,961

3,315,692
2, 663,879
10,334,418
9,871, 284

520
482

643. 770
610,961

Number

1,953
1,931

Gross tons

7. 662, 496
7,818.306

628
478

3, 315,692
2,663, S79

2,581
2,409

10,978,188
10,482,245

Of these totals 1,117 vessels of 5,008,653 gross tons were engaged
in the foreign trade and 1,292 vessels of 5,473,591 gross tons in the
coasting trade.
¡Since June 1, 1921, when our foreign trade reached its greatest
volume, 10,699,596 gross tons, there has been a steady decline, until
June 1, 1930, it amounted to only 5,319,552 gross tons, a falling off
of 5,480,044 gross tons. The decrease in the foreign trade is due
principally to the scrapping of large vessels which belonged to the
Shipping Board and to changes from foreign to coasting trade because
of greater opportunities in that service.
Since June 1, 1921, the coasting trade, exclusive of the trade" on
the Great Lakes, has increased 4,953,981 gross tons. During the
same nine years the total seagoing tonnage has decreased 2,526,063
gross tons.
During the year 1,020 vessels of 254,296 gross tons were built and
documented, and on July 1, 1930, there were building or under con­
tract to build in our shipyards 291 vessels of 486,602 gross tons.
The corresponding figures for 1929 were 808 vessels of 128,976 gross
tons built and 218 vessels of 169,862 gross tons under contract to
build.
258

BT7BEAU

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259

The new tonnage includes 2 steel passenger steamers of 29,892
gross tons, 7 steel cargo steamers of 48,427 gross tons, 2 steel steam
ferries of 6,654 gross tons, 2 steel passenger motor ships of 9,527
gross tons, 1 steel cargo motor ship of 1,605 gross tons, and 6 steel
motor ship tankers of 39,981 gross tons, aggregating 136,086 gross
tons.
On June 30, 1930, the laid-up seagoing tonnage of the United
States aggregated 541 vessels of 2,096,179 gross tons, as against 569
vessels of 2,232,449 gross tons on June 30, 1929.
Details of the world’s laid-up tonnage, classification of American
vessels by size, service, and power, and of vessels launched and under
construction may be found in Merchant Marine Statistics for 1930,
a publication prepared by this office.
As pointed out by Lloyd’s Register of Shipping, while the present
shipbuilding of the United States is still materially below that of
Great Britain and Ireland, the gap is almost 200,000 tons less than
it was a year ago. At this time last year Great Britain and Ireland
were building more than the United States and all other countries
combined, the proportion being 51.2 per cent, but their share of the
world production at present is but 45.5 per cent. In the same period
the share of the United States in the total output has grown from
4.2 to 7.8 per cent and that of the other countries combined from
44.6 to 46.7 per cent.
NAVIGATION LAWS
COASTING TRADE

Since the early days of our Government the coasting trade of the
United States has been reserved to our national vessels, as most
maritime nations reserve that trade to their own vessels, respectively,
and with a few minor exceptions, vessels for our coasting trade must
be built in the United States. The only outstanding maritime
nation which does not so restrict this trade is GreatBritain. A
glance at the globe will show the relative importance of the coasting
trades of the United States and the United Kingdom.
The considerations governing our coasting trade differ naturally
from those in the foreign trade. Nearly a century ago the principle
of maritime reciprocity was adopted by the United States in its foreign
trade, and recognition of that principle is now the basis of the laws
which govern communication by sea between nations. International
trade is a bargain in which no one nation can assume successfully to
dictate all the terms.
The regulations of the coasting trade between our own ports involve
entirely different considerations. That trade is wholly within
national jurisdiction, and its regulation is solely a matter of domestic
policy.
Our coasting trade is the most valuable in the world. The building
of war and coasting trade vessels for years has been the backbone of
the shipbuilding industry on the seaboard.
Congress has legislated several times to restrict this trade to Amer­
ican owned and built vessels. Foreign interests have attempted
repeatedly to find loopholes in those laws by which they might share
in these emoluments. At times they have met with some success.

260

KEPOliT

T O

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S E C R E T A R Y

O F

C O M M E R C E

For instance, section 2 of the act of February 17, 1898, the existing
law, provides:
No foreign vessel shall transport passengers between ports or places in the
United States, either directly or by way of a foreign port, under a penalty of two
hundred dollars for each passenger so transported and landed.

Because it does not involve transportation “ between ports or places
in the United States” foreign vessels are taking on passengers in ports
of the United States for excursion purposes and returning to the port
of embarkation. This clearly, is an invasion of our domestic trade,
and because of differences of laws and conditions governing foreign
vessels on the high seas this trade is increasing. The Supreme Court
(182 U. S., pp. 392-397) stated:
The use of the words “ coasting trade” indicates very clearly that the words
were intended to include the domestic trade of the United States * * *.

This is brought to your attention as it seems desirable that there
should be placed before you a condition affecting our merchant marine
which apparently can be remedied only by act of Congress.
INTE RN A T IO N A L CONVENTION ON SA FETY OF L I F E AT SEA

The International Convention on Safety of Life at Sea, signed in
London, May 31, 1929, by the United States and 17 foreign maritime
nations, is now before the United States Senate for ratification. Pres­
sure of legislation and consideration of other conventions prevented
its consideration by the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations dur­
ing the past session.
INTE RN A T IO N A L CONVENTION ON LOAD L IN E S

The International Convention on Load Lines met in London from
M ay 20 to July 5, 1930, when a comprehensive convention was signed
by the United States and the following foreign maritime countries:
Germany, Australia, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Cuba, Denmark, Free
City of Danzig, Spain, Irish Free State, Finland, France, Great Britain
and Northern Ireland, Greece, India, Iceland, Italy, Japan, Latvia,
Mexico, Norway, New Zealand, Paraguay, Netherlands, Peru, Poland,
Portugal, Sweden, and the Government of the Union of Socialist
Soviet Republics.
This convention doubtless will be transmitted to the Senate at the
next regular session for the advice and consent of that body to its
ratification. To a considerable extent it is supplemental to the Con­
vention of 1929 on Safety of Life at Sea. These conventions together
are undoubtedly the most important and effective steps every taken
by maritime nations to promote safety of life at sea, and it is trusted
the Senate will consent to their ratification. A great work has been
accomplished which can not but be of lasting benefit to mankind.
LOAD L IN E S

The act to establish load lines for American vessels approved March
2, 1929, becomes effective September 2, 1930. A load line division
was organized which conducted a survey with a view to learning the
commercial practices in the loading of different types of ships engaged

B U R E A U

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261

in various trades that experience lias demonstrated may be followed
with safety to life and property.
Based upon information gathered by this study, regulations have
been prepared for the establishment of load lines for American vessels
of 250 gross tons and over, engaged in foreign trade (the Great Lakes
excepted). In the formulation of these regulations due regard was
given to the economic requirements of vessels. Shipowners, ship­
builders, and naval architects cooperated most effectively in the pre­
liminary work. The assistance of the United States Load L;ne Com­
mittee appointed by the Secretary of Commerce in 1928 was inval­
uable.
The conclusions of the International Load Line Convention signed
in London on July 5, 1930, have been freely adopted where they are
applicable to the American vessels subject to the act.
AD M EASUREM ENT OF VESSELS

As stated in previous reports, the necessity for the establishment
of a proper admeasurement service in this country in the interest of
our merchant marine is becoming more and more apparent. This
will involve a reorganization of the service under the Department of
Commerce which is responsible for the administration of the ad­
measurement laws. The present system of utilizing customs officers
selected, appointed, and paid by the Treasury Department has been
demonstrated, after years of experiment, as impractical, wasteful,
and inefficient.
Bjr the creation of at least 10 admeasurement districts, each in
charge of a fully qualified admeasuring expert, coordination between
these districts and with the Washington office, and the employment
of competent men for no other purpose than the admeasuring of ves­
sels, undoubtedly will result in an improvement in the service and
will work greatly to the credit of the department and the benefit of
shipowners.
The work of the small admeasurement office now in this bureau
has increased materially during the year not only in quantity but in
the service it has been able to render to owners and shipbuilders.
The importance in the construction of vessels of keeping always in
mind the benefits which may be secured under our admeasurement
laws is more fully realized, and our rulings and suggestions to this
end are being more freely sought.
During the year there have been measured for first documents
1,562 vessels of 318,546 gross tons, of which 26 were estimated to be
over 1,000 tons each, aggregating 91,229 tons. During the preceding
year 1,387 vessels of 272,592 gross tons were thus admeasured, of
which 11, of 66,143 tons, were over 1,000 tons each. During the
coming year this work doubtless will increase because of contracts
let for combined freight and passenger vessels under the provisions
of the Jones-White Act.
During the year 384 vessels were readmeasured, resulting in a re­
duction of 8,961 gross tons.
Of the 44 customs districts, including our insular possessions, 27
were visited by the adjuster of admeasurements and the admeasuring
officers instructed in the law and regulations and their application to
unusual conditions.

262

R E P O R T

T O

T H E

S E C R E T A R Y

O F

C O M M E R C E

In this service, under collectors of customs, there are about 140
men engaged the whole or a part of the time, at a total cost of $81,442.
The increase in the quantity, importance, and technical difficulty
of this work undoubtedly will require ultimately the addition to our
force of a naval architect experienced in ship construction, familiar
with blue prints relating to such construction, and with the regula­
tions and practices of foreign countries.
N E W IN S PE C TIO N VESSEL FOR T H E GREAT LAKES

The bureau operates five inspection vessels covering the Atlantic
and Gulf coasts of the United States in the enforcement of laws
requiring life-saving equipment, affecting the crews of vessels, pre­
venting overcrowding of passenger steamers, and the various require­
ments for protecting life and property at sea. Nearly 200,000 vessels,
large and small, are covered by these inspection vessels.
On the Great Lakes, however, we have no such facilities for inspec­
tion work. In those waters there are 987 documented vessels of over
2,600,000 tons, while out of every port there are, in addition, small
motor vessels, aggregating nearly 32,000 in number, carrying during
the season millions of our people in commerce and for pleasure.
Congress has made ample provision of law for their protection, and
it is in the interest of safety to life and property that those laws be
reasonably enforced.
We have considered it essential, therefore, that for this purpose
another vessel should be added to our fleet.
ENFORCEMENT OF THE NAVIGATION LAWS

The work of general enforcement of the navigation laws has pro­
ceeded throughout the year along regularly established lines. The
enforcement of the rules and regulations governing the movement of
vessels in the St. Marys River and the patrol of the course during
regattas and marine parades has been carried out
the Coast Guard
in its usual efficient manner. The same service again has been active
in inspecting small vessels for life-saving equipment and has brought
to the attention of the bureau many violations of the navigation laws.
The bureau has found throughout the year the same cordial coopera­
tion on the part of steamship owners and masters in the administration
of the navigation laws that has heretofore prevailed. Yacht clubs,
motor-boat organizations, and motor-boat publications have educated
their members and readers in the requirements of the law. Among
motor-boat owners, with rare exceptions, we have met with an appre­
ciative reception of our efforts to render the navigation of their vessels
safer and to protect them from the usually thoughtless action of
reckless operators.
During the year there were reported 7,417 violations of the various
laws we administer and on which the department acted in the remis­
sion or mitigation of the penalties incurred.

B U R E A U

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263

N A V I G A T I O N

The following table shows the work done by the various branches
of the Federal service engaged in the enforcement of the navigation
laws in comparison with previous years:

H eadquarters port

T otal

746
441
182
43
68
49
172
234
30
32
32
12
58
336
8
35
26
76
217
951
2
448
36
1
568
23
24
2T>4
86
103
75
41
9
16
327
10
105
336
977
218
T o tal—
1930 (40 p o rts)___
1929 (41 p o rts )___
1928 (40 p o rts)___
1927 (39 p o r ts ) ....
1920 (39 p o r ts ) ....
1925 (40 p o r ts ) ....
1924 (40 p o r ts ) ....
1923 (40 p o rts)___
1922 C41 p o r ts ) ....
1921 (42 ports)___
1920 (42 p o rts)___
1919 (41 p o rts)___
1918 (49 p o rts)___
1917 (48 p o rts)___
1926 (4.8 p o rts)___
1915 (48 p o rts)___

K il­ T arra­
Coast
Dixie Siwash Psyche G
kenny gon
uard

4

709
180
99

28
14
24

1
60
39
6
16
14
21
107
2
25

Steam ­
boat Cus­ N avi­
In ­
toms gation
spec­ Serv­
inspec­
tion
ice
tors
Serv­
ice
17
28
8
10
16
6

5
3
56

...
...

31
63
337

104

176

33

38
97
79

i
266
211
321
423
245
222
327
799
317
773
2, 083
’ 767
40-1
712
590
361

2, 741
2, 868
3,397
3, 227
3, 548
4. 040
3,312
3,883
3, 203
3,869
5, 028
3, 114
2,654
2, 833
2, 876
2,661

2
2
19
208

13
f,
22
26
19

49
13

58

253

12

131

6

159

17

31

22
33

8
7
5
1

3

92

10

106

7.417 1.251
7.887
960
8. 643 1,009
8. 306
743
10. 778
987
9. 544
472
8,867 1.192
11.251 -1,332
11,396 1, 184
1 0 , 7 06
1,637
10. 667 1. 303
7. 382 1,480
4,893
84
7, 565
7,895
6,860

159
120

212
227
144
368
387
401
787
829
999
1, 112
1,261
1, 226
809
1, 234
987
1,425

253
295
268
69
315
515
1,078
1, 111
764
1, 182
41
864
984

...

806
1.222
1,5)37
1.176
941
970
671
1,060
1, 275
712

357
5-47
596
400
I, 909
874
586
1. 172
2,500
479

32
55
195
5
18
11
37
113
276
2
46
23
1
166
23
16
79
66
3
4
41
9
16
118
10
10
27fi
605
18

26
3

276

3

15
173
44
1
38
23
39
121
6

1,232
1, 167
1,019
1,548
1. 501
1,179
616
521
509
404

300
235
241
1, 255
1, 333
1,380

2
72
22
7
59
17

2
15
46
35

22

299
390
352
352
941
871
297
.540
630
529
626
554
696
654
1, 089
999

Of the 7,417 violations reported, 2,879 were discovered by the five
patrol boats of the Navigation Service, these vessels operating along
the Atlantic and Gulf coasts. The record of the work of these vessels
is better shown by the fact that during the year they made 27,169
inspections. The number of violations found as compared with the
number of inspections is a fair index of the extent to which the safety
laws on small vessels are being complied with.
The following table shows the enforcement of such laws by customs
districts and laws violated:

to

T a b l e s h o w i n g , b y p o r t s , th e n a v i g a t i o n l a w s v i o l a t e d a n d th e n u m b e r o f v i o l a t i o n s d u r i n g th e y e a r e n d e d J u n e SO, 1 9 3 0

Total

Passen­
ger act
(22 Stat.
186-191,
U. S. C.,
T itle 46,
secs. 151162, 171)

Enroll­
E n try N am e on
m ent and
and
vessel
license clearance (R
. S.
(R . S.
(R . S.
4178,
4336,
4197,
s. c.,
U. S. C., U. S. C., u.
itle 46,
T itle 46, T itle 46, Tsec.
46)
sec. 277) sec. 91)

/
746
441
182
43
68
49
172
234
30
32
32
12
58
336
8
35
26
76
217
951
2
443
36

1

Providence..............................

Sfi8
23
24
264
86
103

62
43
2
12
6
8
6
2
5
14
44
11
6
20
43

546
207
119
24
22
21
106
123
23
19
6
6
68
2
15
4
31
85
517

32

288
22

7

304
1
4
127
48
86

9
6
1

12
49
28
29

8

18
23
2

2
4

5
2

26
53
5
7
7
34
24
226
34
9
1
86
15
6

IS

22
3

2

1
1

1

10
20
4
1
3
2
8

2

5
26
3
1

2

11

4
16

1
6

2
13
3
1
1
1
8

3
1
1
1

7
19

2

6

2

13

3
1
4
9

N um ­
Change of U nlading bering
m aster
(R. S.
act
(R . S. 4351, 4355, Stat. (40
M iscel­
4335,
U. S. C., U . S. 602,
C., laneous
U. S. C.,
T itle
Title
T itle 46, 46, secs.
secs.
sec. 276) 296, 300) 46,
288-289)

2
1

.

2

1

104
75
22
5
13
10
26
34

9
16
3

1
15
1
6
37

2
9

1

2
6

2
98

10
19
28

4
13

2
44
92

13

2

57
2

1

119
7
4
81
13
3

1
12

4

31

1

8
X

21

1

1

5

1
2

2
9
3
2
14
2
4
1
1
2

RE PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM MERCE

H eadquarters port

Steam ­
boat laws
(R . S.
4399-4500,
U. S. C .t
T itle 46,
secs. 361 498)

M otor-boat
laws (36
Stat. 462,
U . S. G.
A nchor­
Surren­ Seamen’s
511-519)
age and
dered
“ Rules of
act
St.
M arys
license
ro a d "
(38 Stat.
(R . S.
1169,1164. River rules
(26 Stat.
4325-4326,
(29
S
tat. 54,
320-328,
S. C „
U. S. C., U.
136,
28 Stat.
Title, 46, 34U.Stat.
T
itle
46,
S.
C.,
secs.
645-650,
T
itle
33,
secs.
29 Stat.
672-673
267-268)
sec. 474)
690-691,
U. S. C.,
T itle 33,
secs. 61-351)

CO

75
41
9
16
327
10
105
336
977
218
T o tsl—
1930 (40 p o rts)..........
1929 (41 p o rts)..........
1928 (40 p o rts)..........
1927 (39 p o rts)..........
1926 (39 ports')..........
1925 (40 ports)..........
1924 (40 p o rts)..........
1923 (40 p o rts)..........
1921 (42 p o rts)..........
1920 (41 ports)..........

1916 (48 p o rts)..........
1913 (107 port's)........
1912 (105 p o rts)........
1011 (92 p o rts)..........
1910 (74 ports')..........
1908 (73 p o rts)..........
1907 (66 p o rts)..........
1906 (77 ports')..........
1905 (63 p o rts)..........
1904 (66 ports)..........

7.417
7,887
8.643
8,306
10,778
9, 544
8,867
11,251
11,412
10, 707
10,667
8,173
4, 749
7,569
7,825
6,868
6, 720
3,506
3,634
2,268
1,070
1,134
852
684
670
524
706

2

4

66
3
4
3
97
2
86
40
321
147

4
3
41
1
10
51
85
13

389
375
534"
654
2, .501
922
547
695
422
840
2, 650
l ’ 589
710
1,020
'812
671
768
333
165
182
252
151
245
209
194
142
184

3, 593
3,873
3,537
3,244
3, 722
3. 487
2,782
3,069
4. 614
3, 772
2, 530
2,397
2 , 337
4,660
5,126
4 , 462
4.838
2,783
3,119
1,811
488
710
385
92
130
53
93

964
1,078
1,070
1,130
1,330
1,446
1,069
945
944
974
988
1,066
'922
770
943
982
631
23
96
23
17
33
12
88
114
99
101

31
13

......

4

3
2

......

1

......

19
13
21
21
47
34
104
405
75
250
514
273
160
286
271

1
5
3
2
3
4
55
11

1
11
8
23
12
17
13
3
6
18
13
13
49

36
7

13

9

15

7

5
17
10

22
182

3
22
11
4

16
16
12
2
9
5
18
10
27
48
16
28
32
29
19
10
25
8
17
45
61
21
21
62
27
21
16

142
177
295
283
178
453
185
1,130
59
45
38
38
20
42
59
104
41
24
38
10
13
14
23
9
10
26
29

349
345
821
464
272
238
116
79
71
100
104
83
62
43
28
41
26
10
39
16
16
7
18
23
6
7
12

229
198
145
197
285
224
445
505
443
673
267
196
127
400
331
348
153
83
81
43
68
59
30
52
49
20
24

7
3

5

1

13

39
37
34
77
83
92
78
49
56
68
39
32
27
41
35
67
59
26
12
30
12

20
34
21
22
18
16
16
17
110
42
118
83
250
74
67
93
90
1

7
27
5
11
19

2
4
2
5
9
28
0)

3
2
1
9
64
6
125
359
37
1,390
1,335
1,869
1,983
2,080
2, 374
3,201
4,117
4. 426
3, 676
3,192
2, 244

1
35
4
35
2
2
266
401
281
227
248
249
250
215
1.58
208
160
86
82
182
90
42
45
152
55
91
128
132
103
99
113
104
179

W
d
w
til
>
d

o
tz!
i>
<<
Q
>
H
O
izj

>Included under “ M iscellaneous” In 1904 report.

to
C5
Or

266

R E P O R T

T O

T H E

S E C R E T A R Y

O F

C O M M E R C E

During the year there were reported 389 violations of the steam­
boat inspection laws, the great majority of which consisted of a
shortage in licensed officers or members of the crew. Often because of
illness or for similar reasons it becomes necessary for an officer tempo­
rarily to leave the ship at ports where substitutes are not readily
available. It has been the experience of the bureau, however, that
these vacancies are filled at the first opportunity and that ship­
owners and masters are diligent in complying with the requirements
of the safety laws.
Following is a comparative statement of cases of violations of the
navigation laws, 1916-1930:
Port
Baltimore.............
Boston..................
Bridgeport...........
Buffalo.................
Charleston...........
Chicago___; ........
Cleveland.............
D etroit.................
D uluth.................
Galveston.............
Honolulu..............
Juneau..................
Laredo..................
Los Angeles.........
Louisville.............
Memphis .........
Milwaukee...........
Mobile..................
New Orleans........
New York..........
Norfolk.................
Ogdensburg.........
Philadelphia........
Pittsburgh...........
Port A rthur____
Portland, M e:__
Portland, Greg-.Providence_____
Rochester.............
St. Louis...............
San Antonio 1 ___
San Francisco___
San Ju an ..............
Savannah.............
Seattle..................
T am pa.................
Wilmington, N .C .

1916 1917 1918 1919 1920
312 461
412 427
54 89
144 87
39 50
389 283
218 161
4 no
441 163
79 138

1921

1922

265 500 663
194 243 626
97
32 95
143
1 1 1 168
40
28 109
144 88
119
177 499 1, 096
40
56 27
146 142 12 2
132 282 241

699
607

21

24

41

8

10

181 18 11
ÎÔ
3
109 54 85 32
34
33 40 44 43
39
7j 10
172 1ST 109 192 125
63 128 50 49
64
94 84
18 67
83
133 82 18 81
133
122
106 109 52 98
177 315 221 501 487
1,256 1,292 583 626 1,349

95
29
60

35
37
36

22

183
35

185
57

1

50

531
92

105

1

54

22

430 1 S1
74 201

814
54

3
483 406 166 532
4
27*
6
0
93 117 203
68
2 1 1 145
51 53
229 130 239 120
125 94 68
65
42 44 102
14
1
33 68
29
154 348 173 201
5
4
2

2761 196

2

8

618
18
600
28
256
55
182
137
24
1

396
7
1

200

188
44
171
252
141
168
73

66

482
898
50
62

1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930

68

97
160
32
67
68

86

14
33
301
203
779 294
849 2, 698
21
13
846 68Ó
8
85
1

684
16

778

320
107
175
55
3
182

346
83
181

112

9

22

151 223 765 466
11
12
14
14
8
10
82 48 41 77
68
149
409 3 lx 338 266 320 310
570 547 29511,303 1,247 1, 770
137 262 19 261 302 42G

22
21

10

96
173

480
711
287
116
192
179
154
62
184
245

3

419 161
566 767
131 206
262 90
136 105
165 139
303 187
48
11
311 80
79 44
167
3
16
2

130

300 3G1 551 517 746
800 833 513 534 441
131 310 231 199 182
24 34 257 103 43
82 110
82 57 68
76 97 30 68
49
84
97
168 144 172
3
83 184 18? 202 234
42 38 33 46 30

78

57

26

31

14

32

45
4
106

10

12

14

32

78

51

18
4
45

55

58

r

1

8

12

178 131 127 171 261 281 405 336
29 20
28
54 35
8
18 44
62 162 150 I54i 120
49 81 35
104
17
5
T
1
25
79
26
334 234 191
96 263 42 186 76
467 790 371
411 186 285 226 217
1,475 663 1,625 ; 2,454 1, 185 1. 170 1,233 951
7
9
2
12
10
682 412 375 842 434 345 354 448
85
18 1 1 2
58 142 50 87 36
2

624
14
17
440
10 1

98
61
2

179

..

360 854
41
35
216 84
295 393
171 291
94 144
67 53
4
127 89

549 303
16 53
52
15
684 159
237 84
16.9 217
18 24
4 22
100
64
1

2
1

1

493 466 568
39 43 23
61 29 24
645 337 2C4
100 125
86
104 113 103
130 34 75
41
9
57 46
....

10
25 23 28
8
9 34 16
15
32
i
34
213 291 288 284 2S1 238 277 227 327
14
19 18 26
23 25 10
25 22
165 163 126 126
67 47 60 95 105
272 1.223 294 564 755 328 360 ?90 336
2, 300 1,049 1,386 1,398 1, 690 1,519 1,609 1.075 977
263 200 173 152
78 312 282 333 218

Total (47 ports). 7,826 7,569 4, 749 8,173 10,667 10, 706>11, 396111, 251'S, 867 9, 544 10,778 8,300 8,643 7,887 7,4,7
1
1
i
1
1
I
1
i The districts of Laredo (No. 23) and Eagle Pass (No. 25) were abolished by Executive order Sept. 7,
1917, and the district of San Antonio (No. 23) was created by the same order.
1 The districts of Los Angeles and San Diego were consolidated by Executive order of Jan. 26, 1923, with
Los Angeles as headquarters port.

PREVENTING OVERCROWDING OF PASSENGER VESSELS

One of the small but most important services we have is preventing
excursion vessels exceeding the safety limit in carrying passengers.
There is a constant temptation on the master to take on a few more,

B U R E A U

O F

267

N A V I G A T I O N

as every additional passenger carried is net profit. This has necessi­
tated the closest supervision. In the certificate of inspection issued
to the vessel is stated the number of persons she may safely carry.
Inspectors are placed at the gang planks with automatic counters.
When the prescribed number has been reached, no additional passen­
gers are permitted on board.
The following table shows the counts made by the navigation and
customs services by ports :
Navigation

Customs

Total

Port
Counts Passengers Counts Passengers Counts Passengers

Total, 1930...........................................
Total, 1929......................................................

1,657
47

562,164
39,306

2,180
460
908

434, 788
403,660
1,043,685
19,247

138
5

20

17,720
99,937
2, 287

552

90,583

267
260

10

6 , 494
6 , 583

423
4
57
67
5

6

3,554
287, 638
5, 728
41,314
46,016
6,697

71

7,615

71

20

46, 335
5,072
41,077

154

2, 263,684
3,594
125, 212

138
5
926
572
154
267

506

12,669

756

565,718
326,944
5, 728
476,102
449,676
1,050.382
19, 247
7,615
17,720
99,937
2, 287
2,263, 684
94,177
125.212
46,335
5,072
53, 746

2.805,861
2,888,247

2, 239
1,870

2.803. 721
2, 648, 584

8,733
8,453

5,609,582
5,536,831

926

1,663
470
4
2,237
527
913
20

10

During the year it was necessary on 31G occasions for the inspectors
to stop passengers going on board, the limit of safety having been
reached. This involved 163,185 passengers. Had our inspectors not
been present doubtless there would have been overcrowding and
perhaps lives endangered.
The following table shows in detail the occasions when the limit of
safety had been reached before all the passengers had embarked :
S h u t-o ffs, b y specified m on th s

July, 1929

! August, 1929 ; September, 1929

June, 1930

Total

Port
ICounts
Baltimore.......
Boston............
Chicago...........
Cleveland.......
D etroit______
New York___
Norfolk...........
Philadelphia..
Portland, Me.
Seattle.............
Total, 1930.
Total, 1929...........

1

2

46
2
20

Counts “
1,300
3. 300
17, 219
5,600
55, 597

j Counts;
5, 200
1,650
7,32n
2,800

i

i
;
I
10,021 :

20 ! 5,888

1 ! 3,008

3 , 1,274 !
1
1,005 L
li

3

79 ! 85, 723 i
77 79, 174 !

131

3,717 ;

158
34

31.701 I
52. 123 ;

18,539 ;
15,700 I
300

200 .

228

r
( Passen­
Counts ’assen
gers Kouni8 i gers

21 : 8,896 ;
1 I 1, 650 i

30,862!
36,928 j

7
3
85
3
31
44

! 8 .399
: 4,950
! 30,857
i 8.400
I 87,168
i 15,700

6

2, 201

134 j

1, 005
500
3,945

1!
2I

316 163,185
177 109,875

268

R E P O R T

T O

T H E

S E C R E T A R Y

O P

C O M M E R C E

SH IPPIN G COMMISSIONERS

During the year 650,673 seamen were shipped, reshipped, and dis­
charged, as compared with 627,392 the year before. The average
cost to the Government per man was 23 cents.
Collectors of customs acting at ports where shipping-commissioner
offices have not been established shipped and discharged during the
year 44,197 officers and men as compared with 47,562 during the
previous year.
Of the 334,780 men shipped before shipping commissioners 173,072
were native American and 54,323 were naturalized Americans; 227,395
in all, or 67.9 per cent. This does not give an entirely accurate view
of the nationality of crews of our vessels, as under existing law mas­
ters may sign on a portion of their crews in foreign ports before
United States consuls for the round trip. These men do not appear
before our shipping commissioners and are not included in the follow­
ing table, which shows the aggregate work and salaries of the shippingcommissioner service for the past 12 years:

Year

1919...................
1920.....................
1921...................
1922.....................
1923.....................
1924.....................

Seamen
shipped,
reshipped,
and dis­
charged
485,796
628,980
650,840
541,952
538,755
555,633

Salaries

$72,288
89,949
99,646
92,318
94, 476
94,476

Average
cost per
man

$0.15
.13
.15
.17
.17
.17

Year

Seamen
shipped,
reshipped,
and dis­
charged

1925....... ............
1926.....................
1927.....................
1928...................
1929.....................
1930...................

552,124
534,493
561,061
547,732
627,392
650,673

Salaries

$123,726
123,183
122,398
123,961
139,454
147,873

Average
cost per
man

$0 .22
.23
.2 2

.23
.2 2

.23

The work of the shipping commissioners is a beneficent service.
The seaman is employed under unusual conditions on voyages away
from his home port, out of the protection of the courts and away from
his friends. Congress, therefore, has legislated in detail for the pay­
ment of seamen’s wages, the food served, quarters furnished, and their
care if sick or injured.
During the year there has been turned over to shipping commission­
ers $103,673.55 in unclaimed, deserters’, and deceased seamen’s wages.
The commissioners are under heavy bond and are responsible for this
money.
PASSENGER ACT OF 1882

The condition of the accommodations extended to steerage pas­
sengers in recent years is a very material improvement over that which
existed when the passenger act of 1882 regulating such transportation
was passed. Under that act Congress provided in detail for the space
to be provided each passenger, its ventilation and cleanliness, hospital
spaces, eating accommodations, the separation of the sexes, and general
supervision of moral conditions, medical facilities and attendance, and
in other ways so far as possible protected the health and welfare of its
future citizens.

B U R E A U

O F

269

N A V I G A T I O N

The following table shows the number of steerage passengers
brought to our ports each year since 1925 on steam vessels inspected
for this purpose and the number of voyages made by such vessels:
1
Vovaees
stei!raSe
voyages |' passengers

Year

Steerage
Voyages passengers

Year

1
1925.. ...................................
1926.. ..
1927........

1,257 1
1,334 !
1,367 !

187,127
215,639
275,175

1928..........................................
1929.........................................
1930..........................................

1,384
1,422
1,347

301,223
327,018
326,767

NAVIGATION RECEIPTS

Revenue collected by the bureau from all sources during the year
aggregated $2,320,670.19. Attention again is invited to the fact that
the amounts thus collected from our merchant marine exceeded by
nearly $800,000 the entire expense of the Bureau of Navigation and
the Steamboat Inspection Service combined.
These receipts in detail were as follows:
June 30—

Tonnage duties

Navigation
fees

Navigation
fines

1930......................................................................
1929......................................................................
1917.................................... .................................

$2,021,295.94
2,014, 438.06
1,393,743.16

$236,781.02
249,483. 21
159,808.03

$62,593.23
54,729.90
49,962.37

Total
$2,320,670.19
2,318,651.17
1,603,513.56

PUBLICATIONS

Publications of the bureau comprise the Navigation Laws (quad­
rennial with annual pamphlet supplements), Merchant Vessels of the
United States (annual), Code List of Seagoing Vessels (annual), and
American Documented Seagoing Merchant Vessels of 500 Gross Tons
and Over (monthly).
Appendixes and statistics of the merchant marine formerly printed
as a part of the bureau’s annual report are now published as a separ­
ate document known as Merchant Marine Statistics.
The above publications are no longer issued gratuitously, but are
for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing
Office, Washington, D. C.
In addition to the above, the bureau issues regulations governing
the navigation of the St. Marys River, the establishment of load lines,
the admeasurement of vessels, the navigation and equipping of small
motor boats, the recording of mortgages and bills of sale, and regula­
tions governing regattas and marine parades.
Very truly yours,
A. J. T v r e r ,
Commissioner oj Navigation.

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE
D

epa r tm en t of

C ommerce,

S tea m b o a t I n s p e c t io n S e r v ic e ,

Washington, July 1, 1930.
The h o n o ra b le th e S ec r e t a r y o f C o m m e r c e .
D ea r M r . S e c r e t a r y : Herewith is submitted a report on the
work of the Steamboat Inspection Service for the fiscal year ended
June 30, 1930.
PERSONNEL

The following positions were embraced in the service at the end
of June, 1930:
Central office:
Supervising Inspector General___________________________________
Deputy Supervising Inspector General_____________
Administrative assistant to the Supervising Inspector General______
Traveling inspectors____________________________________________
Clerks____________________________
Messenger_____________________________________________________

1
1
1
6
12
1

Total, central office___________________________________________

22

Field:
Supervising inspectors__________________________________________
Local inspectors of hulls_________________________________________
Local inspectors of boilers_______________________________________
Assistant inspectors of hulls_____________________________________
Assistant inspectors of boilers______________________________________
Clerks..............

11
47
47
74
74
93

Total, field.............................................................. ........................................

346

Grand total_____- ____________________________________________

368

EXPANSION OF FORCE

The last annual report of the Supervising Inspector General
stressed the necessity for a material expansion of the Steamboat In­
spection Service in order to meet the requirements of law and to
make more thorough annual inspections and to permit of more fre­
quent reinspections. In the appropriations for the year ending June
30, 1931, Congress made provision for 45 additional assistant inspec­
tors and 16 additional clerks. As a result of this increase, it is now
possible to make more frequent reinspections of a class of vessels not
heretofore properly covered. Accordingly, under date of June 23,
1930, the following order was sent to afi of the inspectors in this
service :
Commencing July 1, 1930, it is the desire of the bureau that three reinspec­
tions be made of each American and each foreign passenger vessel, whether under
reciprocity or not, during the season of navigation or year for which certificated
in addition to the annual inspection each year.
270

S T E A M B O A T

INSPECTION"

SERVICE

271

In carrying out this oiric-r it is expected that you will use good judgment, taking
into consideration the conditions incident to the operation of the ship, the pur­
pose being to see that all equipment is in good condition and ready for imme­
diate use, stressing particularly the launching and handling of lifeboats and the
exercising of the crew in pulling oars. Except in instances where all lifeboats
are lowered, which would be an unusual condition, different lifeboats are to be
used at each reinspection and notation made in Form 840-F.

That requirement, applying to foreign as well as American ships,
places the responsibility upon the inspector when reinspecting to see
that all equipment is in good condition and ready for immediate use,
stressing particularly the launching and handling of lifeboats and the
exercising of the crew in pulling oars. For many years three reinspections of excursion and ferry steamers have been required during
a year or season of navigation. The order of June 23, 1930, extends
the requirements to other vessels. The last two paragraphs of the
section of Rule III of the General Rules and Regulations Prescribed
by the Board of Supervising Inspectors, relating to the handling of
boats and rafts, read as follows:
At least once in each interval of not longer than three months, the master of
every inspected passenger vessel shall drill and exercise every member of the
crew, except females, in pulling oars in the ship’s lifeboats.
In addition, the crew of the motor-propelled boats shall demonstrate their
ability in the working of the engine and handling of the boat under power.

The expansion of the force makes it practicable to extend the in­
spections to determine that these regulations are being enforced.
In the estimates for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932, there is
an item asking for an appropriation to pay for the salaries of six
additional clerks in the office of the Supervising Inspector General.
The efficiency of the service will depend largely upon providing the
central office with a sufficient number of employees to follow up
intelligently the system of reporting required of inspectors. Mani­
festly, in a service that is expanding such as this—as a result of the
construction of new passenger ships for the American merchant
marine— additional clerical help is needed to handle promptly the
large increase in correspondence in the central office.
Under the law the Board of Supervising Inspectors is required to
promulgate regulations relative to the inspection of vessels and the
conduct of licensed officers. These rules and regulations are set
forth in the publication entitled “ General Rules and Regulations
Prescribed by the Board of Supervising Inspectors." The last session
of the Board of Supervising Inspectors commenced on January 15
and ended on February 20, 1930. During that period there were be­
fore the board 104 cases, on which 32 hearings were held. Several of
the most important hearings were recorded verbatim, and it appears
that the entire proceedings of the board should be made in this man­
ner. Under present circumstances this is not possible, but should
the request for additional clerical force in the central office be granted,
the proper recording of minutes and the keeping of records could be
effectively performed.
LESSONS FROM DISASTERS

Upon the Supervising Inspector General rests the responsibility of
studying the causes of all major disasters and devising means whereby
the danger of their repetition may be minimized. Accordingly he

272

R E P O R T

T O

T H E

S E C R E T A R Y

O F

C O M M E R C E

has repeatedly gone into the districts to assiet the inspectors in
ascertaining the facts with reference to disasters.
Last fall there were three major disasters on Lake Michigan. The
first was the loss of the steamer Andaste, of 1,439 gross tons, on
September 9, 1929, while en route from Grand Haven, Mich., to
Chicago, 111., with a crew of 25 and a cargo of gravel. The second
was the car ferry Milwaukee, of 2,933 gross tons, which left the port
of Milwaukee at 3 p. m., October 22, 1929, bound for Grand Haven,
Mich., and has never been heard from since. There were 47 lives
lost. The third was the steamer Wisconsin, of 1,921 gross tons,
which sank on October 29, 1929, 4 miles offshore from Kenosha,
Wis., resulting in the loss of 9 of the crew.
The Supervising Inspector General went into each of those disasters
carefully, and at the last meeting of the Board of Supervising Inspec­
tors the following requirements were added to strengthen its regula­
tions:
1. The submission of blue prints covering new construction and changes in
construction to the Supervising Inspector General.
2. The carrying of a life raft on vessels on the Great Lakes in addition to their
lifeboat equipment.
3. The carrying of additional distress lights in the pilot house or upon the
navigator’s bridge of Great Lakes vessels of 150 gross tons and over.

In connection with the loss of the Andaste and the Milwaukee, a
study is being made of radio conditions on the Great Lakes, with a
view to determining whether the use of radio should be extended.
The supervising inspectors of the eighth and ninth districts are con­
ducting a special investigation to assist in determining to .what extent
there should be a change in the construction of car ferries on the Great
Lakes.
On June 10, 1930, a collision occurred between the passenger
steamer Fairfax and the tanker Pinthis in the waters of Massachusetts
Bay, resulting in the loss of the lives of 50 persons. The Supervising
Inspector General proceeded to Boston and counseled with the local
inspectors at that port, who investigated the disaster, with a view to
determining what constructive suggestions could be made so as to
reduce such disasters to a minimum. In a general report covering
the matter, the Supervising Inspector General suggested—
1. I recommend that you call a conference of the shipowners for the purpose
of working out a plan for establishing passing lanes in coastwise waters. The
necessity for this has been established in Massachusetts Bay, but my thought is,
while the conditions there may be met by establishing passing lanes, to also give
attention to the same problem in other waters where it may be necessary.
2. The law is strict with reference to the transportation of dangerous articles
on steamers carrying passengers. Gasoline as cargo would not be permitted to
be transported on a steamer carrying passengers, but here we have a disaster
where a vessel that is forbidden by law to carry gasoline as cargo is the victim by
fire, and lives are lost, as the result of a collision with a vessel which is permitted
by law to carry gasoline as cargo. While there is no violation of any legal rule
in the transportation of gasoline as cargo in a ship not carrying passengers navi­
gating crowded waters in a fog, there is, I submit, a question as to the moral right
to do this thing, and I recommend that you call a conference of the owners and
operators of tankers with a view to working out a plan by which there may be an
understanding that these vessels shall anchor in time of fog in waters where there
will be no danger of collision with passenger ships.

The conferences recommended have been agreed to, and they will
be held some time in the early fall of the present calendar year. At
that time the shipowners will collaborate with this service in working

S T E A M B O A T

IN S P E C T I O N

SERVICE

273

out plans for securing greater safety, this service approaching the
problem with the object in view to securing remedial measures through
the cooperation of those at interest rather than through legislation.
INCLINING TESTS OF VESSELS

A recent appropriation permitted the employment of additional
traveling inspectors for the purpose of more promptly conducting
stability tests. Since that time four men have been constantly used
on stability tests. The work of inclining ships is constantly increas­
ing, due not alone to the construction of new vessels but also to the
broadening of the regulations that require more attention be given to
the actual seaworthiness of vessels, especially in hull construction,
etc. If this work continues to increase as it has for the past two years
it will be necessary next year to ask for additional personnel.
During the past fiscal year the inspectors have been busily engaged
in inclining a number of vessels on the Lakes and in the vicinity of
New York City. The work at New York City is almost completed,
and considerable headway has been made in inclining a certain class
of vessels on the Great Lakes. It is anticipated that this work will
have been completed by the opening of the next season of navigation.
HARBOR LINE CHANGES

As a result of a study by the Board of Supervising Inspectors at its
last annual meeting, a change has been made in the harbor lines of
New York. The seaward limits of the harbor were changed from an
imaginary line drawn from Navesink Lighthouse, 25Y° true (NE.% N.
mag.), to the Life Saving Station on Rockaway Beach, to a line drawn
from Sandy Hook Lighthouse, 30° true (NE. K N .), to Rockaway
Point, distant 6 miles.
REVISION OF BOILER RULES

In the last annual report reference was made to the revision of
boiler rules, a subject so important that further comment appears
necessary. The rules as revised tentatively have received very
general commendation by those interests competent to judge. These
rules which are now being reviewed by a special committee of emi­
nent engineers will—when legislation is enacted authorizing the
Board of Supervising Inspectors to prescribe rules—be not only
equal to but surpass the marine-boiler rules of any nation in the
world.
A detailed study is also being made of welding, electrical installa­
tion, and Diesel propulsion, and in due time the Board of Supervising
Inspectors will be in a position to promulgate codes concerning these
matters that will command the respect of all.
MOTOR-VESSEL INSPECTION

Last year the recommendation was again made that legislation
should be enacted covering motor-boat inspection and officering.
Operators should be properly examined by this service concerning
their visual acuity, color sense, and knowledge of rules of the road.
They should be 21 years of age and citizens of the United States.
Neither of these qualifications is required at present. The inspec18038—30------18

274

R E P O R T

T O

T H E

S E C R E T A R Y

O F

C O M M E R C E

tion, of course, should be extended to make conditions safer upon
vessels which are not now inspected, and the inspectors should be
vested with authority concerning vessels of this type that are now
subject to inspection.
EXPENDITURES

Following is a detailed account of the expenditures for the year
ended June 30, 1930:
Salaries, office of the Supervising Inspector General, as well as for
the field force__________________________ ______ ________ . . . $1, 024, 943. 49
Traveling expenses (actual)_________________________________
Rents, offices______________________________________________
Furniture, instruments, stationery, supplies, and transportation
of same_______________________ _________________________
Telephone rents and telegrams______________________________
Witness fees and mileage in cases of investigation_____________
Ice, fuel, and electric light_________ _______________________ 455.
Toilet service, laundry, soap, etc____________________________
Janitor service___ _____ ______________________________ ______
Notarial certifications______________________________________
Repairs___________________________ ___________ ____________
Miscellaneous______________________________________________

94, 30S. 00
31, 836. 37
15, 688. 38
7, 031. 13
217. 30
70
267. 56
240.00
537. 21
302. 62
1, 106. 89

Total traveling and miscellaneous expenses_____________

151, 991. 16

Salaries, 1930....................................................... .....................................
Salaries, 1929. ......... ........................... ..................................................

1, 024, 943. 49
1, 018, 959. 34

Increase, 1930. ________________ _____________________

5,984.15

Contingent expenses, 1930__________________________________
Contingent expenses, 1929__________________________________

151, 991. 16
137, 954. 60

Increase, 1930_______________________________________

14, 036. 56

Rents, 1930.................................................................................................
Rents, 1929........................ .......................................................................

31, 836. 37
36, 069. 60

Decrease, 1930____ __________________________________

4, 233. 23

Traveling expenses, 1 9 3 0 .._______ _______________ __________
Traveling expenses, 1929____________________________________

94, 308. 00
85, 800. 37

Increase, 1930_______________________________________

8, 507. 63

Total traveling and miscellaneous expenses as noted above____ •
151, 991. 16
Total salaries as noted above__________________________ _____ 1, 024, 943. 49
Total expenditures for year ended June 30, 1930________
Total expenditures for year ended June 30, 1929______________

1, 176, 934. 65
1, 156, 913. 94

Increase, 1930_______________________________________

20, 020. 71

The above increases are due to increase in force.
NUMBER, CLASS, AND TONNAGE OF VESSELS INSPECTED

There is submitted herewith a tabulated statement showing the
number, class, and tonnage of vessels regularly inspected by this
service and granted certificates:

Vessels inspected and certificates of inspection issued to steam and motor vessels and to barges during the year ended June 80, 1980
C E R T IF IC A T E S OF IN SPE C T IO N ISSUED BY D ISTRICTS

Domestic vessels
Supervis­
ing dis­
trict

Local district

Steam vessels

Motor vessels

Passenger barges Seagoing barges

8

24
54
139
125
36
56
4
20

36
9
28
15
15
9
10

9
8

7

12

4
6

7
9
5
3

12

4

73,641
3^ 083
51, 287
988
165,151
1,687

2
2

1,076
1,822

1 ,1 0 2

88,079
28,478
65, 745
1,519
3, 487
*262
697
1,045
3,465
974
1,908
595
4, 531
1,037
541
347
363
277
145
133
18. 399
12,693
215
169
1,460
894

2

620

2
2

918

118

114

126,123

1,659

1

2 , 216

48
76
7
3

N um ­
Gross
ber
tonnage

N um ­
Gross
ber
tonnage

35, 031

352

5, 266
4, 379

395
60

2,959', 959
34 489

20

281,121

174

2, 727, 203

*r*

5^ 141

2
10
8
1

139

1

263

1

109

2, 573

592

*1! 947

60

13, 590

31

3] 485

........... 1................
36

32! 815

36

23i 492

2,622
1

1,307
1 ,111

3

15,500

495
40
118
80
1, 833
106
60
352
387
395
60
88
40
80
59
221
43
60
64
67
32
40
53
53
84
27
31
113
121
67
36
36
88
39

1, 401, 943
322, 587
504.641
115,317
5,687, 162
34,489
12, 558
687, 263
358,986
723,503
16, 643
58, 537
91,925
13,983
5,106
542, 660
12,645
28, 023
30, 681
108, 082
5, 753
9, 774
10,093
8,082
18, 388
6,932
3,485
277,031
421,878
241,003
32,815
17,140
198, 263
38,992

STEAM BOAT IN S P E C T IO N SERVICE

97
4
24
14
140

Total

Total

Num­ Gross ton­ Num ­ Gross Num­ Gross Num ­ Gross Num­ Gross ton­
ber
nage
ber
tonnage
ber
tonnage
ber
tonnage
ber
nage
F irst......... San Francisco, Calif......................
365 1,118,999
Honolulu, Hawaii........................
14
37,473
I.os Angeles, Calif.................. .
92
452.43«
Portland, Oreg................. ........
63
103, 033
Second___ New York, N. Y__
1,403 2,666.863
Albany, N. Y .._.........
9S
32,802
New Haven, Conn___ _____
35
9,240
Philadelphia, Pa....... .............
250
564. 153
T h ird........ Norfolk, Va_______
170
241,407
Baltimore, M d.........
263
652,492
Charleston, S. C ___
21
10, 745
Jacksonville, Fla___
21
46. 783
Savannah, Ga..............
33
86, 522
Fourth___ St. Louis, Mo...........
60
13,286
Dubuque, Iowa...........
22
4.043
F ifth......... Boston, Mass................
178
482,569
Bangor, M e ............
5
399
New Jxmdon, Conn. ..
43
23, 542
Portland, M e. ..............
39
23, «46
Providence, R. I .......................
50
89,961
Sixth......... Louisville, K y ..........................
22
4, 716
Evansville, In d ..............
30
9,094
Memphis, T enn.................
45
9,746
Nashville, Tenn........................
46
7,719
Seventh.. Pittsburgh, Pa.............................
71
17,848
Cincinnati, Ohio.........
23
6 , 787
Point Pleasant, W. Va....... ..........
24
3,243
E ighth___ Detroit, Mich...............
10 1
256,010
Chicago, III...............................
409, 185
112
Duluth, M inn..............
66
239,696
Grand Haven, Mich................
3J‘
32,600
Marquette, M ich...........................
31
15,860
Milwaukee, Wis................ ......
76
196,803
Port Huron, M ich...........................
32
22,598

Foreign passenger
steam and motor
vessels

to

-A

Oi

C E R T IF IC A T E S OF IN SPE C T IO N ISSUED BY D ISTRICTS—Continued
Foreign passenger'
steam and motor •;
vessels

Domestic vessels
Local district

Steam vessels

Motor vessels | Passenger barges Seagoing barges

Num­ Gross ton- i Num- Gross ; Numnage
; ber
tonnage ; ber
ber
27 i

8

470,453
555,692
6 , 794
246, 791
617,592
480, 980
378,243
16,301
26,116
370,165
11,935
747
1,728

Total, 1930........................
Total, 1929............... .................

5,062
5,282

11,075,836
11, 421. 902

1,152
1,087

599,912
521,569

Increase (+ ) or decrease (—)

-220

-346,066

+65

+78,343

N inth.

Cleveland» Ohio..............................
Buffalo, N. Y..................................
Oswego, N. Y................................
Toledo, Ohio....... ...........................
T enth.
New Orleans, La...........................
Galveston. Tex..............................
Mobile, Ala.................................... .
San Juan, P. R__..........................
Tampa, Fla....... ............................
Eleventh.. Seattle, Wash.................................
Hoquiam, Wash............................
Juneau, Alaska...............................
St. Michael, Alaska....... ..............

121

191
19
SO

241
135
109
7
18
108
13
11

Total

Gross Num­ Gross Num­ Gross-tonber
nage
tonnage
tonnage
ber

193
31
85
290
174
144
13
31
232
13
30
19

470,480
555,925
12, 265
247, 245
628,908
542,643
394,855
16,420
27,976
392,173
11,935
4,034
2,262

392,638 6,600
400,015 6,766

12,079,355
12,353,631

122

233

5, 471
4M
2, 723
32,709
782
119
834
20,384

5,117
945

3,476
28,009
15,830
1,026
979 I
1,809 ;

1,478
534
10,969
10, 145
+1

+824

367
379

Total

-12 ! -7,377

-166

-274,276

Num­
ber

Gross
Num- ; Gross
tonnage j ber
tonnage

'231,'019

38
87
314
175
144
23
31
264

5,011

30
24

470, 480
576,189
14, M7
248.167
746,796
550, 692
394,855
52,879
27,976
623,192
11,935
4,034
7,273

334 3,696,023
320 3,355,193

6,934
7,086

15, 775,378
15, 708,824

-152

-66,554

730,439 1,064
2,795, 621 3,799
18
459
44,008
948
125,937
664

2,990,922
8,446,036
81,596
2,536,505
1, 720, 319

20,264
2,282
922
117,888
8,049
36,459

122
201

13

+14

+340,830

VESSELS IN S PE C T E D , BY GEO G RA PH IC DIVISIONS

Geographic divisions
734
2,616
343
863
506
Gulf coast................. .........................................

2,096,516
4,947,425
76,482
2,452.482
1,502,931

229

Total, 1930................................................ 5,062
Total, 1929.......................................................... 5,282
-220

10

315

10,851
333,446

6,002

42

19
18

10,969
10,145

367
379

+I

+824

58
85

151,395
367,102
4,586
39,782
37,048

4
4
3

11,075,836
11,421,902

1,152
1,087

599,912
521,569

-346,066

+65

+78,343

668
112

2
6

1,721
2, 442
511
233

-12

2,260,483
5,650,415
81, 578
2,492, 497
1,594,382

87
196

48,341

977
3.603
458
923
639

392,638
400,015

6, 766

6,600

12,079,355
12,353,631

334
320

3, 696,023
3,355,193

6 ,934
7,086

15,775,378
15, 708,824

-7,377

-166

-274,276

+14

+340,830

-152

-06,554

1

25
25

REPO RT TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

Supervis­
ing dis­
trict

276

V e s s e ls in s p e c te d a n d c e r tific a te s o f in s p e c tio n i s s u e d to s te a m a n d m o to r v e s s e ls a n d to b a rg e s d u r i n g th e y e a r e n d e d J u n e 8 0 , 1 9 3 0 — Con.

W
w
G
L

S T E A M B O A T

I N S P E C T I O N

277

SEKVICE

MISCELLANEOUS INSPECTIONS

Statement of steam vessels granted letters of approval of designs of
boilers, engines, and other operating machinery inspected under an
act of Congress approved June 9, 1910, which vessels are not inspected
annually, only one inspection being made for letter of approval; hulls
of United States Government vessels inspected; and boilers in or for
United States Government steamers and buildings, and for other
United States governmental purposes, inspected by inspectors of the
Steamboat Inspection Service during the year ended June 30, 1930:
Steam ves­
sels granted
letters of
approval

Gov­
Gov­
ern­
ern­
ment
ment
L o c a l inspection
boilers
vesdistrict (port)
sels in
in­
Num ­ Gross
ton­ spected spected
ber nage

2

New York, N. Y__.

1

34

New Haven, Conn..

2

48

16

1

Norfolk,‘Va ' .........

3
5
19

.........

67
32
32
61
140
16
13
63
89
104
46
16
57
185
135
48
10

4

1

754

Cincinnati, O h io ...

3
52
15
158
57
50
69

Steam ves­
sels granted Gov­
letters of
ern­
L o c a l inspection
approval
ment
ves­
district (port)
sels in
Num­ Gross
spected
ton­
ber nage
Point Pleasant, W.

1

Gov
em ­
inent
boilers
in­
spected

48

Duluth, M inn.........
Grand Haven, Mich

1
1

27
24

3

29
16
65
7

Milwaukee, Wis__

1
1

54
15

4

35

2

4

3
5
9

32

254
79

Buffalo, N. Y ..........
New Orleans, La__

1

12
12

1
1

8

86

Mobile, Ala.............

3

6

2

175

Total, 1930...
Total, 1929...............

14
10

1,179
495

96
67

2,203
2,063

Increase.........

4

684

29

H0

Hoquiam, Wash__

49
1

REINSPECTIONS

A statement of vessel reinspections made by boards of local inspec­
tors during the year ended June 30, 1930:
Local inspection dis­ Steam M otor! Barges, Total
vessels vessels, etc.
trict (port)
113
5
14
719
72
23
207
61
40
2
10
21
22
7

87
17
17
23
46

:
1
!
|
1
|

45
2
1
38
20
49
17

___
!............
!..
6
!............
!
I............

!.
j.......... I.............
i .

i
31 |............
!
8 ............
...........!.............
:
i ...........
6 i
2
15 . . .
.......... |.............
4 L.

12 .........................
9 ...........1.............
Cincinnati, Ohio___

13 .........................
28 ....................... .

Local inspection dis­ Steam Motor Barges, Total
trict (port)
vessels vessels etc.

158
15
763
92
72
224
61
40
2
41
29
22

Buffalo, N. Y ...........

87
25
32
23
50

12
9
10
13
28

19 ..........
95
12
24
4
15
4
81
17
26
10
19
2
12
27
10 ■" 19
12
11
9
78
8
11
13
9
6
9
6
41
17
2

Total, 1930...... 2. KM
Total, 1929................. 2,173
decrease (—)_

-6 9

357
333
+24

2
5
1

19
107
28
15
85
17
36
21
12
29
29
23
92
20
20
15
15
58
2

16 2,477
27 2, 533
-11

-56

278

R E PO R T TO T H E SECRETARY OF COM M ERCE

CARGO VESSELS EXAMINED TO CARRY PERSONS IN ADDITION
TO CREW

During the year ended June 30, 1930, 1,492 cargo vessels were
examined to carry persons in addition to crew, under the provisions
of the act of Congress approved June 5, 1920.
M ARINE-BOILER PLATES TESTED

Following is a statement of marine-boiler plates tested at the mills
during the year ended June 30, 1930, under the act of Congress
approved January 22, 1894:

5
Total, 1930.................... ................ 43
Total, 1929...............................
40

26
2

11 . . . .
2

2

29
43

1

1

1

1

13
1

1

2
2

3
8

6

13
2

2
1 _ .8.

3
6

3 ....

Increase (+ ) or decrease (—)....... +3 -14 + 1 2 + i . . . . + i + 8 - 3 +3 - 1

Inspected

79
4

3

Accepted

sg §g

Rejected

2

«

a c

Wrong
dimension

36

CO

Total

1
:

Philadelphia, Pa.....................................

«0

•og
O 03
—
o
§,*§

! Bending
test

Inspected by assistant inspectors at

Tensile
strength
Surface
defect
Light
gage
Heavy
gage
Lost

Plates rejected because of—

2,083 2,162
189
193
339
345
264
277
227
229

104 3,102
94 2, 249

3,206
2, 343

+853

+863

+ 10

STEEL BARS TO BE USED AS STAYS AND BRACES TESTED

Following is a statement of steel bars to be used as boiler stays and
braces tested during the year ended June 30, 1930:
Tested by assistant inspectors at—

Samples Samples
Bars
tested rejected accepted

Bars re­
jected

Coatesville, P a .................................................................................
Pittsburgh, Pa.............................................................................
Chicago, 111..................................................
Buffalo, N. Y....................................................................................

82
186
64

4

292
1,517
576
48

16

Total. 1930..............................................................................

336

4

2,433

16

4

NEW LIFE PRESERVERS INSPECTED

During the year ended June 30,1930, new life preservers were in­
spected as follows:
Kind

Inspected

Passed

Rejected

201,826
6,469
309

200,494
6,418
309

1,332
51

Total, 1930.................................................................................................
Total, 1929......................... ...............................................................................

208,604
176,117

207,221
174,447

1,383
1,670

Increase (+ ) or decrease (—) ..................................................................

+32,487

+32, 774

-287

S T E A M B O A T

IN S P E C T I O N

279

SERVICE

IN S P E C T IO N S A T F A C T O R IE S

During the year ended June 30, 1930, new apparatus at factories
were inspected as follows:
Kind

Inspected

Passed

9,420
355

9,397
355

552
236
346

552
236
346

10

10

Rejected
23

280

O F F IC E R S L IC E N S E D
O ffice rs lic e n s e d o f a ll g r a d e s , b y lo c a l d i s t r i c t s , d u r i n g th e y e a r e n d e d J u n e SO, 1 9 3 0

Steam vessels

Steam and motor vessels
Mates
Masters
Ocean
3Ô7
22

132
72
1,099
51
28
150
130
185
25
59
20

25

22

85

22

551
5
135
26

10 1
10

40
12
2

10

58
21

6

16
10

Port Huron. M ich.........................................

57
03

3

10
1

9
2

3

7

10
2

1
2
1

1

1

9

12 1

25
25
26

10
22

12

11
12

3

5
3

2

5
3

10
8
1

5

12

5
23
9
14

2
8

2

31

4
5

10

7
13

10

21

10

10

15
34
14
4
72
33

17
61

11

2

6
8

7
7
9

10

7
7
28
16
17
9
9
62
24

3
9
5
2

4
5
3
4

404
13

334
18

176

75
1,362
91
24
209
124
173
25
43
31
55
16
175
25
35
45
48
16

65
869
13

43
424

174
58
132
18
57
24
17
9
161
14

84
39
84
43

15
23
4
3

10

10 2

10

1

4

33
26
28
10
10

1
12

105

8
2
2

11

3
4

66

14
33
70
49

10 2

8

12

5

21
6

4
48
49
11

19
8

51
48

6
66
22
10

10

2

14
5
42
16
19
14
14
7
2

7
3
1

4
13
13
4
1

24
1

487
40
366
215
908
19
127
605
475
383
1 10

434
38
233
89
273
93
174
117
99
52
72
98
61
79
37
61
90
131
35
72
71
67
24

62

5

15

1

64

2

2

8

2

9
5

10

3

11

15

2
10
6

2,195
123
879
519
5,468
249
222

2

22

Total

1
1

............... ................
...............

1

.................................

1,410
893
1,125
219
701
136
379
142
1,070
242
298
318
257
114
108
165
125
189
85
103
365
330
107
154
118
335
2 12

COM M ERCE

183
29

48

Chief
mates

OF

10

190
41
33
50
34
19

270

Assistant
Secondclass and
Chief
and
special engineers special Engineers Operators Masters
engineers
pilots

Firstclass
pilots

Masters
of barges
of over
100 gross
tons

SECRETARY

New York, N. Y ...........................................

Inland

Sail vessels of over
700 gross tons

R E PO R T TO T H E

Local district

Motor vessels

58
67
15
13
208
115
63
19
24
150
26
14
3

Total, 1930....
Total, 1929...............

3,902
3,827
+75

Increase (+ ) or decrease (—),

1
2

62
29
4

148
67
41
4

15

34
7
17

92

25
5

7
3
1

12

10
10
2

4

113
103
26
30
274
84

11

68

3
3

2
1

1

2,002

1,795

310
399

733
767

+207

-89

-34

22
200

72
28
3
31

11

12
2

3
79
34
21

• 93
64
153
77
165
206
143
71
203
257

102

7
4

2

7
32
81
4
17
5

4,421
4,553

3,011
2,928

1, 531
1,319

7,871
6,423

301
275

-132

+83

+ 212

+1,448

+26

4
13

10

128

416
338
217
158
L 171
611
398

15 ................
8 ................
8 ................
3 ..
3 ................
15
1
3 ................

5
26
115
10

216 ;
260

71
48
15

112

336
846
74
196
84

66
10
14
-4

4
7
-3

24,312
22, 567
+1, 745

STEAMBOAT INSPECTION SERVICE

Cleveland, Ohio---Buffalo, N. Y ..........
Oswego, N. Y .........
Toledo, Ohio...........
New Orleans, L a ...
Galveston, Tex.......
Mobile, Ala.............
San Juan, P. R .......
Tampa, F la.............
Seattle, W ash .........
Hoquiam, Wash__
Juneau, Alaska.......
St. Michael, Alaska

to
00

282

R E P O R T

T O

T H E

S E C R E T A R Y

O F

C O M M E R C E

CERTIFICATES OF SERVICE ISSUED TO ABLE SEAMEN

There is submitted herewith a tabulated statement showing the
number of applications received for certificates of service as able
seamen, the number of applications rejected, and the number of
certificates issued during the year ended June 30, 1930:
Appli­ Appli­ Certifi­
Appli­ A ppli- Certifi- !
Local inspection district cations cations cates
cations cations cates
received rejected issued
received rejected issued >
San Francisco, Calif.
Honolulu, Hawaii...
Los Angeles, Calif...
Portland, Oreg.........
New York, N. Y__
New Haven, Conn..
Philadelphia, Pa___
Norfolk, Va..............
Baltimore, M d.........
Charleston, S. C ___
Jacksonville, Fla---Savannah, Ga..........
Boston, Mass...........
Bangor, Me..............
New London, Conn.
Portland, M e...........
Providence, R. I ---Detroit, M ich..........
Chicago, 111..............
Duluth, M inn..........
Grand Haven, Mich

862
129
200
88

2,382
8

112

3

10

27
152

423
215
831
37
203
97
269
29

40
50
130
5
25

70

2

20

12 1

302
235
91
37

12

30

18
93
11
2
6

Marquette, M ich...........
Milwaukee, W is.............
Port Huron, M ich.........
Cleveland, Ohio..............
Buffalo, N. Y..................

17
138
27
342
206

383 Toledo, Ohio...................
165 ! New Orleans, La............
695 Galveston, Tex...............
32 1 Mobile, Ala.....................
178 1 San Juan, P. R ...............
85 Tampa, Fla.....................
239 Seattle, Wash.................
29
20 I
68 !
103
209
Total, 1930______
224 Total, 1929......................
89
31
Increase.................

97
562
150
224
14
72
313

750
126
19G
61
2,230 1
8

2

2
8
10

57
22

15
130
17
285
184
2

5
28
3

92
534
147
204

9
1

71
304
19

8,851
8 ,2 11

902
579

7,949
7, 632

640

323

317

20
11
1

20
2
1

12

11
1

CERTIFICATES OF EFFICIENCY ISSUED TO LIFEBOAT MEN

The following statement shows the number of applications received
for certificates of efficiency as lifeboat men, the number of applicants
rejected, and the number of certificates issued during the year ended
June 30, 1930:
By whom issued

Local inspectors of vessels:
Portland, O reg ..........
New York, N. Y.........

New London, C onn...

Grand Haven, M ich..
Cleveland, Ohio..........
Buffalo, N. Y ..............

Appli­ Appli- Certi­
cations cations ficates
received rejected issued

544
35
17
3
273
II
25
19
137 .............
316
100
15
228
37
111
2

............

544
35
14
273

By whom issued

Local inspectors of vessels—Continued.
St. Michael, A laska...

11

25
19
137
316
85
228
37
111
2

Naval training sta-

213
3

4

209
3

9,366

4,737

4, 629

217
72

161
6

56

06

159

159

1

1

262
236
7 ............
4
i ............

262
236
7
4

20

72
4
18
62
16

Bureau of Lighthouses,
school ship Nantucket.

45

2

Total, 1930.
Total, 1929.......................

14, 546
11,785

3, 960

7,825

2,761

2,271

490

1

92
4
IS
62
16
2

30
21

4,695

1
1

30
21

R. I ........................

Appli- 1Appli­ Certi­
cations ; cations ficates
received rejected issued

vey, Department of

3,992

1 , 200

2,792

10

1

9

684

126

558

6 , 231

8,315

45

S T E A M B O A T

IN S P E C T I O N

283

SERVICE

LIVES LOST ON VESSELS SUBJECT TO INSPECTION

The statement following shows the loss of life on vessels subject to
inspection during the year ended June 30, 1930:
First

Second

Third

Fifth

Fourth

Sixth

Cause

% *

a s

Ph j O

Ninth

Tenth

Elev­
enth

5
4

+T
Total
tc
(3
Pi

5

5
Fire:

4

4

Collision:

4

5
18

80

37
32

9
Explosion^ escape* of steam, etc.:

Accidental drowning:
Suicide:

9
1

Non passenger steamers........................
Grand total..................................................
Last year................................................................ 3
Increase (+ ) or decrease (—) ..................... - 3
» Stowaways.

1
6

5

Miscellaneous:
Nonpassenger steamers.....................................
Total:

1

2 ::::
6
2 ....
2
6
5
11

-9 +l

1
1 ___
11

96
107
24 2
+83 - 2

1
8

1

.......
3
25

Sinking:

j Crew

2

; Crew

*o
c>
O

I Crew

Eighth

Passengers

15
28
Ì 43
47
J-4

Passengers |

....

i Passengers ]

£
o

20
10
6 10 . . . .
2
51 . . . . 15
22
! 16 61 6 25 . ...
2
5
j 22 60 i 12 22
¡ - 6 +1 1-6 +3 ¡-5 . . . . +20

! 16

j Crew

Cause

| Passengers

Seventh

17 : 14
. . . . 19

! Passengers j

Fire:
Passenger steamers..............................................
Nonpassengcr steamers.......................................
Collision:
Passenger steamers.............................................. 63 20
Non passenger steamers.......................................
Grounding: Nonpassenger steamers.....................
Explosion, escape of steam, etc.: Nonpassenger
steamers............. — ........ ....................................
Sinking: Nonpassenger steamers..........................
Accidental drowning:
Passenger steamers..............................................
Nonpassenger steamers.......................................
Suicide:
Passenger steamers..............................................
Nonpassenger steamers.......... ............................
Miscellaneous:
Passenger steamers..............................................
Nonpassenger steamers.......................................
Total:
32
Passenger steamers................................. I
20
Nonpassenger steamers.......................... I
Grand to tal...................... ....................... . . . 73 52
Last year.................................................................. | 19 36
Increase (+) or decrease ( —)...................... +54 +16

2
1

1

1

7

5

1
2 ....

3
9

12

12

IF

15

~3

8

14

39

1

9
55
8

1

14

32
5
1

—2
6

36
42
28

+4 +H

*T
7

-6

3

11

10
2

17
38

1

134

1

136

91
264
355
255

1

....
1

19
57

—

3
-2

2

86

+60 + 100

284

R E P O R T

T O

T H E

S E C R E T A R Y

O F

C O M M E R C E

The total number of lives lost from all causes, passengers and crew,
was 491, an increase of 150 over the previous year. Of the lives lost,
182 were from suicide, accidental drowning, and other causes beyond the
power of the service to prevent, leaving a loss of 309 fairly chargeable
to accidents, collisions, founderings, etc.
LIVES SAVED

During the year, 564 lives were directly saved by means of the life­
saving appliances required by law.
ACCIDENTS