The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.
HG2567 S3A1 1972 I . • .•• . • •• • y j o hn j . Ball es (left) assum ed o ff ice as Presid ent of t he Fed eral Reserve Bank of San Franci sco in Sep tem ber 1972, rep lacin g Elio t l. Swan (ri ght), who too k earl y re t irem ent in jun e. Mr. Balles cam e he re fr o m th e M ell o n Nat io nal Ban k and Trust Co m p any o f Pitt sburgh, w here he served as Senior Vi ce Preside nt. At th e Mellon Ban k, Mr. Balles was in charge of t he eco nom ic and corpo rat e p lan n in g office, wi t h respo nsib ility fo r analys is o f b usiness and fina ncial d evelop m ents, m anage m ent science, long- ru n p lan n ing , legi slat ive rel at io ns, an d li aison w it h bank su pe rvi sory age nc ies. He serve d the re 13 years, and p rio r to t hat, he w o rked w it h the Fede ral Reserv e Ban k o f Cleveland , f irst as Senior Financi al Econom ist in t he Research D epartm ent and later as Vice Presid ent in char ge of t he Cr ed it D epartm ent and sp ecial adv iso r o n m o net ary po licy to t he Bank ' s Presid ent. Active in b an k in g circl es, Mr. Ball es has serve d on th e Ad m in ist rative Comm ittee o f t he A m erican Bankers' Associatio n Govern me nt Relat io ns Co unci l and o n t he Eco no m ic Ad viso ry Co m m itt ee. D urin g 1971, he wa s chairm an o f t he A BA Speci al Committee o n t he Presidential Co mm ission on Financ ial St ruct ure and Regu lati o n. He also is past chair m an o f t he Tr ust ee s o f t he Banking Research Fu nd o f t he Assoc iat io n o f Reserve City Bankers an d a past p reside nt o f the Penn syl van ia Ban kers Assoc iati on . M r. Ball es has ser ved o n t he Bo ard o f D irecto rs o f No rt h A merican Ro ckw ell Corporatio n and has bee n chairm an of t he Co nsu lt ing Co mm itte e of Bank Eco no m ists to t he Comptro ller of t he Cu rren cy. He also is a former d i recto r of the Am erica n Fina nce Associa tion and of t he Natio nal Asso ciati on of Busin ess Economists. He receive d his B.S. an d M .A . d egr ees f rom th e State Un iversity of Iowa , and he ho lds a Ph.D. d egree in eco nomics fr o m Oh io State U n iversity. He also served as a facu lty m ember in the eco nomics de part ment at Ohio State, and w hi le t he re, co aut ho red a bo ok entitled " Princip les o f M o ney and Ban kin g." M r. Swan's caree r with t he Fed eral Reserve Bank cove red a span of 31 years-more th an half t he inst it ution 's li fespan. He came to the Bank in 1941 afte r tea ching for a period o f years at t he Un ive rsity of Cali fo rni a at Berk eley and also at St. M ary' s Co llege . He served in a num ber o f staff and o p erati ng assign men t s at the Ban k, unti l being named Fi rst V ice Presid ent in 1956 . He became Presid en t- t he Ban k's eight h-in 1961, and served in t hat position un t il h is ret irem ent last year. 3 The national economy surged forward in 1972, recording the best growth record of the past decade and the most favorable price performance of the past half-decade. GNP climbed al most 10 percent to $1,152 billion, on the basis of a 61/2 -percent increase in real (p rice adjusted ) GNP and a 3-percent rise in the general level of prices. Other aggregate mea sure s a/so reflected the strength of business activity, with personal income rising 81/2 percent to $936 bill ion and civilian employment increasing 3 per cent to 81.7 million . The 2.3 million expansion in employ ment was the largest gain of the past quarter century and almost twice the total gain of the 1970 -71 period. With activity risin g, however, millions of new jobseekers (ad u lt women , re turned veterans and teen-agers) poured into the labor market. Because of this rapid growth in the civilian labor force, the unemployment rate stayed relatively high until the last several months of the year, when it at length declined to 5.2 percent. Inflation remained a worrisome prob lem for the nation's policymakers, despite the much reduced (3 percent) rate of increase in the GNP implicit price deflator-the broadest measure of price change-and despite the de celeration in consumer prices (except for food) during the Phase II period of controls . But wholesale prices rose more rap idly than at any other time of the p ast two decades, largely because of a price up surge in farm products and proce ssed foods and feeds, and thus presaged future prob lems for family budgets. Substantial Western gains West of the Continental Divide, business activity expanded strongly throughout 1972. The leading "export" industries, such as agri culture and aerospace manufacturing, reported respectable increases in output; the construction industry behaved spectacularly; and the region 's extractive i nd ust ries con tinued to participate in the fortunes of the sturd y nationwide expansion . Western banks, boasting a significant growth in bank credit, meanwhile helped to provide the financing for this substanti al increase in business activity. Personal income in the states of the San Francisco Federal Reserve District increased by more than 81/2 percent during the year to a landmark $150 billion-almost one-sixth of the national total. (The District includes California, Hawaii , Oregon , Washington , Alaska , Idaho, Utah, Nevada, and all except the south eastern corner of Ar izona.) By this and other broad measures of act ivity, the pace of regional business was stronger than at any time since the late 1960's. 5 Millions Manufacturing & Other 8 6 4 2 o '65 '66 '67 '68 '69 Employment expands stro ngly in the West in 1972, after three sluggish years . .. all sectors score significant gains 6 '70 '71 '72 N on farm em p loyme nt in crea sed more th an 3 p er cent during 19 72, o n th e basis of a notabl e recovery in the cy cl ica l m anufacturin g and con stru c t ion indu str ies, alo ng w it h a so lid ex pa nsio n o f job s in trade, serv ic es and go ve rn me nt . Employment gains we re wid espr ead throughout th e W est, m o st notabl y in Arizona, w it h almost a 9-p ercent gain for the yea r. No nfar m job s increased by 2 percent or less in Califo rnia and Washington , but tho se fi gures contrasted with th e act ual declines recorded in th o se two key states during the pr eviou s year. Hawaii was the onl y sta te to report a significant slo w dow n in employment growth and a sig n if icant increase in un em p loyme nt -largely because of recent sh ip p i ng strikes and the earlie r ove rb u ild ing of resort faciliti es. T he regi on al un employment rat e dropped sha rply, reachin g 5.8 p er cent in late 19 72 in co nt rast to th e sp ring 1971 peak of 7.5 p er cent. Th e level of jobl essness rem ain ed so mewhat h igh er in alm ost ev er y D istri ct state th an in th e nation, w it h it s S.2- pe rce nt rat e at yea r-e nd; onl y A rizo na showed sig ns o f sig nificant labo r shortages. (Na t io na l and regional data are not qui te co m parab le st at ist ica lly.) Yet in Ca lifo rn ia and Washin gton , w he re un employment had been ext re mel y hi gh as late as mid-1 971, th e recov ery from the aerospa ce rel at ed recession brought about a ver y sha rp improvement within the short spa n of a year and a half-a 11/2 per centage point decline in Californi a t o a S.7- p ercent rate, and a 3- pe rce ntage point decline in W ashin gton to 8.0-percent by yea r-e nd. Stronger demand patterns Weste rn co nsume rs respon d ed to th e m ore buoyan t b usi ness at mosp he re w it h an o ld -fas hi o ne d bu yin g sp ree . In th e Paci fi c regio n, ret ail sales in cr eased alm ost 10 percent ove rall -s ig nifica nt ly higher th an nat ion all y - and spe ndi ng fo r au tos, f u rniture, and other d u rabl es j um pe d almos t 14 pe rce nt fo r th e seco nd st raig ht yea r. Yet w it h th e sti ll sig n ifica nt amo u nt of slack in th e regi on al eco nomy, co nsu me r pri ces co nt inued t o rise at a slight ly slower pace her e th an elsewhere, in cr easin g by about 3.1 pe rce nt as against 3.3 per cent nati on all y. Th e bu yi ng boom was f ue le d by a 19- percent inc rease i n ba n k co nsum er cred it lo an s, with aut os and mobil e hom es acc o u nti ng fo r a subs ta nt ia l sha re o f th e total. Th e earlie r up surge in cred it-card exte nsio ns taper ed off durin g t he yea r, bu t as recomp en se, check-cred it exte nsio ns ro se ve ry rap idl y. As t he eco nomy expan de d, Wes te rn b usi ness fi rms lo o sen ed up t hei r pu rsestr in gs and began spe nd ing mo re fo r p lant, equi p me nt and inve nto ries. A t t he same t im e, co r pora ti o ns began to turn to th e ban ks on ce agai n fo r fin an cin g-in cr easin g t heir bo rrowi ngs 10 p er cent after two sluggis h yea rs o f loan demand alt houg h th ey co nt inue d to obtain large am ou nts o f fund s from the co m me rcia l- pa pe r market and from th ei r own ret ain ed earn ings. The heaviest bank bo rro w ers were public util ities (espec iall y communication's f ir ms) and tr ad e and serv ice firms. Rate (Percent) 8 6 4 2 o '68 ' 70 '72 Unemployment declines especially in the West 7 The cost of borrowing rose over the course of the year, reflecting the rising trend in the prime business-loan rate; between the February and November survey dates, the average rate on reg ular short-term loans rose from 5.39 to 6.41 percent. Easier fiscal position Many regional governmental units, after subsisting for years practically on a hand-to-mouth basis, moved into a much stronger financial position in 1972. (For example, California now expects to find itself with an $850 million surplus after spending its $7.7 billion budget for fiscal 1973 .) This healthy fiscal situation came about in part because of the overall accelera tion of economic activity. In addition, it reflected the impact of previous tax leg islation (such that California's revenues benefitted both from the payment of 1971 income taxes and from the startup of withholding for 1972 taxes) as well as a sharp rise in Federal grants, highlighted by the initial payment of revenue sharing checks in December. 8 Not much tax legislation was passed in most District states (except Cali fornia) during 1972. Washington and Oregon both acted to give property tax relief to the elderly. Idaho re adjusted personal-income tax rates, and also boosted rates on corporate income and on cigarette and motor fuel sales. Most importantly, California adopted a $1.1-billion revenue bill designed for local-school support as well as property-tax relief, with most of the revenue being obtained from higher sales and corporate income taxes. The tax bill came about as a response to a 1971 California Supreme Court ruling, which declared unconstitutional a public-school financing system based on local property taxes. Municipal-bond calendars lightened considerably during 1972, reflecting the easier position of states and municipalities. Western governmental units borrowed $2.9 billion during theyear-10 percent belowthe heavy borrowing pace of the previous year-and they borrowed at a slightly lower cost, with a decline in the average yield on rated general obligations from 5.24 to 5.13 percent. State governments borrowed $1.2 billion, and a vast range of local units borrowed $1.7 billion-in each case, considerably below the 1971 pace. Aerospace out of tailspin The Western aerospace industry pulled out of the tailspin it had been in for almost a half-decade, as aircraft and electronic producers boosted employment about 3 percent during the year. In absolute numbers, California accounted for most of the employment growth , but in per centage terms, Washington recorded a far larger gain. Yet even with this increase, regional employment at year-end totalled only 545,000 almost 200,000 below the peak reached five years before. Military prime-contract awards to Western fi rms rose 16 percent in fiscal 1972 to $7.9 billion, as Western firms managed again to capture about one-fourth of the Pentagon's total business. Few new military projects got underway during the year, but awards for ongoing aircraft and missile projects increased sharply at both California and Washington facilities. Space-agency work continued to decline; NASA's $544 million in new contracts in fiscal 1972 was roughly in line with the previous year's total but amounted only to about one-fourth of the 1965 peak. The $2.6-billion space -shuttle development contract awarded to North American Rockwelt last summer promises eventually to reverse this prolonged decline. (The shuttle is planned as a reusable two stage rocket capable of carrying a dozen passengers and a 65,OOO-pound payload into earth orbit.) However, the project has gotten underway rather slowly because of Federal fiscal constraints. Billions of Dollars 10 8 Military Prime Contract Awards 6 Co m me rcial Backlo gs 4 Spa ce Procurement Awards Olo- L -_ _--,-........ ...... --Io. ........ '65 ' 66 ' ' 67 '68 '69 '70 Aerospace sector benefits from sharp rise in military contracts ..• commercial backlog declines despite larger inflow of new orders --' '71 '72 9 I I Change (Percent) 15 Crops The regional industry benefitted from an improvement in orders for com mercial aircraft, although backlogs continued to trend downward most of the year. An increase in airline passenger traffic-combined with a return to profitability-encouraged the carriers to order additional equipment. However, they confined their purchases mainly to older generation equipment, especially the Boeing 727. (During the year, the firm obtained its 1,000th order for this very popular plane.) Orders for the more expensive wide-bodied jets-the Boeing 747, the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and the Lockheed L-1011 remained relatively weak until late in the year. Foreign airlines mean while provided a growing outlet for both older and newer-generation equipment, a historic breakthrough in this direction being China's $125 million purchase of 10 Boeing 707's. I 10 5 o 15 u.s. I Livestock West 10 5 o '70 '71 '72 Western livestock industry booms, but crop receipts fail to gain 10 Mixed results on the farm The farm sector reported mixed results in 1972; livestock producers benefitted from a 1O-percent gain in cash receipts, while crop farmers reported no gain at all. Total cash receipts rose to a record $8.7 billion, for a 4-percent increase, or less than half the national pace. (The slower-than-national pace reflected the West's limited output of certain commodities, such as hogs, soybeans and feed grains, that have risen most rapidly in price over the past year. ) But net income apparently remained stable, reflecting not only the modest gain in gross receipts but also a steady rise in farm production expenses and a decline in government payments. Rising production and (especially) rising prices accounted for the strong gain in livestock income. Beef cattle prices rose 12 percent for the year, and prices of poultry, eggs, and dairy products also advanced sharply. Arizona and Nevada, the states most heavily dependent on cattle pro duction, thus scored the largest gains in farm receipts. On the supply side, cattle slaughter and milk pro duction continued to expand, and at a faster rate than nationally. Yet despite the high levels of fed beef prices, livestock profit margins de clined as a reflection of the rising costs of feeder cattle and feed grains, partly caused by the early 1972 drought in the Southwest range country. The sluggish behavior of crop receipts reflected the reduction in output brought about by bad weather including the early-spring freeze damage to deciduous fruits (especially in the Mountain states) and the wide spread freeze damage to citrus fruits and vegetables in the latter part of the year. Lower prices for oranges, lettuce and potatoes also cut into receipts, but these price declines were offset by the late-year upsurge in wheat demand, which sent prices soar ing 73 percent above a year ago. Cotton prices also strengthened, and cotton yields were substantially higher than previously. Wheat far me rs benefitted f ro m a shif t fr o m wo rldwid e glut to sho rtage in a brie f th ree-year period , as th e giant con sumin g nations (India, Chin a and th e Sovi et Union) all turn ed to thi s country fo r sup p lies. Th e North wes t harvest did not begin until the $1- b illi o n d eal w it h th e U.S.S.R. had been p ub licized, so th at farme rs in th at region, unlike th eir counterp art s in th e So uthe rn Plain s, we re ab le to ben efit f ro m skyrocketi ng w heat prices as well as from an expansion in output. Farm d ebt inc reased substant ially in th e W est durin g 1972, refl ectin g both an expansio n in farm act iv ity and a f av o ra b le lend in g clim ate. Co m merc ial ban ks we re v er y ac tive lend ers; at mid year, bank s rep orted a 7- percent yea r-to -y ear gain in farm mortgage d ebt outstanding (foll owin g two years' d eclin e) alo ng with an 8-p ercent gain in farm produ cti on lo ans. Thi s in cr ease in produ cti on credi t refl ected both an in crease in p urc hases of farm eq uip me nt and an exp ansio n of livestock herd s. 11 Spectacular construction results Construction activity burgeoned during 1972, as construction awards reached a record $15.7 billion, with every Western state sharing in the gain. Nonresidential awards rose 15 percent, bolstered by a substantial increase in contracts for factories and office buildings. Heavy con struction rose 8 percent, with an increase in demand for streets, highways, reservoirs and water supply facilities. But in particular, the residential sector reported a 20-percent increase in new awards for the year, and in the process accounted for over one-half of the industry's total dollar volume. About 550 ,000 new units were added to the region 's housing stock last year, with 455,000 housing starts being supplemented by about 95,000 mobile homes. Thi s 12-percent increase fell somewhat below the national pace-partly because of continued weakness in Washington 's housing situation-and it was far below the 40-percent gain recorded in the West the preceding year. Nonetheless, it represented a sub stantial expansion in supply-perhaps too substantial , in view of a growing number of danger signals in the market. Vacancy rates (especiall y on rental units) increased as the year progressed , and at year-end, the number of units under construction and the unsold inventory of new single-family homes both reached record levels. 12 Construction financing and perma nent mortgage financing were amply available to support the very strong pace of housing activity. The major lending institutions, almost inundated by heavy inflows of savings , vastly expanded their mortgage lending during the year. Savings-and-Ioan associations increased their net mort gage lending 36 percent to $6.8 billion. Commercial banks , although record ing a considerably smaller savings inflow than in 1971, posted a $2. 8 billion in mortgage portfolios-a 55 percent larger gain than in 1971-and sharp ly expanded their lo ans to mort gage companies and their outstanding credits on mobile homes. Compared to 1971, this increase in lending ac tivity was carried out generally at lower interest rates , lower down pay men ts and longer maturities . One of the major building develop ments of the year was September's ruling by the California Supreme Court that environmental-impact statements must be filed with requests for building permits on all private construction projects where a "signi ficant" impact occurs. The Court thus extended to private projects the same safeguards applied to public projects under California's 1970 environ mental quality act. The decision threw California's building industry into a turmoil; some communities even reacted by stopping the issuance of building permits. However, much of this concern was alleviated when the state legislature voted to narrow the interpretation of the court's ruling. Stronger lumber, steel demand The record volume of housing activity nationwide translated into an insati able demand for We stern forest products during 1972. Lumber mills boosted production 6 percent to a near-record level, but they remained unable to keep up with the historic volume of orders. The result was a sharp run-up in prices, w ith lumber prices up 18 percent for the year and plywood prices up 22 percent, despite the presence of Phase II controls. Lumber prices rose sharply early in the year, partly because of the absence of controls on raw timber, and partly because of provisions in "term limit" pricing agreements which permitted price boosts as high as 15 percent on some individual items. Further increases occurred early in the spring, when the Price Commission lifted wage and price controls on small firms, and the upsurge continued even after the Cost of Living Council reimposed controls on small lumber producers and wholesalers. Lumber men themselves blamed much of the upward price pressure on the profit limitation provisions of the control program , claiming that these pro visions discouraged mills fro m producing at full capacity . Change (Percent) -10 -5 o 5 10 1972 Lumber 1971 1970 Steel Copper Refined Petroleum Output increases in the West's major extractive industries in 1972 , following several years of general sluggishness 13 Western steel production rose 3 per cent above 1971's depressed level to 6.2 million tons, but it remained considerably below the 1969 peak. Output declined sharply in early 1972, as a result of a six-week strike at a major integrated facility at Fontana, California, but then it recovered strongly, running far ahead of the pace of the inventory-liquidation period of late 1971. Steel prices increased 6 percent for the year, reflecting a first-quarter boost in quotations for most sheet and strip products. After that increase, producers held prices stable for the remainder of the year, partly because of competition from foreign steel makers, but they raised prices again on a wide range of products in early 1973. Throughout this period, imports posed a major problem for the regional industry. A voluntary quota agreement reached with foreign producers in May held total imports nationwide below the peak level reached in 1971, but imports continued to flow into Pacific ports at a record pace, and in the process captured over one-third of the Western market. announced a 14-percent cut in list prices on aluminum ingot (the primary form of the metal) but even that reduced quotation remained far above the actual selling price. Copper was in a similar situation, since excess supplies in that industry acted to restrain prices despite a strong improvement in demand. Copper consumption reached the highest level of the past half-decade, with strength concentrated in the latter part of the year, but the higher prices quoted by producers in February failed to stick because of a 6-percent rise during the year in mine production and an even greater increase in refinery output. The domestic producer price reacted to the price quoted on the London Metal Exchange, weakening in June in response to the floating of the British pound, and strengthening in early 1973 in response to a strong industrial demand and to a speculative upsurge which took place in the face of a heavy buildup of inventories. Metals work off stocks Demand picked up sharply at Northwest aluminum plants, enabling producers to reopen most of the potlines closed because of serious overproduction problems during the several preceding years. Producers reduced their inventories almost by half during 1972, but discounting from published prices remained a problem. In May, the industry 15 16 Silver proved newsworthy in 1972, partly because of the tragic fire which closed a major mine in Idaho for most of the year, and partly because of the tumu Itous market situation which sent prices soaring. Silver pro duction declined substantially, reflecting mostly the losses at the fire damaged mine, while industrial con sumption and speculative buying both increased , so that the New York dealer pr ice jumped from $1.29 to $2.03 an ounce between late 1971 and late 1972. But the domestic producer price held at the $1.61 ceiling until August, when the Cost of Living Council lifted controls to permit domestic producers to benefit from the sharp rise in world prices. Oil confronts energy crisis In the midst of growing discussion about an energy "crisis," Western oil refineries increased their output 7 percent in 1972 , responding to a rising demand for gasoline and other fuels. But d omestic sources provided only 65 percent of the regional industry's total crude supplies, as against 70 percent in 1971, with the gap being filled from Canadian and other sources. This situation reflected a 5-percent reduction in crude output from Western fields , as p roduction con tinued to decline in both California and Alaska. The fears of a developing crisis came about because of the nation 's growing dependence on imported oil and natural gas, and because of the shortage of heating oil and other fuels already evident in many sections of the country. To avert a crisis, oil industry spokesmen and other con cerned parties have urged the Federal government to develop a coordinated national energy policy, including in centives to spur the development of domestic supplies. The proposed oil pipeline from Alaska's North Slope remained a symbol of the difficulties involved in reconciling the demands of a national energy policy with those of a national environmental policy. But even if the environmental problems were to be solved and construction immed iately begun, the first oil supplies from this source would not reach West Coast markets for three more years , and the pipel ine would not reach its full capacity of 2 million barrels /day until 19BO. The conflict between energy and envi ronment also surfaced in the proposals made by the Environmental Protection Agency in earl y 19 73 to solve Southern California's severe smog problem; the proposals would involve an BO-percent reduction in auto travel during the peak May October smog season (partly through actual gas rationing) along with limits on hydrocarbon emissi ons by industrial sources. 17 Financial activity expanded vigorously throughout the nation during 1972, helped along by a generally accommo dative monetary policy which provided the funds needed for the substantial increase in GNP. The money stock-currency plus demand deposits-increased about 8 percent for the year, as against a 6-percent rise during 1971. Defined more broadly to include banks' consumer type time and savings deposits, the money stock grew about 10V2 percent, slightly less than in the previous year. The Federal Reserve furnished reserves to the commercial-banking system at a faster clip during 1972 , as RPD's reserves available to support private nonbank deposits-grew about 10 percent for the year. Early in the year, the Fed began to use RPD's as a major criterion for guiding open market operations, its major policy tool. This large increase in bank reserves provided the basis for a record shattering $la-b illion (14 percent) increase in commercial-bank credit. The vast bu Ik of the expansion was concentrated in bank loans-up al most twice as fast as in 1971 -as every major loan component increased at a record or near-record pace . Short-term money rates moved irregu larly upward throughout most of the year, reflecting this expansion of bank loan demand as well as an enlarged volume of money-market financing . Thus, 3-month Treasury bill rates rose more than two percentage points, to 5.03 percent, between February and De cember. Long-term interest rates, in contrast, stayed relatively flat during 1972, although at very high levels by his torical standards. The volume of both corporate and municipal borrowing declined significantly from 1971 levels. Net market demands of the U.S. Treasury also declined, as the budget situation improved on the basis of such factors as the substantial over withholding 'o f individual income -tax payments and the delayed outlays for social security and revenue sharing. But this decline in Treasury require ments was more than offset by a sharp rise in Federal agency financing, especially in t he housing and farm sectors. 19 I Banks meet broad-based demands Because of the rising tempo of regional business activity, Western banks were faced with broad based demands for credit during 1972. At the sam e time, they operated in a changing financial envi ron ment, characterized by the rise in money-market rates which led to higher costs for funds as-well as higher rates of return on earning assets. For the year , total loans and investments at Twelfth District banks increased $9.0 billion (12112 percent), while a $7.9-billion (11 percent) increase in deposits provided the maj o r source of funds to fuel the rapid expa nsion of cred it. Change (Billions of Dollars) 8 6 4 Savings Accounts Savings & Loans 2 + 01--- - - - - - - - - - - - - . . ;: " ortgage Loans M Commercial Bank Savings & Other Consumer -Accounts 2 ~'6:": 5:----~::----:==---~ 68 '~~---:":~--""""":~--""""":~---~ Mortgage lending continues to dominate Western financial scene ... boom fueled by record savings inflows at banks and S&L's 20 The 12V2-percent gain in total cre d it lagged the national pace, reflecting the modest increase in security holdings which accompanied a sharp 18-percent increase in loan portfol ios. In contrast to 1971, practically the entire increase in credit showed up in th e loan catego ry, in the wake of heavy loan demand by real-estate buyers, business firms, consumers and nonbank financial institutions. But secu rity p o rt fo lio s remained relatively stable, as banks alternately accumulated and reduced h o ld ings o f Treasury and other securities t hroughout t he y ear. Mortgages dominated lending activity for the second straight year accounting for almost one-third of the total loan increase-but business lending also expanded substantially and the rate of consumer lending doubled. Loan-administration practices were affected by policy ma kers ' " m o ral suasion" over rate setting but also by a vigorous competitive atmosphere; increases in the prime business-loan rate were not accompanied by the usual degree of firming in other lending practices nor by comparable rate adjustments on mortgage and consumer loans. Shifts in deposit patterns The 11-percent increase in total deposits roughl y matched the national pace , reflecting a faster rate of gain in private demand deposits but a slower pace in time deposits. The deposit expansion fell somewhat short of the 1971 regional expansion, largely because of a substantially slower pace of growth of individual savings. In contrast, states and political subdivisions played an increasingly important role as a source of bank funds, both in time-deposit money and in loans to banks under repurchase agreements. In add ition, banks also relied heavily on the issuance of capital notes and debentures for longer-term funds. Passbook savings increased at only about half the previous year' s pace , reflecting in part the early-year reduc tion in rates paid on such deposits, and in part the increasing tendency of con sumers to spend rather than save. At the same time, other types of consumer-savings instruments grew at a slightly faster pace during the year, as banks in late spring reversed earlier actions and again offered higher rates and longer maturities on such certificates . Banks sub stantially expanded their issuance of large-denomination time certificates , but corporations picked up only about half of these CD 's, or far less than their usual share. And as noted above, time-deposit behavior was influenced far more than usual by governmental bodies; in April alone, California banks received almost $1.5 billion in public funds, partly because of the newly instituted withholding of income taxes, and in December, normal deposits of tax receipts were augmented by sub stantial deposits of Federal revenue sharing checks. The sharp expansion in bank lending caused some erosion i n bank liquidity during 1972 , as the ratio of loans to deposits (incl ud ing Euro dollar liabilities) rose from 70 to 75 percent over the year . An even sharper shift-a decline from 7 to 4 percent-occurred in the ratio of short-term (Treasury and municipal) securities to total deposits, reflecting the minimal increase in securities which accompanied the large expansion of deposits. Earnings reflect rate movements Earnings reports varied widely; some large banks reported substantial net gains and others substantial declines, while medium and small -size banks generally reported very large year-to year increases in income. In some cases, a poorer performance came about because of failure to match the large gains in security transactions realized in the preceding year. How ever, rate movements (as always) were crucial to bank profit margins. Early in the first quarter, District banks made a % -percentage point reduction (to 4 3/ 4 percent) in the prime business-loan rate , and followed this with reductions in mortgage and consumer loan rates . At the same time, many large banks alleviated some of the pressure on profit margins by posting a 1 -percentage point /2 reduction in the rate paid on consumer passbook savings. After money-market rates turned upward in the second quarter, t he prime rate followed-finally reaching 6 percent in late December-but mortgage and consumer loan rates d id not move in tandem. But since the cost of funds (except on passbook savings ) generally moved upward with the rate of return on earning assets, and since operating expenditures pursued their inexorable rise , many banks exper ienced a squeeze on their profit margins as the year progressed. On the other hand, the expanded volume of earning assets brought in larger amounts of revenues. 21 Billions of Dollars Change (Percent) o 10 3.0 2.0 Total Bank Credit 1.0 Loan s 0 3.0 2.0 Business Loans 1.0 + 0 U.S. Gov't Securiti es 1. 0 O t he r Sec urities 2.0 '65 Twelfth District's expansive banking year highlighted by sharp gains in all loan categories but slowd own in securities 22 20 Borrowings from the Fed Deposits of District member banks increased $6.6 bi IIion for the year (daily average basis), and the required reserves held against those deposits increased $454 million. As banks accommodated themselves to a policy of increasing firmness in the latter part of the year, some found it increasingly difficult to meet their reserve requirements without bor rowing from the Federal Reserve Bank. Thus, while average borrowings actually declined during the year -from $27 to $18 million-the level of borrowings reached $40 million in the fourth quarter. (All funds were borrowed at a 4 Vz -percent discount rate; however, the Bank then raised its rate to 5 percent in early 1973, to bring it closer into line with money-market rates.) Consequently, District banks showed net free reserves in the first half of the year and net borrowed reserves in the second half-making for a small ($1 million) net free reserve position for the year as a whole, in contrast to the borrowed reserve position of banks nationally. On balance, large District banks were net sellers (lenders) in interbank Federal-funds transactions in 1972. Banks also were small net borrowers of funds from dealers in U.S. Gov ernment securities, and massive borrowers of funds under repurchase "agreem ents with corporations and public agencies, especially the latter. Some of these borrowed funds were resold in the Fed-funds market, and thus helped account for the net sales position maintained by banks during most of the year. Heavier loan demand? As Western banks entered 1973, they were faced with the prospect of a further strengthening in business activity and in loan demand . The business sector may come to rely more heavily on banks this year, both for short-term credits to finance inventories and for long-term credits to finance capital expenditures. The volume of mortgage lending may decline significantly as the housing boom tapers off, but the possible slackening in that sector could be taken up by a further increase in consumer loans. The deposit scene is somewhat murkier, although banks can expect some deposit gains early in the year as a result of the one-time windfall in tax refunds-especially in Cali fornia, where State as well as Federal income taxes were overwithheld in 1972. Profit margins may be squeezed by the rising cost of borrowed funds, typified by the early 1973 increase in the discount rate and a higher Fed-funds rate, but on the other hand, they should be affected favorably by the rising rates of return on bank earning assets. 23 Decentralization is an important characteristic of the Federal Reserve System . Each Reserve Bank and each branch oHice is a regional and local institution as weI! as part of a nationwide system, and its transactions are with regional and local banks and busines ses. It gives eHective representation to the views and interests of its particular region and at the same time helps to administer nationwide banking and credit policies. - The Federal Reserve Sys tem - Pu rposes and Functions . The Federal Reserve System demonstrated again in 1972 this quality of decentralization which makes it practically unique among the world's central banks. At the same time, the operations of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco were coordinated with those of the other components of the System to provide uniformity and to benefit the national economy as a whole. for checks in a specific geographical area. By extending the "close-off" hours and operating on a round-the clock basis, these regional centers (usually located at existing Federal Reserve offices) can accept checks from participating banks up to mid night, process them during the early morning hours, and have them on their way to the drawee banks by daybreak. RCPC-a new concept Banks receive immediate credit for checks cleared through the RCPC's, and they are expected to pay for their own checks in "immediately available funds" on the day of presentment. As a result, funds are collected and placed back in financial channels much sooner than was possible before development of the regional processing concept. Typical of this cooperative effort was the work carried out to improve the nation's payments mechanism the complex process by which billions of dollars are transferred back and forth across the continent each busi ness day. During 1972, particular attention was focused on accelerating the processing and collection of checks, the medium used in 90 percent of the nation's money transactions. In the process, a new set of initials was added to banking jargon, as each of the 12 Federal Reserve Banks initiated-or set the stage-for RCPC's (Regional Check Processing Centers). Basically, an RCPC is a highly computerized operation designed for one primary purpose-to achieve overnight processing and settlement 25 In th e Twelfth Fed eral Reserve Di stri ct, RCPC' s w il l be est ab lished at eac h office of th is ba n k- San Francisco , Los An gel es, Portland , Salt Lake City, and Seattle . In ge nera l, eac h RCPC w i ll serve th e same areas no w in clud ed in th e serv ice zon es of t he Fede ral Reser ve offices, except t hat Hawaii and Gu am will not be inc lud ed in th e San Francisco RCPC whe n it first gets und erway . Present pl ans cal l fo r t he five regio nal centers to be o pe rat io nal by mi dyear. Wh y the pu sh on clea ring ch ecks faste r? Volum e, for o ne thing . In 1972, Americ an s w ro te probably arou nd 26 billi on checks, and thi s n umber is in creasin g at a fa irly steady rate of 7 to 8 per cent a year. App ro xima te ly a third of thi s check vo lu me passes th roug h the Fed er al Reserve System , and the five offi ces of t he San Franci sco Reserve Bank handl e abo ut an eight h of the to tal Syste m vo lume. In 1972, fo r examp le, t he San Fran ci sco Fed offices processe d an ave rage o f 3 m ill ion chec ks each b usiness da y, an an nua l total of nearl y a b i llio n item s. In dollar t erm s, thi s represented $215 bi llio n. Major policy moves Durin g t he yea r, t he p roblem of "flo at" conti nu ed t o provid e a majo r impetus for d evel oping fast er meth ods o f cle aring and co llec t ing ch ecks. Cong ressio nal cri tic ism has mounte d over th e growth in Fed eral Reserve f loa t, w hic h is viewed in some circles as an inte rest-fr ee lo an t o ba nks . W ith th e burgeoni ng use o f che cks, Fed er al Reserve flo at rose from around $1 bil lio n a d ay in t he early 1950' s to m o re than $3 bi llio n in lat e 1972. 26 Mos t o f th is fl o at occu rs becau se ban ks are given credi t for checks th ey clear through t he Fed eral Reserv e acco rdi ng to a set ti m e sched ule, rath er t ha n w hen p aymen t is act uall y received by t he Fed . Until late 1972, for examp le, ban ks lo cated o utside Reser ve cities were not requi red to pay for checks drawn o n th eir acco unts unti l th e da y after th ey we re received fro m th e Fed, which mea nt a delay in pay me nt of t h ree or mo re d ay s fo r a large vol um e of checks. On t he ot her hand, th e ma xi m u m d eferm ent of credi t to de po sit in g ba nks was tw o days , re sult in g in t he creat io n o f f loat t hat wa s absorb ed by th e Federal Reserve. After several mon t hs o f d iscussion w it h ba nkers and ot he r interested gro ups, th e Fed er al Reserve Bo ard o f Go vern o rs im p lem ent ed an amend ment t o Regulation J on Nove mbe r 9,1972, req ui ring banks t o pay for all ch ecks o n t he same d ay th ey are p resented to them by t he Federal Reser ve Banks. By th e same toke n, ban ks now also receive credi t o ne d ay earlie r for ch ecks they pr esen t throu gh th e Fed. Thi s act io n resulted in an im me d iate redu cti on of nearly $2 b ill io n in f loat. I I t 27 At th e same time , the Federal Reserv e Board m ad e ano t h er historic move by changing drastically the structure of member-bank reserve requirements. Formerl y, most member banks in cit ies where Federal Reserv e Offices are loc ated were classified as " reserve city bank s," and were requ ired to hold larger reserves than "co untry banks, " those outside th e Reser ve cit ies. Under the rev ised Regulat ion D, a mem be r ban k no lon ger is re quired to keep reserve s on the b asis o f it s lo cat io n; in stead , member banks of eq ua l size are assigned eq ua l re serve requ ir ements. Furthermore, ove rall reserv e requirements for most banks w ere reduced m aterially, with th e ne w struc t ure ranging fro m 8 per cent on n et demand deposit s o f $2 mill ion or less t o 171/ percent o n such 2 depo sit s ov er $400 million . This act ion rele ased ab o ut $3 .2 billion in re serves, whi ch more than offset the loss in float banks experienced as a result of th e Regulation J amendment. Reducing the paper load The Federal Reserve worked not only to develop faster method s of pro cessing and collectin g checks, but also to promote alt ernatives capable of stemmin g the rising tide of paper checks. One of these projects is the SCO PE program , an acro ny m for "S peci al Com mittee on Paperless En tries." Co nceived and organized by a g ro up of Californ ia ba nks, SCO PE has become a model in num erou s other cities and st at es fo r a computerized clearing syst em to process payroll s and divid end payments, as well as certain pre-authorized charges. The SCO PE plan permits em p loy ees of participatin g business fir ms to have the ir pay auto mat ically d ep osited in th e banks of th eir ch oi ce, w it ho ut checks bein g prepared o r processed. Eventually, th ey also will be able to pay their mortgages, insurance premiums, and other recurring bills in the same wa y. I Millions 800 600 400 200 o I I Billion so f Dollars 200 To encoura ge such innovative efforts, the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco agr eed t o op er ate automated cle aring ho uses fo r th e SCO PE pro gram at its San Franci sco and Los A ng eles off ices. A dd it ional eq u ip m ent w as in stalled and pe rso nne l w ere trained at both o ffice s, specifi cal ly f or th is progr am . SCOPE had made a modest be ginni ng by yea r-e nd, and f ro m all ind icati o ns, th e education al and p ro m oti o na l effo rts by commercial banks act ive in the p rogr am wi ll brin g abou t incr eased pa rti ci p atio n in 1973. 150 100 50 o '68 '70 '72 Federal Reserve check processing remains relatively stable over time 29 II Utilizing electronic transfers The Federal Reserve continued to work w ith an electronic transfer system, realizing that the future course of payments transactions is indelibly linked to th e ele ctronic tran sfer of fund s. It utilized a computerized communication s sw it ch, located at Culpeper, Virginia, which connects all 37 Federal Reserve office s throughout the nation, and makes it pos sible to transfer funds almost instantaneously from one commercial bank to ano t her any w here in the country. Trillions of Dollars.' 2.5 2.0 The Western link in this com muni cations system is the San Francisco Reserve Bank and it s branch es. Plan s are underway to au gment the Syst em 's co mmun ic ation s network throu gh installation of a switch at the San Francisco o ffice w hi ch will connect all of this D istrict's Federal Reserve offices. This will expedite tran sfers among Western banks, cutting down th e need for intra d istrict mes sage s to be sent through Culp eper. 1.5 1.0 0.5 o '68 '70 '72 Bank's wire-transfer volume triples in only five years' time 30 At p resent, six me mber bank s in San Fran ci sco are directl y linked with the communicat ions sy stem through the Federal Reserve Bank computer, and transfers by those banks are effected witho ut handlin g by the Reserve Bank's wire tran sfer depart ment. Ulti matel y, co m m ercia l bank s, w ill be able to t rans fer funds directly through th eir own computers to the computers of other member bank s nearly anyp lace in the nation. Th is method of tran sferin g f u nd s has exp anded shar pl y in recent years. In 1972, the fi ve offices of thi s Bank handled 874 ,000 trans fers, representing a dollar volume of almost $3 trillion-an avera ge of rou gh ly $10 billion a da y. Fund s tran sferred by wire thro ugh th e San Franci sco Ban k' s network in crea sed 50 p ercent last year alon e, and more th an tripl ed over the past five years. Other major operations De spite the sp o t lig ht on th e growth o f checks as a form of m o ney, currency and co in did not go out-o f-styl e last year. The dollar vo lum e o f currency rece ived and counted at this Bank increased 5 percent over the previous year, reach in g a total of $7.9 b ill ion . Furth er more, Federal Reserve N ot es of this Bank in circula t ion ro se $585 million duri ng the year, totalling slig ht ly more than $7 billion on Decemb er 31, 1972 . Last year was unusual in coin annals because there were no new develop ments; no shortages occurred in any coin denomination and no new coins were issued. The supply of Eisenhower dollars, fi rst issued in late 1971, was adequate to meet all demands. Moreover, demand for the Kennedy half has been drastically reduced even though these coins are seldom found in general circulation. As fiscal agent for the U.S. Govern ment, the Federal Reserve Bank carried out its function of issuing and re deeming U.S. Treasury securities, including Savings Bonds. During 1972, the Treasury continued to be an active competitor for funds. Market able securities issued, exchanged, and redeemed at the five offices of this Bank rose 40 percent in dollar volume compared with 1971, although increased book-entry pro cedures resulted in a substantial drop in the number of pieces handled . U.S. Savings Bond redemptions con tinued to exceed sales in the District, although the spread narrowed from $157 million in 1971 to $104 million in 1972 . Savings Bond sales have shown good growth each year since 1970, when the rate on this savings instru ment was boosted to 51/2 -percent. Millions 900 1.5 600 1.0 300 0.5 O ......_ ........_ _...&.._ _i . ---I o Coin Currency Millions of Dollars Billions of Dollars 8 200 6 150 4 100 2 50 o '68 '70 '72 o '68 '70 Federal Reserve Bank handles almost a billion pieces of currency and twice that number of coins ... dollar volume rises in 1972 '72 31 One of the Reserve Bank's primary functions-making loans to member banks-remained relatively unused until the latter part of the year, when monetary policy began to shift away from its earlier posture of ease. As mentioned earlier, daily average borrowings by District member banks declined from $27 to $18 million over the year. The Bank's discount rate (t he rate charged to member banks) remained unchanged at 41/2 percent during the entire year. The Federal Reserve credit function is an important monetary policy tool, of course , and the System is continuing to study ways of making the "dis count window" more accessible to member banks. In November, the Board of Governors announced a proposed revision that would provide a seasonal borrowing privilege to member banks. This proposal is de signed to assist banks that may not have access to national money markets in meeting seasonal needs for funds that result from recurring fluctuations in loans and deposits. Comments on th is change were to be subm itted to the Board by February 28, 1973. Fur thermore, the earlier proposal for a vir tually automatic basic borrowing privilege for each bank is receiving further study. The Feder al Reserve's supervisory function also continued to develop along new lines during 1972. Exami nation of state member banks is still a major activity, of course, but the bank examination staff also maintains a busy pace processing bank merger reports, applications for new branches, 32 and bank holding-company in vestigations. In addition, the increasing number of computerized banking operations has necessitated the development of new techniques and procedures. Th irty new banks and one trust company were formed during the year , the largest number of banks organ ized in the District since 1965. Because of mergers, the number of member banks declined by five, to 143 banks, but the number of member-bank offices increased by 111, climbing to 4,407 by year-end . Total non -member banking offices rose to 1,264, a gain of 100 over the previous year . A review of Federal Reserve Bank operations would be incomplete with out mention of a primary ingredient -its personnel. Despite the high degree of computerization, people still make things happen, and the pictures on the accompanying pages provide only a sample of the activities of the 1,800 employees of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Accountants, programmers, guards and economists; planners, lawyers, clerks, and typists; auditors and secre taries, building staff and messengers ; and countless others with special talents and abilities too numerous to mention-all contributed during 1972 to the successful operation of this institution. Board of Directors - Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Seated, left to right-Marron Kendrick, John J. Balle s, Presid ent , O . Mered ith Wilson, Ch airman of the Board, and Joseph F. Alibrandi, Deputy Chairman. Standing-Jo seph Rosenblatt, Abram B. Merritt, First Vice Presid ent, James E. Phillips, Ca rl E. Schro ed er, A. W. Clau sen, Charl es Raymond Dahl , and Mas Oj L 33 Official Staff In addition to the appointment of John I. Balles to succeed Eliot J. Swan as President of the Bank, the following changes in the official staff were announced during the year: Promotions: Kent O. Sims, Assistant Vice President to Vice President, July 1. John j. Carson, Assistant Vice President (Los Angeles) to General Auditor, September 1. Angelo A. Carella, Assistant Vice President, to Vice President, October 1. james M. Brundy, Assistant Vice President to Vice President, January 1,1973. Appointments: Maynard C. Petersen, Assistant Vice President (Portland Branch), May 1. jane W. Langhorne. Assistant Vice President, July 1. Wilhelmine Stefan sky, Senior Statistician, ) u Iy 1. William V. Woodward, Assistant Vice President (Los Angeles Branch), August 1. Adrian A. Horvay, Assistant Vice President (Los Angeles Branch), September 1. Donald R. Halsted, Assistant Vice President, October 1. Kenneth A. Grant, Assistant Vice President, January 1, 1973. 34 Retirements: Charles R. Petersen, Senior Economist, February 15. F. K. Grimm, Assistant Vice President, Portland Branch, April1. George D. Parker, Assistant Vice President, Los Angeles Branch, August 1. R. E. McKendry, General Auditor, September 1. Directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco As a quasi-governmental institution, each Federal Reserve Bank is a corporation organized and operated for public service. Its shareholders are the member banks located within the district served by the Reserve Bank, but their voting privileges are limited to the election of six of the Reserve Bank's nine directors. These directors, who serve staggered th ree year terms, are divided into three classes of three directors each and may be regarded as representing lenders, borrowers, and the general public. Class A directors are nearly always member bank officers or directors. Class B directors must be actively engaged in their district in commerce, agriculture, or some other industrial pursuit and may not be directors, officers, or employees of any bank. Class C directors represent the general public and frequently include professional people such as educators and lawyers; they may not be directors, officers, employees or stockholders of any bank Class A and B directors are elected by the member banks, while Class C directors are appointed by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System in Washington, D.C. One of the Class C directors is appointed by the Board of Governors as Chairman of the bank's board and another is designated as Deputy Chairman. The Board of Directors is charged with respon sibil ity fo r o verse eing an d directi ng th e m an agem en t o f th e Reserv e Ban k in o rder t o acc o mp lish t he b ro ad p ub lic p u rposes of th e Federal Reserve Ac t, w h ic h w as passed by Co ng ress in 191 3 and has b een ame nde d seve ral tim es in t he in ter ve ni ng ye ars to f ur t her serve th e pub lic. O ne o f th e primary respon si bilit ies o f th e Bo ard of Direct o rs is t o establi sh th e d iscou nt rate, subje ct to review by th e Bo ard of Gov erno rs. In addi tio n, eac h o f t he Reserve Bank 's branche s has a Board of Direct ors. In th e Tw elfth Di strict, t he Los A ngeles Branch has a seve n - me m be r board , four appoi nte d by th e San Fran ci sco Reserve Ban k' s Boa rd o f D irect or s and three by th e Boa rd o f Gover nors. E ach of t he ot her Branc h offi ces Po rtlan d , Salt Lake City, and Seatt le has fi ve-m em ber boa rds, three app o inte d by th e San Fran ci sco Bank's board and t w o by th e Board o f Covern o rs. BOARD OF DIRECTORS , FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF SA N FRANCIS CO Elected b y M em b er Ban ks in th e Tw elfth D ist rict : Class A D i recto rsA . W . C LAUS EN, Preside nt and Chief Execu ti ve Office r, Bank of America , N .T.&S .A ., to an unexpi red term end i ng D ecem ber 31, 19 73, succeed i ng Ral ph ). Vo ss, Chairman o f th e Boa rd and Chi ef Execut ive O ffi cer of the First Natio nal Ban k o f Oregon, Portla nd. JAMES E. PH ILLIPS, Presid ent of th e Fi rst Natio nal Ban k in Por t An geles, Wash i ng to n, to a three-year term succeeding Carroll F. Byrd , Chai rma n of the Board and Presiden t of the Fir st Na t iona l Ban k o f Wil lows, Ca lifo rnia . Class B Director- JOSEP H RO SEN BLATT , Ho no rary Chai rman o f The Eimc o Corpora ti on, Salt Lake City, re- elected to a th ree-year te rm . A p po intments by th e Boa rd of G ove rno rs, Fed eral Reserve System : O . MER EDI TH W ILSON , Preside n t and Dir ector of th e Ce n ter fo r Advanced Study in the Behavio ral Scie nces, Stanford , Cali forn i a, reappoi n ted Chai rma n of th e Boa rd fo r 1973. JOSEPH F. A Li BRAN D I, Preside n t of W hittaker Co rpora t io n, Los A ngeles, to a three-ye ar term as a directo r and as Depu ty Chai rma n o f th e Board fo r 1973. H e succee ds S. A lfred H alg ren , Senio r V ice Preside n t and D i recto r of th e Carnat io n Co mpany , Lo s Ange les . BOARDS O F DIRECTORS , BRANCH OFFIC ES Becau se of th e pu bli c nature of thes e di rectors h ips and t he dema nds u pon th e tim e of those who serve , ch ange s occ u r eac h year in th e co mpositio n of th e var ious bo ards . In 1972 , t he fo llowi ng cha nges and reap pointme nts were announ ced : Los Angeles Bran ch: A pp o i ntm en t by the Bo ard of Governors LELA ND D. PRATT, Presiden t o f Ke/co Co mpany, San D i ego, reapp o inted to a three-yea r term . App o in tm ent s by San Francis co Reserve Bank's Board W. GOR DON FE RG USO N, President o f th e N ati o nal Ban k of Whitti er, Cal iforni a, rea ppoi n ted to a three-y ear term . EDWA RD A . SLOA N, President o f Sloan's D ry C lean ers, Inc. , Lo s Ange le s, appoi nted Cha irman o f th e Branch Board fo r 1973. Mr. Pratt serv ed as Ch ai rm an d uring 1972 . Portland Bran ch: Appoint men t b y t he Bo ard of Gove rno rs JOHN R. HOWARD, Presi d ent o f Lewi s and Clark College, Portl an d, reapp o i n ted to a tw o -ye ar ter m . A p point m ent s by San Franci sco Reserve Ban k's BoardFRANK L. SERVOS S, Presid ent o f Crater Na tio nal Ban k, Medford, Oregon, and JAM ES H. STANA RD, Vice Presid ent of th e Fir st N at ion al Bank of M cM inn v il le, Oregon , reappoin ted to tw o -year ter m s. FRANK ANDER SON, fa rm er from H epp ner, Oregon , appointed Cha i rm an o f the Branch Bo ard fo r 19 73. M r. Howard served as Ch ai rm an du ring 1972 . Salt Lake City Branch : App o in tmen t by th e Boa rd of Govern o rs SAM H. BENN ION, Secretary -Treasurer of V-1 Oil Co mpa ny, In c., Id aho Fall s, Id aho , to a tw o -y ear t erm succeedi ng JOHN H. BRECKEN RIDG E, Preside nt of th e L. L. Brec ken rid ge Com pan y, Tw i n Fall s, Id ah o . Appointme n ts by th e San Francisco Reserve Bank' s Bo ardROD ERICK H . BROW N ING , Preside nt of the Ban k of U ta h, Ogd en, and ROY W . SIMMO NS, Preside nt of Zi o n s First Na t iona l Bank, Sal t Lake Ci ty , reappoin ted to two-year term s. THEODOR E C. JACO BSEN, Cha i rm an of th e Bo ard o f jacob sen Co nstru ction Co mpany, In c., Salt Lak e Ci ty, ap p o i n ted Cha i rma n of th e Branch Board fo r 197 3. M r. Breckenridge served as Ch airma n duri ng 1972 . Seattle Branch: A p p ointm ent by t he Boa rd of G overnors C. H ENRY BACON, j R., Vice Chairma n of Si mpson Timb er Co mpany, Seatt le , reap point ed to a two -y ear term. Appo in tme nts by th e San Fran ci sco Reserve Ban k' s BoardHAR RY S. GOO D FELLO W, C.ha i rman of the Bo ard and President o f th e O ld N at ional Bank of Wa sh i ng to n, Spo ka ne, and ROBERT C. W HI TWAM , Presid ent of th e A merican Na tio nal Ban k of Edmon ds, Wa shing to n, app oin ted to two-year te rms . Th ey succeed A. E. SAU ND ERS, Vice Cha rma n of The Puget Sound N ati on al Bank, Taco m a, and PHILI P H . STAN TON, Presid ent of th e W ashing ton Trust Ban k, Spo kane . TH O M A S HI RAI, a grower, packe r, and sh i pp er of pota toes fro m Quincy, Washington, was ap p oint ed Chai rm an of th e Bran ch Board fo r 1973. Mr. Bacon served as Cha i rma n du ri ng 1972. Directors-January 1, 1973 Elected by Member Banks Los Angeles Branch Directors CLASS "A" Appointed by Head Office Board of Directors CA RL E. HARTt\lA CK Presid ent Secu rity Paci fi c Nation al Ban k Los A nge les, Califor n ia LIN US E. SOUTHWI CK Presid ent Vall ey National Ban k G lendal e, Cali fo rn ia RA YBU RN S. DEZEMBER Chai rm an and Presid ent American Nat io nal Bank Baker sfield, Cali fo rn ia W. GORDON FER GU SON Preside nt Nat ional Ban k of Wh ittier W h ittie r, Califo rn ia A . W . CLAUS EN Presid en t and Ch ief Exec u tive Officer Bank of Ame rica Nat ion al Tru st and Savings Assoc iat ion San Francisco , California CARL E. SCHROED ER Preside nt The Fi rst N ational Bank of Oran ge Co u nt y O range, Cali fo rnia JAMES E. PHI LLI PS Preside nt First National Ban k in Port Angel es Po rt Ang eles, W ash ingt on CLASS " B" MA RRO N KENDR ICK Presi dent and Ch airm an Sch lage Lock Co m pan y San Francisco, Cal if o rnia CHA RLES RAYMO ND D AHL President and Ch ie f Execu ti ve O ffic er C rown Ze l le rbac h Co rpo rat io n San Fran cisco , Cali forn ia JOSEP H ROSE NB LATT Ho nor ary Chairm an o f the Board Th e Eim co Corp o rati on Sal t Lake City, U tah Appointed by Board of Governors Appointed by Board of Governors EDW A RD A. SLOAN , Cha irman President Sloa n's Dry Cl eaners, Inc. Los Angel es, Cali fo rn ia RUTH HANDLER Presid ent Mattei , Inc. Haw thorne, Cal ifo rn ia LELAND D. PRATT Presid ent Kelco Co mp any San Di ego , Californi a CLASS " C" O . M EREDITH WI LSO N Cha i rm an o f th e Boa rd and Federal Reserv e Agent. Presid ent and D i rector Cente r fo r Ad van ced Study in the Beh avi or al Sci en ces Sta n fo rd , Cal if o rni a MAS Oj l Presid ent, Oji Bros . Farm, Inc. Yu ba City, Calif orn ia JOSEPH F. ALiBRAND I, Deputy Chai rma n. Presid ent W hi t ta ke r Co rpo rati o n Lo s A nge les, Califo rnia Portland Branch Directors Appointed by Head Office Board of Directors LeROY B. STAVER Chairm an of th e Board and Chief Execu ti ve O ffi cer United States Nat ional Ban k o f O regon Po rtl and , O regon FR ANK L. SER VO SS President Crater Nation al Bank M ed ford , Oregon JAM ES H. STAN A RD Vice Presid ent Fir st Nati on al Ban k o f McMi n nvi lle M cM in nvi lle, O rego n Appointed by Board of Governors FR ANK ANDERSON Chairm an Farm er ' Heppn er , Oregon JOHN R. HOWARD Presid ent Lew is and Clar k Co llege Port land , O rego n Salt Lake City Branch Directors Appointed by Head Office Board of Directors JOSEPH BIANCO Chair man and Presid ent Bank of Idah o Boise, Ida ho RODERI CK H. BROW NIN G Presid ent Bank o f Utah O gd en, Utah ROY W . SIMMONS Presid ent Zio ns First Nat ional Bank Sal t Lake Ci ty, Ut ah Appointed by Board of Governors THEODORE C. JACOBS EN. Chairm an Cha irm an of th e Board Jaco bsen Con stru cti on Compa ny, In c. Sal t Lake Ci ty, Utah SAM H. BENNION Secreta ry -Treasure r V- l O il Comp any, Inc. Idah o Falls, Id ah o Seattle Branch Directors Appointed by Head Office Board of Directors JOSEPH C EBERT BA ILLARGEO N Chairm an and Chi ef Exec utive O ffi cer Seatt le Trust & Saving s Bank Seattle, Wa shin gt o n HA RRY S. GOODF ELLOW Chairma n of th e Board and Preside nt Old Natio na l Bank of Wash ing to n Spoka ne , Wa shi ngt o n RO BERT C. W HI TW A M President American Nati o nal Bank of Ed mon d s Ed m o nd s, W ash ington Appointed by Board of Governors TH O M AS HIR AI , Cha irma n Gr ow er, Packer, Ship per of Po tato es Quincy, W ash ington C. HENRY BACON , jR. Vice Chairm an Simps on Tim ber Co m pany Seatt le, Was hi ng to n Federal Advi sory Council HA ROLD A. ROG ER S, President of Peo ples Nati on al Bank of Wa shin gt on , Seattl e, w as named as th e Tw elfth Distri ct m ember of th e Fed eral Advisory Coun ci l fo r 1973 . M r. Roger s succ eeds A . W . Cl ausen, w ho had been t he D i str ict's represent at ive since 1970. The Coun cil is co m po sed of representati ves fr om all 12 Feder al Reser ve Di stri ct s, ap po i nted by each Reserve Bank 's Board of Directo rs ann uall y. The Co uncil w as estab lis hed by th e o ri gina l Fed er al Reser ve Ac t an d is required to m eet in Wa shi ngto n, D. C., at least fo ur tim es eac h year to adv ise th e Board of Govern o rs o n matters o f con cern to the Fede ral Reser ve System. 36 Officers-January 1, 1973 San Fra ncisco Jo hn J. Balles, Presid ent Abram B. Mer ritt, Fir st V ice Presi d ent l. HOWARD CRAVEN , Seni or V ice President KENT O . SIM S, V i ce Pre sident, Research WILLI AM M. BURK E, A ssistant Vi ce Pre sid ent (Research Publ icati on s) GAULT W . LYNN , Di rect or o f Research VERLE B. JO H N STO N, Sen io r Eco nomi st ERNEST C. O LSO N , Sen ior Econ omi st HERBERT R. RUN YOt\! , Seni o r Eco no m ist W ILH ELMI N E STEFANS KY, Sen io r Sta ti sticia n G ERALD R. KELLY, Sen ior Vice Presid ent WARREN H. HUTCHINS, V ice Presid ent (Perso n n el) JANE W . LANGHORNE , As sistan t Vi ce Presi d ent (Perso n ne l) ELWO OD E. BERI'JSTEIN, A ssistan t Vic e Presid ent (Pay m en ts M echani sm ) JAMES j . CU RRA N, A ssist ant V ice Presid ent (Ch eck Coll e ct i on and Pro cessin g, Mail l JOHN B. WILLI AMS , Se n io r Vic e Presid ent JAMES M . BRUN DY , V ic e Presid en t (D a ta Pro cessi ng) KEN NETH A . GRANT, A ssi stant Vic e President (Pro gram mi ng ) RICHARD G. LA M BERT, A ssistant Vic e Presid ent (Elect ro ni c Eq u ip m en t) ERNEST E. LIV INGS TON , A ssista nt Vice Presid en t (Co m m u nica tions) DONAL D L. A LEXA N D ER, A ssistant Vi ce Preside n t (Bank and Publi c Informati on ) ANGE LO S. CA RELLA, Vi ce Presid ent W ILLIA M E. O 'D ONNELL, A ssi stant Vi ce Pre sid ent (Cash) CLA U D E W OESSNER, A ssistan t V ic e President (Fiscal Ag en cy, Ve rif ica t io n) D ON ALD M . D AVENPO RT, Vice Presid ent (O m b ud sm an) HENRY B. JAM ISON, Vi ce Presid ent ROB ERT C. JO HNSEN , Assis ta n t Vi ce Presiden t (Ban k Exam i nati o n) RO Y A . KAR LSSON , Chi ef Exam i ner M ART IN S. D EPPER, Examin in g Office r J. N O RM AN AAMO DT, Examin in g Office r, (Los An gel es) D O NALD V. M A STEN , Vi ce Presid ent ROY A . REMEDI O S, A ssistant V ic e Preside n t (Cred it) E. A LLEN WE LLS, A ssistan t Vi ce President (Acco u nt ing , Pur ch asin g and Filin g) RIX M AURER, JR., V ice Presid ent G EO RG E P. GALL OWA Y, A ssistant Vi ce Presid ent (Bu i ld i ngs, Pro tecti o n, Em ergen cy Plan n i ng) LO UI S E. REILLY, Vic e Pre sid ent and Ge neral Co u nsel WI LLIAM L. COO PER, Assoc ia te G en eral Co un sel RICHARD G. RE TALLlC K, V ice Presid ent (Sp ecia l As signm en t) JOHN j . CA RSON, Ge neral A ud i tor A MA D EO G. CO N TE, A ssistan t Gen eral A udi tor DON ALD R. HAL STED, A ssi stan t V ice Presid ent (Plan n ing) los Angeles PAUL W. CAVAN , Seni or Vi ce Presid ent and M an ager WESLEY G. D eVRIES, V ice Pre sid en t (A cco u n ti ng, Bu ilding) HAROLD A. ERN E, A ssistant V ice Pre sid ent (Perso n nel, Pur ch asin g and Su p pl y ) AD RIAN A . H O RVA Y, A ssista nt V ice Presid en t (Cre d i t, D ata Pro cessin g, Plan n i n g, Tran sfer and Te legraph ) jO'H N F. LU CEY, JR., A ssist ant Vi ce Pre sident (Fiscal, Sav in gs Bond s) EUG ENE A. THO MAS, Ass istan t Vice Presid en t (Cash , Protecti on ) WILLI AM V. WOO DWAR D , Assistant V ice Presiden t (Check Co ll ectio n and Pro cessin g, Ma il ) Portland WILLI A M M . BROWN , Vic e Presid en t an d M an ager RICH ARD C. DUNN, A ssistant Vi ce Presid en t and A ssista n t Mana ge r (Cred i t, Person n el , Plannin g) W ILLIAM K. G I NTER, A ssis tan t Vice Presid ent (A cco u n ti ng, Bu i ld i ng, Fiscal ) MAYNARD C. PETERSE N, A ssistan t V ic e Presid ent (Cash, Ch eck Pro cessi ng, Prot ec ti o n) Salt lake City A RTHU R L. PRICE, Vi ce Presi den t and M an ager A. G RA NT H O LMA N, A ssistan t V ic e Presid en t and A ssistan t M anager (Bui ld i ng, Credi t, Transfer) H. PETE R FRAN Z EL, A ssistant V ice Presid ent (Acco unt i ng, Ch eck Pro cessin g, M ail , Filin g and Sup pl y) DON W . SHEETS, A ssistant Vi ce Pre sid ent (Cash, Fiscal , Co llec tio n, Pro tec tio n) Seattle WILLI AM R. SAN DST ROM , Vi c e Presid ent an d Manager JAME S M . DAVI S, A ssistant Vi ce Presid ent and A ssistant Ma n ager (Bu i ld i ng, Cre d i t, Per son nel ) E. RONA LD LIG GETT, A ssista n t Vic e Presid ent (A cco u n t i ng, Fiscal, Ma i l, Prot ecti on) PARKER R. SM ITH, As sistant Vi ce Presid ent (Cash, Che ck Proce ssin g, Plan n in g) 37 Comparative Statement of Condition Assets December 31,1972 De cember 31, 1971 (Th ousand s of dollars) s 1,288,51 8 49,000 118,748 35, 104 $ 1,83 2,851 49 ,000 129, 215 29,57 1 112,105 41 ,895 45,000 10 ,000 - 0 - 0 184 ,19 3 66,984 4,1 66,671 5,152 ,238 486,321 Gold certificate account Special Drawing Rights certificate account . Federal Reserve notes of oth er Federal Reserve banks . . Other cash . . . . 4,164,707 4,910,27 6 453,868 9,805 ,230 $ 9,528,851 10 ,188 ,42 3 1,180 ,521 7,890 9,605,835 1, 354,4 51 7,950 24,768 151 ,175 2,142 113,775 $13,044,148 $13 ,124,79 2 s 7,04 6,268 $ 6,461 ,42 3 4,74 7,686 174 ,428 37,410 65,713 5,085 ,6 75 213 ,031 35,280 81,007 s 5,025 ,237 698,206 75, 697 $12,845,409 $ 5,41 4,993 948,653 108,800 $1 2,933,869 99,370 99,370 95,462 95,462 13,044,148 13, 124,792 Loans to Member Banks: Secured by United States Government and Agency obligations . Oth er eli gible paper Other paper Federal Agency obli gations . o • • • • • • Un ited States Government securities: Bills Notes Bonds s Total United State s Government securities . Total loans and securities . Cash items in process of collection . Bank premises . . ..... . . . Other assets: Denominated in foreign currencies . All other . TOTAL ASSETS Liabilities Federal Reserve notes Depo sit s: Member bank-reserve accounts United State s Trea surer-general account Foreign Other deposits Total deposits Deferred avai labi lity cash items . Other liabilities TOTAL LIABILITIES Capital Accounts Capital paid in Surplus Total Liabilities and Capital Accounts Contingent liability on acceptances purchased for fore ign correspondents . 38 s 23,091 $ 32,11 7 Earnings and Expenses (Thousands of dollars) 1972 Current Earnings Discounts and advances . United States Government securities . Foreign cu rrencies All other 1971 $ 888 516,382 143 80 $ $517,492 $ 511,660 $ 40,560 2,724 $ 37,8 22 2,764 Net expenses $ 37,836 $ 35,057 Profit and Loss Current net earnings .. $479,656 s 476,602 $ 401 - 0 124 s 14,198 - 0 17 s 525 s 14,214 $ 6,687 10 $ 1,031 22 $ 6,69 7 s 1,053 Total current earnings . Current Expenses Total current expenses Less Reimbursement for certain fiscal agency and other expenses . Additions to current net earnings: Profits on sales of United States Government Securities (net) . Profits on foreign exchange transactions . All other . . . . . . . . . . . Total additions Deductions from current net earnings: Loss on foreign exchange transactions (net) .. All other . Total deductions Net additions (+)/deductions (-) ... . $-6,172 Net earnings before payments to United States Treasury Dividends paid Payments to United States Treasury (interest on Federal Reserve notes) . Transferred to Surplus Surplus January 1 47 3,484 5,899 463,677 s FEDERAL RESERVE BANK O F SAN FRANCISCO ARIZONA $+13,161 $ 489,763 5,520 477 ,165 CALIFORNIA HAWAII P.O . Box 7702 IDAHO NEVADA 3,908 95,462 $ 7,078 88,383 $ 99,370 . Surplus December 31 ALASKA 1,334 509 ,924 335 66 $ 95,462 San Francisco, California 94120 OREGON UTAH WASHINGTON 39 40