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Analysis of
Work Stoppages




1956

Bulletin No. 1218
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Analysis of
Work Stoppages
1956

Bulletin No. 1218
June 1957

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. - Price 30 cents







Contents
Page

M ajor issu e s _________________________________________
Economic issu e s and union s e c u r i t y ___________________________________________
Other issu e s ___________________________________________________________
Unions i n v o lv e d ______________________________________________________________________
Industries affected ___________________________________________________________________
Geographic patterns _________________________________________________________________
State e x p e r ie n c e __________________________________________________________________

2
2
3
3
3
5
5

Trends during the y e a r ______________________________________________________________
Size and duration _____________________________________________________________________
Method of term inating stoppages __________________________________________________
D isposition of i s s u e s ________________________________________________________________
Strikes fro m 1927 to 1956 __________________________________________________________

6
7
7
8
8

Chart
Trends in work stoppages __________________________________________________________

9

Tables
W ork stoppages:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

In the United States, 1 9 2 7 -5 6 ______________________________________________
Involving 1 0 ,0 0 0 or m ore w o rk ers, selected p e r i o d s ___________________
Monthly trends ________________________________________________________________
M ajor issu e s _____________________________________
By industry g r o u p ____________________________________________________________
By S t a t e ________________________________________________________________________
By m etropolitan a r e a ________________________________________________________
By affiliation of unions ______________________________________________________
By number of w orkers ______________________________________________________
By number of establishm ents ______________________________________________
Involving 1 0 ,0 0 0 or m ore w orkers _______________________________________
Duration _______________________________________________________________________
Method of term inating ______________________________________________________
D isposition of issu e s ________________________________________________________

12
13
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
19
20
23
23
23

Appendix A - Tables
W ork stoppages:
A - 1.
A - 2.
A - 3.

By in d u s tr y ________________________________________________________________
By industry group and m ajor i s s u e s ___________________________________
In States having 25 or m ore stoppages, by industry group ________

24
26
28

Appendix B
Scope,

m ethods,




and definitions __________________________________________________

iii

33




Analysis of Work Stoppages in 1956
with those continuing from 1955, a c ­
counted for 3 3 .1 m illion m a n -d a y s of
idleness— slightly le s s than 0 .3 0 percent
of the total estim ated working tim e
during the y e a r . W orkers directly in­
volved in work stoppages beginning in
1956 lo s t, on the a v erage, 1 7 .4 working
days each (m ore than in any year since
1948), and strikes ending in the year
lasted for an average of 1 8 .9 calendar
days.
(See table 1 .)

Sum m ary
The number of strikes in 1956,
as well as the number of w orkers in ­
volved, was low er than in 1955 and in
m ost p o st-W o rld W ar II y e a r s , although
strike idleness was higher than in any
year since 1952.
The decrease in the
number of strikes m ay be attributed in
part to the existence of lo n g -te rm con­
tracts negotiated in 1955 in such indus­
tries as autom obiles, farm equipment,
and trucking, and the resultant decline
in the volume of collective bargaining
activity during 1956. M o reo v e r, labor
and m anagem ent were apparently often
rela tiv ely close together in their a s s e s s ­
m ent of the econom ic outlook.
Both
were frequently willing to accept long­
term contracts, although the question
of the p recise duration of the contract
was a significant issue in some m ajor
s tr ik e s .

A number of disputes that began
in 1955 continued into 1956. The W e s tinghouse stoppage which began in O cto­
ber 1955 and idled some 7 0 ,0 0 0 w orkers
was settled late in M arch 1956 when the
company and the International Union of
E lec trica l W orkers (A F L -C IO ) and the
United E lec trica l W orkers (in d.) came
to an un derstan din g.2 Two widely pub­
licized disputes— the United Autom obile
W o r k e r s 1 con troversy with the Kohler
C o. in K oh ler, W i s ., which began in
A p ril 1954, and the M iam i hotel d is ­
pute, which began in A p ril 1955, con­
tinued unsettled throughout the y e a r ,
although neither dispute appeared s e r i­
ously to affect the operations of the e m ­
ployers involved during the y e a r . The
M iam i hotel dispute was reso lved in
January 1957 when a 1 0 -y e a r m a ster
agreem ent providing for union recogn i­
tion and the cessation of picketing was
signed by the M iam i Beach Hotel A s ­
sociation and the Hotel and Restaurant
W orkers Union.
Individual contracts
were to be negotiated by the union with
v a rio u s m e m b e r h o te ls.
In the Kohler

Among the m ajor la b o r-m a n a g e ­
ment agreem ents that were negotiated
without interruptions to w ork, during
the first quarter of the y e a r , were those
in the petroleum refining, air craft m anu­
facturing, W est Coast lu m b e r, and ap­
parel in d u stries. E a rly in the su m m er,
m o st of the m ajor copper mining co m ­
panies which were involved in a lengthy
strike during 1955 reached agreem ent
on new contract term s with the M ine,
M ill and Sm elter W orkers Union (in d .).
A lso in contrast to 1955, the Sperry
G yroscope Co. negotiated a new a g re e ­
m ent with the International Union of
E le c trica l W orkers in October---- 7 months
prior to the expiration of its present
contract. (The em ployees of this c o m ­
pany T plants in the New Y o rk -N o r th s
eastern New Jersey m etropolitan area
were on strike for 33 days in 1 9 5 5 .)
In the autumn, the bitu m inous-coal and
anthracite industries and the United Mine
W orkers (ind. ) agreed on contract te rm s
for 1957, and the railroads and their
nonoperating em ployees entered into a
3 -y e a r agreem en t.

Prepared by Ann James Herlihy and Herbert H. Moede,
with the assistance of other members of the staff of the Division of
Wages and Industrial Relations, Bureau of Labor Statistics, under
the direction of Lily Mary David. Loretto R. Nolan was respon­
sible for the analysis of the individual strike cases on which the
statistics are based, and for the final review of the tables.
The Bureau wishes to acknowledge the widespread
cooperation of employers, unions, the Federal Mediation and Con­
ciliation Service, and various State agencies in furnishing informa­
tion needed for this report.
The methods followed in preparing work stoppage sta­
tistics are described in appendix B.
This bulletin includes data presented , in Analysis of
Work Stoppages During 1956, Monthly Labor Review, May 1957
(pp. 565-571). Preliminary monthly estimates of the level of strike
activity for the United States as a whole are issued about 30 days
after the end of the month of reference and are available upon re­
quest. Estimates for the entire year 1957 will be available at the
year's end.

The 3, 825 work stoppages that
began in 1956 directly idled 1 .9 m illion
w o rk e rs.
These stoppages, together




2

About 6,000 workers (members of the independent United
Electrical Workers) involved in a local dispute at the company's
Essington, P a ., plant were idle until early August 1956.

( 1)

2
co n tro v e rsy , the union continued to urge
the boycott of the com pany’ s products
and sought action through the in te rce s­
sion of the National Labor Relations
B oard ,
M ajor Stoppages
Twelve stoppages beginning in
1956 involved at lea st 1 0 ,0 0 0 w orkers
each and accounted for tw o-fifths of the
y e a r ’ s idled w orkers and alm ost onehalf of the y e a r ’ s idleness (table 2).
The lengthy W estinghouse E le c tric Corp.
stoppage that had begun in 1955 a c ­
counted for an additional 10 percent of
the idleness in 1956. The la rg est stop­
page of the year in term s of w orkers
involved and total idleness was the in­
dustrywide basic steel strike involving
half a m illio n w o rk ers. Another m ajor
stoppage in the steel industry resulted
fro m a strike of 250 railroad w orkers
at U . S. S te e l’ s Tennessee Coal and
Iron D ivision in B irm ingh am , A la . ,
which idled the p la n t’s steelw orkers for
over 3 m onths.
These two disputes
contributed about one-fourth of the w ork­
e rs involved in all stoppages and tw ofifths of the y e a r ’ s total idlenesso
The construction industry a c ­
counted for three of the y e a r ’ s m ajor
stop pages. One strike of at lea st 1 0 ,0 0 0
w ork ers occurred in longshoring and in
each of the following manufacturing in­
d u stries:
A ir c r a ft, alum inum ,
g la ss
con tain ers,
agricultural
im p lem en ts,
rubber tir e s and tubes, and m eatpacking.
While seven of the y e a r ’ s large strikes
ended in le s s than a month, average
duration of all m a jo r stoppages ending
in the year was 5 0 ,0 calendar days.
The longest m ajor interruption to work
that began in 1956 affected the Republic
A viation C orp. plants on Long Island.
The strik e , in which three unions were
involved, lasted 112 days.
The longshore dispute brought
into use the em ergency provisions of
the Labor Managem ent Relations A ct
(T a ft-H a rtle y ) for the first time since
1954.
About 6 0 ,0 0 0 m em b e rs of the
International L o n gsh orem en ’ s A s s o c ia ­
tion (Ind.) struck on N ovem ber 16 over
the term s of a new contract at ports on
the Atlantic and Gulf C o a sts,
On N o ­
vem ber 22, a week after the strike b e ­
gan, the President created a board of




inquiry by executive o r d e r ,4 Two days
la te r , the board reported to the P r e s i­
dent stating that the union’ s demand that
the New York shipping com panies nego­
tiate a single Atlantic and Gulf Coast
contract was the m ajor issu e preventing
the conclusion of collective bargaining
contracts in all p o rts .
Other issu e s
m entioned were paid holidays and im ­
proved vacations; 8-hour work guaran­
te e s ; slin g -lo a d (i. e , , amount of cargo
handled in one loading operation from
dock to ship or vice v ersa ) and gangsize lim ita tio n s; length of contract; and
size of wage in c r e a s e s . A 10-d ay te m ­
porary restraining o rd e r, sending the
longshorem en back to w ork, was issued
by the Federal d istrict court in New
Y ork on N ovem ber 24, and 6 days la te r,
this tem porary order was extended to
the full 8 0-d ay injunction provided by
law . The dispute rem ained unsettled at
the end of the y e a r ,5
Two em ergency boards were
created by executive order in 1956 under
the p rovisions of the Railway Labor A c t.
H ow ever, the board appointed to in v es­
tigate the dispute between the B rother­
hood of Locom otive E ngin eers and the
Spokane, P ortland, and Seattle Railway
Co. , did not hold h e a rin g s, since a g re e ­
m ent was reached before it convened.
The other board was appointed to in v e s­
tigate the issu e s in dispute between the
N ation’ s m a jo r ra ilro a d s and the Broth­
erhood of R ailroad T rainm en.
M ajor Issu es
E conom ic Issu es and Union Secu rity . — A s in m o st y ears during the
past decade, w ages and supplementary
benefits in 1956 were the m ost f r e ­
quent issu e s in work stoppages.
D is ­
agreem ent over these m atters caused
a lm ost half of the y e a r ’ s s tr ik e s , and
nearly th ree-fo u rth s of the total id le­
n ess (table 4 ). Length of contract also
was a significant issue in se ve ra l of

3

Since average duration is based on stoppages ending in
the year, this figure includes the Westinghouse stoppage that began
in 1955 and ended in March 1956.
^ Board members appointed were Thomas W. Holland,
Chairman, Arthur Stark, and Jacob J. Blair.
^ On February 12, 1957, longshoremen in ports from Maine
to Virginia quit work again after the 80-day injunction expired. Work
continued at South Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports, since new agree­
ments had been reached earlier at these ports. The stoppage in
northern ports ended February 22, 1957.

3

for
and
the
the

Lakes Steel C orp. *s plant in D etro it,
M ich. , for 2 days during A ugu st.
In
D ecem b er, a 3 -m a n arbitration board
ordered the union to conduct an in v e s­
tigation and discipline union m em b e rs
found guilty of initiating the strike •

Issu es pertaining to union o r ­
ganization, com bined with wage and sup­
plem ental benefit is s u e s , contributed
another 15 percent of the y e a r ’ s id le­
n ess.
A 10-day strike called in Sep­
tem ber by the A m algam ated M eat Cut­
ters and Butcher W orkm en and the
United Packinghouse W orkers at Swift
and Co. plants occurred when the unionshop question becam e a stumbling block
during contract negotiations. The final
settlem ent included in crea sed wages and
supplemental b en efits, but no union-shop
c la u se .

D isagreem ent over
seniority
provisions of a new contract was an
important factor in a 1 0 7 -day stoppage
of about 600 w orkers at the Cities S erv ­
ice Oil Co. refinery at E ast C hicago,
Ind. , which began in A p r il. Some 4 ,0 0 0
w orkers were idled at W estern E le c tr ic
Co. plants in 3 M assachu setts area s
over a sim ila r issu e in Septem ber.

the m ajor disputes in this group,
exam ple, in the July steel strike
the United Steelw orkers* stoppage at
Alum inum Company of A m e r ic a and
Reynolds M etals Co. in A ugu st.

Union secu rity or bargaining
rights were accountable for about 12
percent of the year *s stoppages. These
included the N ovem ber dispute between
the International L o n g sh o rem en ’ s A s ­
sociation (In d .) and stevedoring com ­
panies at the E a st and Gulf Coast p o rts.
A s pointed out e a r lie r , negotiations in
this dispute reached an im passe over
the union *s demand for coastwide b a r ­
gaining, opposed by the various shipping
a sso c ia tio n s. The union shop and scope
of the bargaining unit precipitated a
strike of about 600 m em ber s of the C o m ­
m unications W ork ers of A m e r ic a , which
began in July and continued into 1957
at the Ohio Consolidated Telephone Co.
at P ortsm outh, Ohio, and surrounding
c o u n tie s .6 Considerable violence was
reported throughout the period of the
strik e, causing m ore than one com plete
s hut down of ope r at i on s .

Other I s s u e s .-:— Job security
is s u e s , shop conditions and p o lic ie s ,
and workload led to about the same num­
ber of strikes as in 1955 but caused a
sm a ller proportion of the year *s id le ­
n e s s . A discharge issue idled m em b e rs
of the United Steelw orkers at the G reat

Inter union and intraunion d is ­
putes accounted for about 1 out of 12
s tr ik e s. These strikes were rela tiv ely
s m a ll, accounting for le s s than 4 p e r­
cent of the w orkers and only 1 .3 percent
of the id le n e ss.
Unions Involved
The firs t full year of the com ­
bined A m erica n Federation of Labor
and Congress of Industrial O rganiza­
tions found its affiliates involved in about
85 percent of all stoppages (table 8 ).
This proportion— for the united labor
m ovem ent— was about the sam e as that
previously re g iste red for A F L and CIO
affiliates before the m e r g e r .
Ten of
the y e a r fs 12 m ajor stoppages involved
A F L -C I O a ffilia te s.
While m ost of the stoppages in­
volving the independent or unaffiliated
unions were relatively b rie f interrupt­
ions of work in coal and m etal m ining,
there w ere several m ajor strikes by un­
affiliated unions.
The stoppage that
closed operations at the T ennessee Coal
and Iron D ivision of U . S. Steel began
when m em b ers of the then unaffiliated
Brotherhood of Locom otive F irem en and
Enginemen ceased work in a wage d is ­
pute.
The N ovem ber longshore strike
was another in this category.
In 42
stoppages, involving several thousand
w o rk e rs, no union was involved.
Industries A ffected

The final settlement (late in February 1957) provided
for replacing the union shop with a maintenance-of-membership
clause and for retaining certain supervisory positions in the bar­
gaining unit unless the National Labor Relations Board ruled
otherwise.




Strike activity in m o st industry
groups decreased significantly in 1956
whether m easu red in term s of stoppages,
str ik e r s , or m a n -d a y s lo s t. The m ost

4

significant exception to this general
trend occurred in the prim ary m etal in­
d u strie s, the only group in which time
lo st because ofw ork stoppages exceeded
1 percent of total working tim e .
The
3 6 -d a y nationwide steel strike of ap­
proxim ately half a m illio n w o rk e rs,
coupled with the 9 8 - day stoppage at the
U . S. Steel C orp. fs T ennessee Coal
and Iron D ivision , w ere respon sible for
about 90 percent of the 1 2 .7 m illion
m a n -d a y s of idleness in this industry
group (table 5).
Another m ajor stoppage in the
p rim ary m etal industries was the 25-d ay
strike in the aluminum industry.
On
August 1, som e 2 7 ,0 0 0 em ployees re p ­
resen ted by the United Steelw orkers
struck at various plants of the Alum inum
Company of A m e r ic a and the Reynolds
M etals Co. Although about half of the
Nation*s aluminum production was r e ­
portedly halted, some 1 6 ,0 0 0 m em b e rs
of the Alum inum W orkers International
Union continued working at both com ­
panies while term s of new contracts
with the aluminum w orkers were agreed
upon early in the m onth.
In the stone, c la y , and g la ss
products group, the m a n -d ays of id le ­
n ess w ere the highest record ed for that
group since 1945 and 1946.
The in­
c rea se in 1956 resulted la rg e ly from
the m onth-long stoppage of approxi­
m a tely 4 5 ,0 0 0 A m eric a n Flint G la ss
W o rk ers em ployed by m em b e rs of the
G la ss Container M anufacturers Institute
and the National A sso cia tio n of P re s s e d
and Blown G la ssw a re .
This stoppage
and a 56-d a y strike of several thousand
brick and clay w ork ers in Ohio and
Pennsylvania accounted for a lm ost half
the idleness in this industry group.
Idleness a lso in creased in the
petroleum and coal products group m ainly
as the resu lt of severa l rather sm all
but lengthy stop pages.
These together
with a b rie f strike of severa l thousand
w ork ers at an Illinois petroleum r e ­
finery w ere la rg e ly responsible for in­
crea se d idleness in these in d u stries.
In the mining in d u stries, the
number of w orkers and idleness rose
over 1955, but rem ained below m o st
other postwar y e a r s . Several disputes
over the number of men to be used on




a roof-boltin g machine involved large
num bers of W est V irginia coal m in e r s .
Iron ore m in ers represented by the
Steelw orkers were part of the nation­
wide steel strik e .
A stoppage at the
New Jersey Zinc C o. at O gdensburg,
No J . , which began in August 1955 and
lasted a total of 376 d ays, a lso con­
tributed to the year*s idleness in this
group.
Despite a decrease in the num ­
ber of strikes in the paper and allied
in d u stries, the number of w ork ers idled
in c re a sed , resulting in higher idleness
than in 1955 and severa l other y ea rs
since W orld W ar II. A stoppage of ap­
proxim ately 1,000 em ployees for 122 days
at the M ech a n icv ille , N . Y . , plant of the
W est V irginia Pulp and Paper C o . was
respon sible for a significant percentage
of the industry *s id le n e s s .
This stop­
page, combined with a 6 4 -d a y strike
of som e 500 w ork ers at a paperboard
m anufacturing plant in Connecticut and
a 13-day strike of m ore than 2 ,00 0 w ork­
e rs at the Sutherland Paper C o. in
K alam azoo, M i c h ., accounted for over
a quarter of the w ork ers idled and m o re
than half of the total idlen ess in this
industry group.
Although the 112-d a y stoppage
at 4 Long Island, N . Y . , plants of the
Republic Aviation C orp. kept idleness
in the transportation equipment group
in 1956 at le v e ls alm o st equal to those
of 1955, the number of strik es and
w ork ers was m arkedly under
1955.
The 1 2 3 ,0 0 0 w ork ers ana 1 .8 m illion
m a n -d a y s of idleness in 1956 was the
low est record ed for this group in the
past 10 y ea rs with the exception of 1 9 5 4 .
In the textile and leather prod­
ucts group s, strike activity fe ll sharply
below 1 95 5, gaged both by w ork ers in­
volved and id le n e s s .
Both groups had
been affected by large stoppages in 1 9 5 5 ,
but no m a jo r strik es took place in 195 6.
The 1 04-d a y stoppage at the Rock H ill
Printing and Finishing C o. in South C a ro ­
lin a , the 72-d a y strike at the New J e rse y
and Delaware plants of Congoleum -Nairn
I n c ., com bined with the stoppage that
began in September 1956 at the B rook­
lyn , N . Y . , plant of K en tile, I n c ., and
continued into 195 7, accounted for a lm ost
a third of the w ork ers and m ore than
tw o-th irds of the idleness in the te x ­
tile in d u stries.

5
The lum ber and wood products
group recorded its low est idleness in
the past decade. Few er than 200 w ork­
ers on strike for 164 days at a W est
Coast lum ber company were responsible
for slightly m ore than a fifth of the
time lo st in these in d u stries.
A 20-percent decrease in strikes
and w orkers during the year in the fu r­
niture and fixtures group accom panied
a 15-p ercen t decline in the idleness
to ta ls. A 5 6 - day strike at the HeywoodW akefield Co. in G ardner, M a s s ., in­
volving fewer than 1 ,5 0 0 w o rk ers, was
respon sible for m ore idleness than any
other dispute in the industry.
For the second consecutive y e a r ,
a sharp decline occurred in strike id le ­
ness in the trade group.
The 13-day
stoppage of m ore than 7 ,0 0 0 em ployees
of the R . H . M acy and Co. stores in
the New York City area in A p ril was
the la rg est recorded in this industry
during 1956.
The transportation, com m uni­
cation, and other public utilities indus­
tr ie s recorded declines in all m ea su res
of strike activity during the y e a r , with
w orkers an d m an -d ays of idleness re a ch ­
ing their low est point since 1944. The
9 -d a y idleness of 6 0 ,0 0 0 w ork ers at
Atlantic and Gulf Coast ports in N o ­
vem ber accounted for about tw o-fifths
of the w orkers and slightly m ore than
a fifth of the working time lo st in this
group.
In the previous y e a r , seven
m ajor stoppages were recorded in these
in d u stries. In addition to the longshore
strik e , four other sm a ller stoppages
w ere ended by court injunction or State
seizure of the prop erty.
These were
the Baltim ore tran sit strike in January,
the July stoppages at the Kansas City
Power and Light C o ., Kansas C ity, M o . ,
and the Laclede Gas Co. in St. L o u is,
M o ., and the Seattle, W a s h ., transit
strike in N o v e m b er.
Geographic Patterns
State E x p erien ce. — In m ore than
th ree-fourths of the States, strike id le ­
ness amounted to le s s than one-fourth of
1 percent of total working time (table 6 ).
A la b a m a , because of 2 ba sic steel stop­
pag es, was the only State in which strike
idleness equaled 1 per cent of total w ork­
ing tim e although in 4 other States




(Indiana, Pennsylvania, O hio, and W est
V irg in ia ), the ratio exceeded o n e-h a lf
of 1 p ercen t. In a few States— M is s o u r i,
New M ex ico , New H am p sh ire, O regon,
Rhode Island, Utah, and Vermont---- strike
idleness was noticeably low er in p ro ­
portion to total tim e worked than in
any year since 1952, the fir s t year for
which ratios of idleness to total tim e
worked w ere computed on a State b a s is .
Two large stoppages— the na­
tionwide steel strike and the We sting house strike that continued fro m 1955—
contributed heavily to the idleness re-^
corded for Pennsylvania, Ohio, and
New Y o rk .
M ore than fo u r-fifth s of
Pennsylvania and a lm ost th re e-fifth s of
Ohio idleness resulted from these two
stoppages. These strikes combined with
a 1 1 2 -day a ircra ft manufacturing stop­
page accounted for th re e-fifth s of New
York*s id le n e s s . A significant portion
of the idleness in Illinois and Indiana
also resulted from steel and a few
m ajor stoppages, while in Iowa sm a ller
strikes in farm equipment, a ircra ft
engine a c c e s s o r ie s and m eatpacking were
responsible
for a lm ost half of that
State fs id le n e ss.
The July nationwide steel stop­
page was a significant factor in both
Colorado and M aryland, where idleness
was m ore than three tim es that in 1955.
A local tran sit strike in B altim ore com ­
bined with the steel strike caused m ore
than fo u r-fifth s of Maryland* s id le n e ss.
Idleness declined sharply as
com pared with the previous year in
several southern States that had been
affected in 1955 by m ajor telephone and
railroad s tr ik e s . In A la b a m a , how ever,
the highest lev el of idleness since 1952
was reached as a resu lt of strikes in
the steel industry, while a 104 -d a y tex­
tile strike was the principal factor in
South Carolina* s total for the y e a r . In
North C arolina, m ore than half the
w orkers and th ree-fo u rth s of the id le­
ness resulted from the 65-d a y strike
of about 6 ,0 0 0 em ployees at 3 plants
of the W estern E lec tric C o.
Several
m onth-long construction s tr ik e s , the
July steel str ik e , the N ovem ber long­
shore stoppage, and a stoppage of se v ­
eral thousand w ork ers in the chem ical
industry brought tim e idle in Texas to
its highest point since 1952.

6
Louisiana re g iste re d 42 stop­
pages involving 2 6 ,0 0 0 w orkers and
4 3 8 ,0 0 0 m an -days of id le n e ss.
The
idleness resulted la rg e ly fro m the N o­
vem ber longshore stoppage and a d is­
pute of 500 ironw orkers in which picket­
ing idledan additional 9 ,5 0 0 construction
w orkers for over a m onth.
On the P acific C oast, C ali­
fornia and Oregon idleness declined
from le v e ls reached in 1955 and m ost
postwar y e a r s, with tim e lo st in O re­
gon reaching its low est point since 1943.
By con trast, lo st time ro se in W ash­
ington as two disputes— a 7 6 - day con­
struction strike and a 121-day petro­
leum stoppage---- accounted for alm ost
half of that S t a te d id le n e ss.
M etropolitan A r e a s . —Com pared
with 1955, d e crea ses in all m ea su res of
strike activity were record ed in onethird of the m etropolitan a reas during
the year (table 7); approxim ately a se v ­
enth re g iste re d in cre a ses in the 3 m e a s ­
u res.
In New England, the N ovem ber
strike at the F irestone T ire and Rubber
C o. plants accounted for tw o-th irds and
fo u r-fifth s of F a ll R iv e r, M a s s ., worker
and idleness fig u r e s , re sp e ctiv ely , while
m ore than 80 percent of W aterbury,
Conn. , idleness was attributable to a
63-d a y strike at the Chase B ra ss and
Copper Co. T h re e -fifth s of the time
lo st in New Haven, Conn. , resulted
fro m strikes in the rubber products
industry and at a paperboard m anufac­
turing com pany.
The Westinghouse stoppages that
began in 1955 and ended in 195 6, com ­
bined with the July nationwide steel
strik e , contributed m ore than th re efourths of the total idlen ess in P hila­
delphia, and over 90 percent of the
idleness in P ittsburgh.
In the New
Y o rk -N o rth e a ste rn New J ersey a re a ,
the W estinghouse stoppage and the R e­
public A irc ra ft C o. strike accounted for
m ore than half the id le n e ss.
In the South, a 75-d a y stop­
page in the transportation equipment in­
dustry brought strike idlen ess to the
highest level in Savannah, G a, , during
the period the Bureau has included this
area in its fig u r e s.
The 9 8-d a y stop­
page at the T en nessee Coal and Iron
D ivision of the U . S. Steel C orp. was




respon sible for m ost of the B irm ingh am ,
A l a . , id le n e ss. Two m ajor stoppages—
longshorem en in N ovem ber and con­
struction w ork ers in M ay— w ere r e ­
sponsible for m ore than nine-tenths of
the w orkers idled and tim e lo st during
the year in New O rlea n s, L a .
Strikes
in the interstate trucking and the con­
struction industries were respon sible
for tw o-fifth s of the w orkers idled and
m ore than th ree-fo u rth s of the total id le ­
n ess record ed in N a sh v ille , T en n., while
in C h arleston, W . V a . , a 4 6-d a y stop­
page in the chem ical industry contrib­
uted a lm ost th re e-fifth s of all id le n e ss.
A 1 3 7 -day strike at the John
D eere and C o. contributed m ore than
half the w ork ers idled and over 90 p e r­
cent of the total strike idleness in the
D avenport, Iowa, and Rock Isla n d M olin e, 111., a re a . This strik e , com ­
bined with the F irestone T ire and Rubber
C o. strike in N ovem ber and a strike
at an a ircra ft engine a c c e s s o r ie s plant
in July, idled m ore than half the w ork­
ers for a lm ost th ree-fo u rth s of the total
m a n -d a y s lo st in Des M o in e s, Iowa.
In M adison, W i s ., strikes in the m a ­
chine tool and construction industries
accounted for tw o-th irds and fo u r-fifth s
of the w orkers and idleness to ta ls,
re sp e ctiv ely .
Stoppages of nationwide scope
affected a reas in the Far W est and
Southwest.
For Phoenix, A r i z . , the
nationwide alum inum industry strike and
a lo ca l telephone strike of 65 d a y s 1
duration brought the number of w orkers
and m an -d ays of idleness to the highest
le v e ls record ed in any y e a r . M ore than
tw o-th irds of the idleness and half of
the w orkers idled in the San F ra n cisco
a re a , w ere due to three stoppages---the nationwide steel dispute, an a r e a ­
wide strike of carp e n te rs, and a strike
involving severa l m ajor m anufacturers
of office m ach in ery.
Trends During the Year
A s in previous y e a r s , strike
activity was grea test in the second and
third quarters (A pril through Septem ber).
H ow ever, a somewhat higher p rop o r­
tion of the y e a r ’ s strike activity o c ­
curred during the fir s t quarter of 1956
than during the sam e period of the p re ­
vious y e a r .

7

T h re e -fifth s of the year *s stop­
p a g e s, accounting for slightly m ore than
70 percent of ail the w orkers and id le n esSjW ere record ed during the second
and third quarters of the year (table 3).
Eight of the y e a r *s 12 large stoppages
occurred during this period and were
respon sible for m ore than th ree-fifth s
of that period* s total id le n e ss.
O ne-fifth of the idleness during
the la st quarter of 1956 was due to
m ajor stoppages in the farm equipment,
tire and tube m anufacturing, and lo n g shoring in d u stries.
Size and Duration
A s in m ost y ea rs during the
past decade, m ore than half of the 1956
strikes involved fewer than a hundred
w o rk e rs.
In 1 95 6, alm o st half lasted
le s s than a w eek. The stoppages idling
fewer than a hundred w ork ers accounted
for about 4 percent of all w orkers in­
volved and approxim ately 3 percent of
the year * s idleness (table 9 ).
L ess
than 0 .5 percent of the y e a r *s strikes
involved 1 0 ,0 0 0 or m ore w o rk e rs, but
these were respon sible for approxi­
m ately tw o-fifths and th re e-fifth s of
all strik e rs and strike id le n e ss, r e sp e c ­
tiv e ly 7 (table 2).
A slightly higher proportion of
idlen ess in 1956 stoppages occurred in
strikes affecting m ore than one estab­
lishm ent than in 1955 and m o st years
since 1 95 0.
Slightly m ore than th re e fourths of the 1956 strik es were con­
fined to a single plant or establishm ent.
These stoppages idled tw o-fifths of the
w orkers and accounted for alm o st a
quarter of the year J idleness (table 10).
s
The sm all number of strikes affecting
100 or m ore establishm ents idled 28 p e r­
cent of all strik e rs for 38 percent of
all tim e lost in 1956, com pared with
a seventh of the 1955 idleness accounted
for by stoppages of this m agnitude.
Stoppages that continued for
le s s than a week involved alm ost a third
of the w orkers but only about 4 percent

of total m a n -d a y s idle (table 12). Those
continuing for a month or longer were
proportionately about as num erous as
in e a rlie r y ea rs but, as a resu lt of
the W estinghouse stoppages and se ve ra l
other strikes that involved large num­
b e rs of w ork ers and w ere re la tiv ely
long, they contributsd a higher p rop o r­
tion of the w ork ers and idleness r e ­
corded in all stoppages ending in 1956
than in any year of the past decade.
Stoppages of this duration num bered
slightly le s s than a fifth of all strikes
but accounted for tw o-fifths of the w ork­
e rs and fo u r-fifth s of total id le n e ss.
A s a resu lt of the strikes that
idled large num bers of w orkers for long
periods of tim e , the average number of
working days lo st per striker (1 7. 4)
was higher than in any postwar year
except 1948 when the same average
was reported , and 1946, when idleness
amounted to 2 5 .2 days per
str ik e r.
H ow ever, average duration of all stop­
pages (1 8 .9 days), m ea su red by giving
each strike equal weight re g a rd le ss of
the number of w ork ers involved, was
lower than that record ed in m ost e a r­
lie r postwar y e a r s .
Strikes over wages combined
with union organization issu e s tended to
be the longest— about 38 calendar days
in 1956.
Strikes over union organiza­
tion alone
ranked
second, averaging
25 da y s, while those involving wages and
related issu e s were third, lasting an av­
erage of about 20 d ays.
Disputes over
in te r- and intraunion m atters (14 days)
and other
working conditions (about
8 days) were the sh o rtest.
An analysis of the duration of
strikes by industry group shows that
the tendency for m o st strik es to last
le s s than a half month was shared by
all but a few industry gro u p s.
In the
mining industry, alm ost th ree-fo u rth s
of all the stoppages ending during the
year continued for le s s than a w eek,
com pared with le s s than half the stop­
pages in m o st industry group s.
Method of Term inating Stoppages

7

Total idleness includes widespread Westinghouse Elec­
tric Corp. stoppage which began in 1955 and continued into 1956.




Government m ediation and con­
ciliation s e rv ice s helped term inate about
3 out of 10 of the y e a r 1s stoppages
(table 13)— proportionately the sam e as

8
m o st years since 1951. T hese str ik e s ,
how ever, idled three-fifths of all strikers
fo r m ore than fo u r-fifth s of the total id le ­
n e ss— significant in cre a ses over the p r e ­
vious y ea r. The proportion of stoppages
settled by direct negotiations between
representatives of the w orkers and e m ­
ployers was slightly higher in 1956 than
the previous y e a r , and involved 30 p e r ­
cent of the w orkers for 10 percent of
the total id le n e ss.
Situations in which w orkers r e ­
turned to their jobs or w ere replaced
by new em ployees without an agreem ent
or settlem ent being negotiated accounted
for 19 percent of the year*s total, 9 p e r ­
cent of the w o r k e r s, and 7 percent of
the id le n e ss.
One percent of the year *s strikes
ended with the em p loyers discontinuing
b u sin e ss.
Nongovernment m ediators
or agencies either alone or with the
aid of governm ental agencies a ssiste d
in the final settlem ent of an additional
1 percent of the stoppages, accounting
for about 0 .5 percent of the w orkers
and id le n e ss.

D isposition of Issu es
A ll issu e s were se ttle d o r oth er­
w ise resolved at the term ination of
a lm o st 90 percent of the strikes o cc u r­
ring in 1956, equal to the postwar high
recorded in the previous y e a r.
M ore
than 90 percent of the w orkers and m ore
than 95 percen t of the idleness were in ­
volved in these stoppages (table 14).
Such situations include those resolved
by agreem ent to use the com p a n y 's
grievance procedure and those in which
the w orkers returned without a fo rm a l
agreem en t or settlem en t.
A s in 1955, work was resum ed
while negotiation of the issu e s was con­
tinued in approxim ately 6 percent of
the yearns str ik e s.
Term ination of
another 4 percent of the work stoppages
was accom plished by agreem ent to r e ­
turn to work while negotiating with the
aid of a third party, by submitting the
dispute,to arbitration, or referrin g the
issu e s to governm ent or other agencies
fo r a decision or an em ployee r e p re ­
sentation election.




Strikes F r o m 192 7 to 1956
Publication of data on work
stoppages in 1956 m arks the thirtieth
consecutive year for which the Bureau
of Labor Statistics has com piled such
sta tistics with relatively uniform p r o ­
c ed u res. Some strike sta tistics fo r the
United States were issued as early as
1880 and fro m 1881 to 1905 inform ation
on the number of strikes and w orkers
involved was collected and published.
No F ed eral agency collected nationwide
inform ation on stoppages fro m 1906 to
1913 but in 1914 com pilation of data
was resum ed on a lim ited b a s is .
The
Bureau of Labor Statistics collected
data on the number of stoppages during
1914-15, and fo r the period f r o m l 9 l 6 -2 6 ,
it also obtained statistics on the number
of w orkers involved in approxim ately
tw o-thirds of the known stop pages. Since
1927, the Bureau has com piled c o m ­
prehensive sta tistics on the number of
w orkers and idleness involved in all
recorded stoppages (of six or m ore
w orkers and lasting at le a st a day)
known to the Bureau of Labor S ta tistic s.
In view of the thirtieth anniversary of
this sta tistica l s e r ie s , this section of
the article provides a very b rie f review
of strike trends fro m 1927 to 1956.

M arked econom ic and social
changes have occurred over the 3 0 -y e a r
period. These y ea rs have spanned both
a m ajor depression and a long period
of econom ic p ro sp erity , greatly in flu ­
enced by war and international develop­
m en ts. Productionhas risen by 1 3 4 p e r cent over the period, the labor force
by 40 p ercen t, and nonagricultural e m ­
ploym ent by a lm ost 75 percen t. Unions
have recorded a fourfold gain in m e m ­
b ersh ip . W ages and other conditions of
em ploym ent are now determ ined through
collective bargaining in many im p o r­
tant sectors of the econom y instead of
being lim ited as a significant force to
a com paratively sm a ll number of in ­
dustries as in the late 1920* s .

During this period, strike statistics included stoppages
involving fewer than 6 workers or lasting less than a day, which
were excluded from data for prior or subsequent periods.




TRENDS IN WORK STOPPAGES
THOUSANDS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
B U R E A U OF LA B O R S TA T IS T IC S

10
The concept of secu lar trend
as applied to strike sta tistics is of
lim ited u se fu ln e ss.
An inspection of
the chart suggests that, over the whole
3 0 -y e a r p eriod , a lo n g -te rm trend line
would show a very m oderate upward
slo p e, with strike activity m easu red by
the ratio of strike idleness to the total
amount of tim e worked in the United
Sta tes. Perhaps a m ore useful gen er­
alization is that strike activity in the
postw ar period w as, in a se n se , on a
som ewhat higher "p la te a u " than strike
activity in the decade before the w a r .9

A ll m ea su res of strike activity
in crea sed in 1933 and continued at higher
lev e ls through 1937. Idleness in these
years averaged about on e-th ird of 1 p e r ­
cent of total tim e worked as contrasted
with alm ost one-tenth of 1 percen t fro m
1929 to 1931. In m o st of these y e a r s ,
m ore than 5 percen t of the w orkers
were affected, com pared with le s s than
2 percent in the im m ediately preceding
y e a r s . Strike lev els declined in 1938 as
the econom y dipped, rose in term s of
w orkers and idleness in 1939, and fe ll
again in 1940.

T y p ica lly , strike idleness has
amounted to fro m o n e-fifth to o n e-h alf
of 1 percen t of total tim e worked by
all w orkers in the United States.
A
low er ratio was recorded only in the
years fro m 1928 to 1931, 1938, 1940,
and again fro m 1942 to 1944.
Higher
ratios were reached only in 1946, 1949,
and 1952. P rio r to 1933, work stoppages
involved few er than 2 percen t of all w ork­
e rs em ployed. Since that tim e , they have
gen erally idled fro m 5 to 9 percen t of
the total number of w ork ers em ployed;
these proportions were exceeded only in
1945 and 1946. In 7 y e a r s , since 1933,
the proportions were below 5 percent
(table 1).

L a b o r ’ s attempts to o rg a n ize,
gain recognition, and bargain c o lle c ­
tively were reflected in the sharp in ­
c re a se in the proportion of stoppages
that centered about these issu e s fro m
1933 to 1941.
In each of these years
except 1933, such issu e s were the m o st
frequent single cause of str ik e s; and
fro m 1934 to 1939, about half of all
work stoppages, accounting for o n e -h a lf
to th ree-fourths of the m an -d ays of id le ­
n e s s , occu rred over questions of union
recognition— in som e instances c o m ­
bined with questions of w ages.
Inter­
sp ersed with these attem pts were o c ­
casional sitdown s tr ik e s , notably from
1935 to 1937, and c la s h e s , som etim es
fa ta l, on picket lin e s .

M ore pronounced than any long­
te rm trends have been the sh o r t-te r m
changes in the lev el of strike activity
and shifts in the issu e s involved in la b o rm anagem ent negotiations.
The period
under review began with econom ic a c ­
tivity at rela tiv ely high le v e ls— soon
to be interrupted by the m a jo r d ep res­
sion that began in 1929.
Despite the
large volum e of unemploym ent that c h a r­
a cterized the 1930*8 unionization grew
r a p id ly ,10 with G overnm ent policies of
encouraging collective bargaining e x ­
p r e sse d in the N o rris-L a G u a rd ia A ct
of 1932, the National Industrial R e­
covery A ct of 1933, and the National
Labor Relations A ct of 1935.

The period since the 1 9 3 0 ‘ s
has experienced full or p ra ctica lly full
em ploym ent, dominated by high lev e ls
of defense production, by actual h o s ­
tilitie s , or by postwar reco v ery and
adjustm ent to a peacetim e econom y.
A s these events o cc u rred , econom ic
issu e s becam e the single m ost im p o r­
tant cause of work stoppages. In m o st
years since 1940, these issu e s accounted
for a m a jo rity of the w orkers and id le ­
ness in all work stop pages, although
the total volum e of strike activity has
fluctuated.

g
Expansion and improvement in the Bureau’s sources of
information as to the existence of work stoppages has resulted in a
substantial increase in the number of strikes for which information
is currently obtained. Since most of these added strikes are small
and of short duration, they have had relatively little effect on the
year-to-year comparability of data on the number of workers and
total idleness.
Union membership increased from 3 million in 1932 to
7 million in 1937.




During the period of the United
States* participation in W orld W ar II,
strike idleness declined as em phasis on
m axim um war production led to la b o rm anagem ent pledges to avoid strikes
and lockou ts, although the proportion
of w orkers involved actually was slightly
higher than it was in the late 1930* s .
M an-days lo st in 1942, 1943, and 1944
ranged fro m 0 .0 5 to 0. 15 of 1 percen t
of all time worked and w orkers idled

11
amounted to 2 . 8 percent of total e m ­
ploym ent in 1942 and about 7 percent
in 1943 and 1944.
A significant p r o ­
portion of the w orkers involved and
idleness in 1943 was due to se v e ra l
large strikes in bitu m in ou s-coal m ining.
Strike idleness
in the fir s t
3 months of 1945 rem ained at relatively
low le v e ls , but it in crea sed somewhat
after V -E Day. Then in late 1945 and
1946, strike activity, m easu red in term s
of w orkers involved and m an -d ays of
id le n e ss, in creased sharply as w orkers
attempted to maintain their weekly earn ­
ings in the face of the postwar decline
in hours of w o r k .1 Stoppages in 1945
1
affected about 1 worker out of every
8 em ployed in this country.
In 1946, strike activity reached
its a ll-tim e high as m easu red in term s
of w orkers involved or m an -d ays id le . In
th a ty e a r, 4 .6 m illion w orkers ( l 4 .5 p e r cen to f all those employed) were directly
involved for a total of 116 m illion m a n days (1 .4 3 percent of all time worked).
Stoppages, a number lasting m ore than
50 calendar days, occu rred during the
fir s t year after V -J Day in many m ajor
industries such as s te e l, rubber, auto­




m obile (the 113-d a y strike at G eneral
M o to rs ), b itu m in o u s-co a lm in in g , p etro ­
leum refining, Northw est lu m b er, plate
g la s s ,
m eatpacking,
com m unications
equipment, and fa rm equipment. These
strikes provided the background for the
passage in 1947 of the T a ft-H a rtle y
A c t, including its provision for G ov­
ernm ent intervention in national e m e r 12
gency disputes.
F r o m 1947 to 1956, the num ­
ber of w orkers involved in strikes ranged
fro m 1 .5 m illion to 3 .5 m illion a year
and generally rem ained below 2 .7 m illio n .
M an -d ays of idleness fluctuated between
2 2 .6 m illion and 5 9 .1 m illion a year
( 0 .2 to 0. 6 of 1 percent of total tim e
worked) but w ere below 3 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 in
m o st y e a r s . In 1951, with Korean h o s ­
tilities and wage c o n tro ls, and again
fro m 1953 to 195 6, total idleness in
strikes declined somewhat com pared
with other postwar y e a r s .

more

11 Of the 42 stoppages in 1945 that involved 10,000 or
workers, 23 began after hostilities had ended in August.

The emergency dispute provisions wei-e invoked 13
times from 1947 through 1956----- 7 times in 1948, and once each in
1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, and 1956.

12
T A B L E 1 .— Work stoppages in the United S tates, 1 9 2 7 -5 6 1
W ork stoppages

Year
Number

1927
1928
1929
1930
1931

_______
___
„
__
__
__ __
------------------------__ ___ _ _
.............._ _
____
________
_

1932
1933
1934
1935
1936

__ _______

1937
1938
1939
1940
1941

1942
1943
1944
1945
1946

1947
1948
1949
1950
1951

__

.

__ __
__
_

-------_____

_ __

_

__ __
_
_
_______

.
..
__

__
__ _

__ __

__

___

_ __

__ __

__
_____

1952
1953
1954
1955

__

1956
1957
1958
1959

_____ _
__
_____ _
____________
__
-------.................... .......
........
------------------------------__
___
_____

1960

__

___
_

____
.

707
604

2 6 .5
27. 6

921

2 2 .6

637
810

2 2 .3
1 8 .8

1 6 .9
1 9 .5
2 3 .8
2 3 .3

4 , 740
2 ,7 7 2
2 ,6 1 3
2 ,5 0 8
4 ,2 8 8

2 0 .3
2 3 .6
2 3 .4
2 0 .9
1 8 .3

2 ,9 6 8
3 ,7 5 2
4 , 956
4 , 750
4 ,9 8 5

1 1 .7
5 .0
5 .6
9 .9
2 4 .2

3 , 693
3 ,4 1 9
3 ,6 0 6
4 , 843
4 , 737

____
_ __
_________

__________

Number
(thousands)

841
1 ,6 9 5
1 ,8 5 6
2 ,0 1 4
2 ,1 7 2

__

_____
__
__

Average
duration
(calendar
d a y s)3

W orkers in volved2

2 5 .6

2 ,1 7 0

2 1 .8

1,960

19.6

2 2 .5

330
314
289
183
342

Percent
of total
employed

1 .4
1 .3

1.2
.8
1.6

M an-days idle during year

Number
(thousands)

2 6 ,2 0 0
1 2 ,6 0 0
5 ,3 5 0
3 ,3 2 0

6,890

Percent of
estim ated
working
time of all
workers

0. 37
. 17
.0 7
.0 5
. 11

. 23
. 36
.3 8
.2 9

1.8

1 0 ,5 0 0

6 .3
7 .2
5 .2
3. 1

16,900
19,600

1 ,8 6 0

7 .2

688

2 .8

1, 170
577
2 ,3 6 0

4. 7
2 .3
8 .4

2 8 ,4 0 0
9 ,1 5 0
1 7 ,8 0 0
6 , 700
2 3 ,0 0 0

. 43
. 15
.2 8
. 10
. 32

324
1 ,1 7 0
1 ,4 7 0

1,120
789

1 5 ,5 0 0
1 3 ,9 0 0

.21

P er
worker
involved

79. 5
4 0 .2
18. 5
18. 1

20 .2

3 2 .4
1 4 .4
1 3 .4
13. 8
17. 6

1 5 .3
1 3 .3
1 5 .2

11.6
9 .8

840

2 .8

1,980
2 , 120

6 .9
7 .0

3 ,4 7 0
4 ,6 0 0

12.2

4 , 180
1 3 ,5 0 0
8 ,7 2 0
3 8 ,0 0 0

14. 5

116,000

.0 5
. 15
.0 9
.4 7
1 .4 3

6. 5
5 .5
9 .0
6 .9
5. 5

3 4 ,6 0 0
3 4 ,1 0 0
5 0 ,5 0 0
3 8 ,8 0 0
2 2 ,9 0 0

.4 1
.3 7
.5 9
. 44
.2 3

1 5 .9
1 7 .4
1 6 .7
16 . 1
1 0 .3

. 57
.2 6

11.8

.2 6

14. 7
10. 7

.2 9

1 7 .4

19.2

3 ,0 3 0
2 ,4 1 0

1 7 .4

2,2 20

19 .6

5, 117
5 ,0 9 1
3 ,4 6 8
4 ,3 2 0

3 ,5 4 0
2 ,4 0 0
1 ,5 3 0
2 , 650

8 .8

20„ 3
2 2 .5
1 8 .5

6.2

5 9 ,1 0 0
2 8 ,3 0 0
2 2 ,6 0 0
2 8 ,2 0 0

3, 825

1 8 .9

1,900

4. 3

33, 100

5 .6
3 .7

.21

5 .0

6 .8
4. 1

11.0
2 5 .2

16. 7

1 The number of stoppages and workers relate to those beginning in the year; average duration to those
ending in the year. M an-days of idleness include all stoppages in effect.
Available information for earlier periods appear in BLS Bull. 1016, Handbook of Labor Statistics, table
E -2 .
F or a discussion of the procedures involved in the collection and compilation of work stoppage statistics,
see BLS Bull. 1168, Techniques of Preparing M ajor BLS Statistical S e rie s, Chapter 12.
2 In this and subsequent tables, workers are counted m ore than once in these figures if they were involved
in m ore than 1 stoppage during the year.
3 Figures are sim ple averages; each stoppage is given equal weight regardless of its siz e .




13
T ABLE 2 . — Work stoppages involving 10, 000 or more w orkers, selected periods
Stoppages involving 10, 000 or more workers
W orkers involved
Period

Percent of
total for
period

Number

1935-39 average ____________ ______
1947-49 average __ ________________
1945 ______________________ _________
1946 _________________________________
1947 _________________________________
1948 __________________________________
1949 __________________________________
1950 _________________________________
1951 _________________________________
1952 __________________________________
1953 __ ______________________________
1954 _________________________________
1955 ______________________
____
1956 ________ _______________________

Number
(thousands)

0 .4
. 5
.9
.6
.4
.6
. 5
. 5
.4
.7
. 5
. 5
.6
.3

11
18
42
31
15
20
18
22
19
35
28
18
26
12

M an-days idle

Percent of
total for
period

365
1, 270
1 ,3 5 0
2, 920
1, 030
870
1, 920
738
457
1, 690
650
437
1,2 1 0
758

Number
(thousands)1

3 2 .4
53. 4
38. 9
6 3 .6
47. 5
44. 5
63. 2
30. 7
20. 6
47. 8
27. 1
28. 5
45. 6
3 9 .9

5, 290
2 3 ,8 0 0
1 9 ,3 0 0
6 6 ,4 0 0
17,7 0 0
18,9 0 0
3 4 ,9 0 0
2 1 ,7 0 0
5, 680
3 6 ,9 0 0
7, 270
7, 520
1 2 ,3 0 0
19,600

Percent of
total for
period

31. 2
5 9 .9
50. 7
57. 2
51. 2
55. 3
69. 0
56. 0
24. 8
6 2 .6
25. 7
33. 3
4 3 .4
59. 1

Includes idleness in any stoppages beginning in earlier years.

TABLE 3 . — Monthly trends in work stoppages, 1955-56
Number of stoppages

W orkers involved in stoppages
In effect during month

Month

Beginning
in
month

In effect
during
month

Beginning
in month
(thousands)

229
255
310
352
432
506
464
496
453
431
242
150

322
347
435
497
616
734
718
740
717
654
451
303

260
2 70
264
382
478
3 72
377
398
336
332
242
114

357
390
394
516
648
576
570
625
541
524
403
240

Man-da ys idle
during month
Percent of
estimated
working
time of all
workers

Number
(thousands)

Percent
of total
employed

Number
(thousands)

49
92
164
211
177
487
637
236
234
214
84
61

69
122
212
308
324
593
776
384
381
292
201
178

0. 17
. 30
. 51
. 74
. 77
1 .3 9
1 .8 2
.8 9
. 88
. 67
.4 6
.4 0

386
610
1 ,6 8 0
2, 730
2, 820
3, 380
3, 320
3 ,0 6 0
2 , 770
2 ,4 7 0
2, 630
2 ,3 4 0

0. 04
. 07
. 18
. 31
. 32
. 36
.3 9
. 31
. 30
.2 7
.2 9
.2 5

88
82
69
141
202
115
591
137
156
133
158
29

192
196
193
199
287
230
669
699
209
178
204
53

. 44
.4 5
.4 4
.4 6
. 65
. 52
1. 52
1. 56
.4 6
.4 0
.4 5
. 12

2, 150
2 ,2 7 0
2 ,0 2 0
1, 540
2 ,9 1 0
2 , 010
1 2 ,5 0 0
2 ,9 6 0
1, 630
1, 180
1 ,4 6 0
472

.2 4
.2 5
.2 1
. 17
. 30
.2 1
1. 35
.2 9
. 19
. 11
. 15
.0 5

1955

January -------------------------------------------February ----------------------------------------M a r c h ---------------------------------------------A p r i l ------------------------------------------------May -------------------------------------------------J u n e --------------------------------------------------July ........................................................
August ----------------------------------------- ----S e p te m b e r---------------------------------------O c t o b e r -------------------------------------------November ---------------------------------------December ---------------------------------------1956
January -------------------------------------------February ----------------------------------------M a r c h ----------------------------------------------A pril -----------------------------------------------M a y ---------------------------------------------------J u n e --------------------------------------------------July .................................. - ..............
A u g u s t----------------------------------------------September ---------------------------------------October -------------------------------------------N o v e m b e r ---------------------------------------December ------------------------------------—




.

14
TABLE 4 . — M ajor issues involved in work stoppages, 1956
Stoppages beginning in 1956
W orkers involved
M ajor issues
Number

A il issues

1 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0

1,821

47. 6

1 ,0 9 4
10
45

28. 6
.3
1 .2

258
23
391

Number 1

Percent
of
to ta l1

3 3 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 ,2 7 0 , 000

66. 8

2 4 ,3 0 0 , 000

73. 5

9 2 4 ,0 0 0
600
7, 680

48. 6
(2)
.4

1 9 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0
6 6 0 ,0 0 0
6 6 ,6 0 0

58. 2
2. 0
.2

6. 7

1 0 5 ,0 0 0

5. 5

2 ,2 1 0 ,0 0 0

6. 7

.6
1 0 .2

9, 120
2 2 4 ,0 0 0

.5
11. 8

4 1 ,8 0 0
2, 1 0 0 ,0 0 0

. 1
6. 3

329

8. 6

8 1 ,2 0 0

4. 3

5, 070, 000

15. 3

202

5. 3

2 1 ,2 0 0

1. 1

4 9 4 ,0 0 0

1. 5

W ages, hours, and supplementary
benefits ------------- ----------------------------------------

Recognition, w ages, and/or
hours ---------------------------------------------------Strengthening bargaining position,
w ages, an d/or hours ------------------------Closed or union shop, wages,
a n d /or hours --------------------------------------

Percent
of
to ta l1

100. 0

3, 825

Union organization, w ages, hours,
and supplementary benefits ------------------

Num ber1

100. 0

---------------------------------------------------

Wage increase -------------------------------------Wage decrease -------------------------------------Wage in crease, hour decrease ---------Wage in crease, pension and/or
social insurance benefits ----------------Pension an d /or social insurance
benefits --------------------------------------------------------------------O ther3
- - ----------

Percent
of
to ta l1

M an-clays idle
duriiig 1956
(all st oppages)

100. 0

32

.8

6, 020

.3

3 ,7 3 0 ,0 0 0

11. 3

95

2. 5

5 4 ,0 0 0

2. 8

8 4 1 ,0 0 0

2. 5

------------------------------------

445

1 1 .6

102 ,0 0 0

5. 4

1 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

3. 3

Recognition -------------------------------------------Strengthening bargaining position ----Closed or union s h o p ---------------------------Discrim ination -------------------------------------Othe r -------------------------------------------------------

301
42
77
13
12

7 .9
1. 1
2. 0
.3
.3

2 2 ,7 0 0
6 6 ,6 0 0
1 1 ,3 0 0
480
1 ,3 7 0

1 .2
3. 5
.6
(2)

4 2 0 ,0 0 0
4 9 4 ,0 0 0
149 ,0 0 0
6 ,0 6 0
2 9 ,8 0 0

1 .3
1. 5
.5
(2)
. 1

Other working conditions--------------------------

862

22. 5

3 7 5 ,0 0 0

19. 7

2 ,1 6 0 ,0 0 0

6. 5

Job security ------------------------------------------Shop conditions and policies -------------Workload -----------------------------------------------Othe r ------------------ ----------------- ------------------

416
387
55
4

1 0 .9
10. 1
1 .4
. 1

1 8 4,000
1 4 9 ,0 0 0
3 8 ,3 0 0
4, 190

9. 7
7. 8
2. 0
.2

1 ,2 7 0 ,0 0 0
5 6 2 ,0 0 0
1 9 9 ,0 0 0
1 2 4 ,000

3 .9
1. 7
.6
.4

Union organization

-1

------------

317

8. 3

6 7 ,6 0 0

3. 6

4 2 3 ,0 0 0

1. 3

Sympathy -----------------------------------------------Union riv a lry 4 -------------------------------------Jurisdiction3 ----------------------------------------Union administration 6 -------------------------

68
27
214
8

1. 8
.7
5. 6
.2

25,
2,
37,
2,

1.
.
2.
.

179, 000
2 3 ,2 0 0
2 1 2 ,0 0 0
8, 760

.5
. 1
.6
(2)

51

1 .3

2 2 ,8 0 0

. 1

Interunion or intraunion m atters

Not reported

-----------------------------------------------

600
330
100
550

4, 630

3
1
0
1

.2

1
In this and subsequent tables the sum of the individual item s m ay not equal the totals for the group, b e ­
cause the individual figures have been rounded.
a L ess than 0 .0 5 percent.
3 Issues such as retroactivity, holidays, vacations, job classification, piece rates, incentive standards,
or other related m atters unaccompanied by proposals to effect general changes in wage rates are included in
this category.
Slightly m ore than a third of the stoppages in this group occurred over piece rates or incentive
standards.
4
Includes disputes between unions of different affiliation such as those between unions affiliated with the
A F L -C IO and nonaffiliates.
5 Includes disputes between unions of the sam e affiliation. Some jurisdictional stoppages are sm all, b rie f,
and local in scope and frequently are not reported either by cooperating agencies or by newspapers; hence, these
figures do not include all such stoppages that m ay have occurred during the year.
4
Includes disputes within a union over the administration of union affairs or regulations.




15
TABLE 5 . — Work stoppages oy industry group, 19 26

Stoppages beginning
in 1956

M an-days idle during
1956 (all stoppages)

Industry group
Numb e r

A ll industries

W orkers
involved

Number

Percent of
estimated
working time
of all workers

--------------------------------------------------------------------

1 3, 825

1 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0

3 3 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

0 .2 9

M ANUFACTURING ------------------------------

1 1 ,9 8 6

1 ,3 6 0 ,0 0 0

27, 100, 000

0. 63

Prim ary m etal industries -----------------------------------------------Fabricated m etal products (except ordnance,
m achinery, and transportation equipment)
------------Ordnance and a cce ssorie s ------------------------------------------ -—
E lectrical m achinery, equipment, and
supplies -----------------------------------------------------------------------------Machinery (except e le c tr ic a l)------------------------------------------Transportation equipment ----------------------------------------------Lumber and wood products (except furniture) ------------Furniture and fixtures ------------------------------------------------------Stone, clay, and glass products ------------------------------------Textile m ill products -------------------------------------------------------Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and sim ilar m aterials ---------------------------Leather and leather products ----------------------------------------Food and kindred products -------------------------------------- -------Tobacco manufactures ----------------------------------------------------Paper and allied products -----------------------------------------------Printing, publishing, and allied industries -----------------Chem icals and allied products ---------------------------------------Products of petroleum and coal ------------------------------------Rubber products -----------------------------------------------------------------P rofessional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clocks -------------------------------------------M iscellaneous manufacturing industries --------------------- -

238

5 7 3 ,0 0 0

1 2 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0

3. 81

229
15

87, 700
1 1 ,2 0 0

1 ,4 2 0 ,0 0 0
9 0 ,7 0 0

. 50
.2 7

106
211
145
47
96
113
70

6 2 ,7 0 0
1 1 3 ,000
1 2 3 ,0 0 0
4 ,9 2 0
2 1 ,1 0 0
76,4 0 0
1 8 ,2 0 0

3 ,0 5 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,6 3 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0
8 2 ,4 0 0
2 4 5 ,0 0 0
9 9 4 ,0 0 0
4 2 6 ,0 0 0

.9 9
. 83
.4 0
. 04
.2 6
. 69
. 16

129
54
160
4
51
31
92
19
55

1 3 ,8 0 0
8 ,9 4 0
7 1 ,3 0 0
790
1 5 ,2 0 0
5 ,9 0 0
37, 500
8 ,4 5 0
8 1 ,3 0 0

1 7 3 ,000
7 4 ,0 0 0
5 1 3 ,0 0 0
2 0 ,6 0 0
2 3 3 ,0 0 0
105 ,0 0 0
3 9 9 ,0 0 0
174, 000
580 ,0 0 0

.0 6
. 08
. 13
.0 8
. 16
. 05
. 19
.2 7
. 83

33
89

7 ,0 3 0
1 6 ,2 0 0

134,000
2 9 5 ,0 0 0

. 16
.2 3

------------

1 1 ,8 5 6

5 4 4 ,0 0 0

6, 0 2 0 ,0 0 0

.0 9

Agriculture, fo re stry , and fishing -------------------------------Mining ------- -------------------------------------------------------------------------Construction ------------------------------------------------------------------- —
Trade ---------------------------------------------- ------ ------ ----------------------Finance, insurance, and real estate ----------------------------Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities ------------------------------------------------------Services— personal, b u sin ess, and other ----------- ------Government— adm inistration, protection,
and sanitation3 -----------------------------------------------------------------

6
321
784
336
15

2 ,0 3 0
2 3 1 ,0 0 0
3 7, 100
840

1 0 ,4 0 0
1 ,3 2 0 ,0 0 0
2 ,6 8 0 ,0 0 0
5 5 8 ,0 0 0
3 8 ,4 0 0

(a)
. 65
. 35
. 02
(a)

243
126

130 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,7 0 0

1, 170 ,0 0 0
2 2 7 ,0 0 0

. 11
(2)

27

3 ,4 6 0

11,1 0 0

NONMANUFACTURING

—

1 2 9 ,0 0 0

(2)

1 This figure is less than the sum of the figures below because a few stoppages extending into 2 or m ore
industry groups have been counted in this column in each industry group affected; w orkers involved and m an-days
idle were divided among the respective groups.
2 Not available.
3 Municipally operated utilities are included in "transportation, communication, and other public u t ilit ie s ."




16
T ABL E 6 . — W ork stoppages by State, 1956

Stoppages beginning
in 1956

M an-days idle during
1956 (all stoppages)

State

Percent of
estimated
working time
of ail workers 1

Number

W orkers
involved 1

a3 , 825

1 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0

3 3 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

0 .2 9

Alabama —
A r i z o n a ---Arkansas
California Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware —

101
12
23
217
33
68
16

6 3 ,3 0 0
7, 700
5, 740
9 2 ,7 0 0
1 5 ,1 0 0
2 8 ,7 0 0
4 ,9 1 0

1 ,4 9 0 , 000
1 2 1 ,0 0 0
1 0 8 ,0 0 0
1 ,2 2 0 ,0 0 0
297, 000
5 3 4 ,0 0 0
7 6 ,0 0 0

1 .0 0
.2 5
. 16
. 13
. 32
.2 6
.2 2

D istrict of Columbia
Florida -------------------G e o r g i a --------------------Idaho ------------------------Illinois ---------------------In d ia n a ---------------------I o w a --------------------------

8
68
40
11
215
136
56

2 ,2 7 0
1 1 ,7 0 0
1 2 ,7 0 0
2, 550
1 2 2 ,0 0 0
1 1 0 ,0 0 0
2 1 ,0 0 0

9, 310
2 0 5 ,0 0 0
193 ,0 0 0
3 0 ,5 0 0
1 ,7 5 0 ,0 0 0
2 ,0 9 0 ,0 0 0
3 0 2 ,0 0 0

. 01
.0 9
.0 9
. 10
.2 2
. 65
.2 2

Kansas ----------K e n t u c k y ------L o u isia n a ------Maine -----------Maryland — —
M assachusetts
M i c h i g a n -------

27
109
42
16
29
170
210

3 ,9 1 0
2 5 ,8 0 0
2 6 ,4 0 0
1 ,4 9 0
4 1 ,6 0 0
5 5 ,0 0 0
9 8 ,8 0 0

25 , 300
2 3 9 ,0 0 0
4 3 8 ,0 0 0
1 1,900
8 9 6 ,0 0 0
8 3 1 ,0 0 0
1 ,1 9 0 ,0 0 0

. 02
. 18
.2 7
. 02
.4 8
.2 0
. 22

M in n e s o ta -------M ississip p i —
M issou ri ---------Montana ---------Nebraska --------Nevada -----------New Hampshire

43
20
117
18
24
13
10

3 0 ,2 0 0
6 ,4 3 0
3 9 ,4 0 0
1 ,3 1 0
5 ,4 1 0
3 ,2 3 0
420

6 0 0 ,0 0 0
28, 800
4 4 4 ,0 0 0
2 1 ,4 0 0
4 3 ,5 0 0
1 4 ,3 0 0
3, 800

. 32
. 04
. 15
.0 6
. 06
. 08
. 01

New Jersey —
New M exico —
New Y o r k -------North Carolina
North Dakota O h i o ---------------O k la h om a--------

190
16
423
22
6
357
42

6 8 ,2 0 0
2 ,9 1 0
1 6 0 ,000
1 0 ,2 0 0
150
2 9 1 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,6 0 0

1 ,2 7 0 ,0 0 0
1 7 ,9 0 0
2 ,9 8 0 ,0 0 0
2 9 3 ,0 0 0
2 ,2 0 0
4 , 7 2 0 ,0 0 0
1 5 4 ,000

.2 9
. 05
.2 2
. 12
. 01
. 66
. 13

Oregon ----------Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina
South Dakota Tennessee ---Texas --------------

27
520
27
12
6
111
76

6, 780
3 0 0 ,0 0 0
4 ,2 9 0
5 ,4 3 0
920
3 2 ,8 0 0
4 3 ,9 0 0

6 7 ,4 0 0
7 ,2 8 0 ,0 0 0
3 3 ,1 0 0
1 5 3 ,0 0 0
6 ,3 9 0
427, 000
8 7 2 ,0 0 0

.0 6
. 87
. 05
. 13
. 03
.2 3
. 17

U t a h -------------V e r m o n t ------V ir g in ia -------Washington —
W est Virginia
W is c o n s i n ---W y o m i n g ------

24
8
49
48
191
62
5

1 2 ,8 0 0
1, 330
1 2 ,6 0 0
1 1 ,1 0 0
6 8 ,4 0 0
2 8 ,4 0 0
100

9 0 ,8 0 0
9, 190
1 3 1 ,000
197, 000
5 8 9 ,0 0 0
537, 000
890

.2 0
. 04
. 06
. 12
. 54
.21
. 01

United States

Number

1 Percent of United States total as carried in form er y e a rs, available in Monthly Labor Review, May 1957 (p. 570).
a The sum of the figures in this column exceeds 3 ,8 2 5 because the stoppages extending across State lines
have been counted in each State affected; w orkers involved and m an-days idle were divided among the States.




17
TABLE 7 . — W ork stoppages by metropolitan area, 1956 1

Metropolitan area

Stoppages
beginning in
M an-days idle
1956 *
during 1956a
W orkers (all stoppages)
Number
involved

Akron, O h i o ---------------------Albany-SchenectadyTroy, N. Y. -------------------Albuquerque, N. M e x . ----Allentown-Bethlehem*
Easton, Pa. —----- ------------

29

2 1 ,3 0 0

1 9 5 ,0 0 0

25
7

9 , 100
510

7 0 ,0 0 0
2 , 350

36

2 6 ,7 0 0

5 7 3 ,0 0 0

Atlanta, Ga. — ----------------B altim ore, Md. ----------------Baton Rouge, L a .-------------Bay City, M i c h . ---------------Beaum ont-Port Arthur,
T e x . ----------------------------------

20
23
10
6

8 ,4 8 0
3 7 ,8 0 0
1 ,3 6 0
1, 790

1 0 3 ,0 0 0
8 8 0 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,8 0 0
3 3 ,1 0 0

9

7 ,4 8 0

3 4 2 ,0 0 0

B illings, Mont. ----------------Birm ingham , A la . -----------Boston, M a s s . -----------------Bridgeport, C o n n .-----------Buffalo, N. Y . --------------------

6
46
55
11
53

260
2 5 ,2 0 0
2 1 ,1 0 0
3 ,1 1 0
4 2 ,9 0 0

7, 710
1 ,0 8 0 ,0 0 0
2 1 4 ,0 0 0
128, 000
1 ,0 5 0 ,0 0 0

Canton, O h i o -------------- -----Cedar Rapids, Iowa --------Charleston, S. C . ----------Charleston, W . Va. --------Charlotte, N. C. --------------

16
8
6
12
7

1 9 ,1 0 0
660
1 ,3 5 0
3, 010
470

3 7 3 ,0 0 0
2 ,4 4 0
8, 570
4 9 ,9 0 0
4 ,0 8 0

Chattanooga, Tenn. --------Chicago, I I I . ---------------------Cincinnati, O h io ---------------Cleveland, O h i o --------------Columbus, Ohio ---------------

20
86
32
44
13

5, 120
1 1 0 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,9 0 0
6 8 ,2 0 0
4 , 590

3 2 ,2 0 0
2 ,4 6 0 , 000
6 1 ,0 0 0
1 ,0 1 0 ,0 0 0
149 ,0 0 0

Corpus C h risti, T e x . -----D allas, T e x . ---------------------Davenport, Iowa-Rock
Is land-M oline, III. --------Dayton, Ohio --------------------

7
9

4, 020
2 ,6 2 0

3 9 ,4 0 0
2 5, 100

8
13

6 ,2 6 0
2 , 830

3 5 4 ,0 0 0
2 2 ,7 0 0

Metropolitan area

Stoppages
beginning in
M an-days idle
1956*
during 1956*
W orkers (all stoppages)
Number
involved

Decatur, I I I . ---------------------Denver, Colo. -----------------Des M oines, Iowa ----------Detroit, M i c h . ---------- --------Duluth, Minn. -Superior,
W is. — ......................

13
21
21
111

4 ,3 0 0
5, 730
8 ,5 8 0
6 4 ,8 0 0

1 5 ,9 0 0
6 4 ,3 0 0
2 1 2 ,0 0 0
7 1 9 ,0 0 0

12

7, 000

1 3 9 ,0 0 0

E rie , P a . ---------------------------E vansville, I n d . ---------------F all R iver, M a s s . ----------F lint, M i c h . ---------------------F ort Smith, A r k . --------------

13
8
13
7
5

1, 150
7 ,4 3 0
2 , 730
1 ,9 1 0
420

1 2 ,6 0 0
8 7 ,4 0 0
3 3 ,4 0 0
3 ,9 0 0
1 2 ,1 0 0

F ort Wayne, Ind. ------------Galveston, T e x . ---------------Grand Rapids, M i c h .-------Ham ilton- Middletown,
O h io ----------------------------------

6
5
7

7 ,2 4 0
3, 860
1 ,6 5 0

2 6, 300
2 4 ,1 0 0
5 4 ,6 0 0

5

1 ,1 7 0

6 .4 0 0

8
14
16

7 ,8 2 0
6, 600
8, 110

1 7 2 ,0 0 0
4 7 ,0 0 0
1 4 2 ,0 0 0

24

8 ,6 6 0

1 5 1 ,0 0 0

H arrisburg, Pa. ------- -------Hartford, C o n n .--------------Houston, T e x . ------------——
Huntington, W . Va.
Ashland, Ky. ------------------

See footnotes at end of table.




Indianapolis, I n d . ---------Jackson, M i c h . -------------Jackson, M is s . -------------Jacksonville, F la. --------Johnstown, P a . --------------

15
9
6
11
14

8 ,6 5 0
2 ,2 3 0
1 ,0 0 0
2, 760
1 9 ,3 0 0

12 2 ,0 0 0
1 1,400
4, 520
4 7 ,6 0 0
4 8 0 ,0 0 0

Kalamazoo, M ic h .---------Kansas City, M o .-----------Kenosha, W is. --------------King s ton-NewburghPoughkeepsie, N. Y . —

7
39
5

4 ,4 9 0
1 4 ,4 0 0
300

3 2 ,0 0 0
2 0 1 ,0 0 0
2 ,2 0 0

14

3 ,3 3 0

115,000

K noxville, T e n n .------------Lancaster, P a . --------------Lawrence, M a s s .----------Little Rock-North
Little Rock, A r k . -------

25
7
7

9, 580
670
3, 780

6 6 ,4 0 0
1 2 ,1 0 0
9 4 ,1 0 0

6

480

7, 150

L ora in -E ly ria , O h io-----Los A n geles-L ong
Beach, C a l i f .--------------L ouisville, K y . ------ -------Low ell, M a s s . ---------------

18

1 8,000

3 0 3 ,0 0 0

84
31
6

3 9 ,3 0 0
5, 550
350

5 1 8 ,0 0 0
61, 700
2, 600

M adison, W i s . --------------M em phis, T e n n .------------M iam i, F l a . .......................
Milwaukee, W i s . ------------M inneapolis-St. Paul,
M i n n . -----------------------------

6
22
22
22

3,
5,
3,
9,

630
600
520
780

10 8 ,0 0 0
6 7 ,8 0 0
128 ,0 0 0
1 9 5 ,0 0 0

26

6 ,8 7 0

6 7 ,0 0 0

M obile, A l a . ------------------M uncie, I n d .------ ------------N ashville, Tenn. ----------New Bedford, M a s s .-----New Haven, C o n n .---------

13
7
16
15
14

9 ,5 9 0
7, 610
4, 810
1 ,3 8 0
3, 110

3 3 ,7 0 0
2 7 ,3 0 0
119,000
2 6 ,3 0 0
6 3 ,0 0 0

New Orleans, L a . ---------New Y ork -N o rth eastern New Jersey —
N orfolk- Portsmouth,
V a . ---------------------------------

22

2 2 ,9 0 0

4 0 9 ,0 0 0

419

124,000

2 ,2 8 0 ,0 0 0

12

2 ,3 8 0

3 1 ,4 0 0

Ogden, U t a h -------------------Oklahoma City, Okla. —
Omaha, N e b r .----------------P eoria, I I I . --------------------Philadelphia, P a . ----------

5
5
13
11
118

1 ,2 6 0
1,5 2 0
4 ,4 0 0
2 1 ,4 0 0
6 4 ,5 0 0

7, 720
37, 500
2 9 ,2 0 0
9 2 ,7 0 0
1 ,7 3 0 ,0 0 0

Phoenix, A r i z . ---------------Pittsburgh, P a . ---------- —
Pittsfield, M a s s . ---------Portland, M a i n e ----------Portland, O r e g . -------------

6
118
6
5
17

3 ,8 9 0
1 1 2 ,0 0 0
1 ,0 6 0
730
5 ,4 3 0

1 0 2 ,000
3, 0 7 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,2 8 0
1 ,4 7 0
3 7 ,2 0 0

Providence, R. I . ---------Reading, P a . -----------------Richmond, V a . ---------------R ochester, N. Y. ---------Rockford, I I I . -----------------

23
16
6
11
5

2, 370
3 ,5 2 0
640
1 ,9 6 0
440

2 3 ,0 0 0
3 5 ,6 0 0
7 ,3 1 0
17,600
1 ,3 0 0

Sacramento, C a l i f . ------St. Louis, M o. -E a s t
St. Louis, I I I . -------------Salt Lake City, U tah -----San Bernardino, C alif.—

9

960

10,0 0 0

80
10
12

4 1 ,4 0 0
2 ,8 3 0
1 ,1 1 0

3 1 8 ,0 0 0
2 1 ,2 0 0
14,5 0 0

18
TABLE 7 .— W ork stoppages by metropolitan area, 1956 1 - Continued

Metropolitan area

San Diego, Calif. ---------San F ran cisco Oakland, Calif. ----------San Jose, Calif. ------------Scranton, Pa. -----------------

Seattle, W ash. --------------Spokane, Wash. -------------Springfield, 111. ------------Springfield-Holyoke,
M a ss. -----------------------------

Springfield, M o. ------------Stam ford-Norw alk,
Conn. ----------------------------Syracuse, N. Y. ----------Tacom a, W ash. -------------

Stoppages
beginningin
M an-days idle
1956^
during 1956 2
W orkers (all stoppages)
Number
involved
14

3, 610

4 9 ,9 0 0

85
10
15

3 8 ,0 0 0
3 ,2 2 0
3, 110

4 7 2 ,0 0 0
5 8 ,2 0 0
2 2 ,2 0 0

14
5
12

4, 090
3 ,4 4 0

6 7 ,0 0 0
1,6 6 0
4 2 ,3 0 0

20

9 ,4 5 0

19 9 ,0 0 0

1 , 000

5

410

1 1 ,7 0 0

6
7
5

220
4, 640
200

2 ,2 6 0
5 9 ,1 0 0
1 ,2 2 0

Metropolitan area

T am pa-St. Petersburg,
F la. ----- ----------------------Terre Haute, Ind. --------Toledo, Ohio ----------------Trenton, N. J . ------- ------

Stoppages
beginning in
M an-days idle
1956*
during 1956 2
Number W orkers (all stoppages)
involved

14
7
20
12

1, 730
1 ,3 3 0
6, 700
7, 300

7, 600
1 5 ,0 0 0
9 1 ,0 0 0
1 72,000

T ulsa, O k l a .-----------------U tica-R om e, N. Y . -----Washington, D. C .--------Waterbury, C o n n .--------Wheeling, W. V a .Steubenville, O h i o -----

17
8
9
9

5 ,9 1 0
1,030
2, 320
8 ,0 6 0

7 1 ,5 0 0
5, 810
10,7 0 0
2 2 4 ,0 0 0

39

2 8 ,6 0 0

4 7 0 ,0 0 0

W ilk e s-B a rre Hazleton, P a . ------------Wilmington, D e l . ---------W orcester, M a s s . ------York, Pa. ---------------------Youngstown, Ohio ---------

30
16
19
15
80

2, 630
5 ,2 6 0
5, 770
1 ,7 4 0
8 5 ,6 0 0

4 8 ,4 0 0
7 6 ,7 0 0
9 4 ,2 0 0
2 7 , 800
1 ,5 9 0 ,0 0 0

1 The table includes data for each of the metropolitan areas that had 5 or m ore stoppages in 1956. Beginning
with 1952, data were tabulated separately for 182 metropolitan a rea s; in 1955 the number was increased to 205.
Information prior to 1952 was confined to city boundaries. The m etropolitan areas are principally those on the lists
of Standard Metropolitan A reas compiled by the Bureau of the Budget as of January 28, 1949, and June 5, 1950.
A few areas were added, including some that had been in the strike series in earlier y ea rs. (Lists of these m etro­
politan areas are available upon request from the Division of Wages and Industrial Relations, Bureau of Labor
Statistics. )
Some metropolitan areas include counties in m ore than 1 State, and hence, an area total m ay equal or exceed
the total for the State in which the m ajor city is located. The Washington, D. C. metropolitan area , which includes
the District of Columbia and adjacent counties in Maryland and Virginia, exceeds slightly the 1956 totals for the
District of Columbia as shown in table 6, work stoppages by State. Idleness in the Chicago m etropolitan area , which
includes Cook, Du Page, Kane, Lake and W ill Counties, III., and Lake County, Ind. , exceeds the Illinois total.
2 Intermetropolitan area stoppages are counted separately in each area affected with the w orkers involved and
m an-days idle allocated to the respective area s.

TABLE 8 . — W ork stoppages by affiliation of unions involved, 1956
Stoppages beginning in 1956
Affiliation
Number

Percent
of
total

W orkers involved
Number

Percent
of
total

M an-days idle
during 1956
(all stoppages)
Number

Percent
of
total

---------------------------------------------------------------------

3, 825

100 . 0

1 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0

100 . 0

3 3 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

100. 0

A F L - C I O ....................................... - ............................
Unaffiliated u n io n s -----------------------------------------------Sin gle-firm u n io n s -----------------------------------------------Different affiliations -------------------------------------------No union in v o lv e d --------------------------------- ---------------Not re p o r te d -----------------------------------------------------------

3 ,2 4 2
485
19
29
42
8

84. 8
12. 7
.5
.8
1. 1
.2

1 ,6 7 0 ,0 0 0
2 1 9 ,0 0 0
9 ,4 5 0
3, 110
3 ,2 8 0
2 70

87. 7
11. 5
.5
.2
.2
(*)

2 6 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0
2 ,9 6 0 ,0 0 0
1 1 4 ,0 0 0
1 3 ,6 2 0 ,0 0 0
2 6 , 100
9 ,8 3 0

79. 7
8 .9
.3
1 0 .9
. 1
(2)

Total

1 Includes 1956 idleness resulting from the prolonged stoppage of m em bers of the International Union of E le c ­
trical W orkers and the United E lectrica l W orkers (Ind.), beginning in October 1955 at the Westinghouse E lectric Corp.
2 Less than 0 .0 5 percent.




19

T ABL E 9 . — W ork stoppages by number of workers involved, 1956
M an-day idle
during 1956
(all stoppages)

Stoppages beginning in 1956
Percent
of
total

Number of workers
Number

W orkers involved
Numb e r

Percent
of
total

Number

Percent
of
total

---------------------------------------------------------

3, 825

100. 0

1 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0

100. 0

3 3 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

100. 0

6 and under 20 ---------------------------------------------------20 and under 100 ------------------------------------------------100 and under 250 -----------------------------------------------2 50 and under 500 -----------------------------------------------500 and under 1,0 0 0 ------------------------------------------1 ,0 0 0 and under 5 ,0 0 0 ---------------------------------------5 ,0 0 0 and under 1 0 ,0 0 0 ------------------------------------10, 000 and over ---------------------------------------------------

680
1 ,3 3 8
798
468
254
260
15
12

17. 8
35. 0
2 0 .9
12. 2
6 .6
6. 8
.4
.3

8, 000
6 5 ,7 0 0
1 2 8,000
1 5 8 ,0 0 0
172 ,0 0 0
5 2 2 ,0 0 0
9 0 ,4 0 0
758 ,0 0 0

0. 4
3. 5
6. 7
8. 3
9. 1
2 7 .4
4. 8
3 9 .9

127, 000
9 4 5 ,0 0 0
1 ,4 2 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,8 5 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,9 6 0 ,0 0 0
5 ,6 5 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,5 9 0 ,0 0 0
1 9 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0

0 .4
2 .9
4 .3
5. 6
5 .9
17.1
4. 8
59. 1

A ll workers

TABLE 1 0 .— W ork stoppages by number of establishments involved, 1956
Stoppages beginning in 1956
Number of establishments
involved 1

Number

W orkers involved

Man-days idle
during 1956
(all stoppages)

Percent
of
total

Number

Percent
of
total

Number

Percent
of
total

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

3, 825

100. 0

1 , 900,0 00

100. 0

3 3 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 0 0.0

1 e s ta b lis h m e n t ----------------------------------------------------2 to 5 establishments -------------------------------------------6 to 10 establishments ----------------------------------------11 establishments or m ore --------------------------------11 to 49 e sta b lish m e n ts---------------------------------50 to 99 establishments ----------------------------------100 establishments or m ore -------------------------Exact number not known2 -----------------------------Not reported -----------------------------------------------------------

2 ,9 7 5
421
158
259
174
16
18
51
12

77. 8
1 1 .0
4. 1
6. 8
4. 5
.4
. 5
1 .3
.3

7 6 5 ,0 0 0
1 9 8 ,0 0 0
7 1 ,8 0 0
8 6 6 ,0 0 0
1 6 6 ,0 0 0
2 1 ,6 0 0
5 4 0 ,0 0 0
1 3 8 ,0 0 0
1 ,6 7 0

4 0 .2
10. 4
3. 8
45. 5
8. 7
1. 1
28. 4
7. 3
. 1

7 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,9 6 0 ,0 0 0
8 8 5 ,0 0 0
2 0 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0
5 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0
2 2 2 ,0 0 0
1 2 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0
2 ,3 4 0 ,0 0 0
1 9 ,2 0 0

23. 0
1 1.9
2. 7
6 2 .4
16. 6
. 7
38. 0
7. 1
. 1

Total

1 An establishment is defined as a single physical location where business is conducted or where services or
industrial operations are perform ed; for exam ple, a factory, m ill, store, m ine, or farm . A stoppage m ay involve
1, 2, or m ore establishments of a single employer or it m ay involve different em ployers.
2 Information available indicates m ore than 11 establishments involved in each of these stoppages.




20
T A B L E 1 1 .— Work stoppages beginning in 1956 involving 1 0 ,0 0 0 or m ore workers

Beginning
date

February 2 J
\

Approximate
duration
Establishm ent(s) and location Union(s) involved
(calendar
days ) 1

112

Republic Aviation Corp. ,
4 plants— Long Island,
N. Y . area

Int* 1 A s s 1 n of
M achinists;
Int*1 Bro . of
E lectrical
W ork ers; and
Int' 1 Union of
Operating
Engineers

2

Approximate
number of
workers
involved 2

12,000

5

M ajor term s of settlem ent 3

M achinists: 7-cent hourly
wage increases effective in
June 1956, and again on April
1, 1957; a 3d week of vaca­
tion after 12 years* seniority;
improved com pany-paidhealth
and welfare benefits; 2 d ay s’
notice required prior to an
indefinite layoff or 2 days *
pay in lieu of notice.

E lectrica l W ork ers:
12centhourly wage in creases e f­
fective im m ediately and again
on April 1, 1957; supplemental
benefit increases sim ilar to
the LAM settlem ent.

Operating Engineers: Wage
increases of 6 cents e ffe c ­
tive im m ediately and 7 cents
in 1957; supplemental benefits
sim ilar to the LAM agreem ent.

April 28

98

Tennessee Coal and
Iron Division,
U .S . Steel Corp. ,
Birm ingham , A la .

B ro . of L ocom o­
tive Firem en
and Enginemen,
(Ind . ) 4

21,0 0 0

A 3-year contract with hour­
ly wage increases of 1 1 cents
effective im m ediately and 9 . 1
cents in the 2d and 3d years
of the contract; a c o s t-o fliving escalator clause; p r e ­
m ium pay for Sunday work and
liberalized holiday pay; jury
duty pay; liberalized insurance
agreem ent; and Supplementary
Unemployment Benefits.

May 1

27

Construction industry,
Northeastern Ohio
(including Cleveland
area)

Building Trades
Unions

4 0 ,0 0 0

T w o-year agreem ents---m ajority of unions received
hourly wage increases of 1 l x z
/
cents retroactive to May 1,
1956, and I 6y 2 cents on May 1,
1957.
Sheet-m etal workers
received, in addition, a l x z /
cent an hour employer con­
tribution to a vacation fund
effective May 1, 1957. B rick ­
layers
received a 15-cen t
hourly wage increase plus
Z l/ z cents an hour contribu­
tion to welfare fund re tro a c ­
tive to May 1, 1956, and
I 6y 2 -cents hourly wage in­
crease effective May 1, 1957.

May 1

71

Construction industry,
New Orleans area,
Louisiana

Int11 A ss 1 n of
Bridge, Struc­
tural and Orna­
mental' Iron
W orkers

1 0 ,0 0 0

A 2 -y e a r contract provid­
ing for hourly wage increases
of 10 cents retroactive to
May 1, 1956, and again on
November 1, 1956, and May 1,
1957; and change in area coveredby travel time agreem ent.

See footnotes at end of table.




21
T ABL E 1 1 .— Work stoppages beginning in 1956 involving 1 0 ,0 0 0 or m ore workers - Continued

’B e g i n n i n g

date

Approximate
Approximate
number of
duration
Establishm ent(s) and location Union(s) involved 2
(calendar
workers
d ay s)1
involved 2
5 0 0 ,0 0 0

A 3 -ye ar contract provid­
ing for hourly wage rate in­
creases averaging 1 0 l/ z cents
effective on the contract date
and 9. 1 cents in the 2d and
3d years of the contract; a
semiannual c o st-o f-liv in g e s ­
calator clause; changes in
supplementary benefits effe c­
tive at various dates during
contract period; prem ium pay
for Sunday work; liberalized
prem ium pay for holiday work;
supplemental
unemployment
benefit plan; pay for jury
duty; a 7th paid holiday; and
improved health, welfare and
pension benefits; also; a r e ­
vised union shop provision.

United B ro. of
Carpenters and
Joiners

13,0 0 0

A 3 -y e a r contract provid­
ing for hourly wage increases
of 12.l/ z cents retroactive to
July 7, 1956, 5 cents effective
June 15, 1957, and I 2 .l/ z cents
on June 15, 1958; on the latter
date an additional 2 l/ z cents an
hour to be used by the union
at its discretion for supple­
menting its health or pension
plans or to increase wage
rates; a 10-cen t hourly e m ­
ployer contribution to a va­
cation fund beginning on Jan­
uary 1, 1957; and a 10-cent
hourly contribution to a pen­
sion fund effective June 15,
1957.

Aluminum Company of
A m erica and
Reynolds M etals Co. ,
13 States

United S teel­
workers

2 7 ,0 0 0

A 3 -y e a r contract provid­
ing for hourly wage increases
averaging 1 1 .8 3 cents retro­
active
to August 1,
1956,
10.66 cents— A lcoa , and 11.66
cents— Reynolds, effective Au­
gust 1, 1957, and 9 .6 6 cents
effective August 1, 1958; p ro­
portional increases in incen­
tive pay; a semiannual c o stof-livin g
escalator
clause;
changes in supplemental bene­
fits effective at various con­
tract dates; increased pay for
work on holidays; higher shift
differentials; a 7th paid holi­
day; and a supplemental un­
employment benefit plan.

M em bers of G lass Con­
tainer M anufacturer' s
Institute; National A s s o ­
ciation of P re sse d and
Blown G lassw are; and
som e independent com ­
panies, 16 States

A m erican Flint
G lass W orkers
Union

4 7 ,0 0 0

O ne-year contract provid­
ing for 6 - percent wage in­
crease and pay for jury duty.

Swift and C o. ,
26 States

Am algamated
Me ate utters
and United
Packinghouse
W orkers

2 5 ,0 0 0

A 3 -y e a r contract provid­
ing for hourly wage increases
of 10 cents effective September
2 4 , 1956, and 7y2 cents on Sep­
tember 1, 1957 and 1958; r e ­
duction of area wage differen­
tials; elimination of w om en1s
wage differential; a c o s t-o fliving escalator clause; lib ­
eralized sick pay benefits;
and a separation pay plan.

Steel industry,
nationwide

United S teel­
workers

12

Construction industry,
San F rancisco area,
California

August 1

625

September 1

728

July 1

5 36

July 7

September 2()

10

See footnotes at end of table.




M ajor term s of settlem ent3

22
T ABL E 1 1 .— Work stoppages beginning in 1956 involving 1 0 ,0 0 0 or m ore workers - Continued

Beginning
date

October 2

November 1

November 16

Approximate
Approximate
duration
Establishm ent(s) and location Union(s) involved 2 number of
M ajor terms of settlem ent3
(calendar
workers
d a y s)1
involved 2
Caterpillar Tractor Co. ,
E ast P eoria, 111.

United Autom o­
bile W orkers

19,000

Agreem ent to review and
discuss certain grievances.

18

Firestone T ire and
Rubber C o . ,
7 States: Calif. ,
Ind. , Iowa, M a ss. ,
Ohio, Pa. , and Tenn.

United Rubber
W orkers

21,000

A 2y2-yea r contract p ro­
viding funeral leave and sup­
plementary pay for workers
during A rm ed F orces reserve
training sessions and lib e r­
alizing seniority p rovisions,
the incentive system , vaca­
tion p rovisions, methods of
computing weekly overtime
pay, and pay provisions dur­
ing treatment of on -the-job
injuries.

(8)

Longshoring industry,
Port of New York
and other East and
Gulf Coast ports

Int'l Longshore­
m en ’ s A ss ’ n.
(In d .)

6 0 ,0 0 0

(8 )

3

1 Includes nonworkdays, such as Saturdays, Sundays, and established holidays.
2 The unions listed are those directly involved in the dispute. The number of workers involved m ay include
m em bers of other unions or nonunion workers idled by the dispute in the same establishm ent.
"W orkers involved" is the maximum number made idle for one shift or longer in establishments directly
involved in a stoppage.
(in those instances in which idleness fluctuates during the strike, the actual number of
workers idle on varying dates is used in computing the m an-days of id le n e ss.)
This figure does not m easure the
indirect or secondary effects on other establishments or industries whose employees are made idle as a result of
m aterial or service shortages.
3 The monthly Current Wage Developments reports of the Bureau som etim es describe the wage settlements
in greater detail than they are presented h ere.
4 Until July 1, plant workers were idled by dispute of the Firem en and Enginemen. On that date plant w ork ers,
represented by the United Steelw orkers, also struck upon the expiration of their contract.
5 On July 2 7, the United Steelworkers and 12 m ajor steel producers signed a memorandum of agreement in­
corporating the provisions of a 3 -y e a r contract.
W orkers began returning to work as soon as individual contracts
were signed, and by August 5 all of the m ajor steel producers had signed new agreem ents.
8 Aluminum Company of A m erica reached agreement on August 9, and Reynolds M etals Co. on August 25.
* Glass Container M anufacturers' Institute reached agreement on September 9, National Association of P ressed
and Blown Glassw are on September 28.
8 W orkers at all ports returned to their jobs on November 24 after a United States D istrict Court issued
a 10-day restraining order under provisions of the Labor Management Relations (Taft-H artley) A ct.
Settlements
were reached at Southern and Gulf Coast Ports before the 80-day injunction expired.
On February 12, 1957, after
this injunction expired, som e 3 5 ,0 0 0 longshoremen in Atlantic ports from Maine to Virginia left their jobs again.
Final settlem ent was reached on February 2 2.




23

T ABL E 1 2 .— Duration of work stoppages ending in 1 9 5 6 1
W orkers involved

Stoppages
Duration (calendar days)
Number

Percent
of
total

Number

Percent
of
total

M an-days idle
Number

_______

3 ,8 2 1

100.0

1 ,9 3 0 ,0 0 0

10 0 . 0

3 7 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 d a y ------------- ---------------------------------------- --------- __ __
2 to 3 days ________ _________________ _______ ____ _
4 days and less than 1 w e e k __________________________
1 week and less than x/ z month (7 to 14 days) ------l/ z month and less than 1 month (15 to 2 9 days) ____
1 month and less than 2 months (30 to 59 days) ____
2 months and less than 3 months (60 to 89 d a y s )___
3 months and over (90 days and over) _____________

534
610
561
796
622
405
161
132

14 .0
16. 0
14. 7

1 49,000
2 0 9 ,0 0 0
2 1 8 ,0 0 0

7. 7

10 . 8

1 49,000
4 5 0 ,0 0 0
74 5 ,0 0 0
1 ,9 5 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,4 6 0 ,0 0 0
1 4 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0
2 ,6 1 0 ,0 0 0
1 3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0

A ll p e r io d s ____________________________________

2 0 .8

291,000

16. 3

2 8 2 ,0 0 0
5 8 1 ,0 0 0
5 5 ,8 0 0
146,000

10.6
4 .2
3. 5

11 .3
15. 1
14. 6
30. 1
2 .9
7. 6

Percent
of
total

100.0
0. 4

1.2
2.0
5 .2
9 .2
3 9 -6
6 .9
35. 5

1 The totals in this table and in tables 13 and 14 differ from those in the preceding tables, because these
3 tables relate to stoppages ending during the year, including any 1955 idleness in these strik es.

TABLE 1 3 .— Method of terminating work stoppages ending in 1 9 5 6 1
Stoppages
Method of termination
Number

A ll m e th o d s-------------------------------------------------------------------Agreem ent of parties reached D ir e c tly ------------------------------------------------------------- -------With assistance of government agencies _______
With assistance of nongovernment m ediators
or agencies
_______ _______ ____________________
With combined assistance of government
agencies and nongovernment mediators
or agencies _______________________________________
Terminated without form al se ttle m e n t_____________
Em ployers discontinued business - ________________
Not reported __________________________________________

W orkers involved

Percent
of
total

Number

Percent
of
total

M an-days idle
Number

Percent
of
total

3 ,8 2 1

100.0

1 ,9 3 0 ,0 0 0

100.0

3 7 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0

100.0

1 ,8 0 9
1 ,1 7 9

47. 3
30. 9

5 7 2 ,0 0 0
1 ,1 8 0 ,0 0 0

29. 6
61.1

3 ,8 7 0 ,0 0 0
3 0 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 0 .3
81. 7

29

.8

4 ,2 1 0

.2

2 4 ,8 0 0

.1

10

.3
18. 6
1. 1
1. 1

5, 630
1 64,000
3 ,0 2 0
2 ,7 5 0

.3

120,000

.3

8. 5
.2

2 ,5 5 0 ,0 0 0
2 5 3 ,0 0 0
4 7 ,5 0 0

6. 8

709
42
43

.1

.7
.1

1 See footnote 1, table 12.

TABLE 1 4 .— Disposition of issu es in work stoppages ending in 1956 1
W orkers involved

Stoppages
Disposition of issues

Man-daysi idle

Number
__ _____________________________ ___________

Number

Percent
of
total

3 ,821

100 . 0

1 ,9 3 0 ,0 0 0

100.0

3 7 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0

100.0

3 ,3 9 0

A ll issues

Percent
of
total

88 . 7

1 ,7 9 0 ,0 0 0

9 2 .9

3 6 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0

97. 5

224

5 .9

8 4 ,5 0 0

4 .4

4 4 2 ,0 0 0

1.2

11

.3

7 3 ,7 0 0
2 0 4 ,0 0 0
1 6 7 ,0 0 0
4 7 ,5 0 0

.2

2 .2
1.8
1. 1

5, 750
3 1 ,5 0 0
1 3 ,1 0 0
2 ,7 5 0

.3

84
69
43

Number

Percent
of
total

Issues settled or disposed of at termination of
Some or all issu es to be adjusted after
resumption of work By direct negotiation between employer (s)
and union _____________________________________ —
By negotiation with the aid of government
agencies ______ _________________-_______________
By arb itration ___________________ ________________
By other means 3 ________________ __ -------------------Not re p o rte d ----------- ----------------------------------------------

1.6
.7
.1

.5
.4
.1

1 See footnote 1, table 12.
2 Includes (a) those strikes in which a settlem ent was reached on the issu es prior to return to work, (b) those
in which the parties agreed to utilize the com pany's grievance procedure, and (c) any strikes in which the workers
returned without form al agreement or settlem ent.
3 Includes cases referred to the National or State labor relations boards or other agencies for administrative
action or employee elections, rather than factfinding, mediation or conciliation; and interunion or intraunion d is­
putes for which specific union procedures for adjudication have been developed.




24

Appendix A
TABLE A - 1 .— Work stoppages by industry, 1956

Industry

Stoppages beginning
Man-days idle
in 1956
during 1956
1Workers
(all stoppages) l
Number
involved

Industry

Prim ary metal industries
Blast furnaces, steel works,
and rolling m ills
Iron and steel foundries ________
Primary smelting and refining
of nonferrous metals __________
Secondary smelting and refining
of nonferrous metals
and alloys
Rolling, drawing, and alloying
of nonferrous metals ________
Nonferrous foundries __________
Miscellaneous primary
metal industries ______________
Fabricated metal products (except
ordnance, machinery, and
transportation equipm ent)_______
Tin cans and other tinware ___
Cutlery, handtools, and
general hardware ____________
Heating apparatus (except
electric) and plumbers'
su p p lie s________________________
Fabricated structural metal
products _______________________
Metal stamping, coating, and
engraving______________________
Lighting fixtur e s _______________
Fabricated wire products _____
Miscellaneous fabricated
metal products _______________

13,8 25

1 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0

3 3 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

Manufacturing - Continued

1 1,986

A ll industries

1 ,3 6 0 ,0 0 0

2 7 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

573,000

12 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0

Lumber and wood products
(except furniture)
.. . . . .
Logging camps and
logging contractors _____________
Sawmill s and planing m ill s
Millwork, plywood, and
prefabricated structural
wood products
...
....
Wooden containers
Miscellaneous wood products ____

1

See footnote at end of table.




1 1 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0
292,00 0

11,300

224,00 0

5

770

4 ,4 0 0

18
22

24 ,1 0 0
3 ’ 530

359,000
34,700

30

1

48 7,00 0
2 0 ,000

5

25 ,900

47 1,00 0

229
5
20

8 7 ,7 0 0
1,9 50
7 ,3 0 0

1 ,4 2 0 ,0 0 0
7,9 7 0
8 6 ,100

26

11,900

380,000

91

37,400

517,000

47
10
8

13,200
2 ,6 0 0
4 ,0 4 0

166,000
4 9 ,900
8 2 ,1 0 0

28

9 ,4 0 0

126,000

15

11,200

90 ,700

8
2

5,9 60
1,380

58,000
10,800

1
3

1,000
2 ,8 3 0

1,000
2 0 ,9 0 0

1

80

80

106

62 ,700

3 ,0 5 0 ,0 0 0

48
7
5

E lectrical machinery, equipment,
and supplies ______________________
E lectrical generating,
transm ission, distribution,
and industrial apparatus______
E lectrical appliances __________
Insulated wire and cable _______
E lectrical equipment for motor
vehicles, aircraft, and rail­
way locomotives and cars ___
E lectric la m p s __________________
Communication equipment
and related products _________
Miscellaneous electrical
products _______________________

Transportation equipment ,
Motor vehicles and m otorvehicle equipment ______
Aircraft and parts
Ship and boat building
and repairing ______________
Railroad equipment _________
M otorcycles, bicycles, and
parts ________________________

238
107
55

Ordnance and accessories _______
Ammunition, except for
small arm s ___________________
Tanks and tank components ___
Sighting and fire-control
equipment _____________________
Small arm s am m unition________
Ordnance and accessories
not elsewhere classified _____

Machinery (except electrical) ___
Engines and tu rb in e s___________
Agricultural machinery
and tractors ___________________
Construction and mining
machinery and e q u ip m e n t___
Metalworking m ach in ery_______
Special-industry machinery
(except metalworking
m ach in ery)_____________________
General industrial machinery
and equipm ent_________________
Office and store machines
and devices ____________________
Service-industry and household
machines ______________________
Miscellaneous machinery
parts ___________________________

Stoppages beginning
Man-days idle
in 1956
Workers
Number
(all stoppages)
involved

26 ,400
1,840
2 ,0 6 0

1 ,7 9 0 ,0 0 0
167,000
18,400

8
27

4 , 510
- 2
26 ,1 0 0

35,700
306,000
670,00 0

11
1

1,720

66,500

211
9

113,000
5,9 90

3 ,6 3 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,1 7 0 ,0 0 0

9

27 ,7 0 0

4 7 6,00 0

22
24

14,100
5,4 40

24 1,00 0
152,000

20

2 ,8 9 0

59,800

59

15,600

283,00 0

12

14,400

231,00 0

25

14,000

774,00 0

32

13,400

243,00 0

145

123,Q00

1 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0

87
21

7 3 ,800
23 ,1 0 0

495,00 0
1 ,0 4 0 ,0 0 0

20
15

16,200
8 ,7 3 0

188,000
64 ,400

2

940

14,000

47

4 ,9 2 0

8 2 ,4 0 0

2
14

190
2,3 7 0

780
4 2 ,7 0 0

20
7
4

1,800
460
100

3 3 ,700
3, 520
1,780

Furniture and fixtures
Household furniture
Office furniture . .......
Public-building and pro­
fessional furniture
Partitions, shelving, lock ers,
and office and store fixtures
Window and door screens,
shades, and Venetian b lin d s____
Miscellaneous furniture and
fixtures

1 96
75
8

21, 100
11,300
6,7 7 0

245,00 0
152,000
2 4 ,4 0 0

2

220

6 ,4 7 0

8

2, 530

58,100

3

210

4 ,8 4 0

1

20

110

Stone, clay, and glass p r o d u c ts_____
Flat glass
_ . ... ...
Glass and glassw are,
p ressed or blown _
Glass products made of
purchased glass
Cement, hydraulic
Structural clay products __________
Pottery and related products ____
Concrete, gypsum, and
Diaster products
Cut-stone and stone p rod u cts____
A brasive, asbestos, and
miscellaneous nonmetallic
mineral products
. ...........

113
2

76 ,400
510

9 9 4,00 0
4 0 ,6 0 0

10

4 8 ,6 0 0

391,000

2
14
27
12

270
5 ,2 60
9,0 2 0
7,6 40

10,100
6 8 ,4 0 0
217,00 0
123,000

31
3

2 ,7 9 0
270

76 ,4 0 0
13,800

12

2 ,0 6 0

53 ,500

Textile m ill products
Yarn and thread m ills
(cotton, wool, silk, and
synthetic fiber)
_
Broad-woven fabric m ills
(cotton, wool, silk, and
synthetic fiber) ________________
Narrow fabrics and other
sm allw ares m ills (cotton,
wool, silk, and synthetic
fib er)
Knitting m ills
Dyeing and finishing textiles
(except knit goods) __
Carpets, rugs, and other
floor coverings
Hats (except cloth
and m illinery)
Miscellaneous textile g o o d s ______

70

18,200

42 6,00 0

5

270

2 ,5 2 0

16

4,6 7 0

64 ,6 0 0

4
14

480
1, 110

10,900
18,'000

13

5, 110

147,000

8

5, 100

171,000

1
9

110
1,380

420
11,500

129

13,800

173,000

8

2, 320

15,900

Apparel and other finished
products made from fabrics
and sim ilar m aterials
M en's, youths*, and boys'
suits, coats, and o v e rc o a ts_____
M en's, youths', and boys*
furnishings, work clothing,
and allied garments
W om en's and m is s e s '
outerwear _____
W om en's, m is s e s ', children's,
and infants' under g a r m e n t s ____
___ _ __
Milliner v
Children's and infants'
outerwear _
Miscellaneous apparel and
accessories
Miscellaneous fabricated
textile products
. .
Leather and leather p rod u cts________
Leather: Tanned, curried,
and finished
Boot and shoe cut
stock and findings _ _
_
Footwear (except rubber)
Luggage ................................
Handbags and small
leather goods
Miscellaneous leather g o o d s _____

19

4 , 510

71 ,6 0 0

44

3, 180

2 3 ,7 0 0

15
8

940
810

8 ,7 0 0
31,600

13

380

3, 740

10

1,020

11,800

12

650

6,0 5 0

54

8 ,9 4 0

74 ,000

8

870

11,100

2
35
4

240
7, 150
490

1,620
50 ,700
6^830

3
2

100
90

1 590
2,2 5 0

25
TABLE A - l . — Work stoppages by industry, 1956 - Continued
Stoppages beginning
Man-days idle
in 1956
during 1956
Workers
(all stoppages)
Number
involved

Tobacco m an ufactures__
Paper and allied products _______
Pulp, paper, and paperboard
m ills .
Paper coating and glazing
Paper bags .
Paperboard containers
and boxes .
Pulp goods and miscellaneous
converted paper p rodu cts____
Printing, publishing, and
allied in d u strie s________
Newspapers ---------------------------Periodicals __________________
B o o k s _________________________
Commercial printing Lithographing .
Service industries for the
printing t r a d e _____________

Stoppages beginning
in 1956
Workers
Number
involved

160
46
2

71,300
41 ,700
130

513,000
293,000
320

16
9
30

4, 870
2, 360
6 ,6 90

2 4 ,400
8, 380
48 ,1 0 0

3
42

350
12,700

12

2, 600

2 1 ,300

] ‘ rofessional, scientific, ana
controlling instruments; photo­
graphic and optical goods;
watches and clocks - Continued
Photographic equipment and
supplies _________________________
Watches, clocks, clockworkoperated devices, and parts ___

4

680

11,400

1

300

6, 600

89

16,200

295, 000

3

410

2, 940

20

5, 890

62, 500

4

420

3, 740

2, 240
115,000

4
4

790
790

20 ,600
20, 600

51

15,200

233,000

21
3
5

9, 820
180
1, 360

184,000
330
14, 300

15

1,900

17, 300

7

1,940

16, 700

31
13
1
2
10
4

5, 900
3, 760
600
260
940
310

105,000
89,600
2, 040
3 ,5 60
7 ,9 40
1,560

1

30

720

Chemicals and allied products ______
Industrial inorganic chemicals —
Industrial organic c h e m ic a ls ____
Drugs and m e d ic in es_____________
Soap and glycerin, cleaning and
polishing preparations,
and sulfonated oils
and assistants
Paints, varnishes, lacquers,
japans, and enamels; in­
organic color pigments,
whiting, and wood fillers __
Gum and wood c h e m ic a ls ___
Fertilizers .
Vegetable and animal
oils and f a t s _________________
Miscellaneous chemicals, in­
cluding industrial chemical
products and preparations__

92
15
30
4

37,500
8,410
19,400
3, 810

399,000
84, 800
187,000
46 ,7 0 0

3

650

industries
Jewelry, silverware, and
plated ware .
Toys and sporting and
athletic goods __________________
Pens, pencils, and other office
and artists1 materials _________
Costume jewelry, costume
novelties, buttons, and
miscellaneous notions (ex­
cept precious metal)
Fabricated plastics products
not elsewhere classified ___
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries ____________________

Nonmanufacturing

i

8 j
27

440
10
1,610

4, 290
80
25,900

12

1,630

29,000

13

1,500

15, 600

5, 080

97, 800

544,000

6, 020,000

6
4
2

2,0 30
1,850
170

10,400
7, 010
3, 390

321
16
18
266

129,000
33, 600
6, 790
84,800

1 ,3 2 0 ,0 0 0
812,000
56 ,300
377,000

1
23

80
3, 820

580
74 ,8 0 0

784
695

231,000
218,000

2 ,6 8 0 ,0 0 0
2 ,6 0 0 ,0 0 0

80
9

12,900
360

7 7 ,600
4, 530

336
187
149

37,100
16,600
20,500

558, 000
344,000
214,000

15
3
12

840
450
390

38, 400
28,600
9, 810

243
14

130,000
7, 200

1 ,1 7 0 ,0 0 0
47 ,2 0 0

19

11,000

112, 000

13
73
20
37
3
19
18
28

3, 970
8, 200
8, 680
67,500
1, 580
9, 680
10,900
1, 170

51,500
138,000
89,600
428,000
74,200
166,000
49 ,5 0 0
15, 700

126

10,700

227,000

17
21

920
1,280

118, 000
17,500

2
27

80
4, 410

780
30 ,700

19
10

1,290
570

24,000
3, 790

5
5
20

110
640
1,420

860
1, 500
29 ,700

27

3, 460

11,100

fish in g _______
Agriculture
F ish in g _____
1
Metal _______________________
A nthracite__________________
Bituminous coal ____________
Crude petroleum and
natural gas production___
Nonmetallic and quarrying
Building_______________________
Highways, streets, bridges,
docks, etc. ________________
Miscellaneous ________________

Products of petroleum and coal _
Petroleum refining __________
Coke and byproducts
Paving and roofing materials .
Miscellaneous products of
petroleum and coal _________

19
9
3
4

8, 450
5, 270
2, 340
390

174,000
9 0 ,4 0 0
56,100
2, 940

3

450

24,600

Rubber products .
Tires and inner tubes —
Rubber industries, not
elsewhere classified __

55
41

81,300
75,400

580,000
513,000

14

5, 850

66 ,9 0 0

33

7, 030

134,000

4

510

46,500

10

4, 590

39,900

4

430

22,700

8
2

490
30

5, 080
1,7 70

Finance, insurance, and
real estate ______________
Insurance _____________
Real estate
Transportation, communication,
and other public u tilitie s_______
R a ilro a d s______________________
Streetcar and bus transporta­
tion (city and suburban)____
Intercity motorbus
transportation_______________
Motortruck transportation___
Taxicabs ______________________
Water transportation_________
A ir transportation ____________
Communication _______________
Heat, light, and power _______
Miscellaneous _________________
Services— personal, business
and other _______________________
Hotels and other lodging
places _______________________
Laundries ____________________
Cleaning, dyeing, and
pressing ____________________
Business services ___________
Automobile repair services
and garages ________________
Amusement and recreation __
Medical and other health
s e r v ic e s _____________________
Educational services ________
Miscellaneous ________________
Government— administration,
protection, and sanitation3 ___

1,460
127,000

27

Wholesale .
R e ta il_____
6
1
8

370
4, 040

1 1,856

5, 080

Professional, scientific, and
controlling instruments; photo­
graphic and optical goods;
watches and clocks _______________
Laboratory; scientific, and
engineering instruments
(except surgical, medical,
and dental)______________________
Mechanical measuring and
controlling instruments _______
Optical instruments
and lenses .
Surgical, medical, and dental
instruments and supplies ____
Opthalmic goods _______________

Man-days idle
during 1956
(all stoppages)

Manufacturing - Continued

Manufacturing - Continued
Food and kindred products_
_
Meat products _____________
Dairy products .
Canning and preserving fruits,
vegetables, and sea f o o d s ___
G rain-m ill p rodu cts___________
Bakery products ________________
Confectionery and related
products
Beverage industries _______
Miscellaneous food
preparations and kindred
products __________________

Industry

1

This figure is less than the sum of the figures below because a few stoppages extending into 2 or more industry groups have been counted in
each industry group affected; workers involved and man-days idle were divided among the respective groups.
2 Idleness in 1956 resulting from stoppages that began in the preceding year.
3 Stoppages involving municipally operated utilities are included in "transportation, communication and other public u tilities."




26
TABLE A - 2 . — Work stoppages by industry
Total

S .I .C .
Code
(Group
or
Division)

Industry group

Beginning
in 1956
Number

Workers
involved

Union organization,
Wages, hours, and
supplementary benefits

Wages, hours, and
supplementary benefits
Man-days
idle,
1956
(a ll
stoppages)

Beginning
in 1956
Workers
involved

Number

Man-days
idle,
1956
(all
stoppages)

Beginning
in 1956
Number

Workers
involved

Man-days
idle,
1956
(all
stoppages)

Total

A ll industries _______________________

13 ,8 25

1 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0 33,100, 000

1,821

1, 270,000 24,300, 000

329

81 ,200

5 ,0 7 0 ,0 0 0

Mfg.

All manufacturing industries ______

1 1, 986

1 ,3 6 0 ,0 0 0 2 7 ,1 0 0 ,0 0 0

1,049

987, 000 20, 300,000

187

68, 900

4 ,6 4 0 ,0 0 0

19
20
21
22

Ordnance and accessories ______
Food and kindred products
Tobacco m anufactures__________
Textile mill products ________

15
160
4
70

11,200
71 ,300
790
18, 200

90 ,7 0 0
513,000
20 ,600
426,00 0

5
66
3
39

1
21
1
3

1,4 10
2 6 ,200
150
340

4 4 ,000
195,000
6, 150
1,2 80

23
24

Apparel,2 etc. ______________ _
Lumber and wood products
(except furniture) ______________
Furniture and fix tu r e s ----------------

129

13, 800

173,000

47
96

4, 920
21 ,100

82, 400
245,000

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

Paper and allied p r o d u c ts______
Printing, publishing, and
allied industries ________________
Chemicals and allied products__
Products of petroleum and
coal _____________________________
Rubber products _________________
Leather and leather products ___
Stone, clay, and glass
products ________________________

2, 480

870
920

23,800
25,300

25

5, 780

147,000

4

330

11,600

13
62

4, 820
28, 600

6 0 ,000
305, 000

5
5

250
320

1,6 90
5, 260

19
55
54

8, 450
81,300
8, 940

174, 000
580,000
74, 000

13
33
27

4, 050
48, 600
3, 670

118, 000
463, 000
23 ,0 0 0

6

7 6 ,400

62, 800

789,000

5

550

63,800

530,000 12,200, 000
1,100, 000
60 ,2 0 0
71,300
2,110, 000

10
27
28

4, 180
5, 240
14,200

191,000
189, 000
1,2 80,0 00

113

1
-

60

380

-

-

620

8, 780

994, 000

60

573,000 1 2 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0
1,4 20,0 00
8 7 ,700
3 ,6 30,0 00
113,000

133
125
127

62, 700

3 ,0 50,0 00

68

37,700

512,000

6

3, 710

2 ,3 60,0 00

123,000
7, 030

1,8 00,0 00
134,000

66
16

57,000
1, 790

1,350, 000
73, 600

12
7

4, 840
1, 350

85, 700
17, 300

16,200

295, 000

37

7, 630

117,000

18

3, 240

130,000

1 1,856

544,000

6,0 2 0 ,0 0 0

790

284,000

4,0 7 0 ,0 0 0

144

12, 300

427,00 0

6
321
784

2, 030
129,000
231,000

10,400
1,3 20,0 00
2 ,6 80,0 00

4
65
365

1, 890
4 0 ,2 0 0
166,000

9, 610
946,00 0
2 ,2 50,0 00

-

-

3
22

300
3, 840

46, 800
36,500

243
336

130,000
37,100

1,1 70,0 00
558, 000

118
155

37, 700
28, 300

473,00 0
290, 000

22
66

3, 190
3, 240

1 1 1 ,000
199,000

15

840

38, 400

8

570

37,200

4

50

410

126

10,700

227, 000

61

6, 980

56 ,2 0 0

21

1, 150

29 ,500

27

3, 460

11,100

14

2, 420

5, 050

6

530

4, 200

This figure is less than the sum of the figures below because a few stoppages, each affecting more than 1 industry group
in each industry group affected. Workers involved and man-days idle were allocated to the respective groups.
Includes other finished products made from fabrics and similar m aterials.
Idleness in 1956 resulting from stoppages that began in the preceding year.
Excludes ordnance, machinery, and transportation equipment.
Includes professional, scientific, and controlling instruments; photographic and optical goods; watches and clocks.
Stoppages involving municipally operated utilities are included in "transportation, communication, and other public u tilitie s."

have been

106

89

Nonmfg. A ll nonmanufacturing in d u strie s___
Agriculture, forestry, and
fish in g ___________________________
M in ing____________________________
Construction______________________

1
counted
2
3
4
5
6

170

10
12

105,000
399,000

145
33

J

5

30, 100
194, 000

233,000

Transportation equipment ______
Instruments, etc. 5 ______________
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries _____________________

I

114,000

2, 840
15, 500

5, 900
37, 500

37
38
39

E

6, 330

25
59

15, 200

238
229
211

F&G
H

47

51

Primary metal industries ______
Fabricated metal products 4 ____
Machinery (except electrical) __
Electrical machinery, equip­
ment, and supplies -------------------

B
C

36 ,700
166, 000
14,500
359,000

31
92

33
34
35
36

A

5, 480
21,300
640
11, 000

Transportation, communication,
and other public utilities ______
Trade _____________________________
Finance, insurance, and real
estate ____________________________
Services— personal, business,
and other _______________________
Government— administration,
protection, and sanitation6 ___




'

-

27
group and major issu es, 1956
Other working
conditions

Union organization
Beginning
in 1956
Number

Workers
involved

Man-days
idle,
1956
(all
stoppages)

Beginning
in 1956
Number

Workers
involved

Interunion or intraunion
matters

Man-days
idle,
1956
(all
stoppages)

Beginning
in 1956
Number

Workers
involved

Not reported

Man-days
idle,
1956
(all
stoppages)

Beginning
in 1956
Number

S .I .C .
Code

Workers
involved

Man-days
idle,
1956
(all
stoppages)

(Group
or
Division)

445

102,000

1,1 00,0 00

862

375, 000

2 ,1 60,0 00

317

67, 600

423,00 0

51

4, 630

22, 800

Total

198

23,200

352,000

479

268, 000

1,7 50,0 00

49

8, 310

65, 400

25

2, 850

16,300

Mfg.

20

3, 480

48, 200

9
40

4, 350
18, 600

10,000
91 ,7 0 0

9

1, 100

11,700

4

710

940

19
20

7

720

27,000

19

5, 610

34,700

2

590

4, 280

’

40

2, 100

24 ,500

23

4, 390

24 ,900

5

310

3, 440

9

6
7

560
450

2, 830
7, 770

6
13

650
2,9 00

25 ,700
8, 670

_

_

_

_

4

1,210

7, 240

1
1

40

4

110

3, 150

14

6, 450

6 0 ,800

3

2, 490

10,000

6
5

340
300

2, 270
4, 720

4
19

160
8, 160

40 ,6 0 0
83,400

3

340
-

880
-

70
400
7, 100

5
22
13

4, 340
32,700
3, 010

55, 900
116,000
30,800

-

-

2

220

2, 100

.

„
-

-

4

920

3
3

3
-

_
1

"

-

22

490

3, 580

23

_

_

70

2, 730

24
25

40

26

_
140

_
420

140
-

2

-

-

500

2, 300

27
28

29
30
31

15

1,670

75,300

29

11,200

65 ,0 0 0

3

70

570

1

150

440

32

15
25
13

2, 060
1, 510
4, 680

45 ,8 0 0
25,100
45,200

78
48
41

36, 500
20,300
22,500

235,000
95, 400
179,000

1
3
1

30
450
850

1,0 40
4, 820
10,700

1
1
1

240
20
30

480
570
370

33
34
35

9

1,910

5, 720

21

19,300

171,000

1

10

30

1

80

230

36

7
1

420
1,670

5, 710
11,700

57
6

60 ,100
2, 090

359,000
26,900

1
3

40
130

260
4, 410

2
-

390

4, 170

37
38

14

330

9, 620

12

4, 530

35,600

8

480

3, 770

-

-

-

39

247

7 9 ,200

747,000

383

108, 000

410,000

268

59,300

358,000

26

1,7 90

6, 490

1
11
88

70
680
7, 620

730
10,400
59,800

1
221
75

60
74,600
12,400

60
247, 000
76,600

12
228

12, 600
41,100

67, 600
256,000

9
6

690
150

2, 840
1,050

A
B
C

28
84

67,800
1,990

498, 000
44,000

54
20

16,000
2,9 50

6 6 ,900
15,400

16
8

4, 530
550

21,800
8, 810

5
3

770
130

1,020
800

E
F&G

1

10

90

1

100

190

1

110

550

-

-

-

31

890

133,000

7

1, 230

3, 520

3

400

3, 520

3

50

780

I

3

150

990

4

360

880

-

-

J




_
'

Nonmfg.

H

28
TABLE A - 3 . — Work stoppages in State s'having 25 or more stoppages by industry group, 1956 1

Alabam a
State and industry group

Colorado

California

Stoppages beginning
Man-days idle
in 1956
Workers
Number
(all stoppages)
involved

Stoppages beginning
’ Man-days idle
in 1956
during 1956
Workers
Number 2
(all stoppages)
involved

Stoppages beginning
Man-days idle
in 1956
Workers
Numbe r 2
(all stoppages)
involved

A ll industries _________________________________

101

63, 300

1,490, 000

217

92,700i

1,220,000

33

15,100

297,000

Manufacturing _____________________________

57

36,900

1, 220, 000

98

53,900

763,000

13

11, 500

265, 000

Primary metal industries____________________
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment)__
Ordnance and accessories ____________________
Electrical machinery, equipment, and
supplies _____________________________________
Machinery (except electrical)________________
Transportation equipment___________________ _
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture) ____________________________________
Furniture and fixtures ________________________
Stone, clay, and glass products______________
Textile mill products_________________________
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and similar m aterials________
Leather and leather products ________________
Food and kindred products____________________
Tobacco manufactures _______________________
Paper and allied products____________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries___
Chemicals and allied products________________
Products of petroleum and coal ______________
Rubber products ______________________________
Professional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clocks __________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries_____

30

29,500

1, 150, 000

13

12,700

276, 000

1

8,480

225,000

5
-

860
-

11, 300
-

12
2

2,220
1, 3b0

29,300
10, 500

.

_

-

-

-

1
3
1

80
350
560

230
7,480
3, 300

3
7
13

790
4, 510
12,200

8, 600
136,000
113,000

1
1
2

260
250
70

520
13,000
560

_
1
4
*

.
10
560
-

_
180
3, 380
-

2
4
4
1

170
570
4, 820 3
10

18, 200
12, 200
25,500
150

1
1
-

90
300
-

2, 360
9,400
-

1
5

200
570

980
2, 150

6
1
12

550
70
4, 180

4, 030
770
31, 200

.
4

_
1,960

_
13,700

1
2
3
1
"

2, 300
140
910
820
"

900
170
130
800
"

1
3
6
1
7

50
260
1,460
20
7,930

160
3, 190
12,500
60
81,400

_
1
-

_
20

_
290

-

-

-

-

-

_

.
1

.
20

.
1, 660

.
1

80

380

1
-

100
-

580
-

Nonmanufacturing __________________________

44

26,400

274,000

119

38, 800

452, 000

20

3, 590

32,000

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing ___________
Mining_________________________________________
Construction __________________________________
Trade __________________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate_________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities _________________________
Services— personal, business, and o t h e r ___ _
Government— administration, protection,
and sanitation ______________________________

_
26
10
5
-

.
12,400
12,500
290
-

_
211, 000
40, 200
1, 550
-

3
2
55
27
4

1, 700
280
25,800
3, 390
300

6, 920
26, 200
179,000
77, 000
8,450

_
11
3
-

_
1, 670
1, 370
-

_
9, 180
5,620

4
-

1, 130
-

21,500
-

13
15

6, 090
1, 320

125, 000
29,100

4
2

530
10

17,100
170

1

10

60

-

-

-

-

-

-

6,
1,
5,
23,

Connecticut

3

-

_

Georgia

Florida

A ll in d u s t r ie s _____________________________________

68

28, 700

534,000

68

11,700

205, 000

40

12,700

193, 000

M a n u fa c tu r in g _________________________________

37

26,100

511,000

19

3, 210

51, 200

19

8,450

126,000

P r im a r y m e t a l in d u s tr ie s _______________________
F a b r ic a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s (e x c e p t o r d n a n c e ,
m a c h in e r y , and tr a n s p o r ta tio n e q u ip m e n t)__
O r d n a n c e and a c c e s s o r i e s ______________________
E l e c t r i c a l m a c h in e r y , eq u ip m en t, and
s u p p lie s __________________________________________
M a c h in e r y (e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ) __________________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n e q u ip m e n t _______________________
L u m b e r and w o o d p r o d u c t s (e x c e p t
fu r n it u r e ) ________________________________________
F u r n it u r e and fix t u r e s __________________________
S to n e , c la y , and g la s s p r o d u c t s ________________
T e x t ile m il l p r o d u c t s ____________________________
A p p a r e l and o t h e r f in is h e d p r o d u c ts m a d e
f r o m f a b r i c s and s im il a r m a t e r i a l s _________
L e a t h e r and le a t h e r p r o d u c ts __________________
F o o d and k in d r e d p r o d u c t s ______________________
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s __________________________
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s _______________________
P r in t in g , p u b lis h in g , and a llie d in d u s t r ie s __
C h e m ic a ls and a ll ie d p r o d u c t s _________________
P r o d u c t s o f p e t r o le u m and c o a l ________________
R u b b e r p r o d u c t s __________________________________
P r o f e s s i o n a l , s c ie n t ifi c , and c o n t r o llin g
in s t r u m e n t s ; p h o t o g r a p h ic and o p tic a l
g o o d s ; w a tc h e s and c lo c k s ____________________
M is c e ll a n e o u s m a n u fa ctu rin g i n d u s t r i e s ______

6

3, 870

144,000

-

-

-

3

3, 360

54,500

8

7, 170

99,700

2

120

1, 370

1

2
8
-

220
11,400
-

2, 610
123,000
-

.
1
1

50
1, 170

2, 200
38,600

2

3,400

47,000

3
3

170
700

7, 000
1, 570

1
1
2
-

150
70
80
-

1, 330
70
1, 400
-

_
1
3
-

_
100
100
-

6, 300
3, 010
-

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ____________________________
A g r i c u lt u r e , f o r e s t r y , and fis h in g ____________
M in in g _____________________________________________
C o n s t r u c t io n ______________________________________
T r a d e ______________________________________________
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e __________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ___________________________
S e r v i c e s — p e r s o n a l , b u s in e s s , and o th e r ___
G o v e r n m e n t — a d m in is tr a tio n , p r o t e c t io n ,
and s a n it a t io n 4 _________________________________




180

_

-

-

-

3

50

1, 670

5

220

7, 300

3
2

760
540

3, 570
28, 000

3
1
3

390
280
830

1, 170
470
2, 910

3

1, 200

7, 740

1

130
720

10, 000

2

520

31

2, 530

3

-

-

-

-

-

230

:

260

1

-

"

1

30

-

-

-

-

90,400

1

40

40

23,000

49

8,480

154,000

30

-

-

-

21

4,250

67,200

-

.
-

_
-

1, 280

_

_

_

-

-

-

14
3
1

1, 770
50
10

14,500
3 2, 780
60

27
6

4, 880
240
-

20, 800
2, 330
-

1
9
2
-

700
1,460
320
-

24,500
10, 300
8, 820

8
3

410
100

4, 370
920

11
2

2, 710
40

14,600
3 112,000

6
2

1,470
100

16,100
6, 870

2

200

420

2

590

2, 390

1

200

600

.

See footnotes at end of table.

60'

1

29
TABLE A - 3 . — Work stoppages in States having 25 or more stoppages by industry group, 1956 1 - Continued

Illinois
State and industry group

Iowa

Indiana

Stoppages beginning
Man-days idle
in 956
Workers
Number 2
(all stoppages)
involved

Stoppages beginning Man-days idle Stoppages beginning Man-days idle
in 1956
in 1956
Workers
Workers
Number 2
(all stoppages) Number 2
(all stoppages)
involved
involved

All industries __________________________________

215

122, 000

1, 750, 000

136

110, 000

2, 090, 000

56

21, 000

302,000

Manufacturing ______________________________

113

109,000

1, 570, 000

77

103,000

2,0 30,0 00

26

17,400

269,000

678,000

9

55,400

1,430, 000

1

90

7, 140

102, 000
9, 000

10
1

4, 540
80

70, 200
400

2
-

360
-

18, 000
-

170,000
138,000
31, 300

_
4
1

_
1, 140
2,200

_
89,600
46, 200

Primary metal industries ____________________
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment)__
Ordnance and accessories ____________________
Electrical machinery, equipment, and
supplies ______________________________________
Machinery (except electrical)_________________
Transportation equipment _____________________
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture) _____________________________________
Furniture and fixtures _________________________
Stone, clay, and glass products _______________
Textile mill products__________________________
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and similar m aterials_________
Leather and leather products ____ ±____________
Food and kindred products ____________________
Tobacco manufactures _________________________
Paper and allied products_____________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries ___
Chemicals and allied products_________________
Products of petroleum and coal _______________
Rubber products _______________________________
Professional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clocks ___________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries______
Nonmanufacturing ___ ____________________ ___
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing ____________
Mining __________________________________________
Construction ___________________________________
Trade __________________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate___________
Transportation, communication, and
other public u tilities_________________________
Services— personal, business, and other _____
Government— administration, protection,
and sanitation4 _______________________________

14

31, 200

10
1

4, 770
2, 250

8
18
8

4, 590
32, 100
4, 460

45,400
462,000
47,200

6
7
10

10, 800
6, 560
7,920

7
3
6
2

500
230
8, 680
70

7, 700
4, 720
35, 900
450

_
5
10
-

_
960
8, 710
-

_
15,100
67, 600
-

_
1
2
-

_
30
290
-

_
200
10, 100
-

3
2
14

250
670
10, 600

770
3, 740
101,000

2
4

90
880

480
7, 350

.
11

_
10,300

_
60, 800

1
10
5
~

60
3, 240
4, 470

1,220
37,900
23,000

2
1
3
6

430
40
970
5, 720

2, 740
560
57,700
35, 800

_
1
1
2

_
600
70
2, 350

_
2, 040
630
34,600

2
4

420
350

420
6,460

1
2

300
40

6, 600
180

-

-

-

103

12, 700

179,000

59

7, 030

58, 900

30

3, 600

32,900

9
51
22

970
8, 610
1, 140

4, 050
108,000
45, 500

13
21
12

2,430
2,470
370

3,470
15, 200
7, 820

2
18
7

60
2,990
250

1, 490
26, 500
4, 140

13
5

1, 710
200

20, 000
1, 150

11
2

1, 740
20

32, 200
260

2
-

270
-

520
-

60

160

-

-

-

1

30

250

3

3

3

Kansas

3

Kentucky

Louisiana

All industries__________________________________

27

3, 910

25, 300

109

25,800

239,000

42

26,400

438, 000

Manufacturing ______________________________

8

1, 750

9, 020

24

10, 100

172,000

9

1, 380

8, 920

-

-

-

1

3, 870

104,000

2

130

1, 360

2

170

680

6

3, 690

37,800

2

370

3, 290

4

1, 330

8, 040

3

490

7, 180

“

-

-

.
-

-

-

730
2,490
10, 700

100
-

500
-

1

30
150
450

1
-

:

1
4
3

:

:

:

2

200

1, 460

_
2

_
580

_
2, 320

:

:

34

25, 000

430, 000

Primary metal industries_____________________
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment)___
Ordnance and accessories _____________________
Electrical machinery, equipment, and
supplies _______________________________________
Machinery (except electrical)_________________
Transportation equipment_____________________
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture) _____________________________________
Furniture and fixtures ________________________
Stone, clay, and glass products _______________
Textile mill products__________________________
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and similar m aterials_________
Leather and leather products _________________
Food and kindred products____________________
Tobacco manufactures ________________________
Paper and allied products _____________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries ___
Chemicals and allied products________________
Products of petroleum and coal _______________
Rubber products _______________________________
Professional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clocks ___________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries______
Nonmanufacturing __________________________
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing ____________
Mining _________________________________________
Construction ___________________________________
Trade __________________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate_________ _
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities_________________________
Services— personal, business, and other ____
Government— administration, protection,
and sanitation4 _______________________________
See footnotes at end of table.




2

250

300

_
-

_
-

_
-

1

1

2
1
2

600
10
520

6, 430

2

270

560

85

15,700

66,700

no

1, 710

.

:

:

:

19

2, 170

16,300

'

“

18
~

1, 930
_

15,600
"

1

240
-

660

-

-

-

"

-

45
20
15

12,500
2,470
590

45, 300
12,500
6, 450

17
9

11, 600
1, 310

360, 000
7, 170

3
2

80
20

2, 340
90

5
3

12,000
no

62, 200
450

-

-

-

-

-

30
TABLE A - 3 .— Work stoppages in States having 25 or more stoppages by industry group, 1956 1 - Continued
M a ry la n d
State and in d u s try g rou p

A ll in d u s t r ie s ______________________________________

M a s sa ch u s e tts

S to p p a g e s b egin n in g
M a n -d a y s id le
in 1956
W ork ers
N u m b er
(a ll s to p p a g e s )
in v o lv e d

S to p p a g e s begin n in g
in 1956
W ork ers
N um ber 2
in v o lv e d

M a n -d a y s id le
d u rin g 1956
(a ll stop p a ges)

29

41 , 600

8 9 6 ,0 0 0

170

55, 000

831, 000

210

9 8 , 800

17

M a n u fa ctu rin g

3 2 ,5 0 0

7 8 8 ,0 0 0

112

4 5 ,5 0 0

768, 000

149

7 9 ,6 0 0

9 0 6 , 000

3

2 7 ,7 0 0

7 1 2 ,0 0 0

3

4 , 100

8 9 ,5 0 0

22

21 , 800

4 0 2 , 000

-

-

-

8
-

1, 300
_

31, 300
_

19
_

1, 840
_

30, 200
_

-

-

3 9 ,4 0 0
-

5
9
6

5, 430
2, 420
8 ,9 9 0

2 3 5 ,0 0 0
58, 800
110, 000

5
21
32

1, 060
4 ,9 9 0
2 1 , 900

1 4 ,2 0 0
6 7 ,9 0 0
1 1 2 ,0 0 0

1
2
2
-

300
120
170
-

1, 200
1, 790
1, 650
-

1
8
2
8

60
2, 020
240
2, 260

840
53, 100
1, 270
3 4 ,3 0 0

4
2
5
1

310
250
3, 180
100

7 ,4 1 0
7, 390
6 4 ,7 0 0
400

1
1
5
1
1

30
130
700
1, 000
2, 360

90
380
6, 120
2 1 ,0 0 0
4 , 360

17
19
7
3
1
2
8

1, 960
2, 770
1, 360
360
80
180
10, 800

4 2 , 100
19, 600
12, 200
_
5, 600
150
2, 330
5 4 ,3 0 0

1
1
10
_
4
4
2
13

310
30
1, 170
_
2 ,9 1 0
250
180
1 9 ,2 0 0

620
30
6, 200
_
2 6 ,7 0 0
3 9 ,1 0 0
3, 020
700
8 2 ,3 0 0

P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s tr ie s
_ ____
_
F a b r ic a t e d m e ta l p r o d u c t s (e x c e p t o r d n a n c e ,
m a c h in e r y , and t r a n s p o r ta tio n e q u ip m e n t ) __
O rd n a n c e and a c c e s s o r i e s
....
E l e c t r i c a l m a c h in e r y , e q u ip m en t, and
s u p p lie s
M a c h in e r y (e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ) ........
T ra n s p o r t a t io n eq u ip m en t
L u m b e r and w o o d p r o d u c t s (e x ce p t
f u r n i t u r e ) ______ _________________________________
F u r n it u r e and fix t u r e s . . . . . .
S to n e , c la y , and g la s s p r o d u c ts
T e x t ile m il l p r o d u c ts
A p p a r e l and o th e r fin is h e d p r o d u c ts m a d e
f r o m f a b r i c s and s im il a r m a t e r ia ls
L e a t h e r and le a t h e r p r o d u c ts ___________________
F o o d and k in d r e d p r o d u c t s
. .. .. .. .................
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c tu r e s
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c ts ________________________
P r in t in g , p u b lis h in g , and a llie d in d u s tr ie s ___
C h e m ic a ls and a ll ie d p r o d u c t s __________________
P r o d u c t s o f p e t r o le u m and c o a l ________________
R u b b e r p r o d u c t s _____ __________________________
P r o f e s s i o n a l, s c ie n t ifi c , and c o n t r o llin g
in s t r u m e n t s ; p h o t o g r a p h ic and o p tic a l
g o o d s ; w a tc h e s and c lo c k s ..
M is c e ll a n e o u s m a n u fa ctu rin g i n d u s t r i e s _______

3

3

1, 190, 000

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
4

210
1, 000

1 2 ,2 0 0
5, 710

3

no

13

N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ... . . . . . .

9, 100

1 0 8 ,0 0 0

59

9 ,4 5 0

62, 700

62

1 9 ,2 0 0

2 86, 000

.
1
4
3
-

_
20
180
70
-

.
100
2, 120
750
-

23
13
-

5, 860
640
-

20, 500
20 , 200
-

_
5
28
19
2

_
8, 660
9, 020
480
no

_
1 7 9 ,0 0 0
83, 700
1 2 ,3 0 0
480

5
-

8, 830
-

1 0 5 ,0 0 0
-

18
5

2, 770
170

20, 600
1 ,4 8 0

7
2

840
50

“

'

"

'

'

A g r i c u lt u r e , f o r e s t r y , and fis h in g
M in in g -----------------------------------------------------------------------___ .. ._ .............. .............
C o n s t r u c t io n
T r a d e __ _ .... ... ... .
.
. . .
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s ta te
. . .
.
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ....... . ._ _
S e r v i c e s — p e r s o n a l, b u s in e s s , and o th e r ____
G o v e r n m e n t— a d m in is tr a tio n , p r o t e c t io n ,
and s a n it a t io n 4 _____________ _________________

"

M in n e s o ta
A ll i n d u s t r i e s ________________

M ic h ig a n

S top p a g es b e g in n in g
M a n -d a y s id le
1956
d u rin g 1956
W ork ers
N um ber 2
(a ll s to p p a g e s )
in v o lv e d

_________________

M a n u fa ctu rin g
P r im a r y m e t a l in d u s tr ie s _______________________
F a b r ic a t e d m e ta l p r o d u c t s (e x c e p t o r d n a n c e ,
m a c h in e r y , and t r a n s p o r ta tio n e q u ip m e n t)__
O r d n a n c e and a c c e s s o r i e s ____ _____
____ _
E l e c t r i c a l m a c h in e r y , e q u ip m en t, and
s u p p lie s _ __ _
_ _ ________________________
M a c h in e r y (e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ) ...................
T r a n s p o r t a t io n e q u ip m en t
____ ___
L u m b e r and w o o d p r o d u c ts (e x ce p t
fu r n it u r e )
______ ______________ ____________
F u r n it u r e and fix t u r e s __________________________
S to n e , c la y , and g la s s p r o d u c ts _______________
T e x t ile m il l p r o d u c t s ____________________________
A p p a r e l and o th e r fin is h e d p r o d u c ts m a d e
f r o m f a b r i c s and s im ila r m a t e r i a l s _________
L e a t h e r and le a t h e r p r o d u c ts __________________
F o o d and k in d r e d p r o d u c t s __________ _________
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s __________________________
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s _______________________
P r in t in g , p u b lis h in g , and a llie d i n d u s t r i e s __
C h e m ic a ls and a llie d p r o d u c t s _______________ _
P r o d u c t s o f p e t r o le u m and c o a l ______________
R u b b e r p r o d u c t s _________________________________
P r o f e s s i o n a l, s c ie n t ifi c , and c o n t r o llin g
in s t r u m e n t s ; p h o t o g r a p h ic and o p tic a l
g o o d s ; w a tc h e s and c lo c k s ____________________
M is c e ll a n e o u s m a n u fa ctu rin g i n d u s t r i e s ______

3

3 9 ,6 0 0
2, 370

3

10, 800
250

"
N ew

M is s o u r i

Jersey

43

30, 200

600, 000

117

3 9 ,4 0 0

4 4 4 ,0 0 0

190

68, 200

1, 270, 000

21

11, 100

161, 000

56

2 5 ,2 0 0

321, 000

123

4 8 ,3 0 0

1, 010, 000

1

3, 130

7 7 ,4 0 0

4

3, 660

111, 000

11

8, 500

115, 000

6
1

950
1, 000

2 5 ,9 0 0
1, 000

8
1

2, 220
70

9, 520
1, 360

17
-

4 ,6 8 0
-

32, 100
-

1
2

910
140
-

6, 330
1, 960
-

3
5
5

67 0
1, 330
4 , 520

2 2 ,1 0 0
20, 700
2 9 ,2 0 0

6
12
4

1 ,6 2 0
4 ,5 1 0
3, 030

1
2
1
1

40
220
240
150

1,
5,
3,
1,

180
310
850
530

2
1
1

280
300
220

5, 060
23, 600
3, 720

1
5
4
7

20
590
4, 090
3, 600

240
4 , 570
1 7 ,5 0 0
104, 000

680
-

2 5 ,2 0 0
10, 900
-

1
6
3
3
2
5
1
-

390
1, 560
6, 130
410
620
1, 730
100
-

780
6, 320
59, 300
3, 340
1, 890
4 , 190
770
-

7
3
9
3
2
16
1
1

480
290
4 , 950
520
140
6 ,9 6 0
20
2, 300

6, 840
5, 840
21, 000
1, 670
880
4 3 ,0 0 0
410
7, 170

-

10
-

490
-

1
4

20
950

1, 500
1 6 ,3 0 0

4
11

340
1 ,6 9 0

4, 790
20, 200

N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g ____________________________

23

1 9 ,1 0 0

4 3 9 ,0 0 0

62

1 4 ,2 0 0

123, 000

68

1 9 ,9 0 0

2 6 8 ,0 0 0

A g r i c u lt u r e , f o r e s t r y , and fis h in g ____________
M in in g _____________________________________________
C o n s t r u c t io n ______________________________________
T r a d e --------------------------------------------------------F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e __________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
o th e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s _____ ____________________
S e r v i c e s — p e r s o n a l, b u s in e s s , and o th e r ____
G o v e r n m e n t— a d m in is tr a tio n , p r o t e c t io n ,
and s a n it a t io n 4 _________________________________

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

363, 000
4 2 ,3 0 0
17, 500
60

2
33

10
1

15, 200
2 ,4 3 0
660
10

15
-

350
6 ,4 1 0
760
-

4, 380
5 7 ,0 0 0
20, 300
-

21
15
-

4
2

600
260

1 5 ,8 0 0
570

7
4

5 ,4 3 0
150

3 7 ,5 0 0
2, 750

23

2

1, 150

1, 600

2
3
-

1

1

6




-

'
'

S e e fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le .

3, 630
-

3

3

790
8, 980
1, 530
-

3
3

3

4 9 0 , 000
107, 000
2 4 ,1 0 0

7 7 ,9 0 0
81, 000
2 6 ,0 0 0

-

4

7, 760
4 60

81, 800
1, 010

2

390

390

31
T A B L E A -3 .» — W o rk s to p p a g e s in S tates h a vin g 25 o r m o r e s to p p a g e s by in d u s try g ro u p ,

1956 1 - C on tin u ed

Oklahoma

Ohio

New York

S to p p a g e s beg in n in g M a n -d a y s id le S toppagesi beginning
’ M a n -d a y s id le
1956
in 1956
d u rin g 1.956
d u rin g 1956
W ork ers
W ork ers
(a ll s to p p a g e s )
(a ll s to p p a g e s ) N u m b er
N um ber
in v o lv e d
in v o lv e d

State and in d u s try group

2

2

S top p a g es b eg in n in g
M a n -d a y s id le
in 1956
d u rin g 1956
W ork ers
N u m b er
(a ll s to p p a g e s )
in v o lv e d

2

29 1 , 000

4, 720, 000

42

1 0 ,6 0 0

1 5 4 ,0 0 0

22 8 , 000

4, 000, 000

16

5, 320

98, 800

52

1 2 2 ,0 0 0

2 ,1 9 0 ,0 0 0

2

310

6, 630

1 2 2 ,0 0 0
5 0 ,5 0 0

38
3

21, 500
820

2 5 4 ,0 0 0
2, 040

1
-

140
-

6, 300
-

28 9 , 000
141, 000
8 8 7 ,0 0 0

11
35
11

7, 070
16, 600
10, 300

93, 600

2
2

650
490

3 25, 600

340
500
300
100

2
10
25
-

120
7, 850
1 6 ,8 0 0
-

380
60, 200
3 4 6 ,0 0 0
20, 300

2
-

920
-

2 5 ,8 0 0
-

3, 550
770
5, 740
350
1, 510
120
4, 500
200
-

1 9 ,3 0 0
10, 500
2 4 ,5 0 0
1 4 ,0 0 0
8 9 ,0 0 0
370
35, 100
4 , 600
-

1
2
7
3
3
11
2
10

20
430
1, 910
680
2, 970
3, 080
500
1 2 ,8 0 0

20
2, 840
1 2 ,8 0 0
9, 160
48 , 800
2 2 ,8 0 0
9, 040
1 3 7 ,0 0 0

6
1

1 ,4 1 0
1, 320

4, 770
7, 930

4
22

430
2, 000

2 1 ,4 0 0
16, 900

3
9

190
2, 840

8, 990
2 7 ,0 0 0

1

90

440

N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________________________

169

5 4 ,3 0 0

3 3 9 ,0 0 0

124

63, 100

726, 000

26

5, 290

55, 200

A g r i c u lt u r e , f o r e s t r y , and fis h in g _____________
M in in g ______________________________________________
C o n s t r u c t io n _______________________________________
T r a d e _____ ________________________________________
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ___________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s ____________________________
S e r v ic e s — p e r s o n a l , b u s in e s s , and o th e r _____
G o v e r n m e n t— a d m in is tr a tio n , p r o t e c t io n ,
and s a n ita tio n 4 __________________________________

1
46
53
3

970
9 ,4 1 0
13, 300
30

13, 600
7 5 ,6 0 0
1 1 9 ,0 0 0
1, 090

15
60
14
-

2, 430
51, 000
850
-

4, 360
550, 000
2 2 ,6 0 0
-

1
18
3
1

80
4, 600
40
10

580
40 , 200
760
90

37
27

26, 600
3, 840

1 0 2 ,0 0 0
26, 900

29
6

8, 560
280

1 4 7 ,0 0 0
1, 760

3
-

570
-

13, 600
-

2

200

620

1

10

60

"

_

27

6, 780

6 7 ,4 0 0

520

3 0 0 ,0 0 0

7, 280, 000

27

4 ,2 9 0

33, 100

10

2, 620

4 6 ,7 0 0

310

2 4 7 ,0 0 0

6, 780, 000

16

3, 100

20, 100

2

1, 260

2 5 ,2 0 0

46

160, 000

3, 580, 000

.

-

-

-

-

-

41
2

1 4 ,6 0 0
1, 870

2 6 9 ,0 0 0
16, 000

2
-

180
-

2, 840
-

-

-

-

21
35
18

9, 050
11, 400
17, 100

3 1, 150, 000
3 1 ,2 3 0 , 000
117, 000

1
1
-

790
40
-

4, 720
40
-

3
-

600
-

6, 510
-

4
16
21
10

290
1, 590
10,200
1, 460

2, 400
18, 600
1 6 1 ,0 0 0
5, 710

1
8

20
1, 770

290
8, 820

1
1
-

600
90
-

-

27
4
21
2
8

6
4
2
2

3, 620
420
3, 770
160
2, 350
670
290
280
2, 350

27, 700
2, 780
28, 200
6, 170
1 6 ,5 0 0
6, 780
4, 790
890
31, 500

1
1
1

90

4, 200
9 ,4 5 0
-

200
30

1, 210
670
1, 490

1

10
80

270
1, 080

11
12

2, 990
2, 500

21, 600
81, 600

-

-

-

2

_ __

17

4, 160

2 0 ,7 0 0

211

53, 600

5 0 9 ,0 0 0

11

1, 190

13, 100

A g r ic u lt u r e , f o r e s t r y , and f i s h i n g __________
M in in g ___________ ___ ______________________________
C o n s t r u c t io n ______________________________________
T r a d e ______________________________________________
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e __________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
o th e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s __________________________
S e r v ic e s — p e r s o n a l , b u s in e s s , and o t h e r ____
G o v e r n m e n t— a d m in is tr a tio n , p r o t e c t io n ,
and s a n ita tio n 4 _____________ __________________

-

1 ,2 6 0
3, 210
7 ,4 6 0

2

4

250
2 ,2 7 0

61
60
42

-

-

-

2

290
25, 400
10, 500
2, 390
320

950
1 2 5 ,0 0 0
1 9 2 ,0 0 0
7 0 ,5 0 0
26, 100

5
4
-

920
100
-

8, 360
3 ,4 3 0
-

6

1, 550
90

7 ,9 5 0
800

29
16

13, 700
980

78, 500
16, 400

2

170
-

1, 280
-

1

10

30

A ll i n d u s t r i e s ______________________________________

423

160, 000

2, 98 0 , 000

357

________________________________

254

1 0 5 ,0 0 0

2 ,6 4 0 ,0 0 0

234

P r im a r y m e ta l i n d u s t r i e s ________________________
F a b r ic a t e d m e ta l p r o d u c t s (e x c e p t o r d n a n c e ,
m a c h in e r y , and t r a n s p o r t a t io n e q u ip m e n t ) __
O r d n a n c e and a c c e s s o r i e s _ ...........
.
E le c t r i c a l m a c h in e r y , e q u ip m e n t, and
s u p p lie s
M a c h in e r y (e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ) __________________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n e q u ip m e n t ________________________
L u m b e r and w o o d p r o d u c t s (e x c e p t
fu r n it u r e ) ________________________________________
F u r n itu r e and fix t u r e s ..... . _
Stone* c la y , and g la s s p r o d u c t s _________________
T e x t ile m ill p r o d u c t s
....
.
A p p a r e l and o th e r f in is h e d p r o d u c t s m a d e
f r o m f a b r ic s and s im il a r m a t e r i a l s __________
L e a t h e r and le a t h e r p r o d u c t s _______________
F o o d and k in d r e d p r o d u c t s ______________________
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c tu r e s
_________________________
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c ts
__ __________________
P r in t in g , p u b lis h in g , and a ll ie d in d u s t r ie s ___
C h e m ic a ls and a ll ie d p r o d u c t s
.........
P r o d u c t s o f p e t r o le u m and c o a l ________________
R u b b er p ro d u cts
_________________________________
P r o f e s s i o n a l, s c ie n t if i c , and c o n t r o llin g
in s t r u m e n t s ; p h o t o g r a p h ic and o p tic a l
g o o d s ; w a tc h e s and c l o c k s _____________________
M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa ctu rin g i n d u s t r i e s _______

14

3 4 ,2 0 0

7 7 9 ,0 0 0

31
4

7, 380
3, 780

22
13
18

7, 980
5, 000
17, 400

2
18
8
17

260
4, 390
2, 810
2, 910

1,
25,
21,
86,

42
10
15
1
6
4
6
1
-

M a n u fa ctu rin g

3

3

Oregon
A ll in d u s t r ie s

____________________________________

M a n u fa c tu r in g ______

_________________________

P r im a r y m e t a l in d u s t r ie s ________________________
F a b r ic a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s (e x c e p t o r d n a n c e ,
m a c h in e r y , and t r a n s p o r ta tio n e q u ip m e n t)____
O r d n a n c e and a c c e s s o r i e s ____________________
E le c t r i c a l m a c h in e r y , e q u ip m en t, and
s u p p lie s _________________________________________
M a c h in e r y (e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ) ___________________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n e q u ip m e n t ________________________
L u m b e r and w o o d p r o d u c t s (e x c e p t
f u r n i t u r e ) _________________________________________
F u r n it u r e and fix t u r e s _________________________
S to n e , c la y , and g la s s p r o d u c ts
______________
T e x t ile m il l p r o d u c t s ____________________________
A p p a r e l and o t h e r f in is h e d p r o d u c t s m ad e
f r o m f a b r i c s an d s im il a r m a t e r ia l s
____
L e a t h e r and le a t h e r p r o d u c ts __________________
F o o d and k in d r e d p r o d u c t s ______________________
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s __________________________
___________________
P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s
P r in t in g , p u b lis h in g , and a ll ie d i n d u s t r i e s __
C h e m ic a ls and a ll ie d p r o d u c t s _________________
P r o d u c t s o f p e t r o le u m and c o a l __ _____________
R u b b er p rod u cts
_______________________
______
P r o f e s s i o n a l, s c ie n t ifi c , and c o n t r o llin g
in s tr u m e n ts ; p h o t o g r a p h ic and o p tic a l
g o o d s ; w a tc h e s and c l o c k s __________________
M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa ctu rin g i n d u s t r i e s ______
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g _____________________

S ee fo o t n o t e s at end o f ta b le .




3

4
"

3

3 1 9 0 ,0 0 0
3 5 6 3 ,0 0 0

3

Pennsylvania

3

'

3

21, 300

Rhode Island

-

32
TABLE A - 3 .— Work stoppages in States having 25 or more stoppages by industry group, 1956 1 - Continued

State and industry group

T en n essee
S top p a ges b e g in n in g
M a n -d a y s id le
in 1956
W ork ers
(a ll s to p p a g e s )
in v o lv e d

V ir g in ia
T exas
S to p p a g e s b e g in n in g
S topp age! s b e g in n in g
M a n -d a y s idle
M a n -d a y s id le
in 1956
in 1956
d u rin g 1956
W ork ers
W ork ers
N um ber 2
N u m b e rs to p p a g e s ) N u m b e r 2
(a ll
(a ll s to p p a g e s )
in v o lv e d
in v o lv e d

All industries__________________________________

111

32, 800

4 2 7 ,0 0 0

76

4 3 ,9 0 0

8 7 2 ,0 0 0

49

1 2 ,6 0 0

1 3 1 ,0 0 0

Manufacturing______________________________

47

22, 100

2 7 4 ,0 0 0

22

1 8 ,0 0 0

378, 000

18

7, 210

8 2 ,4 0 0

10

10, 700

7 6 ,3 0 0

5

9, 560

1 4 9 ,0 0 0

-

-

-

3

960

2 7 ,0 0 0

2

390

6, 840

2

640

8, 600

5
3
1

790
810
520

22, 200
4 , 350
5, 720

4
2

940
650

1 9 ,9 0 0
1 9 ,5 0 0

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
3
5
1

50
850
760
70

950
2, 580
4 2 ,5 0 0
6, 050

_
1
1
-

_
80
320
-

_
5, 040
12, 000
-

1
2
1
3

350
no
20
4 10

5, 250
190
30
5, 740

2
2
4

240
1, 190
1, 280

1, 680
1 6 ,8 0 0
11, 300

2

390

Primary metal industries_____________________ _
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment)___
Ordnance and accessories ________________ T
___
Electrical machinery, equipment, and
supplies_______________________________________
Machinery (except electrical)_________________
Transportation equipment______________________
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture) _____________________________________
Furniture and fixtures _________________________
Stone, clay, and glass products_______________
Textile mill products__________________________
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and similar m aterials_________
Leather and leather products _________________
Food and kindred products____________________
Tobacco manufactures _________________________
Paper and allied products_____________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries ___
Chemicals and allied products________________
Products of petroleum and coal _______________
Rubber products _______________________________
Professional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clocks ___________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries______
Nonmanufacturing __________________________
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing ____________
Mining__________________________________________
Construction ___________________________________
Trade __________________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate__________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities_________________________
Services— personal, business, and o th e r ____
Government— administration, protection,
and sanitation4 _______________________________

3

850

48 , 200

2

-

-

-

-

3

210

1 ,4 6 0
-

-

:

-

4 ,9 2 0

116, 000

4

-

-

-

150

150

4, 320
400

3 4 ,0 0 0
23, 200

1

780

-

-

20

1, 350

1

140

270

:

2
1
2

140
220
3, 130

830
2, 860
4 8 , 500

-

1
-

350
-

3, 800
"

-

-

-

1

550

3, 320

64

1 0 ,7 0 0

1 5 3 ,0 0 0

54

2 5 , 800

4 9 3 , 000

31

5 ,4 2 0

4 8 ,8 0 0

7
35
9

970
6, 130
800

2, 810
113, 000
3, 560

:

39
8

1 7 ,4 0 0
570

4 5 4 ,0 0 0
5, 170

7
16
3

1 ,2 8 0
1, 260
110

8
4

1 ,9 4 0
810

2 9 ,4 0 0
3, 810

7
-

7, 820
-

33, 800
-

5

2, 770
-

2 3 ,8 0 0

1

10

200

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
1

"

1

6, 700
11, 600
6, 750

W is c o n s in

W e s t V irg iin ia

W a s h in g to n

3

A l l i n d u s t r i e s ______________________________________

48

11, 100

1 9 7 ,0 0 0

191

6 8 ,4 0 0

5 8 9 ,0 0 0

62

2 8 ,4 0 0

5 3 7 ,0 0 0

M a n u fa c tu r in g __________________________________

21

4, 520

8 6 ,5 0 0

43

2 6 ,2 0 0

4 0 6 , 000

34

20, 900

4 4 4 ,0 0 0

P r im a r y m e t a l i n d u s t r i e s ________________________
F a b r ic a t e d m e t a l p r o d u c t s (e x c e p t o r d n a n c e ,
m a c h in e r y , and t r a n s p o r ta tio n e q u ip m e n t ) __
O r d n a n c e and a c c e s s o r i e s _______________________
E le c t r i c a l m a c h in e r y , eq u ip m en t, and
s u p p lie s ___________________________________________
M a c h in e r y (e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ) ___________________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n e q u ip m e n t ________________________
L u m b e r and w o o d p r o d u c t s (e x c e p t
fu r n it u r e ) _________________________________________
F u r n it u r e and fix t u r e s ___________________________
S to n e , c la y , and g la s s p r o d u c ts ________________
T e x t ile m il l p r o d u c t s _____________________________
A p p a r e l and o t h e r fin is h e d p r o d u c ts m a d e
f r o m f a b r i c s and s im il a r m a t e r i a l s __________
L e a t h e r and le a t h e r p r o d u c t s ___________________
F o o d and k in d r e d p r o d u c t s ______________________
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c t u r e s ___________________________
P a p e r and a ll ie d p r o d u c t s ________________________
P r in t in g , p u b lis h in g , and a llie d in d u s tr ie s ___
C h e m ic a l s and a llie d p r o d u c t s __________________
P r o d u c t s o f p e t r o le u m and c o a l ________________
R u b b e r p r o d u c t s ___________________________________
P r o f e s s i o n a l , s c ie n t ifi c , and c o n t r o llin g
in s t r u m e n t s ; p h o t o g r a p h ic and o p t ic a l
g o o d s ; w a tc h e s and c l o c k s _____________________
M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa ctu rin g in d u s tr ie s
_____

5

2, 300

3 8 ,2 0 0

3

3 ,4 4 0

75, 100

1

10

20

1

150

3, 550

10

5, 600

70, 300

1

20

3 139, 000

.
1

.
200

.
1 ,2 0 0

5
3

480
1, 740

3 8 5 ,5 0 0
10, 100
2 3 ,4 0 0

2
10
2

590
5 ,4 3 0
860

13, 700
21 6 , 000
9, 360

3
2
2

700
240
360

4 , 220
3, 140
5, 660

1
10

100
1 0 ,4 0 0

3, 330
82, 900

1
1
-

120
210
-

1, 960
6, 300
-

_
5

_
230

_
3, 570

1
1
2

10
330
90

10
980
1, 950

1
1
3

150
200
1, 120

2, 100
3, 320
6, 730

1

20

230

3

370

1 2 ,7 0 0

1

260

2, 890

.
1
'

_
330

_
2 6 ,7 0 0
"

3
-

1 ,2 5 0
-

30, 000
-

"

~

*

_
4

_
9, 570

_
1 9 ,8 0 0

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g _____________________________
A g r i c u lt u r e , f o r e s t r y , and fis h in g _____________
M in in g ______________________________________________
C o n s t r u c t io n _______________________________________
T r a d e _____________ ___________________________________
F in a n c e , in s u r a n c e , and r e a l e s t a t e ___________
T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a tio n , and
o t h e r p u b lic u t i l i t i e s ____________________________
S e r v i c e s — p e r s o n a l, b u s in e s s , and o th e r ____ _
G o v e r n m e n t— a d m in is tr a tio n , p r o t e c t io n ,
and s a n ita tio n 4____________________________________

.

_

_

.

.

.

1

10

60

2

2 ,4 0 0

9, 600

1
5

1, 670
660

11, 700
10, 800

27

6, 570

111, 000

148

4 2 ,3 0 0

1 8 3 ,0 0 0

28

7, 570

93, 300

1
10
6
“

50
2, 380
940
-

190
75, 100
16, 200
-

116
17
7
1

3 8 ,9 0 0
2, 790
220
20

1 5 9 ,0 0 0
1 5 ,4 0 0
3 6, 060
50

1
21
1
-

1, 110
3, 630
30
-

30, 200
38, 000
80
-

8
2

3, 160
40

1 9 ,0 0 0
180

4
3

100
50

1, 370
880

4
-

2, 520
-

2 2 ,1 0 0
-

-

-

-

1

150

750

1

290

2 ,9 0 0

1 In the industry groups for which no data are presented the Bureau did not record any stoppages during 1956.
2 In some States the total number of stoppages shown as well as the total number of manufacturing or nonmanufacturing stoppages may be less
than the sum of the figures below because a few stoppages extending into 2 or more industry groups have been counted in each industry group af­
fected; workers involved and man-days idle were divided among the respective groups.
3 Includes idleness in 1956 resulting from stoppages that began in the preceding year.
4 Stoppages involving municipally operated utilities are included in transportation, communication, and other public utilities.




33
Appendix B:

Scope, Methods, and Definitions1
3

W o r k S toppage S ta tis tics
T h e B u r e a u 's s ta t is tic s in clu d e
a ll w o r k s to p p a g e s
o c c u r r i n g in the
c o n t i n e n t a l U n i t e d S t a t e s , k n o w n to the
B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s a n d it s c o o p ­
e r a t i n g a g e n c i e s , i n v o l v i n g a s m a n y as
s i x w o r k e r s a n d l a s t i n g the e q u i v a l e n t
o f a fu ll day o r sh ift o r lo n g e r . W o r k
s t o p p a g e s a r e m e a s u r e d in t e r m s o f the
n u m b er o f s to p p a g e s , w o r k e r s in v o lv e d ,
and m a n -d a y s o f id le n e s s .
D efin ition s
S trik e o r L o c k o u t . — A strik e
is d efin ed as a t e m p o r a r y stop p a ge o f
w o r k b y a g r o u p o f e m p l o y e e s to e x ­
p r e s s a g riev a n ce o r e n fo rce a dem and.
A lo c k o u t is a t e m p o r a r y w ith h old in g
of w o rk fr o m a group o f e m p lo y e e s by
an e m p l o y e r ( o r a g r o u p o f e m p l o y e r s )
i n o r d e r to i n d u c e th e e m p l o y e e s to
a c c e p t the e m p l o y e r ' s t e r m s . B e c a u s e
o f the c o m p l e x i t i e s i n v o l v e d in m o s t
l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t d i s p u t e s , the B u r e a u
m a k e s n o e f f o r t to d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r the
s t o p p a g e s a r e i n i t i a t e d b y the w o r k e r s
o r th e e m p l o y e r s . T h e t e r m s " s t r i k e "
and "w d r k s to p p a g e " a r e u s e d in t e r ­
c h a n g e a b l y in th is r e p o r t .
W o r k e r s and I d le n e s s . — F i g u r e s
o n " w o r k e r s i n v o l v e d " an d " m a n - d a y s
i d l e " in c lu d e all w o r k e r s m a d e id le f o r
o n e s h i f t o r l o n g e r in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d in a s t o p p a g e .
They
do not m e a s u r e s e c o n d a r y id le n e s s —
th a t i s , th e e f f e c t s o f a s t o p p a g e o n
o th e r e s ta b lis h m e n ts o r in d u s trie s w h ose
e m p l o y e e s m a y b e m a d e id le as a r e s u lt
of m a teria l o r s e r v ic e sh orta g es.
T h e total n u m b e r of w o r k e r s
i n v o l v e d in s t r i k e s in a g i v e n y e a r i n ­
c l u d e s w o r k e r s c o u n t e d m o r e than o n c e
i f t h e y w e r e i n v o l v e d in m o r e th a n o n e
s t o p p a g e d u r i n g th a t y e a r .
( T h u s , in
1 9 4 9 , 3 6 5 , 0 0 0 to 4 0 0 , 0 0 0 c o a l m i n e r s

13
More detailed information on methods of calculation,
sources, and classification is available in BLS Bull. 1168, Tech­
niques of Preparing Major BLS Statistical Series, December 1954
(p. 106).




s tr u c k on 3 d iffe r e n t o c c a s i o n s ; they
c o m p r i s e d 1 , 1 5 0 , 0 0 0 o f th e y e a r ' s t o t a l
of 3 ,0 3 0 ,0 0 0 w o r k e r s .)
In s o m e p r o l o n g e d s t o p p a g e s ^ i t
i s n e c e s s a r y to e s t i m a t e in p a r t th e
t o t a l m a n - d a y s o f i d l e n e s s i f th e e x a c t
n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s id le e a ch day is not
known. W h en ev er p o s s ib le , sig n ifica n t
c h a n g e s in th e n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s i d l e
a r e s e c u r e d f r o m th e p a r t i e s f o r u s e
in c o m p u t in g m a n - d a y s o f i d l e n e s s .
I d l e n e s s as P e r c e n t o f T o t a l
W o r k i n g T i m e . — In c o m p u t i n g th e n u m ­
b e r o f w o r k e r s i n v o l v e d in s t r i k e s a s a
p e r c e n t o f total e m p lo y m e n t and i d l e ­
n e s s as a p e r c e n t o f to ta l w o r k i n g t i m e ,
the f o l l o w i n g f i g u r e s f o r t o t a l e m p l o y ­
m en t have been used:
F r o m 1 9 2 7 to 1 9 5 0 , a l l e m ­
p l o y e e s e x c e p t t h o s e in o c c u p a t i o n s a n d
p r o f e s s i o n s in w h ic h l i t t l e , i f a n y , u n ion
o r g a n i z a t i o n e x i s t e d o r in w h i c h s t o p ­
p a g e s r a r e l y , if e v e r , o c c u r r e d .
In
m o s t i n d u s t r ie s , a ll w a g e and s a l a r y
w o r k e r s w e r e i n c l u d e d e x c e p t t h o s e in
e x e c u t iv e , m a n a g e r ia l , o r h igh s u p e r ­
v is o r y p o s itio n s , o r th ose p e r fo r m in g
p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k th e n a t u r e o f w h i c h
m a k e s union o r g a n iz a t io n o r g ro u p a c ­
tion u n lik e ly .
T he fig u r e e x c lu d e d a ll
s e lf-e m p lo y e d p e rso n s; d om estic w o rk ­
e r s ; w o r k e r s on fa r m s em p lo y in g fe w e r
th a n s i x p e r s o n s ; a l l F e d e r a l a n d S ta te
g o v e r n m e n t e m p l o y e e s ; and o f f i c i a l s ,
b o t h e l e c t e d a n d a p p o i n t e d , in l o c a l
govern m en ts.
B e g i n n i n g i n 1 9 5 1 , the B u r e a u ' s
e s tim a te s o f total n o n a g r ic u ltu r a l e m ­
p loy m en t, e x clu s iv e o f gov ern m en t, have
b een u sed . A ctu a lly , id le n e ss com p u ted
o n the b a s i s o f n o n a g r i c u l t u r a l e m p l o y ­
m en t (e x c lu s iv e o f g ov ern m en t) u su a lly
d i f f e r s b y l e s s th a n o n e - t e n t h o f a p e r ­
c e n t a g e p o i n t f r o m th a t o b t a i n e d b y the
f o r m e r m e t h o d , w h i l e th e p e r c e n t a g e
o f w o r k e r s id le ( c o m p a r e d w ith tota l
e m p l o y m e n t ) d i f f e r s b y n o m o r e th a n
0 .5 and 0 . 6 o f a p o in t.
F o r ex a m p le ,
the p e r c e n t a g e o f w o r k e r s i d l e d u r i n g
1950 c o m p u t e d o n the s a m e b a s e a s th e
f i g u r e s f o r e a r l i e r y e a r s w a s 6. 9, a n d
the p e r c e n t o f i d l e n e s s w a s 0 . 4 4 , c o m ­
p a r e d with 6 .3 and 0 . 4 0 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ,
c o m p u t e d o n the n e w b a s e .

34
’ ’E s t i m a t e d w o r k i n g t i m e " is
c o m p u t e d b y m u l t i p l y i n g the a v e r a g e
n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s e m p l o y e d d u r i n g the
y e a r b y th e n u m b e r o f d a y s t y p i c a l l y
w o r k e d b y m o s t e m p l o y e e s . In th e c o m ­
p u ta tio n s , S a tu rd a y s (w hen c u s t o m a r i l y
n ot w o r k e d ), S u ndays, and e sta b lis h e d
h o l i d a y s a s p r o v i d e d in m o s t u n i o n c o n ­
tra cts are ex clu d ed .
T he sa m e p r o c e d u r e has been
u s e d in p r e p a r i n g th e e s t i m a t e s o f i d l e ­
n e s s b y S t a t e . A l t h o u g h the n u m b e r o f
h olid a y s v a r ie s so m e w h a t f r o m one p a rt
o f the c o u n t r y to a n o t h e r , a n d t h e r e a r e
o t h e r m i n o r d i f f e r e n c e s in the a m o u n t
o f w o r k i n g t i m e f r o m a r e a to a r e a ,
c o r r e c t i o n fo r su ch d if fe r e n c e s w ou ld
n o t a p p r e c i a b l y a f f e c t th e p e r c e n t a g e s o f
id le n e s s p r e s e n te d by S tate.
F or ex­
a m p l e , i f i d l e n e s s c o m p u t e d o n th e a s ­
s u m p tio n o f 6 h o lid a y s an n u a lly a m o u n te d
to 2 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l w o r k i n g t i m e , i t
w o u l d a m o u n t to o n l y 2 . 0 2 p e r c e n t o f
w ork in g tim e if a llo w a n ce w e r e m ade
f o r 8 h o l i d a y s ; i f i d l e n e s s w a s l e s s th a n
1 p e r c e n t o f t o t a l w o r k i n g t i m e the i d l e ­
n e s s r a t i o s w o u l d n o t b e c h a n g e d at a l l
w i t h i n the m a r g i n o r r o u n d i n g w h e t h e r
there w e re 6 o r 8 h olid a y s.
D u r a t io n . — A lth ou gh o n ly w o r k ­
d a y s a r e u s e d in c o m p u t i n g m a n - d a y s
o f total i d l e n e s s , d u ra tion is e x p r e s s e d
in t e r m s o f c a l e n d a r d a y s , in c lu d in g
nonw orkdays.
State D a t a . — S to p p a g e s o c c u r ­
r i n g in m o r e th a n o n e S t a t e a r e l i s t e d
s e p a r a t e l y in e a c h S ta te a f f e c t e d . T h e
w o r k e r s and m a n -d a y s o f id le n e s s a re
a l l o c a t e d a m o n g e a c h o f th e a f f e c t e d
S t a t e s . 14
M etrop olita n A r e a D ata. — B e ­
gin n in g w ith 1952, data w e r e ta b u la te d
s e p a r a t e l y f o r 182 m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s .
In 1 9 5 5 , th e n u m b e r o f t h e s e a r e a s w a s
i n c r e a s e d to 2 0 5 .
(in form a tion p r io r
to 1952 w a s c o n f i n e d to c i t y b o u n d a r i e s . )
T he m etrop olita n a re a b ou n d a ries c o n ­
f o r m to the S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a
d e f i n i t i o n s i s s u e d b y the B u r e a u o f the
B u d g e t as o f J a n u a r y 2 9 , 1 9 4 9 , w i t h
subsequent re v isio n s.
In a d d i t i o n to

The same procedure is followed in allocating data on
stoppages occurring in more than 1 industry group, industry, or
metropolitan area.




th ese
a r e a s , a few com m u n itie s
in ­
c l u d e d i n th e s t r i k e s e r i e s in p r e v i o u s
y e a rs have b een reta in ed .
Som e
m e tro p o lita n a rea s in ­
c l u d e c o u n t i e s in m o r e th an o n e S t a t e ,
a n d , h e n c e , s t a t i s t i c s f o r an a r e a m a y
o c c a s i o n a l l y e q u a l o r e x c e e d th e t o t a l
f o r the S ta te in w h i c h the m a j o r c i t y
i s l o c a t e d ( e . g . , the n u m b e r o f s t r i k e s
r e c o r d e d in the N e w Y o r k - N o r t h e a s t e r n
N ew J e r s e y m e tr o p o lita n a r e a , w h ich
in clu d e s
g rea ter New Y ork
a n d the
s u r r o u n d in g a r e a s as w e ll as 8 co u n t ie s
in N o r t h e a s t e r n N ew J e r s e y , e x c e e d e d
the s t r i k e s r e c o r d e d f o r N e w Y o r k S ta te
in 1953 an d 1 9 5 5 ; w h i l e i d l e n e s s i n the
C h ica g o a r e a w h ich in clu d e s 5 cou n tie s
in I l l i n o i s a n d 1 in I n d i a n a e x c e e d s i d l e ­
n e s s in I l l i n o i s in 1 9 5 6 ) .
U n ions I n v o lv e d . — T h is in c lu d e s
the u n i o n ( s ) d i r e c t l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the
d i s p u t e , a l t h o u g h the c o u n t o f w o r k e r s i n ­
c lu d e s a ll w ho a r e m a d e id le f o r o n e s h ift
o r l o n g e r in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s d i r e c t l y i n ­
v o l v e d in the d i s p u t e , i n c l u d i n g m e m b e r s
o f o th e r u nion s and n on u n ion w o r k e r s .
S o u r c e o f In form a tion
O c c u r r e n c e o f S trik es . — I n fo r m a t i o n a s to a c t u a l o r p r o b a b l e e x i s t ­
e n ce o f w o r k stop p a g es is c o l l e c t e d f r o m
a num ber of so u rce s.
C lip p in g s
on
la b or
d isp u tes
are
ob ta in ed f r o m
a
co m p re h e n siv e c o v e r a g e
o f d a ily and
w e e k l y n e w s p a p e r s t h r o u g h o u t the c o u n ­
t r y . I n f o r m a t i o n is r e c e i v e d d a i l y f r o m
the F e d e r a l M e d i a t i o n a n d C o n c i l i a t i o n
S e rv ice .
O ther s o u r c e s o f in form a tion
i n c l u d e S ta te b o a r d s o f m e d i a t i o n a n d
a r b it r a t io n , r e s e a r c h d iv i s io n s o f State
la b o r
departm ent
o ffice s,
and l o c a l
o f f i c e s o f State e m p l o y m e n t s e c u r i t y
a g e n c i e s , p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h the B u r e a u
o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r i t y o f th e U . S .
D epartm ent of L a b o r.
Som e e m p loyer
a s s o c i a t i o n s , c o m p a n i e s , and u n ion s a ls o
f u r n i s h th e B u r e a u w i t h w o r k s t o p p a g e i n ­
fo r m a t io n on a r e g u la r c o o p e r a t i v e b a s is .
R e s p o n d e n t s to Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . —
A q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a p p r o v e d b y th e B u r e a u
o f the B u d g e t , i s m a i l e d to the p a r t i e s
r e p o r t e d a s i n v o l v e d in w o r k s t o p p a g e s
to o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n o n th e n u m b e r
o f w o r k e r s in v o lv e d , d u ra tion , m a j o r
i s s u e s , l o c a t i o n (S ta t e an d m e t r o p o l i ­
tan a r e a s ) , m e t h o d o f s e t t l e m e n t , a n d
o th e r p ertin en t in fo rm a tio n .

35
L im it a t io n s o f D a t a . — A lth ou g h
th e B u r e a u s e e k s to o b t a i n c o m p l e t e
coverage,
i . e . , a " c e n s u s " o f a ll
s tr ik e s in v olv in g s ix o r m o r e w o r k e r s
and la s tin g a fu ll sh ift o r m o r e , in ­
f o r m a t i o n is u n d o u b te d ly m i s s i n g on
s o m e o f th e s m a l l e r s t r i k e s . P r e s u m ­
a b ly , a d d ition o f th e se m i s s in g s tr ik e s
w o u l d n o t s u b s t a n t i a l l y a f f e c t th e f i g u r e s
f o r n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s and m a n -d a y s
o f id le n e s s .
In i t s e f f o r t s to i m p r o v e th e
c o m p l e t e n e s s o f the c o u n t o f s t o p p a g e s ,
th e B u r e a u h a s s o u g h t to d e v e l o p n e w
s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n a s to the p r o b ­
able e x is t e n c e o f s u ch s to p p a g e s . O v e r
th e y e a r s , t h e s e s o u r c e s h a v e p r o b a b l y
i n c r e a s e d th e n u m b e r o f s t r i k e s r e ­
c o r d e d , b u t h a v e h a d l i t t l e e f f e c t o n the
n u m b e r o f w o r k e r s o r total id l e n e s s .
F o r e x a m p l e , in 1943 the B u r e a u s e t
u p a c o o p e r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t w i t h the
S o lid F u e ls A d m in is tra tio n w h ich r e ­
s u lte d in r e p o r t s on s e v e r a l h u n d r e d
s tr ik e s in v olv in g c o a l m in e r s not r e ­
corded from
oth er
sources.
These
strik e s accou n ted fo r about 5 p e r c e n t
o f a l l s t r i k e s in th a t y e a r .
W h e n th is
a g e n cy w ent out o f e x is t e n c e , c o o p e r ­
a tiv e a r r a n g e m e n ts f o r obtain in g r e p o r t s
o n w o r k s t o p p a g e s w e r e m a d e with a




n u m b e r o f c o a l a s s o c i a t i o n s and s e v e r a l
h u n d r e d c o m p a n i e s in a r e a s n o t s e r v e d
by a sso cia tio n s.
B eg in n in g in m i d - 1950, a n ew
source
o f strik e
" le a d s " was
added
th rou g h a c o o p e r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t with
th e B u r e a u o f E m p l o y m e n t S e c u r i t y o f
the U . S . D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r b y w h i c h
l o c a l o f f i c e s o f State e m p l o y m e n t s e ­
c u r ity a g e n c ie s su p p ly m o n th ly r e p o r t s
o n w o r k s t o p p a g e s c o m i n g to t h e i r a t ­
ten tion .
It is e s t i m a t e d th a t t h i s i n ­
c r e a s e d the n u m b e r o f s t r i k e s r e p o r t e d
i n 1950 b y a b o u t 5 p e r c e n t a n d i n 1951
a n d 1952 b y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 p e r c e n t .
S in ce m o s t o f th ese
stoppages w e re
s m a l l, they in c r e a s e d
the n u m b e r o f
w o r k e r s in v o l v e d and m a n - d a y s o f i d l e ­
n e s s b y l e s s th a n 2 p e r c e n t in 1 9 5 0 a n d
b y l e s s th a n 3 p e r c e n t in
1951 a n d
1 9 5 2 . T e s t s o f the e f f e c t o f t h is a d d e d
so u rce of in form a tion have not b een
m a d e s in c e 1952.
A s n ew l o c a l a g e n c ie s h a v in g
k n o w l e d g e o f th e e x i s t e n c e o f w o r k s t o p ­
pages are e sta b lish ed , or ch anges are
m a d e in t h e i r c o l l e c t i o n m e t h o d s , e v e r y
e f f o r t is m a d e to e s t a b l i s h c o o p e r a t i v e
a r r a n g e m e n t s w ith t h e m .

^

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1957 0 — 430027


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102