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Analysis of
Work Stoppages




19SS

B u lle t in

U N IT E D

S T A T E S

D E P A R T M E N T

O F

N o .

1 1 %

L A B O R

James P. Mitchell, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




A n alysis of
W ork Stoppages
1955

B u lle t in

N o .

1 1 9 6

June 1956
U N IT E D

S T A T E S

D E P A R T M E N T
Jam es

O F

P . M it c h e ll,

L A B O R
S e c re ta ry

BUREAU O F LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.



Price 30 cents




Contents

Page
Summary .........................................................................................................................................................
1
Major issues ....................................................................................................................................................... 1
Economic issues and union s e c u r ity ................................................................................................
1
Other is s u e s ........................................................................................................................................
3
Industries affected ......................................................................................................................................
3
Geographic patterns ...................................................................................................................................
5
State experience ..................................................................................................................................
5
Metropolitan areas ................................................................................................................................
5
Unions in v o lv e d ...........................................................................................................................................
6
Trends during the year................................................................................................................................
6
Size of work stoppages .............................................................................................................................
6
Duration of stoppages ................................................................................................................................
6
Method of terminating stoppages .......................................................................................................... —
6
Disposition of issues ................................................................................................................................
6

Tables

Work stoppages:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

In the United States, 1927-55 ................................................................................................
Involving 10,000 or more workers, selected periods ........... - ..........................................
Monthly trends ...........................................................................................................................
Major i s s u e s ............................................................................
By industry group ..................................................
By State .................................*....................................................................................................
By metropolitan area ...............................................................................................................
By affiliation of unions ...........................................................................................................
By number of workers ................
By number of establishments ..................................................................................................
Involving 10,000 or more workers ..........................................................................................
Duration ......................................................................................................................................
Method of terminating — ..........................................................................................................
Disposition of issues .............................................................................................................

7
8
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
14
15
20
20
20

Charts

Work stoppages:
1. Trends ..........................................................................................................
2. By reg ion .......................................................................................................................................

2
4

Appendix A - Tables

Work stoppages:
A -l. By industry..............................................................................................................................
A -2. By industry group and major issues .............................................................................
A-3. In States having 25 or more stoppages, by industry group ........................................

22
24
26

Appendix B
Scope, methods, and d efin ition s...............................................................................................................



iii

33




Analysis of Work Stoppages in 1955 1
4
3
2
Summary

Major Issues

Favorable economic conditions combined with a greater
volume of labor-management negotiations were responsible
for the increase in the level of strike activity during 1955.
The number of work stoppages beginning in the year was
about 25 percent greater than in 1954, but was substantially
below postwar peaks. Similarly, the number of workers in­
volved and amount of idleness exceeded 1954, although
idleness remained below all postwar years except 1951 and
1954 (chart 1).

Economic Issu es and Union Security. — Wages and
supplementary benefits were the most frequent issues in
work stoppages in 1955, as in other postwar years. These
issues accounted for half the disputes and about two-thirds
of the workers and man-days idle. Combined with questions
of union organization, they were responsible for another 16
percent of the idleness, while union status alone precipitated
disputes causing 10 percent o f the idleness (table 4 ;. Ne­
gotiations in 18 of the 26 work stoppages o f 10,000 or more
workers were concerned with wages, hours and/or supple­
mentary benefits. In 2 others, these issu es were combined
with the question of union organization, while union status
alone (notably strengthening of bargaining position) was
the key issue in 2 o f the year’ s major stoppages.

A total of 4,320 work stoppages began in 1955 and
idled 2,650,000 workers. These stoppages, together with
those that continued from 1954, resulted in a total of
28,200,000 man-days of idleness— about one-fourth of 1
ercent o f total estimated time worked during the year,
trikes ending in 1955 lasted an average of 18.5 aays,
shorter than in any other year since World War II except
1951 (table 1).

Most, but not all, of the stoppages over econom ic
issues dealt with wages. Supplementary benefits also were
frequently involved and in some instances appeared to be
the major cause of controversy. Thus, the 58-day Louis­
ville and Nashville Railroad stoppage was occasion ed by a
dispute that revolved around a health and welfare plan. 4
Supplemental unemployment benefit plans were incorporated
in contracts ending 6 of the 26 major stoppages, but this
issue did not pose a significant barrier to agreement. Al­
though most stoppages over economic issu es involved efforts
of unions to improve wages and working conditions, a small
number, including the New England textile strike, occurred
over a proposed decrease in wage rates and supplementary
benefits.

Not only was collective bargaining stimulated by the
rise in employment and output (witn nonagricultural employ­
ment and gross national product increasing by about 2.3 and
6.2 percent, respectively, from 1954 to 1955), but many long­
term agreements expired or were subject to renegotiation
during the year. 2 The major bargaining settlements in 1955
typically included wage increases and supplemental bene­
fits that exceeded those agreed to in 1954.

New contract terms in many industries in 1955 were
reached either without strikes or with only brief interruptions
of work. Thus, in the steel and automobile industries major
settlements were negotiated before stoppages in these situa­
tions were a day old and no industrywide stoppage lasted
more than 1 or 2 days. Emergency provisions of the TaftHartley Act were not invoked during the year, although five
emergency boards were created under the provisions of the
Railway Labor A ct.

The status or bargaining position of the union (or
correlatively, the prerogatives of management) appeared as
important factors in 2 of the year’ s longest major work stop­
pages— the 72-day Southern B ell Telephone and Telegraph
work stoppage and the Westinghouse E lectric Corp. strike
that began October 17, 1955. These 2 strikes accounted for
about 18 percent of the total man-days of idleness in all
stoppages during the year. The Southern B ell stoppage re­
volved around the question o f a no-strike pledge requested
by the company and a provision for arbitration of grievances
sought by the union. The prolonged and complex Westing­
house dispute grew out of differences arising over a mid-term

There were, however, notable exceptions to the gen­
eral pattern of relatively peaceful bargaining in major situa­
tions. The nearest approach to any industrywide stoppage
occurred when a 47-day strike over new contract terms shut
down operations of 3 of the 4 major nonferrous producers.
Also, three major producers o f agricultural implements were
closed by separate stoppages during the summer.

* Prepared by Ann James Herlihy and Herbert H. Moede, with the
assistance of other members of the staff of the Bureau's D ivision of
Wages and Industrial R elation s, under the direction of L ily Mary David.
Loretto R . Nolan was responsible for the an alysis of the individual strike
c a se s on which the sta tistics are based, and for the final review of the
tables.
The Bureau w ishes to acknowledge the widespread cooperation
of employers, unions, the Federal Mediation and C onciliation Service, and
various State agencies in furnishing information needed for this report.
See appendix B for a description of the methodology follow ed in
preparing work stoppage sta tistic s.
T h is bulletin includes data presented in A n alysis of Work Stop­
pages During 1955, Monthly Labor R eview , May 1956 . Preliminary monthly
estimates of the level of strike activity for the United States as a whole
are issued about 30 days after the end of the month of reference and are
available upon request.
Estim ates for 1956 w ill be available at the
year's end.
2 For a discu ssion of collective bargaining during the year, see
Monthly Labor Review , May 1956 (p. 5 2 1 ).
3 Since average duration is based on stoppages ending in the
year, the Westinghouse stoppage that w as settled in late March 1956 is
not included in 1955 data on duration.
A number of smaller stoppages a lso continued for long periods.
The dispute between the UAW and the Kohler C o ., Kohler, W is., that
started in April 1954 was s t ill unsettled at the end of 1955 , although the
company continued operations throughout this period.

A few strikes closed down or seriously hampered
operation of major companies for relatively long periods. Of
the major stoppages that ended in 1955— those involving
10,000 or more workers— 3 continued more than 50 days: The
Communications Workers— Southern B ell Telephone and
Telegraph Co. dispute (72 days); the strike of 10 AFL non­
operating brotherhoods .on the L ou isville and Nashville Rail­
road (58 days); and the dispute between the Textile Workers
Union (CIO) and New England cotton textile mills which
was the longest major work stoppage ending in 1955 (90 days
at some mills, although a number of settlements were agreed
to during the early part of the strike). In addition, the
strike by 54,000 members of the International Union o f E le c­
trical Workers and the i ndependent United E lectric al Workers
at the Westinghouse Electric Corp. idled about 70,000
workers; this stoppage began on October 17, 1955, and con­
tinued into 1956. Average duration of the major stoppages
that ended during the year was 23.2 calendar days. 3 A l­
together they idled 1.2 million workers for a total of 12.3
million man-days— over two-fifths of the workers and mandays idle in all stoppages during the year (table 2).




4 The strike occurred after a ll step s set forth in the Railw ay Labor
A c t, including an Emergency Board Hearing and Report, had been taken
without effecting a settlem ent. The Emergency Board was formed on
December 2 8 , 1953 , and its report was submitted to the President in May
1954.

1

C h a r t 1.

TRENDS IN WORK STOPPAGES
THOUSANDS

1927
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT O F




LABOR

1930

1935

1940

1945

1950

1955

3

reopening of the collective bargaining agreement scheduled
to expire in October 1956. These differences included dis­
agreement over the duration of the contract and the amount
or wage increases, as well as a company time-study program
(including the method to be used in settling grievances
arising under such a program), and changes in methods of
wage payment. An earlier agreement by management and the
union to consider the time-study issue during the national
negotiations had ended a strike at the company during August
and September. As the nationwide stoppage continued into
1956, this issue, together with the status of strikers dis­
charged for alleged acts of violen ce, apparently became in­
creasingly difficult to resolve. 5
The 4-day stoppage of workers at the Caterpillar
Tractor Co. in August occurred over wages and the union
shop. In a number of somewhat smaller but relatively long
and in some ca ses bitter stoppages, the question of union
recognition or the union shop was the major barrier to set­
tlement; some also involved wages. Union recognition was
the primary issue in the stoppage at the Buffalo Arms Co.
in Akron, N. Y ., which ended in June 1955 and in a 32-day
stoppage at the St. Joseph, Mich., plant of the Whirlpool
Corp. Recognition was also the major problem in the Miami
hotel organizing strike which began in April and continued
into 1956. * The same issue led to a 76-day stoppage at the
6
Berne Hat Co. in Baltimore. The company went out of busi­
ness by November, but in December a local of the United
Hat, Cap and Millinery Union lent a newly-formed company
$25,000 to buy machinery, rent a loft, and reemploy the dis­
placed workers, with the former factory manager to act as
president of the new company.
The union shop issue was the major hurdle in the
129-day work stoppage of the United Automobile Workers of
America at the Indiana plants of the Perfect Circle Corp.—
a strike which was marked by considerable violen ce. Wages
were also an issue in this stoppage. The 127-day stoppage
at the W. T . Smith Lumber Co. in Alabama, and the 22-*day
stoppage at the New York Air Brake Co. in Watertown, N. Y .,
also arose over union shop differences.
Other Issu es. — Job security, shop conditions and
policy, workload, and protests against court injunctions or
administrative actions of government agencies declined
slightly in importance as issues in 1955, compared with im­
mediately preceding years. Altogether, these issues ac­
counted for a fifth of all strikes ana workers but only a tenth
of all strike idleness. They precipitated 4 strikes of 10,000
or more workers but 2 of them----- an employee discharge
question at the Chrysler Corp. in Detroit in April, and the
West Coast longshore strike against the trial of Harry
Bridges— lasted but 1 day. The other 2— an East Coast
longshoremen’ s protest against actions of the New York-New
Jersey Waterfront Commission— and the June stoppage at
the East Pittsburgh plant of Westinghouse lasted 8 days each.
Interunion and intraunion disputes (including union
rivalry and jurisdictional and sympathy strikes), follow ing
the usual pattern, accounted for a relatively small portion of
the year’ s total strike activity. They caused 7 percent of the
1955 stoppages and 1 percent o f man-days of idleness— not
significantly different than in 1954.

Industries A ffected
The general rise in strike activity affected most in­
dustries (table 5). The construction trades were the most
notable exception to the general trend, but total idleness
also fell below 1954 in lumber, trade, rubber, and apparel
manufacture. Final figures for the year show that work stop­
pages and man-days of idleness in the manufacturing indus­
tries increased about 40 percent, while in the nonmanufac­
turing industries there were increases of about 8 percent in
the number of work stoppages and 6 percent in the man-days
of idleness over the previous year’ s figures.
D eclines in the number of workers involved and mandays idle in construction were due to a drop in the number
of major stoppages compared with immediately preceding
years. Only 2 major stoppages involving a total of 28,000
workers were recorded in this industry in 1955 compared with
7 involving 141,000 workers in 1954,10 idling 210,000 workers
in 1953, and 11 involving 287,000 workers in 1952.
Idleness in the lumber and wood-products industry fell
to its lowest postwar level in 1955. Idleness in the trade
group was markedly lower than in 1954, when the Pittsburgh
department store strike was in effect. Although the number
of strikes increased, idleness decreased in the rubber prod­
ucts industry group. Only the 7-day U. S. Rubber Co. strike
affected as many as 10,000 workers; hence, time lost declined
by two-thirds below 1954 when 2 fairly long major stoppages
brought idleness to its highest level of recent years.
Two soft-goods industry groups, textiles and leather
and leather products, showed marked increases in strike
idleness over 1954, primarily as a result of the New England
textile strike and the 26-day strike that idled 23,000 Inter­
national Shoe Co. and Brown Shoe Co. employees. The latter
stoppage, which was resolved by agreement on the first gen­
eral wage increase at the companies since 1952, accounted
for about half the workers idle in all leather and leatherproducts industries in 1955.
Proportionately, one of the greatest increases in strike
activity occurred in the chemical industry group in which
idleness resulting from strikes was about four times its 1954
levels, although it remained below its postwar high. About
60 percent of the 1955 idleness in chemical plants was ac­
counted for by 8 stoppages primarily involving wages.
The three Westinghouse work stoppages represented
the greater portion of the increase in number of workers and
man-days idle in the electrical machinery industry group,
which reached its highest levels since 1946. The Westing­
house Corp. manufactures a wide variety of products and
stoppages affecting this company plus the three stoppages
at farm equipment firms during the year contributed sign ifi­
cantly to strike activity in machinery manufacturing (other
than electrical) group. The totals in the latter industry group
include the smaller, prolonged stoppages at the E x -C ell-0
Corp. plants in Ohio and Michigan, the Maytag Co. in Iowa,
and th eA vco Manufacturing Co. in Indiana. Major stoppages
during contract negotiations brought the number of workers
idle in the transportation equipment group to about four times
1954 levels. Similarly, the brief work stoppage at the time
o f the nationwide b asic steel negotiations, and a stoppage
at Tennessee Coal and Iron Co. caused by contract demands
of that company’ s railroad employees, brought the number of
workers idle in the primary metal industries well above the
1954 level, but fell short of their 1952 postwar high.

® Early in February 1956 the Director of the Federal Mediation
and Conciliation Service stated that it appeared that differences con*
cerning w ages, arbitration procedures, contract duration, and other prob­
lems could be settled if the time-study problem were handled separately.
He recommended that the parties agree to defer settlement of this issue
Two strikes— a 33-day stoppage at the Sperry Gyro­
until after the end of the strike with a 90-day moratorium after the return
scope C o., and a 92-day strike of 3,000 employees of the
to work to be used for bargaining on the time-study problem. T h is pro­
Arma Division of American B osch Corp.— accounted for more
posal was not adopted, however.
6
One of the first settlem ents was concluded during October 1955
than one-half of the total number of workers and idleness in
when the Monte Carlo Hotel and the Hotel and Restaurant Employees
establishments manufacturing professional, scien tific and
Union agreed to a 5-year contract granting wage increases immediately,
controlling instruments and related products. Idleness in
as w ell as in 1957 and 1958 , with provision for starting a health and wel­
this group of industries was higher than in any postwar year.
fare plan later.




C h a r t 2.

WORK STOPPAGES BY REGION, 1955

• Maine \

1.67S S :r r ,n v o W e a
857 ,0 0 0
^ orK® s ld l«
9 ,6 5 0 .0 0 0
0 29

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR




°‘ ' I T
W o r k in 9 T ,,n e

s
/

5
Although the number of transportation, communication,
and other public utility stoppages remained practically the
same as in 1954, 7 of the 26 major work stoppages in 1955
occurred in these industries, and idleness reached its highest
level since 1947— 0.47 percent o f total estimated working
time of all workers in the group. The two longest and mostpublicized strikes in these industries were those at Southern
Bell Telephone Co. and on the Louisville and Nashville
Railroad.
The trucking industry had 2 major strikes— a
44-day stoppage in New England and other eastern States,
and a 24-day strike in 12 western States. Both resulted in
long-term contracts providing for ,the elimination of interarea
wage differences within the regions affected and reductions
in hours of work, as w ell as increases in wage rates and
liberalized benefits. Members of 3 telephone unions struck
over contract terms for about 2 weeks at the P a cific T ele­
phone and Telegraph Co. and 2 strikes— one on the East
Coast, the other on the West Coast— each idled over 10,000
longshoremen.
Increases over 1954 were recorded in all three of the
measures of strike activity in the mining industry group, with
the largest increase experienced in the number of stoppages
and man-days of idleness. Strike activity remained at rela­
tively low levels in coal mining as compared with most
postwar years, although the number of bituminous stoppages
increased slightly over 1954. Metal mining experienced
more controversies, with idleness rising about 60 percent
because of the major stoppage in nonferrous metal mining
as well as 3 smaller prolonged stoppages. About 1,700 em­
ployees of Michigan copper mines were out for 112 days
from May through late August; 16 companies in the Coeur
d’ Alene area, Idaho were struck for 161 days; and several
hundred miners of a New Jersey zinc company became idle
on August 22 and were still out at the end of the year. A
122-day strike of phosphate installations in Florida increased
idleness in nonmetallic mining well over 1954. In the service
trades, idleness increased almost fivefold, primarily as a
result of the Miami hotel dispute.

Geographic Patterns
State E xperien ce. — An unusual feature of the 1955
strike picture was the fact that two of the year’ s longest
and largest work stoppages occurred in the South. The pro­
longed L ou isville and Nashville Railroad and Southern Bell
Telephone strikes early in the year had the effect of in­
creasing the man-days idle in most of the southeastern States
to relatively high levels (chart 2). As a consequence Ala­
bama and Kentucky recorded a higher ratio of man-days idle
to total working time than did any other State in 1955. Georgia
and Tennessee experienced more idleness than any year
since 1946; in Florida, where the Miami hotel and phosphate
strikes also occurred, idleness was the highest on record.
Texas experienced a greater decline in the number of stop­
pages as compared with 1954 than did any other State.
Maine and Nevada also recorded substantial increases
in idleness. The long stoppage in the New England cotton
and synthetic fabric textile industry accounted for more than
75 percent of the year’ s idleness in Maine while Nevada
idleness was caused largely by the July nonferrous stoppage.
This controversy also resulted in greater working time losses
in Arizona than in the immediately preceding years.
As in other years, the greatest number of days of idle­
ness occurred in highly industrialized States. Total idleness
in Pennsylvania in 1955 amounted to 11.9 percent of all
strike idleness in the United States (table 4). As in 1954
Pennsylvania accounted for a greater percentage of time idle
than any other State. Over half of the State’ s time loss in
1955 was due to the 1-day basic steel stoppage and the 3
strikes at plants o f the Westinghouse Corp. Ten stoppages,
each exceeding 50,000 man-days of idleness, accounted for



389362 0

-5 6

-2

more than half of the year’ s time loss in Ohio. This State
with 9.1 percent of all idle time, ranked second to Pennsyl­
vania; New York came next with 8.6 percent.
Metropolitan A reas.-----The overall increase in the
number of strikes in 1955 compared with 1954 was reflected
in the data for metropolitan areas where only a few smaller
areas registered declines in strike activity. Six metropolitan
areas recorded 100 or more stoppages in 1955— the New
York-Northeastern New Jersey area; Detroit; Philadelphia;
Pittsburgh; Chicago; and the L os Angeles-Long Beach area.
In 1954, only the first 3 areas had as many as 100 stoppages.
In most of the areas showing a sharp rise in number
of workers and idleness over most previous years, the in­
crease was largely due to 1 or 2 stoppages. The 72-day
stoppage of telephone workers resulted in a sharp increase
in idleness over most earlier years in many of the metro­
politan areas in the southeastern part of the country. 7 The
telephone stoppage was responsible for about a fifth of total
idleness in Birmingham, where the 51 stoppages affecting
51,500 workers exceeded all previous totals for this area.
However, about 70 percent of those in Birmingham were steel
workers idled in several stoppages. 8
Elsewhere, the August and October Westinghouse
stoppages were significant factors in the high idleness reg­
istered for Buffalo, N. Y ., and Columbus, Ohio. In Buffalo,
the brief nationwide steel stoppage also contributed sub­
stantially to the number of workers idle. About four-fifths
of the idleness in Baltimore resulted from prolonged stop­
pages which occurred at the Bendix Aviation Corp. in Sep­
tember and the Westinghouse Electric Corp. in October, as
well as the July stoppages o f steel and nonferrous workers.
More workers were idle in Pittsburgh than in any previous
year as a result of the steel and Westinghouse stoppages,
but total idleness remained below 1946 and 1952.
Much of the idleness in a number of New England met­
ropolitan areas resulted from a few stoppages. The pro­
longed New England textile stoppage was primarily respon­
sible for the record number of workers and idleness recorded
in Auburn, Maine, and accounted for significant increases
in these measures of strike activity in New Bedford, Mass.
About two-fifths of the total time lost in Boston was due to
the lengthy, widespread New England trucking strike. This
dispute, together with the October Westinghouse strike and
a stoppage that lasted for more than 2 months at the Dicta­
phone Corp., accounted for more than three-fourths of the
idleness in Bridgeport, Conn.
The textile and New England trucking disputes and
the widespread stoppage at U. S. Rubber were largely re­
sponsible for the relatively large number of workers and
man-days idle in Providence, R. I., while the rubber stoppage
and three transportation equipment strikes accounted for
the bulk of the workers and time idle in South Bend, Ind. In
Peoria, 111., the increase in idleness to its highest level
since 1948 and a rise in the number of workers idle comared with most earlier years was traceable largely to the
aterpillar Tractor Co. stoppage. R ochester, N. i . , experi­
enced the greatest idleness ever recorded in that city, as a
result of a 52-day stoppage of 9,000 construction workers.
The number of workers who were idled in this city in 1955
(9,750) was exceeded only in 1946. Prolonged local transit
strikes in Scranton, P a., and Washington, D. C ., were largely
responsible for the high level of idleness in these areas.

^ Data for the L o u isville and Nashville R R . could not be al­
located by metropolitan area.
8 Workers idled by more than one stoppage in the year such as
those in the Birmingham ste e l m ills and the Westinghouse employees are
counted more than once in the total number of workers.

6
Unions Involved 9

Duration o f Stoppages

During 1 9 5 5 , unions affiliated with the American
Federation o f Labor were involved in sligh tly more than half
of the work stoppages and accounted for 23 percent o f the
workers idle and a third of the id le n e ss (table 8 ). Slightly
more than a fourth o f these stoppages were in the construc­
tion industry. A ffilia te s of the C ongress of Industrial Or­
ganizations took part in alm ost one-third of the year’ s strik es.
T h e se stoppages idled three-fifths of a ll workers and ac­
counted for tw o-fifths o f the id le n e ss.

Stoppages ending in 1 9 5 5 were shorter on the average
than in any postwar year except 1 9 5 1 , averaging 1 8 .5 calen­
dar d a y s, while the average worker involved in strik es w as
idle 1 0 .7 workdays (table 1 ).

A s in earlier years, a large proportion of the stoppages
involving unaffiliated or independent unions were the brief,
local strikes in bitum inous-coal m ines. On the w hole, the
unaffiliated unions accounted for a sm aller proportion of
total workers and id le n e ss than in most years sin ce World
War II.
A ffilia te s of the A F L and CIO unions represented
over 9 0 percent of the workers and man-days idle in work
stoppages o f 1 0 ,0 0 0 or more. Independent unions were in­
volved with other unions ( A F L an d/or CIO) in se ve ra l major
strikes and an independent w as the sole union in each o f
the two longshore stop p a ges. In the prolonged stoppages at
W estinghouse, about 15 percent of the strikers were repre­
sented by the unaffiliated United E le ctrica l Workers.
Trends During the Year
F ollo w in g the se a so n a l pattern of previous y ea rs, the
second and third quarters in 1955 recordecl the largest amount
of strike a c tivity . About three-fifths of the stop p a ges and
id le n e ss occurred in these 2 quarters, accounting for 75
percent of the total workers id le . Tw enty-one of the year’ s
major stoppages took place during this 6-month period.
During the la st 3 months of the year, 3 major stop­
pages took p la ce — the 13-day California telephone strike,
26-d ay shoe industry strike, and the Westinghouse stoppage.
T h e se three major stoppages accounted for about hall of tne
total id le n e ss for the October-December period.
Size o f Work Stoppages
A s in earlier yea rs, about half of the year’ s stoppages
involved fewer than 100 workers each (table 9 ). T h e s e stop­
p ag es, however, accounted for about 3 percent of a ll workers
involved and 4 percent of total id le n e ss for the year. About
8 percent of the year’ s stoppages affected 1 ,0 0 0 or more
workers each , and accounted for alm ost 80 percent of all
workers involved and 75 percent of the total time lo s t. Strikes
of 1 0 ,0 0 0 or more workers accounted for over tw o-fifths of
the workers and days idle in all strikes.
T he 1-day stoppage in the b asic ste e l industry ac­
counted for a greater proportion of workers idle than any
other stoppage (about 15 percent) but for only about 1 .5 per­
cent of total strike id le n e ss. B y way o f contrast, the 72-day
telephone strike accounted for about 2 percent of the workers
but 7 percent o f the year’ s id le n e ss.
A s in 1 9 5 4 , about 3 out of 4 of the year’ s stoppages
in 1955 occurred in a sin g le plant or establishm ent (table 1 0 ).
T h e se stoppages accounted for about one-third of the workers
and id le n e ss for the year. About half of the workers and
man-days o f id le n e ss w as recorded in stoppages encom­
p a ssin g more than 10 estab lishm en ts, although th ese a c ­
counted for only 7 percent of the total number of stoppages.
T he sm all number of strikes that affected 100 or more estab ­
lishm ents accounted for over one-fifth of a ll workers idle
and 14 percent o f a ll time lo st in strikes.
Q
As the merger of the AFL and the CIO did not occur until Decem­
ber 1955. data by union affiliation relate to the entire year.




Approximately half o f the stoppages ending in 1 9 5 5 ,
a s in most years, la sted le s s than a week (table 1 2 ). T h e s e
situations accounted for approximately the same percentage
o f workers involved and for about 8 percent of total id le n e s s .
The 1 stoppage in 5 that la ste d a month or more involved
1 7 percent of the total workers, and although th ese lengthy
disputes contributed 6 4 percent of id len ess in a ll stop p ages
ending in 1 9 5 5 , this proportion w as lower than in any year
sin ce 1 9 4 6 . Tw o stop p ages ending in 1955 la sted over a
ear— the Pittsburgh department store strike which had
egun in November 1953 over strengthening the union’ s bargaining p ositio n , w ages and related b en efits; and the Port
Arthur, T e x ., retail trade stoppage started in October 1953
over a union recognition is s u e .
Average duration o f stoppages varied according to
major is s u e s .
In 1 9 5 5 , the stoppages over the combined
is s u e s o f w ages and union organization tended to be lo n g e st,
35 calendar d a y s.
Strikes over union organization alone
lasted an average o f 2 6 .3 d ay s, compared with 3 0 .6 days in
1954. W ages and related is s u e s alone led to stoppages that
lasted 2 0 .1 days and were considerably longer than stop­
p ages over inter- and intraunion matters (1 1 .4 d ays) and
other working conditions ( 8 .2 d a y s).

Method o f Terminating Stoppages
M ost of the stoppages ending in 1955 were settled
by agreement between representatives of the workers and
employers without the reported a s sista n c e of an outside
agency (table 13 ). T h e se stoppages accounted for more than
half of the workers involved in a ll strik es. T he number of
stoppages in which the fa c ilitie s o f governmental mediation
s e rv ic e s and conciliation a g en cies were used to resolve the
is s u e s in dispute increased slig h tly over 1 9 5 4 .
T h e se
agencies helped in the settlem ent of 33 percent o f the year’ s
stoppages and accounted for 3 2 .5 percent of the workers
involved for the year— about 15 percentage points below
1 9 5 4 , and as in 1954 about two-thirds of the year’ s id le n e ss.
Nongovernment mediators or a g en cies a s s is te d in agreement
i n i percent of the stop p a ges, accounting for 2 and 3 percent,
re sp e c tiv e ly , of all workers and m an-days id le. In another 1
percent o f the stop p a ges, the establishm ents involved d is ­
continued b u s in e s s . In about a fifth of the strikes with 11
percent o f all workers and 7 percent of id le n e s s , the dispute
apparently w as ended without formal agreements being
reached on terms of settlem ent or methods to be used in
settling the unresolved is s u e s .
D isp osition o f Is s u e s
In 9 out of 10 strik e s, the is s u e s in dispute were
settled or were otherwise resolved at the time the stoppage
w as terminated (table 14)——-the highest proportion sin ce
World War II. In m ost of these c a s e s , agreement w as reached
on the is s u e s or it w as agreed the is s u e s were to be s e ttle d
by an estab lish ed grievance procedure.
Included in this
category are the stoppages where workers returned to their
jo bs or were replaced by new em ployees without an agree­
ment or settlem ent of the is s u e s involved.
In approximately 6 percent of the stop p a ges, work
was resumed w hile negotiation o f the is s u e s were continued.
The rest were terminated by agreement to re turn to work while
(a) negotiating with the aid of a third party, (b) submitting
the dispute to arbitration, or (c) referring the is s u e s to a
factfinding board or to a government agency for d ecision or
election.

7
TABLE 1 .— Work stoppages in the United States, 1 9 2 7 -5 5 1
W ork stoppages

Year
N um ber

Average
duration
(calendar
d a y s)3

W o rk e r s in v o lv e d 1
2

N um ber
(thousands)

M a n -d a y s id le during y ea r

P e rc e n t
of total
em p loyed

N um ber
(thousands)

P e rc e n t of
e stim a te d
working
tim e o f a ll
w ork ers

Per
w ork er
in volved

1927
........................................................
1928
..............................................................
1929
..................................................
1930 ____________________________________
1931
................ - .....................................

707
604
921
637
810

2 6 .5
2 7 .6
2 2 .6
2 2 .3
1 8 .8

330
314
289
183
342

1 .4
1 .3
1 .2
.8
1 .6

2 6 ,2 0 0
1 2 ,6 0 0
5 ,3 5 0
3 ,3 2 0
6 ,8 9 0

0 .3 7
.1 7
.0 7
.0 5
. 11

7 9 .5
4 0 .2
1 8 .5
1 8 .1
2 0 .2

1932
..............................................................
1933
..................................................
1934 ____________________________________
1935
...........................................
1936 -------------------------------------------------------

841
1 ,6 9 5
1 ,8 5 6
2 ,0 1 4
2 ,1 7 2

1 9 .6
1 6 .9
1 9 .5
2 3 .8
2 3 .3

324
1 ,1 7 0
1 ,4 7 0
1 ,1 2 0
789

1 .8
6 .3
7 .2
5 .2
3 .1

1 0 ,5 0 0
1 6 ,9 0 0
1 9 ,6 0 0
1 5 ,5 0 0
1 3 ,9 0 0

. 23
.3 6
.3 8
.2 9
.2 1

3 2 .4
1 4 .4
1 3 .4
1 3 .8
1 7 .6

1937
..............................................................
1938
..................................................
1939 ____________________________________
__
1940
_ _
_ ______
1941
.....................................................

4 ,7 4 0
2 ,7 7 2
2 ,6 1 3
2 ,5 0 8
4., 2 8 8

2 0 .3
2 3 .6
2 3 .4
2 0 .9
1 8 .3

1 ,8 6 0
688
1 ,1 7 0
577
2 ,3 6 0

7 .2
2 .8
4 .7
2 .3
8 .4

2 8 ,4 0 0
9 ,1 5 0
1 7 ,8 0 0
6 ,7 0 0
2 3 ,0 0 0

.4 3
. 15
.2 8
. 10
.3 2

1 5 .3
1 3 .3
1 5 .2
1 1 .6
9 .8

1942
1943
_
_ _ _ _ _
1944
....................................................
1945 _________________________________ _
_
1946
..................................................

2 ,9 6 8
3 ,7 5 2
4 ,9 5 6
4 ,7 5 0
4 ,9 8 5

1 1 .7
5 .0
5 .6
9 .9
2 4 .2

840
1 ,9 8 0
2 ,1 2 0
3 ,4 7 0
4 ,6 0 0

2 .8
6 .9
7 .0
1 2 .2
14. 5

4 ,1 8 0
1 3 ,5 0 0
8 ,7 2 0
3 8 ,0 0 0
1 1 6 ,0 0 0

.0 5
. 15
.0 9
.4 7
1 .4 3

5 .0
6 .8
4 .1
1 1 .0
2 5 .2

1947
.........................................................
1948
..................................................
1 Q4Q
1950 ____________________________________
1 9 5 1 -------------------------------------------------------

3 ,6 9 3
3 ,4 1 9
3 ,6 0 6
4 ,8 4 3
4 , 737

2 5 .6
2 1 .8
2 2 .5
1 9 .2
1 7 .4

2 ,1 7 0
1 ,9 6 0
3 ,0 3 0
2 ,4 1 0
2 ,2 2 0

6 .5
5 .5
9 .0
6 .9
5 .5

3 4 ,6 0 0
3 4 ,1 0 0
5 0 ,5 0 0
3 8 ,8 0 0
2 2 ,9 0 0

.4 1
.3 7
.5 9
.4 4
.2 3

1 5 .9
1 7 .4
1 6 .7
1 6 .1
1 0 .3

1952
.........................................................
1953
..............................
1954
................................................
1955 ......
.........................................

5 ,1 1 7
5 ,0 9 1
3 ,4 6 8
4 ,3 2 0

1 9 .6
2 0 .3
2 2 .5
1 8 .5

3 ,5 4 0
2 ,4 0 0
1 ,5 3 0
2 ,6 5 0

8 .8
5 .6
3 .7
6 .2

5 9 ,1 0 0
2 8 ,3 0 0
2 2 ,6 0 0
2 8 ,2 0 0

.5 7
.2 6
.2 1
.2 6

1 6 .7
1 1 .8
1 4 .7
1 0 .7

1956
1957
1958
1959

.........................................................
..............................................................
..............................................................
..............................................................

1 The num ber o f stoppages and w ork e rs pertain to those beginning in the y e a r ; a v e rage duration to those ending
in the y e a r . M an -d a ys of id le n e ss include a ll stoppages in e ffe c t.
A va ila ble in form ation fo r e a r lie r p eriods appears in B L S B u ll. 10 1 6 , Handbook of L a b o r S ta t is tic s , table
E - 2 . F o r a d isc u ssio n of the pro ced u res in volved in the c o lle c tio n and com p ila tion o f w ork stoppage s ta tis tic s se e
B L S B u ll. 1 1 68, Techniques of P re p a rin g M a jo r B L S S ta tistic a l S e r i e s , Chapter 12.
2 In this and subsequent ta b le s, w ork e rs are counted m ore than once in th ese fig u re s if they w e re
involved
in m ore than 1 stoppage during the y e a r . F o r exam ple in 1 9 4 9 , 3 6 5 ,0 0 0 - 4 0 0 ,0 0 0 m in e rs w e re on strik e on 3 sep arate
o c c a s io n s ; they c o m p r ise d 1 ,1 5 0 ,0 0 0 of the total o f 3, 0 3 0 , 000 w ork e rs fo r the country as a w hole. In 1955 there w ere
3 w id esp read stop p a ges, in addition to s e v e r a l lo c a l stoppages at individual plants of the W estinghouse C o r p .
totaling
about 1 4 0 ,0 0 0 of a 2 ,6 5 0 ,0 0 0 total fo r the United S ta tes.
3 F ig u re s are sim p le a v e r a g e s ; each stoppage is given equal w eight r e g a r d le s s of its s iz e .




8
TABLE 2 . — Work stoppages involving 10, 000 or more w orkers, selected periods
Stoppages involving 1 0 ,0 0 0 or m o re w ork ers
M an -d a ys idle

W o rk e r s involved
P e rio d
N um ber

1 9 3 5 -3 9 a v e rage _____________________
1 9 4 7 -4 9 a v erage
_ _ _
1945 ____________________________________
_______
1946 __________________ _____
1947 ____________________________________
1948 ____________________________________
1949 ------------------------------------------------------1950 __________________________________
1951 ____________________________________
1952 ____________________________________
1953 ____________________________________
1954 ____________________________________
1955 ____________________________________
1956 .............. .................................

P e rc e n t of
total for
period

N um ber
(thousands)

0 .4
. 5
.9
.6
.4
.6
. 5
. 5
.4
.7
. 5
. 5
.6

11
18
42
31
15
20
18
22
19
35
28
18
26

365
1 ,2 7 0
1 ,3 5 0
Z, 920
1 ,0 3 0
870
1 ,9 2 0
738
457
1 ,6 9 0
650
437
1 ,2 1 0

N um ber
(thousands)

P e rc e n t o f
total fo r
p eriod

5 ,2 9 0
2 3, 800
1 9 ,3 0 0
6 6 ,4 0 0
1 7 ,7 0 0
1 8 ,9 0 0
3 4 ,9 0 0
2 1 ,7 0 0
5 ,6 8 0
3 6 ,9 0 0
7 ,2 7 0
7 ,5 2 0
1 2 ,3 0 0

31. 2
5 9 .9
5 0 .7
5 7 .2
5 1 .2
5 5 .3
6 9 .0
5 6 .0
2 4 .8
6 2 .6
2 5 .7
3 3 .3
4 3 .4

3 2 .4
5 3 .4
3 8 .9
6 3 .6
4 7 .5
44. 5
6 3 .2
3 0 .7
20. 6
4 7 .8
2 7 .1
2 8 .5
4 5 .6

T A B L E 3 . — M onthly trend s in w ork stop p ages,
N um ber of stoppages

P e rc e n t o f
total for
p eriod

1 9 5 4 -5 5

W o rk e rs involved in stoppages
In effe ct during month

M onth

M a n -d a y s idle
during m onth

Beginning
in
month

In effect
during
month

Beginning
in month
(thousands)

20 8
249
268
330
384
358
370
328
315
285
220
153

341
400
420
501
559
577
580
525
526
488
387
293

71
59
113
113
208
196
238
143
126
164
71
29

127
104
160
187
24 4
281
376
300
304
259
129
78

0 .3 1
.2 5
.3 9
.4 5
.5 9
.6 8
.9 1
. 72
. 73
.6 2
.3 1
.1 8

1 ,0 2 0
886
1 ,4 9 0
1 ,2 2 0
2 ,0 1 0
2 ,3 9 0
3 ,8 0 0
3 ,7 4 0
2 ,4 1 0
1 ,8 2 0
1 ,3 1 0
486

0 . 12
. 11
. 16
. 13
.2 4
.2 6
.4 4
.4 1
.2 7
.2 1
. 15
.0 5

229
255
310
352
432
506
464
496
453
431
242
150

322
347
435
497
616
734
718
740
717
654
451
303

49
92
164
211
177
487
637
236
23 4
214
84
61

69
122
212
308
324
593
776
384
381
292
201
178

. 17
.3 0
.5 1
.7 4
.7 7
1 .3 9
1 .8 2
.8 9
.8 8
.6 7
.4 6
.4 0

386
610
1 ,6 8 0
2 ,7 3 0
2 ,8 2 0
3 ,3 8 0
3 ,3 2 0
3 ,0 6 0
2 , 770
2 ,4 7 0
2 ,6 3 0
2 ,3 4 0

.0 4
.0 7
. 18
.3 1
.3 2
.3 6
.3 9
.3 1
.3 0
.2 7
.2 9
.2 5

N um ber
(thousands)

P e rc e n t
of total
em ployed

N um ber '
(thousands)

P e rc e n t oi
estim ated
w orking
tim e of a ll
w o rk e rs

1954

January -------------------------------------------------F e b r u a r y -----------------------------------------------M a rc h ---------------------------------------------------A p r i l -------------------------------------------------------M a y ---------------------------------------------------------June --------------------------------------------------------J u ly ---------------------------------------------------------A ugust ----------------------------------------------------S ep tem ber ---------------------------- ---------------O ctober --------------------------------------------------N o v e m b e r ----------------------------------------------D e c e m b e r ----------------------------------------------1955

January -------------------------------------------------F e b r u a r y -----------------------------------------------M a rc h ——-- -----------------------------—— -----A p r i l -------------------------------------------------------M a y ---------------------------------------------------------June --------------------------------------------------------J u ly ---------------------------------------------------------A ugust ----------------------------------------------------S e p te m b e r----------------------------------------------O c t o b e r --------------------------------------------------N o v e m b e r ----------------------------------------------D e c e m b e r ----------------------------------------- -—




9
T A B L E 4 . — M a jo r issu e s involved in w ork stop p a ges,

1955

Stoppages beginning in 1955
W o rk e rs involved
M a jo r issu e s
Num ber

P e rce n t
of
t o t a l1

P e rc e n t
of
t o t a l1

N um ber 1

2 8 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0

1, 780, 000

6 7 .2

1 7 ,9 0 0 ,0 0 0

6 3 .3

2 9 .9
.6
1 .3
(3 )

8 5 4 ,0 0 0
2 9 ,4 0 0
2 5 ,2 0 0
3 ,8 5 0

3 2 .3
1. 1
1 .0
. 1

7 ,5 0 0 , 000
9 8 0 ,0 0 0
3 2 0 ,0 0 0
7, 700

26. 6
3 .5
1 .1
(3 )

28 4

6. 6

2 0 7 ,0 0 0

7 .8

4 ,2 8 0 ,0 0 0

1 5 .2

32
465

.7
1 0 .8

2 9 ,6 0 0
62 7 ,0 0 0

1. 1
23. 7

1 ,0 5 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,7 2 0 ,0 0 0

3. 7
1 3 .2

305

7 .1

1 4 3 ,0 0 0

5 .4

4 ,5 9 0 ,0 0 0

1 6 .3

210

4 .9

2 2 ,8 0 0

.9

3 7 1 ,0 0 0

1 .3

26

.6

7 6 ,1 0 0

2 .9

3 ,4 4 0 ,0 0 0

1 2 .2

69

1 .6

4 4 ,2 0 0

1. 7

7 8 4 ,0 0 0

2 .8

680

(3 )

4 ,3 2 0

1 0 0 .0

2 ,6 5 0 ,0 0 0

W a g e s , h o u rs, and supplem entary
benefits 2 ----------------------------------------------------

2 , 154

4 9 .9

1 ,2 9 1
25
55
2

Union organ ization , w a g e s, h o u rs,
and sup p lem entary benefits 2 ---------------R ecognition , w a g e s, a n d /o r
hours ------------------------------------------------------Strengthening bargaining p ositio n ,
w a g e s , an d/ or h o u r s --------------------------C lo se d or union shop, w a g e s,
a n d /o r hours
-------------------------------------D isc rim in a tio n , w a g e s, a n d /o r
hours -------------------------------------------------------

P e rc e n t
of
t o t a l1

N um ber 1

1 0 0 .0

A ll i s s u e s -------------------------------------------------------

W age in c r e a se --------------------------------------W age d e c re a se --------------------------------------W age in c r e a s e , hour d e c re a se --------Hour in c r e a se ----------------------------------------W age in c r e a s e , pension a n d /o r
s o c ia l in suran ce b enefits ---------------P ension a n d /o r so c ia l in suran ce
benefits ------------------------------------------------O th e r4 -------------------------------------------------------

M a n -'days idle
ing 1955
(all sitoppages)

-

-

-

-

1 0 0 .0

Union o r g a n iz a tio n --------------------------------------

539

1 2 .5

1 0 1 ,0 0 0

3. 8

2 ,8 4 0 ,0 0 0

1 0 .1

R e c o g n itio n ----------------------------------------------Strengthening bargaining p o s itio n ----C lo se d or union shop ---------------------------D isc rim in a tio n --------------------------------------Other ---------------------------------------------------------

385
51
69
11
23

8 .9
1 .2
1. 6
.3
.5

2 3 ,2 0 0
6 7 ,2 0 0
6, 350
640
3 ,6 1 0

.9
2. 5
.2
(3 )
. 1

6 8 2 ,0 0 0
2 ,0 9 0 ,0 0 0
4 8 ,3 0 0
1 0 ,9 0 0
1 1 ,8 0 0

2 .4
7 .4
.2
(3 )
(3 )

-------------------------

964

2 2 .3

5 5 0 ,0 0 0

2 0 .8

2 ,5 9 0 ,0 0 0

9 .2

Job s e c u r i t y --------------------------------------------Shop conditions and p o lic ie s -------------W orkload .........................................................
Other 56
---------------------------------------------------------

452
438
54
20

10. 5
10. 1
1 .2
. 5

2 0 1 ,0 0 0
2 6 0 ,0 0 0
3 1 ,7 0 0
5 8 ,0 0 0

7. 6
9 .8
1 .2
2 .2

1 ,1 6 0 ,0 0 0
9 4 2 ,0 0 0
2 8 8 ,0 0 0
2 0 0 ,0 0 0

4. 1
3 .3
1 .0
. 7

-----------

299

6 .9

6 5 ,7 0 0

2 .5

2 9 5 ,0 0 0

1 .0

Sym pathy ------------------------------------------------Union r iv a lr y or fac tio n a lism ----------J u risd ic tio n ® -------------------------------------------Union r e g u la tio n s ----------------------------------Other ----------------------------------------------------------

69
55
171
4
-

1 .6
1 .3
4 .0
. 1
“

3 6 ,0 0 0
6 ,5 4 0
2 3 ,0 0 0
150
-

1 .4
.2
.9
(3 )

1 2 8 ,0 0 0
6 2 ,2 0 0
1 0 5 ,0 0 0
180
-

.5
.2
.4
(3 )
-

59

1 .4

9 ,2 4 0

.3

2 6 ,2 0 0

. 1

Other w orking conditions

Interunion or intraunion m a tte rs

N ot rep orted

------------------------------------------------

1 In this and subsequent ta b le s, the sum of the individual item s m a y not equal the totals fo r the group, b e ­
cau se the individual fig u re s have been rounded.
2 "S u pplem en tary b e n e fits " has been added to the title only fo r p urp oses of c la r ific a tio n . T h ere has been no
change fro m previous y ea rs in definition or content of these grou p s.
3 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e rc e n t.
4 Includes stoppages in which the m a jo r is s u e was re tro a c tiv ity , h o lid a y s, v a ca tio n s, job c la s s ific a tio n , p iece
r a te s , incentive stan d ard s, or other rela ted m a tte rs unaccom panied by effo rts to change w age r a te s . M o re than a
third of the stoppages in this group oc c u rred over p ie c e ra tes or incentive stan d ard s.
5 This group includes p ro te st strik e s ag ain st action or lack of action by G overn m en t a g e n c ie s . The 2 m a jo r
stoppages each involving m o re than 1 0 ,0 0 0 lo n gsh o rem en a r e included in this group. (See tab le 1 1 .)
6 B ecau se m any ju risd ictio n a l stoppages a r e s m a ll, b r ie f, and lo ca l in s c o p e , they freq u en tly a r e not r e ­
ported either by cooperatin g ag en cies or by n ew sp ap ers; hence, it is p robable that th ese fig u re s do not include a ll
such stoppages o ccu rrin g during the y e a r .




10
TABLE 5 .— Work stoppages by industry group, 1955

Stoppages beginning
in 1955

M a n -d a y s idle during
1955 (all stoppages)

N um ber

P e rc e n t of
estim a te d
w orking tim e
of a ll w o rk e r s

Industry group
N um ber

W ork ers
involved

A ll in d u stries _______________________________________________

* 4 ,3 2 0

2 ,6 5 0 ,0 0 0

2 8 ,2 0 0 , 000

0 .2 6

M A N U F A C T U R IN G ____________________

12 ,4 2 0

2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 8 ,8 0 0 , 000

0 .4 5

P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s t r i e s ________________________________
F a b ric a te d m eta l pro d u cts (except ordnance,
m ac h in e ry , and tra n sp ortatio n e q u ip m e n t)__________
O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ______________________________
E le c tr ic a l m a c h in e ry , equipm ent, and
supplie s
M ach in ery (except e le c tr ic a l) __________________________
T ran sp o rtation e q u ip m e n t________________________________
L u m b er and wood p roducts (except furniture) __
F u rn itu re and fix tu re s ____________________________________
Stone, c la y , and g la s s products
T e x tile m ill products
_
_ _ _ _ _
A p p a r e l and other fin ish ed products m ade
fr o m fa b r ic s and s im ila r m a te r ia ls _________________
L e a th e r and le a th e r products __________________________
F ood and kindred products
T o b a c co m an u factu res
P ap e r and allie d products
P rin tin g, publishing, and a llie d in d u stries
C h e m ic a ls and a llie d p r o d u c t s __________________________
P ro d u cts of p e tro le u m and c o a l ________________________
R ubber products

279

5 3 5 ,0 0 0

1 ,5 7 0 , 000

.4 7

282
13

131, 000
1 0 ,8 0 0

1 ,5 9 0 , 000
1 4 0 ,0 0 0

. 57
.4 2

147
306
200
81
121
110
96

2 0 2 ,0 0 0
2 3 0 , 000
4 4 0 ,0 0 0
1 1 ,8 0 0
2 6 ,0 0 0
3 2 ,6 0 0
4 7 ,8 0 0

3 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0
3, 8 0 0 , 000
1 ,9 1 0 , 000
2 2 7 , 000
2 8 7 ,0 0 0
4 9 5 , 000
1 ,4 0 0 , 000

1. 15
.9 5
.4 0
. 12
. 31
. 35
.5 1

139
50
169
3
67
29
105
18
105

1 5 ,0 0 0
4 0 ,4 0 0
4 0 ,4 0 0
340
1 3 , oOO
7 ,6 6 0
4 0 , 000
3, 190
1 2 4 ,0 0 0

1 3 6 ,0 0 0
5 4 2 ,0 0 0
9 7 4 ,0 0 0
1 ,2 2 0
1 9 7 ,0 0 0
1 7 6 ,0 0 0
6 3 4 ,0 0 0
5 1, 000
4 9 0 , 000

.0 4
. 56
.2 5
( 1)
2
. 14
.0 8
. 31
.0 8
.6 9

30
99

3 4 ,0 0 0
1 4 ,3 0 0

6 9 4 ,0 0 0
191, 000

.8 7
. 16

* 1 ,9 1 3

6 4 6 ,0 0 0

9 , 39 0 , 000

. 14

11
343
733
409
8

3 ,0 8 0
1 1 4 ,0 0 0
2 0 4 ,0 0 0
5 2 ,3 0 0
550

1 4 ,2 0 0
1 ,0 8 0 , 000
1 ,8 1 0 , 000
1 ,0 9 0 , 000
2 7 , 300

( 3)
.5 7
.2 8
.0 4
( 3)

275
121

2 5 3 ,0 0 0
1 7 ,8 0 0

4 ,8 6 0 ,0 0 0
4 8 8 , 000

.4 7
( 3)

17

1 ,4 7 0

7 ,2 1 0

P r o fe s s io n a l,

s c i e n t i f i c , a n d c o n t r o llin g

in stru m e n ts; photographic and optical
go od s; w atches and c lo c k s
__
M is c e lla n e o u s m anufacturing in d u stries

_

_

N O N M A N U F A C T U R IN G

A g r ic u ltu r e , f o r e s tr y , and fishing
M in in g ________________________________________________________
C o n stru ction
_
_ _ _ _ _
T rad e ________________________________________ _______________
F in a n c e, in su ra n ce , and re a l estate
____________ ____
T ran sp o rtation , c om m u n ication , and
other public u tilitie s ____________________________________
S e r v ic e s — p e rso n a l, b u s in e s s , and other
G ove rnm ent— a d m in istra tion , p ro te ctio n ,
and san itation 4 ___________________________________________

1 T h is figu re is le s s than the sum
in d ustry groups have been counted in this
id le w ere a llo c a te d am ong the re sp e c tiv e
2 L e s s than 0 . 05 p e rc e n t.
3 Not a v a ila b le .
4 M unicipally operated u tilitie s a r e




( 3)

of the fig u re s below , b e ca u se a few stoppages extending into 2 or m o re
colum n in each industry group a ffe cte d ; w o rk e rs involved and m a n -d a y s
grou p s.

included under tra n sp ortatio n ,

com m un ication,

and other public u tilitie s .

11
T A BL E 6 .— Work stoppages by State, 1955

Stoppages beginning
in 1955

M a n -d a y s idle during
1955 (all stoppages)

State
N um ber

United States

W ork ers
involved 1

N um ber

P e rc e n t of
estim a te d
w orking tim e
of a ll w o rk e r s 1

_______________________________________

24 , 320

2 ,6 5 0 , 000

2 8 ,2 0 0 , 000

0 .2 6

A la b a m a ___________ ________________________________
A r i z o n a _______________________________________________
A rk a n sa s
___________________________________________
C a liforn ia ___________________________________________
C o lo ra d o _____________________________________________
Connecticut
D elaw are _
_ _
_ -

111
17
17
247
36
73
19

9 1 ,7 0 0
8 ,2 5 0
4 ,7 1 0
1 5 7 ,0 0 0
1 3 ,3 0 0
3 0 ,9 0 0
9 ,7 9 0

9 5 1 , 000
1 7 0 ,0 0 0
8 4 ,8 0 0
1 ,7 6 0 ,0 0 0
8 6 ,9 0 0
5 6 7 ,0 0 0
6 8 ,6 0 0

0 .6 7
.3 8
. 13
.2 1
. 10
.2 8
.2 1

D is tr ic t of Colum bia
F lo rid a -----------------------------------------------------------------------G e o r g ia ___ _________________________________________
Idaho __________________________________________________
Illin o is _______________________________________________
Indiana _______________________________________________
Iowa __________________________________________________

15
59
37
18
260
170
45

5 ,0 8 0
1 9 ,0 0 0
2 0 ,5 0 0
3 ,8 0 0
1 6 7 ,0 0 0
1 9 2 ,0 0 0
2 3 ,4 0 0

1 4 5 ,0 0 0
8 8 5 ,0 0 0
4 1 4 ,0 0 0
1 0 4 ,0 0 0
1 ,4 8 0 , 000
1, 140, 000
2 9 4 ,0 0 0

.2 3
.4 5
.2 1
. 38
. 19
.3 6
.2 2

K an sa s _______________________________________________
Kentucky _____________________________________________
L ouisian a ___________________________________________
M aine _________________________________________________
M a r y la n d _____________________________________________
M a ssa c h u se tts ______________________________________
M ichigan _____________________________________________

20
94
27
18
50
142
327

4 ,6 7 0
4 0 ,8 0 0
1 2 ,3 0 0
1 1 ,4 0 0
4 0 ,2 0 0
6 4 ,8 0 0
2 9 2 ,0 0 0

3 9 ,0 0 0
7 5 7 ,0 0 0
5 3 1 ,0 0 0
2 7 6 ,0 0 0
2 3 6 ,0 0 0
1, 2 3 0 , 000
1, 74 0 , 000

.0 3
.5 9
.3 5
.4 7
. 13
.3 1
. 31

M innesota ___ ______________________________________
M is s is s ip p i
_______________________________________
M is s o u r i _____________________________________________
M on ta n a_______________________________________________
N eb rask a ____________________________________________
N evada
_____________________________________________
N ew H am psh ire ____________________________________

75
20
111
21
22
19
25

2 6 , 700
6 ,0 5 0
6 4 ,3 0 0
1 ,4 8 0
4 , 370
3 ,9 0 0
4 , 320

3 2 3 ,0 0 0
1 9 8 ,0 0 0
8 7 1 ,0 0 0
2 3 ,5 0 0
5 6 ,4 0 0
6 4 ,7 0 0
2 4 ,5 0 0

. 17
.2 8
. 30
.0 7
.0 8
. 36
.0 6

New J e r s e y ___ ____________________ _______________
N ew M e x ic o _________________________________________
New Y o rk ___________________________________________
N orth C a rolin a ______________________________________
N orth Dakota _______________________________________
Ohio ___________________________________________________
Oklahom a
_________________________________________

283
12
534
49
7
434
37

1 2 4 ,0 0 0
6 , 870
2 1 9 ,0 0 0
1 6 ,8 0 0
380
3 2 9 ,0 0 0
6, 880

1 ,4 7 0 , 000
9 5 , 300
2 ,4 4 0 , 000
3 1 6 ,0 0 0
3 ,6 1 0
2 ,5 7 0 ,0 0 0
8 6 ,8 0 0

. 35
.2 8
. 18
. 14
.0 2
.3 7
.0 8

P ennsylvania _______________________________________ _
Rhode Island _ ______________________________________
South C a rolin a ____________________ _______________
South Dakota _________________________________________
T e n n e sse e ___________________________________________
T e x a s _________________________________________________

39
566
28
11
3
107
75

1 2 ,5 0 0
3 8 8 ,0 0 0
1 2 ,8 0 0
5 ,0 5 0
890
4 6 ,9 0 0
2 8 , 100

1 8 7 ,0 0 0
3, 3 5 0 ,0 0 0
2 6 1 ,0 0 0
8 2 ,8 0 0
6 , 370
8 4 5 ,0 0 0
335, 000

. 19
.4 0
.3 9
.0 7
.0 3
.4 6
.0 7

Utah
_________________________________________________
V erm on t _____________________________________________
V irg in ia ______________________________________________
Washington __________________________________________
W est V irgin ia _______________________________________
W isconsin
_
_ __
_ __
W yom ing _____________________________________________

25
6
56
50
160
95
6

1 7 ,2 0 0
1 ,4 2 0
1 1 ,6 0 0
1 4 ,8 0 0
35, 300
4 4 ,9 0 0
360

2 2 8 ,0 0 0
32, 100
9 4 ,0 0 0
1 2 5 ,0 0 0
3 1 2 ,0 0 0
8 4 9 ,0 0 0
5 ,0 5 0

.5 3
. 15
.0 5
.0 8
.3 0
.3 4
.0 3

Q r e g o n _______________________________________________

1 P e rc e n t o f United States total a s c a r r ie d in fo r m e r y e a r s , a v ailab le in M onthly L ab or R eview ,M a y 1956 (p. 5 2 1 ).
2 The su m of the fig u re s in this colum n e xce e d s 4 , 320 b e ca u se the stoppages extending a c r o s s State lin e s
have been counted in each State a ffe cte d , but the w o rk e r s involved and m a n -d a y s idle w ere divided am ong the
S ta tes.




12
TABLE 7 .— Work stoppages by metropolitan area, 1955 1

M etrop o lita n a rea

Stoppages
beginning in
M a n -d a y s idle
1955 2
during 1955 2
W orkers (all stoppages)
Num ber
involved

A k ro n , O h i o __________
A lban y - S chene ctady T roy , N . Y . ,
A llen to w n -B e th le h em E a sto n , P a . _________

45

3 4 ,8 0 0

2 3 2 ,0 0 0

24

1 1 ,2 0 0

73, 700

32

2 1 ,9 0 0

60, 700

A s h e v ille , N . C . _
A tla n ta, G a. ______
A u b u rn - L ew i ston,
M aine ____________
B a ltim o r e , M d . __

11
20

930
1 1 ,4 0 0

2 5 ,4 0 0
1 1 8 ,0 0 0

7
30

4 ,9 3 0
3 8 ,6 0 0

8 7 ,4 0 0
2 1 5 ,0 0 0

Baton R ouge, L a . _______
Bay C ity , M ic h . _______ ...
B e a u m o n t-P o r t A rth u r,
T e x . _______________________
B illin g s , M ont. __________

6
5

1, 000
2 , 160

3 2 ,5 0 0
4 ,5 7 0

8
5

1 ,4 8 0
250

Bingham ton, N . Y . _____
B irm in g h a m , A la . ______
B o ston , M a s s . ___________
B r id g e p o rt, C onn. ______
B rock ton , M a s s .
_______

6'
51
62
18
8

B u ffa lo , N . Y .........................
C anton, Ohio _____________
C ed a r R ap id s, I o w a _____
C h a rle sto n , W. V a . _____
C h a rlo tte , N . C . _________

M etrop olitan a rea

Stoppages
beginning in
]
1955 2
during 1955 2
W o rk e r s (
N um ber
involved

Ind ianapolis, Ind. ______
Jackson, M ich . _________
Jackson, M is s . __________
J a ck so n v ille, F l a . ______
Johnstown, P a . __________

28
8
6
14
6

18, 300
5 ,5 7 0
880
2 ,6 6 0
1 5 ,0 0 0

1 3 6 .0 0 0
3 4 .7 0 0
31, 000

K a la m a z o o , M ich .
K an sa s C ity , M o . ______
K enosha, W is.
' King ston -N ew b u rg h P ou ghk eep sie, N . Y . _

5
26
8

1, 570
2 1 , 600
2, 300

1 1 ,6 0 0
2 3 4 .0 0 0
7 ,2 2 0

9

670

5, 700

28
8
7
20
19

1 3 ,8 0 0
240
2 , 010
10, 300
1 7 ,3 0 0

9 9 ,4 0 0
2 ,4 7 0
1 8 ,9 0 0

2 5 ,7 0 0
2, 080

K n ox ville , T enn.
L a n c a s te r, P a .
____
L aw re n ce , M a s s .
L im a , Ohio ______________
L o r a in -E ly r ia , O h i o ____

3 ,9 6 0
5 1 , 500
2 0 *9 0 0
6 , 640
1 .2 1 0

1 7 ,9 0 0
3 3 0 ,0 0 0
2 9 1 , 000
150, 000
1 3 ,8 0 0

L o s A n g e le s -L o n g
B e a ch , C a lif.
L o u is v ille , K y . ..... ...
L o w e ll, M a s s .
M ad iso n , W is. __________

100
35
7
7

7 1 , 700
1 8 ,1 0 0
670
1 ,6 4 0

9 2 8 , 000
2 3 2 .0 0 0
1 5 .6 0 0
9, 050

90
25
5
11
10

7 1 , 200
18, 000
1 ,4 0 0
770
1 ,7 7 0

7 1 7 ,0 0 0
1 1 7 ,0 0 0
1 5 ,1 0 0
4 5 ,1 0 0
38, 000

M a n c h e ste r, N . H . _____
M e m p h is, Tenn. __
M ia m i, F la .
__
M ilw aukee, W is.
M in n e a p o lis -S t. P au l,
M inn.
__ _
_

7
19
20
24

730
9 ,4 5 0
5 , 620
8 ,9 8 0

3 ,9 8 0
1 4 5 .0 0 0
4 2 1 , 000
6 9 , 100

44

1 6 ,8 0 0

2 3 1 , 000

C h attanooga, T e n n . _____
C h icago , 111. ___________
C incinn ati, Ohio _________
C lev e la n d , Ohio _________
C o lu m b u s, Ohio _________

22
116
37
48
16

5 ,9 5 0
1 3 4 ,0 0 0
1 6 ,8 0 0
7 0 , 800
1 7 ,2 0 0

8 1 ,2 0 0
7 1 8 ,0 0 0
1 4 4 ,0 0 0
5 4 9 ,0 0 0
3 0 4 ,0 0 0

M o b ile , A la . ____________
M u n cie, Ind. _ ....
M uskegon , M i c h . __
N ashu a, N . H ..............
N a s h v ille , T enn.

10
14
7
7
14

1 ,5 6 0
9 , 080
740
1, 130
2 ,6 9 0

3 8 .6 0 0
5 0 , 300
2 ,9 3 0
5, 060

61,900

D a lla s , T e x . _____________
D aven port, Io w a -R o ck
Is la n d -M o lin e , 111.___
D ayton, Ohio _____________
D ecatu r, 111. __________

12

5 ,9 8 0

3 7 ,2 0 0
3 ,8 8 0

180, 000

1 5 ,6 0 0
3 ,4 8 0
2 ,4 8 0

164, 000
3 9 ,6 0 0
2 3 ,2 0 0

New B ed ford , M a s s .
New B r ita in -B r is to l,
Conn. ___________________
New H aven, Conn. __
New O rle a n s , L a . ___ _

6

9
18
5

7
14
14

3 ,7 1 0
2 ,9 3 0
4 ,0 3 0

193, 000
4 5 , 200
1 3 7 ,0 0 0

23
15
208
6

3 ,8 9 0
8 ,3 6 0
2 0 9 ,0 0 0
1 ,4 3 0

6 8 ,7 0 0
5 3 ,6 0 0
1, 050 , 000
8, 250

565

1 9 4 ,0 0 0

2 ,2 3 0 , 000

12
7

2 ,4 4 0
1 ,0 5 0

13, 300

5 1, 500
4 5 ,8 0 0

D e n v e r, C o lo . ____________
D es M o in e s, I o w a _______
D e tro it, M ic h . ___________
Dubuque, Iowa ___________
Duluth, M inn . -S u p e r io r ,
W is . ______________________

66, 000
1 5 .7 0 0

200, 000
59 , 100

11

3, 850

1 0 ,8 0 0

New Y o r k -N o r th e a s t­
ern New J e r s e y _______
N o r fo lk -P o rts m o u th ,
V a . ___________
O klahom a C ity , O k la .__

E lm ir a , N . Y ...........
E l P a s o , T e x . ___
E r i e , P a . _________
E v a n sv ille , Ind. ~
F a ll R iv e r , M a s s .

5
5
10
13
9

1, 870
2 ,5 0 0
1 ,0 6 0
1 3 ,5 0 0
4 , 060

8, 980
3 9 ,6 0 0
1 6 ,1 0 0
8 7 ,1 0 0
1 8 8 ,0 0 0

O m aha, N e b r.
Paducah, K y . __________
P e o r ia , 111. _____________
P h iladelph ia, P a . ______
P hoen ix, A r i z .
..... _

20
17
14
156
10

4 , 030
6 ,6 1 0
2 1 ,8 0 0
9 7 ,3 0 0
910

F lin t, M ic h . ______________
F o r t W ayn e, Ind. ______
F o r t W orth, T e x . ______
F r e s n o , C a lif. __________
G adsden, A la . __________

10
12
5
12
8

2 3 ,5 0 0
8, 340
490
2 , 820
7 , 790

1 1 6 ,0 0 0
1 1 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,4 7 0
1 3 ,4 0 0
2 2 ,9 0 0

P ittsbu rgh , P a .
P ortlan d , M aine
_ _
P ortlan d , O r eg.
P ro vid e n ce , R . I.
P u eb lo, C o lo .

130
7
21
24
10

1 7 3 ,0 0 0
800
6, 510
11, 100
8, 850

1 ,5 9 0 , 000
8 ,9 1 0
9 9 ,7 0 0

G a lveston , T e x . ________
Grand R apids, M ic h . _
_
G re e n sb o r o -H ig h P oint,
N . C . ___________________
H a m ilto n - M iddletown,
Ohio _____________________

6
15

1 ,0 6 0
1 0 ,8 0 0

2 4 ,0 0 0
1 6 2 ,0 0 0

7

2 ,2 8 0

36, 300

9

5 ,7 4 0

2 6 ,6 0 0

R acin e, W is . ____________
R eading, P a .
R eno, N ev. _____________
R ichm ond, V a . __________
Roanoke, V a .

7
10
5
7
9

1 ,8 8 0
850
660
410
2, 2 2 0

18, 500
4 , 100
9 , 540
11, 500
1 3 ,4 0 0

H a r r isb u r g , P a . ________
H a rtford , C onn. ________
H ouston, T e x . ___________
Huntington, W . V a . A sh lan d , K y . __________

6
8
15

1 ,9 4 0
1 ,7 9 0
5 ,5 6 0

3 ,5 6 0
4 3 ,7 0 0
7 8 , 300

17

6 ,6 9 0

6 0 ,0 0 0

R o c h e ste r, N . Y . ______
R ock ford , 111_____________
S acra m en to , C a l i f . _____
Saginaw, M ic h .
Salt Lake C ity , Utah

13
10
9
8
9

9 ,7 5 0
4 ,2 9 0
1 ,9 0 0
1 ,2 4 0
2 , 110

3 0 8 ,0 0 0
2 1 , 300
1 5 ,7 0 0
1 9 ,9 0 0
4 4 ,3 0 0

See footnotes at end of table.




1 2 ,0 00

110, 000
9 5 4 , 000
14, 800

161, 000
10, 300

13

TABLE 7 .— Work stoppages by metropolitan area, 1955 1 - Continued

M etrop olitan a rea

Stoppages
beginning in
M a n -d a y s idle
during 1955 1
2
1955 *
W o rk e r s (all stoppages)
N um ber
involved

San Antonio, T e x . _____ _
San B ern ard in o,
C a lif. _____________________
San D ieg o, C a lif. ________
San F r a n c is c o Oakland, C a lif.

5

810

1 9 ,5 0 0

16
12

1 1 ,7 0 0
3 ,6 0 0

1 3 6 ,0 0 0
3 7 ,9 0 0

87

3 7 ,8 0 0

11
15
18
6
8

4 ,8 5 0
2 ,3 7 0
5 ,4 2 0
3 0 ,2 0 0
2 ,5 2 0

4 8 ,5 0 0
8 4 ,1 0 0
5 3, 700
1 7 2 ,0 0 0
1 1 ,9 0 0

S p ringfield , 111.
________
S p rin gfield , M o .
S p rin gfield , Ohio ______ ...
S p rin g fie ld -H o ly o k e ,
M a s s . ______________ ____

11
6
5

6 , 660
510
3 ,2 3 0

1 1 4 ,0 0 0
4 ,4 6 0
5 9 ,4 0 0

22

1 6 ,9 0 0

4 1 ,9 0 0

4 3 3 ,0 0 0

10
8

1, 510
1 ,5 6 0

2 7 ,4 0 0
1 3 ,2 0 0

S yra c u se , N . Y .
T a c o m a , W ash.
_______
T a m p a -S t. P e te r s b u r g ,
F la . _____________________
T e r r e Haute, Ind. ______

8
7

4 ,7 8 0
1 ,6 6 0

8 ,5 3 0
3 2 ,7 0 0

14
7

2 ,5 9 0
2 ,7 7 0

4 5 ,5 0 0
2 0 ,9 0 0

T ole d o, Ohio _
T renton , N . J. __________
T u cson , A r i z . ___________
T u l s a , Okla .
W ashington, D . C . _____

15
28
6
16
18

7, 160
11, 300
520
3 ,2 2 0
6 ,4 9 0

3 2 ,3 0 0
1 0 3 ,0 0 0
1 0 ,6 0 0
3 2 ,4 0 0
1 6 2 ,0 0 0

W ate rb u ry, C o n n . ______
W heelin g, W . V a . S teub enville, O h i o ____
W ilk e s B a r r e H a zelto n , P a . __________

8

9 , 110

6 7 ,6 0 0

24

1 6 ,4 0 0

5 1 , 500

18

1 ,5 3 0

2 5 ,4 0 0

W ilm ington, D e l. ______
W in s to n -S a le m , N . C . ___
W o r c e s te r , M a s s . ______
Y ork , P a .
Youngstow n, O h i o ____ _

18
8
15
12
78

9 ,4 6 0
2 , 130
5 ,4 8 0
2 ,2 0 0
8 2 ,1 0 0

6 8 , 000
32 , 100
9 5 ,7 0 0
3 0, 500
4 6 8 , 000

1 9 4 ,0 0 0

96

M etropolitan area

4 3 6 ,0 0 0

San J o s e , C a lif . __________
S cranton, P a .
____________
S e a ttle, W a sh .
South Bend, Ind. __________
Spokane, W ash .

Stoppages
beginning in
M a n -d a y s idle
1955 *
during 1955 2
W ork ers (all stoppages)
N um ber
involved

St. L o u is , M o . -E a s t
St. L o u is, 111. ___________
Stam f o r d - No rw alk ,
Conn.
Stockton, C a lif. __________

1 The tab le in cludes data fo r each o f the m etrop olita n a r e a s that had 5 or m o r e stoppages in 19 5 5 .
B e g in ­
ning with 1952, data w ere tabulated sep a ra te ly for 182 m etrop olita n a r e a s ; in 1955 the num ber w as in cr e a se d to
205.
Inform ation p r io r to 1952 w as confined to city b ou n d aries.
The m etrop olita n a r e a s a r e p rin cip ally those on
the lis ts of Standard M etrop o lita n A r e a s c om p iled by the B u reau of the Budget a s of January 2 8 , 1 9 4 9 , and June 5,
1950.
A few a r e a s w ere added, including som e that had been in the strik e s e r ie s in e a r lie r y e a r s .
( L is ts of
th ese m etropolitan a r e a s a re a v ailab le upon request fr o m the D iv isio n of W a g e s and Ind ustrial R e la tio n s, Bureau
of L ab or S t a t i s t i c s .)
Som e m etrop olita n a r e a s include counties in m o re than
1 S ta te , and h e n ce , an a r e a tota l m ay equal or
exceed the total for the State in w hich the m a jo r city is lo ca te d .
In the N ew Y o r k -N o r th e a s te r n New J e r s e y m e t­
ropolitan a r e a , w hich in cludes g r e a te r N ew Y o rk and the surrounding a r e a a s w e ll a s 8 counties in N orth e aste rn New
J e r s e y , the num ber of strik e s e x c e e d s the total num ber of strik e s in N ew Y o rk S tate. In W ashington, D . C . , the
m etrop olita n a r e a , w hich in cludes the D is tr ic t of C o lu m bia and adjacent counties in M aryland and V ir g in ia , e xce e d s
the 1955 to ta ls fo r the D istr ic t of C o lu m bia a s shown in table 6 .
2 In term etrop olitan a r e a stop p a ges, except a s noted, a r e counted se p a ra te ly in each a r e a affe cte d and with
th ese excep tio n s the w o rk e r s in volved and m a n -d a y s idle w ere allo c a te d to the r e sp e c tiv e a r e a s .
T he exceptions
fo r which it w as im p o ssib le to se c u re the in form ation n e c e s s a r y to m ake such allo c a tio n s w ere the stoppage of
2 4 ,0 0 0 e m p lo y e e s of the L o u isv ille and N a sh v ille R R . C o . and s u b sid ia rie s in 14 States in M a rc h ; the 1 -d ay
stoppage of 1 3 ,0 0 0 w o rk e r s in the W e st C o a st shipping industry in June; and a b r ie f, s m a ll stoppage of dredging
w o rk e rs in se v e r a l G reat L a k e s p o r ts .

T A B L E 8 . — W ork stoppages by a ffiliation of unions in volv ed ,

1955

Stoppages beginning in 1955
A ffilia tio n
N um ber

W o r k e r s in volved

P e rc e n t
of
total

N um ber

P e rc e n t
of
total

M a n -d a y s idle
during 1955
(a ll stop p ages)
N u m ber

P e rc e n t
of
total

________________________________________________

4 ,3 2 0

1 0 0 .0

2 ,6 5 0 , 000

1 0 0 .0

2 8 ,2 0 0 , 000

1 0 0 .0 0

A m e r ic a n
F e d e ra tio n of L a b o r _______________
C o n g r e s s of In d u strial O rg an ization s _________
U naffiliated unions _______________________________
S in g le -fir m unions _______________________________
D ifferen t a ffilia tio n s _____________________________
No union in volved _______________________________
Not rep o rted ________________________________________

2 ,3 3 7
1 ,2 5 4
608
15
61
41
4

54. 1
2 9 .0
14. 1
.3
1 .4
.9
. 1

6 0 7 , 00 0
1 ,6 3 0 , 000
2 3 9 ,0 0 0
8 ,7 5 0
1 5 4 ,0 0 0
8 ,9 5 0
80

2 2 .9
6 1 .5
9 .0
.3
5 .8
.3
( 2)

9 ,7 5 0 , 000
1 1 ,9 0 0 , 000
1 ,6 7 0 , 000
1 5 6 ,0 0 0
4 , 7 1 0 , 000
5 9 , 100
470

3 4 .6
4 2 .0
5 .9
.6
1 6 .7
.2
( 2)

T otal

1 Since the m e r g e r of the A m e r ic a n F e d e ration of L ab or and the C o n g r e s s o f Ind ustrial O rg an ization s did
not take p la ce until D e c e m b e r 1 9 55, the strik e s involving th e ir a ffilia te s w ere attributed to the app rop riate fe d e r ­
ation throughout the y e a r .
2 L e s s than 0 . 05 p e rc e n t.

38 9 3 6 2 0 - 5 6 - 3


14

TABLE 9 .— Work stoppages by number of workers involved, 1955
M a n -d a y s id le
during 1955
(a ll stoppages)

Stoppages beginning in 1955
P e rc e n t

N um ber o f w ork ers
N um ber

A ll w o r k e r s _____

___

__ __ __

— __

6 and under 20 _
__ _ __ _ __ __
__ _
20 and under 1 0 0 __________________________________
100 and under 250
2 5 0 and under 500 __ __
__
__
__ __ _
500 and under 1 ,0 0 0 ______________________________
1 ,0 0 0 and under 5 , 000
__ ____
__ __
5 ,0 0 0 and under 1 0 ,0 0 0 ___ ______________________
1 0 ,0 0 0 and o v er _ __ __ __ __ _
__ ___ _
_

of
total

W o rk e r s in volved

N um ber

P e rc e n t
of
to tad

N um ber

P e rc e n t
of
total

4 ,3 2 0

1 0 0 .0

2 ,6 5 0 ,0 0 0

1 0 0 .0

2 8 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0

1 0 0 .0

721
1 ,5 7 3
878
481
304
306
31
26

1 6 .7
3 6 .4
2 0 .3
1 1 .1
7 .0
7 .1
.7
.6

8 ,4 0 0
7 7 ,5 0 0
1 3 9 ,0 0 0
1 6 6 ,0 0 0
2 0 5 ,0 0 0
6 3 3 ,0 0 0
2 1 2 ,0 0 0
1 ,2 1 0 ,0 0 0

0 .3
2 .9
5 .3
6 .3
7 .8
2 3 .9
8 .0
4 5 .6

1 3 4 ,0 0 0
1 ,0 5 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,5 6 0 ,0 0 0
2 ,0 1 0 ,0 0 0
2 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0
7 ,5 1 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,3 7 0 ,0 0 0
1 2 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0

0 .5
3 .7
5 .5
7. 1
8 .2
2 6 .6
4 .9
4 3 .4

T A B L E 1 0 .— W ork stoppages by num ber o f e sta b lish m e n ts in volv ed , 1955
Stoppages beginning in 1955
N um ber o f e stab lish m en ts
in volved 1

W o rk e rs in volved
N um ber

P e rc e n t
of
total

N um ber

P e rc e n t
of
totad

M a n -d a y s idle
during 1955
(all stoppages)

N um ber

P e rc e n t
of
total

...................... .....

4 ,3 2 0

1 0 0 .0

2 ,6 5 0 ,0 0 0

1 0 0 .0

2 8 ,2 0 0 .0 0 0

1 0 0 .0

1 e s ta b lis h m e n t_____________________________________
2 to 5 e s t a b lis h m e n t s ______________________________
6 to 10 e stab lish m e n ts
__
__
__ __ _
11 e sta b lish m e n ts o r m o r e _____ __
_____
11 to 49 e s ta b lis h m e n ts ________________________
50 to 99 e s ta b lis h m e n ts _____________________ __
100 e sta b lish m e n ts o r m o r e __________________
E x a c t num ber not known 2 _____________________

3 ,2 9 5
553
161
311
192
26
21
72

7 6 .3
1 2 .8
3 .7
7 .2
4 .4
.6
.5
1 .7

9 4 4 ,0 0 0
2 7 9 ,0 0 0
1 1 8 ,0 0 0
1 ,3 1 0 ,0 0 0
3 1 3 ,0 0 0
2 9 3 ,0 0 0
6 0 1 ,0 0 0
9 8 ,8 0 0

3 5 .7
1 0 .5
4 .5
4 9 .3
1 1 .8
1 1 .1
2 2 .7
3 .7

8 ,7 4 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,5 3 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,2 6 0 ,0 0 0
1 4 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0
7 ,5 3 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,3 6 0 ,0 0 0
3 ,9 6 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,8 2 0 ,0 0 0

3 1 .0
1 2 .5
4 .5
5 2 .1
2 6 .7
4 .8
1 4 .1
6 .5

T o ta d __

___________________ _ __

1 An e sta b lish m e n t is defined as a sin gle p h y sic a l lo ca tion
o r in d u strial operations are p e rfo r m e d ; fo r e x a m p le , a fa c to r y ,
involve 1, 2 , or m o re esta b lish m e n ts of a sin gle e m p lo y e r o r it m a y
2 Inform ation availab le in dicates m o r e than 11 esta b lish m e n ts




w here b u sin ess is conducted o r w here s e r v ic e s
m i l l , s to r e , m in e , o r fa r m .
A stoppage m ay
involve d iffe re n t e m p lo y e r s .
in volved in each o f these sto p p a g e s.

15
TABLE 11.— Work stoppages beginning in 1955 involving 10,000 or more workers
Beginning
date

Approximate
Approximate
duration
Establishment(s) and location Unionfe) involved2 number of
workers
(calendar
involved 2
days)1

Major terms of settlement3

March 14

72

Southern Bell Telephone and C ommunications
Telegraph C o ., 9 South­
Workers (CIO)
eastern States: Ala. , Fla. ,
Ga. , Ky. , La. , Miss. ,
N. C. , S. C. , and Tenn.

March 14

58

Louisville and Nashville
Railroad Co. , and sub­
sidiaries, 14 States: A la.,
Fla. , Ga. , 111. , Ind. , Ky. ,
La. , Miss. , Mo. , N. C. ,
Ohio, S. C. , Tenn. , and
Va.

10 AFL non­
operating
unions

24,000

7

United States Rubber Co. ,
11 States: Calif. , Conn. ,
111. , Ind. , M ass., Mich. ,
N. J. , Pa. , R. I. , Tenn. ,
and Wis.

United Rubber
Workers (CIO)

33,000

A 7th paid holiday, addi­
tional day of paid vacation for
each year of service from the
11th through the 14th year, and
supplementary jury-duty pay.

Cotton and synthetic textile
m ills, Maine,Mass. , R. I. ,
and Vt.

Textile Workers
(CIO)

19,000

Some companies renewed
existing agreements at the
end of April or in the first
part of May with a provision
that their contracts would be
reopened if subsequent settle­
ments afforded more favor­
able terms. Later settlements
typically called for discon­
tinuance of premium pay for
work on 2 or 3 unpaid holi­
days and for new work as­
signment clauses permitting
greater operational flexibil­
ity. Some escalator clauses
were discontinued, but the ex­
isting cost-of-living allow­
ances were incorporated into
base rates.

Sperry Gyroscope Co. ,
4 plants in New YorkNortheastern New Jersey
metropolitan area.

Intll Union of
Electrical,
Radio and
Machine
Workers
(CIO)

15,000

A 2-year contract with a
package increase reportedly
valued at 8 cents in the first
year, including an average
6 -cent hourly wage increase
and 2 cents for pensions; an
additional 5 .3-cent package
increase in the 2d year.
Seniority
provisions were
broadened in relation to up­
gradings and transfers.

Chrysler Corp.
Detroit, Mich.

United Auto­
mobile
Workers (CIO)

14,000

About 70 interplant truckdrivers returned to work in
compliance with orders of
union officials after their pro­
test over discharge of an em ­
ployee idled about 14,000 productibn workers.

April 1

April 16

4 90

April 19

33

April 23

1

Digitized for See footnotes at end of table.
FRASER


40,000

New agreement included a
no-strike, no-lockout clause;
recognition of right of em­
ployees to honor picket lines;
arbitration of certain types of
disputes including those in­
volving discharge and filling
job vacancies; wage increases
of $1 to $4 a week for all nonsupervisory employees; up­
grading of 25 towns to higher
pay schedules; and a 7th paid
hoi iday.
Agreement to submit to a r­
bitration the dispute over a
health and welfare plan, va­
cations, holidays, and vari­
ous working rules. Arbitrator
ruled that the railroads should
place into effect changes in
vacations, holidays, and other
working rules generally sim i­
lar to those agreed upon by
other Class I railroads and
the nonoperating unions in
August 1954, and should pay
the full cost of a health and
welfare plan.

16

TABLE 11.— Work stoppages beginning in 1955 involving 10,000 or more workers - Continued

Beginning
date

Approximate
Approximate
number of
duration
Establishment(s) and location Union(s) involved2
workers
(calendar
involved 2
days) 1

Major terms of settlement3

Trucking companies,
12 western States

Int*l Bro. of
Teamsters
(AFL)

29,000

Three-year contracts pro­
viding wage increases totaling
23 cents an hour or % of
a cent a mile for long-haul
truckdrivers; 29 cents for
short-haul drivers and local
pickup and delivery drivers
in California and Nevada; and
28 cents for freight handlers
and office workers in Calif­
ornia and Nevada, plus addi­
tional increases to eliminate
wage differentials between
coastal and inlandStates; pen­
sion fund to be created and
health and welfare plan, vaca­
tions, and holiday provisions
liberalized.

7

Construction industry,
Buffalo Area, N. Y.

Intll Union of
Operating
Engineers
(AFL)

12,000

Agreement established the
right of an employer to move
operating engineers from one
job to another once during the
course of a workday.

June 1

8

Westinghouse Electric Corp. , Int*l Union of
East Pittsburgh and
Electrical,
Homewood, Pa.
Radio and
Machine
Workers (CIO)

12,000

Protest against discipli­
nary action resolved by estab­
lishment of a joint union-man­
agement committee to examine
grievance procedures.

June 6

1

Shipping industry,
West Coast

Intfl Longshore­
m en s and
Warehouse­
m en s (ind.)

13,000

Workers returned without
formal agreement after pro­
test against trial of Harry
Bridges.

June 6

5 9

Ford Motor Co. ,
17 States

United Auto­
mobile
Workers (CIO)

78,000

A 3-year contract provid­
ing for employer-paid supple­
ments to State unemployment
benefits on or after June 1,
1956; an increase in annual
improvement factor adjust­
ments to 2V2 percent of base
pay, with a minimum of 6
cents an hour; additional wage
increases for skilled workers
and to correct interplant in­
equities; a revised escalator
clause; liberalized pensions,
insurance, and vacations; and
2 additional paid half holidays
(Christmas Eve and New Year1s
Eve). 6

June 7

5 12

General Motors Corp.

United Auto­
mobile
Workers (CIO)

160,000

A 3-year contract provid­
ing for employer-paid supple­
ments to State unemployment
benefits; an increase in annual
improvement factor adjust­
ments to 2V2 percent of base
pay, with a minimum of 6 cents
an hour; additional wage in­
creases for skilled workers
and to correct interplant or
intraplant inequities; a r e ­
vised escalator clause; lib er­
alized pensions, insurance,
pay for holiday work, and va­
cations; jury-duty pay; and 2
additional half holidays (Christ­
mas Eve and New Year1s Eve) .*

May 19

24

June 1

See footnotes at end of table.




17

TABLE 11.— Work stoppages beginning in 1955 involving 10,000 or more workers - Continued

Beginning
date

Approximate
Approximate
number of
duration
Establishment(s) and location Unian(s) involved2
workers
(calendar
involved 2
days)1
20,000

Wage increases ranging
from 37 to 50 cents an hour,
and a gradual reduction in
hours from 48 to 40 a week,
spread over a 3-year contract
period; and increases in sup­
plementary benefits.

IntT Union of
l
Operating
Engineers
(AFL)

816,000

Wage increases ranging
from 10 to 28 cents an hour.

Steel industry,
nationwide

United Steel­
workers (CIO)

400,000

Wage increase averaging
about 15 cents an hour, con­
sisting of basic wage increase
of \\lT cents an hour, plus a
z
Vz-cent increase in incre­
ments between job classes.

Copper companies:
American Smelting and
Refining Co. , Kennecott
Copper Corp. , and
Phelps Dodge Corp.
12 States: Ariz. , Calif. ,
C o lo ., Md. , Mont.,
Nebr. , Nev. , N. J. ,
N. Mex. , Tex. , Utah,
and Wash.

Mine, Mill and
Smelter
Workers
(Ind.) 11

21,000

American Smelting and RefiningCo.: An 11 V2 -centhourly
basic wage increase, job r e ­
classifications, and an extra
holiday on workers* birthdays.

June 14

44

Trucking companies,
Conn. , Mass. , and R. I. ,
and 11 other eastern
States 7

Int*l Bro. of
Teamsters
(AFL)

June 20

16

Construction industry,
Southern California

July 1

9 2

July 1

1°47

Major terms of settlement3

Kennecott Copper Corp.: A
10-cent hourly basic wage in­
crease, a Vz-cent hourly rise
in the increment between job
classifications, and increased
pensions.
Phelps Dodge C o r p .; An
11 Vz-cent hourly basic wage
increase, plus a Vz-cent per
hour increase in increments
between job classifications,
and expanded health and wel­
fare benefits.

July 29

14

Tennessee Coal, Iron and
Railroad Division,
U. S. Steel Corp. ,
Birmingham, Ala.

United Steel­
workers (CIO)

21,000

Group of about 100 railroad
conductors voted to remove
their picket lines and return
to work pending further ne­
gotiations on their demands
for a wage increase, thereby
permitting resumption of work
by production employees.

July 30

4

Caterpillar Tractor C o .,
Peoria, 111.

United Auto­
mobile
Workers (CIO)

18,000

A 3-year contract provid­
ing for union shop; employerpaid supplements to State un­
employment benefits; 8-cent
hourly wage increases; ad­
ditional increases for skilled
workers; annual improvement
factor increases in 1956 and
1957 of 6 to 7 cents an hour;
an increase in night-shift dif­
ferentials; reinstatement and
revision of the cost-of-living
clause; liberalized insurance
and pensions; and a 7th paid
holiday (Christmas Eve).


See footnotes
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ at end of table.
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

18

TABLE 11.— Work stoppages beginning in 1955 involving 10,000 or more workers - Continued

Beginning
date

Approximate
Approximate
duration
Establishment(s) and location Union(s) involved2 number of Major terms of settlement3
(calendar
workers
days)1
involved 2

August 1

6

August 8

United Auto­
mobile
Workers (CIO)

13,000

A 3-year contract continu­
ing the 3-percent annual im ­
provement factor and provid­
ing additional skilled trades
and inequity increase ranging
from 1 to 8 cents an hour; au­
tomatic progression to mid­
point of all rate ranges; r e ­
vision of incentive system; a
supplemental unemployment
compensation plan; a revised
escalator clause; liberalized
pensions, insurance, and va­
cations; and a 7th paid holiday
(Christmas Eve).

12 39

Westinghouse Electric Corp. , IntU Union of
9 States: Calif. , Conn. ,
Electrical,
Ind., Mass. , N. J. , N. Y. , Radio and
Ohio, Pa. , and W. Va.
Machine
Workers (CIO)

124 4 ,000

Agreement to negotiate
rules for survey and time
study of dayworkers1 jobs in
forthcoming national negotia­
tions.

August 19

13 32

International Harvester Co. ,
111. , Ind. , Ky. , Ohio,
and Tenn.

United Auto­
mobile
Workers (CIO)

134 0 ,000

A 3-year contract provid­
ing for a union shop; employ­
er-paid supplements to State
unemployment benefits; 11cent hourly wage increases in
the first contract year; addi­
tional increases for skilled
workers and workers in some
plants; an increase in the an­
nual improvement factor due
in 1956 and 1957 to 2. 5 per­
cent; a revised cost-of-living
escalator clause; liberalized
insurance,
vacations,
and
pensions; and a 7th paid holi­
day (Christmas Eve).

August 29

7

Bendix Aviation Corp. ,
Calif. , Ind. , Mich. ,
N. J. , and N. Y.

United Auto­
mobile
Workers (CIO)

16,000

A 3-year contract provid­
ing for employer-paid sup­
plements to State unemploy­
ment benefits; an increase in
annual improvement factor
adjustments to 272 percent
of base pay, with minimum
of 6 cents an hour; additional
wage increases for skilled
workers and to correct in­
equities; a revised c ost-ofliving escalator clause; in­
creased shift differentials;
liberalized pensions, insur­
ance, and vacations; a 7th paid
holiday (Christmas Eve).

Shipping industry,
Port of New York
and other East and
Gulf Coast ports.

IntU Long­
shoremen^
Association
(Ind.)

32,000

Returned to work after sev­
eral injunctions ordered an end
to the strike. Alleged union
grievances against New YorkNew Jersey Waterfront Com ­
mission to be heard by citi­
zens1 factfinding committee.

Pacific Telephone and
Telegraph Co. (and
subsidiary, Bell Telephone
Co. of Nevada), Northern
California and Nevada.

C ommunications
Workers (CIO);
United Brother­
hood of Tele­
phone Workers
of Northern
California and
Nevada (ind.);
United Brother­
hood of Tele­
phone Workers
(Ind.)

16,000

Wage increases averaging
10. 2 cents an hour for plant
employees; and weekly pay
increases ranging from $2 to
$3. 50 for operators and from
$2 to $4. 50 for employees in
the commercial and account­
ing departments. Some eve­
ning tours for operators were
shortened.

September 7

October 10

14 8

13

Deere and Co. ,
111. and Iowa

See footnotes at end of table.




19

TABLE 11.— Work stoppages beginning in 1955 involving 10, 000 or more workers - Continued

Beginning
date

Approximate
Approximate
number of
duration
Establishment(s) and location Union(s) involved2
workers
(calendar
involved2
days)1
Westinghouse Electric Corp. , Intfl Union of
Electrical,
13 States
Radio and
Machine
Workers (CIO);
United
Electrical
Workers (ind.)

October 1715

November 7

Major terms of settlement3

26

157 0 ,000

Stoppage still in effect at
end of year.

Boot and Shoe
Workers (AFL);
United Shoe
Workers (CIO)

23,000

Two-year contracts provid­
ing a 5-percent wage increase
with an additional 3-percent
increase in April 1956, union
shop, and agreement to sub­
mit a pension program for
union consideration by April
1957. If the pension program
is accepted by the union, the
contracts will be extended for
an additional year.

International Shoe Co. ,
Brown Shoe C o ., In c.,
A r k ., 111., Ind., Ky. ,
M o., and Tenn.

1 Includes nonworkdays, such as Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays. Only normally scheduled workdays are used
in computing strike idleness.
2 The unions listed are those directly involved in the dispute.
Workers involved include all workers made idle for 1 shift or longer in establishments directly involved in a
stoppage, including members of other unions and nonunion workers. Employees who are made idle by material or
service shortages in other establishments or industries are not included.
3 The terms of the settlement are compiled from replies from the parties, the negotiated agreement, news­
papers, or other secondary sources. See the Bureau*s monthly Current Wage Developments reports for more de­
tailed accounts of principal terms of settlement.
4 Duration varied among the companies involved in this work stoppage. The companies reached agreement with
the union as follows: Bates Manufacturing C o ., April 30; Continental Mills, May 13; Wamsutta Mills, May 26;
Berks hire-Hathaway, Inc. , and Pepperell Manufacturing Co. , July 13; Luther Manufacturing C o ., July 14.
5 Most of the workers involved were idle about 2 days, but several thousand were idle a few days preceding and
following the peak idleness.
6 For details of the agreement see the August 1955 issue of the Monthly Labor Review (p. 875).
7 The stoppage began June 14 in Connecticut, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island and gradually spread to opera­
tions of the companies involved in 11 other eastern States.
8 Idleness increased gradually from about 3,000 workers on June 20 to about 8,000 on June 28. On June 29,
16,000 workers were idled when members of 4 contractors* associations shut down construction projects on which
operating engineers were employed.
9 Most of the companies reached agreement with the union on July 1, and their employees returned to work on
July 2. However, several companies did not reach agreement with the union until July 2, and their employees were
idle a second day.
18 Workers returned to their jobs after ratification of agreements as follows: Phelps Dodge Corp. , August 4;
American Smelting and Refining Co. , August 11 to August 14; Kennecott Copper Corp. , August 17.
11 The following unions were also involved at operations of Kennecott Copper Corp. only: Boilermakers, .Elec­
trical Workers, Machinists, Office Employees, Operating Engineers, Switchmen*s Union (all AFL); Locomotive En­
gineers, Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, Nonferrous Clerical and Technical Workers, and System Federation
No. 155 (all Ind.).
12 About 2, 200 dayworkers at the East Pittsburgh and Homewood, Pa. , plants of the company stopped work on
August 8. By the following week, about 10,000 workers had become idle at these plants. The strike assumed larger
proportions in the second week of September when workers at 25 other Westinghouse plants stopped work in support of
the employees at East Pittsburgh and Homewood, thus idling a total of 44, 000 workers.
13 Several thousand workers stopped work on August 19 and August 22 before the bulk of the workers struck on
August 23. The company and the union reached agreement on September 17, but ratification was not completed until
September 19.
14 The strike lasted 8 days in the Port of New York. Most other ports affected had strikes lasting 1 to 2 days,
September 13 and September 14.
15 Approximately 44,000 members of the CIO International Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers
stopped work at 28 plants on October 17, 1955, and about 10,000 members of the independent United Electrical
Workers stopped work in 10 plants on October 26. Other workers were furloughed at the struck plants, and by
December 5 about 70,000 workers were idle.




20
TABLE 12.— Duration of work stoppages ending in 19551
Stoppages
Percent
Number
of
total

Duration (calendar days)

All p e r io d s ___

— — _
_

— __ — — ------ —

1 d a y _____ ________
___ —
------- — —
2 to 3 days
_ __ ____ __
_
__ __
__ __
4 days and less than 1 week „
_ „ __
_
1 week and less than l/a month (7 to 14 d a y s)__ __
llz month and less than 1 month (15 to 29 d a y s)___
1 month and less than 2 months (30 to 59 d a y s)___
2 months and less than 3 months (60 to 89 d a y s)__
3 months and over (90 days and over) „
____ _

Workers involved
Percent
of
Number
total

Man-days idle
Number

Percent
of
total

4,317

100.0

2,570,000

100.0

25,100,000

100.0

582
714
627
927
699
460
171
137

13.5
16.5
14.5
21.5
16.2
10.7
4.0
3.2

227,000
714,000
248,000
688,000
258,000
284,000
90,800
59,600

8.8
27.8
9.7
26.8
10.0
11.0
3.5
2.3

227,000
1,010,000
806,000
3,190,000
3,730,000
7,220,000
4,070,000
4,840,000

0.9
4.0
3.2
12. 7
14.9
28.8
16.2
19.3

1 The totals in this table and in tables 13 and 14 differ from those in the preceding tables, because these
totals relate to stoppages ending during the year, including any 1954 idleness in these strikes.

TABLE 13.— -Method of terminating work stoppages ending in 19551
Stoppages
Method of termination
Number
All methods

__ __ __ ____ __ __ _
_

__

__ „

Percent
of
total

Workers involved
Percent
of
Number
total

Man-days idle
Number

Percent
of
total

4,317

100.0

2,570,000

100.0

25,100,000

100.0

1,969
1,425

45.6
33.0

1,390,000
834.000

54.0
32.5

4.860.000
17,500,000

19.4
69.6

43
789
53
38

1.0

18.3
1.2
.9

46, 600
294.000
3,890
4,250

1.8
11.4
.2
.2

851.000
1.710.000
196.000
14,400

3.4
6.8
.8
.1

Agreement of parties reached D i r e c t ly

With assistance of government ag en cies________
With assistance of nongovernment mediators
Terminated without formal settlem ent_____________
Employers discontinued business __ __ __ __ __
Not reported _ __ ----------------- __ __ _
1 See footnote 1, table 12.

TABLE 14.— Disposition of issues in work stoppages ending in 1955 1
Stoppages
Disposition of issues
Number
AH is s u e s ________________________________________
Issues settled or disposed of at termination of
stoppage 2 ...............................................—
Some or all issues to be adjusted after resump­
tion of work By direct negotiation between employer (s)
and union___________________ ____ _______ _
_
By negotiation with the aid of government
agencies _ __ _ „
_____
__ __
_
By arbitration__ __ ____ — _____
By referral to factfinding boards 3 ___________ —
By other means 5 ______________________________
Not reported _ __ __ _
_
___ —

Percent
of
total

Workers involved
Percent
Number
of
total

Man-days idle
Percent
of
Number
total

4,317

100.0

2,570,000

100.0

25,100,000

100.0

3,856

89.3

2,310,000

89.9

21,400,000

85.1

236

5.5

172,000

6.7

2,190,000

8.7

10
82
2
93
38

.2
1,9
(4)
2.2
.9

5,520
59,300
5,950
11,600
4,250

.2
2.3
.2
.5
.2

18,200
1,410,000
7,250
107,000
14,400

.1
5.6
(4)
.4
.1

1 See footnote 1, table 12.
2 Includes (a) those strikes in which a settlement was reached on the issues prior to return to work, (b) those
in which the parties agreed to utilize the company* s grievance procedure, and (c) any strikes in which the workers
returned without formal agreement or settlement.
3 By referral to a nonbinding ad hoc factfinding board or panel and subsequent negotiations between employer
and union.
4 Less than 0.05 percent.
5 Includes cases referred to the National or State labor relations boards or other agencies for administrative
action or employee elections, rather than factfinding, mediation or conciliation; and inter union or intraunion dis­
putes for which specific union procedures for adjudication have been developed.







22
Appendix A
T A B L E A.- 1 . — W o r k stop
S top p a g es b eg in n in g
M a n -d a y s id le
in 1955
d u rin g 1955
W ork ers
(a ll s to p p a g e s )
N u m b er
in v o lv e d

In d u s tr y

A l l i n d u s t r i e s --------------------------------------

Manufacturing

____

P r i m a r y m e ta l i n d u s t r i e s ___________
B la s t fu r n a c e s , s t e e l w o r k s ,
and r o llin g m il l s ________________
I r o n and s t e e l f o u n d r i e s __________
P r i m a r y s m e lt in g and r e fin in g
o f n o n fe r r o u s m e t a ls ____________
S e c o n d a r y s m e lt in g and re fin in g
o f n o n fe r r o u s m e t a ls and

14 .3 2 0

2. 6 5 0 . 000

2 8 . 2 0 0 .0 0 0

1 2, 420

2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

18, 8 0 0 ,0 0 0

5 3 5 ,0 0 0

1, 5 7 0 ,0 0 0

1

279
118
70

4 6 5 ,0 0 0
2 3 ,9 0 0

7 5 9 ,0 0 0
243 , 000

13

1 2 ,9 0 0

2 7 2 ,0 0 0

4

F a b r ic a t e d m e ta l p r o d u c ts
(e x c e p t o r d n a n c e , m a c h in e r y , and
tr a n s p o r t a t io n e q u i p m e n t ) _________
T in ca n s and o th e r t i n w a r e _______
C u t le r y , h a n d to o ls , and
g e n e r a l h a r d w a r e _______________
H eating a p p a ra tu s (e x c e p t
e l e c t r i c ) and p lu m b e r s '
s u p p l i e s ___________________________
F a b r ic a t e d s t r u c t u r a l m e ta l
p rod u cts
M eta l s ta m p in g , c o a t in g , and
e n g r a v i n g __________ ___________
L ig h tin g fix t u r e s _______________
F a b r ic a t e d w ir e p r o d u c t s _____
M is c e lla n e o u s f a b r ic a t e d
m e t a l p r o d u c t s ________________

282
4

1 3 1 ,0 0 0
340

1 ,5 9 0 ,0 0 0
490

2 1 ,7 0 0

1 1 5 ,0 0 0

1 4 ,1 0 0

7 7 5 ,0 0 0

104

3 6 ,0 0 0

2 8 6 ,0 0 0

57
14
20

4 3 ,1 0 0
4 , 190
4 ,6 5 0

2 6 8 ,0 0 0
3 2 ,7 0 0
38, 600

30

6 ,9 6 0

7 5 ,3 0 0

13

1 0 ,8 0 0

1 4 0 ,0 0 0

8

5 ,7 8 0

4 1 ,9 0 0

l

510
1 ,0 8 0
2 ,7 3 0

8, 190
6 9 ,5 0 0
1 7 ,6 0 0

730

2, 500

147

2 0 2 ,0 0 0

3, 3 0 0 ,0 0 0

70
9
8

1 1 3 ,0 0 0
9 ,9 7 0
3 ,6 6 0

2, 1 3 0 .0 0 0
3 4 5 ,0 0 0
3 5 ,0 0 0

1
2

1
1

10
5

1

4 4 ,2 0 0
3 0 0 ,0 0 0

3 1 ,9 0 0

393, 000

15

T r a n s p o r t a t io n e q u i p m e n t ____
M o t o r v e h ic le s and m o t o r v e h ic le e q u ip m e n t ------ ------A i r c r a f t and p a r ts
Ship and b o a t b u ild in g
an d r e p a ir in g .
R a ilr o a d e q u ip m e n t __
M o t o r c y c l e s , b i c y c l e s , and
p a r t s _________________________

2 4 ,1 0 0
1 3 ,7 0 0

41

1




1 0 6 ,0 0 0

32

M a c h in e r y (e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l)
E n g in e s an d t u r b in e s _______
A g r ic u lt u r a l m a c h in e r y
an d t r a c t o r s ---------------------C o n s t r u c t io n and m in in g
m a c h in e r y and e q u ip m en t _.
M e ta lw o rk in g m a c h i n e r y ____
S p e c ia l-in d u s t r y m a c h in e r y
(e x c e p t m e ta lw o r k in g
m a c h in e r y ) .
G e n e r a l in d u s t r ia l m a c h in e r y
a n d eq u ip m e n t _
O ffic e and s t o r e m a c h in e s
a n d d e v i c e s ________________
S e r v i c e -i n d u s t r y and h o u s e h o ld
m a c h in e s
M is c e lla n e o u s m a c h in e r y
p a r t s ______________________

See footnote at end o f table.

1 3 ,9 0 0

25

O rd n a n ce and a c c e s s o r i e s __
A m m u n itio n , e x c e p t f o r
s m a ll a r m s _____________
S ig h tin g a n d f i r e - c o n t r o l
e q u ip m e n t ________
S m a ll a r m s ________
S m a ll a r m s a m m u n it io n ________
O rd n a n ce an d a c c e s s o r i e s
n o t e ls e w h e r e c l a s s i f i e d ______
E l e c t r ic a l m a c h in e r y , e q u ip m e n t,
a n d s u p p l i e s __________ ____________
E l e c t r i c a l g e n e r a t in g ,
t r a n s m is s i o n , d is t r ib u t io n ,
a n d in d u s t r ia l a p p a ra tu s ______
E l e c t r i c a l a p p lia n c e s
In su la ted w ir e and c a b l e ________
E l e c t r ic a l eq u ip m e n t f o r m o t o r
v e h i c le s , a i r c r a f t , and r a i l ­
w a y l o c o m o t i v e s and c a r s _____
E l e c t r ic la m p s .
C o m m u n ic a t io n eq u ip m en t
and r e la t e d p r o d u c t s _____
M is c e lla n e o u s e l e c t r i c a l
p r o d u c t s __

1 0 6 ,0 0 0
5 1 ,3 0 0

S to p p a g e s b e g in n in g
in 1955
W ork ers
N um ber
in v o lv e d

M a n -d a y s id le
d u r in g 1955
(a ll s to p p a g e s )

Manufacturing - Continued
L u m b e r and w o o d
p r o d u c t s ( e x c e p t fu r n itu r e )
____
L o g g in g c a m p s and
lo g g in g c o n t r a c t o r s ___________
S a w m ills and p la n in g m i l l s ___
M illw o r k , p ly w o o d , and
p r e fa b r ic a t e d s t r u c t u r a l
w ood p rod u cts .
W o o d e n c o n t a in e r s _
M is c e lla n e o u s w o o d p r o d u c t s .

81

1 1 ,8 0 0

2 2 7 ,0 0 0

4
29

250
4 , 290

1, 350
1 3 6 ,0 0 0

23
11
14

5, 340
820
1 ,0 7 0

6 0 ,2 0 0
1 3 ,4 0 0
1 6 ,0 0 0

F u rn itu r e and fix t u r e s _
H o u se h o ld fu r n itu r e
O ffic e f u r n i t u r e _____
P u b lic -b u ild in g and p r o ­
fe s s i o n a l f u r n i t u r e ___________
P a r t it io n s , s h e lv in g , l o c k e r s ,
and o f fi c e and s t o r e
f i x t u r e s _______________________
W in d ow and d o o r s cre e n s ,

121
78
18

2 6 ,0 0 0
1 1 ,7 0 0
1 1 ,8 0 0

2 8 7 ,0 0 0
1 7 5 ,0 0 0
76, 800

9

1, 140

1 9 ,2 0 0

6

590

6 ,3 3 0

shades, and Venetian blinds .

10

760

1 0 ,5 0 0

S ton e, c la y , and g la s s p r o d u c ts .
F la t g l a s s .
G la s s a n d g la s s w a r e ,
p r e s s e d o r b l o w n ______
G la s s p r o d u c t s m a d e o f
p u r c h a s e d g la s s
C e m e n t , h y d r a u l i c ____________
S t r u c t u r a l c la y p r o d u c t s _____
P o t t e r y and r e la t e d p r o d u c ts
C o n c r e t e , g y p s u m , and
p la s t e r p r o d u c t s .
C u t -s t o n e and sto n e p r o d u c t s .
A b r a s iv e , a s b e s t o s , and
m is c e lla n e o u s n o n m e t a llic
m in e r a l p r o d u c t s __

110
7

3 2 ,6 0 0
8, 840

4 9 5 ,0 0 0
7 7 ,9 0 0

6

1 ,9 5 0

5, 660

3
4
37
9

200
870
1 1 ,0 0 0
2 ,6 9 0

2, 200
4 ,4 6 0
2 0 0 ,0 0 0
7 1 ,7 0 0

25
6

1 ,9 6 0
3 ,4 6 0

3 7 ,8 0 0
72, 200

3 3 .1 0 0

9 ,1 5 0
9 ,9 0 0

38

1

1 ,0 6 0

15
26

R o llin g , d ra w in g , an d a llo y in g
o f n o n fe r r o u s m e t a l s ____________
N o n fe r r o u s fo u n d r ie s _____________
M is c e lla n e o u s p r im a r y
m e t a l i n d u s t r i e s _________________

In d u stry

5 ,6 4 0

5 6 ,3 0 0

306
18

2 3 0 ,0 0 0
3 5 ,2 0 0

3 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0
512, 000

24

6 8 ,9 0 0

7 2 7 ,0 0 0

20
56

8, 270
19, 700

1 1 1 ,0 0 0
4 5 1 ,0 0 0

38

8, 560

9 5 ,8 0 0

65

2 1 ,4 0 0

42 3 , 000

14

5 ,9 4 0

118, 000

30

4 5 ,1 0 0

T e x t ile m i l l p r o d u c t s ____________
S c o u r in g and c o m b in g p lants
Y a rn and t h r e a d m il l s
(c o t t o n , w o o l, s i lk , and
sy n th e tic f i b e r ) ___
B r o a d -w o v e n fa b r ic m ills
(c o t t o n , w o o l, s ilk , and
sy n th e tic fib e r )
N a r r o w f a b r ic s and o th e r
s m a ll w a r e s m il l s (c o t t o n
w o o l, s i lk , and sy n th e tic
f i b e r ) _______________________
K nitting m ills
D y e in g and fin is h in g t e x t ile s
(e x c e p t knit g o o d s ) ___________
C a r p e t s , r u g s , and o th e r
f l o o r c o v e r in g s
M is c e lla n e o u s t e x t ile g o o d s

p r o d u c t s m a d e f r o m f a b r ic s and
s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l s _________ —____
M e n 's , y o u t h s 1, and b o y s '
s u it s , c o a t s , and o v e r c o a t s __
M e n 's , y o u t h s ', and b o y s '
fu r n is h in g s , w o r k c lo t h in g ,
and a llie d g a r m e n t s ___________
W o m e n 's and m i s s e s '
o u t e r w e a r ______________________
W o m e n 's , m i s s e s ', c h i ld r e n 's
an d in fa n ts ' un d er g a r m e n ts __
M illin e r y .
C h ild r e n 's and in fa n ts '
o u t e r w e a r _____________
F u r goods
M is c e lla n e o u s a p p a r e l and
a c c e s s o rie s .
M is c e lla n e o u s fa b r ic a t e d
t e x t ile p r o d u c t s _________

13
1

1, 6 10

2 2 ,8 0 0

96

4 7 ,8 0 0
60

1 ,4 0 0 , 000
900

15

6, 780

8 2, 000

28

30, 200

1 , 1 3 0 ,0 0 0

6
19

430
2 ,8 9 0

2, 670
4 1 ,9 0 0

12

3 ,1 4 0

6 7 ,5 0 0

7
10

2 ,1 6 0
2 ,0 9 0

1 7 ,1 0 0
5 0 ,0 0 0

139

1 5 ,0 0 0

1 3 6 ,0 0 0

2

480

1 ,6 0 0

16

1 ,5 8 0

28, 400

73

6 , 240

3 6 ,5 0 0

12
4

1 ,7 5 0
400

1 3 ,8 0 0
8, 210

7
1

140
10

4 ,0 3 0
90

11

3, 530

2 6 ,7 0 0

1

13

920

1 6 .8 0 0

50

4 0 ,4 0 0

542, 000

11

4 ,2 6 0

6 2 , 800

1

520

3 ,6 7 0

4
27
4

110
3 5 ,1 0 0
260

740
4 7 0 ,0 0 0
1, 800

1
2

80
40

3 ,4 0 0
70

1 ,1 3 0 ,0 0 0

46

1 7 ,1 0 0

2 3 6 ,0 0 0

200

4 4 0 ,0 0 0

1 , 9 1 0 ,0 0 0

129
38

3 6 0 ,0 0 0
4 8 , 500

1 , 2 1 0 ,0 0 0
4 0 3 ,0 0 0

18
16

5 ,3 3 0
2 5 ,0 0 0

8 1 ,9 0 0
1 5 7 ,0 0 0

4

1 ,0 9 0

5 6 ,4 0 0

L e a th e r and le a t h e r p r o d u c t s _
L e a th e r : T a n n ed , c u r r ie d ,
and fin is h e d .
1
I n d u s tr ia l le a t h e r b e lt in g
and p a c k i n g _____________
I
B o o t and s h o e cu t
s t o c k and fin d in g s
F o o t w e a r (e x c e p t r u b b e r ) .
L uggage —
ft
H andbags and s m a ll
le a t h e r g o o d s .
I
M is c e lla n e o u s le a t h e r g o o d s ___

23
TA BLE A - l . — W ork stoppages by industry, 1955 - Continued

In d u s try

Manufacturing

-

S to p p a g e s b e g in n in g
M a n -d a y s id le
in 1955
d u rin g 1955
W orkers
(a ll stop p a g es)
N um ber
in v o lv e d

S to p p a g e s b eg in n in g
M a n -d a y s id le
in 1955
d u rin g 1955
W orkers
N um ber
(a ll sto p p a g e s)
in v o lv e d

In d u s try

Manufacturing - Continued

Continued
169
32
9

4 0 ,4 0 0
4 ,2 8 0
490

9 7 4 ,0 0 0
9 0 ,6 0 0
3 ,2 2 0

16
30
3

6 ,3 4 0
7 ,9 6 0
4 ,9 3 0
3 ,9 0 0

2 5 9 ,0 0 0
9 8 , 600
1 0 7 ,0 0 0
2 5 2 ,0 0 0

3
45

340
1 0 ,3 0 0

1 ,9 5 0
1 3 9 ,0 0 0

15

1 ,9 0 0

2 1 ,2 0 0

3
1

F o o d and k in d r e d p r o d u c t s
__ __ __
M eat p r o d u c t s .
__
_ __
D a ir y p r o d u c t s
_
_ _
C a n n in g and p r e s e r v in g f r u it s ,
v e g e t a b le and s e a fo o d s __ — __

340
10

1 ,2 2 0
30

16
B a k e r y p r o d u c t s ____________________
S u g a r . ____ , _____________ __ ___ _
C o n fe c t io n e r y and r e la t e d
p r o d u c t s _____ _

P r o f e s s io n a l, s c ie n t i f ic , and
c o n t r o llin g in s t ru m e n ts ; p h o to ­
g r a p h ic and o p t ic a l g o o d s ;
w a tch e s and c lo c k s - C on tin u ed
P h o to g r a p h ic e q u ip m e n t and
s u p p lie s
W a t c h e s , c l o c k s , c lo c k w o r k o p e r a t e d d e v i c e s , and p a r t s _____

2

1 ,1 9 0
1 9 7 ,0 0 0

8 ,1 8 0
640
980
40

1 3 4 ,0 0 0
4 , 340
1 0 ,0 0 0
220

24

3, 230

35, 500

480

12, 700

Nonmanufacturing ---------------

29
10
3
9
5

7 ,6 6 0
5 ,6 9 0
810
870
220

1 7 6 ,0 0 0
1 1 9 ,0 0 0
3 7 ,0 0 0
13, 200
6 ,1 1 0

P a p e r b o a r d c o n t a in e r s
P u lp g o o d s an d m is c e lla n e o u s
c o n v e r t e d p a p e r p r o d u c t s _________

P r in t in g , p u b lis h in g , and
a llie d i n d u s t r i e s ___ ____
_____
N e w s p a p e r s ___________ ______________
____ ____
Books
L i t h o g r a p h i n g ___ —_____ __ ____ _____
S e r v i c e in d u s t r ie s f o r the
p rin tin g tr a d e
__
_

C h e m ic a ls and a llie d p r o d u c t s _______
I n d u s tr ia l in o r g a n ic c h e m i c a l s ___
In d u s tria l o r g a n ic c h e m i c a l s _____
D ru g s and m e d ic in e s
______
Soap and g ly c e r in , c le a n in g
and p o lis h in g p r e p a r a t io n s ,
and su lfo n a te d o i l s ,
and a s s is ta n t s _
P a in t s , v a r n is h e s , l a c q u e r s ,
ja p a n s , and e n a m e ls ; in ­
o r g a n ic c o l o r p ig m e n t s ,
w h itin g , and w o o d f i l l e r s
G um and w o o d c h e m i c a l s _________
F e r t iliz e r s
_
V e g e ta b le and a n im a l
o i l s and fa ts
M is c e lla n e o u s c h e m ic a l s ,
in clu d in g in d u s t r ia l c h e m ic a l
p r o d u c t s and p r e p a r a t i o n s _______

2

1

P r o f e s s io n a l, s c ie n t i f ic , and
c o n t r o llin g in s t r u m e n ts ; p h o to ­
g r a p h ic and o p t ic a l g o o d s ;
w a tch e s and c l o c k s __________________
L a b o r a t o r y , s c ie n t i f ic , and
e n g in e e r in g in s tru m e n ts
(e x c e p t s u r g ic a l, m e d ic a l,
and den tal)
__ _ ---M e c h a n ic a l m e a s u r in g and
c o n t r o llin g in s tru m e n ts
O p tic a l in s tru m e n ts
an d le n s e s
_
_ .
S u r g ic a l, m e d ic a l, and d en ta l
in s tru m e n ts and s u p p l i e s ____ ___
O p h th a lm ic g o o d s

230

105
16
37
5

4 0 ,0 0 0
7 ,7 7 0
1 8 ,7 0 0
290

6 3 4 ,0 0 0
2 8 0 ,0 0 0
1 7 2 ,0 0 0
6 ,4 8 0

7

11
2
9

5 ,9 1 0

3, 880
360
1 ,9 6 0

6 2 ,0 0 0

2 6 ,7 0 0
640
6 9 ,6 0 0

8

550

6 , 560

11

570

9 ,9 4 0

18
8
1
7

P r o d u c t s o f p e t r o le u m and c o a l ______
P e t r o le u m r e fin in g
_ __ _
C o k e and b y p r o d u c t s _______________
P a v in g and r o o fin g m a t e r ia ls _____
M is c e lla n e o u s p r o d u c t s o f
p e t r o le u m and c o a l _______________
R u b b er p rod u cts
_
T i r e s a n d in n e r t u b e s ______________
R u b b e r fo o t w e a r _ __
R u b b e r in d u s t r ie s , n ot
e ls e w h e r e c l a s s i f i e d

70

3 ,1 9 0
2 ,0 6 0
420
650

5 1 ,0 0 0
4 3 ,4 0 0
420
6, 990

2
1

60

170

105
73
3

1 2 4 ,0 0 0
1 0 0 ,0 0 0
1 1 ,0 0 0

4 9 0 ,0 0 0
3 2 5 ,0 0 0
5 7 ,5 0 0

31

1 3 ,3 0 0

1 0 8 ,0 0 0

30

34, 000

6 9 4 ,0 0 0

6

2 1 ,3 0 0

347, 000

7

5 ,3 1 0

2 1 1 ,0 0 0

1

240

450

7
2

2 ,3 8 0
60

5 4 ,6 0 0
1 ,6 4 0

.

..

...........

8 ,9 0 0

4

740

5 ,4 4 0

18

3, 160

4 7 , 300

3

160

3, 350

6

920

6 ,0 2 0

24

5, 490

8 9 ,6 0 0

38

3, 100

3 0 ,7 0 0

* 1 ,9 1 3

6 4 6 ,0 0 0

9 , 3 9 0 ,0 0 0

11
6
5

3 ,0 8 0
2 , 270
810

1 4 ,2 0 0
8 ,2 5 0
6 ,0 0 0

1

343
19
17
292

1 1 4 ,0 0 0
2 7 ,7 0 0
2 ,9 4 0
77, 500

1 ,0 8 0 ,0 0 0
6 38 , 000
9 ,4 7 0
2 7 3 ,0 0 0

18

5 ,5 1 0

1 6 4 ,0 0 0

1

733
653

2 0 4 ,0 0 0
1 8 4 ,0 0 0

1 , 8 1 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,6 9 0 ,0 0 0

74
8

1 8 ,7 0 0
1 ,2 3 0

1 2 0 ,0 0 0
3, 530

5 2 ,3 0 0
2 8 ,4 0 0
2 3 ,9 0 0

1 ,0 9 0 ,0 0 0
5 7 4 ,0 0 0
5 1 7 ,0 0 0

8
j

550
60
400
90

2 7 ,3 0 0
410
2 5 ,9 0 0
980

275
20

2 5 3 ,0 0 0
4 0 ,2 0 0

4 ,8 6 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,0 6 0 ,0 0 0

29

___

_

S e r v i c e s — p e r s o n a l, b u s in e s s
and o t h e r
_
__
H o te ls and o t h e r lo d g in g
p la c e s
_ ...
L a u n d r ie s ... _
.. ...
C le a n in g , d y e in g , and p r e s s i n g ___
B a r b e r an d b e a u ty s h o p s
_
B u s in e s s s e r v i c e s
_
A u to m o b ile r e p a i r s e r v i c e s
an d g a r a g e s
_
.. ______
A m u s e m e n t and r e c r e a t i o n ________
M e d ic a l and o th e r h ea lth
s e r v ic e s
E d u c a tio n a l s e r v i c e s
M is c e lla n e o u s
G o v e rn m e n t— a d m in is tr a t io n ,
p r o t e c t io n , and s a n ita tion 2

1 9 1 ,0 0 0

690

2
5

__

T r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n ,
and o t h e r p u b lic u t ilit ie s
R a ilr o a d s _
_
S t r e e t c a r and b u s t r a n s p o r t a ­
t io n ( c i t y and su b urba n)
I n t e r c it y m o t o r b u s
t r a n s p o r t a t io n
_ __ __
M o t o r t r u c k tr a n s p o r t a t io n _
T a y ir a b a
W a te r tr a n s p o r t a t io n _
A i r tr a n s p o r t a t io n
G om m un ic a ti on
H eat, lig h t, and p o w e r
M is c e lla n e o u s

1 4 ,3 0 0

409
227
182

_

C o n s t r u c t i o n _____________________________
B u ild in g
,
H ig h w a y s, s t r e e t s , b r id g e s
d o c k s , e t c . ________________________
M is c e lla n e o u s _
___

F in a n ce , in s u r a n c e ,
__
and r e a l e s t a t e _
F in a n ce
____
In s u r a n c e
R e a l e s ta te
......

1 8 ,1 0 0

6

1 1 ,7 0 0

2 8 5 ,0 0 0

7
92
23
40
7
20
14
23

1 ,8 3 0
5 9 ,1 0 0
2 ,0 8 0
6 7 ,3 0 0
990
5 7 ,5 0 0
1 0 ,6 0 0
1 ,6 1 0

7 6 ,9 0 0
1 . 1 9 0 ,0 0 0
2 8 ,5 0 0
2 2 7 ,0 0 0
3 0 ,4 0 0
1 ,9 2 0 ,0 0 0
2 5 ,1 0 0
2 9 ,3 0 0

121

1 7 ,8 0 0

4 8 8 ,0 0 0

17
16
7
4
16

2 ,6 6 0
860
670
90
1 ,5 6 0

3 2 4 ,0 0 0
8, 500
5 ,5 0 0
380
3 4 ,1 0 0

28
9

2 ,7 4 0
6 ,0 3 0

3 0 ,4 0 0
5 3 ,1 0 0

3
4
17

220
1 ,9 5 0
1 ,0 5 0

1 050
20*, 000
1 1 ,2 0 0

17

1 ,4 7 0

7, 210

A n th ra cit e
B itu m in o u s c o a l _____________________
N o n m e ta llic and
q u a r r y i n g __ _ ____
____

T rade
W h o le s a le
R e t a il

6 1 ,2 0 0

3 ,6 3 0

99

A g r ic u lt u r e , f o r e s t r y , and
fis h in g
A g r ic u lt u r e ___ ______
. — ...........
F is h in g
_ _ _
M in ing

1 ,0 2 0

2

M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa ctu rin g
in d u s t r ie s _
J e w e lr y , s i lv e r w a r e , and
p la te d w a r e _
_
_ _
M u s ic a l in s tru m e n ts
p a r t s ____
_
__
_ _
T o y s and s p o r t in g and
a t h le tic g o o d s ______________________
P e n s , p e n c ils , and o t h e r o f f i c e
an d a r t is t s 1 m a t e r i a l s ___________
C o s t u m e je w e l r y , c o s t u m e
n o v e l t ie s , b u tto n s , and
m is c e lla n e o u s n o tio n s ( e x ­
c e p t p r e c io u s m e t a l ) __________ ___
F a b r ic a t e d p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s
n o t e ls e w h e r e c la s s i f ie d
M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u fa ctu rin g
in d u s t r ie s

6

P a p e r and a llie d p r o d u c t s _ __ __
P u lp , p a p e r, and p a p e r b o a r d
m i l l s _______________________________
P a p e r c o a t in g and g l a z in g ________
E n v e l o p e s ___________________________

1 3 ,6 0 0

26
5
4
2

T o b a c c o m a n u f a c t u r e s ________________
C i g a r s ________________________________
T o b a c c o (ch e w in g and
sm o k in g ) and s n u f f ________________

330

67

M is c e lla n e o u s fo o d p r e p a r a tio n s an d k in d re d p r o d u c t s ______

5

T h is fig u r e is l e s s than the s u m o f the fig u r e s b e lo w b e c a u s e a fe w s t o p p a g e s ex ten d in g in to 2 o r m o r e in d u s t r y g r o u p s h a v e b e e n c o u n te d in
e a c h in d u s tr y g r o u p a ffe c t e d ; w o r k e r s in v o lv e d and m a n -d a y s id le w e r e d iv id e d a m o n g the r e s p e c t iv e g r o u p s .
2 S to p p a g e s in v o lv in g m u n ic ip a lly o p e r a t e d u t ilit ie s a r e in c lu d e d u n d er " t r a n s p o r t a t io n , c o m m u n ic a t io n , and o th e r p u b lic u t i li t ie s " .




24
TABLE A - 2 .— W ork stoppages by industry
Total

S .I .C .
Code
(Group
or
D ivision

W ages, hours, and
supplem entary benefits 1
2

Beginning
in 1955

Industry group

Number

W orkers
involved

M an-days
idle,
1955
(all
stoppages)

Beginning
in 1955
Number

W orkers
involved

M an-days
idle,
1 yOO
(all
stoppages)

Union organization
w ages, hours, and
supplem entary benefits 1
Beginning
in 1955
Number

W orkers
involved

M an-days
idle,
1955
(all
stoppages)

24 , 320

2 ,6 5 0 ,0 0 0

28,200,000

2,154

1 ,7 80,000

1 7 ,900,000

305

143,000

4 ,5 9 0 ,0 0 0

A ll m anufacturing in d u s t r ie s _______

2 2,420

2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

18, 800,000

1,365

1 ,430,000

12,100,000

184

127,000

4 ,1 4 0 ,0 0 0

19
20
21
22

Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s _ ____
F ood and kindred p r o d u c t s ______
T ob a cco m anufactures __ _
___
T extile m ill products ____________

13
169
3
96

10, 800
40,400
340
47,800

140,000
974,000
1,220
1,400,000

7
87
2
48

4,490
25,300
320
35,100

77,700
798,000
960
1,1 5 0 ,0 0 0

16
9

510
980
2, 640

8, 190
28,500
66,400

23
24

A pparel, etc. 3 __ ____________
Lum ber and wood products (e x cept furniture) _________________
Furniture and f ix t u r e s ___________

139

15,000

136,000

38

8, 340

61,600

11

920

14,600

81
121

11,800
26, 000

227,000
287,000

50
75

7, 120
17,100

120,000
181,000

8
12

1,000
1,300

81, 800
61,000

P aper and allied products _______
Printing, publishing, and
a llied in d u s t r ie s _______ _________
C hem icals and allied p r o d u c t s __

67

13,600

197,000

41

10,200

123,000

7

970

8, 330

29
105

7,660
40,000

176,000
634,000

15
60

2,440
27,900

68,200
431,000

2
15

100
1, 180

3,950
19,700

18
105
50

3, 190
124,000
40,400

51,000
490,000
542,000

10
49
30

1,660
72,300
34,600

28,400
341,000
529,000

1
4
4

200
500
3, 130

600
6, 800
6,630

Total

All industries ________________

Mfg.

25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

__

Produ cts of petroleum and
co a l . . . , .
.... _______ ______
Rubber p r o d u c t s _________________
Leath er and leather p r o d u c t s ____
Stone, cla y , and glass
products ________________________

110

32,600

495,000

65

22,600

378,000

7

780

32,800

33
34
35
36

P rim a ry m etal industries _______
F abricated m etal products 56 ____
M achinery (except e le ctrica l) ___
E le c tr ic a l m achinery, equip­
ment and supplies

279
282
306

535,000
131,000
230,000

1,570,000
1 ,590,000
3 ,8 00,000

154
175
209

477,000
106,000
149,000

1 ,290,000
1 ,350,000
2 ,2 6 0 ,0 0 0

9
22
27

830
3,950
52,600

26,500
121,000
1,2 8 0 ,0 0 0

147

202,000

3, 300,000

87

103,000

819,000

9

50,400

2 ,2 8 0 ,0 0 0

37
38
39

T ransportation equipment _______
Instrum ents, etc. 4
M iscellaneous manufacturing
industries _
__
_ ___

200
30

440,000
34,000

1 ,9 1 0 ,0 0 0
694,000

87
21

285,000
25,600

1,4 8 0 ,0 0 0
460,000

5
3

2,440
460

14,500
20,700

99

14,300

191,000

55

10,100

105,000

12

1,890

65,900

Nonmfg. A ll nonmanufacturing in d u s t r ie s ___

2 1,913

646,000

9, 390,000

826

5 ,8 0 0 ,0 0 0

127

16,300

450,000

11
343
733

3,080
114,000
204,000

14,200
1,080,000
1,810,000

10
71
328

3, 060
42,200
126,000

13, 100
805,000
1 ,4 40,000

_
6
29

_
1, 100
8, 530

275
409

253,000
52,300

4 ,8 6 0 ,0 0 0
1 ,0 90,000

128
214

129,000
36,600

2 ,7 0 0 ,0 0 0
689,000

23
49

1,530
4, 190

48, 300
238, 000

8

550

27,300

5

440

26,200

1

20

660

121

17,800

488,000

60

13,200

126,000

18

930

18,700

17

1,470

7, 210

10

950

1

10

70

A
B
C
E
F&G
H
I
J

A g ricu ltu re, fo re s tr y , and
f is h in g __________________________
Mining _ __ __ ________ ____ „
C o n s tr u c tio n __ _________________
T ransportation, com m unication,
and other public utilities
Trade ... _
Finance, insurance, and real
estate
______
______
S e rv ice s — person al, bu sin ess,
and other _______________________
Go ve r nment— adm inis t ration,
protection , and sanitation7 ___

351,000

5,430

4

480
81,700
62, 300

1 The change in title does not indicate any change fro m previous years in definition or content of these groups.
2 This figu re is le s s than the sum of the corresp onding figu res because a few stoppages, each affecting m ore than 1 industry group, have
been counted in each industry group affected. W orkers involved and m an-days w ere allocated to the re sp e ctiv e groups.
3 Includes other finished products made fro m fa b r ic s and sim ila r m aterials.
4 Idleness in 1955 resulting fro m stoppages that began in the preceding year.
5 Excludes ordnance, m achinery, and transportation equipment.
6 Includes p rofession a l, scie n tific, and con trollin g instrum ents; photographic and optical goods; watches and c lo c k s .
7 Stoppages involving m unicipally operated utilities are included under "transportation, com m unication, and other public u t ilitie s ."




25
group and m ajor issu es, 1955

M an-days
idle,

Beginning
in 1955
Number

W orkers
involved

Inter union or intraunion
m atters

Other working
conditions

Union organization

Beginning
in 1955

(all
stoppages)

Number

W orkers
involved

M an-day
idle,
1955
(all
stoppages)

Beginning
in 1955
Number

Not reported

W orkers
involved

Number

S .I .C .
Code
M an-days
idle,
} 955
(all
stoppages)

Beginning
in 1955

M an-days
idle,
1955
(all
stoppages)

W orkers
involved

(Group
or
Division)

539

101,000

2, 840,000

964

550,000

2,5 9 0 ,0 0 0

299

65,700

295,000

59

9,240

26,200

Total

265

23,800

459,000

549

389,000

2,0 4 0 ,0 0 0

53

28,000

105,000

33

6,730

18,200

Mfg.

2
29

1,590
1, 850

32,400
31, 800

4, 240
12, 000
20
7, 390

21,400
115, 000
260
59,000

5

290

870

1

20

50

-

-

-

-

-

11

1,690

119,000

3
31
1
25

2

440

530

1

490

1,940

19
20
21
22

53

1, 670

40, 800

23

3, 180

11,500

9

730

6, 620

5

210

910

23

9
16

260
580

2, 250
8,090

13
15

3, 350
6,950

23,400
34,200

_
2

_
30

_
580

1
1

40
10

290
2, 730

24
25

12

1,030

58,600

4

820

4, 210

3

550

2, 810

-

-

-

26

8
12

270
1,050

9,120
7,460

2
15

4 ,3 9 0
9,670

92,300
175, 000

1
1

400
160

2,000
1,440

1
2

50
100

100
130

27
28

5
4
7

510
320
160

19,400
2,060
1,090

47
9

51,100
2, 540

290
138, 000
5, 130

2
1
-

820
110

2, 280
2, 010
-

-

-

"

29
30
31

-

-

-

4

-

9

330

7,960

20

5,390

39,300

6

3,460

36,200

3

60

240

32

14
28
11

2,760
1, 150
3, 310

15,200
19,100
45,000

93
48
53

46,400
17,400
23,000

231,000
80,600
213,000

3
5
4

7,450
2,040
2, 140

7, 600
19,200
4,030

6
4
2

1,080
290
120

3, 250
1,400
280

33
34
35

7

1,020

3,630

42

47,100

206,000

1

50

100

1

70

70

36

10
"

3,440
"

22,200
-

90
5

136,000
7, 650

371,000
213,000

5
-

8,490
-

14,100
-

3
1

3,930
240

6, 350
450

37
38

18

860

13,900

10

590

2, 180

3

830

4 ,480

1

10

10

39

275

77,100

2, 380, 000

417

161,000

551,000

246

37,700

190,000

26

2, 510

8, 000

Nonmfg.

1
27
82

20
4, 510
23, 100

660
22,300
101,000

208
91

59,900
23, 800

150,000
78,100

18
198

4,090
22,600

21,800
131,000

13
5

1,930
380

3,970
2,640

A
B
C

39
92

41, 800
4,090

1, 800,000
130,000

71
33

73,600
3, 500

291,000
15, 800

11
17

7,040
3,910

19,100
17,700

3
4

140
70

310
930

-

-

-

1

30

30

1

60

410

-

-

-

30

3, 210

326,000

11

410

16,500

1

20

20

1

10

140

4

380

1, 510

2

130

210




-

-

E
F&G
H
I
J

26
TABLE A - 3 .— Work stoppages in States having 25 or m ore stoppages by industry group, 1955 1
C a lifo rn ia
C o lo r a d o
A la b a m a
Stoppages beginning
Stoppages beginning
Stoppages beginning
Man-days idle
Man-days idle
Man-days idle
in 1955
in 1955
in 1955
during 1955
during 1955
during 1955
Workers
Workers
Workers
(all stoppages) Number*
Number* involved (all stoppages) Number*
(all stoppages)
involved
involved

State and industry group

All industries

---- -------

---- __ „

111

P rim ary metal in d u stries____________________
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipm ent)__
Ordnance and accessories .. ____ — __
E lectrical machinery, equipment,
and supplies — .. __ __ __ __ ___ __ .
Machinery (except electrical) ____
_
Transportation equipment ------------ —
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture)___________________________________
Furniture and fixtures
— — — — __ __
Stone, clay, and glass p r o d u c ts ______________
Textile m ill products_________________________
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and sim ilar materials ________
Leather and leather products . . — ___
Food and kindred products __ _ __ __
Tobacco manufactures
—
Paper and allied p rod u cts____________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries___
Chemicals and allied products — __ _ „
Products of petroleum and coal
Rubber products
__
__ — ------ __ _
Professional, scien tific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and c lo c k s ___________________
M iscellaneous manufacturing in d u s t r ie s -------Nonmanufacturing -------

— __ „

.

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing ___ — __
M ining________________________________________
Construction— „ - — — __
____
Trade
- ------ ------- _ — ___ __ _
Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te _________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities -----------------------------------Services— personal, business, and o th e r_____
Government— adminis tr ation, pro tec tion,
and sanitation4 „ _______ ____
___
Interindustry
„ __
-----— —

91,700

951,000

247

157,000

1,760,000

36

13,300

86,900

57

__ __

Manufacturing__________________________

56,500

425,000

117

48,100

207,000

10

639,000
126,000

13
5

9,810

32

55,700
15,500

8,990

26,900
19,500

9
1

1,630
210

19,000
1,600

13
1

3,380
30

30,900
200

2
1

100
380

1,040
2,670

1
2
1

140
270
890

5,150
870
2,500

6
12
16

1,980
2,460
17,900

9,770
64,700
73,900

_
1

_
_
60

_
_
180

2
2
3
1

780
70
270
1,000

59,600
1,910
2,390
107,000

9
5
6
1

570
580
1,190
10

7,490
10,100
12,500
20

-

-

-

_
1
_
_
>
1
3

_
10
270
2,880

20
34, 650
270
13,000

5
2
14
1
1
9
1
2

250
50
7,290
50
10
320
10
3,800

3,830
269,000
590
40
10,800
60
16,000

1
2
-

40
120
-

40
1,970
-

56
30
8
6
-

35,100
17,400
1,730
360
-

526,000
80,000
16,500
6,620
.

5

370

2,390

131
4
3
50
37
-

102,000

1,120,000

120
3,500

1,500
60,100

2,380
560
30,800
9,060
-

9,360
3,850
164,000
263,000
-

1
23
1
6
5
_

20
1,530
670
-

530
13,000
16,200
-

14
-

15,500
-

419,000
-

21
15

51,700
6,960

614,000
64,800

10
1

1,230
40

29, 700
730

1
-

140

3,890

1

10

10
-

*

-

-

C on necticut
All industries

„

Manufacturing

__ „

______

____ __ „

__ _

P rim ary metal industries __ ____ — __
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
m achinery, and transportation equipm ent)__
Ordnance and accessories
— ___
____ _
E lectrical m achinery, equipment,
and supplies __ __ ___
____ __ ____ __ _
Machinery (except electrical) — — __ Transportation equipm ent____________________
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture)_________________________________ __
Furniture and fixtures -----------------------------------Stone, clay, and glass products
_______ Textile m ill products_________________________
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and sim ilar materials
_ _
Leather and leather products_________________
Food and kindred products ___________________
Tobacco m an ufactures_______________________
Paper and allied products — __ — „
— _
Printing, publishing, and allied industries___
Chemicals and allied p rod u cts________________
Products of petroleum and c o a l ______________
Rubber products _____________________________
P rofessional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optic ad
goods; watches and clocks „ — — —
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries _____
Nonmanufacturing ____ —

_

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
____
_
M ining________ _____________________________ ___
Construction________________________________ —
Trade
_ _ _
__
Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te _________
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities _____________________________
Services— personal, business, and o th e r_____
Government— adminis tration, protec tion,
and sanitation4 _
_ _______ _______
— _
Interindustry ___
__ __
__ ___ __ „
See footnotes at end of table.




G e o r g ia

F lo rid a

73

___

__ ____

920

30,900

567,000

59

19,000

885,000

37

20,500

414,000

49
8

24,200

409,000

17

3,720

108,000

15

8,390

33,900

5,900

31,600

1

40

110

1

20

90

4
-

310
-

870
-

3
-

660
-

1,110
-

-

-

-

1
9
1

2,000
4,530
80

169,000
78,900
530

_
-

_
-

_
-

1
2

10
130
5,890

30
3,670
8,550

1

120
650
90
940

2,090
6,130
430
3,330

1
-

30
-

240
1,490
-

-

1, 680

13,700

200
10
40
40
1,460
5,410

400
750
480
1,720
6,640
33,400

4

220
170
900
30
1,670
-

24,200
340
6,050
160
73,900
-

200
420
30

1,630
4,570
-1,720

300
2,170

14,800
57,700

6, 650
990
130
-

158,000

15,300

23
9

12,100

-

2,110
2,060
490
-

777,000
143,000
37,200
20,800
-

.

1,510
440
-

380,000
14,600
19,300
-

2

5,290
250

150,000
1,010

14
1

8,600
2,000

271,000
305,000

11
-

10,100
-

346,000
-

-

-

_

1

40

40

1

20

50

"

"

"

■

"

“

4

2
4

1
1
1
1
3

4

1
5

25
9
7

7

5,700
1,490
-

1
4

1
2

43
1
21
6

3

4

3

1
2

1

3

_

27
TABLE A - 3 .— Work stoppages in States having 25 or m ore stoppages by industry group, 1955 1 - Continued

All industries

__ __ __

__ _

260

167,000

1,480,000

170

192,000

1,140,000

45

23,400

294,000

Manufacturing __ „
„ „ ____
_
Prim ary metal industries _______________ ___ _
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment) __
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ______
„ _
E lectrical machinery, equipment,
and supplies __ __ ___ _______
______
Machinery (except electrical) _______ ____
Transportation equipment — „ __
__ _
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture) „
„ _ __ __ ____ „ __ __ _
Furniture and f ix t u r e s _____________________ __
Stone, clay, and glass products
Textile m ill products
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and sim ilar materials ________
Leather and leather products
__ „ „ __
Food and kindred products __ _ __
Tobacco m anu factu res_______________________
Paper and allied products __ ____ __
Printing, publishing, and allied industries _____
Chemicals and allied p r o d u c ts ________________
Products of petroleum and coal ______ __ ___
Rubber products
__ __ ____ ___ __
Professional, scien tific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical goods;
watches and clocks
........... ....... .
Miscellaneous manufacturing in d u s t r ie s _____

161

154,000

1,320,000

115

1,050,000

21

16,100

254,000

Nonmanufacturing

. „

„

Iowa

In dian a

Illinois

Stoppages beginning Man-days idle Stoppages beginning Man-days idle Stoppages beginning Man-days idle
in 1955
in 1955
in 1955
1qcc
curing 1 7 3 3
during 1955
Workers
Number2 Workers (all stoppages)i Number2 Workers (all stoppages) Number2 involved (all stoppages)
involved
involved

State and industry group

_____

„

„

____ ____

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing ______ __ _
Mining _____ _______ __ __ __ ____ ___
Construction____ ___ __ _ _ _ _ _
_ _ ______
_
_
Trade _
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities _______________________
Services— personal, business, and o t h e r ___
Government— administration, protection,
and sanitation4 __
____ __ __ __ __ __
Interindustry
____ — __________ __ __ __ _

15

27,100

68,000

15

179,000
53,900

73,900

1

600

11,300

18
_

7,750
_

88,200
_

15
2

4,150
1,540

23,700
13,400

4
_

390
_

2,100
_

11
30
15

3,410
63,900
26,200

49,400
738,000
67,500

7
12
28

23,700
9,600
67,300

63,200
281,000
387,000

1
7
-

300
12,900
-

3,900
211,000
-

7
5
4
-

480
1,370
600
-

2,460
51,800
5,210
_

4
8
5
_

760
1,850
3,460
_

3,970
31,600
63,300
_

_
_
2
2

_
.
60
130

_
280
860

8
4
22
_
3
2
7
4
1

590
6,490
5,690
_
340
170
3,690
460
50

4,700
106,000
76,100
_
6,650
850
19,200
3,810
150

3
2
7
_
1
2
2
1
5

800
610
980
_
240
500
1,550
50
8,420

10,100
6,200
33,600
_
960
2,190
15,800
320
41,600

_
_
2
_
_
_
_
2

_
270

_
7,980
.
_
_
15,800

1
8

3,600
1,640

18,000
9,200

_
40

_
140

102
_
17
37
24
_

13,300
_
3,030
5,160
2,710
_

161,000
_
5,380
60,200
56,100
_

_
1
55
_
11
17
11
_

13,100
_
2,540
8,160
380
_

89,300
_
5,790
35,800
5,540
_

_
24
_
_
13
5
_

7,320
_
_
5,720
520
_

_
40,700
_
28,700
5,950
_

13
9

1,680
670

27,100
12,400

11
5

1,960
100

38,900
3,270

5
1

980
100

5,960
100

80
-

_
'

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
“

3

__ __ __ __ __ _
_

Manufacturing

_
_

__

__

10
-

__ ___

94

40.800

757.000

27

12.300

531.000

50

40,200

236.000

__ __

29
3

15,900

151,000

3

_

38,300

212,000

3,630

193,000
_

23

3,300

1,870
_

3

28,200

52,000

2
_

5,040
_

59,700
•
_

_
_

_
_

3
_

290
_

5,110
_

1
6
5

210
3,280
2,610

10,900
43,700
11,400

_
_
_

_
_

5
_
1

4, 640
_
3,690

126,000
_
3,690

_
3
3

_
_
50
620

_
.
1,060
9,410

_
.
1
_

10
_

_
_
10
_

1
1
2
2

10
290
90
540

190
860
580
13,000

1
1
2
_
_
.
_
_
_

60
550
80
_
_
_
_
_
_

770
10,500
270
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
1
_
_
_
1
_
_

_
_
1,430
_
_
_
430
_
_

_
_
183,000
_
_
_
10,800
_
_

1
_
1
_
1
_
2
_
_

70
_
50
_
400
_
20
_
_

4,480
_
150
_
5,200
_
400
_
_

_
2

_
70

_

_
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_
-

65
.
25
21
11
-

24,900
_
4,190
6,760
360
_

_
90
605,000
_
15,900
53,600
9,080
_

24
_
_
7
8
_

10,400
_
_
2,610
640
_

338,000
_
_
10,200
12,000
_

27
_
2
10
5
_

1,930
_
80
1,060
60
_

24,000
_
770
13,900
460
_

9
-

13,600
-

527,000
.

7
2

6, 900
130

313,000
2,330

9
1

670
70

8,280
590

_
-

_

_
-

1

140
-

280

Prim ary metal industries __ ___
__ __
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment) ___
Ordnance and a ccessories
_ ___ __
E lectrical m achinery, equipment,
and su p p lies___
__ __ __ __ ___
Machinery (except electrical) _______
Transportation equipment ... ___
__ ____
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture) __ ---------- __ __ __
_. _
Furniture and fixtures _____________________
Stone, clay, and glass products
Textile m ill products __
__ __ __ __ __
Apparel and other finished products made from
fabrics and sim ilar materials
— „ __ __
Leather and leather products
__ __
Food and kindred products ___________________
Tobacco m anu factu res_____
_ ___
Paper and allied p ro d u cts ____________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries _____
Chemicals and allied p ro d u cts_______________
Products of petroleum and c o a l ______________
Rubber products
_ _
_.
r.
P rofessional, scien tific, and controlling
instruments; photographic am optical
id
goods; watches and c lo c k s __________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries _______
Nonmanufacturing ____

__

____

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing ____ __
Mining __ __ __ _ __ __
____
Construction __ __ __
_ __ ____ _
Trade — — __ ______
_ __ __
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Transportation, communication, auid
other public utilities
____
Services— personal, business, and o th er_____
Government— administration, protection,
and sauiitation4 ---- _ _
Interindustry
—
____ __ __ __
See footnotes at end of table.




_
-

2
-

Kentucky
All industries

-

_
_
1,430

M aryland

Louisiana

-

_

_
“

_

_
-

28
TABLE A - 3.— Work stoppages in States having 25 or m ore stoppages by industry group, 1955 1 - Continued

M assachusetts

All in d u stries______ _______

_______

___

Manufacturing ----------- ----------- -----P rim ary metal industries __
„ ____ ___
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
m achinery, and transportation equipment) __
Ordnance and accessories
E lectrical m achinery, equipment,
and su p p lies___ __ __ .. ____ _______ __
Machinery (except electrical) ____ ____ __
— ____ _
Transportation equipment -----Lumber and wood products (except
furniture) __
__ ____ __________ _______
Furniture and fixtures
.. _______ _______
Stone, clay, and glass products ____ __
Textile m ill products __ ____
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and sim ilar materials ________
Leather and leather products ____ __ ____
Food and kindred products
__ __ __ __ __
_______ __ _______ _
Tobacco manufactures
__
Paper and allied p ro d u cts ______ __ __
Printing, publishing, and allied industries___
Chemicals and allied products _
_ __ ____
Products of petroleum and coal ______________
Rubber products
_______ „ __ __ __ ____
Professional, scientific, and controlling
ins truments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clocks __ __ __
____ _
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries _____
Nonmanufacturing ____ __

__ __ __ _

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing ______ __
M ining_______ ____ __ ____ __ __ __ ______
Construction __ ------ ---------------- __ __
__ _
T rade __________________________ „ ____ „ _
Finance, insurance, and real e s ta te _________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities _______________________
Services— personal, business, and oth er_____
Government— administration, protection,
and sanitation4--------------- --------__ _____________
Interindustry
__ ____ __ ____ __ __
__ _

142

64,800

1,230,000

327

292,000

1,740,000

75

26,700

323,000

90
4

45,500
4,270

880,000

271,000

1,480,000

42

17,700

273,000

42,600

259
32

17,900

93,900

4

3,260

29

10
1

4,440
1,080

93,000
40,100

42
_

23,800
_

155,000
_

5
2

850
2,780

8,510
21,100

9
7
2

8,420
2,140
5,250

154,000
27,100
5,250

8
44
55

1,950
19,800
144,000

6,290
407,000
318,000

1
6
2

60
2,830
1,620

540
122,000
1,660

2
7
7

100
630
_
8,490

1,660
2,570
419,000

4
8
4
1

300
830
1,350
430

3,650
8,470
9,800
8,520

3
2
2
-

520
200
70
-

15,700
1,270
2,190
-

11
13
3
_
7
1
3

570
3,950
150
_
1,000
_
1,830
2,770

11,100
33,800
12,800
_
4,490
_
16,500
_
13,500

_
_
6
_
6
2
4
_
39

.
_
2,310
_
1,330
4,390
4,540
_
46,300

_
15,700
_
6,460
91,200
161,000
_
99,700

_
_
3
_
2
2
3
1
-

1,270
2,200
70
270
40
-

9,830
_
46,400
140
5,990
80
-

1
3

30
410

930
1,910

3
3

1,890
110

91,500
400

1
5

1,530
140

7, 630
1,650

3

__________

__

__ __

___

, 100

55
25
8
1

1 9 ,2 0 0

_
3,060
810
280

352,000
_
_
28,800
18,400
18,900

69
.
2
29
23
-

21,300
_
3,010
10,700
1,100
-

262,000
133,000
103,000
12,400
-

34
_
1
13
12
_

9,010
_
2,290
4, 170
2,190
-

49,500
2,290
14,900
27,700
.

17
4

12,800
2,320

278,000
6,920

7
8

5,760
720

6,650
7,180

6
2

310
60

3,330
1,260

_
*

_

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
*

_
-

_
-

64,300

871,000

25

4,320

24,500

283

124,000

1,470,000

Missouri
All industries

Minnesota

M ichigan

Stoppages beginning Man-days idle
Stoppages beginning
Man-days idle Stoppages beginning Man-days idle
in 1955
in 1955
in 1955
during 1955
during 1955
during 1955
Workers
Workers (all stoppages) Number2 Workers (all stoppages)
Number2
(all stoppages) Number2 involved
involved
involved

State and industry group

ill

N ew Jersey

New Hampshire

____ __ _

66

52,300

711,000

15

2,050

9,910

197

107,000

1,210,000

_
_
_
Prim ary metal industries __
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
m achinery, and transportation equipment) __

4

3,670

14,000

1

40

1, 760

15

5, 790

109,000

7
1

1,190
10

42,600
1,930

1
_

40
_

670
_

16

8,560
_

65,300
_

1
8
9

1,890
1,850
22,000

30,200
57,000
204,000

_
2
-

_
790
-

_
790
-

17
25
14

31,300
9,050
17,600

537,000
145,000
31,200

1
8
1
1

80
980
40
490

2,030
9,520
530
38,000

_
1
1

_
60
_
490

_
1.470
1.940

1
7
7
9

150
1,690
820
2,070

2,910
21,300
12,300
20,800

_
8
11
_
1
1

_
252,000
47,200
_
360
150
10,800
_
600

1
5
1
_
1
1
-

40
280
50
_
70
200
_
.

280
1,690
50
_
70
1,200
_
-

14
_
11
_
13

1

_
15,200
3,080
_
20
20
1,610
150

1,880
_
1,220
_
2,200
90
9,940
410
5,860

6,490
_
10,100
_
23,800
920
86,500
1,220
47,400

1
47
20
17
-

20
12,000
_
3,120
4,000
-

540
159,000

10

82,200
10,100

_

3

1
1

14,600
_
_
8,150
830
690

6,890
1,700

_
_
55,900
87,700
-

2,260
.
_
1,730
20
10

32
27
-

16,700
620
6,060
1,340
-

251,000
_
44,600
130,000
15,800
_

8
2

4,840
30

15,700
70

4
-

420
-

4, 810
-

19
6

8, 140
370

53,100
7,150

~

"

■

1
“

90
”

90

1
"

160

480

Manufacturing____________

O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ___________

__ __ __

E lectrical m achinery, equipment,
and supplies
__ __ __ __
__
__ _
_
M achinery (except electrical) ____ __ __
Transportation equipm ent______ __ __ ____
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture) __ __ __ __________ __ __ ___ __
Furniture and fixtures _______________________
________
Stone, clay, and glass products „
Textile m ill products ____
„ „ __ ____
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and sim ilar materials
_
Leather and leather produ cts_
_ __ __ __ __
Food and kindred products __ ____ __
__ _
Tobacco manufactures _______________________
Paper and allied products
____
_
_ _
Printing, publishing, and allied industries___
Chemicals and allied products
„ __
__ _
Products of petroleum and coal ..
__
_
Rubber products
____ __ ____ __
__ _
P rofessional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods ; watches and clocks
__
_
Miscellaneous manufacturing in d u s t r ie s _____
Nonmanufacturing
__ _____________ _
A griculture, forestry, and fishing
__ ___
Mining ___________________________ ____________
Construction
_
.
Trade _ _ _ _ _
_
__
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Transportation, communication, and other
public utilities_______________________________
Services— personal, business, and o t h e r _____
Gove rnment— adminis tration, p rotec tion,
and sanitation4. __ _ _ ___ __ . __
Interindustry
_
See footnotes at end of table.




2

~

_

2

21
1
10
10
9
86
_
3

~

29
TABLE A - 3 .— Work stoppages in States having 25 or m ore stoppages by industry group, 1955 1 - Continued

State and industry group

O hic>
North C a ro lin a
N e w York
Stoppages beginning Man-days idle Stoppages beginning Man-days idle Stoppages beginning Man-days idle
in 1955
in 1955
in 1955
Hni*ina 1Q C
during i 7 do
during i K
Workers
Workers
Workers
Number2 involved (all stoppages) Number2 involved (all stoppages) Number2 involved (all stoppages)

A ll industries .

534

219,000

2, 440, 000

49

16,800

316,000

434

329,000

2, 570, 000

Manufacturing_
_
Prim ary metal in d u s tr ie s __________________
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment) _
Ordnance and a ccessories -------------- ------------E lectrical m achinery, equipment,
and s u p p lie s _______________________________
Machinery (except electrical) — - ________
Transportation equipm ent__________________
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture)__________________________________
Furniture and f i x t u r e s _____________________
Stone, clay, and glass p r o d u c ts ____________
Textile m ill p rod u cts_______________________
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and sim ilar m aterials________
Leather and leather products .
Food and kindred products___
Tobacco m a n u fa ctu res___
Paper and allied p r o d u c ts __________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries _
Chemicals and allied p r o d u c t s _____________
Products of petroleum and coal ____________
Rubber products ___________________________
Professional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and c lo c k s ________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries____

344

146,000

28

7, 790

116, 000

278

302, 000

2,430,000

-

-

-

45

107, 000

184,000

1

40
-

40

38
1

30,600
800

172, 000
3, 200

N onm anufacturing__
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
M ining______
Construction_____________________________
Trade ___________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e _____
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities____________________
Services— personal, business, and other .
Government— administration, protection,
and sanitation4
Interindustry____

20

29, 500

1,700,000
64, 400

41
2

7, 000
1, 520

37, 500
33,900

36
34
23

26,400
13, 100
17, 400

374,000
144,000
205,000

1
1

140
40
-

4,200
480
-

24
40
30

17,800
34, 700
59,100

241,000
758, 000
338, 000

8
24
3
13

330
5,870
510
2, 060

2, 110
67, 700
11,600
50,400

1
1
17

180
30
7, 020

1,420
1,480
99,400

4
14
27
5

750
7,290
10,100
5, 120

10, 500
27, 200
165,000
166,000

51
8
15
1
12
5
13
1

4, 820
7, 640
5. 210
10
1, 640
1,100
750
110

32, 700
28, 300
104, 000
30
16,500
56, 800
6,660
420

1
1
1
1

60
60
10
20

6,690
240
20
260

20
520
3, 570
_
180
340
1, 820
200
18, 200

420
3, 670
93,400
_
4. 730
1,430
81, 800
1, 590
80,700

6
30
194

18, 800
2,050

430,000
30,300

73,000

739,000

2
3
48
70
3

140
1, 270
29,500
11,900
90

40
26
2

3

-

-

-

-

20

880

2
1
14
_
2
2
4
2
20

_
1

.
180

_
1,020

2
13

480
3, 380

39,700
55,300

21
_
1
9
3
-

9,040
_
320
1,140
300
-

199,000
_
4,320
6, 110
6,910
-

159

26, 800

145, 000

780
2, 700
387, 000
188, 000
1,090

1
26
62
29
-

30
6,070
15, 900
1,740
-

380
20, 300
71,700
21,700
-

27,700
2,220

128,000
32, 100

8
1

7, 260
20

182, 000
20

32
8

2, 640
300

24,000
7, 000

190

190

“

-

70

70

1

:

Manufacturing .
Prim ary metal industries _______
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipment) .
Ordnance and accessories .
E lectrical machinery, equipment,
and s u p p lie s ________________
Machinery (except electrical) „
Transportation equipment .
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture) .
Furniture and fixtures ___________________
Stone, clay, and glass p r o d u c ts __________
Textile m ill p rod u cts _____________________
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and sim ilar m aterials______
Leather and leather p rod u cts_____________
Food and kindred products________________
Tobacco manufactures
Paper and allied p r o d u c ts _________________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries .
Chemicals and allied p r o d u c t s ____________
Products of petroleum and c o a l ___________
Rubber products
P rofessional, scien tific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clocks .
M iscellaneous manufacturing industries__
N onm anufacturing__
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing ___________
C on struction__________________________________
T r a d e ________________________________________
Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e __________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities_________________________
Services— personal, business, and o t h e r _____
Government— administration, protection,
and sanitation4 _________________________ ____
Interindustry__________________________________




P e n n s y lv a n ia

37

6, 880

86,800

39

12, 500

187,000

566

388, 000

3,350,000

15

4, 260

63,100

14

4,190

87,700

327

327,000

2, 850,000

1

200

200

1

280

1, 100

60

143,000

220, 000

1
-

230
-

2, 060
'

1
-

260
-

5,420

39
1

21,000
510

109,000
8, 190

.
3
2

_
980
1,000

_
7,120
13,800

-

-

-

-

-

-

24
46
13

71,200
39,400
23,100

1,420,000
617,000
159,000

_

3 16, 700

9

3,180

37,000

2
19
20
19

90
1, 820
9, 340
2,430

650
29,100
104,000
21,400

390

29
4
16

3,340
930
4, 000

14, 700
5, 100
62, 000

43,600
10
90

7

4
9

15,100
6,950
5, 040
17, 900
17, 200

_
-

_

_

-

-

4

1,440
"

10,900
-

.

_
-

-

-

2

_
30

1, 260

1

90

_
1
1

_
140
120

_
2,760
4,310

1

390

-

-

1

10

-

-

-

"

1

-

4,060

-

-

-

22

2,620

23,700

-

1
13

-

-

*

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

"

“

120

-

"

5
6

950
490
550
680
2,500

3

_

_

-

-

-

1
8

80
1, 230

1, 660
17,100

8,300

99.300

245

60,900

499,000

90

1,530

_

-

32, 700
6,210
2,980
130

72. 900
72, 300
3 149,000
3,480

25
1

_

600
1,100
160

1,800
16, 500
2,020

-

-

"

-

-

95
57
43
4

2

240
30

1,470
150

4

4, 260
40

45,100
80

32
14

18, 200
640

186,000
15, 300

3

490

1,780

-

1

10

70

"

”

2
-

1

-

7

12

1

’

See footnotes at end of table.

!

O regon

O k la h o m a
All industries

-

-

2, 240
1,670

-

36, 800
15,800

-

'

30
TABLE A - 3 .— Work stoppages in States having 25 or m ore stoppages by industry group, 1955 1 - Continued

State and industry group

A ll in d u stries________________________________
Manufacturing __

__

_ __

P rim ary metal industries
_
. . .
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery and transportation equipm ent)___
Ordnance and accessories
. . . . .
. _
E lectrical machinery, equipment,
and s u p p lie s _________________________________
Machinery (except ele ctr ic a l). .
.
— __
Transportation equipment . . . .
„
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture)
._
. . .
Furniture and fixtures _.
Stone, clay, and glass products
Textile m ill p rod u cts___
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and sim ilar m aterials
_____
Leather and leather products . .
Food and kindred products _
Tobacco m a n u fa ctu res_______________________
Paper and allied products
— - -- - Printing, publishing, and allied in d u stries___
Chemicals and allied products _
.
.
Products of petroleum and coal __ ._
__
Rubber p r o d u c t s _____________________________
P rofessional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clocks
. . .
M iscellaneous manufacturing industries
N onm anufacturing______________________
Agriculture, forestry, and f is h i n g ___________
M ining________________________________________
Construction
.. ..
_ __ _ .
Trade .
Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e _________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities
_
---Services— personal, business, and o t h e r _____
Gove rnment— administration, protection,
and sanitation4 _. __ _
___
Interindustry. . . . . .
__
___

T exas
R h ode Island
Ten nessee
Stoppages beginning Man-days idle Stoppages beginning Man-day8 idle Stoppages beginning Man-days idle
in 1955
in 1955
in .955
during 1955
during 1955 •
during 1955
Workers
Workers
W orkers (all stoppages)
(all stoppages)
(all stoppages) Number*
Number*
Number*
involved
involved
involved
28

12,800

261,000

107

46,900

845,000

75

28, 100

335,000

13
-

7,150
-

164,000
-

41

16,200

187,000

31

17,500

169,000

3

250

4,440

4

4,490

35,200

1
-

20
-

170
-

4
-

3,300
-

35, 600
-

4
-

1, 230
-

18,900
-

1
2
-

900
190
-

4, 500
2,150
-

3
3
4

270
1,870
2. 800

9, 870
37,200
12,000

1
3
4

no
500
4, 550

2, 200
5,780
6.900

5

2, 810

134,000

4
2
1

320
310
700

690
24, 800
3, 820

3
-

130
-

6,980
-

1
1
1
2

10
140
130
2,960

110
680
1,130
20,600

2
1
7
4
3

330
1,420
990
570
3,030

2,160
25, 200
3, 280
1, 560
26,700

1
4
1
2
3
1

250
370
270
3, 770
810
980

5,200
7, 250
5,940
53,800
18, 500
1,950

-

97, 300
15, 500
690
2,400

68
10
32
11
-

30,800
2,130
12, 500
660
-

658, 000
42, 200
51,000
8, 220
-

1

30

320

15
6
3
1

5,640
2, 640
60
40

46

10,600

166,000

2
30
5
-

190
6,910
470
-

1, 580
99,900
3 25,900
-

5
-

2,920
-

78, 800
-

12
3

15,400
40

556, 000
930

8
1

2, 860
220

24, 200
14,900

"

■

“

“

"

"

“

"

“

25

17,200

228, 000

56

11,600

94,000

50

14,800

14

9,980

53, 300

58, 500

45, 800

39.600
-

5,070

9,610

5,580
-

17

8

18
-

4

3,720

31,900

-

-

-

2
-

560
-

560
-

1
-

160
-

7,650
-

-

-

-

1
1

50
1,430

230
1,430

-

-

-

1
-

90
-

2,430
-

2
1
1

100
50
740

4, 800
1, 310
5, 560

11
-

1,080
-

16,900
-

2
3

430

2
4

-

180
100
-

1
2
1

240
480
30
1,650
270

2, 610
12, 300
450
10,100
270

-

-

-

13
6
2
2
-

7, 170
6,020
260
120
-

174,000
158,000
2, 520
470
-

39
11
14
4
-

5,990
1, 510
2, 940
200
-

54,400
1, 510
14,000
4,790
-

3
-

770
-

13,400
-

10
-

1,330
-

"

"

"

“

“

V ir g in ia

Utah
A ll industries

—

Manufacturing__________________________
P rim ary metal in d u s tr ie s ____________________
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery, and transportation equipm ent)__
Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s _
Electrical machinery, equipment,
and s u p p lie s __ . ___
. ______
Machinery (except electrical) . .
. . . .
Transportation equipm ent__
. ._
Lumber and wood products (except
fu rniture)___ ___________________ ___ _______
Furniture and fixtures __
___
_
----Stone, clay, and glass products ____ .
Textile m ill products
____
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and sim ilar m aterials_________
Leather and leather products .
. . . . ___ __
Food and kindred products____________________
Tobacco manufactures . . . .
Paper and allied products
Printing, publishing, and allied in d u stries___
Chem icals and allied products . .
. .
—
Products of petroleum and c o a l ______________
Rubber p r o d u c t s ___
. _ . .
P rofessional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and c lo c k s ___________________
M iscellaneous manufacturing industries .
N onm anufacturing______________________
Agriculture, forestry, and f is h i n g ___________
Mining . .
__ . .
.. .
Construction
. _
Trade
__
_ — ..
Finance, insurance, and real e s t a t e _________
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities____ ___
. . ..
Services— personal, business, and other ...___
Government— administration, protection,
and sanitation4
- - - ---Interindustry. _ . __
.
...
See footnotes at end of table.




-

*
4,630
-

3

20

-

W a s h in g to n
125,000

1

110

2, 000

33

9, 770

66,100

1
11
13
-

260
1, 700
3, 120
-

610
13, 300
12,500
-

34,100
-

5
3

4,600
100

38,400
1,280

“

"

”

"

31
TABLE A - 3 .— Work stoppages in States having 25 or more stoppages by industry group, 1955 1 - Continued

| Wisconsin

| West V irg in ia

Stoppages beginning
Stoppages beginning
Man-days idle
Man-days idle
in 1955
in 1955
uunng x y o D
during 1955
Workers
Workers
Number13 involved (all stoppages) Number2 involved (all stoppages)
2

State and industry group

160
Manufacturing

.

.

Prim ary metal industries .
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance,
machinery and transportation equipment)
Ordnance and accessories
Electrical machinery, equipment,
and supplies .
Machinery (except.electrical)
_
Transportation equipment . . . .
Lumber and wood products (except
furniture) _ _ _ _ _ _
Furniture and fixtures
Stone, clay, and glass p r o d u c ts ___
Textile m ill products
_ .
„
Apparel and other finished products made
from fabrics and sim ilar materials _
___
Leather and leather p rod u cts__
Food and kindred products__
_ _
Tobacco manufactures _
Paper and allied products
Printing, publishing, and allied industries
Chemicals and allied products _
Products of petroleum and coal
.
.
Rubber products _
. _
P rofessional, scientific, and controlling
instruments; photographic and optical
goods; watches and clocks
_
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries
Nonmanufacturing
.
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing
Mining ...
.. ... .
__
..............
Construction
.
. . .
Trade
__
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Transportation, communication, and
other public utilities _ ___ _
Services— personal, business, and other .
Government— administration, protection, and
sanitation4 . . .
__
Interindustry . . . .
_
_ .

35, 300

312, 000

95

44,900

849,000

14,300
3,970

182, 000

57

814, 000

3,970

5

41,000
1,430

3
-

1,060
-

10, 800
-

4
-

2,410
-

3585,000
-

4, 590
750

85, 200
4, 500

2
12
6

260
4, 800
9,900

960
39,300
51,800

1
4

-

2,950
28,400
-

*2

-

160
1,410

2
3

70
540
240

___

-

27
1

5
1

.

-

1,290
6,460
11,100
-

_

2
4
1
3
1
-

800
170
310
930
160
-

1,040
7,080
930
31, 200
6,360
-

2
3
4
1
7

280
700
210
880
18, 700

2,380
32. 800
1,220
4, 400
57,600

1
136

50

180

2
3

160
490

1, 500
750

20,900

129, 000

38
-

3, 890

35, 800

—

_

_
__
__

_

__
_

—
.
-

_
.

_

_

.

.

-

__

_
_

.
___ ___

.

.

.

.

_
_

_

_
_

-

. ^

-

-

-

-

-

40
2,910
720
-

490
24,900
9,610
-

3
-

_

130
-

610
-

1

90
~

180
“

91
23
9
-

15, 900
3,560
300
-

63,500
19,600
10,100
-

22

11

_
_

-

-

1,080
50

34,500
1, 510

“

-

-

“

2

---- -------

16,700

11

1 In the industry groups for which no data are presented the Bureau has not recorded any stoppages during 1955.
2 In some States the total number of stoppages shown as well as the total number o f manufacturing or nonmanufacturing stoppages may be less than
the sum of the figures below because a few stoppages extending into 2 or m ore industry groups have been counted in each industry group affected; work­
ers involved and man-days idle were divided among the respective groups.
3 Idleness in 1955 resulting from stoppages that began in the preceding year.
4 Stoppages involving municipally operated utilities are included under "transportation, communication, and other public utilities."







33
A ppendix B

Scope, Methods, and Definitions— Work Stoppage Statistics 1
The Bureau’ s statistics include all work stoppages
occurring in the continental United States, known to the
Bureau of Labor Statistics and its cooperating agencies, in­
volving as many as six workers and lasting the equivalent
of a full day or shift or longer. Work stoppages are measured
in terms of the number of stoppages, workers involved, and
man-days of idleness.

Definitions
Strike or Lockout.— A strike is defined as a tem­
porary stoppage of work by a group of employees to express
a grievance or enforce a demand. A lockout is a temporary
withholding of work from a group of employees by an em­
ployer (or a group of employers) in order to induce the em­
ployees to accept the employer terms. Because of the com­
plexities involved in most labor-management disputes, the
Bureau makes no effort to determine whether the stoppages
are initiated by the workers or the employers. The terms
“ strike” and “ work stoppage” are used interchangeably in
this report.

Workers and Id len ess.— Figures on “ workers in­
volved” and “ man-days idle” include all workers made idle
for one shift or longer in establishments directly involved
in a stoppage. They do not measure secondary idleness—
that is, the effects of a stoppage on other establishments
or industries whose employees may be made idle as a result
of material or service shortages.

The total number of workers involved in strikes in a
given year counts workers more than once if they were in­
volved in more than one stoppage during that year. (Thus,
in 1949,365,000 to 400,000 coal miners struck on 3 different
occasion s, accounting for about half of the year’ s total of
3,030,000 workers.) In 1955, some Westinghouse employees
were idled in more than 1 stoppage and were counted ac­
cordingly in the year’ s totals.
In some prolonged stoppages, it is necessary to esti­
mate in part, the total man-days of idleness, if the exact
number of workers idle each day is not known. Whenever
possible, significant changes in the number of workers idle
are secured from the parties for use in computing man-days
of idleness.
Idleness as Percent o f Total Working Time.— In com­
puting the number of workers involved in strikes as a percent
of total employment and idleness as a percent of total working
time, the following figures for total employed workers have
been used:
From 1927 to 1950 all employees except those
in occupations and professions in which little, if any,
union organization existed or in which stoppages
rarely, if ever, occurred. In most industries, all wage
and salary workers were included except those in
executive, managerial, or high supervisory positions,
or those performing professional work the nature of
which makes union organization or group action un­
likely. The figure excluded all self-employed; do­
mestic workers; workers on farms employing fewer
than six persons; all Federal and State Government
employees; and officia ls, both elected and appointed,
in local governments.




Beginning in 1951 the Bureau’ s estimates of
total nonagricultural employment, exclusive of gov­
ernment, have been used. Actually idleness computed
on the basis of nonagricultural employment (exclusive
of government) usually differs by less than one-tenth
of a percentage point from that obtained by the former
method, while the percentage of workers idle (com­
pared to total employment) differs by no more than
0.5 and 0.6 of a point. For example, the percentage
of workers idle during 1950 computed on the same
base as the figures for earlier years is 6.9, and the
percent of idleness is 0.44, compared with 6.3 and
0.40, respectively, computed on the new base.
“ Estimated working time” is computed by multiplying
the average number of workers employed during the year by
the number of days typically worked by most employees. In
the computations, Saturdays (when customarily not worked),
Sundays, and established holidays as provided in most union
contracts are excluded from the total.
The same procedure has been used in preparing the
estimates of idleness by State. Although the number of h oli­
days varies somewhat from one part of the country to another,
and there are other minor differences in the amount of
working time from area to area, correction for such differ­
ences would not appreciably affect the percentages of idle­
ness presented by State. For example, if idleness computed
on the assumption of 6 holidays annually amounted to 2
percent of total working time, in a given State, it would
amount to only 2.02 percent of working time if allowance
were made for 8 holidays; if idleness amounted to less than
1 percent of total working time the idleness ratios would
not be changed at all within the margin of rounding whether
there were 6 or 8 holidays.
Duration.— Although only workdays are used in com­
puting man-days of total idleness, duration is expressed in
terms of calendar days, including nonworkdays.
State Data.— Stoppages occurring in more than one
State are listed separately in each State affected. The
workers and man-days of idleness are allocated among each
of the affected States. 2
Metropolitan Area Data.— Beginning with 1952, data
were tabulated separately for 182 metropolitan areas. In
1955, the number, of these areas was increased to 205. In­
formation for earlier years was confined to city boundaries.
The metropolitan area boundaries conform to the Standard
Metropolitan Area definitions issued by the Bureau of the
Budget as of January 29, 1949, with subsequent revisions.
In addition to these areas, a few communities included in
the strike series in previous years have been retained.
Some metropolitan areas include counties in more than
one State, and, hence, statistics for an area may occasionally
equal or exceed the total for the State in which the major

* More detailed information on methods of calculation, sources,
and classification is available in Bull. No. 1168, Techniques of Preparing
Major BLS Statistical Series, December 1954 (p. 106).
2 The same procedure is followed in allocating data on stoppages
occurring in more than one industry group, industry, or metropolitan area.

34

city is located (e .g ., the number of strikes recorded in the
New York-Northeastern New Jersey metropolitan area, which
includes greater New York and the surrounding areas as well
as 8 counties in Northeastern New Jersey, exceeded the
strikes recorded for New York State in 1953 and 1955).
Unions Involved.— Those directly participating in the
dispute although the count of workers includes all who are
made idle for one shift or longer in establishments directly
involved in the dispute, including members of other unions
and nonunion workers.

Source o f Information
Occurrence o f Strikes.— Information as to actual or
probable existence of work stoppages is collected from a
number of sources. Clippings on labor disputes are obtained
from a comprehensive coverage of daily and weekly news­
papers throughout the country. Information is received daily
from the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service. Other
sources of information include State boards of mediation and
arbitration, research divisions of State labor department
o ffices, and local office s of State employment security agen­
cie s, provided through the Bureau of Employment Security
of the U. S. Department of Labor. Some employer associa ­
tions, companies, and unions also furnish the Bureau with
work stoppage information on a regular cooperative basis.
Respondents to Questionnaire.— A questionnaire, ap­
proved by the Bureau of the Budget, is mailed to the parties
reported as involved in work stoppages to obtain information
on the number of workers involved, duration, major issues,
location (State and metropolitan areas), method of settle­
ment, and other pertinent information.
Limitations o f Data.— Although the Bureau seeks to
obtain complete coverage, a “ census” of all strikes involv­
ing six or more workers and lasting a full shift or more, in­




formation is undoubtedly missing on some of the smaller
strikes. Presumably, addition of these missing strikes would
not measurably affect the figures for number of workers and
man-days of idleness.
In its efforts to improve the completeness of the count
of stoppages, the Bureau has been alert to changing needs
to develop new sources of information as to the probable
existence of such stoppages. These sources have probably
increased the number of strikes recorded, but have had little
effect on the number of workers or total idleness.
In 1943, the Bureau set up a cooperative arrangement
with the Solid Fuels Administration which resulted in reports
on several hundred strikes involving coal miners not recorded
from any other sources. These strikes numbered about 5 per­
cent of all strikes in that year. When this agency went out
of existence, cooperative arrangements for obtaining reports
on work stoppages were made with a number of coal associa­
tions and several hundred companies in areas not served by
associations.
Beginning in mid-1950, a new source of strike “ leads”
was added through a cooperative arrangement with the Bureau
of Employment Security of the U. S. Department of Labor by
which local offices of State employment security agencies
supply monthly reports on work stoppages coming to their
attention. It is estimated that this increased the number of
strikes reported in 1950 by about 5 percent and in 1951 and
1952 by approximately 10 percent. Since most of these
stoppages were small, they increased the number of workers
involved and man-days of idleness by less than 2 percent
in 1950 and by less than 3 percent in 1951 and 1952. T ests
of the effect of this added source of information have not
been made since 1952.
As new local agencies having knowledge of the exist­
ence of work stoppages are established, or changes are
made in their collection methods, every effort is made to
establish cooperative arrangements with them.
U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1956 O -389362


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102