Full text of Agricultural News Letter : Vol. 10, No. 5
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AGRICULTURAL NEWS L E T T E R F E D E R A L ___ R E S E R V E Vol. 10, No. 5 B A N K OF D A L L A S DALLAS, TEXAS May 15, 1955 CONE-TYPE INSECT-SPRAY NOZZLES MORE EFFECTIVE During the 3-year period 1952-54, tests were conducted by Texas A. & M. College to determine the best type and arrangement of spray nozzles for applying insecticides to control cotton bollworms and boll weevils. The yields of seed cotton obtained in 1954 by using the different types of nozzles and nozzle arrangements are shown in the ac companying chart. A six-row, rear-mounted tractor sprayer was used in the tests. There were two types of spray nozzles; four nozzle arrangements were compared. One nozzle produced a hollow-cone spray; and the other, a flat, fan shaped spray pattern. In the 1954 test, insecticides were applied at the rate of 4.5 gallons of spray an acre. The per acre plant population in the seven plots ranged from 28,050 to 31,950, with an average of 29,800 plants per acre. The dif ference in the plant population of the vari ous plots was not significant. Equal amounts of active insecticidal in gredients were applied with each of the nozzle arrangements or treatments. The dif ferences in the number of nozzles used for the treatments required that the sizes of the nozzle openings be varied in order to apply uniform amounts of spray material. The results of these tests show that the sprayed plots yielded approximately half a bale more per acre than the unsprayed plots. Yields of cotton were higher on plots sprayed with nozzles producing a hollow-cone spray pattern than on plots sprayed with nozzles producing a flat, fan-shaped spray pattern. E F F E C T OF N O ZZ LE T Y P E AND A R R A N G E M E N T - 1 9 5 4 FAN-TYPE N O Z Z L ES CONE-TYPE N O Z Z L E S CHECK PLOT NO SPRAY ONE N O Z Z LE P E R ROW TW O NOZZLES P E R ROW N O Z Z L E SPACED N O Z Z L E S PA C E D TH REE NO ZZLES 2 0 A P A R T ON 2 0 A P A R T ON P E R ROW BO O M BO OM 5T l | t % sk 1 4 k4w 1 i ONE N O ZZLE P E R ROW iwv^/mV'VvTz// 2 Hif kt Y IE L D P E R ACRE - POUNDS OF SEED COTTON 565 1148 1079 1024 1118 968 979 IN C R EA SED Y IELD OVER CHECK PLO T-PO UN D S OF SEED COTTON 583 514 459 553 403 414 4^ 2 AGRICULTURAL NEWS LETTER Also, yields were greater when the insecti cide was applied with one hollow-cone spray nozzle directly over the cotton row than when it was applied with two or three hollowcone spray nozzles to the top and sides of the row of cotton plants. Additive for Milk-Replacer Formulas A discovery by R. E. Leighton of the Texas A. & M. College Dairy Husbandry Department will make it possible for new born calves to be raised more economically and safely. An additive for milkreplacer formulas has been developed which provides needed fa t and, at the same time, prevents scours. The material is a derivative from a by-product of vegetable-oil refining. Feeding a calf whole milk costs about 50 cents per day, while the formula with the new antiscour additive costs about 15 cents per day. The change from colostrum milk to the milk-replacer formula can be made abruptly. Earlier tests using a replacer formula showed that calves gained better and more steadily than when they were raised on whole milk. The replacement formula with the antiscour additive is being tested on calves to determine its effectiveness in pro moting growth. Field counts to determine insect infesta tion should be the guide for determining whether control measures are needed on in sect-infested small grains. Low-Calcium, High-Phosphorous Diets Reduce Milk Fever Cows fed a low-calcium, high-phosphor ous diet a month before freshening are less susceptible to milk fever, says E. E. Ander son, dairy specialist at New Mexico A. & M. College. Scientists believe that milk fever is caused by a shortage of calcium in an animal’s blood stream shortly after calving and that the parathyroid glands help regulate the dis tribution of calcium between the bones and the blood. A cow needs large amounts of calcium when she is being milked, but, at other times, less calcium is required and the parathyroid glands become inactive. When a calf is born, there is a heavy and sudden withdrawal of calcium from the cow’s blood. Because the glands do not ad just readily to this sudden change, proper regulation of the calcium supply may not take place rapidly enough and the cow may get milk fever. Lowering the amount of cal cium in the feed a month prior to freshening forces the glands into action in order to build up calcium in the blood. Under actual farm conditions, cows were tested in a herd which had been particularly troubled by outbreaks of milk fever. None of the cows fed a low-calcium diet of oat Mr. Leighton’s replacement formula now hay, barley, and phosphorous supplement includes 55 pounds of dried skim milk, 35 for 30 days before calving showed any symp pounds of dried whey, 10 pounds of anti toms of milk fever. In the herd used as the scour additive, 1 pound of an antibiotic control group, several of the cows fed a highsource, and about lA pound of stabilized calcium alfalfa diet contracted milk fever. vitamin-A source. Tips on Coastal Bermuda The highest forage yields by Sudan in 3year tests at the Blackland Experiment Sta tion near Temple were made by Tift, Piper, and Sweet strains. Coastal Bermuda grass offers an excellent opportunity to increase forage production in areas where it is adapted and managed properly, according to E. M. Trew, Exten- AGRICULTURAL NEWS LETTER sion pasture specialist at Texas A. & M. College. The advantages of the taller-growing Coastal Bermuda grass over the Common variety are as follows. Coastal Bermuda — ♦ Produces more hay or provides more grazing per acre. ♦ Is deeper-rooted and more droughttolerant. ♦ Makes a better hay plant because of longer and larger stems and leaves. ♦ Is more resistant to disease. ♦ Uses water and fertilizers more effici ently. ♦ Is established more quickly under good growing conditions. ♦ Provides grazing later in the fall. F arm ers should sta rt w ith a sm all nursery p lo t and g ro w t h e i r ow n p la n tin g material. From 9 to 12 bushels of sprigs are required to plant an acre in rows 3-feet wide. Sprigs s h o u ld be s p a c e d 12 to 18 inches apart in the ro w f o r n u r s e r y planting and not more than 3 feet apart for field-scale plantings. Hand-drop the sprigs into a shallow fur row, pack the soil around them, cover the sprigs with 2 to 3 inches of soil, and then pack the soil again. Coastal Bermuda sprigs should be planted in moist soil or watered after planting. Coastal Bermuda gives exceptional re sponse to fertilizer and produces well under “medium fertility” but does not grow satis factorily on poor soils. Best results are ob 3 tained by planting sprigs in a clean seed bed. Coastal Bermuda sprigs should not be planted in sods of Common Bermuda, Dallis, or other established grasses. Reseeded Ranges Profitable The reseeding of ranges should be planned as carefully as a cash crop, states G. O. Hoff man, Extension range specialist of Texas A. & M. College. Many Texas ranchmen have felt that re seeding is not profitable. Reseeding attempts have failed as a result of planting at the wrong time, improperly prepared seedbeds, lack of seedling protection and weed control, and grazing reseeded pastures before plants become well established. It is recommended that new grass not be grazed the first year or until the plant crowns are at least 1 inch in diameter. Pastures should be grazed only after new grasses have a firm foothold, and then care should be taken not to overgraze them. Seeding of adapted grasses gives the quickest response in fields that have been out of cultivation for long periods. The grasses should be planted in rows and packed with a roller or cultipacker. The best time to reseed in west Texas is April, May, or June. The range specialist advises farmers that, if as much as 15 percent of the native key grasses are still present, deferred grazing is a better and cheaper method of improving pastures than reseeding. Plan Now for Grain Harvest Farmers should plan now for the storage space they will need for grain crops this year, advises W. S. Allen, Extension agri cultural engineer of Texas A. & M. College. The grain producer should consider his acreage and crop prospects and check the availability of storage space at local com- 4 AGRICULTURAL NEWS LETTER mercial elevators. Officials of the county Agricultural Stabilization Service may be able to provide information on current stor age facilities and the construction of farm storage units. Wheat grown in Louisiana may be pur chased from producers without requiring them to have wheat marketing cards. If they plan to ship wheat outside the State, market ing cards — stamped with the words “Non commercial Area” — may be obtained from the Agricultural Stabilization Committee. The United States Department of Agricul ture recently announced that the 1955 wheat crop must meet minimum standards of the Federal Food and Drug Administration in Egg producers who are interested in in order to be eligible for price support loans creasing efficiency should have flocks o f or for delivery under price support agree 1,000 or more hens, according to Ben ments. The standards require that the grain Wormeli, Extension poultry husbandman at be kept clean and free of rodent and insect Texas A. & M. College. As the flock size in damage. creases, efficiency rises and the cost of pro ducing eggs is reduced. All empty bins should be cleaned and a residual spray applied to walls, floors, and overhead beams. The recommended spray Hybrid Sorghums contains 2Vi percent DDT or methoxychlor applied at a rate of 2 gallons for each 1,000 The new hybrid grain sorghums are ex square feet of surface area. pected to yield 30 to 40 percent more grain, according to specialists at the Texas A. & M. In order to reduce contamination of grain College Experiment Station. The first com by weevils, commercial feed and seed should mercial hybrid grain sorghums produced not be kept in buildings used for grain stor anywhere in the world will be grown in age. Junk piles, fence rows, and stacks of Texas this year in 1-acre crossing plots on wood near the granary should be eliminated, selected farms. since they may harbor rodents. Traps or poison should be used to control rats and Foundation seed stocks will be distributed mice. to seed growers in 1956, and the new hybrids will be available to farmers for large-scale Check storage bins for cracks and other planting in 1957. openings through which grain may be lost or rodents may enter. Weeds should be Since 1927, research has been under way cleared around the buildings, and the soil on the development of hybrid grain sor should be sterilized. ghums at the Chillicothe Substation of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station. Wheat Marketing Cards Unnecessary in Louisiana Louisiana farm ers may harvest and market wheat without incurring penalties under the crop control program, according to the Louisiana A gricultural Stabilization and Conservation Committee. In Louisiana, most wheat is grown as a spring grazing crop; consequently, last fall the State was declared a noncommercial wheat area. A recent estimate shows that 14 percent of Texas cropland is irrigated, and from it, comes 35 percent of the State's income from crops. According to a release from Texas A. & M. College, 5,439,603 acres on 33,937 farms located in 225 Texas counties are now under irrigation. The Agricultural News Letter is prepared in the Research Department under the direction of J. Z. R owe, Agricultural Economist.