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Occupational Compensation Survey: Pay Only  Richmond–Petersburg, VA, Metropolitan Area, August 1996  ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 3085-36  ________________________________________________________________ Preface This bulletin provides results of an August 1996 survey of occupational pay in the Richmond–Petersburg, VA Metropolitan Statistical Area. This survey was conducted as part of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Compensation Survey Program. Data from this program are for use in implementing the Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990. The survey was conducted by the Bureau's regional office in Philadelphia, under the direction of John W. Filemyr, Assistant Regional Commissioner for Operations. The survey could not have been conducted without the cooperation of the many private firms and government jurisdictions that provided pay data included in this bulletin. The Bureau thanks these respondents for their cooperation.  For additional information regarding this survey or similar surveys conducted in this regional area, please contact the BLS Philadelphia Regional Office at (215) 596-1154. You may also write to the Bureau of Labor Statistics at: Office of Compensation Levels and Trends, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Room 4175, Washington, D.C. 20212-0001 or call the Occupational Compensation Survey Program information line at (202) 606-6220. Material in this bulletin is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 606-STAT; TDD phone: (202) 606-5897; TDD message referral phone: 1-800-326-2577.  For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government  For an account of a similar survey conducted in 1995, see  Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, GPO bookstores, and the  Occupational Compensation Survey: Petersburg, VA, BLS Bulletin 3080-31.  Bureau of Labor Statistics, Publications Sales Center, P.O. Box 2145, Chicago, IL 60690-2145.  Pay  Only,  Richmond-  Occupational Compensation Survey: Pay Only  Richmond–Petersburg, VA, Metropolitan Area, August 1996  ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  U.S. Department of Labor Robert B. Reich, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Katharine G. Abraham, Commissioner January 1997 Bulletin 3085-36  Contents Page  Page  Introduction ..............................................................................................................  2  Tables—Continued  Tables: Establishments employing 500 workers or more: All establishments: A-1.  administrative occupations ......................................................... A-2.  3  Weekly hours and pay of technical and protective service occupations ...................................................................  6  A-3.  Weekly hours and pay of clerical occupations ..............................  7  A-4.  Hourly pay of maintenance and toolroom occupations ................................................................................  A-5.  Weekly hours and pay of technical and protective service occupations ...................................................................  13  A-8.  Weekly hours and pay of clerical occupations ...............................  14  A-9.  Hourly pay of maintenance and toolroom  A-10.  Hourly pay of material movement and custodial  occupations ................................................................................ occupations ................................................................................  15 16  9  Hourly pay of material movement and custodial occupations ................................................................................  10 Appendixes:  Establishments employing 500 workers or more: A-6.  A-7.  Weekly hours and pay of professional and  Weekly hours and pay of professional and administrative occupations .........................................................  11  A.  Scope and method of survey .........................................................  A-1  B.  Occupational descriptions ..............................................................  B-1  Introduction  households) employing 50 workers or more and to State and local governments and (2) adding more professional, administrative, technical, and protective service occupations to the surveys.  This survey of occupational pay in the Richmond–Petersburg, VA Metropolitan Statistical Area (the cities of Colonial Heights, Hopewell, Petersburg, and Richmond, and the counties of Charles City, Chesterfield, Dinwiddie, Goochland, Hanover, Henrico, New Kent, Powhatan, and Prince George) was conducted as part of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Compensation Survey Program. The survey is one of a number conducted annually in metropolitan areas throughout the United States. (See listing of reports for other surveys at the end of this bulletin.) A major objective of the Occupational Compensation Survey Program is to describe the level and distribution of occupational pay in a variety of the Nation's local labor markets, using a consistent survey approach. Another Program objective is to provide information on the incidence of employee benefits among and within local labor markets. However, no benefits data were collected for this survey. The Program develops information that is used for a variety of purposes, including wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and assistance in determining business or plant location. Survey results also are used by the U.S. Department of Labor in making wage determinations under the Service Contract Act, and by the President's Pay Agent (the Secretary of Labor and Directors of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management and the U.S. Office of Management and Budget) in determining local pay adjustments under the Federal Employee Pay Comparability Act of 1990. This latter requirement resulted in: (1) Expanding the survey's industrial coverage to include all private nonfarm establishments (except  Pay The A-series tables provide estimates of straight-time weekly or hourly pay by occupation. Tables A-1 through A-5 provide data for selected white- and bluecollar occupations common to a variety of industries. Tables A-6 through A-10 include similar information, but are limited to establishments employing 500 workers or more. Occupational pay information is presented for all industries covered by the survey and, where possible, for private industry (e.g., for goods- and serviceproducing industries) and for State and local governments. Within private industry, more detailed information is presented to the extent that the survey establishment sample can support such detail. Appendixes Appendix A describes the concepts, methods, and coverage used in the Occupational Compensation Survey Program. It also includes information on the area's industrial composition and the reliability of occupational pay estimates. Appendix B includes the descriptions used by Bureau field economists to classify workers in the survey occupations.  2  Table A-1. All establishments: Weekly hours and pay of professional and administrative occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996  Occupation and level  Average Number weekly hours1 of workers (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  350 and under 400  400 450  450 500  500 550  550 600  600 650  650 700  700 750  750 800  800 850  850 900  900 950  950 1000  1000 1100  1100 1200  1200 1300  1300 1400  1400 1500  1500 1600  1600 1700  1700 and over  PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS Accountants Level I ....................................................... Private industry .....................................  262 101  39.5 39.0  $539 529  $539 513  $482 423  – –  $590 603  – –  16 32  16 12  24 19  19 12  19 11  3 8  3 7  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ............................... Service-producing industries ............  679 538 149 149 389  39.5 39.4 39.7 39.7 39.3  611 606 639 639 593  593 580 684 684 577  538 534 488 488 538  – – – – –  683 683 727 727 646  – – – – –  – – – – –  10 12 27 27 6  20 22 8 8 28  22 21 5 5 27  14 12 4 4 15  12 12 12 12 13  13 12 24 24 7  7 6 11 11 4  1 1 3 3 ( 3)  ( 3) ( 3) 1 1 –  1 1 4 4 –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............ State and local government ..................  631 506 294 125  39.7 39.6 39.6 39.9  809 828 812 731  788 827 810 736  696 708 708 658  – – – –  916 946 895 805  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  2 2 – 2  4 4 6 2  6 3 2 20  14 14 17 15  10 10 6 13  16 14 18 22  15 12 16 24  7 9 11 2  6 8 10 1  6 8 6 –  12 15 5 –  ( 3) ( 3) – –  2 2 3 –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  Level IV ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ............................... Service-producing industries ............  250 169 100 100 69  39.7 39.6 39.6 39.6 39.6  1,036 1,086 1,088 1,088 1,084  992 1,058 1,062 1,062 –  920 940 927 927 –  – – – – –  1,157 1,233 1,204 1,204 –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  1 – – – –  1 – – – –  3 – – – –  9 9 12 12 6  9 5 8 8 –  16 15 12 12 20  14 16 14 14 19  13 8 6 6 12  13 15 20 20 9  12 18 11 11 28  6 8 9 9 7  2 4 6 6 –  – – – – –  1 1 2 2 –  – – – – –  Attorneys Level III ..................................................... State and local government ..................  74 56  39.4 39.9  1,048 967  – 899  – 860  – –  – 1,008  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  18 23  22 29  8 11  11 11  11 11  8 7  4 2  4 2  8 –  5 5  – –  1 –  Engineers Level I ....................................................... Private industry .....................................  62 57  40.0 40.0  703 707  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  11 12  23 25  5 –  6 4  6 7  16 18  23 25  6 7  3 4  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ...............................  514 291 221 221  39.9 39.8 39.7 39.7  784 854 864 864  770 878 888 888  644 760 762 762  – – – –  888 974 984 984  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  2 – – –  9 4 5 5  15 9 11 11  5 1 – –  12 10 8 8  12 9 8 8  13 10 6 6  8 14 12 12  8 13 14 14  9 15 16 16  6 11 15 15  1 2 3 3  ( 3) ( 3) ( 3) ( 3)  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ...............................  888 610 472 454  39.7 39.5 39.4 39.4  976 1,043 1,040 1,042  981 1,035 1,023 1,024  863 958 935 935  – – – –  1,092 1,135 1,135 1,135  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  1 – – –  3 – – –  7 2 2 2  5 1 1 1  8 5 5 6  9 6 7 6  13 11 12 13  11 13 13 12  20 28 25 26  15 21 18 18  6 8 10 10  3 4 6 6  ( 3) ( 3) ( 3) ( 3)  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  Level IV ..................................................... Private industry .....................................  686 547  39.9 39.9  1,177 1,230  1,182 1,235  1,099 1,153  – –  1,283 1,303  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  ( 3) –  1 –  2 –  1 –  1 –  5 2  16 7  27 32  26 33  16 20  4 5  1 1  – –  – –  Level V ...................................................... Private industry .....................................  482 467  39.8 39.8  1,384 1,390  1,387 1,388  1,305 1,317  – –  1,447 1,449  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  1 1  9 8  13 13  34 35  28 28  7 7  3 3  4 4  Level VI .....................................................  90  39.7  1,612  1,570  1,505  –  1,777  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  1  4  13  3  2  32  7  See footnotes at end of table.  3  4  37  Table A-1. All establishments: Weekly hours and pay of professional and administrative occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996 — Continued  Occupation and level  Average Number weekly hours1 of workers (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  350 and under 400  400 450  450 500  500 550  550 600  600 650  650 700  700 750  750 800  800 850  850 900  900 950  950 1000  1000 1100  1100 1200  1200 1300  1300 1400  1400 1500  1500 1600  1600 1700  1700 and over  ADMINISTRATIVE OCCUPATIONS Buyers/Contracting Specialists Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ...............................  139 77 54 54  39.4 39.0 39.7 39.7  $700 746 742 742  $688 – – –  $635 – – –  – – – –  $742 – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  6 – – –  7 – – –  28 27 24 24  17 18 24 24  18 21 22 22  8 8 11 11  1 – – –  6 10 – –  9 16 19 19  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry .....................................  90 64  40.0 40.0  925 994  989 –  787 –  – –  1,046 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  4 –  6 –  11 9  7 3  11 5  1 –  6 8  11 16  36 48  6 8  1 2  1 2  – –  – –  – –  – –  Computer Programmers Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  365 309 282  39.6 39.6 39.6  609 613 600  606 608 606  577 577 577  – – –  642 642 642  – – –  – – –  16 16 17  7 4 4  16 17 18  36 39 41  14 15 14  5 3 2  5 6 2  1 1 1  ( 3) ( 3) –  ( 3) ( 3) –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ............................... Service-producing industries ............  644 482 74 68 408  39.7 39.5 39.9 39.9 39.5  740 753 797 793 745  733 742 – – 738  673 690 – – 684  – – – – –  790 797 – – 788  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  4 – – – –  10 4 – – 5  22 26 11 12 29  20 22 19 21 23  20 24 28 31 23  13 14 15 12 13  4 4 9 6 3  3 4 18 19 2  2 1 – – 1  1 1 – – 1  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  Computer Systems Analysts Level I ....................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  163 162 80  39.4 39.4 39.8  844 845 782  859 860 818  804 808 671  – – –  917 917 862  – – –  – – –  – – –  1 1 1  4 4 7  7 6 13  2 2 5  2 2 4  9 9 13  18 18 19  26 27 30  15 15 6  10 10 –  6 6 2  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ............................... Service-producing industries ............  983 804 144 144 660  39.6 39.6 39.8 39.8 39.5  911 923 964 964 915  908 918 904 904 922  824 850 881 881 830  – – – – –  991 1,000 1,098 1,098 995  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  3 3 – – 4  6 4 – – 5  10 10 – – 12  10 8 8 8 8  15 14 20 20 13  22 23 32 32 22  10 11 5 5 13  16 18 17 17 18  7 8 17 17 6  ( 3) ( 3) 1 1 3 ( )  ( 3) ( 3) – – 1  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  680 516 387  39.5 39.3 39.1  1,075 1,096 1,056  1,066 1,072 1,042  972 978 944  – – –  1,162 1,224 1,150  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  2 2 3  2 2 2  5 4 5  5 4 5  7 8 10  11 11 12  32 27 29  14 14 14  12 15 11  6 7 4  5 6 4  – – –  ( 3) ( 3) –  – – –  Level IV ..................................................... Private industry .....................................  124 124  39.9 39.9  1,288 1,288  1,381 1,381  1,012 1,012  – –  1,462 1,462  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  4 4  8 8  5 5  7 7  6 6  4 4  5 5  18 18  23 23  14 14  6 6  2 2  Computer Systems Analyst Supervisors/Managers Level I .......................................................  95  39.9  1,157  1,149  1,081  –  1,201  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  4  6  2  21  25  33  2  –  3  2  1  Level II ......................................................  64  38.8  1,379  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  3  8  16  33  19  13  9  –  See footnotes at end of table.  4  Table A-1. All establishments: Weekly hours and pay of professional and administrative occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996 — Continued  Occupation and level  Average Number weekly hours1 of workers (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  350 and under 400  400 450  450 500  500 550  550 600  600 650  650 700  700 750  750 800  800 850  850 900  900 950  950 1000  1000 1100  1100 1200  1200 1300  1300 1400  1400 1500  1500 1600  1600 1700  1700 and over  Personnel Specialists Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  267 118 83  39.7 39.4 39.2  $630 589 557  $625 592 536  $563 500 500  – – –  $713 644 620  ( 3) 1 1  3 7 10  5 9 13  14 23 33  17 15 17  22 20 6  10 7 10  15 11 8  10 3 1  5 4 1  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ............................... Service-producing industries ............  345 222 64 61 158  39.5 39.2 39.8 39.8 38.9  781 788 873 874 754  769 769 – – 721  683 673 – – 656  – – – – –  852 865 – – 815  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  ( 3) ( 3) – – 1  2 3 – – 4  13 13 3 3 17  12 12 6 7 14  19 18 – – 26  13 13 23 25 9  16 13 17 18 11  8 7 13 8 4  3 4 9 10 1  9 9 8 8 9  4 6 16 16 3  1 1 5 5 –  1 1 – – 1  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  Level IV ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  149 107 59  39.4 39.1 38.9  1,067 1,108 1,123  1,005 1,010 –  948 964 –  – – –  1,217 1,330 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  3 3 5  1 – –  9 8 –  1 – –  12 7 7  13 13 14  30 26 32  4 5 5  7 9 10  10 14 3  10 14 24  – – –  – – –  – – –  1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. 2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to compute means, medians, and middle ranges. 3 Less than 0.5 percent.  4 Workers were distributed as follows: 12 percent at $1,700 and under $1,800; 3 percent at $1,800 and under $1,900; 10 percent at $1,900 and under $2,000; 8 percent at $2,000 and under $2,100; 1 percent at $2,100 and under $2,200; and 2 percent at $2,200 and under $2,300.  NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  5  Table A-2. All establishments: Weekly hours and pay of technical and protective service occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996  Occupation and level  Average Number weekly hours1 of workers (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  $576 667  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  325 and under 350  350 375  375 400  400 425  425 450  450 475  475 500  500 525  525 550  550 575  575 600  600 625  625 650  650 675  675 700  700 725  725 750  750 800  800 850  850 900  900 and over  – –  – –  – –  9 –  4 –  5 2  7 7  7 7  10 5  7 2  17 7  5 7  3 6  3 5  3 5  1 2  3 7  – –  2 5  14 30  – –  TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS Computer Operators Level III ..................................................... Private industry .....................................  174 81  39.9 39.9  $599 694  Drafters Level III .....................................................  70  40.0  622  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  9  –  1  3  4  –  24  31  –  1  4  3  10  –  –  9  –  Engineering Technicians, Civil Level II: State and local government ..................  47  40.0  411  398  369  –  427  9  19  26  13  19  2  2  2  4  4  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  3  3  3  $499 586  – –  $662 856  3  Level III ..................................................... State and local government ..................  201 186  40.0 40.0  488 485  471 451  431 422  – –  539 539  – –  ( ) 1  2 2  22 24  20 22  7 8  5 4  9 6  13 12  3 3  13 13  3 3  ( ) 1  ( ) 1  1 1  – –  ( ) 1  – –  – –  – –  – –  Level IV: State and local government ..................  295  40.0  606  615  515  –  678  –  –  –  –  –  –  17  10  9  5  7  8  13  6  7  11  2  1  4  –  –  Corrections Officers: State and local government ......................  1,175  40.0  444  412  403  –  482  –  16  1  36  5  13  9  3  12  2  1  1  –  ( 3)  ( 3)  ( 3)  –  –  Firefighters: State and local government ......................  851  52.9  738  730  645  –  805  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  2  1  10  5  8  5  8  Police Officers Level I ....................................................... State and local government ..................  1,956 1,941  40.0 40.0  643 644  593 593  556 556  – –  712 715  ( 3) –  ( 3) –  1 1  2 2  3 3  2 2  3 3  2 2  8 8  19 19  15 15  4 4  6 6  5 5  Level II ...................................................... State and local government ..................  9 9  40.0 40.0  844 844  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. 2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to  –  ( 3)  –  2  14  16  15  5  8  3 3  3 4  3 3  4 4  8 8  2 2  7 7  – –  – –  – –  – –  78 78  22 22  – –  compute means, medians, and middle ranges. 3 Less than 0.5 percent. NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  6  Table A-3. All establishments: Weekly hours and pay of clerical occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996  Number of workers  Average weekly hours1 (standard)  Clerks, Accounting Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Service-producing industries ............ Transportation and utilities ...........  1,434 1,180 330 850 25  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ............................... Service-producing industries ............  Occupation and level  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Under 250  250 275  275 300  300 325  325 350  350 375  375 400  400 425  425 450  450 475  475 500  500 525  525 550  550 575  575 600  600 650  650 700  700 750  750 800  800 850  850 900  $421 408 445 392 –  – – – – –  – – – – –  6 7 1 9 –  13 12 10 14 –  16 16 9 19 16  20 22 27 20 40  14 14 8 16 4  9 9 8 9 32  8 6 17 2 –  6 4 5 4 8  3 3 5 2 –  1 2 6 – –  2 2 3 2 –  ( 3) ( 3) 1 – –  – – – – –  2 2 1 3 –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  482 484 – – 464  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  7 9 – – 12  10 6 – – 8  18 22 4 – 28  13 11 – – 14  7 5 – – 6  14 17 14 12 17  17 10 12 13 9  6 6 16 13 3  2 3 7 7 2  2 2 5 6 1  1 2 7 7 –  3 5 20 22 –  1 2 8 9 –  – – – – –  – – – – –  1 2 8 9 –  – – – – –  430  –  665  –  –  –  –  –  –  7  13  7  7  3  1  3  9  8  15  17  7  1  1  –  330 310 308  300 296 294  – – –  386 338 338  2 3 3  3 6 6  19 21 22  25 33 34  13 15 15  9 4 4  8 4 4  15 – –  7 13 12  ( 3) 1 –  – – –  ( 3) – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  422 417  422 420  370 368  – –  474 472  – –  2 2  4 4  5 5  4 4  11 12  11 11  15 16  12 12  12 11  7 5  14 15  2 2  1 ( 3)  1 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  563  478  –  563  –  –  –  –  –  1  9  8  3  3  6  6  2  49  12  2  –  –  –  –  –  Mean  Median  Middle range  39.9 39.9 39.7 39.9 40.0  $382 380 403 372 388  $366 365 383 358 –  $337 337 356 328 –  – – – – –  737 326 76 67 250  39.6 39.1 39.2 39.1 39.0  444 451 562 577 417  431 430 – – 410  390 391 – – 388  Level IV: Private industry .....................................  151  39.6  562  565  Clerks, General Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  1,263 512 500  40.0 40.0 40.0  341 326 323  Level III: Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  428 397  39.5 39.5  Level IV .....................................................  293  39.9  523  Key Entry Operators Level I: State and local government ..................  24  40.0  383  414  304  –  425  –  –  –  29  4  8  4  25  17  8  –  4  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  73 64 53  39.5 39.5 39.3  478 485 514  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  15 17 –  5 – –  1 – –  8 9 11  3 – –  15 17 21  5 6 8  16 19 23  1 – –  21 22 26  3 3 4  5 6 8  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Secretaries Level I ....................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............ State and local government ..................  208 149 148 59  39.2 39.4 39.4 38.6  388 381 381 407  385 385 385 395  347 346 346 376  – – – –  413 404 404 466  – – – –  – – – –  4 2 2 8  8 9 9 3  14 15 16 10  5 7 7 2  31 33 33 27  22 25 24 14  3 4 4 –  10 5 5 22  – – – –  2 – – 7  2 – – 7  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  1,192 702 674  39.3 39.0 39.1  476 481 479  482 481 475  426 424 424  – – –  512 534 528  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  2 1 1  3 2 1  6 5 5  13 18 18  8 8 8  16 16 17  18 10 10  15 14 14  3 3 3  12 20 20  2 2 1  2 3 1  ( 3) – –  ( 3) – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry: Service-producing industries ............ Transportation and utilities ........... State and local government ..................  973  39.5  570  551  494  –  623  –  –  –  –  ( 3)  1  2  3  5  8  8  11  10  14  8  10  8  4  4  1  3  – – –  3  3  2 – 3  4 – 2  8 – 3  10 4 11  10 4 8  16 11 12  8 11 18  10 4 25  11 – 3  15 44 8  4 7 4  2 15 2  – – –  – – 1  – – –  421 27 358  39.1 40.0 39.9  532 608 536  522 – 539  477 – 493  – – –  579 – 570  – – –  – – –  – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  7  ( ) – –  ( ) – 1  Table A-3. All establishments: Weekly hours and pay of clerical occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996 — Continued  Occupation and level  Level IV ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............ State and local government .................. Switchboard Operator-Receptionists: Private industry: Goods-producing industries .................. Service-producing industries: Transportation and utilities ............... State and local government ...................... Word Processors Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  Number of workers  Average weekly hours1 (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  $640 641 636 –  150 140 111 10  38.9 38.9 38.7 39.5  $641 646 630 571  160  39.7  358  39 42  40.0 39.2  398 349  203 193 193  39.2 39.2 39.2  445 442 442  435 424 424  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  $712 712 680 –  Under 250  250 275  275 300  300 325  325 350  350 375  375 400  400 425  425 450  450 475  475 500  500 525  525 550  550 575  575 600  600 650  650 700  700 750  750 800  800 850  850 900  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  1 1 2 –  1 1 2 –  1 – – 10  2 2 3 –  2 2 3 –  4 3 3 20  3 3 4 10  4 4 5 10  6 6 6 10  31 31 38 30  13 14 14 10  25 27 19 –  5 5 2 –  1 1 2 –  – – – –  $603 617 584 –  – – – –  320  320  –  387  6  –  –  48  13  3  6  7  13  –  –  2  –  –  –  –  –  –  2  –  –  – 339  – 280  – –  – 373  – –  – –  – 29  15 14  8 14  – 21  33 7  – –  36 5  8 –  – 10  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  372 372 372  – – –  536 536 536  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  16 17 17  10 10 10  11 11 11  11 11 11  11 12 12  4 4 4  7 5 5  4 2 2  9 9 9  7 7 7  8 8 8  2 2 2  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. 2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to  compute means, medians, and middle ranges. 3 Less than 0.5 percent. NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  8  Table A-4. All establishments: Hourly pay of maintenance and toolroom occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996 Hourly pay (in dollars)1 Occupation and level  Number of workers  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time hourly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  6.50 and under 7.00  7.00 7.50  7.50 8.00  8.00 8.50  8.50 9.00  9.00 9.50  9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 10.00 10.50 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 25.00  General Maintenance Workers .................. Private industry ......................................... Service-producing industries ................ State and local government ......................  822 660 633 162  $9.62 9.26 9.17 11.11  $9.50 9.00 9.00 10.69  $7.69 7.50 7.50 9.00  – $11.15 – 10.80 – 10.80 – 13.68  12 15 15 –  5 6 6 2  10 10 9 10  8 8 9 8  6 7 8 3  5 6 6 2  9 10 10 5  6 5 5 10  12 12 12 15  8 8 8 5  9 9 10 8  5 3 1 14  3 – – 14  ( 2) – – 2  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  Maintenance Electricians ........................... Private industry ......................................... Goods-producing industries .................. Manufacturing ................................... State and local government ......................  859 817 737 737 42  20.05 20.34 20.39 20.39 14.47  20.62 20.62 20.62 20.62 14.03  18.68 18.93 18.93 18.93 12.29  – – – – –  21.64 21.64 20.62 20.62 16.09  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  1 – – – 19  3 2 3 3 19  4 3 3 3 10  4 3 3 3 19  5 5 4 4 5  6 6 7 7 7  1 1 – – 10  8 8 9 9 –  1 ( 2) – – 12  41 43 48 48 –  6 6 – – –  – – – – –  ( 2) ( 2) – – –  20 21 23 23 –  Maintenance Machinists ............................ Private industry ......................................... Goods-producing industries .................. Manufacturing ...................................  684 680 677 677  17.39 17.42 17.41 17.41  15.53 15.53 15.53 15.53  15.53 15.53 15.53 15.53  – – – –  16.55 17.10 16.55 16.55  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  ( 2) – – –  1 1 1 1  2 2 2 2  1 1 1 1  65 65 66 66  5 5 5 5  1 1 1 1  – – – –  ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) ( 2)  6 6 6 6  ( 2) ( 2) – –  ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) ( 2)  – – – –  17 17 17 17  Maintenance Mechanics, Machinery ......... Private industry ......................................... Goods-producing industries .................. Manufacturing ...................................  1,916 1,916 1,855 1,837  19.54 19.54 19.56 19.64  20.62 20.62 20.62 20.62  15.53 15.53 15.53 15.53  – – – –  21.88 21.88 21.88 21.88  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) –  ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) –  ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) –  4 4 3 3  12 12 13 13  6 6 6 6  6 6 6 6  4 4 4 4  – – – –  8 8 8 8  ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) ( 2)  25 25 26 27  10 10 8 8  3 3 3 3  – – – –  21 21 22 22  Maintenance Mechanics, Motor Vehicle ... Private industry ......................................... Service-producing industries ................ Transportation and utilities ............... State and local government ......................  434 309 104 86 125  13.73 13.86 14.67 14.74 13.41  13.51 13.51 14.38 14.50 13.19  12.50 12.83 12.40 12.50 11.45  – – – – –  14.74 14.48 16.00 15.60 15.01  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  1 – – – 2  1 1 – – 2  2 1 4 5 3  3 – – – 9  12 12 8 9 13  14 12 20 12 19  35 44 7 8 14  11 13 24 29 8  12 9 12 14 21  2 2 6 7 3  3 3 7 – 4  1 ( 2) – – 2  3 5 13 16 1  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to compute means, medians, and middle ranges.  2  Less than 0.5 percent.  NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  9  Table A-5. All establishments: Hourly pay of material movement and custodial occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996 Hourly pay (in dollars)1 Occupation and level  Number of workers  Percent of workers receiving straight-time hourly pay (in dollars) of— 4.75 and under 5.00  5.00 5.50  5.50 6.00  6.00 6.50  6.50 7.00  7.00 7.50  7.50 8.00  8.00 8.50  8.50 9.00  9.00 9.50  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  ( 2) ( 2) 1 1 –  ( 2) ( 2) 1 1 –  ( 2) ( 2) 1 1 –  1 1 2 2 –  3 3 1 1 4  1 1 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1  13.43  –  –  –  –  –  10  1  34  6  5  1  3  1  2  9  5  7  6  9  –  –  –  –  7.50 6.33 8.12  25 39 –  8 10 4  13 11 16  13 16 8  9 5 16  7 4 11  9 4 20  3 1 5  3 3 4  4 4 5  2 1 3  2 1 5  1 1 3  ( 2) – 1  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  19.74 19.74 6.30  14 16 28  14 16 27  9 11 18  1 2 3  5 6 10  5 3 3  3 – –  1 – –  1 – –  3 – –  1 – –  2 – –  1 – –  7 9 –  – – –  1 2 3  5 5 9  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  26 30 –  – – –  9.00 9.00 10.43 8.77  – – – –  11.48 11.48 10.90 11.83  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  3 3 – 9  3 3 1 5  5 5 7 –  3 3 1 6  7 7 – 18  8 8 6 12  – – – –  37 37 58 1  4 4 7 –  16 16 6 31  – – – –  3 3 5 –  9 9 4 18  – – – –  2 2 4 –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  6.75 6.25 6.25  5.77 5.77 5.77  – – –  7.55 7.00 7.00  – – –  13 15 16  13 14 15  20 23 24  8 9 10  21 21 22  10 9 3  4 – –  2 – –  ( 2) ( 2) ( 2)  – – –  2 3 3  4 4 4  1 1 –  – – –  2 2 2  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  9.63 9.63  9.00 9.00  8.25 8.25  – –  12.35 12.35  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  7 7  10 10  16 16  3 3  24 24  12 12  – –  – –  1 1  25 25  3 3  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  626 544 82  10.83 10.99 9.78  10.00 10.09 8.95  8.00 8.00 8.71  – – –  12.81 13.29 11.16  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  ( 2) – 1  10 11 –  31 34 11  6 ( 2) 40  2 1 4  1 1 2  7 7 7  2 1 7  8 7 15  9 9 10  4 4 2  3 3 –  9 11 –  4 4 –  1 1 –  – – –  1 1 –  2 2 –  Tractor Trailer ........................................... Private industry .....................................  831 831  15.37 15.37  13.85 13.85  13.82 13.82  – –  18.06 18.06  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  ( 2) ( 2)  ( 2) ( 2)  ( 2) ( 2)  5 5  ( 2) ( 2)  1 1  2 2  2 2  7 7  32 32  – –  – –  – –  1 1  48 48  – –  – –  Warehouse Specialists .............................. Private industry ......................................... Service-producing industries ................ State and local government ......................  864 809 699 55  11.57 11.66 11.78 10.19  11.17 11.17 11.17 10.54  11.17 11.17 11.17 8.82  – – – –  12.58 12.73 12.73 11.27  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  2 2 2 –  5 5 6 –  3 3 4 4  1 ( 2) 2 ( ) 13  1 – – 13  1 – – 9  1 1 1 7  1 1 1 2  9 10 – 7  44 44 47 40  20 22 25 4  1 ( 2) 1 2  3 3 4 –  1 1 1 –  – – – –  7 8 9 –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  Mean  Median  1,095 1,095 336 336 759  $13.17 13.17 13.37 13.37 13.08  $11.73 11.73 11.53 11.53 12.86  Guards Level II ......................................................  99  10.72  8.63  8.44  –  Janitors ........................................................ Private industry ......................................... State and local government ......................  3,445 2,230 1,215  6.44 5.90 7.44  6.18 5.50 7.24  4.90 4.75 6.45  – – –  Material Handling Laborers ....................... Private industry ......................................... Service-producing industries ................  346 293 174  10.59 10.93 6.47  7.72 6.55 5.12  5.12 5.01 4.75  Shipping/Receiving Clerks ........................ Private industry ......................................... Goods-producing industries .................. Service-producing industries ................  514 513 322 191  10.60 10.60 10.71 10.42  10.43 10.43 10.43 10.05  Truckdrivers Light Truck ................................................ Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  255 222 207  6.98 6.82 6.71  Medium Truck ........................................... Private industry .....................................  326 326  Heavy Truck ............................................. Private industry ..................................... State and local government ..................  Forklift Operators ....................................... Private industry ......................................... Goods-producing industries .................. Manufacturing ................................... Service-producing industries ................  Middle range  $11.53 11.53 11.53 11.53 11.55  – $13.21 – 13.21 – 16.29 – 16.29 – 13.21  1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to compute means, medians, and middle ranges.  2  9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 and 10.00 10.50 11.00 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 over  3 3 1 1 5  2 2 ( 2) ( 2) 3  2 2 1 1 3  43 43 64 64 33  7 7 2 2 9  15 15 1 1 21  – – – – –  – – – – –  ( 2) ( 2) 1 1 –  – – – – –  15 15 – – 21  8 8 25 25 –  – – – – –  Less than 0.5 percent.  NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  10  Table A-6. Establishments employing 500 workers or more: Weekly hours and pay of professional and administrative occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996  Occupation and level  Average Number weekly hours1 of workers (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  450 and under 500  500 550  550 600  600 650  650 700  700 750  750 800  800 850  850 900  900 950  950 1000  1000 1050  1050 1100  1100 1150  1150 1200  1200 1250  1250 1300  1300 1400  1400 1500  1500 1600  1600 1700  PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS Accountants Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ............................... Service-producing industries ............  437 303 51 51 252  39.4 39.1 39.5 39.5 39.0  $613 606 726 726 582  $595 566 – – 556  $538 538 – – 533  – – – – –  $673 663 – – 629  6 7 8 8 7  26 32 8 8 37  20 19 – – 23  17 14 12 12 14  11 11 8 8 11  9 6 8 8 5  8 8 31 31 3  1 2 10 10 ( 3)  ( 3) 1 4 4 –  1 2 12 12 –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ............................... Service-producing industries ............ State and local government ..................  349 226 71 71 155 123  39.5 39.3 39.4 39.4 39.3 39.9  780 808 874 874 777 730  770 781 – – 779 736  661 673 – – 654 651  – – – – – –  853 939 – – 883 805  – – – – – –  1 – – – – 2  6 8 – – 12 2  10 4 6 6 4 20  17 17 6 6 23 15  9 8 15 15 5 12  19 18 10 10 21 22  13 7 3 3 8 24  6 8 14 14 5 2  5 7 11 11 5 1  7 10 13 13 9 –  5 8 11 11 6 –  3 4 7 7 3 –  ( 3) ( 3) 1 1 – –  ( 3) ( 3) 1 1 – –  ( 3) ( 3) 1 1 – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  Level IV ..................................................... Private industry .....................................  155 75  39.6 39.2  1,055 1,188  1,015 –  920 –  – –  1,194 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  1 –  2 –  5 –  7 5  9 –  11 5  8 5  8 4  9 9  9 9  5 11  9 19  2 4  8 17  4 8  – –  1 3  Engineers Level II ...................................................... Private industry .....................................  374 151  40.0 40.0  795 945  786 958  644 883  – –  909 1,007  – –  2 –  10 –  13 –  6 –  10 5  11 5  12 4  7 16  7 17  10 25  5 11  4 11  1 1  1 3  ( 3) 1  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ...............................  562 284 193 193  39.9 39.9 39.8 39.8  976 1,120 1,136 1,136  986 1,108 1,123 1,123  827 1,027 1,027 1,027  – – – –  1,115 1,196 1,231 1,231  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  1 – – –  5 – – –  9 1 1 1  6 – – –  7 1 1 1  8 – – –  10 1 1 1  6 5 4 4  12 22 24 24  9 18 11 11  9 17 11 11  6 12 13 13  4 8 11 11  3 5 8 8  5 10 14 14  ( 3) ( 3) 1 1  – – – –  – – – –  Level IV .....................................................  595  40.0  1,179  1,185  1,107  –  1,285  –  –  –  –  –  1  2  2  1  1  4  9  5  14  13  12  16  15  4  1  –  Buyers/Contracting Specialists Level II ......................................................  91  39.3  680  648  607  –  736  –  10  11  30  13  15  7  2  4  8  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry .....................................  88 62  40.0 40.0  930 1,004  992 –  790 –  – –  1,046 –  – –  – –  – –  5 –  6 –  9 6  7 3  11 5  1 –  6 8  11 16  24 32  13 18  1 2  5 6  – –  1 2  1 2  – –  – –  – –  Computer Programmers Level II ...................................................... Private industry .....................................  225 169  39.4 39.2  631 646  608 614  596 606  – –  673 675  4 –  6 –  19 20  41 47  13 14  8 5  8 10  2 2  ( 3) 1  ( 3) 1  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  450 292 278  39.5 39.3 39.2  745 770 766  738 756 751  674 721 718  – – –  805 808 806  – – –  – – –  6 – –  10 – –  16 19 20  22 26 27  20 26 26  14 15 16  5 6 5  3 4 3  2 2 2  2 2 2  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  ADMINISTRATIVE OCCUPATIONS  See footnotes at end of table.  11  Table A-6. Establishments employing 500 workers or more: Weekly hours and pay of professional and administrative occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996 — Continued  Occupation and level  Average Number weekly hours1 of workers (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  450 and under 500  500 550  550 600  600 650  650 700  700 750  750 800  800 850  850 900  900 950  950 1000  1000 1050  1050 1100  1100 1150  1150 1200  1200 1250  1250 1300  1300 1400  1400 1500  1500 1600  1600 1700  Computer Systems Analysts Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  600 433 383  39.4 39.2 39.1  $935 964 952  $929 952 942  $860 906 897  – $1,005 – 1,029 – 1,012  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  1 ( 3) 1  4 – –  8 6 7  10 6 7  12 9 10  23 26 28  13 15 15  13 17 17  7 9 8  5 7 4  2 2 1  – – –  ( 3) 1 1  1 1 1  – – –  – – –  – – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  431 271 186  39.2 38.7 38.1  1,101 1,156 1,092  1,085 1,147 1,064  989 1,032 995  – – –  1,227 1,284 1,211  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  1 – –  5 2 3  5 3 4  6 6 8  11 10 14  13 14 20  19 11 15  9 7 6  3 5 4  7 11 9  7 11 5  9 14 9  5 8 3  – – –  ( 3) ( 3) –  Personnel Specialists Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  232 122 82  39.5 39.0 38.6  796 825 775  784 815 769  676 661 654  – – –  873 952 869  – – –  ( 3) 1 1  3 5 7  12 11 13  13 11 17  10 7 10  13 12 10  18 12 16  9 8 6  4 7 2  8 11 10  3 4 –  4 7 5  ( 3) 1 –  1 2 –  1 2 2  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Level IV ..................................................... Private industry .....................................  103 62  39.3 38.9  1,051 1,111  1,008 –  943 –  – –  1,213 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  4 5  2 –  5 2  2 –  17 13  14 13  15 16  14 6  2 2  1 2  6 10  4 6  15 24  1 2  – –  – –  1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. 2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to  compute means, medians, and middle ranges. 3 Less than 0.5 percent. NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  12  Table A-7. Establishments employing 500 workers or more: Weekly hours and pay of technical and protective service occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996  Occupation and level  Average Number weekly hours1 of workers (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  300 and under 325  325 350  350 375  375 400  400 425  425 450  450 475  475 500  500 525  525 550  550 575  575 600  600 625  625 650  650 675  675 700  700 750  750 800  800 850  850 900  900 and over  TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS Computer Operators Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  341 235 231  39.6 39.4 39.4  $452 461 461  $441 442 442  $377 370 370  – – –  $533 563 563  5 7 7  7 9 9  10 10 10  10 6 6  10 7 7  10 11 11  9 6 6  11 5 5  2 2 1  2 3 2  19 28 29  3 4 4  1 2 2  1 1 1  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Level III .....................................................  162  39.9  602  576  500  –  681  –  –  –  –  10  4  4  7  6  10  8  18  4  1  3  3  5  –  2  15  –  Engineering Technicians, Civil Level II: State and local government ..................  47  40.0  411  398  369  –  427  –  9  19  26  13  19  2  2  2  4  4  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Level III: State and local government ..................  186  40.0  485  451  422  –  539  –  –  1  2  24  22  8  4  6  12  3  13  3  1  1  1  1  –  –  –  –  Level IV: State and local government ..................  295  40.0  606  615  515  –  678  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  17  10  9  5  7  8  13  6  7  13  1  4  –  –  Corrections Officers: State and local government ......................  1,175  40.0  444  412  403  –  482  –  –  16  1  36  5  13  9  3  12  2  1  1  –  ( 3)  ( 3)  ( 3)  ( 3)  –  –  –  Firefighters: State and local government ......................  851  52.9  738  730  645  –  805  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  2  1  10  5  8  5  8  16  16  15  5  8  Police Officers Level I ....................................................... State and local government ..................  1,777 1,771  40.0 40.0  659 659  599 599  570 570  – –  730 730  – –  – –  – –  – –  ( 3) ( 3)  1 1  2 2  3 3  2 2  8 8  21 21  15 15  4 4  6 6  5 5  3 3  8 8  4 4  9 9  2 2  8 8  Level II ...................................................... State and local government ..................  9 9  40.0 40.0  844 844  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  78 78  22 22  – –  PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. 2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to  compute means, medians, and middle ranges. 3 Less than 0.5 percent. NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  13  Table A-8. Establishments employing 500 workers or more: Weekly hours and pay of clerical occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996  Occupation and level  Number of workers  Average weekly hours1 (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  Under 250  250 275  275 300  300 325  325 350  350 375  375 400  400 425  425 450  450 475  475 500  500 525  525 550  550 575  575 600  600 650  650 700  700 750  750 800  800 850  850 900  Clerks, Accounting Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Goods-producing industries .............. Manufacturing ............................... Service-producing industries ............  745 512 69 69 443  39.9 39.9 39.7 39.7 39.9  $375 368 458 458 354  $364 357 – – 354  $332 331 – – 329  – – – – –  $400 385 – – 376  – – – – –  – – – – –  1 1 6 6 1  16 15 – – 18  20 23 6 6 26  22 26 6 6 29  16 17 7 7 18  6 5 1 1 5  7 3 10 10 2  8 4 25 25 1  2 2 16 16 –  1 1 9 9 –  1 1 6 6 –  ( 3) 1 4 4 –  – – – – –  ( 3) 1 4 4 –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  558 150 92  39.6 38.7 38.4  453 490 432  447 476 426  395 413 384  – – –  493 539 484  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  4 1 2  13 13 21  11 3 4  14 13 22  9 10 16  11 10 8  19 11 12  7 11 9  2 6 4  3 4 2  1 3 –  4 7 –  1 4 –  – – –  – – –  1 4 –  – – –  Clerks, General Level III: Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  163 151  38.7 38.7  414 407  414 393  334 327  – –  496 493  – –  5 5  10 11  6 7  10 11  5 5  12 13  4 4  4 3  12 11  12 13  13 13  4 5  2 1  2 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  Key Entry Operators Level I ....................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  265 248 241  39.0 38.9 38.9  367 364 365  364 360 360  325 324 324  – – –  393 384 385  ( 3) ( 3) –  5 5 5  7 7 7  13 14 13  15 15 15  19 20 20  19 20 20  7 5 5  4 2 2  6 6 6  2 2 2  3 2 2  – – –  – – –  1 1 1  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Secretaries Level II ...................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............  731 261 248  39.4 38.4 38.5  468 461 461  471 446 446  423 416 417  – – –  503 506 505  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  2 2 2  4 2 2  5 4 3  14 29 30  11 16 17  14 10 10  22 6 6  16 15 16  3 4 4  4 9 9  2 3 2  1 1 –  1 – –  ( 3) – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Level III ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............ State and local government ..................  813 457 284 356  39.5 39.2 38.8 39.9  577 609 532 536  551 580 522 539  500 510 483 493  – – – –  642 695 575 569  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  1 ( 3) 1 1  2 2 2 3  3 3 5 2  4 5 7 3  7 3 5 11  8 9 14 8  11 10 16 12  11 6 10 18  15 7 11 25  6 7 10 3  8 9 11 7  10 15 6 4  5 7 1 2  5 9 – –  1 1 – 1  4 7 – –  Level IV ..................................................... Private industry ..................................... Service-producing industries ............ State and local government ..................  104 94 76 10  38.5 38.4 38.2 39.5  634 640 624 571  640 651 – –  568 575 – –  – – – –  719 721 – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  2 2 3 –  2 2 3 –  1 – – 10  3 3 4 –  3 3 4 –  6 4 4 20  5 4 5 10  6 5 7 10  9 9 9 10  18 17 20 30  12 12 9 10  26 29 28 –  7 7 3 –  2 2 3 –  – – – –  Switchboard Operator-Receptionists .......  60  39.5  362  –  –  –  –  12  10  8  22  13  8  7  3  3  –  –  7  –  –  –  –  –  –  7  –  –  4  1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. 2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to compute means, medians, and middle ranges.  3 4  Less than 0.5 percent. Workers were distributed as follows: 3 percent at $200 and under $225 and 8 percent at $225 and under $250.  NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  14  Table A-9. Establishments employing 500 workers or more: Hourly pay of maintenance and toolroom occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996 Hourly pay (in dollars)1 Occupation and level  Number of workers  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time hourly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  7.50 and under 8.00  8.00 8.50  8.50 9.00  9.00 9.50  9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 25.00  General Maintenance Workers .................. State and local government ......................  83 51  $10.94 10.29  $11.65 10.26  $9.34 8.51  – $12.38 – 12.38  12 20  2 4  6 10  5 8  4 6  10 4  5 8  6 –  13 14  18 14  11 12  8 2  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  Maintenance Electricians ........................... Private industry ......................................... Goods-producing industries .................. Manufacturing ................................... State and local government ......................  792 750 679 679 42  20.43 20.77 20.81 20.81 14.47  20.62 20.62 20.62 20.62 14.03  18.93 20.62 20.62 20.62 12.29  – – – – –  21.64 21.64 25.04 25.04 16.09  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  1 – – – 10  1 – – – 10  ( 2) – – – 7  3 3 3 3 12  4 3 4 4 10  2 1 1 1 19  1 1 – – 5  5 5 6 6 7  1 – – – 10  9 9 10 10 –  1 ( 2) – – 12  45 47 52 52 –  6 7 – – –  – – – – –  ( 2) ( 2) – – –  22 23 25 25 –  Maintenance Mechanics, Machinery ......... Private industry ......................................... Goods-producing industries .................. Manufacturing ...................................  1,441 1,441 1,395 1,395  21.21 21.21 21.22 21.22  20.62 20.62 20.62 20.62  20.62 20.62 20.62 20.62  – – – –  25.04 25.04 25.04 25.04  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  4 4 4 4  2 2 2 2  1 1 1 1  – – – –  4 4 4 4  – – – –  10 10 10 10  ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) ( 2)  34 34 35 35  13 13 11 11  4 4 4 4  – – – –  28 28 29 29  Maintenance Mechanics, Motor Vehicle ... Private industry ......................................... Service-producing industries: Transportation and utilities ............... State and local government ......................  184 64  13.92 14.97  13.60 –  11.75 –  – –  15.47 –  – –  – –  – –  2 –  2 3  4 6  6 –  9 6  4 8  7 3  8 –  13 11  8 14  21 20  2 –  4 5  2 2  8 22  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  56 120  15.01 13.36  14.50 13.07  12.49 11.45  – –  18.67 15.01  – –  – –  – –  – 2  – 2  7 3  – 9  7 11  7 2  4 8  – 12  13 14  16 4  21 22  – 3  – 4  – 2  25 1  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to compute means, medians, and middle ranges.  2  Less than 0.5 percent.  NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  15  Table A-10. Establishments employing 500 workers or more: Hourly pay of material movement and custodial occupations, Richmond-Petersburg, VA, August 1996 Hourly pay (in dollars)1 Occupation and level  Number of workers  5.00 and under 5.50  5.50 6.00  6.00 6.50  6.50 7.00  7.00 7.50  7.50 8.00  8.00 8.50  8.50 9.00  9.00 9.50  – $13.21 – 13.21 – 19.74 – 19.74  – – – –  – – – –  ( 2) ( 2) 1 1  1 1 2 2  ( 2) ( 2) 1 1  ( 2) ( 2) 1 1  6 6 2 2  2 2 1 1  2 2 1 1  2 2 1 1  1 1 1 1  3 3 2 2  8.44  –  13.43  –  –  –  –  10  1  34  6  5  1  3  1  –  2  6  3  5  7  6  9  –  –  –  6.07 5.91 5.63 6.32  – – – –  7.89 7.33 6.99 7.89  5 9 10 4  17 17 19 17  13 25 27 9  17 19 20 16  10 8 7 11  16 5 3 20  5 5 3 5  3 3 3 4  4 2 1 4  3 3 3 3  5 5 4 5  1 1 – 1  ( 2) – – 1  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  9.02  –  19.74  –  –  –  7  7  6  3  2  6  3  4  2  –  –  –  –  3  9  –  –  –  –  49  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  1 1  3 3  – –  4 4  3 1  4 4  – –  1 1  1 1  51 51  1 1  – –  – –  15 15  1 1  – –  15 15  – –  – –  – –  11.45 8.95  8.95 8.71  – –  15.55 11.16  – –  – –  – –  – –  1 1  – –  6 11  21 40  3 4  3 2  5 7  5 7  8 12  1 2  6 10  3 –  3 2  – –  36 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  11.72 11.72  11.99 11.99  10.48 10.48  – –  12.63 12.63  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  2 2  3 3  2 2  10 10  2 2  7 7  12 12  7 7  10 10  9 9  30 30  – –  – –  – –  – –  7 7  – –  – –  12.78 10.33  12.73 10.83  12.58 8.95  – –  12.93 11.51  – –  – –  – –  5 –  2 –  2 2  2 12  2 12  2 10  1 4  ( 2) 2  1 8  4 24  3 20  1 4  54 –  2 2  – –  2 –  – –  20 –  – –  – –  Mean  Median  477 477 166 166  $13.23 13.23 15.34 15.34  $13.01 13.01 18.01 18.01  Guards Level II ......................................................  99  10.72  8.63  Janitors ........................................................ Private industry ......................................... Service-producing industries ................ State and local government ......................  1,439 372 337 1,067  7.20 6.83 6.65 7.33  6.91 6.44 6.34 7.06  Material Handling Laborers .......................  180  14.66  14.95  Shipping/Receiving Clerks ........................ Private industry .........................................  79 78  12.16 12.21  – –  Truckdrivers Heavy Truck ............................................. State and local government ..................  157 82  12.04 9.78  Tractor Trailer ........................................... Private industry .....................................  115 115  Warehouse Specialists .............................. State and local government ......................  325 50  Forklift Operators ....................................... Private industry ......................................... Goods-producing industries .................. Manufacturing ...................................  Percent of workers receiving straight-time hourly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  $11.53 11.53 11.53 11.53  1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to compute means, medians, and middle ranges.  2  9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00  3 3 2 2  13 13 28 28  2 2 4 4  13 13 – –  34 34 1 1  – – – –  – – – –  ( 2) ( 2) 1 1  – – – –  – – – –  17 17 50 50  Less than 0.5 percent.  NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  16  Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey  Scope This survey of the Richmond–Petersburg, VA Metropolitan Statistical Area covered establishments employing 50 workers or more in goods producing industries (mining, construction, and manufacturing); service producing industries (transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services industries); and State and local governments.1 Private households, agriculture, the Federal Government, and the self-employed were excluded from the survey. Table 1 in this appendix shows the estimated number of establishments and workers within scope of the survey and the number actually included in the survey sample.  professional, administrative, technical, protective service, and clerical occupations. In other words, the larger the number of employees expected to be found in designated occupations, the larger the establishment sample in that stratum. An upward adjustment to the establishment sample size also was made in strata expected to have relatively high sampling error for certain occupations, based on previous survey experiences. (See section on "Reliability of estimates" below for discussion of sampling error.) Data collection and payroll reference Data for the survey were obtained primarily by personal visits of the Bureau's field economists to a sample of establishments within the Richmond–Petersburg, VA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Collection for the survey was from June 1996 through October 1996 and reflects an average payroll reference month of August 1996. Data obtained for a payroll period prior to the end of August 1996 were updated to include general wage changes, if granted, scheduled to be effective through that date.  Sampling frame The list of establishments from which the survey sample was selected (the sampling frame) was developed from the State unemployment insurance reports for the Richmond–Petersburg, VA Metropolitan Statistical Area (July 1994). Establishments with 50 workers or more during the sampling frame's reference period were included in the survey sample even if they employed fewer than 50 workers at the time of the survey. The sampling frame was reviewed for completeness and accuracy prior to the survey and, when necessary, corrections were made: Missing establishments were added; out-of-business and out-of-scope establishments were removed; and addresses, employment levels, industry classification, and other information were updated.  Occupational pay Occupational pay data are shown for full-time workers, i.e., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule. Pay data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases—but not bonuses—under cost-ofliving allowance clauses and incentive payments, however, are included in the pay data. Unless otherwise indicated, the pay data following the job titles are for all industries combined. Pay data for some of the occupations for all industries combined (or for some industry divisions within the scope of the survey) are not presented in the A-series tables because either (1) data did not provide statistically  Survey design The survey design includes classifying individual establishments into groups (strata) based on industry and employment size, determining the size of the sample for each group (stratum), and selecting an establishment sample from each stratum. The establishment sample size in a stratum was determined by expected number of employees to be found (based on previous occupational pay surveys) in  A-1  adjusted to account for the missing data. The weights for establishments which were out of business or outside the scope of the survey were changed to zero. Some sampled establishments had a policy of not disclosing salary data for certain employees. No adjustments were made to pay estimates for the survey as a result of these missing data. The proportion of employees for whom pay data were not available was less than 5 percent.  reliable results, or (2) there was the possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data. Pay data not shown separately for industry divisions are included in data for all industries combined. Average pay reflect areawide estimates. Industries and establishments differ in pay levels and job staffing, and thus contribute differently to the estimates for each job. Therefore, average pay may not reflect the pay differential among jobs within individual establishments. A-series tables provide distributions of workers by pay intervals The mean is computed for each job by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates position—one-half of the workers receive the same as or more and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay; one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. Medians and middle ranges are not provided when they do not meet reliability criteria. Occupations surveyed are common to a variety of public and private industries, and were selected from the following employment groups: (1) Professional and administrative; (2) technical and protective service; (3) clerical; (4) maintenance and toolroom; and (5) material movement and custodial. Occupational classification was based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job. Occupations selected for study are listed and described in appendix B, along with corresponding occupational codes and titles from the 1980 edition of the Standard Occupational Classification Manual. Job descriptions used to classify employees in this survey usually are more generalized than those used in individual establishments to allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties performed. Average weekly hours for professional, administrative, technical, protective service, and clerical occupations refer to the standard workweek (rounded to the nearest tenth of an hour) for which employees receive regular straight-time pay. Average weekly pay for these occupations are rounded to the nearest dollar. Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed. Because occupational structures among establishments differ, estimates of occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied.  Reliability of estimates The data in this bulletin are estimates from a scientifically selected probability sample. There are two types of errors possible in an estimate based on a sample survey—sampling and nonsampling. Sampling errors occur because observations come only from a sample, not the entire population. The particular sample used in this survey is one of a number of all possible samples of the same size that could have been selected using the sample design. Estimates derived from the different samples would differ from each other. A measure of the variation among these differing estimates is called the standard error or sampling error. It indicates the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the average result of all possible samples. The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error divided by the estimate. For example, if the estimated average weekly salary of Secretaries Level IV is $500 and the standard error is $8, the RSE is 1.6 percent, or $8/$500x100 = 1.6%. Estimates of relative standard errors for this survey vary among the occupational work levels depending on such factors as the frequency with which the job occurs, the dispersion of salaries for the job, and the survey design. The distribution of published work levels for one relative standard error was as follows:  Relative standard error Less than 1 percent 1 and under 3 percent 3 and under 5 percent 5 percent and over  Survey nonresponse Data were not available from 17.2 percent of the sample establishments (representing 46,217 employees covered by the survey). An additional 3.3 percent of the sample establishments (representing 9,237 employees) were either out of business or outside the scope of the survey. If data were not provided by a sample member, the weights (based on the probability of selection in the sample) of responding sample establishments were  Percent of published occupational work levels 2.7 56.8 35.1 5.4  The standard error can be used to calculate a "confidence interval" around a sample estimate. For example, a 95 percent confidence interval is centered at the sample estimate and includes all values within 2 times the estimate's standard error. If all possible samples were selected to estimate the population value, the interval from each sample would include the true population value approximately 95 percent of the time. A-2  To measure and better control nonsampling errors that occur during data collection, a quality control procedure was applied to the survey design. The procedure, job match validation (JMV), is designed to identify the frequency, reasons for, and sources of incorrect decisions made by Bureau field economists in matching company jobs to survey occupations. Once identified, the problems are discussed promptly with the field economists while the data are still being collected. Subsequently, the JMV results are tallied, reported to BLS staff, and become the basis for remedial action for future surveys.  Using the RSE example above, there is 95 percent confidence that the true population value for Secretaries Level IV is between $484 and $516 (i.e., $500 plus or minus 2 x $8). Nonsampling errors can stem from many sources, such as inability to obtain information from some establishments; difficulties with survey definitions; inability of respondents to provide correct information; mistakes in recording or coding the data obtained; and other errors of collection, response, coverage, and estimation of missing data. Although not specifically measured, the survey's nonsampling errors are expected to be minimal due to the high response rate, the extensive and continuous training of field economists who gather survey data by personal visit, careful screening of data at several levels of review, annual evaluation of the suitability of job definitions, and thorough field testing of new or revised job definitions.  1 For this survey, an establishment is an economic unit which produces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an auxiliary unit providing support services to a company. In manufacturing industries, the establishment is usually at a single physical location. In service-producing industries, all locations of an individual company in a Metropolitan Statistical Area are usually considered an establishment. In government, an establishment is defined as all locations of a government entity.  A-3  Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied, Richmond-Petersburg, VA1, August 1996 Number of establishments Industry  division2  Within scope of survey3  Workers in establishments Within scope of survey4  Studied  Studied Number  Percent  ALL ESTABLISHMENTS All divisions ...................................................................................  1,095  161  323,534  100  147,449  Private industry ....................................................................... Goods producing .............................................................. Manufacturing ............................................................. Construction5 .............................................................. Service producing ............................................................. Transportation, communication, electric, gas, and sanitary services6 ................................................. Wholesale trade7 ........................................................ Retail trade7 ................................................................ Finance, insurance, and real estate7 .......................... Services7 ....................................................................  1,048 258 175 79 785  143 30 24 4 112  245,836 61,055 52,562 7,762 184,371  76 19 16 2 57  81,894 23,515 22,943 293 58,297  63 23 264 96 339  13 3 24 10 62  17,781 4,601 57,340 35,719 68,930  5 1 18 11 21  9,710 1,651 17,427 9,805 19,704  State and local government ....................................................  47  18  77,698  24  65,555  ESTABLISHMENTS EMPLOYING 500 WORKERS OR MORE All divisions ...................................................................................  118  50  201,441  100  128,567  Private industry ....................................................................... Goods producing .............................................................. Manufacturing ............................................................. Service producing ............................................................. Transportation, communication, electric, gas, and sanitary services6 ................................................. Retail trade7 ................................................................ Finance, insurance, and real estate7 .......................... Services7 ....................................................................  103 20 20 83  40 10 10 30  130,373 32,366 32,366 98,007  65 16 16 49  64,672 20,463 20,463 44,209  7 25 23 26  5 10 4 10  11,305 32,822 24,980 25,900  6 16 12 13  8,564 15,159 8,740 10,246  State and local government ....................................................  15  10  71,068  35  63,895  1 The Richmond-Petersburg Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget through June 1994, consists of the cities of Colonial Heights, Hopewell, Petersburg, and Richmond, and the counties of Charles City, Chesterfield, Dinwiddie, Goochland, Hanover, Henrico, New Kent, Powhatan, and Prince George. The "workers within scope of survey" estimates provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. Estimates are not intended, however, for comparison with other statistical series to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) establishments employing fewer than 50 workers are excluded from the scope of the survey. 2 The Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry. 3 Includes all establishments with at least 50 total employees. In goods producing, an establishment is defined as a single physical location where industrial operations are performed. In service producing industries, an  establishment is defined as all locations of a company in the area within the same industry division. In government, an establishment is generally defined as all locations of a government entity. 4 Includes all workers in all establishments with total employment (within an area) at or above the minimum limitations. 5 Separate data for this division are not shown in the A-series tables, but the division is represented in the "all industries" and "goods producing" estimates. 6 Abbreviated to "Transportation and utilities" in the A-series tables. This division is represented in the "all industries" and "service producing" estimates. 7 Separate data for this division are not shown in the A-series tables, but the division is represented in the "all industries" and "service producing" estimates. Note: Overall industries may include data for industry divisions not shown separately.  A-4
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