View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

Occupational Compensation Survey: Pay Only  Reading, PA Metropolitan Area, January 1996  ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics Bulletin 3085- 4  ________________________________________________________________ Preface This bulletin provides results of a January 1996 survey of occupational pay in the Reading, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. This survey was conducted as part of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Compensation Survey Program. Data from this program are for use in implementing the Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990. The survey was conducted by the Bureau's regional office in Philadelphia under the direction of John Filemyr, Assistant Regional Commissioner for Operations. The survey could not have been conducted without the cooperation of the many private firms and government jurisdictions that provided pay data included in this bulletin. The Bureau thanks these respondents for their cooperation.  For additional information regarding this survey or similar surveys conducted in this regional area, please contact the BLS Philadelphia Regional Office at (215) 596-1154. You may also write to the Bureau of Labor Statistics at: Division of Occupational Pay and Employee Benefits, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Washington, D.C. 20212-0001 or call the Occupational Compensation Survey Program information line at (202) 606-6220. Material in this bulletin is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 606-STAT; TDD phone: (202) 606-5897; TDD message referral phone: 1-800-326-2577.  For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government  For an account of a similar survey conducted in 1993, see  Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, GPO bookstores, and the  Occupational Compensation Survey: Pay Only, December 1993, BLS Bulletin 3070-70  Bureau of Labor Statistics, Publications Sales Center, P.O. Box 2145, Chicago, IL 60690-2145.  Occupational Compensation Survey: Pay Only  Reading, PA Metropolitan Area, January 1996  ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________  U.S. Department of Labor Robert B. Reich, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Katharine G. Abraham, Commissioner June 1996 Bulletin 3085- 4  Contents Page  Page  Introduction ...............................................................................................................  2  Tables—Continued  A-5.  Tables:  Hourly pay of material movement and custodial occupations ................................................................................  7  All establishments: A-1.  Weekly hours and pay of professional and  A-2.  Weekly hours and pay of technical and protective service occupations ....................................................................  4  A-3.  Weekly hours and pay of clerical occupations ...............................  5  A-4.  Hourly pay of maintenance and toolroom  administrative occupations .........................................................  occupations ................................................................................  3  6  Appendixes: A.  Scope and method of survey .........................................................  A-1  B.  Occupational descriptions ..............................................................  B-1  Introduction  Pay The A-series tables provide estimates of straight-time weekly or hourly pay by occupation. Tables A-1 through A-5 provide data for selected white- and bluecollar occupations common to a variety of industries.. Occupational pay information is presented for all industries covered by the survey and, where possible, for private industry (e.g., for goods- and serviceproducing industries) and for State and local governments. Within private industry, more detailed information is presented to the extent that the survey establishment sample can support such detail.  This survey of occupational pay in the Reading Metropolitan Statistical Area (Berks County) was conducted as part of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Compensation Survey Program. The survey is one of a number conducted annually in metropolitan areas throughout the United States. (See listing of reports for other surveys at the end of this bulletin.) A major objective of the Occupational Compensation Survey Program is to describe the level and distribution of occupational pay in a variety of the Nation's local labor markets, using a consistent survey approach. Another Program objective is to provide information on the incidence of employee benefits among and within local labor markets. However, no benefits data were collected for this survey. The Program develops information that is used for a variety of purposes, including wage and salary administration, collective bargaining, and assistance in determining business or plant location. Survey results also are used by the U.S. Department of Labor in making wage determinations under the Service Contract Act, and by the President's Pay Agent (the Secretary of Labor and Directors of the U.S. Office of Personnel Management and the U.S. Office of Management and Budget) in determining local pay adjustments under the Federal Employee Pay Comparability Act of 1990. This latter requirement resulted in: (1) Expanding the survey's industrial coverage to include all private nonfarm establishments (except households) employing 50 workers or more and to State and local governments and (2) adding more professional, administrative, technical, and protective service occupations to the surveys.  Appendixes Appendix A describes the concepts, methods, and coverage used in the Occupational Compensation Survey Program. It also includes information on the area's industrial composition and the reliability of occupational pay estimates. Appendix B includes the descriptions used by Bureau field economists to classify workers in the survey occupations.  2  Table A-1. All establishments: Weekly hours and pay of professional and administrative occupations, Reading, PA, January 1996  Occupation and level  Number of workers  Average weekly hours1 (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  Under 450  450 500  500 550  550 600  600 700  700 800  800 900  900 1000  1000 1100  1100 1200  1200 1300  1300 1400  1400 1500  1500 1600  1600 1700  1700 1800  1800 1900  1900 2000  2000 2100  2100 2200  2200 and over  PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS Accountants ................................................ Level 2 ...................................................... Level 3 ...................................................... Level 4 ......................................................  422 86 164 98  39.8 39.9 39.7 40.0  $782 617 718 924  $733 609 724 909  $608 588 672 831  – – – –  $838 646 779 981  4 – – –  5 3 – –  5 15 2 –  10 24 12 –  17 49 18 –  25 7 57 6  13 1 7 44  7 – 1 28  3 – 2 9  3 – – 11  4 – – 2  – – – –  – – – –  5 – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  Engineers .................................................... Level 1 ...................................................... Level 2 ...................................................... Level 3 ...................................................... Level 4 ...................................................... Level 5 ......................................................  1,461 192 141 336 353 209  40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 39.9 40.0  1,058 666 786 911 1,097 1,291  1,031 673 783 912 1,100 1,271  831 637 769 837 1,015 1,237  – – – – – –  1,258 699 833 981 1,166 1,334  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  ( 3) 2 – – – –  11 73 12 – – –  11 25 49 12 – –  11 – 32 32 1 –  13 – 7 37 15 –  13 – – 20 33 2  11 – – – 35 15  10 – – – 15 46  7 – – – – 22  6 – – – – 10  4 – – – – 5  2 – – – – ( 3)  1 – – – – –  ( 3) – – – – –  – – – – – –  ( 3) – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  Buyer/Contracting Specialists .................. Level 2 ...................................................... Level 3 ......................................................  122 44 66  39.9 40.0 40.0  749 682 845  738 694 815  690 626 788  – – –  840 703 898  3 – –  3 – –  4 2 –  – – –  25 70 –  25 23 32  25 5 44  9 – 17  4 – 8  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Computer Programmers ............................ Level 2 ......................................................  73 43  40.0 40.0  628 660  620 645  544 613  – –  713 713  14 –  – –  12 9  7 2  40 63  21 16  7 9  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  Computer Systems Analysts: Level 1 ...................................................... Level 2 ......................................................  149 271  40.0 39.9  765 890  765 881  725 842  – –  796 918  – –  – –  – –  1 –  14 –  61 4  16 64  7 26  1 4  – 2  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  Personnel Specialists ................................ Level 2 ...................................................... Level 3 ...................................................... Level 4 ...................................................... Level 5 ......................................................  304 75 94 106 29  39.8 39.8 39.6 39.9 40.0  841 583 765 983 1,236  810 571 760 1,014 1,288  667 500 711 827 1,250  – – – – –  1,019 635 814 1,077 1,288  – – – – –  1 5 – – –  11 41 1 – –  5 9 9 – –  12 35 6 4 –  20 3 55 8 –  14 5 17 21 –  9 1 6 14 14  13 – 5 32 3  7 – – 19 7  6 – – 3 55  1 – – – 14  1 – – – 7  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  Personnel Supervisors/Managers .............  23  39.6  1,457  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  4  17  –  17  17  22  13  –  4  –  4  –  –  Director of Personnel ................................. Level 2 ......................................................  50 38  40.0 39.9  1,320 1,317  1,325 1,325  1,154 1,154  – –  1,350 1,350  – –  – –  – –  – –  8 –  – –  – –  6 –  – –  22 29  – –  40 53  – –  14 18  – –  – –  6 –  – –  – –  – –  4 –  ADMINISTRATIVE OCCUPATIONS  4  1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. 2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to compute means, medians, and middle ranges.  3 4  Less than 0.5 percent. All workers were at $400 and under $450.  NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  3  Table A-2. All establishments: Weekly hours and pay of technical and protective service occupations, Reading, PA, January 1996  Occupation and level  Average Number weekly hours1 of workers (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  300 and under 325  325 350  350 375  375 400  400 425  425 450  450 475  475 500  500 550  550 600  600 650  650 700  700 750  750 800  800 850  850 900  900 950  950 1000  1000 1050  1050 1100  4 9 –  10 20 –  4 7 –  5 7 5  20 35 7  7 7 11  23 10 52  9 1 23  1 – 2  6 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS Computer Operators .................................. Level 2 ...................................................... Level 3 ......................................................  137 69 44  39.4 39.5 39.2  $508 466 567  $490 481 571  $425 411 552  – – –  $571 490 600  6 – –  – – –  4 3 –  Drafters ........................................................  193  40.0  579  576  515  –  648  –  –  –  5  2  4  7  3  15  15  26  10  12  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Engineering Technicians ........................... Level 4 ......................................................  480 146  40.0 40.0  728 738  727 732  612 692  – –  840 780  – –  – –  – –  – –  2 –  – –  2 –  – –  6 –  12 –  11 6  9 26  13 29  9 23  12 14  9 1  7 1  5 1  1 –  1 –  Firefighters ..................................................  104  42.0  619  628  613  –  628  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  11  89  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Police Officers: Level 1 ......................................................  163  40.0  702  648  648  –  720  –  –  –  –  –  1  –  1  –  2  61  5  6  2  9  2  4  6  –  –  PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. 2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and  methods used to compute means, medians, and middle ranges. NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  4  Table A-3. All establishments: Weekly hours and pay of clerical occupations, Reading, PA, January 1996  Occupation and level  Average Number weekly hours1 of workers (standard)  Weekly pay (in dollars)2  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time weekly pay (in dollars) of—  Middle range  225 and under 250  250 275  275 300  300 325  325 350  350 375  375 400  400 425  425 450  450 475  475 500  500 525  525 550  550 575  575 600  600 650  650 700  700 750  750 and over  Clerks, Accounting ..................................... Level 2 ...................................................... Level 3 ......................................................  527 235 207  39.0 39.2 39.1  $430 400 441  $422 388 438  $369 352 401  – – –  $470 423 460  – – –  1 ( 3) –  2 1 –  2 3 –  7 15 –  16 26 11  10 11 14  17 22 19  9 5 19  15 6 20  8 3 9  4 ( 3) –  2 ( 3) 4  3 6 –  1 2 1  1 – 3  1 – 1  2 – –  – – –  Clerks, General ........................................... Level 2 ...................................................... Level 3 ......................................................  696 153 276  38.1 37.5 38.5  399 369 401  406 371 394  375 325 376  – – –  430 406 424  3 – –  1 3 –  ( 3) 1 –  7 21 1  5 8 9  11 23 14  15 3 28  29 37 24  15 2 12  7 – 7  4 – 4  2 3 ( 3)  1 – –  ( 3) – ( 3)  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Clerks, Order ...............................................  156  40.0  375  350  340  –  406  –  –  –  22  24  19  10  8  10  –  –  –  7  –  –  –  –  –  –  Key Entry Operators ................................... Level 2 ......................................................  84 37  39.4 38.8  374 383  371 371  346 359  – –  396 404  – –  – –  5 3  7 16  15 –  32 41  17 11  8 5  8 8  4 8  4 8  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  Personnel Assistants ................................. Level 2 ...................................................... Level 3 ......................................................  102 51 35  39.6 39.7 39.6  487 466 523  485 482 532  438 423 462  – – –  555 535 577  – – –  8 16 –  – – –  – – –  5 – –  – – –  1 2 –  7 8 9  7 8 3  15 10 29  12 20 –  8 10 –  13 8 26  9 12 9  5 – 14  5 – 3  7 8 9  – – –  – – –  Secretaries .................................................. Level 2 ...................................................... Level 3 ...................................................... Level 4 ...................................................... Level 5 ......................................................  602 170 277 70 30  39.0 38.2 39.2 39.5 39.8  505 466 513 582 706  481 459 473 566 685  440 389 458 529 685  – – – – –  570 530 560 616 720  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  ( 3) 1 – – –  1 2 – – –  4 4 – – –  14 24 4 – –  4 10 3 – –  6 4 10 – –  19 6 36 – –  8 20 1 16 –  8 3 15 4 –  6 9 3 16 –  6 5 5 21 –  1 – 1 3 3  11 12 10 21 3  8 – 10 10 53  2 – 1 3 20  2 – – 6 4 20  Switchboard-Operator-Receptionists .......  108  40.0  375  392  336  –  404  –  –  6  1  36  6  12  24  16  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  Word Processors ........................................ Level 2 ......................................................  107 80  38.9 39.4  464 466  433 432  392 393  – –  536 538  – –  – –  – –  1 –  1 1  1 1  28 27  4 2  21 27  – –  7 –  12 10  8 10  9 10  7 10  – –  – –  – –  – –  1 Standard hours reflect the workweek for which employees receive their regular straight-time salaries (exclusive of pay for overtime at regular and/or premium rates), and the earnings correspond to these weekly hours. 2 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to compute means, medians, and middle ranges.  3 4  Less than 0.5 percent. All workers were at $750 and under $800.  NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  5  Table A-4. All establishments: Hourly pay of maintenance and toolroom occupations, Reading, PA, January 1996 Hourly pay (in dollars)1 Occupation and level  Number of workers  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time hourly pay (in dollars) of— 7.00 and under 7.50  7.50 8.00  8.00 8.50  8.50 9.00  9.00 9.50  – $12.60 – 12.56 – 14.40  4 6 –  1 1 –  5 2 9  1 2 –  ( 2) ( 2) –  1 2 –  1 1 –  12 2 27  2 2 3  2 1 3  2 2 1  47 71 10  3 – 8  4 – 11  9 7 13  5 – 12  1 – 1  1 – 1  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  Middle range  9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 13.50 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 and 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 13.50 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 over  General Maintenance Workers .................. Level 1 ...................................................... Level 2 ......................................................  734 442 292  $12.20 11.98 12.54  $12.56 12.56 12.60  $11.19 12.56 10.91  Maintenance Electricians ...........................  225  17.19  17.22  14.63  –  20.34  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  1  –  –  1  ( 2)  1  14  12  14  4  12  –  11  23  5  Maintenance Electronics Technicians ...... Level 2 ......................................................  95 54  15.11 16.41  14.25 16.69  13.41 15.58  – –  17.33 17.33  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  11 –  3 6  1 –  12 –  17 –  9 15  16 28  1 2  22 39  – –  3 4  5 7  – –  Maintenance Machinists ............................  64  15.27  13.70  12.45  –  15.83  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  31  –  16  5  6  19  –  –  –  –  –  Maintenance Mechanics, Machinery .........  510  16.62  15.83  15.83  –  19.20  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  17  3  37  15  –  –  11  17  –  Maintenance Mechanics, Motor Vehicle ...  59  15.06  16.23  13.30  –  16.23  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  3  –  –  10  3  14  –  3  3  63  –  –  –  –  –  1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to compute means, medians, and middle ranges. 2 Less than 0.5 percent.  3  3  23  All workers were at $21.00 and under $22.00.  NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  6  Table A-5. All establishments: Hourly pay of material movement and custodial occupations, Reading, PA, January 1996  Occupation and level  Number of workers  Hourly pay (in dollars)1  Mean  Median  Percent of workers receiving straight-time hourly pay (in dollars) of—  Under 6.00  6.00 6.50  6.50 7.00  7.00 7.50  7.50 8.00  8.00 8.50  8.50 9.00  9.00 9.50  – $13.20 – 10.05  – –  – –  4 6  7 10  17 25  6 9  – –  4 6  8 12  8 12  2 3  1 1  7 10  – –  5 1  19 4  12 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  Middle range  9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 13.50 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 13.50 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00  Guards ......................................................... Level 1 ......................................................  100 68  $10.48 9.14  $10.05 8.88  $7.71 7.55  Janitors ........................................................  974  9.74  9.55  8.40  –  11.33  2  4  6  6  4  9  5  13  7  6  7  6  4  6  9  5  –  ( 2)  –  1  –  –  Material Movement and Storage Workers ....................................... Level 2 ...................................................... Forklift Operators .................................. Shipping/Receiving Clerks ....................  2,800 1,879 208 104  10.80 12.33 11.70 9.45  9.99 12.35 10.53 8.81  8.00 9.80 9.85 6.82  – – – –  14.33 14.33 14.45 9.85  2 2 – –  6 ( 2) – –  6 2 – 25  6 1 – 3  4 2 1 4  13 9 1 1  3 3 – 33  5 5 11 1  6 7 35 11  2 1 2 ( ) 2  8 11 10 –  1 2 – 4  3 5 – 1  1 1 – 4  2 2 – –  2 3 – –  2 3 4 3  20 30 38 3  1 – – –  – – – –  ( 2) ( 2) – 7  7 11 – –  Truckdrivers ................................................ Medium Truck ...........................................  464 44  14.24 11.77  15.23 12.37  13.20 9.72  – –  15.23 13.20  – –  – –  – –  – –  1 9  – –  1 –  – –  3 23  1 7  4 7  2 –  – –  4 7  8 –  4 36  3 –  1 –  69 11  – –  – –  – –  1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are performance bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases, but not bonuses, under cost-of-living clauses, and incentive payments, however, are included. See Appendix A for definitions and methods used to compute means, medians, and middle ranges.  2  Less than 0.5 percent.  NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual intervals may not equal 100 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation or occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately.  7  Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey  Scope This survey of the Reading, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area covered establishments employing 50 workers or more in goods producing industries (mining, construction, and manufacturing); service producing industries (transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services industries; and State and local governments.1 Private households, agriculture, the Federal Government, and the self-employed were excluded from the survey. Table 1 in this appendix shows the estimated number of establishments and workers within scope of the survey and the number actually included in the survey sample.  designated occupations, the larger the establishment sample in that stratum. An upward adjustment to the establishment sample size also was made in strata expected to have relatively high sampling error for certain occupations, based on previous survey experiences. (See section on "Reliability of estimates" below for discussion of sampling error.) Data collection and payroll reference Data for the survey were obtained primarily by personal visits of the Bureau's field economists to a sample of establishments within the Reading, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Collection for the survey was from November 1995 through March 1996 and reflects an average payroll reference month of January 1996. Data obtained for a payroll period prior to the end of February 1996 were updated to include general wage changes, if granted, scheduled to be effective through that date.  Sampling frame The list of establishments from which the survey sample was selected (the sampling frame) was developed from the State unemployment insurance reports for the Reading, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area (January 1994). Establishments with 50 workers or more during the sampling frame's reference period were included in the survey sample even if they employed fewer than 50 workers at the time of the survey. The sampling frame was reviewed for completeness and accuracy prior to the survey and, when necessary, corrections were made: Missing establishments were added; out-of-business and out-of-scope establishments were removed; and addresses, employment levels, industry classification, and other information were updated.  Occupational pay Occupational pay data are shown for full-time workers, i.e., those hired to work a regular weekly schedule. Pay data exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Also excluded are bonuses and lump-sum payments of the type negotiated in the auto and aerospace industries, as well as profit-sharing payments, attendance bonuses, Christmas or year-end bonuses, and other nonproduction bonuses. Pay increases—but not bonuses—under cost-ofliving allowance clauses and incentive payments, however, are included in the pay data. Unless otherwise indicated, the pay data following the job titles are for all industries combined. Pay data for some of the occupations for all industries combined (or for some industry divisions within the scope of the survey) are not presented in the A-series tables because either (1) data did not provide statistically reliable results, or (2) there was the possibility of disclosure of individual establishment data. Pay data not shown separately for industry divisions are included in data for all industries combined.  Survey design The survey design includes classifying individual establishments into groups (strata) based on industry and employment size, determining the size of the sample for each group (stratum), and selecting an establishment sample from each stratum. The establishment sample size in a stratum was determined by expected number of employees to be found (based on previous occupational pay surveys) in professional, administrative, technical, protective service, and clerical occupations. In other words, the larger the number of employees expected to be found in A-1  Average pay reflect areawide estimates. Industries and establishments differ in pay levels and job staffing, and thus contribute differently to the estimates for each job. Therefore, average pay may not reflect the pay differential among jobs within individual establishments. A-series tables provide distributions of workers by pay intervals The mean is computed for each job by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers. The median designates position—one-half of the workers receive the same as or more and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay; one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. Medians and middle ranges are not provided when they do not meet reliability criteria. Occupations surveyed are common to a variety of public and private industries, and were selected from the following employment groups: (1) Professional and administrative; (2) technical and protective service; (3) clerical; (4) maintenance and toolroom; and (5) material movement and custodial. Occupational classification was based on a uniform set of job descriptions designed to take account of interestablishment variation in duties within the same job. Occupations selected for study are listed and described in appendix B, along with corresponding occupational codes and titles from the 1980 edition of the Standard Occupational Classification Manual. Job descriptions used to classify employees in this survey usually are more generalized than those used in individual establishments to allow for minor differences among establishments in specific duties performed. Average weekly hours for professional, administrative, technical, protective service, and clerical occupations refer to the standard workweek (rounded to the nearest tenth of an hour) for which employees receive regular straight-time pay. Average weekly pay for these occupations are rounded to the nearest dollar. Occupational employment estimates represent the total in all establishments within the scope of the study and not the number actually surveyed. Because occupational structures among establishments differ, estimates of occupational employment obtained from the sample of establishments studied serve only to indicate the relative importance of the jobs studied.  If data were not provided by a sample member, the weights (based on the probability of selection in the sample) of responding sample establishments were adjusted to account for the missing data. The weights for establishments which were out of business or outside the scope of the survey were changed to zero. Some sampled establishments had a policy of not disclosing salary data for certain employees. No adjustments were made to pay estimates for the survey as a result of these missing data. The proportion of employees for whom pay data were not available was less than 5 percent. Reliability of estimates The statistics in this bulletin are derived from a probability sample. There are two types of errors possible in an estimate based on a sample survey—sampling and nonsampling. Sampling errors occur because observations come only from a sample, not the entire population. The particular sample used in this survey is one of a number of all possible samples of the same size that could have been selected using the sample design. Estimates derived from the different samples would differ from each other. Nonsampling errors can stem from many sources, such as inability to obtain information from some establishments; difficulties with survey definitions; inability of respondents to provide correct information; mistakes in recording or coding the data obtained; and other errors of collection, response, coverage, and estimation of missing data. Although not specifically measured, the survey's nonsampling errors are expected to be minimal due to the high response rate, the extensive and continuous training of field economists who gather survey data by personal visit, careful screening of data at several levels of review, annual evaluation of the suitability of job definitions, and thorough field testing of new or revised job definitions. 1 For this survey, an establishment is an economic unit which produces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an auxiliary unit providing support services to a company. In manufacturing industries, the establishment is usually at a single physical location. In service-producing industries, all locations of an individual company in a Metropolitan Statistical Area are usually considered an establishment. In government, an establishment is defined as all locations of a government entity.  Survey nonresponse Data were not available from 14.3 percent of the sample establishments (representing 11,880 employees covered by the survey). An additional 6.5 percent of the sample establishments (representing 4,678 employees) were either out of business or outside the scope of the survey.  A-2  Appendix table 1. Establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied, Reading, PA1, January 1996 Number of establishments Industry  Workers in establishments  division2  Within scope of survey4 Within scope of survey3  Studied  Studied Number  Percent  All divisions .........................................................................................  382  58  93,589  100  39,865  Private industry ............................................................................. Goods producing .................................................................... Manufacturing ................................................................... Service producing ................................................................... Retail trade5 ...................................................................... Finance, insurance, and real estate5 ................................ Services5 ..........................................................................  347 138 138 209 108 15 62  47 22 22 25 10 4 8  78,603 40,763 40,763 37,840 13,920 6,393 13,120  84 44 44 40 15 7 14  29,704 16,674 16,674 13,030 3,272 3,727 4,983  State and local government ..........................................................  35  11  14,986  16  10,161  1 The Reading, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget through June 1994, consists of Berks County. The "workers within scope of survey" estimates provide a reasonably accurate description of the size and composition of the labor force included in the survey. Estimates are not intended, however, for comparison with other statistical series to measure employment trends or levels since (1) planning of wage surveys requires establishment data compiled considerably in advance of the payroll period studied, and (2) establishments employing fewer than 50 workers are excluded from the scope of the survey. 2 The Standard Industrial Classification Manual was used in classifying establishments by industry. 3 Includes all establishments with at least 50 total employees. In goods producing, an  establishment is defined as a single physical location where industrial operations are performed. In service producing industries, an establishment is defined as all locations of a company in the area within the same industry division. In government, an establishment is generally defined as all locations of a government entity. 4 Includes all workers in all establishments with total employment (within an area) at or above the minimum limitations. 5 Separate data for this division are not shown in the A-series tables, but the division is represented in the "all industries" and "service producing" estimates. Note: Overall industries may include data for industry divisions not shown separately.  A-3
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102