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COMP2000 Pilot Survey Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area July–August 1996 __________________________________________________________________________________________________ U.S. Department of Labor Robert B. Reich, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Katharine G. Abraham, Commissioner January 1997 Bulletin 3082-5  Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area  ii  Preface  T  of the Atlanta Regional Office. The Office of Compensation and Working Conditions, in cooperation with the Office of Field Operations and the Office of Technology and Survey Processing, in the BLS National Office was responsible for the survey design and data processing and analysis.  his survey of occupational pay was conducted in July/August 1996 in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). The MSA includes the counties of Chatham, Durham, Franklin, Johnston, Orange, and Wake. Raleigh is the fifth area selected for a series of tests using a new way of identifying and classifying occupations within establishments. The revised data collection procedure introduces a new method for determining the level of duties and responsibilities of surveyed occupations. This method, called “generic leveling,” will replace the job classification system now used in the Occupational Compensation Survey program (OCS). An entirely new statistical program will replace the existing OCS program, Employment Cost Index, and Employee Benefit Survey series. The working title of the program is COMP2000. Hourly wage rates for various occupational classifications compose the bulk of the information contained in this bulletin. One table contains data on weekly wage rates. Tables showing the number of workers included in the wage data are also presented. The bulletin consists primarily of tables whose data are analyzed in the initial textual section. Also contained in this bulletin is information on the new COMP2000 program, a technical note describing survey procedures, and several appendixes with detailed information on occupational classifications and the generic leveling methodology. Survey data were collected and reviewed by Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) field economists under the direction  Where to find more information For additional information regarding this survey, please contact the BLS Atlanta Regional Office at (404) 562-2463. You may also write to the Bureau of Labor Statistics at: Division of Compensation Data Analysis and Planning, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20212-0001, or call (202) 606-6220. The data contained in this bulletin are also available on the Internet’s World Wide Web through the BLS site: http://stats.bls.gov/comhome.htm Data are in ASCII files containing the exact published table format. Electronic files for future surveys will contain positional columns of data in an ASCII file for easy manipulation as a data base or spreadsheet. A third format will be Portable Document Format that will contain the entire bulletin. Material in this bulletin is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 606-7828; TDD phone: (202) 606-5897; TDD message referral phone: 1-800-326-2577.  iii  Contents  Page A New Compensation Survey .............................................................................................................. Wages in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC metropolitan area ......................................................  1 2  Appendixes: A. Technical note.......................................................................................................................... B. Occupational classifications...................................................................................................... C. Generic leveling criteria ........................................................................................................... D. Evaluating your firm’s jobs ......................................................................................................  36 43 51 58  Tables: 1. Hourly earnings for selected occupations .................................................................................. 2. Hourly earnings for selected occupations, full-time workers only.............................................. 3. Hourly earnings for selected occupations, part-time workers only............................................. 4. Weekly earnings for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only ......................... 5. Hourly earnings by occupational group and level...................................................................... 6. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries ..................... 7. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, private industry ................. 8. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, State and local government. 9. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry ...................................... 10. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry, full-time workers only .. 11. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry, part-time workers only . 12. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry... 13. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry, full-time workers only ............................................................................................................. 14. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry, part-time workers only ............................................................................................................ 15. Number of workers by occupation ............................................................................................ 16. Number of workers by occupational group and level................................................................. 17. Number of workers by occupational group and selected characteristic ...................................... 18. Number of workers by occupational group and industry, private industry ................................. 19. Number of workers by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry.......................................................................................................................  4 7 10 11 13 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 29 33 34 35  Appendix tables: A1. Number of establishments studied by industry and establishment employment size.................. A2. Relative standard errors of mean hourly earnings for selected occupations...............................  v  40 41  A New Compensation Survey  T  COMP2000 versus OCS The wage data in this bulletin differ from those in previous Occupational Compensation Survey bulletins by providing broader coverage of occupations and establishments within the survey area. The same holds for all future COMP2000 products. Occupations surveyed for this bulletin were selected using probability techniques from a list of all those present in each establishment. Previous OCS bulletins were limited to a preselected list of occupations, which represented a small subset of all occupations in the economy. Information in the new bulletin is published for a variety of occupation-based data. This new approach includes data on broad occupational classifications, such as white-collar workers, major occupational groups such as sales workers, and individual occupations such as cashiers. In tables containing job levels within occupational series, the levels are derived from generic standards that apply to all occupational groups. The job levels in the OCS bulletins were based on narrowly-defined descriptions that were not comparable across specific occupations. Occupational data in this bulletin are also tabulated for other classifications such as industry group, full-time versus part-time status, union versus nonunion status, and establishment employment size. Not all of these series were generated by the OCS program. Finally, the establishments surveyed in this bulletin were selected from among all private and State and local government establishments. Previous OCS samples were limited to establishments with 50 or more employees. The wider scope of the COMP2000 program means that virtually all workers in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill metropolitan statistical area are covered, excluding only private household and farm workers and employees of the Federal Government.  his bulletin represents the fifth test results of a new Bureau of Labor Statistics program called COMP2000. COMP2000 integrates three existing programs: the Occupational Compensation Survey (OCS), the Employment Cost Index (ECI), and the Employee Benefits Survey (EBS), into one comprehensive compensation program. Data from the new survey will be jointly collected from one common sample of establishments. The survey has several major goals: To make the most efficient use of available resources—dollars, people, and technology; to minimize the burden of collection on respondents; and to provide a wide range of statistical outputs reflecting up-to-date economic and statistical concepts. The streamlining of programs and the addition of data will be phased in over time. At first, testing will concentrate on wage level data (such as contained in this bulletin) and the collection of demographic characteristics of workers (e.g., length of service). In Fall 1996, a new areabased sample was put into place that will allow for the collection of wage data based on the methods refined in the early tests. The larger metropolitan area collections will yield bulletins, similar to this one, which will replace the current Occupational Compensation Survey bulletins. Further testing of benefit data, wage trend data, and other compensation characteristics will begin within the next year. Based on test results, new collection procedures for these types of statistics will be developed. The new procedures will be implemented beginning in 1998. Eventually, wage data and benefit information collected from the sample will be used to produce compensation indexes and statistics on benefit provisions and incidence. These new series will supplant the current ECI and EBS programs.  1  Wages in the Raleigh-DurhamChapel Hill, NC metropolitan area  S  traight-time wages in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC metropolitan area averaged $14.30 per hour during July/August, 1996 (table 1). White-collar workers had the highest average wage level, $17.26 per hour. Blue-collar workers averaged $11.51 per hour, while service workers had average earnings of $7.51 per hour. Within each of these occupational groups, average wages for individual occupations varied. For example, white-collar occupations included financial managers at $26.39 per hour, chemical technicians at $12.61 per hour, and sales counter clerks at $8.93 per hour. Among occupations in the blue-collar category, automobile mechanics averaged $16.77 per hour while bus drivers averaged $7.23 per hour. Finally, service workers included supervisors, police and detectives, at $20.02 and cooks at $6.73 per hour. Table 1 presents earnings data for 93 detailed occupations; data for other detailed occupations could not be reported separately due to concerns about the confidentiality of survey respondents.  Private industry workers, about 83 percent of the Raleigh area labor force studied, averaged $14.10 per hour, while State and local government workers earned $15.29 per hour (chart 1). (All comparisons in this analysis cover hourly rates for both full- and part-time workers, unless otherwise noted.) Over three-quarters of State and local government workers were in white-collar jobs, with 40 percent in professional specialty and technical occupations (chart 2). About half of private sector employees were white-collar. In contrast, blue-collar workers made up only 9 percent of government employees, while they made up 37 percent of private industry.  Chart 2. Distribution of employment by occupational group, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July-August, 1996 Percent  Private industry  100 Chart 1. Average hourly wage rates by industry, RaleighDurham-Chapel Hill, NC, July-August 1996  State and local government  80 60  Dollars per hour $ 16  40 14 20  12 10  0 8  White-collar  Blue-collar  Service  6 4  Average wages for full-time workers in Raleigh were $14.98 per hour, compared with an average of $7.97 per hour for part-time workers (tables 2-3). Wages for the highest levels of work within major occupational groups usually were greater than for the lowest levels of work (table 5). This general pattern can vary somewhat depending on the mix of specific occupations  2 0 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  2  (and industries) represented by the broad group. A given level within a group may not have data because no workers were identified at that level or because there were not enough data to guarantee confidentiality. Work levels for all major groups span several levels, with professional specialty and executive, administrative, and managerial workers typically starting and ending at higher work levels than the other groups. (See chart 3 for an example of wage data by level of work.) Nonunion workers had hourly wage rates of $14.39 in Raleigh. Union workers wages averaged $12.79 (table 6). Only 5 percent of workers in Raleigh were unionized, with just 17 percent of those in the higher-paying, white-collar occupations. In the private sector, hourly wages averaged $15.06 in goods-producing industries compared with $13.47 in service-producing industries (table 9). By industry, wages ranged from $9.68 per hour in wholesale and retail trade to an average of $17.23 per hour for workers in transportation, communication, and public utilities.  Chart 3. Average hourly wage rates by work level for administrative support including clerical occupations, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July-August 1996 Dollars per hour $ 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1  3  2  3 Level  4  5  Table 1. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median All workers .................................................. $14.30 $12.00 All workers excluding sales .................... 14.32 12.00 White-collar occupations ........................ 17.26 14.48 Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. 21.80 19.71 Professional specialty occupations 23.84 21.46 Engineering occupations ........... 25.18 23.42 Civil engineers .................... 22.54 – Electrical and electronic engineers ...................... 25.81 25.12 Industrial engineers ............ 30.56 – Engineers, N.E.C. ............... 23.56 – Computer systems analysts and scientists ................ 30.21 29.66 Operations and systems researchers and analysts ........................ 25.42 – Chemists, except biochemists ................... 19.20 – Biological and life scientists 25.70 – Registered nurses .............. 19.04 18.93 Teachers ..................................... 23.95 19.69 Teachers, except college and university .......................... 17.63 17.14 Secondary school teachers 18.92 – Vocational and educational counselors .................... 16.22 – Librarians ............................ 19.29 – Economists ......................... 26.62 – Social workers .................... 13.71 13.33 Editors and reporters .......... 15.10 – Technical occupations .................... 16.79 16.08 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians .................... 14.55 – Licensed practical nurses ... 13.56 – Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ....... 10.92 – Electrical and electronic technicians .................... 17.68 17.71 Drafters ............................... 17.24 – Chemical technicians .......... 12.61 – Computer programmers ..... 22.43 – Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 9.81 – Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ................ 23.01 19.87 Administrators and officials, public administration ..... 20.84 – Financial managers ............ 26.39 25.40 Personnel and labor relations managers ....... 24.79 – Managers., marketing, advertising and public relations ........................ 27.43 – Administrators, education and related fields .......... 21.13 – Managers, medicine and health ............................ 33.73 – Managers, food servicing and lodging establishments .............. 14.31 – Managers, service organizations, N.E.C. .... 17.75 – Managers and administrators, N.E.C. .. 31.72 28.94 Accountants and auditors ... 15.98 15.39 Other financial officers ........ 16.35 –  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $8.89 - $17.00 $14.10 $12.00 9.00 - 17.00 14.10 12.00 9.80 - 21.67 17.42 14.48  $8.75 - $16.83 $15.29 $12.62 8.95 - 16.76 15.30 12.62 9.70 - 22.50 16.75 14.47  $9.23 - $18.04 9.23 - 18.06 9.89 - 19.96  15.52 17.12 19.76 –  25.47 27.81 29.71 –  21.87 24.14 25.77 –  20.34 22.57 24.95 –  15.87 18.09 20.58 –  26.77 30.00 30.29 –  21.66 23.34 – –  18.18 19.53 – –  15.40 16.46 – –  20.20 – –  31.04 – –  25.81 30.56 21.82  25.12 – –  20.20 – –  31.04 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  22.87 -  40.36  30.44  30.05  23.08 -  40.87  –  –  –  –  –  25.42  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – 16.22 15.52 -  – – 21.40 25.81  19.34 25.70 – 11.16  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – 19.10 25.33  – – 18.53 20.69  – – 16.49 16.40 -  – – 21.64 26.36  14.91 –  20.87 –  10.03 –  – –  – –  – –  18.69 18.92  18.17 –  15.52 –  21.63 –  – – – 11.47 – 12.69 -  – – – 15.69 – 20.62  – – 26.62 – 15.10 17.29  – – – – – 17.12  – – – – – 21.67  – – – 14.21 – 15.18  – – – 13.84 – 15.40  – – – 12.05 – 12.20 -  – – – 16.50 – 16.85  – –  – –  12.96 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  20.02 – – –  17.75 – 12.25 22.25  17.86 – – –  20.10 – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.95 -  28.50  23.34  19.72  28.94  20.66  19.87  – 17.83 -  – 32.27  – 25.90  – –  – –  – –  20.84 –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  24.75  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  27.76  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.31  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  36.78 19.52 –  31.80 15.97 16.39  28.94 – –  36.78 – –  – 16.17 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  14.26 – – – –  23.56 13.46 –  See footnotes at end of table.  4  – – – – – 12.74 -  14.13 – – – – 14.90 -  23.85 – –  15.02 -  23.08 24.19 – –  23.62  Table 1. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ..................... $17.91 – Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. .............. 17.94 – Management related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 15.65 $14.38 Sales occupations .............................. 14.06 11.03 Supervisors, sales occupations .................. 19.55 – Sales occupations, other business services ......... 23.33 – Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale ............... 20.04 16.35 Sales workers, other commodities ................. 13.07 8.65 Sales counter clerks ........... 8.93 – Cashiers ............................. 6.65 6.00 Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... 10.32 9.91 Supervisors, general office 16.37 – Computer operators ............ 11.35 – Secretaries ......................... 11.52 10.76 Typists ................................ 10.17 – Receptionists ...................... 9.02 – Order clerks ........................ 9.77 – Records clerks, N.E.C. ....... 10.09 9.94 Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ........ 10.68 10.00 Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ............. 10.56 – Stock and inventory clerks .. 9.34 – Investigators and adjusters except insurance .......... 10.65 10.31 General office clerks ........... 9.92 9.50 Data entry keyers ............... 9.02 8.87 Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ...... 11.18 10.82 White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. 17.72 15.02 Blue-collar occupations .......................... 11.51 11.78 Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................. – – Supervisors, mechanics and repairers ................ 15.82 – Automobile mechanics ....... 16.77 – Industrial machinery repairers ....................... 17.78 – Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics .................... 13.45 – Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. ........................... 12.71 12.25 Carpenters .......................... 10.73 – Supervisors, production occupations .................. 16.42 – Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 9.18 8.00 Inspectors, testers, and graders ......................... 12.33 – Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ..................................... 10.27 10.05 Packaging and filling machine operators ........ 10.19 9.92 Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. .......... 11.14 10.45 Assemblers ......................... 9.93 –  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  –  –  $18.02  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – –  – –  – –  $12.50 - $17.06 7.00 - 17.01  15.46 $14.04 14.08 11.03  $12.38 - $16.49 – 6.96 - 17.01 $11.00  –  –  19.72  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  23.42  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.91 -  21.01  20.04  16.35  14.91 -  21.01  –  –  –  –  6.00 – 5.50 -  19.23 – 7.00  13.07 8.93 6.58  8.65 – 6.00  6.00 – 5.50 -  19.23 – 7.00  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  8.65 – – 10.34 – – – 8.00 -  11.52 – – 12.72 – – – 11.73  10.44 16.37 – 11.76 10.54 9.04 9.77 8.64  10.00 – – 12.50 – – – –  8.52 – – 10.00 – – – –  11.93 – – 13.03 – – – –  10.03 – – – – – – 11.42  $9.75 – – – – – – –  9.00 -  12.00  10.65  10.00  8.89 -  12.00  11.19  –  –  –  – –  10.56 9.21  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  9.05 8.40 8.60 -  11.85 11.03 9.13  10.71 9.86 8.99  10.36 9.00 –  9.05 7.75 –  11.95 13.00 –  – 9.96 –  – 9.73 –  – 8.83 –  10.00 -  12.50  11.16  10.82  10.00 -  12.50  –  –  –  10.25 9.00 -  22.18 13.00  18.09 11.52  15.33 11.78  10.41 9.00 -  23.34 13.00  16.77 11.29  14.53 11.94  9.89 8.36 -  19.96 13.25  –  –  –  –  –  –  13.06  12.92  12.09 -  14.11  – –  – –  17.59 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  17.78  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  13.92  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.84 –  12.59 10.73  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  16.42  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  11.27  9.18  8.00  6.67 -  11.27  –  –  –  –  –  12.33  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.50 -  12.03  10.24  10.05  8.50 -  12.00  –  –  –  –  9.60 -  10.83  10.19  9.92  9.60 -  10.83  –  –  –  –  8.82 –  12.88 –  11.14 9.93  10.45 –  8.82 –  12.88 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  11.45 – – 6.67 –  See footnotes at end of table.  5  – –  $8.83 - $10.75 – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – 10.75 – –  Table 1. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Production inspectors, checkers and examiners Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. Truck drivers ....................... Driver-sales workers ........... Bus drivers .......................... Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators ..... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm .. Helpers, construction trades Stock handlers and baggers Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ........... Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ...... Service occupations ............................... Protective service occupations Supervisors, police and detectives ..................... Police and detectives, public service ................ Guards and police except public service ................ Food service occupations .......... Waiters and waitresses ...... Cooks ................................. Food counter, fountain, and related occupations ...... Kitchen workers, food preparation ................... Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ...... Health service occupations ....... Health aides except nursing Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ..................... Cleaning and building service occupations .......................... Maids and housemen ......... Janitors and cleaners ......... Personal services occupations Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities ........ Welfare service aides .........  $9.93  –  11.65 $10.20 13.93 12.94 8.27 – 7.23 –  Middle range  –  –  $8.25 - $14.37 9.90 - 19.95 – – – –  Mean Median  $9.93  –  11.82 $10.52 13.93 12.94 8.27 – – –  Middle range  –  –  $8.25 - $14.75 9.90 - 19.95 – – – –  Mean Median  Middle range  –  –  –  –  $8.91 – – 8.29  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  –  –  9.77  –  –  –  9.77  –  –  –  –  7.98  8.00  6.80 -  9.10  7.91  8.00  6.58 -  9.10  8.79  8.08 8.58 8.57  – – 9.00  – – 6.70 -  – – 10.50  – – 8.63  – – 9.10  – – 6.50 -  – – 11.00  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  8.58  –  –  –  8.58  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  7.16 7.51 10.99  7.15 6.89 10.21  8.15 8.75 13.15  7.16 6.84 7.74  7.15 6.50 –  6.05 5.50 –  8.15 7.75 –  – 9.65 13.33  – 8.24 11.89  20.02  –  –  –  –  –  –  20.02  –  14.35  13.57  11.88 -  17.75  –  –  –  –  14.35  13.57  8.33 5.66 3.47 6.73  – 5.75 2.13 –  – 5.00 2.13 –  – 6.65 4.25 –  7.75 5.60 3.47 6.76  – 5.75 2.13 –  – 5.00 2.13 –  – 6.75 4.25 –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  5.33  –  –  –  5.33  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  6.50  5.75  5.50 -  7.20  6.34  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  6.06 9.61 10.01  5.87 8.63 8.56  5.46 7.32 7.09 -  6.50 11.35 14.19  6.14 9.97 10.10  6.00 8.75 –  5.25 7.11 –  – 8.12 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  8.23  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  7.79 6.19 7.92 7.26  7.50 – 7.56 6.89  6.25 – 6.84 6.10 -  9.35 – 9.35 7.63  7.74 6.19 8.04 7.13  7.50 – 7.70 –  5.75 – 6.50 –  9.35 – 9.50 –  7.99 – 7.60 7.64  7.28 – 7.26 7.41  6.95 – 6.95 6.73 -  8.34 – 7.98 8.24  6.37 6.48  – –  – –  – –  – 6.41  – –  – –  – –  6.78 –  – –  – –  – –  6.05 5.70 7.12 –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  6.50 12.50 –  $8.36  $8.36 -  – 6.90 10.21 – 11.88 -  $8.47  – 11.33 14.83 – 17.75  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  6  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median All workers .................................................. $14.98 $12.50 All workers excluding sales .................... 14.89 12.50 White-collar occupations ........................ 17.89 15.15 Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. 22.15 19.96 Professional specialty occupations 24.16 21.70 Engineering occupations ........... 25.19 23.42 Civil engineers .................... 22.54 – Electrical and electronic engineers ...................... 25.81 25.12 Industrial engineers ............ 30.56 – Engineers, N.E.C. ............... 23.40 – Computer systems analysts and scientists ................ 30.34 29.81 Operations and systems researchers and analysts ........................ 25.42 – Chemists, except biochemists ................... 19.20 – Biological and life scientists 25.70 – Registered nurses .............. 18.61 18.46 Teachers ..................................... 24.56 20.09 Teachers, except college and university .......................... 18.09 17.46 Secondary school teachers 18.92 – Vocational and educational counselors .................... 16.22 – Librarians ............................ 19.29 – Economists ......................... 26.62 – Social workers .................... 13.69 13.33 Editors and reporters .......... 15.09 – Technical occupations .................... 17.10 16.23 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians .................... 14.98 – Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ....... 12.65 – Electrical and electronic technicians .................... 17.72 17.73 Drafters ............................... 17.24 – Chemical technicians .......... 13.14 – Computer programmers ..... 22.43 – Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 9.81 – Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ................ 23.08 20.00 Administrators and officials, public administration ..... 20.84 – Financial managers ............ 26.39 25.40 Personnel and labor relations managers ....... 24.79 – Managers., marketing, advertising and public relations ........................ 27.43 – Administrators, education and related fields .......... 21.13 – Managers, medicine and health ............................ 33.73 – Managers, food servicing and lodging establishments .............. 14.31 – Managers, service organizations, N.E.C. .... 17.75 – Managers and administrators, N.E.C. .. 31.72 28.94 Accountants and auditors ... 16.29 15.94 Other financial officers ........ 16.30 –  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $9.42 - $17.48 $14.88 $12.50 9.42 - 17.38 14.77 12.50 10.38 - 22.50 18.27 15.48  $9.43 - $17.26 $15.39 $12.72 9.44 - 17.02 15.39 12.72 10.60 - 23.54 16.78 14.45  $9.31 - $18.10 9.31 - 18.10 9.89 - 19.98  15.82 17.46 19.76 –  25.81 27.97 29.71 –  22.31 24.52 25.77 –  20.71 22.67 24.73 –  16.34 18.40 20.45 –  27.13 30.10 30.29 –  21.83 23.58 – –  18.26 19.67 – –  15.40 16.48 – –  20.20 – –  31.04 – –  25.81 30.56 –  25.12 – –  20.20 – –  31.04 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  23.05 -  40.60  30.57  30.15  23.16 -  40.87  –  –  –  –  –  25.42  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – 16.16 15.83 -  – – 20.98 25.85  19.34 25.70 – 12.37  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – 19.25 25.49  – – – 20.69  – – – 16.46 -  – – – 26.61  15.22 –  21.21 –  11.20 –  – –  – –  – –  18.76 18.92  18.17 –  15.52 –  21.64 –  – – – 11.43 – 12.74 -  – – – 15.69 – 21.00  – – 26.62 – 15.09 17.75  – – – – – 17.40  – – – – – 21.95  – – – 14.20 – 15.18  – – – 13.64 – 15.40  – – – 12.02 – 12.20 -  – – – 16.50 – 16.83  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  20.08 – – –  17.80 – – 22.25  17.87 – – –  20.11 – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.02 -  28.50  23.40  20.00  28.94  20.71  19.87  – 17.83 -  – 32.27  – 25.90  – –  – –  – –  20.84 –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  24.75  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  27.76  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.31  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  36.78 19.71 –  31.80 16.31 16.39  28.94 – –  36.78 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  14.26 – – – –  23.56 13.46 –  See footnotes at end of table.  7  – – – – – 12.84 -  14.42 – – – – 14.99 -  23.85 – –  15.02 -  23.10 24.45 – –  23.62  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ..................... $17.91 – Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. .............. 17.94 – Management related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 15.65 $14.38 Sales occupations .............................. 16.26 12.98 Supervisors, sales occupations .................. 19.55 – Sales occupations, other business services ......... 23.33 – Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale ............... 20.04 16.35 Sales workers, other commodities ................. 14.43 8.87 Sales counter clerks ........... 9.84 – Cashiers ............................. 7.72 – Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... 10.40 10.00 Supervisors, general office 16.49 – Computer operators ............ 11.35 – Secretaries ......................... 11.91 11.27 Receptionists ...................... 9.20 – Order clerks ........................ 10.58 – Records clerks, N.E.C. ....... 10.26 10.30 Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ........ 10.35 10.00 Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ............. 10.56 – Stock and inventory clerks .. 9.52 – Investigators and adjusters except insurance .......... 10.78 10.36 General office clerks ........... 10.05 9.66 Data entry keyers ............... 9.07 – Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ...... 11.20 10.82 White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. 18.08 15.36 Blue-collar occupations .......................... 11.78 12.00 Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................. – – Supervisors, mechanics and repairers ................ 15.82 – Automobile mechanics ....... 16.79 – Industrial machinery repairers ....................... 17.78 – Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics .................... 13.45 – Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. ........................... 12.71 12.25 Carpenters .......................... 10.73 – Supervisors, production occupations .................. 16.42 – Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 9.18 8.00 Inspectors, testers, and graders ......................... 12.33 – Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ..................................... 10.39 10.05 Packaging and filling machine operators ........ 10.32 – Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. .......... 11.28 10.53 Assemblers ......................... 10.16 – Production inspectors, checkers and examiners 9.93 –  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  –  –  $18.02  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – –  – –  – –  – –  $12.50 - $17.06 9.20 - 19.50  15.46 $14.04 16.29 12.98  $12.38 - $16.49 9.12 - 19.50  –  –  19.72  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  23.42  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.91 -  21.01  20.04  16.35  14.91 -  21.01  –  –  –  –  6.50 – –  20.98 – –  14.43 9.84 7.56  8.87 – –  6.50 – –  20.98 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  8.80 – – 10.34 – – 8.25 -  11.58 – – 12.86 – – 11.89  10.59 16.49 – 12.59 9.24 10.58 8.77  10.25 – – 12.69 – – –  8.75 – – 11.40 – – –  8.89 -  10.60  10.30  10.00  8.89 -  – –  10.56 9.39  – –  – –  9.05 8.55 –  12.02 11.19 –  10.85 10.19 9.26  – 9.50 –  – 7.86 –  10.00 -  12.50  11.17  10.82  10.49 9.42 -  22.79 13.44  18.60 11.79  16.02 12.00  –  –  –  –  – –  – –  17.59 –  –  –  –  – –  11.45 – – 6.67 – 8.80 – 9.11 – –  12.00 $10.03 – – – – 13.30 – – – – – – –  $9.75 – – – – – –  $8.83 - $10.75 – – – – – – – – – – – –  10.60  11.19  –  –  –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – 13.00 –  – 9.96 –  – 9.73 –  – 8.83 –  10.00 -  12.50  –  –  –  10.80 9.45 -  23.86 13.43  16.79 11.63  14.45 12.09  9.89 8.63 -  20.01 13.54  –  –  13.06  12.92  12.09 -  14.11  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  17.78  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  13.92  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.84 –  12.59 10.73  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  16.42  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  11.27  9.18  8.00  6.67 -  11.27  –  –  –  –  –  12.33  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  12.21  10.36  10.05  12.09  –  –  –  –  –  10.32  –  –  –  –  –  –  13.13 –  11.28 10.16  10.53 –  13.13 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  9.93  –  –  –  –  –  –  See footnotes at end of table.  8  8.77 – 9.11 – –  – 10.75 – –  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. $12.21 $10.75 Truck drivers ....................... 13.97 13.25 Driver-sales workers ........... 9.41 – Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators ..... 9.77 – Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... 8.33 8.36 Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm .. 8.13 – Stock handlers and baggers 9.23 9.25 Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ........... 8.80 – Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners ...... 7.39 – Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ...... 7.57 7.15 Service occupations ............................... 8.24 7.25 Protective service occupations 12.04 10.81 Supervisors, police and detectives ..................... 20.02 – Police and detectives, public service ................ 14.52 13.60 Guards and police except public service ................ 9.06 – Food service occupations .......... 6.07 6.00 Cooks ................................. 6.51 – Kitchen workers, food preparation ................... 6.87 – Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ...... 6.14 – Health service occupations ....... 9.61 8.65 Health aides except nursing 10.03 – Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ..................... 8.23 – Cleaning and building service occupations .......................... 7.75 7.35 Maids and housemen ......... 6.16 – Janitors and cleaners ......... 7.94 7.57 Personal services occupations 7.86 7.33 Welfare service aides ......... 7.47 –  Middle range  Mean Median  $9.00 - $14.81 $12.24 $10.82 9.80 - 19.95 13.97 13.25 – – 9.41 –  Middle range  $8.97 - $14.85 9.80 - 19.95 – –  Mean Median  Middle range  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  9.77  –  –  –  7.15 -  9.45  8.29  8.00  7.00 -  9.50  $8.75  $8.36  – 7.50 -  – 11.00  – 9.37  – 9.50  – 7.40 -  – 11.41  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  8.80  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  7.57 7.46 –  7.15 7.00 –  6.75 6.00 –  9.00 8.75 –  – 9.74 13.42  – 8.31 12.01  –  –  –  –  –  20.02  –  12.04 -  17.75  –  –  –  –  14.52  13.60  – 5.46 –  – 7.00 –  – 6.07 6.53  – 6.00 –  – 5.25 –  – 7.00 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 11.35 –  6.37 9.97 10.10  – 8.75 –  – 7.11 –  – 8.11 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  6.46 – 6.95 6.80 –  9.35 – 9.35 8.23 –  7.65 6.16 8.17 7.85 –  7.50 – – – –  5.45 – – – –  9.35 – – – –  7.99 – 7.60 – –  7.28 – 7.26 – –  6.95 – 6.95 – –  8.34 – 7.98 – –  6.80 6.00 9.51 -  8.90 9.50 13.84  –  – 7.28 –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a  – 12.50 –  $8.36 -  – 6.95 10.21 – 12.04 -  $8.43  – 11.44 14.95 – 17.75  35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  9  Table 3. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, part-time workers only2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales .................... White-collar occupations ........................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. Professional specialty occupations Registered nurses .............. Technical occupations .................... Sales occupations .............................. Sales workers, other commodities ................. Cashiers ............................. Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ........ General office clerks ........... White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. Blue-collar occupations .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. Bus drivers .......................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... Stock handlers and baggers Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ...... Service occupations ............................... Protective service occupations Food service occupations .......... Waiters and waitresses ...... Food counter, fountain, and related occupations ...... Kitchen workers, food preparation ................... Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ...... Cleaning and building service occupations .......................... Janitors and cleaners ......... Personal services occupations Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities ........ Welfare service aides .........  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $7.97 8.31 9.85  $6.89 7.00 7.50  $5.55 5.75 6.00 -  $8.63 9.00 10.73  $7.75 8.07 9.49  $6.65 7.00 7.50  $5.50 5.75 6.00 -  15.66 17.49 20.38 12.30 6.21  15.40 16.23 – – 6.00  7.50 8.00 – – 5.50 -  21.01 23.13 – – 6.55  15.50 17.84 – 12.06 6.21  15.40 – – – 6.00  6.02 6.11  – 6.00  – 5.50 -  – 6.50  6.02 6.11  9.46  8.52  7.35 -  10.00  9.46  12.02 7.89  – –  – –  – –  11.88 7.15  9.00 7.00  7.47 5.50 -  7.59 7.81  – –  6.81 5.67  Mean Median  Middle range  $8.40 $11.90 9.00 12.03 9.77 15.32  $8.99 9.01 15.50  $7.40 - $16.18 7.40 - 16.30 9.09 - 18.60  7.40 – – – 5.50 -  21.40 – – – 6.55  16.31 16.53 18.44 – –  15.89 16.30 – – –  12.00 12.00 – – –  – 6.00  – 5.50 -  – 6.50  – –  – –  – –  – –  8.50  7.25 -  10.50  –  –  –  –  12.02 7.83  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  15.20 8.19  11.49 7.06  9.00 7.00  7.40 5.50 -  15.00 8.00  15.69 8.29  15.52 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  8.12 8.12  – –  – –  – –  6.55 –  5.45 –  8.00 –  6.78 5.67  6.50 –  5.45 –  8.00 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  6.27 5.94 7.16 5.15 3.33  – 6.00 – 5.50 –  – 5.00 – 4.25 –  – 7.00 – 6.35 –  6.27 5.92 – 5.15 3.33  – 6.00 – 5.50 –  – 5.00 – 4.25 –  – 7.00 – 6.35 –  – 6.66 – – –  – 6.50 – – –  – 5.53 – – –  – 7.93 – – –  5.39  –  –  –  5.39  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  5.62  –  –  –  5.62  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  5.97  6.00  5.10 -  6.50  5.97  6.00  5.10 -  6.50  –  –  –  –  7.90 7.88 5.94  – – –  – – –  – – –  7.90 7.88 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – 6.40  – – –  – – –  – – –  6.28 5.81  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  6.78 –  – –  – –  – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a  12.00 –  19.84 19.93 – – –  18.79 –  35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  10  Table 4. Mean weekly earnings1 and hours for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 All industries Occupation3  White-collar occupations .................................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ Professional specialty occupations ........... Engineering occupations ..................... Civil engineers .............................. Electrical and electronic engineers Industrial engineers ...................... Engineers, N.E.C. ......................... Computer systems analysts and scientists ................................. Operations and systems researchers and analysts ....... Chemists, except biochemists ...... Biological and life scientists .......... Registered nurses ........................ Teachers ............................................... Teachers, except college and university .................................... Secondary school teachers .......... Vocational and educational counselors .............................. Librarians ...................................... Economists ................................... Social workers .............................. Editors and reporters .................... Technical occupations .............................. Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians ....................... Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ................. Electrical and electronic technicians .............................. Drafters ......................................... Chemical technicians .................... Computer programmers ............... Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............................................ Administrators and officials, public administration ......................... Financial managers ...................... Personnel and labor relations managers ................................ Managers., marketing, advertising and public relations ................. Administrators, education and related fields ........................... Managers, medicine and health ... Managers, food servicing and lodging establishments ........... Managers, service organizations, N.E.C. ..................................... Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................................... Accountants and auditors ............. Other financial officers .................. Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ................ Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. ..................................... Management related occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Sales occupations ........................................ Supervisors, sales occupations ....  Mean weekly hours4  Private industry  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  39.9  $714  $592  39.8 39.7 40.0 40.1 40.1 39.1 40.3  881 958 1007 904 1034 1194 942  42.7  State and local government  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  40.3  $736  $612  778 828 937 – 1005 – –  40.6 41.0 40.0 – 40.1 39.1 –  907 1005 1032 – 1034 1194 –  1295  1147  42.8  39.6 40.0 39.1 39.3 37.1  1007 768 1005 731 911  – – – 706 713  36.1 37.1  653 702  39.0 39.9 39.1 39.1 39.4 40.0  632 770 1042 535 595 684  39.9  598  38.9  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  38.8  $651  $550  824 914 989 – 1005 – –  38.2 37.7 – – – – –  833 890 – – – – –  702 724 – – – – –  1308  1159  –  –  –  39.6 40.0 39.1 – 40.0  1007 774 1005 – 495  – – – – –  – – – 40.0 36.9  – – – 770 941  – – – – 730  636 –  40.0 –  448 –  – –  35.8 37.1  671 702  643 –  – – – 533 – 654  – – 39.1 – 39.4 40.0  – – 1042 – 595 710  – – – – – 696  – – – 38.9 – 40.0  – – – 552 – 607  – – – 543 – 616  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  492  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0  709 690 526 897  709 – – –  712 – – 890  715 – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  43.2  424  –  –  –  –  –  –  40.7  940  800  40.8  956  800  39.9  826  795  39.9 41.5  831 1096  – 1016  – 42.2  – 1092  – –  39.9 –  831 –  – –  39.3  974  –  39.3  973  –  –  –  –  42.4  1163  –  42.4  1178  –  –  –  –  40.5 41.1  855 1385  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  45.4  650  –  45.4  650  –  –  –  –  39.7  704  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  40.8 39.8 40.0  1295 648 652  1172 638 –  40.8 39.8 40.0  1299 649 656  1183 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  40.0  715  –  39.9  719  –  –  –  –  39.9  716  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  40.5 39.6 39.4  634 644 770  565 509 –  627 645 777  562 509 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  11  40.0 – – 40.0 –  40.6 39.6 39.4  Table 4. Mean weekly earnings1 and hours for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued All industries Occupation3  Sales occupations, other business services .................................. Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale Sales workers, other commodities Sales counter clerks ..................... Cashiers ....................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ Supervisors, general office ........... Computer operators ...................... Secretaries ................................... Receptionists ................................ Order clerks .................................. Records clerks, N.E.C. ................. Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......................... Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ...................................... Stock and inventory clerks ............ Investigators and adjusters except insurance ................................ General office clerks ..................... Data entry keyers ......................... Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ................ White-collar occupations excluding sales .....  Mean weekly hours4  Private industry  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  40.1  $935  –  40.1 38.0 39.0 39.1  804 548 384 302  39.7 40.8 39.9 39.6 40.0 40.0 39.9  State and local government  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  40.1  $939  –  $654 350 – –  40.1 38.0 39.0 39.1  804 548 384 295  413 673 453 472 368 423 409  398 – – 451 – – 412  39.8 40.8 – 39.4 40.0 40.0 39.8  39.4  408  400  40.0 40.6  422 386  40.0 39.6 40.0 40.0 39.9  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  –  –  –  $654 350 – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  422 673 – 496 370 423 349  404 – – 500 – – –  39.3 – – – – – –  $395 – – – – – –  $382 – – – – – –  39.4  406  400  39.1  438  –  – –  40.0 40.6  422 381  – –  – –  – –  431 398 363  414 386 –  40.0 39.1 40.0  434 399 370  – 381 –  – 40.0 –  – 398 –  – 388 –  447 722  433 598  40.0 40.4  446 752  433 628  – 38.8  – 652  – 550  1 Earnings are the straight-time weekly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time  – –  employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Mean weekly hours are the hours an employee is scheduled to work in a week. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  12  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  White-collar occupations .................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............. Professional specialty occupations ........................ Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Engineering occupations ...... Level 7 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Electrical and electronic engineers ................ Registered nurses ........ Level 9 ...................... Natural scientists .................. Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Teachers ............................... Level 8 ...................... Teachers, except college and university ............. Level 8 ...................... Technical occupations .............. Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Electrical and electronic technicians .............. Level 7 ...................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .......... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 .................... Executives, managers and administrators ................. Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 ....................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  $17.26  $17.42  $16.75  $17.89  $18.27  21.80  21.87  21.66  22.15  23.84 14.51 13.26 18.63 17.32 19.84 23.59 23.69 27.19 44.64 25.18 20.30 23.82 26.85 29.71  24.14 15.45 12.89 19.42 17.27 22.31 24.80 23.26 27.93 37.25 25.77 – 23.82 26.91 29.71  23.34 10.90 – 17.61 17.45 18.66 19.25 – – – – – – – –  25.81 19.04 18.94 29.63 25.54 24.26 32.96 37.42 23.95 17.45  25.81 – – 29.81 25.54 24.25 32.96 37.42 11.16 –  17.63 18.02 16.79 11.11 13.91 12.62 16.92 15.21 22.14  10.03 – 17.29 11.19 14.05 12.55 17.26 14.96 22.85  17.68 15.32  17.75 –  23.01 17.22 10.67 14.65 16.53 18.98 21.00 21.38 30.57 31.24 35.51 48.72  23.34 17.23 10.00 13.37 16.66 19.05 21.16 21.47 31.27 31.57 41.23 49.30  28.33 20.96 20.86 20.84 30.54 31.24 35.51 48.72  28.62 21.01 21.08 20.92 31.01 31.57 41.23 49.30  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  $16.78  $9.85  $9.49  $15.32  22.31  21.83  15.66  15.50  16.31  24.16 16.04 13.47 18.63 17.38 19.60 23.72 23.69 27.22 44.64 25.19 20.30 23.82 26.85 30.08  24.52 16.76 13.02 19.42 17.39 21.75 24.85 23.26 27.98 37.25 25.77 – 23.82 26.91 30.08  23.58 – – 17.61 17.36 18.66 19.45 – – – – – – – –  17.49 – – – 16.74 24.26 – – – – – – – – –  17.84 – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  16.53 – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – 19.10 – – – – – – 25.33 17.45  25.81 18.61 – 29.74 25.54 24.26 32.96 37.42 24.56 18.02  25.81 – – 29.92 25.54 24.25 32.96 37.42 12.37 –  – 19.25 – – – – – – 25.49 18.02  – 20.38 – – – – – – – –  18.69 18.02 15.18 – – – 15.45 – –  18.09 18.02 17.10 11.75 13.69 13.53 16.92 15.61 22.15  11.20 – 17.75 12.05 13.81 13.51 17.26 15.53 22.85  18.76 18.02 15.18 – – – 15.45 – –  – – 12.30 – – – – – –  17.72 15.32  17.80 –  20.66 – – – – – – 19.92 – 29.18 – –  23.08 17.22 10.67 14.65 16.52 19.33 21.00 21.38 30.57 31.24 35.51 48.72  23.40 17.23 10.00 13.37 16.66 19.41 21.16 21.47 31.27 31.57 41.23 49.30  25.52 – – 19.34 24.84 29.18 – –  28.33 20.96 20.86 20.84 30.54 31.24 35.51 48.72  28.62 21.01 21.08 20.92 31.01 31.57 41.23 49.30  – –  See footnotes at end of table.  13  – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – 12.06 – – – – – –  – 18.44 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – –  – –  – –  20.71 – – – – – – 19.92 – 29.18 – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  25.52 – – 19.34 24.84 29.18 – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 15 .................... Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ............... Sales occupations ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Cashiers ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Not able to be leveled Secretaries ................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Order clerks .................. Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... General office clerks ..... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 ....................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  $31.72 19.80 22.33 32.38 34.07 54.03  $31.80 19.80 22.31 32.38 34.07 54.00  – – – – – –  $31.72 19.80 22.33 32.38 34.07 54.03  $31.80 19.80 22.31 32.38 34.07 54.00  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  17.91 14.06 5.92 6.17 7.17 7.61 10.41 13.36 15.34 23.56 15.26 24.08 6.65 5.66 6.13 7.89  18.02 14.08 5.92 6.16 – 7.59 – 13.36 15.36 23.65 15.26 – 6.58 5.66 6.12 7.96  – $11.00 – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  17.91 16.26 – – 8.48 8.32 10.61 13.79 15.76 23.56 15.26 24.08 7.72 – – –  18.02 16.29 – – – 8.30 – 13.80 15.79 23.65 15.26 – 7.56 – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – $6.21 6.10 5.98 5.98 6.25 – – – – – – 6.11 – 5.97 6.00  – $6.21 6.10 5.97 – 6.25 – – – – – – 6.11 – 5.95 –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  10.32 7.41 8.36 9.08 9.84 11.06 11.68 12.64 9.25 11.52 9.90 13.08 14.34 9.77  10.44 7.41 8.30 – – 11.06 11.36 12.61 9.25 11.76 – 13.04 – 9.77  10.03 – – – – 11.07 – – – – – – – –  10.40 6.76 8.49 9.23 9.94 11.15 11.46 12.64 – 11.91 10.46 13.11 14.34 10.58  10.59 6.76 8.42 – – 11.13 11.03 12.61 – 12.59 – 13.06 – 10.58  $10.03 – – – – 11.31 – – – – – – – –  9.46 – 7.62 7.44 8.93 – – – – – – – – –  9.46 – 7.62 – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  10.68 10.26 9.37 11.47 9.92 7.77 9.34 10.22  10.65 – 9.32 11.47 9.86 7.77 9.50 9.57  11.19 – – – 9.96 – 9.22 10.37  10.35 10.26 9.42 11.68 10.05 – 9.43 10.26  10.30 – 9.36 11.68 10.19 – 9.76 9.73  11.19 – – – 9.96 – 9.22 10.37  12.02 – – – 7.89 – – –  12.02 – – – 7.83 – – –  – – – – – – – –  17.72 7.41 8.37 9.09 9.85 12.88 12.01 15.77 16.22 20.00 22.47 22.55 28.74 40.52  18.09 7.41 8.30 8.82 9.67 13.00 11.71 15.38 16.19 20.98 22.83 22.19 29.60 35.38  16.77 – – 9.31 10.27 11.82 13.38 16.99 16.32 18.86 19.02 24.08 – –  18.08 6.76 8.47 9.24 9.96 12.99 11.98 15.77 16.29 19.93 22.55 22.75 28.77 40.52  18.60 6.76 8.42 9.14 9.79 13.07 11.66 15.38 16.32 20.89 22.90 22.42 29.63 35.38  16.79 – – 9.31 10.29 12.22 13.36 16.99 16.20 18.86 19.16 24.08 – –  11.88 – 7.62 7.44 8.87 11.33 12.23 – 14.48 21.65 – – – –  11.49 – 7.62 7.42 8.89 11.82 – – – – – – – –  $15.69 – – – – – – – – – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  14  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  Level 14 .................... Level 15 .................... Not able to be leveled Blue-collar occupations .................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................. Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Transportation and material moving occupations ................ Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Truck drivers ................. Level 5 ...................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .............. Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Service occupations ......................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 11 .................... Protective service occupations .................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 11 .................... Guards and police except public service .................... Food service occupations .... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Health service occupations Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ........ Cleaning and building service occupations ........ Level 1 ......................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  $35.54 48.77 11.58 11.51  $37.50 48.14 11.61 11.52  – – – $11.29  $35.54 48.87 – 11.78  $37.50 48.31 – 11.79  – – – $11.63  – 11.40 14.35 15.47 15.97 18.38 15.56  – 11.29 14.66 15.59 15.97 18.38 18.00  13.06 – – – – – –  – 11.30 14.35 15.47 15.97 18.38 15.56  – 11.18 14.66 15.59 15.97 18.38 18.00  13.06 – – – – – –  10.27 7.78 10.21 8.38 10.09 11.92 13.96 13.50  10.24 7.78 10.21 8.40 10.09 11.92 13.77 13.50  – – – – – – – –  10.39 7.82 10.21 8.61 10.09 11.92 13.96 13.50  10.36 7.82 10.21 8.63 10.09 11.92 13.77 13.50  11.65 7.62 9.72 10.82 15.21 13.93 16.41  11.82 7.61 10.20 10.74 15.21 13.93 16.41  8.91 – – – – – –  12.21 8.00 10.46 10.73 15.21 13.97 16.41  12.24 8.00 10.46 10.62 15.21 13.97 16.41  7.98 6.88 7.81 8.11 8.54 7.51 5.96 6.59 6.78 6.50 9.18 9.96 11.19 11.66 16.49 19.80  7.91 6.85 7.73 7.99 8.53 6.84 5.92 6.40 6.73 6.06 9.13 11.15 – – – –  8.79 – – – – 9.65 – 7.19 7.28 9.35 – – 11.20 13.13 – 19.80  8.33 7.13 7.97 8.37 8.93 8.24 6.21 6.91 7.56 7.29 9.09 9.99 11.29 11.66 18.38 19.80  8.29 7.10 7.84 8.33 8.92 7.46 6.23 6.76 7.60 6.74 9.02 11.25 – – – –  10.99 11.44 11.13 13.26 19.80  7.74 – – – –  13.33 11.19 11.13 13.13 19.80  12.04 11.49 11.13 13.26 19.80  8.33 5.66 5.60 5.83 5.76 4.62 9.61  7.75 5.60 5.54 5.83 5.66 4.44 9.97  – – – – – – 8.12  9.06 6.07 5.70 6.07 7.21 5.25 9.61  8.23  –  –  7.79 6.55  7.74 6.43  7.99 –  See footnotes at end of table.  15  All industries  Private industry  – – $8.99 7.15  – – $8.99 7.06  State and local government – – – $8.29  – – – – – – –  – – – – – – –  – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – –  7.59 – – – – – –  – – – – – – –  8.12 – – – – – –  8.75 – – – – 9.74 – 7.28 7.34 9.53 – – 11.20 13.13 – 19.80  6.81 6.29 – 6.22 – 5.94 5.51 5.43 5.95 5.24 – – – – – –  6.78 6.29 – – – 5.92 5.50 5.42 5.94 5.17 – – – – – –  – – – – – 6.66 – – – – – – – – – –  13.42 11.49 11.13 13.13 19.80  7.16 – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – 6.07 5.65 6.07 7.40 4.86 9.97  – – – – – – 8.11  – 5.15 5.45 5.36 4.75 4.17 –  – 5.15 5.45 5.36 4.75 4.17 –  – – – – – – –  8.23  –  –  –  –  –  7.75 6.68  7.65 6.53  7.99 –  7.90 –  7.90 –  – –  – – – – –  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Janitors and cleaners ... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Personal services occupations .................... Level 4 ......................  All industries  Private industry  $7.60 9.31 7.92 7.07 7.69 9.36  – – $8.04 6.98 – –  7.26 7.19  7.13 7.04  Full-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – – $7.60 – – –  $7.76 8.78 7.94 7.53 – 8.72  – – $8.17 7.53 – –  7.64 –  7.86 –  7.85 –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Each occupation for which wage data are collected in an establishment is evaluated based on 10 factors, including knowledge, complexity, work environment, etc. Points are assigned based on the occupation’s ranking within each factor. The points are summed to determine the overall level of the occupation. See technical note for more information.  Part-time workers  State and local government – – $7.60 – – – – –  All industries  Private industry  – – $7.88 – – –  – – $7.88 – – –  5.94 –  – –  State and local government – – – – – – $6.40 –  3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  16  Table 6. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  Incentive5  All workers ...................................................................... All workers excluding sales .................................... White-collar occupations ........................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................................. Professional specialty occupations ................. Technical occupations .................................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .................................................. Sales occupations .............................................. Administrative support including clerical occupations .................................................. White-collar excluding sales ............................... Blue-collar occupations .......................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................................. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving occupations Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ......................................................... Service occupations ...............................................  $12.79 12.79 15.47  $14.39 14.42 17.29  $14.98 14.89 17.89  $7.97 8.31 9.85  $14.18 14.35 17.13  $17.24 12.49 19.46  – – –  21.88 23.93 16.68  22.15 24.16 17.10  15.66 17.49 12.30  21.80 23.84 16.79  – – –  – –  23.12 14.06  23.08 16.26  – 6.21  23.19 10.61  – 19.99  9.99 15.47 12.22  10.32 17.77 11.41  10.40 18.08 11.78  9.46 11.88 7.15  10.32 17.74 11.47  – 16.58 13.69  16.10 10.66 –  – 10.11 10.41  – 10.39 12.21  – – 7.59  – 10.30 11.56  – – –  8.81 –  7.74 7.46  8.33 8.24  6.81 5.94  7.95 7.60  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through  – 5.14  collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  17  Table 7. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, private industry, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  Incentive5  All workers ...................................................................... All workers excluding sales .................................... White-collar occupations ........................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................................. Professional specialty occupations ................. Technical occupations .................................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .................................................. Sales occupations .............................................. Administrative support including clerical occupations .................................................. White-collar excluding sales ............................... Blue-collar occupations .......................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................................. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving occupations Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ......................................................... Service occupations ...............................................  $12.64 12.64 –  $14.19 14.20 17.43  $14.88 14.77 18.27  $7.75 8.07 9.49  $13.93 14.13 17.25  $17.24 12.49 19.46  – – –  21.92 24.18 17.14  22.31 24.52 17.75  15.50 17.84 12.06  21.87 24.14 17.29  – – –  – –  23.40 14.08  23.40 16.29  – 6.21  23.56 10.60  – 19.99  – – 12.19  10.45 18.12 11.42  10.59 18.60 11.79  9.46 11.49 7.06  10.45 18.11 11.47  – 16.58 13.69  16.20 10.54 –  – 10.12 10.52  – 10.36 12.24  – – –  – 10.27 11.73  – – –  8.81 –  7.63 6.82  8.29 7.46  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through  6.78 5.92  7.88 6.92  – 5.14  collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  18  Table 8. Hourly earnings1 by occupational group by selected characteristics, State and local government, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 Occupational group2  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  All workers ...................................................................... White-collar occupations ............................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .. Professional specialty occupations ..................... Technical occupations ........................................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ...................................................... Sales occupations .................................................. Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................................................... White-collar excluding sales ................................... Blue-collar occupations .............................................. Precision production, craft, and repair occupations Transportation and material moving occupations ... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ............................................................. Service occupations ...................................................  $15.33 16.83 21.81 23.49 15.24  $15.39 16.78 21.83 23.58 15.18  $11.90 15.32 16.31 16.53 –  $15.29 16.75 21.66 23.34 15.18  20.97 11.00  20.71 –  – –  20.66 11.00  10.03 16.85 11.14 13.06 8.91  10.03 16.79 11.63 13.06 –  – 15.69 8.29 – 8.12  10.03 16.77 11.29 13.06 8.91  8.79 9.55  8.75 9.74  – 6.66  8.79 9.65  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy.Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are  determined through collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  19  Table 9. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, all workers2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 Goods-producing industries4  Occupational group3  All private industries Total  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  $14.10 14.10 17.42  Construction  Manufacturing  Service-producing industries5  Total  TransWholeportsale ation and and retail public trade utilities  $15.06 – $17.12 $13.47 $17.23 14.86 – 16.81 13.55 17.21 23.05 $14.48 23.86 15.77 19.43  Finance, insurance, and real estate  Services  $9.68 $14.04 $14.53 9.25 14.18 14.31 11.53 14.22 17.06  21.87  24.77  –  24.96  20.30  18.30  –  23.08  20.44  24.14 17.29  27.14 19.42  – –  27.33 19.41  22.42 16.28  23.29 –  – –  24.52 –  22.31 17.02  23.34 14.08  29.23 23.16  – –  29.48 25.10  21.49 12.92  – 17.40  15.66 10.77  20.39 –  19.42 18.51  10.44 18.09 11.52  11.79 23.04 11.73  10.11 14.61 –  12.23 23.75 10.83  10.20 16.45 11.04  9.96 19.68 13.41  8.96 12.67 10.07  10.45 14.38 –  10.45 16.94 10.05  –  –  –  13.16  14.26  14.71  14.27  –  13.89  10.24  10.59  –  10.59  8.57  –  –  –  8.71  11.82  8.89  –  8.89  12.24  15.49  10.14  –  –  7.91 6.84  8.34 –  8.20 –  8.38 –  7.62 6.80  – –  7.48 5.62  – –  7.71 7.84  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in  one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  20  Table 10. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, full-time workers only2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 Goods-producing industries4  Occupational group3  All private industries Total  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  $14.88 14.77 18.27  Construction  Manufacturing  Service-producing industries5  Total  TransWholeportsale ation and and retail public trade utilities  Finance, insurance, and real estate  Services  $15.11 – $17.18 $14.71 $18.01 $11.29 $14.31 $15.49 14.89 – 16.87 14.67 18.06 10.66 14.48 15.21 23.28 $15.16 23.98 16.63 19.92 13.04 14.45 17.78  22.31  24.79  –  24.99  20.83  21.98  –  23.08  20.69  24.52 17.75  27.19 19.42  – –  27.39 19.41  22.87 16.84  24.73 –  – –  24.52 –  22.58 17.20  23.40 16.29  29.23 24.29  – –  29.48 25.10  21.56 15.03  – 17.40  15.66 13.04  20.39 –  19.60 20.12  10.59 18.60 11.79  11.98 23.19 11.75  10.23 14.82 –  12.44 23.89 10.85  10.31 16.95 11.90  9.98 20.25 14.25  9.24 13.05 11.02  10.59 14.63 –  10.56 17.58 10.70  –  –  –  13.20  14.30  14.71  14.38  –  13.89  10.36  10.62  –  10.62  8.84  –  –  –  9.08  12.24  8.89  –  8.89  12.77  15.81  10.59  –  10.46  8.29 7.46  8.37 –  – –  8.38 –  8.19 7.42  – –  8.43 6.16  – –  8.09 8.16  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as  part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  21  Table 11. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, part-time workers only2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 Service-producing industries5 Occupational group3  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  All private industries  Goodsproducing industries4  Total  $7.75 8.07 9.49  $9.14 9.56 10.23  $7.71 8.03 9.46  $8.07 8.07 –  $5.73 5.52 6.26  $8.01 8.01 –  $9.87 10.02 12.26  15.50  –  15.25  –  –  –  17.86  17.84 12.06 6.21  – – –  17.58 12.06 6.16  – – –  – – 6.17  – – –  19.37 15.18 –  9.46 11.49 7.06  – – –  9.55 11.49 7.06  – – –  – 6.98 6.07  – – –  10.10 12.72 7.33  6.78 5.92  – –  6.80 5.92  – –  5.81 5.16  – –  6.98 7.10  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one  TransFinance, Wholeportation insursale and and ance, Services retail public and real trade utilities estate  establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  22  Table 12. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, all workers2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $14.10 14.10 17.42  $11.98 11.87 14.08  $16.52 16.52 20.03  $15.01 15.07 19.01  $17.85 17.71 20.77  21.87 24.14 17.29  20.39 22.89 16.68  22.49 24.58 17.64  22.57 23.92 16.35  22.44 25.04 17.96  23.34 14.08  16.60 12.93  26.88 16.49  30.35 14.42  25.23 22.52  10.44 18.09 11.52  10.11 14.48 11.51  10.81 20.41 11.53  10.63 19.96 10.86  10.99 20.69 12.30  –  –  14.62  13.54  15.84  10.24  9.07  10.58  10.34  10.90  11.82  11.42  12.42  10.40  –  7.91 6.84  7.56 6.49  8.23 7.57  7.08 6.82  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  8.92 8.82  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  23  Table 13. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, full-time workers2 only, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $14.88 14.77 18.27  $12.71 12.44 15.00  $17.21 17.17 20.53  $15.78 15.76 19.63  $18.43 18.30 21.16  22.31 24.52 17.75  21.78 24.27 17.88  22.50 24.60 17.69  22.47 23.79 16.39  22.51 25.17 18.02  23.40 16.29  16.69 15.35  26.88 17.94  30.35 16.04  25.23 22.52  10.59 18.60 11.79  10.11 14.90 11.70  11.09 20.78 11.93  10.86 20.27 11.19  11.34 21.10 12.80  –  –  14.66  13.61  15.84  10.36  9.18  10.70  10.34  11.24  12.24  11.54  13.45  11.46  –  8.29 7.46  8.11 7.23  8.45 7.85  7.21 7.09  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  9.19 –  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  24  Table 14. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, part-time workers2 only, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $7.75 8.07 9.49  $7.46 7.80 9.21  $8.36 8.55 10.22  $7.67 7.88 9.60  $9.29 9.29 10.93  15.50 17.84 12.06 6.21  13.65 15.19 11.92 6.11  21.88 23.75 – 6.61  – – – 6.61  – – – –  9.46 11.49 7.06  10.11 11.50 6.53  8.48 11.46 7.42  7.89 12.34 6.81  8.83 10.93 7.93  6.78 5.92  5.74 5.61  7.60 6.93  – 6.39  – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  25  Table 15. Number of workers1 studied by occupation, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 Full-time and part-time workers Occupation2  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .............................. White-collar occupations .................................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ Professional specialty occupations ........... Engineering occupations ..................... Civil engineers .............................. Electrical and electronic engineers Industrial engineers ...................... Engineers, N.E.C. ......................... Computer systems analysts and scientists ................................. Operations and systems researchers and analysts ....... Chemists, except biochemists ...... Biological and life scientists .......... Registered nurses ........................ Teachers ............................................... Teachers, except college and university .................................... Secondary school teachers .......... Vocational and educational counselors .............................. Librarians ...................................... Economists ................................... Social workers .............................. Editors and reporters .................... Technical occupations .............................. Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians ....................... Licensed practical nurses ............. Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ................. Electrical and electronic technicians .............................. Drafters ......................................... Chemical technicians .................... Computer programmers ............... Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............................................ Administrators and officials, public administration ......................... Financial managers ...................... Personnel and labor relations managers ................................ Managers., marketing, advertising and public relations ................. Administrators, education and related fields ........................... Managers, medicine and health ... Managers, food servicing and lodging establishments ........... Managers, service organizations, N.E.C. ..................................... Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................................... Accountants and auditors ............. Other financial officers .................. Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ................  Part-time workers  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  526,150 436,124 481,880 392,200 290,921 221,303  90,026 437,144 353,805 89,681 409,957 326,785 69,618 248,822 183,151  83,338 83,173 65,671  89,006 71,923 42,099  82,319 65,415 38,151  6,687 6,508 3,947  101,064 71,826 11,839 2,558 5,935 850 1,023  65,413 42,924 10,414 – 5,935 850 895  35,651 28,902 – – – – –  90,213 64,593 11,676 2,558 5,935 850 861  57,851 38,660 10,252 – 5,935 850 –  32,362 25,934 – – – – –  10,851 7,233 – – – – –  7,562 4,265 – – – – –  3,289 2,968 – – – – –  10,580  10,307  –  10,477  10,204  –  –  1,293 535 680 5,738 22,009  1,293 518 680 – 2,077  – – – 3,022 19,932  1,293 535 680 3,536 19,881  1,293 518 680 – 1,313  – – – 1,999 18,568  15,759 1,822  1,864 –  13,895 1,822  14,709 1,822  1,172 –  13,537 1,822  1,082 2,218 809 1,383 1,265 29,238  – – 809 – 1,265 22,489  – – – 1,122 – 6,749  1,082 2,218 809 1,358 1,071 25,620  – – 809 – 1,071 19,192  – – – 1,097 – 6,428  2,986 2,557  1,556 –  – –  2,448 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  1,639  –  –  –  –  –  – – – –  3,969 618 646 7,536  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  2,366  –  –  –  –  –  All industries  2,779 4,116 618 735 7,536  Private industry  State and local government  Full-time workers  – 4,002 – 599 6,509  All industries  3,854 – – 6,509  – – – 2,202 – – – – – – – – 3,618  – – – – – – – – – – – – – 3,297  – – – – 1,023 – – – – – – – – –  2,366  –  50,587  44,250  6,337  50,110  43,973  6,137  –  –  –  423 4,105  – 2,954  423 –  423 4,105  – 2,954  423 –  – –  – –  – –  1,767  1,747  –  1,767  1,747  –  –  –  –  2,217  2,132  –  2,217  2,132  –  –  –  –  – –  984 1,151  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  1,430  –  –  –  –  –  725  –  –  –  –  –  14,788 3,557 1,706  14,585 3,353 1,662  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  3,016  1,848  –  –  –  –  984 1,151 1,430 725  – – 1,430 –  14,788 3,852 1,888  14,585 3,630 1,662  3,016  1,848  See footnotes at end of table.  26  – 222 – –  – – 1,430  Table 15. Number of workers1 studied by occupation, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupation2  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. ..................................... 709 – Management related occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... 11,995 10,352 Sales occupations ........................................ 44,270 43,925 Supervisors, sales occupations .... 1,490 1,450 Sales occupations, other business services .................................. 4,699 4,657 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 4,728 4,728 Sales workers, other commodities 6,869 6,869 Sales counter clerks ..................... 3,090 3,090 Cashiers ....................................... 10,241 9,978 Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ 94,999 67,715 Supervisors, general office ........... 2,210 2,210 Computer operators ...................... 1,182 – Secretaries ................................... 8,329 4,998 Typists .......................................... 2,313 1,286 Receptionists ................................ 3,847 3,589 Order clerks .................................. 1,143 1,143 Records clerks, N.E.C. ................. 3,425 1,633 Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......................... 9,432 9,046 Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ...................................... 1,465 1,465 Stock and inventory clerks ............ 2,766 2,699 Investigators and adjusters except insurance ................................ 4,082 3,954 General office clerks ..................... 20,302 8,943 Data entry keyers ......................... 5,621 1,378 Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ................ 6,827 6,645 White-collar occupations excluding sales ..... 246,651 177,378 Blue-collar occupations .................................... 171,211 162,966 Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ............................................ – – Supervisors, mechanics and repairers ................................. 2,458 1,431 Automobile mechanics ................. 1,287 – Industrial machinery repairers ...... 1,511 1,511 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics .......... 4,073 2,060 Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. .. 2,209 2,044 Carpenters .................................... 3,292 3,292 Supervisors, production occupations ............................ 2,155 2,155 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers ........... 3,255 3,255 Inspectors, testers, and graders ... 931 931 Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ............................................... 27,836 27,564 Packaging and filling machine operators ................................ 5,254 5,254 Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. ..................................... 4,154 4,154 Assemblers ................................... 4,990 4,990 Production inspectors, checkers and examiners ........................ 870 870 Transportation and material moving occupations ............................................ 18,785 16,648 Truck drivers ................................. 8,587 8,587 Driver-sales workers ..................... 2,173 2,173 Bus drivers .................................... 2,975 – See footnotes at end of table.  27  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  –  –  –  –  –  11,995 27,187 1,490  10,352 27,021 1,450  – – –  – 17,083 –  – 16,904 –  – – –  –  4,699  4,657  –  –  –  –  – – – –  4,728 4,949 1,947 2,053  4,728 4,949 1,947 1,970  – – – –  – 1,920 – 8,188  – 1,920 – 8,009  – – – –  27,284 – – – – – – 1,792  81,312 1,517 1,182 6,823 – 3,112 794 2,927  54,306 1,517 – 3,491 – 2,853 794 1,388  27,006 – – – – – – –  13,687 – – – – – – –  13,409 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  386  6,336  5,950  386  3,096  3,096  –  – –  1,465 2,493  1,465 2,426  – –  – 11,359 –  3,836 18,577 5,334  3,709 7,244 1,091  – 11,333 –  – 1,725 –  – 1,699 –  – 6,684 6,503 69,273 221,636 156,131 8,245 153,538 147,278  – 65,505 6,260  – 25,015 17,673  – 21,248 15,688  3,758  –  –  –  – – 345 –  3,758  All industries  709  –  –  – –  – –  – – – – – – 3,768 1,985  – – –  2,458 983 1,511  1,431 – 1,511  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  4,073 2,209 3,292  2,060 2,044 3,292  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  2,155  2,155  –  –  –  –  – –  3,255 931  3,255 931  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  26,074  25,802  –  –  –  –  –  4,763  4,763  –  –  –  –  – –  3,948 4,486  3,948 4,486  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  870  870  –  –  –  –  13,983 8,355 1,279 –  13,715 8,355 1,279 –  – – – –  2,136 – – 1,914  4,802 – – 2,184  – – – –  1,869 – – 1,869  Table 15. Number of workers1 studied by occupation, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupation2  Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators ............... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................................................... Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm ............................. Helpers, construction trades ......... Stock handlers and baggers ......... Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ..................... Vehicle washers and equipment cleaners .................................. Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ..................................... Service occupations ......................................... Protective service occupations ........... Supervisors, police and detectives Police and detectives, public service .................................... Guards and police except public service .................................... Food service occupations .................... Waiters and waitresses ................ Cooks ........................................... Food counter, fountain, and related occupations ................ Kitchen workers, food preparation Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Health service occupations ................. Health aides except nursing ......... Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ............................... Cleaning and building service occupations .................................... Maids and housemen ................... Janitors and cleaners ................... Personal services occupations ........... Attendants, amusement and recreation facilities .................. Welfare service aides ...................  All industries  Private industry  1,151  1,151  31,304  29,225  2,561 1,081 4,393  – – 4,135  5,661  5,661  State and local government  –  Full-time workers  All industries  Private industry  Part-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  –  –  –  –  10,327  10,211  –  – – 1,393  – – 1,393  – – –  1,151  1,151  20,977  19,015  – – –  2,324 – 3,000  – – 2,742  – – –  –  2,392  2,392  –  –  –  –  934  –  –  –  –  –  2,079  1,962  –  –  –  8,029 64,018 9,647 234  7,897 51,855 5,187 –  – 12,163 4,460 234  4,514 34,784 6,050 234  4,422 23,376 – –  – 11,408 4,318 234  3,515 29,235 3,597 –  3,474 28,480 – –  1,445  –  1,445  1,402  –  1,402  –  –  –  6,130 30,480 6,432 2,577  5,065 27,822 6,432 2,538  – – – –  2,676 12,316 – 1,874  – – – –  – 18,164 5,249 –  – 18,164 5,249 –  – – – –  2,846 3,397  2,846 2,850  – –  – 1,963  – –  1,836 1,434  1,836 1,434  – –  12,624 4,922 3,056  10,553 3,905 2,858  – 884 –  7,534 – –  7,534 – –  – – –  1,524  –  – 1,017 – –  5,090 4,790 2,923 1,524  11,476 1,935 8,811 7,494  9,211 1,935 6,776 5,730  2,265 – 2,034 1,763  7,268 1,813 4,997 4,360  773 3,455  – 3,262  426 –  – 981  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are  – 9,658 – 1,834 – – 3,019 3,905 2,858 – 5,052 1,813 2,962 3,029 – –  – 2,217 – 2,034 – – –  – 4,207 – 3,814 3,134 660 2,474  – 4,159 – 3,814 – – –  – 755 – –  – – – – 432 314 –  classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  28  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  White-collar occupations .................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............. Professional specialty occupations ........................ Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Engineering occupations ...... Level 7 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Electrical and electronic engineers ................ Registered nurses ........ Level 9 ...................... Natural scientists .................. Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Teachers ............................... Level 8 ...................... Teachers, except college and university ............. Level 8 ...................... Technical occupations .............. Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Electrical and electronic technicians .............. Level 7 ...................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .......... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 .................... Executives, managers and administrators ................. Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 ....................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  290,921  221,303  69,618  248,822  183,151  65,671  42,099  38,151  3,947  101,064  65,413  35,651  90,213  57,851  32,362  10,851  7,562  3,289  71,826 1,997 4,206 6,170 7,351 20,520 3,200 9,904 8,154 4,722 11,839 2,401 2,549 1,605 1,418  42,924 1,542 3,615 3,441 4,546 6,513 2,482 6,925 6,142 3,544 10,414 – 2,549 1,587 1,418  28,902 455 – 2,729 2,805 14,007 719 – – – – – – – –  64,593 1,404 2,735 6,170 5,158 18,697 3,065 9,904 7,992 4,722 11,676 2,401 2,549 1,605 1,256  38,660 1,153 2,327 3,441 3,822 5,319 2,411 6,925 5,980 3,544 10,252 – 2,549 1,587 1,256  25,934 – – 2,729 1,336 13,379 654 – – – – – – – –  7,233 – – – 2,193 1,822 – – – – – – – – –  4,265 – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  2,968 – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  5,935 5,738 2,548 12,417 1,223 2,299 1,806 2,392 22,009 2,013  5,935 – – 12,145 1,223 2,149 1,806 2,392 2,077 –  – 3,022 – – – – – – 19,932 2,013  5,935 3,536 – 12,314 1,223 2,299 1,806 2,392 19,881 1,007  5,935 – – 12,041 1,223 2,149 1,806 2,392 1,313 –  – 1,999 – – – – – – 18,568 1,007  – 2,202 – – – – – – – –  15,759 1,007 29,238 1,597 4,256 3,546 4,938 4,898 6,294  1,864 – 22,489 1,338 3,656 3,297 3,997 3,371 4,385  13,895 1,007 6,749 – – – 942 – –  14,709 1,007 25,620 1,077 3,342 2,679 4,938 4,371 6,187  1,172 – 19,192 818 2,850 2,537 3,997 2,844 4,385  13,537 1,007 6,428 – – – 942 – –  – – 3,618 – – – – – –  4,116 1,174  4,002 –  – –  3,969 1,174  3,854 –  – –  50,587 2,656 2,011 3,899 10,203 5,833 3,333 6,953 7,305 2,370 2,368 3,155  44,250 2,615 1,762 2,625 8,495 5,632 3,149 6,496 6,586 2,045 1,324 3,020  6,337 – – – – – – 457 – 325 – –  50,110 2,656 2,011 3,899 10,020 5,538 3,333 6,953 7,305 2,370 2,368 3,155  43,973 2,615 1,762 2,625 8,495 5,355 3,149 6,496 6,586 2,045 1,324 3,020  27,626 2,212 2,331 5,876 6,407 2,370 2,368 3,155  24,978 2,169 2,146 5,566 5,907 2,045 1,324 3,020  2,648 – – 309 500 325 – –  27,626 2,212 2,331 5,876 6,407 2,370 2,368 3,155  24,978 2,169 2,146 5,566 5,907 2,045 1,324 3,020  See footnotes at end of table.  29  – – – – – – – – – – – – 3,297 – – – – – –  State and local government  – 1,023 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – –  – –  – –  6,137 – – – – – – 457 – 325 – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  2,648 – – 309 500 325 – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 15 .................... Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ............... Sales occupations ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Cashiers ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Not able to be leveled Secretaries ................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Order clerks .................. Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... General office clerks ..... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 ....................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  14,788 823 2,050 4,045 1,063 1,900  14,585 823 1,909 4,045 1,063 1,880  – – – – – –  14,788 823 2,050 4,045 1,063 1,900  14,585 823 1,909 4,045 1,063 1,880  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  3,016 44,270 3,082 5,001 8,276 6,151 4,435 2,736 3,317 1,834 3,323 4,455 10,241 2,206 4,007 2,958  1,848 43,925 3,082 4,955 – 6,109 – 2,694 3,298 1,813 3,323 – 9,978 2,206 3,961 2,824  – 345 – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  3,016 27,187 – – 2,212 2,879 4,085 2,239 3,062 1,834 3,323 4,455 2,053 – – –  1,848 27,021 – – – 2,837 – 2,197 3,043 1,813 3,323 – 1,970 – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – 17,083 2,068 4,577 6,065 3,272 – – – – – – 8,188 – 3,693 2,372  – 16,904 2,068 4,532 – 3,272 – – – – – – 8,009 – 3,648 –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  94,999 2,094 3,526 30,065 25,315 10,408 11,937 5,974 1,447 8,329 2,957 1,692 781 1,143  67,715 2,094 3,419 – – 9,492 9,229 5,798 1,447 4,998 – 1,531 – 1,143  27,284 – – – – 915 – – – – – – – –  81,312 1,431 2,777 25,762 21,498 9,741 10,526 5,974 – 6,823 1,940 1,646 781 794  54,306 1,431 2,670 – – 8,994 7,843 5,798 – 3,491 – 1,486 – 794  27,006 – – – – 747 – – – – – – – –  13,687 – 749 4,303 3,817 – – – – – – – – –  13,409 – 749 – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  9,432 720 3,582 1,469 20,302 1,154 9,196 6,103  9,046 – 3,396 1,469 8,943 1,154 3,807 1,321  386 – – – 11,359 – 5,389 4,782  6,336 720 2,667 1,262 18,577 – 8,752 5,692  5,950 – 2,481 1,262 7,244 – 3,363 910  386 – – – 11,333 – 5,389 4,782  3,096 – – – 1,725 – – –  3,096 – – – 1,699 – – –  – – – – – – – –  246,651 2,094 4,532 30,323 27,893 19,316 21,700 20,981 24,082 33,681 9,534 17,765 15,563 7,092  177,378 2,094 3,419 14,424 19,729 17,305 17,902 15,861 17,916 17,564 8,631 14,329 12,831 5,589  69,273 – – 15,899 8,164 2,011 3,798 5,121 6,167 16,116 903 3,436 – –  221,636 1,431 3,783 26,021 23,260 17,144 17,951 20,981 21,180 31,456 8,715 17,072 15,401 7,092  156,131 1,431 2,670 10,206 15,392 15,612 14,468 15,861 16,665 16,093 7,877 13,636 12,669 5,589  65,505 – – 15,815 7,868 1,532 3,483 5,121 4,515 15,363 838 3,436 – –  25,015 – 749 4,303 4,633 2,172 3,749 – 2,902 2,224 – – – –  21,248 – 749 4,219 4,338 1,693 – – – – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  30  3,768 – – – – – – – – – – – – –  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  Level 14 .................... Level 15 .................... Not able to be leveled Blue-collar occupations .................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................. Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Transportation and material moving occupations ................ Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Truck drivers ................. Level 5 ...................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .............. Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Service occupations ......................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 11 .................... Protective service occupations .................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 11 .................... Guards and police except public service .................... Food service occupations .... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Health service occupations Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ........ Cleaning and building service occupations ........ Level 1 ......................  All industries  Private industry  4,919 4,775 2,400 171,211  3,874 3,609 2,301 162,966  – 4,947 11,281 3,582 3,446 1,559 1,897  – 4,810 9,200 3,376 3,446 1,500 870  27,836 3,179 4,151 4,240 8,155 4,845 1,114 1,035  27,564 3,179 4,151 4,185 8,155 4,845 898 1,035  18,785 3,224 3,817 2,195 4,344 8,587 3,263  16,648 2,992 2,226 1,989 4,344 8,587 3,263  31,304 9,359 8,066 7,272 3,800 64,018 19,627 8,384 14,163 9,664 2,070 3,399 3,169 1,135 1,030 294  Full-time workers  State and local government  Part-time workers  State and local government  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – – – 8,245  4,919 4,592 – 153,538  3,874 3,451 – 147,278  3,758 – – – – – –  – 4,643 11,281 3,582 3,446 1,559 1,897  – 4,506 9,200 3,376 3,446 1,500 870  26,074 2,956 4,151 3,205 8,155 4,845 1,114 1,035  25,802 2,956 4,151 3,149 8,155 4,845 898 1,035  – – – – – – – –  2,136 – – – – – –  13,983 2,413 1,911 1,917 4,344 8,355 3,263  13,715 2,413 1,911 1,757 4,344 8,355 3,263  – – – – – – –  4,802 – – – – – –  – – – – – – –  1,869 – – – – – –  29,225 9,242 7,527 5,984 3,736 51,855 16,927 6,703 13,078 8,627 1,969 1,698 – – – –  2,079 – – – – 12,163 – 1,681 1,085 1,037 – – 2,288 439 – 294  20,977 5,109 3,924 6,076 3,264 34,784 9,793 5,488 5,382 4,363 1,528 2,850 2,976 1,135 881 294  19,015 4,991 3,426 4,864 3,199 23,376 7,193 3,947 4,411 3,551 1,427 1,325 – – – –  1,962 – – – – 11,408 – 1,541 972 812 – – 2,288 439 – 294  10,327 4,251 – 1,196 – 29,235 9,835 2,896 8,781 5,301 – – – – – –  10,211 4,251 – – – 28,480 9,734 2,756 8,668 5,076 – – – – – –  – – – – – 755 – – – – – – – – – –  9,647 635 2,080 728 294  5,187 – – – –  4,460 485 2,080 439 294  6,050 443 2,080 728 294  – – – – –  4,318 443 2,080 439 294  3,597 – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  6,130 30,480 12,624 4,797 7,060 4,348 4,922  5,065 27,822 10,612 4,797 6,522 4,241 3,905  – – – – – – 1,017  2,676 12,316 5,638 2,422 1,950 1,231 4,790  – – – – – – 884  – 18,164 6,987 2,375 5,110 3,117 –  – 18,164 6,987 2,375 5,110 3,117 –  – – – – – – –  1,524  –  –  –  –  11,476 5,100  9,211 4,604  – – – – – – – –  –  1,524  2,265 –  7,268 3,377  See footnotes at end of table.  31  – 9,658 3,625 2,422 1,412 1,123 3,905 – 5,052 2,881  All industries  Private industry  – – – 6,260  – – 1,761 17,673  – – 1,662 15,688  3,758 – – – – – –  – – – – – – –  – – – – – – –  – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – 2,217 –  4,207 –  4,159 –  – – – 1,985  – –  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Janitors and cleaners ... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Personal services occupations .................... Level 4 ......................  All industries  Private industry  2,531 1,579 8,811 3,583 2,392 1,389  – – 6,776 3,087 – –  7,494 2,409  5,730 2,178  Full-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – – 2,034 – – –  2,150 837 4,997 1,981 – 696  – – 2,962 1,486 – –  1,763 –  4,360 –  3,029 –  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 Each occupation for which wage data are collected in an establishment is evaluated based on 10 factors, including knowledge, complexity, work environment, etc. Points are assigned based on the occupation’s ranking within each factor. The points are summed to determine the overall level of the occupation. See technical  Part-time workers  State and local government – – 2,034 – – – – –  All industries  Private industry  – – 3,814 – – –  – – 3,814 – – –  3,134 –  – –  State and local government – – – – – – 432 –  note for more information. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  32  Table 17. Number of workers1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  Time4  Incentive4  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  26,942 26,942 4,709  499,208 454,938 286,212  437,144 409,957 248,822  89,006 71,923 42,099  504,966 473,842 275,361  21,184 8,038 15,560  – – –  98,529 70,703 27,826  90,213 64,593 25,620  10,851 7,233 3,618  101,064 71,826 29,238  – – –  – –  49,906 44,270  50,110 27,187  – 17,083  48,753 31,124  – 13,146  1,493 4,709 21,595  93,506 241,942 149,616  81,312 221,636 153,538  13,687 25,015 17,673  94,419 244,236 168,019  – 2,415 3,192  4,409  –  –  –  –  –  7,608  20,229  26,074  –  27,677  –  16,205  13,983  4,802  17,602  –  24,305 63,380  20,977 34,784  10,327 29,235  30,962 61,586  – 6,999 –  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational ’groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through  – 2,432  collective bargaining. 4 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  33  Table 18. Number of workers1 by occupational group, private industry, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July August 1996 Goods-producing industries3 Occupational group2  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  All private industries  Total  ConManustruction facturing  – – 4,067  Service-producing industries4  Total  436,124 392,200 221,303  156,879 152,851 46,326  65,413  22,319  –  21,328  42,924 22,489  15,555 6,764  – –  44,250 43,925  10,433 4,028  – –  67,715 177,378 162,966  9,547 42,298 109,889  –  –  –  12,341  14,481  27,564  22,507  –  22,507  5,057  16,648  1,906  –  1,906  14,742  29,225 51,855  10,429 –  8,021 –  18,796 51,191  1,895 3,250 –  2,408 –  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups.  87,697 279,245 84,486 239,348 42,258 174,977  TransFinance, Wholeportation insursale and and ance, Services retail public and real trade utilities estate 39,379 36,762 24,363  91,361 62,708 41,945  43,095  3,872  –  1,807  36,468  15,023 6,305  27,370 15,725  2,201 –  – –  1,319 –  23,148 13,321  10,068 3,211  33,817 39,897  – 2,617  5,805 28,653  7,338 –  11,106 6,515  7,651 58,168 39,048 135,080 44,775 53,077  8,306 21,747 15,015  6,539 13,292 23,107  16,319 25,464 –  27,003 74,577 14,521  5,085  5,746  –  3,286  –  3,925  – 5,634 – –  –  28,623 119,883 26,511 113,367 27,576 81,093  5,649  –  –  10,865 26,309  – –  3,919 24,269  3 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 4 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  34  Table 19. Number of workers1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group2  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  436,124 392,200 221,303  239,744 208,552 102,598  196,381 183,648 118,705  94,308 84,435 50,783  102,073 99,213 67,922  65,413 42,924 22,489  20,044 11,090 8,954  45,369 31,835 13,535  15,673 12,885 2,789  29,696 18,950 10,746  44,250 43,925  15,077 31,192  29,174 12,733  9,072 9,873  20,102 2,860  67,715 177,378 162,966  36,286 71,406 100,341  31,429 105,972 62,625  16,166 40,911 33,241  15,263 65,061 29,384  –  –  18,798  10,032  8,766 9,091  27,564  6,346  21,218  12,127  16,648  9,486  7,162  5,237  29,225 51,855  13,778 36,805  15,448 15,051  5,846 10,283  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual  – 9,601 4,767  occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  35  Appendix A: Technical Note  Sample design The sample design for this survey area was a two stage probability sample of detailed occupations. The first stage of sample selection was a probability-proportional-to-size sample of establishments. Use of this technique means that the larger an establishment’s employment, the greater its chance of selection. Weights were applied to each establishment when the data were tabulated so that it represents similar units (by industry and employment size) in the economy which were not selected for collection. See Appendix Table 1 for a count of establishments in the survey by employment size. The second stage of sample selection, detailed below, was a probability sample of occupations within a sampled establishment.  This section provides basic information on the procedures and concepts used to produce the data contained in this bulletin. It is divided into three parts: Planning for the survey; data collection; and processing and analyzing the data. While this section answers some questions commonly asked by data users, it is not a comprehensive description of all the steps required to produce the data.  Planning for the survey The overall design of the survey, which was based on the type of data to be produced, had to be developed before data collection could begin.  Data collection  Survey scope This survey of the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area covered establishments employing workers1 in goods-producing industries (mining, construction and manufacturing); serviceproducing industries (transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services industries); and State and local governments. Agriculture, private households, and the Federal government are excluded from the scope of the survey. For purposes of this survey an establishment was an economic unit which produces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an auxiliary unit providing support services to a company. For all industries in this survey and for State and local governments, the establishment was usually at a single physical location.  Numerous procedures were developed for the actual collection of data from survey respondents. Occupational selection and classification Identification of the occupations for which wage data were to be collected was a multi-step process: 1.  Probability-proportional-to-size selection of company jobs. 2. Classification of jobs into occupations based on the Census of Population system. 3. Characterization of jobs as full-time v. part-time, union v. nonunion, and time v. incentive. 4. Determination of the level of work of each job. For each occupation, wage data were collected only for those workers who met all the criteria identified in the last three steps. In step one, the company jobs to be sampled were selected at each establishment by the BLS field economist during a personal visit. A complete list of employees was used for sampling, with each selected worker representing a job within the establishment. As with the selection of establishments, the selection of a company job was based on probability proportional to its size in the establishment. The greater the number of people working in a job in the establishment, the greater its chance of selection.  Sampling frame The list of establishments from which the survey sample was selected (the sampling frame) was developed from the State unemployment insurance reports for the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC Metropolitan Statistical Area (March 1995). The sampling frame was reviewed prior to the survey and, when necessary, missing establishments were added.  1  If an establishment had at least one employee at the time data were collected, it was in-scope for the survey. In theory, any sampled establishment in the universe could have one or more employees when the data are actually collected.  36  The number of jobs establishment was based on employment size as shown in the following schedule: Number of employees 0-49 50-99 100-249 250-499 500-999 1,000+  all workers in the occupation; 2) wage and salary rates were determined through collective bargaining or negotiations; and 3) settlement terms, which must include earnings provisions and may include benefit provisions, were embodied in a signed, mutually binding collective bargaining agreement. If these conditions were not met, the worker’s job was classified as nonunion.  collected in each an establishment’s  Number of selected jobs 4 8 10 12 16 20  Generic leveling through point factor analysis In the last step before wage data were collected, the work level of each selected job was determined using a “generic leveling” process. Generic leveling ranks and compares all occupations randomly selected in an establishment using the same criteria. This is a major departure from the method used in the past in the Bureau’s Occupational Compensation Surveys which studied specifically defined occupations with leveling definitions unique to each occupation. For the Raleigh survey, the level of each occupation in an establishment was determined by an analysis of each of 10 leveling factors. Nine of these factors are drawn from the U.S. Government Office of Personnel Management’s Factor Evaluation System, which is the underlying structure for evaluation of General Schedule Federal employees. The tenth factor, supervisory duties, is an attempt to account for the effect of supervisory duties. It is considered experimental. The 10 factors were:  NOTE: If the number of employees in an establishment was less than four, then the number of company jobs selected would be equal to the number of employees.  The second step of the process entailed classifying the selected jobs into occupations based on their duties. The COMP2000 occupational classification system is based on the 1990 Census of Population. A selected company job may fall into any one of about 480 occupational classifications, from accountant to wood lathe operator. In cases where a job’s duties overlapped two or more census classification codes, classification was based on the primary duty. Each occupational classification is an element of a broader classification known as a major occupational group (MOG). Occupations can fall into any of the following MOG’s: • • • • • • • • •  • • • • • • • • • •  Professional specialty and technical Executive, administrative, and managerial Sales Administrative support including clerical Precision production, craft, and repair Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers, Service occupations  Knowledge Supervisory controls Guidelines Complexity Scope and effect Personal contacts Purpose of contacts Physical demands Work environment Supervisory duties  Each factor contains a number of levels and each level has an associated written description and point value. The number and range of points differs among the factors. For each factor, an occupation was assigned a level based on which written description best matched the job. Within each occupation, the points for the 10 factors were recorded and totaled. The total determines the overall level of the occupation. A description of the levels for each factor is shown in Appendix C. Tabulations of levels of work for occupations in the survey follow the Federal government’s white-collar General Schedule. Point ranges for each of the 15 levels are shown in Appendix D. It also includes an example of a leveled job and a guide to help data users evaluate jobs in their firm.  A complete list of all individual occupations, classified by the MOG to which they belong, is contained in Appendix B. In step three, certain other job characteristics of the chosen worker were identified. First, the worker was identified as holding either a full-time or part-time job, based on the establishment’s definition of those terms. Then the worker was classified as having a time versus incentive job, depending on whether any part of pay was directly based on the actual production of the workers, rather than solely on hours worked. Finally, the worker was identified as being in a union job if: 1) a labor organization was recognized as the bargaining agent for 37  schedule, their typical number of hours actually worked was collected.  In prior test surveys, wage data collected using the new generic leveling method were evaluated by BLS researchers using regression techniques. For each of the major occupational groups, wages were compared to the 10 generic level factors (and levels within those factors). The analysis showed that several of the generic level factors, most notably knowledge and supervisory controls, had strong explanatory power for wages. That is, as the levels within a given factor increased, the wages also increased. Detailed research continues in the area. The results of this research will be published by BLS in the future.  Definition of terms Full-time worker. Any employee that the employer considers to be full time. Incentive worker. Any employee whose earnings are tied, at least in part, to commissions, piece rates, production bonuses, or other incentives based on production or sales. Level. A ranking of an occupation based on the requirements of the position. (See the description in the technical note and the example for more details on the leveling process.)  Reference period The survey was collected in July through August 1996. For each establishment in the survey, the data reflect the establishment’s practices on the day of collection.  Nonunion worker. An employee in an occupation not meeting the conditions for union coverage (see below).  Earnings Earnings were defined as regular payments from the employer to the employee as compensation for straighttime hourly work, or for any salaried work performed. The following components were included as part of earnings: • • • • • •  Part-time worker. Any employee that the employer considers to be part-time. Straight-time. Time worked at the standard rate of pay for the job.  Incentive pay, including commissions, production bonuses, and piece rates, Cost-of-living allowances, Hazard pay, Payments of income deferred due to participation in a salary reduction plan, Deadhead pay, defined as pay given to transportation workers returning in a vehicle without freight or passengers, and On-call pay.  Time-based worker. Any employee whose earnings are tied to an hourly rate or salary, and not to a specific level of production. Union worker. Any employee is in a union occupation when all of the following conditions are met: • •  The following forms of payments were not considered part of straight-time earnings: • • • • • •  •  Shift differentials, defined as extra payment for working a schedule that varies from the norm, such as night or weekend work, Premium pay for overtime, holidays, and weekends, Bonuses not directly tied to production (e.g., Christmas bonuses, profit-sharing bonuses), Uniform and tool allowances, Free room and board, and Payments made by third parties (e.g., tips, bonuses given by manufacturers to department store salespeople, referral incentives in real estate).  A labor organization is recognized as the bargaining agent for all workers in the occupation. Wage and salary rates are determined through collective bargaining or negotiations. Settlement terms, which must include earnings provisions and may include benefit provisions, are embodied in a signed mutually binding collective bargaining agreement.  Processing and Analyzing the Data Data were processed and analyzed at the Bureau’s National office following collection. Weighting and nonresponse Sample weights were calculated for each establishment/occupation in the survey. These weights reflected the relative size of the occupation within the establishment and of the establishment within the sample universe. Weights were used to aggregate the individual establish-  To calculate earnings per hour worked, data on work schedules were also collected. For hourly workers, scheduled hours worked per week were recorded. Because salaried workers often work beyond the assigned work 38  cally selected probability sample. There are two types of errors possible in an estimate based on a sample survey, sampling and nonsampling. Sampling errors occur because observations come only from a sample and not from an entire population. The sample used for this survey is one of a number of possible samples of the same size that could have been selected using the sample design. Estimates derived from the different samples would differ from each other. A measure of the variation among these differing estimates is called the standard error or sampling error. It indicates the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the average result of all possible samples. The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error divided by the estimate. Appendix Table 2 contains RSE data for selected series in this bulletin. The standard error can be used to calculate a “confidence interval” around a sample estimate. For example, table 1 shows that mean hourly earnings for all workers was $14.30 per hour. Appendix Table 2 shows a standard error of 3.1 percent for this estimate. Thus, at the 95-percent level, the confidence interval for this estimate is $15.19 to $13.41 ($14.30 plus and minus 2 times 3.1 percent times $14.30). If all possible samples were selected to estimate the population value, the interval from each sample would include the true population value approximately 95 percent of the time. Nonsampling errors also affect survey results. They can stem from many sources, such as inability to obtain information for some establishments, difficulties with survey definitions, inability of the respondents to provide correct information, or mistakes in recording or coding the data obtained. A Technical Reinterview Program tested in Raleigh will be used in the development of a formal quality assessment process to help compute nonsampling error. Although they were not specifically measured, the nonsampling errors were expected to be minimal due to the high response rate, the extensive training of the field economists who gathered the survey data by personal visit, computer edits of the data, and detailed data review.  ment/occupations into the various data series. Of the establishments surveyed, 18.4 percent refused to supply information. If data were not provided by a sample member, the weights of responding sample members in the same or similar “cells” were adjusted to account for the missing data. This technique assumes that the mean value of the nonrespondents equals the mean value of the respondents at some detailed “cell” level. Responding and nonresponding establishments were classified into these cells according to industry and employment size. Responding and nonresponding occupations within responding establishments were classified into cells which were additionally defined by major occupation group and job level. When a sampled occupation was considered a refusal and could not be classified into a major occupational group, nonresponse adjustments were made for that occupation in the service occupational group. Establishments which were determined to be out of business or outside the scope of the survey (5.3 percent of the total sample) had their weights changed to zero. If only partial data were given by a sample establishment or occupation, or data were missing, the response was treated as a refusal. Estimation Weights, adjusted for nonresponse, were multiplied by the wage rate of each establishment/occupation, which itself was the average wage of all workers in the occupation. The resulting products were aggregated and then divided by the sum of the weighted occupational employments to obtain the data series contained in the tables in the bulletin. Not all series that were calculated met the criteria for publication. Before any series was published, it was reviewed to make sure that the number of observations underlying it was sufficient. This review prevented publishing a series that could have revealed information about a specific establishment. Data reliability The data in this bulletin are estimates from a scientifi-  39  Table A1. Number of establishments studied by industry group and employment size, and number represented by industry group, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 Number of establishments studied 100 workers or more  Industry All workers  All industries ......................................................... Private Industry ................................................. Goods-producing industries .......................... Manufacturing ........................................... Construction ............................................. Service-producing industries ........................ Tranportation and public utilities ............... Wholesale and retail trade ........................ Finance, insurance and real estate .......... Services .................................................... State and Local government .............................  286 248 61 48 13 187 16 81 17 73 38  Fewer than 100 workers  165 157 21 8 13 136 11 68 11 46 8  100 - 499 workers  Total  121 91 40 40 –  71 61 26 26 –  51 5 13 6 27 30  500 workers or more 50 30 14 14 –  35 2 12 3 18 10  16 3 1 3 9 20  NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Overall industry and industry groups may include data for categories not shown separately.  40  Number of establishments represented by survey  22,812 22,731 5,675 499 5,177 17,056 682 7,766 1,179 7,429 81  Table A2. Relative standard errors of mean hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996  All industries  Occupation3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .............................. White-collar occupations .................................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ Professional specialty occupations ........... Engineering occupations ..................... Computer systems analysts and scientists ................................. Technical occupations .............................. Electrical and electronic technicians .............................. Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............................................ Financial managers ...................... Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................................... Management related occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Sales occupations ........................................ Supervisors, sales occupations .... Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale Sales workers, other commodities Cashiers ....................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ Secretaries ................................... Receptionists ................................ Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......................... Stock and inventory clerks ............ Investigators and adjusters except insurance ................................ General office clerks ..................... Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ................ White-collar occupations excluding sales ..... Blue-collar occupations .................................... Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. .. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ............................................... Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. ..................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ............................................ Truck drivers ................................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................................................... Stock handlers and baggers ......... Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ..................... Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ..................................... See footnotes at end of table.  41  Private industry  State and local government  3.1% 3.2 3.3  3.5% 3.6 3.6  6.6% 6.7 7.4  4.2 4.9 3.7  4.2 4.8 3.3  – – –  7.8 5.8  7.8 6.5  – –  5.7  5.8  –  4.3 10.4  4.6 –  8.0 –  6.3  6.4  –  6.4 9.3 22.5  7.3 9.3 22.9  – – –  14.2 21.2 6.4  14.2 21.2 6.6  – – –  1.6 3.5 3.2  2.1 4.9 3.4  1.8 – –  5.2 3.8  5.5 –  – –  5.1 2.9  5.2 5.9  – –  3.3 3.4 3.7 4.9  3.3 3.7 3.9 5.2  – 7.4 – –  3.4  3.4  –  8.6  8.6  –  7.1 7.6  7.4 7.6  – –  2.9 5.6  3.1 5.9  – –  3.6  3.6  –  5.4  5.5  –  Table A2. Relative standard errors of mean hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers2, Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC, July - August 1996 — Continued  Occupation3  Service occupations ......................................... Protective service occupations ........... Food service occupations .................... Waiters and waitresses ................ Kitchen workers, food preparation Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Cleaning and building service occupations .................................... Janitors and cleaners ................... Personal services occupations ........... 1 The relative standard error is the standard error expressed as a percent of the estimate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  3.2% 8.7 3.3 11.4 5.8  3.6% – 3.7 11.4 7.1  4.0  5.0  –  5.0 4.5 6.5  6.2 5.9 –  – – –  7.9% 7.2 – – –  480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. See the technical note for a complete listing of occupations. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  42  Appendix B. Occupational Classifications  NOTE: The four-digit code before each occupation title is used to classify it into one of three major groups. Whitecollar workers include those classified in Major groups A through D. Blue-collar workers include those classified in Major groups E through H. Service workers are classified in Major group K.  Major group A: A069 A073 A074 A075 A076 A077 A078 A079 A083  PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS ENGINEERS, ARCHITECTS, AND SURVEYORS A043 Architects A044-A059 Engineers A044 Aerospace Engineers A045 Metallurgical and Materials Engineers A046 Mining Engineers A047 Petroleum Engineers A048 Chemical Engineers A049 Nuclear Engineers A053 Civil Engineers A054 Agricultural Engineers A055 Electrical and Electronic Engineers A056 Industrial Engineers A057 Mechanical Engineers A058 Marine Engineers and Naval Architects A059 Engineers, n.e.c.1 A063 Surveyors and Mapping Scientists  Physicists and Astronomers Chemists, Except Biochemists Atmospheric and Space Scientists Geologists and Geodesists Physical Scientists, n.e.c. Agricultural and Food Scientists Biological and Life Scientists Forestry and Conservation Scientists Medical Scientists  HEALTH DIAGNOSING OCCUPATIONS A084 A085 A086 A087 A088 A089  Physicians Dentists Veterinarians Optometrists Podiatrists Health Diagnosing Practitioners, n.e.c.  HEALTH ASSESSMENT AND TREATING OCCUPATIONS A095 A096 A097 A098 A099 A103 A104 A105 A106  MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER SCIENTISTS A064 Computer Systems Analysts and Scientists A065 Operations and Systems Researchers and Analysts A066 Actuaries A067 Statisticians A068 Mathematical Scientists, n.e.c.  Registered Nurses Pharmacists Dietitians Respiratory Therapists Occupational Therapists Physical Therapists Speech Therapists Therapists, n.e.c. Physicians' Assistants  NATURAL SCIENTISTS TEACHERS 1  n.e.c. in an occupation title means not elsewhere classified.  43  A173 Urban Planners  A113-154 Teachers, College and University A154 Earth, Environmental and Marine Science Teachers A114 Biological Science Teachers A115 Chemistry Teachers A116 Physics Teachers A117 Natural Science Teachers, n.e.c. A118 Psychology Teachers A119 Economics Teachers A123 History Teachers A124 Political Science Teachers A125 Sociology Teachers A126 Social Science Teachers, n.e.c. A127 Engineering Teachers A128 Mathematical Science Teachers A129 Computer Science Teachers A133 Medical Science Teachers A134 Health Specialties Teachers A135 Business, Commerce and Marketing Teachers A136 Agriculture and Forestry Teachers A137 Art, Drama, and Music Teachers A138 Physical Education Teachers A139 Education Teachers A143 English Teachers A144 Foreign Language Teachers A145 Law Teachers A146 Social Work Teachers A147 Theology Teachers A148 Trade and Industrial Teachers A149 Home Economics Teachers A153 Teachers, Post Secondary, n.e.c. A154 Post Secondary Teachers, Subject not specified A155-163 Teachers, except College and University A155 Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Teachers A156 Elementary School Teachers A157 Secondary School Teachers A158 Teachers, Special Education A159 Teachers, n.e.c. A160 Substitute Teachers A163 Vocational and Educational Counselors  SOCIAL, RECREATION, AND RELIGIOUS WORKERS A174 A175 A176 A177  Social Workers Recreation Workers Clergy Religious Workers, n.e.c.  LAWYERS AND JUDGES A178 Lawyers A179 Judges WRITERS, AUTHORS, ENTERTAINERS AND ATHLETES A183 A184 A185 A186 A187 A188 A189 A193 A194 A195 A197 A198 A199 A999  Authors Technical Writers Designers Musicians and Composers Actors and Directors Painters, Sculptors, Craft-Artists, and Artist Print-Makers Photographers Dancers Artists, Performers, and Related Workers, n.e.c. Editors and Reporters Public Relations Specialists Announcers Athletes Professional Occupations, n.e.c.  TECHNICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS A203 Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians A204 Dental Hygienists A205 Health Record Technologists and Technicians A206 Radiologic Technicians A207 Licensed Practical Nurses A208 Health Technologists and Technicians, n.e.c.  LIBRARIANS, ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS A164 Librarians A165 Archivists and Curators SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND URBAN PLANNERS A166 A167 A168 A169  ENGINEERING AND RELATED TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS  Economists Psychologists Sociologists Social Scientists, n.e.c.  A213 A214 A215 A216 A217 44  Electrical and Electronic Technicians Industrial Engineering Technicians Mechanical Engineering Technicians Engineering Technicians, n.e.c. Drafters  B029 Buyers, Wholesale and Retail Trade, Except Farm Products B033 Purchasing Agents and Buyers, n.e.c. B034 Business and Promotion Agents B035 Construction Inspectors B036 Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction B037 Management Related Occupations, n.e.c.  A218 Surveying and Mapping Technicians SCIENCE TECHNICIANS A223 Biological Technicians A224 Chemical Technicians A225 Science Technicians, n.e.c. MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICIANS A226 A227 A228 A229 A233 A234 A235  Airplane Pilots and Navigators Air Traffic Controllers Broadcast Equipment Operators Computer Programmers Tool Programmers, Numerical Control Legal Assistants Technical and Related Occupations, n.e.c.  Major group C: SALES OCCUPATIONS C243 Supervisors: Sales Occupations FINANCE AND BUSINESS SERVICES, SALES REPRESENTATIVES C253 Insurance Sales Occupations C254 Real Estate Sales Occupations C255 Securities and Financial Services Sales Occupations C256 Advertising and Related Sales Occupations C257 Sales Occupations, Other Business Services  Major group B: EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS EXECUTIVES, MANAGERS, AND ADMINISTRATORS  SALES REPRESENTATIVES, COMMODITIES EXCEPT RETAIL  B003 Legislators B004 Chief Executives and General Administrators, Public Administration B005 Administrators and Officials, Public Administration B007 Financial Managers B008 Personnel and Labor Relations Managers B009 Purchasing Managers B013 Managers; Marketing, Advertising and Public Relations B014 Administrators, Education and Related Fields B015 Managers, Medicine and Health B016 Postmasters and Mail Superintendents B017 Managers, Food Serving and Lodging Establishments B018 Managers, Properties and Real Estate B019 Funeral Directors B021 Managers, Service Organizations, n.e.c. B022 Managers and Administrators, n.e.c.  C258 Sales Engineers C259 Sales Representatives; Mining, Manufacturing, and Wholesale RETAIL AND PERSONAL SERVICES SALES WORKERS C263 C264 C265 C266 C267 C268 C269 C274 C275 C276 C277 C278  MANAGEMENT RELATED OCCUPATIONS B023 B024 B025 B026 B027  Accountants and Auditors Underwriters Other Financial Officers Management Analysts Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists B028 Purchasing Agents and Buyers, Farm Products  Sales Workers, Motor Vehicles and Boats Sales Workers, Apparel Sales Workers, Shoes Sales Workers, Furniture and Home Furnishings Sales Workers, Radio, TV, Hi-Fi, and Appliances Sales Workers, Hardware and Building Supplies Sales Workers, Parts Sales Workers, Other Commodities Sales Counter Clerks Cashiers Street and Door-To-Door Sales Workers News Vendors  SALES RELATED OCCUPATIONS C283 Demonstrators, Promoters, and Models, Sales C284 Auctioneers C285 Sales Support Occupations, n.e.c. 45  D344 Billing, Posting, and Calculating Machine Operators Major group D: DUPLICATING, MAIL, AND OTHER OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS  ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL  D345 Duplicating Machine Operators D346 Mail Preparing and Paper Handling Machine Operators D347 Office Machine Operators, n.e.c.  SUPERVISORS, CLERICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT D303 D304 D305 D306 D307  Supervisors: General Office Supervisors: Computer Equipment Operators Supervisors: Financial Records Processing Chief Communications Operators Supervisors: Distribution, Scheduling, and Adjusting Clerks  COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT OPERATORS D348 Telephone Operators D353 Communications Equipment Operators, n.e.c. MAIL AND MESSAGE DISTRIBUTING OCCUPATIONS  COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OPERATORS D308 Computer Operators D309 Peripheral Equipment Operators  D354 D355 D356 D357  SECRETARIES, STENOGRAPHERS, AND TYPISTS D313 Secretaries D314 Stenographers D315 Typists  MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS D359 D363 D364 D365 D366 D368 plers D373 D374  INFORMATION CLERKS D316 D317 D318 D319 D323  Postal Clerks, Except Mail Carriers Mail Carriers, Postal Service Mail Clerks, Except Postal Service Messengers  Interviewers Hotel Clerks Transportation Ticket and Reservation Agents Receptionists Information Clerks, n.e.c.  RECORDS PROCESSING CLERKS, EXCEPT FINANCIAL  Dispatchers Production Coordinators Traffic, Shipping, and Receiving Clerks Stock and Inventory Clerks Meter Readers Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and SamExpeditors Material Recording, Scheduling, and Distributing Clerks, n.e.c.  ADJUSTERS AND INVESTIGATORS D325 D326 D327 D328  Classified-Ad Clerks Correspondence Clerks Order Clerks Personnel Clerks, Except Payroll and Timekeeping D329 Library Clerks D335 File Clerks D336 Records Clerks, n.e.c.  D375 Insurance Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators D376 Investigators and Adjusters, Except Insurance D377 Eligibility Clerks, Social Welfare D378 Bill and Account Collectors MISCELLANEOUS ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS  FINANCIAL RECORDS PROCESSING CLERKS D337 Clerks D338 D339 D343  D379 D383 D384 D385 D386 D387 D389  Bookkeepers, Accounting and Auditing Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks Billing Clerks Cost and Rate Clerks  46  General Office Clerks Bank Tellers Proofreaders Data Entry Keyers Statistical Clerks Teachers' Aides Administrative Support Occupations, n.e.c.  E569 E573 E575 E576 E577 E579 E583 E584 E585 E587  Major group E: PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, AND REPAIR OCCUPATIONS MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS E503 E505 E506 E507 E508 E509 E514 E515 E516 E517 E518 E519 E523 E525 E526 E527 E529 E534 E535 E536 E538 E539 E543 E544 E547  Supervisors: Mechanics and Repairers Automobile Mechanics Automobile Mechanic Apprentices Bus, Truck, and Stationary Engine Mechanics Aircraft Engine Mechanics Small Engine Repairers Automobile Body and Related Repairers Aircraft Mechanics, Except Engine Heavy Equipment Mechanic Farm Equipment Mechanics Industrial Machinery Repairers Machinery Maintenance Occupations Electronic Repairers, Communications and Industrial Equipment Data Processing Equipment Repairers Household Appliance and Power Tool Repairers Telephone Line Installers and Repairers Telephone Installers and Repairers Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics Camera, Watch, and Musical Instrument Repairers Locksmiths and Safe Repairers Office Machine Repairers Mechanical Controls and Valve Repairers Elevator Installers and Repairers Millwrights Mechanics and Repairers, n.e.c.  E588 E589 E593 E594 E595 E596 E597 E598 E599  Carpenter Apprentices Drywall Installers Electricians Electrician Apprentices Electrical Power Installers and Repairers Painters, Construction and Maintenance Paperhangers Plasterers Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Plumber, Pipefitter, and Steamfitter Apprentices Concrete and Terrazzo Finishers Glaziers Insulation Workers Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators Roofers Sheetmetal Duct Installers Structural Metal Workers Drillers, Earth Construction Trades, n.e.c.  EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS E613 E614 E615 E616 E617  Supervisors: Extractive Occupations Drillers, Oil Well Explosives Workers Mining Machine Operators Mining Occupations, n.e.c.  PRECISION PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS E628 Supervisors: Production Occupations PRECISION METAL WORKING OCCUPATIONS E634 E635 E636 E637 E639 E643 E644  SUPERVISORS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES E553 Supervisors: Brickmasons, Stonemasons, and Tilesetters E554 Supervisors: Carpenters and Related Workers E555 Supervisors: Electricians and Power Transmission Installers E556 Supervisors: Painters, Paperhangers, and Plasterers E557 Supervisors: Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters E558 Supervisors: Construction Trades, n.e.c.  E645 E646 E647 E649 E653 E654  Tool and Die Makers Tool and Die Maker Apprentices Precision Assemblers, Metal Machinists Machinist Apprentices Boilermakers Precision Grinders, Filers, and Tool Sharpeners Patternmakers and Modelmakers, Metal Layout Workers Precious Stones and Metals Workers Engravers, Metal Sheet Metal Workers Sheet Metal Worker Apprentices  CONSTRUCTION TRADES OCCUPATIONS PRECISION WOODWORKING OCCUPATIONS E563 E564 E565 E566 E567  Brickmasons and Stonemasons Brickmason and Stonemason Apprentices Tile Setters, Hard and Soft Carpet Installers Carpenters  E656 Patternmakers and Modelmakers, Wood E657 Cabinet Makers and Bench Carpenters E658 Furniture and Wood Finishers 47  F708 Drilling and Boring Machine Operators F709 Grinding, Abrading, Buffing, and Polishing Machine Operators F713 Forging Machine Operators F714 Numerical Control Machine Operators F717 Fabricating Machine Operators, n.e.c. F719 Molding and Casting Machine Operators F723 Metal Plating Machine Operators F724 Heat Treating Equipment Operators  PRECISION TEXTILE, APPAREL, AND FURNISHINGS MACHINE WORKERS E666 E667 E668 E669  Dressmakers Tailors Upholsterers Shoe Repairers  PRECISION WORKERS, ASSORTED MATERIALS  WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS  E675 E676 E677 E678  Hand Molders and Shapers, Except Jewelers Patternmakers, Layout Workers, and Cutters Optical Goods Workers Dental Laboratory and Medical Appliance Technicians E679 Bookbinders E683 Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers E684 Miscellaneous Precision Workers, n.e.c.  F726 Wood Lathe, Routing, and Planing Machine Operators F727 Sawing Machine Operators F728 Shaping and Joining Machine Operators F729 Nailing and Tacking Machine Operators PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS F734 Printing Press Operators F735 Photoengravers and Lithographers F736 Typesetters and Compositors  PRECISION FOOD PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS E685 E686 E687 E688  Precision Food Production Occupations, n.e.c. Butchers and Meat Cutters Bakers Food Batchmakers  TEXTILE, APPAREL, AND FURNISHINGS MACHINE OPERATORS  PRECISION INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND RELATED WORKERS  F738 Winding and Twisting Machine Operators F739 Knitting, Looping, Taping, and Weaving Machine Operators F743 Textile Cutting Machine Operators F744 Textile Sewing Machine Operators F745 Shoe Machine Operators F747 Pressing Machine Operators F748 Laundering and Dry Cleaning Machine Operators  E689 Inspectors, Testers, and Graders E690 Precision Inspectors, Testers, and Related Workers, n.e.c. E693 Adjusters and Calibrators PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS E694 E695 E696 E699  Water and Sewage Treatment Plant Operators Power Plant Operators Stationary Engineers Miscellaneous Plant and System Operators, n.e.c.  MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSORTED MATERIALS F753 F754 F755 F756 F757  Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators Packaging and Filling Machine Operators Extruding and Forming Machine Operators Mixing and Blending Machine Operators Separating, Filtering, and Clarifying Machine Operators F758 Compressing and Compacting Machine Operators F759 Painting and Paint Spraying Machine Operators F763 Roasting and Baking Machine Operators, Food F764 Washing, Cleaning, and Pickling Machine Operators F765 Folding Machine Operators F766 Furnace, Kiln, and Oven Operators, Except Food F768 Crushing and Grinding Machine Operators  Major group F: MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS METALWORKING AND PLASTIC WORKING MACHINE OPERATORS F703 F704 F705 F706 F707  Lathe and Turning-Machine Set-Up Operators Lathe and Turning-Machine Operators Milling and Planing Machine Operators Punching and Stamping Press Operators Rolling Machine Operators 48  F769 F773 F774 F777  G829 Sailors and Deckhands G833 Marine Engineers G834 Bridge, Lock, and Lighthouse Tenders  Slicing and Cutting Machine Operators Motion Picture Projectionists Photographic Process Machine Operators Miscellaneous Machine Operators, n.e.c.  MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS FABRICATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS  G843 Supervisors: Material Moving Equipment Operators G844 Operating Engineers G845 Longshore Equipment Operators G848 Hoist and Winch Operators G849 Crane and Tower Operators G853 Excavating and Loading Machine Operators G855 Grader, Dozer, and Scraper Operators G856 Industrial Truck and Tractor Equipment Operators G859 Miscellaneous Material Moving Equipment Operators, n.e.c.  F783 F784 F785 F786 F787  Welders and Cutters Solderers and Braziers Assemblers Hand Cutting and Trimming Occupations Hand Molding, Casting, and Forming Occupations F789 Hand Painting, Coating, and Decorating Occupations F793 Hand Engraving and Printing Occupations F795 Miscellaneous Hand Working Occupations, n.e.c. PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, TESTERS, SAMPLERS, AND WEIGHERS  Major group H: HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS  F796 Production Inspectors, Checkers, and Examiners F797 Production Testers F798 Production Samplers and Weighers F799 Graders and Sorters, Except Agricultural F800 Hand Inspectors, n.e.c.  FARM, FISHING AND FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS NONFARM SECTOR H483 H484 H485 H486 H487 H489 H494 H495 H496 H497 H498  Major group G: TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATORS G803 G804 G806 G808 G809 G813 G814  Supervisors: Motor Vehicle Operators Truck Drivers Driver-Sales Workers Bus Drivers Taxicab Drivers and Chauffeurs Parking Lot Attendants Motor Transportation Occupations, n.e.c.  HELPERS, HANDLERS, AND LABORERS H864 Supervisors: Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, and Laborers, n.e.c. H865 Helpers, Mechanics and Repairers H866 Helpers, Construction Trades H867 Helpers, Surveyor H868 Helpers, Extractive Occupations H869 Construction Laborers H874 Production Helpers H875 Garbage Collectors H876 Stevedores H877 Stock Handlers and Baggers H878 Machine Feeders and Offbearers H883 Freight, Stock, and Material Handlers, n.e.c. H885 Garage and Service Station Related Occupations  RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS G823 G824 G825 G826  Marine Life Cultivation Workers Nursery Workers Supervisors, Agriculture-Related Workers Groundskeepers and Gardeners, Except Farm Animal Caretakers, Except Farm Inspectors, Agricultural Products Supervisors, Forestry and Logging Workers Forestry Workers, Except Logging Timber Cutting and Logging Occupations Captains and Other Officers, Fishing Vessels Fishers, Hunters, and Trappers  Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters Locomotive Operating Occupations Railroad Brake, Signal, and Switch Operators Rail Vehicle Operators, n.e.c.  WATER TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS G828 Ship Captains and Mates, Except Fishing Boats 49  K439 Kitchen Workers, Food Preparation K443 Waiters'/Waitresses' Assistants K444 Food Preparation Occupations, n.e.c.  H887 Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners H888 Hand Packers and Packagers H889 Laborers, Except Construction, n.e.c.  HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS Major group K: K445 Dental Assistants K446 Health Aides, Except Nursing K447 Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants  SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  K413 Supervisors: Firefighting and Fire Prevention Occupations K414 Supervisors: Police and Detectives K415 Supervisors: Guards K416 Fire Inspection and Fire Prevention Occupations K417 Firefighting Occupations K418 Police and Detectives, Public Service K423 Sheriffs, Bailiffs, and Other Law Enforcement Officers K424 Correctional Institution Officers K425 Crossing Guards K426 Guards and Police, Except Public Service K427 Protective Service Occupations, n.e.c.  K448 Supervisors: Cleaning and Building Service Workers K449 Maids and Housemen K453 Janitors and Cleaners K454 Elevator Operators K455 Pest Control Occupations PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS K456 K457 K458 K459  FOOD SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  K461 K462 K463 K464 K465 K467 K468 K469  K433 Supervisors: Food Preparation and Service Occupations K434 Bartenders K435 Waiters and Waitresses K436 Cooks K438 Food Counter, Fountain, and Related Occupations  50  Supervisors: Personal Service Occupations Barbers Hairdressers and Cosmetologists Attendants, Amusement and Recreation Facilities Guides Ushers Public Transportation Attendants Baggage Porters and Bellhops Welfare Service Aides Early Childhood Teacher's Assistants Child Care Workers, n.e.c. Service Occupations, n.e.c.  Appendix C. Generic Leveling Criteria  Equivalent knowledge and skill.  Below are the 10 criteria for generic leveling occupations. The description of each level within a factor is included. An example using these criteria for leveling a job follows in appendix D.  4. Knowledge of an extensive body of rules, procedures, operations, products or services requiring extended training and experience to perform a wide variety of interrelated or nonstandard procedural assignments and resolve a wide range of problems; OR Practical knowledge of standard procedures in a technical field, requiring extended training or experience, to perform such work as: adapting equipment when this requires considering the functioning characteristics of equipment; interpreting results of tests based on previous experience and observations (rather than directly reading instruments or other measures); or extracting information from various sources when this requires considering the applicability of information and the characteristics and quality of the sources; OR Comprehensive knowledge of a blue-collar skill, usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship. OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  Knowledge measures the nature and extent of information or facts which the workers must understand to do acceptable work (e.g., steps, procedures, practices, rules, policies, theories, principles, and concepts) and the nature and extent of the skills needed to apply those knowledges. To be used as a basis for selecting a level under this factor, a knowledge must be required and applied. 1. Knowledge of simple, routine, or repetitive tasks or operations which typically includes following step-by-step instructions and requires little or no previous training or experience; OR Skill to operate simple equipment or equipment which operates repetitively, requiring little or no previous training or experience; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  5. Knowledge (such as would be acquired through a pertinent baccalaureate educational program or its equivalent in experience, training, or independent study) of basic principles, concepts, and methodology of a professional or administrative occupation, and skill in applying this knowledge in carrying out elementary assignments, operations, or procedures; OR In addition to the practical knowledge of standard procedures in Level 1-4, practical knowledge of technical methods to perform assignments such as carrying out limited projects which involves use of specialized, complicated techniques; OR Advanced knowledge of a blue-collar skill to solve unusually complex problems;  2. Knowledge of basic or commonly-used rules, procedures, or operations which typically requires some previous training or experience; OR Basic skill to operate equipment requiring some previous training or experience, such as keyboard equipment; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill. 3. Knowledge of a body of standardized rules, procedures, operations, good services, tools, or equipment requiring considerable training and experience to perform the full range of standard clerical assignments and resolve recurring problems; OR Skill, acquired through considerable training and experience, to operate and adjust varied equipment for purposes such as performing numerous standardized tests or operations; OR  OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  51  6. Knowledge of the principles, concepts, and methodology of a professional or administrative occupation as described at Level 1-5 which has been either: (a) supplemented by skill gained through job experience to permit independent performance of recurring assignments, or (b) supplemented by expanded professional or administrative knowledge gained through relevant graduate study or experience, which has provided skill in carrying out assignments, operations, and procedures in the occupation which are significantly more difficult and complex than those covered by Level 1-5; OR Practical knowledge of a wide range of technical methods, principles, and practices similar to a narrow area of a professional field, and skill in applying this knowledge to such assignments as the design and planning of difficult, but well-precedented projects; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  Supervision Received covers the nature and extent of direct or indirect controls exercised by the supervisor, the employee's responsibility and the review of completed work. Controls are exercised by the supervisor in the way assignments are made, instructions are given to the employee, priorities and deadlines are set, and objectives and boundaries are defined. Responsibility of the employee depends upon the extent to which the employee is expected to develop the sequence and timing of various aspects of the work, to modify or recommend modification of instructions, and to participate in establishing priorities and defining objectives. The degree of review of completed work depends upon the nature and extent of the review, e.g., close and detailed review of each phase of the assignment; detailed review of the finished assignment; spot-check of finished work for accuracy; or review only for adherence to policy. 1. For both one-of-a-kind and repetitive tasks the supervisor makes specific assignments that are accompanied by clear, detailed, and specific instructions. The employee works as instructed and consults with the supervisor as needed on all matters not specifically covered in the original instructions or guidelines. For all positions the work is closely controlled. For some positions, the control is through the structured nature of the work itself; for others, it may be controlled by the circumstances in which it is performed. In some situations, the supervisor maintains control through review of the work which may include checking progress or reviewing completed work for accuracy, adequacy, and adherence to instructions and established procedures.  7. Knowledge of a wide range of concepts, principles, and practices in a professional or administrative occupation, such as would be gained through extended graduate study or experience, and skill in applying this knowledge to difficult and complex work assignments; OR A comprehensive, intensive, practical knowledge of a technical field and skill in applying this knowledge to the development of new methods, approaches, or procedures; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill. 8. Mastery of a professional or administrative field to: Apply experimental theories and new developments to problems not susceptible to treatment by accepted methods; OR Make decisions or recommendations significantly changing, interpreting, or developing important public policies or programs; OR Equivalent knowledge or skill.  2. The supervisor provides continuing or individual assignments by indicating generally what is to be done, limitations, quality and quantity expected, deadlines, and priority of assignments. The supervisor provides additional, specific instructions for new, difficult, or unusual assignments including suggested work methods or advice on source material available. The employee uses initiative in carrying out recurring assignments independently without specific instruction, but refers deviations, problems, and unfamiliar situations not covered by instructions to the supervisor for decision or help. The supervisor assures that finished work and methods used are technically accurate and in compliance with instructions or established procedures. Review of the work increases with more difficult assignments if the employee has not previously performed similar assignments.  9 . Mastery of a professional field to generate and develop new hypotheses and theories; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  52  3. The supervisor makes assignments by defining objectives, priorities, and deadlines; and assists employee with unusual situations which do not have clear precedents. The employee plans and carries out the successive steps and handles problems and deviations in the work assignment in accordance with instructions, policies, previous training, or accepted practices in the occupation. Completed work is usually evaluated for technical soundness, appropriateness, and conformity to policy and requirements. The methods used in arriving at the end results are not usually reviewed in detail.  Guidelines covers the nature of guidelines and the judgment needed to apply them. Guides used in General Schedule occupations include, for example: desk manuals, established procedures and policies, traditional practices, and reference materials such as dictionaries, style manuals, engineering handbooks, and the pharmacopoeia. Individual jobs in different occupations vary in the specificity, applicability and availability of the guidelines for performance of assignments. Consequently, the constraints and judgmental demands placed upon employees also vary. For example, the existence of specific instructions, procedures, and policies may limit the opportunity of the employee to make or recommend decisions or actions. However, in the absence of procedures or under broadly stated objectives, employees in some occupations may use considerable judgment in researching literature and developing new methods.  4. The supervisor sets the overall objectives and resources available. The employee and supervisor, in consultation, develop the deadlines, projects, and work to be done. At this level, the employee, having developed expertise in the line of work, is responsible for planning and carrying out the assignment; resolving most of the conflicts which arise; coordinating the work with others as necessary; and interpreting policy on own initiative in terms of established objectives. In some assignments, the employee also determines the approach to be taken and the methodology to be used. The employee keeps the supervisor informed of progress, potentially controversial matters, or far-reaching implications. Completed work is reviewed only from an overall standpoint in terms of feasibility, compatibility with other work, or effectiveness in meeting requirements or expected results.  Guidelines should not be confused with the knowledges described under Factor 1, Knowledge. Guidelines either provide reference data or impose certain constraints on the use of knowledges. For example, in the field of medical technology, for a particular diagnosis there may be three or four standardized tests set forth in a technical manual. A medical technologist is expected to know these diagnostic tests. However, in a given laboratory the policy may be to use only one of the tests; or the policy may state specifically under what conditions one or the other of these tests may be used.  5. The supervisor provides administrative direction with assignments in terms of broadly defined missions or functions. The employee has responsibility for planning, designing, and carrying out programs, projects, studies, or other work independently. Results of the work are considered as technically authoritative and are normally accepted without significant change. If the work should be reviewed, the review concerns such matters as fulfillment of program objectives, effect of advice and influence of the overall program, or the contribution to the advancement of technology. Recommendations for new projects and alteration of objectives are usually evaluated for such considerations as availability of funds and other resources, broad program goals or priorities.  1. Specific, detailed guidelines covering all important aspects of the assignment are provided to the employee. The employee works in strict adherence to the guidelines; deviations must be authorized by the supervisor. 2. Procedures for doing the work have been established and a number of specific guidelines are available. The number and similarity of guidelines and work situations requires the employee to use judgment in locating and selecting the most appropriate guidelines, references, and procedures for application, and in making minor deviations to adapt the guidelines in specific cases. At this level, the employee may also determine which of several  53  Actions to be taken or responses to be made differ in such things as the source of information, the kind of transactions or entries, or other differences of a factual nature.  established alternatives to use. Situations to which the existing guidelines cannot be applied or significant proposed deviations from the guidelines are referred to the supervisor.  3. The work includes various duties involving different and unrelated processes and methods. The decision regarding what needs to be done depends upon the analysis of the subject, phase, or issues involved in each assignment, and the chosen course of action may have to be selected from many alternatives. The work involves conditions and elements that must be identified and analyzed to discern interrelationships.  3. Guidelines are available, but are not completely applicable to the work or have gaps in specificity. The employee uses judgment in interpreting and adapting guidelines such as agency policies, regulations, precedents, and work directions for application to specific cases or problems. The employee analyzes results and recommends changes.  4. The work typically includes varied duties requiring many different and unrelated processes and methods such as those relating to well-established aspects of an administrative or professional field. Decisions regarding what needs to be done include the assessment of unusual circumstances, variations in approach, and incomplete or conflicting data. The work requires making many decisions concerning such things as the interpreting of considerable data, planning of the work, or refining the methods and techniques to be used.  4. Administrative policies and precedents are applicable but are stated in general terms. Guidelines for performing the work are scarce or of limited use. The employee uses initiative and resourcefulness in deviating from traditional methods or researching trends and patterns to develop new methods, criteria, or proposed new policies. 5. Guidelines are broadly stated and nonspecific, e.g., broad policy statements and basic legislation which require extensive interpretation. The employee must use judgment and ingenuity in interpreting the intent of the guides that do exist and in developing applications to specific areas of work. Frequently, the employee is recognized as a technical authority in the development and interpretation of guidelines.  5. The work includes varied duties requiring many different and unrelated processes and methods applied to a broad range of activities or substantial depth of analysis, typically for an administrative or professional field. Decisions regarding what needs to be done include major areas of uncertainty in approach, methodology, or interpretation and evaluation processes resulting from such elements as continuing changes in program, technological developments, unknown phenomena, or conflicting requirements. The work requires originating new techniques, establishing criteria, or developing new information.  Complexity covers the nature, number, variety, and intricacy of tasks, steps, processes, or methods in the work performed; the difficulty in identifying what needs to be done; and the difficulty and originality involved in performing the work.  6. The work consists of broad functions and processes of an administrative or professional field. Assignments are characterized by breadth and intensity of effort and involve several phases being pursued concurrently or sequentially with the support of others within or outside of the organization. Decisions regarding what needs to be done include largely undefined issues and elements, requiring extensive probing and analysis to determine the nature and scope of the problems. The work requires continuing efforts to establish concepts, theories, or programs, or to resolve unyielding problems.  1. The work consists of tasks that are clear-cut and directly related. There is little or no choice to be made in deciding what needs to be done. Actions to be taken or responses to be made are readily discernible. The work is quickly mastered. 2. The work consists of duties that involve related steps, processes, or methods. The decision regarding what needs to be done involves various choices requiring the employee to recognize the existence of and differences among a few easily recognizable situations.  54  The programs are essential to the missions of the overall organization or affect large numbers of people on a long-term or continuing basis.  Scope and Effect covers the relationship between the nature of the work, i.e., the purpose, breadth, and depth of the assignment, and the effect of work products or services both within and outside the organization.  Personal Contact includes face-to-face contacts and telephone and radio dialogue with persons not in the supervisory chain. (NOTE: Personal contacts with supervisors are covered under Factor 2, Supervision Received. Levels described under this factor are based on what is required to make the initial contact, the difficulty of communicating with those contacted, and the setting in which the contact takes place (e.g., the degree to which the employee and those contacted recognize their relative roles and authorities)).  Effect measures such things as whether the work output facilitates the work of others, provides timely services of a personal nature, or impacts on the adequacy of research conclusions. The concept of effect alone does not provide sufficient information to properly understand and evaluate the impact of the position. The scope of the work completes the picture, allowing consistent evaluations. Only the effect of properly performed work is to be considered.  Above the lowest level, points should be credited under this factor only for contacts which are essential for successful performance of the work and which have a demonstrable impact on the difficulty and responsibility of the work performed.  1. The work involves the performance of specific, routine operations that include a few separate tasks or procedures. The work product or service is required to facilitate the work of others; however, it has little impact beyond the immediate organizational unit or beyond the timely provision of limited services to others.  The relationship of Factors 6 (Personal Contacts) and 7 (Purpose of Contacts) presumes that the same contacts will be evaluated for both factors. Therefore, use the personal contacts which serve as the basis for the level selected for Factor 7 as the basis for selecting a level for Factor 6.  2. The work involves the execution of specific rules, regulations, or procedures and typically comprises a complete segment of an assignment or project of broader scope. The work product or service affects the accuracy, reliability, or acceptability of further processes or services.  1. The personal contacts are with employees within the immediate organization, office, project, or work unit, and in related or support units; AND/OR The contacts are with members of the general public in very highly structured situations (e.g., the purpose of the contact and the question of with whom to deal are relatively clear). Typical of contacts at this level are purchases of admission tickets at a ticket window.  3. The work involves treating a variety of conventional problems, questions, or situations in conformance with established criteria. The work product or service affects the design or operation of systems, programs, or equipment; the adequacy of such activities as field investigations, testing operations, or research conclusions; or the social, physical, and economic well being of persons. 4. The work involves establishing criteria; formulating projects; assessing program effectiveness; or investigating or analyzing variety of unusual conditions, problems, or questions. The work product or service affects a wide range of establishment activities, major activities of industrial concerns, or the operation of other organizations.  2. The personal contacts are with employees in the same overall organization, but outside the immediate organization. People contacted generally are engaged in different functions, missions, and kinds of work, e.g., representatives from various levels within the overall organizations such as headquarters, district offices, or local offices, plants, stores, or other operating units in the immediate installation. AND/OR The contacts are with members of the general public, as individuals or groups, in a moderately structured setting (e.g., the contacts are generally established on a routine basis, usually at the employee's work place; the exact purpose of the contact may be unclear at first to one or more of the parties; and one or more of the parties may be uninformed concerning the role and authority of other participants). Typical of contacts at this level are those with persons seeking airline reservations or with job applicants at a job information center.  5. The work involves isolating and defining unknown conditions, resolving critical problems, or developing new theories. The work product or service affects the work of other experts, the development of major aspects of administrative or scientific programs or missions, or the well-being of substantial numbers of people. 6. The work involves planning, developing, and carrying out vital administrative or scientific programs. 55  OR The purpose is to interrogate or control persons or groups who may be fearful, uncooperative, or dangerous. Therefore, the employee must be skillful in approaching the individual or group in order to obtain the desired effect, such as, gaining compliance with established policies and regulations by persuasion or negotiation, or gaining information by establishing rapport with a suspicious informant.  3. The personal contacts are with individuals or groups from outside the employing establishment in a moderately unstructured setting (e.g., the contacts are not established on a routine basis; the purpose and extent of each contact is different and the role and authority of each party is identified and developed during the course of the contact). Typical of contacts at this level are those with persons in their capacities as attorneys; contractors; or representatives of professional organizations, the news media, or public action groups.  4. The purpose is to justify, defend, negotiate, or settle matters involving significant or controversial issues. Work at this level usually involves active participation in conferences, meetings, hearings, or presentations involving problems or issues of considerable consequence or importance. The persons contacted typically have diverse viewpoints, goals, or objectives requiring the employee to achieve a common understanding of the problem and a satisfactory solution by convincing them, arriving at a compromise, or developing suitable alternatives.  4. The personal contacts are with high-ranking officials from outside the employing establishment at national or international levels in highly unstructured settings (e.g., contacts are characterized by problems such as: the officials may be relatively inaccessible; arrangements may have to be made for accompanying staff members; appointments may have to be made well in advance; each party may be very unclear as to the role and authority of the other; and each contact may be conducted under different ground rules). Typical of contacts at this level are those with presidents of large national or international firms, nationally recognized representatives of the news media, presidents of national unions, members of Congress, leading representatives of foreign governments, state governors, or mayors of large cities.  Physical Demands covers the requirements and physical demands placed on the employee by the work assignment. This includes physical characteristics and abilities (e.g., specific agility and dexterity requirements) and the physical exertion involved in the work (e.g., climbing, lifting, pushing, balancing, stooping, kneeling, crouching, crawling, or reaching). To some extent the frequency or intensity of physical exertion must also be considered, e.g., a job requiring prolonged standing involves more physical exertion than a job requiring intermittent standing.  Purpose of Contacts ranges from factual exchanges of information to situations involving significant or controversial issues and differing viewpoints, goals, or objectives. The personal contacts which serve as the basis for the level selected for this factor must be the same as the contacts which are the basis for the level selected for Factor 6.  1. The work is sedentary. Typically, the employee may sit comfortably to do the work. However, there may be some walking; standing; bending; carrying of light items such as papers, books, small parts; driving an automobile, etc. No special physical demands are required to perform the work.  1. The purpose is to obtain, clarify, or give facts or information regardless of the nature of those facts, i.e., the facts or information may range from easily understood to highly technical.  2. The work requires some physical exertion such as long periods of standing; walking over rough, uneven, or rocky surfaces; recurring bending, crouching, stooping, stretching, reaching, or similar activities; recurring lifting of moderately heavy items such as typewriters and record boxes. The work may require specific, but common, physical characteristics and abilities such as above-average agility and dexterity.  2. The purpose is to plan, coordinate, or advise on work efforts or to resolve operating problems by influencing or motivating individuals or groups who are working toward mutual goals and who have basically cooperative attitudes. 3. The purpose is to influence, motivate, convince, or question persons or groups. Those contacted may be hesitant or skeptical, so the employee must be skillful in approaching the individual or group in order to obtain the desired response.  3. The work requires considerable and strenuous physical exertion such as frequent climbing of tall ladders, lifting heavy objects over 50 pounds, crouching or crawling in restricted areas and defending oneself or others against physical attack.  56  ditions cannot be controlled.  Work Environment considers the risks and discomforts in the employee's physical surroundings or the nature of the work assignment and the safety regulations required. Although the use of safety precautions can practically eliminate a certain danger or discomfort, such situations typically place additional demands upon the employee in carrying out safety regulations and techniques.  Supervisory Duties describes the level of supervisory responsibility for a position. 1. No supervisory responsibility. 2. A nonsupervisory position. Incumbent sets the pace of work for the group and shows other workers in the group how to perform assigned tasks. Commonly performs the same work as the group, in addition to lead duties. Can also be called group leader, team leader, or lead worker.  1. The work environment involves everyday risks or discomforts which require normal safety precautions typical of such places as offices, meeting and training rooms, libraries, and residences or commercial vehicles, e.g., use of safe work practices with office equipment, avoidance of trips and falls, observance of fire regulations and traffic signals, etc. The work area is adequately lighted, heated, and ventilated.  3. Directs staff through face to face meetings. Organizational structure is not complex and internal and administrative procedures are simple. Performing the same work as subordinates is not the principal duty. Typically, this is the first supervisory level.  2. The work involves moderate risks or discomforts which require special safety precautions, e.g., working around moving parts, carts, or machines; with contagious diseases or irritant chemicals; etc. Employees may be required to use protective clothing or gear such as masks, gowns, coats, boots, goggles, gloves, or shields.  4. Directs staff through intermediate supervisors. Internal procedures and administrative controls are formal. Organizational structure is complex and is divided into subordinate groups that may differ from each other as to subject matter and function.  3. The work environment involves high risks with exposure to potentially dangerous situations or unusual environmental stress which require a range of safety and other precautions, e.g., working at great heights under extreme outdoor weather conditions, subject to possible physical attack or mob conditions, or similar situations where con-  5. Directs staff through two or more subordinate supervisory levels with several subdivisions at each level. Programs are usually inter-locked on a direct and continuing basis with other organizational segments, requiring constant attention to extensive formal coordination, clearances, and procedural controls.  57  Appendix D. Evaluating Your Firm’s Jobs  To compare data on their firm’s jobs with statistics contained in this bulletin, data users need to be able to determine their jobs’ work levels. Using the example of a dental hygienist, this appendix will go through the procedure for determining the work level of a particular job. To determine the work level of a job, it must be evaluated using the generic leveling factors. With the information available, such as a written position description and other knowledge of the job, each factor must be reviewed. Comparing that information to the descriptions of each level within a factor as shown in Appendix C, the level best matching the job should be chosen and recorded. (Note that the number of levels varies by factor.)  Level 2.  Generic leveling: an example  Level 2.  Scope and effect In terms of process, the dentist’s work follows the hygienist’s. In terms of effect, the hygienist doing a thorough cleaning in preparation for the dentist’s work allows the dentist to do a complete exam and properly treat the patient. Level 2. Personal contacts Patients come to the clinic or occasionally the hygienist will travel to perform work or give a talk at a school.  Knowledge Hygienist must have a dental hygienist license which requires 2 years of schooling and passage of a technical exam. This is a mid-level hygienist job, which means a worker must have at least 3 years of experience. The procedures are essentially the same every day, such as cleaning teeth, checking gums, and taking x-rays.  Purpose of contacts Most of hygienist’s interaction is with patients; no planning or coordination work is involved. Level 1. Physical demands The work is sedentary.  Level 4.  Level 1.  Supervision received Most of the tasks are performed without supervision. For more complicated procedures, such as tooth filling, the dental hygienist assists the dentist.  Work environment Hygienist must take precautions not to be exposed to xrays, punctures, etc.  Level 2.  Level 2.  Guidelines A hygienist knows which procedure to use for different dental problems. Unusual situations are handled after checking with the supervisor.  Supervisory duties A dental hygienist at this level does not supervise anyone.  Level 2.  Level 1.  Complexity Each procedure performed leads to the next, for example, examining gums, scraping plaque, then cleaning teeth.  Assigning points Once the correct level has been identified within each factor, the points associated with each level are recorded. Summing the points for all factors gives the total points 58  for the job. Using the factors above and the table at the end of this section showing the points associated with each level within a factor, a sample worksheet was filled out for the dental hygienist position.  level for the job. There are 15 work levels, based on those used to rank Federal civil service white-collar jobs, each identified by a point range. The 1,020 total points for the dental hygienist job puts it in level 5.  Generic leveling worksheet  Point ranges by work level  Company job title: Dental Hygienist Factor  Range of Generic Level Points  Level  Points  Knowledge  4  550  Supervision received  2  125  Guidelines  2  125  Complexity  2  75  Scope and effect  2  75  Personal contacts  2  25  Purpose of contacts  2  20  Physical demands  1  5  Work environment  2  20  Supervisory duties  1  0  Total  5  1020  Level  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  Low  High  190 255 455 655 855 1105 1355 1605 1855 2105 2355 2755 3155 3605 4055 and up  254 454 654 854 1104 1354 1604 1854 2104 2354 2754 3154 3604 4054  Comparing wages Once the work level has been identified for a job, wages for that job can be compared to wages for similar jobs at the same work level. BLS publishes hourly wage rates by work level within nine major occupational groups, which are combinations of similar individual occupations. The groups and work levels available vary by area. Employers can also use the data on work levels to compare different jobs in their establishment.  Determining the work level The following chart takes the point total determined using the worksheet and converts it to an overall work  Points associated with each factor level F a c to r K n o w le d g e S u p e rv i s i o n r e q u i r e d G u id elin e s C o m p le x ity S c o p e a n d e ff e c t P e rs o n a l c o n ta c t s P u r p o se o f c o n ta c t s P h y s ic a l d e m a n d s W o rk e n v ir o n m e n t S u p e rv i s o r y d u ti e s  1 50 25 25 25 25 10 20 5 5 0  2 200 125 125 75 75 25 50 20 20 251  3 35 275 275 150 150 60 120 50 50 502  4 550 450 450 225 225 110 220 X X 1003  5 750 650 650 325 325 X X X X 1504  6 950 X X 450 450 X X X X X  7 1250 X X X X X X X X X  8 1550 X X X X X X X X X  9 1850 X X X X X X X X X  Note: X indicates that a level is not associated with a given factor. For example, for physical demands, point levels 1, 2, and 3 are the only choices. 59
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102