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COMP2000 Pilot Survey Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT Metropolitan Statistical Area July–August 1996 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ U.S. Department of Labor Robert B. Reich, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Katharine G. Abraham, Commissioner January 1997 Bulletin 3082-4  Preface  T  of the Kansas City Regional Office. The Office of Compensation and Working Conditions, in cooperation with the Office of Field Operations and the Office of Technology and Survey Processing, in the BLS National Office was responsible for the survey design and data processing and analysis.  his survey of occupational pay was conducted in July/August 1996 in the Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). The MSA includes the counties of Davis, Salt Lake, and Weber. Salt Lake City is the fourth area selected for a series of tests using a new way of identifying and classifying occupations within establishments. The revised data collection procedure introduces a new method for determining the level of duties and responsibilities of surveyed occupations. This method, called “generic leveling,” will replace the job classification system now used in the Occupational Compensation Survey program (OCS). An entirely new statistical program will replace the existing OCS program, Employment Cost Index, and Employee Benefit Survey series. The working title of the program is COMP2000. Hourly wage rates for various occupational classifications compose the bulk of the information contained in this bulletin. One table contains data on weekly wage rates. Tables showing the number of workers included in the wage data are also presented. The bulletin consists primarily of tables whose data are analyzed in the initial textual section. Also contained in this bulletin is information on the new COMP2000 program, a technical note describing survey procedures, and several appendixes with detailed information on occupational classifications and the generic leveling methodology. Survey data were collected and reviewed by Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) field economists under the direction  Where to find more information For additional information regarding this survey, please contact the BLS Kansas City Regional Office at (816) 426-2481. You may also write to the Bureau of Labor Statistics at: Division of Compensation Data Analysis and Planning, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20212-0001, or call (202) 606-6220. The data contained in this bulletin are also available on the Internet’s World Wide Web through the BLS site: http://stats.bls.gov/comhome.htm Data are in ASCII files containing the exact published table format. Electronic files for future surveys will contain positional columns of data in an ASCII file for easy manipulation as a data base or spreadsheet. A third format will be Portable Document Format that will contain the entire bulletin. Material in this bulletin is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 606-7828; TDD phone: (202) 606-5897; TDD message referral phone: 1-800-326-2577.  iii  Contents  Page A New Compensation Survey .............................................................................................................. Wages in the Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT metropolitan area..................................................................  1 2  Appendixes: A. Technical note.......................................................................................................................... B. Occupational classifications...................................................................................................... C. Generic leveling criteria ........................................................................................................... D. Evaluating your firm’s jobs ......................................................................................................  36 43 51 58  Tables: 1. Hourly earnings for selected occupations .................................................................................. 2. Hourly earnings for selected occupations, full-time workers only.............................................. 3. Hourly earnings for selected occupations, part-time workers only............................................. 4. Weekly earnings for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only ......................... 5. Hourly earnings by occupational group and level...................................................................... 6. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries ..................... 7. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, private industry ................. 8. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, State and local government. 9. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry ...................................... 10. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry, full-time workers only .. 11. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry, part-time workers only . 12. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry... 13. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry, full-time workers only ............................................................................................................. 14. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry, part-time workers only ............................................................................................................ 15. Number of workers by occupation ............................................................................................ 16. Number of workers by occupational group and level................................................................. 17. Number of workers by occupational group and selected characteristic ...................................... 18. Number of workers by occupational group and industry, private industry ................................. 19. Number of workers by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry.......................................................................................................................  4 7 10 11 13 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 29 33 34 35  Appendix tables: A1. Number of establishments studied by industry and establishment employment size.................. A2. Relative standard errors of mean hourly earnings for selected occupations...............................  v  40 41  A New Compensation Survey  T  COMP2000 versus OCS The wage data in this bulletin differ from those in previous Occupational Compensation Survey bulletins by providing broader coverage of occupations and establishments within the survey area. The same holds for all future COMP2000 products. Occupations surveyed for this bulletin were selected using probability techniques from a list of all those present in each establishment. Previous OCS bulletins were limited to a preselected list of occupations, which represented a small subset of all occupations in the economy. Information in the new bulletin is published for a variety of occupation-based data. This new approach includes data on broad occupational classifications, such as white-collar workers, major occupational groups such as sales workers, and individual occupations such as cashiers. In tables containing job levels within occupational series, the levels are derived from generic standards that apply to all occupational groups. The job levels in the OCS bulletins were based on narrowly-defined descriptions that were not comparable across specific occupations. Occupational data in this bulletin are also tabulated for other classifications such as industry group, full-time versus part-time status, union versus nonunion status, and establishment employment size. Not all of these series were generated by the OCS program. Finally, the establishments surveyed in this bulletin were selected from among all private and State and local government establishments. Previous OCS samples were limited to establishments with 50 or more employees. The wider scope of the COMP2000 program means that virtually all workers in the Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT metropolitan statistical area are covered, excluding only private household and farm workers and employees of the Federal Government.  his bulletin represents the fourth test results of a new Bureau of Labor Statistics program called COMP2000. COMP2000 integrates three existing programs: the Occupational Compensation Survey (OCS), the Employment Cost Index (ECI), and the Employee Benefits Survey (EBS), into one comprehensive compensation program. Data from the new survey will be jointly collected from one common sample of establishments. The survey has several major goals: To make the most efficient use of available resources—dollars, people, and technology; to minimize the burden of collection on respondents; and to provide a wide range of statistical outputs reflecting up-to-date economic and statistical concepts. The streamlining of programs and the addition of data will be phased in over time. At first, testing will concentrate on wage level data (such as contained in this bulletin) and the collection of demographic characteristics of workers (e.g., length of service). In Fall 1996, a new areabased sample was put into place that will allow for the collection of wage data based on the methods refined in the early tests. The larger metropolitan area collections will yield bulletins, similar to this one, which will replace the current Occupational Compensation Survey bulletins. Further testing of benefit data, wage trend data, and other compensation characteristics will begin within the next year. Based on test results, new collection procedures for these types of statistics will be developed. The new procedures will be implemented beginning in 1998. Eventually, wage data and benefit information collected from the sample will be used to produce compensation indexes and statistics on benefit provisions and incidence. These new series will supplant the current ECI and EBS programs.  1  Wages in the Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT metropolitan area  S  traight-time wages in the Salt Lake City-Ogden metropolitan area averaged $12.77 per hour during July/August, 1996 (table 1). White-collar workers had the highest average wage level, $14.74 per hour. Blue-collar workers averaged $11.16 per hour, while service workers had average earnings of $8.18 per hour. Within each of these occupational groups, average wages for individual occupations varied. For example, white-collar occupations included physicians at $46.49 per hour, electrical and electronics technicians at $15.82 per hour, and file clerks at $6.83 per hour. Among occupations in the blue-collar category, electricians averaged $17.46 per hour while hand packers and packagers averaged $6.93 per hour. Finally, service workers included waiters and waitresses at $2.45 per hour (not including tips) and police and detectives, public service at $15.64 per hour. Table 1 presents earnings data for 101 detailed occupations; data for other detailed occupations could not be reported separately due to concerns about the confidentiality of survey respondents.  Private industry workers, about 85 percent of the Salt Lake City labor force studied, averaged $12.22 per hour, while State and local government workers earned $15.82 per hour (chart 1). (All comparisons in this analysis cover hourly rates for both full- and part-time workers, unless otherwise noted.) The difference in wages between the private and government sectors reflects several factors (chart 2). First, there was a greater proportion of higher paid, professional specialty and technical workers in State and local governments (38 percent of all employees) than in private industry (11 percent). Similarly, there was a greater proportion of government employees in service occupations (20 percent) than there were in the private sector (13 percent). Service workers in State and local governments, which included such jobs as police officers and firefighters, averaged $12.90 per hour compared to an average of $6.76 per hour for private sector service workers, which were more often food and cleaning-related occupations.  Chart 1. Average hourly wage rates by industry, Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT, July-August 1996  Chart 2. Distribution of employment by occupational group, Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT, July-August 1996  Dollars per hour $ 20  Percent  Private industry  100  15  State and local government  80 10 60 5  40 20  0 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  0 White-collar  2  Blue-collar  Service  Average wages for full-time workers in Salt Lake City were $13.67 per hour, compared with an average of $7.23 per hour for part-time workers (tables 2-3). Wages for higher levels of work within major occupational groups usually were greater than for lower-level work (table 5). This general pattern can vary somewhat depending on the mix of specific occupations (and industries) represented by the broad group. A given level within a group may not have data because no workers were identified at that level or because there were not enough data to guarantee confidentiality. Work levels for all major groups span several levels, with professional specialty and executive, administrative, and managerial workers starting and ending at higher work levels than the other groups. Hourly wage rates for union and nonunion workers in Salt Lake City are shown in tables 6-8. Approximately 9 percent of the employees in Salt Lake City were classified as union employees. For workers in the private sector, wage data are also available by broad industry group (tables 9-11) and by establishment employment size (tables 12-14).  Chart 3. Average hourly wage rates for professional specialty occupations, by level of work, Salt Lake CityOgden, UT, July-August 1996 Dollars per hour $ 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 7  9  11 Level  3  13  Table 1. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median All workers .................................................. $12.77 $10.70 All workers excluding sales .................... 12.72 10.87 White-collar occupations ........................ 14.74 12.00 Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. 19.15 17.62 Professional specialty occupations 21.33 20.30 Engineering occupations ........... 25.59 24.49 Civil engineers .................... 28.02 – Industrial engineers ............ 26.06 – Engineers, N.E.C. ............... 26.61 – Computer systems analysts and scientists ................ 24.37 25.00 Physicians .......................... 46.49 – Registered nurses .............. 18.60 18.00 Teachers ..................................... 21.50 21.16 Teachers, except college and university .......................... 21.01 21.13 Elementary school teachers 20.65 19.89 Secondary school teachers 23.04 22.48 Teachers, N.E.C. ................ 19.11 – Librarians ............................ 21.30 – Social workers .................... 15.07 – Designers ........................... 9.30 – Technical occupations .................... 13.61 12.50 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians .................... 12.93 13.49 Licensed practical nurses ... 10.42 – Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ....... 10.75 – Electrical and electronic technicians .................... 15.82 – Engineering technicians, N.E.C. ........................... 14.37 – Drafters ............................... 12.06 – Computer programmers ..... 16.99 – Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 12.01 – Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ................ 20.78 18.36 Administrators and officials, public administration ..... 24.68 – Financial managers ............ 31.99 20.19 Administrators, education and related fields .......... 28.40 – Managers, medicine and health ............................ 21.47 – Managers and administrators, N.E.C. .. 26.14 25.78 Accountants and auditors ... 16.48 – Other financial officers ........ 18.11 – Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ..................... 11.55 – Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. .............. 16.33 – Management related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 17.98 17.31 Sales occupations .............................. 13.18 9.89 Supervisors, sales occupations .................. 16.08 13.96 Securities and financial services sales occupations .................. 32.95 – Sales occupations, other business services ......... 12.82 – Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale ............... 15.43 – Sales workers, apparel ....... 5.44 5.37  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $7.50 - $15.62 $12.22 $10.00 7.73 - 15.67 12.07 10.03 8.36 - 18.31 14.11 11.09  $7.23 - $15.00 $15.82 $14.01 7.41 - 15.00 15.82 14.01 8.00 - 16.75 17.19 15.61  13.36 15.51 20.63 – – –  23.50 25.79 30.41 – – –  18.86 22.92 25.74 – 26.06 26.61  16.88 21.56 24.49 – – –  12.25 16.71 21.09 – – –  23.24 27.23 30.48 – – –  19.61 19.91 – – – –  19.07 19.39 – – – –  14.56 14.86 – – – –  24.19 24.30 – – – –  20.19 – 15.50 16.90 -  26.64 – 20.18 26.65  24.37 46.49 18.62 –  25.00 – 18.00 –  20.19 – 15.64 –  26.64 – 20.13 –  – – – 21.83  – – – 21.35  – – – 17.37 -  – – – 26.65  16.48 16.19 18.92 – – – – 10.50 -  26.19 25.48 27.29 – – – – 15.56  – – – – – – – 13.72  – – – – – – – 12.50  – – – – – – – 10.50 -  – – – – – – – 15.71  21.37 20.65 24.42 19.75 – – – 11.72  21.34 19.89 – – – – – –  16.80 16.19 – – – – – –  26.51 25.48 – – – – – –  8.36 –  16.01 –  12.93 10.42  13.49 –  8.36 –  16.01 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.82  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – –  – – –  14.37 12.05 16.99  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  –  12.10  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.65 -  24.75  21.06  17.79  14.98 -  24.50  20.07  20.52  – 20.00 -  – 29.08  – 32.20  – 20.09  – 20.00 -  – 29.72  24.68 –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  28.81  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  30.91 – –  26.02 16.48 17.94  25.78 – –  30.91 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  –  11.50  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  12.98 6.25 -  21.64 14.76  16.23 13.18  15.72 9.89  12.93 6.25 -  20.19 14.76  21.90 –  – –  – –  – –  10.48 -  19.25  16.08  13.96  10.48 -  19.25  –  –  –  –  –  –  32.95  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  12.82  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 4.90 -  – 5.85  15.43 5.44  – 5.37  – 4.90 -  – 5.85  – –  – –  – –  – –  16.25 – –  See footnotes at end of table.  4  15.58 – –  $10.33 - $20.73 10.33 - 20.73 11.36 - 22.48  13.27 -  24.75  Table 1. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3  Sales workers, other commodities ................. Sales counter clerks ........... Cashiers ............................. Sales support occupations, N.E.C. ........................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... Supervisors, general office Supervisors, financial records processing ....... Computer operators ............ Secretaries ......................... Receptionists ...................... Information clerks, N.E.C. ... Order clerks ........................ Library clerks ...................... File clerks ........................... Records clerks, N.E.C. ....... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ........ Billing clerks ........................ Dispatchers ......................... Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ............. Stock and inventory clerks .. Insurance adjusters, examiners, & investigators ................. Investigators and adjusters except insurance .......... Bill and account collectors .. General office clerks ........... Bank tellers ......................... Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ...... Professional occupations, N.E.C. ........................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. Blue-collar occupations .......................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................. Automobile mechanics ....... Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics ......... Electronic repairers, communications and industrial equipment ..... Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics .................... Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. ........................... Electricians ......................... Supervisors, production occupations .................. Machinists ........................... Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ..................................... Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators ...................... Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. .......... Welders and cutters ............ Assemblers .........................  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $6.90 6.98 5.84  $6.56 – 5.75  $5.66 – 5.50 -  $8.05 – 6.25  $6.90 6.98 5.84  $6.56 – 5.75  $5.66 – 5.50 -  14.93  –  –  –  14.93  –  –  9.64 15.32  9.00 –  7.50 –  11.21 –  9.63 –  8.95 –  13.17 9.23 8.81 7.35 9.45 11.11 7.76 6.83 8.00  – – 8.50 7.33 – – – – –  – – 7.50 6.81 – – – – –  – – 9.27 8.00 – – – – –  – – 8.64 7.30 – 11.11 – 6.83 7.70  10.18 9.22 11.00  9.50 – –  8.00 – –  11.75 – –  10.06 10.38  – –  – –  12.12  10.67  10.62 8.65 9.16 7.20 9.67  Mean Median  Middle range  $8.05 – 6.25  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  –  –  –  –  7.42 –  11.21 –  $9.71 –  $9.13 –  – – 8.50 7.25 – – – – –  – – 7.50 6.75 – – – – –  – – 9.10 8.00 – – – – –  – – 9.30 – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – –  10.16 9.22 –  9.50 – –  8.00 – –  11.75 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – –  10.04 10.38  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  9.54 -  13.53  12.12  10.67  9.54 -  13.53  –  –  –  –  9.35 – 8.87 –  8.07 – 7.78 –  13.13 – 9.70 –  10.62 8.19 9.10 7.20  9.35 – 8.85 –  8.07 – 7.59 –  13.13 – 9.70 –  – – 9.87 –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  9.50  8.36 -  10.70  9.76  9.52  8.27 -  10.95  –  –  –  –  18.52  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.15 11.16  12.69 10.29  8.85 7.50 -  19.23 14.25  14.44 11.17  11.54 10.28  8.50 7.50 -  17.31 14.39  17.19 10.89  15.61 10.50  11.36 8.00 -  22.48 13.14  13.28 16.08  13.00 –  9.25 –  16.80 –  13.24 16.11  13.00 –  9.25 –  16.80 –  15.59 –  14.73 –  12.96 –  16.30 –  15.41  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.58  –  –  –  14.58  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.42  –  –  –  14.42  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  11.48 17.46  9.75 –  8.50 –  15.67 –  11.48 17.48  9.75 –  8.50 –  15.67 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  16.59 14.60  – –  – –  – –  16.66 14.60  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  6.79  –  –  –  6.79  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  9.44  8.45  6.65 -  10.80  9.45  8.48  6.65 -  10.80  –  –  –  –  5.87  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.70 – 7.72  7.35 – 6.58 -  10.68 – 9.48  9.00 14.73 8.44  8.70 – 7.72  7.35 – 6.58 -  10.68 – 9.48  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  9.00 14.73 8.44  See footnotes at end of table.  5  $8.21 - $11.02 – –  Table 1. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Production inspectors, checkers and examiners Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. Truck drivers ....................... Bus drivers .......................... Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators ..... Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators, N.E.C. .......... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm .. Construction laborers ......... Stock handlers and baggers Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ........... Hand packers and packagers ..................... Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ...... Service occupations ............................... Protective service occupations Firefighting occupations ...... Police and detectives, public service ................ Guards and police except public service ................ Food service occupations .......... Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations .................. Waiters and waitresses ...... Cooks ................................. Food counter, fountain, and related occupations ...... Kitchen workers, food preparation ................... Waiters’/Waitresses’ assistants ...................... Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ...... Health service occupations ....... Health aides except nursing Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ..................... Cleaning and building service occupations .......................... Supervisors, cleaning & building service workers Maids and housemen ......... Janitors and cleaners ......... Personal services occupations Early childhood teachers’ assistants ......................  $9.21  –  12.06 $11.99 12.79 12.87 12.36 –  Middle range  –  –  $9.50 - $13.77 10.20 - 15.15 – –  Mean Median  $9.21  –  12.19 $12.00 12.85 13.10 – –  Middle range  –  –  Mean Median  –  –  $9.69 - $14.43 $11.09 $11.11 10.20 - 15.21 – – – – 12.36 –  Middle range  –  –  $8.59 - $12.91 – – – –  10.89  –  –  –  10.89  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.24  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.21  7.50  6.00 -  10.00  8.19  7.50  5.96 -  10.00  8.58  7.00  6.50 -  8.50  8.82 10.46 8.77  – – 8.00  – – 7.00 -  – – 10.82  – 10.46 8.77  – – 8.00  – – 7.00 -  – – 10.82  8.82 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  8.16  7.00  6.00 -  8.15  8.16  7.00  6.00 -  8.15  –  –  –  –  6.93  –  –  –  6.93  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  6.71 8.18 12.80 10.37  5.00 7.00 12.16 –  5.00 5.50 8.77 –  8.85 9.90 16.39 –  – 6.76 8.09 –  – 6.16 7.50 –  – 5.25 6.00 –  – 7.75 10.00 –  – 12.90 15.13 10.63  – 12.44 14.02 –  – 9.73 11.90 –  – 15.53 18.27 –  15.64  14.86  12.67 -  17.79  –  –  –  –  15.64  14.86  12.67 -  17.79  8.06 5.93  7.00 5.50  6.00 5.00 -  9.64 7.25  8.06 5.70  7.00 5.50  6.00 4.90 -  9.64 6.50  – 8.71  – –  – –  – –  8.33 2.45 7.43  – 2.13 6.50  – 2.13 5.25 -  – 2.35 9.00  8.33 2.45 7.37  – 2.13 6.36  – 2.13 5.25 -  – 2.35 9.00  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  5.57  –  –  –  5.57  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  7.64  6.50  5.63 -  9.73  6.95  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  4.31  –  –  –  4.31  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  6.31 7.55 7.93  5.95 7.30 –  5.30 6.50 –  7.00 8.50 –  6.17 7.46 7.76  5.75 7.25 –  5.25 6.50 –  6.01 8.35 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  7.12  7.00  6.25 -  7.50  7.09  7.00  6.25 -  7.50  –  –  –  –  8.71  7.25  6.00 -  10.25  7.92  7.00  6.00 -  8.47  12.33  –  –  –  14.32 6.03 8.54 7.10  – – 7.25 6.25  – – 6.00 4.75 -  – – 11.01 8.42  – 6.03 7.34 6.59  – – 6.50 –  – – 6.00 –  – – 8.00 –  – – 11.78 –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  6.93  –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  6  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median All workers .................................................. $13.67 $11.54 All workers excluding sales .................... 13.49 11.58 White-collar occupations ........................ 15.55 12.92 Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. 19.55 17.99 Professional specialty occupations 21.86 20.80 Engineering occupations ........... 25.59 24.49 Civil engineers .................... 28.02 – Industrial engineers ............ 26.06 – Engineers, N.E.C. ............... 26.61 – Computer systems analysts and scientists ................ 24.34 25.00 Physicians .......................... 46.49 – Registered nurses .............. 18.76 18.00 Teachers ..................................... 22.09 21.35 Teachers, except college and university .......................... 21.64 21.34 Elementary school teachers 20.60 19.89 Secondary school teachers 23.04 22.48 Social workers .................... 15.10 – Technical occupations .................... 13.70 12.70 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians .................... 13.11 13.57 Licensed practical nurses ... 10.51 – Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ....... 10.91 – Electrical and electronic technicians .................... 15.82 – Engineering technicians, N.E.C. ........................... 14.37 – Drafters ............................... 12.14 – Computer programmers ..... 16.99 – Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 12.01 – Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ................ 21.05 19.01 Administrators and officials, public administration ..... 24.68 – Financial managers ............ 31.99 20.19 Administrators, education and related fields .......... 28.40 – Managers, medicine and health ............................ 21.57 – Managers and administrators, N.E.C. .. 26.42 25.78 Accountants and auditors ... 16.48 – Other financial officers ........ 18.27 – Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ..................... 11.76 – Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. .............. 16.33 – Management related occupations, N.E.C. ...... 18.33 17.31 Sales occupations .............................. 15.28 11.40 Supervisors, sales occupations .................. 16.08 13.96 Securities and financial services sales occupations .................. 32.95 – Sales occupations, other business services ......... 13.44 – Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale ............... 15.43 – Sales workers, other commodities ................. 7.67 – Cashiers ............................. 5.75 –  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $8.34 - $16.50 $13.14 $11.00 8.36 - 16.50 12.85 10.95 9.00 - 19.36 15.01 11.83  $8.00 - $15.67 $16.35 $14.69 8.00 - 15.60 16.35 14.69 8.65 - 17.63 17.49 16.03  13.65 16.03 20.63 – – –  24.19 26.25 30.41 – – –  19.32 23.82 25.74 – 26.06 26.61  17.25 22.26 24.49 – – –  12.50 17.40 21.09 – – –  23.85 28.38 30.48 – – –  19.89 20.22 – – – –  19.24 19.87 – – – –  14.79 14.95 – – – –  24.30 25.07 – – – –  20.19 – 15.48 17.70 -  26.50 – 20.24 26.70  24.34 46.49 18.84 –  25.00 – 18.00 –  20.19 – 15.67 –  26.50 – 20.21 –  – – – 22.36  – – – 21.50  – – – 18.07 -  – – – 27.14  16.96 15.96 18.92 – 10.50 -  26.65 25.48 27.29 – 15.56  – – – – 13.82  – – – – 12.75  – – – – 10.50 -  – – – – 15.71  21.93 20.60 24.42 – 11.72  21.35 19.89 – – –  17.37 15.96 – – –  26.65 25.48 – – –  8.67 –  16.10 –  13.11 10.51  13.57 –  8.67 –  16.10 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.82  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – –  – – –  14.37 12.12 16.99  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  –  12.10  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.98 -  24.87  21.31  18.23  15.00 -  25.77  20.36  21.03  – 20.00 -  – 29.08  – 32.20  – 20.09  – 20.00 -  – 29.72  24.68 –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  28.81  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  30.91 – –  26.32 16.48 18.10  25.78 – –  31.56 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  –  11.77  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  13.20 8.00 -  21.64 16.83  16.66 15.28  16.00 11.40  12.98 8.00 -  20.19 16.83  21.90 –  – –  – –  – –  10.48 -  19.25  16.08  13.96  10.48 -  19.25  –  –  –  –  –  –  32.95  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  13.44  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.43  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – –  – –  7.67 5.75  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  17.00 – –  See footnotes at end of table.  7  15.58 – –  $11.04 - $21.16 11.04 - 21.16 11.58 - 22.82  13.69 -  24.75  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Sales support occupations, N.E.C. ........................... $15.20 Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... 9.87 Supervisors, general office 15.32 Computer operators ............ 12.80 Secretaries ......................... 8.89 Receptionists ...................... 7.40 Information clerks, N.E.C. ... 9.43 Order clerks ........................ 12.27 Records clerks, N.E.C. ....... 8.00 Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ........ 10.09 Billing clerks ........................ 9.07 Dispatchers ......................... 12.24 Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ............. 10.06 Stock and inventory clerks .. 11.43 Insurance adjusters, examiners, & investigators ................. 12.12 Investigators and adjusters except insurance .......... 10.59 Bill and account collectors .. 8.59 General office clerks ........... 9.12 Data entry keyers ............... 8.30 Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ...... 9.78 Professional occupations, N.E.C. ........................... 18.52 White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. 15.61 Blue-collar occupations .......................... 11.69 Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................. 13.39 Automobile mechanics ....... 16.08 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics ......... 15.41 Electronic repairers, communications and industrial equipment ..... 14.58 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics .................... 14.73 Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. ........................... 11.55 Electricians ......................... 17.46 Supervisors, production occupations .................. 16.59 Machinists ........................... 14.60 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers 6.98 Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ..................................... 9.71 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators ...................... 5.87 Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. .......... 9.33 Welders and cutters ............ 14.73 Assemblers ......................... 8.82 Production inspectors, checkers and examiners 9.21 Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. 12.29 Truck drivers ....................... 12.90 Bus drivers .......................... 12.32 Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... 8.92  – $9.10 – – 8.50 7.45 – – –  Middle range  –  –  8.00 – –  – –  – –  Middle range  $15.20  –  9.88 – – 8.71 7.36 – 12.27 7.70  $9.10 – – 8.50 7.45 – – –  11.56 – –  10.07 9.07 –  9.26 – –  8.00 – –  – –  10.04 11.43  – –  – –  $7.83 - $11.32 – – – – 7.50 9.27 6.75 8.00 – – – – – –  9.26 – –  Mean Median  –  –  Mean Median  Middle range  –  –  $9.81 – – 9.49 – – – –  $9.27 – – – – – – –  11.56 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  $7.65 - $11.37 – – – – 7.50 9.10 6.50 8.00 – – – – – –  –  –  $8.22 - $11.18 – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  10.67  9.54 -  13.53  12.12  10.67  9.54 -  13.53  –  –  –  –  9.35 – 8.85 –  8.00 – 7.63 –  13.08 – 9.70 –  10.59 8.04 9.05 8.30  9.35 – 8.85 –  8.00 – 7.50 –  13.08 – 9.70 –  – – 10.00 –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  9.52  8.40 -  10.79  9.92  9.67  8.75 -  10.95  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  13.27 10.89  9.15 8.00 -  19.73 14.71  14.93 11.70  12.06 10.88  8.75 8.00 -  17.80 14.98  17.49 11.37  16.03 11.49  11.58 8.59 -  22.82 13.59  13.18 –  9.40 –  17.00 –  13.36 16.11  13.00 –  9.40 –  17.00 –  15.72 –  15.12 –  12.96 –  16.30 –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.58  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.73  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  9.75 –  8.50 –  15.67 –  11.55 17.48  9.75 –  8.50 –  15.67 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  16.66 14.60  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  6.98  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.70  6.80 -  11.15  9.72  8.70  6.78 -  11.20  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  9.12 – –  7.75 – –  10.80 – –  9.33 14.73 8.82  9.12 – –  7.75 – –  10.80 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  –  –  9.21  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  12.00 13.10 –  9.90 10.20 –  14.06 15.21 –  12.47 12.96 –  12.17 13.10 –  10.00 10.20 –  14.92 15.21 –  11.02 – 12.32  11.00 – –  8.00  7.00 -  10.50  8.89  8.00  7.00 -  10.50  9.75  –  See footnotes at end of table.  8  8.59 – – –  12.91 – – –  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm .. Construction laborers ......... Stock handlers and baggers Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ........... Hand packers and packagers ..................... Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ...... Service occupations ............................... Protective service occupations Firefighting occupations ...... Police and detectives, public service ................ Guards and police except public service ................ Food service occupations .......... Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations .................. Waiters and waitresses ...... Cooks ................................. Kitchen workers, food preparation ................... Health service occupations ....... Health aides except nursing Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ..................... Cleaning and building service occupations .......................... Supervisors, cleaning & building service workers Maids and housemen ......... Janitors and cleaners ......... Personal services occupations  $9.36 10.48 8.88  – – –  8.73  $7.43  7.35  –  8.60 9.43 13.69 11.01  8.85 8.00 12.83 –  15.64  Middle range  – – – $6.70 -  – – –  Mean Median  – $10.48 8.88  – – –  Middle range  – – –  Middle range  – – –  $9.36 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  $8.70  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  $8.70  8.73  $7.43  –  7.35  –  –  6.58 6.25 10.33 –  10.20 11.67 17.27 –  8.59 7.61 8.62 –  8.85 7.00 – –  6.50 5.63 – –  14.86  12.67 -  17.79  –  –  –  –  8.97 6.94  – 6.25  – 5.25 -  – 8.38  8.97 6.76  – 6.00  – 5.25 -  8.33 3.12 8.82  – – –  – – –  – – –  8.33 3.12 8.83  – – –  7.65 7.70 7.95  – 7.50 –  – 7.00 –  – 8.55 –  – 7.60 –  7.31  –  –  –  9.38  7.75  6.50 -  14.32 6.03 10.25 8.39  – – 10.51 –  – – 7.25 –  –  $6.70 -  Mean Median  10.23 8.75 – –  – – 13.82 $13.13 15.45 14.31 11.47 –  – – $10.33 - $16.39 12.23 - 18.36 – –  15.64  14.86  – 7.50  – –  – –  – –  – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – 7.35 –  – 6.89 –  – 8.53 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  7.28  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  12.44  8.41  7.25  6.08 -  8.52  13.34  –  –  –  – – 13.54 –  – 6.03 8.27 8.27  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a  12.67 -  17.79  35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  9  Table 3. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, part-time workers only2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales .................... White-collar occupations ........................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. Professional specialty occupations Registered nurses .............. Teachers ..................................... Teachers, except college and university .......................... Teachers, N.E.C. ................ Technical occupations .................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ................ Sales occupations .............................. Sales workers, apparel ....... Sales workers, other commodities ................. Cashiers ............................. Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... Secretaries ......................... Receptionists ...................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. Blue-collar occupations .......................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ..................................... Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. Truck drivers ....................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... Stock handlers and baggers Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ........... Service occupations ............................... Protective service occupations Guards and police except public service ................ Food service occupations .......... Waiters and waitresses ...... Cooks ................................. Kitchen workers, food preparation ................... Waiters’/Waitresses’ assistants ...................... Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ...... Health service occupations ....... Health aides except nursing Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ..................... Cleaning and building service occupations .......................... Janitors and cleaners ......... Personal services occupations  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $7.23 7.44 8.25  $6.00 6.25 6.65  $5.20 5.15 5.50 -  $8.00 8.50 9.23  $7.01 7.19 7.97  $6.00 6.00 6.50  $5.00 5.00 5.50 -  $7.64 8.00 9.02  $9.55 9.55 11.22  $8.29 8.29 9.14  $7.00 - $10.44 7.00 - 10.44 8.13 - 10.97  13.56 14.02 18.00 12.04  13.50 15.00 – –  8.33 8.33 – –  17.70 17.95 – –  13.86 14.69 18.00 –  14.04 15.00 – –  9.77 9.01 – –  17.72 18.80 – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  11.92 8.96 12.31  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – 12.31  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  11.96 6.32 5.39  – 5.75 5.30  – 5.25 4.75 -  – 6.25 5.85  – 6.32 5.39  – 5.75 5.30  – 5.25 4.75 -  – 6.25 5.85  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  5.75 5.91  – 5.85  – 5.45 -  – 6.25  5.75 5.91  – 5.85  – 5.45 -  – 6.25  – –  – –  – –  – –  7.76 8.05 7.08  7.00 – –  6.25 – –  8.72 – –  7.69 – 7.08  7.00 – –  6.08 – –  8.42 – –  8.38 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  9.75 7.13  8.00 6.00  6.58 5.00 -  10.80 8.04  9.48 7.06  7.50 6.00  6.50 5.00 -  10.79 8.04  11.22 8.25  9.14 –  8.13 –  7.54  –  –  –  7.49  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  6.50  –  –  –  6.50  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  9.55 10.74  9.25 –  7.00 –  12.24 –  9.30 10.74  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  6.61 8.64  5.25 –  5.00 –  7.00 –  6.59 8.64  5.25 –  5.00 –  7.00 –  6.93 –  – –  – –  – –  6.62 5.75 7.18  – 5.75 6.50  – 4.90 5.70 -  – 6.50 7.50  6.62 5.45 7.00  – 5.50 –  – 4.75 –  – 6.08 –  – 8.20 7.85  – 7.30 –  – 7.16 –  – 9.71 –  6.60 4.80 2.24 5.45  – 5.00 – –  – 2.35 – –  – 5.75 – –  6.60 4.52 2.24 –  – 5.00 – –  – 2.35 – –  – 5.50 – –  – 8.22 – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  7.64  –  –  –  7.09  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  3.80  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  5.87 7.03 7.89  – – –  – – –  – – –  5.61 7.04 7.97  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  6.46  –  –  –  6.46  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  7.13 7.10 5.91  6.05 6.05 –  6.00 6.00 –  8.75 8.33 –  6.83 6.83 5.40  6.05 6.05 –  6.00 6.00 –  7.50 7.50 –  8.96 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a  10.97 –  35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  10  Table 4. Mean weekly earnings1 and hours for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 All industries Occupation3  White-collar occupations .................................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ Professional specialty occupations ........... Engineering occupations ..................... Civil engineers .............................. Industrial engineers ...................... Engineers, N.E.C. ......................... Computer systems analysts and scientists ................................. Physicians .................................... Registered nurses ........................ Teachers ............................................... Teachers, except college and university .................................... Elementary school teachers ......... Secondary school teachers .......... Social workers .............................. Technical occupations .............................. Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians ....................... Licensed practical nurses ............. Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ................. Electrical and electronic technicians .............................. Engineering technicians, N.E.C. ... Drafters ......................................... Computer programmers ............... Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............................................ Administrators and officials, public administration ......................... Financial managers ...................... Administrators, education and related fields ........................... Managers, medicine and health ... Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................................... Accountants and auditors ............. Other financial officers .................. Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ................ Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. ..................................... Management related occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Sales occupations ........................................ Supervisors, sales occupations .... Securities and financial services sales occupations ................... Sales occupations, other business services .................................. Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale Sales workers, other commodities Cashiers ....................................... Sales support occupations, N.E.C. Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ Supervisors, general office ........... Computer operators ...................... Secretaries ................................... Receptionists ................................ Information clerks, N.E.C. .............  Mean weekly hours4  Private industry  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  39.9  $620  $517  39.4 39.6 40.7 40.0 42.9 40.0  770 865 1042 1121 1119 1064  40.4 42.2 38.2 38.9  State and local government  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  40.0  $601  $471  712 821 980 – – –  39.5 40.2 40.7 – 42.9 40.0  762 956 1049 – 1119 1064  983 1964 716 860  1000 – 689 854  40.4 42.2 38.8 –  38.8 38.6 38.7 39.8 38.9  839 795 892 601 532  846 770 906 – 506  39.6 39.4  519 414  539 –  44.1  480  –  –  40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0  633 575 485 680  – – – –  40.0  480  40.9  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  39.4  $688  $641  680 899 980 – – –  39.2 39.1 – – – –  780 791 – – – –  765 770 – – – –  983 1964 731 –  1000 – 700 –  – – – 38.9  – – – 869  – – – 860  – – – – 38.7  – – – – 534  – – – – 508  38.7 38.6 38.5 – 42.4  849 795 940 – 496  854 770 – – –  39.6 39.4  519 414  539 –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  –  –  40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0  633 575 485 680  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  40.0  484  –  –  –  –  860  742  41.1  876  742  40.2  818  838  40.1 42.5  988 1360  – 922  – 42.1  – 1354  – 922  40.1 –  988 –  – –  40.0 44.5  1136 960  – –  – –  – –  – –  40.0 –  1152 –  – –  41.1 40.1 40.2  1087 661 734  1031 – –  41.2 40.1 40.2  1086 661 727  1031 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  40.0  470  –  40.0  471  –  –  –  –  40.0  653  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  40.1 40.2 41.1  735 614 661  692 457 631  40.1 40.2 41.1  668 614 661  615 457 631  876 – –  – – –  40.0  1318  –  40.0  1318  –  –  –  –  38.1  512  –  38.1  512  –  –  –  –  40.0 39.2 39.6 41.0  617 301 228 624  – – – –  40.0 39.2 39.6 41.0  617 301 228 624  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  39.7 41.6 40.0 39.6 39.9 39.6  392 637 512 352 296 373  364 – – 340 298 –  39.8 – – 39.5 39.9 –  394 – – 344 294 –  364 – – 340 298 –  383 – – 380 – –  363 – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  11  40.0 – –  39.0 – – 40.0 – –  Table 4. Mean weekly earnings1 and hours for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued All industries Occupation3  Order clerks .................................. Records clerks, N.E.C. ................. Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......................... Billing clerks .................................. Dispatchers ................................... Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ...................................... Stock and inventory clerks ............ Insurance adjusters, examiners, & investigators ........................... Investigators and adjusters except insurance ................................ Bill and account collectors ............ General office clerks ..................... Data entry keyers ......................... Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ................ Professional occupations, N.E.C. White-collar occupations excluding sales .....  Mean weekly hours4  Private industry  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  40.1 39.7  $492 318  – –  39.6 39.0 40.0  399 354 490  41.3 40.0  State and local government  Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  40.1 39.7  $492 305  – –  $370 – –  39.6 39.0 –  398 354 –  416 457  – –  41.4 40.0  39.6  480  424  40.1 39.1 40.0 38.6  424 336 364 320  39.7 40.0 39.8  388 741 622  1 Earnings are the straight-time weekly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time  Weekly earnings  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  – –  – –  – –  $370 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  416 457  – –  – –  – –  – –  39.6  480  424  –  –  –  375 – 354 –  40.1 39.0 40.0 38.6  424 313 362 320  375 – 354 –  – – 39.4 –  – – $394 –  – – – –  381 – 528  39.7 – 40.0  393 – 597  386 – 480  – – 39.4  – – 688  – – $641  employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Mean weekly hours are the hours an employee is scheduled to work in a week. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  12  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  White-collar occupations .................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............. Professional specialty occupations ........................ Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Engineering occupations ...... Level 9 ...................... Level 12 .................... Registered nurses ........ Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Natural scientists .................. Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Teachers ............................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Teachers, except college and university ............. Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Technical occupations .............. Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .......... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 .................... Executives, managers and administrators ................. Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 .................... Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................... Level 10 ....................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  $14.74  $14.11  $17.19  $15.55  $15.01  19.15  18.86  19.61  19.55  21.33 15.17 16.36 17.82 20.83 22.87 23.23 27.98 28.50 25.59 22.30 31.02 18.60 15.82 18.25 19.37 23.20 21.58 28.37 21.50 16.46 17.99 24.60  22.92 – 16.33 17.01 20.54 23.08 23.55 27.98 28.50 25.74 22.47 31.02 18.62 – 17.30 19.37 24.78 24.60 28.37 – – – –  19.91 – – 18.08 20.93 – 22.95 – – – – – – – – – – – – 21.83 – 17.99 24.60  21.01 16.46 17.99 24.60 13.61 8.49 9.41 10.25 10.88 12.69 14.00 15.12 18.30  – – – – 13.72 8.49 9.41 10.31 10.88 12.69 14.31 15.21 18.30  20.78 10.21 12.43 14.76 15.93 16.00 21.33 18.86 25.72 28.17 56.57 32.94  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  $17.49  $8.25  $7.97  $11.22  19.32  19.89  13.56  13.86  –  21.86 – 16.50 17.84 20.89 22.87 23.30 28.31 28.50 25.59 22.30 31.02 18.76 – – – 23.16 21.58 – 22.09 16.46 17.99 24.90  23.82 – 16.70 – 20.60 23.08 23.73 28.31 28.50 25.74 22.47 31.02 18.84 – – – 24.76 24.60 – – – – –  20.22 – – 18.08 20.99 – 22.95 – – – – – – – – – – – – 22.36 – 17.99 24.90  14.02 – – – 19.62 – – – – – – – 18.00 – – – – – – 12.04 – – –  14.69 – – – – – – – – – – – 18.00 – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  21.37 – 17.99 24.60 11.72 – – – – – – – –  21.64 16.46 17.99 24.90 13.70 – – 10.25 10.93 12.69 14.00 15.06 18.30  – – – – 13.82 – – 10.31 10.93 12.69 14.31 15.16 18.30  21.93 – 17.99 24.90 11.72 – – – – – – – –  11.92 – – – 12.31 – – – – – – – –  – – – – 12.31 – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – –  21.06 10.42 12.80 15.44 16.70 16.12 20.83 18.83 25.67 – – 38.86  20.07 – – – – – – – 25.91 26.97 30.21 –  21.05 10.90 13.05 14.76 15.99 16.02 21.33 18.86 25.72 28.17 56.57 32.94  21.31 – 13.05 15.44 16.82 16.11 20.83 18.83 25.67 – – 38.86  20.36 – – – – – – – 25.91 26.97 30.21 –  11.96 – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  25.30 14.38 18.97 18.64 25.93 28.17 56.57 32.94  25.44 14.43 19.10 18.59 25.85 – – 38.86  24.82 – – – – 26.97 30.21 –  25.71 14.22 18.97 18.64 25.93 28.17 56.57 32.94  25.58 14.22 19.10 18.59 25.85 – – 38.86  26.16 – – – – 26.97 30.21 –  13.76 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  26.14 20.35  26.02 20.35  26.42 20.35  26.32 20.35  – –  – –  – –  See footnotes at end of table.  13  – –  – –  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 15 .................... Sales occupations ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Cashiers ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Secretaries ................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... General office clerks ..... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 .................... Blue-collar occupations .................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................. Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ......................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  $17.71 26.32 38.97 13.18 5.36 6.71 6.29 9.39 12.03 11.11 20.10 30.87 21.68 20.18 26.35 5.84 5.70 5.87  $17.71 26.32 38.97 13.18 5.36 6.71 6.29 9.39 12.03 11.11 20.10 30.87 21.68 20.18 26.35 5.84 5.70 5.87  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  $17.71 26.32 38.97 15.28 5.66 7.45 6.61 9.86 12.43 10.71 20.10 30.87 21.68 20.18 26.35 5.75 – –  $17.71 26.32 38.97 15.28 5.66 7.45 6.61 9.86 12.43 10.71 20.10 30.87 21.68 20.18 26.35 5.75 – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  9.64 7.02 6.94 8.37 9.49 10.87 11.26 13.00 12.87 8.81 8.04 9.36 9.04  9.63 7.03 6.90 8.37 9.66 11.05 11.27 13.34 – 8.64 – 9.56 –  $9.71 – – – 8.93 – – – – 9.30 – – –  9.87 7.12 7.19 8.41 9.56 11.00 11.30 13.07 12.87 8.89 – 9.43 8.83  9.88 7.12 7.18 8.39 9.78 11.20 11.31 13.45 – 8.71 – – –  10.18 9.56 9.54 10.26 9.16 8.21 9.49 9.15  10.16 9.56 9.52 10.22 9.10 7.94 – –  – – – – 9.87 – – –  10.09 9.44 9.11 10.91 9.12 8.21 – 9.15  15.15 7.02 7.04 8.43 9.53 10.72 12.16 14.47 16.06 19.55 21.74 22.27 26.87 28.27 52.58 36.32 11.16  14.44 7.03 7.01 8.43 9.69 10.98 12.25 14.56 15.82 18.09 21.31 22.02 26.98 28.88 – 42.36 11.17  17.19 – – 8.44 8.95 9.15 11.73 14.31 16.42 20.73 22.44 22.79 25.91 26.97 30.21 – 10.89  13.28 7.36 8.08 10.12 11.00 12.99  13.24 7.36 8.06 10.11 10.90 12.99  15.59 – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  14  All industries  Private industry  – – – $6.32 5.24 6.00 5.88 – – – – – – – – 5.91 – 5.92  – – – $6.32 5.24 6.00 5.88 – – – – – – – – 5.91 – 5.92  $9.81 – – – – – – – – 9.49 – – –  7.76 6.70 6.47 8.02 8.88 9.31 – – – 8.05 – – –  7.69 6.73 6.39 8.07 8.91 – – – – – – – –  10.07 9.44 9.08 – 9.05 7.94 – –  – – – – 10.00 – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  15.61 7.12 7.31 8.46 9.61 10.98 12.26 14.49 16.06 19.58 21.74 22.30 27.02 28.27 52.58 36.32 11.69  14.93 7.12 7.30 8.45 9.80 11.16 12.28 14.60 15.80 18.03 21.29 22.06 27.15 28.88 – 42.36 11.70  17.49 – – 8.58 8.97 – 12.13 14.30 16.42 20.80 22.44 22.79 25.91 26.97 30.21 – 11.37  9.75 6.70 6.55 8.03 8.82 9.06 11.05 – 16.09 19.02 – – – – – – 7.13  9.48 6.73 6.48 8.08 8.84 9.42 – – 16.09 – – – – – – – 7.06  13.39 7.47 8.14 10.15 10.99 12.99  13.36 7.47 8.14 10.15 10.88 12.99  15.72 – – – – –  7.54 – – – – –  7.49 – – – – –  State and local government – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – $8.38 – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – 11.22 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 8.25 – – – – – –  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 11 .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Transportation and material moving occupations ................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Truck drivers ................. Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .............. Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Service occupations ......................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Protective service occupations .................... Level 2 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Guards and police except public service .................... Level 2 ...................... Food service occupations .... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Health service occupations Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ......................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  $16.30 14.30 18.40 21.35  $16.36 14.29 18.42 21.14  $13.57 – – –  $16.40 14.30 18.40 21.35  $16.46 14.29 18.42 21.14  $13.57 – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  9.44 6.05 6.65 7.95 9.07 11.37 11.63 15.34  9.45 5.96 6.65 7.95 9.07 11.37 11.63 15.34  – – – – – – – –  9.71 6.28 6.63 8.08 9.07 11.37 11.63 15.33  9.72 6.17 6.63 8.08 9.07 11.37 11.63 15.33  – – – – – – – –  12.06 8.38 11.62 9.55 11.78 14.31 12.79 10.23 11.48 9.35 12.02 15.11  12.19 8.42 11.13 9.19 11.78 15.11 12.85 10.23 11.48 – 12.02 15.11  11.09 – 12.45 11.44 – – – – – – – –  12.29 9.11 12.12 9.48 11.78 14.46 12.90 – – 9.35 12.02 15.36  12.47 – – 9.22 11.78 15.36 12.96 – – – 12.02 15.36  8.21 5.91 8.59 9.81 10.12 9.76 8.18 5.82 6.02 6.70 8.69 9.84 10.64 12.64 11.26 15.36 17.25  8.19 5.85 8.61 9.81 10.12 10.68 6.76 5.48 5.70 6.43 8.63 8.95 – – – – –  8.58 6.76 – – – – 12.90 – – – – 10.89 12.36 13.56 14.38 15.06 18.67  8.92 6.45 8.46 9.97 10.18 9.66 9.43 6.41 6.89 7.07 8.80 10.07 11.34 12.90 11.26 15.38 17.51  12.80 6.76 11.88 12.04 13.62 15.00 17.38  8.09 6.76 – – – – –  15.13 – – 13.97 13.62 15.00 20.04  8.06 6.76 5.93 5.12 5.71 5.17 7.55 6.38 7.34 6.84 8.44  8.06 6.76 5.70 5.03 5.13 4.98 7.46 6.33 7.34 6.84 –  – – 8.71 – – – – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  15  $6.50 – – – – – – –  $6.50 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  11.02 – 12.53 – – – – – – – – –  9.55 6.42 – – – – 10.74 – – – – –  9.30 6.42 – – – – 10.74 – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  8.89 6.44 8.46 9.98 10.18 10.62 7.61 5.93 6.47 7.07 8.68 – – – – – –  9.75 – – – – – 13.82 – – – – 11.11 12.40 13.56 14.38 15.10 19.10  6.61 5.51 9.06 – – – 5.75 5.16 5.40 5.97 8.28 8.26 – – – – –  6.59 5.40 9.15 – – – 5.45 5.00 5.20 4.94 8.45 – – – – – –  $6.93 – – – – – 8.20 – – – – – – – – – –  13.69 – 12.35 12.39 13.62 15.03 17.77  8.62 – – – – – –  15.45 – – 13.97 13.62 15.03 –  7.18 – – – – – –  7.00 – – – – – –  7.85 – – – – – –  8.97 – 6.94 5.79 6.48 5.97 7.70 – – 6.84 –  8.97 – 6.76 5.79 5.62 5.97 7.60 – – 6.84 –  6.60 – 4.80 4.54 5.19 4.63 7.03 – – – –  6.60 – 4.52 4.32 4.85 4.25 7.04 – – – –  – – 8.22 – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – –  Table 5. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ........ Level 4 ...................... Cleaning and building service occupations ........ Level 1 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Janitors and cleaners ... Level 1 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Personal services occupations .................... Level 1 ......................  All industries  Private industry  $7.12 6.60  $7.09 6.60  8.71 6.75 9.02 8.54 7.28 9.02 7.10 6.11  Full-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – –  $7.31 –  $7.28 –  7.92 6.12 – 7.34 6.25 –  $12.33 – – 11.78 – –  9.38 7.07 – 10.25 – –  6.59 –  – –  8.39 –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Each occupation for which wage data are collected in an establishment is evaluated based on 10 factors, including knowledge, complexity, work environment, etc. Points are assigned based on the occupation’s ranking within each factor. The points are summed to determine the overall level of the occupation. See technical note for more information.  Part-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – –  $6.46 –  $6.46 –  8.41 6.10 – 8.27 – –  $13.34 – – – – –  7.13 6.15 – 7.10 6.15 –  6.83 6.16 – 6.83 6.16 –  8.27 –  – –  5.91 6.02  5.40 –  State and local government  – – $8.96 – – – – – – –  3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  16  Table 6. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  Incentive5  All workers ...................................................................... All workers excluding sales .................................... White-collar occupations ........................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................................. Professional specialty occupations ................. Technical occupations .................................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .................................................. Sales occupations .............................................. Administrative support including clerical occupations .................................................. White-collar excluding sales ............................... Blue-collar occupations .......................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................................. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving occupations Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ......................................................... Service occupations ...............................................  $16.24 16.49 18.70  $12.40 12.27 14.53  $13.67 13.49 15.55  $7.23 7.44 8.25  $12.52 12.70 14.37  $15.34 13.12 17.80  24.52 24.74 –  18.54 20.77 13.63  19.55 21.86 13.70  13.56 14.02 12.31  19.05 21.20 13.61  – – –  – –  20.78 13.31  21.05 15.28  11.96 6.32  20.46 10.54  23.66 18.21  11.84 20.01 15.61  9.54 14.86 10.13  9.87 15.61 11.69  7.76 9.75 7.13  9.65 15.06 11.13  9.44 16.98 11.48  17.64 13.36 14.65  12.08 9.05 10.97  13.39 9.71 12.29  7.54 6.50 9.55  13.29 9.46 11.94  13.08 – 12.80  12.91 12.36  7.66 7.91  8.92 9.43  6.61 5.75  8.19 8.20  8.44 7.71  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through  collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  17  Table 7. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, private industry, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  Incentive5  All workers ...................................................................... All workers excluding sales .................................... White-collar occupations ........................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................................. Professional specialty occupations ................. Technical occupations .................................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .................................................. Sales occupations .............................................. Administrative support including clerical occupations .................................................. White-collar excluding sales ............................... Blue-collar occupations .......................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................................. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving occupations Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ......................................................... Service occupations ...............................................  $14.86 15.14 11.32  $11.97 11.75 14.18  $13.14 12.85 15.01  $7.01 7.19 7.97  $11.85 11.99 13.54  $15.34 13.12 17.80  – – –  18.88 22.92 13.74  19.32 23.82 13.82  13.86 14.69 12.31  18.69 22.66 13.72  – – –  – –  21.06 13.31  21.31 15.28  – 6.32  20.63 10.54  23.66 18.21  12.48 12.39 15.75  9.51 14.48 10.14  9.88 14.93 11.70  7.69 9.48 7.06  9.64 14.28 11.14  9.44 16.98 11.48  17.70 13.36 14.90  12.02 9.05 11.09  13.36 9.72 12.47  7.49 6.50 9.30  13.25 9.47 12.07  13.08 – 12.80  12.76 7.86  7.65 6.73  8.89 7.61  6.59 5.45  8.17 6.69  8.44 7.71  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through  collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  18  Table 8. Hourly earnings1 by occupational group by selected characteristics, State and local government, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  All workers ...................................................................... White-collar occupations ............................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .. Professional specialty occupations ..................... Technical occupations ........................................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ...................................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................................................... White-collar excluding sales ................................... Blue-collar occupations .............................................. Precision production, craft, and repair occupations Transportation and material moving occupations ... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ............................................................. Service occupations ...................................................  $20.16 23.21 24.74 24.74 –  $14.97 16.13 17.84 18.17 11.72  $16.35 17.49 19.89 20.22 11.72  $9.55 11.22 – – –  $15.82 17.19 19.61 19.91 11.72  –  20.07  20.36  –  20.07  – 23.21 13.46 – 13.10  9.74 16.13 10.01 16.09 10.02  9.81 17.49 11.37 15.72 11.02  8.38 11.22 8.25 – –  9.71 17.19 10.89 15.59 11.09  – 14.64  7.81 12.54  9.75 13.82  6.93 8.20  8.58 12.90  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy.Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined  through collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  19  Table 9. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, all workers2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 Goods-producing industries4  Occupational group3  All private industries Total  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  $12.22 12.07 14.11  Construction  Manufacturing  Service-producing industries5  Total  TransWholeportsale ation and and retail public trade utilities  Finance, insurance, and real estate  Services  $13.05 $13.32 $12.86 $11.91 $14.13 $10.11 $15.69 $11.54 13.02 13.21 12.88 11.66 14.06 10.02 12.90 11.48 17.67 15.99 17.91 13.57 13.48 11.49 16.03 14.05  18.86  19.97  –  20.04  18.52  21.47  14.82  23.07  18.47  22.92 13.72  25.75 13.32  – –  25.75 13.29  22.10 13.85  – –  16.26 –  – –  22.36 12.88  21.06 13.18  22.52 13.92  16.75 –  25.49 12.62  20.62 13.13  18.08 –  21.86 10.30  25.38 28.37  18.40 12.16  9.63 14.44 11.17  11.38 18.21 11.48  – 14.90 13.05  11.32 18.72 10.29  9.46 13.74 10.82  10.53 13.25 14.52  10.09 13.10 10.08  9.67 13.18 –  8.47 14.36 7.66  13.24  12.95  14.15  10.74  13.87  17.77  12.49  –  12.03  9.45  9.95  –  9.96  7.46  –  –  –  6.50  12.19  12.53  –  12.13  12.10  13.60  9.81  –  7.28  8.19 6.76  8.92 13.45  9.03 –  8.81 13.45  7.74 6.59  13.00 –  8.63 5.98  – –  5.76 6.90  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in  one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  20  Table 10. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, full-time workers only2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 Goods-producing industries4  Occupational group3  All private industries Total  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  $13.14 12.85 15.01  Construction  Manufacturing  Service-producing industries5  Total  TransWholeportsale ation and and retail public trade utilities  Finance, insurance, and real estate  Services  $13.12 $13.41 $12.93 $13.15 $14.37 $11.46 $16.63 $12.85 13.07 13.29 12.91 12.73 14.30 11.19 13.53 12.77 17.86 16.54 18.05 14.51 13.66 12.84 16.74 14.81  19.32  19.93  –  20.00  19.11  21.47  15.54  23.07  19.11  23.82 13.82  25.74 13.32  – –  25.74 13.29  23.18 14.00  – –  17.61 –  – –  23.46 12.96  21.31 15.28  22.52 14.68  16.75 –  25.49 13.36  20.93 15.33  18.08 –  21.86 12.05  25.83 30.64  18.81 13.68  9.88 14.93 11.70  11.52 18.29 11.52  – 15.43 13.11  11.34 18.71 10.32  9.71 14.24 11.96  10.61 13.42 14.81  10.44 13.69 10.38  9.84 13.62 –  8.71 14.97 9.40  13.36  13.01  14.21  10.80  14.11  17.77  12.61  –  12.44  9.72  9.94  –  9.94  8.35  –  –  –  6.89  12.47  12.61  –  12.22  12.43  13.89  9.89  –  7.46  8.89 7.61  8.93 –  8.85 –  8.84 7.36  13.33 –  8.66 7.16  – –  6.56 7.24  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as  8.99 –  part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  21  Table 11. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, part-time workers only2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 Goods-producing industries4  Occupational group3  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  All private industries  Service-producing industries5 Finance, insurance, and real estate  Services  $6.02 6.19 6.06  $8.85 8.45 9.33  $7.27 7.27 9.54  TransWholeportsale ation and and retail public trade utilities  Total  Manufacturing  $7.01 7.19 7.97  $8.21 8.94 –  $8.03 9.38 –  13.86  –  –  13.63  –  –  –  14.31  14.69 12.31 6.32  – – –  – – –  14.36 12.31 6.36  – – –  – – 5.73  – – –  15.55 12.31 7.27  7.69 9.48 7.06  – – 8.20  – – –  7.71 9.44 6.99  – – –  7.61 7.35 8.58  8.32 8.89 –  7.21 10.22 5.72  7.49  –  –  7.90  –  –  –  –  6.50  –  –  6.00  –  –  –  6.00  9.30  –  –  9.38  –  –  –  –  6.59 5.45  – –  – –  6.53 5.44  – –  8.57 4.81  – –  – 6.09  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a  Total  $6.98 $10.36 7.14 10.38 7.96 –  40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  22  Table 12. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, all workers2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $12.22 12.07 14.11  $12.07 11.58 13.90  $12.39 12.57 14.33  $12.03 12.30 13.72  $12.83 12.86 14.97  18.86 22.92 13.72  16.92 20.84 12.14  19.84 23.95 14.54  21.57 25.30 12.69  19.03 23.06 15.05  21.06 13.18  19.40 14.62  23.29 10.88  23.58 10.56  22.96 12.20  9.63 14.44 11.17  9.85 13.56 11.61  9.41 15.21 10.73  9.39 15.19 11.10  9.43 15.22 10.19  13.24  13.52  12.66  13.51  12.12  9.45  9.30  9.53  9.19  9.92  12.19  10.92  13.19  13.68  10.76  8.19 6.76  8.25 6.38  8.15 7.47  8.35 7.37  – 7.70  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  23  Table 13. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, full-time workers2 only, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $13.14 12.85 15.01  $12.84 12.22 14.73  $13.48 13.51 15.29  $13.27 13.31 15.07  $13.72 13.73 15.50  19.32 23.82 13.82  17.58 22.36 11.97  20.11 24.46 14.68  22.04 26.19 12.76  19.21 23.33 15.23  21.31 15.28  19.75 16.41  23.36 13.15  23.71 13.01  22.96 13.61  9.88 14.93 11.70  10.13 14.03 11.74  9.64 15.70 11.66  9.63 15.76 11.82  9.64 15.65 11.43  13.36  13.59  12.85  13.80  12.26  9.72  9.33  9.94  9.68  10.21  12.47  11.12  13.61  14.08  11.34  8.89 7.61  8.15 7.28  9.57 8.20  8.84 8.41  11.20 7.92  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  24  Table 14. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, part-time workers2 only, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $7.01 7.19 7.97  $6.99 7.03 8.29  $7.03 7.33 7.62  $7.15 7.65 6.78  $6.79 6.82 9.32  13.86 14.69 12.31 6.32  13.21 13.21 – 6.85  14.82 16.58 – 5.81  – – – 5.72  – 18.71 – 6.41  7.69 9.48 7.06  7.66 9.51 8.35  7.72 9.44 6.80  7.55 8.80 8.05  7.88 9.99 –  7.49  –  7.71  –  –  6.50  –  –  –  –  9.30  –  –  –  –  6.59 5.45  9.16 5.07  6.24 6.23  7.43 6.21  – 6.39  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  25  Table 15. Number of workers1 studied by occupation, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 Full-time and part-time workers Occupation2  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All workers ............................................................ 519,582 441,656 All workers excluding sales .............................. 454,892 376,965 White-collar occupations .................................. 282,032 226,646 Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ 76,967 47,111 Professional specialty occupations ........... 55,965 27,073 Engineering occupations ..................... 5,630 5,480 Civil engineers .............................. 864 – Industrial engineers ...................... 1,079 1,079 Engineers, N.E.C. ......................... 1,745 1,745 Computer systems analysts and scientists ................................. 3,897 3,897 Physicians .................................... 798 798 Registered nurses ........................ 5,505 4,569 Teachers ............................................... 22,268 – Teachers, except college and university .................................... 20,080 – Elementary school teachers ......... 8,450 – Secondary school teachers .......... 4,467 – Teachers, N.E.C. .......................... 4,448 – Librarians ...................................... 680 – Social workers .............................. 1,751 – Designers ..................................... 1,591 – Technical occupations .............................. 21,002 20,038 Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians ....................... 3,014 3,014 Licensed practical nurses ............. 2,065 2,065 Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ................. 741 – Electrical and electronic technicians .............................. 2,158 2,158 Engineering technicians, N.E.C. ... 830 830 Drafters ......................................... 2,619 2,529 Computer programmers ............... 1,557 1,557 Technical and related occupations, N.E.C. ................ 2,580 2,504 Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............................................ 40,004 28,584 Administrators and officials, public administration ......................... 2,004 – Financial managers ...................... 3,072 2,898 Administrators, education and related fields ........................... 1,149 – Managers, medicine and health ... 1,793 – Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................................... 7,858 7,256 Accountants and auditors ............. 2,653 2,653 Other financial officers .................. 2,460 2,364 Personnel, training, and labor relations specialists ................ 1,961 1,609 Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. ..................................... 1,070 – Management related occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... 7,166 5,051 Sales occupations ........................................ 64,691 64,691 Supervisors, sales occupations .... 8,370 8,370 Securities and financial services sales occupations ................... 4,355 4,355 Sales occupations, other business services .................................. 6,357 6,357 Sales representatives, mining, manufacturing, and wholesale 4,767 4,767 Sales workers, apparel ................. 5,926 5,926 Sales workers, other commodities 9,279 9,279 Sales counter clerks ..................... 3,457 3,457 See footnotes at end of table.  26  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  Private industry  State and local government  77,926 395,239 329,427 77,926 355,423 289,611 55,386 224,514 174,773  65,812 124,344 112,229 65,812 99,469 87,355 49,741 57,517 51,873  12,114 12,114 5,644  29,856 28,892 – – – –  65,115 46,460 5,630 864 1,079 1,745  38,531 20,839 5,480 – 1,079 1,745  26,584 25,620 – – – –  11,852 9,505 – – – –  8,580 6,233 – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – 20,549  3,786 798 3,514 18,059  3,786 798 2,577 –  – – – 17,414  – – 1,992 4,209  – – 1,992 –  – – – –  18,361 8,450 3,822 3,374 – – – 964  15,909 8,102 4,467 – – 1,654 – 18,655  – – – – – – – 17,691  15,264 8,102 3,822 – – – – 964  4,171 – – 2,333 – – – 2,347  – – – – – – – 2,347  – – – – – – – –  – –  2,550 1,092  2,550 1,092  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  671  –  –  –  –  – – – –  2,158 830 2,443 1,557  2,158 830 2,353 1,557  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  2,580  2,504  –  –  –  –  11,420  38,068  27,391  10,676  –  –  2,004 –  2,004 3,072  – 2,898  2,004 –  – –  – –  – –  934 –  1,149 1,757  934 –  – –  – –  – –  – – –  7,616 2,653 2,276  7,014 2,653 2,179  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  1,732  1,380  –  –  –  –  –  1,070  –  –  –  –  –  6,629 39,816 8,370  4,514 39,816 8,370  – 24,875 –  – 24,875 –  – – –  –  4,355  4,355  –  –  –  –  –  5,504  5,504  –  –  –  –  – – – –  4,767 – 3,715 –  4,767 – 3,715 –  – – – –  2,115 – –  All industries  Private industry  –  – –  State and local government  2,115 – –  All industries  1,937  – 5,378 5,564 –  – 5,378 5,564 –  – – – –  Table 15. Number of workers1 studied by occupation, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupation2  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Cashiers ....................................... 11,431 11,431 Sales support occupations, N.E.C. 4,167 4,167 Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ 100,370 86,260 Supervisors, general office ........... 1,283 – Supervisors, financial records processing .............................. 728 – Computer operators ...................... 1,911 – Secretaries ................................... 7,136 5,149 Receptionists ................................ 7,178 6,146 Information clerks, N.E.C. ............. 1,566 – Order clerks .................................. 3,716 3,716 Library clerks ................................ 755 – File clerks ..................................... 2,820 2,820 Records clerks, N.E.C. ................. 1,544 1,189 Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......................... 10,781 10,663 Billing clerks .................................. 2,485 2,485 Dispatchers ................................... 1,321 – Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ...................................... 3,260 3,202 Stock and inventory clerks ............ 3,212 3,212 Insurance adjusters, examiners, & investigators ........................... 6,165 6,165 Investigators and adjusters except insurance ................................ 5,432 5,432 Bill and account collectors ............ 2,566 2,050 General office clerks ..................... 7,400 6,853 Bank tellers ................................... 2,298 2,298 Data entry keyers ......................... – – Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ................ 7,888 5,629 Professional occupations, N.E.C. 3,626 – White-collar occupations excluding sales ..... 217,341 161,955 Blue-collar occupations .................................... 164,309 156,994 Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ............................................ 58,723 57,864 Automobile mechanics ................. 2,765 2,726 Bus, truck, and stationary engine mechanics .............................. 515 – Electronic repairers, communications and industrial equipment ............................... 1,418 1,418 Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics .......... 5,234 5,234 Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. .. 5,576 5,576 Electricians ................................... 2,678 2,618 Supervisors, production occupations ............................ 1,123 1,035 Machinists ..................................... 1,451 1,451 Electrical and electronic equipment assemblers ........... 3,710 3,710 Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ............................................... 24,494 24,365 Laundering and dry cleaning machine operators .................. 1,190 – Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. ..................................... 4,686 4,686 Welders and cutters ...................... 1,972 1,972 Assemblers ................................... 4,896 4,896 Production inspectors, checkers and examiners ........................ 1,656 1,656 Transportation and material moving occupations ............................................ 35,636 31,290 Truck drivers ................................. 23,173 22,536 See footnotes at end of table.  27  Full-time workers  All industries  Private industry  Part-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  – –  3,407 3,332  3,407 3,332  – –  8,024 –  8,024 –  14,110 –  81,516 1,283  69,035 –  12,481 –  18,854 –  17,225 –  – – 1,988 – – – – – –  – 870 6,042 5,380 1,527 2,293 – – 1,242  – – 4,638 4,348 – 2,293 – – 1,073  – – 1,404 – – – – – –  – – 1,095 1,797 – – – – –  – – – 1,797 – – – – –  – – –  9,136 1,757 864  9,017 1,757 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – –  3,260 2,228  3,202 2,228  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  6,165  6,165  –  –  –  –  – – 546 – –  4,709 2,092 6,860 – 1,093  4,709 1,576 6,350 – 1,093  – – 510 – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – 7,080 4,820 – 3,626 – 55,386 184,699 134,957 7,315 134,944 128,916  – – 49,741 6,027  – – 32,642 29,366  – – 26,998 28,078  821 –  1,938 –  1,900 –  859 –  56,785 2,765  –  515  –  1,418  – – –  55,964 2,726  1,629 – – – – – – – – – –  – – 5,644 1,288 – –  –  –  –  –  1,418  –  –  –  –  4,800 5,411 2,678  4,800 5,411 2,618  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – –  1,123 1,451  1,035 1,451  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  3,085  3,085  –  –  –  –  –  21,300  21,172  –  –  1,190  –  –  –  –  –  – – –  3,705 1,972 3,792  3,705 1,972 3,792  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  1,656  1,656  –  –  –  –  30,129 20,807  26,160 20,170  4,345 –  –  – –  3,969 –  3,193  5,506 2,366  3,193  5,131 2,366  –  – –  Table 15. Number of workers1 studied by occupation, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupation2  Bus drivers .................................... Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators ............... Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators, N.E.C. .. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................................................... Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm ............................. Construction laborers ................... Stock handlers and baggers ......... Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ..................... Hand packers and packagers ....... Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ..................................... Service occupations ......................................... Protective service occupations ........... Firefighting occupations ................ Police and detectives, public service .................................... Guards and police except public service .................................... Food service occupations .................... Supervisors, food preparation and service occupations ................ Waiters and waitresses ................ Cooks ........................................... Food counter, fountain, and related occupations ................ Kitchen workers, food preparation Waiters’/Waitresses’ assistants .... Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Health service occupations ................. Health aides except nursing ......... Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ............................... Cleaning and building service occupations .................................... Supervisors, cleaning & building service workers ....................... Maids and housemen ................... Janitors and cleaners ................... Personal services occupations ........... Early childhood teachers’ assistants ................................  All industries  2,319 1,842  Private industry  State and local government  –  2,319  1,842  Full-time workers  All industries  1,979  Private industry  –  Part-time workers  State and local government 1,979  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  1,578  –  45,457  43,475  1,982  26,729  25,621  1,108  18,728  17,854  1,136 3,564 7,574  – 3,564 7,574  1,136 – –  913 3,236 2,713  – 3,236 2,713  913 – –  – – 4,861  – – 4,861  – – –  6,734 5,356  6,734 5,356  – –  4,028 3,207  4,028 3,207  – –  2,706 –  2,706 –  – –  10,304 73,241 11,949 1,277  – 58,016 5,184 –  – 15,225 6,765 1,103  3,171 35,780 8,472 836  3,056 25,737 2,297 –  – 10,043 6,175 661  – 37,461 3,477 –  – 32,279 2,887 –  1,965  –  1,965  1,965  –  1,965  –  –  4,079 31,006  4,079 27,840  – 3,167  1,523 11,290  1,523 10,296  – –  2,556 19,716  2,556 17,544  1,352 6,575 4,636  1,352 6,575 4,409  – – –  1,352 845 2,119  1,352 845 2,042  – – –  – 5,730 2,517  – 5,730 –  – – –  4,658 4,909 2,844  4,658 3,259 2,200  – – –  – 2,468 –  – – –  – 2,441 2,042  – 1,708 –  – – –  4,890 7,742 2,420  4,246 7,194 1,912  – – –  – 5,121 1,245  – 4,645 –  – – –  4,411 2,621 1,175  3,766 2,549 1,102  – – –  4,556  4,515  –  3,110  3,069  –  1,446  1,446  –  17,161  14,237  2,924  8,743  7,059  8,418  7,177  1,039 2,871 11,485 5,383  – 2,871 8,968 3,561  – – 2,517 –  1,039 2,871 3,114 2,154  – 2,871 1,791 1,440  – – 8,371 3,228  – – 7,177 2,121  2,180  –  –  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are  –  – – –  –  1,683 – – – – –  –  –  874  – 5,182 589 – – – 2,172  1,241 – – – – –  classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  28  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  White-collar occupations .................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............. Professional specialty occupations ........................ Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Engineering occupations ...... Level 9 ...................... Level 12 .................... Registered nurses ........ Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Natural scientists .................. Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Teachers ............................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Teachers, except college and university ............. Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Technical occupations .............. Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .......... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 .................... Executives, managers and administrators ................. Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 .................... Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................... Level 10 ....................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  282,032  226,646  55,386  224,514  174,773  49,741  57,517  51,873  76,967  47,111  29,856  65,115  38,531  26,584  11,852  8,580  –  55,965 1,311 7,513 4,581 17,132 3,842 8,314 4,622 1,216 5,630 1,782 1,691 5,505 588 1,879 1,868 5,106 2,624 952 22,268 4,119 2,307 7,950  27,073 – 3,617 1,316 4,753 1,882 3,873 4,622 1,216 5,480 1,722 1,691 4,569 – 1,108 1,868 4,260 1,778 952 – – – –  28,892 – – 3,265 12,379 – 4,441 – – – – – – – – – – – – 20,549 – 2,307 7,950  46,460 – 6,219 4,072 15,280 3,842 8,075 4,345 1,216 5,630 1,782 1,691 3,514 – – – 4,995 2,624 – 18,059 4,081 2,307 7,169  20,839 – 2,361 – 3,721 1,882 3,634 4,345 1,216 5,480 1,722 1,691 2,577 – – – 4,149 1,778 – – – – –  25,620 – – 3,265 11,559 – 4,441 – – – – – – – – – – – – 17,414 – 2,307 7,169  9,505 – – – 1,852 – – – – – – – 1,992 – – – – – – 4,209 – – –  6,233 – – – – – – – – – – – 1,992 – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  20,080 4,081 2,307 7,950 21,002 989 2,162 2,316 3,316 976 4,824 3,056 1,261  – – – – 20,038 989 2,162 2,111 3,316 976 4,114 3,007 1,261  18,361 – 2,307 7,950 964 – – – – – – – –  15,909 4,081 2,307 7,169 18,655 – – 2,316 2,405 976 4,750 2,911 1,261  – – – – 17,691 – – 2,111 2,405 976 4,039 2,862 1,261  15,264 – 2,307 7,169 964 – – – – – – – –  4,171 – – – 2,347 – – – – – – – –  – – – – 2,347 – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – –  40,004 1,348 2,764 4,835 6,536 3,916 4,405 4,340 4,284 2,476 998 3,513  28,584 1,219 2,251 3,261 4,001 3,576 2,793 4,121 3,368 – – 2,061  11,420 – – – – – – – 917 1,219 718 –  38,068 810 1,838 4,835 6,408 3,765 4,405 4,340 4,284 2,476 998 3,513  27,391 – 1,838 3,261 3,873 3,462 2,793 4,121 3,368 – – 2,061  10,676 – – – – – – – 917 1,219 718 –  1,937 – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  18,902 1,183 1,771 3,485 3,451 2,476 998 3,513  14,155 1,146 1,722 3,416 2,954 – – 2,061  4,748 – – – – 1,219 718 –  17,916 1,032 1,771 3,485 3,451 2,476 998 3,513  13,912 1,032 1,722 3,416 2,954 – – 2,061  4,004 – – – – 1,219 718 –  986 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  7,858 1,350  7,256 1,350  7,616 1,350  7,014 1,350  – –  – –  – –  – –  See footnotes at end of table.  29  – –  State and local government 5,644  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 15 .................... Sales occupations ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Cashiers ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Secretaries ................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... General office clerks ..... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ....................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Level 11 .................... Level 12 .................... Level 13 .................... Level 14 .................... Level 15 .................... Blue-collar occupations .................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................. Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ......................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  1,838 1,826 1,641 64,691 7,423 14,768 9,534 5,982 4,691 6,293 2,182 4,427 2,896 2,980 1,935 11,431 1,588 7,822  1,806 1,826 1,641 64,691 7,423 14,768 9,534 5,982 4,691 6,293 2,182 4,427 2,896 2,980 1,935 11,431 1,588 7,822  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  1,838 1,826 1,641 39,816 1,228 5,044 3,487 4,783 3,865 5,410 2,182 4,427 2,896 2,980 1,935 3,407 – –  1,806 1,826 1,641 39,816 1,228 5,044 3,487 4,783 3,865 5,410 2,182 4,427 2,896 2,980 1,935 3,407 – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – 24,875 6,195 9,724 6,047 – – – – – – – – 8,024 – 6,619  – – – 24,875 6,195 9,724 6,047 – – – – – – – – 8,024 – 6,619  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  100,370 7,026 11,391 27,273 25,937 11,799 5,218 8,405 1,123 7,136 3,489 1,537 1,309  86,260 6,912 10,976 24,497 20,146 10,216 4,424 5,974 – 5,149 – 926 –  14,110 – – – 5,791 – – – – 1,988 – – –  81,516 4,206 5,577 23,142 21,424 10,617 5,138 8,089 1,123 6,042 – 1,368 1,118  69,035 4,206 5,396 21,263 15,788 9,264 4,345 5,659 – 4,638 – – –  12,481 – – – – – – – – 1,404 – – –  18,854 2,820 5,814 4,131 4,513 1,181 – – – 1,095 – – –  17,225 2,706 5,580 3,234 4,357 – – – – – – – –  10,781 4,420 3,526 1,458 7,400 2,245 1,192 1,153  10,663 4,420 3,487 1,409 6,853 1,896 – –  – – – – 546 – – –  9,136 3,734 3,183 901 6,860 2,245 – 1,153  9,017 3,734 3,144 – 6,350 1,896 – –  – – – – 510 – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  217,341 7,026 12,836 29,891 29,841 18,890 10,268 25,577 15,295 23,006 9,576 14,928 8,907 3,692 1,398 4,275 164,309  161,955 6,912 12,421 27,115 23,845 14,863 8,417 16,965 9,276 10,252 6,004 10,268 7,990 2,473 – 2,823 156,994  55,386 – – 2,776 5,996 4,027 1,852 8,611 6,019 12,755 3,572 4,659 917 1,219 718 – 7,315  184,699 4,206 6,208 25,502 24,254 13,945 9,070 23,893 14,513 21,004 8,975 14,688 8,629 3,692 1,398 4,275 134,944  134,957 4,206 6,027 23,622 18,413 12,463 7,780 15,320 8,494 9,105 5,403 10,029 7,713 2,473 – 2,823 128,916  49,741 – – 1,880 5,841 – 1,290 8,573 6,019 11,899 3,572 4,659 917 1,219 718 – 6,027  32,642 2,820 6,628 4,389 5,587 4,945 1,199 – 782 2,003 – – – – – – 29,366  26,998 2,706 6,394 3,493 5,432 2,400 – – 782 – – – – – – – 28,078  58,723 7,915 3,532 7,652 3,283 5,570  57,864 7,915 3,494 7,613 3,225 5,540  859 – – – – –  56,785 7,290 3,320 7,487 2,712 5,570  55,964 7,290 3,320 7,448 2,654 5,540  821 – – – – –  1,938 – – – – –  1,900 – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  30  1,629 – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – 5,644 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1,288 – – – – – –  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 11 .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Transportation and material moving occupations ................ Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Truck drivers ................. Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .............. Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Service occupations ......................... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 6 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Protective service occupations .................... Level 2 ...................... Level 5 ...................... Level 7 ...................... Level 8 ...................... Level 9 ...................... Level 10 .................... Guards and police except public service .................... Level 2 ...................... Food service occupations .... Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Health service occupations Level 1 ...................... Level 2 ...................... Level 4 ...................... Level 5 ......................  All industries  Private industry  19,595 5,257 3,385 1,503  19,213 5,196 3,323 1,374  24,494 3,160 4,427 6,979 1,998 3,540 1,418 1,409  24,365 3,031 4,427 6,979 1,998 3,540 1,418 1,409  35,636 4,365 3,891 7,239 4,616 9,060 23,173 2,157 2,189 4,359 3,229 7,797  31,290 4,307 2,473 5,921 4,616 7,797 22,536 2,157 2,189 – 3,229 7,797  45,457 18,998 12,516 7,999 2,702 1,867 73,241 28,262 14,317 7,213 9,232 3,881 2,743 1,842 1,603 1,815 999  Full-time workers  State and local government  Part-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  382 – – –  19,230 5,257 3,385 1,503  18,849 5,196 3,323 1,374  382 – – –  – – – – – – – –  21,300 2,152 3,417 5,998 1,998 3,540 1,418 1,215  21,172 2,023 3,417 5,998 1,998 3,540 1,418 1,215  – – – – – – – –  4,345 – 1,418 1,318 – – – – – – – –  30,129 2,253 3,250 6,586 4,616 7,660 20,807 – – 4,359 3,229 6,397  26,160 – – 5,607 4,616 6,397 20,170 – – – 3,229 6,397  43,475 18,023 12,378 7,960 2,702 1,388 58,016 24,790 12,859 6,634 7,500 2,289 – – – – –  1,982 975 – – – – 15,225 – – – – 1,592 1,700 600 780 1,261 717  26,729 6,240 8,475 6,809 2,085 1,744 35,780 9,020 4,399 3,711 6,134 2,892 2,368 1,612 1,603 1,766 941  11,949 1,632 1,538 922 387 1,214 672  5,184 1,632 – – – – –  6,765 – – 518 387 1,214 497  4,079 1,632 31,006 15,663 9,212 2,815 7,742 637 1,784 2,828 1,383  4,079 1,632 27,840 14,337 7,818 2,666 7,194 565 1,784 2,828 –  – – 3,167 – – – – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  31  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  3,193 – – – – – – –  3,193 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  3,969 – 1,382 – – – – – – – – –  5,506 2,112 – – – – 2,366 – – – – –  5,131 2,112 – – – – 2,366 – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – –  25,621 6,001 8,475 6,771 2,085 1,265 25,737 8,009 3,702 3,711 5,423 – – – – – –  1,108 – – – – – 10,043 – – – – 1,385 1,653 600 780 1,212 659  18,728 12,757 4,040 – – – 37,461 19,242 9,918 3,502 3,097 990 – – – – –  17,854 12,021 3,902 – – – 32,279 16,781 9,157 2,923 2,077 – – – – – –  874 – – – – – 5,182 – – – – – – – – – –  8,472 – 1,229 693 387 1,164 614  2,297 – – – – – –  6,175 – – 518 387 1,164 –  3,477 – – – – – –  2,887 – – – – – –  589 – – – – – –  1,523 – 11,290 4,356 2,829 790 5,121 – – 1,857 –  1,523 – 10,296 4,356 2,132 790 4,645 – – 1,857 –  2,556 – 19,716 11,308 6,383 2,025 2,621 – – – –  2,556 – 17,544 9,982 5,686 1,876 2,549 – – – –  – – 2,172 – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – – –  Table 16. Numbers of workers1 by occupational group and level2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers Occupational group3 and level  Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ........ Level 4 ...................... Cleaning and building service occupations ........ Level 1 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Janitors and cleaners ... Level 1 ...................... Level 3 ...................... Personal services occupations .................... Level 1 ......................  All industries  Private industry  4,556 2,346  4,515 2,346  17,161 10,271 1,108 11,485 7,570 1,108  14,237 8,863 – 8,968 6,161 –  5,383 1,564  3,561 –  Full-time workers  State and local government  – – 2,924 – – 2,517 – – – –  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 Each occupation for which wage data are collected in an establishment is evaluated based on 10 factors, including knowledge, complexity, work environment, etc. Points are assigned based on the occupation’s ranking within each factor. The points are summed to determine the overall level of the occupation. See technical  All industries  Private industry  3,110 –  3,069 –  8,743 4,156 – 3,114 – –  7,059 3,512 – 1,791 – –  2,154 –  1,440 –  Part-time workers  State and local government  – – 1,683 – – – – – – –  All industries  Private industry  1,446 –  1,446 –  8,418 6,115 – 8,371 6,115 –  7,177 5,351 – 7,177 5,351 –  3,228 1,283  2,121 –  State and local government  – – 1,241 – – – – – – –  note for more information. 3 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  32  Table 17. Number of workers1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  Time4  Incentive4  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  47,530 45,578 13,378  472,053 409,313 268,654  395,239 355,423 224,514  124,344 99,469 57,517  475,018 429,681 251,647  44,564 25,211 30,384  7,543 7,435 –  69,424 48,530 20,894  65,115 46,460 18,655  11,852 9,505 2,347  76,788 55,786 21,002  – – –  – –  40,004 62,739  38,068 39,816  1,937 24,875  35,797 45,337  4,207 19,354  3,883 11,426 30,701  96,487 205,915 133,608  81,516 184,699 134,944  18,854 32,642 29,366  93,725 206,310 153,394  6,644 11,031 10,916  12,796  45,927  56,785  1,938  55,832  2,891  2,308  22,186  21,300  3,193  23,624  9,668  25,968  30,129  5,506  31,926  3,710  5,929 3,451  39,528 69,790  26,729 35,780  18,728 37,461  42,012 69,977  3,445 3,264  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational ’groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through  –  collective bargaining. 4 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  33  Table 18. Number of workers1 by occupational group, private industry, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 Goods-producing industries3 Occupational group2  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. White-collar excluding sales ........... Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  All private industries  Total  ConManustruction facturing  35,914 35,601 3,567  Service-producing industries4  Total  441,656 376,965 226,646  106,697 102,879 27,054  47,111  9,729  –  9,606  37,383  27,073 20,038  5,178 4,550  – –  5,178 4,428  21,895 15,488  28,584 64,691  6,478 3,818  2,302 –  4,176 3,505  22,107 60,873  1,033 –  4,321 40,181  4,871 6,673  11,881 13,087  86,260 161,955 156,994  7,030 23,236 78,526  – 3,255 32,347  5,831 79,230 19,613 138,719 45,320 78,469  10,137 14,370 23,576  17,661 25,886 28,443  22,793 29,207 –  28,638 69,256 26,218  57,864  39,311  24,343  14,478  18,553  5,293  7,400  –  5,860  24,365  18,673  –  18,550  5,692  –  –  5,036  31,290  6,432  –  5,361  24,858  15,809  6,502  –  2,547  43,475 58,016  14,109 1,117  6,931 1,117  29,366 56,899  2,004 –  14,481 27,255  – –  12,775 27,295  6,933 –  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups.  69,556 334,960 66,051 274,087 23,119 199,592  TransFinance, Wholeportation insursale and and ance, Services retail public and real trade utilities estate 39,716 121,766 38,784 81,584 15,302 66,068 3,199 – –  3,904 2,566 –  –  37,622 135,856 30,949 122,770 35,880 82,343 1,542 – –  28,737 17,782 10,955  3 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 4 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  34  Table 19. Number of workers1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group2  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ White-collar excluding sales ..................... Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  441,656 376,965 226,646  228,842 190,079 115,168  212,814 186,886 111,478  121,462 100,531 58,067  91,351 86,355 53,412  47,111 27,073 20,038  17,027 9,936 7,090  30,084 17,137 12,948  9,812 7,186 2,626  20,272 9,951 10,322  28,584 64,691  16,343 38,763  12,242 25,927  6,573 20,931  5,669 4,996  86,260 161,955 156,994  43,035 76,404 76,277  43,225 85,551 80,717  20,751 37,135 48,343  22,474 48,416 32,375  57,864  38,650  19,214  7,704  11,510  24,365  8,252  16,113  8,921  7,191  31,290  14,176  17,114  14,363  2,751  43,475 58,016  15,199 37,398  28,276 20,618  17,353 15,053  – 5,565  1 Both full-time and part-time workers were included in the survey. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another establishment, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 480 individual  occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  35  Appendix A: Technical Note  Sample design The sample design for this survey area was a two stage probability sample of detailed occupations. The first stage of sample selection was a probability-proportional-to-size sample of establishments. Use of this technique means that the larger an establishment’s employment, the greater its chance of selection. Weights were applied to each establishment when the data were tabulated so that it represents similar units (by industry and employment size) in the economy which were not selected for collection. See Appendix Table 1 for a count of establishments in the survey by employment size. The second stage of sample selection, detailed below, was a probability sample of occupations within a sampled establishment.  This section provides basic information on the procedures and concepts used to produce the data contained in this bulletin. It is divided into three parts: Planning for the survey; data collection; and processing and analyzing the data. While this section answers some questions commonly asked by data users, it is not a comprehensive description of all the steps required to produce the data.  Planning for the survey The overall design of the survey, which was based on the type of data to be produced, had to be developed before data collection could begin. Survey scope This survey of the Salt Lake City-Ogden, UT Metropolitan Statistical Area covered establishments employing workers1 in goods-producing industries (mining, construction and manufacturing); service-producing industries (transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services industries); and State and local governments. Agriculture, private households, and the Federal government are excluded from the scope of the survey. For purposes of this survey an establishment was an economic unit which produces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an auxiliary unit providing support services to a company. For all industries in this survey and for State and local governments, the establishment was usually at a single physical location.  Data collection Numerous procedures were developed for the actual collection of data from survey respondents. Occupational selection and classification Identification of the occupations for which wage data were to be collected was a multi-step process: 1. Probability-proportional-to-size selection of company jobs. 2. Classification of jobs into occupations based on the Census of Population system. 3. Characterization of jobs as full-time v. part-time, union v. nonunion, and time v. incentive. 4. Determination of the level of work of each job.  Sampling frame The list of establishments from which the survey sample was selected (the sampling frame) was developed from the State unemployment insurance reports for the Rochester, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area (March 1995). The sampling frame was reviewed prior to the survey and, when necessary, missing establishments were added.  For each occupation, wage data were collected only for those workers who met all the criteria identified in the last three steps. In step one, the company jobs to be sampled were selected at each establishment by the BLS field economist during a personal visit. A complete list of employees was used for sampling, with each selected worker representing a job within the establishment. As with the selection of establishments, the selection of a company job was based on probability proportional to its size in the establishment. The greater the number of people working in a job in the establishment, the greater its chance of selection.  1  If an establishment had at least one employee at the time data were collected, it was in-scope for the survey. In theory, any sampled establishment in the universe could have one or more employees when the data are actually collected.  36  ers in the occupation; 2) wage and salary rates were determined through collective bargaining or negotiations; and 3) settlement terms, which must include earnings provisions and may include benefit provisions, were embodied in a signed, mutually binding collective bargaining agreement. If these conditions were not met, the worker’s job was classified as nonunion.  The number of jobs collected in each establishment was based on an establishment’s employment size as shown in the following schedule: Number of employees 0-49 50-99 100-249 250-499 500-999 1,000+  Number of selected jobs 4 8 10 12 16 20  Generic leveling through point factor analysis In the last step before wage data were collected, the work level of each selected job was determined using a “generic leveling” process. Generic leveling ranks and compares all occupations randomly selected in an establishment using the same criteria. This is a major departure from the method used in the past in the Bureau’s Occupational Compensation Surveys which studied specifically defined occupations with leveling definitions unique to each occupation. For the Salt Lake City survey, the level of each occupation in an establishment was determined by an analysis of each of 10 leveling factors. Nine of these factors are drawn from the U.S. Government Office of Personnel Management’s Factor Evaluation System, which is the underlying structure for evaluation of General Schedule Federal employees. The tenth factor, supervisory duties, is an attempt to account for the effect of supervisory duties. It is considered experimental. The 10 factors were:  NOTE: If the number of employees in an establishment was less than four, then the number of company jobs selected would be equal to the number of employees.  The second step of the process entailed classifying the selected jobs into occupations based on their duties. The COMP2000 occupational classification system is based on the 1990 Census of Population. A selected company job may fall into any one of about 480 occupational classifications, from accountant to wood lathe operator. In cases where a job’s duties overlapped two or more census classification codes, classification was based on the primary duty. Each occupational classification is an element of a broader classification known as a major occupational group (MOG). Occupations can fall into any of the following MOG’s: • • • • • • • • •  • • • • • • • • • •  Professional specialty and technical Executive, administrative, and managerial Sales Administrative support including clerical Precision production, craft, and repair Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers, Service occupations  Knowledge Supervisory controls Guidelines Complexity Scope and effect Personal contacts Purpose of contacts Physical demands Work environment Supervisory duties  Each factor contains a number of levels and each level has an associated written description and point value. The number and range of points differs among the factors. For each factor, an occupation was assigned a level based on which written description best matched the job. Within each occupation, the points for the 10 factors were recorded and totaled. The total determines the overall level of the occupation. A description of the levels for each factor is shown in Appendix C. Tabulations of levels of work for occupations in the survey follow the Federal government’s white-collar General Schedule. Point ranges for each of the 15 levels are shown in Appendix D. It also includes an example of a leveled job and a guide to help data users evaluate jobs in their firm.  A complete list of all individual occupations, classified by the MOG to which they belong, is contained in Appendix B. In step three, certain other job characteristics of the chosen worker were identified. First, the worker was identified as holding either a full-time or part-time job, based on the establishment’s definition of those terms. Then the worker was classified as having a time versus incentive job, depending on whether any part of pay was directly based on the actual production of the workers, rather than solely on hours worked. Finally, the worker was identified as being in a union job if: 1) a labor organization was recognized as the bargaining agent for all work37  In prior test surveys, wage data collected using the new generic leveling method were evaluated by BLS researchers using regression techniques. For each of the major occupational groups, wages were compared to the 10 generic level factors (and levels within those factors). The analysis showed that several of the generic level factors, most notably knowledge and supervisory controls, had strong explanatory power for wages. That is, as the levels within a given factor increased, the wages also increased. Detailed research continues in the area. The results of this research will be published by BLS in the future.  Definition of terms Full-time worker. Any employee that the employer considers to be full time. Incentive worker. Any employee whose earnings are tied, at least in part, to commissions, piece rates, production bonuses, or other incentives based on production or sales. Level. A ranking of an occupation based on the requirements of the position. (See the description in the technical note and the example for more details on the leveling process.)  Reference period The survey was collected in July and August 1996. For each establishment in the survey, the data reflect the establishment’s practices on the day of collection.  Nonunion worker. An employee in an occupation not meeting the conditions for union coverage (see below).  Earnings Earnings were defined as regular payments from the employer to the employee as compensation for straighttime hourly work, or for any salaried work performed. The following components were included as part of earnings: • • • • • •  Part-time worker. Any employee that the employer considers to be part-time. Straight-time. Time worked at the standard rate of pay for the job.  Incentive pay, including commissions, production bonuses, and piece rates, Cost-of-living allowances, Hazard pay, Payments of income deferred due to participation in a salary reduction plan, Deadhead pay, defined as pay given to transportation workers returning in a vehicle without freight or passengers, and On-call pay.  Time-based worker. Any employee whose earnings are tied to an hourly rate or salary, and not to a specific level of production. Union worker. Any employee is in a union occupation when all of the following conditions are met: • •  The following forms of payments were not considered part of straight-time earnings: • • • • • •  •  Shift differentials, defined as extra payment for working a schedule that varies from the norm, such as night or weekend work, Premium pay for overtime, holidays, and weekends, Bonuses not directly tied to production (e.g., Christmas bonuses, profit-sharing bonuses), Uniform and tool allowances, Free room and board, and Payments made by third parties (e.g., tips, bonuses given by manufacturers to department store salespeople, referral incentives in real estate).  A labor organization is recognized as the bargaining agent for all workers in the occupation. Wage and salary rates are determined through collective bargaining or negotiations. Settlement terms, which must include earnings provisions and may include benefit provisions, are embodied in a signed mutually binding collective bargaining agreement.  Processing and Analyzing the Data Data were processed and analyzed at the Bureau’s National office following collection. Weighting and nonresponse Sample weights were calculated for each establishment/occupation in the survey. These weights reflected the relative size of the occupation within the establishment and of the establishment within the sample universe. Weights were used to aggregate the individual establishment/occupations into the various data series. Of the establishments surveyed, 13.9 percent refused to supply information. If data were not provided by a sample member, the weights of responding sample members in  To calculate earnings per hour worked, data on work schedules were also collected. For hourly workers, scheduled hours worked per week were recorded. Because salaried workers often work beyond the assigned work schedule, their typical number of hours actually worked was collected. 38  errors possible in an estimate based on a sample survey, sampling and nonsampling. Sampling errors occur because observations come only from a sample and not from an entire population. The sample used for this survey is one of a number of possible samples of the same size that could have been selected using the sample design. Estimates derived from the different samples would differ from each other. A measure of the variation among these differing estimates is called the standard error or sampling error. It indicates the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the average result of all possible samples. The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error divided by the estimate. Appendix Table 2 contains RSE data for selected series in this bulletin. The standard error can be used to calculate a “confidence interval” around a sample estimate. For example, table 1 shows that mean hourly earnings for all workers was $12.77 per hour. Appendix Table 2 shows a standard error of 2.6 percent for this estimate. Thus, at the 95-percent level, the confidence interval for this estimate is $12.11 to $13.43 ($12.77 plus and minus 2 times 2.6 percent times $12.77). If all possible samples were selected to estimate the population value, the interval from each sample would include the true population value approximately 95 percent of the time. Nonsampling errors also affect survey results. They can stem from many sources, such as inability to obtain information for some establishments, difficulties with survey definitions, inability of the respondents to provide correct information, or mistakes in recording or coding the data obtained. A Technical Reinterview Program tested in Rochester will be used in the development of a formal quality assessment process to help compute nonsampling error. Although they were not specifically measured, the nonsampling errors were expected to be minimal due to the high response rate, the extensive training of the field economists who gathered the survey data by personal visit, computer edits of the data, and detailed data review.  the same or similar “cells” were adjusted to account for the missing data. This technique assumes that the mean value of the nonrespondents equals the mean value of the respondents at some detailed “cell” level. Responding and nonresponding establishments were classified into these cells according to industry and employment size. Responding and nonresponding occupations within responding establishments were classified into cells which were additionally defined by major occupation group and job level. When a sampled occupation was considered a refusal and could not be classified into a major occupational group, nonresponse adjustments were made for that occupation in the service occupational group. Establishments which were determined to be out of business or outside the scope of the survey (4.7 percent of the total sample) had their weights changed to zero. If only partial data were given by a sample establishment or occupation, or data were missing, the response was treated as a refusal. Estimation Weights, adjusted for nonresponse, were multiplied by the wage rate of each establishment/occupation, which itself was the average wage of all workers in the occupation. The resulting products were aggregated and then divided by the sum of the weighted occupational employments to obtain the data series contained in the tables in the bulletin. Not all series that were calculated met the criteria for publication. Before any series was published, it was reviewed to make sure that the number of observations underlying it was sufficient. This review prevented publishing a series that could have revealed information about a specific establishment. Data reliability The data in this bulletin are estimates from a scientifically selected probability sample. There are two types of  39  Table A1. Number of establishments studied by industry group and employment size, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 100 workers or more Industry  All industries ......................................................... Private industry ............................................... Goods-producing industries ...................... Manufacturing ..................................... Mining ................................................. Construction ....................................... Service-producing industries .................... Tranportation and public utilities ......... Wholesale and retail trade .................. Finance, insurance and real estate .... Services .............................................. State and local government ............................  All workers  294 261 68 40 1 27 193 20 69 22 82 33  NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Overall industry and industry groups may include data for categories not shown  1 - 99 workers  Total  157 152 39 14 – 25 113 9 44 10 50 5  137 109 29 26 1 2 80 11 25 12 32 28  separately.  40  100 - 499 workers 76 65 14 12 1 1 51 5 22 7 17 11  500 workers or more 61 44 15 14 – 1 29 6 3 5 15 17  Table A2. Relative standard errors of mean hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996  All industries  Occupation3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .............................. White-collar occupations .................................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ Professional specialty occupations ........... Engineering occupations ..................... Registered nurses ........................ Technical occupations .............................. Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............................................ Financial managers ...................... Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ..................................... Management related occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Sales occupations ........................................ Supervisors, sales occupations .... Sales occupations, other business services .................................. Sales workers, other commodities Cashiers ....................................... Sales support occupations, N.E.C. Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ Secretaries ................................... Receptionists ................................ Order clerks .................................. Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ......................... Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ...................................... Stock and inventory clerks ............ Investigators and adjusters except insurance ................................ General office clerks ..................... Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ................ White-collar occupations excluding sales ..... Blue-collar occupations .................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ............................................ Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. .. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ............................................... Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. ..................................... Production inspectors, checkers and examiners ........................ Transportation and material moving occupations ............................................ Truck drivers ................................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................................................... Stock handlers and baggers ......... Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ..................... Hand packers and packagers ....... Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ..................................... Service occupations ......................................... Protective service occupations ........... Food service occupations .................... Waiters and waitresses ................ Cooks ........................................... Kitchen workers, food preparation See footnotes at end of table.  41  Private industry  State and local government  2.6% 2.4 3.3  3.3% 2.9 4.2  3.6% 3.6 4.3  3.4 3.3 5.1 4.1 5.6  5.0 4.8 5.2 4.3 5.9  – – – – –  4.9 25.9  6.0 27.6  – –  7.1  7.7  –  7.4 18.4 53.8  7.1 18.4 53.8  – – –  16.0 5.6 1.8 13.1  16.0 5.6 1.8 13.1  – – – –  5.2 6.4 3.6 15.4  6.0 6.3 4.2 15.4  – – – –  32.5  33.2  –  5.3 10.5  5.4 10.5  – –  8.0 4.7  8.0 5.0  – –  3.5 4.2 4.7  3.7 5.1 4.8  – 4.3 –  3.8 10.2  3.9 10.2  – –  6.3  6.4  –  6.7  6.7  –  9.6  9.6  –  5.9 6.9  6.5 7.0  – –  40.8 12.0  43.1 12.0  – –  11.5 7.4  11.5 7.4  – –  11.4 4.7 8.7 5.2 4.0 10.5 7.8  – 4.0 7.8 5.4 4.0 11.1 –  – 5.5 – – – – –  Table A2. Relative standard errors of mean hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers2, Salt Lake City, UT, July - August 1996 — Continued  All industries  Occupation3  Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ..................................... Health service occupations ................. Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ............................... Cleaning and building service occupations .................................... Janitors and cleaners ................... Personal services occupations ........... 1 The relative standard error is the standard error expressed as a percent of the estimate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about  Private industry  State and local government  6.8% 3.3  7.7% 3.6  – –  3.6  3.7  –  6.5 7.7 13.3  6.8 4.3 –  – – –  480 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy.Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. See the technical note for a complete listing of occupations. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  42  Appendix B. Occupational Classifications  NOTE: The four-digit code before each occupation title is used to classify it into one of three major groups. Whitecollar workers include those classified in Major groups A through D. Blue-collar workers include those classified in Major groups E through H. Service workers are classified in Major group K.  Major group A: A069 A073 A074 A075 A076 A077 A078 A079 A083  PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS ENGINEERS, ARCHITECTS, AND SURVEYORS A043 Architects A044-A059 Engineers A044 Aerospace Engineers A045 Metallurgical and Materials Engineers A046 Mining Engineers A047 Petroleum Engineers A048 Chemical Engineers A049 Nuclear Engineers A053 Civil Engineers A054 Agricultural Engineers A055 Electrical and Electronic Engineers A056 Industrial Engineers A057 Mechanical Engineers A058 Marine Engineers and Naval Architects A059 Engineers, n.e.c.1 A063 Surveyors and Mapping Scientists  Physicists and Astronomers Chemists, Except Biochemists Atmospheric and Space Scientists Geologists and Geodesists Physical Scientists, n.e.c. Agricultural and Food Scientists Biological and Life Scientists Forestry and Conservation Scientists Medical Scientists  HEALTH DIAGNOSING OCCUPATIONS A084 A085 A086 A087 A088 A089  Physicians Dentists Veterinarians Optometrists Podiatrists Health Diagnosing Practitioners, n.e.c.  HEALTH ASSESSMENT AND TREATING OCCUPATIONS A095 A096 A097 A098 A099 A103 A104 A105 A106  MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER SCIENTISTS A064 Computer Systems Analysts and Scientists A065 Operations and Systems Researchers and Analysts A066 Actuaries A067 Statisticians A068 Mathematical Scientists, n.e.c. NATURAL SCIENTISTS  Registered Nurses Pharmacists Dietitians Respiratory Therapists Occupational Therapists Physical Therapists Speech Therapists Therapists, n.e.c. Physicians' Assistants  TEACHERS 1  n.e.c. in an occupation title means not elsewhere classified.  39  A174 A175 A176 A177  A113-154 Teachers, College and University A113 Earth, Environmental and Marine Science Teachers Biological Science Teachers Chemistry Teachers Physics Teachers Natural Science Teachers, n.e.c. Psychology Teachers Economics Teachers History Teachers Political Science Teachers Sociology Teachers Social Science Teachers, n.e.c. Engineering Teachers Mathematical Science Teachers Computer Science Teachers Medical Science Teachers Health Specialties Teachers Business, Commerce and Marketing Teachers Agriculture and Forestry Teachers Art, Drama, and Music Teachers Physical Education Teachers Education Teachers English Teachers Foreign Language Teachers Law Teachers Social Work Teachers Theology Teachers Trade and Industrial Teachers Home Economics Teachers Teachers, Post Secondary, n.e.c. Post Secondary Teachers, Subject not specified A155-163 Teachers, except College and University A155 Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Teachers A156 Elementary School Teachers A157 Secondary School Teachers A158 Teachers, Special Education A159 Teachers, n.e.c. A160 Substitute Teachers A163 Vocational and Educational Counselors  A114 A115 A116 A117 A118 A119 A123 A124 A125 A126 A127 A128 A129 A133 A134 A135 A136 A137 A138 A139 A143 A144 A145 A146 A147 A148 A149 A153 A154  Social Workers Recreation Workers Clergy Religious Workers, n.e.c.  LAWYERS AND JUDGES A178 Lawyers A179 Judges WRITERS, AUTHORS, ENTERTAINERS AND ATHLETES A183 A184 A185 A186 A187 A188 A189 A193 A194 A195 A197 A198 A199 A999  Authors Technical Writers Designers Musicians and Composers Actors and Directors Painters, Sculptors, Craft-Artists, and Artist Print-Makers Photographers Dancers Artists, Performers, and Related Workers, n.e.c. Editors and Reporters Public Relations Specialists Announcers Athletes Professional Occupations, n.e.c.  TECHNICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS A203 Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians A204 Dental Hygienists A205 Health Record Technologists and Technicians A206 Radiologic Technicians A207 Licensed Practical Nurses A208 Health Technologists and Technicians, n.e.c. ENGINEERING AND RELATED TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS  LIBRARIANS, ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS A164 Librarians A165 Archivists and Curators  A213 A214 A215 A216 A217 A218  SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND URBAN PLANNERS A166 Economists A167 Psychologists A168 Sociologists A169 Social Scientists, n.e.c. A173 Urban Planners SOCIAL, RECREATION, AND RELIGIOUS WORKERS  Electrical and Electronic Technicians Industrial Engineering Technicians Mechanical Engineering Technicians Engineering Technicians, n.e.c. Drafters Surveying and Mapping Technicians  SCIENCE TECHNICIANS 40  B037 Management Related Occupations, n.e.c.  A223 Biological Technicians A224 Chemical Technicians A225 Science Technicians, n.e.c.  Major group C: MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICIANS SALES OCCUPATIONS A226 A227 A228 A229 A233 A234 A235  Airplane Pilots and Navigators Air Traffic Controllers Broadcast Equipment Operators Computer Programmers Tool Programmers, Numerical Control Legal Assistants Technical and Related Occupations, n.e.c.  C243 Supervisors: Sales Occupations FINANCE AND BUSINESS SERVICES, SALES REPRESENTATIVES C253 Insurance Sales Occupations C254 Real Estate Sales Occupations C255 Securities and Financial Services Sales Occupations C256 Advertising and Related Sales Occupations C257 Sales Occupations, Other Business Services  Major group B: EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS  SALES REPRESENTATIVES, COMMODITIES EXCEPT RETAIL  B003 Legislators B004 Chief Executives and General Administrators, Public Administration B005 Administrators and Officials, Public Administration B007 Financial Managers B008 Personnel and Labor Relations Managers B009 Purchasing Managers B013 Managers; Marketing, Advertising and Public Relations B014 Administrators, Education and Related Fields B015 Managers, Medicine and Health B016 Postmasters and Mail Superintendents B017 Managers, Food Serving and Lodging Establishments B018 Managers, Properties and Real Estate B019 Funeral Directors B021 Managers, Service Organizations, n.e.c. B022 Managers and Administrators, n.e.c.  C258 Sales Engineers C259 Sales Representatives; Mining, Manufacturing, and Wholesale RETAIL AND PERSONAL SERVICES SALES WORKERS C263 Sales Workers, Motor Vehicles and Boats C264 Sales Workers, Apparel C265 Sales Workers, Shoes C266 Sales Workers, Furniture and Home Furnishings C267 Sales Workers, Radio, TV, Hi-Fi, and Appliances C268 Sales Workers, Hardware and Building Supplies C269 Sales Workers, Parts C274 Sales Workers, Other Commodities C275 Sales Counter Clerks C276 Cashiers C277 Street and Door-To-Door Sales Workers C278 News Vendors  MANAGEMENT RELATED OCCUPATIONS B023 B024 B025 B026 B027 B028 B029 B033 B034  Accountants and Auditors Underwriters Other Financial Officers Management Analysts Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists Purchasing Agents and Buyers, Farm Products Buyers, Wholesale and Retail Trade, Except Farm Products Purchasing Agents and Buyers, n.e.c. Business and Promotion Agents  SALES RELATED OCCUPATIONS C283 Demonstrators, Promoters, and Models, Sales C284 Auctioneers C285 Sales Support Occupations, n.e.c.  B035 Construction Inspectors B036 Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction  Major group D:  41  ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL  D345 Duplicating Machine Operators D346 Mail Preparing and Paper Handling Machine Operators D347 Office Machine Operators, n.e.c.  SUPERVISORS, CLERICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT  COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT OPERATORS D303 D304 D305 D306 D307  Supervisors: General Office Supervisors: Computer Equipment Operators Supervisors: Financial Records Processing Chief Communications Operators Supervisors: Distribution, Scheduling, and Adjusting Clerks  D348 Telephone Operators D353 Communications Equipment Operators, n.e.c. MAIL AND MESSAGE DISTRIBUTING OCCUPATIONS  COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OPERATORS  D354 D355 D356 D357  D308 Computer Operators D309 Peripheral Equipment Operators SECRETARIES, STENOGRAPHERS, AND TYPISTS  MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS  D313 Secretaries D314 Stenographers D315 Typists  D359 D363 D364 D365 D366 D368 plers D373 D374  INFORMATION CLERKS D316 D317 D318 D319 D323  Interviewers Hotel Clerks Transportation Ticket and Reservation Agents Receptionists Information Clerks, n.e.c.  RECORDS PROCESSING CLERKS, EXCEPT FINANCIAL  Dispatchers Production Coordinators Traffic, Shipping, and Receiving Clerks Stock and Inventory Clerks Meter Readers Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and SamExpeditors Material Recording, Scheduling, and Distributing Clerks, n.e.c.  ADJUSTERS AND INVESTIGATORS D375 Insurance Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators D376 Investigators and Adjusters, Except Insurance D377 Eligibility Clerks, Social Welfare D378 Bill and Account Collectors  D325 D326 D327 D328  Classified-Ad Clerks Correspondence Clerks Order Clerks Personnel Clerks, Except Payroll and Timekeeping D329 Library Clerks D335 File Clerks D336 Records Clerks, n.e.c.  MISCELLANEOUS ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS D379 D383 D384 D385 D386 D387 D389  FINANCIAL RECORDS PROCESSING CLERKS D337 Clerks D338 D339 D343 D344  Postal Clerks, Except Mail Carriers Mail Carriers, Postal Service Mail Clerks, Except Postal Service Messengers  Bookkeepers, Accounting and Auditing  Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks Billing Clerks Cost and Rate Clerks Billing, Posting, and Calculating Machine Operators DUPLICATING, MAIL, AND OTHER OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS  General Office Clerks Bank Tellers Proofreaders Data Entry Keyers Statistical Clerks Teachers' Aides Administrative Support Occupations, n.e.c.  Major group E: 42  E573 E575 E576 E577 E579 E583 E584 E585 E587  PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, AND REPAIR OCCUPATIONS  MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS E503 Supervisors: Mechanics and Repairers E505 Automobile Mechanics E506 Automobile Mechanic Apprentices E507 Bus, Truck, and Stationary Engine Mechanics E508 Aircraft Engine Mechanics E509 Small Engine Repairers E514 Automobile Body and Related Repairers E515 Aircraft Mechanics, Except Engine E516 Heavy Equipment Mechanic E517 Farm Equipment Mechanics E518 Industrial Machinery Repairers E519 Machinery Maintenance Occupations E523 Electronic Repairers, Communications and Industrial Equipment E525 Data Processing Equipment Repairers E526 Household Appliance and Power Tool Repairers E527 Telephone Line Installers and Repairers E529 Telephone Installers and Repairers E534 Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics E535 Camera, Watch, and Musical Instrument Repairers E536 Locksmiths and Safe Repairers E538 Office Machine Repairers E539 Mechanical Controls and Valve Repairers E543 Elevator Installers and Repairers E544 Millwrights E547 Mechanics and Repairers, n.e.c.  E588 E589 E593 E594 E595 E596 E597 E598 E599  Drywall Installers Electricians Electrician Apprentices Electrical Power Installers and Repairers Painters, Construction and Maintenance Paperhangers Plasterers Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Plumber, Pipefitter, and Steamfitter Apprentices Concrete and Terrazzo Finishers Glaziers Insulation Workers Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators Roofers Sheetmetal Duct Installers Structural Metal Workers Drillers, Earth Construction Trades, n.e.c.  EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS E613 E614 E615 E616 E617  Supervisors: Extractive Occupations Drillers, Oil Well Explosives Workers Mining Machine Operators Mining Occupations, n.e.c.  PRECISION PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS E628 Supervisors: Production Occupations PRECISION METAL WORKING OCCUPATIONS E634 Tool and Die Makers E635 Tool and Die Maker Apprentices E636 Precision Assemblers, Metal E637 Machinists E639 Machinist Apprentices E643 Boilermakers E644 Precision Grinders, Filers, and Tool Sharpeners E645 Patternmakers and Modelmakers, Metal E646 Layout Workers E647 Precious Stones and Metals Workers E649 Engravers, Metal E653 Sheet Metal Workers E654 Sheet Metal Worker Apprentices  SUPERVISORS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES E553 Supervisors: Brickmasons, Stonemasons, and Tilesetters E554 Supervisors: Carpenters and Related Workers E555 Supervisors: Electricians and Power Transmission Installers E556 Supervisors: Painters, Paperhangers, and Plasterers E557 Supervisors: Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters E558 Supervisors: Construction Trades, n.e.c. CONSTRUCTION TRADES OCCUPATIONS  PRECISION WOODWORKING OCCUPATIONS E563 E564 E565 E566 E567 E569  Brickmasons and Stonemasons Brickmason and Stonemason Apprentices Tile Setters, Hard and Soft Carpet Installers Carpenters Carpenter Apprentices  E656 Patternmakers and Modelmakers, Wood E657 Cabinet Makers and Bench Carpenters E658 Furniture and Wood Finishers PRECISION TEXTILE, APPAREL, AND 43  F709 Grinding, Abrading, Buffing, and Polishing Machine Operators F713 Forging Machine Operators F714 Numerical Control Machine Operators F717 Fabricating Machine Operators, n.e.c. F719 Molding and Casting Machine Operators F723 Metal Plating Machine Operators F724 Heat Treating Equipment Operators  FURNISHINGS MACHINE WORKERS E666 E667 E668 E669  Dressmakers Tailors Upholsterers Shoe Repairers  PRECISION WORKERS, ASSORTED MATERIALS  WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS  E675 E676 E677 E678  Hand Molders and Shapers, Except Jewelers Patternmakers, Layout Workers, and Cutters Optical Goods Workers Dental Laboratory and Medical Appliance Technicians E679 Bookbinders E683 Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers E684 Miscellaneous Precision Workers, n.e.c.  F726 Wood Lathe, Routing, and Planing Machine Operators F727 Sawing Machine Operators F728 Shaping and Joining Machine Operators F729 Nailing and Tacking Machine Operators PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS F734 Printing Press Operators F735 Photoengravers and Lithographers F736 Typesetters and Compositors  PRECISION FOOD PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS E685 E686 E687 E688  Precision Food Production Occupations, n.e.c. Butchers and Meat Cutters Bakers Food Batchmakers  TEXTILE, APPAREL, AND FURNISHINGS MACHINE OPERATORS  PRECISION INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND RELATED WORKERS  F738 Winding and Twisting Machine Operators F739 Knitting, Looping, Taping, and Weaving Machine Operators F743 Textile Cutting Machine Operators F744 Textile Sewing Machine Operators F745 Shoe Machine Operators F747 Pressing Machine Operators F748 Laundering and Dry Cleaning Machine Operators  E689 Inspectors, Testers, and Graders E690 Precision Inspectors, Testers, and Related Workers, n.e.c. E693 Adjusters and Calibrators PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS E694 E695 E696 E699  Water and Sewage Treatment Plant Operators Power Plant Operators Stationary Engineers Miscellaneous Plant and System Operators, n.e.c.  MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSORTED MATERIALS F753 F754 F755 F756 F757  Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators Packaging and Filling Machine Operators Extruding and Forming Machine Operators Mixing and Blending Machine Operators Separating, Filtering, and Clarifying Machine Operators F758 Compressing and Compacting Machine Operators F759 Painting and Paint Spraying Machine Operators F763 Roasting and Baking Machine Operators, Food F764 Washing, Cleaning, and Pickling Machine Operators  Major group F: MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS METALWORKING AND PLASTIC WORKING MACHINE OPERATORS F703 F704 F705 F706 F707 F708  Lathe and Turning-Machine Set-Up Operators Lathe and Turning-Machine Operators Milling and Planing Machine Operators Punching and Stamping Press Operators Rolling Machine Operators Drilling and Boring Machine Operators  F765 Folding Machine Operators F766 Furnace, Kiln, and Oven Operators, Except Food F768 Crushing and Grinding Machine Operators 44  F769 F773 F774 F777  G833 Marine Engineers G834 Bridge, Lock, and Lighthouse Tenders  Slicing and Cutting Machine Operators Motion Picture Projectionists Photographic Process Machine Operators Miscellaneous Machine Operators, n.e.c.  MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS G843 Supervisors: Material Moving Equipment Operators G844 Operating Engineers G845 Longshore Equipment Operators G848 Hoist and Winch Operators G849 Crane and Tower Operators G853 Excavating and Loading Machine Operators G855 Grader, Dozer, and Scraper Operators G856 Industrial Truck and Tractor Equipment Operators G859 Miscellaneous Material Moving Equipment Operators, n.e.c.  FABRICATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS F783 F784 F785 F786 F787  Welders and Cutters Solderers and Braziers Assemblers Hand Cutting and Trimming Occupations Hand Molding, Casting, and Forming Occupations F789 Hand Painting, Coating, and Decorating Occupations F793 Hand Engraving and Printing Occupations F795 Miscellaneous Hand Working Occupations, n.e.c.  Major group H: PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, TESTERS, SAMPLERS, AND WEIGHERS  HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS  F796 Production Inspectors, Checkers, and Examiners F797 Production Testers F798 Production Samplers and Weighers F799 Graders and Sorters, Except Agricultural F800 Hand Inspectors, n.e.c.  FARM, FISHING AND FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS NONFARM SECTOR H483 Marine Life Cultivation Workers H484 Nursery Workers H485 Supervisors, Agriculture-Related Workers H486 Groundskeepers and Gardeners, Except Farm H487 Animal Caretakers, Except Farm H489 Inspectors, Agricultural Products H494 Supervisors, Forestry and Logging Workers H495 Forestry Workers, Except Logging H496 Timber Cutting and Logging Occupations H497 Captains and Other Officers, Fishing Vessels H498 Fishers, Hunters, and Trappers  Major group G: TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATORS G803 G804 G806 G808 G809 G813 G814  Supervisors: Motor Vehicle Operators Truck Drivers Driver-Sales Workers Bus Drivers Taxicab Drivers and Chauffeurs Parking Lot Attendants Motor Transportation Occupations, n.e.c.  HELPERS, HANDLERS, AND LABORERS H864 Supervisors: Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, and Laborers, n.e.c. H865 Helpers, Mechanics and Repairers H866 Helpers, Construction Trades H867 Helpers, Surveyor H868 Helpers, Extractive Occupations H869 Construction Laborers H874 Production Helpers H875 Garbage Collectors H876 Stevedores H877 Stock Handlers and Baggers H878 Machine Feeders and Offbearers H883 Freight, Stock, and Material Handlers, n.e.c. H885 Garage and Service Station Related Occupations H887 Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners  RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS G823 Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters G824 Locomotive Operating Occupations G825 Railroad Brake, Signal, and Switch Operators G826 Rail Vehicle Operators, n.e.c. WATER TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS G828 Ship Captains and Mates, Except Fishing Boats G829 Sailors and Deckhands 45  K443 Waiters'/Waitresses' Assistants K444 Food Preparation Occupations, n.e.c.  H888 Hand Packers and Packagers H889 Laborers, Except Construction, n.e.c. Major group K:  HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD  K445 Dental Assistants K446 Health Aides, Except Nursing K447 Nursing Aides, Orderlies, and Attendants  PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  K413 Supervisors: Firefighting and Fire Prevention Occupations K414 Supervisors: Police and Detectives K415 Supervisors: Guards K416 Fire Inspection and Fire Prevention Occupations K417 Firefighting Occupations K418 Police and Detectives, Public Service K423 Sheriffs, Bailiffs, and Other Law Enforcement Officers K424 Correctional Institution Officers K425 Crossing Guards K426 Guards and Police, Except Public Service K427 Protective Service Occupations, n.e.c.  K448 Supervisors: Cleaning and Building Service Workers K449 Maids and Housemen K453 Janitors and Cleaners K454 Elevator Operators K455 Pest Control Occupations PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS K456 K457 K458 K459  FOOD SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  K461 K462 K463 K464 K465 K467 K468 K469  K433 Supervisors: Food Preparation and Service Occupations K434 Bartenders K435 Waiters and Waitresses K436 Cooks K438 Food Counter, Fountain, and Related Occupations K439 Kitchen Workers, Food Preparation  46  Supervisors: Personal Service Occupations Barbers Hairdressers and Cosmetologists Attendants, Amusement and Recreation Facilities Guides Ushers Public Transportation Attendants Baggage Porters and Bellhops Welfare Service Aides Early Childhood Teacher's Assistants Child Care Workers, n.e.c. Service Occupations, n.e.c.  Appendix C. Generic Leveling Criteria  Equivalent knowledge and skill.  Below are the 10 criteria for generic leveling occupations. The description of each level within a factor is included. An example using these criteria for leveling a job follows in appendix D.  4. Knowledge of an extensive body of rules, procedures, operations, products or services requiring extended training and experience to perform a wide variety of interrelated or nonstandard procedural assignments and resolve a wide range of problems; OR Practical knowledge of standard procedures in a technical field, requiring extended training or experience, to perform such work as: adapting equipment when this requires considering the functioning characteristics of equipment; interpreting results of tests based on previous experience and observations (rather than directly reading instruments or other measures); or extracting information from various sources when this requires considering the applicability of information and the characteristics and quality of the sources; OR Comprehensive knowledge of a blue-collar skill, usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship. OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  Knowledge measures the nature and extent of information or facts which the workers must understand to do acceptable work (e.g., steps, procedures, practices, rules, policies, theories, principles, and concepts) and the nature and extent of the skills needed to apply those knowledges. To be used as a basis for selecting a level under this factor, a knowledge must be required and applied. 1. Knowledge of simple, routine, or repetitive tasks or operations which typically includes following step-by-step instructions and requires little or no previous training or experience; OR Skill to operate simple equipment or equipment which operates repetitively, requiring little or no previous training or experience; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  5. Knowledge (such as would be acquired through a pertinent baccalaureate educational program or its equivalent in experience, training, or independent study) of basic principles, concepts, and methodology of a professional or administrative occupation, and skill in applying this knowledge in carrying out elementary assignments, operations, or procedures; OR In addition to the practical knowledge of standard procedures in Level 1-4, practical knowledge of technical methods to perform assignments such as carrying out limited projects which involves use of specialized, complicated techniques; OR Advanced knowledge of a blue-collar skill to solve unusually complex problems;  2. Knowledge of basic or commonly-used rules, procedures, or operations which typically requires some previous training or experience; OR Basic skill to operate equipment requiring some previous training or experience, such as keyboard equipment; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill. 3. Knowledge of a body of standardized rules, procedures, operations, good services, tools, or equipment requiring considerable training and experience to perform the full range of standard clerical assignments and resolve recurring problems; OR Skill, acquired through considerable training and experience, to operate and adjust varied equipment for purposes such as performing numerous standardized tests or operations; OR  OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  47  6. Knowledge of the principles, concepts, and methodology of a professional or administrative occupation as described at Level 1-5 which has been either: (a) supplemented by skill gained through job experience to permit independent performance of recurring assignments, or (b) supplemented by expanded professional or administrative knowledge gained through relevant graduate study or experience, which has provided skill in carrying out assignments, operations, and procedures in the occupation which are significantly more difficult and complex than those covered by Level 1-5; OR Practical knowledge of a wide range of technical methods, principles, and practices similar to a narrow area of a professional field, and skill in applying this knowledge to such assignments as the design and planning of difficult, but well-precedented projects; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  Supervision Received covers the nature and extent of direct or indirect controls exercised by the supervisor, the employee's responsibility and the review of completed work. Controls are exercised by the supervisor in the way assignments are made, instructions are given to the employee, priorities and deadlines are set, and objectives and boundaries are defined. Responsibility of the employee depends upon the extent to which the employee is expected to develop the sequence and timing of various aspects of the work, to modify or recommend modification of instructions, and to participate in establishing priorities and defining objectives. The degree of review of completed work depends upon the nature and extent of the review, e.g., close and detailed review of each phase of the assignment; detailed review of the finished assignment; spot-check of finished work for accuracy; or review only for adherence to policy. 1. For both one-of-a-kind and repetitive tasks the supervisor makes specific assignments that are accompanied by clear, detailed, and specific instructions. The employee works as instructed and consults with the supervisor as needed on all matters not specifically covered in the original instructions or guidelines. For all positions the work is closely controlled. For some positions, the control is through the structured nature of the work itself; for others, it may be controlled by the circumstances in which it is performed. In some situations, the supervisor maintains control through review of the work which may include checking progress or reviewing completed work for accuracy, adequacy, and adherence to instructions and established procedures.  7. Knowledge of a wide range of concepts, principles, and practices in a professional or administrative occupation, such as would be gained through extended graduate study or experience, and skill in applying this knowledge to difficult and complex work assignments; OR A comprehensive, intensive, practical knowledge of a technical field and skill in applying this knowledge to the development of new methods, approaches, or procedures; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill. 8. Mastery of a professional or administrative field to: Apply experimental theories and new developments to problems not susceptible to treatment by accepted methods; OR Make decisions or recommendations significantly changing, interpreting, or developing important public policies or programs; OR Equivalent knowledge or skill.  2. The supervisor provides continuing or individual assignments by indicating generally what is to be done, limitations, quality and quantity expected, deadlines, and priority of assignments. The supervisor provides additional, specific instructions for new, difficult, or unusual assignments including suggested work methods or advice on source material available. The employee uses initiative in carrying out recurring assignments independently without specific instruction, but refers deviations, problems, and unfamiliar situations not covered by instructions to the supervisor for decision or help. The supervisor assures that finished work and methods used are technically accurate and in compliance with instructions or established procedures. Review of the work increases with more difficult assignments if the employee has not previously performed similar assignments.  9 . Mastery of a professional field to generate and develop new hypotheses and theories; OR Equivalent knowledge and skill.  48  3. The supervisor makes assignments by defining objectives, priorities, and deadlines; and assists employee with unusual situations which do not have clear precedents. The employee plans and carries out the successive steps and handles problems and deviations in the work assignment in accordance with instructions, policies, previous training, or accepted practices in the occupation. Completed work is usually evaluated for technical soundness, appropriateness, and conformity to policy and requirements. The methods used in arriving at the end results are not usually reviewed in detail.  Guidelines covers the nature of guidelines and the judgment needed to apply them. Guides used in General Schedule occupations include, for example: desk manuals, established procedures and policies, traditional practices, and reference materials such as dictionaries, style manuals, engineering handbooks, and the pharmacopoeia. Individual jobs in different occupations vary in the specificity, applicability and availability of the guidelines for performance of assignments. Consequently, the constraints and judgmental demands placed upon employees also vary. For example, the existence of specific instructions, procedures, and policies may limit the opportunity of the employee to make or recommend decisions or actions. However, in the absence of procedures or under broadly stated objectives, employees in some occupations may use considerable judgment in researching literature and developing new methods.  4. The supervisor sets the overall objectives and resources available. The employee and supervisor, in consultation, develop the deadlines, projects, and work to be done. At this level, the employee, having developed expertise in the line of work, is responsible for planning and carrying out the assignment; resolving most of the conflicts which arise; coordinating the work with others as necessary; and interpreting policy on own initiative in terms of established objectives. In some assignments, the employee also determines the approach to be taken and the methodology to be used. The employee keeps the supervisor informed of progress, potentially controversial matters, or far-reaching implications. Completed work is reviewed only from an overall standpoint in terms of feasibility, compatibility with other work, or effectiveness in meeting requirements or expected results.  Guidelines should not be confused with the knowledges described under Factor 1, Knowledge. Guidelines either provide reference data or impose certain constraints on the use of knowledges. For example, in the field of medical technology, for a particular diagnosis there may be three or four standardized tests set forth in a technical manual. A medical technologist is expected to know these diagnostic tests. However, in a given laboratory the policy may be to use only one of the tests; or the policy may state specifically under what conditions one or the other of these tests may be used.  5. The supervisor provides administrative direction with assignments in terms of broadly defined missions or functions. The employee has responsibility for planning, designing, and carrying out programs, projects, studies, or other work independently. Results of the work are considered as technically authoritative and are normally accepted without significant change. If the work should be reviewed, the review concerns such matters as fulfillment of program objectives, effect of advice and influence of the overall program, or the contribution to the advancement of technology. Recommendations for new projects and alteration of objectives are usually evaluated for such considerations as availability of funds and other resources, broad program goals or priorities.  1. Specific, detailed guidelines covering all important aspects of the assignment are provided to the employee. The employee works in strict adherence to the guidelines; deviations must be authorized by the supervisor. 2. Procedures for doing the work have been established and a number of specific guidelines are available. The number and similarity of guidelines and work situations requires the employee to use judgment in locating and selecting the most appropriate guidelines, references, and procedures for application, and in making minor deviations to adapt the guidelines in specific cases. At this level, the employee may also determine which of several  49  Actions to be taken or responses to be made differ in such things as the source of information, the kind of transactions or entries, or other differences of a factual nature.  established alternatives to use. Situations to which the existing guidelines cannot be applied or significant proposed deviations from the guidelines are referred to the supervisor.  3. The work includes various duties involving different and unrelated processes and methods. The decision regarding what needs to be done depends upon the analysis of the subject, phase, or issues involved in each assignment, and the chosen course of action may have to be selected from many alternatives. The work involves conditions and elements that must be identified and analyzed to discern interrelationships. 4. The work typically includes varied duties requiring many different and unrelated processes and methods such as those relating to well-established aspects of an administrative or professional field. Decisions regarding what needs to be done include the assessment of unusual circumstances, variations in approach, and incomplete or conflicting data. The work requires making many decisions concerning such things as the interpreting of considerable data, planning of the work, or refining the methods and techniques to be used.  3. Guidelines are available, but are not completely applicable to the work or have gaps in specificity. The employee uses judgment in interpreting and adapting guidelines such as agency policies, regulations, precedents, and work directions for application to specific cases or problems. The employee analyzes results and recommends changes. 4. Administrative policies and precedents are applicable but are stated in general terms. Guidelines for performing the work are scarce or of limited use. The employee uses initiative and resourcefulness in deviating from traditional methods or researching trends and patterns to develop new methods, criteria, or proposed new policies. 5. Guidelines are broadly stated and nonspecific, e.g., broad policy statements and basic legislation which require extensive interpretation. The employee must use judgment and ingenuity in interpreting the intent of the guides that do exist and in developing applications to specific areas of work. Frequently, the employee is recognized as a technical authority in the development and interpretation of guidelines.  5. The work includes varied duties requiring many different and unrelated processes and methods applied to a broad range of activities or substantial depth of analysis, typically for an administrative or professional field. Decisions regarding what needs to be done include major areas of uncertainty in approach, methodology, or interpretation and evaluation processes resulting from such elements as continuing changes in program, technological developments, unknown phenomena, or conflicting requirements. The work requires originating new techniques, establishing criteria, or developing new information.  Complexity covers the nature, number, variety, and intricacy of tasks, steps, processes, or methods in the work performed; the difficulty in identifying what needs to be done; and the difficulty and originality involved in performing the work.  6. The work consists of broad functions and processes of an administrative or professional field. Assignments are characterized by breadth and intensity of effort and involve several phases being pursued concurrently or sequentially with the support of others within or outside of the organization. Decisions regarding what needs to be done include largely undefined issues and elements, requiring extensive probing and analysis to determine the nature and scope of the problems. The work requires continuing efforts to establish concepts, theories, or programs, or to resolve unyielding problems.  1. The work consists of tasks that are clear-cut and directly related. There is little or no choice to be made in deciding what needs to be done. Actions to be taken or responses to be made are readily discernible. The work is quickly mastered. 2. The work consists of duties that involve related steps, processes, or methods. The decision regarding what needs to be done involves various choices requiring the employee to recognize the existence of and differences among a few easily recognizable situations.  50  The programs are essential to the missions of the overall organization or affect large numbers of people on a long-term or continuing basis.  Scope and Effect covers the relationship between the nature of the work, i.e., the purpose, breadth, and depth of the assignment, and the effect of work products or services both within and outside the organization.  Personal Contact includes face-to-face contacts and telephone and radio dialogue with persons not in the supervisory chain. (NOTE: Personal contacts with supervisors are covered under Factor 2, Supervision Received. Levels described under this factor are based on what is required to make the initial contact, the difficulty of communicating with those contacted, and the setting in which the contact takes place (e.g., the degree to which the employee and those contacted recognize their relative roles and authorities).  Effect measures such things as whether the work output facilitates the work of others, provides timely services of a personal nature, or impacts on the adequacy of research conclusions. The concept of effect alone does not provide sufficient information to properly understand and evaluate the impact of the position. The scope of the work completes the picture, allowing consistent evaluations. Only the effect of properly performed work is to be considered.  Above the lowest level, points should be credited under this factor only for contacts which are essential for successful performance of the work and which have a demonstrable impact on the difficulty and responsibility of the work performed.  1. The work involves the performance of specific, routine operations that include a few separate tasks or procedures. The work product or service is required to facilitate the work of others; however, it has little impact beyond the immediate organizational unit or beyond the timely provision of limited services to others.  The relationship of Factors 6 (Personal Contacts) and 7 (Purpose of Contacts) presumes that the same contacts will be evaluated for both factors. Therefore, use the personal contacts which serve as the basis for the level selected for Factor 7 as the basis for selecting a level for Factor 6.  2. The work involves the execution of specific rules, regulations, or procedures and typically comprises a complete segment of an assignment or project of broader scope. The work product or service affects the accuracy, reliability, or acceptability of further processes or services.  1. The personal contacts are with employees within the immediate organization, office, project, or work unit, and in related or support units; AND/OR The contacts are with members of the general public in very highly structured situations (e.g., the purpose of the contact and the question of with whom to deal are relatively clear). Typical of contacts at this level are purchases of admission tickets at a ticket window.  3. The work involves treating a variety of conventional problems, questions, or situations in conformance with established criteria. The work product or service affects the design or operation of systems, programs, or equipment; the adequacy of such activities as field investigations, testing operations, or research conclusions; or the social, physical, and economic well being of persons. 4. The work involves establishing criteria; formulating projects; assessing program effectiveness; or investigating or analyzing variety of unusual conditions, problems, or questions. The work product or service affects a wide range of establishment activities, major activities of industrial concerns, or the operation of other organizations.  2. The personal contacts are with employees in the same overall organization, but outside the immediate organization. People contacted generally are engaged in different functions, missions, and kinds of work, e.g., representatives from various levels within the overall organizations such as headquarters, district offices, or local offices, plants, stores, or other operating units in the immediate installation. AND/OR The contacts are with members of the general public, as individuals or groups, in a moderately structured setting (e.g., the contacts are generally established on a routine basis, usually at the employee's work place; the exact purpose of the contact may be unclear at first to one or more of the parties; and one or more of the parties may be uninformed concerning the role and authority of other participants). Typical of contacts at this level are those with persons seeking airline reservations or with job applicants at a job information center.  5. The work involves isolating and defining unknown conditions, resolving critical problems, or developing new theories. The work product or service affects the work of other experts, the development of major aspects of administrative or scientific programs or missions, or the well-being of substantial numbers of people. 6. The work involves planning, developing, and carrying out vital administrative or scientific programs. 51  OR The purpose is to interrogate or control persons or groups who may be fearful, uncooperative, or dangerous. Therefore, the employee must be skillful in approaching the individual or group in order to obtain the desired effect, such as, gaining compliance with established policies and regulations by persuasion or negotiation, or gaining information by establishing rapport with a suspicious informant.  3. The personal contacts are with individuals or groups from outside the employing establishment in a moderately unstructured setting (e.g., the contacts are not established on a routine basis; the purpose and extent of each contact is different and the role and authority of each party is identified and developed during the course of the contact). Typical of contacts at this level are those with persons in their capacities as attorneys; contractors; or representatives of professional organizations, the news media, or public action groups.  4. The purpose is to justify, defend, negotiate, or settle matters involving significant or controversial issues. Work at this level usually involves active participation in conferences, meetings, hearings, or presentations involving problems or issues of considerable consequence or importance. The persons contacted typically have diverse viewpoints, goals, or objectives requiring the employee to achieve a common understanding of the problem and a satisfactory solution by convincing them, arriving at a compromise, or developing suitable alternatives.  4. The personal contacts are with high-ranking officials from outside the employing establishment at national or international levels in highly unstructured settings (e.g., contacts are characterized by problems such as: the officials may be relatively inaccessible; arrangements may have to be made for accompanying staff members; appointments may have to be made well in advance; each party may be very unclear as to the role and authority of the other; and each contact may be conducted under different ground rules). Typical of contacts at this level are those with presidents of large national or international firms, nationally recognized representatives of the news media, presidents of national unions, members of Congress, leading representatives of foreign governments, state governors, or mayors of large cities.  Physical Demands covers the requirements and physical demands placed on the employee by the work assignment. This includes physical characteristics and abilities (e.g., specific agility and dexterity requirements) and the physical exertion involved in the work (e.g., climbing, lifting, pushing, balancing, stooping, kneeling, crouching, crawling, or reaching). To some extent the frequency or intensity of physical exertion must also be considered, e.g., a job requiring prolonged standing involves more physical exertion than a job requiring intermittent standing.  Purpose of Contacts ranges from factual exchanges of information to situations involving significant or controversial issues and differing viewpoints, goals, or objectives. The personal contacts which serve as the basis for the level selected for this factor must be the same as the contacts which are the basis for the level selected for Factor 6.  1. The work is sedentary. Typically, the employee may sit comfortably to do the work. However, there may be some walking; standing; bending; carrying of light items such as papers, books, small parts; driving an automobile, etc. No special physical demands are required to perform the work.  1. The purpose is to obtain, clarify, or give facts or information regardless of the nature of those facts, i.e., the facts or information may range from easily understood to highly technical.  2. The work requires some physical exertion such as long periods of standing; walking over rough, uneven, or rocky surfaces; recurring bending, crouching, stooping, stretching, reaching, or similar activities; recurring lifting of moderately heavy items such as typewriters and record boxes. The work may require specific, but common, physical characteristics and abilities such as above-average agility and dexterity.  2. The purpose is to plan, coordinate, or advise on work efforts or to resolve operating problems by influencing or motivating individuals or groups who are working toward mutual goals and who have basically cooperative attitudes. 3. The purpose is to influence, motivate, convince, or question persons or groups. Those contacted may be hesitant or skeptical, so the employee must be skillful in approaching the individual or group in order to obtain the desired response.  3. The work requires considerable and strenuous physical exertion such as frequent climbing of tall ladders, lifting heavy objects over 50 pounds, crouching or crawling in restricted areas and defending oneself or others against physical attack.  52  Supervisory Duties describes the level of supervisory responsibility for a position.  Work Environment considers the risks and discomforts in the employee's physical surroundings or the nature of the work assignment and the safety regulations required. Although the use of safety precautions can practically eliminate a certain danger or discomfort, such situations typically place additional demands upon the employee in carrying out safety regulations and techniques.  1. No supervisory responsibility. 2. A nonsupervisory position. Incumbent sets the pace of work for the group and shows other workers in the group how to perform assigned tasks. Commonly performs the same work as the group, in addition to lead duties. Can also be called group leader, team leader, or lead worker.  1. The work environment involves everyday risks or discomforts which require normal safety precautions typical of such places as offices, meeting and training rooms, libraries, and residences or commercial vehicles, e.g., use of safe work practices with office equipment, avoidance of trips and falls, observance of fire regulations and traffic signals, etc. The work area is adequately lighted, heated, and ventilated.  3. Directs staff through face to face meetings. Organizational structure is not complex and internal and administrative procedures are simple. Performing the same work as subordinates is not the principal duty. Typically, this is the first supervisory level. 4. Directs staff through intermediate supervisors. Internal procedures and administrative controls are formal. Organizational structure is complex and is divided into subordinate groups that may differ from each other as to subject matter and function.  2. The work involves moderate risks or discomforts which require special safety precautions, e.g., working around moving parts, carts, or machines; with contagious diseases or irritant chemicals; etc. Employees may be required to use protective clothing or gear such as masks, gowns, coats, boots, goggles, gloves, or shields.  5. Directs staff through two or more subordinate supervisory levels with several subdivisions at each level. Programs are usually inter-locked on a direct and continuing basis with other organizational segments, requiring constant attention to extensive formal coordination, clearances, and procedural controls.  3. The work environment involves high risks with exposure to potentially dangerous situations or unusual environmental stress which require a range of safety and other precautions, e.g., working at great heights under extreme outdoor weather conditions, subject to possible physical attack or mob conditions, or similar situations where conditions cannot be controlled.  53  Appendix D. Evaluating Your Firm’s Jobs  Level 2.  To compare data on their firm’s jobs with statistics contained in this bulletin, data users need to be able to determine their jobs’ work levels. Using the example of a dental hygienist, this appendix will go through the procedure for determining the work level of a particular job. To determine the work level of a job, it must be evaluated using the generic leveling factors. With the information available, such as a written position description and other knowledge of the job, each factor must be reviewed. Comparing that information to the descriptions of each level within a factor as shown in Appendix C, the level best matching the job should be chosen and recorded. (Note that the number of levels varies by factor.)  Scope and effect In terms of process, the dentist’s work follows the hygienist’s. In terms of effect, the hygienist could give a harmful x-ray or miss plaque on the teeth. Level 2. Personal contacts Patients come to the clinic or occasionally the hygienist will travel to perform work or give a talk at a school. Level 2.  Generic leveling: an example  Purpose of contacts Most of hygienist’s interaction is with patients; no planning or coordination work is involved.  Knowledge Hygienist must have a dental hygienist license which requires 2 years of schooling and passage of a technical exam. This is a mid-level hygienist job, which means a worker must have at least 3 years of experience. The procedures are essentially the same every day, such as cleaning teeth, checking gums, and taking x-rays.  Level 1. Physical demands The work is sedentary. Level 1.  Level 4.  Work environment Hygienist must take precautions not to be exposed to xrays, punctures, etc.  Supervision received Most of the tasks are performed without supervision. For more complicated procedures, such as tooth filling, the dental hygienist assists the dentist.  Level 2.  Level 2.  Supervisory duties A dental hygienist at this level does not supervise anyone.  Guidelines A hygienist knows which procedure to use for different dental problems. Unusual situations are handled after checking with the supervisor.  Level 1.  Level 2.  Assigning points  Complexity Each procedure performed leads to the next, for example, examining gums, scraping plaque, then cleaning teeth.  Once the correct level has been identified within each factor, the points associated with each level are recorded. Summing the points for all factors gives the total points for the job. Using the factors above and the table at the end of this section showing the points associated with each 54  level within a factor, a sample worksheet was filled out for the dental hygienist position.  identified by a point range. The 1,020 total points for the dental hygienist job puts it in level 5.  Generic leveling worksheet  Point ranges by work level  Company job title: Dental Hygienist Factor  Range of Generic Level Points  Level  Points  Knowledge  4  550  Supervision received  2  125  Guidelines  2  125  Complexity  2  75  Scope and effect  2  75  Personal contacts  2  25  Purpose of contacts  2  20  Physical demands  1  5  Work environment  2  20  Supervisory duties  1  0  Total  5  1020  Level  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  Low  High  190 255 455 655 855 1105 1355 1605 1855 2105 2355 2755 3155 3605 4055 and up  254 454 654 854 1104 1354 1604 1854 2104 2354 2754 3154 3604 4054  Comparing wages Once the work level has been identified for a job, wages for that job can be compared to wages for similar jobs at the same work level. BLS publishes hourly wage rates by work level within nine major occupational groups, which are combinations of similar individual occupations. The groups and work levels available vary by area. Employers can also use the data on work levels to compare different jobs in their establishment.  Determining the work level The following chart takes the point total determined using the worksheet and converts it to an overall work level for the job. There are 15 work levels, based on those used to rank Federal civil service white-collar jobs, each  Points associated with each factor level Factor Knowledge Supervision required Guidelines Complexity Scope and effect Personal contacts Purpose of contacts Physical demands Work environment Supervisory duties  1 50 25 25 25 25 10 20 5 5 0  2 200 125 125 75 75 25 50 20 20 251  3 35 275 275 150 150 60 120 50 50 502  4 550 450 450 225 225 110 220 X X 1003  5 750 650 650 325 325 X X X X 1504  6 950 X X 450 450 X X X X X  7 1250 X X X X X X X X X  8 1550 X X X X X X X X X  9 1850 X X X X X X X X X  Note: X indicates that a level is not associated with a given factor. For example, for physical demands, point levels 1, 2, and 3 are the only choices.  55
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