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COMP2000 Pilot Survey Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area May–June 1996 __________________________________________________________________________________________________ U.S. Department of Labor Robert B. Reich, Secretary Bureau of Labor Statistics Katharine G. Abraham, Commissioner October 1996 Bulletin 3082-2  Preface  T  of the Philadelphia Regional Office. The Office of Compensation and Working Conditions, in cooperation with the Office of Field Operations and the Office of Technology and Survey Processing, in the BLS National Office was responsible for the survey design and data processing and analysis.  his survey of occupational pay was conducted in May/June 1996 in the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). The MSA includes the counties of Carbon, Lehigh, and Northampton. Allentown is the second area selected for a series of tests using a new way of identifying and classifying occupations in establishments. The revised data collection procedure introduces a new method for determining the level of duties and responsibilities of surveyed occupations. This method, called “generic leveling,” will replace the job classification system now used in the Occupational Compensation Survey program (OCS). An entirely new statistical program will replace the existing OCS program, Employment Cost Index, and Employee Benefit Survey series. The working title of the program is COMP2000. Hourly wage rates for various occupational classifications compose the bulk of the information contained in this bulletin. One table contains data on weekly wage rates. Tables showing the number of workers included in the wage data are also presented. The bulletin consists primarily of tables whose data are analyzed in the initial textual section. Also contained in this bulletin is information on the new COMP2000 program, a technical note describing survey procedures, and several appendixes with detailed information on occupational classifications and the generic leveling methodology. Survey data were collected and reviewed by Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) field economists under the direction  Where to find more information For additional information regarding this survey, please contact the BLS Philadelphia Regional Office at (215) 596-1154. You may also write to the Bureau of Labor Statistics at: Division of Compensation Data Analysis and Planning, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20212-0001, or call (202) 606-6220. The data contained in this bulletin are also available on the Internet’s World Wide Web through the BLS site: http://stats.bls.gov/comhome.htm Data are in ASCII files containing exactly the published table format. Electronic files for future surveys will contain positional columns of data in an ASCII file for easy manipulation as a data base or spreadsheet. A third format will be Portable Document Format that will contain the entire bulletin. Material in this bulletin is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. This information will be made available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Voice phone: (202) 606-7828; TDD phone: (202) 606-5897; TDD message referral phone: 1-800-326-2577.  iii  Contents  Page A New Compensation Survey .............................................................................................................. Wages in the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA metropolitan area......................................................  1 2  Appendixes: A. Technical note.......................................................................................................................... B. Occupational classifications...................................................................................................... C. Generic leveling criteria ........................................................................................................... D. Evaluating your firm’s jobs ......................................................................................................  34 40 48 52  Tables: 1. Number of workers by occupation ............................................................................................ 2. Hourly earnings for selected occupations .................................................................................. 3. Hourly earnings for selected occupations, full-time workers only.............................................. 4. Hourly earnings for selected occupations, part-time workers only............................................. 5. Weekly earnings for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only ......................... 6. Number of workers by occupational group and level................................................................. 7. Hourly earnings by occupational group and level...................................................................... 8. Number of workers by occupational group and selected characteristic ...................................... 9. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries ..................... 10. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, private industry ................. 11. Hourly earnings by occupational group and selected characteristic, State and local government. 12. Number of workers by occupational group and industry, private industry ................................. 13. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry ...................................... 14. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry, full-time workers only .. 15. Hourly earnings by occupational group and industry, private industry, part-time workers only . 16. Number of workers by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry........................................................................................................................ 17. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry... 18. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry, full-time workers only ............................................................................................................. 19. Hourly earnings by occupational group and establishment employment size, private industry, part-time workers only ............................................................................................................  4 7 10 13 14 16 19 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33  Appendix tables: A1. Number of establishments studied by industry and establishment employment size.................. A2. Relative standard errors of mean hourly earnings for selected occupations...............................  v  38 39  A New Compensation Survey  T  his bulletin represents the second test results of a new Bureau of Labor Statistics program called COMP2000. COMP2000 integrates three existing programs: the Occupational Compensation Survey (OCS), the Employment Cost Index (ECI), and the Employee Benefits Survey (EBS), into one comprehensive compensation program. Data from the new survey will be jointly collected from one common sample of establishments. The survey has several major goals: To make the most efficient use of available resources—dollars, people, and technology; to minimize the burden of collection on respondents; and to provide a wide range of statistical outputs reflecting up-to-date economic and statistical concepts. The streamlining of programs and the addition of data will be phased in over time. At first, testing will concentrate on wage level data (such as contained in this bulletin) and the collection of demographic characteristics of workers (e.g., length of service). In Fall 1996, a new areabased sample will be put into place that will allow for the collection of wage data based on the methods refined in the early tests. The larger metropolitan area collections will yield bulletins similar to this one, which will replace the current Occupational Compensation Survey bulletins. Further testing concerning benefit data, wage trend data, and other compensation characteristics will begin within the next year. Based on those test results, new collection procedures for those types of statistics will be developed. The new procedures will be implemented beginning in 1998. Eventually, wage data and benefit information collected from the sample will be used to produce compensation indexes and statistics on benefit provisions and incidence. These new series will supplant the current ECI and EBS programs.  COMP2000 versus OCS The wage data in this bulletin differ from those in previous Occupational Compensation Survey bulletins by providing broader coverage of occupations and establishments within the survey area. The same holds for all future COMP2000 products. Occupations surveyed for this bulletin were selected using probability techniques from a list of all those present in each establishment. Previous OCS bulletins were limited to a preselected list of occupations, which represented a small subset of all occupations in the economy. Information in the new bulletin is published for a variety of occupation-based data. This new approach includes data on broad occupational classification, such as white-collar workers, major occupational groups such as sales workers, and individual occupations such as cashiers. In tables containing job levels within occupational series, the levels are derived from generic standards that apply to all occupational groups. The job levels in the OCS bulletins were based on narrowly-defined descriptions that were not comparable across specific occupations. Occupational data in this bulletin are also tabulated for other classifications such as industry group, full-time versus part-time status, union versus nonunion status, and establishment employment size. Not all of these series were generated by the OCS program. Finally, the establishments surveyed in this bulletin were selected from among all private and State and local government establishments. Previous OCS samples were limited to establishments with 50 or more employees. The wider scope of the COMP2000 program means that virtually all workers in the Allentown metropolitan statistical area are covered, excluding only private household and farm workers and employees of the Federal Government.  1  Wages in the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA metropolitan area  Private industry workers, about 88 percent of the Allentown labor force studied, averaged $13.11 per hour, while State and local government workers earned $18.61 per hour (chart 1). (All comparisons in this analysis cover hourly rates for both full- and part-time workers, unless otherwise noted.) The difference in wages between the private and government sectors reflects several factors (chart 2). First, there was a greater proportion of higher paid, professional specialty and technical workers in State and local governments (40 percent of all employees) than in private industry (14 percent). Similarly, there was a greater proportion of government employees in service occupations (25 percent) than there were in the private sector (15 percent). Service workers in State and local governments, which included such jobs as police officers and firefighters, average $12.24 per hour compared to an average of $7.19 per hour for private sector service workers, which were more often food and health-related occupations.  S  traight-time wages in the Allentown-BethlehemEaston metropolitan area averaged $13.73 per hour during May and June, 1996 (table 2). White-collar workers had the highest average wage level, $16.32 per hour. Blue-collar workers averaged $11.99 per hour, while service workers had average earnings of $8.26 per hour. Within each of these occupational groups, average wages for individual occupations varied widely. For example, white-collar occupations included financial managers at $28.49 per hour, licensed practical nurses at $13.98 per hour, and receptionists at $9.14 per hour. Among occupations in the blue-collar category, electricians averaged $18.34 per hour while hand packers and packagers averaged $8.09 per hour. Finally, service workers included waiters and waitresses at $3.16 per hour (not including tips) and police and detectives, public service at $16.38 per hour. Table 2 presents earnings data for 84 detailed occupations; data for other detailed occupations could not be reported separately due to concerns about the confidentiality of survey respondents.  Chart 1. Average hourly wage rates by industry, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996  Chart 2. Distribution of employment by occupational group, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996  Dollars per hour $ 20  Percent  Private  70 State & local  15  60 50  10  40 30  5  20 10  0 All industries  Private industry  0  State and local government  White-collar  2  Blue-collar  Service  lower and higher levels of work in the professional specialty occupations and executive, administrative, and managerial occupations was significantly higher than in any of the blue-collar and service occupations. To illustrate, professional specialty occupations’ wages ranged from an average of $10.09 per hour to $38.53 per hour. Union workers had higher hourly wage rates ($16.12) in Allentown than nonunion workers ($13.01) (table 9). Approximately 22 percent of the employees in Allentown were classified as union employees. Data are also available on average wages for employees paid on an incentive basis (typically a base pay plus commission or piece work) and employees paid strictly based on time (table 9). Average pay for incentive workers, six percent of the Allentown workforce, was $13.33 per hour, very similar to the $13.75 per hour for time-based employees. However, among sales occupations, incentive workers averaged $26.86 per hour compared with an average of $9.81 per hour for time-based sales workers. In the private sector, hourly wages averaged $14.46 in goods-producing industries compared with $12.30 in service-producing industries (table 13). However, average hourly wages varied more widely between industry divisions.  Average wages for full-time workers in Allentown were $14.67 per hour, compared with an average of $7.70 per hour for part-time workers (tables 3-4). For some occupations, there was a large difference in wages between full- and part-time workers. For example, full-time truckdrivers averaged $12.01 per hour compared with $8.55 per hour for their part-time counterparts. In other occupations, wages varied only slightly based on full- or parttime work schedule. Wages for higher levels of work within major occupational groups usually were greater than for lower-level work (table 7). This general pattern can vary somewhat depending on the mix of specific occupations (and industries) represented by the broad group. A given level within a group may not have data because no workers were identified at that level or because there were not enough data to guarantee confidentiality. Among professional specialty occupations, workers at level 5 (typically entry level workers with a college degree) averaged $10.09 per hour. Workers at level 11, considered a fully functional professional, averaged $23.93 per hour. Finally, at the more senior level 13, professionals averaged $37.06 per hour. Blue-collar and service occupations were typically classified at lower work levels. The range in wages between  3  Table 1. Number of workers studied by occupation, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 Full-time and part-time workers2 Occupation1  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .............................. White-collar occupations .................................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ Professional specialty occupations ........... Mechanical engineers ........................... Engineers, N.E.C. ................................. Computer systems analysts and scientists ......................................... Operations and systems researchers and analysts ................................... Registered nurses ................................ Elementary school teachers ................. Secondary school teachers .................. Teachers, N.E.C. .................................. Substitute teachers ............................... Social workers ...................................... Technical occupations .............................. Licensed practical nurses ..................... Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ............................................. Electrical and electronic technicians ..... Mechanical engineering technicians ..... Drafters ................................................. Computer programmers ....................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Financial managers .............................. Administrators, education and related fields ............................................... Managers, medicine and health ........... Managers and administrators, N.E.C. .. Accountants and auditors ..................... Other financial officers .......................... Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. Management related occupations, N.E.C. ............................................. Sales occupations ........................................ Supervisors, sales occupations ............ Sales workers, apparel ......................... Sales workers, other commodities ........ Sales counter clerks ............................. Cashiers ............................................... Sales support occupations, N.E.C. ....... Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ Secretaries ........................................... Typists .................................................. Receptionists ........................................ Order clerks .......................................... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks .............................................. Payroll and timekeeping clerks ............. Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ... Stock and inventory clerks .................... Investigators and adjusters except insurance ........................................ General office clerks ............................. Data entry keyers ................................. Teachers’ aides .................................... Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ............................................. White-collar occupations excluding sales .....  All industries  State and local government  Private industry  234,553 206,559 215,616 187,956 121,053 103,377  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  27,994 178,503 157,442 27,660 168,304 147,541 17,676 95,340 81,662  21,061 20,763 13,678  56,050 47,312 25,713  49,117 40,415 21,715  6,933 6,896 3,998  8,635 7,943 – –  6,091 4,443 – –  3,428 1,780 – –  2,663 2,663 – –  All industries  39,820 30,434 964 539  28,522 19,827 964 539  11,298 10,606 – –  33,729 25,990 964 539  25,094 18,047 964 539  2,005  1,909  –  2,005  1,909  485 4,736 2,842 2,152 919 1,783 1,813 9,386 2,056  485 4,166 – – – – – 8,695 1,569  485 3,571 2,842 2,152 588 – 1,682 7,738 1,297  485 3,263 – – – – – 7,047 –  905 1,204 390 813 1,042  – 1,204 390 813 1,042  905 1,204 390 813 895  – 1,204 390 813 895  16,662 1,464  14,915 1,412  1,747 –  16,271 1,464  14,523 1,412  688 571 3,997 1,453 789 969  – 562 3,858 1,364 789 969  481 – – – – –  688 480 3,997 1,453 789 969  3,190 18,937 657 1,159 5,318 1,186 5,740 633  2,747 18,603 – 1,159 5,318 1,186 5,470 633  443 – – – – – – –  45,634 5,898 722 1,750 1,131  41,337 4,921 623 1,723 1,131  3,849 836 1,593 1,789  – 570 2,655 2,025 – 1,783 1,084 691 – – – – – –  – – – 2,655 2,025 – – 953 691 –  – 1,164 – – – 1,783 – 1,648 759  – – 902 – – – – – 1,648 759  – – – – – – 1,783 – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  1,747 –  – –  – –  – –  – 471 3,858 1,364 789 969  481 – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  2,890 10,199 657 – 2,368 – 1,962 633  2,447 9,901 – – 2,368 – 1,692 633  443 – – – – – – –  – 8,738 – – 2,950 – 3,778 –  – 8,701 – – 2,950 – 3,778 –  4,296 977 – – –  35,142 4,175 578 1,344 1,038  32,143 3,448 – 1,344 1,038  2,999 727 – – –  10,492 1,723 – – –  9,194 1,472 – – –  3,497 836 1,593 1,664  352 – – –  2,929 836 1,416 1,392  2,644 836 1,416 1,267  284 – – –  921 – – –  1,399 7,064 911 1,123  1,349 6,300 868 –  – 764 – 1,123  1,326 4,916 642 –  1,276 4,387 599 –  – 528 – –  – 2,148 – 585  – 1,912 – –  – – – 585  1,828 102,116  1,710 84,774  – 17,342  1,251 85,141  1,133 71,760  – 13,381  – 16,975  – 13,014  – 3,961  See footnotes at end of table.  4  – – – – –  –  – – – –  – – – – – – – – 1,298 – – – – – – – –  Table 1. Number of workers studied by occupation, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers2 Occupation1  Blue-collar occupations .................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ............................................ Automobile mechanics ......................... Industrial machinery repairers .............. Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. .......... Carpenters ............................................ Electricians ........................................... Plumbers, pipefitters and steamfitters .. Roofers ................................................. Supervisors, production occupations .... Machinists ............................................. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ............................................... Printing press operators ....................... Textile sewing machine operators ........ Packaging and filling machine operators ........................................ Painting and paint spraying machine operators ........................................ Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. ............................................. Welders and cutters .............................. Assemblers ........................................... Production inspectors, checkers and examiners ....................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ............................................ Truck drivers ......................................... Bus drivers ............................................ Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators ........................................ Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators, N.E.C. .......... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................................................... Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm ................................................ Helpers, mechanics and repairers ........ Helpers, construction trades ................. Production helpers ................................ Stock handlers and baggers ................. Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ............................................. Hand packers and packagers ............... Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ... Service occupations ......................................... Police and detectives, public service .... Guards and police except public service ............................................ Bartenders ............................................ Waiters and waitresses ........................ Cooks ................................................... Food counter, fountain, and related occupations .................................... Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants Maids and housemen ........................... Janitors and cleaners ...........................  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  74,878  71,614  21,463 1,421 1,520 1,984 1,042 588 738 1,334 2,080 629  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  3,264  64,197  61,730  2,467  10,681  20,934 1,359 1,482 – 1,004 547 738 1,334 2,041 629  529 – – – – – – – – –  20,681 1,421 1,490 1,984 1,042 588 738 1,334 2,080 629  20,152 1,359 1,451 – 1,004 547 738 1,334 2,041 629  529 – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – –  26,716 595 4,696  26,401 595 4,696  – – –  25,219 595 4,160  24,904 595 4,160  – – –  1,017  1,017  –  1,017  1,017  –  –  –  –  1,114  1,114  –  1,114  1,114  –  –  –  –  2,015 775 3,702  2,015 775 3,702  – – –  2,015 775 3,543  2,015 775 3,543  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  955  955  –  955  955  –  –  –  –  9,730 4,900 2,426  8,342 4,732 1,664  6,266 3,781 –  5,388 3,613 –  878 – –  1,287  1,287  –  1,287  1,287  –  –  –  –  –  306  –  –  –  –  306  1,388 – 762  –  16,970  15,937  592 1,036 1,325 803 4,073  – – 1,325 803 4,073  759 2,428 3,482 38,622 1,286  759 2,428 3,482 31,568 –  1,403 861 3,637 3,901  1,403 861 3,637 3,810  2,453 4,132 4,210 1,179 5,447  2,234 3,606 3,237 1,051 3,620  1,033 – – – – – – – – 7,054 1,286 – – – – – 526 973 – 1,827  See footnotes at end of table.  5  –  12,031  11,286  592 1,036 – – 2,227  – – – – 2,227  727 1,757 2,684 18,966 1,286  727 1,757 2,684 14,051 –  788 – 849 2,278  788 – 849 2,234  – 1,951 2,050 1,040 2,945  – 1,866 1,274 912 1,639  745 – – – – – – – – 4,915 1,286 – – – – – – – – 1,306  All industries  1,496 – –  3,464 1,119 2,173  Private industry  State and local government  9,884  797  – – – – – – – – – – 1,496 – –  2,954 1,119 1,664  – – – – – – – – – – – – –  509 – 509  4,938  4,651  –  – – – – 1,846  – – – – 1,846  – – – – –  – 671 – 19,656 –  – 671 – 17,518 –  615 – 2,788 1,623  615 – 2,788 1,575  – – – –  1,757 2,181 2,159 – 2,502  1,538 1,740 1,962 – 1,981  – – – – 521  – – – 2,139 –  Table 1. Number of workers studied by occupation, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers2 Occupation1  Child care workers, N.E.C. ................... Service occupations, N.E.C.. ................  All industries  499 2,307  State and local government  Private industry  – 2,217  – –  1 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm,  Full-time workers  All industries  – 1,017  Private industry  – 928  Part-time workers  State and local government – –  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  – –  – –  499 –  where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  6  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median All workers .................................................. $13.73 $11.85 All workers excluding sales .................... 13.85 12.01 White-collar occupations ........................ 16.32 13.91 Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. 21.32 19.00 Professional specialty occupations 23.21 21.03 Mechanical engineers ................. 22.34 – Engineers, N.E.C. ....................... 29.11 – Computer systems analysts and scientists ............................... 22.73 20.92 Operations and systems researchers and analysts ..... 18.81 – Registered nurses ...................... 19.17 18.63 Elementary school teachers ....... 33.81 34.57 Secondary school teachers ........ 32.39 32.14 Teachers, N.E.C. ........................ 25.61 – Substitute teachers ..................... 9.90 – Social workers ............................ 13.59 12.31 Technical occupations .................... 15.44 14.84 Licensed practical nurses ........... 13.98 14.15 Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ............... 14.13 – Electrical and electronic technicians ............................ 14.53 – Mechanical engineering technicians ............................ 17.97 – Drafters ....................................... 15.45 – Computer programmers ............. 15.99 – Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ 23.18 21.63 Financial managers .................... 28.49 – Administrators, education and related fields ......................... 29.35 – Managers, medicine and health 24.71 – Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ................................... 27.60 28.13 Accountants and auditors ........... 15.49 – Other financial officers ................ 14.17 – Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. ................................... 20.18 – Management related occupations, N.E.C. .............. 19.32 19.23 Sales occupations .............................. 12.09 8.26 Supervisors, sales occupations .. 15.95 – Sales workers, apparel ............... 5.51 – Sales workers, other commodities ......................... 14.04 8.26 Sales counter clerks ................... 8.13 – Cashiers ..................................... 7.27 6.05 Sales support occupations, N.E.C. ................................... 10.50 – Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... 10.59 9.75 Secretaries ................................. 11.31 11.25 Typists ........................................ 10.00 – Receptionists .............................. 9.14 8.40 Order clerks ................................ 11.92 11.69 Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ....................... 11.01 9.23 Payroll and timekeeping clerks ... 10.20 – Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks .................................... 9.17 – Stock and inventory clerks .......... 9.69 9.52 Investigators and adjusters except insurance .................. 15.21 14.81 General office clerks ................... 10.07 9.47 Data entry keyers ....................... 8.81 – Teachers’ aides .......................... 8.74 –  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $8.01 - $16.79 $13.11 $11.36 8.38 - 17.00 13.20 11.67 9.20 - 20.33 15.35 13.46  $7.80 - $16.32 $18.61 $14.56 8.00 - 16.50 18.66 14.32 8.93 - 19.00 22.61 19.85  14.62 17.05 – –  26.25 28.86 – –  19.41 21.02 22.34 29.11  18.12 20.00 – –  14.52 16.73 – –  22.13 24.59 – –  27.08 28.25 – –  27.08 28.47 – –  17.74 -  28.80  22.42  20.82  17.74 -  30.09  –  –  – 17.60 27.14 25.60 – – 9.62 13.05 13.33 -  – 20.33 41.87 39.93 – – 16.10 17.31 14.75  18.81 19.11 – – – – – 15.61 14.34  – 18.63 – – – – – 15.00 –  – 17.60 – – – – – 13.05 –  – 20.23 – – – – – 17.31 –  – 19.70 35.56 32.97 – 9.90 16.15 13.52 –  – – 36.20 32.80 – – – – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.53  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – –  – – –  17.97 15.45 15.99  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  28.26 –  23.09 28.81  21.49 –  28.13 –  24.00 –  22.16 –  – –  – 24.77  – –  – –  31.41 –  – –  – –  – –  33.31 – –  27.77 15.28 14.17  28.13 – –  34.85 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  20.18  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.48 6.00 – –  23.05 14.17 – –  19.93 12.03 – 5.51  20.76 8.25 – –  15.50 6.00 – –  23.05 13.80 – –  15.65 – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  6.50 – 5.25 -  11.00 – 8.10  14.04 8.13 6.73  8.26 – 5.80  6.50 – 5.10 -  11.00 – 7.56  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  10.50  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.00 9.00 – 7.65 7.50 -  12.36 13.63 – 10.51 16.33  10.54 11.11 9.78 9.12 11.92  9.63 11.18 – 8.40 11.69  7.88 8.65 – 7.65 7.50 -  12.29 13.58 – 10.51 16.33  11.13 12.33 – – –  10.92 – – – –  8.25 –  13.75 –  10.76 10.20  9.23 –  8.00 –  13.75 –  13.79 –  – –  – –  – –  – 8.00 -  – 11.50  9.17 9.24  – 9.00  – 8.00 -  – 9.92  – –  – –  – –  – –  10.04 7.97 – –  20.33 11.11 – –  15.27 10.01 8.81 –  – 9.35 – –  – 7.70 – –  – 11.11 – –  – 10.54 – 8.74  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  15.87 – – – 20.66 – – –  –  See footnotes at end of table.  7  15.87 – – – 20.66 – – –  $10.92 - $25.09 10.85 - 25.33 12.49 - 31.46 16.55 19.36 – – – – – 28.51 26.76 – – – – –  15.39 –  9.15 – – – –  36.78 37.51 – – – – – 41.91 40.98 – – – – –  30.43 –  13.05 – – – –  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. .............. $10.47 $10.75 White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. 17.01 14.62 Blue-collar occupations .......................... 11.99 11.60 Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................. 14.83 14.66 Automobile mechanics ............... 12.32 – Industrial machinery repairers .... 14.62 14.48 Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. 14.86 – Carpenters .................................. 12.53 – Electricians ................................. 18.34 – Plumbers, pipefitters and steamfitters ........................... 19.05 – Roofers ....................................... 15.01 – Supervisors, production occupations .......................... 16.06 16.75 Machinists ................................... 14.05 – Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ..................................... 11.19 10.19 Printing press operators ............. 11.96 – Textile sewing machine operators .............................. 7.53 6.99 Packaging and filling machine operators .............................. 12.47 – Painting and paint spraying machine operators ................ 15.49 – Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. .................. 10.80 10.00 Welders and cutters .................... 16.78 – Assemblers ................................. 15.10 20.10 Production inspectors, checkers and examiners ...................... 11.15 – Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. 11.60 11.67 Truck drivers ............................... 11.59 11.46 Bus drivers .................................. 9.74 10.83 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators ............. 13.48 – Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators, N.E.C. 13.86 – Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... 9.53 9.22 Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm ........................... 8.39 – Helpers, mechanics and repairers ............................... 12.61 – Helpers, construction trades ....... 8.44 – Production helpers ...................... 11.43 – Stock handlers and baggers ....... 8.80 9.06 Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ................... 10.82 – Hand packers and packagers ..... 8.09 7.25 Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ................................... 9.74 8.30 Service occupations ............................... 8.26 7.50 Police and detectives, public service .................................. 16.38 – Guards and police except public service .................................. 8.50 – Bartenders .................................. 4.75 – Waiters and waitresses .............. 3.16 2.41 Cooks ......................................... 8.23 8.25 Food counter, fountain, and related occupations .............. 6.21 – Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ................................... 8.05 6.50 Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ............................. 8.58 8.13  Middle range  Mean Median  $8.47 - $11.75 $10.32 $10.25  Middle range  $8.00 - $11.59  9.90 8.25 -  21.19 15.00  15.97 12.00  14.25 11.54  9.55 8.10 -  12.00 – 13.81 – – –  17.13 – 15.68 – – –  14.85 12.27 14.60 – 12.55 18.44  14.70 – – – – –  12.00 – – – – –  – –  19.05 15.01  – –  14.42 –  17.92 –  16.03 14.05  16.75 –  7.39 –  14.32 –  11.21 11.96  6.05 -  8.66  7.53  –  –  –  Mean Median  –  –  20.00 $22.77 $20.00 15.25 11.87 12.32  Middle range  –  –  $12.37 - $31.80 9.85 - 13.82  17.14 – – – – –  14.14 – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  14.42 –  18.27 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  10.28 –  7.39 –  14.41 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  6.99  6.05 -  8.66  –  –  –  –  12.47  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.49  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  13.60 – 20.10  10.80 16.78 15.10  10.00 – 20.10  13.60 – 20.10  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  11.15  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.27 14.27 12.00  11.40 11.60 8.28  11.34 11.46 –  14.21 14.28 –  12.93 – 12.95  13.00 – –  –  –  13.48  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  9.51  9.13  6.75 -  9.94  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – – 6.50 -  – – – 10.99  – 8.44 11.43 8.80  – – – 9.06  – – – 6.50 -  – – – 10.99  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – 6.00 -  – 10.00  10.82 8.09  – 7.25  – 6.00 -  – 10.00  – –  – –  – –  – –  6.75 5.50 -  11.90 10.00  9.74 7.19  8.30 6.75  6.75 5.25 -  11.90 8.70  – 12.24  – 12.32  16.38  –  –  –  – –  7.08 – 9.84 – 8.00 8.00 6.70 -  6.75 –  11.67  – –  7.08 – 9.84 – 7.45 8.00 –  11.28  12.21 – –  – 9.08 -  14.68 – –  – 15.14  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – 2.34 6.74 -  – – 3.06 9.00  8.50 4.75 3.16 8.16  – – 2.41 8.25  – – 2.34 6.53 -  – – 3.06 9.00  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  – – – –  –  –  5.99  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  5.45 -  8.55  7.96  6.25  5.35 -  7.80  8.90  –  –  –  7.00 -  9.54  8.10  7.72  6.75 -  9.00  9.82  –  –  –  See footnotes at end of table.  8  Table 2. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers 2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3  Maids and housemen ................. Janitors and cleaners ................. Child care workers, N.E.C. ......... Service occupations, N.E.C.. ......  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $6.96 9.26 6.98 6.66  – – $6.50 - $11.65 – – – –  $6.57 7.85 – 6.31  – $6.00 – –  – $9.00 – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each  – $7.50 – –  Mean Median  – – – $9.60 $11.65 $12.32 – – – – – –  Middle range – – $9.08 - $13.68 – – – –  establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  9  Table 3. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median All workers .................................................. $14.67 $12.84 All workers excluding sales .................... 14.67 12.97 White-collar occupations ........................ 17.29 14.75 Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. 21.78 19.69 Professional specialty occupations 23.70 21.64 Mechanical engineers ................. 22.34 – Engineers, N.E.C. ....................... 29.11 – Computer systems analysts and scientists ............................... 22.73 20.92 Operations and systems researchers and analysts ..... 18.81 – Registered nurses ...................... 19.42 18.63 Elementary school teachers ....... 33.81 34.57 Secondary school teachers ........ 32.39 32.14 Teachers, N.E.C. ........................ 26.06 – Social workers ............................ 13.25 12.31 Technical occupations .................... 15.54 14.90 Licensed practical nurses ........... 14.11 – Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ............... 14.13 – Electrical and electronic technicians ............................ 14.53 – Mechanical engineering technicians ............................ 17.97 – Drafters ....................................... 15.45 – Computer programmers ............. 16.56 – Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ 23.17 21.63 Financial managers .................... 28.49 – Administrators, education and related fields ......................... 29.35 – Managers, medicine and health 24.79 – Managers and administrators, N.E.C. ................................... 27.60 28.13 Accountants and auditors ........... 15.49 – Other financial officers ................ 14.17 – Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. ................................... 20.18 – Management related occupations, N.E.C. .............. 18.98 19.23 Sales occupations .............................. 14.68 10.98 Supervisors, sales occupations .. 15.95 – Sales workers, other commodities ......................... 19.24 10.05 Cashiers ..................................... 8.06 – Sales support occupations, N.E.C. ................................... 10.50 – Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... 10.98 10.40 Secretaries ................................. 11.80 12.03 Typists ........................................ 10.47 – Receptionists .............................. 9.15 – Order clerks ................................ 12.29 – Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ....................... 11.35 9.42 Payroll and timekeeping clerks ... 10.20 – Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks .................................... 9.50 – Stock and inventory clerks .......... 9.73 9.52 Investigators and adjusters except insurance .................. 15.60 – General office clerks ................... 10.62 9.70 Data entry keyers ....................... 9.30 – Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. .............. 10.77 –  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $9.00 - $17.55 $14.01 $12.36 9.13 - 17.76 13.96 12.49 10.01 - 21.19 16.25 14.37  $8.70 - $17.27 $19.82 $15.05 8.90 - 17.31 19.89 15.14 9.62 - 19.98 23.88 22.13  15.14 17.48 – –  26.92 29.17 – –  19.61 21.13 22.34 29.11  18.40 20.14 – –  14.62 16.76 – –  22.40 25.20 – –  28.63 30.08 – –  28.60 29.65 – –  17.74 -  28.80  22.42  20.82  17.74 -  30.09  –  –  – 18.01 27.14 25.60 – 9.62 13.00 –  – 20.33 41.87 39.93 – 15.78 17.31 –  18.81 19.26 – – – – 15.74 –  – 18.63 – – – – 15.76 –  – 18.01 – – – – 13.05 –  – 20.23 – – – – 17.67 –  – – 35.56 32.97 – 15.65 13.52 –  – – 36.20 32.80 – – – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.53  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – –  – – –  17.97 15.45 16.56  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  28.85 –  23.08 28.81  21.49 –  28.13 –  24.00 –  22.16 –  – –  – 24.85  – –  – –  31.41 –  – –  – –  – –  33.31 – –  27.77 15.28 14.17  28.13 – –  34.85 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  20.18  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.43 7.56 –  23.05 15.32 –  19.59 14.67 –  20.00 10.30 –  15.48 7.56 –  23.05 15.50 –  15.65 – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  8.26 –  11.00 –  19.24 7.04  10.05 –  8.26 –  11.00 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  10.50  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.31 9.00 – – –  12.76 13.82 – – –  10.92 11.60 – 9.15 12.29  10.23 11.94 – – –  8.18 8.58 – – –  12.69 13.63 – – –  11.59 12.78 – – –  11.37 – – – –  8.50 –  14.25 –  11.08 10.20  9.23 –  8.50 –  14.25 –  13.91 –  – –  – –  – –  – 8.00 -  – 11.12  9.50 9.26  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – 8.50 –  – 11.36 –  15.66 10.58 9.33  – 9.52 –  – 8.27 –  – 11.11 –  – 10.92 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  10.61  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.87 – – – 20.66 – – –  –  –  See footnotes at end of table.  10  15.87 – – – 20.66 – – –  –  $12.31 - $27.24 12.29 - 27.47 13.62 - 32.66 19.41 22.65 – – – – – 28.51 26.76 – – – –  15.39 –  9.47 – – – –  37.74 38.34 – – – – – 41.91 40.98 – – – –  30.43 –  13.42 – – – –  Table 3. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3 Mean Median White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. $17.62 $15.33 Blue-collar occupations .......................... 12.38 12.00 Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................. 14.88 14.70 Automobile mechanics ............... 12.32 – Industrial machinery repairers .... 14.60 – Mechanics and repairers, N.E.C. 14.86 – Carpenters .................................. 12.53 – Electricians ................................. 18.34 – Plumbers, pipefitters and steamfitters ........................... 19.05 – Roofers ....................................... 15.01 – Supervisors, production occupations .......................... 16.06 16.75 Machinists ................................... 14.05 – Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ..................................... 11.33 10.37 Printing press operators ............. 11.96 – Textile sewing machine operators .............................. 7.53 – Packaging and filling machine operators .............................. 12.47 – Painting and paint spraying machine operators ................ 15.49 – Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. .................. 10.80 10.00 Welders and cutters .................... 16.78 – Assemblers ................................. 15.39 20.10 Production inspectors, checkers and examiners ...................... 11.15 – Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. 12.39 12.57 Truck drivers ............................... 12.01 11.90 Industrial truck and tractor equipment operators ............. 13.48 – Miscellaneous material moving equipment operators, N.E.C. 13.86 – Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... 10.18 10.00 Groundskeepers and gardeners except farm ........................... 8.39 – Helpers, mechanics and repairers ............................... 12.61 – Stock handlers and baggers ....... 9.86 10.22 Freight, stock, and material handlers, N.E.C. ................... 10.93 – Hand packers and packagers ..... 8.79 – Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ................................... 10.31 10.45 Service occupations ............................... 9.36 8.70 Police and detectives, public service .................................. 16.38 – Guards and police except public service .................................. 8.79 – Waiters and waitresses .............. 3.21 – Cooks ......................................... 8.72 8.70 Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ................................... 9.15 – Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ............................. 9.30 –  Middle range  Mean Median  $10.66 - $22.09 $16.48 $14.75 8.91 - 15.36 12.40 11.98 12.00 – – – – –  17.14 – – – – –  14.90 12.27 14.58 – 12.55 18.44  14.70 – – – – –  – –  19.05 15.01  – –  14.42 –  17.92 –  16.03 14.05  16.75 –  7.59 –  14.56 –  11.36 11.96  10.50 –  –  –  7.53  –  –  –  12.47  –  –  Middle range  Mean Median  $10.05 - $20.55 $24.08 $22.79 8.75 - 15.40 12.01 12.42  $13.56 - $33.09 9.85 - 13.82  17.34 – – – – –  14.14 – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – – – – – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  14.42 –  18.27 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  7.50 –  14.59 –  – –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  15.49  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  13.60 – 20.10  10.80 16.78 15.39  10.00 – 20.10  13.60 – 20.10  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  11.15  –  –  –  –  –  –  14.73 14.32  12.30 12.03  11.90 11.90  14.70 14.47  13.01 –  – –  – –  – –  –  –  13.48  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  11.90  10.17  10.00  11.90  10.40  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – 11.17  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  – –  11.90 9.38  – 13.19  – 13.62  16.38  –  –  –  – –  7.08 – 9.84 – 9.00 8.50 -  7.40 – – 8.50 -  12.00 – – – – –  Middle range  – –  7.08 – 9.84 – 8.50 8.50 -  7.30 –  – 11.17  – 9.86  – 10.22  – –  10.93 8.79  – –  11.90 11.60  10.31 7.97  10.45 7.64  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – 7.50 -  – – 9.50  8.79 3.21 8.64  – – 8.70  – – 7.50 -  – – 9.50  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  –  –  9.16  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.64  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  – – 7.40 6.50 -  See footnotes at end of table.  11  – 8.50 – – 7.40 6.00 -  – 10.25 -  – 15.85  Table 3. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, full-time workers only2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 — Continued All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3  Maids and housemen ................. Janitors and cleaners ................. Service occupations, N.E.C.. ......  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  $7.03 – 10.38 $10.00 7.06 –  – – $8.54 - $12.63 – –  $6.63 8.71 6.59  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a  – – –  Middle range – – –  – – –  Mean Median  Middle range  – – $12.49 $13.05 – –  – – $11.47 - $14.17 – –  35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  12  Table 4. Hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, part-time workers only2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 All industries  Private industry  State and local government  Occupation3  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales .................... White-collar occupations ........................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................. Professional specialty occupations Registered nurses ...................... Substitute teachers ..................... Technical occupations .................... Licensed practical nurses ........... Sales occupations .............................. Sales workers, other commodities ......................... Cashiers ..................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................... Secretaries ................................. Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ....................... General office clerks ................... Teachers’ aides .......................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ............................................. Blue-collar occupations .......................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ..................................... Transportation and material moving occupations .................................. Truck drivers ............................... Bus drivers .................................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .................... Stock handlers and baggers ....... Hand packers and packagers ..... Service occupations ............................... Guards and police except public service .................................. Waiters and waitresses .............. Cooks ......................................... Food counter, fountain, and related occupations .............. Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. ................................... Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ............................. Janitors and cleaners ................. Child care workers, N.E.C. .........  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  Mean Median  Middle range  $7.70 7.99 8.95  $6.75 7.00 7.62  $5.47 5.63 6.00 -  $9.00 9.25 9.98  $7.48 7.77 8.69  $6.55 6.95 7.18  $5.25 5.50 5.68 -  $8.80 9.00 9.30  $9.73 9.66 10.96  $9.14 9.14 9.63  $7.00 - $11.36 7.00 - 11.25 8.28 - 12.31  14.74 14.85 17.55 9.90 14.54 13.57 6.23  14.15 13.89 – – – – 5.50  11.00 9.63 – – – – 5.00 -  17.05 17.66 – – – – 6.75  16.13 18.09 17.91 – 14.54 13.57 6.16  15.05 17.35 – – – – 5.50  13.61 16.25 – – – – 5.00 -  19.00 21.13 – – – – 6.75  12.23 12.23 – 9.90 – – –  11.11 11.11 – – – – –  6.18 6.46  6.25 5.50  5.00 5.00 -  6.75 7.85  6.18 6.46  6.25 5.50  5.00 5.00 -  6.75 7.85  – –  – –  – –  – –  8.05 9.02  7.95 –  6.55 –  9.00 –  7.97 8.96  7.95 –  6.55 –  9.00 –  8.75 –  8.20 –  7.25 –  9.93 –  8.80 7.64 8.58  – 7.05 –  – 6.55 –  – 9.00 –  – 7.58 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – 8.58  – – –  – – –  – – –  10.53 7.62  9.00 6.95  7.25 6.00 -  12.14 9.80  10.46 7.44  8.81 6.75  7.05 6.00 -  12.14 9.00  10.84 10.77  9.36 –  8.28 –  6.79  –  –  –  6.79  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.79 8.55 9.04  7.45 – –  6.45 – –  10.83 – –  8.29 8.55 8.28  7.00 – –  6.45 – –  10.83 – –  12.57 – 12.57  – – –  – – –  – – –  6.61 6.46 5.46 6.17  6.50 5.51 – 5.75  5.25 5.15 – 4.90 -  7.13 7.00 – 7.50  6.64 6.46 5.46 5.97  6.50 5.51 – 5.75  5.25 5.15 – 4.75 -  7.13 7.00 – 7.40  – – – 7.78  – – – 7.20  – – – 6.25 -  – – – 9.24  7.95 3.13 6.90  – – –  – – –  – – –  7.95 3.13 6.84  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – – –  5.91  –  –  –  5.46  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  6.31  5.75  5.00 -  7.35  5.78  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  7.40 6.55 6.98  – 6.25 –  – 5.25 –  – 7.00 –  7.47 6.41 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  – 7.13 –  – – –  – – –  – – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a  9.14 9.14 – – – – –  13.33 13.33 – – – – –  12.22 –  35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  13  Table 5. Mean weekly earnings1 and hours for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 All industries Occupation3  White-collar occupations .................................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ Professional specialty occupations ........... Mechanical engineers ........................... Engineers, N.E.C. ................................. Computer systems analysts and scientists ......................................... Operations and systems researchers and analysts ................................... Registered nurses ................................ Elementary school teachers ................. Secondary school teachers .................. Teachers, N.E.C. .................................. Social workers ...................................... Technical occupations .............................. Licensed practical nurses ..................... Health technologists and technicians, N.E.C. ............................................. Electrical and electronic technicians ..... Mechanical engineering technicians ..... Drafters ................................................. Computer programmers ....................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Financial managers .............................. Administrators, education and related fields ............................................... Managers, medicine and health ........... Managers and administrators, N.E.C. .. Accountants and auditors ..................... Other financial officers .......................... Purchasing agents and buyers, N.E.C. Management related occupations, N.E.C. ............................................. Sales occupations ........................................ Supervisors, sales occupations ............ Sales workers, other commodities ........ Cashiers ............................................... Sales support occupations, N.E.C. ....... Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ Secretaries ........................................... Typists .................................................. Receptionists ........................................ Order clerks .......................................... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks .............................................. Payroll and timekeeping clerks ............. Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ... Stock and inventory clerks .................... Investigators and adjusters except insurance ........................................ General office clerks ............................. Data entry keyers ................................. Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. .............................................  Mean weekly hours4  Private industry  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  39.2  $678  $580  38.9 38.6 40.0 39.8  847 914 894 1159  39.9  State and local government  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  39.5  $643  $563  771 865 – –  39.6 39.6 40.0 39.8  777 836 894 1159  907  834  39.9  41.8 39.5 35.6 36.0 34.1 39.4 39.8 40.0  786 767 1203 1165 888 522 619 565  – 745 1216 1165 – 492 596 –  40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0  565 581 719 618 662  40.0 40.0  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  37.3  $891  $849  736 790 – –  36.6 36.3 – –  1048 1092 – –  1040 1076 – –  895  833  –  –  –  41.8 39.4 – – – – 39.8 –  786 760 – – – – 627 –  – 745 – – – – 635 –  – – 35.3 35.9 – 39.0 40.0 –  – – 1254 1183 – 610 541 –  – – 1253 1199 – – – –  – – – – –  – 40.0 40.0 40.0 40.0  – 581 719 618 662  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  – – – – –  927 1140  850 –  40.1 40.0  925 1152  850 –  39.2 –  940 –  821 –  39.3 38.6 40.9 39.8 39.9 39.8  1153 957 1129 617 565 803  – – 1129 – – –  – 38.6 41.0 40.0 39.9 39.8  – 961 1139 611 565 803  – – 1191 – – –  39.3 – – – – –  1234 – – – – –  – – – – – –  40.2 40.1 43.4 40.5 39.0 39.3  763 589 693 779 314 413  769 425 – 412 – –  40.2 40.2 – 40.5 39.3 39.3  787 590 – 779 276 413  812 412 – 412 – –  40.3 – – – – –  631 – – – – –  – – – – – –  38.9 38.1 38.2 38.0 39.6  428 449 400 348 487  400 448 – – –  39.0 38.2 – 38.0 39.6  426 442 – 348 487  400 448 – – –  38.3 37.6 – – –  444 480 – – –  448 – – – –  39.9 40.0 39.0 39.9  453 408 370 389  377 – – 381  40.0 40.0 39.0 40.0  443 408 370 370  369 – – –  39.3 – – –  547 – – –  – – – –  40.7 38.7 39.4  635 411 366  – 381 –  40.7 38.6 39.5  638 408 369  – 381 –  – 40.0 –  – 437 –  – – –  39.4  424  –  39.5  419  –  –  –  See footnotes at end of table.  14  –  Table 5. Mean weekly earnings1 and hours for selected white-collar occupations, full-time workers only2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 — Continued All industries Occupation3  White-collar occupations excluding sales .....  Mean weekly hours4 39.1  Private industry  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  $689  $604  39.4  1 Earnings are the straight-time weekly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time  State and local government  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  Mean weekly hours4  $650  $577  37.3  Weekly earnings Mean  Median  $899  $878  employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Mean weekly hours are the hours an employee is scheduled to work in a week. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  15  Table 6. Numbers of workers by occupational group and level1, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 Full-time and part-time workers3 Occupational group2 and level  White-collar occupations .................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............. Professional specialty occupations ........................ Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 .......................... Level 10 ........................ Level 11 ........................ Level 12 ........................ Level 13 ........................ Level 14 ........................ Level 15 ........................ Technical occupations .............. Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .......... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 .......................... Level 10 ........................ Level 11 ........................ Level 12 ........................ Level 13 ........................ Level 14 ........................ Managers and administrators, N.E.C. Level 12 ........................ Level 13 ........................ Sales occupations ........................ Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Cashiers ........................... Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ................ Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Secretaries ....................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ...... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 ..........................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  121,053  103,377  17,676  95,340  81,662  13,678  25,713  21,715  3,998  39,820  28,522  11,298  33,729  25,094  8,635  6,091  3,428  2,663  30,434 2,959 1,615 3,205 2,290 8,993 1,683 3,647 2,793 1,012 452 630 9,386 1,369 1,359 1,668 1,225 2,257  19,827 1,561 – 2,567 1,417 4,118 1,209 3,058 2,387 637 452 – 8,695 1,113 1,321 1,398 1,098 2,257  10,606 1,398 943 637 872 4,875 474 589 406 375 – – 691 – – – – –  25,990 1,435 1,270 2,828 2,233 7,648 1,593 3,445 2,690 1,012 452 630 7,738 897 1,128 1,450 1,225 1,750  18,047 1,435 – 2,362 1,417 3,381 1,209 2,921 2,284 637 452 – 7,047 641 1,089 1,180 1,098 1,750  7,943 – – 466 815 4,267 383 523 406 375 – – 691 – – – – –  4,443 1,523 – 376 – 1,344 – – – – – – 1,648 – – – – –  1,780 – – – – 737 – – – – – – 1,648 – – – – –  2,663 1,398 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  16,662 633 978 1,828 1,805 629 3,183 2,778 1,665 1,103  14,915 398 721 1,790 1,796 539 2,826 2,707 1,362 792  1,747 – – – – – 357 – – –  16,271 633 978 1,828 1,726 629 3,021 2,628 1,665 1,103  14,523 398 721 1,790 1,717 539 2,665 2,556 1,362 792  1,747 – – – – – 357 – – –  3,997 536 614 18,937 2,171 4,521 2,630 3,195 2,252 1,103 589 5,740 1,234 2,824  3,858 536 614 18,603 2,171 4,521 2,630 3,195 2,252 834 553 5,470 1,234 2,824  3,997 536 614 10,199 1,031 1,168 1,358 1,557 954 1,103 553 1,962 – –  3,858 536 614 9,901 1,031 1,168 1,358 1,557 954 834 553 1,692 – –  45,634 2,291 6,547 12,728 8,866 7,289 4,197 2,164 5,898 1,650 820 1,518 1,303  41,337 2,291 5,969 11,821 7,554 6,940 3,468 1,833 4,921 1,514 630 1,475 929  4,296 – 578 908 1,312 349 730 330 977 – – – –  35,142 1,879 3,914 7,135 7,834 7,016 4,090 1,812 4,175 – 786 1,307 1,303  32,143 1,879 3,820 6,567 6,798 6,729 3,361 1,529 3,448 – 596 1,263 929  3,849 1,066 1,343  3,497 1,066 1,343  352 – –  2,929 – 1,343  2,644 – 1,343  – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  16  – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – –  – – – 8,738 1,140 3,353 1,272 1,639 1,298 – – 3,778 – 2,487  – – – 8,701 1,140 3,353 1,272 1,639 1,298 – – 3,778 – 2,487  2,999 – – 568 1,036 – 730 – 727 – – – –  10,492 – 2,633 5,594 1,032 – – – 1,723 – – – –  9,194 – 2,149 5,254 756 – – – 1,472 – – – –  284 – –  921 – –  – – –  State and local government  – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 1,298 – 484 340 – – – – – – – – – – – –  Table 6. Numbers of workers by occupational group and level1, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers3 Occupational group2 and level  Level 5 .......................... General office clerks ......... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ....................... Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 .......................... Level 10 ........................ Level 11 ........................ Level 12 ........................ Level 13 ........................ Level 14 ........................ Level 15 ........................ Not able to be leveled ... Blue-collar occupations .................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................. Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 .......................... Level 10 ........................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................ Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations ................ Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .............. Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Service occupations ......................... Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 ..........................  All industries  Private industry  617 7,064 1,992 2,156 1,990  – 6,300 1,831 1,914 1,758  102,116 2,291 6,547 13,060 9,911 11,876 7,804 8,014 5,492 13,242 2,611 7,319 5,767 2,676 1,556 2,432 1,519 74,878  Full-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – 764 – – –  617 4,916 – 1,162 1,898  – 4,387 – 995 1,666  84,774 2,291 5,969 12,152 8,599 9,874 5,858 6,520 4,454 8,358 2,048 6,373 5,289 1,999 1,244 2,318 1,429 71,614  17,342 – 578 908 1,312 2,003 1,946 1,494 1,038 4,884 564 946 478 678 – – – 3,264  85,141 1,879 3,914 7,135 8,736 9,608 7,121 7,068 5,435 11,311 2,521 6,955 5,514 2,676 1,556 2,432 – 64,197  21,463 2,012 3,307 1,946 7,405 1,953 2,482 1,242  20,934 1,937 3,252 1,858 7,285 1,840 2,443 1,242  529 – – – – – – –  26,716 2,733 6,421 3,225 6,483 4,139 888 2,253  26,401 2,733 6,106 3,225 6,483 4,139 888 2,253  – – – – – – – –  9,730 1,728 1,794 3,498 1,551  8,342 1,627 1,437 3,035 1,224  16,970 6,850 2,259 2,948 2,410 940 38,622 13,987 4,462 7,648 4,239 1,875 3,071 1,312 542 –  15,937 6,427 2,259 2,724 2,302 840 31,568 13,072 3,599 5,618 3,570 1,581 2,412 – – –  Part-time workers  State and local government  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – 528 – – –  – 2,148 – 994 –  – 1,912 – 919 –  71,760 1,879 3,820 6,567 7,700 9,064 5,448 5,792 4,454 7,035 2,048 6,075 5,036 1,999 1,244 2,318 – 61,730  13,381 – – 568 1,036 543 1,672 1,276 981 4,276 473 880 478 678 – – – 2,467  16,975 – 2,633 5,925 1,175 2,269 – 946 – 1,931 – – – – – – – 10,681  13,014 – 2,149 5,585 899 809 – 728 – 1,323 – – – – – – – 9,884  20,681 1,565 3,307 1,946 7,127 1,953 2,482 1,242  20,152 1,490 3,252 1,858 7,007 1,840 2,443 1,242  529 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  25,219 2,574 5,921 2,463 6,483 4,062 888 2,253  24,904 2,574 5,607 2,463 6,483 4,062 888 2,253  – – – – – – – –  1,496 – – – – – – –  1,496 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  1,388 – 356 – –  6,266 1,236 938 1,891 1,271  5,388 1,198 – 1,544 1,067  878 – – – –  3,464 – 856 – –  2,954 – 648 – –  509 – – – –  1,033 – – – – – 7,054 915 863 2,030 669 – – 684 – 639  12,031 3,590 1,584 2,878 1,725 692 18,966 5,022 1,995 3,134 2,418 1,323 1,781 1,265 542 –  11,286 3,454 1,584 2,654 1,618 – 14,051 4,844 1,827 1,418 2,032 1,090 1,122 – – –  745 – – – – – 4,915 – – 1,716 386 – – – – 639  4,938 3,260 675 – – – 19,656 8,965 2,467 4,514 1,821 552 1,290 – – –  4,651 2,973 675 – – – 17,518 8,228 1,772 4,200 1,538 – 1,290 – – –  – – – – – – 2,139 737 695 314 – – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  17  – – – – – 3,961 – 484 340 – 1,459 – – – – – – – – – – – 797 – – – – – – – –  Table 6. Numbers of workers by occupational group and level1, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers3 Occupational group2 and level  Protective service occupations .................... Level 3 .......................... Food service occupations .... Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Health service occupations Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ............ Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Cleaning and building service occupations ........ Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Janitors and cleaners ....... Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Personal services occupations .................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 ..........................  All industries  Private industry  3,896 720 16,284 8,477 1,834 1,922 1,542 5,384 1,054 2,216 1,191  1,457 720 15,447 8,087 1,589 1,813 1,494 4,222 905 1,471 1,097  4,210 1,054 1,888  Full-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  2,439 – 837 – – – – – – – –  3,014 – 6,140 2,617 – – 825 2,920 – 1,208 731  842 – 6,011 2,617 – – 825 1,954 – – –  3,237 905 1,333  973 – –  2,050 – –  1,274 – –  6,626 3,931 664 1,256 425 5,447 3,085 664 1,128  4,670 3,406 – – – 3,620 2,560 – –  1,955 525 – 1,018 – 1,827 525 – 890  3,985 1,721 513 1,062 339 2,945 1,013 513 934  2,551 1,543 – – – 1,639 835 – –  6,432 1,534 661  5,772 1,376 –  660 – –  2,906 – –  2,692 – –  1 Each occupation for which wage data are collected in an establishment is evaluated based on 10 factors, including knowledge, complexity, work environment, etc. Points are assigned based on the occupation’s ranking within each factor. The points are summed to determine the overall level of the occupation. See technical note for more information. 2 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule  Part-time workers  State and local government  2,172 – – – – – – 966 – – – – – – 1,434 – – 971 – 1,306 – – 843 – – –  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  882 – 10,144 5,860 1,384 1,575 717 2,464 – 1,008 –  615 – 9,436 5,469 1,176 1,513 – 2,267 – – –  – – 708 – – – – – – – –  2,159 – –  1,962 – –  – – –  2,640 2,210 – – – 2,502 2,072 – –  2,119 1,863 – – – 1,981 1,725 – –  521 – – – – 521 – – –  3,526 1,462 –  3,081 – –  446 – –  based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  18  Table 7. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  White-collar occupations .................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............. Professional specialty occupations ........................ Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 .......................... Level 10 ........................ Level 11 ........................ Level 12 ........................ Level 13 ........................ Level 14 ........................ Level 15 ........................ Technical occupations .............. Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .......... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 .......................... Level 10 ........................ Level 11 ........................ Level 12 ........................ Level 13 ........................ Level 14 ........................ Managers and administrators, N.E.C. Level 12 ........................ Level 13 ........................ Sales occupations ........................ Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Cashiers ........................... Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ................ Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Secretaries ....................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks ...... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 ..........................  Full-time workers  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  $16.32  $15.35  $22.61  $17.29  $16.25  21.32  19.41  27.08  21.78  23.21 10.09 20.35 17.93 18.25 26.25 22.14 23.93 26.29 37.06 32.30 38.53 15.44 16.06 12.64 15.42 16.24 16.36  21.02 10.16 – 17.82 14.89 18.95 21.73 22.95 26.00 39.83 32.30 – 15.61 17.12 12.53 15.72 16.56 16.36  28.25 9.83 22.97 18.45 24.48 32.95 23.32 29.77 28.02 32.17 – – 13.52 – – – – –  23.18 14.51 13.77 15.42 17.68 16.96 20.56 25.60 31.35 29.89  23.09 13.92 13.64 15.48 17.67 16.64 20.49 25.51 30.95 29.10  24.00 – – – – – 21.13 – – –  27.60 22.41 27.95 12.09 6.49 6.69 7.04 8.67 8.95 13.57 49.18 7.27 5.87 6.41  27.77 22.41 27.95 12.03 6.49 6.69 7.04 8.67 8.95 13.23 50.48 6.73 5.87 6.41  10.59 7.95 7.44 9.25 11.41 11.00 12.41 14.35 11.31 9.17 11.14 12.28 11.63  10.54 7.95 7.39 9.28 11.48 10.98 12.29 14.30 11.11 9.08 10.45 12.28 11.01  11.01 8.13 11.65  10.76 8.13 11.65  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  $23.88  $8.95  $8.69  $10.96  19.61  28.63  14.74  16.13  12.23  23.70 10.20 21.12 18.04 18.29 26.81 22.32 24.01 26.33 37.06 32.30 38.53 15.54 15.70 12.50 15.61 16.24 16.73  21.13 10.20 – 17.88 14.89 18.84 21.73 23.07 26.04 39.83 32.30 – 15.74 16.95 12.38 15.99 16.56 16.73  30.08 – – 18.85 24.71 33.88 24.25 29.60 28.02 32.17 – – 13.52 – – – – –  14.85 9.74 – 16.38 – 17.53 – – – – – – 14.54 – – – – –  18.09 – – – – 20.32 – – – – – – 14.54 – – – – –  12.23 9.83 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  23.17 14.51 13.77 15.42 17.62 16.96 20.30 25.70 31.35 29.89  23.08 13.92 13.64 15.48 17.62 16.64 20.20 25.62 30.95 29.10  24.00 – – – – – 21.13 – – –  27.60 22.41 27.95 14.68 6.68 7.47 7.50 9.91 10.99 13.57 50.48 8.06 – –  27.77 22.41 27.95 14.67 6.68 7.47 7.50 9.91 10.99 13.23 50.48 7.04 – –  11.13 – 8.31 8.88 11.00 11.26 13.02 14.63 12.33 – – – –  10.98 8.03 7.80 9.56 11.57 11.05 12.51 14.50 11.80 – 11.18 12.58 11.63  10.92 8.03 7.76 9.61 11.61 11.01 12.40 14.46 11.60 – 10.47 12.59 11.01  13.79 – –  11.35 – 11.65  11.08 – 11.65  – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  19  – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – – – –  – – – 6.23 6.16 6.19 6.14 6.26 5.99 – – 6.46 – 6.41  – – – 6.16 6.16 6.19 6.14 6.26 5.99 – – 6.46 – 6.41  – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  11.59 – – 8.97 11.26 – 13.02 – 12.78 – – – –  8.05 – 6.46 8.48 8.70 – – – 9.02 – – – –  7.97 – 6.31 8.47 8.51 – – – 8.96 – – – –  8.75 – 7.74 8.57 – – – – – – – – –  13.91 – –  8.80 – –  – – –  – – –  – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  Table 7. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  Level 5 .......................... General office clerks ......... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... White-collar occupations excluding sales ....................... Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 .......................... Level 10 ........................ Level 11 ........................ Level 12 ........................ Level 13 ........................ Level 14 ........................ Level 15 ........................ Not able to be leveled ... Blue-collar occupations .................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................. Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 .......................... Level 10 ........................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................ Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations ................ Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers .............. Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 ..........................  Full-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  $9.42 10.07 7.69 10.31 11.89  – $10.01 7.70 10.37 11.93  17.01 7.95 7.44 9.26 11.64 11.43 14.10 15.92 16.67 23.03 20.69 21.89 25.87 33.38 30.59 38.11 18.29 11.99  Part-time workers  All industries  Private industry  State and local government  – $10.54 – – –  $9.42 10.62 – 10.78 12.01  – $10.58 – 10.93 12.07  15.97 7.95 7.39 9.29 11.73 11.47 13.01 15.94 15.47 17.93 20.21 21.30 25.67 33.60 30.25 38.09 18.29 12.00  22.77 – 8.31 8.88 11.00 11.06 17.71 15.85 22.45 32.92 22.58 26.25 28.12 32.67 – – – 11.87  17.62 8.03 7.80 9.56 11.80 11.43 14.21 16.03 16.68 23.56 20.77 21.80 25.94 33.38 30.59 38.11 – 12.38  14.83 10.96 13.08 13.36 14.74 17.92 17.42 20.44  14.85 10.95 13.09 13.33 14.74 18.06 17.41 20.44  14.14 – – – – – – –  11.19 6.47 7.76 11.22 13.10 11.85 15.03 16.14  11.21 6.47 7.68 11.22 13.10 11.85 15.03 16.14  11.60 9.17 9.31 12.18 14.22  11.40 9.12 8.66 12.07 14.46  9.53 7.17 10.45 10.82 9.75 10.24  9.51 7.07 10.45 10.82 9.79 9.91  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  – $10.92 – – –  – $7.64 – 9.02 –  – $7.58 – 8.98 –  – – – – –  16.48 8.03 7.76 9.61 11.87 11.37 13.06 16.06 15.47 17.99 20.21 21.22 25.74 33.60 30.25 38.09 – 12.40  24.08 – – 8.97 11.26 12.31 18.11 15.89 22.61 33.84 23.26 26.07 28.12 32.67 – – – 12.01  10.53 – 6.46 8.51 8.74 11.45 – 14.32 – 16.41 – – – – – – – 7.62  10.46 – 6.31 8.51 8.58 13.66 – 14.03 – 17.26 – – – – – – – 7.44  $10.84 – 7.74 8.57 – 9.58 – – – – – – – – – – – 10.77  14.88 10.98 13.08 13.36 14.78 17.92 17.42 20.44  14.90 10.97 13.09 13.33 14.78 18.06 17.41 20.44  14.14 – – – – – – –  11.33 6.56 7.85 11.75 13.10 11.85 15.03 16.14  11.36 6.56 7.77 11.75 13.10 11.85 15.03 16.14  12.93 – 12.45 – –  12.39 9.25 9.50 14.13 14.49  12.30 9.21 – 14.35 14.69  9.94 – – – – –  10.18 7.77 11.10 10.84 9.85 11.18  10.17 7.61 11.10 10.85 9.91 –  – – – – – – – –  See footnotes at end of table.  20  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  6.79 – – – – – – –  6.79 – – – – – – –  – – – – – – – –  13.01 – – – –  8.79 – 8.84 – –  8.29 – 7.67 – –  10.40 – – – – –  6.61 6.01 7.14 – – –  6.64 6.02 7.14 – – –  – – – – – – – –  12.57 – – – – – – – – – –  Table 7. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and level2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 — Continued Full-time and part-time workers4 Occupational group3 and level  Service occupations ......................... Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Level 5 .......................... Level 6 .......................... Level 7 .......................... Level 8 .......................... Level 9 .......................... Protective service occupations .................... Level 3 .......................... Food service occupations .... Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Health service occupations Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Nursing aides, orderlies and attendants ............ Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Cleaning and building service occupations ........ Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 .......................... Janitors and cleaners ....... Level 1 .......................... Level 2 .......................... Level 3 .......................... Personal services occupations .................... Level 3 .......................... Level 4 ..........................  All industries  Private industry  $8.26 5.95 7.63 8.07 8.54 7.98 10.01 12.89 11.94 –  $7.19 5.78 7.41 6.59 8.18 7.43 8.52 – – –  12.89 7.45 6.64 5.22 7.22 4.96 6.82 9.11 8.65 8.28 10.02  Full-time workers  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  $12.24 9.01 8.66 10.72 10.46 – – 16.05 – 16.50  $9.36 6.51 7.93 9.51 9.22 7.86 10.71 12.90 11.94 –  $7.97 6.35 7.62 7.48 8.79 7.27 8.75 – – –  8.76 7.45 6.52 5.12 6.79 4.73 6.77 8.89 8.90 7.60 10.18  15.14 – 9.33 – – – – – – – –  13.83 – 7.80 5.54 – – 7.25 9.86 – 8.68 11.36  9.17 – 7.75 5.54 – – 7.25 9.69 – – –  8.58 8.65 8.04  8.10 8.90 7.37  9.82 – –  9.30 – –  8.64 – –  8.80 7.22 8.23 11.94 10.20 9.26 7.52 8.23 12.22  7.52 6.93 – – – 7.85 7.17 – –  11.49 9.26 – 12.26 – 11.65 9.26 – 12.65  9.55 7.76 8.58 12.31 10.87 10.38 8.62 8.58 12.67  8.00 7.45 – – – 8.71 8.24 – –  6.98 5.99 7.31  6.80 5.93 –  8.65 – –  7.03 – –  6.82 – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Each occupation for which wage data are collected in an establishment is evaluated based on 10 factors, including knowledge, complexity, work environment, etc. Points are assigned based on the occupation’s ranking within each factor. The points are summed to determine the overall level of the occupation. See technical note for more information.  Part-time workers  State and local government  State and local government  All industries  Private industry  $13.19 – – 11.12 11.39 – – – – 16.50  $6.17 5.35 7.14 6.04 6.92 8.48 8.15 – – –  $5.97 5.13 6.94 5.98 6.78 – 8.15 – – –  $7.78 8.22 7.57 6.69 – – – – – –  15.61 – – – – – – 10.19 – – –  7.81 – 5.29 4.96 7.21 4.56 5.75 7.64 – 7.56 –  7.95 – 5.02 4.76 6.62 4.44 – 7.73 – – –  – – 8.99 – – – – – – – –  7.40 – –  7.47 – –  – – –  6.52 6.33 – – – 6.55 6.36 – –  6.37 6.06 – – – 6.41 6.08 – –  7.13 – – – – 7.13 – – –  6.88 5.72 –  6.77 – –  7.52 – –  – – – 12.24 – – 12.45 – 12.49 – – 12.87 – – –  3 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  21  Table 8. Number of workers by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 Occupational group1  Union2  Nonunion2  Full-time workers3  Part-time workers3  Time4  Incentive4  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  52,418 49,929 17,945  182,135 165,687 103,108  178,503 168,304 95,340  56,050 47,312 25,713  220,920 204,027 118,308  13,633 11,589 2,745  10,149 9,500 649  29,671 20,934 8,737  33,729 25,990 7,738  6,091 4,443 1,648  39,820 30,434 9,386  – – –  – –  16,195 16,448  16,271 10,199  – 8,738  16,349 16,893  – 2,044  4,840 27,950  40,794 46,928  35,142 64,197  10,492 10,681  45,246 65,344  – 9,534  7,282  14,181  20,681  –  20,717  12,732  13,984  25,219  1,496  19,755  6,961  3,489  6,241  6,266  3,464  7,976  1,754  4,447 6,523  12,523 32,099  12,031 18,966  4,938 19,656  16,896 37,268  1 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational ’groups. 2 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through collective bargaining. 3 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the  –  – –  minimum full-time schedule. 4 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  22  Table 9. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, all industries, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  Incentive5  All workers ...................................................................... All workers excluding sales .................................... White-collar occupations ........................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................................. Professional specialty occupations ................. Technical occupations .................................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .................................................. Sales occupations .............................................. Administrative support including clerical occupations .................................................. Blue-collar occupations .......................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................................. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving occupations Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ......................................................... Service occupations ...............................................  $16.12 16.29 21.25  $13.01 13.08 15.52  $14.67 14.67 17.29  $7.70 7.99 8.95  $13.75 14.03 16.12  $13.33 10.80 25.16  27.04 28.14 13.82  19.50 21.15 15.58  21.78 23.70 15.54  14.74 14.85 14.54  21.32 23.21 15.44  – – –  – –  23.31 12.22  23.17 14.68  – 6.23  23.31 9.81  – 26.86  13.87 14.13  10.18 10.67  10.98 12.38  8.05 7.62  10.56 12.18  – 10.74  16.53 13.41 14.40  13.93 9.19 9.72  14.88 11.33 12.39  – 6.79 8.79  14.84 11.70 11.27  – 9.62 12.67  11.65 11.98  8.77 7.36  10.18 9.36  6.61 6.17  9.51 8.26  – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through  collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  23  Table 10. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, private industry, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  Incentive5  All workers ...................................................................... All workers excluding sales .................................... White-collar occupations ........................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .................................................. Professional specialty occupations ................. Technical occupations .................................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations .................................................. Sales occupations .............................................. Administrative support including clerical occupations .................................................. Blue-collar occupations .......................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................................................. Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving occupations Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ......................................................... Service occupations ...............................................  $14.13 14.28 15.05  $12.88 12.95 15.38  $14.01 13.96 16.25  $7.48 7.77 8.69  $13.09 13.36 15.09  $13.33 10.80 25.16  18.31 18.52 –  19.51 21.32 15.62  19.61 21.13 15.74  16.13 18.09 14.54  19.41 21.02 15.61  – – –  – –  23.09 12.20  23.08 14.67  – 6.16  23.22 9.68  – 26.86  14.73 14.23  10.13 10.68  10.92 12.40  7.97 7.44  10.50 12.20  – 10.74  16.69 13.41 14.85  13.92 9.19 9.56  14.90 11.36 12.30  – 6.79 8.29  14.85 11.74 10.93  – 9.62 12.67  11.66 8.48  8.81 7.10  10.17 7.97  6.64 5.97  9.49 7.14  – –  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined through  collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  24  Table 11. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group and selected characteristic, State and local government, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 Occupational group2  Union3  Nonunion3  Full-time workers4  Part-time workers4  Time5  All workers ...................................................................... White-collar occupations ............................................ Professional specialty and technical occupations .. Professional specialty occupations ..................... Technical occupations ........................................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ...................................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ...................................................... Blue-collar occupations .............................................. Precision production, craft, and repair occupations Transportation and material moving occupations ... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ............................................................. Service occupations ...................................................  $20.80 26.15 30.01 31.49 13.52  $15.14 17.64 19.39 19.84 –  $19.82 23.88 28.63 30.08 13.52  $9.73 10.96 12.23 12.23 –  $18.61 22.61 27.08 28.25 13.52  –  25.96  24.00  –  24.00  11.69 12.78 13.81 13.03  10.81 10.26 – –  11.59 12.01 14.14 13.01  8.75 10.77 – 12.57  11.13 11.87 14.14 12.93  11.58 13.28  – 10.09  10.40 13.19  – 7.78  9.94 12.24  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy.Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 3 Union workers are those whose wages are determined  through collective bargaining. 4 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 5 Time workers wages are based solely on hourly or weekly rates; incentive workers are those whose wages are at least partially based on productivity payments such as piece rates, commissions, and production bonuses. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  25  Table 12. Number of workers1 by occupational group, private industry, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 Goods-producing industries3 Occupational group2  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  All private industries  Total  ConManustruction facturing  206,559 187,956 103,377  69,968 68,044 23,425  6,738 6,381 799  28,522  7,691  –  7,691  19,827 8,695  4,952 2,740  – –  14,915 18,603  5,413 1,924  – –  41,337 71,614  8,397 45,664  20,934  12,583  26,401  23,612  8,342  1,976  15,937 31,568  7,493 879  Total  62,723 136,591 61,156 119,912 22,119 79,952  TransFinance, Wholeportation insursale and and ance, Services retail public and real trade utilities estate 11,456 11,456 4,724  46,250 31,576 21,431  20,831  –  4,952 2,740  14,876 5,955  – –  4,881 1,567  9,502 16,679  – 5,938  7,979 39,725  32,940 25,950  4,481  8,101  8,352  –  –  23,612  2,788  –  –  1,976  6,366  6,036 879  8,444 30,689  1,457 –  1 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups.  Service-producing industries4  10,577 10,419 10,425  68,309 66,462 43,371  –  732  18,054  – –  697 –  12,280 5,774  622 –  1,742 14,674  3,444 –  3,694 1,847  2,764 6,711  4,310 11,126  6,091 –  19,776 8,113  3,461 – –  2,651 –  –  3,050  –  2,242  1,925  –  –  6,004 13,692  – –  1,842 16,825  3 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 4 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  26  Table 13. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, all workers2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 Goods-producing industries4  Occupational group3  All private industries Total  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  $13.11 13.20 15.35  Construction  Manufacturing  Service-producing industries5  Total  TransWholeportsale ation and and retail public trade utilities  $14.46 $13.25 $14.56 $12.30 $16.37 14.38 13.51 14.45 12.43 16.37 18.39 11.36 18.68 14.34 19.41  Finance, insurance, and real estate  Services  $9.75 $16.19 $12.46 9.26 15.95 12.46 11.60 16.34 14.47  19.41  20.19  –  20.19  19.10  –  –  19.78  18.07  21.02 15.61  22.88 15.23  – –  22.88 15.23  20.35 15.81  – –  – –  19.86 –  19.15 15.69  23.09 12.03  24.81 17.04  – –  25.58 18.66  22.09 11.32  27.09 –  17.95 10.86  23.71 –  21.92 12.65  10.54 12.00  12.72 12.50  – 13.52  12.82 12.36  9.91 11.05  12.94 14.16  8.30 9.67  10.76 –  9.49 10.17  14.85  14.86  14.88  14.85  14.83  –  13.58  –  13.71  11.21  11.60  –  11.60  7.78  –  –  –  7.61  11.40  14.64  –  14.64  10.13  11.45  8.93  –  –  9.51 7.19  10.43 9.33  7.54 –  10.91 9.33  8.64 7.12  – –  8.04 6.28  – –  8.32 7.74  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in  one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupational groups and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  27  Table 14. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, full-time workers only2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 Goods-producing industries4  Occupational group3  All private industries Total  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ............ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. Blue-collar occupations ...................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations .................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  $14.01 13.96 16.25  Construction  Manufacturing  Service-producing industries5  Total  TransWholeportsale ation and and retail public trade utilities  Finance, insurance, and real estate  Services  $14.63 $13.61 $14.71 $13.56 $17.45 $11.47 $16.84 $13.23 14.55 13.79 14.61 13.50 17.45 10.66 16.59 13.18 18.56 12.02 18.81 15.37 19.94 13.46 17.02 15.04  19.61  20.30  –  20.30  19.31  –  –  19.78  18.23  21.13 15.74  22.88 15.41  – –  22.88 15.41  20.46 15.93  – –  – –  19.86 –  19.22 15.80  23.08 14.67  24.81 17.59  – –  25.58 18.66  22.05 14.07  27.09 –  17.95 13.54  23.71 –  21.78 15.16  10.92 12.40  12.79 12.62  – 13.82  12.90 12.47  10.30 11.90  13.32 15.33  8.40 10.57  11.23 –  9.86 10.65  14.90  14.93  15.05  14.87  14.87  –  13.68  –  13.69  11.36  11.73  –  11.73  7.91  –  –  –  7.75  12.30  14.59  –  14.59  11.03  13.03  9.21  –  –  10.17 7.97  10.55 –  – –  11.04 –  9.69 7.92  – –  9.12 7.48  – –  8.86 8.20  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as  part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  28  Table 15. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry, part-time workers only2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 Goods-producing industries4  Occupational group3  All workers .................................................. All workers excluding sales ................ White-collar occupations .................... Professional specialty and technical occupations .............................. Professional specialty occupations .......................... Technical occupations ................ Sales occupations .......................... Administrative support including clerical occupations .................. Blue-collar occupations ...................... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors .......................... Transportation and material moving occupations .............................. Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................ Service occupations ...........................  All private industries  Service-producing industries5  TransWholeportsale ation and and retail public trade utilities  Finance, insurance, and real estate  Services  Total  Manufacturing  Total  $7.48 7.77 8.69  $8.78 8.87 9.32  $8.49 8.49 –  $7.36 7.65 8.67  $8.62 8.62 –  $5.80 5.61 6.30  $7.62 7.62 7.62  $8.88 8.99 10.91  16.13  –  –  16.50  –  –  –  16.50  18.09 14.54 6.16  – – –  – – –  18.09 15.09 6.15  – – –  – – 6.12  – – –  18.09 15.09 –  7.97 7.44  – 8.57  – 7.76  7.84 7.07  – 8.68  7.72 6.42  7.62 –  7.87 6.57  6.79  –  –  –  –  –  –  –  8.29  –  –  8.06  8.68  7.39  –  –  6.64 5.97  – –  – –  6.19 5.85  – –  6.13 4.97  – –  6.49 6.81  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salaries paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, holidays, nonproduction bonuses, and tips. The mean is computed by totaling the pay of all workers and dividing by the number of workers, weighted by hours. The median designates position--one-half of the workers receive the same as or more, and one-half receive the same as or less than the rate shown. The middle range is defined by two rates of pay--one-fourth of the workers earn the same as or less than the lower of these rates, and one-fourth earn the same as or more than the higher rate. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a  40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. 4 Goods-producing industries include mining, construction, and manufacturing. 5 Service-producing industries include transportation and public utilities; wholesale and retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  29  Table 16. Number of workers1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group2  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  206,559 187,956 103,377  89,178 76,581 41,834  117,381 111,375 61,543  70,269 65,477 31,954  47,112 45,899 29,589  28,522 19,827 8,695  6,247 4,230 2,017  22,275 15,598 6,678  10,246 6,599 3,648  12,029 8,999 3,030  14,915 18,603  6,131 12,597  8,784 6,006  3,797 4,792  4,987 1,214  41,337 71,614  16,860 30,312  24,477 41,302  13,118 27,623  11,359 13,679  20,934  10,442  10,492  6,829  3,663  26,401  7,384  19,017  11,716  7,301  8,342  5,734  2,608  2,089  15,937 31,568  6,752 17,032  9,185 14,536  6,989 10,692  1 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 2 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian  – 2,195 3,844  economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  30  Table 17. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, all workers2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $13.11 13.20 15.35  $11.48 11.34 13.66  $14.21 14.35 16.38  $12.36 12.48 14.45  $16.82 16.90 18.42  19.41 21.02 15.61  16.97 17.11 16.67  20.06 22.02 15.31  18.52 20.48 15.07  21.37 23.10 15.62  23.09 12.03  21.33 12.40  24.34 11.28  23.11 10.49  25.30 13.88  10.54 12.00  9.62 10.74  11.08 12.87  9.79 11.44  12.57 15.62  14.85  13.67  15.99  15.45  17.00  11.21  8.71  12.12  10.00  15.42  11.40  10.18  14.07  13.01  –  9.51 7.19  8.26 6.55  10.30 7.84  9.21 7.53  13.42 8.54  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salary paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, and holidays, and nonproduction bonuses. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm,  where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  31  Table 18. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, full-time workers2 only, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ Blue-collar occupations ................................ Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ........................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  All workers  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $14.01 13.96 16.25  $12.57 12.21 14.95  $14.87 14.93 16.95  $13.14 13.15 15.19  $17.14 17.21 18.70  19.61 21.13 15.74  17.08 17.25 16.68  20.29 22.14 15.46  18.64 20.66 15.18  21.68 23.13 15.90  23.08 14.67  21.24 15.45  24.36 13.28  23.14 12.83  25.31 14.32  10.92 12.40  10.03 11.19  11.38 13.15  10.14 11.78  12.74 15.65  14.90  13.75  16.01  15.45  17.08  11.36  8.85  12.23  10.10  15.42  12.30  11.07  14.36  13.36  –  10.17 7.97  8.64 7.12  11.00 8.74  9.94 8.81  13.50 8.59  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salary paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, and holidays, and nonproduction bonuses. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule.  3 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  32  Table 19. Mean hourly earnings1 by occupational group, private industry by establishment employment size, part-time workers2 only, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, March 1996 100 workers or more Occupational group3  All workers  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .......................... White-collar occupations .............................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ........................................ Professional specialty occupations ....... Technical occupations .......................... Sales occupations .................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ........................................ Blue-collar occupations ................................ Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ........................................... Transportation and material moving occupations ........................................ Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ........................................ Service occupations .....................................  1 - 99 workers  Total  100 - 499 workers  500 workers or more  $7.48 7.77 8.69  $7.17 7.40 7.90  $7.92 8.24 9.80  $6.88 7.11 8.36  $11.28 11.41 13.08  16.13 18.09 14.54 6.16  – – – 6.35  16.44 19.17 13.97 5.69  16.51 18.01 12.66 5.66  16.39 – – –  7.97 7.44  7.99 7.70  7.94 6.92  7.00 6.52  9.93 –  6.79  –  –  –  –  8.29  8.02  –  –  –  6.64 5.97  7.21 5.81  5.96 6.18  5.95 5.49  – 8.39  1 Earnings are the straight-time hourly wages or salary paid to employees. They include incentive pay, cost-of-living adjustments, hazard pay, and on-call pay. Excluded are premium pay for overtime, vacations, and holidays, and nonproduction bonuses. 2 Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule.  3 A classification system including about 450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy. Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  33  Appendix A: Technical Note  This section provides basic information on the procedures and concepts used to produce the data contained in this bulletin. It is divided into three parts: Planning for the survey; data collection; and processing and analyzing the data. While this section answers some questions commonly asked by data users, it is not a comprehensive description of all the steps required to produce the data.  of sample selection was a probability-proportional-to-size sample of establishments. Use of this technique means that the larger an establishment’s employment, the greater its chance of selection. Weights were applied to each establishment when the data were tabulated so that it represents similar units (by industry and employment size) in the economy which were not selected for collection. See Appendix Table 1 for a count of establishments in the survey by employment size. The second stage of sample selection, detailed below, was a probability sample of occupations within a sampled establishment.  Planning for the survey The overall design of the survey, which was based on the type of data to be produced, had to be developed before data collection could begin.  Data collection  Survey scope This survey of the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area covered establishments employing workers1 in goods-producing industries (mining, construction and manufacturing); service-producing industries (transportation, communications, electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services industries); and State and local governments. For purposes of this survey an establishment was an economic unit which produces goods or services, a central administrative office, or an auxiliary unit providing support services to a company. For all industries in this survey and for State and local governments, the establishment was usually at a single physical location.  Numerous procedures were developed for the actual collection of data from survey respondents. Occupational selection and classification Identification of the occupations for which wage data were to be collected was a multi-step process: 1. Probability-proportional-to-size selection of company jobs. 2. Classification of jobs into occupations based on the Census of Population system. 3. Characterization of jobs as full-time v. part-time, union v. nonunion, and time v. incentive. 4. Determination of the level of work of each job. For each occupation, wage data were collected only for those workers who met all the criteria identified in the last three steps. In step one, the company jobs to be sampled were selected at each establishment by the BLS field economist during a personal visit. A complete list of employees was used for sampling, with each selected worker representing a job within the establishment. As with the selection of establishments, the selection of a company job was based on probability proportional to its size in the establishment. The greater the number of people working in a job in the establishment, the greater its chance of selection. The number of jobs collected in each establishment was based on an establishment’s employment size as shown in the following schedule:  Sampling frame The list of establishments from which the survey sample was selected (the sampling frame) was developed from the State unemployment insurance reports for the Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area (July 1994). The sampling frame was reviewed prior to the survey and, when necessary, missing establishments were added. Sample design The sample design for this survey area was a two stage probability sample of detailed occupations. The first stage 1  If an establishment had at least one employee at the time data were collected, it was in-scope for the survey. In theory, any sampled establishment in the universe could have one or more employees when the data are actually collected.  34  Number of employees 0-49 50-99 100-249 250-499 500-999 1,000+  agreement. If these conditions were not met, the worker’s job was classified as nonunion.  Number of selected jobs 4 8 10 12 16 20  Generic leveling through point factor analysis In the last step before wage data were collected, the work level of each selected job was determined using a “generic leveling” process. Generic leveling ranks and compares all occupations randomly selected in an establishment using the same criteria. This is a major departure from the method used in the past in the Bureau’s Occupational Compensation Surveys which studied specifically defined occupations with leveling definitions unique to each occupation. For the Allentown survey, the level of each occupation in an establishment was determined by an analysis of each of 10 leveling factors. Nine of these factors are drawn from the U.S. Government Office of Personnel Management’s Factor Evaluation System, which is the underlying structure for evaluation of General Schedule Federal employees. The tenth factor, supervisory duties, is an attempt to account for the effect of supervisory duties. It is considered experimental. The 10 factors were:  NOTE: If the number of employees in an establishment was less than four, then the number of company jobs selected would be equal to the number of employees. The second step of the process entailed classifying the selected jobs into occupations based on their duties. The COMP2000 occupational classification system is based on the 1990 Census of Population. A selected company job may fall into any one of about 480 occupational classifications, from accountant to wood lathe operator. In cases where a job’s duties overlapped two or more census classification codes, classification was based on the primary duty. Each occupational classification is an element of a broader classification known as a major occupational group (MOG). Occupations can fall into any of the following MOG’s: • • • • • • • • •  • • • • • • • • • •  Professional specialty and technical Executive, administrative, and managerial Sales Administrative support including clerical Precision production, craft, and repair Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors Transportation and material moving Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers Service occupations  Knowledge Supervisory controls Guidelines Complexity Scope and effect Personal contacts Purpose of contacts Physical demands Work environment Supervisory duties  Each factor contains a number of levels and each level has an associated written description and point value. The number and range of points differs among the factors. For each factor, an occupation was assigned a level based on which written description best matched the job. Within each occupation, the points for the 10 factors were recorded and totaled. The total determines the overall level of the occupation. A description of the levels for each factor, followed by the corresponding point value, is shown in Appendix C. Tabulations of levels of work for occupations in the survey follow the federal government’s white-collar General Schedule. Point ranges for each of the 15 levels are shown in Appendix D. It also includes an example of a leveled job and a guide to help data users evaluate jobs in their firm. Wage data collected using the new generic leveling method were evaluated by BLS researchers using regression techniques. For each of the major occupational groups, wages were compared to the 10 generic level fac-  A complete list of all individual occupations, classified by the MOG to which they belong, is contained in Appendix B. In step three, certain other job characteristics of the chosen worker were identified. First, the worker was identified as holding either a full-time or part-time job, based on the establishment’s definition of those terms. Then the worker was classified as having a time versus incentive job, depending on whether any part of pay was directly based on the actual production of the workers, rather than solely on hours worked. Finally, the worker was identified as being in a union job if: 1) a labor organization was recognized as the bargaining agent for all workers in the occupation; 2) wage and salary rates were determined through collective bargaining or negotiations; and 3) settlement terms, which must include earnings provisions and may include benefit provisions, were embodied in a signed, mutually binding collective bargaining 35  tors (and levels within those factors). The analysis showed that several of the generic level factors, most notably knowledge and supervisory controls, had strong explanatory power for wages. That is, as the levels within a given factor increased, the wages also increased. Detailed research continues in this area. The results of this research will be published by BLS in the future.  Definition of terms  Reference period The survey was collected between May 7th and June 21st, 1996. For each establishment in the survey, the data reflect the establishment’s practices on the day of collection.  Level. A ranking of an occupation, based on the requirements of the position. (See the description in the technical note and the example for more details on the leveling process.)  Full-time worker. Any employee that the employer considers to be full time. Incentive worker. Any employee whose earnings are tied, at least in part, to commissions, piece rates, production bonuses, or other incentives based on production or sales.  Nonunion worker. An employee in an occupation not meeting the conditions for union coverage (see below). Earnings Earnings were defined as regular payments from the employer to the employee as compensation for straighttime hourly work, or for any salaried work performed. The following components were included as part of earnings: • • • • • •  Part-time worker. Any employee that the employer considers to be part-time. Straight-time. Time worked when the employee is getting the standard rate of pay for the job.  Incentive pay, including commissions, production bonuses, and piece rates, Cost-of-living allowances, Hazard pay, Payments of income deferred due to participation in a salary reduction plan, Deadhead pay, defined as pay given to transportation workers returning in a vehicle without freight or passengers, and On-call pay.  Time-based worker. Any employee whose earnings are tied to an hourly rate or salary, and not to a specific level of production. Union worker. Any employee is in a union occupation when all of the following conditions are met: • •  The following forms of payments were not considered part of straight-time earnings: • • • • • •  •  Shift differentials, defined as extra payment for working a schedule that varies from the norm, such as night or weekend work, Premium pay for overtime, holidays, and weekends, Bonuses not directly tied to production (e.g., Christmas bonuses, profit-sharing bonuses), Uniform and tool allowances, Free room and board, and Payments made by third parties (e.g., bonuses given by manufacturers to department store salespeople, referral incentives in real estate).  A labor organization is recognized as the bargaining agent for all workers in the occupation. Wage and salary rates are determined through collective bargaining or negotiations. Settlement terms, which must include earnings provisions and may include benefit provisions, are embodied in a signed mutually binding collective bargaining agreement.  Processing and Analyzing the Data Data were processed and analyzed at the Bureau’s National office following collection.  Weighting and nonresponse Sample weights were calculated for each establishment/occupation in the survey. These weights reflected the relative size of the occupation within the establishment and of the establishment within the sample universe. Weights were used to aggregate the individual establishment/occupations into the various data series.  To calculate earnings per hour worked, data on work schedules were also collected. For hourly workers, scheduled hours worked per week were recorded. Because salaried workers often work beyond the assigned work schedule, their typical number of hours actually worked was collected. 36  Data reliability The data in this bulletin are estimates from a scientifically selected probability sample. There are two types of errors possible in an estimate based on a sample survey, sampling and nonsampling. Sampling errors occur because observations come only from a sample and not from an entire population. The sample used for this survey is one of a number of all possible samples of the same size that could have been selected using the sample design. Estimates derived from the different samples would differ from each other. A measure of the variation among these differing estimates is called the standard error or sampling error. It indicates the precision with which an estimate from a particular sample approximates the average result of all possible samples. The relative standard error (RSE) is the standard error divided by the estimate. Appendix Table 2 contains RSE data for selected series in this bulletin. The standard error can be used to calculate a “confidence interval” around a sample estimate. For example, table 2 shows that mean hourly earnings for all workers was $13.73 per hour. Appendix Table 2 shows a standard error of 2.0 percent for this estimate. Thus, at the 95-percent level, the confidence interval for this estimate is $13.18 to $14.28 ($13.73 plus and minus 2 times 2.0 percent times $13.73). If all possible samples were selected to estimate the population value, the interval from each sample would include the true population value approximately 95 percent of the time. All comparisons made in this publication are significant at the 95 percent confidence level, unless stated otherwise. Nonsampling errors also affect survey results. They can stem from many sources, such as inability to obtain information for some establishments, difficulties with survey definitions, inability of the respondents to provide correct information, or mistakes in recording or coding the data obtained. A Technical Reinterview Program tested in Allentown will be used in the development of a formal quality assessment process to help compute nonsampling error. Although they were not specifically measured, the nonsampling errors were expected to be minimal due to the high response rate, the extensive training of the field economists who gathered the survey data by personal visit, computer edits of the data, and detailed data review.  Of the establishments surveyed, 19.2 percent refused to supply information. If data were not provided by a sample member, the weights of responding sample members in the same or similar “cells” were adjusted to account for the missing data.2 This technique assumes that the mean value of the nonrespondents equals the mean value of the respondents at some detailed “cell” level. Responding and nonresponding establishments were classified into these cells according to industry and employment size. Responding and nonresponding occupations within responding establishments were classified into cells which were additionally defined by major occupation group and job level. When a sampled occupation was considered a refusal and could not be classified into a major occupational group, nonresponse adjustments were made for that occupation in the service occupational group. Establishments which were determined to be out of business or outside the scope of the survey (3.9 percent of the total sample) had their weights changed to zero. If only partial data were given by a sample establishment or occupation, or data were missing, the response was not used. Estimation Weights, adjusted for nonresponse, were multiplied by the wage rate of each establishment/occupation, which itself was the average wage of all workers in the occupation. The resulting products were aggregated and then divided by the sum of the weighted occupational employments to obtain the data series contained in the tables in the bulletin. Not all series that were calculated met the criteria for publication. Before any series was published, it was reviewed to make sure that the number of observations underlying it were sufficient. This review prevented publishing a series that could have revealed information about a specific establishment.  2 Due to insufficient data, weights for nonresponding occupations in the following major occupational group/work level category could not be fully adjusted: administrative support, including clerical occupations level 9. Because of this, worker counts for these categories may be slightly underestimated.  37  Table A1. Number of establishments studied by industry group and employment size, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996 100 workers or more Industry  All industries ......................................................... Private industry ............................................... Goods-producing industries ...................... Manufacturing ..................................... Mining ................................................. Construction ....................................... Service-producing industries .................... Tranportation and public utilities ......... Wholesale and retail trade .................. Finance, insurance and real estate .... Services .............................................. State and local government ............................  All workers  289 252 74 57 1 16 178 14 67 14 83 37  NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Overall industry and industry groups may include data for categories not shown  1 - 99 workers  Total  150 144 34 19 1 14 110 8 50 9 43 6  139 108 40 38 – 2 68 6 17 5 40 31  separately.  38  100 - 499 workers 100 84 28 26 – 2 56 5 15 4 32 16  500 workers or more 39 24 12 12 – – 12 1 2 1 8 15  Table A2. Relative standard errors of mean hourly earnings1 for selected occupations, all workers2, Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA, May-June 1996  All industries  Occupation3  All workers ............................................................ All workers excluding sales .............................. White-collar occupations .................................. Professional specialty and technical occupations ............................................ Professional specialty occupations ........... Technical occupations .............................. Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ........................................ Financial managers .............................. Managers and administrators, N.E.C. .. Management related occupations, N.E.C. ............................................. Sales occupations ........................................ Sales workers, other commodities ........ Cashiers ............................................... Administrative support including clerical occupations ............................................ Secretaries ........................................... Receptionists ........................................ Bookkeepers, accounting and auditing clerks .............................................. Traffic, shipping and receiving clerks ... Stock and inventory clerks .................... General office clerks ............................. Administrative support occupations, N.E.C. ............................................. White-collar occupations excluding sales ..... Blue-collar occupations .................................... Precision production, craft, and repair occupations ............................................ Industrial machinery repairers .............. Supervisors, production occupations .... Machine operators, assemblers, and inspectors ............................................... Miscellaneous machine operators, N.E.C. ............................................. Transportation and material moving occupations ............................................ Truck drivers ......................................... Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers ................................................... Stock handlers and baggers ................. Hand packers and packagers ............... Laborers except construction, N.E.C. ... Service occupations ......................................... Waiters and waitresses ........................ Cooks ................................................... Food preparation occupations, N.E.C. Janitors and cleaners ........................... Service occupations, N.E.C.. ................ 1 The relative standard error is the standard error expressed as a percent of the estimate. 2 All workers include full-time and part-time workers. Employees are classified as working either a full-time or a part-time schedule based on the definition used by each establishment. Therefore, a worker with a 35-hour-per-week schedule might be considered a full-time employee in one establishment, but classified as part-time in another firm, where a 40-hour week is the minimum full-time schedule. 3 A classification system including about  Private industry  State and local government  2.0% 1.9 2.6  2.3% 2.2 3.0  3.0% 3.0 3.5  2.7 3.0 2.9  3.1 3.8 3.1  3.4 3.1 –  3.7 12.7 8.4  4.1 12.9 8.7  – – –  4.8 13.1 37.0 9.7  4.7 13.4 37.0 7.5  – – – –  3.0 5.0 6.8  3.3 5.9 6.9  3.2 – –  9.8 8.4 5.0 7.1  10.9 8.4 4.3 8.0  – – – –  5.0 2.4 2.8  5.4 2.8 2.9  – 3.5 –  2.6 1.8 2.3  2.7 1.8 2.4  – – –  5.2  5.2  –  8.3  8.3  –  6.4 9.3  7.6 9.6  – –  4.2 6.5 9.3 10.2 3.1 11.6 5.2 15.7 6.3 6.9  4.4 6.5 9.3 10.2 3.2 11.6 5.3 17.7 6.6 6.7  – – – – 3.3 – – – 5.5 –  450 individual occupations is used to cover all workers in the civilian economy.Individual occupations are classified into one of nine major occupational groups. See the technical note for a complete listing of occupations. NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or that data did not meet publication criteria. Overall occupation and occupational levels may include data for categories not shown separately. N.E.C. means "not elsewhere classified." Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.  39  Appendix B. Occupational Classifications  NOTE: The four-digit code before each occupation title is used to classify it into one of three major groups. Whitecollar workers include those classified in Major groups A through D. Blue-collar workers include those classified in Major groups E through H. Service workers are classified in Major group K.  A069 A073 A074 A075 A076 A077 A078 A079 A083  Major group A: PROFESSIONAL AND TECHNICAL OCCUPATIONS PROFESSIONAL OCCUPATIONS ENGINEERS, ARCHITECTS, AND SURVEYORS A043 Architects A044-057, A059 Engineers A044 Aerospace Engineers A045 Metallurgical and Materials Engineers A046 Mining Engineers A047 Petroleum Engineers A048 Chemical Engineers A049 Nuclear Engineers A053 Civil Engineers A054 Agricultural Engineers A055 Electrical and Electronic Engineers A056 Industrial Engineers A057 Mechanical Engineers A058 Marine Engineers and Naval Architects A059 Engineers, n.e.c.1 A063 Surveyors and Mapping Scientists  Physicists and Astronomers Chemists, Except Biochemists Atmospheric and Space Scientists Geologists and Geodesists Physical Scientists, n.e.c. Agricultural and Food Scientists Biological and Life Scientists Forestry and Conservation Scientists Medical Scientists  HEALTH DIAGNOSING OCCUPATIONS A084 A085 A086 A087 A088 A089  Physicians Dentists Veterinarians Optometrists Podiatrists Health Diagnosing Practitioners, n.e.c.  HEALTH ASSESSMENT AND TREATING OCCUPATIONS A095 A096 A097 A098 A099 A103 A104 A105 A106  MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER SCIENTISTS A064 Computer Systems Analysts and Scientists A065 Operations and Systems Researchers and Analysts A066 Actuaries A067 Statisticians A068 Mathematical Scientists, n.e.c. NATURAL SCIENTISTS  Registered Nurses Pharmacists Dietitians Respiratory Therapists Occupational Therapists Physical Therapists Speech Therapists Therapists, n.e.c. Physicians' Assistants  TEACHERS A113-154 Teachers, College and University  1  n.e.c. in an occupation title means not elsewhere classified.  40  A176 Clergy A177 Religious Workers, n.e.c.  A113 Earth, Environmental and Marine Science Teachers A114 Biological Science Teachers A115 Chemistry Teachers A116 Physics Teachers A117 Natural Science Teachers, n.e.c. A118 Psychology Teachers A119 Economics Teachers A123 History Teachers A124 Political Science Teachers A125 Sociology Teachers A126 Social Science Teachers, n.e.c. A127 Engineering Teachers A128 Mathematical Science Teachers A129 Computer Science Teachers A133 Medical Science Teachers A134 Health Specialties Teachers A135 Business, Commerce and Marketing Teachers A136 Agriculture and Forestry Teachers A137 Art, Drama, and Music Teachers A138 Physical Education Teachers A139 Education Teachers A143 English Teachers A144 Foreign Language Teachers A145 Law Teachers A146 Social Work Teachers A147 Theology Teachers A148 Trade and Industrial Teachers A149 Home Economics Teachers A153 Teachers, Post Secondary, n.e.c. A154 Post Secondary Teachers, Subject not specified A155-163 Teachers, except College and University A155 Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Teachers A156 Elementary School Teachers A157 Secondary School Teachers A158 Teachers, Special Education A159 Teachers, n.e.c. A160 Substitute Teachers A163 Vocational and Educational Counselors  LAWYERS AND JUDGES A178 Lawyers A179 Judges WRITERS, AUTHORS, ENTERTAINERS AND ATHLETES A183 A184 A185 A186 A187 A188 A189 A193 A194 A195 A197 A198 A199 A999  Authors Technical Writers Designers Musicians and Composers Actors and Directors Painters, Sculptors, Craft-Artists, and Artist Print-Makers Photographers Dancers Artists, Performers, and Related Workers, n.e.c. Editors and Reporters Public Relations Specialists Announcers Athletes Professional Occupations, n.e.c.  TECHNICAL AND RELATED OCCUPATIONS HEALTH TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS A203 Clinical Laboratory Technologists and Technicians A204 Dental Hygienists A205 Health Record Technologists and Technicians A206 Radiologic Technicians A207 Licensed Practical Nurses A208 Health Technologists and Technicians, n.e.c. ENGINEERING AND RELATED TECHNOLOGISTS AND TECHNICIANS  LIBRARIANS, ARCHIVISTS AND CURATORS A164 Librarians A165 Archivists and Curators  A213 A214 A215 A216 A217 A218  SOCIAL SCIENTISTS AND URBAN PLANNERS A166 Economists A167 Psychologists A168 Sociologists A169 Social Scientists, n.e.c. A173 Urban Planners SOCIAL, RECREATION, AND RELIGIOUS WORKERS A174 Social Workers A175 Recreation Workers  Electrical and Electronic Technicians Industrial Engineering Technicians Mechanical Engineering Technicians Engineering Technicians, n.e.c. Drafters Surveying and Mapping Technicians  SCIENCE TECHNICIANS A223 Biological Technicians A224 Chemical Technicians 41  A225 Science Technicians, n.e.c. Major group C: MISCELLANEOUS TECHNICIANS SALES OCCUPATIONS A226 A227 A228 A229 A233 A234 A235  Airplane Pilots and Navigators Air Traffic Controllers Broadcast Equipment Operators Computer Programmers Tool Programmers, Numerical Control Legal Assistants Technical and Related Occupations, n.e.c.  C243 Supervisors, Sales Occupations FINANCE AND BUSINESS SERVICES, SALES REPRESENTATIVES C253 Insurance Sales Occupations C254 Real Estate Sales Occupations C255 Securities and Financial Services Sales Occupations C256 Advertising and Related Sales Occupations C257 Sales Occupations, Other Business Services  Major group B: EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, AND MANAGERIAL OCCUPATIONS  SALES REPRESENTATIVES, COMMODITIES EXCEPT RETAIL  B003 Legislators B004 Chief Executives and General Administrators, Public Administration B005 Administrators and Officials, Public Administration B007 Financial Managers B008 Personnel and Labor Relations Managers B009 Purchasing Managers B013 Managers; Marketing, Advertising and Public Relations B014 Administrators, Education and Related Fields B015 Managers, Medicine and Health B016 Postmasters and Mail Superintendents B017 Managers, Food Serving and Lodging Establishments B018 Managers, Properties and Real Estate B019 Funeral Directors B021 Managers, Service Organizations, n.e.c. B022 Managers and Administrators, n.e.c.  C258 Sales Engineers C259 Sales Representatives; Mining, Manufacturing, and Wholesale RETAIL AND PERSONAL SERVICES SALES WORKERS C263 C264 C265 C266 C267 C268 C269 C274 C275 C276 C277 C278  MANAGEMENT RELATED OCCUPATIONS B023 B024 B025 B026 B027 B028 B029 B033 B034  Accountants and Auditors Underwriters Other Financial Officers Management Analysts Personnel, Training, and Labor Relations Specialists Purchasing Agents and Buyers, Farm Products Buyers, Wholesale and Retail Trade, Except Farm Products Purchasing Agents and Buyers, n.e.c. Business and Promotion Agents  Sales Workers, Motor Vehicles and Boats Sales Workers, Apparel Sales Workers, Shoes Sales Workers, Furniture and Home Furnishings Sales Workers, Radio, TV, Hi-Fi, and Appliances Sales Workers, Hardware and Building Supplies Sales Workers, Parts Sales Workers, Other Commodities Sales Counter Clerks Cashiers Street and Door-To-Door Sales Workers News Vendors  SALES RELATED OCCUPATIONS C283 Demonstrators, Promoters, and Models, Sales C284 Auctioneers C285 Sales Support Occupations, n.e.c.  Major group D: B035 Construction Inspectors B036 Inspectors and Compliance Officers, Except Construction B037 Management Related Occupations, n.e.c.  ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS, INCLUDING CLERICAL  42  D347 Office Machine Operators, n.e.c.  SUPERVISORS, CLERICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT  COMMUNICATIONS EQUIPMENT OPERATORS D303 D304 D305 D306 D307  Supervisors, General Office Supervisors, Computer Equipment Operators Supervisors, Financial Records Processing Chief Communications Operators Supervisors, Distribution, Scheduling, and Adjusting Clerks  D348 Telephone Operators D353 Communications Equipment Operators, n.e.c. MAIL AND MESSAGE DISTRIBUTING OCCUPATIONS  COMPUTER EQUIPMENT OPERATORS  D354 D355 D356 D357  D308 Computer Operators D309 Peripheral Equipment Operators SECRETARIES, STENOGRAPHERS, AND TYPISTS  MATERIAL RECORDING, SCHEDULING, AND DISTRIBUTING CLERKS  D313 Secretaries D314 Stenographers D315 Typists  D359 D363 D364 D365 D366 D368 plers D373 D374  INFORMATION CLERKS D316 D317 D318 D319 D323  Interviewers Hotel Clerks Transportation Ticket and Reservation Agents Receptionists Information Clerks, n.e.c.  RECORDS PROCESSING CLERKS, EXCEPT FINANCIAL  Dispatchers Production Coordinators Traffic, Shipping, and Receiving Clerks Stock and Inventory Clerks Meter Readers Weighers, Measurers, Checkers, and SamExpeditors Material Recording, Scheduling, and Distributing Clerks, n.e.c.  ADJUSTERS AND INVESTIGATORS D375 Insurance Adjusters, Examiners, and Investigators D376 Investigators and Adjusters, Except Insurance D377 Eligibility Clerks, Social Welfare D378 Bill and Account Collectors  D325 D326 D327 D328  Classified-Ad Clerks Correspondence Clerks Order Clerks Personnel Clerks, Except Payroll and Timekeeping D329 Library Clerks D335 File Clerks D336 Records Clerks, n.e.c.  MISCELLANEOUS ADMINISTRATIVE SUPPORT OCCUPATIONS D379 D383 D384 D385 D386 D387 D389  FINANCIAL RECORDS PROCESSING CLERKS D337 Clerks D338 D339 D343 D344  Postal Clerks, Except Mail Carriers Mail Carriers, Postal Service Mail Clerks, Except Postal Service Messengers  Bookkeepers, Accounting and Auditing  Payroll and Timekeeping Clerks Billing Clerks Cost and Rate Clerks Billing, Posting, and Calculating Machine Operators DUPLICATING, MAIL, AND OTHER OFFICE MACHINE OPERATORS  General Office Clerks Bank Tellers Proofreaders Data Entry Keyers Statistical Clerks Teachers' Aides Administrative Support Occupations, n.e.c.  Major group E: PRECISION PRODUCTION, CRAFT, AND REPAIR OCCUPATIONS  D345 Duplicating Machine Operators D346 Mail Preparing and Paper Handling Machine Operators 43  E579 E583 E584 E585 E587  MECHANICS AND REPAIRERS E503 E505 E506 E507 E508 E509 E514 E515 E516 E517 E518 E519 E523 E525 E526 E527 E529 E534 E535 E536 E538 E539 E543 E544 E547  Supervisors; Mechanics and Repairers Automobile Mechanics Automobile Mechanic Apprentices Bus, Truck, and Stationary Engine Mechanics Aircraft Engine Mechanics Small Engine Repairers Automobile Body and Related Repairers Aircraft Mechanics, Except Engine Heavy Equipment Mechanic Farm Equipment Mechanics Industrial Machinery Repairers Machinery Maintenance Occupations Electronic Repairers, Communications and Industrial Equipment Data Processing Equipment Repairers Household Appliance and Power Tool Repairers Telephone Line Installers and Repairers Telephone Installers and Repairers Heating, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration Mechanics Camera, Watch, and Musical Instrument Repairers Locksmiths and Safe Repairers Office Machine Repairers Mechanical Controls and Valve Repairers Elevator Installers and Repairers Millwrights Mechanics and Repairers, n.e.c.  E588 E589 E593 E594 E595 E596 E597 E598 E599  Painters, Construction and Maintenance Paperhangers Plasterers Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters Plumber, Pipefitter, and Steamfitter Apprentices Concrete and Terrazzo Finishers Glaziers Insulation Workers Paving, Surfacing, and Tamping Equipment Operators Roofers Sheetmetal Duct Installers Structural Metal Workers Drillers, Earth Construction Trades, n.e.c.  EXTRACTIVE OCCUPATIONS E613 E614 E615 E616 E617  Supervisors, Extractive Occupations Drillers, Oil Well Explosives Workers Mining Machine Operators Mining Occupations, n.e.c.  PRECISION PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS E628 Supervisors, Production Occupations PRECISION METAL WORKING OCCUPATIONS E634 E635 E636 E637 E639 E643 E644  SUPERVISORS, CONSTRUCTION TRADES E553 Supervisors; Brickmasons, Stonemasons, and Tilesetters E554 Supervisors; Carpenters and Related Workers E555 Supervisors; Electricians and Power Transmission Installers E556 Supervisors; Painters, Paperhangers, and Plasterers E557 Supervisors; Plumbers, Pipefitters, and Steamfitters E558 Supervisors; Construction Trades, n.e.c.  E645 E646 E647 E649 E653 E654  Tool and Die Makers Tool and Die Maker Apprentices Precision Assemblers, Metal Machinists Machinist Apprentices Boilermakers Precision Grinders, Filers, and Tool Sharpeners Patternmakers and Modelmakers, Metal Layout Workers Precious Stones and Metals Workers Engravers, Metal Sheet Metal Workers Sheet Metal Worker Apprentices  CONSTRUCTION TRADES OCCUPATIONS PRECISION WOODWORKING OCCUPATIONS E563 E564 E565 E566 E567 E569 E573 E575 E576 E577  Brickmasons and Stonemasons Brickmason and Stonemason Apprentices Tile Setters, Hard and Soft Carpet Installers Carpenters Carpenter Apprentices Drywall Installers Electricians Electrician Apprentices Electrical Power Installers and Repairers  E656 Patternmakers and Modelmakers, Wood E657 Cabinet Makers and Bench Carpenters E658 Furniture and Wood Finishers PRECISION TEXTILE, APPAREL, AND FURNISHINGS MACHINE WORKERS E666 Dressmakers E667 Tailors 44  F719 Molding and Casting Machine Operators F723 Metal Plating Machine Operators F724 Heat Treating Equipment Operators  E668 Upholsterers E669 Shoe Repairers PRECISION WORKERS, ASSORTED MATERIALS  WOODWORKING MACHINE OPERATORS E675 E676 E677 E678  Hand Molders and Shapers, Except Jewelers Patternmakers, Layout Workers, and Cutters Optical Goods Workers Dental Laboratory and Medical Appliance Technicians E679 Bookbinders E683 Electrical and Electronic Equipment Assemblers E684 Miscellaneous Precision Workers, n.e.c.  F726 Wood Lathe, Routing, and Planing Machine Operators F727 Sawing Machine Operators F728 Shaping and Joining Machine Operators F729 Nailing and Tacking Machine Operators PRINTING MACHINE OPERATORS F734 Printing Press Operators F735 Photoengravers and Lithographers F736 Typesetters and Compositors  PRECISION FOOD PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS E685 E686 E687 E688  Precision Food Production Occupations, n.e.c. Butchers and Meat Cutters Bakers Food Batchmakers  TEXTILE, APPAREL, AND FURNISHINGS MACHINE OPERATORS F738 Winding and Twisting Machine Operators F739 Knitting, Looping, Taping, and Weaving Machine Operators F743 Textile Cutting Machine Operators F744 Textile Sewing Machine Operators F745 Shoe Machine Operators F747 Pressing Machine Operators F748 Laundering and Dry Cleaning Machine Operators  PRECISION INSPECTORS, TESTERS, AND RELATED WORKERS E689 Inspectors, Testers, and Graders E690 Precision Inspectors, Testers, and Related Workers, n.e.c. E693 Adjusters and Calibrators PLANT AND SYSTEM OPERATORS E694 E695 E696 E699  MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSORTED MATERIALS  Water and Sewage Treatment Plant Operators Power Plant Operators Stationary Engineers Miscellaneous Plant and System Operators, n.e.c.  F753 F754 F755 F756 F757  Cementing and Gluing Machine Operators Packaging and Filling Machine Operators Extruding and Forming Machine Operators Mixing and Blending Machine Operators Separating, Filtering, and Clarifying Machine Operators F758 Compressing and Compacting Machine Operators F759 Painting and Paint Spraying Machine Operators F763 Roasting and Baking Machine Operators, Food F764 Washing, Cleaning, and Pickling Machine Operators  Major group F: MACHINE OPERATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND INSPECTORS METALWORKING AND PLASTIC WORKING MACHINE OPERATORS F703 F704 F705 F706 F707 F708 F709  Lathe and Turning-Machine Set-Up Operators Lathe and Turning-Machine Operators Milling and Planing Machine Operators Punching and Stamping Press Operators Rolling Machine Operators Drilling and Boring Machine Operators Grinding, Abrading, Buffing, and Polishing Machine Operators F713 Forging Machine Operators F714 Numerical Control Machine Operators F717 Fabricating Machine Operators, n.e.c.  F765 Folding Machine Operators F766 Furnace, Kiln, and Oven Operators, Except Food F768 Crushing and Grinding Machine Operators F769 Slicing and Cutting Machine Operators F773 Motion Picture Projectionists F774 Photographic Process Machine Operators F777 Miscellaneous Machine Operators, n.e.c. 45  G843 Supervisors, Material Moving Equipment Operators G844 Operating Engineers G845 Longshore Equipment Operators G848 Hoist and Winch Operators G849 Crane and Tower Operators G853 Excavating and Loading Machine Operators G855 Grader, Dozer, and Scraper Operators G856 Industrial Truck and Tractor Equipment Operators G859 Miscellaneous Material Moving Equipment Operators, n.e.c.  FABRICATORS, ASSEMBLERS, AND HAND WORKING OCCUPATIONS F783 F784 F785 F786 F787  Welders and Cutters Solderers and Braziers Assemblers Hand Cutting and Trimming Occupations Hand Molding, Casting, and Forming Occupations F789 Hand Painting, Coating, and Decorating Occupations F793 Hand Engraving and Printing Occupations F795 Miscellaneous Hand Working Occupations, n.e.c.  Major group H: PRODUCTION INSPECTORS, TESTERS, SAMPLERS, AND WEIGHERS  HANDLERS, EQUIPMENT CLEANERS, HELPERS, AND LABORERS  F796 Production Inspectors, Checkers, and Examiners F797 Production Testers F798 Production Samplers and Weighers F799 Graders and Sorters, Except Agricultural F800 Hand Inspectors, n.e.c.  FARM, FISHING AND FORESTRY OCCUPATIONS NONFARM SECTOR H483 H484 H485 H486 H487 H489 H494 H495 H496 H497 H498  Major group G: TRANSPORTATION AND MATERIAL MOVING OCCUPATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATORS G803 G804 G806 G808 G809 G813 G814  Supervisors, Motor Vehicle Operators Truck Drivers Driver-Sales Workers Bus Drivers Taxicab Drivers and Chauffeurs Parking Lot Attendants Motor Transportation Occupations, n.e.c.  Marine Life Cultivation Workers Nursery Workers Supervisors, Agriculture-Related Workers Groundskeepers and Gardeners, Except Farm Animal Caretakers, Except Farm Inspectors, Agricultural Products Supervisors, Forestry and Logging Workers Forestry Workers, Except Logging Timber Cutting and Logging Occupations Captains and Other Officers, Fishing Vessels Fishers, Hunters, and Trappers  HELPERS, HANDLERS, AND LABORERS H864 Supervisors; Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, and Laborers, n.e.c. H865 Helpers, Mechanics and Repairers H866 Helpers, Construction Trades H867 Helpers, Surveyor H868 Helpers, Extractive Occupations H869 Construction Laborers H874 Production Helpers H875 Garbage Collectors H876 Stevedores H877 Stock Handlers and Baggers H878 Machine Feeders and Offbearers H883 Freight, Stock, and Material Handlers, n.e.c. H885 Garage and Service Station Related Occupations H887 Vehicle Washers and Equipment Cleaners H888 Hand Packers and Packagers H889 Laborers, Except Construction, n.e.c.  RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS G823 Railroad Conductors and Yardmasters G824 Locomotive Operating Occupations G825 Railroad Brake, Signal, and Switch Operators G826 Rail Vehicle Operators, n.e.c. WATER TRANSPORTATION OCCUPATIONS G828 Ship Captains and Mates, Except Fishing Boats G829 Sailors and Deckhands G833 Marine Engineers G834 Bridge, Lock, and Lighthouse Tenders MATERIAL MOVING EQUIPMENT OPERATORS  Major group K: 46  HEALTH SERVICE OCCUPATIONS  SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, EXCEPT PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD  K445 Dental Assistants K446 Health Aides, Except Nursing K447 Nursing Aides, Orderlies and Attendants  PROTECTIVE SERVICE OCCUPATIONS K413 Supervisors, Firefighting and Fire Prevention Occupations K414 Supervisors, Police and Detectives K415 Supervisors, Guards K416 Fire Inspection and Fire Prevention Occupations K417 Firefighting Occupations K418 Police and Detectives, Public Service K423 Sheriffs, Bailiffs, and Other Law Enforcement Officers K424 Correctional Institution Officers K425 Crossing Guards K426 Guards and Police, Except Public Service K427 Protective Service Occupations, n.e.c.  CLEANING AND BUILDING SERVICE OCCUPATIONS K448 Supervisors, Cleaning and Building Service Workers K449 Maids and Housemen K453 Janitors and Cleaners K454 Elevator Operators K455 Pest Control Occupations PERSONAL SERVICE OCCUPATIONS K456 K457 K458 K459  FOOD SERVICE OCCUPATIONS K433 Supervisors; Food Preparation and Service Occupations K434 Bartenders K435 Waiters and Waitresses K436 Cooks K438 Food Counter, Fountain, and Related Occupations K439 Kitchen Workers, Food Preparation K443 Waiters'/Waitresses' Assistants K444 Food Preparation Occupations, n.e.c.  K461 K462 K463 K464 K465 K467 K468 K469  47  Supervisors, Personal Service Occupations Barbers Hairdressers and Cosmetologists Attendants, Amusement and Recreation Facilities Guides Ushers Public Transportation Attendants Baggage Porters and Bellhops Welfare Service Aides Early Childhood Teacher's Assistants Child Care Workers, n.e.c. Service Occupations, n.e.c.  Appendix C. Generic Leveling Criteria  Below are the 10 criteria for generic leveling occupations. The description of each level within a factor is followed in parentheses by the point value assigned that level. An example using these criteria for leveling a job follows in appendix D.  6. Practical knowledge of a wide range of professional or administrative methods, principles, and practices, gained through job experience or relevant graduate study. (950) or Practical knowledge of a wide range of technical products, services, or methods similar to a narrow area of a professional field, and skill in applying this knowledge to difficult, but well-documented projects. (950)  Knowledge measures the nature and extent of information or facts that the workers must understand to do acceptable work. This knowledge is attained through education, training, and experience.  7. Knowledge of a wide range of concepts, principles, and practices gained through extended graduate study or professional or administrative experience. (1250) or Comprehensive knowledge of a technical field and skill in applying this knowledge to the development of new methods, approaches, or procedures. (1250) or Knowledge of new, unique, or custom developed technical products requiring extensive graduate study or equivalent experience. (1250)  1. Skill to perform simple, repetitive tasks, or operate simple tools or equipment, requiring little or no previous training or experience. (50) 2. Basic knowledge of common procedures, goods or services, tools, or equipment, requiring some previous training or experience. (200) 3. Knowledge of standard rules, procedures, goods or services, tools, or equipment, requiring considerable training or experience. (350)  8. Mastery of a professional or administrative field to apply experimental theories or new developments. (1550)  4. Knowledge of extensive rules, products, or services in a broad field needed to perform a wide variety of interrelated or nonstandard procedures. (550) or Practical knowledge of standard procedures, products or services, and operations in a technical field, requiring extended training or experience. (550) or Comprehensive knowledge of a blue collar skill, usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience. (550)  9. Mastery of a professional field to generate and develop new hypotheses and theories. (1850)  Supervision Received covers the nature and extent of direct or indirect control of workers exercised by the supervisor, the responsibility of the position, and the review of the completed work of the position. 1. Supervisor makes detailed assignments. Employee works as instructed, and the work is closely controlled and reviewed. (25)  5. Knowledge of specialized, complicated products, services, or techniques, acquired through a pertinent baccalaureate program, or equivalent experience and training (750) or Practical knowledge of standard technical procedures and methods to carry out limited projects involving specialized, complicated techniques. (T, PR, SR) (750) or Advanced knowledge of blue collar skill to solve unusually complex problems. (750)  2. Supervisor makes assignments, indicating generally what is to be done. The employee independently carries out recurring assignments but refers problems to supervisor. Review of work depends on complexity and novelty of assignment. (125) 3. Supervisor provides objectives, priorities, and deadlines. Employee plans and carries out steps in accordance with 48  3. Tasks involve different and unrelated problems. Assignments may involve a complete project of moderate scope or a defined segment of a large project. The employee is required to analyze issues and facts to discern interrelationships and to choose a course of action from many different and unrelated alternatives. Minor adaptation or modification of established procedures may be required. (150)  instructions, and completed work is reviewed for conformity to policy. (275) 4. Supervisor establishes overall objectives, employee and supervisor develop deadlines. Employee is responsible for planning and carrying out assignment, completed work is reviewed in terms of meeting requirements. (450) 5. Supervisor broadly defines overall objective. Employee is responsible for all aspects of planning. Work results are normally accepted as technically authoritative and reviewed in terms of fulfillment of program objectives. (650)  4. Tasks involve a wide range of diverse, unusual, and complex problems, requiring the employee to analyze and interpret incomplete or inconclusive information. Tasks involve independently planning the work to be done, selecting appropriate methods, frequently adjusting, modifying, or refining conventional practices and methods. (225)  Guidelines describes verbal or written instructions and the judgment needed to apply them.  5. Tasks involve many different and unrelated methods applied to a broad range of activities or intensive analysis and problem solving. Tasks require innovativeness in exploring new areas, selecting and using a variety of work techniques, modifying existing techniques, originating new techniques, and developing new information. (325)  1. Guidelines are specific and detailed. Employee is expected to strictly adhere to them. (25) 2. Guidelines are specific and procedures have been established. Employee uses judgment in selecting most appropriate guideline, and refers problems to the supervisor where guidelines do not exist. (125)  6. Tasks involve broad functions and processes of an administrative or professional field, where theories and practices are largely undefined. Tasks require extensive probing and analysis to determine the issues.  3. Guidelines are available but not always applicable, employee uses judgment in interpreting and adapting guidelines. Employee analyzes results and recommends changes. (275)  Work is accomplished through the development of new or modification of standard - theories and approaches, and resolution of previously intractable issues. (450)  4. Guidelines are scarce, but administrative policies stated in general terms are available. Employee uses initiative in deviating from traditional methods in order to develop new methods. (450)  Scope and Effect refers to the purpose of the work, whether the job covers a narrow or broad range of topics, and the impact of the work, if properly performed. Scope and Effect is not to be confused with Complexity, which deals with the difficulty of the work.  5. Guidelines are broadly stated and nonspecific. The employee is recognized as a technical authority in the development and interpretation of guidelines. (650)  1. Performs specific routine tasks that have little impact beyond the operations performed. (25)  Complexity covers the variety of tasks, identifying what needs to be done, and the difficulty involved in performing the work.  2. Follows specific rules or procedures in carrying out an assignment. The work affects the acceptability of further processes or services. (75)  1. Tasks are clear-cut, readily discernible, and easily understood. The sequence of tasks is clearly defined, with each task directly related to the next. Tasks are repetitive and limited in number. There is little or no choice required in determining what to do or how to do it. (25)  3. Treats a variety of conventional problems using established criteria. The outcome affects the adequacy, design, or operations of the complete system. (150) 4. Establishes procedures, formulates projects, and analyzes a variety of unusual problems. The work affects a wide range of activities. (225)  2. Tasks are easily recognized and related to one another, but vary depending upon the circumstances of the assignment. The employee is required to determine what needs to be done, acquire needed information, and identify and select from a few work methods. (75) 49  5. Resolves critical problems or develops new theories that affect the work of other experts or major aspects of programs. (325)  4. The purpose is to justify, defend, negotiate, or settle matters involving significant or controversial issues. The persons contacted typically have diverse viewpoints, goals, or objectives requiring the employee to achieve a common understanding of the problem and a satisfactory solution by convincing them, arriving at a compromise, or developing suitable alternatives. (220)  6. Plans, and carries out vital programs that are essential to the overall organization or to large numbers of people on a continuing basis. (450)  Personal Contacts covers contacts with persons not in the supervisory chain. Levels are based on what is required to make the initial contact, the difficulty of communicating with those contacted, and the setting in which the contacts take place.  Physical Demands covers the physical characteristics and abilities placed on the employee by the work assignment. 1. The work is sedentary. Typically, the employee may sit comfortably to do the work. However, there may be some walking,; standing, or bending; carrying of light items such as papers, books, small parts; driving an automobile; etc. No special physical demands are required to perform the work. (5)  1. Contacts are with employees within the immediate work unit, and/or with the general public in highly structured situations. (10) 2. Contacts are with employees in the same establishment but outside the immediate work unit, and/or with the general public in moderately structured settings. (25)  2. The work requires some physical exertion such as long periods of standing, walking over rough, uneven, or rocky surfaces; recurring bending, crouching, stopping, stretching, reaching, or similar activities; recurring lifting of moderately heavy items such as laptop computers or record boxes. The work may require specific, but common, physical characteristics and abilities such as above average agility and dexterity. (20)  3. Contacts are with individuals or groups from outside the establishment in a moderately unstructured setting. Contacts are not established on a routine basis, each contact is different, and the roles of each party are established during the contact. (60)  3. The work requires considerable and strenuous physical exertion such as climbing of tall ladders, lifting heavy objects over 50 pounds, crouching or crawling in restricted areas, and defending oneself or others against physical attack. (50)  4. Personal contacts are with high-ranking officials from outside the establishment at national or international levels in highly unstructured settings. (110) Purpose of Contacts measures the range of personal contacts from factual exchanges of information to situations involving significant or controversial issues and differing viewpoints, goals, or objectives.  Work Environment considers the risks and discomforts in the employee’s physical surroundings, or the nature of the work assigned and the safety regulations required.  1. The purpose is to obtain, clarify, or give facts or information ranging from easily understood to highly technical. (20)  1. The work environment involves everyday risks or discomforts that require normal safety precautions typical of such places as offices, meeting and training rooms, libraries, and residences or commercial vehicles (e.g., use of safe work practices with office equipment, avoidance of trips and falls, observance of fire regulations and traffic signals, etc.). The work is adequately lighted, heated, and ventilated. (5)  2. The purpose is to plan, coordinate, or advise on work efforts, or to resolve operating problems by influencing or motivating individuals or groups who are working toward mutual goals and who have cooperative attitudes. (50) 3. The purpose is to influence, motivate, convince, or question persons or group. Those contacted may be hesitant or skeptical, so the employee must be skillful in approaching the individual or group in order to obtain the desired response. (120) or The purpose is to interrogate or control persons or groups who may be fearful, uncooperative, or dangerous. The employee must be skillful in order to bring about the necessary conduct or information. (120) (PR)  2. The work involves moderate risks or discomforts which require special safety precautions, e.g., working around moving parts, carts, or machines; with contagious diseases or irritant chemicals; etc. Employees may be required to use protective clothing or gear such as masks, gowns, coats, boots, goggles, gloves, or shields. (20)  50  worker. (251)  3. The work involves high risk with exposure to potentially dangerous situations or unusual environmental stress which require a range of safety and other precautions (e.g., working at great heights under extreme outdoor weather conditions; subject to possible physical attack or mob conditions, or similar situations where conditions cannot be controlled). (50)  3. Directs staff through face to face meetings. Organizational structure is not complex and internal and administrative procedures are simple. Performing the same work as subordinates is not the principal duty. Typically, this is the first supervisory level. (502) 4. Directs staff through intermediate supervisors. Internal procedures and administrative controls are formal. Organizational structure is complex and is divided into subordinate groups that may differ from each other as to subject matter and function. (1003)  Supervisory Duties describes the level of supervisory responsibility for a position. 1. No supervisory responsibility. (0)  5. Directs staff through two or more subordinate supervisory levels with several subdivisions at each level. Programs are usually inter-locked on a direct and continuing basis with other organizational segments, requiring constant attention to extensive formal coordination, clearances, and procedural controls. (1504)  2. A nonsupervisory position. Incumbent sets the pace of work for the group and shows other workers in the grouphow to perform assigned tasks. Commonly performs the same work as the group, in addition to lead duties. May also be called group leader, team leader, or lead  51  Appendix D. Evaluating Your Firm’s Jobs  Level 2.  In order to best compare data on their firm’s jobs to statistics contained in this bulletin, data user’s need to be able to determine their jobs’ work levels. Using the example of a dental hygienist, this appendix will go through the procedure for determining the work level of a particular job. To determine the work level of a job, it must be evaluated using the generic leveling factors. With the information available, such as a written position description and other knowledge of the job, each factor must be reviewed. Comparing that information to the descriptions of each level within a factor as shown in Appendix C, the level best matching the job should be chosen and recorded. (Note that the number of levels varies by factor.)  Scope and effect In terms of process, the dentist’s work follows the hygienist’s. In terms of effect, the hygienist could give a harmful x-ray or miss plaque on the teeth. Level 2. Personal contacts Patients come to the clinic or occasionally the hygienist will travel to perform work or give a talk at a school. Level 2. Purpose of contacts Most of hygienist’s interaction is with patients; no planning or coordination work is involved.  Generic leveling: an example Knowledge Hygienist must have a dental hygienist license which requires 2 years of schooling and passage of a technical exam. This is a mid-level hygienist job, which means a worker must have at least 3 years of experience. The procedures are essentially the same every day, such as cleaning teeth, checking gums, and giving x-rays.  Level 1. Physical demands The work is sedentary. Level 1.  Level 4.  Work environment Hygienist must take precautions not to be exposed to xrays, punctures, etc.  Supervision received Most of the tasks are performed without supervision. For more complicated procedures, such as tooth filling, the dental hygienist assists the dentist.  Level 2. Supervisory duties A dental hygienist at this level does not supervise anyone.  Level 2. Guidelines An hygienist knows which procedure to use for different dental problems. Unusual situations are handled after checking with the supervisor.  Level 1.  Assigning points  Level 2.  Once the correct level has been identified within each factor, the points associated with each level are recorded. Summing the points for all factors gives the total points for the job. Using the factors above and the table at the end of this section showing the points associated with each  Complexity Each procedure performed leads to the next, for example, examining gums, scraping plaque, then cleaning teeth. 52  level within a factor, a sample worksheet was filled out for the dental hygienist position.  by a point range. The 1,020 total points for the dental hygienist job puts it in level 5.  Generic leveling worksheet  Point ranges by work level  Company job title: Dental Hygienist Factor  Range of Generic Level Points  Level  Points  Knowledge  4  550  Supervision received  2  125  Guidelines  2  125  Complexity  2  75  Scope and effect  2  75  Personal contacts  2  25  Purpose of contacts  2  20  Physical demands  1  5  Work environment  2  20  Total  5  1020  Level  Low  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15  190 255 455 655 855 1105 1355 1605 1855 2105 2355 2755 3155 3605 4055 and up  254 454 654 854 1104 1354 1604 1854 2104 2354 2754 3154 3604 4054  Comparing wages Once the work level has been identified for a job,wages for that job can be compared to wages for similar jobs at the same work level. BLS publishes hourly wage rates by work level within nine major occupational groups, which are combinations of similar individual occupations. The groups and work levels available vary by area. Employers can also use the data on work levels to compare different jobs in their establishment.  Determining the work level The following chart takes the point total determined via the worksheet and converts to an overall work level for the job. There are 15 work levels, based on those used to rank federal civil service white-collar jobs, each identified  Points associated with each factor level Factor Knowledge Supervision required Guidelines Complexity Scope and effect Personal contacts Purpose of contacts Physical demands Work environment Supervisory duties  High  1 2 3 50 200 35 25 125 275  4 550 450  5 6 7 8 9 750 950 1250 1550 1850 650 X X X X  25 125 275 25 75 150 25 75 150  450 225 225  650 X 325 450 325 450  10  25  60  110  X  20  50 120  220  X X X  X X X  X X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  X  5  20  50  X  X  X  X  X  X  5  20  50  X  X  X  X  X  X  0 251 502 1003 1504  X  X  X  X  53
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