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Federal Reserve Bank OF DALLAS T O N Y J. S A L V A G G I O F IR S T V IC E p r e s i d e n t Jllly 25, 1991 DALLAS, TEXAS 75222 N o t i c e 9 1-64 TO: The C h i e f E x e c u t i v e O f f i c e r of each financial i n s t i t u t i o n in the E l e v e n t h Federal Re s e r v e D i s t r i c t SUBJECT I n t r o d u c t i o n of N e w C u r r e n c y S e c u r i t y F e a t u r e s DETAILS T he U.S. D e p a r t m e n t of the T r e a s u r y and the Federal R e s e r v e r e c e n t l y a n n o u n c e d the i n t r o d u c t i o n of two n ew s e c u r i t y e n h a n c e m e n t s to U.S. c urrency: a s e c u r i t y t h r e a d and m i c r o p r i n t i n g . T h e s e n ew a n t i c o u n t e r f e i t i n g e n h a n c e m e n t s will a p p e a r first in S e ries 1990 $ 100 notes, w h i c h are e x p e c t e d to be issued d u r i n g S e ptember, f o l l o w e d by $50 notes a few m o n t h s later. Other d e n o m i n a t i o n s , w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of $1 notes, will be i n t r o d u c e d w i t h i n the n ext five years. T h e r e will be no recall or d e m o n e t i z a t i o n of the e x i s t i n g c u rrency, so no a c tion will be r e q u i r e d of the public. Ex i s t i n g notes will c i r c u l a t e w i t h the e n h a n c e d notes. The n e w f e a t u r e s will a u g m e n t e x i s t i n g c o u n t e r f e i t d e t e r r e n t s in the c u r r e n c y and will help d e t e r the use of a d v a n c e d c o p i e r and p r i n t i n g s ystems for c o u n t e r f e i t i n g currency. The s e c u r i t y t h r e a d is a p o l y e s t e r strip e m b e d d e d in the p a p e r to the left of the Federal R e s e r v e seal. T he t h r e a d is pr i n t e d w i t h the l etters "USA" and the n o t e ’s d e n o m i n a t i o n (for example, "USA 100") in a r e p e a t e d u p - a n d - d o w n pa t t e r n along the l e n g t h of the strip. A l t h o u g h the t h r e a d is v i s i b l e w h e n the n ote is held to a light, the r e f l e c t e d l ight of c o p i e r s c a n n o t r e p r o d u c e the thread. The w o r d s "The U n i t e d S tates of A m e r i c a " are r e p e a t e d in m i c r o p r i n t ing along the sides of the portrait. The le t t e r s are too small to be read w i t h o u t a m a g n i f i e r and c a n n o t be r e p r o d u c e d d i s t i n c t l y by a copier. T h e s e n e w features, as well as the e x i s t i n g s e c u r i t y f e a t u r e s of U.S. c urrency, are e x p l a i n e d in the e n c l o s e d i n f o r m a t i o n kit. The m a t e r i a l s in the kit m a y be used to t rain y o u r e m p l o y e e s a bout the c u r r e n c y s e c u r i t y f e a t u r e s — p a r t i c u l a r l y the e m p l o y e e s who h a n d l e c u r r e n c y or r o u t i n e l y a n s w e r i n q u i r i e s f r o m y o u r cust o m e r s . The kit also c o n t a i n s a s t a t e m e n t s t u f f e r that y ou m a y send to c o mmercial c u s t o m e r s or individual a c c o u n t holders. S p a c e has been left for i n f o r m a t i o n a bout y o u r institution. For additional copies, bankers and others are encouraged to use one of the following toll-free numbers in contacting the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas: Dallas Office (800) 333-4460; El Paso Branch Intrastate (800) 592-1631, Interstate (800) 351-1012; Houston Branch Intrastate (800) 392-4162, Interstate (800) 221-0363; San Antonio Branch Intrastate (800) 292-5810. This publication was digitized and made available by the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas' Historical Library (FedHistory@dal.frb.org) - 2 - P l e a s e feel free to p r o d u c e t r a n s p a r e n c i e s f r o m the c o l o r t r a n s p a r e n c y m a s t e r s i n c l u d e d in the kit. You m a y o r d e r additional b r o c h u r e s and posters, at cost, f r o m the Federal R e s e r v e B a n k of K a n s a s City. An e x c e l l e n t v i d e o t a p e t hat d e s c r i b e s n e w and e x i s t i n g c u r r e n c y s e c u r i t y f e a t u r e s is a v a i l a b l e for use as a g r o u p or s t a n d - a l o n e t r a i n i n g tool and m a y be o b t a i n e d w i t h the e n c l o s e d o r d e r form. It is i m p o r t a n t that the p u b l i c u n d e r s t a n d that t hese new fea t u r e s are p art of the g o v e r n m e n t ’s c o n t i n u i n g e f f o r t to e n s u r e the s e c u r i t y of U.S. c u rrency. T h e s e new f e a t u r e s will be e f f e c t i v e o nly if the p u b l i c can r e c o g n i z e and use them, and the financial c o m m u n i t y is well s i t u a t e d to help m a i n t a i n p u b l i c confi d e n c e . ENCLOSURE E n c l o s e d is an i n f o r m a t i o n kit c o n c e r n i n g the n ew c u r r e n c y s e c u r i t y features. MORE INFORMATION For m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n about the s e c u r i t y features, p l e a s e c o n t a c t M a r y Rosas, (214) 6 5 1-6336, at the D allas Office; J a v i e r J imenez, (915) 5218202, at the El Paso Branch; Luke Richards, (713) 652-1544, at the H o u s t o n Branch; or J o h n Bullock, (512) 978-1403, at the San A n t o n i o Branch. For additional c opies of this B a n k ’s notice, p l e a s e c o n t a c t the P ublic A f f a i r s D e p a r t m e n t at (214) 651-6289. Sincerely, new and existing security features for your dollars’ protection GET ACQUAINTED WITH YOUR MONEY Existing security features are easy to see once you know what to look for. The two new design enhancements were selected for easy recognition and use as well as their counterfeit deterrent features. NEW FEATURES TO DETER COUNTERFEITING WITH ADVANCED COPIERS, SCANNERS, AND PRINTERS. FEDERAL RESERVE SE AL Issuing Federal Reserve Bank. Code letter same as Look for differences, not similarities. Compare a suspect note with a genuine note of the same denomination and series. Pay attention to the high quality printing and paper. ENGRAVED PRINTING Engraved plate printing WHAT TO DO IF YOU SUSPECT A COUNTERFEIT / Do not return it to the passer. Delay the person if possible without endangering yourself. ✓ Observe the passer’s description, as well as that of any companions. Get vehicle license numbers. / Telephone the police or the United States Secret Service. ✓ Initial and date an unprinted portion of the note. / Handle the note as little as possible to preserve fingerprints. Carefully place it in a protective covering such as an envelope. ✓ Surrender the note only to a properly identified police officer or Secret Service agent. PA PER Cotton and linen rag paper has strong, pliable “feel." MICROPRINTING TREASURY SEAL Sawtooth points sharp, dis tinct, and unbroken. Seal's color same as two serial numbers. Your Money Matters... Enhanced Currency The Department of the Treasury's Bureau of Engraving and Printing is producing currency with a security thread and microprinting to augment existing counterfeit deterrent features. The enhancements, which cannot be distinctly copied, will deter counterfeiters who might attempt to use new color copiers, laser scanners, and digital printing equipment expected to be widely available within the coming years. Security-enhanced Series 1990 $100 and $50 notes are the first to be circulated by the Federal Reserve System. Other denominations will be introduced over the next five years, with the exception of the one dollar note, which does not pose a great risk. Existing Security Features Service, responsible for counterfeit enforcement, is successful in controlling the integrity of U.S.currency. Existing design deterrents include the special paper; the lacy, w eblike border; the D epartm ent of the Treasury and Federal Reserve seals; the em bed ded red and blue fibers; the distinct and lifelike portrait; and the distinctive style and placement of the denomination and serial numbers. Counterfeiting United States currency or altering genuine currency to increase its value is against the law and is punishable by a fine of up to $5,000, 15 years imprisonment, or both. In 1989, almost 99 percent of prosecuted arrests were convicted. No Recall-Just Replacement New and existing currency will co-circulate. Both will be legal tender. There are no plans for a recall. Enhanced currency will replace worn or damaged notes in the normal process of currency circulation. Full color photographs or printed reproductions of United States currency are also illegal. Black and white reproductions are permitted, but they must be larger than 150% or smaller than 75% of genuine currency. Counterfeiting--Not a Problem Now Counterfeiting is not a significant problem now.The vast majority of counterfeits are believed to be seized before being passed to the public. C ounterfeits amounted to a minute fraction of the 7 billion genuine notes produced in 1989. The United States Secret BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM OFFICE OF THE TREASURER DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY OF THE UNITED STATES BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING You/ j j ] J G 5 B o u B Z S y H I jj-jyy a n d ^dssJJjjsj s s s u /h y t e u lu /z s fo r j v u r dvJJu/sf p /v t e s lh u j SERIAL NUMBERS Issuing Federal R eserve Bank. Code letter same as firs t lette r in two serial numbers. TWo s erial num bers dis tin c tiv ely sty le d and e ve n ly s p aced. Ink c o lo r s am e as Treasury seal. N o tw o notes o f s a m e s erie s and den o m in atio n have sam e serial num ber. B o rd e r’s fin e lin e s and lacy, w eb lik e design dis tin c t and unbroken. Ti i t piaa A 95517197 A W a h h I.NG TO N . D .C . Ti E m bedd ed poly es te r strip w ith re pea te d USA 50 or USA 100 in an up-anddown pattern. Visible when held to lig h t. Cannot be re p ro d u ce d in re flec te d light of copiers. In new Ser- II% V A 95517197 A A 955171 W a h h i n g t o n . D .G . “The United States of Amer ica” printed repeatedly on sides of portrait. Letters too small to read without a mag nifier or for distinct copier reproduction. In new Series 1990 $50 and $100 notes. TREASURY Life lik e p o rtra it dis tin ct from fine, screenlike ba ck ground. Saw tooth points sharp, dis tin c t, and unbroken. Seal’s c o lo r s am e as tw o serial num bers. ENGRAVED P R IN T IN G PAPER Engraved pla te p rin tin g gives new notes em bossed “feel.” D EN O M IN A TIO N Note's value on corners s am e as o v er T reasury seal. Cotton and linen rag paper has strong, pliable “fe e l.” No w aterm arks. If you suspect a counterfeit, call the police or U.S. Secret Service. Put the bill in an envelope and note per son’s description. ENHANCED AND EXISTING NOTES WILL CO-CIRCULATE. NO RECALL IS PLANNED. REGARDLESS OF W HEN FIRST ISSUED, UNITED STATES AUTHORIZED CURRENCY REMAINS LEGAL TENDER. Your Money Matters... new and existing security features for your dollars' protection SER IA L NU M B ER S NEW FEATURES TO DETER COUNTERFEITING WITH ADVANCED COPIERS, SCANNERS, AND PRINTERS. FED ER A L RESERVE SEAL issuing Federal R eserve Bank. Code letter same as first le tte r in tw o serial numbers. TWo s erial num bers dis tin c tiv e ly styled and eve n ly s p ac e d . In k c o lo r sam e as Treasury sea l. N o tw o notes of s a m e s erie s and d e n o m in atio n have sam e s eria l num ber. BORDER B o rd e r’s fin e lin e s and lacy, w e b lik e design dis tin c t and unbroken. A 95517197 A W a s h in g t o n . D .C . U97A 'ON.D.C. ILL. FIB ERS SECURITY THREAD Tiny red and blue fibers e m b ed d e d in paper. E m bedd ed po ly es te r strip w ith re pea te d USA 50 or USA 100 in an up-anddown pattern. Visible when held to lig h t. C a nnot be re p ro d u ce d in re flec te d light o f copiers. In new S er ies 1 990 $ 5 0 and $100 notes. “The United States of Amer I ica” printed repeatedly on i of portrait. Letters too sides small to read without a mag nifier or for distinct copier reproduction. In new Series 1990 $50 and $100 notes. TREASU RY SEAL PO RTRAIT Life lik e p o rtra it d is tin ct from fine, scre enlik e b a ck ground. Saw tooth points sharp, dis tin c t, and unbroken. Seal’s c o lo r sam e as tw o serial num bers. ENGRAVED PR IN TIN G PAPER Engraved p la te p rinting gives new notes em bossed “feel.” C otton and linen rag paper has s trong, pliable “feel." N o w aterm a rks . If you suspect a counterfeit, call the police or U.S. Secret Service. Put the bill in an envelope and note per son’s description. BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM D E N O M IN A TIO N Note’s v alu e on corners s a m e as o v er T reasury seal. ENHANCED AND EXISTING NOTES WILL CO-CIRCULATE. NO RECALL IS PLANNED. REGARDLESS OF WHEN FIRST ISSUED, UNITED STATES AUTHORIZED CURRENCY REMAINS LEGAL TENDER. OFFICE OF THE TREASURER OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING Your Matters... FACTSHEET THE HISTORY OF PAPER MONEY In the early days of the nation, before and just after the Revolution, Americans used English, Spanish, and French money. Colonial Notes 1690 The Massachusetts Bay Colony issued the first paper money in the colonies which would later form the United States. Continental Currency 1775 American colonists issued paper currency for the Continental Congress to finance the Revolutionary War. The notes were backed by the “ anticipation” of tax revenues. Without solid backing and easily counterfeited, the notes quickly became devalued, giving rise to the phrase “ not worth a Continental.” Nation’s First Bank 1781 Also to support the Revolutionary War, the Continental Congress chartered the Bank of North America in Philadelphia as the nation’s first “ real” bank. The Dollar 1785 The Continental Congress determined that the official monetary system would be based on the dollar, but the first coin representing the start of this system would not be struck for many years. First U.S. Bank 1791 After adoption of the Constitution in 1789, Congress chartered the First Bank of the United States until 1811 and authorized it to issue paper bank notes to eliminate confusion and simplify trade. The bank served as the U.S. Treasury’s fiscal agent, thus performing the first central bank functions. Monetary System 1792 The federal monetary system was established with the creation of the U.S. Mint in Philadelphia. The first American coins were struck in 1793. Second U.S. Bank 1816 The Second Bank of the United States was chartered for 20 years until 1836. State Bank Notes 1836 With minimum regulation, a proliferation of 1,600 local state-chartered, private banks now issued paper money. State bank notes, with over 30,000 varieties of color and design, were easily counterfeited. That, along with bank failures, caused confusion and circulation problems. Civil War 1861 On the brink of bankruptcy and pressed to finance the Civil War, Congress authorized the United States Treasury to issue paper money for the first time in the form of non-interest bearing Treasury Notes called Demand Notes. Greenbacks 1862 Demand Notes were replaced by United States Notes. Commonly called “ greenbacks,” they were last issued in 1971. The Secretary of the Treasury was empowered by Congress to have notes engraved and printed, which was done by private banknote companies. (more) Your M on ey Matters to you, a n d it matters to your U.S. G overnm ent BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM OFFICE OF THE TREASURER OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING - 2 - The Design 1863 The design of U.S. currency incorporated a Treasury seal, the fine line engraving necessary for the difficult-to-counterfeit intaglio printing, intricate geometric lathe work patterns, and distinctive linen paper with embedded red and blue fibers. Gold Certificates 1865 Gold certificates were issued by the Department of the Treasury against gold coin and bullion deposits and were circulated until 1933. Secret Service 1865 The Department of the Treasury established the United States Secret Service to control counterfeits, at that time amounting to one-third of circulated currency. National Bank Notes 1866 National Bank Notes, backed by U.S. government securities, became predominant. By this time, 75 percent of bank deposits were held by nationallychartered banks. As State Bank Notes were replaced, the value of currency stabilized for a time. Bureau of Engraving and Printing 1877 The Department of the Treasury’s Bureau of Engraving and Printing started printing all U.S. currency, although other steps were done outside. Silver Certificates 1878 The Department of the Treasury was authorized to issue Silver Certificates in exchange for silver dollars. The last issue was in the Series of 1957. Currency Production Consolidated 1910 The Department of the Treasury’s Bureau of Engraving and Printing assumed all currency production functions, including engraving, printing, and processing. Federal Reserve Act 1913 After 1893 and 1907 financial panics, the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 was passed. It created the Federal Reserve System as the nation’s central bank to regulate the flow of money and credit for economic stability and growth. The system was authorized to issue Federal Reserve Notes, now the only U.S. currency produced and 99 percent of all currency in circulation. Standardized Design 1929 Currency was reduced in size by 25 percent and standardized with uniform portraits on the faces and emblems and monuments on the backs. In God We Trust 1957 Paper currency was first issued with “ In God We Trust” as required by Congress in 1955. The inscription appears on all currency Series 1963 and beyond. Security Thread and M icroprinting 1990 A security thread and microprinting were introduced, first in $50 and $100 notes, to deter counterfeiting by advanced copiers and printers. # # # Your Matters... FACTSHEET TECHNICAL BACKGROUND SECURITY FEATURES The Department of the Treasury’s Bureau of Engraving and Printing is producing United States currency with new security features to be introduced by the Federal Reserve System starting with Series 1990 $50 and $100 notes. These features —a denominated security thread and microprint ing deter counterfeiting with advanced color copier, scanner, and printing equipment. They were selected after extensive testing and evaluation of numerous banknote security devices, many of which are used successfully by other countries with lower production and circulation demands. The following criteria were applied: EVALUATION CRITERIA Effectiveness: Counterfeit deterrent effectiveness was tested by reprographic equipment manufac turers and government scientists. The ease of public and cash handler recogni tion and use was also considered. Durability: Durability was tested under the rigors of normal circulation. Tests included crum pling, folding, laundering, and soaking in a variety of solvents such as gasoline, acids, and laundry products. Cost: Production tests were conducted to determine if a feature would adversely affect production or cost, which in 1989 amounted to 7 billion notes at 2.6 cents per note. Appearance: Features were evaluated on their compatibility with the traditional design of United States currency. DEVICES/FEATURES EVALUATED Holograms: These three-demensional, laser-generated image devices undergo color or image shifts when tilted. Although commonly used on credit cards, holograms were too expensive and fragile for U.S. currency applications. Simulated circulation tests (folding, crumpling, and chemical soaks) destroyed the image. Multiple Diffraction Gratings: Diffraction gratings have different line spacings that are superimposed to break up light into various color patterns. This produces image and color shifts depend ing upon the viewing angle. These devices were expensive for large production demands and did not survive simulated circulation testing. Thin Film Interference Filter: This multilayer reflective device produces a distinct and controlled color shift when tilted (gold to green or red to blue). The device evaluated for U.S. currency, more durable than holograms or diffraction gratings, would require major currency produc tion changes. It also did not survive simulated circulation testing. (more) Your M on e y Matters to you, a nd it matters to your U.S. Governm ent BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM OFFICE OF THE TREASURER OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING - 2 - Watermarks: Watermarks applied during the paper manufacturing process produce a distinct design that can be seen in transmitted light. This security feature, common in other world currencies, would require a complete redesign to give sufficient clear space for U.S. currency effectiveness. Latent Image: An image is created by multidirection engraved lines that are visible when viewed at a specific angle. Effectiveness is based on the three-dimensional effect of intaglio printing. The device rapidly degraded and was difficult to detect after simu lated U.S. currency circulation. Background Color Tints: Complex color tints (rainbow tints) are commonly used in security documents to provide subtle, difficult-to-produce color gradations. Useful against older copiers and photographic reproduction equipment, the tints were not as effective against advanced copiers or scanners. A redesign would be required to successfully utilize this type of deterrent in U.S. currency. Metameric Pairs: Two inks, appearing the same color under normal light, appear different under intense copier and scanner lights. Copies show color differences. Some foreign currencies have this feature. For U.S. currency, a significant redesign would be required to provide the large area of metameric colors necessary for effectiveness. Security Threads: Several variations of security threads were evaluated, such as windowed, solid, and denominated. These devices have a continuous filament or ribbon embedded into the base paper during manufacture. They can also be manufactured with identifying information, such as the denomination. The security thread determined to be the most effective counterfeit deterrent for U.S. currency is visible when held to the light and invisible in the reflected light of copiers or scanners. It is durable, cost effective, and can be incorporated into the traditional design. Microprinting: Text is printed too small (6 to 7 thousandths of an inch) to be accurately copied by reprographic equipment. Microprinting is inexpensive, durable, and can be incorporated into the current U.S. currency design. After the original engraving, it is reproduced as part of the normal printing operation. # # # Your Matters... FACTSHEET ADVANCED COPIER AND PRINTER TECHNOLOGY Advanced copier and printer technology improved dramatically during the 1980s and is expected to continue to mature during the remainder of the 20th century. Some of this equipment is capable of accurately reproducing the colors and fine line detail of security documents and is seen as a threat to United States currency. Market surveys indicate that as quality, affordability, and availability increase, advanced equipment will become the standard in offices, copy centers, and printing facilities. Industry analysts forecast that up to 1.7 million color copiers and 1.8 million color printers will be in use by the end of 1994. The color copier of the ’90s has been compared to the color television of the ’70s, when color became the stan dard rather than the exception. Of the new technologies, advanced copiers, electronic scanners, and color workstations are the primary threats to currency. They do not require extensive expertise to operate and are expected to become widely accessible. Of these, only about 30 percent pose a serious threat because of high quality, high resolution capabilities. ADVANCED COLOR COPIERS There are two types of advanced color copiers: analog or optical imaging systems and digital imaging systems. Analog imaging systems scan the image optically and directly or indirectly make an image on paper. These systems include photographic, electrophotographic, and Cycolor. Digital imaging sys tems optically scan an image and convert it by computer into digital signals used to make an image on paper. Digital systems include thermal transfer, inkjet, and also an advanced electrophotographic. Photographic - (Analog/optical) Photographic based color copiers at under $20,000 offer exceptionally high quality reproductions using photographic paper. This technology, even with improvements for less specialized use, is not a threat to security documents since copies are readily identifiable by the special photographic paper. Cycolor-(Analog/optical) This light activated analog imaging technology has a unique process using microencapsulated primary color dyes. The color copier is relatively inexpensive at under $10,000. The color quality is considered good, but the special paper requirements reduce the threat to currency security. Thermal Transfer-(Digital) Color thermal copiers, usually associated with computer digital printers, are priced around $10,000. The copiers produce shiny, waxy copies in the lower quality range and are not viewed as a major counterfeit threat. Color Ink Jet—(Digital) Designed for the engineering/scientific area, this technology is capable of making good quality, over size copies at 400 dots-per-inch with plain paper copying. Priced at approximately $95,000, it is not widely available and does not pose a current risk to currency security. (more) Your M on ey Matters to you, a n d it matters to your U.S. Governm ent BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM OFFICE OF THE TREASURER OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING - 2 - Electrophotography-(Analog/optical and digital) The electrophotographic process provides a high quality plain paper copy at high copy speeds (up to 23 copies per minute) and a per copy cost of from 7 to 15 cents. High end digital copiers of this type can faithfully reproduce the fine detail of currency, and as the price lowers below the $20,000 point, these copiers are expected to pose an increasing threat to currency security. Market surveys project conservatively that 40,000 electrophotographic copiers will be placed in the United States by 1993. ELECTRONIC SCANNERS Scanner equipment electronically scans an image or text off of an original document and digitizes it into a computer-readable form. The image may be displayed on a screen, changed, or combined with other images. The edited image can then be stored, printed on a color output device, or used to make offset or gravure printing plates. Medium quality scanners can scan or read 100 dots per inch (dpi). High quality 400 dpi scanners can read very small one point type as well as half tones. Advanced copiers and printing equipment using this technology are considered a security threat because of flexible editing capabilities and fine detail reproductions. Scanner equipment is mostly found in large graphic design firms. One thousand dpi color scanners are priced at $25,000; 400 dpi units are less. As prices drop, this technology will become increasingly available in design, printing, and advertising organizations. COLOR WORKSTATION A color workstation combines the latest personal computer, software, printer/copier, and video camera/ scanner technologies. The data or image can be stored indefinitely on magnetic floppy disks or other media and copied later on a color output device. A document scanned in one location can be printed on any compatible printer. Output quality depends on the dpi resolution and scanner and printer capabilities. Printer resolution is of greater importance because scanner input can be edited to enhance quality. By the middle of 1990, it is anticipated that the personal computer will be linked to a digital copier to produce high quality, inexpensive copies directly from the digitized information in the personal computer. With the trend to use charts, graphs, and illustrations (many of which are now generated by computers) in presentations and reports, it is expected that color workstations will soon be commonly found in business operations. # # # Your Money Matters. FACTSHEET STUDIES UNITED STATES CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES Security Thread and Microprinting Reactions to the New U.S. Currency: Analysis of Focus Group Discussions, November 3,1986. Market Facts Inc., funded by the Federal Reserve Board. To determine public reaction to currency with security thread and micro printing. Focus group participants were satisfied with their currency but would accept the addition of a security thread and microprinting for wellcommunicated counterfeit deterrent reasons. Counterfeit Threat Advanced Reprographic Systems: Counterfeiting Threat Assessment and Deterrent Measures, June, 1986. National Academy of Sciences, funded by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing. To assess counterfeit threat from specific advanced reprographic equipment and recommend counterfeit deterrents. Confirmed threat and recommended action. For near term, suggested combination of conventional deterrent devices, including a security thread. Visual Deterrents Evaluation of Visual Counterfeiting Deterrent Features, May 1,1985. Battelle Columbus Laboratory, funded by the Federal Reserve Board. To analyze visual counterfeit deterrent alternatives. Battelle Columbus Labora tory developed comparative data on alternative visual deterrent features to assist Department of the Treasury officials in currency design decision. Features recommended included optical variable devices (thin film or holo gram), background tints, security thread, and watermarks. Design Change Reactions Reactions to U.S. Currency Redesign: Analysis of Focus Group Discussion, September 21, 1983. Market Facts Inc., funded by the Federal Reserve Board. To obtain further data on public opinion regarding currency design. Found public willing to accept design changes for counterfeit protection. Advanced Imaging Technologies The Impact of Emerging Imaging Technologies on Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency, August 16,1983. Battelle Columbus Laboratory, funded by Federal Reserve Board. To evaluate counterfeit threat from advanced copier and printer technology. Found question not whether color copiers will present a threat but when. U.S. Currency Acceptance Final Report: Stage Two, Public Acceptance of Proposed Changes in U.S. Currency Project, February 23,1981. University of Michigan Graduate School of Business, Division of Research, funded by the Federal Reserve Board. To determine public opinion on currency redesign. Found the public satisfied with currency design but would support a design change to deter counter feiting. Your M o n e y Matters to you, a n d it matters to your U.S. G overnm ent BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM OFFICE OF THE TREASURER OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING Your Matters... FACTSHEET For more information, contact: Office of Public Affairs 202-447-0193 DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING THE U.S. GOVERNMENT’S SECURITY PRINTER Since October 1, 1877, all United States currency has been printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, which started out as a six-person operation using steam powered presses in the Department of Treasury’s basement. Now 2,300 Bureau employees occupy 25 acres of floor space in two W ashington, D.C. buildings flanking 14th Street. Currency and stamps are designed, engraved, and printed 24 hours a day on 30 high-speed presses. A new state-of-the-art Fort Worth, Texas, Western Currency Facility adds to the Nation’s currency production capacity. In 1990, at a cost of 2.6 cents each, over 7 billion notes worth about $82 billion will be produced for circulation by the Federal Reserve System. Ninety-five percent will replace unfit notes and five percent will support economic growth. At any one time, $200 million in notes may be in production. Notes currently produced are the $1 (45 percent of production time), $5 and $10 (12 percent each), $20 (26 percent), $50 (2 percent), and $100 (3 percent). The Bureau also prints White House invitations and some 500 engraved items, such as visa counterfoils, naturalization documents, commissions, and certificates for almost 75 Federal departments and agencies. TOURS The Bureau of Engraving and Printing is one of the most popular tourist stops in Washington —over 500 thousand visit the printing facility each year. Free 20-minute, self-guided tours may be taken Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. to 2 p.m., except for Federal holidays and the week between Christmas and New Year’s. Tours start on Raoul Wallenberg Place (formerly 15th Street). • Visitors can see press runs of 32-note currency sheets, Federal Reserve and Treasury seals applied, examiners ensuring high-quality notes, and 4,000 note “ bricks” readied for distribution to Federal Reserve banks. VISITORS CENTER At the Visitors Center, history, production, and counterfeit exhibits showcase interesting information about United States currency. Many unique items, such as uncut currency sheets of 32, 16, or 4 one dollar notes; $1 bags of $150 worth of shredded currency; engraved collectors’ prints; souvenir cards; and Department of the Interior Duck Stamps, may be purchased at the sales counter. MAIL ORDER SALES • Persons wishing to receive notices on new Bureau products or to order by mail can write: Mail Order Sales, Bureau of Engraving and Printing, 14th and C Streets, S.W., Room 602-11 A, Washington, D.C. 20228. Your M on ey Matters to you, a n d it matters to your U.S. G overnm ent BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM OFFICE OF THE TREASURER OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING Your Money Matters... FACTSHEET THE FEDERAL RESERVE: CENTRAL BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Federal Reserve System The Federal Reserve System was created by the Federal Reserve Act, passed by the Congress in 1913, in order to provide for a safer and more flexible banking and monetary system. For about a hundred years before the creation of the Federal Reserve, periodic financial panics had led to failures of a large number of banks, with associ ated business bankruptcies and general economic contractions. Following the studies of the National Monetary Commission, established by the Congress a year after the particularly severe panic of 1907, several proposals were put forward for the creation of an institution designed to counter such financial disruptions. After considerable de bate, the Federal Reserve System was established. Its original purposes were to give the country an elastic currency, provide facilities for discounting commercial credits, and improve the supervision of the banking system. Economic Stability and Growth From the inception of the Federal Reserve System, it was clear that these original pur poses were aspects of broader national economic and financial objectives. Over the years, stability and growth of the economy, a high level of employment, stability in the purchasing power of the dollar, and a reasonable balance in transactions with for eign countries have come to be recognized as primary objectives of governmental economic policy. Currency Circulation An important function of the Federal Reserve System is to ensure that the economy has enough currency and coin to meet the public’s demand. Currency and coin are put into or retired from circulation by the Federal Reserve Banks, which use de pository institutions as the channel of distribution. When banks and other depository institutions need to replenish their supply of currency and coin—for example, when the public’s need for cash rises around holiday shopping periods—depository institu tions order the cash from the Federal Reserve Bank or Branch in their area, and the face value of that cash is charged to their accounts at the Federal Reserve. When the public’s need for currency and coin declines, and depository institutions return excess cash to a Federal Reserve Bank, its value is credited to the account of the depository institution. Unfit and Counterfeit Notes Responsibility for maintaining the physical quality of circulating United States paper currency is shared by the Federal Reserve Banks and the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Each day, millions of dollars of deposits in Reserve Banks made by deposi tory institutions are carefully scrutinized. The Reserve Banks are responsible for receiv ing, verifying, authenticating, and storing currency and shipping it as needed. Currency that is in good condition for further circulation is stored for later distribution. Worn or mutilated notes are removed from circulation and destroyed. Counterfeit notes which are detected are forwarded to the U.S. Secret Service, an agency of the Treasury Department. Federal Reserve Notes Virtually all currency in circulation is in the form of Federal Reserve notes, which are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing of the U.S. Treasury. The Reserve Banks are currently authorized to issue notes in denominations of $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50, and $100. Coins are produced by the Treasury’s United States Mint. Cash Transfers Currency and coin are used primarily for small transactions. In the aggregate, such transactions probably account for only a small proportion of the total value of all transfers of funds. Your M on ey Matters to you, a nd it matters to your U.S. Governm ent BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM OFFICE OF THE TREASURER OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING New Paper — ^ Money Bureau ofEngraving t^ondPrinting Federal Reserve Bank New. and Vault Paying Fit New and Fit > Unsorted Unsorted Sorting Unsorted -------Unfit" Paper Money Shredder FLOW OF CURRENCY into and out of circulation New and Fit The Public Depository Institutions Unsorted 4 FEDERAL RESERVE DISTRICT MAP DISTRICT DISTRICT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Boston New York Philadelphia Cleveland Richmond Atlanta Chicago St. Louis Minneapolis Kansas City Dallas San Francisco LIST OF FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM LOCATIONS Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, W ashington, D.C. 20551 Federal Reserve Banks Telephone Number BOSTON* 617-973-3000 600 Atlantic Avenue, Boston, M assachusetts 02106 NEW YORK* 212-720-5000 716-849-5000 33 Liberty Street (Federal Reserve P.O. Station), New York, New Y ork 10045 160 Delaware Avenue, Buffalo, New York 14202 (P.O. Box 961, Buffalo, New York 14240-0961) PHILADELPHIA 215-574-6000 Ten Independence Mall Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19106 (P.O. Box 66, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19105) CLEVELAND* 216-579-2000 513-721-4787 412-261-7800 1455 East Sixth Street, Cleveland, O hio 44114 (P.O. Box 6387, Cleveland, Ohio 44101) 150 East Fourth Street, C incinnati, Ohio 45202 (P.O. Box 999, C incinnati, O hio 45201-0999) 717 Grant Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15219 (P.O. Box 867, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15230) 804-697-8000 301-576-3300 704-358-2100 701 East Byrd Street, Richm ond, V irginia 23219 (P.O. Box 27622, Richm ond, Virginia 23261) 502 South Sharp Street, Baltimore, Maryland 21201 (P.O. Box 1378, Baltimore, Maryland 21203) 530 E. Trade Street, Charlotte, North Carolina 28202 (P.O. Box 30248, Charlotte, North Carolina 28230) M ount Pony Rd., State Rte. 658, (P.O. Drawer 20, C ulpeper, V irginia 22701) Buffalo Branch Cincinnati Branch Pittsburgh Branch RICHMOND* Baitim ore Branch C harlotte Branch C ulpeper C om m unica tions and Records Center ATLANTA District 703-829-1600 Birm ingham Branch 904-632-1000 Miam i Branch Nashville Branch New O rleans Branch 104 M arietta Street, N.W., Atlanta G eorgia 30303 1801 Fifth Avenue North, Birmingham, Alabam a 35203 (P.O. Box 830447, Birm ingham , Alabama 35283-0447) 800 W ater Street, Jacksonville, Florida 32204 (P.O. Box 929, Jacksonville, Florida 32231-0044) 9100 Northw est 36th Street, M iami, Florida 33178 (P.O. Box 520847, M iami, Florida 33152) 301 Eighth Avenue, North, Nashville, Tennessee 37203 525 St. Charles Avenue, New Orleans, Louisiana 70130 (P.O. Box 61630, New Orleans, Louisiana 70161) 404-521-8500 205-731-8500 Jacksonville Branch 305-591-2065 615-251-7100 504-586-1505 CHICAGO* Detroit Branch ST. LOUIS Little Rock Branch Louisville Branch M em phis Branch MINNEAPOLIS Helena Branch KANSAS CITY Address 312-322-5322 313-961-6880 230 South LaSalle Street, Chicago, Illinois 60604 (P.O. Box 834, Chicago, Illinois 60690-0834) 160 W. Fort Street, Detroit, M ichigan 48226 (P.O. Box 1059, Detroit, M ichigan 48231) 314-444-8444 501-372-5451 502-568-9200 901-523-7171 411 Locust Street, St. Louis, M issouri 63102 (P.O. Box 442, St. Louis, M issouri 63166) 325 West Capitol Avenue, Little Rock, Arkansas 72201 (P.O. Box 1261, Little Rock, Arkansas 72203) 410 South Fifth Street, Louisville, Kentucky 40202 (P.O. Box 32710, Louisville, Kentucky 40232) 200 North Main Street, Memphis, Tennessee 38103 (P.O. Box 407, Memphis, Tennessee 38101) 612-340-2345 406-442-3860 250 M arquette Avenue, M inneapolis, M innesota 55480 400 North Park Avenue, Helena, M ontana 59601 816-881-2000 303-572-2300 405-270-8400 402-221-5500 10 925 G rand Avenue, Kansas City, M issouri 64198 1020 16th Street, Denver, Colorado 80202 (Terminal Annex-P.O. Box 5228, Denver, Colorado 80217) 226 Dean A. M cG ee Avenue, (P.O. Box 25129, O klahom a City, O klahom a 73125) 2201 Farnam Street, Om aha, N ebraska 68102 (P.O. Box 3958, Om aha, N ebraska 68103) 214-651-6111 915-544-4730 713-659-4433 512-224-2141 11 400 South Akard Street (Station K), Dallas, Texas 75222 301 East Main Street, El Paso, Texas 79901 (P.O. Box 100, El Paso, Texas 79999) 1701 San Jacinto Street, Houston, Texas 77002 (P.O. Box 2578, Houston, Texas 77252) 126 East Nueva Street, San Antonio, Texas 78204 (P.O. Box 1471, San Antonio, Texas 78295) 415-974-2000 213-683-2300 12 Los A ngeles Branch Portland Branch Salt Lake C ity Branch Seattle Branch 503-221-5900 801 -322-7900 206-343-3600 101 Market Street, San Francisco, California 94105 (P.O. Box 7702, San Francisco, California 94120) 950 South Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, C alifornia 90015 (Term inal Annex-P.O . Box 2077, Los Angeles, C alifornia 90051) 915 S.W. Stark Street, Portland, O regon 97205 (P.O. Box 3436, Portland, O regon 97208) 120 South State Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 (P.O. Box 30780, Salt Lake City, Utah 84130) 1015 Second Avenue, Seattle, Washington 98104 (P.O. Box 3567, Seattle, TA, W ashington 98124) Denver Branch O klahom a City Branch O m aha Branch DALLAS El Paso Branch Houston Branch San A ntonio Branch SAN FRANCISCO 'A d d itio n al offices of these Banks are located at Lewiston, Maine 04240; W indsor Locks, C onnecticut 06096; Cranford, New Jersey 07016; Jericho, New York 11753; Utica Oriskany, New York 13424; Columbus, Ohio 43216; Columbia, South Carolina 29210; Charleston, W est Virginia 25328; Des Moines, Iowa 50306; Indianapolis, Indiana 46206; and M ilwaukee, W isconsin 53201. Your Matters... FACTSHEET THE U.S. SECRET SERVICE AND COUNTERFEITING By the end of the Civil War, between one-third and one-half of all U.S. paper currency in circulation was counterfeit. On July 5, 1865, the Secret Service was created under the U.S. Department of the Treasury. In less than a decade, counterfeiting was sharply reduced. In the past 10 years, the breakdown of denominations counterfeited has changed dramatically. The total of known $50 and $100 notes counterfeited has increased by 60 percent, while the total of known $1 and $5 notes counterfeited has decreased by 16 percent, as follows: Total $50 and $100 notes passed and seized in ’90 — 1,240,840 Total $50 and $100 notes passed and seized in ’80 — 777,957 Total $1 and $5 notes passed and seized in ’90 — 72,721 Total $1 and $5 notes passed and seized in ’80 — 87,164 To aid in counterfeit investigations, agents use the Service’s modern, well-equipped Forensic Services Lab that includes: — — — — a complete library of specimen notes dating back to 1865 the largest watermark file in existence the only ink library in existence equipment to examine and analyze notes counterfeited by various types of printing methods as well as by office machine copiers. In 1990, 36 percent of the dollar value of known counterfeit currency passed in the U.S. was produced overseas, particularly in Colombia, Italy, Hong Kong, Manila, and Bangkok. The Service has confirmation that in 1990 foreign police seized $50,806,094 in counterfeit U.S. currency. In 1990,139 domestic counterfeit plant operations were suppressed and 18 plants were reported as suppressed on foreign soil. The 1980 disposition of prosecuted arrests showed a 98.2 percent conviction rate. In 1990, the conviction rate on prosecuted arrests was 98.9 percent. To stem counterfeiting, the Secret Service works in conjunction with local, state, and federal law enforcement. The Service also maintains close liaison with Interpol and foreign law enforce ment agencies. Thanks to such cooperation, during the past 10 years, the Secret Service seized approximately 90 percent of all known counterfeit currency printed before the currency reached the public. For further information, please contact Robert R. Snow, Assistant Director, Office of Government Liaison and Public Affairs, 1800 G Street, N.W., Room 805, Washington, D.C. 20223. Phone: 202/535-5708. Your M on ey Matters to you, and it matters to your U.S. Governm ent BOARD OF GOVERNORS FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM OFFICE OF THE TREASURER OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF ENGRAVING AND PRINTING Your Matters... ORDER FORM The materials in this folder have been developed for your use in training your employees about the new and existing security features of United States currency. The transparency masters can be duplicated for personalized presentations to large groups. The brochures, fact sheets and posters reinforce and build on the information covered in the transparency masters. An instructional videotape sponsored by the Federal Reserve System, Office of the Treasurer of the United States and the Department of the Treasury’s Bureau of Engraving and Printing and United States Secret Service has also been produced. This 121 minute video will add another dimension to your /2 training plan. In fact, with the videotape, the brochure and the poster, new employees can become familiar with the information on their own. To order the videotape, please send the form below to Vidicopy Corporation. They will handle your order directly. Please send us copies of the 121 minute videotape on YOUR MONEY MATTERS at $9.95 each for /2 quantities up to 30, including delivery. (Quantities of 31- 99 are $8.95 each, including delivery.) copies at $9.95 for a total of $ copies at $8.95 for a total of $ Make your check payable to VIDICOPY CORPORATION and send to: Vidicopy Corporation 650 Vaqueros Avenue Sunnyvale, CA 94086 For quantity discount rates on 100 copies and above, call Vidicopy Corporation at (408) 739-7390. Please send the YOUR MONEY MATTERS videotape copies to: NAME: ______________________________________________________ ________ ORGANIZATION: ____________________________________________________ STREET ADDRESS:__________________________________________________ C IT Y :___________________________________ STATE:__________ ZIP CODE: TELEPHONE NUMBER: ( _____ ) Your Matters... ORDER FORM Additional copies of the brochure, “Your Money Matters . . . and the 18” x 24” folded poster are available for teller training or customer information in the quantities and prices listed below. Brochures: Available in units of 100 brochures at a cost of $4.00 per 100. Posters: Available in units of 5 posters at a cost of $3.00 per 5 posters. Please s e n d _____ brochures for total price o f ______________. Please s e n d _____ posters for total price o f ______________ . Enclosed is a check f o r _________________payable to the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. C o n ta c t__________________________________ _________Telephone ( ______) _________________ Return this order form to: YOUR MONEY MATTERS Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City P.O. Box 419442 Kansas City, MO 64141—6442 Below is the address label for your order. Please type or print. If you are ordering both posters and brochures, please fill out the label information twice. Thank you. NAME: __________________________________________________________ INSTITUTION: __________________________________________________ STREET ADDRESS:______________________________________________ CITY: ___________________________________ STATE:___________ ZIP: NAME: __________ INSTITUTION: ___ STREET ADDRESS: CITY: STATE: ZIP: Y o u r M o n e y B/latters— gssss,®.— U N IT E D T«6ASVJBeB - s- s s k : — , s s « s s S " UNITED STATES CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES • U.S. currency is recognized and valued by people everywhere. • Most widely held currency in the world. • More counterfeited because of universal acceptance and traditional design. • But counterfeiting is not a big problem now —just a minute fraction of the $70 billion notes produced in 1989 or the $240 billion in worldwide circulation. • The U.S. Secret Service, responsible for counterfeit enforcement, keeps counterfeiting under control, aided by currency design deterrents. • Numerous security features have been a part of U.S. currency design for almost a c e n tu ry -th e paper, border, seals, portraits, serial numbers, fibers, and the finely-engraved printing all protect against counterfeiting. • However, advanced copier, scanner, and printing technology will pose a new counterfeiting threat. • People with access to modern equipment at work, at copy centers and at printing facilities could make counterfeits in widely dispersed areas —potentially an unmanageable enforcement problem. • The Department of the Treasury’s Bureau of Engraving and Printing has produced notes with two new security features—a security thread and microprinting —to hinder advanced copier and printer counterfeiting. • Series 1990 $50 and $100 notes are the first to have the features. Other denominations will follow over the next five years. • The security-enhanced currency is being introduced by the Federal Reserve Banks as replacements for worn or damaged notes in the normal circulation process. • Existing and enhanced currency will co-circulate. Both are legal tender. No recall is planned. 1 Your Money Matters... new and existing security features for your dollars’ protection NEW FEATURES FEDERAL RESERVE SEAL SERIAL NUMBERS BORDER FO ALL DEBTS. PUBLIC AND PRIVATE R A 95517197 A W a s h in g t o n , D .C . 1 T i l l : I ' M T H I > S T A T E S O F V>I I HKI V ~rjR|s?2BS™ FIBERS A95517197A W ASHINGTON, D .C- MICROPRINTING PORTRAIT TREASURY SEAL ENGRAVED PRINTING 2 DENOMINATION PAPER U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES NEW SECURITY THREAD • Polyester strip embedded in the paper in clear left field between the Federal Reserve seal and border. • Visible when held to a light, it cannot be copied in the reflected light of copiers. • Deters counterfeiters with easy access to modern copier and printer equipment. FOR ALL D 3 • Has USA and the note’s value printed in an up-and-down pattern which can be seen from the front or back. U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES NEW MICROPRINTING “The United States of America” is printed repeatedly along the sides of the portrait. • Printing is so small (6 to 7 thousandths of an inch) that it cannot be read without a magnifier. • T o the naked eye, it appears like another line. • Microprinting this small cannot be reproduced distinctly by advanced copiers. 4 U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES FEDERAL RESERVE SEAL • Black seal with name of the Federal Reserve bank issuing note. In this note, it’s the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston (first (1) Federal Reserve District). • Bank district number (1) appears in four places on the note—on each side, placed above and below the center. • Code letter of the Federal Reserve bank authorizing the note (In this case, A for Boston). THIS NOTE IS LEGAL TENDER FOR ALL DEBTS, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE • Letter is the same as the first letter of serial numbers in upper right and lower left of the note. FEDERAL RESERVE DISTRICT BANKS There are 12 Federal Reserve District Banks. Each is designated by a number and corresponding letter of the alphabet, e.g. Boston: 1, A; New York: 2, B. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Boston New York Philadelphia Cleveland Richmond Atlanta A B C D E F 7 8 9 10 11 12 5 Chicago St. Louis Minneapolis Kansas City Dallas San Francisco G H I J K L U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES SERIAL NUMBERS • Serial numbers in upper right and lower left have distinctive style, are evenly spaced, and are printed in the same green ink as Treasury seal. • No two notes of the same series and denomination have the same serial number, e.g. each Series 1990 $100 note has a differ ent number. A 95517197 A W a s h i n g t o n ,D .C . • Replacement notes for those damaged in production have a star at end of the serial number. • Beginning letter stands for Federal Reserve Bank authorizing the note. 6 U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES BORDER • Fine lines around border are clear and unbroken. • Lacy, weblike design within border also has distinct, unbroken white lines. • Counterfeits may have blurred and indistinct lines. 7 U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES FIBERS • Tiny red and blue fibers are embedded in the paper. • Randomly spaced, they appear on both the front and back of the note. • Counterfeiters some times simulate fibers with surface printing. U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES DENOMINATION • The denomination is the same on the corners as printed under the Treasury seal. • One method of counter feiting is to alter genuine currency to increase its face value. • “Raised notes” may have the numerals from high denomination bills glued or taped in the corners of lower denomination notes. • An entire face may be glued to a different back. IF A NOTE IS SUSPECT: • Compare the portrait with the back design and the numerals. Do they correspond? • Compare the suspect note to a genuine note of the same denomination and series year. • Compare the denomination of the note as printed under the Treasury seal with the denomination numerals on each corner. 9 U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SEAL • Starting with the 1963 B Series $1 notes, the Department of the Treasury inscription was changed from Latin to English. All notes of 1969 series year and later have the English version. W a s h i n g t o n ,D .C . • Printed in the same green ink as serial numbers in the upper right and lower left of note. • Sawtooth points are sharp and distinct. Counterfeits may be uneven, blunt, or broken. • Seal is printed over denomination (in this example, over the “100”) although it looks like it is interwoven with or under the denomination. 10 U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES PORTRAIT Portrait appears lifelike. The eyes almost sparkle. Stands out distinctly from fine, screenlike background. Counterfeit portrait usually lifeless and flat. Details merge into the background which is often dark and mottled. 11 U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES ENGRA VED PRINTING • Master craftsmen engrave currency designs onto steel plates. • Notes produced from engraved plates give the surface of new notes an embossed or raised “feel.” 12 U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES PAPER • Paper is made of 75% cotton and 25% linen to withstand the rigors of currency circulation. • Has strong, pliable “feel.” • Does not have water marks. 13 U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES PORTRAITS AND BACK DESIGNS FACE BACK BENJAMIN FRANKLIN INDEPENDENCE HALL $100 ULYSSES S. GRANT U.S. CAPITOL ANDREW JACKSON WHITE HOUSE $10 ALEXANDER HAMILTON U.S. TREASURY BUILDING ABRAHAM LINCOLN LINCOLN MEMORIAL GEORGE WASHINGTON GREAT SEAL OF UNITED STATES The $2 note, not currently produced by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, has Thomas Jefferson on the face and the signing of the Declaration of Independence on the back. 14 U.S. CURRENCY SECURITY FEATURES COUNTERFEITS If you suspect a counterfeit: * DO NOT return it to the passer. * DELAY the passer if possible without risking harm. * OBSERVE and record the passer’s description, as well as that of any companions. * NOTE license plate number and make of car. * TELEPHONE the police or the United States Secret Service. * WRITE your initials and the date on an unprinted portion of the suspect note. * DO NOT handle the note more than necessary. Place it in a protective envelope. * SURRENDER the note only to a properly identified police officer or U.S. Secret Service Agent. 15