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F ederal reserve bank of Dallas



Circular No. 71-33
February 3, 1971

To the Chief Executive Officer of the Bank Addressed:

I am pleased to enclose a copy of the booklet “Preparedness Programs for Emergency
Operations in Banking” which has just been issued by the Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System in cooperation with the Office of Civil Defense. This booklet
updates the series of five pamphlets distributed to banks by the Advisory Committee on
Commercial Bank Preparedness in 1958. Banks which opened for business during the
past several years may have received a single booklet which combined the five pamphlets.
The enclosed booklet supplements this Bank’s emergency bulletins and circulars which
originally were supplied to all banks in 1959.
The banking system continues to bear a heavy responsibility in the event of an attack
on the United States. The nation’s survival would depend upon maintaining organized
economic activity in areas not directly affected by the attack, which in turn would depend
importantly upon whether the banking system could function. The ability of individual
banks to carry out essential functions postattack would hinge upon the adequacy of pre­
paredness measures taken before the attack. The booklet describes those preattack
The booklet emphasizes that these preparedness measures would be important to
banks in situations other than a war emergency. There are many emergencies, such as
natural disasters or civil disturbances which, in the absence of adequate planning, could
result in the suspension of a bank’s operations temporarily or for a longer period. Par­
ticularly important in these circumstances would be measures to provide for continuity
of management, and the availability of duplicate copies of essential records.
Preparedness measures described in this booklet are not equally applicable to all
banks. Those measures appropriate are determined by the location, size, and type of
operation of the individual bank. I urge that you study the suggested measures carefully,
select the most likely possibilities for your bank, and put into effect those preparedness
measures that would meet those contingencies.
You will note from the distribution list set forth in the last page of the booklet that
the Office of Civil Defense will distribute this book widely outside the banking system.
I am sure that you may expect questions from your customers or from others to whom
this booklet becomes available.
If you have questions about the material contained in this booklet, or about any
aspect of our emergency preparedness program, please contact W. M. Pritchett, Vice
President of this Bank.
Yours very truly,
P. E. Coldwell


This publication was digitized and made available by the Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas' Historical Library (

Program s fo r
Em ergency
O perations in

Board of Governors of the Federal
Reserve System in cooperation with


Programs for
Operations in

T h is booklet provides guidance for the N ation ’s banks in devel­
oping program s to m inim ize the effects of possible enemy attack.
It is designed to suggest measures that should be taken now to en­
sure continuity of banking operations in an em ergency and to
facilitate stabilization of the national economy follow ing an attack.
E v er since nuclear weapons were first devised and their de­
structive potential became known to mankind, civil defense efforts
have been directed to urging all elements of our economy to pre­
pare for survival and postattack recovery. Careful analyses of
enemy capability and weapon effects provide convincing evidence
that, w ith proper preparation, tens of millions of Am erican lives
and m ost o f our m aterial resources can survive a nuclear attack.
One subject that continually recurs in discussions of survival and
recovery is that of financing economic activity in the postattack
period. H ow will we pay for the m aterials and labor needed to re­
build? H ow can we be assured th at our cash savings w ill be pre­
served? Labor, managem ent, and consumers need to know th at
money and credit w ill be available for essential purposes. They
need to be assured that banking operations will be maintained.
Some banks have comprehensive plans for the protection of their
assets, records, personnel, and customers, and for the continuance
of banking operations in an em ergency. Others need plans. The
necessity is not a function of size; banks, large and small, will be
important in the resum ption of business and economic activity if
the Nation is subjected to nuclear attack. V ictory in a nuclear w ar
will belong to the country that recovers first, and the financial
community will bear a heavy burden of responsibility in effecting
rapid recovery.
It is to be hoped that the preparations described in this booklet
will never be needed to cope w ith a nuclear disaster. B ut hope, by
itself, will not suffice to protect our people, our property, or our
American w ay of life in the event of a nuclear attack.
It should be noted, however, that the tim e and energy spent in
developing plans to meet a nuclear disaster m ay be useful in coping
with other kinds of disasters. E very year, some parts of the U nited
States are subjected to natural disasters, large-scale fires, or
disasters resulting from civil disturbances. Most of the prepara­
tions discussed herein will also serve to protect life and property
and to continue operations in th ese and sim ilar em ergencies.
This preface would not be complete w ithout acknowledgm ent of
the services rendered more than a decade ago by members of the
A dvisory Committee on Commercial Bank Preparedness and mem­
bers of the B anking Committee on Em ergency Operations— all
experienced bankers— in preparing a series of seven booklets upon
which this present booklet is, in large measure, based.



Assumptions .....................................................................
Preparedness Planning ..................................................


Organization ...................................................................
Arrangements for Funds ................................................
Mutual Aid .......................................................................
Written Plans ...................................................................
Testing the Plan ...............................................................


Warning ............................................................................
Fallout Shelter...................................................................
Planning for Shelter Use................................................
Shelter Supplies ...............................................................
Radiological Monitoring ................................................
Employee Welfare ...........................................................
Medical Care ...................................................................
Training in Civil Defense Skills.....................................
Personal and Family Survival.......................................
Other Preparations .........................................................


Director Vacancies ...........................................................
Executive Succession ......................................................
Emergency Personnel Management.............................


Location ............................................................................
Equipment and Supplies ................................................
Emergency Communications ..........................................



Records Storage C enters.....................................................
W h at to Protect ...................................................................
How to Protect ......................................................................
Building Improvement ......................................................
Vaults ......................................................................................
Fire Protection ......................................................................
Financial Policies .................................................................
Implementing Actions ........................................................
APPENDIX 1.—Excerpts From Executive Order 11490—
SUPPLIES ......................................................................................
I.—Sample b y law to provide for em er­
gency operations by surviving s taff
Exhibit II.—Sample b y law to provide for em er­
gency operations through executive committee
action .................................................................................
Exhibit III.—Sample resolution to provide officer
succession ..........................................................................
Exhibit IV .—Sample by law to provide for alternate
locations .............................................................................
Exhibit V .—Sample resolution to provide for acting
head offices ......................................................................
APPENDIX 4.—RECORDS PROTECTION ..................................
Section I.—Checklist of principal records to be con­
sidered in planning for emergency protection
and preservation .......... ..................................................
Section II.—Procedure for integrating the use of
carbon copies a n d /o r duplicates of bank records
into a protection of essential records program ....
Section III.—Recommended storage conditions for
protection and preservation of microfilm...............

W hen a nuclear weapon is detonated, a tremendous amount of
energy is liberated in a very short time. Approximately 50 percent
of the total energy yield is converted into blast and shock; about
35 percent is converted into thermal radiation or heat. A pproxi­
mately 5 percent appears as initial nuclear radiation. The remain­
ing 10 percent is residual nuclear radiation, or what is commonly
known as “radioactive fallout.” While the initial radiation is of
extrem ely high intensity, its radius of damage is very limited; if
one is close enough to be affected by initial radiation, the blast or
heat will have caused death in any event. Thermal radiation may
start fires in inflammable materials at considerable distances, but
shielding against it is not difficult.


For the defense planner, therefore, a nuclear attack is essen­
tially a “one-two punch.” Blast overpressures and the shock wave
come quickly and pass; radioactive fallout follows more slowly but
may be a hazard for a long time. Construction of shelters designed
to withstand the effects of blast and shock is not currently con­
sidered to be economically feasible except for the most critical
facilities. Protection against radioactive fallout, on the other hand,
can be obtained at very little cost. The planning considerations
discussed in this handbook are based on studies that indicate only
a small portion of the land area of the United States would suffer
from the direct effects (blast and heat) of a nuclear attack,
whereas fallout could have lethal or disabling effects for unpro­
tected people anywhere in the country.

It is impossible to predict precisely w h at would be the specific
objectives of an attack on the United States, the number or yield of
weapons, or the accuracy of the delivery system s that m ig h t be
employed by an enemy. Yet, for planning purposes, it is n ecessary
to make certain assumptions, recognizing that the plans w ill be
subject to change because of unforeseen contingencies. Civil d e­
fense planning, for banks as for any other activity, m ust be co n tin ­
gency planning, and the planner m ust consider the most effective
actions to be taken for each major contingency.
Missile sites and air bases would probably be primary ta rg ets of
an attack designed to destroy the retaliatory capability of th e
United States. Other objectives m ight be population and industrial
centers, m ilitary and civil governm ent command centers, and s u p ­
ply, transportation, and power facilities.
While rural areas would suffer little damage from blast, th e y
would be affected by fallout, and communications throughout th e
Nation m ight be severely disrupted.
Some of the bank's key m anagem ent personnel m igh t be


Survival of the Nation's banks in nuclear war cannot be le ft to
chance. It can be assured only by the most careful planning fo r
protection and reconstruction. Following an attack, the su rviv in g
members of the staff would be confronted by extraordinarily d if­
ficult and unprecedented problems.
W ithout a predetermined plan it m ight be almost impossible to
make a start toward restoration of operations.
Responsibility for developing such a plan rests w ith the m anagement of each individual bank. In addition, the understanding and
enthusiastic support of all personnel plus full cooperation w ith
neighboring banks and local civil defense authorities are essential
to its ultimate success.
Defense planning will vary among banks. The size of the in stitu ­
tion, its location, the number of banking offices, and the type of
business predominating will have an influence on the com plexity of
the plan. W hat would be necessary for a large metropolitan bank
may not be suited to the needs of its distant correspondent, but th e
fundamental principles set forth herein are applicable to all banks
from the smallest to the largest. The important consideration is
that each bank should have a plan tailored to its own problems,
policies, and financial situation and should know how to proceed in
order to continue or resume its operations, whether it is in a
damaged area or an undamaged area.





In broad terms, defense planning by banks should give consid­
eration to the following:
1. Organization and administration of the program in the
2. Fallout shelter for employees and the public
3. Continuity of m anagem ent and alternate headquarters
4. Physical properties
5. Duplicate or alternate records
6. Collection of cash items and noncash items
7. Cash (currency) operations
This handbook presents some general principles that should be
followed by banks in making their physical and administrative
preparations for coping with a civil defense emergency. Detailed
planning for carrying out essential functions is left generally to
individual banks. U niform ity of approach in the handling of some
operations is desirable, however, and the plans for those operations
should be developed or coordinated at the clearinghouse or regional
The Department of the Treasury has authorized the Federal
Reserve Banks to perform certain functions and duties ordinarily
performed by the Treasury, during an emergency. Similarly, the
Federal Reserve Banks may designate certain commercial banks
to assume substantial duties on behalf of the Federal Reserve
Banks. The overall plan calls for coordinated effort. In each bank's
planning, therefore, the need for coordination w ith other banks
and agencies is paramount. In all phases of the planning the matter
of liaison with civil defense officials assumes prime importance and
is continually stressed throughout this handbook.

The motivation for initiating a plan for emergency b anking
operations should stem from top management. W ithout a proper
recognition and appreciation of the need by the bank's principal
officials, it is questionable whether an effective plan can be fo r ­
mulated. Initial emphasis must be placed on organizing the chain
of responsibility. A ttention then may be given to other adm inistra­
tive m atters such as arrangements for funds for postattack opera­
tions, mutual aid, the preparation of written plans and em ployee
manuals or other written instructions, and practice tests to a p ­
praise the adequacy and effectiveness of the program.

The first step of m anagem ent in setting up a preparedness pro­
gram is the delegation of responsibility to a person or persons
having the necessary ability and authority to initiate the project
and carry it out vigorously. In some banks, this responsibility m a y
rest with one individual; in others, a committee may be appointed
to function in a planning and advisory capacity. In all cases it
seems advisable for m anagem ent to designate one person to coordi­
nate the development of the plan. He should be selected from th e
top management level and should be given the necessary tim e and
authority to administer the program. If a committee is appointed
for this purpose, the coordinator may be appointed chairman.
Other members of the committee should include representatives
from the various departments or functions of the bank.
Several persons should be asked to work with the bank's civil
defense coordinator in developing the emergency plans and prep­
arations, and all employees should be urged to participate as m em ­
bers of the bank's civil defense team. There should, however, be
the fram ework of an organization consisting of more than one
person to provide the necessary trained leadership, to provide fo r
continuity of leadership in the event of casualties, to give reason­
able assurance that planned action can be carried out effectively,
and to provide knowledgeable personnel to modify the plan to m eet
All officers and supervisors of the bank should clearly under­
stand the bank's survival plans and preparations. They should also
know specifically who is responsible for the preparation of plans
and for coordination with the local civil defense organization.

Following a nuclear attack, supplies of currency may be de­
stroyed or made inaccessible. Established procedures for obtaining

cash or transfers of funds likewise may be badly disrupted. Yet,
under such conditions, it is likely that money will be needed
promptly to provide for interim w age payments, cash advances to
employees, and possible purchases of medicine, food, or equipment.
Some thought m ust be given to emergency arrangements to pro­
vide funds for the immediate postattack period. Plans in this area
will vary considerably. Adequate and feasible authorizations for
the w ithdrawal of funds from correspondent banks, deposits of
small amounts of currency at a relocation site, and appropriate
arrangements w ith nearby banks are possible approaches to be
studied by the individual bank. It is important that the needs of
bank personnel surviving an attack not be overlooked in the plan­

American industry has recognized the value of mutual aid plans
in time of disaster, and many large plants have established pooling
arrangements to obtain needed workers, equipment, and supplies.
Because of the importance of restoring disrupted banking opera­
tions as quickly as possible, banks should initiate and explore all
possibilities of mutual aid. Clearinghouse or other group organiza­
tions would seem to be the logical starting point for plans of this
Because of casualties sustained, some banks would find it dif­
ficult to function effectively in the postattack period with the
surviving work force. A communitywide plan for pooling re­
sources seems the most reasonable answer. It is of tremendous
importance that banks and other business organizations coordinate
advance planning through clearinghouse associations and by other
group action. Banks must be prepared to help and be helped in the
event of a disaster. Each bank should designate one individual to
maintain liaison with other banks in this matter. Continuing liai­
son with other banks and with State and local civil defense authori­
ties can give better assurance of a successful program for mutual

D o n 't trust to m em o ry; put plans in writing. In times of stress it
is quite possible to overlook some vital action or to misunderstand
instructions given hurriedly. B y preparing a w ritten plan and see­
ing to it that each person to whom an emergency function is as­
signed has— and studies— a copy of it, the possibility of misunder­
standing is greatly reduced. In addition, those to whom duties are
assigned can plan ahead so that action can be taken without delay.
There are many effective methods of preparing written plans. A

plan may describe the actions to be taken by the entire staff
during the preattack, attack, and postattack periods. Another s y s ­
tem would devote a separate section to each of the departm ents or
activities of the bank. Under a third method, separate sections
m ight be devoted to all or any of the subjects that are covered in
this booklet.
N ot all employees need to read the entire plan. Certainly, all
personnel in the em ergency line of m anagem ent succession w ill
need the complete plan, but others m ay require only the plan for
the department in which they are involved. Department heads m a y
wish to develop detailed plans and instructions for the departm ents
under their cognizance. In large organizations, and particularly in
cases of assignm ent of personnel to functions that they do not
ordinarily perform, pretyped “suspense orders” or memoranda
that require only dating and signature by an appropriate official
will help to expedite action.


A fter the plan has been developed and employees are assigned
specific em ergency duties, practice tests should be held. It is d if ­
ficult, during the planning stage, to foresee every contingency.
Practice tests will often disclose weaknesses so that corrective
action can be taken. They will also help to develop fam iliarity w ith
the emergency operations so actions can be taken quickly, effi­
ciently, and in an almost routine manner.
I f alternate headquarters or relocation sites are designated, th ey
should be included in the practice tests to determine w h eth er
emergency operations can, in fact, be performed there. P oints of
special interest will be: accessibility under disaster conditions;
adequacy of space, communications, records, supplies and equipment; and protection, housing, and feeding of personnel during th e
period of dangerous radioactivity.


Em ployees are a bank’s most valuable resource in peace and war.
Manpower was the most critical shortage in World War II and, in
all probability, would be again in another war. If we consider that
m etropolitan and industrial complexes may be included in a list of
primary targets, millions of people would die due to the direct blast
and thermal effects of weapon explosions. Other millions of casu­
alties could result from the deadly effect of radioactive fallout.
Effective defense against the fallout threat is entirely feasible,
but it requires advance planning and cooperation.
E very employee must be made aware that management, as well
as government, will do all within its power to protect him, his
family, and his job. A bank’s disaster plan should provide for:

Protection from weapons effects
Special w elfare services following an attack
Medical aid for the injured
A training program to assure better preparedness for deal­
ing w ith an emergency

Government bears the overall responsibility for minim izing the
effects on people caused by an attack on the United States and for
dealing with the immediate conditions created by such an attack.
Consequently, there m ust be an integration of disaster plans for
industry w ith those of the community. Close liaison w ith the local
civil defense director and his staff is essential in planning these

A dependable warning system is a vital part of our Govern­
m ent’s civil defense system. Effective w arning depends on the
earliest possible discovery of approaching aircraft or missiles. The
National W arning System, operated by the U.S. A rm y Strategic
Communications Command, sends attack warning from the N a ­
tional W arning Center in the headquarters of the N orth American
Air D efense Command to State and local warning points. In local
communities, attack warning is usually given to the public by
sound-producing devices such as sirens. Attack w arning will also be
disseminated over commercial radio stations in the Emergency
Broadcast System.
The bank has two responsibilities for warning. First, the man­
agem ent should ensure that warning signals can be received at the
work place. Generally, this will involve no problems, since local
governments have made a special effort to provide adequate w arn­
ing signals in the community. In certain circumstances, however,

special arrangements may be required. The bank may be located
beyond hearing distance of the w arning device, or industrial noises
m ay interfere with hearing. Such situations should be discussed
with the local civil defense office.
Secondly, all employees should understand w hat the attack
warning signal is and what action is to be taken when the signal is
sounded. Notices should be displayed in conspicuous places to re­
mind employees of the significance of the signals used in the com ­

The detonation of a nuclear weapon results in two major effects.
The first is blast and heat; the second is radioactive fallout. T he
first is best avoided by being as fa r away from the point o f
detonation as possible. The second cannot, in all probability, be
avoided, but its effects can be tremendously reduced by proper
Radioactive fallout is formed when vaporized material is carried
upward into the fireball that follows the detonation. There it
is mixed w ith the debris of the nuclear material from the bomb,
some of which adheres to the particles. The particles then fall back
to earth. Some will reach the surface in about a half hour, w h ile
smaller particles m ay be carried by winds for days or weeks and
deposited thousands of miles away.
Fallout particles m ay resemble dust or grains of sand. To th e
eye they appear harmless, but the gamma radiation emitted fro m
them can cause serious illness or death. People can protect th em ­
selves against this radiation by staying inside a fallout shelter.
Identifying effective fallout shelter for employees and m ak ing
arrangements for moving employees rapidly to such shelters in th e
event of a nuclear attack are key elements in the bank's civil
defense plan.
The National Fallout Shelter Survey, Marking, and Stocking
Program has been designed to establish shelter facilities in public
and private buildings for use by the general public. This is a n a tio n ­

w ide program carried out by the Office of Civil Defense, Depart­
m ent of the Army, in conjunction with State and local govern­
m ents. This program is concerned w ith the identification of
structures that have:
1. Sufficient protected space to accommodate at least 50
2. A minimum of 10 square feet of floor space per person and
an additional 1.5 cubic feet per person for storage of sup­
3. An adequate supply of fresh air
4. A protection factor of at least 40. (A protection factor of
40 indicates that the intensity of radioactivity inside the
shelter is 1/40 of that on the outside.)
I f a building meets these requirements and the m anagem ent is
willing to make this protected space available for public occupancy
in case of a nuclear attack, the governm ent will provide food,
water, sanitary facilities, medical supplies sufficient for a 2-week
occupancy, and radiological m onitoring instruments.
Owners of buildings that have been surveyed and approved for
use as public shelter are encouraged to sign the Fallout Shelter
License or Privilege Form, making the specified space available
for public occupancy in case of an emergency and establishing
eligibility for Federal supplies. Employees, clients, and customers
on the premises are considered members of the “public” that would
be expected to occupy these spaces. Discuss details of the com­
munity shelter plan and questions regarding occupancy, stocking,
marking, and licensing w ith the local civil defense director.
The bank's civil defense coordinator should ascertain early in
the development of his fallout shelter plans whether the bank's
buildings have been surveyed in the national program. This infor­
mation can be obtained from the local civil defense office. Any
adequately protected space identified in the survey should be con­
sidered in the bank's civil defense planning.
Whether or not the buildings occupied by the bank (at a branch
as well as at the main office) have been included in the National
Survey, the civil defense coordinator will want to identify the best
shelter available to the bank's employees. In this connection, the
basic principle to be borne in mind is that any m assive structure or
dense material will attenuate the gamma radiation that constitutes
the hazard in radioactive fallout. Basically, a fallout shelter is any
space suitable for human occupancy that is surrounded by ade­
quate shielding. The surrounding material (in walls and ceiling)
may be earth, concrete, masonry, or any other heavy construction
materials. Its effectiveness as a shield depends on how much mass
is represented— in other words, how heavy and how thick the

material is. Tunnels, basements, and other wholly or p artially
underground spaces, by their nature lend themselves to use as
fallout shelters; but all structures provide some fallout protection.
Some banks have made their own arrangements for evaluating
the fallout shelter capabilities of their buildings. For this purpose,
the local civil defense director can give the bank a list of architects
and engineers who are qualified in fallout shelter analysis.
Even though the bank may be unable to make available fo r
public use shelter space identified in this manner, its existence
along with the bank's best estim ate regarding the number of
employees that can be sheltered in such space should be m ade
known to the local civil defense director.
If it is determined, either through the National Survey or th e
bank's own survey, that the bank's buildings do not offer adequate
fallout protection, arrangements can be made to improve the p ro­
tection they afford by modification or additional construction.

In some p r s o t e c u t y through t e Home F l o t Pro­
at f h onr,
t c i n Survey (HFPS), t e Bureau o t e Census, a t n a agent
f h
cig s
f r t e O f c o C v l D fense, has i e t f e t e degree o f l o t
o h fie f i i e
dniid h
f alu
p o e t o i p i a e homes with basements and r p r e t i d t
rtcin n rvt
e o t d hs a a
t t e homeowner t i c u e measures t improve t i p o e t o
o h
o nld
hs r t c i n
where a p o r a e The use o t e r own home basements f r f l ­
f hi
o al
o t p o e t o by t e bank employees, time and o h r f c o s
u rtcin
te atr
being c n u i e a s s ould be i c u e i t e plan f r bank
o d c v , lo h
nldd n h
Additional shelter spaces can be created in existin g buildings
by: (1) improving ventilation to make habitable areas that are
already adequately shielded; and (2) m aking modifications to im ­
prove shielding. The Office of Civil Defense will provide technical
assistance and advice for m axim izing fallout protection in the
design of new buildings or adapting existin g buildings so as to
provide additional shelter spaces. Effective fallout protection can
often be built into a new structure at little or no extra cost.

The civil defense plans of all business and industrial establish­
ments, regardless of size, should reflect careful consideration of
two basic survival factors:
1. Fallout shelter for all employees and other persons who
m ay be on the premises at the time of an attack
2. Prompt movem ent of employees and others into the sh elter
when required
Each bank should designate an employee who will see to it th a t



the bank’s personnel can make effective use of the best protection
available to them. The plan developed by the bank should be based
on th e plan for use of public shelter developed by the local govern­
If a building has been designated as a public shelter, the m an­
agem ent can look to the local governm ent for survival supplies,
em ergency skills, training for employees, and such operational
direction as may be required to participate in community civil de­
fense preparations.
I f the building has not been designated as a public shelter, the
bank’s plan should be developed so that the movement of building
occupants to shelter elsewhere in the community is consistent with
the community shelter plan. In that case, the plan should provide:
(1) clear identification of the community shelter to which build­
ing occupants are to go; (2) the routes to be followed out of the
building and to and into the designated shelter; and (3) if time
permits, for m aking the bank’s shelter supplies available to occu­
pants of the designated shelter. The plan m ight provide for em­
ployees to assist the local governm ent in preparing and m anaging
the public shelter involved. This includes, for example, help in
transporting shelter supplies, posting shelter signs, selecting and
training employees for emergency service on the staff of the shel­
ter manager, and participation in joint training activities.

To meet survival needs of people during shelter occupancy, the
civil defense program includes providing austere supplies for all
public shelters. These include food, water containers when needed,
medical and sanitation items, and radiation detection instruments.
The supplies provided by the Federal Government for public
shelters are the minimum needed to sustain life. The food consists
of special biscuits or crackers made for this particular purpose.
Special arrangements should be made for people who have special
dietary requirements. These arrangements will be necessary even
though the bank plans to use public fallout shelter. Similarly, if the
bank’s civil defense plans include tenants, clients, customers, or
others who may be accompanied by infants, additional arrange­
ments m ay be required. Canned or packaged foods that do not re­
quire refrigeration are recommended for this purpose.

The fundamental requirement for making intelligent decisions
regarding where it is safe to be or go, what can be done, and


how much time can be spent doing it in a hostile radioactive e n ­
vironment depends on the detection and m easurement of th e
radiation hazard.
Government plans for radiological defense provide a com pre­
hensive program for the establishment of m any strategically
located stations for monitoring, detecting, and reporting fallo u t
conditions. These plans also provide for the dissem ination of
information about radiation conditions to the public by radio
and other communications media.
Each licensed community fallout shelter is furnished a rad ia ­
tion detection kit. Local and State civil defense directors m ay
also select some of the com munity shelters as fallout m on itor­
ing stations in order to provide needed geographic coverage.
E very public fallout shelter should have some personnel trained
to detect and measure the intensity o f radioactive fallout. T hese
persons should also receive instruction in m aintaining radiolog­
ical m onitoring equipment so that the instrum ents will alw ays
be in working order. The local civil defense director can arrange
such training for employees designated by the bank.

In the afterm ath of an attack, anxiety, or panic on the part o f
the bank’s personnel can be minimized by furnishing special
welfare services to the working force. These would include
activities to bolster morale, render financial aid, and perhaps
most important of all, disseminate accurate official inform ation
and instructions.
It m ust be recognized that, in time of attack, the first concern
of employees will be the w elfare of their fam ilies. They w ill
want to know what has become of husbands, wives, and children
and, in all probability, will w ant to rejoin their fam ilies. They
will also want information on other matters, such as medical aid
for casualties, problems attending death, em ergency food, tem ­
porary housing, home repairs, financial assistance, and w hat to
do about loss of money, clothing, and household effects.
If a disaster interrupts regular payroll procedures, banks w ill
w ant to make some provision for the financial needs of their
employees in the interim. One plan to meet this contingency
m ight be an agreement w ith a correspondent bank in another
locality whereby special compensation payments could be d is­
tributed by the latter according to a prearranged schedule. A n ­
other method is to prepare and store special payroll checks at
one or more locations. These checks can be identified in various
ways, including distinctively colored paper, and m ay be prepared
in fixed amounts. Under this plan, it would be well to take certain

precautionary measures such as requiring the signature of one
of several predesignated bank officials, lodging the proper au­
thorization with the paying bank, and providing vault storage
under audit control for the unissued stock of checks.

An important phase of the program for personnel protection
is planning first aid and subsequent care for the injured. This
will embrace a variety of activities, including organization of
medical and first aid personnel, procurement of equipment and
supplies, establishm ent of emergency casualty stations, and pro­
vision for mutual aid.
There is no yardstick on which to base the extent of needed
facilities or to anticipate the number of casualties. In medical
planning, it m ight be w ise to assume that, for the first 24 hours
after an attack, each office will be almost completely on its own.
With widespread destruction, it will require considerable time
for trained and equipped medical personnel to be organized and
transported under adverse conditions. In areas of high radiation
intensity, the delay m ay be much longer. In the meantime,
medical treatm ent at the scene may have to be limited primarily
to the relief of pain and the most critical measures to save life
and limb.

Medical Equipment and Supplies
It would be practically impossible for a bank to purchase and
store sufficient medical supplies to meet all the demands of a
major disaster, but it should stock at least the minimum supplies
provided for public fallout shelters. Where a dispensary or
medical facility exists (as in many large institution s), the
normal supply could be expanded, and other banks m ight seek
the advice of local physicians or public health authorities in
planning for supplies. When the supplies are exhausted, outside
help must be sought. Liaison with the local civil defense au­
thorities is important in obtaining outside assistance and in
establishing supply lines and obtaining priorities assistance in
A suggested list of medical and first aid supplies is included in
the handbook as Appendix 2.
Surveys of the bank premises should be conducted to deter­
mine the best locations in which to store medical supplies. Con­
sideration should also be given to the storage of some medical
supplies at the relocation site for injured persons who m ay
make their w ay there. A word of caution here is appropriate:


item s which are subject to deterioration should be w atched
carefully and their use in dispensaries rotated. Medical suppliers
will be able to advise concerning shelf life.

Care of Casualties
Most large banks have dispensaries or first aid rooms to tak e
care of those employees who m ay be in need of medical atten tion
during the normal, day-to-day operations. These facilities should
prepare plans covering the designation of additional areas th a t
could be utilized as first aid stations and collection points fo r
casualties during major disasters. Cafeterias, locker rooms, and
similar areas with heat, light, and water could probably be con ­
verted on short notice to serve for care of the injured. S m aller
banks should also consider what areas are available to them to
care for casualties.
Functions to be performed in these areas would include
screening of casualties to determine priority of attention, ad ­
m inistering of first aid and initial medical care, preparing r e ­
cords, arranging transportation to hospitals, and coordinating
activities with civil defense authorities.
The rescue of persons trapped in damaged buildings involves a
medical function. These operations require special training in th e
care of casualties to avoid unnecessary harm as the result o f
improper handling. The identity of the injured should be a sce r­
tained as soon as p o ssib le; this information should be g iv en
both to the medical personnel and to the fam ily of the casualty.
A first aid training course for employees should be m ad e
available by the bank either through its own facilities or b y
taking advantage of courses given by the American Red Cross.
Key employees may be trained as instructors so that they can
teach others selected from the staff. Since some of those so
trained may, themselves, be casualties it is advisable that a n u m ­
ber of employees (varying from 10 to 20 percent of the total
staff) be trained in first aid procedures.
Persons who are injured during a nuclear attack m ay h av e
been exposed to radiation either by deposition of fallout particles
on skin or clothing or by having to make their w ay through a
radioactive area to get to shelter. It is important that first aid
personnel remember that such persons are not made radioactive.
I f the clothing is removed outside the shelter and discarded and
the skin washed thoroughly, there is no possibility of contam ina­
tion of medical personnel. Procedures for personnel decontam i­
nation are given in a number of publications of the Office of C ivil

Medical Self-Help Training
The U.S. Public Health Service, at the request of the Office of
Civil D efen se and in cooperation with the Am erican Medical A sso ­
ciation, has developed a course in medical self-help. This course
provides inform ation and training to help people cope w ith injuries
or illness under disaster conditions when medical services are not
available. W hereas traditional first aid courses deal w ith “what to
do until the doctor comes,” this course is concerned w ith “w hat to
do when no doctor is com ing/'
The course consists of 16 hours of instruction covering such sub­
jects as radioactive fallout and shelter, healthful living in emer­
gencies, artificial respiration, bleeding and bandaging, fractures
and splints, transportation of the injured, burns, shock, infant and
child care, em ergency childbirth, and care of the sick and injured.
The course is given without charge under arrangements made
by the State health department and the State civil defense office. It
is taught by local personnel w ith medical backgrounds, such as doc­
tors, nurses, medical technicians, and Red Cross personnel. A sk the
local civil defense director about local arrangements. In some
cities, classes have been set up and sponsored by school systems,
Red Cross chapters, chambers of commerce, fraternal and civic
organizations, labor unions, and other groups.
The national goal is to train at least one member of every fam ily
in medical self-help. To provide adequately for the care of the
injured or sick at the bank, arrange for this training for bank em­
ployees. The Civil D efense Director in your area can tell you where
and when such training is available.

The civil defense coordinator and certain key employees or
supervisors should be trained in various civil defense skills so the
bank can rely upon them to help protect their fellow employees and
bank property in a disaster. Ideally, every employee should have
enough training to know how to protect him self and those around
him, either at work or at home.
Almost every business already has some personnel w ith abilities
or past training that will fit into its survival preparations. A s one
of the first steps toward em ergency preparedness, the civil
defense coordinator should make a careful study of employees'
skills, m ilitary experience, hobbies, special training or schooling,
and past work experience.
The conditions that would exist for some tim e after a nuclear
attack on the United States have produced some new requirements
for training. People who are trained in these skills should be avail­


able to ensure the most effective use of shelter space, supplies, and
In your community, the follow ing courses are available a t no
charge and can be initiated by a request to the local civil defense

Shelter Management
Many local governments have arranged to give training in f a ll­
out shelter management. This 16-hour course provides instruction
in shelter organization, staffing, and supplies and equipment. It
provides prospective shelter m anagers an opportunity to discuss
and consider solutions for problems relating to reception of people
at the shelter and their protection and care during shelter occu­
pancy. Shelter m anagers should be selected from the execu tive
staff, since these people are already planners and m anagers by
virtue of their education and experience. The assignm ent carries
responsibility as well as authority, and the success of the sh elter
operation will depend in great measure on the w ay in w h ich
responsibility is accepted and authority used.

Radiological Monitoring
Civil defense training in radiological monitoring is aimed at
developing skill in the use and maintenance of the instrum ents
used to detect the presence of radiation hazards and to m easure
their intensity. This 16-hour course provides training in the in ter­
pretation, analysis, and evaluation of radiation hazards for shelter
officers. Instruction covers the procedures used in collecting,
reporting, and plotting radiological information and in measures to
minimize exposure to radiation hazards.
In the rescue of persons from damaged buildings it is im portant
that rescue teams have a basic knowledge of structures and
mechanics. Thus, building maintenance personnel may provide a
nucleus for the organization and training of rescue teams.
The local civil defense director can arrange certain other kinds of
training such as police duties, fire prevention and control, and
mass feeding. Mutual aid arrangements enable participants to co n ­
duct their civil defense training and planning activities more eco­
nomically. For instance, a rescue course m ight be taught at one f a ­
cility but for personnel of all cooperating batiks. A firefighting
course m ay be similarly organized and conducted. Such arra n ge­
ments would greatly reduce the amount of effort, training m a te­
rials, and instructor personnel required for these programs.

A lthough the bank’s civil defense program is concerned pri­
m arily w ith the protection of the lives of its employees, m anage­
m ent should actively encourage employees to inform and prepare
them selves and their fam ilies for survival in home and public
All employees should be urged to enroll in a 12-hour training
course on “Personal and Fam ily Survival,” which is available
throughout the country as a part of the civil defense adult educa­
tion program. B y enrolling in this course, employees will be in ­
formed about (1) the need for civil defense, (2) the national Civil
Defense program, (3) State and local civil defense plans, (4) home
shelter construction, (5) fam ily planning for disaster, and (6) the
individual’s civil defense responsibility in the community.
To give bank employees an orientation to civil defense, they may
be enrolled in a home study course called “Civil Defense, U .S .A .”
Enrollment is free. The local civil defense director can provide leaf­
lets describing the course for distribution to employees.
The availability and effectiveness of employees for postattack
recovery and restoration of business operations m ay depend
entirely on the civil defense and em ergency preparations employ­
ees have made for themselves and their fam ilies. One of the most
effective ways to make employees conscious of the means to pre­
pare for home survival is to make this information available at the
place of employment. The m essage takes on real m eaning if it is
consistent with emergency measures practiced by the employer.
Civil defense publications, available from State and local civil
defense offices, m ay be distributed to employees with an appro­
priate letter from m anagem ent urging them to make disaster
plans at home and to work with community civil defense organiza­

Preparations for an emergency should include certain physical
and adm inistrative arrangem ents to facilitate control of people
during disasters such as: clearly m arking routes to be taken in
going to shelter; keeping passageways clear and unobstructed; and
locating trained supervisory personnel where they can take com­
mand and give calm, decisive instructions at points where groups
are likely to congregate.
Wardens, or m ovement supervisors, should identify and period­
ically inspect the routes that workers in their areas will take to
reach assigned shelters. W ardens should be trained so that they


will have an understanding of the bank's civil defense operations
and especially the function for which they are primarily respon­
sible— the orderly movement of employees to shelter. They should
be stationed at exits to all m ajor w orking areas as well as at the
tops and bottoms of stairw ays, ramps, and elevators.
Special attention must be given to the problems of physically
handicapped persons, particularly those whose mobility is impaired
and who m ust depend on the use of wheelchairs, crutches, or canes.
Without such special consideration, their lives may be endangered
and they m ay block rapid movement of others who are not


Prudence dictates that bank m anagem ent make the necessary
preparations to be in a position to resume business promptly
follow ing a destructive attack. This poses a number of legal
questions. Do the present bylaws enable surviving directors and
officers to take official action? Who could function in the em er­
gency period if a quorum of directors w as not available? Has
any provision been made for the succession of key executive,
administrative, and operating personnel? Should arrangements
be made for an alternate headquarters or relocation site?
As a first step in planning for continuity of operations, cor­
porate bylaw s m ust be reviewed and amended, or appropriate
resolutions adopted, to provide for a reconstitution of the board
or substitute governing body, for the empowering of successor
executives and for the designation of alternate headquarters.
Sample bylaws and resolutions covering these matters are in­
cluded as Appendix 3 of this booklet.
The manner of filling director vacancies, the designation of
temporary headquarters, and other limitations or expansion of
activities during a period of emergency are m atters generally
within the scope of the statutes and should be reviewed by the
bank's attorneys. The suggested forms of bylaws and resolutions
shown herein are intended merely as guides, subject to modifica­
tion by bank counsel and managem ent in accordance with cir­
cumstances and policies in each particular case.
Standby banking orders and regulations have been prepared
for issuance in the event of a national war emergency, and will
permit banking institutions (including the Federal Reserve
Banks, national banks, and State-chartered banks— nonmember
as well as member) to take actions necessary during an emer­
gency without regard to some of the normal peacetime require­
ments and restrictions. For example, banking institutions m ight
find it necessary to set up substitute banking quarters beyond
the limits of established banking districts. Moreover, such bank­
ing institutions, their directors, officers, and employees will not
be subject to liability because of such actions taken (other than
the assumption of contractual obligations) or omitted to be
taken, in good faith, pursuant to such em ergency orders or reg­
ulations, notw ithstanding any other provision of law.

Recognizing that it m ight be difficult or impossible under
normal procedure to reconstitute the board of directors for


months, banks should consider the adoption of an appropriate
special bylaw to carry them through any such period.
Because of the provisions of U.S.R.S. 5145 (Title 12, U.S.C. 71)
and 5148 (Title 12, U.S.C. 74) concerning the boards of directors
of national banks and the possibility that a quorum as provided
by the bank's Articles of Association m ight not be available in
an emergency, the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency has
suggested an emergency bylaw in the form shown as E x h ib it I
in Appendix 3 of this booklet for incorporation, under a h ead in g
such as “Em ergencies,” in the General Form of B ylaw s of N a ­
tional Banks immediately preceding the last section.
Some State-chartered banks have more latitude in making p ro­
vision for emergency board-of-directors’ action. Subject to th e
provisions of the laws of their several States, some S tatechartered banks may, therefore, wish to make use of th eir
executive committees by the adoption of an em ergency b ylaw
such as that shown as E xhibit II in Appendix 3. Other S tatechartered institutions may prefer a more elastic measure such
as a bylaw providing for the adoption of resolutions authorizing
certain persons to exercise authority on behalf of the bank w h ich
would be applicable in a time of emergency, notw ithstanding an y
contrary bylaw provisions. To guard against all conceivable
hazards, including the possibility that all directors of the b ank
m ight be casualties, State-chartered institutions m ight well g iv e
consideration to supplementing any emergency bylaw that r e ­
quires for its effectiveness the survival of some directors by also
adopting an emergency bylaw in the form shown as E xhibit I of
Appendix 3.

A predetermined management succession list would reduce
uncertainty as to the desires and intentions of the board of
directors in the postattack period. All of the Federal R eserve
Banks and some commercial banks, by action of their directors,
have adopted succession lists or other em ergency succession
plans for their chief executives. Nam es on the chief executive
list m ight include designated active officers, directors, and ad ­
visory committee members; designated form er officers, directors,
and advisory committee members; and perhaps, in special cases,
attorneys, officers of other banks, and qualified business men.
In form ulating a succession plan, the planners should appraise
the vulnerability of key executives and personnel from the sta n d ­
point of both location and depth of the organization. In som e
large branch systems, executive forces may be well dispersed;
similarly, two or three qualified replacements m ight be available

for each key position as a result of executive development pro­
gram s. Smaller banks m ay not be so fortunate in this respect.
To the greatest extent possible, each bank should endeavor to
assure th at all of its managerial skill and know-how would not be
lost by including in each succession list some persons whose
place of work and residence suggest a better probability of
Persons on the succession list should be informed of that fact.
They should be made fam iliar with the general plan for recon­
structing bank records, giving emergency banking services to
customers, extending credit, and reestablishing facilities. It is
important that each person be fam iliar with the functions of the
office or offices to which he may accede, the names of the persons
on the succession list above him, and the name of the person who
may succeed him. Each person should also be instructed to
proceed by any means available to the designated alternate head
office or relocation site.
A usual plan is to provide that, at the relocation site, the
person whose name appears highest on the succession list takes
command until someone whose name appears nearer the top
arrives and supersedes him or until his authority is terminated
by appropriate action under the terms of the officer succession
resolution or by postattack action of the board of directors.
An alternate plan, followed by some banks, is to lim it the
names on the list to those of present or former chief executive
officers and to provide through an appropriate resolution, a
method of selecting a chief executive officer if the persons
previously named cannot be located or are unable to assume or to
continue normal executive duties. In this type of plan, the re­
solution m ight provide, for example, that all of the officers above
a specified rank who are then present at a functioning office may
designate as chief executive officer either (1) one of those
present or (2) a director or former director of the bank who can
be located and is able to assume executive duties at the then
functioning head office.
Copies of the resolution containing the succession list, properly
certified under seal by the secretary, should be filed in a suffi­
cient number of places in different localities to afford reasonable
assurance that at least one properly attested copy would be avail­
able to the surviving or emergency management. In addition to the
head-office vault and contemplated alternate head office or reloca­
tion site, such locations m ight include correspondent banks and
the district Federal Reserve Bank. These certified copies should
be filed in sealed envelopes to be delivered unopened in accordance
with instructions set forth on the envelopes. Signature cards or
circulars containing specimens of the signatures of persons, in

addition to su rviving management, authorized to transact business
of the bank in an emergency, with titles, if feasible, m ay be filed
w ith the resolution or in separate sealed envelopes. Under th e
latter plan, envelopes should contain on their faces a statem ent
of their contents together w ith instructions that they are to be
opened in the event of an em ergency requiring such inform ation.
A sample form of resolution th at would provide for officer su c­
cession is shown as E xhibit III in Appendix 3 of this booklet.
Banks without distant branches should explore the possibility
of an understanding with one or more correspondent banks in
other areas to render assistance by furnishing personnel in tim es
of emergency; that is, in the event one institution was badly
stricken as a result of enemy attack, its counterpart, by previou s
agreement, would supply certain key manpower at the top level to
aid the stricken bank in getting back into operation at an a lter­
nate location, if necessary. Since there is no w ay of know ing in
advance who m ight survive an attack, each bank should take step s
to assure the availability of officers who have the necessary a u ­
thority to cope with extreme emergencies, and to develop an a d e­
quate succession list.

If at least a nucleus of experienced personnel is not available
after an attack, efforts to reestablish operations m ay be delayed
for weeks or even months. Special attention must be given, in
developing the bank’s plans, to ensuring not only that definite
personnel assignm ents are made but that employees know w h er e
to go and how to get there.
In addition to planning for the use of surviving employees, co n ­
sideration should be given to the recruitment of form er em ployees
who, though they may have changed their business affiliation, a re
fam iliar w ith the procedures of the bank.
It must be recognized that immediate and primary dependence
cannot be placed upon those connected with an office that m ig h t
be destroyed. Those fortunate enough to escape cannot be expected
to report for duty until they have assured themselves of the sa fe ty
and w elfare of their fam ilies, nor could they be expected to fu n c ­
tion with complete effectiveness until such assurance is fo r th ­
It is advisable to establish one or more rendezvous points or in ­
formation centers, outside the area of destruction, to w h ich
employees could go for instructions follow ing an attack. All p e r ­
sons who are available for recruitment should be provided w ith
reasonably detailed instructions for getting there. Other banks
located within a reasonable distance, yet removed from population

and industry concentrations, would offer attractive possibilities as
rendezvous points. The person in charge of personnel at the relo­
cation site should keep in touch with these centers for status
reports on the bank's personnel.
All employees should be provided with m eans of identification
to facilitate movement in an emergency. Where rendezvous points
have been set up, identification cards or transportation passes in
blank m ight be m aintained at these points so that the reporting
personnel could be provided with evidence of need to travel to the
relocation site.
In planning operations that require personnel movement, it
should be borne in mind that fallout will place severe restrictions
on personnel movement for perhaps as much as 2 weeks or longer,
and travel may be controlled by local civil defense authorities.
Those in charge of the planning, therefore, should coordinate
transportation plans and requirements with civil defense officials.
Relocation offices should be self-sustaining and not dependent on
instructions from personnel of disrupted offices. Larger banks will
find it advisable to prepare and keep current emergency personnel
qualification records, show ing the name, address, and telephone
number of the individual and his emergency alternate, if desig­
nated. Duplicate copies should be retained at the relocation site.
Large banks, particularly those having a number of branches,
may organize task forces com prising staff members who live or
are normally located outside of probable target areas. Duties
should be assigned so that advance planning may be done by those
persons. All phases of operations m ay be so assigned. W ith this
advance planning, the alternate head office m ight begin to func­
tion almost at once.


Each bank should consider the need for an alternate headquar­
ters or em ergency relocation site where its m anagem ent can fu n c ­
tion during an emergency. In making the necessary arrangem ents,
several possibilities are open to the bank including:
1. An arrangem ent for an alternate office at a distant point b y
contracting for available space or utilizing the facilities o f
an outside organization,
2. An understanding with one or more correspondent banks in
other areas to make available tem porary space as an
alternate office, or
3. The designation of a distant branch or branches as su b ­
stitute head offices.
W hile the course of action chosen by a particular bank will d e­
pend upon a number of factors in planning for temporary quarters,
it is important to consider what m ight be required in terms of a d ­
vance corporate action, location, equipment and supplies, records
storage and protection, vault facilities, and personnel.
An adequate alternate location need not duplicate, even in a
small way, the facilities of a peacetime banking office. During an
emergency, many operations m ay not be performed at all; op era­
tions normally mechanized m ight be performed manually and pool­
ing arrangements providing for the centralization of equipm ent
and supplies m ight be prudent. Advance planning in this, as in
other areas, is a matter to be decided by each bank. The im portance
of establishing some sort of alternate headquarters m ust be reem ­
phasized, however, since it is obvious that the efforts of su rv iv in g
managem ent would be seriously impeded if it had no p reviously
designated rendezvous point or relocation site.
Unless corporate bylaws have been amended to perm it banks to
change the location of their banking offices temporarily, th ere
could be troublesome legal problems after an attack on the U n ited
States. A sample bylaw to provide for such a contingency is show n
as Exhibit IV in Appendix 3 of this booklet. For branch banking
systems, E xhibit V suggests a form of resolution to specify th e
order in which several branch offices shall successively become th e
postemergency head office.

There are certain points that should be taken into consideration
in the location of a site for the alternate headquarters. The first,
and most obvious, is that it should be away from probable m ajor


targets such as m ilitary installations, missile sites, population cen­
ters, or industrial complexes. It should be far enough away from
the bank's regular headquarters that the possibility of both being
destroyed by the same weapon is minimized, but it should be ad­
vantageously located from the standpoints of mail service and
accessibility. The latter considerations are particularly important
should it be decided to maintain a small staff on the premises dur­
ing peacetime. Other factors in the decision should include the
availability of working and living quarters, transportation and
communications facilities, proximity to another bank, and acces­
sibility to those employees who will be assigned to the alternate
headquarters in time of emergency.
In the case of large commercial banks located in the same cities
as Federal Reserve offices, there is still another factor to be taken
into consideration, namely, the relocation site or alternate office of
the Federal Reserve Bank, since the collection of cash and noncash
items, during a period of emergency, would be facilitated if it
proves practicable for such commercial banks to plan the locations
of their alternate headquarters in such a way as to permit the con­
tinuation of clearinghouse operations.

Management operating at the relocation site would be seriously
handicapped if furniture, simple office equipment (such as type­
w riters and adding m a c h in es), and incidental supplies w ere not on
hand at the site. Banks having items of equipment that are not in
daily use even though obsolete or in need of repair, should consider
the advisability of having them put into workable condition and
transferred to the alternate headquarters. Sources of equipment
for use during an emergency m ight be explored, although it seems
likely that the demand under such circumstances would far exceed
the capacity of suppliers to deliver. Reasonable quantities of needed
items may be made available in an emergency, however, by other
organizations such as nearby schools.
Bank forms for em ergency use should be stocked at the reloca­
tion site. W hether supplies of these form s or merely a set of sam ­
ples is maintained is a m atter to be decided by the b a n k ; however,
the decision should take into consideration th a t printing services
may not be readily available. It is also advisable to send a sufficient
quantity of operating manuals or other written instructions
describing operations at the relocation site to that site.
Many banks will select an alternate headquarters that can also
serve as the storage point for vital records.
If the alternate headquarters is to house duplicate records,


instructions for record reconstruction should be filed there. M ate­
rials, machinery, and equipment for record reconstruction also
should be available as these items may be impossible to obtain fo l­
lowing a major disaster.
It is not essential to have vault facilities at relocation sites, but
where feasible, arrangements may be made with nearby banks fo r
the use of limited vault space during an emergency. It would, h o w ­
ever, be desirable to have a book vault or safe at the relocation site
for the storage of minor amounts of cash and other valuables.

G etting official information and guidance to the public in tim e o f
emergency could result in saving millions of lives. An E m ergen cy
Broadcast System (E B S ) has been established to provide th e
President and Federal, State, and local governm ents w ith a m ean s
of com municating with the public through commercial broadcast
stations before, during, and after an attack.
In a civil defense emergency, the stations holding National D e ­
fense Em ergency Authorizations would remain on the air at th e ir
regular frequencies to broadcast inform ation and instructions. A ll
other stations would leave the air. Through cooperation betw een
the Office of Civil Defense and the broadcasting industry, provision
is made at E B S stations for fallout protection for the sta tio n s’
staffs, em ergency power in case of commercial power disruption,
and radio program links and associated equipment needed to tr a n s ­
m it from seats of governm ent to the E B S stations for retran sm is­
sion to the public.
The bank’s emergency plans, therefore, should include standard
radio receiving capability for the alternate headquarters and p er­
haps for the fallout shelters to be used by the bank’s employees.

A n integral part of a preparedness program for emergency oper­
ations is the determination of what records are essential and mak­
ing preparations for safeguarding them. It is readily apparent
that, follow ing a disaster, the availability of records will greatly
facilitate the work of reconstruction in the effort toward “business
as usual.” The express purpose of the records protection pro­
gram should be to provide an independent means of reconstructing
the bank's assets-and-liabilities position, and its account relation­
ship with customers, thus providing surviving or successor man­
agement with sufficient information to continue operations. This
responsibility should rest with the individual or committee
charged with em ergency planning.
Many vital records and valuable assets, such as currency, secu­
rities, collateral, and documents, cannot be stored at distant points.
Every precaution should be taken to protect them to the greatest
extent possible on bank premises both during and after business
hours. It is axiom atic th at they be placed in vaults overnight. Per­
sonnel should be trained in the steps to be taken for the protection
of w orking records if an alert signal is given.
Put-away procedures should be developed in the various areas of
the bank with the objective of providing for the maximum safety
of the bank's assets and vital records. To facilitate prompt action,
the bank should operate with a minimum exposure to cash and
securities outside the vault. W orking inventories should be as small
as practicable, and large new receipts and all finished work should
be placed in the vault at intervals during the day. While this means
more trips in and out of the vault, it makes emergency put-away
much easier at a greatly reduced risk.
Each department or segm ent of the bank should be analyzed and
put-away procedures established that will best meet the needs of
that unit. In developing these procedures, it will become evident
that all assets and records cannot be placed in the vault under
emergency conditions. Other depositories of varying degrees of
safety such as safes, file cabinets, storage closets, metal or corru­
gated boxes, and even desk drawers may have to be utilized. Cer­
tain members of the staff m ay need to be supplied w ith boxes,
bags, or other containers so that the material may be placed
quickly in the protective places chosen.

To enable a bank to continue or resume business after a disaster,
a program for the storage of essential bank records in a remote


area that is likely to be free from direct bomb dam age
is a necessity.
Some banks may elect to use their relocation sites for vital-records storage, keeping a cadre of personnel fam iliar w ith th e
records at the site at all times; these people could prove very u se­
ful in effecting the transition from the bank’s main office to th e
relocation site in the event of an emergency. Other banks m ay plan
to use branch offices out of the probable blast damage zone fo r
storage of their essential records. A number of commercial storag e
firms throughout the country have developed abandoned m in es
and quarries for lease to others requiring such storage space.
In general, the geographic factors and other considerations g o v ­
erning the selection of the relocation site will apply to the selection
of a records storage center. If there are impelling reasons to locate
the center nearer a potential target than would otherwise be p r u ­
dent, protective construction features can be utilized. Local civil
defense officials should be consulted concerning the effects o f a
nuclear attack at the proposed site of the center. In general, th e
more remote the site the better. There will be less need for protec­
tive construction against blast, but shielding against radioactive
fallout should be provided in any event.
Although many banks have selected an alternate headquarters
that can also serve as the storage point for vital records, others
may consider it desirable to provide for a records storage center at
a point other than the relocation site. The locations of commercial
underground records storage centers, which are maintained by p r i­
vate organizations, can be found by making inquiry through th e
offices of the American Bankers Association.
Instructions, materials, machinery, and equipment for record
reconstruction should be available at the records depository.

The first step is to determine what records to protect. T his
m ight well be accomplished by completing (1) an inventory, (2) an
appraisal, and (3) a classification. This approach is based on th e
premise that differentiation should be made between records th a t
are vital or necessary for reconstruction purposes, and those th a t
are merely desirable. Unless this delineation is made, w ith a strict
interpretation of w hat constitutes a “vital” record, so much m a te­
rial may be included and so much money and effort expended th a t
not only would the program become costly but the task of recon­
struction would be extremely cumbersome and complicated.
In m aking the inventory, every record in the bank should be in ­
cluded. The list should then be reviewed, and those records th a t
obviously are valueless for the purposes of the program can be elim ­
inated from further consideration. All remaining records should

then be classified realistically, thinking in terms of “what is abso­
lutely necessary to get back into operation,” rather than “what we
would like to have.”
In Section I of Appendix 4 of this booklet, a basic list of bank
records is divided into two categories: “essential” and “desirable.”
The listing is not all inclusive, and variations in classification will
be justified among banks. The checklist is intended only as a guide
for each bank in the classification of its own records based on an
analysis of individual operations and problems.
It is assumed that cash, securities, collateral, and other assets
will be stored in vaults overnight and that, as a daytime measure,
they will be protected on the premises to the greatest extent pos­
sible. Careful consideration should be given to the matter of “on
the spot” protection at the regular office location, since one of the
real problems for banks is the safeguarding of current records and
work that is in progress.

Protection of records may be accomplished by duplication, by
dispersion, and by vault storage. Duplication is the most widely
used method and is the most practical for banks because of its
adaptability and the various methods available, such as making
carbon copies, preparing photo copies, and microfilming. When
records are duplicated, a copy should be stored far enough away
from the original to preclude a simultaneous loss. Dispersion of
essential records m ay be feasible for banks having branch system s
or for those having alternate headquarters or records storage cen­
ter arrangements. Vault storage offers the best means of safe­
guarding current records and work in progress.
In many cases, microfilming may be the preferable method of
duplicating because less storage space is required and exact images
of the original are provided. However, certain possible disadvan­
tages should not be overlooked. For example, faulty images may
result from improper or careless operation of equipment at the
time of photographing. Also, special equipment may have to be
purchased in order to photograph adequately and to reconstruct, if
necessary. Reconstruction from film records can be a difficult
task and, in addition, microfilming is likely to prove more costly
than other methods unless there is an appreciable volume. Many
banks, of course, presently utilize photographing equipment, and
these institutions are in a position to coordinate protective mea­
sures with regular operating procedures.
The microfilm copy of any record should be given the same pro­
tection as the record itself and should be stored under proper
conditions for preservation, as set forth in Appendix 4, Section III
of this booklet. Under certain circumstances, the cost of m aintain­

ing a protection program can be greatly reduced by the use of
carbon copies a n d /o r duplicates. In connection with the question
of costs, it is well to bear in mind th at regardless of the exact
method chosen, a good records protection program carefully in s ti­
tuted can sim plify business procedures and m ay very well offset
additional costs by forcing a review of current record-making and
retention practices. Through thoughtful planning, such a program
also m ay utilize savings in subsequent bank audits as a partial
offset to total costs.
Appendix 4 sets forth a procedure whereby essential in form a­
tion can be protected and reconstructed from records on hand. T h e
section is not intended to be all inclusive by covering all the records
of any given bank, since the procedure for the types of records
mentioned can be expanded to cover the other records th at a re
deemed essential by the individual bank.
The procedure provides for the initial microfilming of certain
current records to establish a “base.” Thereafter, changes a ffect­
ing the basic records should be duplicated to m aintain a cu rren t
status. The base should be reestablished periodically, thus n arro w ­
ing the period to be covered if reconstruction should becom e
Once a given record has been duplicated, a copy and all su bse­
quent changes affecting that record should be forwarded to th e
storage location. Provision should be made at the storage center fo r
the destruction of obsolete duplicates. As records are updated,
those that are no longer necessary for reconstruction purposes
should be destroyed so that the center will be free of unnecessary
and possibly confusing material.
Reconstruction m ay have to be accomplished under handicaps
imposed by emergency conditions with scant and inexperienced
help. Instructions for reconstruction should be prepared and filed
in several places to assure recovery of at least one copy. These in ­
structions should be as simple as possible and, most important,
easily understandable by persons who may be unfam iliar w ith
banking operations. It may be considered advisable, also, to develop
an alternate method of reconstruction. Materials and equipment
required for reconstruction should be made available at the records
center, as these m ay be impossible to obtain follow ing a m ajor d is­
aster. Each bank m u st decide the nature and exten t of these prep­
arations in attem pting to formulate an effective program based
on an appraisal of its own situation.
A fter procedures for reconstruction have been prepared, th ey
should be tested to disclose possible weak points and unforeseen
problems. An occasional test drill is of value in train in g personnel
for the tremendous job of reconstruction under severe handicaps.
It m ust be remembered that hindsight cannot produce a single re­
cord that has been completely destroyed.

In planning the preservation of a bank’s physical assets includ­
ing original and duplicate records, work in progress, cash, securi­
ties, collateral documents, etc., the protection afforded by its
buildings, vaults, and outside storage facilities or relocation sites is
of paramount importance. N ot only are the buildings themselves
important, but the day-to-day operating and housekeeping proce­
dures and the storage available inside the facilities can be signifi­
cant factors in a bank’s ability to reconstruct and ultimately re­
sume business after any type of disaster.

In the design of new buildings or modifications or additions to
existing ones, every advantage should be taken of the opportunity
to incorporate features that will contribute to the protection of
personnel and property. If done during the prelim inary design
stage, the work will add little or no extra cost. Special attention
should be given to space in which the protective capability m ay be
improved by the addition of a fe w more inches of concrete, shield­
ing at exits, and improved ventilation system s.
It is generally anticipated th at there will be some advance w arn ­
ing of an attack, either through intelligence reports, overt actions
by a potential enemy, or the m anifest deterioration of interna­
tional relations. There is, however, the possibility that the United
States could be subjected to a “sneak attack ” ; and the speed of
such attack m ight preclude dispersal of the bank’s employees to
either a relocation site or a public shelter. It is advisable, therefore,
to provide some shelter within the bank’s headquarters buildings
wherever possible. Anticipation of this contingency m ay save
many lives.

While the designs of buildings vary considerably, bank vaults
generally follow a similar pattern w ith regard to both structure and

utility. Consequently, it is possible to make some general observa­
tions concerning their ability to survive a nuclear detonation.
Vaults are usually of heavy reinforced concrete construction,
although the reinforcement m ay not be placed so as to provide
m aximum protection against blast loads. Nevertheless, vaults are
much stronger than most conventional construction and can be de­
pended upon to remain intact at distances from ground zero w h ere
most other structures would be either completely demolished or
badly damaged.
It is possible to provide additional strength to existin g v au lt
structures, particularly through roof reinforcement. A report
prepared by the consulting structural engineering firm, A m mann & W hitney, s a y s :

Such strengthening can be accomplished by t e a d t o o
h diin f
columns i wide v u t and by p e t e s n o a d t o o s e l
r s r s i g r d i i n f te
framing i t e narrow v u t . Any f rthe i c e s i s r n t
n h
u r nrae n tegh
c u d be accomplished o l a a r l t v l high c s . S e l p a e
n y t eaiey
ot t e l t
l n n s cannot be c n i e e t p o i e a d t o a p o e t o u l s
o sdrd o r v d diinl rtcin nes
Even though a vault apparently may remain intact follow in g a
nuclear blast, the contents m ay be damaged by fire, heat, or
flood waters. In a well constructed vault, it seems unlikely th a t
the contents will be seriously damaged by fire although the v a u lt
may be inaccessible for a lengthy period. On the other hand,
possible water damage is a hazard which cannot be treated
lightly, particularly where vaults are situated below street level
or in cases where pumping is necessary to keep vault areas dry.
Since outside power sources m igh t be destroyed or become in ­
operative for an extended period of time, standby self-contained
pumping equipment with automatic starting devices merits co n ­
sideration. Installation of additional waterproofing m aterials
also may be helpful in preventing water damage to the va u lt
Banks considering the construction of new b last-resistant
vaults are offered the following suggestions, quoted from th e
same Ammann & W hitney report:

Underground v u t i rock w l p o i e maximum p o e t o
als n
il r v d
and a e f a i l i many p r s o t e country where r ck i c o e
r esbe n
at f h
o s ls
t t e ground s r a e Vaults i c n e t o a l c t o s can b
o h
n o v n i n l oain
made c n i e a l more b a t r s s a t with r l t v l inexpen­
ls eitn
s v de i n chan e . Such new v u t c u d s r e a d p s t r e
ie s g
als ol e v s eoiois
f r t e v t l r c r s o s v r l branch ofcs i any g ven a e .
o h ia e o d f e e a
f ie n
I an arrangement o t i type can be made c m
f hs
o patible with bank
o e a i n , a smal e number o h ghly b a t r s s a t v u t ,
f i
ls-eitn als
properly l c t d would g e t y reduce t e v l e a i i y o t e
h unrblt f h
e t r system o v u t .
f als

The bank's emergency operations plan should be based on the
assum ption that in the event of any widespread disaster, natural
or manmade, the firm and its employees will have to depend
primarily on their own efforts to protect life and property from
fire. E very bank should have some employees trained in the
basic elements of fire control in the buildings in which they
A nuclear detonation can start dozens of fires at the same
time at a point miles aw ay from ground zero. Unless controlled
promptly, they could grow into a very large and destructive fire.
Training employees in firefighting may, therefore, save their
lives, the bank's property, and perhaps even the community.
Moreover, training in fire prevention and control will benefit
employees' fam ilies inasmuch as the principles, procedures, and
techniques for fire protection in the home are identical.
Training, first aid, firefighting equipment, and practice drills
are the basis of effective fire control. The community fire pro­
tection services can provide advice on the selection of fire sup­
pression equipment and assistance in training employees for
fire control and rescue operations. Employees trained in fire­
fighting and rescue techniques can also perform valuable service
in the period of shelter occupancy, especially in the movement
of sick and injured persons and in teaching fire prevention.


The preceding portions of this booklet have been concerned
with saving the “tools”— the personnel, records, and facilities
that the banking community will need to perform essential
operations in the restoration of the postattack economy. Som e
of these operations will be the same as the normal peacetim e
operations of a bank, except that they will be performed under
quite different and more difficult circumstances. Others w ill be
peculiar to the postattack situation and, because of the need fo r
prompt action in such a situation, should be the subject of
serious contingency planning by all banking institutions.


The Government has adopted certain policies with regard to
postattack banking operations. Stated in broad terms, th ey are:
1. The money, credit, and banking system m ust be m a in ­
tained in order (a) to m aximize the mobilization of all econom ic
forces, (b) to achieve the maximum utilization of surviving re­
sources, human and material, (c) to provide immediate m ilita ry
needs and requirements for human survival, and (d) to be ready
at the first opportunity to reactivate the economy in a rea s
2. B anking operations vital to the maintenance of the m oney,
credit, and banking system m ust be maintained.
temporarily immobilized by radioactive fallout.
3. The Federal Government will assure the equitable sh a rin g
of w ar losses throughout the economy to the extent possible, not
to guarantee individuals against w ar losses, but (a) to assure
the maintenance of a “going concern” economy, (b) to assure th e
viability of financial institutions, and (c) to assure those dealing
with financial institutions that they may do so without risk of
the insolvency of such institutions by reason of war losses.
4. Currency will be made available in accordance w ith th e
needs of postattack economic activity in all areas, subject to
controls prescribed by national authority, and supplies of cu r­
rency for this purpose will be decentralized to the extent possible
in the preattack period. The issuance of scrip as a substitute fo r
currency will be avoided.
5. Bank deposits will be made available in proportion to th e
needs of postattack economic activity in all areas, subject to
controls prescribed by national authority.
6. Provision will be made for the clearance of checks, in ­
cluding those drawn on destroyed banks, subject to lim itations
and controls as m ay be necessary.




7. N e w bank credit will be made available for essential
purposes, such as support of military, emergency relief, and
salvage operations and of national reconstruction.
8 . The Federal Government will guarantee private financing
for essential purposes to the extent that it is not otherwise
available on reasonable terms.
9. There will be no general moratorium on the payment of
preattack debts, but limited moratoria may be authorized for
hardship cases.

Major actions have been taken by the Federal Government to
implement these policies during an emergency.
1 . The President has ordered1 the Board of Governors of the
Federal Reserve System and other Federal bank supervisory
agencies, as appropriate, to develop em ergency plans and a con­
dition of readiness to cope with the potential economic effects of
mobilization or an attack. He has ordered that such plans and
preparations provide for (a) the continued or resumed opera­
tions of banking institutions, including the recreation of evidence
(records) of assets destroyed by enemy actions; (b) liquidity
necessary for continued banking operations; (c) the regulation
of money and credit in accordance with the needs of the
economy; (d) the acquisition, decentralized storage, and post­
attack distribution of emergency supplies of currency; (e) the
regulation of currency withdrawals and credit transfers; (f) the
collection of cash items and noncash items; (g ) the conduct of
fiscal agency and foreign exchange operations; and (h) the as­
sumption and discharge of liability pertaining to insured deposits
in destroyed or insolvent banking institutions.
The Executive Order also makes the Federal bank supervisory
agencies responsible for providing guidance to banking institu­
tions on the protection of banking facilities, personnel, and records ;
for stim ulating bank preparedness for all types of disaster; and
for m aintaining a capability to estim ate the effects of an attack
or other disaster on the banking system .
2 . The Secretary of the Treasury has:
a. Delegated to the Board of Governors of the Federal
Reserve System, effective in the event of an attack on
the United States, “. . . authority and power to take
such action consistent with regulations issued by the
Secretary . . . as may be necessary to maintain, regu­
1 Executive Order 11490, Assigning Emergency Preparedness Functions to Federal D epart­
ments and Agencies, October 30, 1969. See Appendix 1 of this booklet for pertinent excerpts.


late, limit, or suspend the operation and functioning of
any banking institutions.''2
b. Issued Treasury's Em ergency Regulation No. 1, effec­
tive in the event of an attack on the United States, re­
quiring banks to remain open, authorizing banking
institutions to make loans to one another w ithout
regard to normal restrictions, and lim iting w ithdraw als
of cash, transfers of bank balances, and extensions of
credit to amounts needed for specific essential
c. Issued instructions and delegated authority to Federal
Reserve Banks for the conduct of fiscal agency fu n c ­
tions in a postattack emergency.
d. Drafted authorizing legislation and prepared F isca l
Service Em ergency Regulation No. 1 setting forth the
terms and conditions for providing relief to the ow n ers
of U.S. securities destroyed or made inaccessible a s a
result of an attack.
The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System has
issued its Em ergency Regulations, effective in the event o f an
attack on the United States, requiring Federal Reserve B ank s to
remain open and continue functioning at their regular or a lter­
nate offices, and authorizing Federal Reserve Banks to:
a. A ct for other Federal Reserve Banks.
b. Regulate the distribution of available supplies of cu r­
rency and coin.
c. D esignate em ergency Cash and Check A gents.
d. Prescribe em ergency rules to facilitate the collection of
checks, including those drawn on destroyed banks.
e. Make credit available to both member and nonm ember
banks, and to individuals, partnerships, and corpora­
tions when credit for essential purposes is not oth er­
w ise available on reasonable terms.
f. Purchase and sell U.S. securities on their own accounts.
g. Purchase and sell due bills and pledge such bills as
collateral for Federal Reserve notes.
h. Raise or lower reserve requirements and extend such
requirements to nonmember banks.
i. Take such actions as fiscal agents of the United S ta tes as
authorized by the Secretary of the Treasury.
The Board's Emergency Regulations also authorize the p r e s i­
dent or officer in charge of a Federal Reserve Bank and a Federal
Reserve A gent or an A ssistant Federal Reserve Agent, resp ec­
2 For a copy of this document see Emergency Circulars issued by Federal Reserve Banks to
all commercial banks.


tively, to make temporary appointments of officers and A cting
A ssistan t Federal Reserve Agents when necessary as a result of
an attack.
4 . A fte r providing the authorizations needed for the complete
decentralization of operations, the Board provided the Federal
Reserve Banks w ith “Guidelines on E m ergency Monetary
Policy,” designed to keep decentralized operations as uniform as
possible and thereby facilitate the resumption of centralized
direction when th at becomes practicable. The guidelines include
policies on discount administration and rates, purchase and sale
of Government securities, reserve requirements, selective credit
controls, and methods for dealing w ith problems of excess liquidity.
5. The Federal Open Market Committee has delegated author­
ity to Federal Reserve Banks and provided them w ith guidance
for conducting transactions in U.S. Government securities, pro­
viding the Treasury w ith adequate funds to finance emergency
needs, and facilitating the reactivation of open market opera­
tions as soon as possible. As a continuing readiness measure,
Federal Reserve Banks are supplied daily by the Federal Reserve
Bank of N ew York w ith duplicate records of its open market and
foreign exchange operations so that any or all Federal Reserve
Banks would be able to continue such operations in the event
activities at the Federal Reserve Bank of N ew York were tem ­
porarily suspended as a result of an attack.
6 . The Government's financial policies call for the develop­
ment of a plan for the indemnification or equitable sharing of
war losses as the most practicable means of m aintaining the
solvency of financial institutions and a “going concern” economy
following an attack. The groundwork for such a plan is con­
tained in the follow ing documents filed at secure locations for
use in an emergency:
a. 1951 H earings on War Dam age Corporation A ct of
1951, or W ar Disaster Act of 1951, U.S. Senate, Sub­
committee on Securities, Insurance and Banking, of
the Committee on Banking and Currency.
b. 1959 Federal Reserve Staff Study: Preattack Planning
for Postattack Financial and Economic Rehabilitation.
c. 1963 Treasury Staff Memorandum: W ar-Loss Sharing.
In 1969 a substantial contribution was made to this area of
planning by a study prepared by the Stanford Research Institute
on “Postwar Monetary Reform in Severely Damaged Economies
— Its Role in Recovery From Nuclear A ttack.”
7. In implementing the Government's policy for the m ainten­
ance of an adequate emergency supply of currency, a 2 years'


supply goal was established, based on an estim ate that 2 years
would elapse before the production of currency could be resum ed
if the Government’s single source of supply were to be destroyed
by enemy action. In order to reduce the risk of an attack on the
em ergency supply of currency, such supply is decentralized to
the vaults of the Federal Reserve Banks and branches and, in
some instances, to the vaults of the em ergency Cash A gen ts.
Federal Reserve Banks have issued em ergency circulars to
all banking institutions. These circulars are designed to provide
the banking system with the information and instructions needed
for the conduct of postattack banking operations. They include
inform ation on the Federal Reserve B ank’s plans for continued
operations, the control of currency and the use of em ergency
Cash Agents, the control of bank balances and credit tran sfers,
the collection of checks and the use of emergency Check A gen ts,
and the extension and control of credit. Each commercial bank
should make certain that the location of its set of em ergency
circulars is known to its executive officers and will be readily
available to them for use in an emergency.
For further information or assistance, please contact th e
E m ergency Planning Officer of the Federal Reserve Bank ser v in g
the area in which your bank is located.


Excerpts from Executive Order 11490
WHEREAS our n t o a s c r t i dependent upon our a i i y t a s r
ainl euiy s
blt o s u e
c n i u t o government, a every l v l i any n t o a emergency t
otniy f
ee, n
s t a i n t a might c n e v b y c nfront t e Nation; and
iuto h t
ocial o
WHEREAS e f c i e n t o a preparedness planning t meet such an
fetv a i n l
emergency, i c u i g a massive nuclear a t c , i e s n i l t our n t o a
tak s seta o
s r i a ; and
WHEREAS e f c i e n t o a preparedness planning r q i e t e i e t f c ­
fetv a i n l
e u r s h dniia
t o o f n t o s t a would have t be performed during such an emergency,
in f u c i n h t
t e assignment o r s o s b l t f r developing plans f r performing t e e
f epniiiy o
f n t o s and t e assignment o r s o s b l t f r develo i g t e c p b l t
f epniiiy o
p n h aaiiy
t implement t o e plans;and
WHEREAS t e Congress has d r c e t e development o such n t o a
ietd h
emergency preparedness plans and has provided funds f r t e accomplishment
o h
t e e f and
WHEREAS t i n t o a emergency preparedness planning a t v t has
hs a i n l
been an e t b i h d program o t e United S a e Government f r more than
f h
20 years:
NOW, THEREFORE, by v r u o t e au h r t v s e i me a P e i e t
ite f h toiy etd n
s rsdn
o t e United S a e , and pursuant t Reorganization Plan No. 1 o 1958 ( 2
f h
S a . 1 9 ) t e National S c r t Act o 1 4 , a amended, t e Defense
tt 7 9 , h
f 97 s
Production Act o 1 5 , a amended, and t e Federal C v l Defense A t a
f 90 s
c, s
amended, i i hereby ordered a f l o s
s olw—




S c i n 1 1 Purpose. This order c n o i a e t e assignment o emergency
e t o 0.
osldts h
preparedness f n t o s t vari u departments and a e c e h r t f r con­
ucin o
gnis eeooe
t i e i t e 2 Executive o d r and 2 Defense M b l z t o o d r l s e i
and n h 1
o i i a i n r e s itd n
s c i n 3015 o t i o d r Assignments have been adjusted t conform t
f hs r e .
changes i o g n z t o which have occurred subsequent t t e i s a c o
n raiain
o h sune f
t o e Executive o d r and Defense M b l z t o o d r .
o i i a i n res
S c i n 102 .S o e ( ) This order i concerned with t e emergency na­
cp, a
t o a planning and preparedness f n t o s o t e s v r l departments and
ucin f h eea
a e c e o t e Federal Government which complement t e m l t r r a i e s
gnis f h
h iiay edns
planning r s o s b l t e o t e Department o Defense; t g t e , t e e mea­
epniiiis f h
oehr hs
s r s p o ide t e b s c foundation f r our o e a l n t o a preparedness
ue r v
h ai
vrl a inl
p s u e and are fundamental t our a i i yt s r i e
blt o u v v .
( ) The departments and a e c e o t e Federal Government are hereby
gnis f h
s v r l y charged with t e duty o assuring t e c n i u t o t e Federal
h otniy f h
Government i any n t o a emergency type s t a i n t a might c n r n
iuto h t
t e N t o . To t i e d each department and agency with e s n i l f n t o s
h ain
hs n ,
seta ucin,
whether e p e s y i e t f e i t i order o n t s a l d v l p such p a s and
x r s l dniid n hs
r o, hl e e o
t k such a t o s i c u i g but n t l m t d t t o e s e i i d i t i order a
cin, n l d n
o i i e o h s pcfe n hs

may be necessary t assure t a i w l be a l t perform is e s n i l func­
h t t il
be o
t seta
t o s and c n i u a a v a l p r o t e Federal Government, during any
o t n e s ibe a t f h
emergency t a might c n e v b y o c r These i c u e p a s f r maintaining
o c i a l cu.
nld ln o
t e c n i u t o e s n i l f n t o s o t e department o agency a t e s a
h o t n i y f seta u c i n f h
t h et
o Government and e s w e e through programs concerned w t : ( ) s c e ­
ih 1 ucs
s o t ofc; ( ) p e e e a i n o emergency a t o i y ( ) safekeeping o
i n o fie 2 r d l g t o f
uhrt; 3
e s n i l r c r s ( ) emergency r l c t o s t s supported by communica­
seta e o d ; 4
e o a i n ie
t o s and r q i e s r i e ; ( ) emergency a t o s e s ( ) a t r a e head­
e u r d evcs 5
cin tp; 6 lent
uarters o command f c l t e ; and ( ) p o e t o o Government r s u c s
7 rtcin f
fc l t e , and p r o n l The c n i u t o Government a t v t e undertaken
ai i i s
otniy f
by t e departments and a e c e s a l be i accordance with guidance pro­
g n i s hl
v e b , and s b e t t e a u t o b , t e D r c o o t e O f c o Emer­
id d y
u j c o v l a i n y h i e t r f h fie f
gency Preparedness.
( ) I a d t o t t e a t v t e i d c t d a o e t e heads o departments
n d i i n o h ciiis n i a e b v , h
and ag n i s d s r b d i p r s 2 through 2 o t i ord r s a l ( ) prepare
ece ecie n at
9 f hs e hl: 1
n t o a emergency p a s d v l p preparedness programs, and a t i an
ln, e e o
appropriate s a e o r a i e s with r s e t t t e f n t o s a s
tt f e dns
e p c o h u c i n s igned t them
i t i order f r al c n i i n o n t o a emergency; ( ) g v appropriate
n hs
o l odtos f ainl
c n i e a i n t emergency preparedness f c o s i t e conduct o t e regular
osdrto o
atr n h
f h
f n tos o ter aece, priual toe fn t o s c n i e e esnil
u cin f hi gnis atclry hs uc i n o s d r d seta
i time o emergency; and ( ) be prepared t implement, i t e event o an
n h
emergency, alappropriate p a s developed under t i o d r
hs re.
S c i n 1 3 P e i e t a A s s a c . The D r c o o t e O f c o Emer­
e t o 0. r s d n i l s i t n e
i e t r f h fie f
gency Preparedness, i accordance with t e p o i i n o Executive Order
h rvsos f
No. 11051 o September 2 , 1 6 , s a l a v s and a s s t e President i
7 9 2 hl d i e
sit h
determining n t o a preparedness g a s and p l c e f r t e performance
oiis o h
o f n t o s under t i ord r and i coor i a i g t e performance of such
f ucin
hs e
dntn h
f n t o s with t e t t ln t o a preparedness program.
h oa a i n l
S c i n 1 4 General and S e i i F n t o s The f n t o s assigned by
e t o 0.
pcfc u c i n .
p 3 , General P o i i n , apply t al departments and a e c e having
art 0
o l
emergency preparedness r s o s b l t e . S e i i f n t o s a e assigned t
epniiiis pcfc u c i n r
departments and a e c e cov r d i p r s 2 through 2 .
gnis ee n at
S c i n 1 5 C n t u t o . The purpose and l g l e f c o t e assignments
e t o 0. o s r c i n
e a fet f h
c ntained i t i order do not c n t t t a t o i y t implement t e emer­
n hs
osiue u h r t o
gency pl n prepared pursuant t t i o d r Plans s d v l p d may be
o hs re.
o eeoe
e f c u t d o ly i t e eve t t a a t o i y f r such e f c u t o i provided
fetae n n h
n ht uhrt o
fetain s
by a law enacted by t e Congress o by an o de o d r c i e i s e by t
r r r ietv sud
P e i e t pursuant t s a u e o t e C n t t t o o t e United S a e .
o ttts r h o s iuin f h




S c i n 1 0 . F n n i l Plans and Programs. The Board o Governors o
eto 71 i a c a
t e Federal Reserve System, t e Comptroller o t e Currency, t e Federal
f h
Home Loan Bank Board, t e Farm C e i Admin s r t o , and t e Federal
eposit Insurance Corporation s a l p r i i a e with t e O f c o Emergency
hl a t c p t
h fie f
reparedness, t e Department o t e Treasury, and o h r a e c e i the
f h
te gnis n
formulation o emergency f n n i l and s a i i a i n p l c e . The heads o
t b l z t o oiis
such a e c e s a l a a p o r a e d v l p emergency p a s programs, and
g n i s hl, s p r p i t , e e o
r g l t o s i consonance with n t o a emergency f n n i l and s a i i a i n
euain, n
p ans and p l c e , t cope with p t n i l economic e f c s o m b l z t o o
oiis o
fet f o i i a i n r
an a t c , i c u i g but n t l m t d t,t e following:
tak nldn,
o iie o h

(1 ) Money and c e i . P o i i n and r g l t o o money and c e i i
rdt r v s o
euain f
rdt n
accordance with t e needs o t e economy, i c u i g t e a q i i i n decen­
f h
n l d n h custo,
t a i a i n and d s r b t o o emergency s p l e o cur ency; t e c l e t o
itiuin f
upis f r
h olcin
o cash i
tems and noncash items;and t e conduct o fsa agency and f r i n
f icl
() F n
2 i ancial i s i u i n . P o i i n f r t e continue o resumed opera­
ntttos r v s o o h
d r
t o o banking, savings and l a , and farm c e i i s i u i n , i c u i g
in f
rdt ntttos n l d n
measures f r t e r - r a i n o e i e c o a s t o la i i i s d s r y d o
o h e c e t o f v d n e f s e s r ib l t e e t o e r
( ) L q i i y P o i i n o l q i i y necessary t t e c n inued o resumed
3 i u d t . r v s o f iudt
o h ot
o e a i n o banking, savings and l a , c e i u i n , and farm c e i i s i u
prto f
on rdt n o s
rdt ntt­
t o s i c u i g t o e damaged o d s royed by enemy a t o .
in, n l d n h s
r et
( ) Cash withdrawals and c e i t a s e s Regulation o t e withdrawal o
rdt rnfr.
f h
currency and t e tr n f r o c e i s i c u i g d p s t and s
a s e f rdt n l d n eoi
hare account
( ) I s r n e P o i i n f r t e assumption and di c a g o l a i i y
5 nuac. rvso o h
s h r e f iblt
p r a n n t i sured d p s t and ins r d savings accounts o withdrawable
etiig o n
s a e i banking and savings and l a i s i u i n d s r y d o made
hrs n
o n ntttos e t o e r
S c i n 1 0 . Sharing o War L s e . Heads o ag n i s s a l a appropri­
e t o 72
f e c e hl, s
a e p r i i a e with t e O f c o Emergency Preparedness and t e Depart­
t, a t c p t
h fie f
ment o t e Treasury i t e development o p l c e , p a s and procedures
f h
n h
f oiis l n ,
f r implementation o n t o a p l c on sharing war l s e .
f ainl oiy
* * *

S c i n 3 0 . Resource Management. I consonance with t e n t o a pre­
eto 01
h ainl
p r d e s s c r t , and m b l z t o r a i e s p a s programs, and opera­
a e n s , euiy
oiiain ed n s ln,
t o s o t e O f c o Emergency Preparedness under Executive Order No.
i n f h fie f
11051 o September 2 , 1 6 , and s b e t t t e p o i i n o t e p eceding
7 92
ujc o h rvsos f h r
p r s t e head o each department and agency s a l
at, h
( ) P i r t e and a l c t o s Develop systems f r t e emergency a p i a
1 roiis
o h
t o o p i r t e and a l c t o s t t e p o u t o , d s r b t o , and u o
in f roiis
loain o h r d c i n itiuin
se f
r s u c s f rwhich he has been assigned r s o s b l t .
eore o
( ) Requirements. Assemble, d v l p a a p o r a e and e a u t r q i e
eeo s prpit,
vlae eur­
ments f r a s g e r s u c s taking i t account estim t d needs f r m l ­
o s i n d eore,
o ii
t r , atomic e e g , c v l a , and f r i n p r o e . Such e a u t o s a l t k
n r y iiin
oeg upss
v l a i n hl a e
i t c n i e a i n geographical d s r b t o o requirements under emergency
no o s d r t o
itiuin f
( ) E a u t o . Assess assigned r s u c s i order t e t m t a a l b l t
3 vlain
eore n
o s i a e viaiiy
from al s u c s under an emergency s t a i n analyze r s u c a a l b l ­
l ore
e o r e viaii
t e i r l t o t estimated re u r m n s and d v l p appropriate recom­
is n e a i n o
mendations and programs, i c u i g t o e necessary f r t e maintenance o
nldn hs
o h
an adequate m b l z t o b s . Provide data and a s s a c b f r and a t r
oiiain ae
sitne eoe
a t c f r n t o a r s u c a a y i purposes o t e O f c o Emergency
tak o ainl eore nlss
f h fie f
P e a edness.
( ) Claimancy. Prepare plans t claim from t e appropriate agency sup­
p r i g m t r a s manpower, equipment, s p l e , and s r i e which would
otn aeil,
b needed t carry o t assigned r s o s b l t e and o h r e s n i l f n t o s
t e seta u c i n
o h s department o a ency, and co p r t with o h r a e c e i d v l p n
f i
r g
te gnis n eeoig
programs t i s r a a l b l t o such r s u c s i an emergency.
o n u e viaiiy f
eore n

S c i n 3 0 . F c l t e P o e t o and Warfare E f c s Monitoring and
e t o 0 2 aiiis r t c i n
R p r i g I consonance with t e n t o a prepare n s , s c r t , and mobili­
eotn. n
h ainl
d e s euiy
z t o r a i e s p a s programs, and o e a i n o t e O f c o Emergency
ain e d n s ln,
p r t o s f h fie f
Preparedness under Executive Order No. 1 0 1 and with t e n t o a c v l
h a i n l ii
defense p a s programs, and o e a i n o t e Department o Defense under
prtos f h
Executive Order No. 1 9 2 t e head o each department and agency s a l
05, h
( ) F c l t e p o e t o . Provide f c l t e p o e t o guidance material
aiiis r t c i n
aiiis r t c i n
adapted t t e needs o t e f c l t e and s r i e concerned and promote a
o h
f h aiiis
n t o a program t s i u a e d s s e preparedness and c n r l i order t
o tmlt iatr
oto n
minimize t e e f c s o o e t o c v r a t c on f c l t e o o h r resources
h fet f v r r o e t t a k
aiiis r t e
f r which he has management r s o s b l t . Guidance s a l i c u e but not
hl n ld,
be l m t d t, o g n z t o and t a n n o f c l t e p o e s personnel
iie o r a i a i n
r i i g f aiiy m l y e ,
s e t r evacuation p a s r c r s p o e t o , c n i u t o management, emer­
ln, e o d rtcin o tniy f
gency r p i , d s e s l o fc l t e , and mutual a d a s c a i n f an
e a r i p r a f ai i i s
i s o i t o s or
( ) Warfare e f c s monitoring and r p r i g Maintain a c p b l t , both
a n t o a and fed l v l , t es i a e t e e f c s o a t c on assigned re­
t ainl
il e e s o t m t h f e t f t a k
s u c s and t c l a o a e with and prov d data t t e O f c o Emergency
o olbrt
o h fie f
Preparedness, t e Department o Defe s , and o h r a e c e , a appropriate,
t e gnis s
i v r f i g and updating e t m t s o r s u c s a u through exchanges o
n eiyn
siae f eore tts
data and mutual a s s a c , and p
rovide f r t e d t c i n i e t f c t o ,
o h eeto, dniiain
mo o i g and repor i g o such warfare e f c s a s l c e f c l t e under
nit r n ,
tn f
fet t e e t d aiiis
h so e a i n o c n r l
i p r t o r oto.
( ) Salvage and r h b l t t o . Develop p a s f r s l a e decontamina­
l n o avg,
t o and r h b l t t o o f c l t e i v l i g r s u c s under h s j r s i t o .
e a i i a i n f aiiis n o v n e o r e
i uidcin
( ) S e t r In conformity with n t o a s e t r p l c , where authorized
4 hle.
a i n l h l e oiy
t engage i b i d n c n t u t o , p a , d s g , and c n t u t such buildings
n ul i g osrcin ln ein
t p o e t t e p b i t t e maximum e t n f a i l a ainst t e hazards
o rtc h ulc o h
x e t esbe g
t a c u d r s l from an a t c upon t e United S a e with nuclear wea­
h t o l eut
p ns; and where empowered t extend Federal f n n i l a s s a c , encourage
iaca sitne
r c p e t o such f n n i l a s s a c t use standards f r planning design
eiins f
iaca s i t n e o
and c n t u t o which w l maximize p o e t o f r t e p b i .
r t c i n o h ulc



S c i n 3 0 . Research. Within t e framework o r s a c p l c e and
eto 04
f e e r h oiis
o j c i e e t b i h d by t e O f c o Emergency Preparedness, t e head o
betvs salse
h fie f
each department and agency s a l s p r i e o conduct rese r h i areas
hl u e v s r
ac n
d r c l concerned with carrying o t emergency preparedness r s o s b l t e ,
d s g a e r p e e t t v s f r necessary ad hoc o t s f r e g o p , and
eint ersnaie o
r ak oc rus
r vide a v c and a s s a c t o h r a e c e i planning f r r
sitne o te gnis n
o esearch i
ar i v l i g each agency’ i t r s .
eas n o v n
s neet
S c i n 3 0 . D r c Economic C n r l . The head o each department
eto 06 iet
and agency s a l c o e a e with t e O f c o Emergency Preparedness and
hl o p r t
h fie f
t e Federal f n n i l a e c e i t e development o emergency preparedness
iaca g n i s n h
measures i v l i g emergency f n n i l and c e i measures, a w l a p i e
s el s rc,
r n ,wage and s l r s a i i a i n and consumer r t o i g programs.
a a y tblzto,
S c i n 3 0 . Fi a c a A d The head o each department and agency s a l
eto 07 nnil i.
d v l p plans and procedures i c o e a i n with t e Federal f n n i l
n oprto
a e c e f r f n n i l and c e i a s s a c t t o e segments o t e private
g n i s o iaca
rdt s i t n e o h s
f h

s c o f r which he i r s o s b e i t e ev n such a s s a c i needed
etr o
s epnil n h
sitne s
under emergency c n i i n .
S c i n 3 0 . Functional Guidance. The head o each department and
eto 08
agency i carrying o t t e f n t o s assigned t him by t i o d r s a l b
u h ucin
hs re, hl e
guided by t e following:
( ) National program g i a c . In consonance with t e n t o a prepared­
h ainl
n s , s c r t , and m b l z t o r a i e s p a s programs, and o e a i n o
es euiy
oi i a i n e d n s ln,
prtos f
t e O f c o Emergency Preparedness under Executive Order No. 1 0 1 and
h fie f
with t e n t o a cvl defe s p a s programs, and o e a i n o t e Depart­
h a i n l ii
n e ln,
prtos f h
ment o D f
f e ense, t c n c l guidance s a l be provided t S a e and l c l
o tt
governments and i s r m n a i i s t e e f t t e end t a al planning con­
n t u e t l t e hro, o h
ht l
c r e with f n t o s assigned h r i w l be e f c i e y c o d n t d Rela­
e e n il
fetvl o r i a e .
t o s with t e appropriate segment o t e p i a e s c o s a l be maintained
f h r v t e t r hl
t f s e mutual understanding o Federal emergency p a s
o otr
( ) Interagency c o d n t o . Emergency preparedness f n t o s s a l b
u c i n hl e
c o d n t d by t e head o t e department o agency having primary respon­
f h
s b l t with al o h r departments and a e c e having supporting f n t o s
l te
r l t dt e e o
eae hrt.
( ) Emergency p eparedness. Emergency p a s programs, and an appro­
p i t s ae o r a i e s i c u i g o g n z t o a r a i e s sal b d v l
r a e tt f e d n s , n l d n r a i a i n l e d n s , hl e e e ­
oped a an i t g a part o t e continuing a t v t e o each department o
f h
ciiis f
agency on t e b s s t a t a department o agency w l have t e respon­
h ai ht ht
s b l t f r carrying ou such p ans and programs during an emergency. The
iiiy o
head o each department o agency s a l be prepared t implement al
approp iate p ans developed under t i o d r M d f c t o s and temporary
hs re. o i i a i n
o g n z t o a changes, based on emergency c n i i n , s a l be i accordance
odtos hl
with p l c determinations by t e P e i e t
h rsdn.
( ) P o e s o a l a s n Mutual understanding and support o emergency
4 r f s i n l iio.
preparedness a t v t e s a l be f s e e , and t e National Defense Executive
ciiis hl
Reserve s a l be promoted by maintaining r l t o s with t e a propriate
h p
nongovernmental s c o s
S c i n 3 0 . T a n n . The head o each department and agency s a l
eto 09 r i i g
d v l p and d r c t a n n programs which i c r o a e emergency prepared­
iet r i i g
n s and cvl defense t a n n and information programs n cessary t i s r
o nue
t e optimum o e a i n l e f c i e e s o a signed r s u c s s s e s and
p r t o a fetvns f s
eore, ytm,
f clte.
a iiis
S c i n 3 1 . Emergency P b i Inform t o . In consonance with such
eto 00
emergency p b i information pl n and c n r l program d c s o s o t e
eiin f h
O f c o Emergency Preparedness, and with p a s programs, and procedures
fie f
e t b i h d by t e Department o Defense t pro i e c n i u t o program­
o vd otniy f
i g f r t e Emergency Broadcast System, t e head o each department and
n o h
agency s a l
( ) Obtain and pr
ovide information a t t e emergency f n t o s o
s o h
ucin r
assignments o t e i d v d a department o agency f r d s e i a i n t t e
f h niiul
o ismnto o h
American p o l during t e emergency, i accordance with arrangements
made by t e O f c o Emergency Preparedness.
h fie f
( ) Determine requirements and arrange f r p ereco d n s t p o i e con­
o r
rig o rvd
t n i y o program s r i e over t e Emergency Broadcast System s t a t e
iut f
o ht h
American p o l can r c i e i f r a i n a v c , and guidance p r a n n t
eev n o m t o , die
etiig o
t e implementation o t e cvl d fense and emergency preparedness p a s o
f h ii e
ln r
assignments o each i d v d a department o age c .
r ny

S c i n 3 1 . Emergency A t o s This o der d e n t con e authority t
eto 01
os o
put i t e f c any emergency p a , p o e u e p l c , program, o course o
n o fet
l n r c d r , oiy
a t o prepared o d v
r e eloped pursuant t t i o d r Plans s developed may
o hs r e .
b e f c u t d on y i t e event t a a t o i y f r such e f c u t o i pro­
e fetae l n h
ht uhrt o
fetain s
v d d by a law enacted by t e Congress o by an o d r o d r c i e i s e by
r e r ietv s u d
t e Presi e t pursuant t s a u e o t e C n t t t o o t e United S a e .
o ttts r h osiuin f h
S c i n 3 1 . R d l g t o . The head o each department and agency i
eto 02 eeeain
hereby auth r z d t r d l g t t e f n t o s assigned t him by t i o d r
oie o eeeae h ucin
hs re ,
and t a t o i e s c e s v r d l g t o s t a e c e o i s r m n a i i s o
o uhrz ucsie eeeain o gnis r ntuetlte f
t e United S a e , and t o f c r and employees o t e United S a e .
o fies
f h
S c i n 3 1 . Transfer o F n t o s Any emergency preparedness func­
eto 03
f ucin.
t o under t i o d r o p r s t e e f may be t a s e r d from one depart­
hs r e , r a t hro,
ment o agency t another with t e c nsent o t e heads o t e o g n z t o s
h o
f h
f h raiain
i v l e and with t e concurrence o t e D r c o o t e O f c o Emergency
f h i e t r f h fie f
Preparedness. Any new emergency preparedness f n t o may b assigned t
t e head o a department o agency by t e D r c o o t e O f c o Emergency
h i e t r f h fie f
Preparedness by mutual c n e t
* * *
T h e W h it e H o u se,
O c t o b e r 2 8, 1 96 9.

R ich ard N ix o n .

[F.R. Doc. 69-13005; filed, Oct. 28, 1969; 2:19 p.m.]



I i suggested t a frt a d k t be maintained i a t r a e b s n s
t s
h t is i i s
n lent uies
ofcs f l o t s e t r , r l c t o s ts r c r stor g c n e s o o h r p a e
fie, a l u h l e s e o a i n i e, e o d
a e etr, r t e lcs
i which t e bank's employees and/or c i n s may take refuge during an
emergency. The k t sh u d be properly s o k d with frt a d s p l e ,
is o l
is i u p i s
s r t h r , and b a k t . A suggested ls o such s p l e i given b l w and
it f
upis s
i s o l be noted t a t e small frt a d k t s l f r use i automobiles a e
t hud
ht h
is i i s o d o
i s f i i n f r t e t pes o c s a t e t a may be expe t d i a n c e r
nufcet o h y
f aulis h t
ce n
A l s p l e and equipment sho l be under t e s p r i i n o t e c i f
l upis
h u e v s o f h he,
c s a t s r i e . I t e event s p l e ar used f r any reason during peace­
a u l y evcs n h
upis e
t m , they s ould be r p a e i mediately. The ls, a n t d i f r 1 0 per­
elcd m
it s o e , s o 0
s n with an estimated c s a t r t o 20 p r e t Addi i n l s p l e s o l
auly ae f
toa upis hud
b added i proportion t t e t t l number o employees o because o s e i l
o h oa
f pca
c n i i n t a might i d c t a higher percentage o employees who might
odtos ht
become c s a t e . Prorating downward, however, i no recommended; t e
s t
ls s o l be c n i e e a minimum.
it h u d


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D e s n , frt a d l r e (pad 1 " square)
r s i g is i , a g
D e s n , frt a d medium (pad 7 4" x 8")___________ 6
r s i g is i ,
D e s n , frt a d s a l (pad 4"x7")______________
r s i g is i , m l
P n i , l a , medium, with e a e
ecl ed
P n , s f t , l r e 12 s
is aey ag,
P a t r a h s v , s r i a , 3 x 5 yards__
lse, d e i e ugcl "
Pouch, c n a , with carrying s r p o s i c s c n a n r
ta r utaeo t i e
1 fr
each frt a d r
is i e
S a , hand
S i s r , bandage, L s e
S l n s basswood, s z 2 (&" x 4 x 18")
S r t h r ________________________________ 4
T u n q e , web, with b c l , %" t 1 wide x 3 "
o "
2 long
Standard t p s o Army s r t h r , l t e c t , o f e i l s r t h r a e
ye f
t e c e s itr os r l x b e t e c e s r
recommended. Another type o f e i l s r t h r can be r a i y made from 1
f lxbe t e c e
ounce c n a , 2 f e by IV 2 f e webbing r i f r e throughout with handavs
l o s a s d s and a e d . Exits o a b i d n , a w l a s a r e l , s o l
op t ie
t ns
f u l i g s e l s tiwls h u d
b surveyed b f r any p r i u a type o s r t h r i s l c e . E e a o s
f t e c e s eetd l v t r ,
s a r , and d o s i many b i d n s w l n t accommodate t e standard 22 " x
or n
u l i g il o
9 "srthr
0 tece.
In such c s s use o f e i l s r t h r may be n c s a y I some i s a c s
f lxbe t e c e s
eesr. n
a c a r carry o o h r type o improvised s r t h r may be r q i e . Do n t
r te
plan on t e use o e e a o s i an emergency because o t e p s i i i y o a
f lvtr n
f h osblt f
power f i u e


The f l o i g sample bylaws and r s l t o s ar examples o t o e needed
eouin e
f hs
t ensure c n i u t o management and banking o e a i n . I i contem­
otniy f
prtos t s
p a e t a they w l be used only a g i t be m d f e by t e bank's
ltd ht
s u des o
a t r e s and management t s t s y t e circumstances under which t e
o aif h
p r i u a bank may be o e a i g
S am p le B ylaw to Provide for Emergency Operations
by Surviving Staff

n h
h r
Sec i n
t o _____ I t e event o an emergency d c a e by t e P esident o
t e United S a e o t e person performing h s f n t o s t e o f c r and
tts r h
i u c i n , h fies
employees o t i bank w l continue t conduct t e a f i s o t e bank under
f hs
h far f h
such guidance from t e d r c o s a may be a a l b e e c p a t matters
h ietr s
vial xet s o
which by s a u e r q i e s e i i approval o t e board o d r c o s and
t t t e u r pcfc
f h
f ietr
s b e t t conformance with any governmental d r c i e during t e emer­
ujc o
S am ple Bylaw to Provide for Emergency Operations
through Executive Committee Action

S c i n 1 . The board o d r c o s s a l have t e power, i t e absence or
f ietr hl
n h
d s b l t o any ofcr o upon t e r f s l o any o f c r t a t t d l g t
iaiiy f
fie, r
h eua f
fie o c , o e e a e
and p e c i e such o f c rs powers and d t e t any o h r ofcr o t any
uis o
t e fi e , r o
d r c o ,f r t e time b i g
ietr o h
S c i n 2 .In t e event o a s a e o d s s e o s f i i n s v r t t prevent
f t t f i a t r f ufcet e e i y o
t e conduct and management o t e a f i s and b s n s o t i bank by i s
f h far
u i e s f hs
d r c o s and o f c r a contemplated by t e e Bylaws, any two o more
fies s
a a l b e members o t e then incumbent e e u i e committee s a l c n t t t
f h
hl o s i u e
a quorum o t a committee f r t e f l conduct and management o the
f ht
o h ul
a f i s and b s n s o t e bank i accordance with t e p o i i n o A t c e
uies f h
h rvsos f ril
o t e e Bylaws; and i a d t o , such committee s a l be empowered
f hs
n diin
t e e c s al o t e powers re e v d t t e t u t committee under A t c e
o xrie l f h
s r e o h rs
h r o . In t e e ent o t e u a a l b l t , a such t m , o a minimum
h v
f h nviaiiy t
ie f
o two members o t e then incumbent e e u i e c m
f h
x c t v o mittee, any t r e a a l
he vi­
a l d r c o s s a l c n t t t t e e e u i e committee f r t e f l conduct
b e i e t r hl o s i u e h x c t v
o h ul
and management o t e a f i s and b s n s o t e bank i accordance with
f h far
uies f h
t e foregoing p o i i n o t i s c i n This Bylaw s a l be s b e t t im­
r v s o s f hs eto.
ujc o
plementation by r s l t o s o t e board o d r c o s passed from time t
eouin f h
f ietr
time f r t a p r o e and any p o i i n o t e e Bylaws ( t e than t i
o ht ups,
rvsos f hs
s c i n and any r s l t o s which are contrary t t e p o i i n o t i
o h r v s o s f hs
s c i n o t t e p o i i n o any such implementary r s l t o s s a l be
eto r o h rvsos f
e o u i n hl
suspended u t l i s a l be determined by any in e i e e u i e committee
ni t hl
trm xctv
a t n under t i s c i n t a i s a l be t t e advantage o t i bank t
hs e t o h t t hl
o h
f hs
resume t e conduct and management o is a f i s and b s n s under al o
f t far
l f
t e o h r p o i i n o t e e Bylaws.
h te rvsos f hs



S am p le Resolution to Provide Officer Succession

BE IT RESOLVED, t a i consequent upon war o w rlike damage o
ht f
r a
d s s e , t e p e i e t o t i bank cannot be l c t d by t e then a t n Head
iatr h r s d n f hs
O f c o i unable t assume o t co t n e normal e e u i e d t e , then t e
fie r s
r o niu
x c t v uis
a t o i y and d t e o t e p e i e t s a l without furt e a t o o t e
u i s f h r s d n hl,
hr cin f h
board o d r c o s be automat c l y assumed by one o t e f l o i g persons
f ietr,
f h olwn
i t e order designated:
n h

Any one o t e above persons who i accordance with t i r s l t o as­
f h
hs e o u i n
sumes t e aut o i y and d t e o t e p e i e t s a l co t n e t s r e u t l
u i s f h r s d n hl n i u o e v ni
he r s g s o u t l f v - i t s o t e o h r o f c r who a atta h d t t e
e i n r n i i e s x h f h t e fies
ce o h
then a t n Head O f c d c d i writing he i unable t perform s i d t e
fie e i e n
ad uis
o u t l t e e e t d p e i e t o t i bank, o a person higher on t e above
r ni h lce r s d n f hs
ls,s a lbecome a a l b et perform t e d t e o p e i e t o t e bank.1
it h l
vial o
h uis f rsdn f h
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, t a i consequent upon war o warl k
ht f
damage o d s s e , t e c s i r o t i bank cannot be l c t d by t e then
r iatr h a h e f hs
a t n Head O f c o i unable t assume o t cont n e normal e e u i e
fie r s
r o
d t e , then t e a t o i y and d t e o t e c s i r s a l without f r h r
h uhrt
u i s f h a h e hl,
a t o by t e board o d r c o s be automat c l y assumed by one o t e
f ietr,
f h
f l o i g persons i t e order designated:
n h

The person assuming t e a t o i y and d t e o c s i r i accordance
h uhrt
uis f ahe n
with t i r s l t o s a l s r e u t l
hs e o u i n hl e v n i :
( ) The e e t d c s i r o person whose name i higher on t e above ls
lce a h e r
s a lbe a l t f n t o a c s i r o
b e o u c i n s ahe, r
( ) U t l he r s g s o i unable as determined by t e a t n p e i e t t
b ni
ein r s
h cig rsdn o
perform t e d t e o h s ofc.
h u i s f i fie
I t e c s o ( ) t e next e i i l and a a l b e person on t e
n h a e f b, h
h abovels
s a lassume t eautho i y and d t e o t e c s i r
uis f h ahe.
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, t a anyone d a i g with t i bank may
a c p a c r i i a i n by any t r e o f c r t a a s e i i d i d v d a i a t n
c e t etfcto
h e fies h t p c f e n i i u l s c i g
a p e i e t o t a a s e i i d i d v d a i a t n a c s i r i accordance
s r s d n r h t pcfe n i i u l s c i g s a h e n
with t i r s l t o ; and t a anyone a c
hs e o u i n
c epting such c r i i a i n may con­
t n e t c n i e i i f r e u t l n t f e i writing o a cha g , s i n t c
i u o o s d r t n o c ni oiid n
n e ad oie
o change t carry t e s g a u e o t r e o f c r o t e bank.2
h i n t r s f h e fies f h
N O T E 1. The provision for replacing the acting president is suggested because of the possi­
bility that an individual m ight be so seriously impaired by physical or mental shock as to be
incapable of fulfilling the duties required of him. Presumably the only group that could sense
this situation and would be available would be the other officers who are on duty a t the acting
Head Office. The fraction five-sixths has been used so that such removal could not be made
lightly. Some banks may prefer a different fraction; some may wish to spell out more specifically
which officers can enter into making such a removal decision.
N O T E 2. The provision that anyone dealing with the bank may accept a certification by any
three officers is included as a protective measure for customers. Otherwise, there m ight be
difficulty in the acting president or acting cashier having his authority recognized by outsiders.


S am p le Bylaw to Provide for Alternate Locations

Section_____ The ofcs o t e bank a which is b s n s s a l be con­
fie f h
t u i e s hl
ducted s a l be t e main ofc t e e f l c t d a ............. ..
fie h r o o a e t
S r e , ________ ,_____ (and b a c e , i a y , and any o h r l g l y
rnhs f n)
te eal
a t orized l c t o which may be l a e o acqui e by t i bank t carry on
esd r
is b s n s . During an emergency r s l i g i any a t o i e p a e o
t uies
eutn n
uhrzd lc f
b s n s o t i bank being unable t f n t o , t e b s n s o d n r l con­
u i e s f hs
o ucin h ui e s riaiy
ucted a such l c t o s a l b r l c t d elsewhere i s i a l q a t r , i
o a i n hl e e o a e
n utbe ures n
a d t o t o i l e o t e l c t o s h r t f r mentioned, a may be de­
d i i n o r n iu f h o a i n e e o o e
s g a e by t e board o d r c o s o by t e e e u i e committee o by such
f ietr r
h xctv
persons a are t e , i accordance with r s l t o s adopted from time t
hn n
time by t e board o d r c o s d a i g with t e e e c s o a t o i y i t
f ietr e l n
h x r i e f u h r t n he
time o such emergency, conducting t e a f i s o t i b
h f a r f h s ank. Any temporarily
r l c t d p a e o b s n s o t i bank s a l be returned t is l g l y au­
e o a e l c f u i e s f hs
o t eal
t o i e l c t o a soon a p a t c b e and such temporary p a e o business
hrzd oain s
s rcial
lc f
s a lthen be d s o t n e .
Sam ple Resolution to Provide for Acting Head Offices

BE IT RESOLVED, t a i c s o and provided because o war o warlike
ht n ae f
damage o d s s e , t e
r iatr h
O f c o t i bank i unable tem­
fie f h s
p r r l t co t n e is f n t o s ..
oaiy o n i u t ucin,
Branch, l c t d i .....
oae n
,s a l automat c l y and without f r h r a t o o t i board o d r c
u t e c i n f hs
f ie­
t r ,become t e “Acting Head O f c o t i Bank”;
fie f h s
BE IT FURTHER RESOLVED, t a i by reason o s i war o warlike
ht f
f ad
damage o d s s e , both t e __..... . O f c o t i bank and t e s i
r iatr
fie f h s
h ad
..... Branch o t i bank ar unable t carry on t e r f n t o s then
f hs
hi ucin,
and i such c s , t e ...
ae h
Branch o t i bank, l c t d in..... ,
f hs
s a l without further a t o o t i board o d r c o s become t e “
c i n f hs
f ietr,
h Acting
Head O f c o t i Bank”;and i neither
fie f h s
.... Branchnor. ... .
Branch can carry on t e r f n t o s then t e _ __ _ Branch o t i
hi ucin,
h _
f hs
ank, l c t d i ..
oae n
. s a l without furt e a t o o t i board of
. hl,
h r c i n f hs
d r c o s become t e “Acting Head O f c o t i Bank.” The Head O f c
fie f h s
s a l resume is f n t o s a is l g l y auth r z d l c t o a s
t u c i n t t eal
o i e o a i n s oon as



Emphasis i p a e on t e f c t a t e ls o r c r s and r l t v c a s f ­
s lcd
h a t h t h it f e o d
e a i e lsii
c t o s shown i t i s c i n i f r t e purpose o providing a b s c g i e
n hs eto s o h
ai ud.
I i r c g i e t a some banks may wish t modify t e l s e ite s and/or
t s eonzd ht
h itd m
c a s f c t o s assigned i order t e f c more s i a l acc r with t e r own
o fet
utbe o d
p r i u a o e a i n , form nomenclature, and o h r circumstances which
atclr prtos
vary from bank t bank.

E Esnil
— seta

Those r c r s which are necessary t e t b i h and support
o sals
t e a s t and l a i i y p s t o o t e bank and account r l ­
h se
iblt o i i n f h
t o s i s with c s o e s
D D s r b e Records which a e secondary i nature but which c n a n
— eial
important d t i s o t a s c i n o which w l g e t y f c l ­
eal f r n a t o s r
i l r a l aii
t t t e t sk o r c n t u t o .
ae h a f eosrcin

E E s n i l D Des r b e
— seta — ial
Tax r c r s ( e u n , t .
e o d rtrsec)
Vault combinations_ __


Accrual r c r s income and
... .
Audit working papers __ ___
uditors and examiners reports.
Bank c l repo t
r s ... ....
Bank r c l m n s due t .
econ i e e t —
— due fromBu l i g tenant ledger.... .
Brokers statements
( e o c l m n s — current_
Earnings and d v d n s r p r s .
i i e d eot.
Monthly lsso outstanding
it f
ofca checks
..... ..
Monthly r p r s t o f c r and
e o t o fies
d r c o s ............
Reports t e e u i e committees.
o xctv
Safekeeping statements
(due from— r c n i e e t )
— cur
rent .... ...... ..





Ledger ....
Postings ( e i s and c e i s
In process
Signature c rds .
Statement sheets.... ... .
T i l balance and j u n l
— current..
— ohr .
Stop payment orders......



D Brokers c n i m t o s ....
D Brokers statements ..
Delivery r c i t ........
General l d e .....
E I v i e ....



R c i t ..
Disbursements ...
Purchases and sales __
Pledge agreements _____
S c r t e ledger_____



Ledger ....
In process ....
Recorded _
T i l balances— current ...




C l e t o payment records
C l e t o r g s e ..
olcin eitr
Incoming c l e t o l t e s .
olcin etr
Items pla e f r c l e t o ,
c d o olcin
n t s ec .
o e , t. .
Window t c e s and r c i t



Attached and assigned accounts .
Paid _
I p o e s ..
n rcs
Corporate r s l t o s e c .
e o u i n , t.
Deferred exchange records
eposit t c e s
In p o e s ...
Posted ..
Dormant accounts
( e g r o l s s ______
l d e r it)
From l s base rec r d t .
o d ae.
Open .
C osed ...
icrofilm r c r s and f l s
Signature c rds .
Statements .
Statement s u s .
tb .
Stop payment orders
T i l b lances
ra a
From l s base r c r d t .
eod ae
Others ...
Undelivered statements and
c n e e checks ..





Accounts s c r t e r cords
euiis e
Bond and coupon payable l d e .
Corporate s n p i book
Correspondence— gen r l ...
Canceled bonds and coupons
Cremation c r i i a e f r bonds
etfcts o
and coupons ..
Dividend c e paid ...
h cks
Dividend check r g s e
Dividend payable led e ...
Document fls ......
General l d e ......
Information a s u c t
t o r e ax
r turns ( o i s .....
Posting t c e s . ....
ikt .
Purchase and s l s o d r ,
ae res
i v i e _______
R c i t f r bonds and coupons .
eeps o
R c i t f r insurance premiums
eeps o
R c i t f r s o kcriiae
e e p s o t c etfcts
Stock c r i i a e
Canceled .
Unissued __
I p o e s ......
n rcs
Stock c r i i a e —
r c r s o stubs____
eod r
Stock l d e s open and c o e .
lsd .
Stock r g s e records ____
Stock tr n f r r g s e —
a s e eitr
t s e s e t .........
ran f r h e s
Stop o d r
r e s ...
Trust r c i t l d e
eep e g r








D C r i i a e — blank _____
Register .......
D Analysis work s e t o c r s ..
h e s r a d..
E Average balance cards __
D Advices from correspondents.
D Bank statements r c i e
eevd .
E Ledger and p s i g d b t and
o t n — eis
E T i l b l n e and j u n l
ra aacs
D current ____

D Cashier’ o s c e a ys fl
s r e r t r ’ ie


Accounts r c i a l ledger



Current .....
Close .....



Contact information f ls ..
Correspondence— g neral --e
Correspondence— t u t .....
C e i fls ........
r d t ie
Documents— t u t .......
I v i e fls bond department. .
n o c ie—
. E

Current t a s c i n fls ...
r n a t o ie
Completed t a s c i n fls
r n a t o ie--Record books (ledgers)— out­
standingc e i s c l e t o reg­
rdt, olcin
i tr money t a
r nsfer l d e ,
drafts advised outstanding,
unpaid and prepaid exchange
applications, trust r c i t ,
c n r c s exchange p s t o .
oiin .
Records o t a e e s l t e s o
f r v l r etr f
c e i on consignment.....

U S S r e “E” bonds
.. eis
U S S r e “E”bonds— r c r o
.. eis
eod f
bonds s l o redeemed....
od r
T a e e s c ecks ... ...
rvlr h
T a e e s checks records....

D i y statement o c n i i n .
f odto
eneral book resume s e t
( a l make-up sheets)
General l d e , income and ex­
pense l d e s and s b i i r
l d e s ..... ........
General l d e t c e s ( e i s
e g r i k t dbt,
c e i s and proof s e t o al
hes f l
departments) __ ___ ____
Journal.......... .....


C l a e a , gu r ntees, s bordi­
n t o o o her agreements. .
ain r t
C l a e a re o d and r c i t .
oltrl c r
Corporate r s l t o s auth r z
i g borrowings _______ _
Daily l a r p r s ...... .
on eot

Journals and p s i g i k t
o t n tces
L a i i y ledger ... ....
Loan r g s e ..
Maturity t c l r ........
N t s cnrcs priiain
o e , otat, atcpto
c r i i a e , ec .......
e t f c t s t.



^ Insurance r c r s .
^ Postage meter readings .
R gistered mail
Incoming r c r s .
Outgoing r c r s ..
eod .
Return r c i t cards.



£ Bank c a t r c r i i a e o i ­
h r e , etfct f n

c r o a i n and bylaws
£ Bankers blanket bonds.....






P s i g t scrte l d e
o t n s o euiis e g r
( n o c s e c) .... .....
i v i e , t.
S c r t e _________ ____
S c r t e l d e (showing bond
euiis e g r
o c r i i a enumbers) ....
r etfct



C p t l s o k criiae r c r s
a i a t c etfcts e o d
o s u s ......
r tb
C p t l s o k l d e ..
aia tc egr
C p t l s o k tr n f r r g s e . .
a i a t c a s e eitr .
Dividend c e k .....
Dividend check r g s e .....
Insurance p l c e ..
Job d s r p i n and o e a i n
manuals ....
Leases f r p o e t e r n e t
o rpris etd o
o h r or from o
thers .
Minute books o d r c o s al
f ietr, l
commi t e , s o k o d r ...
tes tchles
Proxies .........
Real e t t owned tte p p r . .
il a e s .
R c i t f r s o k c r i i a e ..
e e p s o t c etfcts .
Record o insurance coverage .
Record o ofc machines and
f fie
equipment .
Record o outstanding d v d n
h cks ..



E Cashier’ o treasu e ’ c e k
s r
r rs h c s
paid .
Cashier’ or treasurer’ check
register or copies used as
E register.......
E C r i i d ch c s paid......
etfe e k
C r i i d check r g s e .....
D Christmas Club c e k paid
D Christmas Club check r g s e ..


E E s s e n tia l

Drafts paid on correspondent
banks .......
Draft r g s e .
eitr .
Expense checks paid
Expense check r g s e .
Expense voucher (copy o c e k
f hc)
and bls ...
Money o d r paid .
Money ord r r g s e o c p e o
e eitr r ois f
money o d r .
Stop payment o d r o s e i l
r e s r pca
i s r c i n .......

Deposit t c e s ..........


Armored car s r i e records
Cashbook ...
Cash items ....
hecks, d p s t , and o h r work
i process.....
Machine tapes
Night d p s t r record
T l e s cash ......

Attendance r c r s ( a l )
eod diy
Employee r c r s ( e s n e
eod pronl
f l e s .............
Poi-hrn rcrs
rftsaig eod
Administered by agent
S l - d i i t r d ....
Records o r t r m n , group i ­
f eieet
srne hsiaiain i s r
uac, optlzto n u­
a c , ec
n e t.
Administered by agent...
S l - d i i t r d .....„
Salary l d e — p y o l r cords.
egr arl e
Salary r c i t ...... ...
Time c rds
Current pay period.....
Others....... .. ....
“W-2” form c p e . ....... .
ois .

Cash book... ..... .....
C n r c s in l d n depositor
otat, cuig
s g a u e _______ ___
Entry cards........ ...
Guard keys ............
Rent r c r s ... .... .....

A l safekeeping or custody
r c r s ... ... ......

D D esirab le





Journal s e t o t p s
hes r ae
From l s b r c r d t
a t ase e o d a e
Others ....
Open ......
d ..
R s l t o s assign e t , t...
m n s ec ..
Signature cards..........
T i l ba a c s
ra lne
From l s b r c r d t .
a t ase e o d a e
Others .....
Withdrawal r c i t o checks..
eeps r






hecks, d p s t and o h r work
i p o e s .....
n rcs
E Outgoing cash l t e s .
E Proof machine t p s
In p o e s .....
hes bth ros
D Proof s e t ( a c p o f )
I process
Others ...
T l e s lss ............
e l r it
E Address book... .......
Cash l d e s ...... ... ..
Insurance p l c e ...... ..
Journals ............. .
D Nominee records. .......
E Postingt c e s
In process____ ____ _
Others .............
Property c n r l .........
D Property ledgers... .......
D Purchase and s l s orders...
Real e t t tte d e s and tte
s a e il e d
E insurance p l c e ......
Remittance r c r s _____ _
E Temporary “i and out”v u t
E tickets. .... ........
E Tabulating car s ........
D T i l bala c
From l s base r c r d t .
e o d ae
Others.... ....... ls
E Wi l and o h r instruments__







This type o procedure i e p c a l recommended f r t o e banks which
s seily
o hs
have a c n e t a i n o branches i t r e areas and maintain m c o i m
ocnrto f
n agt
equipment o l a c n r l c e r n ofcs Such banks might r f a n from
n y t e t a l a i g fie.
attempting t s t up a program due s l l t t e i i i l c s o e t a micro­
o e
o e y o h nta o t f x r
f l i g equipment f r each b a c .
I i emphasized t a i d v d a banks may wish t expand, c n r c o
t s
ht niiul
otat r
o h r i e d v a e proc d r l y from t e e a t o t i e d s r b d i t i s c
tews eit
h x c u l n e c i e n hs e ­
t o i order t e f c more s i a l accord with t e s e i i circumstances o
in n
o fet
h pcfc
requirements p c l a t t e rown p r i u a o e a i n .
euir o hi
atclr prtos
(Commercial, Special Checking, Due to Banks, etc.)

1 Assign c d numbers t al a c u t , writing t e co e number on s a e
o l cons
h d
ment and l d e s e t , and on t e sig a u e c r s
e g r hes
n t r ad.
2 .M c o i m sig a u e cards and t e e f e take d p i a e s g a u e c r s
ulct intr ad
f r new a c u t , giving each new account a code number, and forward
d p i a et s o a e d i y
u l c t o t r g al.
3 Immediately run p o f , i d p i a e showing account c d numbers and
ros n ulct,
b l n e , and forward t e o i i a o p o f t t e s o a e v u t
h rgnl f r o s o h t r g al.
4 M c o i m e i t n current s o payment o d r and s e i l i s r c i n
. irfl xsig
pca ntutos
and t e e f e prepare i d p i a e and forward d p i a e t t e s o a e
n ulct,
ulct o h trg
v u tdi y
a l al.
5 Prepare bookkeepers r g s e s ( o r a s i d p i a e showing t e ap­
eitr jun l ) n ulct,
p o r a e l b l n o each s c i n and forward d p i a e t s o a e v u t
rpit aeig f
ulct o trg al
6 .Prepare an e tra copy o t e r j c e check r g s e and forward t t e
f h eetd
o h
s o a ev u tdi y
t r g a l al.
7 Run weekly p o f , i d p i a e o accounts showing account c d
ros n ulct, f
numbers and b l nces and forward t e o i i a s t s o a e v u t on c r e t
h rgnl o t r g a l
8 .Keep d p s t t c e s c e k , l d e s and al unposted work i t e v u t
e o i ikt, h c s e g r ,
n h al
a alt m s when not a t a l i u e
t l ie
c u l y n s.

1 . Obtain t e l t s a a l b e weekly p o f , which s o l show account
h aet v i a l
c d numbers and balances a o d t proof was made. ( i l probably c n i t
s f ae
o s v r l weekly s c i n l p o f , s arrange i o d r )
f eea
etoa ros o
n re.
2 Obtain bookkeepers r g s e s ( o r a s , showing o d b l n e d b t
eitr junl)
l aac , eis
and c e i s and new b l n e f r each day s n e d t o s c i n l p
aac, o
i c a e f e t o a roof used
i P r. 1
n a .


3 Obtain supply o l d e s e t p e e a l , o h r i e columnar p d ,
f egr hes rfrby t e w s
l s i g s e t , o o h r forms a a l b e
itn h e s r t e
4 L s c d numbers and amounts from weekly pro f ( a . 1 on a a l b e
. it o e
o Pr )
forms ( a . 3 i a p i a l s a e .
Pr ) n plcbe pcs
5 Enter d b t and c e i s t proper accounts from bookkeepers r g s e s
rdt o
(a. 2)
Pr .
6 .Add alt e l t s ba a c s and prove t t t lon f n n i l s a e e t
l h aet l n e
o oa
iaca t t m n .
7 Obtain d p i a e s g a u e cards and o i i a f l o s g a u e c r s
ulct intr
r g n l im f i n t r a d .
8 .Enter names and a d e s s o d p s t r on lss o t i e i Par. 4
drse f eoios
it b a n d n
using co e numbers t i e t f s g
o d n i y i nature card and commercial a c u t .
9 Obtain a supply o regular l d e s and p s a p i a l information
ot plcbe
teen i n tp e i u l dn.
hro, f o rvosy oe
N o t e : To save time i r c n t u t n t e l t s b l n e t b proved
n e o s r c i g h aet a a c s o e
t t t l on f n n i l statement ( a . 6 ) i w l prove d s r b e t u e
o oa
P r , t il
eial o s
balances o l , a r f e t d on in e v n n bookkeepers r g s e s
ny s elce
( o r a s ( a . 2 . This method s o be s b t t t d f r t e more
junl) Pr )
h uld
usiue o h
d t i e s e s r q i e i ente i g i d v d a d b t and c e i s
eald tp e u r d n
r n niiul eis
( a . 5 , a procedure which may be d yed pending a t a n c s i y
Pr )
cul eest
or greater time a a l b l t . I i suggested t a t i same p i c p e
viaiiy t s
h t hs
a s be a p i d i t e r c n t u t o o o h r r c r s wherever
p l e n h eosrcin f t e eod,

1 Microfilm al s g a u e c r s and t e e f e t k s g a u e cards i
l intr ad
hratr ae intr
d p i a e f r new accounts and forward d p i a e t t e s o a e v u t d i y
ulct o
u l c t o h t r g a l al.
2 Immediately run p o f o al a c u t , i d p i a e i c u i g term
r o s f l c o n s n ulct, n l d n
s v n s c u a c u t , time d p s t , and s h o s v n s showing account
aig, lb cons
col aig,
numbers and b l n e , and forward o i i a o p o f t t e s o a e v u t
rgnl f r o s o h t r g al.
3 Prepare savings r g s e s ( o r a s i d p i a e showing account num­
eitr j u n l ) n ulct,
b r ,and forward t e d p i a e t t e s o a e v u t d i y
h u l c t o h t r g a l al.
4 Run monthly pr o s o al accounts i d p i a e showing account
of f l
n ulct,
numbers. The o i i a s o t e pro f must be forwarded t t e s o a e vault
rgnl f h
o h trg
on t e current d y
5 Run savings i t r s proof f r June and December ( r o h r i t r s
o te neet
p r o s i d p i a e and forward o i i a t t e s o a e v u t
eid) n ulct
rgnl o h t r g al.

1 Obtain l t s a a l b e p o f showing account numbers and b l n e .
aet v i a l r o s
2 Obtain al sav n s r g s e s ( o r a s s n e d t o proof used i P r 1 .
i g eitr jun l ) ic a e f
n a.
3 Obtain supply o l d e cards p e e a l , oth r i e columnar p d , or
f egr
o h r forms a a l b e
4 L s account numbers and bala c s from s v n s p o f ( a . 1 i
. it
aig ros Pr ) n
apial sae.
plcbe pcs
5 Enter d b t and c e i s t proper accounts from s v n s r g s e (
rdt o
a i g e i t r Par.
2 ).
6 .Add alf n lb l
l i a a ances and prove t t t l on f n n i l s a e e t
o oa
iaca t t m n .

7 Obtain d p i a e s g
u l c t i nature car s and o i i a f l o sav n s s g a u e
r gnl im f i g i n t r
8 . Enter names o d p s t r on l ss o t ined i P r 4 from d p i a e
f eoios
it b a
n a. ,
sig a u e c rds and f l , using account numbers t i e t f s g a u e c r s
ntr a
o dniy i n t r a d
t savings a c u t .

1 M c ofilm n t s l a i i y l d e s g a a
. ir
o e , i b l t e g r , u r ntees, subo d n t o and o h r
important l a agreements ( n l d f n n i l statements o l r e borrowers)
i c u e iaca
f ag
immediately and p r o i a l t e e f e .
eidcly hratr
N o te : In l r e volume consumer l an banks, where payments a e
n t endorsed on t e n t s i might be reasonable t r f a n from
h oe, t
o eri
m c o i m n t e n t s and c n i e t e l d e t be t e b s c r c r .
irflig h oe
osdr h egr o
h ai eod
2 Run p o f o n t s f r al commercial type l a s and o t e l a i i y
ros f oe o l
f h iblt
l d e s f r al o her ty e o l a s and forward t e o i i a s t t e s o a e
egr o l t
ps f on
h rgnl o h t r g
3 Make monthly p oofs o commercial n t s and o h r l a i i y l d e s
t e iblt e g r
and send t e o i i a s t t e s o a e v u t Show numbers o p s t amounts
h rgnl o h t r g al.
on p o f o l a i i yl d e s
r o s f iblt e g r .
4 Send l a payments t c e s and/or coupons t t e s o a e v u t d i y
o h t r g a l al.
For t c e l s po t d l a s run d i y o d and new balance proof i d p i a e
iktes s e o n ,
al l
n ulct,
showing l a numbers o p s t b l n e , and forward t e o i i a t t e
poie aacs
h rgnl o h
s o a ev u t
t r g al.
5 Prepare a d i y balanced ls o al new l a s showing: name(s), l a
it f l
number, amount, c a s f c t o , and e d r e , i a y and forward t t e
nosr f n,
o h
s o a e v u t I some a e s such a new t u t r c i t on i d r c c l e t o
t r g al. n
rs eep
ni e t olcin
l a s an e t a copy may be prepared and s n t s o a e i l e o a prepared
e t o t r g n iu f

1 . Obtain l t s f l o n t s and/or l a i i y l d e s any i t r e i g
aet im f o e
iblt e g r ,
p o f , d i y lss o l a s made, and payment t c e s o o d and new balance
r o s a l it f o n
ikt r l
2 .Obtain supply o l a i i y l d e c r s columnar p d , o o h r a a l b e
f iblt e g r a d ,
as r t e vial
3 For commercial type l a s t a s r b new r c r s from t e l t s
on, r n c i e
h aet
m c o i m o n t s Reconstruct t e inte v n n d i y a t v t from t e l a
i r f l f oe.
r e i g al ciiy
h on
payment t c e s and t e lsso l a s made.
h it f o n
4 For o h r type l a s t a s r b l a number and b lance from l s
on, r n c i e o n
monthly p o f Reconstruct t e int r e i g d i y a t v t from t e l a
e v n n al ciiy
h on
payment t c e s o t e d i y o d and new balance p o f , and from t e lss
ikt r h a l l
h it
o l a s made.
f on
5 When al a a l b e r c r s have been p s e , ls f n l b l n e and
l vial eod
o t d it i a a a c s
prove t l t s f n n i l s a e e t
o aet iaca t t m n .
6 . F l i names and o h r p r i e t information from l t s m c o i m o
il n
te etnn
aet i r f l f
r c r s o lsso l a s made.
e o d r it f o n



1 . Forward alpr v o s l d e s t s o a e v u t
l e i u e g r o t r g al.
2. Microfilm current ledger sheets and send film to storage vault.

3 Forward gen r l l d e r g s e ( o r a ) and f n n i l statement t
e a egr eitr junl
s o a e v u t d i y Send copy o p o i and l s statement monthly.
t r g a l al.
f rft
4 Forward c p e o g n r l l d e t c e s and p o i and l s t c e s t
o i s f e e a e g r ikt
os i k t o
s o a ev u t di y
t r g a l al.
5 Prepare a weekly ls o outstanding suspense i e s i d p i a e and
it f
tm, n ulct,
forward o i i a t s o a e v u t Desc i e items i d t i .
rg n l o t r g al.
n eal
6 . Run a p o f i d p i a e o s b i i r l d e s which supply sundry
ro, n ulct, f u s d a y e g r
ccounts r c i a l and r s r e a c u t , such a d a e s r s r e a c unts,
eev cons
s elr eev c o
showing names, ec, o p s t b l n e . Forward t e o i i a o t e proof t
t. p o i e a a c s
h rgnl f h
s o a e v u t Monthly p o f must be made, i d p i a e showing names
t r g al.
n ulct,
o p s t b l n e , with o i i a forwarded t s o a e v u t
poie aacs
o t r g al.

1 . Prepare new g n
e eral l d e by p s i g amounts from t e p e i u day's
h rvos
f n n i l statement t t e a p i a l a c u t .
o h plcbe cons
2 Reconstruct s b i i r l d e s a follows:
usday egr s
a Obtain l t s a a l b e monthly proof ( a . 6 above) and t e gen­
aet v i a l
e a l d e t c e sf r each day s n ed t o p o f
rl e g r ikt o
ic a e f ro.
b Post names and bala c s from proof t l d e s e t , columnar
o e g r hes
p d , o o h r a a l b ef r s
as r t e vial om .
c Post d b t and c e i e t i s from g ne a l d e t c e s t applic­
rdt nre
e r l e g r ikt o
al sbiir acut
be usday con.
d L s f n lb lances and prove t new g ne a l d e .
. i t ia a
e r l egr


1 Immediately run p o f , i d p i a e o c r i i d c e k , c s i r s
r o s n u l c t , f etfe h c s a h e '
c e k , money o d r , c ecks p y b e c r i i a e o d p s t ec, by year,
res h
a a l , e t f c t s f e o i , t.
d t , number, and amount, and forward t e o i i a s t t e s o a e v u t
h rgnl o h t r g al.
Checks and c r i i a e paid w l appear on t e g n r l l d e r g s e s (jour­
h e e a e g r eitr
n l ) s t a a r c r o t e outstanding can be r c n t u t d i n cessary.
as o ht e od f h
eosrce, f e
2 . Sort t e a d t s u s numerically d i y and ls t e amounts by c a s f c ­
h ui tb
it h
t o . The frt and l s number i each c a s f c t o s o l be shown on the
lsiiain h u d
t which sho l be forwarded t t e s o a e v u t d i y The numbers o
o h t r g a l al.
any c n e e items w l be shown i p a e o t e amount o such i e s
n lc f h
3 Prepare i d p i a e a monthly proof o outstanding i e s showing the
n ulct
y a , d t , numbers, and amounts. Foward t e o i i a t t e s o a e v u t
e r ae
h rgnl o h t r g a l .
4 Micro i m e i t n cur e t s o payment o d r and s e i l i s r c i n .
f l xsig r n tp
pca n t utos
T e e f e , prepare i d p i a e and forward t e d p i a e t t e storage
n ulct
h ulct o h
v u tdiy
a l al.

1 Obtain l t s monthly proof o exchange i e s o t t n i g showing
tm usadn,
numbers and amounts.

2 Obtain d i y exchange tape l s i g o a d t s u s f r each day s n e d t
itn f u i t b o
ic a e
o proof used i P r 1
n a. .
3 Obtain d i y general l d e r g s e s ( o r a s , showing ite s p by
e g r eitr ju nl)
m aid
numbers and amounts. W ll a s show t t l amount i s e .
i lo
4 Obtain a supply o exchange r g s e s otherwise columnar pads o o h r
r te
a a l b e f rms.
vial o
5 L s item numbers and amounts from proof ( a . 1 on a a l b e f r s
. it
Pr )
vial om,
s a t n with o d s i s e d t , l a i g space f r d t p i .
let su ae e v n
o a e ad
6 . L s items i s e by d t , number, and amount from t p ; l s i g o
a e itns f
a d t s u s s n e l t s p o f a d from gen r l l d e r g s e ( o r a )
u i t b ic aet r o ; n ,
e a egr eitr junl,
show d t o p s t a p i a l number and amount o i e s p i .
ae poie plcbe
f t m ad
7 After al a a l b e r c r s a e p s e t d t , ls open i e s from forms
l v i a l e o d r o t d o a e it
u e and balance t f g r on f n n i l s a e e t
o iue
iaca t t m n .
N ote : M aintain a daily control for each type as posted.


1 Mco
. i r film al s gnature c r s ( o h s d s when a p i a l ) T e e f e ,
l i
a d b t ie
plcbe. h ratr
t k d p i a e signa u e car s and forward t e d p i a e t t e s o a e v u t
ae ulct
h ulct o h trg al
d i y The signature cards w l show t e d t t a t e box was r n e and can
h ae ht h
b used f r future b l i g i t e e ent t a t e h s o y c r s a d s r y d
iln n h v
h t h i t r a d re e t o e .
2 . Send c o e s gnature c r s t t e s o a e v u t d i y
lsd i
a d o h t r g a l al.
3 Keep s f k e i g s f d p s t and s e i l d p s t r r c r s i t e
a e e p n , a e eoi,
pca e o i o y e o d n h
v u t a alt m s
al t l ie.

1. Obtain o i i a f l o s f d p s t signa u e cards from t e s o a e
r gnl im f a e e o i
h trg
v u t (Cards w l be a p a e i a t e e n )
il l h b t c l h r o .
2 . Obtain d p i a e si n t r car s f r new r n a s s n e i c p i n o plan
ulct gaue d o
etl ic n eto f
and s r them n m r c l y
3 Obtain c o e sig a u e c rds s n e i c p i n o plan and s r them
ntr a
ic neto f
4 Compare c o e signa u e ca d ( a . 3 t new sig a u e c r s ( a .
tr rs Pr ) o
ntr ad Pr
2 ) by name, box number, and d t t e i i a e al a p i a l d p i a e signa­
ae o lmnt l plcbe ulct
t r c r s Those cards remaining s o be current open r n a s f r box
ue ad.
h uld
etl o
numbers c n e n d
5 Obtain a supply o s f d p s t s gnature cards o oth r a a l b e f r s
f ae eoi i
r e vial om .
6 .Review f l ( a . 1 , o have p s t v s p i t d from i, t determine
im P r ) r
oiie r n e
t o
names and box numbers f r r n a s not covered by remaining open d p i a e
o etl
s g a u e c rds i P r 4 o c o e sig a u e c r s
intr a
n a . r lsd n t r ad.
7 Type information from P r 6 on a a l b e f r s
vial om.


1 Immediately send al outstanding a d t c p e o c l a e a r c i t t
u i o i s f oltrl e e p s o
t es o a ev u t
h t r g al.
2 Immediately send t s o a e t e l s completed brokers s c r t e r ­
o t r g h at
euiis e
c n i e e t a copy o al c l a e a s b t t t o s e t , and/or brokers and
f l oltrl u s i u i n hes
d a e s d p s t and withdrawal s e t f r s c r t e used s n e d t o l s
elr eoi
h e o euiis
i c a e f at
b o e sscrte r c n i e e t
r k r euiis e o c l m n .

3. Thereafter, send audit copy of all new collateral receipts issued to the
storage vault daily. When collateral is released, send copy of collateral receipt,
receipted by the borrower, to storage vault.
4. Make memorandum record of partial withdrawals of collateral and for­
ward to storage vault daily. Show name of borrower, collateral receipt num­
ber, and description of securities withdrawn. This memorandum is in addition
to usual receipt taken on back of collateral receipt.
5. As a means of verifying the open collateral receipts, make a monthly
proof of open ledger copies of collateral receipts by numbers, and open
collateral register numbers and send to storage vault.
6. Forward copy of collateral substitution sheet and/or brokers and dealers
deposit and withdrawal sheet for customers to the storage vault daily. Also
prepare an extra copy of brokers securities reconcilement sheet each month
and forward to storage vault.

1. Obtain all audit and ledger copies of collateral receipts since inception of
2. Sort audit and ledger copies numerically and attach audit copies to
applicable ledger copies. The remaining open audit copies should be the cur­
rent open collateral receipts.
3. Post partial withdrawals to the remaining audit copies from the daily
memorandum record.


1. Microfilm all records classified as essential and send film to storage.
2. Thereafter, send daily tickets, movement orders, deposit and withdrawal
orders, etc., or copies thereof, to storage daily.
N o t e : In some trust installations, copies of daily journals can be
substituted for certain groups of tickets or orders.
3. Send copies of any monthly proofs to storage on date of proof.
4. Make extra copy of all minutes of the trust investment committee and
send to storage immediately.
5. Make extra copy of statements of account of court trusts when filed
with court and of trust department accounts when sent to trust customers and
send to storage daily.
6. After the original microfilming of the document files, make extra copies
of essential documents and send to storage daily. The following are examples
of documents which might be protected in this manner:

Wills and codicils admitted to probate
Letters testamentary or of administration
Inventories and appraisements
Decrees of partial, ratable, or final distribution
Court orders authorizing any unusual acts
Instructions of heirs or legatees
Creditors’ claims



Decrees of distribution, including a copy of the will should the decree
incorporate the will by reference
Orders granting instructions
Receipts of beneficiaries for distributions of corpus

Trust agreements and amendments
Letters of instruction
Receipts for distributions of corpus

Letters of guardianship
Inventories and appraisements
Orders granting instructions
Receipt of a minor upon reaching majority, of an incompetent upon being
restored to competency, or of the personal representative of the ward
upon death

Orders appointing depository
Receipts of depository for assets deposited
Court orders directing any act of depository

Trust agreements, etc.
The following are other types of records or documents which can be pro­
tected after initial microfilming by preparing an extra copy to be sent to
storage daily:
Investment review sheets
Customers address cards
Stop payment orders (corporate trust)
Escrow documents
In order to maintain a starting point from which records may be recon­
structed within a reasonable length of time, the nature, size, and volume of
transactions in many trust departments will dictate that certain basic records
be microfilmed periodically. The various ledger accounts are good examples
of the type of record that will fall in this category. A review of the activity
on each record should indicate the proper intervals.

1. Reestablish accounting records from the latest microfilm on available
forms or columnar pads.
2. Update records from tickets, orders, journals, etc., which were subse­
quently sent to storage daily.
3. Balance to latest fiduciary statement.
4. Reestablish document files with photostatic copies of the necessary
documents which were microfilmed and extra copies subsequently sent to


Many records in the foreign departm ent, such as general ledger, deposit
accounts, loan, exchange or official checks, collateral, etc., are sufficiently
sim ilar to those previously covered th a t the same type of protection and re ­
construction can be applied.
Most other records can be protected and reconstructed by a common p ro ­
cedure. The following fall into this ca te g o ry :
D ocum entary d ra fts
Rem ittance orders
E xchange trad in g contracts
In most banks having foreign departm ents, m ultiple numbered form s are
used to record, advise, ticklerize, and provide final entry tickets and in fo rm a ­
tion fo r these types of transactions.
One copy of the form should be sent to storage on the date recorded, and
another copy, containing all inform ation pertinen t to the disposition of th e
transaction, should be sent to storage on the date th a t the tran sa ctio n is
finalized. If a limited num ber of copies of these form s make it im practical to
send copies to storage in this m anner, additional carbon tissue inserts should
be used.
By m atching and elim inating the form s covering closed tran sactio n s, a
cu rren t record can be established.
Ledger (or other p rim ary) record of letters of credit and am endm ents
should be microfilmed and the film sent to storage. T h ereafter, make e x tra
copies of letters of credit and am endm ents and forw ard to storage daily.
Make an initial proof of outstanding items in the “prepaid le tte rs of c re d it”
account, including identifying numbers, and forw ard to storage. T h e re a fte r,
send monthly proof, or duplicate thereof, to storage, showing account
num bers.
Send d rafts, tickets or registers (or copies) which show the negotiation of
d ra fts paid under individual letters of credit to storage daily.
Microfilm all documents which have been classified as essential and fo rw a rd
film to storage. T h ereafter, obtain documents in duplicate and send duplicate
to storage daily.
Most accounts, subsidiary accounts, and records which do not fall w ith in
the general category of a type of record previously mentioned can be p r e ­
served and reconstructed if the following procedure is u se d :
1. Microfilm the essential record and send film to storage.
2. T h ereafter, send the various tickets, orders, etc., or copies (duplicates)
thereof, th a t will change th e ir sta tu s to storage daily.
3. Microfilm the basic record periodically to establish a new s ta r tin g
point for reconstruction. The activity of an account will indicate the f r e ­
quency th a t additional microfilming is desirable.
In large banks, basic records and inform ation on all or some of the follow ­
ing are m aintained by use of tabulating equipm ent:


Loans and discounts
Own acceptances purchased
Bills sold w ith own endorsement
L etters of credit
P repaid letters of credit
Safe deposit
Time credit
Personnel and payroll
Business development
Personal tr u s t accounting
Corporate tr u s t accounting
Where records are m aintained on tab u latin g equipment, the problem of
protecting and reconstructing records is g reatly simplified. By sending
duplicates or copies of daily registers and records, which are printed out by
the tabulating machines, to storage, most essential inform ation is easily
protected and is kept on a cu rren t basis.
Account proofs should always be made in duplicate, and the duplicate sent
to storage on the date of proof.




The National Bureau of Standards makes the following recom­
mendations for storing microfilms:
F o r safety, even under norm al circum stances, microfilm records should not
be kept in the vicinity of the original records. D uring a national em ergency,
im po rtant records should be moved to an area not likely to be involved in
hostilities. I f this is not practical, an underground storage vau lt (not a p a r t
of a building) seems desirable. U nderground vaults are usually damp, an d if
th is is the case, the film should be sealed in m etal cans. Before sealing in cans,
the. film should be conditioned to about 30 percent relative hum idity to allow
for an increase in relative hum idity in the cans due to low ering of the te m ­
p era tu re to th a t in the vault. If the vault is heated to usual room te m p e ra tu re
(65° to 75° F .), the film need not be sealed in cans. The use of drying sa lts in
the can w ith the film is not recommended though such salts could be used in
the vault if properly replenished as needed. Cans need not be used if d ry in g
salts are used in the vault. U nderground storage should protect the film r e ­
cords from dam age by intense radioactivity b u t not necessarily from th e
explosive force of a direct hit.
O ur recommendations for film storage under norm al conditions a re as a
follow s:
W here film is stored in air-conditioned offices, no humidification of sto rag e
cabinets is necessary. However, microfilm storage cabinets equipped w ith
tra y s for salt solution in the bottoms of the cabinets fo r humidification p u r ­
poses are desirable. We recommend sa tu ra te d sodium dichrom ate solution ;
w ith an excess of sodium dichrom ate (undissolved crystals in solution) f o r *
humidification purposes. This sa lt will m ain tain 52 percent to 53 percent r e ­
lative hum idity in a irtig h t cabinets a t room tem perature. If the cabinets a re
not reasonably a ir tight, the relative hum idity mentioned above will not be
m aintained.
W here humidified cabinets are to be used, it is extrem ely im p o rtan t t h a t
they have intelligent servicing. In dry w eather, as in heated rooms in th e
w intertim e, the salt solution will evaporate and w ate r should be replenished
from time to time. In the summ ertim e during periods of high hum idity, th e
salt solution will take up w ater and some should be removed from the tr a y s .
I t is very im portan t to see th a t an excess of the salt is present a t all tim es.
I f the solution becomes less th an saturated, it will no longer act as a dehum idifying agent and in extrem e cases may give up sufficient m oisture to cause th e
film to become damp and promote the grow th of fungus on the film. T he
optimum relative hum idity conditions fo r the storage of microfilm is 40 p erc en t
to 50 percent.




Because of the danger involved, the National Fire Protection
Association makes the following recommendations for safe­
guarding microfilm from fire:1
W hile cellulose acetate film does not burn any more readily th a n paper
records, it may be otherwise affected by some of the ordinary storage con­
ditions or fire conditions which would not affect paper records. F o r example,
paper is not affected by the tem peratures or humidities encountered under
ordinary storage conditions, but high climatic hum idity a t ordinary room
tem perature m ay affect the base or the emulsion of microfilm. These effects
are considerably ag gravated when hum idity is coupled w ith high tem perature
as, for example, when the tem perature is above 200° to 250° F. or when film is
exposed to steam.
W hen safes or other insulated record containers and record v au lts are ex­
posed to fire, the interio r does not reach a tem p eratu re which is dam aging to
papers w ithin the period for which the safe or vault is rated or during the
subsequent cooling period. The interior tem peratu re may, however, exceed
200° to 250° F. and the in terior m ay contain steam produced from the heating
of the insulation or the v ault walls. W hile these conditions would not be
dam aging to p aper records on the interior of the safe or vault, tests made by
U nderw riters’ Laboratories, Inc., by film producers, and by safe m anufac­
tu rers indicate th a t such conditions can affect the base or the emulsion of
microfilm either due to the high tem perature or due to the steam.
Tests show th a t when microfilm is exposed for a long period of tim e to a
tem perature of 225° to 275° F. in the presence of steam, or to a dry tem p era­
tu re a t 300° F. fo r a shorter period of time, the film w arps or shrinks so th a t
it cannot readily be ru n through a projector, although the individual fram es
of the film are legible and rep rin ts of them can readily be made. The tests
have not determ ined the point at which tem p eratu re alone or tem p eratu re
coupled w ith steam will avoid such damage. E xperim ents are being made to
determine these critical points for film stored in various types of containers.
The tests which have been conducted to date indicate th a t for maximum
protection against steam, microfilm stored in safes or v aults should be in
friction-lid tin cans, ra th e r th a n stored loose, or in cartons or even in tin
containers w ith telescoping lid.
Obviously, in an uninsulated record container, microfilm will b u rn as readily
as paper, because when exposed to fire the in terio r of the uninsulated record
container is almost instantly a t a tem perature which will char either micro­
film or paper.
1 Protection,

of Records,

N a tio n a l F ire P ro tec tio n A ssociation, Boston, M assachusetts, 1947.


OCD Regions, Staff College
S tate and Local CD D irectors
Defense Coordinators of Federal Agencies
S tate CD A dult E ducation Coordinators
CONUS A rm y M ilitary Support P lann ing Officers
Senior M ilitary Colleges
C ontract U niversities, CD U niversity Extension P rogram
Indu strial Defense Coordinators
N ational T rade Associations
S tate M anu facturers Associations
P lan t Protection Supervisors
NATO CD D irectors
L ibraries




Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102