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U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
WOMEN'S BUREAU, Mrs. Esther Peterson, Director



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Careers for
Women in Retailing

Washington, D.C. • Women’s Bureau Bulletin 271
1963 Edition

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirfz, Secretary
WOMEN’S BUREAU, Mrs. Esther Peterson, Director




U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON : 1963

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D.C. - Price 25 cents




Foreword
Retailing, one of the country’s largest and most vital industries,
offers women ever-increasing opportunities for achievement. The
variety of occupations to be found is almost limitless and nearly all
are open to qualified women.
In 1958, an average of over 8 million persons, men and women, were
on the payrolls of retail trade establishments. Retailing is the second
largest industry group in this country and has shown a much greater
growth in the past three decades than manufacturing. The changing
importance of retailing is part of a long-term trend that has affected
the “service” industries, as opposed to the “goods producing” industries
in the economy. This is due largely to increased productivity and
mechanization which have made possible the production of more goods
per worker.
As this booklet is intended primarily for girls and women interested
in entering the retailing industry, it covers some of the more pertinent
occupations of the many hundreds to be found in this highly diversi­
fied field. We have concentrated our discussion on higher level posi­
tions in department and specialty stores for two reasons: (1) many
occupations in their vast assortment have parallels in other parts of
retailing, and (2) women are actively encouraged to seek advancement
in this field where other women have gained acceptance and recogni­
tion in executive positions.
With continued employment expansion many women are likely to
be attracted to the retailing industry where other women have already
established themselves in career positions and where many notable
women have paved the way to executive leadership for their successors.




Esther Peterson

Director, Women’s Bureau

iii

Acknowledgments
This bulletin was prepared in the Women’s Bureau of the Depart­
ment of Labor by Shirley B. Grossman assisted by Hazel B. Hansen,
under the direction of Stella P. Manor, Chief of the Division of Pro­
gram Planning, Analysis, and Reports.
Grateful acknowledgment is made to members of the several asso­
ciations, stores, and educational institutions which cooperated in the
preparation of the booklet by providing statistical data, interviews,
and editorial comments. Special mention should be given to: The
National Retail Merchants Association, The Associated Merchandising
Corporation, The Allied Purchasing Corporation, and member schools
of the American Collegiate Retailing Association. Several depart­
ment and specialty stores throughout the country were most generous
with time and staffs.
The photographs were made possible by the courtesy of the
following:
Library of Congress Collection of Old Prints and Photographs, Washington,
D.C. (fig. 1).
Woodward & Lothrop, Washington, D.C. (figs. 2, 3, 5, 6).
Lord & Taylor, New York, N.Y. (fig. 4).
Heather House, Georgetown, Washington, D.C. (fig. 7).
The Hecht Co., Washington, D.C. (fig. 8).
Hutzler’s, Baltimore, Md. (fig. 9).




Contents
Page

1. Women and the retailing industry---------------------------------Women as customers------------------------------------------------------------------Outlook for the industry--------------------------------------------------------------Higher level positions for women----------------------------:------------ --------Earnings and working conditions--------------------------------------------------2. Careers for women in department and specialty stores----------------------Merchandising
13
Personnel-------- --------------------------------------------------------------------------Sales promotion-----------------------------------Financial control-----------------------------------Store operations
35
Top management
37
3. Women as owners of small stores-------------------------------------- --------- —
Essentials for success
39
Responsibilities of ownership-------------------------------------------------------4. If you want a career in retailing-----------------------------------------------------Personal qualities needed
42
Educational requirements-------------------------Entering retailing-----------------------------------------------------------------------Appendix:
A—Number of establishments and paid employees in retail trade
and its divisions, November 1954----------------------------------------------B—Selected readings_______________________________________ _____
C—American Collegiate Retailing Association Member Schools--------




1
1
4
7
10
13
22
29
33

38
40
42
42
45

49
50
52

v

mimm

QEE&il

1.—Women’s fashions have changed since the Nineteenth Cen­
tury and elevators are no longer hand powered, but women remain in
the majority as customers. (Opening day at a large specialty store in
1873. Note seats on elevator.)
Figure

vi



1
Women and the
Retailing Industry
WOMEN AS CUSTOMERS
Department and specialty stores have catered to women customers
assiduously ever since the middle and late 19th century. Many of
them invariably think of their customers as women. Other retailers
and the manufacturers who produce their wares constantly examine
women’s buying habits in an attempt to guess the reasons behind their
selections.
An impressive amount of the country’s retail purchasing is done by
women. According to an estimate in Fortune magazine (August 1956)
women account for some 60 percent of all personal consumption ex­
penditures. Much of the purchasing done by women results from their
own decisions; some from the decisions of others for whom they are
acting as agents. On the other hand, some of the purchases made by
men are influenced or directed by women.
Since women do much of the retail purchasing, it follows that the
woman’s point of view is an important force in successful retailing.
Women as employees provide the woman’s slant in selecting goods for
resale to the woman customer, in making available the services that
women expect, and in sales promotion that will appeal to women.

The Importance of Fashion
Leaders in the retailing field believe that as long as fashion is a vital
factor in sales appeal, the place of women in the industry is assured.
In the 20th century fashion has become, decade by decade, more im­
portant in the marketing of consumer goods.
Novelty itself has long been recognized as an important sales fea­
ture, but fashion, or the latest style, in line, color, design, and orna­
mentation has become crucial in the sale of many items. Mass produc­
tion has taken fashion from the exclusive world of wealth and made
it available to economy budgets.




1

Apparel and Accessories
Many of the opportunities for women in retailing can be attributed
to the expansion of sales in women’s ready-to-wear apparel and,
later, of accessories, children’s wear, and other goods usually purchased
by women.
The entry of women into business and industry in increased num­
bers, beginning in World War I, opened up a new market for women’s
ready-to-wear clothing.
Manufacturers of medium- and low-priced dresses hired stylists to
tell them what would be in fashion in the coming season and designers
to adapt the styles to mass production. Now, designers create orig­
inal designs for manufacturers of inexpensive clothes, and women
can have the latest fashion in clothes priced to suit their pocketbooks.
Another improvement of the product—the size structure—has af­
fected the clothing market. In recent decades a complex of stand­
ardized sizing systems has developed. There are misses’ and junior
sizes, women’s half-sizes, teens, and subteens. Tall and petite girls
have their own lines. The industry is attempting to supply its cus­
tomers with clothes that fit without extensive alterations, and from
time to time it brings out new size classes along with additions to
existing ones.
Fashion also affected the market for accessories, including hats,
shoes, gloves, scarves, hose, handbags, and so forth. Furthermore, a
wide range of colors became popular in these items, making color co­
ordination an essential aspect of a woman’s wardrobe. Probably, an
average of almost $250 a year—a total of about $15 billion—is spent
by women on clothing, accessories, and jewelry.
Household Goods
Apparel and accessories have not been the only goods to feel the
impact of styling. The increased emphasis on fashion in home
furnishings is equally apparent.
A rising family income and higher standards of family and home
comforts have combined with increased mechanization to bring
homes, furniture, and home furnishings of modem design within
the reach of many consumers. Obviously, the increased market was
reflected in greater employment opportunities. Attention to design,
color, and texture in the hundreds of related household conveniences
has affected employment opportunities for women in particular.
2




: ■

:

Figure 2.—Home

—

furnishings coordinator arranges fresh flowers in a
model room she designed. Hers is a relatively new occupation in the
fashion field.




3

OUTLOOK FOR THE INDUSTRY
Expansion—Population and the Branch Store
The Bureau of the Census has estimated that the population of
this country will pass the 200 million mark before 1975—may even
exceed 225 million. The number of young adults of the family­
forming ages will be greatly increased and, if birth rates continue
at present levels, there will be more children.
To the retailer, this means an ever-expanding army of potential
customers. It probably indicates further expansion of the popu­
lation into the suburbs, and retail establishments have historically
followed population shifts.
Within recent years a movement to the suburbs has been in full
swing and has resulted in the building of several hundred suburban
stores in the department- and specialty-store fields alone.
Some retail authorities have warned against possible overbuilding
of suburban stores, but others believe that greater care in the selec­
tion of sites and overall planning is indicated, rather than a halt in
building. Neighborhood shopping centers have proved to be espe­
cially good locations for branch department stores, and the trend is
toward larger suburban stores in the future. Authorities agree that
the outlook is for more retail outlets, independently owned units as
well as branches of established stores or chain operations.
Expansion and reorganization create new kinds of positions as well
as openings in existing types of jobs. In recent years, new suburban
stores have employed many part-time sales workers and established
new supervisory posts, such as sales manager and branch coordinator.

Trends in Selling Methods
One of the relatively recent developments that may affect future
employment in retailing is simplified selling. In stores of all sizes
and kinds, selling has been simplified to some extent.
The stock may be so arranged that a customer can make a tentative
selection, but requires the assistance of a salesclerk before reaching a
final decision. In many stores, for example, a customer may, without
assistance, locate a rack of dresses in her size, examine them, and
choose several that interest her. Thereafter, a sales woman assigns
her to a fitting room, helps her try on the dresses, and completes the
sale.
4



An extensive display of samples may simplify selling. In a shoe
department, for example, displays of sample shoes demonstrate avail­
able styles, but the customer must turn to the salesperson for
information on range of colors, sizes, heel heights, and materials.
The most familiar form of simplified selling is “self-service,” or
exposed selling where an entire line of stock is arranged in open
displays, enabling the customers to make their own selections with
little or no assistance from salespeople.
Retailers have found that staples and inexpensive items are best
suited for self-service methods. Many articles, especially style items
and such items as home furnishings are not suitable for self-service.
Salespersons will, therefore, continue to be needed for merchandise
that needs to be explained, demonstrated, matched, or fitted.

Automation in the Industry
A large amount of paperwork is involved in the operation of large
retailing establishments. Itemized orders go out from buyers, tickets
and stickers are attached to incoming goods each day, mail and tele­
phone orders from customers are processed, sales slips written, cus-

t. Ml

Figure 3.—Merchandise

control supervisor gets a preview of figures as
they come from an electronic computer.




5

tomers’ accounts posted. Bills are sent out each month, and inven­
tories kept. In addition, there are employee payrolls and personnel
records.
Mechanical and electronic devices for handling paperwork automati­
cally are in use in many stores, and more extensive and intensive use
of them is likely in the future. Because of this, ability to operate
office machines is becoming more important as a qualification for
clerks. Supervisory and management methods are also changing
to adapt to the new machinery.
In the opinion of many authorities automation may not bring a
reduction in the number of persons employed in clerical operations.
Offsetting the reduced amount of work necessary for maintenance
of the present volume of records is the increasing emphasis on up-tothe-minute inventories, studies of past sales, profits by item, cost by
item, stock turnover, and so forth. Office workers of the future may,
therefore, prepare more reports for policy makers and spend less
time processing routine transactions.

Employment Trends and Outlook
Eight, million persons were employed by retail trade establishments
in 1958, an increase of more than a million in the last 10 years, ac­
cording to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. These annual averages
do not include self-employed persons or unpaid family workers. In
periods of general business recession, retailing employment tends
to decline, but the long-range outlook for the industry indicates in­
creased employment. Some increases may be expected even at the
nonsupervisory level where the effects of simplified selling methods
and automation are most likely to be felt. As employment of super­
visors and executives is less likely to be affected by these factors,
the indications are for a continuing need for competent people at
all levels—executive, supervisory, and nonsupervisory.

Opportunities for Beginners
Many opportunities occur as a result of turnover and expansion.
With over 1 million department and specialty store employees, twothirds of whom are women, the number of persons resigning in any
one year is well into the thousands.
Many of the opportunities created by turnover are, therefore, avail­
able to beginners with little or no work experience. Turnover is
much lower among women over 35 years of age than among young
women.
6



New positions are also created by expansion and/or reorganization.
An example of this is the staffing of a new suburban branch store, for
which hundreds of new employees may be hired, although supervisory
positions may he filled from within the organization.
Both turnover and expansion provide openings for junior execu­
tives as well as beginning sales or clerical personnel.

HIGHER LEVEL POSITIONS
FOR WOMEN
As a general rule, the larger the store, the greater are the oppor­
tunities for executive and supervisory jobs. In small stores or spe­
cialty shops, the owner and one or two employees may do all the
work—planning, buying, receiving, pricing, advertising, window
trimming, selling, wrapping, and maintaining accounts and inven­
tory. On the other hand, in firms with hundreds of employees, a
division of function—that is, job specialization—is necessary. Differ­
ent functions may be assigned to separate divisions requiring execu­
tives and supervisors to direct the work. For example, separate
divisions may be needed for such functions as personnel adminis­
tration, credit, alterations, deliveries, and so forth.
Where the number of supervisory and executive positions is sub­
stantial, openings occur often enough to give promising employees
opportunities for advancement. Many large retailing firms operate
executive-development programs to train employees for higher posi­
tions. Even without formal training, a person may qualify for
advancement through experience. In many cases, employees can
improve their chances for promotion by gaining experience in more
than one department.

Types of Establishments
In retail trade, women were close to one-third of the managers
and officials in apparel and accessories stores, and well over one-fifth
in general merchandise and 5- and 10-cent stores in 1950. Available in­
formation indicates that in department stores the proportion of
women executives is higher than in most other establishments of the
general merchandise group. It is probably safe to assume, therefore,
that somewhere between one-fourth and one-third are women. More­
over, store buyers are definitely executives, and their inclusion with
other managers and officials would raise still further the percentage




7

of women among department store executives. Inclusion of super­
visors of less than executive rank brings the total to an estimated
40 percent.
Some salaried women managers and officials were employed in all
types of retail establishments, and as buyers or department heads
and floor managers in both retail and wholesale establishments, as
the following decennial census figures for 1950 show:
Women salary workers
Percent
Percent distribuNum her of total tion

Store buyers and department heads1
Store floormen and floor managers1
Managers, officials, and proprietors in retail trade____
Eating and drinking places 19, 403
Apparel and accessories stores 13, 519
General merchandise and 5- and 10-centstores-----Food and dairy-products stores 12, 321
Furniture and home-furnishing stores----------------Motor vehicles and accessories retailing------------Hardware, farm implement, and building material
retailing
1,571
Gasoline service stations_______________________
Other retail trade 13,351

33,120
4, 890
78, 478

13, 248
2, 530
1,912

1 Includes wholesale.
Source: U.S. Department qf Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
lation. PC-1 and PE-1B.

623

25
47
15

—
—
100

28
32
22
12
9
3

25
17
17
16
3
2

4
2
17

2
1
17

1950 Census of Popu­

Nearly half of the salaried floormen and floor managers in stores
were women, as were one-fourth of the salaried buyers and depart­
ment heads. Since there are very few women buyers in wholesale
trade, the percentage of women among retail buyers would doubtless
be much greater.
In eating and drinking places, also, more than one-fourth of the
salaried managers and officials were women. In this type of estab­
lishment, however, the occupations, preparation needed, and qualifi­
cations for advancement are so dissimilar to those of department and
specialty stores that no attempt was made to cover them in this report.
In other types of retail establishments, as the summary shows,
women constitute much smaller percentages of the managers and pro­
prietors—ranging from 12 percent in food and dairy stores and 9
percent in furniture stores down to 2 percent in gasoline stations.
For the individual woman with an aptitude for retailing, therefore,
it is possible to advance to an executive position in whatever type of
establishment her previous employment gives her experience. In
small establishments, a knowledge of the business may be acquired
through employment as salesperson, secretary, or bookkeeper.
8



Number of Executive and Supervisory Positions
Nearly 27,000 women, or about one-third of those listed as salaried
managers and officials in retail trade in 1950 (see summary on p. 8)
were in two types of establishments—apparel and accessories (spe­
cialty) stores and general merchandise and limited price stores (in­
cluding department stores). With the addition of buyers and floor
managers, most of whom can also be assumed to be in large stores such
as department and specialty stores, the total would be well over
60,000.
A further examination of employment figures indicates that de­
partment and specialty stores offer not only the largest number of
openings for women in salaried executive and supervisory positions
but also the widest range of opportunities. According to the 1954
Census of Business, department stores (fewer than 2,800 in number),
representing only 0.2 percent of all retail establishments, employed
more than 10 percent of all retail-trade employees.
Department stores had an average of 266 employees—six times as
many as mail-order houses, which had the next largest average (see
appendix table). Some individual stores employ thousands of work­
ers. Women’s clothing or specialty stores were much more numerous
but had an average of only 6 employees per store. Because of the
more limited lines of merchandise carried, specialty stores range in
size fiom a tiny shop operated by the owner alone to a huge store
with the characteristics of a departmentalized store.
Representatives of the industry report that 10 to 12 percent of all
employees in department stores are in executive and supervisory posi­
tions. Presumably large specialty stores have a comparable ratio
because of their similarity to department stores.

Importance of Department and Specialty Stores
Because of the great importance of department stores as a field
of employment for women planning for a career in retailing, several
chapters of this report are devoted to a more extended discussion of
the various kinds of positions in which women executives have made
the most progress, notably in the merchandising and personnel divi­
sions.
There are many outstanding examples of women in major executive
jobs in department and specialty stores, but among the top executives
women are less well represented than they are among other executives
and supervisors. This may be largely due to the fact that many women
junior executives and supervisors leave paid employment before they
reach the top. Although it is still true that in some stores women




9

are not considered for policy-making offices, recent trends point to
ever increasing opportunities for them in executive positions.

EARNINGS AND WORKING CONDITIONS
Earnings
Retailing offers ambitious women a bright future and high earn­
ings in return for hard work and willingness to take responsibility.
While earnings in beginning jobs in retailing are relatively low, the
potential is great for persons with the special abilities required.
Starting salaries of women college graduates averaged $3,381 early
in 1958 for assistant buyers and store trainees, and $2,860 for sales­
clerks and other retail workers. The average salary of the employed
graduates in all industries was $3,739.1 Advancement to well-paid
positions can be rapid in retail trade, however, especially for college
graduates.
Few industries have as many executive jobs open to women. Not
only can women achieve high-level posts, but those who do may re­
ceive incomes exceeding those of women with successful careers in
m,any other fields. A figure of $25,000 a year is not unusual.
The practice of giving year-end bonuses, prevalent in many stores,
increases the yearly income of company officers, executives, and mem­
bers of the merchandising division above the regular salaries or com­
missions paid. Bonuses are paid sometimes in shares of stock and
sometimes in cash.

Hours of IVork
The length of a person’s workweek depends roughly upon the level
of responsibility, according to a study by the National Retail Mer­
chants Association. In department stores, a majority of sales and
other nonsupervisory personnel have a 5-day, 40-hour workweek,
including one evening when stores are open at night. If required to
work overtime, they generally receive extra pay. Trainees and junior
executives may have a scheduled workweek of 5, 5y2, or 6 days with
many in the 5-day category. Senior and m,ajor executives are more
likely to work a 6-day week, probably devoting even more time to
their jobs than they are scheduled to do. Their earnings are usually
in terms of annual salary and/or commissions, having no direct rela­
tionship to the number of hours worked.
1 First Jobs of College Women: Report on Women Graduates, Class of 1957.
Bureau Bull. 268. 1-959. Table 17.

10



Women’s

A fairly frequent comment made by women retailing executives who
were interviewed by the Women’s Bureau was that the amount of
time that must be devoted to the job is excessive and limits the family
and community activities in which they can engage. In this respect,
the retailing industry is similar to many other industries in which top
executives, “40 hour” and otherwise, characteristically give many
extra hours.

Vacations
An annual vacation of at least 2 weeks with pay is provided by
most stores. Industry sources indicate that executives commonly
receive 3 or 4 weeks. Many large stores have graduated plans pro­
viding 2 to 4 weeks of vacation on the basis of rank or seniority.
Since most executives have long years of service, they have the longer
vacations under either system.

Other Benefits
Most stores provide paid sick leave for their regular employees.
Interviews conducted by the Women’s Bureau showed that the
amount of leave often depends upon rank and length of service; for
key executives, sick leave may be very liberal.
Many companies offer retirement benefits paid for entirely by the
company. These pensions supplement social security benefits. For
executives in particular such retirement income is likely to be much
higher than the top social security payments.
Virtually all stores give discounts on purchases to employees.
Amounts vary, but 10 percent is frequently allowed on all purchases,
with 20 percent on clothing bought to wear on the job. This privi­
lege may assume considerable importance in reducing the cost not
only of wardrobes but of such items as household equipment and
furnishings which may be available from tire store.
Group life insurance and health insurance are often provided.
Usually the store pays for a standard amount with additional cover­
age available if the employee wishes to pay the difference.
Profit-sharing plans are popular. A store sets aside a portion of
its profits as a fund which is held in trust for the employees. Each
employee is credited with a prorated amount of the year’s sum,
according to the employee’s earnings. If the firm is a stock company,
the credits may be in the form of shares of capital stock. Over a
period of years the employee builds up equity toward retirement. An
employee who leaves before reaching retirement age may receive a
lump-sum payment equal to part, of her equity.




11

Chart I.—A Functional Organization Pattern

of a

Large Department Store

GENERAL MANAGEMENT

Merchandising

Sales promotion

Personnel

Display

Training

Sel ing

Fashion
coordination
Comparison
shopping




Unit
control

Wage
and
salary
administration

Employee
services

Purchasing

Accounting

Workrooms

Credit

Special
events

relations

Customer
services

Budgeting

Advertising

Employment

Buying

Store operations

Financial control

Receiving

Auditing

Adjustment

Charge
authorization
Bookkeeping

Bill
adjustment

Personal
shopping

Maintenance

Protection

2
Careers for Women in
Department and Specialty Stores
Just over 1 million persons were employed in department and spe­
cialty stores when the 1954 Census of Business was taken. It has been
estimated that 60 to 65 percent of the employees of these stores are
women. Moreover, the proportion of salaried executives and super­
visors who are women is estimated to be about 40 percent.
In general, the larger the store, the more intricate its organizational
structure. The number of units, their forms and names vary widely
from store to store, but underlying any structure are five major func­
tions basic to all stores: merchandising, personnel, sales promotion,
financial control, and store operations. Many stores use a fivedivisional organization that corresponds to these functions. A skele­
ton chart of this organization (see chart I) is included merely to show
the variety of functions and services involved in department store re­
tailing. The chart also suggests the array of talents utilized by the
industry as well as the variety of positions which generally exist in the
larger department stores.

MERCHANDISING
Of the higher level jobs in department and specialty stores, probably
half or more are in merchandising. For women, in particular, this has
been the most promising field for advancement; most of the high-level
jobs occupied by women are in this area.
Merchandising activities are the heart of a retail store. They in­
clude the purchasing of goods from manufacturers and wholesalers
and the selling of goods to customers. Merchandising is a fast moving
business; it needs energetic executives who can think fast and operate
without wasted motion. To be successful in it one should have enthusi­
asm for constant change, an appreciation of the merchandise offered,
and a real liking and talent for dealing with people.
Inherent in the merchandising function are several different types
of work. There are executive responsibilities such as planning the
merchandising budget for each department and supervision of the




13

sales force; there are the necessary recordkeeping and control activties including maintenance of inventories; and there are such vital
aspects of merchandising as buying, planning sales-promotion events
and fashion coordination. (See chart II.) The rank and file in the
merchandising division are the salesworkers, of whom perhaps twothirds are women, and smaller groups of stockroom and clerical
workers.

Merchandise Manager
The executive in charge of several departments is the merchandise
manager. A small store may have only one merchandise manager; a
larger store may have several divisional merchandise managers who
work under the direction of a general manager; while the very large
store may have many divisional merchandise managers, several group
merchandise managers who coordinate their work, and one vice presi­
dent in charge of merchandising who is' responsible for the entire
function.
Chart II.—Merchandising
GENERAL MERCHANDISE MANAGER

Merchandise
manager
Fashion
coordinator

Division merchandise
manager

Comparison
shopping
manager

Buyer

Unit
control
manager

Assistant buyer
Head of
stock

Buyer's
clericals

Salespersons

14



The general merchandise manager, occupying one of the top posts
in any store, is often a company official and may aspire to the presi­
dency of the firm.
Merchandising managers may exercise control over the buying di­
rectly by making major decisions, or indirectly through the budget.
In the latter case, the merchandise is selected by the various buyers.
The National Retail Merchants Association estimates that 28 percent
of all merchandise managers in department stores earn over $20,000 a
year.
Although relatively few women become merchandise managers, the
opportunities are there for capable women who continue their careers
in retailing. Many women as a matter of choice leave the retailing
business for marriage, even after they have become buyers, before
they have acquired the years of experience necessary for senior execu­
tive positions. Despite this fact some retailers estimate that as many
as 1 in every 10 merchandise managers is a woman.

Buyer or Department Head,
The position of buyer is both responsible and rewarding. To many
women it is the ultimate goal, while to others it is merely a steppingstone to higher jobs. All other occupations in merchandising pivot
around that of the buyer, providing either assistance or supervision.
At present, about half of all buyers in department stores are women.
A buyer in a retail store is usually a department head or manager
and is frequently called by that title. Her duties are multiple and
complex—she may do all of the following: Given a budget for the
season, determine what, when, and where to buy, select merchandise,
agree with the manufacturer or wholesaler upon price, delivery, and
other related details; set the prices of items to be sold; supervise sales
staff, stockrooms, and recordkeeping; arrange for return of defective
merchandise, and for markdowns of slow-moving items; supervise
department display and advertising.
As a department head, the buyer has many of the responsibilities
of a store owner plus additional obligations to her superiors in the
merchandising division and various persons in other divisions with
whom she cooperates.
Buyers usually spend less time seated at a desk than moving about
on the selling floor, in stockrooms, and out of the store visiting sup­
pliers. Characteristic of the buyer’s job is the trip to “the market,”
occurring semiannually or oftener. For buyers of women’s apparel,
this consists of a whirlwind tour of showrooms to Anew the new




15

season’s offerings. Some buyers are selected to make trips to foreign
markets.
A buyer measures her success in dollars and cents of profit to her
department. She is constantly competing against other departments
and other stores for profits. A competent buyer can command a
salary commensurate with her ability and generally has little trouble
changing jobs if she wishes to do so.
Earnings of buyers range from under $4,000 to over $20,000 de­
pending upon the size and type of department. Earnings tend to be
lowest in small stores, highest in large stores in departments selling
the more expensive merchandise such as housefurnishings, floor cov­
erings, and major appliances. The National Retail Merchants Asso­
ciation estimates that 13 percent of all buyers earn over $10,000
annually.
A number of different opportunities for advancement are open to
buyers. They may be promoted to the position of merchandise
manager. They may also improve their status and increase their
earnings by transfer to a larger department—for example, from lowpriced blouses to sportswear, w7here the salary and potential com­
missions or bonuses would be larger. Or a buyer might stay in the
same line of goods, but move to a larger store where she would have
greater volume of sales, and consequently a larger income. Many
successful buyers have increased their earning power by handling
more than one department or buying for more than one store (i.e.,
the main store and several branches).
A young person on her first buying job may find herself in a small
department where she seems to have little scope or opportunity. But
if she makes good on her first assignment she may find herself trans­
ferred to a more important department.
Separation of selling from buying function
Retail executives report that within recent years attempts have
been made to separate the selling function from the buying function
in order to reduce the pressure on buyers. One result has been the
development of a new position in branch stores—that of sales man­
ager. The sales manager assumes responsibility for supervising the
sales and recordkeeping functions of a department thereby relieving
the buyer of these duties. The buyer still carries major responsibil­
ity for the profits of the department and continues her buying activ­
ities, which involve traveling. The sales manager works under less
pressure than the buyer.
16



Qualifications
The buyer’s job requires some special qualifications in addition to
those needed in general for success in retailing (see chapter 4).
Buyers need a thorough knowledge of customers’ likes and dislikes,
of store system, and of sources or venders. They should be able to
judge values and sales potential, quickly and accurately. They need
a good memory for details in order to deal with a multitude of related
facts pertaining to many articles of merchandise. They must also
be able to organize the details into a composite mental picture of the
entire situation.
Buyers should be free to travel, because they often visit distant
markets as part of the job. In some cases they may find willingness
to move from one city to another an asset for advancement.
Several years of store experience are usually required for a person
to reach buyer status. This may range from 3 to 6 years for the
average young woman. For executive trainees, the period required
may be cut to 2 years or even less. Women under 25 years of age
are rarely found with the rank of buyer.
A college education is helpful, but not essential, in becoming a
buyer. "Reportedly, a college graduate with merchandising ability
has an easier climb up the ladder than a noncollege woman of equal
ability.
A flair for fashion is important for buyers in fashion merchandis­
ing—that is, in clothing, accessories, home furnishings and related
departments. A woman with appropriate aptitudes can usually ac­
quire, through constant exposure to fashion merchandise, a workable
knowledge of what the customers are likely to purchase. To keep
abreast of constantly changing styles, the buyer needs imagination
and the ability to grasp new ideas rapidly and evaluate them in
terms of her customer’s’ preferences.

Central Buyers and Resident Buyers
The department or specialty store buyer may at some point in her
career shift to central buying for a chain operation or join a resident
buying office.
A centra] buyer specializes in the “market end” of buying for a
large chain of stores or a mail-order house. This involves locating
sources, making selections of merchandise, ordering, and reordering.
Selling and sales supporting activities are left to t'he local merchants
and department managers. Centralized buying offices generally hire
or develop buyers whose abilities have been proven and who are
experienced in customer .contact.




17

Resident buying offices, also known as buying syndicates and buying
associations, are located mainly in New York City. Some are owned
and operated by one store or a group of stores, while others are in­
dependently owned and offer their services to stores for a fee. In
either case the buying office is staffed with resident buyers who aid
buyers of client stores and in some ways supplement their activities.
Resident buyers spend most of their time in the market. Before the
store buyer arrives, the resident buyer has scouted the market and
is on hand for consultation. After the store buyer returns home
the resident buyer continues to assist her by placing orders and
reorders, by preparing informational bulletins, and when given au­
thority by the store buyer by selecting additional merchandise to be
shipped to the store.

Assistant Buyer
The assistant buyer’s job is the most important stepping stone to
the position of buyer. A typical progression might be: salesgirl,
head of stock, assistant buyer in small department, assistant buyer
in major department, buyer in small department, buyer for large or
several small departments.
The assistant buyer is generally responsible for the more routine
aspects of the buyer’s work, including day-to-day supervision of de­
partment personnel, and maintenance of sales and inventory records.
The assistant buyer may have the opportunity to accompany the
buyer on visits to suppliers, and may search for new sources of mer­
chandise. She may be in charge of the department in the absence of
the buyer.
Earnings of assistant buyers vary with the size and profitability
of the department. Assistant buyers often work on a straight salary
which may range from $3,000 to $6,000 or more per year. Sometimes
a small commission or bonus is added.
College graduates may be hired as buyer trainees, but a year or
so of training which includes sales experience is the usual route. Some
college women obtain sales experience through summer jobs or part­
time work while still in college and are ready for assistant buyer
positions upon graduation. High school graduates are considered
for supervisory jobs when they have demonstrated maturity of judg­
ment and a serious interest in retailing careers.

18




Head of Stock
The head of stock is responsible for maintaining assortments and
displays on counters, supervising stockroom workers, and reporting
merchandise needed. The head of stock usually earns less than the
first assistant buyer but more than the salespersons in her department.
This job represents the first rung on the supervisory ladder in
merchandising. It can be filled either by a qualified sales person or
by a management trainee.

■■

Figure 4.—Head of stock lists items for reorder.




19

Fashion Coordinator
The job of fashion coordinator or stylist is probably the most
glamorous job in retailing. As the title implies, one of its major
functions is to make certain that all the fashion departments are
kept current with the latest fashion trends.
The fashion coordinator is almost invariably a woman. She ad­
vises buyers and merchandise managers on style trends, assists in
advertising, and stages fashion shows (chooses clothes, trains models,
and arranges publicity). Her very busy job pays well, often over
$10,000 a year.
She may previously have been a buyer or assistant buyer in a fashion
department, an advertising assistant, a graduate of a fashion school,
or a manufacturer’s representative. She may have begun as assistant
or secretary to a fashion coordinator. Considerable knowledge of
fashion merchandising was necessary for her to have reached this
supervisory position.
She needs imagination combined with a capacity for detail and a
feeling for color, design, and function. She combines sensitivity to
customer reactions with a highly developed critical faculty. Finally,
she should be an impeccable example of the well-dressed woman.
The recent emphasis on fashion in the home has introduced the new
position of home furnishings coordinator. She advises buyers of
furniture, rugs, draperies, china, and glassware, may decorate model
rooms and assemble home furnishings for window displays.

Comparison Shopping Manager
It is common practice for the larger stores to maintain a department
devoted to the investigation of offerings of competitors. The chief
of this department, the comparison shopping manager, is almost al­
ways a woman. The comparison shopping manager is head of the
staff of shoppers. Very often she is a former shopper, but she may also
have been an assistant buyer, or buyer.
Shoppers regularly examine the merchandise sold by competitors,
taking into account price, quality, and breadth and depth of stock as­
sortment. Items may be purchased for closer examination at the home
store. Customer services rendered by competitors are also tested from
time to time.
Formerly, a shopper’s usefulness was ended when she became known
to the competitors, but the practice of comparison shopping is now
so commonly accepted that the shopper lias a permanent job and be­
comes increasingly valuable with experience.
20



The comparison shopping manager needs tact in dealing with people,
a good memory, and the ability to write clear and detailed reports.
The position is an excellent stepping stone to higher executive posts,
since the comparison shopping manager deals with merchandise and
people from all parts of the store.

Other Merchandising Positions in Large Stores
Stores large enough for specialized assignments of responsibility
may have other executives reporting to the general merchandise man­
ager. Some of these are as follows:
Aisle counter manager
The aisle counter manager has charge of the small, often movable,
counters in main aisles in stores where they are managed as a separate
department. Much of the merchandise on these counters is taken from
other departments for special sales or simply because of its appro­
priateness (such as a display of umbrellas on a rainy day). This posi­
tion often goes to a young person with supervisory potential, but in
some stores is important enough to require an experienced person.
Unit control department manager
The position of unit control department manager is found in large
stores which keep extensive records of merchandise on hand. These
records aid buyers and managers in selecting stock for markdowns,
in recognizing when to reorder “good sellers,” and in judging new
merchandise offerings in terms of past sales trends. When centralized,
this recordkeeping requires the services of an entire department.

Entrance Jobs as Stepping Stones
Since merchandising consists of buying, selling, and related func­
tions, sales experience is essential for would-be executives in this work.
A high school graduate can expect to start her merchandising career
in stock or as a sales clerk. Some stores, however, reserve sales open­
ings for more mature applicants. Secretarial jobs are also possible
starting points. In many of the entrance jobs, the new employees have
a chance to study customer reactions and preferences, and thus gain an
insight into local customers’ buying behavior. A thorough under­
standing of buying behavior is a prime factor in successful
merchandising.




21

College graduates may enter as junior executive trainees, but serve
a similar, if shorter, apprenticeship in sales and stock work. By vir­
tue of additional training, schooling, and age, the college educated
person may move ahead faster. The ultimate degree of success de­
pends greatly on ability.

PERSONNEL
Women are liberally represented in the personnel work of depart­
ment and specialty stores. Frequently the personnel director is the
top ranking woman executive in the store. Some become vice
presidents and serve on the store’s executive committee or board.
Since personnel work encompasses hiring, training, employee wel­
fare, and labor relations, it is a field which has attracted many women.
Chart III illustrates one example of an organization structure for the
personnel function of a large store.
Personnel is increasingly being organized into a separate division
although in some stores it is attached to store operations. In number
of persons employed, it is relatively small.

Personnel Director
Responsible for the whole personnel operation is the personnel di­
rector. If the store is a large one, the director is chiefly an adminis­
trator, a policy-maker, and coordinator of all the various activities
outlined in chart III.
Personnel directors or managers in smaller stores may be limited
primarily to the employing and training functions. In some cases
the personnel director is in reality an employment manager with each
of the other divisions of the store doing its own training.
Salaries vary with the size of store and degree of responsibility.
They may range from $3,000 to over $25,000, with the higher salaries
usually reserved for company officers. The National Retail Mer­
chants Association estimates that one-third of all personnel directors
earn over $10,000 a year.
Promotion to director is often made from the personnel staff, al­
though the newness of the field has brought persons with general
retailing experience into the position. Increasingly, however, per­
sonnel officers are likely to be college graduates with specialized
personnel training and experience.
22




Chart III.—Personnel
PERSONNEL DIRECTOR

Employment
manager

Labor relations

Wage and salary
administrator

manager

Training
director
Job analysts

Placement
officer
(sales)

Placement
officer
(non-selling)

Placement
officer
(contingents)
Consultants

Interviewers
System
instructor

Training
instructor

Manager of employee services

Editor
house organ

Recreation
director

Cafeteria
manager

Employee
counselor

Physician

Dietitian
Nurse

Dentist

Chiropodist

Employment Manager
Stores employing a few hundred to several thousand people almost
always have some vacancies in full-time permanent jobs. In addi­
tion, the fluctuating and seasonal nature of retail trade lends itself to
the use of many part-time and part-year workers. Most stores of
medium size or more have at least one person, the employment
manager, who is responsible for obtaining the necessary workers.
Duties include recruiting new workers, interviewing, testing,
selecting and placing them on suitable jobs.
Many employment managers are specialists in personnel work,
having studied personnel management or related subjects such as in­
dustrial psychology or sociology. Others are retailing employees
transferred from other divisions because of their knowledge of job
requirements and interest in personnel work.




23

If the personnel worker is new to the industry, she may gain the
necessary experience in various phases of retailing in a training
period of 6 months to a year.
A woman interested in this type of work should have some under­
standing of human behavior, an outgoing personality, and a friendly
but business-like manner. She should be able to prepare newspaper
advertisements, recruitment pamphlets for distribution to schools and
colleges, and informational material for new employees.
Earnings, depending upon the degree of responsibility and size
of the division, range from $3,000 to $7,500 or more.

Placement Officer
The volume of recruitment and placement may be too great for the
employment manager to handle, and if so junior executives called
placement officers may be employed. In chart III, three placement
officers are indicated, each one specializing in a different group of
workers. One hires and counsels permanent sales employees; an­
other, nonselling personnel such as office, stockroom, and delivery
employees. The third engages “contingents”—the part-time or partyear workers.
Since placement officers are junior employment managers and in the
line of promotion to employment manager, the requirements for these
jobs are similar.

Interviewers
The entrance job for professionally trained persons in the employ­
ment section of the personnel division is that of interviewer. This
person questions applicants, administers tests, checks references, and
refers qualified recruits to the placement officer or employment man­
ager for final decision on hiring.
College graduates are preferred for the interviewing position by
stores that consider it a stepping-stone to executive rank. Beginners
may start at $40 to $65 a week.

Training Director
Most large stores have a section devoted exclusively to the many
types of training that are carried on continuously. The director is
responsible for organizing and supervising the various programs.
The position is usually held by a woman. She must be thoroughly
24



familiar w ith all phases of the store’s operations in order to supervise
instruction in the following areas:
(a) Salesmanship and store systems training for new sales
employees.
(b) Technical training for nonselling employees.
(c) Brush-up training for employees already at work, for the
purpose of improving efficiency and introducing new
procedures.

Figure

5.—Young interviewer puts applicant at ease during discussion
of job possibilities.




25

(d) Remedial training for employees who have unsatisfactory
ratings.
(e) Training in supervision for new or future supervisors.
(f) Junior executives development programs for newly recruited
college graduates and other promising employees.
(g) Merchandise information training.
Because of the nature of the work, many training directors are
college graduates with majors in the humanities, personnel, or pos­
sibly education. Some directors, however, have risen from the ranks
with only general retailing experience.
Whatever her formal education may be, the woman who becomes
a training director must be first of all a good teacher. A pleasing
manner, leadership qualities, the ability to speak well—all are im­
portant assets.
Depending upon the size of the training division and the importance
of the director’s position, she may earn from $3,000 to $7,500 or more
a year. In major department stores, earnings may exceed $10,000.

Training Assistants
In smaller stores the training director may personally do all the
teaching, or she may have one assistant handle part of it. Large
stores divide the classroom work among a staff of assistants.
Of the assistants, the training instructors or supervisors are respon­
sible for general and technical training. They organize the various
training groups, prepare schedules, and do a major part of the in­
struction. Since the job may lead to that of training director, the
general qualifications are much the same.
One assistant—the system instructor—specializes in teaching em­
ployees store procedures. She may also devote part of her time to
developing and improving the “system.”
A fabric consultant and a stylist may instruct on textiles and fash­
ion, respectively. They may be permanently assigned to the training
division or borrowed on a part-time basis from the merchandising
division.
An editorial assistant may be needed to prepare manuals for the
training courses.

Manager of Kntployee Services
Employee welfare, health, and morale are the responsibility of
one or several sections within the personnel division. The manager
coordinates a variety of diverse functions in the process of carrying
26



out store policies. Primarily an administrator, the person occupying
this position may have risen from the ranks of general retailing, or
may be a specialist in personnel management and employee relations.
The areas of responsibility assigned to the manager of employee
services vary from store to store. They may include any of those
shown on chart III, and possibly others, depending on the variety
of employee services provided by the store. Typically, the manager
has either direct or supervisory responsibility for editing the house
organ, for maintaining library facilities, and for the recreational
program. The safety engineer and the medical staff may be respon­
sible to the manager of employee services.
Editor, house organ
The house organ, or employee publication, is a regularly published
newspaper or newsletter circulated to store employees. It provides a
channel of communication between management and workers by inter­
preting company policies, giving recognition to employee achieve­
ments and activities, and in some cases by offering trade information of
educational value. It contains news items and announcements of
scheduled meetings, training courses, and recreational events. It may
also contain columns of safety hints, personal items, jokes, or “pep
talk.”
College training, preferably in journalism, is generally necessary
for this editorial job, particularly since it is usually held by a mem­
ber of the advertising staff who devotes only part of her time to it.
To the young woman interested in advertising, it offers an oppor­
tunity to become more familiar with retailing as practiced by her store.
Recreation director
The function of the recreation director is to organize dances, enter­
tainments, lunch-hour recreation, camping trips, bowling teams, soft­
ball teams, and other forms of recreation in which employees may be
interested. Classes may also be organized, if desired, to study cultural
subjects or handicrafts.
Young women interested in this position will find experience in
club work, camp counseling, or group social work helpful.
Employee counselor
Some larger stores provide a counselor to whom employees can
bring their personal, financial, or other problems. A mature, under­
standing, and resourceful person is needed for the position. She




27

should have a thorough knowledge of the types and extent of assist­
ance available from the store.
Cafeteria manager and assistants
A separate cafeteria, with an experienced cafeteria manager in
charge, is often maintained for employees. Well-balanced, nourish­
ing food is provided to them at cost.
Numerous other supervisory and specialized positions such as dieti­
tian, chef, pantry manager, and cost supervisor may exist in connec­
tion with the cafeteria. These occupations are closely allied to the
restaurant business.
Stores providing restaurants, cafeterias, and snack bars for cus­
tomers usually have a restaurant manager in charge of all restaurant
services. This official is often responsible to the controller or store
superintendent. The employees’ cafeteria may be connected with the
restaurant for customers.
Most of the positions in these food services are, of course, open to
qualified women, but they are generally filled by persons from the
restaurant business rather than from other divisions of the store.
Medical occupations
Health units are maintained in most large stores to provide first
aid to employees and to offer preventive health services. They employ
medical personnel whose job titles are self-explanatory. Medical or
nursing degrees or other appropriate certificates are necessary. Some
of these may be employed on a part-time basis, but the nurses are
usually full-time workers and have the greatest opportunity for con­
tact with the employees.

Labor Relations Manager
A labor-relations manager is responsible for negotiating contracts,
dealing with grievances, and improving labor-management relations
in general. This position is usually found in stores where employees
...are organized in unions. It requires considerable background in labor
relations work and sometimes legal training.

linage and Salary Administrator
Charged with the responsibility of maintaining a fair and equitable
wage structure of a large store is the wage and salary administrator.
28



The function of the administrator and the staff of job analysts is to
set up and maintain a structure of interrelated and carefully defined
positions, and to establish an equitable system of remuneration for
these jobs.
The members of this division are often specialists in personnel
work. College graduates with business administration are preferred,
although an employee with a high school education might be promoted
from a clerical job and trained for this work.

SALES PROMOTION
Retail sales promotion offers women some of their best career op­
portunities in the field of advertising. Even in stores where sales
promotion is a relatively small division, earnings are among the
highest. Its purpose is to increase sales by conveying information
to the buying public and by attracting customers. Promotion can
range from effective display techniques in a small store to the use
of mass media such as newspapers, radio, and television by larger
stores. Sales promotion represents the joint efforts of commercial
artists, copywriters, and perhaps window trimmers and sign painters.

Sales Promotion Manager
The manager of the division, who is sometimes referred to as pub­
licity director, carries the top responsibility for arousing the buying
public’s interest in the store’s merchandise. This is an executive
position attained only after years of experience in advertising and
public relations. Under the manager are all those activities of the
store which are involved in sales promotion. In directing these ac­
tivities, the manager must always be on the alert for fresh, new ideas.
Any such ideas, however, must be considered in relation to the store’s
overall policies; for example, many stores seldom depart from certain
traditional advertising procedures to which the buying public has
become accustomed. Finally, the manager must have tact and mature
judgment in directing the various activities and personnel in the
division.
Salaries m these positions range from $7,500 to more than $25,000
annually. Those at the upper range of the salary scale are usually
company officers.




29

m-1

■■

&£&'/

*.

S m^::-^

<*\ \ „~

Figure 6.—Some sales promotion events are designed to attract
attention to the store as a whole rather than to specific items. Here
an ingenious window display attracts a sidewalk crowd. (Penguins
were not for sale.)

30



Advertising Manager
With a staff of artists, copywriters, and production people, the ad­
vertising manager is responsible for the store’s advertisements. They
may appear in newspapers, handbills or as inserts with monthly
statements. The advertising manager is responsible for the media
used, for the content of the ads, and for the expenses incurred.
This is also an executive position, usually requiring years of experi­
ence in advertising work. Successful advertising depends upon skill
in communicating ideas as well as skill in techniques. As a potential
candidate for the position of sales promotion manager, the adver­
tising manager is also familiar with store policy and its bearing upon
the store’s publicity program. Members of the advertising staff de­
pend on their manager for direction as to approach, and overall
impression which the advertisement is to make on the general public.
The advertising manager directs the work of staff members, some
of whom are highly trained and specialized employees. The scope
of responsibility involved is suggested by the descriptions given below
of some of their duties.
Artists
The illustrations that appear in the store’s advertisements are prepaied in final form by the art staff. The finished product requires
the skill of a commercial artist, a skill acquired either in an art school
or during an apprenticeship lasting several years.
Advertising art may show the customer exactly what is offered by
presenting detailed and accurate drawings of the merchandise. When
illustrating apparel and other fashion goods, however, some stores
use an impressionistic approach. In this latter type of advertising
the commercial artist has a real opportunity to express imagination
and to be creative.
The artists may be supervised by an art director, who is an adminis­
trator as well as an artist.
Copywriters
Writing advertising copy is another of the many specialized
assignments within the advertising department. The “copy,” is the
written portion and explains the product being advertised. It may
involve merely the briefest description of an item of merchandise, or
extend into narrative regarding a special sale or other event.
Copywriting is a highly compact and condensed form of writing
which is always limited by space considerations and which must,
therefore, make every word count.




31

Layout Artists
The work done by the artists and copywriters is coordinated by
the layout artists, who combine the illustrations and written materia
into a finished advertisement, under the supervision of the art
director.
. .
The layout artist deals with the problems of position ot illustra­
tions and copy, the sizes of headlines and other such factors which
determine whether the advertisement is integrated, eye-catching, and
meaningful. Making good layouts calls for technical skill and
originality.

Special Events Coordinator
When a sales promotion feature is store-wide, such as an exhibition
or a contest, it is the responsibility of the special events coordinator.
This executive position requires a considerable amount of skdl in
developing good public relations as well as competence in the sales
promotion field. To insure the success of such an all-out sales pro­
motion effort the special events coordinator works with the various
sections of the sales promotion division and the other divisions of
the store. For example, if arrangements are made for an important
author to visit a store and autograph his books, the coordinator
arranges for extra salespersons, for adequate stocks of the author s
books, for window displays, special advertising, newspaper and tele­
vision announcements, and for the necessary space.

Display Director
As with other higher level jobs in the sales-promotion side of re­
tailing, a display director should have, in addition to an artistic
imagination, the technical knowledge to put it to work. To the
passer-by, the window of a store actually represents the store. Floor
and counter displays are also important in catching the attention of
the customer who has entered the store. The stylists, decorators, and
sign painters are sometimes recruited among graduates of fine arts
schools. Vocational schools as well as art schools offer the necessary
training in such things as color, lighting, design, and window trim­
ming. Regardless of training, a period of apprenticeship is usually
required, and both training and knowledge may be obtained on the job.
32



FINANCIAL CONTROL
In department and specialty stores, financial control involves a
large volume of bookkeeping and related work.
This function is the responsibility of a controller, under whom
there may be managers of several sections, usually including accounts
receivable, accounts payable, and credit.
Women have long been employed in this field as clerks and clerical
supervisors. A few have risen to executive rank. Many of the
women assigned to routine operations have not had sufficient education
for the higher level positions in financial management.
Some women, however, have achieved top positions in this field
and there is every reason to assume that other qualified women will
find more promotional opportunities in the future.

Controller
This major executive is responsible to management and to the
stockholders for the company’s financial welfare. If the controller
is also the treasurer, he is responsible to the corporation. If the
staff is large, the duties are chiefly administrative; if small, they
may be of a more technical nature. The position is often filled by
promotion.
One function retained in the controller’s own office is the prepara­
tion and administration of the store’s budget. The controller may
have a staff of assistants who aid in the detail work.
Requirements for the position include a high degree of adminis­
trative ability, a thorough knowledge of accounting and business law,
and an analytical mind.
The National Retail Merchants Association estimates that over
70 percent of senior control executives earn more than $10,000 a year.
Earnings are highest for control executives who are also company
officers.

Accounts Receivable Manager
Most department and specialty stores permit their customers to
charge purchases. As a result, several sections may be required to
handle customer charge accounts.
The first., presided over by the accounts receivable manager, is con­
cerned with the bookkeeping work connected with the regular credit
accounts.




33

The accounts receivable manager has overall responsibilty for sev­
eral functions. For example, there are sections headed by a charge
authorization manager, a bookkeeping manager, a bill-adjustment
manager, and a credit manager.
In large stores the position is primarily an administrative one, but
it requires a thorough knowledge of accounting. At the present time,
a degree in accounting is not necessary, but increased emphasis on
forma] education in all lines of business may tend to make this a
requirement in future decades.
Charge authorization manager
Purchases exceeding a specified dollar value cannot be charged and
taken from the store without authorization. The salesperson obtains
the authorization by telephone while the customer waits for her
package.
The charge authorization manager may supervise a staff of authorizers who swiftly look up the customer’s account, assess her credit
standing, and either accept or refuse to permit the charge. The man­
ager is responsible for the efficiency of the staff and the maintenance
of complete and convenient records. Questionable authorizations are
generally handled by the manager.
Since most authorizers are women, the manager is likely to be a
woman who gained her experience as an authorize!'. A woman who
is quick and accurate with figures and files can learn the work on
the job.
Bookkeeping manager
As the title implies, this person is responsible for the recordkeep­
ing end of the accounts, including the posting of charges and
payments, and the preparation of monthly bills.
The work is often divided into several sections, each one handling
a different type of account. The usual 30-day accounts and long­
term installment accounts have recently been supplemented by
“revolving” credit plans.
The bookkeeping manager must be an experienced bookkeeper, usu­
ally familiar with charge account work. Promotions are commonly
from within the section.
Bill adjustment manager
A section is often needed to handle complaints from customers
concerning their accounts. The manager and staff of interviewer*
primarily need tact and facility in dealing with people.
34



Credit Manager
Another phase of the charge account work is the opening of new
accounts, and the offering of various types of credit accounts, such
as regular or junior charge accounts, time payment accounts or re­
volving credit. Some stores may have the investigation of new
accounts done on a contract basis, but other stores customarily have
a section devoted to this work.
Judgment, tact, and integrity in dealing with people are necessary
in this field, since the work of the manager, the investigators and
interviewers involves the delicate process of inquiring into the
financial status and credit standing of prospective customers.
Beginning jobs may be as interviewers or correspondents. The
latter check credit references by mail.

Other Occupations in Control
Bookkeeping or accounting skills are required in several other
supervisory positions in the control division. Among them are the
managerial posts in “Accounts Payable” where the store’s own bills
are verified and paid; “Cashiering,” where cash sales are tallied;
“Auditing,” where constant auditing of divisional and departmental
operations are carried on. Auditing offers a wide range of activities
to a beginning bookkeeper or clerk.

STORE OPERATIONS
Store operations include the housekeeping functions, various services
to the customer, and physical movement of merchandise. The major
functions are: “Receiving and Marking,” where incoming merchan­
dise is unpacked and ticketed; “Delivery and Warehousing,” where
goods are stored and delivered to customers; “Inside Delivery,” which
has charge of wrapping and packing of “take” merchandise; “Pur­
chasing,” where supplies are ordered; “Customer Services,” including
information personnel and floor managers; “Personal Shopping,”
which aids customers with their purchases; “Adjustment Bureau,”
which handles returned goods and complaints; “Cafeteria”; various
“Workrooms” such as repair shops and alterations, “Building Main­
tenance”; and “Protection.”




35

While occupations in the store operations division are often de­
scribed as “unsuited to women executives,” qualified women have,
nevertheless, held high executive posts in this field.
The following positions are some in which women have excelled.

Manager of Customer Services
Customer services include only a portion of the many services a large
store gives its patrons. In this case, the services are the small, on-thespot kind that take place on the selling floor.
A woman needs tact and organizing ability^ to reach the manager­
ship. Her duties include: assigning sales personnel; authorizing
merchandise returns, exchanges and refunds; investigating com­
plaints ; and assisting customers with their shopping.
The responsibilities may be divided among several junior executives,
each handling one phase of the work.
A manager of selling service supervises floor superintendents, one
to each selling floor; and section managers, several to a floor.
An adjustment bureau manager supervises a squad of adjusters and
tracers who in turn attend to complaints and merchandise returns.
Many stores also maintain a personal shopping service to do the
customer’s shopping. The position of personal shopping manager de­
mands a thorough knowledge of merchandise and customer preferences.

Purchasing Agent
Another important function is that of purchasing the supplies used
in day-to-day operations. Equipment and supplies and the stock­
rooms containing them are kept under the watchful eye of a
purchasing agent. Printing and mail may also be handled in this
section.

Other Positions Open to JVomen
Some of the workrooms, notably women’s alterations, millinery
workrooms, garment workrooms, etc., offer supervisory employment
to women. Without exception, specialized training in a trade is
necessary.
36




TOP MANAGEMENT
Little lias been said of the top management positions in department
and specialty stores. Large stores, of course, have a number of top
policy-making executives such as president, treasurer, secretary, and
several vice presidents. In general, these are salaried positions.
Very few women have reached top jobs in major stores, but enough
have done so to prove that such things can happen. At present
women hold the presidencies of at least five major stores.1 Numerous
women hold posts as vice president of their firms, and their success
will undoubtedly help to remove prejudices against women in top
management.
Very few of the women who enter retailing each year will ever
become president of a big store, but it is not an impossibility for a
highly ambitious woman with exceptional ability.
1 While this bulletin was in press, Dorothy Shaver, president of Lord & Taylor,
New York City, died after 35 years in retailing.




37

3
Women as Owners
of Small Stores
Besides the career opportunities in salaried positions open to
women in retail trade, many women operate small stores or restau­
rants of their own. This section of the report, therefore, is concerned
with the number of women proprietors in retail trade and some of
the factors contributing to success in such ventures.
Retail trade is the favorite field of women who enter business for
themselves. In April 1959 there were 335,000 self-employed women
in retail trade, according to census estimates. This was almost twice
as many as the total number of women proprietors in all other indus­
tries (192,000).
The number of women proprietors in retail trade has increased
greatly since 1950, when the decennial census reported fewer than
242,000 women self-employed in retail trade.
The following summary shows the number of self-employed women
in various types of retail establishments at the time of the last decen­
nial census with the percentage of all retail proprietors who were
women:
Self-employed women
1950

Number

Managers, officials, and proprietors in retail trade—
Bating and drinking places--------------------------------------------- .
Food and dairy-products stores--------------------------------------- .
Apparel and accessories stores---------------------------------------General merchandise and 5- and 10-cent stores---------------- .
Furniture and home furnishings stores--------------------------Gasoline service stations------------------------------------------------ .
Hardware, farm implement, and building material retailing.
Motor vehicles and accessories retailing-------------------.
Other retail trade-----------------------------------------------------

38



Percent
of total

241,661

17

75,831
71,078
25, 878
14,029
5,686
5,416
4,182
1,531
38,030

26
18
31
22
8
4
5
3
17

ESSENTIALS FOR SUCCESS
First of all, a thorough knowledge of the retailing business is
a great asset to women contemplating the esablishment of their own
businesses. The owner of a small shop should be a competent sales­
person as well as a good business manager and buyer. An “inside”
knowledge of sources—such as manufacturers and wholesalers—is
vital.

Figure 7.—Small

store owner must be a salesperson as well as a manager.
This gift shop proprietor helps customer make a suitable gift selection.




39

At the start, the owners of small stores or shops usually have to
handle personally all the important aspects of the business—the
selection and buying of merchandise, pricing the goods to be sold, the
amount of inventory to be carried, the granting of customer credit
and collection of bills, and the hiring and training of employees.
'When the business grows larger, the owner generally delegates some
of these duties to others.
A prospective owner should be prepared financially for a “lean”
period at the outset while building a reputation and steady clientele
until the business shows a steady profit. This may be a period of
6 months to 2 years or more. The financial demands upon the owner
include: rent or mortgage payments on the property; stock; utilities;
advertising costs; payroll; taxes—income, social security and (in
some States) sales taxes; and insurance—fire, theft, and liability.
In the 11 years ending with 1954, the U.S. Department of Com­
merce found that 9 million businesses were newly established or pur­
chased, and 7.8 million were “disposed of” by reorganization, trans­
fer, or liquidation. Retail trade establishments had the lowest sur­
vival rate of any type of business. However, when the owner was
able to get through the first 2 years, the chances were good that his
business would survive.
Care in selecting a good location for the business is a basic require­
ment. It is also essential that a woman proprietor develop an ade­
quate system of cost accounting, in order to know which aspects of
the enterprise are most profitable and which should be expanded,
modified, or dropped. She should be able to anticipate changes
resulting from the growth of the city and from new transportation
patterns which may affect her business.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF OWNERSHIP
There are many advantages in being the proprietor of a business.
As “her own boss,” a woman proprietor can determine within reason
the location of her shop; choose her business associates and em­
ployees; decide which responsibilities to delegate and which to
handle herself; and set her own working hours.
On the other hand, there are responsibilities linked to ownership.
The proprietor must carry the ultimate responsibility for policy and
for the success or failure of the enterprise. When problems arise
she must solve them wisely or accept the consequences. Women who
become proprietors may find that they work longer hours, are less
free to take vacations, and “carry their work home with them” more
than they did as salaried employees.
40



As the owner of a business, a woman has certain legal responsibili­
ties for obtaining the proper licenses and for other matters. If she
hires employees she is responsible for knowing and complying with
the laws that affect their employment. For example, many States
have laws specifying the maximum number of daily and weekly
hours that women and minors may be employed and the minimum
wages they may be paid; some prohibit their employment at night,
Employment certificates for minors may be required under childlabor laws that set the minimum age for full-time employment and
also for employment outside of school hours. The Federal Fair
Labor Standards Act applies to firms engaged in interstate commerce.
It may also be of interest to prospective women proprietors to know
that they may become eligible as self-employed persons for benefits
under the Federal old age, survivors, and disability insurance act.
Women planning to become owners of businesses will find helpful
suggestions and a practical guide in a pamphlet “Starting and Man­
aging a Small Business of Your Own” issued in January 1959 by the
Small Business Administration, Washington, D.C.




41

4
If You Want a Career
in Retailing
PERSONAL QUALITIES NEEDED
The persona] qualities that make for success in retailing are similar
to those that will bring a woman success in other businesses, but in
retailing greater importance is attached to these personal qualifica­
tions and abilities than to academic training as such.
When the Women’s Bureau asked personnel managers of several
leading stores to name the most important qualities looked for in
selecting women for executive development, the qualities most often
mentioned were: Ability to work with people; a demonstrated interest
in retailing; poise, maturity and self-confidence; ability to present
herself successfully in speech and appearance. These replies
underscore the emphasis placed upon personal characteristics.
Retailers are always on the lookout for women who thrive on com­
petition, who are challenged by problems, and who like opportunities
for exercising their resourcefulness and imagination. Initiative
ranks high on the list of qualifications, for professional and super­
visory staff must be able to formulate plans. Perseverance and sta­
bility are needed to carry the plans through to completion. Ability
to work effectively with people and facility in communicating ideas
are also generally necessary in these positions.

EDUCATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
Retailing is still one of the fields in which a college education is
not required for advancement. Many competent, high-ranking ex­
ecutives in retailing are not college educated; some never attended
high school. Many of these, however, began their careers years ago
when fewer people had an opportunity to attend college and highschool attendance was not as common as it is today. A higher
proportion of the executives in the future will undoubtedly have
more education.
The girl preparing for a career in retailing today should therefore
take into account the fact that she will be competing with persons
42



who have attained a high educational level. She should certainly
plan to complete high school. If she is tempted to leave school early
because of financial considerations, she should try to work part time
and still finish her schooling.

Distributive Education
Many schools participating in the vocational education program
financed jointly by Federal and State funds offer courses to train
students for employment in retail trade. Students in this program,
called distributive education, may study various retailing subjects
and obtain actual work experience in local retail firms. High schools
and junior colleges offering distributive education give students an
opportuity to complete their schooling, learn retailing, and earn
money, all at the same time.
Students are selected on the basis of interest and aptitude for re­
tailing occupations. They are placed as trainees in retail occupa­
tions to work about 15 hours each week. The manager of the business
and the coordinator (teacher) together plan a training program
which includes all the skills the pupil must learn in order to prepare
her for a career in retailing. A part of the pupil’s school work con­
sists of classroom instruction in subjects common to all distributive
occupations.
Student workers are paid by the retailing firm for their work each
week.

General High School
For students who do not want part-time work, or who do not have
access to a distributive education program, a general high school
curriculum may be very useful, especially if it includes courses in
speech, business arithmetic, history, and art. Chemistry and English
composition may also be important in merchandising and publicity.
Since dealing with people is important in many positions in re­
tailing, a student should learn at an early date to balance her studies
with social or group activities. Club membership and sports are
among the extracurricular activities which provide training in co­
operation and leadership.

College
Although a college degree is not necessary for advancement in
retailing, advancement is likely to come faster to the college graduate.




43

Even in stores which give no preference based on education, the
college experience provides a solid foundation upon which to build
a career. Furthermore, executive training programs in many large
stores are designed for recent college graduates.
College graduates who enter executive training programs in re­
tailing come from many different fields of study. Most common are
liberal arts, retailing, marketing, home economics, fine arts, journalism,
and business administration. Retailing executives are divided on
the merits of a general education in liberal arts as opposed to a
specialized education in retailing.
As in high school, college courses useful in preparation for many
jobs in retailing include English, speech, history, chemistry, and
art. Additional college courses pertinent to certain types of work
in retailing are accounting, economics, sociology, psychology, and
political science. All will help the student understand the world
around her—the world in which her future customers live, work, and
do their shopping.

Schools and Departments of Retailing
In the appendix of this bulletin is a list of 16 colleges and uni­
versities which belong to the American Collegiate Retailing Associ­
ation. Three of these maintain full-fledged schools of retailing; the
others have departments of retailing in schools of business administra­
tion. Member colleges offer curricula, approved by the Association,
leading to a bachelor’s degree in retailing. A few grant a master’s
degree in retailing; and one, a doctor’s degree with specialization in
retailing.
A typical course of study in these schools provides well-rounded
knowledge of all phases of retailing. Students attend these schools
to prepare primarily for merchandising or sales promotion; some
prepare for personnel administration or store operation. Those who
plan to enter control and finance often receive their training in schools
of business. Subjects covered in schools of retailing include, among
many others, store organization, buying, merchandising mathematics,
merchandise control, textiles, recordkeeping, fashion designing, fash­
ion coordination, advertising, and copywriting. Personal grooming
and poise are also stressed.
Work experience is an important part of the retailing course. Col­
lege students of retailing generally work in a store full time for part
of a year in connection with their training.
Many other colleges and universities offer some courses in retailing.
Almost every college has at least a course in marketing.
44



ENTERING RETAILING
Everyone interested in retailing should plan on an assignment to
a sales job. One exception to this general rule is that of students
who have had sales experience as a part of their training. Another
exception is made for persons who enter the Control Division. A full­
time job in the summer or a part-time job during the Christmas rush
season provides excellent experience for anyone planning a retailing
career. Retailers emphasize over and over again that sales experience
is absolutely necessary. The only disagreement is on how much sales
experience is necessary.

I’irsis?**
Figure

8.—Sales experience is helpful for potential supervisors and
executives.

Many letailers prefer to hire high school graduates and to let them
uork their way up over a period of years. An increasing number of
tetaileis, however, are hiring college graduates for training programs.
The person who successfully completes the program, including sales
n ork, is ready for a more responsible position in approximately a year.




45

For the High School Graduate
The first job in retailing for a recent high school graduate is most
likely to be as a salesclerk, stock clerk, typist, cashier, or wrapper.
Retail stores surveyed by the Women’s Bureau in 1958 offered start­
ing salaries ranging roughly from $35 to $55 per week, depending
upon the job and location of the store.
The girl who demonstrates eagerness to learn, willingness to work,
and maturity of judgment will find herself moving up to more respon­
sible positions. If the store feels that she has executive potential
she may in time be included in a junior executive program.

For the College Graduate
College graduates as well as nongraduates have to learn retailing
from the ground up. Many start out as trainees or as salesclerks, sec­
retaries, copywriters, or interviewers. In 1958, stores visited by the
Women’s Bureau reported entrance salaries usually ranging from $40
to $65 a week, sometimes as high as $85. Retailing schools reported
many of their graduates starting as assistant buyers and executive
trainees at $50 to $75 or more a week.
Executive training programs are conducted by m,any leading
department and specialty stores. During a 9- to 12-month program,
trainees receive classroom instruction for a certain number of hours
each week. The rest of their time is spent working in the depart­
ments to which they have been assigned. Trainees may remain in
one department, but are more often shifted periodically to gain wider
experience. Under the rotation system, the trainee spends a few
weeks in several or all of the divisions, working for a period of time
on each operation. Programs are geared primarily to people enter­
ing merchandising, although trainees from, other divisions may be in­
cluded in the program.
Stores with training programs usually recruit graduates from col­
leges and universities in the surrounding area. Seniors interested in
entering such a program can obtain information from their college
placement bureaus.

For the Mature IVoman
Since World War II, the largest increase in number of employed
women has been in the mature age groups. Women over 35, their chil­
dren grown or in school, have entered or reentered the business world.
46



Department, and specialty stores have found this group to be an
important source of both full-time and part-time salespersons. Many
of these women have been able to move into supervisory and executive
jobs, though they are rarely hired as trainees.
Leaders in the field report that women over 35 offer the following
advantages to the retailer: mature judgment, emotional stability, and
the understanding of customers that comes from having been purchas­
ing agent for their own families. They also offer greater assurance
of remaining with the store indefinitely.
Older women who have progressed to supervisory and executive
jobs are often placed in positions in Personnel, Operations, and Con­
trol. While these positions pay less, they often demand less than those
m Merchandising and Sales Promotion.

For sill Prospective Careerists
A woman considering retailing as a career should study conditions
in her local area, for this is probably where she will take her first job.

iff L:

9. Leadership conference, consisting of executives of various
degrees, conducted by an executive training superintendent.

Figure




47

Policies, practices, and salaries vary widely according to size of store,
size of area served, type of clientele, geographical location, conditions
prevailing in the local labor market, and the management philosophy
of each individual store. One can obtain from school guidance coun­
selors, local public employment offices, newspapers, or friends em­
ployed in stores information on job openings, starting salaries, and
working conditions in local stores. The stores themselves will furnish
information on training programs and on hours of work (including
evening and Saturday work), vacations, insurance, and medical and
retirement plans.
A wealth of material has been written about the industry. Stores
reputedly have personalities of their own, and several of the big ones
have been subjects for nonfiction books. Numerous trade publica­
tions provide information on current happenings; there are books
which give the student an understanding of the economics and me­
chanics of retailing. Many stories about real and fictional retailers
have also been written against the background of retailing. (See
appendix B for a list of selected readings.)
Serious-minded women who are interested in building careers in
retailing should make this interest known to the stores and inquire
about promotion policies and opportunities for advancement as they
relate to their particular experience, background, or training.
Career opportunities and advancement in retailing depend largely
upon the ability to operate profitably. The woman with that ability
will find many opportunities to advance, regardless of her age. Re­
sponsible positions, the prestige and high salaries that go with them,
are there for those who are qualified and willing to devote whole­
hearted attention to their work.

48



Appendix
A—RETAIL ESTABLISHMENTS
Number

of

Establishments and Paid Employees in Retail Trade
by Kind of Business, November 1954

Kind of establishment

Number of
establish­
ments i

week ended nearest
November 15, 1954
Number

Average
per estab­
lishment

Total1,721,650
7,124,331
4
Food stores___________________________
384,616
1,025,849
Grocery stores_________________ ’
'
3
279, 440
811,018
3
Meat markets, fish (seafood) markets. I III” I
27, 354
51,128
2
Fruit stores, vegetable markets_______________’’
13,136
12, 043
1
Candy, nut, confectionery stores___ ________
20, 507
25, 696
1
Bakery product stores_________________
19, 034
85, 015
4
Delicatessen stores_______________
8,132
13, 791
2
Food stores, n.e.c_______________
13, 777
27,158
2
Eating and drinking places_____________ _______
319, 657
1,352. 828
4
Eating places (including refreshment stands)
195,128
1, 055, 806
5
Drinking places.___ ___________
123,887
297,022
2
General merchandise group_____________
76,198
1,258, 990
17
Department stores_______________ ””””””””
2,761
734, 920
266
Dry goods, general merchandise stores
34,113
159, 988
5
General stores_________________
17, 701
30, 418
2
Variety stores________________
20, 917
333, 664
16
Apparel, accessories stores___________
"
119, 743
607,340
5
Shoe stores_____________________ ”~ ~
23, 847
86,660
4
Women’s clothing specialty stores... "
45, 213
274, 282
6
Children’s, infants wear stores. .
7,024
18,636
3
Apparel stores, n.e.c_________________ ’
6, 932
20, 548
3
Furniture, home furnishings, appliance dealers.”"””
91, 797
351, 772
4
Furniture, home furnishings stores______
50, 729
227, 370
4
Household appliance, radio, and television stores
40, 542
124, 402
3
Automotive group____________________
85, 953
710, 802
8
Passenger car dealers (franchised)..””
.......
41,407
590,486
14
Passenger car dealers (nonfranchised)
20,140
34,125
2
Tire, battery, accessory dealers
"....... ~"
18,845
75, Oil
4
Motorcycle, aircraft, boat dealers.___________
3,183
6,712
2
Household trailer dealers_________
"
2,005
3,946
2
Automotive dealers, n.e.c....................
....... ""
119
522
4
Gasoline service stations__________________
181, 747
358, 485
2
Lumber building materials, hardware, farm equipment dealers
100, 519
446,690
4
Farm equipment dealers. __________________
"
18, 689
79, 625
4
Lumber building materials dealers_______” ”
30,177
211,038
7
Paint, glass, wallpaper stores___________
9,249
24, 218
3
Plumbing, electrical supply stores... _
~
7, 252
24, 955
3
Hardware stores ___ ___________ _
34,858
106,854
3
Drug stores, proprietary stores_____
56,009
300,435
5
Other retail stores_____________________
226, 903
511, 260
2
Liquor stores_________________ ””
_
31, 240
56,445
2
Fuel, ice dealers____________ ””””””1
27, 070
96, 538
4
Hay, grain, feed stores_____________ ’’
16, 530
62, 337
4
Farm, garden supply stores______
7,262
17,644
2
Jewelry stores______ _________
24, 266
67, 558
3
Bookstores_____________ ___ ...-III””"
2,642
8,301
3
Stationery stores_____________
5,473
22,671
4
Sporting goods stores________
8,396
13, 801
2
Bicycle stores......................
1,617
1,500
1
Florists____ ___________ ____
16,279
31, 878
2
Cigar stores, stands_________ ””””_”
6, 068
8, 092
1
News dealers, newstands______________ ~~
7,178
11, 895
2
Gift, novelty, souvenir stores __
12,149
14,159
1
Music stores_______________________
5,810
17, 535
3
Camera, photographic supply stores____”
2,896
10,487
4
Luggage, leather goods stores_________
1,387
3, 755
3
Optical goods stores________ ______
_
3,011
7,865
3
Office, store machine and equipment dealers
2,216
6, 292
3
Retail stores (except second-hand), n.e.c
8, 877
26,677
3
Second-hand stores_____________
14, 364
25, 830
2
Nonstore retailers______________ ”
78, 508
199. 880
3
Mail order houses________________
2,019
86. 270
43
Direct selling (house-to-house) organizations
70,774
95, 528
1
Merchandising vending machine operators
18.082 |
5,715
3
dotaifed kind o'f bSeSC’Ude
f°r ostablishments without payroll which could not be classified by
ySource: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Census of Business: 1954, Retail Trade,




49

B—SELECTED READINGS
Books
Barker, Clare W. and others.

Principles of Retailing.

McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1956.
Beckley, Donald K. and John W. Ernest.
N.Y., Gregg Publishing Co., 1950.
Brisco, Norris A. Retailing. 3d ed.
1957.
Carey, Ernestine G.

New York, N.Y.,

Modern Retailing.

New York,

New York, N.Y., Prentice-Hall, Inc.,

Jumping Jupiter.

(Fiction) New York, N.Y., Thos.

Y. Crowell, 1952.
Curtis, Frieda S. Careers in the World of Fashion. New York, N.Y.,
Woman’s Press, Whiteside, Inc. (425 Fourth Aye.). 1952.
De Leeuw, Adele L. Future for Sale. (Fiction) Chicago, 111., Macmillan
Co., 1946.
Dolva, Wenzil K. and Donald K. Beckley. The Retailer; the role of modern
retailing in the United States. New York, N.Y., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1950.
Doubman, J. Russell. Retail Merchandising Principles and Practice.
Ames, Iowa, Littlefield, Adams and Co., 1949.
Duncan, Delbert J. and Charles F. Phillips. Retailing; principles and
methods. 4th ed. Homewood, 111., Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 195o.
Freer, Marjorie M. Showcase for Diane. (Fiction) New York, N.Y.,
Julian Messner, Inc., 1951.
Jones, Fred M. Retail Merchandising.

Homewood, 111., Richard D. Irwin,

Inc., 1957.
Kelley, Pearce C. and Norris B. Brisco. Retailing; basic principles. 3d
ed. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-IIall, Inc., 1957.
^
Mayfield, Frank M. The Department Store Story. New York, N.Y., Fair­
child Publications, Inc., 1949.
McFerran, Doris. Careers in Retailing for Young Women.
N.Y., E. P. Dutton, 1948.
Nash, Eleanor A. Lucky Miss Spaulding.

(Fiction)

New York,

New York, N.Y.,

Julian Messner, Inc., 1952.
Packer, Harry Q. and Marguerite E. Waterman. Basic Retailing. New
York, N.Y., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1951.
Richert, Henry. Retailing; principles and practices. 3d ed. New York,.
N.Y., McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1954.
Stuart, Jessie. The American Fashion Industry. Boston, Mass., Prince
School Publications in Retailing, Simmons College, 1951.
Wingate, John W. and Arnold Corbin. Changing Patterns in Retailing.
Homewood, 111., Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1956.
Wingate, John W. and J. Dana Weiner. Retail Merchandising. 5th ed.
Cincinnati, Ohio, Southwestern Publishing Co., Inc., 1957.

Retailing and Fashion Periodicals
Charm.

Street and Smith Publications, Inc., 575 Madison Ave„ New York

17, N.Y. (Monthly.)
Glamour. Cond<5 Nast Publications, Inc., 420 Lexington Ave., New York
17, N.Y.

(Monthly.)

50



Harper’s Bazaar. Hearst Magazines, Inc., 250 W. 55th St, New York 22,
N.Y. (Monthly.)
Journal of Retailing. New York University School of Retailing, New York
University, 100 Washington Square Bast, New York 3, N.Y. (Quarterly.)
Mademoiselle. Street and Smith Publications, Inc., 575 Madison Ave.,
New York 17, N.Y. (Monthly.)
Stores. National Retail Merchants Association, 100 West 31st St New
York, N.Y. (Monthly.)
The Department Store Economist. Chilton Co., Inc., 100 East 42d St., New
York 17, N.Y. (Monthly.)
Vogue. Conde Nast Publications, Inc., 420 Lexington Ave., New York 17
N.Y. (Monthly.)
Women’s Wear Daily. Fairchild Publications, 7 East 12th St., New York,
N.Y. Trade paper of the dress industry. Daily except Saturdays, Sun­
days, and holidays.

Pamphlets
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Employment
Outlook in Department Store Occupations. Bull. 1215-17. 1957. For sale
by U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D.C. 15 cents.
--------------- ’ Women's Bureau. Women in Higher-Level Positions. Includes
section on department stores. For sale by U.S. Government Printing Office
Bull. 236. 1950. 25 cents.
SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION.
Starting and Managing a
Small Business of Your Own. 1958. For sale by U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington 25, D.C. 40 cents.
B’NAI B’RITH VOCATIONAL SERVICE BUREAU, Washington, D.C. Occu­
pational Brief Series. Careers in Department Stores. Revised 1957. 25
cents.
INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH, Chicago, 111. Research Monographs. $1 each.
Careers in Fashion Designing (No. 99), 1951.
Careers in Retail Selling (No. 229), 1952.
Commercial and Industrial Art as a Career (No. 14), 1950.
Executive Careers for Women in Department Stores (No. 222), 1951.
Women’s Apparel-Shop Operation as a Career (No. 55), 1955.
PERSONNEL SERVICES, INC., Peapack, N.J. Occupational Abstracts. 6page folders. 50 cents each.
Department Store Buyer (No. 144), 1956.
Junior Executive (No. 153), 1956.
Purchasing Agent (No. 169), 1954.
ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, Rochester, N.Y. Vocatio-nal
Quittance Series. Free.
Careers in Retailing. 1953.
Careers in Interior Decoration. 1957.
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE MANUALS, Inc., 1011 Tremont Ave., New York
N.Y. $1 each.
Opportunities in Advertising. 1950.
Opportunities in Fashion. 1951.
Opportunities in Interior Decoration. 1951.




51

C—LIST OF SCHOOLS
American Collegiate Retailing Association
Member Schools
Bradley University, College of Commerce, Peoria, 111.

.
University of Buffalo, School of Business Administration, Buffalo 11. N.Y.
The City College, Bernard M. Baruch School of Business and Public Admin­
istration, New York 10, N.Y.
Drexel Institute of Technology, College of Business Administration, Phil­
adelphia 4, Pa.
New York University, School of Retailing, New York 3, N.Y.
University of Pittsburgh, Graduate School of Retailing, Pittsburgh 13, Pa.
Prince School of Retailing, Simmons College, Boston 16, Mass.
Richmond Professional Institute, College of William and Mary, Richmond
20, Va.
Washington University School of Business and Public Administration, St.
Louis 5, Mo.
Municipal University of Wichita, College of Business and Industry, Wichita,
Kans.

Also, the specialized retailing programs in the following universities:
University of Dayton, Dayton, Ohio.
Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa.
University of Omaha, Omaha, Nebr.
Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, N.Y.
Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, N.Y.
University of Texas, Austin. Tex.

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1963

52



0—669061


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102