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I^RTMENT OF LABOR
I Tobin, Secretary

S BUREAU
Frieda S. Miller, Director
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BULLETIN NO. 238

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Part-Time Jobs
for Women —
a study in
10 cities

Women’s Bureau Bulletin No. 238

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OE LABOR
MAURICE j. TOBIN, Secretary

WOMEN’S BUREAU
FRIEDA S. MILLER, Director

WASHINGTON
1951

UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE, WASHINGTON: 1951
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D. C.—Price 25 cents

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

*

United States Department of Labor,
Women’s Bureau,
Washington, June 1, 1951.
Sir: I have the honor to transmit a report on part-time jobs for women in
selected fields of business and community services. The Women’s Bureau
has received many requests from women’s organizations, placement services,
job counselors, women’s magazines, and employed women for information
about part-time job opportunities for women and the possibilities of increas­
ing the areas of usefulness of part-time work. The American Association of
University Women, the American Nurses’ Association, college deans and
placement officers, social agencies, State employment services, and other groups
expressed special interest in having such a report.
Part-time employment provides employers with a large labor force for jobs
and services that lend themselves to less than full-time hours. Part-time em­
ployment of women permits employers to use the skills and training of experi­
enced women who are not able to work full time. And, more important now
than at the time the study was planned, part-time schedules can help employ­
ers work out some of their employment problems in spite of the increasing
manpower demands due to the national emergency.
Part-time work is of special significance to married women and their fam­
ilies. There is available a large group of married women whose family respon­
sibilities do not make it advisable for them to work full time but who could
work shorter schedules. Their home duties take some but not all of their time.
They have limited amounts of time they would like to use for financial gain,
for applying skills and training that they have acquired through education and
work, for the personal satisfaction and associations with work and workers
outside of the home.
The study presents the part-time work experiences of management and
employees from a wide range of industries and occupations where women are
at work part time. It has brought together the considered judgments of these
informed persons concerning the possibilities and limitations of part-time
work.
Special recognition is due the American Association of University Women
for its collaboration in securing in the field some of the detailed information
from college graduates now working part time.
The report was written by Opal Gooden under the direction of Mary N.
Hilton, Chief of the Research Division. The field work was supervised by
Ethel Erickson, and all statistical compilations were under the direction of
Isadora Spring.
Respectfully submitted.
Frieda S. Miller, Director.

Hon. Maurice J. Tobin,
Secretary of Labor.
iii

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CONTENTS
Page

Letter of transmittal................................................................................................................... iii
Introduction •................................................................................................................................

1

Summary ....................................................................................................................................

4

Place of part-time work in business and community services............................................. 11
Why part-time?................................................................................................................. 11
Who hires part-time workers?....................................................................................... 15
Part-time jobs and job requirements.......................................................................................
Work skills . .. .................................................................................................................
Education and training......................................................................................................
Work experience...............................................................................................................
Maturity an asset..............................................................................................................
Marriage no barrier..........................................................................................................

17
17
18
19
19
21

Women who work part time.................................................................................................... 26
Finding part-time workers and part-time jobs......................................................................
Employers’ recruiting methods.......................................................................................
Employees’ job hunting....................................................................................................
Placement agencies and part-time...................................................................................

31
31
32
34

Hours, earnings, and fringe benefits.......................................................................................
Hours..................................................................................................................................
Earnings..............................................................................................................................
Fringe benefits...................................................................................................................

36
36
38
40

Advantages and disadvantages of part-time work..............................................................
Employer advantages........................................................................................................
Employer disadvantages ..................................................................................................
Employee advantages ......................................................................................................
Employee disadvantages ..................................................................................................
Community advantages ....................................................................................................

43
43
44
48
49
50

Suggestions for women seeking part-time jobs......................................................................
Why a part-time job?........................................................................................................
What can you do?.............................................................................................................
When can you work?........................................................................................................
How does your household go?..........................................................................................
How find a part-time job?................................................................................................
How much will the job cost?.........................................................................................

52
52
53
54
54
55
55

Suggestions for employers of part-time workers..................................................................
How decide a job is part time?.......................................................................................
How select a part-time worker?.....................................................................................
How increase part-time workers’ efficiency?..................................................................

56
57
58
58

References .................................................................................................................................. 60

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Page

Appendix A, Coverage of the survey..................................................................................... 61
Appendix B, Tables................................................................................................................... 63
Establishments report:
1. Part-time employment of women by industry.............................................................. 63
2. Occupation by industry of women part-time workers...........................................64-67
3. Reasons for hiring women part-time workers............................................................ 68
4. Methods of recruitment................................................................................................ 68
5. Whether part-time work an advantage or disadvantage........................................ 69
6. Why part-time work an advantage............................................................................... 70
7. Why part-time work a disadvantage........................................................................... 71
Women report:
8. Why they work part time instead of full time, by occupation...........................
9. Why they work part time instead of full time, by age............................................
10. Why they work part time instead of full time, by maritalstatus.........................
11. How they found their jobs, by occupation.............................................................
12. Most important reasons for working part time, by occupation..............................
13. Age, by occupation........................................................................................................
14. Marital status, by occupation.......................................................................................
15. Education, by occupation................................................................................................
16. Years worked in present job, by occupation..............................................................
17. Years worked in full-time jobs...................................................................................

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72
72
73
73
74
74 a
74
75
75

Appendix C, Schedule Forms.................................................................................................. 76

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VI

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN
INTRODUCTION
More women than men regularly prefer or cannot accept other than
part-time employment. About three in every five regular part-time
workers are women, according to nine Bureau of the Census studies
for 1947-50. Women part-time workers constitute almost a fifth of
the total number of employed women, and the majority are married.
Most part-time workers are found in four main industry groups:
Agriculture, domestic service, wholesale and retail trade, and service
industries exclusive of domestic service. The Bureau of the Census
studies show that agriculture employs about one-fourth of all workers
preferring part time and the non agricultural industries about threefourths. Of the workers preferring part-time work in the nonagricultural industries, only a small proportion are in manufacturing, less
than a fourth are domestic workers, and considerably over half are
about equally divided between wholesale and retail trade and the
service industries (other than domestic). Since these industries em­
ploy large numbers of women, it may be assumed that most of their
part-time workers are women.
As the labor market tightens, women part-time workers may be
one of the important sources of labor supply, particularly for non­
manufacturing industries, educational institutions, and community
services. The Nation faces its present emergency with no substantial
backlogs of employable persons urgently searching for full-time jobs.
Many women who are willing and able to take paid jobs cannot work
full time because of family and household responsibilities; most of
those who want to work full time are already employed. There is also
the special matter of the highly trained woman, usually with profes­
sional or technical experience, who cannot now work full time be­
cause of family responsibilities but whose skills are under-used at
home and are probably needed in the community.
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2

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Clearly there is a need to know the present experience with part­
time jobs for women from employers’ and employees’ points of view:
Who hires part-time workers and why; what are the jobs and what
are the requirements; who works part time, why, and what family
adjustments are necessary; what do women part-time workers have
to olfer employers, and how can their skills be utilized to the advan­
tage of all concerned; what are the usual hours of work, rates of pay,
and other conditions of work; and, what are the advantages and
disadvantages of part time?
This report indicates answers to these questions as given to repre­
sentatives of the Women's Bureau by more than 1,000 establishments
having women part-time workers and by more than 1,800 women
employed on part-time jobs. The field studies were made in 10 cities
selected from several geographic areas: Syracuse, N. Y., New York
City (selected industries only), Worcester, Mass.; Providence, R. 1.;
Richmond, Va.; Dallas, Tex.; Milwaukee, Wis.; Des Moines, Iowa;
San Francisco, Calif.; Denver, Colo. (Fig. 1.)

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Figure I. GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF CITIES IN PART-TIME STUDY

SYRACUSE
MILWAUKEE

\ Cg WORCESTER

yrjF providence

DES MOINES

NEW YORK

SAN FRANCISCO
DENVER
RICHMOND

DALLAS

The Women’s Bureau study of part-time jobs included those indus­
tries which normally employ the largest numbers of women on a part­
time basis, except agriculture and domestic service. Manufacturing i
is not a large part-time employment field and, for this and special

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INTRODUCTION

reasons, was excluded; self-employed women were excluded for simi­
lar reasons.
Part-time work, by definition, was considered to be work substan­
tially less than the scheduled hours of the establishment and/or not
more than 36 hours a week. The study was directed toward regular,
not temporary, part-time jobs. Occasional or temporary jobs, such as
Christmas "extra work” or seasonal employment, were not included.
Neither was student employment, since student part-time jobs inter­
ject other factors not common to regular part-time work.
The special significance to women of part-time jobs has been widely
recognized and discussed. The significance of part-time work to em­
’ ployers, to the community, and to the economy as a whole deserves
more careful analysis and appraisal. This report is intended to add
some factual framework to the speculations and opinions concerning
part-time jobs for women. Detailed tables are given in Appendix B.

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SUMMARY
Most part-time jobs are filled by married women, very likely over
35 years of age with at least a high-school education, who have had
full-time work experience. Few have young children. In most cases,
part-time workers do the same kinds of work on shorter schedules
that they did as full-time employees.
>•
Working schedules substantially less than the regular workweek
distinguish part-time jobs from other regular employment. Though
part-time work is a long-established practice in many business firms
and community agencies, it has an element of newness as long as
new persons continue to discover for themselves its possibilities. Part- v
time work resulted from the normal needs of management and is not
merely a byproduct of full employment, wartime labor shortages, or
the depression years.

Why part-time?
Employers set up part-time jobs for a variety of reasons, all closely
related to their operational requirements. According to the 1,071 *
employers in 10 cities who cooperated with the Women’s Bureau
part-time study, most of the reasons can be classified in one or more
of nine categories:
1. To cover busy periods or peak loads (e. g., in stores, beauty shops,
restaurants, banks);
2. To cover relief schedules of full-time workers (e. g., in hospitals,
stores, theaters);
3. To provide for establishments operating short workweeks (e. g., in
educational institutions, insurance and real estate offices, doctors’ and
dentists’ offices);
4. To provide particular services or activities operating part time (e. g.,
in educational institutions, banks and other financial firms, doctors'
and dentists’ offices, social agencies, charitable, religious or member­
ship organizations);
5. To cover part of the day of establishments operating extended hours
(e. g., in theaters, hospitals);
6. To meet limited budgets or to reduce costs (e. g., in social agencies,
charitable, religious, or membership organizations);

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SUMMARY

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7. To accommodate "special cases” where experienced workers want only
part time (e. g., in insurance and real estate offices, publishing houses,
banks and other financial firms, beauty shops);
8. To relieve the shortage of professional workers (e. g., in hospitals);
9. To fill jobs that do not require full-time services (e. g., in charitable,
religious, or membership organizations, publishing houses, doctors’ and
dentists’ offices, banks and other financial firms).

Women work part time because family and household responsi­
bilities prevent them from working full time, or because they prefer
( a short schedule for other reasons. Of the more than 1,800 women
part-time workers who gave detailed information to Women’s Bureau
* representatives, it was found that they worked part time for one or
more of three reasons: To supplement or increase income; to have
outside interests and contacts; or to use their skills and abilities.
Some gave physical disability, age, or difficulty in finding full-time
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jobs, especially jobs in line with their special training or skills, as

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other reasons for taking part-time jobs.
Rarely do part-time workers depend solely on their earnings for
a living, but the need or desire to supplement their established in­
comes was a most important reason for working part time. Earnings
of women part-time workers have helped to pay for the college
expenses of older children or the annual family vacation, to buy a
new house or car, or to narrow the gap between the cost of living
and the fixed income of an annuity, a pension, or a husband’s salary.
The women who most keenly felt the need for interests and con­
tacts outside their homes and families were those whose children
were grown or nearly so, or who had no children. They considered
this need a compelling reason for working part time. Some said it
had become more important than the money they earned.
Professionally or technically trained women, such as nurses, social
workers, laboratory technicians, and teachers, frequently said that
part-time work in their fields gave them opportunities to use their
skills and abilities although they were not then available for full­
time jobs. Some expected later to resume their profession full time,
by choice or necessity, and felt that part-time work would keep them
qualified and "off the shelf.” Many also had a sense of social obligation to use their training, especially if their fields were handicapped
by shortages of trained personnel.

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PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Part-time jobs and job requirements
Part-time jobs require skilled, experienced workers. There is usu­
ally little room within a part-time work plan for unskilled or inex­
perienced persons, but less all-round skill may be expected of a parttime than a full-time employee. Employers expect part-time workers
apply what they already know to the immediate demands of the
part-time job; they cannot afford the time or expense of long training
periods for part-timers.
The kinds of work skills women use on part-time jobs are the same
as on full-time: Clerical, sales, personal service, technical and pro­
fessional. Part-time work, however, sometimes permits a "pin-point”
specialization in work skills which could not be justified for most
full-time employment; this is especially true for adult education
classes, arts and crafts, and publishing houses. Hobby skills or special
interests many times have been turned into part-time work skills.
The variety of skills used by the more than 9,000 women part-time
workers covered by the Women’s Bureau survey was impressive for
versatility and adaptability.
Despite the range of skills, the majority of the women part-time
workers studied were in the important woman-employing occupa­
tions of sales, food service, and clerical work. Teaching, nursing,
and social work were the principal professions represented. Except
for shorter schedules, jobs for women part-time workers differ little
from full-time with respect to what and where they are.
The other qualifications for part-time jobs, besides work skills and
experience, are relatively unimportant. Mature age, 35 years and over,
may be more of an asset than a liability to the part-time worker. On
the whole, employers interviewed by the Women’s Bureau did not
report age as an important or determining factor in hiring women
for part time. Most of the women included in the survey were be­
tween 35 and 55 years of age. As for marital status, employers assume that anyone seeking part-time work is either married, widowed,
or a retired single person.

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Finding part-time workers and part-time jobs
Employers recruited their part-time workers in the same ways that
they did their other employees. The one difference was that former

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SUMMARY

7

*■ full-time employees often were "called back” for part-time jobs. The
recruiting practices normally used by a particular business or agency—
receiving direct applications from job hunters who were "making the
rounds,” telling friends or other employees that there was a job openi ing, checking with professional or other special groups, advertising
* in the "help wanted” section of the newspapers, listing the job with
public or private employment agencies—were used to find part-time
workers.
The women said that friends, relatives, and former employers were
■ their best help in finding part-time jobs. Some got their job leads
through their connections with educational institutions, professional
organizations, or church groups. Neither public nor private employ­
ment agencies played an important role in part-time job placements,
and very little job counseling service was available to women seeking
part-time jobs.

* Hours, earnings, and fringe benefits
The distinctive feature of part-time work, a short regular hours
schedule, proved as variable as the jobs. Twenty hours a week, spread
over five days of four hours each, was the most common schedule.
t Part-time workers covered by the study worked as little as two hours
a week as adult education teachers and as much as 30 hours as wait­
resses. Another frequent schedule was three full days a week equal­
ing 24 hours.
The rates of pay depended entirely on the going rate for similar
full-time jobs. Part-time earnings were worked out on an hourly
basis. Teachers received higher hourly pay than most part-time workw ers, and business-machine operators generally were the highest paid
clerical workers. Some part-time salespersons received commissions,
but many did not. Part-time waitresses were paid the lowest hourly
rates but, in addition, usually received at least one meal and tips.
The real v/ages of part-time workers increased as employers made
* available to them some of the so-called "fringe benefits”—particu­
larly paid vacations and sick leave—which full-time workers have.
The Women’s Bureau survey found that the firms which had estab­
lished such benefits for full-time employees, more often than not,
extended them to part-time employees with reasonable modifications.
» Some employers have developed policies and practices with respect

8

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

to fringe benefits for part-time workers which have the effect of
recognizing the permanency and stability of part-time jobs.

•*

Advantages and disadvantages of part-time work
The test of the reasonableness of part-time work is whether ad­
vantages outweigh disadvantages for employers, employees, and the
community. All of the employers interviewed by the Women’s Bureau
had actual experience with part-time workers; some had used part
timers for many years. As experienced employers they knew the haz­
ards and rewards of part-time arrangements. This also was true, of
course, for the employees covered by the survey.
Almost all of the employers said that there were advantages to
them in having part-time workers, and over two-thirds said that they
found "no disadvantages.” Almost a third considered part-time work
a mixed blessing, with the advantages dominating. Had not advan­
tages outweighed disadvantages, they would have stopped hiring part- *
time workers.
The advantages to employers almost paralleled their reasons for
having part-time workers. Part-time workers helped them to:
Cover peak loads or busy periods;
Provide relief workers for full-time employees;
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Have competent assistance on jobs not requiring full time;
Provide a variety of special services or activities operating part time;
Stay within limited budgets;
Use the skills of persons available only on short schedules; or,
Provide some trained staff despite shortages of professional workers.
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When part-time workers fulfilled the purpose for which they were
hired, most employers considered part-time work an advantage.
Those employers who did have complaints brought out serious
shortcomings of part-time work, some of which could and should be 1
corrected. Although less than a third of the employers named dis- 4
advantages, they were nonetheless vocal and specific. The chief em­
ployer complaint was "undependability” of women part-time workers.
Behind that difficulty stand home responsibilities. Closely related were
"high turn-over,” "expect too frequent adjustments in schedule,” "lack ;
of continuity,” or "unwilling or unable to work particular hours ,

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SUMMARY

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,y needed.” Hospitals, social agencies, some stores and offices, and educa­
tional institutions were most outspoken with these complaints.
Other disadvantages of part-time work which some employers had
experienced include:
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"Split job responsibility”—part-time workers cannot follow through
with a social work case or a hospital patient;
Extra operating costs—part-time employees require as much payroll
bookkeeping as full-time, some need as much "wind-up and clean-up
time” to begin and end their short shifts as full-time;
Lack of understanding of over-all operations or program—part-time
employees are not available for staff conferences or training meetings,
difficult to integrate them with full-time staff;
Not familiar with stock—in stores, part-time employees do not know
the merchandise thoroughly, they are not responsible for the unpleasant
chores connected with stock work, arranging merchandise and putting it
away at the opening and closing hours; as a result, friction sometimes
develops between full-time and part-time employees.

The women who were interviewed liked part-time work, saw no
disadvantages, and considered their work "worthwhile.” They ap­
proved the system because it met their needs for supplemental in­
come, outside interests, and opportunities to use their skills and
abilities. Part-time work fitted the home-life design of the married
women and often, they said, contributed to its enrichment.
Some of the incidental benefits of part-time work were, according

to the women interviewed, of special value because they improved
family life and increased the individual’s sense of worth. Some said
they "felt better physically and mentally,” that a part-time job was
a "morale builder for any housewife,” and that they "liked outside
' activity” after years of full-time housework. The women whose chil» dren were grown no longer felt "useless” after they began working
part time.
At least two employee disadvantages of part-time work, though
not mentioned by the women, deserve consideration.' Some part-time
' jobs cost the worker as much in carfare, clothes, and commuting time
^ as a full-time job, but the earnings are less. And, most part-time jobs
are "dead-end” jobs, without promotion or upgrading possibilities,
where even highly trained women are likely to be expected to work
below their best skills. The women interviewed accepted these ciri cumstances as necessary to the main advantage to them of securing
_ paid work on a limited schedule.

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PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

The community gains much from part-time work. The hundreds
of leisure-time educational and recreational activities which com­
munities now promote for all age groups, and which are essential
to the democratic growth of the people, would be impossible without
part-time instructors and leaders. Social welfare and church groups
also have numerous projects which need paid personnel but not on a
full-time basis. For many women who have the skill, time, and in­
clination "to do something” in the community, volunteer service is
either too expensive or too casual. Paid jobs on part-time schedules
in community agencies give competent women regular assignments
and enough earnings to save family budgets from further strain.
The community also gains from part-time work that brings trained
teachers back to active duty. Married women are preferred for part­
time teaching jobs. Most of the part-time teachers are in nursery
schools, kindergartens, and adult education programs, but any scheme
which improves the teaching situation is beneficial to the school
system as a whole and to the children and their parents, in particular.
Part-time workers who ease the rush hour delays for customers
in restaurants, stores, beauty shops, and similar business places make
their communities a more satisfactory place in which to live. Main­
taining essential customer services on a reasonable basis may depend
more heavily on part-time workers as the emergency manpower
situation tightens.
And by no means the least important, from the viewpoint of the
community and the national economy, is that part-time work "un­
freezes” skills which are needed and which women have but do not
use at h,ome. Employers have little more than sampled the wide range
of job skills and work experience that thousands of housewives and
retired persons could use on a part-time basis. Most of these women
are not available for full-time employment. The release of those
skills into the labor market, even within the limitations of part-time
jobs, adds to the total productivity and services of the community.
In emergency situations this becomes very important, since it means
that full-time workers with possibly higher skills can be drawn into
more essential or demanding jobs without completely disrupting the
many services a highly geared modern community expects.

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PLACE OF PART-TIME WORK IN BUSINESS AND
COMMUNITY SERVICES

> Why part-time?

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Employers say—
Part-time work has long had a place in the business world and was
not born of wartime labor shortages. Nor did it result from the de­
pression idea of "spread the work.” World War II experiences, how­
ever, demonstrated to a new group of employers that they could or
could not use part-time workers efficiently. Some found the answer
was "yes,” others "no,” still others "if necessary.
Stores, restaurants, beauty shops, banks—businesses with customer
"peak load” periods—regularly supplement their full-time working
force with part-time workers to meet rush-hour demands. Some also
depend on an additional staff of part-time employees as "relief
workers” for days off of regular full-time workers and to cover long
over-all hours beyond the normal workweek. A corps of part-time
employees, working regular short schedules, is a recognized operating
practice for these businesses.
Small commercial and office establishments which do not need and
cannot afford full-time stenographic or bookkeeping services use part­
time workers. They may need such services a few hours a day or sev­
eral full working days near the end of the month. The work time is
adjusted to meet the requirements of the business.
Social agencies, hospitals, educational or membership organiza­
tions, and private schools employ part-time workers for a variety of
reasons, some similar to those of business, others unique. In some
communities there is a shortage of trained specialists available for
full-time work and the hospitals and social agencies must get along
on "half-a-loaf” or none. Too often, limited budgets restrict some
jobs to part time though full time would be more satisfactory. On the
other hand, part-time schedules are satisfactory and practical for paid
leaders of group activities such as community recreation or adult education; the administrative and supervisory jobs usually need full­

* time staff.
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PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Employers interviewed by Women’s Bureau representatives in the,
10 cities where information was gathered, mentioned at least two
other reasons for having part-time workers which do not fall within
any of the above categories. One was the frequent case—always con­
sidered special”—of the former full-time employee, now married, <
who does not want full-time work but who is more efficient than an
inexperienced full-time recruit. One employer summed up his reasons
by saying he "would not be using this person as a part-timer except
that she prefers it and has been with the company for some time.”
Another explained that he had reemployed a former worker who had
left full-time employment in June, that he "could really use someone
on a full-time basis but haven t located anyone, so I arranged an
irregular schedule to accommodate her.” A slightly different emphasis
was given by the employer who decided "to utilize the skills and
experience of a full-time worker available only for a part-time job.”
Monotony of the operation, another "special” reason for using
part-time workers, also does not come within the categories already *
mentioned. A commercial letter writing concern, which used 12 part­
time typists on what the manager called "monotonous material,”
found it "could not get a good full-time worker to take the job, but
could get superior workers for part-time jobs.”
J
Women say—
Most women who work part time do so for one or more of three
reasons. Besides taking care of their home responsibilities, they want:
... to supplement or increase income,
... to have outside interests and contacts, or
... to use their skills and abilities.
Physical disability, age, or difficulty in finding full-time jobs, espe­
cially jobs in line with their special training or skills, are less frequent
reasons for taking part-time work.
Few part-time workers depend solely on their earnings for a liv­
ing but the need or desire to supplement their established incomes is
a dominant motive for working. The majority of the women part­
time employees interviewed by the Women’s Bureau did not hesitate
to say they were working to increase their own or the family’s in­
come. Usually home responsibilities prevented them from working
full time.

i
,

*

'

PLACE IN BUSINESS AND COMMUNITY SERVICES

13

Their explanations as to why they wanted the money or what they
used it for varied almost as much as their jobs. If the women inter­
viewed in the different cities are at all representative, it would seem
that part-time work is helping to pay for more than one college edu­
cation, new house, car, annual family vacation, or is filling the gap
between an annuity or pension and the cost of living. Sometimes a
' wife’s part-time earnings provided support of an aged parent, as in
the case of the saleswoman in a shoe store who said she worked "to
balance the budget and to help with the expenses of mother who

*

**

1
m

t
„

f

i

is 83.”
Another saleswoman explained that, with a son in college and a
"white collar husband whose salary had not increased to the extent
necessary,” her earnings for 2 days a week in a luggage store pro­
vided the margin the family needed to hold on to what she considered
the "usual living standard.” Teaching a cooking class 1 night a week
in the adult-education program of the public schools, a home eco­
nomics graduate with a husband and three children felt that "every
little bit helps” toward the expenses of the eldest daughter then in
college. "Though not entirely dependent” on what she can earn, a
retired bookkeeper and accountant said that she "needs the financial
assistance and with the part-time salary can manage.” In her late
forties, a wife and mother with extensive clerical experience used her
part-time earnings to ease the "strain on the family income” so that
the amount contributed to her husband’s mother and sister was not too
serious a problem.
Women with home responsibilities who worked part time for additional income, when interviewed, frequently emphasized their desire
for interests and contacts outside of their homes. Widows sometimes
made more point of using part-time work to overcome loneliness
even though added income was important. Those women with previ­
ous professional training, particularly nurses, social workers, teachers,
and technicians, often valued part-time opportunities to use their
skills and "keep-up-to-date” even more than the money they earned.
"Now that the children are grown, I feel the need for outside
interests” was said many times in many ways by the women part-time
workers interviewed. Doing their own housework as a full-time occupation had a low rating with these women and with those who had
no children. Not all were as blunt as the doctor’s part-time reception-

14

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

ist who said she "wanted to get out of the house”; in her early fifties,
with four grown children, only she and her husband were at home.
A married woman with no children, a waitress for some 20 years, had
worked part time the last 4 years since marriage because she "couldn’t
stand to be just around the house all day.”
The mixing of generations in the household at times compounded
psychological and financial reasons for wanting to work part time. f
A beauty operator, whose household included her husband, motherin-law, and semi-invalid uncle, worked 3 days a week for the
money and because she "enjoyed the working contacts and having
something outside of home to do.” Three generations crowding one
house was the reason a young wife and mother of a 3-year-old child “*
worked part time. The husband’s job had brought them to Milwaukee
but until they found a house they were living with his parents. To
give the child and the grandparents more freedom, the child was
enrolled in nursery school and the child’s mother worked part time
to pay the fees; it was evident that she thought it better for her, too, *
to be away from the house part of the day.
Professionally trained women often expressed a sense of obligation
to use their skills on a paid basis although they could not work full
time; too, they liked the idea of keeping current with professional
trends. A trained social worker with 12 years’ experience was glad
to have a part-time teaching position in a school of social work, but >,
she had not been able to accept the original offer of a full-time post.
She told the interviewer that she had "spent so many years in social
work, all my friends are in that field, and I am interested in keeping
up with new developments. Social work is a more important activity
than many that women take up—it happens to be the field I know.” „
After 42 years in the public schools, a retired teacher still enjoyed
teaching Latin in a private school for girls 20 hours a week. A re­
search librarian with 20 years’ specialized training and experience,
‘married but, not fond of full-time housework, said she wanted "to '
keep up with professional interests and publications without neglect­
ing my home.” On her own, she had written for publication in order
"to keep up”; her part-time job gave her access to new books without
cost and reduced rates on books purchased.
Only 21 hours a week working with a clinic has enabled a trained 3
nutritionist to "keep in touch with new methods, trends, and retain

PLACE IN BUSINESS AND COMMUNITY SERVICES

15

skills,” an achievement she considers as important as the $1,800 a
year she contributes to the family income. Married, in her late thirties,
her three children were in school, but she could not yet take a full­
time job.
,
Part-time nurses interviewed seemed conscious of the public need
for their services and, despite marriage and family obligations, liked
* "to keep in touch with new methods in the nursing field,” or as one
said, "with new drugs and medicines.”
One of the most highly trained part-time workers interviewed
during the Women’s Bureau study had behind her a distinguished
full-time professional career extending over about 30 years. "I am
* getting lazy now and feel this one part-time job is enough,” she told
the interviewer after saying that she worked to use her skills and
abilities. She had a Ph.D. in psychology and was supervisor of coun­
selor’s training as well as consulting psychologist for a vocational
counseling agency. Both her sons were in college studying to be psy* chologists, and she returned to the university now and then—to teach
a course.

Who hires part-time workers?
The wide range of business firms, agencies, and institutions using
part-time workers has been indicated in the reasons for part-time
m work. While the Women’s Bureau field study did not try to include
all employers of part-time workers in the 10 cities, the 1,071 estab­
lishments from which extensive part-time information was obtained
represent the industries that are likely to employ women part time,
t exclusive of manufacturing, domestic service, and farm work.
>
The largest number of part-time jobs were, naturally, in the kinds
of workplaces—such as stores and restaurants—which every town
and city has. Of the establishments surveyed, about three-fourths of
the department stores, limited-price stores, and motion-picture thear ters regularly employed women on a part-time basis. For women’s
apparel and accessory stores the figure was slightly less than half;
for hotels and restaurants more than half, and for the beauty shops,
less than one-fourth.
Four-fifths of the hospitals, sanitariums, and clinics had some
(
women part-time employees, but only a little more than one-tenth of
the doctors’ and dentists’ offices had them.
^

16

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

A quick look at the employers reporting the use of part-time workers
reads like a typical business, professional, and educational directory
of the "average” city:
Advertising agencies
Art galleries
Banks
Beauty shops
Business services, miscellaneous
Churches
Clinics
Dentists’ offices
Doctors’ offices
Dry cleaning depots
Hospitals
Hotels
Insurance companies
Laboratories, medical
Laundries, self service
Lawyers' offices
Libraries
Membership organizations

Motion-picture theaters
Museums
Placement agencies
Photographic studios
Publishing houses
Radio stations
Research organizations
Real estate offices
Restaurants
Retail stores
Sales promotion firms
Sanitariums
Schools, adult, preschool, private ele­
mentary and secondary, special
Social agencies
Universities and colleges
Wholesale firms
■

In all the adult education services and a majority of the other edu­
cational institutions visited, women were used as part-time staff. This
was also the practice with over half of the social agencies and almost
half of the libraries. More than one-fourth of the radio broadcasting
stations had women working part time. Only a very small percentage
of banks, insurance, real estate, advertising, publishing, and law
»
offices were employers of part-time workers.
The workplaces employing women part time were similar in most
of the cities studied. Local conditions accounted for some variations,
such as the concentration of publishing houses and advertising agen­
cies in New York. But, as for what kinds of firms most frequently
employed women, Denver was not very different from Providence,
San Francisco from Richmond.1

1
>

PART-TIME JOBS AND JOB REQUIREMENTS

Work skills, learned through special training, experience, or both,
are essential for part-time employment. Relatively few part-time jobs
require no skill, aptitude, training, or experience. Employers find
it too expensive to hire part-time employees who need long periods
of on-the-job training; they expect them to adapt what they already
know to the immediate requirements of the part-time assignments
with a minimum of waste of their limited work schedules.

Work skills
From attendants for checkrooms to X-ray technicians in hospitals,
the skills and occupations which women have been able to use in
part-time jobs are not too different from the skills and occupations
of women on full-time jobs in business and professions. Less all­
round skill may be required of part-time workers than of full-time.
The kinds of firms employing part-time workers, as found by the
Women’s Bureau study, do not always give clues as to the types of
part-time jobs on which women were employed. Insurance companies,
for example, used more part-time food-service employees than part­
time clerical workers, and hospitals used more part-time kitchen em­
ployees (dietary helpers and tray girls) than part-time technicians.
Clerical workers, including bookkeepers and stenographers, were
found working part time in all kinds of places: Professional and
business offices; charitable, religious, and membership organizations;
hospitals; social agencies; radio stations; retail stores; schools; mu­
seums; hotels and restaurants. Saleswomen worked not only in de­
partment stores, women’s apparel shops, and limited-price stores,
but also sold popcorn and candy in movie theaters. In one place or
another, most of the recognized basic work skills of women, profes­
sional and nonprofessional, have been used on a part-time basis (see
list of part-time jobs held by women, p. 20).
The variety of skills being used by the more than 9,000 women
employed part time by the 1,071 firms included in the survey was
impressive. More significant, however, was the fact that the major­
ity of these part-time workers were concentrated in the important
17

18

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

woman-employing occupations such as sales, food service, and clerical.
The largest part-time professional groups in the survey were adult- *
education teachers, registered nurses, and social workers.

Education and training

Employers expected the same educational qualifications of part­
time workers as they did of full-time. The hiring qualifications as to *■
schooling and special training were usually no different, but de­
pended on the nature of the job.
College degrees with specialization in the particular field were
usually "musts” for part-time professional workers. The require­
ments for social workers were the highest; most agencies required
all of their professional staff members to have specialized graduate
training in addition to basic college work.
Teachers were found in such a variety of popular and academic
fields that the educational requirements for part-time teachers in­
cluded a wide range of skills and knowledge. In the different types
of schools and educational programs they taught everything from
flower arrangement, bridge, personal charm, social dancing, brides’
courses, swimming, and "the woman’s point of view” to subjects
such as Latin, calculus, labor legislation, and comparative literature.
Always, of course, there were play-school and kindergarten subjects.
In general, the educational requirements were college degrees for A
academic subjects, commercial-school training for business courses,
and a thorough knowledge of the subject, without necessarily having
academic background, for special crafts and skills.
Only "registered nurses’ training” was usually mentioned as qual­
ifying education for part-time registered nurses. However, public *
health, psychiatric, obstetric, and other specialized nurses usually were
also expected to have training in their special fields.
High school or the equivalent was generally required of clerical
workers on part time. Jobs dependent on knowledge of business
machines, stenography, bookkeeping, and so forth, called for special
training the same as if they were full time.
Most of the stores either required or preferred high-school grad­
uates for salespersons but there seemed no hard and fast rule for
this group of workers. Employers commented that many of their best

JOB REQUIREMENTS

19

saleswomen, particularly the older ones, were not high-school grad­
uates. Appearance and ability to meet the public were more impor­
tant than formal education.
"Neat, attractive, and well mannered” were the qualifications
stressed by motion-picture theaters for ticket sellers, ushers, and candy
salesgirls; educational requirements were secondary. Restaurant em­
ployers considered educational background unimportant for wait­
resses. A waitress might be a high-school graduate or not but, they
emphasized, she had to be neat, pleasant, and know how to handle
the public.

* Work experience
Work experience, even more than education, is a requirement for
many part-time jobs. Few employers can or will spend time and money
to train employees for less than full-time work. Inexperienced per„ sons are hired only on jobs that can be quickly and readily learned.
For this reason, only thoroughly experienced persons were employed
for part-time professional jobs and their previous work record was
often the basis for selection.
Experience was a usual requirement for specialized clerical jobs,
j but employers were often willing to hire inexperienced part-time
general office workers and receptionists. Many of the stores did not
*' require experienced part-time saleswomen, due perhaps to the fact
that large stores customarily have their own training programs.
Others said they preferred but did not require experience and, in
general, experience was not the determining factor in selecting sales1 women.
*
Restaurants usually made "no specific requirements” as to experi­
ence, but some employers did add that they preferred experienced
workers.

Maturity an asset
p

_

....
Mature age, 35 years and over, is no barrier in itself and may be
an advantage to a woman looking for certain kinds of part-time work.
The job determines the age preference in most cases but teenagers
and young women in their early twenties do not dominate the part­
time scene.

20

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

On the whole, the employers interviewed by the Women’s Bureau
did not report age as an important or determining factor in hiring
women part-time workers.
The maximum hiring age for stores varied from 35 to 65 years,
with 50 prevailing. Apparel and department stores more often hired
older women (up to 50 and 55) than did limited-price stores; the
latter have always tended to hire young and inexperienced workers. A
In restaurants, too, there was a wide range (30 to 65 years) in
the maximum hiring age of waitresses, but the most common top
limits were 40 and 45 years. Very few firms had age hiring specifi­
cations for kitchen workers or occupations other than waitresses.
No maximum age limit was found for the majority of the part- *
time professional occupations but, when reported, the top limits were
generally from 50 to 65 years of age. Not many hospitals gave age
specifications for nurses, and most educational institutions had no
maximum hiring age.
In motion-picture theaters, younger women from 18 to 30 were 1
hired as part-time usherettes and candy girls. Age limits for cashiers
and ticket sellers were higher; almost half of the theaters reported
no maximum age for these jobs, the others reported a maximum rang­
ing from 30 to 45 years.
On age limits for part-time workers, employers comment:

Department Stores
Sales, cashier, typist ... no definite maximum but seldom over 45 or 50;
minimum 16. Dallas
Prefer older women, more dependable. Milwaukee
Prefer older women on most jobs. No specification except 16-year minimum
j
for sales. Syracuse
Generally over 30. Syracuse
4
Prefer age 18 to 35, but no definite specifications. Worcester, Mass.
Need mature appearance in children’s department. Milwaukee
Apparel Stores
Prefer 30 up rather than 30 down. Milwaukee
Prefer 35 to 45 in sales and women 40 or over in better garments. Syracuse
Prefer older women in coat department and younger women in sportswear and
dresses. Syracuse
Other Stores
Sales and general help . . . prefer young women who will not object to mis­
cellaneous tasks. San Francisco
Sales ... in the thirties. Dallas

J

4
,

JOB REQUIREMENTS

►

*

*

[

*•

[
*

*

21

Restaurants
Prefer older women on all jobs. San Francisco
No specifications. Waitresses, much prefer 30 to 40 and those not having
young children. Milwaukee
Hospitals
No specifications . . . usually older women for information work. Richmond
Nurses ... no age specifications . . . almost all hospitals in all 10 cities.
Prefer older women for receptionists, dishwashers, and maintenance workers.
Milwaukee
Educational Institutions, Social Agencies, Charitable, Religious,
and Membership Organizations
Teacher, mature woman. Providence
Teacher, hobby interest . . . prefer over 25 and under 65. Syracuse
Prefer younger woman for nursery school. Providence
Must be young enough to do playground work with very active children.
San Francisco
Executive secretary . . . prefer older woman. Dallas
Clerical and case worker ... no specifications . . . mature person. Des Moines
Playtime director and club director ... no specifications . . . prefer younger
women because of type of job. Milwaukee
Membership secretary ... no specifications . . . prefer older woman . . . couldn't
have a young girl in this club for boys. Syracuse
Swimming instructor usually under 40. Denver
Professional staff 21 to 50, clerical ... 18 minimum but no maximum . . .
present hostess is elderly retired woman . . . cook, no specifications but prefer
middle-aged. Syracuse
Radio, Advertising, Publishing
Receptionist and PBX operator . . . fairly young with pleasing voice and per­
sonality. San Francisco
Advertising ... no specifications, except for messenger . . . prefer older women.
New York
Assistant editor in Job Futures Department . . . prefer young woman. Travel
editor . . . prefer mature woman. Fashion copy writer . . . prefer under 35.
New York
The information volunteered by the women who cooperated with
the survey tends to confirm what employers said about age qualifi­
cations or preferences for part-time workers, with the women over
35 having a decided edge over younger women.

Marriage no barrier
Applicants for part-time work can be married, widowed, divorced
or forever single so far as the question concerned most employers

22

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

interviewed for the Women’s Bureau study. Over nine-tenths of the
employers said they had no hiring specification or preference in regard to marital status. The main interest was whether or not the
applicant could work a regular schedule without interference from
home duties. Preference was for women without responsibility for
small children.
According to the information provided by the women workers, the
vast majority were married. This reflects the fact that part-time work
is primarily a married woman’s field since most other women cannot
afford to work part time.

"

*

Part-time Jobs Held by Women in 1,071 Firms in 10 Cities

Amusement and Recreation Services
Motion-picture and other theaters
Ticket sellers and cashiers
Managers and assistants
Ushers
Saleswomen (candy and popcorn
Clerical workers, other
concessions)
Matrons
Finance, Insurance,
Banking and other finance
Board markers (stock brokerage)
Tellers
Business-machine operators
Clerical employees, other
Food-service employees
Personal-service employees, other

and

«

Real Estate

Insurance
Artists
Clerical employees
Food-service employees
Chauffeurs
Real estate
Clerical employees

><

Personal Services
Beauty shops
Cashiers—food
Beauty operators
Cashiers—liquor stores
Masseuses
Hostesses
Clerical employees
Dining-room employees, other
Eating places
Kitchen employees
Dietitians, assistant managers, as­
Maids and housekeepers
sistant caterers
Elevator operators
Cashiers
Clerical employees, other
Hostesses
Self-service laundries and dry-cleaning
Dining-room employees, other
depots
Kitchen employees
Laundry attendants
General help in school lunchrooms
Retail receiving clerks
Clerical employees, other
Saleswomen
Miscellaneous personal services
Hotels
(photography)
Front desk—clerks and cashiers
Bookkeeping-machine operators

*

^

t

JOB REQUIREMENTS

23

Trade
* Retail stores
Limited-price variety stores
Apparel and accessories stores,
Saleswomen
women’s
Clerical employees
Saleswomen
Food-service employees
Clerical employees
Other employees, such as mark­
Food-service employees
ers and stock girls
Other employees, such as alter­
Miscellaneous retail stores
*
ation women, elevator oper­
Saleswomen
ators, manicurists, pressers
Clerical employees
and stock girls
Food-service employees
Department stores
Other employees, such as cor­
Saleswomen
,
Clerical employees
sage makers in florist shops,
Food service employees
designers of novelties in
►
Other employees, such as alter­
novelty shops, elevator oper­
ation women, artists, art and
ators, meat wrappers in food
needlework instructors, com­
stores, sewing teachers in
parison and personal shop­
sewing-machine companies,
pers, detectives, elevator
and wrappers
operators, markers, milliners,
models, nurses, stock girls, Wholesale trade
Clerical employees
■>
wrappers and packers

;

'
t

,

Professional

and

Charitable, religious, and membership
organizations
Social agencies
Accompanists (piano)
Attendants—gymnasium,
swimming pool
Consultants and counselors—
psychology, speech, physical
and occupational therapy
Dance-hall supervisors
Directors (program, publicity)
and administrative assistants
Group leaders and workers—recreation
House mothers and practical
nurses
Lecturers
Librarians (professional)
Nurses, registered
Social workers—case workers
Teachers—adult classes
Teachers and aides — nursery
schools

Related Services
Clerical employees
Dining-room employees
Kitchen employees
Maids, general
Other organizations
Church and religious workers
Sunday school teachers
Clerical employees
Church and religious em­
ployees, other
Directors and executive secre­
taries
Group workers
Library aides
Nursery attendants
Teachers
Clerical employees, other
Cashiers
Hostesses
Dining-room employees, other
Kitchen employees
Housekeepers and maids
Attendants—check room
Elevator operators

24

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Professional

and

Related Services—Continued

Educational services
Other special schools
Schools
Child-care aides
Adult education
Directors, education
Accompanists (piano)
Directors, nursery schools
Directors and supervisors,
Publicity workers
Teachers
program
Teachers, consultants, lec­
Office managers
Clerical employees, other
^
turers
Clerical employees
Dining-room employees
Dining-room employees
Kitchen employees
Kitchen employees
Libraries
Attendants (gymnasium)
Catalogers
Preschools (nurseries)
Librarians (professional)
House mothers
Library aides
Nurses, registered
Office managers
Nursery-school attendants
Clerical employees, other
.
Teachers
Museums and art galleries
Clerical employees
Copyists and colorists
Dining-room employees
Curators and assistants
Kitchen employees
Directors, assistant
Maids
Directors, public relations
Private schools, primary and
Guides and/or lecturers
*
secondary
Research assistants
Accompanists (piano)
School-service specialists
Consultants
Staff assistants
Kindergarten and nursery
Teachers
aides
Clerical employees
Librarians and assistants
Medical and other health services
Nurses, practical
Hospitals, sanitariums, clinics
Nurses, registered
Anesthetists (professional)
Teachers
Dental aides
Clerical employees
Dietitians
Managers of lunchrooms
Directors of religious work, so­
Dining-room employees
cial services, volunteer aides
Kitchen employees
Instructors of practical nurses
Personal service employees,
and student nurses
other
Laboratory technicians
Bus drivers
Laboratory technician aides
*
Universities and colleges
Librarians (professional)
Hostesses in student union
Library aides
Librarians and assistants
Nurses’ aides
(professional)
Nurses, practical
Library aides
Nurses, registered
’
Teachers
Orthopedic technicians
|
Test scorers
Pharmacists, registered
%
Clerical employees, other
Social workers (professional)
Cashiers, restaurant
Therapists
Dining-room employees,
Therapists’ aides
other
X-ray technicians
Kitchen employees
Clerical employees
;
Nurses, registered
Managers, dining-room
Saleswomen (bookstore)
Dining-room employees, other I

25

JOB REQUIREMENTS

Professional

and

Related Services—Continued

Bookkeepers
Medical—Continued
Hospitals—Continued
Professional offices
Doctors' and dentists’ offices
Kitchen employees, dietary
Dental hygienists
helpers, and tray girls
Nurses, registered
Personal service employees,
Technicians
other
Glee-club instructors of student
Other assistants
Clerical employees
nurses
Lawyers’ offices
Medical and clinical laboratories
Clerical employees
Laboratory technicians

,
\

Communication
Radio broadcasting stations
Announcers
Continuity writers

Directors of personnel and promotional work
Clerical employees

Miscellaneous Industries

and

Services

Advertising, letter service, and sales
Copywriters
Editors and assistants
promotion
Artists
Proofreaders
Copy writers
Research assistants
Clerical employees
Clerical employees, other
Experimental-kitchen employees
Food-service employees
Opinion polls and market research
Miscellaneous business services
Interviewers
Promotional and advertising man­
Placement agencies
agers
Clerical employees
Hostesses (Welcome Wagon and
Publishing houses
Newcomer's Service)
Colorists
Clerical employees
Copyreaders

WOMEN WHO WORK PART TIME
The ' typical” woman part-time worker is married, lives in a
family household of two or three persons with two members em­
ployed, and does all her own housework, except possibly the laundry.
She is somewhere between 35 and 45 years of age, at least a high- *■
school graduate, with some previous full-time work experience. Her
children, if she has any, are probably in their teens or older. She ex­
pects to continue working. This composite picture drawn from a
representative portion of the part-time workers covered by the survey
does not, of course, accurately describe each individual.
*
In the 10 cities, 1,853 women working part time gave information
as to their age, education, marital status, and work history and rea­
sons for doing part-time work. The occupational grouping of the
1,853 women was as follows:
Nurses, registered .................................................................................... 154
Social workers ........................................................................................... 55
Teachers .............................................
250
Clerical and related workers.......................................................................356
Sales and related workers........................................................................... 342
Service workers in hotels and restaurants................................................. 422
Other workers ............................................................................................274

Included in the above were 618 women part-time workers who were
interviewed by Woman’s Bureau representatives for more detailed
information on their family responsibilities as they related to their
jobs.
Nearly three-fourths of all the women covered by the part-time
study were married, one-tenth were widowed; over one-tenth were
single (frequently retired); the small remaining numbers were either
separated or divorced (Fig. 2). Over nine-tenths of those interviewed
lived in family households and most of the others "kept house,”
though not as part of a family. Over three-fourths lived in small
families of from two to four persons. Almost half of these did their
housework without any outside assistance. Another group, which
accounted for about one-fourth of the total, had regular help with
the housework from members of the family and/or sent the laundry
out. Less than one-fourth had maids and most of those were part
time. The part-time worker with a full-time maid was a rarity.
26

,

*

<

4

CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN PART-TIME WORKERS,
WOMEN’S BUREAU STUDY IN 10 CITIES

Figure 3
AGE GROUPS

Figure 2
MARITAL STATUS

Under
25
25-34

Married

35-44
Widowed

45-54

Separated
or divorced

55 and
over
0
Percent

10
20
Percent

Figure 4. EDUCATIONAL LEVEL, BY OCCUPATION
Social
workers

1*

■***

Teachers
Nurses
Clerical
workers
Saleswomen
Food service
workers
Percent
High school
,......or less

1 to 4 years
of college

27

More than 4
teiitssla years of college

30

28

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Nearly one-third of the women part-time workers were at least 35
but under 45 years, over one-third were 45 or over (the majority
were between 45 and 55) (Fig. 3). The part-time worker aged 35 or
over predominated among social workers, adult education teachers,
clerical workers, saleswomen, and food-service workers.
Over two-thirds of the total group had at least completed high
school. One-third had gone to college for one or more years. One- ^

fifth were college graduates, and almost half of these had taken
graduate work. About half had had some kind of professional or
formal vocational training. (See Fig. 4 for educational level in se­
lected occupations.)
Previous full-time work experience was an asset of over four-fifths "
of the women participating in the survey. Almost half had worked
full time for at least 5 years, over one-fourth had more than 10 years
full-time experience. For about three-fourths of the women who had
had full-time jobs, their part-time jobs were in the same general field
as their full-time work experience.
1
Slightly more than half of the women interviewed had no chil­
dren or their children were over 18 years of age. The next largest
group, about one-fifth, had one child under 18 years; over one-tenth
had two children under 18 years. Very few had three or more young
children.
Few mothers find part-time jobs worthwhile if expensive or com- n
plicated child-care arrangements are necessary during their working
hours. One of the big advantages of part-time over full-time work,
from the point of view of mothers, is that older children usually can
be in school during all or most of the shorter working day. Not until
the children are in school do most women who want to work part «
time begin looking for a job.
Though women part-time workers with children under 6 years of
age were a minority of the total group of women interviewed, they
supplied detailed information of special interest on what child-care
arrangements they had made. About two-fifths of the children under J
6 years of age whose mothers worked part time were in day nurseries
or kindergartens, over one-fourth were cared for by relatives; alto­
gether, two-thirds of the small children were cared for in day nurs­
eries or kindergartens or by relatives while their mothers worked
1
part time. Maids cared for less than one-fifth of the small children.

WOMEN WHO WORK PART TIME

29

The older children who were 6 but under 12 years of age were
in school, but after school about one-third were cared for by relatives
and over two-fifths took care of themselves. For about one-fifth, either
their mothers were at home after school hours or friends, neighbors,
or relatives looked after them. Maids were depended on even less
for this age group.
Teen-agers largely took care of themselves after school. Relatives
were responsible for over a tenth, and for almost another tenth, the
mothers were at home after school.
Most of the part-time workers interviewed, including those with
children, said they planned to continue working part-time. A small
group indicated they expected to shift to full-time jobs; most of these
were women without children or whose children were grown.
As will be seen from the following notes on a few individual inter­
views, the work records of many of the women closely parallel in­
creases and decreases in their household and family responsibilities.
Married, between 45 and 55 years of age . . . high-school graduate
... 10 years’ full-time experience as stenographer, 2 years’ part-time
. . . family household ... no outside assistance with household duties
. . . JOB: clerk-typist, business service, 29 V2 hours a week.
Married, between 45 and 55 years of age . . . college graduate, home
economics . . . three children, two under 18 years . . . worked a year
before marriage, out of labor market for 20 years . . . almost 2 years’
part-time on present job ... no outside household assistance . . .
oldest daughter or husband care for younger children the one evening
she is away . . . JOB: cooking teacher, adult education evening classes,
2 hours a week.
Widow, over 55i years of age . . . high-school graduate, no special train­
ing .. . had not worked before 1948 . . . four children, three grown
and away from home, youngest in high school . . . family household
includes mother and 15-year-old son . . . no outside household assist­
ance . . . JOB: saleswoman in retail store, 19'/2 hours.
Married, between 35 and 45 years of age . . . high-school graduate
... no children . . . over 16 years’ full-time experience, over 3 years’
part-time . . . trained beautician . . . family household of two adults
... no outside assistance with household duties . . . JOB: beauty
operator 27 hours a week.
Widow, between 45 and 55 years of age . . . high-school graduate . . .
two grown daughters . . . did not work for 10 years . . . 11 years’full­
time experience, 4 years’ part-time . . . family household of three em­
ployed adults ... no outside assistance with household duties . . .
JOB: receptionist and general office worker, social agency, 16 hours a
week.

30

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Single, over 55 years of age . . . college graduate ... 42 years as
public school teacher, retired . . . part-time over 2 years . . . house­
hold with two women friends, full-time housekeeper . . . JOB: Latin
teacher, private school, 20 hours a week.
Married, between 35 and 45 years of age . . . college graduate . . .
three children, ages 7, 9, 14 . . . teacher 2 years before marriage, 16
years out of labor market . . . almost 2 years’ part-time . . . family
household . . . has maid twice a week . . . schedule permits being
home when children are out of school . . . JOB: director of church
(Sunday) school, 20 hours a week.
Married, between 40 and 45 years . . . high-school graduate and nurse's
training . . . two children, ages 7 and 11 . . . husband cares for chil­
dren . . . JOB: hospital general duty nurse, 20 hours a week (Sundays
7 a.m. to 3:30 p.m.; Monday-Wednesday 7 p.m. to 11 p.m.).
Married, between 45 and 50 years of age ... 3 years’ college and
nurse’s training . . . three children, ages 17 to 21 . . . JOB: nurse in
pediatrician’s office, 27l/> hours a week.
Married, between 35 and 45 years of age . . . college graduate, jour­
nalism . . . 15-year-old son . . . worked most of married life on tem­
porary or free-lance assignments, over 3 years’ part-time . . . family
household . . . sends laundry out and has cleaning woman 2 days a
week . . . JOB: publicity and research, adult education council, 30
hours a week.
Married, between 35 and 45 years of age . . . college graduate, training
in speech and dramatics . . . three children under 18 years . . . highschool teacher 4 years before marriage ... 5 years’ part-time on present
job . . . family household three adults, two children . . . full-time
maid . . . JOB: radio coordinator, community chest agencies.

FINDING PART-TIME WORKERS AND
PART-TIME JOBS
Employers’ recruiting methods
Every recruitment method ordinarily used by business firms and
community agencies to find full-time workers has been used by em­
ployers to fill part-time vacancies, from "passing the word along”
to listing the job with an employment agency, union, or professional
association. There was no general agreement among the firms inter­
viewed by the Women’s Bureau as to which method was best. The
type of job and the kind of part-time worker sought had much to
do with what recruitment methods employers considered most satis­
factory.
Stores, eating places, and motion-picture theaters leaned heavily
on what they called "direct application” for finding the part-time
workers they wanted. They received applications from persons whose
job hunting took them from one likely place to another or who had
"heard from a friend” that there might be an opening. A represen­
tative of the personnel office or the manager, depending on the size
of the establishment, interviewed the applicants. These firms also
recruited part-time workers through newspaper advertisements, other
employees, by calling back former full-time employees, and, less fre­
quently, through employment agencies.
Unions as a source for recruiting part-time workers were signifi­
cant only in areas where hotels, restaurants, hospitals (food and
maintenance workers), and stores are strongly organized. In a city
such as San Francisco, an employer could expect the appropriate
union to help him find part-time workers from among its member­
ship.
Nearly two-thirds of the banks, insurance, and real estate offices
reported that they found their part-time workers among former em­
ployees or through their other employees. Doctors and dentists often
said they recruited their part-time assistants through friends and pro­
fessional contacts.
Community organizations, hospitals, educational institutions, and
social agencies often had quite different recruiting methods for differ­
ent jobs. Direct applications, newspaper advertisement, or an employ­
ment agency might be used for part-time clerical or food-service
31

32

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

workers. Professional staff, however, often was sought through pro­
fessional associations (nurses’ registries, organizations of social work­
ers, and so forth), or from among the professional acquaintances of
the regular staff. Former full-time employees were called back for
part-time work, and also volunteers were sometimes taken on as part­
time paid workers.
Direct application and other employees’ suggestions were the most
common methods used by libraries. Museums and art galleries had
much the same recruitment practices as libraries, though they looked
more to schools and colleges for part-time personnel suggestions.
Almost no firms said they answered "position wanted” newspaper
advertisements when looking for part-time workers. Limited-price
stores and restaurants sometimes used the "part-time help wanted”
sign in the window.
Now and then an employer mentioned less usual methods of re­
cruiting part-time workers: A broadcasting station advertised over
the radio, a tuberculosis hospital used former patients who were
arrested cases. Churches and religious organizations almost always
canvassed their members, and a social agency working with handi­
capped persons felt obligated to use its clients when possible.
Mothers of pupils were the source for teachers’ helpers in a private
nursery and elementary school. Neighborhood mothers not otherwise
employed were sought as part-time assistants at a community day­
care center for children whose mothers worked full time. A university
did its recruiting for part-time catalogers, library aides, and stenog­
raphers among the faculty wives and wives of GI students.

Employees’ job hunting
Friends, relatives, and former employers helped a majority of the
women interviewed by the Women’s Bureau to find their part-time
jobs. "A friend told me about the job, I applied and got it,” was
a frequent answer to the question, "How did you get your part-time
work?”
Of those interviewed, about two-fifths of the clerical, sales, and
service workers got their jobs through leads from friends or relatives.
Former employers were responsible for almost one-third of the sales­
women and about one-fifth of the clerical and service workers find­
ing their part-time jobs. Smaller proportions located their jobs by

FINDING WORKERS AND JOBS

33

answering newspaper "help wanted’’ advertisements or by going from
one likely place to another making direct application.
In those professions with the most part-time workers—nursing,
social work, and teaching-—friends and relatives were not as impor­
tant for finding jobs as they were in nonprofessional occupations. The
same percentage of nurses reported success in finding part-time jobs
k through former employers and direct application as through friends
or relatives. Almost half of the social workers gave the credit to
former employers and almost one-fifth to other social agency con­
tacts. Teachers found direct application and friends about equally
effective, with university placement agencies and former employers
k next.
Some of the women interviewed insisted that their part-time jobs
had found them without much effort on their own part. Most of
these were teachers, stenographers, or bookkeepers. To what extent
these women had been recommended by friends or were former em­
, ployees "called back” was not possible to determine.
Public and private employment agencies, including school place­
ment bureaus, successfully directed to their part-time jobs less than a
tenth of the women interviewed. The women reported slightly more
successes with the public employment service than private agencies.
I
The part-time jobs that were found through any of these agencies
were largely clerical, nursing, sales, or food service.
Comments of the women in reply to the question, "How did you
get your job?” include the following:
►

,
k

^

Head of the Foundation was a friend of my late husband. (University
library)
Director of the school where I got my master’s degree asked me to work
full time but I wish to work only part time. (Instructor in school of
social work)
Through professional contacts. Library officials offered me the job be­
cause of my interest in and knowledge of western history. (Cataloger
of western history collection, public library)
Through friends who suggested me to the local health authority. (Pedia­
trician, well-baby clinic)
Substituted on a temporary basis, and when part-time job was available
asked for it. (Public library)
Recommended for job of editing and writing by a member organization.
(Publicity, adult education council)
Through friends. (Secretary, membership organization)
Was a former patient. (Bookkeeper, doctor's office)

34

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Since I was an experienced former full-time employee, I was asked by
the company to work part time. (Bookkeeper, insurance company)
,
Part-time job thrust on me by former employer. Had been a full-time
employee for 5 years during the war and resigned. (Bookkeeper, hotel)
I did volunteer work for the clinic for 2 years before taking the paid job.
Just worked into it when the clinic program changed from volunteer
basis to one of paid employees. (Receptionist, social agency)
Took the job first as a temporary full-time worker but did not want to
continue on full time so present schedule was arranged. (Typist and ^
receptionist, social agency)
Through former employer. (Clerk-typist, neighborhood business service)
Answered ad. The ad sounded attractive so I applied for the job. (Cus­
tomer hostess, downtown bank)
Answered ad. (Sales, limited-price store)
Direct application. (Sales, limited-price store)
^
Knew owner through club activities. Was not looking for a job but
took this because it sounded interesting and was assured I could have
short hours. (Sales and record keeping, small exclusive modern furni­
ture store)
I knew the manager of this shop. (Beauty operator)
Direct application. (Waitress, downtown restaurant)

Placement agencies and part-time
As already indicated, few of the women included in the study
found their part-time jobs through employment agencies. To get a
more complete idea of the role of the placement agencies in the
part-time field, the Women’s Bureau interviewers visited the State
employment services in each of the 10 cities except New York City,
and visited a selected group of 18 private placement agencies. They
asked for information about the orders received from employers for
part-time workers and the registrations from women seeking part­
time jobs. Domestic workers were excluded since they were also ex­
cluded from the main part of the study.
The information gathered from placement agencies confirmed what
employers and employees had said about them as a channel for part­
time placement—the agencies played a minor role in placing part­
time workers. Only 3 percent of the 20,000 women applicants regis­
tered in the active files of the State agencies and 5 percent of the
over 4,000 registrants in the private agencies had applied for part­
time jobs. Less than 100 employer orders for part-time workers were
currently on file in the agencies; the orders usually were for one
part-time worker—a stenographer, waitress, or chambermaid.

^

*

FINDING WORKERS AND JOBS

35

The State employment services studied handled all types of job
placements and did not specialize in particular occupations or indus­
tries. The private agencies visited specialized for the most part in
office placements. Although none of the agencies encouraged part­
time registrations, two public agencies had assigned interviewers
to handle only part-time applicants and orders. The slight employer
demand on the State agencies for part-time workers made it inadvis­
able to direct their services in any marked degree to part-time place­
ments. Private agencies, since they charge fees based on the earnings
of the applicants placed, found part-time placements unprofitable; a
part-time worker takes as much time and paper work as a full-time
worker. Both public and private agencies often suggested that appli­
cants go directly to stores or restaurants without registering at the
agency. "Women who apply for regular part-time work are rela­
tively few. They are usually married women 35 to 45 years old with­
out any special skills or work experience,” was a typical employment
agency comment. The majority of the part-time applications on file
in these agencies at the time of the study were from women who
wanted nonprofessional "white collar” jobs such as sales or clerical
work. About two-fifths had completed high school, one-fifth had only
grade-school education, and less than one-fifth had attended college,
few of the college women had specialized in a particular field. Over
half of all the applicants had no vocational or specialized training.
The women who looked for part-time jobs through the employment
agencies were vague and indefinite about the number of weekly hours
they wished to work. According to the agencies, the most common
answers covered a spread of from 20 to 25 hours. About evenly
divided were the numbers of women who reported they could work
"evening hours from 5 or 6 p. m. to 9, 10, or 11 p. m. and mornings
and up to 2, 3, or 3:30 p. m.” These periods seem to cover the hours
husbands were home to care for children or the hours their children
were in school.

HOURS, EARNINGS, AND FRINGE BENEFITS
Hours
Regular hours schedules less than full time, the distinguishing
characteristic of part-time jobs, had many variations which are diffi­
cult to analyze. As defined in this study, a part-time job is one on '
which the employee works substantially less than the scheduled hours
of the establishment, and in no case more than 36 hours a week.
Within these limitations almost any kind of schedule is possible,
keeping in mind always that temporary workers are not included
The most common part-time schedules of hours, as reported by M
employers to the Women’s Bureau for the survey, varied from as
little as 2 hours a week for some adult education teachers to as much
as 30 hours a week for waitresses and saleswomen. Twenty hours
a week, which usually meant 4 hours for 5 days, was the most com­
mon schedule for a wide range of occupations. Hospitals, however,
1
preferred 3 full 8-hour days; some retail stores followed the same
plan. Of the women whose part-time work records were covered by
the survey, over half worked 15 to 30 hours a week (over a fourth
worked 20 hours but less than 25 hours a week).
In the selected occupations from the 10 cities studied, the informa­
tion on daily and weekly hours, as tabulated here, represents approxi,
matdy the range of the middle 50 percent of the hours in each of the
cities. Therefore, the exceptions and special cases which did not fit
into these "most common" classifications are not shown here.
The reasons for employing part-time workers are naturally related
to the work schedules. Five main factors were reported by the estab4
lishments surveyed for determining part-time hours:
1. Peak business load (over two-fifths)
2. Nature of the job (over one-third)
3- Needs of individual women workers (less than one-third)
4. Regular relief for full-time workers (less than one-fourth)
5. Additional help as needed to supplement full-time employees
for long over-all hours or heavy load of work (about one-sixth)
Some firms had special situations, including customer appointments
in beauty shops and arrangements to utilize space and equipment
for longer hours.
36

37

HOURS, EARNINGS, AND FRINGE BENEFITS

Most Common Hours for Part-time Workers in Selected
Occupations
Women’s Bureau survey in 10 cities
Occupation
Professional and semiprofessional:
Directors, assistant (museums).........................
Directors (social agencies)..................................
Editors (publishing houses)..............................
Group leaders (social agencies).......................
Interviewers (opinion polls)..............................
Laboratory technicians (hospitals)...................
Librarians (libraries)............................................
Nurses (hospitals).................................................
Research assistants (publishing houses)..........
Social workers (social agencies).......................
Teachers (membership organizations)............
Teachers (school) in—
Adult education..........................................
Universities and colleges...........................
Private, primary and secondary schools—
Arts and crafts teachers.....................
Grade teachers....................................
Kindergarten and nursery teachers. .
Preschool teachers..............................
Teachers (social agencies)................................
Therapists (hospitals)........................................
Clerical:
Business-machine operators (banks).................
Miscellaneous clerical in—
Banks ...........................................................
Retail stores.................................................
Doctors’ and dentists' offices...................
Hospitals .....................................................
Insurance companies..................................
Printing and publishing companies........
Saleswomen (retail stores):
Department stores.................................................
Limited-price stores ..........................................
Waitresses in eating places......................................

Daily hours
3 to 4
4
4 and 6
2 to 4
Irreg.
3 and 5
4

Weekly hours
15 to 20
20
20

2 to 5
20

20 to 24
20

8

24

Irreg.
7 to 8
1 to 3

20

2

2 to 4

2 to 10
2 to 6

2 to 3
31/2 and 41/2
3 and 3 V2
3
2 to 3
3 to 41/2

5 to 10
Varied
15 to 20
15
2 to 5
18 to 24

<5

30

4 and 5
4 to 8
4 and 41/2
4 to 5
4 to 6
5

20 to 25
24 to 30
20 to 25
20 to 24
20 to 24
25

4 and 5
4 and 5
4 to 51/2

24 to 30
24 to 30

20 to 25
2 to 6

20 to 30

The period of the day during which a part-time worker is on the
job usually depends on the same factors that determine the number
of hours worked. While most married women seem to think of part­
time work largely in terms of the hours their husbands are at work
—or children in school—not all part-time jobs conveniently fall into
that time span. But, as has been indicated, some part-time jobs are
for 2 or 3 8-hour days a week, some are for a few hours at night,
some are for week ends. Unusual though it was, 6 a. m. was the
starting time in San Francisco brokerage offices because of the time
zone differences between New York and San Francisco, and the part­
time "boardmarkers” had to be there at that hour.

38

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

The majority of professional and semiprofessional part-time em­
ployees worked less than 25 hours a week but the nature of the job
usually determined whether the schedule was for short days four or
five times a week or for full days two or three times a week. For
example, part-time jobs for librarians, editors, group leaders, and
teachers usually fitted into short workdays; for social workers and
nurses, several full days a week had been found more practical.
Clerical workers, for the most part, were employed a few hours
5 or 6 days a week. The part-time saleswomen and food-service
workers were employed part days to cover peak loads—in stores for
busy shopping hours, in restaurants for mealtimes.

Earnings
How much part-time workers are paid varies with the kinds of jobs
and the hours worked. Part-time registered nurses, for example,
usually receive the same hourly rate as full-time nurses; the same is
usually true for food-service workers. Where the establishment is
unionized, the union scale is the basis for determining part-time
wages. Salespersons may or may not receive commissions. Teachers
may be paid by the hour, the month, or the session, but the rate rarely
covers time required in preparation for classes. Rates of pay for all
kinds of professional jobs are more or less in proportion to the
full-time jobs requiring comparable training, experience, and responsibility.
The rates for comparable jobs differed widely both among firms in
the same city and from city to city, the survey showed. In general,
San Francisco consistently paid the highest rates in all occupations,
the southern cities tended to pay the lowest, while the New England
and midwestern cities came somewhere between the extremes.
Among the large group of part-time professional workers, special
teachers and social workers were generally the best paid, perhaps
because the jobs had higher educational requirements than most of
the others. In the clerical field, business-machine operators and others
with special training usually received higher pay than general office
clerks. Banks, insurance, printing and publishing houses—industries
requiring technical knowledge of their procedures—usually paid
higher rates than stores or small professional offices.

*

"

1

p

<

4

39

HOURS, EARNINGS, AND FRINGE BENEFITS

Saleswomen in retail stores sometimes had their hourly earnings
supplemented by commissions on sales above a fixed amount. This
depended on the departments in which they worked and the policy of
the store. Some stores also gave regular part-time workers discount
privileges on merchandise purchased.
Rates of pay for part-time waitresses probably differed more widely
than any other occupation included in the survey. They were the
lowest reported in the study but these rates did not represent actual
earnings, since waitresses customarily received tips and at least one
meal.
Most Common Hourly Rates and Methods of Pay for Part­
time

Workers in Selected Occupations

Women’s Bureau survey in 10 cities
Hourly rates
Occupation
Professional and semiprofessional:
$1.50 to $2.00
Directors, assistant (museums).....................
$1.25 to $1.50
Directors (social agencies)............................
$2.50
$1.00 to $1.25
$1.00 to $1.25
$1.25 to $1.50
Librarians
$1.00 to $1.50
Nurses (h
$1.00 to $1.25
$1.50
$1.25 to $1.75
$2.00 to $2.50
Teachers (schools) in$2.50 to $3.00
$4.00 to $6.00
Private, primary and secondary schools—$1.50 to $2.50
$2.00 to $2.50

Therapists (hospitals) . ..
Clerical:
Business-machine operators
Miscellaneous clerical in—
Banks ..........................

Method of pay
Varied.
Monthly.
Weekly.
Varied.
Weekly.
Hourly.
Monthly.
Hourly.
Monthly.
Hourly.
••

$1.25 to $1.50
$1.50 to $2.00
$1.50 to $2.00
$1.00 to $1.25

Monthly.
Monthly and
yearly.
Monthly.
'«
Session.
Hourly.

$1.05 to $1.35

Monthly.

$1.00 to $1.10

Hourly and
monthly.
Hourly.
Monthly.
Hourly.

$0.65 to $0.85
$0.65 to $0.85
$0.75 to $1.00
$1.00 to $1.25
$1.00 to $1.25
Saleswomen (retail stores):
Department stores ................................................... $0.65 to $0.75
Limited-price stores ................................................. $0.60 to $0.65
Waitresses in eating places............................................ $0.40 to $0.50 1
1 In most cases, waitresses received meals and tips.

"
>•
"
*'

The same occupations in the 10 cities for which the most common
daily and weekly hours schedules were given, were summarized to

40

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

find the most common hourly rates and methods of pay. Again it
must be remembered that the pay scales in the preceding table represent
only the range of the middle 50 percent of the rates in each city and do
not show the earnings of all workers. On about one-half of the jobs
workers were paid by the hour; one-third were paid by the month, a
few by the week, and some teachers by the session.

Fringe benefits
Paid vacations and sick leave—so-called fringe benefits—form def­
inite parts of workers’ real wages. Some employers have developed
policies and practices with respect to fringe benefits for part-time
workers which have the effect of recognizing the permanency and sta­
bility7 of part-time jobs. In the Women’s Bureau study of part-time
jobs, it was found that the firms which had established such benefits
for full-time employees, more often than not, extended them to part­
time employees with reasonable modifications.
Almost all the firms covered by the Women’s Bureau survey had
policies of paid vacations for full-time employees; not quite half re­
ported that part-time workers were also eligible for paid vacations
prorated on the same basis as full time.
Within certain groups of industries studied, the proportion of firms
giving part-time as well as full-time workers paid vacations was much
higher than the over-all average:
Limited-price stores—About nine-tenths.
Department stores—About two-thirds.
Finance, insurance, and real estate—About two-thirds.
Hotels—Three-fifths.

For the other main groups of employers, the giving of paid vaca­
tions to both full-time and part-time employees was a practice not yet
so firmly established:
Restaurants—About half.
Social agencies—About half.
Hospitals, sanitariums, clinics—About half.
Apparel and accessory stores—About half.
Motion-picture and other theaters—About half.
Other stores—About two-fifths.
Charitable, religious, and membership organizations—Two-fifths.
Educational institutions—About one-fourth.

HOURS, EARNINGS, AND FRINGE BENEFITS

41

Sick leave with pay was a much less common practice among the
employers than was vacation with pay. Only two-thirds reported def­
inite paid sick-leave policies for all full-time workers, and less than
a fourth for all part-time workers. The amount of sick leave granted
was usually the same as for full-time workers on a prorated basis.
Several of the same employer groups that led with paid vacation
policies were leaders with paid sick leave for both full- and part-time
workers:
Finance, insurance, and real estate—Over two-fifths.
Limited-price stores—Over two-fifths.
Department stores—Over a third.
Social agencies—Over a third.
Hospitals, sanitariums, clinics—Over a fourth.
Educational institutions—Almost a fourth.
Charitable, religious, and membership organizations—Almost a fifth.
Motion-picture and other theaters—Almost a fifth.
Restaurants—Over a tenth.
Other stores—Over a tenth.
Apparel and accessory stores—Less than a tenth.

Three-fifths of the hotels and half of the restaurants did not have
paid sick leave for any of their employees, either part-time or full­
time. The same was true for well over one-third of the motionpicture theaters and the apparel and accessory stores, and for onefourth of the department stores. A higher percentage of social
agencies had some kind of sick-leave policy than any other group of
employers covered by the survey, though it was not always extended
to part-time workers.
The extension of paid vacations and sick leave to more part-time
workers will doubtless come gradually as employers and employees
increase their experience with part-time work. Fringe benefits are the
mark of stability and continuity in employment.
Examples of Vacation and Sick-Leave Policies for Part-time
Workers From Employer Interviews

If a part-time employee works 60 percent of full time, she receives all the
benefits. (Limited-price store.)
All part-time workers who are scheduled to work 27 hours or more a
week receive the same benefits (sick leave and vacation) as full-time.
Benefits are prorated to salary and time. (Department store.)

42

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Same benefits applicable to part-time as full-time, if part-time are em­
ployed 22 hours or more per week. (Drug store.)
Both full- and part-time workers get regular paid vacation (prorated for
part-time) but sick leave is granted to all employees at manager’s dis­
cretion. (Department store.)
Prorated according to time worked—-part-time employees receive propor­
tionate share of all benefits. (Hospital.)
No fringe benefits for workers on hourly rates. Full-time employees are
paid on a salary basis and are granted both sick leave and vacations.
(Insurance company.)
Full-time get both sick leave and vacation but part-time ' 'work strictly on
commission” with no fringe benefits. (Beauty shop.)
Part-time employees are paid only for the time worked and are not eli­
gible for any fringe benefits. Full-time employees get both sick leave and
vacation. (City recreation commission.)
Depends on individual case, for both full-time and part-time, in granting
sick leave and vacation. (Community center.)
Arrangements for sick leave and vacations are all informal, for both full­
time and part-time employees. (Children’s home.)
All part-time jobs are paid on session basis with no fringe benefits.
(Adult education.)

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF
PART-TIME WORK
Employer advantages
More employers cited advantages to them o£ part-time work than
pointed to disadvantages. Their experiences had been, for the most
part, satisfactory or at least a mixture of advantage and disadvantage.
Over two-thirds of the employers reported "no disadvantages” of
part-time work.
The advantages to an employer of having part-time workers are
closely related to the conditions which led to setting up the jobs in
the first place. In a business with "peak load periods,” part-time
workers can provide customer service at the special times the service
is most needed; operating costs are thus kept down by limiting the
full-time pay roll to the "non-peak” or basic requirements. Approx­
imately all the department, limited-price, and women’s apparel stores
reported the "peak load” advantage of part-time work. Three-fourths
of the beauty shops and restaurants and three-fifths of the hotels
were of the same opinion.
A part-time plan was to the employer’s advantage where the busi­
ness day of more than 8 hours or the workweek of more than 40
hours required relief workers to supplement full-time employees.
Motion-picture theaters, eating places, hotels, stores, and hospitals
reported, in many cases, the value of part-time work to cover these
situations.
In other cases, the work to be done did not justify a full-time
employee and, therefore, a part-time schedule was better. Nearly all
of the educational institutions and three-fourths of the doctors and
dentists named this advantage of having part-time workers. At least
two-thirds of the finance, insurance, and real estate offices, the social
agencies, and the private organizations had the same experience.
Less an advantage than an accommodation to necessity were those
circumstances where employers accepted part-time workers as a
"solution” to budget limitations or to shortages in trained personnel
for the field. As might be expected, social agencies, educational insti­
tutions, and community organizations more frequently than others
referred to these advantages.
43

44

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Part-time workers can supply a wide variety of specialists’ skills as
they are needed in adult education classes, private schools, community
organizations, and social agencies. These were the main groups em­
phasizing this value of part-time employees. Closely related was the
opinion from these same groups that they could "get a better type
of worker” if they used part-time workers on certain jobs.
Not the least advantage mentioned by employers, especially in busi­
ness, was that of being able to utilize "special cases” by arranging
part-time work schedules. Doubtless many of these "cases” were
efficient former full-time employees who were available only for part­
time work after marriage.

Employer disadvantages
The employers interviewed very seldom made unqualified state­
ments about the disadvantages of part-time work. Most of their
reports on the disadvantages were joined with advantages which fre­
quently outweighed the unsatisfactory aspects of having part-time
employees. Had this not been true, these experienced employers
would probably have abandoned part-time arrangements long before
the survey was made.
Those who did point out disadvantages, however, made some
rather serious complaints, the chief one being th^t part-time workers
were "undependable.” Some of the other unsatisfactory experiences
which they reported also are closely related to dependability—"high
turn-over,” "expect too frequent adjustments in schedule,” "lack of
continuity of work,” or "unwilling or unable to work particular hours
needed.” These complaints were not confined to any one group of
employers, but hospitals, social agencies, miscellaneous stores, educa­
tional institutions, and some of the business offices were the most
outspoken.
"Split job responsibility” was another persistent disadvantage of
part-time work. It was, in fact, one of the chief part-time employment
problems of hospitals and social agencies. The part-time worker,
too often, could not follow through on a case, which meant confusion
or inconvenience for the patient or client; it frequently meant extra
work for the full-time employees. Also there often was an opinion
expressed that part-time workers were apt to shift responsibilities to
full-time workers and did not carry their share of the work load.

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

45

Where some employers found that part-time workers reduced oper­
ating costs, others had the opposite experience. The extra burden of
record keeping was an expense and something of a nuisance; two
part-time workers require twice as much payroll, social security and
withholding tax bookkeeping as one full-time employee. Actual
rates of pay for part-time workers, in some cases, had to be higher
than for full-time. A few employers were conscious of an undue pro­
portion of time being lost at the beginning and end of each part­
time shift—as much "wind-up and clean-up” time as a full-time
worker needed.
Employers who depend on staff conferences for informing em­
ployees of policies and developments, for training purposes, and for
building "teamwork spirit” expressed themselves vigorously on the
complications raised by part-time schedules. Adult education pro­
grams, private schools, and social agencies had difficulties on this
score. Managers of several stores, which regularly held employees’
meetings for training purposes, also considered it a handicap that
part-time workers were not available for the training and morale­
building periods.
Social agencies and educational institutions, in particular, added
that they found it difficult to integrate part-time workers with the
full-time staff. The directors saw a definite connection between this
difficulty of developing a "staff team” and the absence of part-time
workers from staff conferences. Whether for professional or non­
professional jobs, there were strong opinions that the part-time
worker had less all-round understanding of her work and interest in
the total objectives of the organization or business than the full-time
employee; as a consequence, there was less sense of responsibility for
doing anything beyond the immediate assignment.
In situations where part-time workers present special problems
of training and supervision, part-time work is not entirely satisfactory
to employers. Most employers referring to this disadvantage were of
the same general groups of employers that had favored staff confer­
ences and employee-training meetings.
Stores listed some disadvantages of having part-time workers which
are peculiar to sales work. Since part-time workers are usually not
available for stockwork, they are not as familiar with the merchan­
dise as the full-time workers and this situation may result in reduced

46

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

sales and in customer complaints; also, they are not on hand to
arrange and put away merchandise at the opening and closing hours. '
Unquestionably friction developed now and then between full-time
and part-time employees over these duties. Regular salespeople com­
plained that the part-time employees had none of the unpleasant
chores connected with sales work since they were on duty only during
peak customer hours.
i
-Comments of employers about the good and bad of part-time work,
as recorded by the Women’s Bureau interviewers, revealed all possible
reactions. Some of the most thoughtful replies indicated the convic­
tion that part-time work, even at its best, was a mixed blessing. One
of the outstanding reasons women want part-time jobs—because home .
responsibilities make full-time work impractical—is the cause of the
most serious charge against part-time workers, the charge of undepend­
ability. Some firms had profited from unsatisfactory experiences and *
by improving selection methods had minimized the disadvantages.
Selected comments from the 1,071 firms interviewed by the Women’s ,
Bureau in 10 cities show that part-time work has these advantages and
disadvantages:
Motion-picture theater . . . manager says part-time workers necessary for
relief—less reliable as a group because of home responsibilities.
Bank . . . utilize experienced former employees.
Insurance company ... no disadvantages if personnel director can make
age and experience restrictions . . . younger, less experienced persons
need extra training and supervision.
Cafeteria ... no disadvantages now because basis of selection has been
changed . . . through experience found that mothers with young chil­
dren tended to be somewhat irregular.
Hospital . . . needed for relief of full-time nurses . . . not as well
acquainted with the patients ... on the whole satisfactory . . . couldn’t
very well get along without them . . . but part-time nurses not as inter­
ested in the patient . . . more likely to stay home if they feel like it
. . . most of them have husbands so they aren’t entirely dependent on
their earnings . . . older part-time nurses more dependable.
Medical clinic . . . unwilling to work hours needed . . . part-time
workers can be used effectively if they are willing to work their share
of Sundays and holidays . . . will not hire them now unless they will
work some of the week ends.
Social agency . . . very satisfactory because they are doing jobs which
do not require full-time . . . opposed to using part-time social workers
. . . too expensive, interest divided.

*
/
*
\

*
4

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

47

Social agency . . . utilize trained social workers who are married and
cannot work full time . . . but, we don’t get as much for our money on
a part-time social worker . . . absent many times when emergency arises
. . . can’t participate in all activities of agency . . . constant requests
for changes in work schedule due to family conditions.
Community center . . . couldn’t very well get along without part-time
workers . . . limited budget makes it necessary to economize . . . also,
the varieties of activities require more persons for a shorter period of time.
Membership organization . . . less expensive . . . can use a part-time
for routine typing, filing, etc. . . . experience with part-time not too
good so far . . . can’t be depended on to show up regularly . . . if
home duties present any sort of emergency—even minor—they tend to
stay home.
Private club . . . experience shows we can get a better worker in the
older woman but she can’t always stand full-time hours ... no dis­
advantages.
Church . . . not necessary to have a full-time secretary.
Adult education . . . with part time get experts in their fields . . .
some teach because of their community interest as much as for money
paid.
Private school . . . many of the teaching jobs are short hours and do not
require full-time teachers . . . however, part-time workers must be better
than average in order to make the arrangement work . . . otherwise too
expensive for employer.
Nursery school . . . part-time teachers more satisfactory because of long
hours that nursery school is open . . . many of the children stay until
6 p.m.
University ... use part-time teachers in some cases as an overload serv­
ice when enrollment is heavy . . . more flexible ... less expensive
... do not feel same responsibility in attending meetings . . . not on
hand for conferences with students to the same extent as full-time.
Law office . . . prefer to employ experienced legal stenographer on part­
time basis at higher wages to an inexperienced full-time employee.
Women’s apparel store . . . less costly to operate with some part-time
workers—don’t pay them for hours not worked . . . couldn’t very well
get along without part-time ... no definite disadvantages.
Shoe store . . . disadvantages eliminated by selection of proper employee.
Apparel store . . . part-time workers reduce the cost of operation . . .
but they are not present to get out merchandise or put it away at night
. . . full-time employees resent this and say part-time workers are in for
best hours of the day . . . some of the best saleswomen are those on
part-time basis.
Department store ... all part-time workers are on hourly rate, full­
time on commission basis ... no antagonism.

48

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Employee advantages
Almost all of the more than 600 women interviewed liked part­
time work, saw no disadvantages, and said they thought their part­
time work worthwhile.’ Their answers were colored by their motives
in seeking part-time jobs—more income, household responsibilities
preventing full-time employment, outside contacts, and use of their
skills and abilities—but many had come to value some of the accrued
benefits which they had not anticipated when they began working
part-time. As experienced part-time workers, they approved the
system.
Part-time work generally fitted into the home life design of the
married women and often, they said, contributed to its enrichment.
About half of all the women interviewed coupled other benefits with
that of extra income; less than a fifth of them gave "supplemental
income” (for general or special purposes) as the sole advantage to
them of part-time work.
Some of the accrued or incidental benefits are of special interest
because of their effect on family life and the individual’s sense of
worth. A laboratory technician said that her part-time job in a small
hospital provided her a needed "outlet and outside interests.” A
37-year-old housewife told the interviewer that the sewing class she
taught 2 nights a week in the community adult education program
had helped her to develop confidence in her own ability, adding that
she considered "a part-time job a morale builder for any housewife.”
Another adult education teacher was glad to earn the money but
insisted that "the greatest gain is in outside interest and contacts”;
she was in her late forties, married, and the eldest of her three chil­
dren was 20 years of age.
A stenographer who had worked 8 years before marriage, then
"stayed home 15 years after marriage,” was of the opinion that the
real gain to her and her family was that she "feels better, is happier”
because she "likes the activity of having an outside job” and it "peps”
her up to work. She had been working part-time more than 5 years
when she was interviewed; her schedule of 10:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
was well adjusted to the needs of her two boys now in school. She
reported that she did all of her own housework, with some help from
her husband and the boys. The supplementary income for the family

*
,

“
,

"

.

v

'
„

'
*

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

49

was still welcome but, she felt, no longer the only advantage. Another
part-time worker, for more than 2 years a saleswoman 2 days a week,
believed her "mental and physical health better” because of her job;
she had been a full-time housewife for 22 years.
A widow, whose married daughter and family lived with her, had
found "independence” through her part-time clerical work in a re­
ligious organization. She considered this important. For 8 years
before marriage she had been a telephone switchboard operator but
had been out of the labor market over 25 years when she began
working part time.

Employee disadvantages
Only 10 of the women interviewed concerning part-time work dis­
sented from the "worthwhile” verdict. Some of the doubters wanted
full-time rather than part-time jobs; one "enjoyed the working and
the contacts” but not the particular job, one disliked the fact that she
"had to give up outside activities,” and one thought the work load
demanded a full-time schedule. Except for this last factor, none of
the employers’ troubles with part-time work entered the employees’
comments.
None of the women attached special significance to situations
which an observer would consider a disadvantage of part-time work,
particularly compared with full-time. For those who worked 5 half­
days a week, for example, bus or streetcar fares cost the same as for
full-time workers though the earnings were less; commuting time also
was the same. The round-trip commuting time for some of the women
was more than 2 hours a day. Neighborhood part-time workers or
those whose schedules called for 2 or 3 full days a week frequently
came off better with respect to their net earnings.
Though some kind of training or work experience is essential to
securing a satisfactory part-time job, the professionally or technically
trained woman may discover that she must adjust herself to a job
below her best skills if she wants to work part time. This is not
always true, but frequently it is for that relatively small group of
women with highly developed specialists’ skills. A university-trained
librarian may get no closer to the center of her field than a supervised
routine job in the cataloging division, or a former private secretary
may turn herself into a part-time clerk-typist; a highly trained hat

50

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

designer and copyist, with years of experience in the trade, may teach
housewives how to trim their hats in a twice-a-week adult education
class. Where they were employed below their best work skills, the
women who were interviewed did not consider the circumstance a
serious disadvantage of part-time work; they accepted it as necessary
to the main advantage to them of securing paid work on a limited
schedule.

Community advantages
Community and religious organizations, so essential to the develop­
ment and expression of democracy in towns and cities, decidedly profit
from the use of trained part-time workers. It would be uneconomic,
even if money and qualified personnel were available, to attempt
to supply on a full-time basis all the skills and activities communities
want for themselves—bridge lessons, language classes, supervised
playgrounds, membership bulletins, dramatics groups, USO dances,
cooking and sewing classes, hobby crafts, special services to crippled
children, and so on. Part-time workers answer many of the needs for
program specialists to the satisfaction of the participants and the
community as a whole, at a cost that is reasonable; in small organiza­
tions, part-time workers adequately handle the clerical work that
should be done to keep the group going efficiently. This supplement­
ing of full-time staff and volunteers with part-time workers extends
the effectiveness of organized community groups at a minimum cost.
The community is richer for having their skills and services.
Volunteer service with community agencies, charitable or religious
organizations is not too satisfying for some women who have held
responsible full-time jobs. They may have the time, the energy and
the urge to do something” in the community but volunteer assign­
ments may seem to them more like "busy work” than significant
service. More than one of the women interviewed seemed to agree,
in substance, with a former volunteer who had become a paid part­
time worker with the same agency, and who felt that there was "more
satisfaction out of being a regular staff member than being a volun­
teer.”
More than personal satisfaction, however, is the economic fact that
there are capable, well-trained women who cannot afford the expense
of extensive regular part-time volunteer service, but whose skills the

ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES

51

agencies need. As volunteers they may be out of their homes as much
as if they had jobs, yet the costs of carfare, lunches, clothes, and pos­
sibly extra household assistance, must come from already limited
family budgets. With all the good will in the world, some family
budgets cannot stretch to cover the "luxuries” of community activi­
ties. A part-time worker’s earnings may do little more than cover
these extra expenses but she can feel justified in the use of her time
without further straining the family finances. The agencies and the
people they serve gain the special skills and active interest of women
who might not otherwise find it possible to devote so much time to
community service.
The public school system does not usually extend through the
nursery-school age and often does not include kindergarten. Yet
parents increasingly are finding such preschool training valuable and
are enrolling young children in private nursery schools or kinder­
gartens where public facilities are not available. These schools are
largely staffed by married women, professionally trained teachers, who
are available only part time. The children and their parents are the
immediate beneficiaries of any scheme which succeeds in recruiting
qualified teachers to active duty and helps to relieve the teaching
shortage which affects the entire Nation.
Part-time workers who ease the rush-hour delays for customers in
restaurants, stores, beauty shops, and similar business places make
their communities a more satisfactory place in which to live. As the
emergency manpower situation tightens, the possibility of maintain­
ing all kinds of customer services may depend on the use of part­
time workers to an even greater extent.
Another advantage of part-time work of women, which cannot
be overlooked, is the "unfreezing” of skills which business firms and
community groups need and which some married women have but
do not use at home. The release of those skills into the labor market,
even within the limitations of part-time schedules, adds to the total
productivity and services of the economy. In emergency situations
this becomes very important, since it means that full-time workers
with possibly higher skills can be drawn into more essential or de­
manding jobs without completely disrupting the many services a
highly geared community should have.

SUGGESTIONS FOR WOMEN SEEKING
PART-TIME JOBS
A Check List
The reluctance of some employers to hire women for part-time
jobs is due largely to unsatisfactory experiences they have had or
have heard about. When you accept a job you enter into a business
contract; in return for money you agree to perform certain duties
according to an agreed schedule. A part-time job carries with it the
same fundamental employer-employee obligations as a full-time job.
Failure to go to work as and when agreed is bad faith; unavoidable
circumstances may be taken into account now and then—if the em­
ployer is notified—but not too frequently or the work will be thrown
into confusion. Employers and fellow employees must be able to
depend on regular attendance by part-time workers. Only by regular
performance on the job can part-time workers remove the reputation
for "undependability” and open more doors to satisfactory part-time
employment.
Those who direct a business or community agency consider the
work important and they expect their employees to share at least a
part of that attitude. Employers do not appreciate the low rating
some part-time workers give to their jobs. A job worth being paid
for, in their opinion, is worth first attention during duty hours.
There are some fundamental questions about part-time work which
should be thought through before you start job hunting. After you
have answered them to your satisfaction you will know better where
and how to look for a part-time job, or whether to look for one at all.

Why a part-time job?
Why do you want to work—to have more income, to use your
skills, to have outside interests? Perhaps a full-time job would be
more satisfactory on all counts. A 40-hour, 5-day week would put
you in the main stream of the business or community activity where
you worked; you would probably have opportunities for promotion
and growth.
52

SUGGESTIONS FOR WOMEN SEEKING JOBS

53

If, however, your household and family responsibilities do not leave
you enough time for a full-time job, or, if you are retired, then you
should look for part-time rather than full-time work.

What can you do?
An employer must get value received to justify putting you on the
payroll. What skill, experience, or special ability do you have that
will make his business or organization more profitable, efficient, or
of greater service to the community?
What did you do on your last full-time job? How long ago? You
may need to "brush-up” before making the rounds to find the job
you want. Stenography and bookkeeping refresher courses are avail­
able in all cities, often in the public schools and always at private
business schools. Beauty operators can also go back to school for a
short time to learn the latest techniques. In professional fields, such
as teaching, social work, nursing, or other technical work, the pres­
ence of a college or university near where you live may determine the
amount of formal additional training you can get. The least you can
do is bring yourself up to date by a planned course of reading in your
special field; friends active in your profession will probably be glad
to make suggestions of what to read and where to find it.
A reminder: If your specialization is in a trade or profession which
requires a license or certificate, be sure to do whatever is necessary
to qualify for current employment. This may be no more than paying
an annual fee to renew the license; it may require passing an exam­
ination which is given on an announced date.
You may never have held a full-time job, or you may have been
out of the labor market for more years than you care to mention.
If so, your problem requires more planning. Examine your hobbies,
including your volunteer community or church activities, to see what
you have that is marketable. Do you have enough technical com­
petence in one or more particular activities to make your work com­
pare favorably to that done by paid persons in the same field? Or,
do you need a period of training to sharpen your talents into skills?
When you get paid for your work, you lose your amateur standing
and must expect your performance to be measured by professional
standards. Smatterings of know-how or undisciplined work habits,

54

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

even when coupled with enthusiasm and good intentions, are liabili­
ties from an employer’s point of view.
Consult persons already working in the field about where and
how to get the training you need; the adult education program in
your town may offer courses that will help you, or the directors may
be able to advise you. Take care not to involve yourself in fly-by-night
commercial training schemes which trade on the gullibility of un­
suspecting students, and which have no standing with employers or
with educators.

When can you work?
Know, before you begin looking for a part-time job, what hours
of the day and how many hours a week you can work regularly on
a paid job. Analyze your potential work time:
How early in the day can you begin?
When must you return home?
Can you work 2 or 3 full days, or should you try for 3 to 5 hours each
day?
Can you work week ends? Regularly or occasionally?
Can you work at night? How early, how late, how often?
Can you arrange your hours so that your employer can depend on you
when he needs you?

After you know what hours and how many you can work, study
the kinds of part-time work usually scheduled for the hours you have
free. Narrow or enlarge your possibilities as you match hours and
skills with the part-time occupations found in the different industries.

How does your household go?
Remember that the major employer complaint against women part­
time workers was undependability, a complaint directly related to
family and household responsibilities of the married women who
work part time. It is a most unflattering criticism.
A part-time job may call for some adjustments in household man­
agement and family relationships which should be considered care­
fully. If they cannot be worked out, you should dismiss the idea of
a part-time job. You may see your day divided into two or three parts,
one section devoted to your paid job and the others to household and
family duties, but how does your family see it? Is your husband pre­
pared to have you unavailable at regular times for household and

SUGGESTIONS FOR WOMEN SEEKING JOBS

5?

social activities? Are your children, if you have them, ready to accept
arrangements which may be less convenient to them? In other words,
how much is your family willing to help you make a success of your

'
,

part-time job?
Will you continue to do your housework as you do it now, or
will you need more assistance after you begin your job? Will this
cost you more than you earn? If you need paid household assistance,
are domestic workers available for the hours you need and the wages

>

you can pay?
A further word if you have children at home. What assurance
have you that the schedule and arrangements you plan for their care
when you are not at home will be adequate? "Adequate” means for

^

*■

emergencies, too.

‘
>

*
>.

*
,

How find a part-time job?
Study your community, using as a basis the lists of industries and
occupations that made up the Women s Bureau survey of part-time
jobs for women. After you have decided what skills you have to sell,
select the types of firms or agencies that use your kind of work on
part-time schedules. Then begin to fit local employers into your list.
For professional jobs it is often useful to write out a brief digest
of your essential experience, limited to one typewritten page. Work­
ing out such a statement clarifies your approach and it is frequently
a good idea to leave something in writing about yourself (other than
a formal application) after an interview.
Re-read the section on "Finding Part-Time Workers and Part-Time
Jobs.” Decide which job-hunting techniques fit your situation and
use them; in any case, tell your friends you are in the market and
follow up all leads.

How much will the job cost?
A job, full or part time, carries with it legitimate expenses, but
the part-time worker especially should take care to keep these costs
within reasonable bounds or her net earnings will be reduced. Car­
fare, lunch, and clothes are the main items which everyone must take
-

into account.
Those women who find part-time jobs in their neighborhoods
within walking distance from their homes add to their net earnings.

56

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Carfare or other transportation costs are as much for 5 half-days
a week as for a full-time job; also it takes as much time. Find out
how much it will cost you in time and money to commute to and
from your job. If the costs are out of proportion to what you will
earn, the job would be uneconomic.
Many jobs require more good clothes than a housewife needs for
her home-social activities; they often must take harder wear as well.
Again, if the job demands expenditures for "work-clothes” out of
proportion to the part-time earnings, the job would be uneconomic.
Household assistance has already been mentioned but not in con­
nection with job expenses. Such assistance may mean sending the
laundry out instead of doing it at home, having a cleaning woman
occasionally or regularly, a part-time or full-time maid, or special
arrangements for care of the children. Some women add nothing to
household costs by working outside of their homes, but should you
add to them primarily because you take a part-time job, look at your
pay check and see how much you must pass along for household
services. Your reasons for wanting a part-time job will answer for
you whether or not these extra expenses are worthwhile.

,

'

‘

<

SUGGESTIONS FOR EMPLOYERS OF PART-TIME
WORKERS
Women who can work part time but not full time represent a
labor source which will become increasingly important on the man­
power scene. As yet employers have little more than sampled the
wide range of job skills and work experience that thousands of house­
wives and retired persons could use on a part-time basis. Many busi­
ness and community services will be inadequately staffed in the de­
fense economy unless serious thought is given to efficient utilization
of part-time workers.
Analyses of operations and services adaptable to part-time sched­
ules, careful recruiting and selection of applicants, and reasonable

*-

„

SUGGESTIONS FOR EMPLOYERS

57

supervision will go a long way toward making part-time work mutu­
ally profitable and satisfactory. If part-time workers are essential
to your kind of business or community service, you have probably
already learned by trial and error the best ways to select and use
part-timers. You may still want to borrow from the experiences of
others if it means improving the job performance of your part-time
employees. Or, you may be one of those who has had little or no
experience with part-time workers and, in that case, prefer to do some
management planning in advance to determine where and in what
ways part-time workers can, or cannot, solve some of your manpower
problems. Several fundamental questions about part-time work should
be answered individually by management, questions which are as
fundamental as those suggested to employees.

How decide a job is part time?
A part-time job is a regular assignment at a schedule substantially
less than full time with duties that can be discharged within the
agreed time schedule. It is not a full-time job squeezed into a short
week, an "extra” or a temporary job. It should have a place in your
over-all planning and scheduling of work.
When you analyze your operations to see what work can be done
on a part-time basis, here are some useful yardsticks:
Do you have "peak load” periods that occur with recognizable regularity?
Could certain duties be assigned to qualified part-time workers which
would ease the rush, improve service, and keep your labor costs in bal­
ance with sales or services?
Are your professional or highly skilled workers spending an undue
amount of time on routine or unskilled duties that could be performed
by part-time workers? Would the use of one or more part-time workers
increase the efficiency of your full-time employees, giving them time for
more responsible work?
Do you have enough budget to pay a full-time salary? If not, do you
expect full-time coverage of the job for part-time pay? Can you
set up the job so that the pay is commensurate with the part-time
responsibilities?
Is there a shortage of the highly trained specialists you want? If they
are not available for full time, could you use qualified persons for part
time? Are there women in your community with the requisite training
and experience who could work short schedules, if they rearranged their
household responsibilities? Is it better to have a trained person on a
limited schedule or no one?

58

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

How select a part-time worker?
Employers who know what work is adaptable to part time and
how much can reasonably be expected on a short schedule, also find
it advisable to take time to select applicants who meet the special
requirements of the job. From experience, some employers have been
able to increase the advantages of part-time work by careful selection
of part-time employees. They have found it is easier and more prac­
tical to have specific requirements before a person is hired than to
be vague and invite regrets. The questions below are not unique,
but they take on peculiar importance with reference to part-time
workers:
Can you describe accurately what you expect a part-time worker to do on
the job? Do you know how much skill, experience, and training an
applicant needs to meet your standards?
Can you tell an applicant, when you interview her, the exact hours
schedule of the job? Does she know why those hours are important? Is
the schedule acceptable to her?
Are her arrangements for household duties adequate to meet emergency
situations that may come up in the family?
If the applicant is married (and she probably is), does she have children
and how old are they? If she has young children, can you, she, and the
job survive the children’s illnesses and similar crises without too much
damage? Would you prefer a mature woman whose household and
family commitments are less demanding?
Do you select a part-time worker because she is a friend of a friend?
Because she was a former employee and you knew her qualifications
and experience? Because an employment service thought she met your
specifications?
In short, what do you do in advance to eliminate, insofar as possible,
"undependable” part-time workers?

How increase part-time workers’ efficiency?
The efficiency of a part-time worker, no less than a full-time
worker, depends on how well she understands her job and how good
an opinion she has of its usefulness. Her attendance and interest are
more apt to be satisfactory when she has some understanding of the
significance of her job in relation to your total business operation or
to community activity. On some jobs this may mean that part-time
workers need a little more supervision and interpretation to fill in
the gaps.

SUGGESTIONS FOR EMPLOYERS

59

Employers have not fully capitalized on the fact that money is
not the only force motivating women to work part time. It is worth
remembering that boredom with housework, a desire to use their
skills in business or the community, and a feeling of need for out­
side interests were reasons the women gave again and again for work­
ing part time. Many of the women who work part time have lost
some of their sense of importance at home because their families do
not require full-time attention. When they work outside of their
homes, they want to feel essential. If they achieve this on the job,
very likely they will be dependable, interested, and efficient employees.
Do you permit part-time workers to shift their work schedules to suit
their convenience? If so, why? What kind of understanding did you
have about this when you hired the part-time worker? If you do permit
changes, do they inconvenience you or your other employees, or hinder
the efficient use of the employee’s work time? If any of these results
occur, why permit schedule changes?
Have you any special ways of integrating your part-time employees with
the full-time staff? Is it desirable to try to do so? How does a part-timer
learn more about your operations or program beyond the bounds of her
immediate job? Do you do anything to stimulate her interest in how her
job fits in with the others?
Do you have policy on fringe benefits related to standard practices for
full-time employees? What are your policies for part-time workers with
respect to sick leave, holidays, and paid vacation?
Is there any way a part-time worker can be upgraded without becoming
a full-time employee?

Employers are justified in seeking superior employees for part­
time jobs, and employees are justified in expecting some imagination
on the part of management in the utilization of blocks of time many
capable women have for work outside of their homes. The wealth
of skills and experience available to business and community agencies
on a part-time, but not a full-time, basis is impressive. If the work
standards are high enough, part-time work can be profitable for
employers, employees, and the community. In the future, it is pos­
sible that part-time work will become a more widely accepted practice
for many enterprises which, so far, have hesitated to use it extensively.

REFERENCES
Reports and studies
U. S. Department of Labor, Washington, D. C.
Bureau of Employment Security:
America’s part-time pool. Manpower Review, December 1943.
The pattern of part-time work. U. S. Employment Service, Labor
Market, June 1947.
Victory workers help solve labor shortages. Manpower Review,
June 1943.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Part-time employment of women in Great
Britain. Monthly Labor Review, May 1942.
Women’s Bureau:
British policies and methods in employing women in wartime. Bull.
200. 1944. (See especially part-time work, pp. 4-6.)
Part-time employment of women in wartime. Special bull. 13.
June 1943.
Social patterns for women, by Ordway Tead. In Women’s Bureau
Conference, 1948. Bull. 224. 1948. Pp. 69-77.
*******M!ii!!|!*HC******

Note.—The following cannot be obtained from the U. S. Department of
Labor. Write to the publisher as shown.
U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. Current population
reports: Labor Force, Series P-50, releases on full-time and part-time workers.
(#3, 7, 12, 17, 18, 21, 25, 26, 28.)
Canada, Department of Labor, Ottawa. Planning for part-time workers in
Canada. November 1943.
Great Britain, Ministry of Labor and National Service, London:
Mobilization of womanpower; planning for part-time work. July 1942.
12 pp.
Report for the years 1939-46. September 1947. 394 pp. (See especially
pp. 64-65, 68, 80-81, 106, 107, 180.)
Hansl, Eva vB. Trends in part-time employment of college-trained women.
Woman’s Press, New York. 1949.
International Labor Office, Washington Branch, 1825 Jefferson Place, NW.,
Washington 6, D. C.
The war and women’s employment; the experience of the United King­
dom and the United States. Studies and reports, new series, No. 1.
1946.
Princeton University, Princeton, N. J. The use of part-time workers in the
war effort, by Helen Baker and Rita B. Friedman. Department of Eco­
nomics and Social Institutions. June 1943.
Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Mass. Some aspects of the problem of part­
time work by college women. Radcliffe College Alumnae Association,
Graduate Chapter. 1950.
60

61

APPENDIX—COVERAGE

Articles in periodicals
Casselman, Paul Hubert. Importance of part-time employment. American
journal of Economics and Sociology, April 1950.
Schuman, Sylvia. Part-time jobs. Today’s Woman, October 1950.
Stern, Edith M. Help wanted, part-time jobs. Woman’s Home Companion,
December 1948.
Watson, N. Part-time worker. Industrial Welfare and Personnel Manage­
ment, May—June 1948.
Finding nurses to work part-time. American Journal of Nursingf October
1943.

_

.

Part-time employment for college-trained women. Journal of the American
Association of University Women, January 1950.
Part-time nurses in civilian hospitals. American Journal of Nursing, 1945.

APPENDIX A—COVERAGE OF THE SURVEY
The present report is based on a survey made during the period from June
1949 to June 30, 1950. The information was collected by Women’s Bureau
representatives directly from establishments and from women part-time work­
ers. The cities covered represent the four broad geographic regions: North­
east—Syracuse and New York, N. Y., Worcester, Mass., and Providence,
R. I.; South—Richmond, Va., and Dallas, Tex.; North Central—Milwaukee,
Wis.’ and Des Moines, Iowa; West—Denver, Colo., and San Francisco, Calif.
Part-time work as defined in this study is regular weekly employment on a
work schedule substantially less than the normal scheduled hours of the estab­
lishment and/or not more than 36 hours a week.
The industries and services included in the survey cover a wide range of
services and occupations, from those requiring little or no training to those of
a professional nature. The majority of woman-employing industries were
included in the study, with the following exceptions: Agriculture; manufac­
turing; some service industries, such as household employment and main­
tenance work (office cleaning); government service; and self-employed per­
sons. Also, the following selected occupations were excluded: Public school
teachers, temporary and seasonal workers, canvassers and door-to-door sales­
women,’ insurance agents, real estate saleswomen, theatrical and professional
entertainers. Part-time work by students was not included.1 (See table 1 for
industries covered in the report. In New York City, the study was limited to
three industries—museums and art galleries, advertising agencies, and pub­
lishing houses.)
In the 10 cities, 3,385 establishments were visited; of these establishments,
1,071 employed one or more women on a part-time schedule. From the
l Over half of the motion-picture theaters, the hospitals, the libraries, the department and limited-price
stores employed students on a regular part-time workweek, in addition to the part-time women who were
not students.

62

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

latter firms, information was obtained to indicate answers to such questions
as—How many part-time workers are employed by you? What are the jobs,
usual hours of work and rates of pay? What factors determine the hours of
work? What are the hiring specifications in regard to age, marital status, edu­
cation, and experience? What, from your experience, do you consider the
advantages and disadvantages of part-time employment? How do the fringe
benefits of part-time employees compare with those of full-time workers?
Of the 9,000 women employed part time in these firms, 1,853 filled out
questionnaires providing information as to their age, marital status, education,
work experience, and their reasons for working part time. One-third of these
women were interviewed by Women’s Bureau representatives to obtain supple­
mentary information on home responsibilities and adjustment to part-time
work.
In all the cities except New York, the local State employment services and
selected private agencies gave information about the number of employers'
orders on file for part-time women workers and the number of women appli­
cants (both total and those applying for part-time employment), registered in
the active files. Also, questions were asked about the general activities of the
agencies for women applicants and special policies applying to part-time
registrants.
Of the women applying for part-time work in these agencies, 228 supplied
information on the kinds of jobs for which they were applying, hours of work
preferred, reasons for working part-time, work history, and personal char­
acteristics.
The establishments were selected in such a way that the findings are gen­
erally representative of the particular industries covered in the study but are
not necessarily representative of the total part-time employment in the various
cities. The objective in the selection of the establishments used in the study
was to secure as wide as possible a representation of part-time jobs and con­
ditions surrounding the jobs rather than a precise numerical measurement of
the extent of part-time work. It must be emphasized that this was an explor­
atory study and presents information based on factual data which suggests
answers to many questions that have arisen from numerous and various sources
in regard to part-time work for women.

APPENDIX B.—TABLES: STUDY IN 10 CITIES
Table i.—Establishments report: Part-time employment of women, by industry
Establishments regularly employing
women part time

Industry

Number
of
estab­
lishments Number
employ­
of
ing
establish­
women
ments

Total
number
of
em­
ployees

Total
number
women
em­
ployees

Number1

1,071

119,753

79,843

9,014

11

41

1,883

562

189

34

11

All industries.
Amusement and recreation services:
Motion pictures and other theaters
Bowling alleys----------------—
Communication and other public
utilities:
Electric light and power companies
Gas companies---------------------Radio broadcasting stations-----Finance, insurance, and real estate:
Banking and other finance-------Insurance-------- ------- ------------Real estate---------------------------Personal services:
Beauty shops------------------------Eating and drinking places------Hotels___________
Self-service laundries and dry­
cleaning depots----------- ------Miscellaneous personal services - Professional and related services:
Charitable, religious, and mem­
bership organizations:
Social agencies3----------------Other organizations4---------Educational services:
Schools:
Adult education. __-----Preschools (nurseries) __
Private schools, primary
and secondary---------Universities and colleges
Other special schools—
Libraries_____________
Museums and art galleries.
Medical and other health services:
Hospitals, sanitariums,
clinics
Medical and dental
laboratories-------------------Professional offices:
Architects’ offices--------------Contractors’ offices------------Doctors’ and dentists’ offices.
Lawyers’ offices----------------Trade:
Retail stores:
.
Apparel and accessories
stores, women’s-------------Department stores----------Limited-price variety stores._
Miscellaneous retail stores—
Wholesale trade___________
Miscellaneous industries and services:
Advertising, letter service, and
sales promotion---------------Opinion polls and market research
Placement agencies-----------------Publishing houses. -----------------Other business services-------------

3,385

6
6

Women part-time
employees
Percent
of total
women

14

786

187

20

129
149
69

22
26
7

6,883
6,886
44

3,391
4,646
18

97
104
8

140
169
62

31
88
32

174
3,289
7,789

155
2,341
3,541

40
729
183

21

43

3
1

6
130

5
100

4
1

257
136

140
71

3, 483
2,784

2,279
1,657

585
428

26
26

15

15
18

2,549
330

1, 149
320

822
83

72
26

26
19

19
16
14
9
12

607
2, 520
855
1,228
922

509
1,002
466
1,016
357

128
136
90
54
39

25
14
19
5
11

69

20, 836

15, 572

865

2

4

2

2

(a)

40
14

80
42

74
32

47
19

(2>

66
39
160
1

5,514
31,170
4,768
5,244
2

4,677
22,675
4,236
3,001
1

344
3,015
464
368
1

16
1
2
27
3

3,531
150
8
5,236
20

2,291
113
8
3,448
12

67
7
4
64
7

49

22

21

19
42

(a)

3
2
26
31
5

(!>

1

6

(a)

(2)
(2)

64

7
13
11
12

3
6
2

1 The number of part-time workers in the firms studied does not include part-time students. Of the
1, 071 firms reporting part-time workers about one-third also employed regular part-time women students.
a Base too small to justify percent.
.
.
, „ , „
.,
_,
_
3 Includes such associations and agencies as American National Red Cross, community and recreation
centers, guidance and medical clinics, child and family welfare agencies, Salvation Army, social and
welfare agencies, Travelers Aid Society.
a
/-,» vwrA
4 Includes such organizations as Campfire Girls, church groups, Girl Scouts, YMUA, i wo a.

63

64

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN
Table 2.—Establishments report: Occupation
Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Pers9nal

services

Occupation

-o ©
S'®
^ fco
8.9
'El

Accompanists, piano
.
Anesthetists
Announcers _ _
Artists_ _
_
_ _
Attendants, check room..
Beauty operators
_ ___
Board markers (stock brokerage)
Bus drivers. _ _______
Catalogers. __ __ _
Chauffeurs _ _
_
Church and other religious workers
Child-care aides _ _
.
Clerical workers:
Bookkeepers__
Bookkeeping-machine operators
Cashiers. _ _____
Other clerical
Consultants (psychiatric and child-care) _ _
Continuity writers
_ _ _
Copyists and colorists____
Copy readers _ _
Copy writers _
____ _
Curators and assistants.
Dance-hall supervisors _
Dental aide attendants. _
Dental hygienists _
Dietitians_
_ _______
Directors or executive secretaries and assistants1
Doctors’ and dentists’ attendants _
Editors and assistants
.
Food-service workers:
Cashiers __ ____ _
Hostesses. _ _ _ _
...... _
Managers and assistants. __ _
Other
_________
Front clerks __ _
Glee-club instructor of student nurses.
Group leaders, workers-recreation, etc.
Guides and lecturers
_
Hospital instructors of practical and student nurses
House mothers _ _ _
Hostesses
___ _
Interviewers
__
Kindergarten and nursery-school attendants
Laboratory technician aides

1

|

X

X
X

X

X

X
X
X

X

X
X
X

X

X

X
X

X

—
X

X
X
X

X
X

—

X

X

X

X

X

X

X
X

.

1 DireotorB of club, educational, and program work, and of employment.

X
X

X
—
X
X —-

w

A

fr-

^

V

•

~x

X
X

X
X
X

X

X
X

x
x

X

X

x X X X X X X
X
X
X X X X X X X
X X X X X X X X
X
X
X

X

X X X

x

x

X

X X

X
1

Schools

X
X

X

x

X
X
X

X

X
X
X

X X
X

X

X
X

X

1
______

X

X

X X
X X
X X

X

X

1

Publishing houses

Trade

Placement agencies

Limited-price
variety stores
Wholesale trade
Advertising, letter service,
and sales promotion
Opinion polls and
market research

Professional and related services

Department stores

Lawyers ’ offices
Apparel and accessories
stores, women ’s

Doctors’ and dentists ’ offices

Medical and dental
laboratories

Hospitals, sanitariums, clinics

Museums and art galleries

Libraries

Other special schools

colleges

Private schools,
primary and secondary
Universities and

Preschools (nurseries)

Adult education

Charitable, religious, and
membership organiza ­
tions, n.e.c.

Social agencies

f

APPENDIX—TABLES

65

by industry of women part-time workers
Mis cellarleous
in dustr ies
an i senrices

Retail

X

X

X

X X
X X

X
X
X

X

X

X

66

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN
Table 2.—Establishments report: Occupation
Finance,
insurance,
and real
estate

Personal
services

c

Occupation

W-l

Lecturers__________________________
Librarians (prof.)___________________
Library aides_______________________
Laundry attendants_________________
Managers and assistants_____________
Managers, office____________________
Masseuses____________________ _____
Non-selling retail trade workers, n.e.c._.
Nurses’ aides______________________
Nurses, practical___________________
Nurses, registered___________________
Orthopedic technicians________ ______
Personal service workers, n.e.c.*
6______
Pharmacists, registered______________
Proofreaders_______________________
Promotional workers________________
Psychologists_______________________
Publicity and public-relation workers __
Receiving clerks____________________
Religious work, ass't. directors of_____
Research assistants_________________
Saleswomen________________________
School-service specialists_____________
School, lunchroom—general help_____
Service workers in hospitals and schools.
4 Social services, directors of___________
‘ Social service workers (prof.)_________
Staff assistants_____________________
Teachers___________________________
Technicians, medical________________
Tellers____________________________
Test scorers________________________
Therapists_________________________
Therapists’ aides____________________
Ticket sellers_______________________
Ushers_____________________________
Volunteer aides, directors of__________
X-ray technicians___________________

n

3
PQ

X

X

X
X®

X
X

2 Includes such occupations as alteration women, manicurists, pressers, and stock girls.
3 Includes such occupations as alteration women, art and needle work instructors, comparison and
personal shoppers, detectives, markers, milliners, models, nurses, stock girls, wrappers and packers.
4 Includes such occupations as markers, stock girls.
6 Includes such occupations as elevator operators, housekeepers, maids and matrons.
6 Public school lunchrooms.

(

67

APPENDIX—TABLES

by industry of women part-time workers—Continued

Professional and related services

Schools

Trade

Retail

Miscellaneous
industries
and services

68

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Table 3.—Establishments report: Reasons for hiring women part-time workers
Percentage distribution of establishments

To
Total
cover
estab­ busy
lish­ periods
ments1
or
peak

Industry

loads

Motion pictures and
other theaters_____
Banking and other
finance____________
Insurance and real
estate_____________
Beauty shops________
Eating places________
Social agencies_______
Charitable, religious,
and membership
organizations, n.e.c._
Educational institu­
tions______________
Hospitals, sanitariums,
clinics____________
Doctors’ and dentists'
offices_____________
Publishing houses____
Department stores and
limited-price stores-.I

100

24
71

100

20

100

5

100
100
100

22

100

95

To
pro­
To
vide
To
To
.fin
for
To
meet
To
relieve
jobs
activ­ cover limited accom­ shortage not re­
ities
of
ex­ budgets modate
quiring
oper­ tended or to “special profes­ full­
ating hours reduce cases”
sional
time
part
costs
workers serv­
time
ices

45

100
100
100
100

To
pro­
vide
for
short
work­
weeks

7

100

To
cover
relief
periods
of full­
time
workers

5

7

61

5

45

23

21

6

33

6
9
3

1
30

39
23
3
14

15

25

6

25

10

23

72

5

7

9

7

16

19

4

7

20
11

35
15

7

18
30

68
2

13
9
21

4

20

67

10

13
40

4

12
9

13
18
1

29

10

2!

1

1

-.........
1 Details aggregate more than totals in most industries because some establishments reported
han one reason for employing part-time workers.
w

Table 4.—Establishments report: Methods of recruitment
Percentage distribution of establishments

Industry

Motion pictures and
other theaters
Finance, insurance, and
real estate
Beauty shops
Eating places
Social agencies
Charitable, religious,
and membership
organizations, n.e.e._
Educational institu­
tions
Hospitals, sanitariums,
clinics
Professional offices
Publishing houses
Department stores
Limited-price stores__

Through
News­ Profes­
Former
Total
employ­ Through
sional
employ­ Former
ers’
estab­ Direct Employ­ paper associ­
volun­
appli­
other
ment adver­ ations Unions
friends
lish­ cation
ees
teer
employ­
agencies tise­
called workers
ments1
or
or
ments agencies
back
ees
asso­
ciates

100

56

17

32

7

7

10

100
100
100
100

27
35
38
31

13
3
23
9

16
29
28
8

7
10
2
26

6

36
39
16
14

9
8

100

14

17

13

15

1

14

100

60

10

11

28

1

21

100
100
100
100
100

68
2
22
73
79

20
19
15
23
23

20
20
7
35
23

12
9
4
8
3

6

33
17
22
31
5

7

4
2
3

44

11
37

35
19

42

27

34
1

37

7
37

28
26
38
8

1 Details aggregate more than totals in most industries because some establishments reported more
than one method of recruitment.

69

APPENDIX—TABLES

Table 5.—Establishments report: Whether part-time work an
advantage or disadvantage

Industry

All industriesAmusement and recreation services: Motion pic­
tures and other theaters-------;----- -- r — - - - - Communication and other public utilities: Radio
broadcasting stations----------------------------------Finance, insurance, and real estate:
Banking and other finance-----------------------Insurance----------------------------------------------Real estate--------------------------------------------Personal services:
Beauty shops-----------------------------------------Eating places----- -----------------------------------Hotels---------------------- --■-----,— - — -—
Self-service laundries and dry-cleaning depots. _
Miscellaneous personal services------------------Professional and related services:
.
Charitable, religious, and membership organi­
zations :
t
Social agencies.--------------------------------Other organizations---------------------------Educational services:
Schools--------------------------------------------Libraries-------------- ---------------------------Museums and art galleries------------------Medical and other health services:
Hospitals, sanitariums, clinics.------------Medical and dental laboratories---------Professional offices:
Doctors’ and dentists offices--------------Lawyers’ offices-------------------------------Trade:
Retail stores:
.
,
Apparel and accessories stores, women s_
Department stores----------------------------Limited-price variety stores----------------Miscellaneous retail stores------------------Wholesale trade-------------------------------------Miscellaneous industries and services:
Advertising, letter service, and sales promotion
Opinion polls and market research---------Placement agencies------------------------------Publishing houses----------- -------------------Miscellaneous business services---------------

Both
advantages
All
No
and dis­
advantages advantages
advantages

Total
establish­
ments
1,071

736

330

41

32

9

14

11

3
5

22

26
7

12

31

8

1
18
15

88

32
3

1
140
71

80
56

59
15

82
9

60

21

12

10

2

69

26

43

2

2

40
14

31

66

53
27
34
124

52
39
160

1

2

7

10

13
25
5
36

1

16

1

2

27
3

1
1

11

70

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN
Table 6.—Establishments report: Why part-time work an advantage
Percentage distribution of establishments
Advantages

Industry

Motion pictures and
other theaters- _.
Banking and other
finance_______ .
Insurance and real
estate- __
Beauty shops
__ _
Eating places.-__
Social agencies. . .
Charitable, religious.
and membership
organizations, n.e.c.
Educational institutions_ __ .
_
Hospitals, sanitariums,
Professional offices__
Publishing houses__
Department stores__
Limited-price stores__

Pro­
Total
No
vides
estab­ advan­ workers
lish­
ments1 tages for jobs
not re­
quiring
full-time
services

Pro­
Pro­
vides Pro­
Helps
Pro­
vides staff
vides adjust vides a Helps
service
for
for the
to
greater relieve Utilizes
for
relief
long limited variety short­
age of “special
busy periods spread budgets
of
periods of full­
of
and
special­ profes­ cases"
sional
or peak time
daily reduce
ists’
loads
hours
skills workers
costs
em­
ployees

100

17

10

34

100

73

23

18

100
100
100
100

1

64
13
20
70

9
77
74
5

3
10
28
9

16
16
6

8
48

79

30

21

7

37

4

14

100

1

94

11

1

4

30

10

15

100
100
100
100
100

2
7

45
74
56
19
5

7
11
100
97

13

100

31
46

68

10
23
6
23
7

33

30

4
42
10

1 Details aggregate more than totals in most industries because
than one advantage of part-time work.

15
3

4

____
some establishments reported

20
3
more

71

APPENDIX—TABLES
Table 7.—Establishments report: Why part-time work a disadvantage
Percentage distribution of establishments
Disadvantages

Un­
Higher
avail­
Too
turn­
Total
Un­
frequent able
Lack over Extra
No dis­
estab­
avail­
of
rate train­ Extra requests for
lish­ advan­ Un­ Split
able for
for
ing record
or un­ confer­
ments1 tages relia­ job conti­ than
and keep­ changes willing
ences,
bility respon­ nuity among
in
to
full­ super­ ing
sibility of
emer­
sched­ work gencies
work time vision
hours
ule
em­
needed
ployees

Industry

Motion pictures and

Insurance

and

78

100

Banking and other

20

2

100

5

14

5

12
11
11
9

12
3
2
15

9
3
3
25

15
3
1
8

18
3

79

7

4

6

10

4

100

73

10

9

13

4

11

2

100
100
100
100
100

Hospitals, sanitariums, clinics ----Professional offices
Publishing houses.
Department stores___
Limited-price stores__

9

61
74
80
57

100

Beauty shops____ ___
Eating places____
Social agencies- ____
Charitable, religious,
and membership
organizations, n.e.c._
Educational institu-

77

100
100
100
100

real

9

38
76
52
52
87

28
6
15
15
5

49
6
19
8
3

26
4
11
10
5

1

17
4
7
15

5
4

3

_________

3

—---------

-------- -

1

—

3

13

28

—

---------

22
8

—

1 Details aggregate more than totals in most industries because some establishments reported more
than one disadvantage of part-time work.

Table 8.—Women report: Why they work part time
instead of full time, by occupation
Percentage distribution of women part-time workers

Too
Unable
111
Home
Allows
to find health old
respon­
Profes­ suit­
to
sibilities Nature time
pre­
sional
for
vents find
Total prevent of the other interest able
full­ full­
full­
job activi­ in job1
full­
time time
time
time
ties
job
work work
work

Occupation and
occupational group

Total part-time
workers
__

100

75

3

2

100
Social workers. _
— - - 100
Teachers. .
.. ......... 100
Clerical and related workers. 100
Sales and related workers. _ 100
Service workers in hotels

80
76
70
78
80

1
4
4
1
3

1
2
S
2
1

74
67

4
1

4

Other workers_ ___
_

-

100

7

(a)

2
2

____
1

5

2

1
7
10
5
7

4
1
7
6

2
5

5
6

3

(i
2)

6

1
(2;

12
6

Supple­
ments
income
and
affords Other
outside reasons
activi­
ties for
retired
workers

i For the most part, older workers of outstanding achievement in their particular fields,
3 Less than 0.5 percent.

1

10
2

12

72

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Table 9.—Women report: Why they work part time instead of full time, by age
Percentage distribution of women part-time workers

Age

Total part-time
workers
Under 25 years___ _______
25, under 35 years_
_
35, under 45 years. ___
45, under 55 years. _ ____
55 years and over___ __

Supple­
ments
income
and
affords Other
outside reasons
activi­
ties for
retired
workers

Home
Unable
111
Too
Allows
to find health old
respon­
sibilities Nature time Profes­ suit­
to
pre­
for
Total prevent of the
able
vents find
other sional
job activi­ interest full­
full­ full­
» full­
time
time time
ties
in job1 time
work
job
work work

100

75

3

2

(1
2)

7

5

2

<2)

100
100
100
100
100

51
83
87
74
53

5
2
2
2
4

2
2
1
1
1

(2)

21
4
5
8
8

4
3
3
6
12

2
13

(2)

1
1

6

3

6
5

1 For the most part, older workers of outstanding achievement in their particular fields.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

Table 10.—Women report: Why they work part time instead of
full time, by marital status
Percentage distribution of women part-time workers

Marital status

Total part-time
workers______
Single ___ ___________
Married _
_
Vi/ idowed _.
Separated or divorced

Home
Unable
111
Too
Allows
to find health old
respon­
sibilities Nature time Profes­ suit­
to
pre­
for
sional
Total prevent of the
able
vents find
other
full­
job activi­ interest full­
full­ full­
in job1 time
time
time time
ties
work
job
work work

100

75

3

2

(2>

100
100
100
100

27
87
53
61

6
1
4
5

6
1
1
3

(2)

Supple­
ments
income
and
affords Other
outside reasons
activi­
ties for
retired
workers

7
1

5

2

<!)

16
4

14
3

5
1

(2)

17

6

3

1 For the most part, older workers of outstanding achievement in their particular fields.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

6
3

22
3
5

73

APPENDIX—TABLES
Table 11.—Women report: How they found their jobs, by occupation
Percentage distribution of women part-time workers

Occupation and
occupational group

Placement agencies
Educa­
tional,
Friends Former Direct profes­ News­ Job
appli­ sional, paper offered
Total or rela­
em­
Uni­ Other
or
ployers cation church ads worker Pub­ Pri­ ver­
tives
lic
vate sity
connec­
tions

Total part-time
workers

100

32

24

14

10

8

12
26

25
48
13

25
17
25

8
21
18

9

100
Teachers _
_ _ ------- 100
Clerical and related
workers----- _
100
Sales and related workers. 100
Service workers in hotels
too
Other workers
. 100

3

5

3

2
11

1

2

1

1

8
1

37
45

21
29

6
10

6
2

15
9

3
2

7
3

4

41
29

19
30

15
13

14

15
2

2
8

4

2
1

1

1
1

0)
2
3

1 Less than 0.5 percent.

Table 12.—Women report: Most important reasons for working
part time, by occupation
Percentage distribution of women part-time workers

Total1

100

82

41

27

1

58
82
63
18
10

2
1
2

5
32

SO
60

too
100

100

70
83
87

44
56
55
54
35

100
100

91
78

23
47

Nurses, registeredSocial workers-----Teachers________

100
100

Sales and related workers
Service workers in hotels and
restaurants
Other workers

(s)

2

^v

Total part-time workers _

To help
To have
educate
Interest
outside
To use
For
in
children
interests
skills,
or for
particular special
and
training,
job or
other
contacts
pur­
or
field of
other experience particular
pose
work
family
than
social
expenses

To
supple­
ment
income

to

Occupation and
occupational group

(1
2)

1 Details aggregate more than totals in all occupations because some women reported more than one
reason for working.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

74

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

Table 13.—Women report: Age, by occupation
Percentage distribution of women part-time workers
Occupation and
occupational group

Under
25 years

Total

35, under
45 years

45, under
55 years

25

30

21

Total part-time workers.

o
o

25, under
35 years

9

Nurses, registered
Social workers
Teachers________ _ __________
Clerical and related workers__
Sales and related workers_____
Service workers in hotels and
restaurants
Other workers

100
100
100
100
100

14
5
7
11
12

37
35
18
30
23

29
38
34
27
34

14
11
23
21
21

100
100

4
8

21
26

31
25

5o years
and over

24
20

6
11

18
11

10
20

21

Table 14.—Women report: Marital status, by occupation
Percentage distribution of women part-time workers

Occupation and
occupational group
T otal

Single

Married

Widowed

Separated

Divorced

Total part-time workers. _

100

13

72

10

1

4

Nurses, registered _
Social workers _
Teachers ___
Clerical and related workers
Sales and related workers
Service workers in hotels and
restaurants__
Other workers . .

100
100
100
100
100

14
13
10
15
12

79
83
78
69
78

8

2
1
1

2
3
2

100
100

9
20

67
62

1
12

7

7

—------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table 15.—Women report: Education,1 by occupation
Percentage distribution of women part-time workers
Grammar school

Occupation and
occupational group
Total

Less
Total than
8

Nurses, registered
Social workers
Teachers________________
Clerical and related workers.
Sales and related workers. _
Service workers in hotels
. and restaurants
_
---------------------------------Other workers 100

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

1 Years of school completed.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

14

College

Less
More
4
3
4
than
Total than
Total
4
2
years
4
years years
years
years
years

years
Total part-time
workers

High school

11

18

34
39

(1
2)

2
10

2

14
67
70
59
42

16

12

8

84
29
14

20

2
6

14

3

3

1
1
4

25
39
9
4

100

5
49

2

8

11

1
20

3
71
19
3

1
14

75

APPENDIX—TABLES

Table 16.—Women report: Years worked in present job, by occupation
Percentage distribution of women part-time workers
10
years
and
over

Total

Less
than
1
year

1,
under
2
years

2,
under
3
years

3,
under
5
years

5,
under
10
years

100

37

16

13

16

12

6

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

52
46
26
42
43
30
31

16
24
15
19
16
14
17

9
7
19
13
12
13
15

13

9

1

17
14
15
20
20

14
9

Occupation and occupational group

Total part-time workers---Nurses, registered

-

-------—

Clerical and related workers---- —
Sales and related workers
..
-- —
Service workers in hotels and restaurants-Other workers _
.........
— --------

15

6>

Table 17.—Women report: Years worked in full-time jobs
Years worked in full-time jobs

Total percentage distribution of women
part-time workers
100

Full-time work:

15
So
2
5
9
7
7
21
27

7

APPENDIX G—SCHEDULE FORMS
(1) Employer interview.
PART TIME STUDY
CONFIDENTIAL

Budget Bureau No. 44-4906.
Approval expires 7/1/50.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
WOMEN'S BUREAU
1.
2.
3.
4.

5.

EMPLOYER INTERVIEW
Name of firm................................................. Address.
Kind of business.......................................................................................................
Person interviewed........................................................................... Position......
Number employed
Totai
Men
Women
Total
.................................................................
Total full-time
...............
...............
...............
Total part-time
................................................................
Students
Regular part-time
.................................................................
Saturday extra
........................................
Other
Regular part-time
.................................................................
Saturday extra
...............
...............
Is it a new practice to employ part-time workers? Yes...........No............ If yes' comment

6. Why are part-time workers employed? (Chief reason)...................................... ."."I”.".".'.".'!."

7. Occupations, Hours of Work and Rates of Pay for Part-Time Women Employees
OCCU­
PATION

USUAL PART-TIME HOURS
RATES OF PAY
No. of
Days IRREGULAR
Women Daily Wkly
a Wk (comment) Hourly Daily Wkly Other

8. Part-Time Daily Work Schedule—Illustrations of general hour-work patterns for part­
time jobs for a typical week.
JOB
Day of Week
Sunday.......
Monday.....
Tuesday.....
Wednesday.
Thursday....
Friday........
Saturday.

76

77

APPENDIX—SCHEDULE FORMS

P

1

9. What factors do you consider in determining your part-time schedules?
Peak business loads (indicate period of peak)....................................................
Individual needs of women.......................................................................................
Other (specify).........................................................................................................
Comments: .................................................................................................................
10. How are part-time workers recruited? Check most frequently used.
Newspaper ad........... Empl. agencies........... Former employees called back.
Other employees........... Direct application........... Other (specify)................
11. Specifications or qualifications for part-time workers:
Occupation

Age
Max.

Min.

Marital
Status

Education

Experience

12. What are the advantages and disadvantages of employing part-time workers in your
business? Check any of the listed that are pertinent and enter others in blank spaces.
DISADVANTAGES

ADVANTAGES

Unreliability of P-T workers.......
Extra training and supervision.....
Difficulty of integrating with F-T

Special cases (explain below).........
Other (specify).................................

Other (specify).............................

Comments:

13. Comparison of fringe benefits for Part-Time and Full-Time workers.
Enter "Yes” or "No" as appropriate in relation to the following specified benefits:
Benefit

F-T

P-T

Basis on which benefits are provided
for part-time workers

14. Collective bargaining in relation to part-time wmrkers.
Do you have a union contract?........... If yes, name of organization.........................
Are part-time workers affiliated with organization?...................................................
Are there any contract provisions or other collective bargaining agreements per­
taining to regular part-time workers? If yes, explain...............................................
Comments:
Agent.

.....Date.

78

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

(2) Employee questionnaire.
PART-TIME STUDY
CONFIDENTIAL

Budget Bureau No. 44-4906.
Approval expires 7/1/50.

u. s. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
WOMEN'S BUREAU
Firm.......................................... ............................City.......................................................................
Many requests have been received by the Women's Bureau for information about women’s
opportunities for part-time employment and the reasons why women seek part-time work.
In order to obtain information about women who have part-time jobs, we are asking you
to help by answering the following questions. All information will be treated as confi­
dential and used only by the Women’s Bureau.
1. Your name...........................................................................
Address................................................................................................................................
2. What is your present part-time job?........................................................................................
3. How many hours per week are you employed?...................................................................
4. How long have you been employed on your present part-time job?
Years............................... Months...............................
5. Have you ever worked full-time? Yes.......No.......... If yes, how many years?...................
What kind of work did you usually do?...............................................................................
<5. Why do you work part-time instead of full-time?
a. Home responsibilities prevent full-time
...............
b. Unable to find a full-time job
...............
c. Other: (specify)...................................... .............................................................
7. Check most important reasons to you for doing part-time work:
a. To supplement or increase your income
...............
b. To use your skills and abilities
...............
c. To have outside interests and contacts
...............
d. Other: (specify)..................................................................................................
8. Are you
Single?........... Married?........... Sep?........... Wid?........... Div?....
9. Your age (last birthday)
Under 25........... 25 under 35........... 35 under 45....
45 under 55........... 55 and over............
10. Circle last school grade completed:
6 7 8 9 10 II 12
College (yrs.) 1 2 3 4 5 or more
11. Have you had any professional or vocational training?
Yes...........No............ If yes, in what field?.............................................................

(3) Employee interview.
PART-TIME STUDY
CONFIDENTIAL

Budget Bureau No. 44-4906.
Approval expires 7/1/50.

u. s. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
WOMEN'S BUREAU
EMPLOYEE INTERVIEW
Firm..................................................................
Name or identification.......................................................Address..................................
Marital status: Single........... Married........... Wid............ Sep............ Div.......
Age: Under 25....... 25 und. 35....... 35 und. 45....... 45 und. 55 ...... 55 and over. .
Education: Last grade completed: Grammar..... High.....College....... College major.
Professional or vocational training....................
5. WORK EXPERIENCE PREVIOUS TO PRESENT JOB
a. Time employed before present job: Total....... Full-time....... Part-time...
b. Usual occupation....................................................................................................
c. Have you had any breaks in your work history of more than one year?
Yes....... No....... If yes, explain duration and reason for break.
1.
2.
3.
4.

APPENDIX—SCHEDULE FORMS

79

<5. WORK EXPERIENCE ON PRESENT JOB
a. Time on the job ..................................
b. Present Job—Occupation....................
7. HOURS OF WORK—Usual Part-Time hours on Present Job
Sun. Mon. Tue. Wed. Thur. Fri.
Sat.
* Begin ..................................................................................
End
.................................................................................. Total: No. Days....... Hours
Comments on variations (if any) in work schedule:.........................................................
8. RATES OF PAY AND EARNINGS
a. What is your rate of pay? (Enter amount in appropriate space) Per hr. $...........
Per day $.......... Per wk. $........... Per month $........... Per year $...........
Other, specify........................................................................................................
b. What are your usual earnings per pay period $...................................................
Length of pay period...........................................................................................
9. TRANSPORTATION TO AND FROM WORK
What means of transportation do you use? Walk........... Pub. Convey............
Priv. Car...........
How much time do you spend daily in transportation to and from your job?
How much does transportation cost daily if public conveyance is used? $.....
» 10. How did you get your part-time work? Answer ad....... Agency, Pub........ Priv.
Thru friends.......Direct application.........Thru former employer........
Other, explain.................... .......................................................................................
11. What difficulties, if any, did you have in finding a part-time job?.
12.

Does your part-time work fit in with your education and experience? Yes.....No,
Comments:...........................................................................................................................

13.

Why do you work part-time instead of full-time?
a. Home responsibilities prevent full-time
b. Unable to find a full-time job
c. Other (specify)............................................

14. Check most important reasons to you for doing part-time work:
a. To supplement or increase your income
ft
b. To use your skills and abilities
c. To have outside interests and contacts
d. Other (specify)....................................................................
15.

N

i

b

a. Do you feel part-time work is worthwhile for you?
b. What do you gain by it?.............................................

c. Do you plan to continue working? Yes......No.........If yes, as part-time worker.
or as full-time worker?.......
16. Do you live in a family household?........... Apart:
explain*11...........
If in a family household, how many including yourself in your household?............
How many regularly employed including yourself?....................................................
How many adults not employed?....................................................................................
What is their relation to the person interviewed?........................................................
Number of children? Under 6........... 6 and under 12.......... 12 and under 18....
Relation of worker to children........................................................................................
17. Care of children, if person interviewed is responsible for their care:
Who looks after children while you are at work? Day nursery...... In school.
Relatives......... Maid......... Other, explain....................................................

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

80

18. Household duties if responsible for care of a household group:
Regular assistants in household duties:
For laundry—Yes........... No............ If yes, what...........................................................
For cleaning—Yes...........No............. If yes, what........................................................
For preparing meals—Yes...........No.............If yes, what.............................................
Other, explain....................................................................................................................
19. Do you have any additional help in your household duties because you are employed?
Yes........... No.............If yes, explain...............................................................................

(4) Double postcard sent AAUW members in individual cities.
PART-TIME STUDY

^ _

..

_ _ . .

WOMEN S BUREAU
vv

Budget Bureau No. 44-4906.
Approval expires 7/1/50.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Many requests are coming to the Women’s Bureau from women’s organizations,
college associations, placement offices, and others for information about women's oppor­
tunities for part-time work. To answer such questions, the Women’s Bureau is making
a study of women’s part-time employment.
In order to reach women with college training, we are sending the attached ques­
tionnaire to a list of college alumnae. WILL YOU COOPERATE WITH US BY FILL­
ING OUT THE ATTACHED CARD AND RETURNING IT PROMPTLY? Your
name and address need not be given. However, if you are holding a part-time position, we
would like your name and address in case we want further information about your part­
time work experience. All information will be treated as confidential and used only by
the Women’s Bureau.
Frieda S. Miller, Director.
No postage is required for the return card.

...............................................................................................................................
Are you employed? Yes................... No................... If yes, do you have a PART-TIME
JOB? Yes...........No............ If yes, what job?.........................................................................
............................................................... In what kind of business?........................................
If part-time, number of hours usually worked per week.....................................................
How long have you worked part-time? Years....................... , Months........................
Are you looking for a part-time job? Yes........... No...........
Do you know any women engaged in part-time work?1 Yes................... No................... **
If yes, please give their names and addresses and if possible indicate kinds of jobs held.
Name
Address
Job

Your name.
1 Not household employees.

......... Address.........
Telephone number

A

81

APPENDIX—SCHEDULE FORMS

(5) Placement agency interview.
PART-TIME STUDY

Budget Bureau No. 44-4906.
Approval expires 7/1/50.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
WOMEN'S BUREAU

I

AGENCY INTERVIEW
Agency......................................................... Address.
Persons interviewed:
.............................................................
Position.
* r tote : The following information on applications and orders should not include house­
hold employment and manufacturing. It should be for the last monthly report
N
unless for some reason this is not typical.
1. Demand for Part-Time Employment—IVomen Applicants—Dates covered:.....................
a. How many women applicants registered in active files?...........................................
b. How many of the above are applying for part-time work?.......................................
r 2. Demand for Part-Time Women Workers—Employer’s Orders—Dates covered:...............
a. How many orders during report period for part-time women workers?...............
b. How many orders on hand currently for part-time women workers?.....................
c. How many women placed on part-time jobs during last report period? (If
placements are not available, referrals should be reported and so indicated.)
R
If possible, show placements (or referrals) by job, industry and number of
women..........................................................................................................................

3. Comments on general activities of agency for women applicants and special policies
applying to part-time registration.
a. Does this agency specialize by occupations or industries in placement?
Yes......... No......... Comments:....................................................................
b. Are part-time registrations restricted or discouraged? Yes.............No.
Comments:................................................................................. ......

►

c. Is there any counselling of part-time workers or promotion of part-time work
opportunities?
Comments:....................................................................................................

r
T

4.

ZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZ.

Comments on the general characteristics of women part-time applicants as to age, marital
status, experience, etc. Also, to what extent are women applicants students? About
what proportion of total applicants for part-time are women?

3. Suggestions of leads for part-time explorations in the community:
(Employers, trade associations, community organzations, etc. that may be possible
sources of information.)

82

PART-TIME JOBS FOR WOMEN

(6) Placement agency applicant questionnaire.
PART TIME STUDY
CONFIDENTIAL

Budget Bureau No. 44-4906.
Approval expires 7/1/50.

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
WOMEN'S BUREAU
Agency................................................................... City....................................................................
Many requests have been received by the Women's Bureau for information about women’s
opportunities for part-time employment and the reasons why women seek part-time work.
In order to obtain information about women who are applying for part-time work, we are
asking you to help by answering the following questions. All information will be treated
as confidential and used only by the Women's Bureau.
1. Your name..................................................................................................................................
2. What kind of part-time work are you applying for?...........................................................
3. How many hours a week do you prefer to work?........................................
4. Have you had any part-time jobs in the last 3 years?
Yes...........No.............If yes, what kind of work did you usually do?.
5.

Have you ever worked full-time? Yes......... No........... If yes, how many years?.
What kind of work did you usually do?............................................................

6. Why do you want part-time instead of full-time work?
a. Home responsibilities prevent full-time
............
b. Unable to find a full-time job
............
c. Other: (specify)...............................................................................................
7. Check most important reasons to you for wanting part-time work:
a. To supplement or increase your income
...........
b. To use your skills and abilities
...........
c. To have outside interests and contacts
...........
d. Other: (specify).............................................................................................
8. Are you Single?............. Married?............. Sep?............. Wid?............. Div?..
9. Your age (last birthday) Under 25........... 25 under 35........... 35 under 45
45 under 55........... 55 and over............
10. Circle last school grade completed:
6 7 8 9 10 11 12
College (yrs.) 1 2 3 4 5 or more
11. Have you had any professional or vocational training?
Yes........... No........... If yes, in what field?......................................................

☆ U- S- GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1951—S4912:

I


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102