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^

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
FRANCES PERKINS,

v,

Secretary

WOMEN’S BUREAU

|?

MA%Y ANDERSON.'Director

OFFICE WORK IN RICHMOND
,1940

mu
^TES 05,

Bulletin

of the

Women’s Bureau, No. 188-4

United States
Government Printing Office
Washington : 1942

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.

U_ Yn A

YAO

Price IS cent!

^




CONTENTS
Page

Introduction
1
Demand for new office workers_______________________________________
2
Beginners
2
Experienced workers
3
Extra workers3
Scope of detailed survey
3
Description of office work in Richmond’s outstanding industries_______
4
State government
4
Manufacturing—Tobacco~~ 13
Character of office occupations 15
Occupational distribution 15
Education and experience of office workers 19
Educational status1"
19
Age and experience 19
Age and type of office 19
Number of positions held 21
Over-all experience and occupation 21
Experience and type of office
22
Earnings in 1940'__________________ ”1
24'
Method of pay 24
Monthly rates by type of office_____________________
25
women__1_________ iiii25
Men______________
26
Distribution by rate 28
Monthly rates by occupation 30
Stenographic group____^
30
Accounting group________________________
32
Machine operators 32
Other clerks_____________________________________
33
Clerks not elsewhere classified 35
Special office workers 35
Supervisory, executive, and clerical-professional 35
Distribution by rate 38
Weekly earnings compared with salary rates 38
Hours of work 40
Weekly hours40
Overtime work and pay___________________________________________40
Effect of experience and age on rates of pay_______________________________ 42
Monthly rates paid to beginners 42
Occupational experience and salary advancement 42
Type of office and salary advancement____________
45
Age and salary, by type of office.--- 48
Age and salary, by occupation 50
Annual earnings 52
Regularity of employment 52
Annual earnings by type of office 52
Annual earnings by occupation 53
Personnel policies
57
Employment policies___ _
57
Sex preferences________________________
57
Marital status_________________________________________
_
_"Io8
Age-----------------------------------------------------------1----------------------- ::::::::: 58
Salary reviews 58
Dismissal________________________
58
Vacations 59
Sick leave”
59
Insurance and hospitalization policies 59
Retirement policies~ 59
Richmond’s school facilities for training office workers 60




hi

IV

CONTENTS

TABLES
Page

I. Number of offices scheduled, number of men and women they em­
ployed, and number of records secured, 1940, by type of office—
Richmond..._*
3
II. Distribution by occupation of all employees reported, and predomi­
nance of men or of women in each occupation—Richmond________
16
III. Number of women and men regular employees in the various types of
office, by occupational group'—Richmond 17
IV. Age of employees by type of office—Richmond 20
V. Percent distribution of employees according to length of experience
with present employer, by type of office—Richmond 22
VI. Average monthly salary rates of men and women regular employees in
offices, 1940, by type of office—Richmond 28
VII. Percent distribution of men and women regular employees in offices
according to monthly salary rate, 1940, by type of office—Richmond. 29
VIII. Average monthly salary rates of men and women regular employees in
offices, 1940, by occupation—Richmond 31
IX. Percent distribution of men and women regular employees in offices
according to monthly salary rate, 1940, by occupation—Richmond. 36
X. Average monthly salary of employees with over-all years of experience
reported, by occupational group'—Richmond 44
XI. Average monthly salary according to length of service with present
firm, by type of office—Richmond 46
XII. Average monthly salary of employees in the various age groups, by type
of office—Richmond;_______________________________________ ____
49
XIII. Average monthly salary of employees of various ages, by occupational
group—Richmond 51
XIV. Percent distribution of employees according to annual earnings for
54
work in 48 weeks or more of 1939, by type of office—Richmond
XV. Average annual earnings of employees who worked 48 weeks or more
in 1939, by occupation—Richmond 56

CHARTS
I. Proportion of women and of men in each of the chief occupations—
II. Distribution of women and of men according to monthly salary rates,
by occupation'—Richmond 37




Chart

I.—PROPORTION OF WOMEN AND OF MEN IN EACH OF THE
CHIEF OCCUPATIONS—RICHMOND
[Each complete figure=5 percent]
100 percent -

STENOGRAPHIC GROUP
Secretary

Stenographer

Typlet and other

ACCOUNTING GROUP
Bookkeeper, hand

Cashier, teller

Audit, accounting,
bookkeeping clerk

MACHINE OPERATORS
Bookkeeping and billing

Calculating

OTHER CLERKS
Cost and production

Yard clerk

Order, stock, shipping

Pay roll and timekeeper

Statistical

Record

MMWMHOTTOMMt
Transit
Billing, statement,
collection

Checker

IlMiUMIttllttWM

Pile

liiiowiittiiiMM

Telephone




OFFICE WORK IN RICHMOND, 1940
INTRODUCTION
Richmond, the capital and largest city of Virginia, was chosen to
represent the South Atlantic section in the office workers’ study.
The natural trading location of the city, its importance as a manufac­
turing center, and its position as the State capital make it one of the
leading industrial and commercial centers in this section.
Tobacco, paper, printing, iron and steel, and rayon manufacturing
predominate, but there are many other small industries in or near the
city. In addition to its own population of 193,042, Richmond is re­
ported to service through its retail and wholesale facilities a trade
area with approximately 600,000 people. To meet the needs of its
manufactures and its trade, as well as its State, city, and Federal
business, there are a number of financial institutions, many profes­
sional offices, the usual public utility and other facilities demanded in
a metropolis. Richmond is served by six railroads, by steamship
service, by airplane, and by motor-bus service.
To carry on these many industrial and business activities, it is esti­
mated that there are 13,000 office employees. Government offers the
largest single field of employment to such workers. Most of the
centralized State offices are in Richmond, where more than 2,500
persons were employed in 1939, 1,800 of whom come within the defini­
tion of office workers used for this study. Federal offices, some of
which have been developed since 1930, and the city and county offices
bring the total of public office workers to almost 2,500 at time of
survey.
The next largest number are employed in manufacturing offices.
While few manufacturing firms employ 50 or more office workers, the
small numbers in over 300 establishments result in a total of more
than 1,600 office workers employed by manufacturing companies.
Insurance firms, including home offices, branch offices, and agencies,
employ more than 1,400 office workers. Five Richmond banks each
give employment to 50 or more workers. In addition to these large
banks are a number employing fewer workers, as well as many in­
vestment, building and loan, and personal and chattel loan agencies.
Together, these financial institutions give employment to over 1,200
workers. Several of the railroad and other public utility offices (elec­
tric, gas, telephone) employ in excess of 100, the total for railroads
being approximately 1,300 and that for other utilities more than 600.
The total of office workers in wholesale and retail distribution also
is large, but in only a few such offices are 50 or more employed. The
large total results from one or more office employees in the many retail
and wholesale units in the city. The numbers employed in small
offices are swelled further by the large number of small professional
offices, real-estate offices, and non-profit-making agencies to be found
in Richmond.




1

2

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN

1940

DEMAND FOR NEW OFFICE WORKERS

The demand for new office workers in a particular area is not con­
stant but is affected by changes in general business conditions and by
the turn-over of employees in the various firms. An increasing
population and the extension or contraction of production in specific
industries necessitate some readjustments in the composition of office
forces. Between 1930 and 1940 the population of Richmond increased
by 5}i percent, or somewhat less than the increase in the total popula­
tion in the United States.
Since 1935, however, there have been substantial increases in manu­
facturing, commercial, and governmental activities in Richmond.
According to the Census of Manufactures, the total number of workers
employed in Richmond’s manufacturing industries increased by 11
percent between 1935 and 1939, but in wholesale trade the number of
employees increased by 34 percent and in retail trade by 29 percent.
The increase in retail sales by Richmond stores during this period was
36 percent.
Other indications of the recent increase in business activities are
given by the Richmond Chamber of Commerce, which reports that
electric customers increased by 14 percent and business telephone
connections by 22 percent during the period from 1936 to 1940.
Important government agencies that have created demands for
new office workers in recent years include the State Planning Board,
the Unemployment Compensation Commission, the Department of
Alcoholic Beverage Control, and the Federal National Youth Ad­
ministration, W. P. A. clerical projects, and Wage and Hour district
office.
These increasing activities, in addition to replacements necessary for
various reasons, make up the demand for new office 'workers. As used
here, the term includes beginners entering office employment for the
first time and experienced workers transferring to a specific firm from
other firms or other localities. In 1939, it is estimated, all new em­
ployees hired comprised something over one-tenth of the total office
force employed, or approximately 1,450 persons.
The proportion of new employees in the total office force varies con­
siderably by type of office. Railroads and other public utility com­
panies generally have seniority promotion policies that tend to reduce
the turn-over of workers, so these firms have smaller proportions of
new office workers than are found elsewhere. In department and
apparel stores approximately one-fourth of the office workers were
first employed in 1939, and in finance and wholesale distribution
about one-fifth are new employees.
Beginners.

Beginners, that is, persons entering office work for the first time,
outnumbered the experienced workers taken on by a firm for the first
time in 1939. They form, however, only 6 percent of the total num­
bers in Richmond offices. Beginners were taken on in relatively large
proport ions by insurance companies and banks, department and apparel
stores, but wholesale distributors and manufacturers also served as
places in which to attain initial experience.




3

INTRODUCTION —RICHMOND

Experienced workers.

About two-fifths of the workers employed in new positions were
persons with office experience. To what extent these had transferred
from other positions or to what extent they had been unemployed
when taken on is not known. Experienced persons found new em­
ployment in excess of beginners chiefly in manufacturing establish­
ments, in government offices, and in the mass of small offices included
in the survey.
Extra workers.

Many firms find it necessary to employ extra office workers for short
periods. Most of these are employed to substitute for regular em­
ployees on vacation, but in some offices there are periodic increases in
the work to be done and additional workers must be hired.
The firms reporting the use of extra or part-time workers had
employed several hundred such workers in 1939. At the time of the
survey there were 129 on the pay rolls. The firms were chiefly small
offices, manufacturers, city and county government offices, and
finance and insurance firms.
The extra workers employed in finance, insurance, and small offices
were largely stenographers, typists, PBX operators, file clerks, and
messengers; those in city and county governments were typists; and
those in manufacturing offices were stenographers, machine operators,
billing clerks, file clerks, and information clerks. Railroads reported
their extra employees as general clerks and in wholesale and retail
trade such employees were stock clerks, stenographers, machine
operators, cashiers, messengers, and general clerks.
SCOPE OF DETAILED SURVEY

A total of 186 offices employing 7,912 workers, were visited in the
Richmond survey. In 5 establishments, comprising 2 railroads, a
Table

I.—Number of offices scheduled, number of men and women they employed,
and number of records secured, 1940, by type of office—RICHMOND
Number of men and
women employed

Employee records secured

Num­
ber of
offices
sched­
uled

Total

Men

All types. ______ ___________

186

7,912

3,245

4,667

6,025

2.452

3, 573

59.3

Banks____________ ______ _________
Other finance ............................ ..........
Insurance..... ..................................... .

8
14
17

877
134
721

482
62
203

395
72
518

877
134
721

482
62
203

395
72
518

45.0
53.7
71.8

...... ..................

5
3

1,275
614

1,038
182

237
432

646
614

489
182

157
432

24.3
70.4

Printing and publishing..................
Tobacco____ ___ _____ ________
Other manufacturing............................

16
5
18

217
167
537

49
108
268

168
59
269

217
167
537

49
108
268

168
59
269

77.4
35.3
50.1

Wholesale distributor, own goods__
Wholesale distributor, others’ goods.
Department and apparel stores

15
11
12

272
219
284

156
90
22

116
129
262

272
219
284

156
90
22

116
129
262

42.6
58.9
92.3

Federal Government-..........................
State government
City and county governments......... .

8
1
2

349
1,653
182

108
343
95

241
1,310
87

349
495
182

108
106
95

241
389
87

- 69.1
78.6
47.8

51

411

39

372

311

32

279

89.7

Type of office

Railroads
Other public utilities

Other types of office

458912°—42——2




Wo men
Women Total

Men

Num­ Percent
ber
of total

4

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

hospital, a school, and the State government office, employment records
were obtained only for a representative sample of the employees but in
the other cases the data covered all office workers. Thus personnel
and pay-roll records were copied for 6,025 employees, or more than
45 percent of the estimated total of office workers m Richmond.
Well over half the employees, 59 percent, were women. Though they
comprised only about one-fourth of the workers in railroad offices and
just over one-third of those in tobacco firms, nine-tenths or more of
the employees in small offices and retail-store offices, and nearly
eight-tenths of those in State government and printing and publishing
offices, were women. Other types of office in which women outnum­
bered men are insurance, public utilities other than railroads, Federal
Government, wholesale offices distributing other firms’ goods, finance,
and manufacturing other than tobacco and printing and publishing.
DESCRIPTION OF OFFICE WORK IN RICHMOND’S OUT­
STANDING INDUSTRIES
State government.

In Richmond the State government offers a larger field of office
employment than does any other single type of business. The func­
tions of the State government probably touch all types of enterprise
carried on by the people, and though many branches of the various
departments are scattered throughout the State, the central admin­
istrative offices are in Richmond.
A considerable proportion of the State employees are technical
scientists, medical and social-service workers, engineers and mechanics,
custodial workers, and investigators, inspectors, and officers engaged
to insure compliance with legal standards and laws, none of whom are
within the scope of this study. However, the majority of the more
than 2,500 State workers in the Richmond offices are classed as execu­
tive and professional workers, engaged in planning, directing and
coordinating the work of the various State offices, and clerical workers,
engaged in preparing and keeping records and reports of the varied
State activities or in other types of routine office work.
Employees in the usual routine office work, such as messengers,
mail and file clerks, typists, telephone operators and receptionists,
stenographers, stock clerks, order clerks, clerks working on single
records, and secretarial workers, are found in all the various offices.
Much of the work in the State offices, however, requires persons who
have training or experience in preparing and maintaining intricate
financial and accounting records, who have a working knowledge of
statistical and personnel principles and procedures, or who have
knowledge of various laws that apply to State activities; the detailed
duties and responsibilities of such workers vary with department, due
to the different nature of work being carried on.
According to the Register of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in
September 1939 there were 2,081 employees in clerical positions, 415
in executive positions, 112 in fiscal examination and auditing positions,
and 32 in statistical positions, and the majority of these are in the
central administrative offices in Richmond.
The Governor’s Office includes five divisions, as follows: Division
of the Budget, Division of Grounds and Buildings, Division of Statutory
Research and Planning, Division of Military Affairs, and Planning




INTRODUCTION—RICHMOND

5

Board. Many employees in this branch, which forms the coordinating
unit of the State government, are classed in various executive posi­
tions and do highly responsible and intricate types of work. In the
Division oj the Budget they must have a working knowledge of pre­
paring and analyzing complex financial statements and be familiar
with the accounting systems of the State, as they prepare the State
budget from the estimates submitted by the various departments and
agencies. They plan and maintain the central personnel files of State
employees and the central inventory records of materials and supplies.
Employees in the Division of Statutory Research and Planning should
have a knowledge of State statutes and administrative regulations.
The work of these employees consists of compiling and indexing State
laws, collecting and preparing statistical data, and making special
research studies for other information relating to State legislation,
assisting in the drafting of bills, and checking typed drafts of bills
and statutes for accuracy of typing and references.
The duties of the clerical force in the Military Affairs Division also
are varied. Some clerks are engaged to prepare and maintain
special files and to issue orders relating to the status of the National
Guard personnel. _ Others must be familiar with military terms and
accounting forms in order to approve for payment and keep records
of the accounts and pay rolls of the division. The storekeeping clerks
must have a knowledge of military supplies and materials, as they
are engaged in keeping inventory records, checking receipts of mate­
rials, filing requisitions, and requisitioning additional supplies to
maintain sufficient stocks on hand.
Special types of work in the Attorney General's Division of the Depart­
ment of Law requires employees who have a working knowledge of
legal forms and terms and are familiar with court reports and other
sources of authority on legal questions. Employees in the Motion
Picture Censorship Division of the Law Department must have a
knowledge of the State laws governing the censorship of motion pic­
tures, as they keep a record of the actions and censorships made by
the board and of the reports of inspectors.
In the various divisions of the Department of Finance the employees
are largely trained or experienced in accounting, auditing, or general
bookkeeping work. They should be familiar with the State budget
system and with accounting and law as applied to the State system
of accounts. Examples of the work include preparing and main­
taining records and accounts for the various State institutions;
reviewing and recording cash receipts and disbursements; keeping
inventory records and preparing inventory schedules, summaries, and
expense distributions; receiving and accounting for receipts; receiving
and recording warrants; auditing vouchers; and keeping a record of
the budget. Much of the work is done on bookkeeping machines.
The Department of Finance also includes the Division of Purchase
and Printing and the Division of Motor Vehicles. Persons in the Pur­
chase and Printing Division who are in the responsible positions are
required to have a knowledge of market conditions, current prices,
traffic procedures, and of the various materials and supplies used in
the department, as their work includes investigating and making
records of sources of supply, preparing specifications, examining bids,
and placing orders or making contract awards.




6

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

The Division of Motor Vehicles has a fairly large office force to do
the wide variety of record, bookkeeping, and accounting work, and
filing work in connection with administering the motor vehicle license,
registration, and fuel tax laws, the licensing of bus lines and motor
vehicles for hire, and the licensing of operators of motor vehicles.
The more responsible employees, who have some supervisory duties,
must have a good knowledge of State laws and regulations relating to
motor vehicles and must be familiar with traffic laws and regulations
and highway safety principles and practices.
Other clerks are employed in more specialized types of record or
bookkeeping work or in routine office work such as filing, mailing, or
stenographic and typing jobs. A few examples describing the work
of the various record-keeping employees follow:
Hand posting of weekly accounts of licensing agents, branch offices, and
tellers. Prepares monthly statements of these accounts. Keeps special
fund accounts, writing check against them and reconciling bank statements.
Window teller—Accepts, checks, and approves applications for certifi­
cates of title, duplicates, etc., and receives fees therefor.
Issues licenses at window-—Accepts applications and issues transfers;
delivers title certificates and receives fees; delivers fees to cashier.
Examines and approves applications for refunds of gasoline tax.
Issues duplicate titles, supplemental liens, etc., at window and from mail
requests. Checks against files, checks forms for completeness and accuracy.
Checks applications for operators’ and chauffeurs’ licenses and remittances
recorded thereon.
In charge of stolen-car records—Files reports on stolen and recovered
cars, prepares monthly statements, prepares daily police bulletin on stolen
cars and revocations of operators’ licenses.
Auditing motor fuel dealers’ tax reports.

In the Department of Taxation there are also many highly experi­
enced employees who are responsible for the administration of the
various tax laws; these executive employees must have a good under­
standing of State tax laws, though some may become specialized in
the administration of one particular tax law, as the corporation tax,
the beverage tax, the inheritance and gift tax. They must have
acquired the ability to apply the principles of accounting in inter­
preting the financial returns of individuals and corporations and the
fixing and revising of assessments.
Principal and senior office clerks in this department should have some
knowledge of the State tax laws and a working knowledge of book­
keeping or accounting, as they do the routine of checking tax returns.
They calculate percentage and depreciation of personal property of
corporations for tax purposes, examine records of beverage companies,
prepare assessment reports on the stocks of finance companies, and
maintain and operate the complex files of the various tax records.
Junior clerks make and verify single record entries, examine returns to
sec that the blanks are properly filled, do simple file work, take care of
incoming and outgoing mail, operate various types of office machines,
and do other office work of a relatively simple nature.
A large proportion of the employees of the Department of Education,
particularly the division superintendents, rural supervisors, and the
personnel of colleges and schools, are not employed in Richmond.
However, several divisions are in Richmond and some of these employ
an appreciable number of office workers. The Department of Educa­
tion sections scheduled include the administrative, maintenance of
industrial rehabilitation, maintenance of libraries in public schools,




INTRODUCTION-—RICHMOND

7

and two associated agencies, the board of examiners of graduate
nurses and the real estate commission.
The administrative staff evaluates the college records of applicants
for teaching certificates and keeps a file of such records. It main­
tains the personnel records for the Department of Education and
keeps the inventory records concerning the purchase and distribution
of books and other supplies. It prepares annual reports on the
operations of the department and makes research surveys on condi­
tions, operations, and transportation facilities at the various public
schools.
The office work in the other sections is largely keeping detailed
records of the financial transactions of the office, requisitioning and
keeping records of supplies and materials, making up the pay rolls,
and other routine office work. Some workers in the library division
are required to have experience in the handling of archive material
as they are engaged in classifying, repairing, indexing, photostating,
and filing original historical records; they must know how to operate
a photostat machine and have a knowledge of binding old books and
manuscripts.
The Department of Public Welfare and the Department of Health
perform numerous functions relating to the health of the public and
to its physical and mental welfare. These departments are author­
ized to make and enforce rules and regulations concerning sanitary
conditions in schools, State institutions, hotels, and other public
places, and to investigate diseases and epidemics in the State and to
find methods of preventing the spread of such diseases. They are
to provide for the segregation and care of persons having contagious
or infectious diseases, to maintain sanitariums for the treatment of
tuberculosis and clinics for treating other diseases, and to appoint and
supervise local health boards. They are charged with caring for
dependent, neglected, and delinquent children, with handling cases
of dependent and defective persons, with supervising mothers’ aid,
veterans’ service, and public assistance programs, and with the opera­
tion of penal and other correctional institutions, State hospitals, and
institutions for blind and deaf persons. They are required also to
collect, compile, and analyze records of marriages, births, and deaths.
These examples indicate the wide variety of duties which are carried
on in the two departments, and though many divisions are scattered
throughout the State, the administrative offices are in Richmond.
A considerable proportion of the employees in the two departments
are scientific, professional, and technical workers, such as physicians,
psychiatrists, psychologists, pharmacists, dentists, bacteriologists,
laboratory technicians and workers, hospital attendants, nurses,
social workers, prison guards and other prison attendants, mechanics,
sanitary engineers, and many other specialized scientific workers.
But each office requires the service of at least general office clerks for
routine stenographic, record keeping, and filing work. The central
administrative offices in Richmond also require many responsible
office workers with specialized training and experience in order to
coordinate the extensive financial, statistical, and personnel problems
of such widespread organizations, a.nd to carry out research and
publicity programs in educating the people to know of the many
services available to them.




8

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

Secretarial, stenographic, and other general office clerks, as typists,
file clerks, record clerks, and so forth, should be familiar with medical
and social welfare terms and standards. Accounting, auditing, and
bookkeeping workers, in addition to haying a working knowledge of
accounting practices, must know the State fiscal procedures and the
various laws relating to the distribution of funds to specific agencies
and localities. These workers prepare estimates for the Bureau of
the Budget, maintain detailed finance statistical records of all receipts
and disbursements of funds, and prepare reports of such financial
transactions. Statisticians and statistical clerks are engaged in
assembling detailed reports of the activities of the various agencies
and of compiling and tabulating the information to show the activities,
progress, and achievements of agencies administering the various
programs.
The office employees engaged in planning the work, preparing the
various forms for reporting data, and supervising the office force are
generally classed as executive employees, but those in the lower
executive classes are employed also on the more responsible types of
clerical work.
A considerable proportion of the clerical workers are in the more
general office positions, reported as secretary, stenographer, steno­
grapher-secretary, stenographer-clerk, stenographer-typist, file-mail
clerk, mail-messenger, stock-inventory clerk, stock-mail clerk, PBX
operator, typist-record clerk, and office-machine operator (mimeo­
graph operator and key-punch and sorting-machine operator). Other
clerks, however, are engaged in keeping various types of financial and
statistical records. Examples of the work of these clerks follow:
Department of Public Welfare:
Statistical and audit clerk—hand posting of allotments and expenditures
of public assistance funds.
Keeps inventory records, receives goods from prison shops, checks and
fills orders.
.
Requisitions and keeps records of disposal of clothing, books and supplies
for clients (child welfare service). Writing case records and keeping card
file on cases.
In charge of setting-up and operation of statistical systems in institutions
(hospitals) throughout State—involves records on 15,000 or more individuals,
use of tabulating equipment.
Department of Health:
Keeps financial records of disbursements; checking expenses, vouchers,
and so forth.
'
Keeps records; compiles reports; incidental typing, filing, and pay-roll
duties (Rural Health).
Keeps records of, issues, and requests orders of clinic supplies, stationery,
bulletins, instructions, and so forth (Tuberculosis Division).
Indexes marriage reports, assists in searching records for birth certificates
(Vital Statistics).
Keeps a record of all requests for birth and death certificates; keeps record
of money received for certificates (Vital Statistics).
In charge of silver nitrate for prevention of blindness—keeps a record of
silver nitrate and other supplies furnished to physicians and midwives each
day. Types and keeps a list of physicians and midwives concerned with
treatment of blindness.
Keeps accounts from which vouchers are sent at end of year; opens reports
of deaths and births mailed in (Vital Statistics).

The Departments oj Agriculture and Immigration and of Conservation
and Development also have many divisions outside of Richmond that




INTRODUCTION---- RICHMOND

9

employ largely professional, scientific, technical, and other non­
clerical employees. However, the administrative offices in Richmond
employ workers to plan and coordinate the work of the many divisions
and agencies, to prepare and distribute the forms necessary to record
the activities and progress of each unit, to set up and operate the
central system of fiscal management of the departments, to receive
and prepare statistical data regarding activities, and to disseminate
information regarding the various laws being administered.
The various classes of executive employees are responsible for
planning and supervising the work of the two departments and do the
more difficult work of preparing the budget estimates of expenditure
and of preparing the publicity material to bo distributed. These
employees are required to have experience in agriculture, marketing
or conservation work, and to be familiar with the laws and regulations
being administered in their departments.
The detailed work in keeping records of investigations and in­
spections, of issuing and keeping records of permits, certificates, and
licenses, and of recording samples received and tested at the labora­
tories, requires an appreciable number of clerical workers. Many
of these clerical workers are employed as stenographers in small
divisions and do all routine office work, but some are employed on
specialized records, as keeping records of certificates issued and compuing statistics for the monthly bulletin concerning regulations of
fertilizer control and analysis; keeping records of samples received
at laboratory for chemical analysis and handling correspondence
concerning the tests; receiving reports of investigations from weightsand-measures inspectors and preparing statistical data concerning
such activities; preparing statistics concerning fish and game licenses
issued; and recording other activities of the sections administering
conservation regulations.
The Department of Labor and Industry is charged with the enforce­
ment of labor laws and laws relating to the inspection of factories,
commercial establishments, mines, and other places of business and
with the collection and tabulation of statistics relating to employment
and wages. The office executive supervises the force, prepares and
keeps official records, and issues the notices, processes, and orders of
the department. The statistician drafts questionnaires and survey
and reporting forms for distribution to business establishments,
compiles and analyzes the statistical data concerning employment
hours of work and wages in the State, and prepares reports and
articles for publication. The few clerical workers in this department
do a variety of routine office jobs and assist the office supervisors,
they keep books of expenditures, prepare the pay roll, do tvping and
stenographic work, and make compilations of figures and computations
and tabulations m connection with the statistical data obtained from
business firms.
The T nemployment Compensation Commission is a relatively new
unit of the State government and is one of the most important offices
* m ,• e viewpoint of offering employment to clerical workers.
According to the State Register this agency had over 500 employees
m September 1939, and a substantial proportion of them had been
employed for only 1 or 2 years.
Many of the employees are classed as executive or professional
(attorneys, auditors, statisticians, and investigators) and these have




10

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

a wide variety of duties to perform. They assist the commissioners
in supervising the activities involved in applying the State law and
in cooperating with the Federal Government, they install and main­
tain the intricate record file systems for keeping pay-roll and contri­
bution reports and compensation claims, inform employers as to the
requirements of the law and regulations, give aid to the commissioners
in interpreting the law and in handling cases and law violations,
compile and analyze statistical data concerning the coverage, benefits
paid, and other activities, and prepare reports on this information,
and prepare budget estimates and pay rolls for the agency. These
employees are required to have considerable training and experience
in their respective fields and a good knowledge of industrial employ­
ment conditions in the State.
The large majority of employees in the Unemployment Compensa­
tion Commission are classed as clerical employees. A large and
important group of clerks consists of file clerks, who are required to
operate the complex system necessary to handle the numerous records
used in conducting the compensation work. These clerks are engaged
in posting employers’ names on the workers’ cards, filing addressing
machine plates, filing employers’ folders and other data put in the
folder when received, pulling folders for other clerks to use, filing
claims data in claimants’ folders, filing benefit folders, assorting debit
tickets by employer, arranging ledger cards and filing them, sorting
and filing canceled checks, and other office filing duties.
Other clerks are employed as stenographers, typists, messengers,
and operators of office machines such as computing, key-punch, dupli­
cating, addressing, and bookkeeping machines. Another group of
clerks are engaged in record-keeping work of a more difficult nature.
These include accounting and audit clerks, statistical clerks, hand
accounting and ledger clerks, and claims clerks, and it is essential
that these workers have some training or experience in handling
financial accounts and financial and statistical records; they should
be familiar also with the terms and record forms and schedules
involved in carrying out the work of the unemployment compensation
program. These workers are engaged in verifying pay-roll and
contribution reports and employees’ tax payments, interviewing
claimants and reviewing their records, making computations on
compensable claims, verifying listings to make corrections on claim­
ants’ warrants, compiling daily and monthly reports, checking pay
orders for accuracy and completeness, verifying continued pay orders,
checking claims with ledger cards to verify amount of earnings when
contested, handling interstate claims, sorting and fifing canceled checks,
maintaining daily bank balances, and compiling coverage and contri­
bution data, claims data by area, and other work of a related character.
The Department of Workmen’s Compensation is authorized to
approve agreements relating to compensation, to handle uncontested
claims and arrange settlements, to hear contested cases and make
reports of the hearings, to prepare data for the use of the commissioners
in settling cases, to keep financial accounts of receipts and disburse­
ments, and to keep and report statistical data of coverage of agree­
ments, of claims, awards, and indemnities, and to maintain records of
the activities and orders of the Commission.
Much of the clerical work is of a technical nature requiring persons
to have a knowledge of the State insurance law and to have experience




INTRODUCTION—RICHMOND

11

or training in insurance methods and practices in order to review and
approve agreements, examining them for amount of insurance, doc­
tor’s reports, employee coverage, and other pertinent data. The
statistical work is quite complex and requires clerks with previous
statistical experience or training; these clerks collect, compile, tabu­
late, and prepare reports relative to number and coverage of agree­
ments, the nature, frequency, and costs of industrial accidents, nature
of settlement and amounts of compensation, number and nature of
claims contested and decisions rendered, and they prepare special
statistical reports to support legislative proposals. Stenographers
and file and mail clerks should have some knowledge of industrial
insurance terms and practices, as they handle office correspondence,
send out notices, orders, and agreement forms and schedules, and keep
the complex file system up to date by recording cancelations, expira­
tions, or other changes in the insurance agreements.
The Division of Corporations also performs a variety of functions in
regulating public service corporations and much of the work is of a
highly technical nature. This division is charged with appraising
and evaluating the properties of public service corporations for the
purpose of assessing and taxing such companies and of regulating the
rates that can be charged for their services; regulating the sale of
securities; regulating motor vehicle carriers; and administering the
laws and regulations relating to finance and insurance companies.
Many of the employees are classed as executives and as professional
and technical workers, such as auditors, accountants, statisticians,
attorneys, engineers, investigators, and inspectors, and these are re­
quired to have extensive training and experience in their specialized
fields. These do the more responsible work of reviewing and auditing
l|le intricate financial statements, and examining for compliance w-ith
the laws of banks and other finance companies, insurance and real
estate companies, and public service corporations; making appraisals
of fixed capital assets, plant construction, maintenance and operation
of public utilities, reviewing and passing on qualifications of insurance
companies and other corporations to receive licenses or charters to
operate under Virginia laws; inspecting airports and landing fields
and passing on applications for licenses for airmen and aircraft; assist­
ing in conducting hearings and making prosecutions for law violations;
and preparing schedules, forms, and statement and order blanks that
are used in carrying out the many duties of the department.
The work of the clerical force also is varied, because of the many
specialized records, orders, and notices relating to public utility and
insurance rates, sale of securities, property valuations and assessments,
licenses and charters, audits and account records, and the reports sent
m by the various field investigators, which must be handled and filed,
in addition to taking care of the usual routine office bookkeeping
records, pay rolls, office correspondence, and statistical data.
Many of the clerical workers do several of the routine office duties,
particularly in the smaller divisions that employ only one or two clerks!
and these are reported as secretary and stenographer, stenographerclerk, stenographer-typist, typist-clerk, record clerk and miscellaneous
work, stenographer and file clerk, stenographer and general work,
and other similar terms. However, others are engaged in keeping
458912°—42------ 3




12

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 1940

specialized records or doing various specialized jobs. These include
auditors employed to audit the public utility company reports, to
investigate securities issues, and to receive and check tan ft and rate
schedules of public utilities so that they comply with the require­
ments of the commission.
,
,
Other clerks required to have some experience m accounting or
statistical record work are engaged in making and certifying copies of
corporation charters, keeping the weekly docket of hearings, and in­
dexing, filing, and mailing copies of all commission orders; checking
proof and entering records of the dissolutions; reviewing applications
and issuing licenses to operate under the securities law; checking and
recording motor vehicle insurance fees; checking and filing renewal
insurance policies for motor vehicles, checking qualifications and
issuing licenses to insurance agents and solicitors and maintaining a
file of such licenses; and verifying and coding classifications and pre­
mium charges on auto risks.
. , „. ,
On the basis of number of employees the Department of Highways
is by far the largest State department, with nearly 4 000 employees
reported in 1939, and the Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control
ranks third, with about 650 employees. The majority of employees
are not engaged in clerical work or are not employed in Richmond,
these include warehouse custodians, chemical scientists, inspection
and enforcement investigators, and the personnel of the many State
stores in the Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control and the engi­
neers, mechanics, planning-survey statisticians, inspectors, and dis­
trict clerical workers in the Department of Highways.
However, the central offices, including the administrative, licensing,
merchandise record and warehouse, accounting and stock control, and
press relations and statistics divisions in the Department of Alcoholic
Beverage Control, and the administration and engineering, and con­
trol warehouse and equipment divisions of the Department ol High­
ways, are in Richmond, and these employ an appreciable number ot
executive, auditing, and clerical workers.
,
Employees in the various executive classes are required to nave
considerable experience in specialized fields, such as accounting and
auditing, merchandising, statistics, and markets and trade conditions
relative to specified materials, and ability to coordinate the activities
of an organization consisting of many small units scatteied through
til© StSitG.
.
a i 17*
The majority of the clerical workers in the Department oj Alcoholic
Beverage Control are reported as secretaries, stenographers, typists, file
clerks, mail clerks, and entry and record clerks, as a wide variety of
records are checked and filed in the central office and a large amount of
correspondence is necessary to conduct the business between the
central account control and warehouse sections and the liquor manu­
facturers and distributors, the State liquor stores and investigators.
The file system of this department is one of the most complex operated
by any State office.
,
Other clerical workers reported include record clerks to keep cost
price record book, to make up time sheets, compile weekly sales report,
keep records of distribution of stock, audit finance reports sent in by
State stores, keep records of receipts and disbursements, keep in­
ventory records of stocks in central warehouse, and compile statistical
records of liquor prices, sales, licenses issued, and other activities ot




INTRODUCTION—RICHMOND

13

the department. To facilitate the enormous amount of record-keep­
ing work, many employees operate office machines, such as bookkeeping,
calculating, key-punch, sorting, duplicating, and_ addressing machines.
A large proportion of the clerical workers in the Department of
Highways also were reported as stenographers, stenographer-clerks,
and typists; in addition to doing routine office work of handling
correspondence, taking dictation, and typing and filing many had other
record-keeping tasks, such as keeping records on maintenance and
construction progress, preparing the pay roll, keeping personnel
records, checking industrial accident claims, indexing information
relating to deeds, writing quotations on inquiries for materials and
supplies for which bids are to be taken, making record cards on projects
let to contractors, and other similar jobs.
Another group were reported as audit, accounting, cost-analysis,
pay-roll and voucher clerks, and these are on more specialized records
of auditing and checking maintenance, construction, and expense
reports, supply bills, and vouchers, and checking and filing reports
relating to bids, estimates, contracts, number and type of projects,
and accidents. Examples of specific duties reported are making time
and pay-roll audits; keeping records on claims cases and making
invoices for payment of compensation, fire insurance, rentals, doctors’
bills, and attorney and witness fees; checking invoices and computing
cost reports; keeping files of railroad grade crossings projects; posting
to cost analysis sheets from field reports; reconciling bank statements
with district ledgers; keeping records of toll tickets; keeping accounts
for unit control of perpetual inventory; and keeping account books on
valuation of materials and equipment. Other clerks are operators of
bookkeeping, check-writing, and calculating machines, file clerks who
operate the complex filing system, and stock clerks.
Manufacturing—Tobacco.

Among the manufacturing industries in Richmond the most
important from the viewpoint of number of employees and value of
product is tobacco. For this reason it is important to know something
of the types of work this industry offers to clerical employees. In the
present survey five plants were scheduled; of these, one was a leaf­
processing firm that purchased, blended, stemmed, and stored tobacco
to be used by a different branch, two manufactured cigarettes, one
produced cigars, and one made other types of tobacco products.
Only one firm reported a departmental classification, but this firm
also stated that clerical employees changed from job to job during
the day.
Generally speaking, stenographers, typists, mail clerks, file clerks,
and PBX operators are employed in all firms to handle office corre­
spondence, take dictation, type letters, reports, and orders, and keep
files of all records and reports relating to the business. Some firms
employ computing-machine operators.
Other clerks usually found in any large manufacturing concern
comprise timekeepers and pay-roll clerks, social-security clerks to
compute social-security payments, audit, account, and bookkeeping
clerks, cost clerks and sales-ledger clerks to keep records of all receipts
and disbursements, order and record clerks, invoice and billing clerks
to record daily sales, to prepare and mail invoices covering shipments,
and to prepare bills of lading to accompany the shipments.




14

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 1940

For some clerical positions it is necessary to be familiar with the
kinds of tobacco being processed and with terms and methods used in
manufacturing. Receiving clerks and the clerks in the leaf-tobacco
department weigh the leaf tobacco when it arrives at the plant to
check that the auction tag shows the proper amount and kind in the
lot, and keep a record of the different kinds and grades of tobacco in
the department; storage clerks, stock and materials clerks, and
inventory clerks keep records of the amount, kind, and grade, age,
and exact position of each lot in the storage room, and make out floor
and stock reports and check receipts and deliveries; and traffic clerks
determine method of shipping and keep records of kind and amount
of tobacco in each shipment and of the destination and the routing
of each shipment.




CHARACTER OF OFFICE OCCUPATIONS
The occupational distribution of office workers is largely determined
by the size of the firm and the nature of the business in which it is
engaged. Small firms that employ only 1, 2, or 3 office clerks
require persons familiar with all routine office work—taking dictation,
typing, doing simple bookkeeping and keeping records peculiar to the
specific kind of business. These employees usually are classed as
stenographers or general office clerks.
In large establishments there is a considerable degree of specializa­
tion of the office work and each employee has only one or a few closely
related duties. Stenographic workers are employed in all types of
office, but the larger firms employ such persons for one particular
type of work, as secretary, stenographer, or typist, and ordinarily
they are not required to be general all-round clerks. In the larger
firms the stenographic workers usually are outnumbered by the spe­
cialized record-keeping clerks who work on the intricate production,
cost, and financial records, involving accounting, statistical, tax,
credit, and innumerable other kinds of work.
OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION

Most of the offices in Richmond are small firms. Three-fourths of
the 186 scheduled employ fewer than 25 workers, and one-tenth
have 25 and less than 50. Only 6 firms, in banking, insurance, rail­
road transportation, other public utilities, and State government,
have more than 200 office workers. With so many small offices it
is to be expected that stenographic workers would comprise an im­
portant part of the total force. More than one-fourth (28 percent)
of the 5,437 regular office workers are in the stenographic group.
Women generally are employed in those occupations and in Rich­
mond 94 percent of them are women. More than half of the men
stenographers are in railroads, manufacturing other than tobacco
and printing and publishing, and city and county governments.
Almost one-fifth (18 percent) of the regular workers are in account­
ing occupations, including bookkeepers, audit, accounting, and book­
keeping clerks, cashiers and tellers. Practically three-fifths of this
group, 57 percent, are men. In six types of office, women accounting
workers outnumber men; these are insurance, “other public utilities,”
printing and publishing, State government, retail-store offices, and
the group of small offices.
One in every 10 regular workers is employed as a machine operator.
Bookkeeping and billing machines, calculating machines, and key­
punch and tabulating machines are operated chiefly by women, who
comprise seven-tenths of all machine operators. More men than
women operate duplicating machines and equal numbers of men and
women use addressing machines. Banks, the unspecified publicutility group, and insurance offices employ the largest numbers of
machine operators.




15

16

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 1940

The term “other clerks” covers groups of 25 or more persons in a
wide variety of occupations; many of these jobs are similar in the
various types of office but they differ from one another sufficiently
to make it not feasible to put them into specific classes. More than
one-third (36 percent) of the regular workers are in this group; they
are fairly evenly divided as to sex, 51 percent being men and 49 percent
women.
Table

II.-—Distribution by occupation of all employees reported, and predominance
of men or of women in each occupation—RICHMOND
Total
Occupation

Women

Men

Num­
ber

Percent
of grand
total

Num­
ber

Percent
of group
total

Num­
ber

All occupations.__________ ____________
Administrative, executive, clerical-professionaL_
Extra and part-time workers.._______________
Regular office workers_____ ______ ___________

6, 025
459
129
5,437

100.0
7.6
2.1
90.2

3,573
66
114
3,393

59.3
14.4
88.4
62.4

2, 452
393
15
2, 044

Regular:
Stenographic group..................... ........... ...........

1, 506

25.0

1, 423

94.5

83

5 5

Secretary. .................................................. .
Stenographer....................... .........................
Typist and other.......................................

218
903
385

3.6
15.0
6.4

193
871
359

88.5
96.5
93.2

25
32
26

11.5
3,5
6.8

Accounting group..................................... ..........

997

16.5

432

43.3

565

56.7

Audit, accounting, bookkeeping clerk...
Bookkeeper, hand__ ________________ _
Cashier, teller............................. ............. .

611
133
253

10.1
2.2
4.2

277
50
105

45.3
37.6
41.5

334
83
148

54.7
62.4
58.5

Machine operators.............................. ..............

556

9.2

391

70.3

165

29.7

Bookkeeping and billing..........................
Calculating________ _ ______
Other_______________________________

254
175
127

4.2
2.9
2.1

157
157
77

61.8
89.7
60.6

97
18
50

38.2
10.3
39.4

Other clerks___________ _________________

1,959

32.5

955

48.7

1,004

51.3

Billing, statement, collection___ ______
Checker______________ ______________
Claims examiner_ ____ _____ ________
_
Cost and production .______________
Credit.......................................... ............ .
File_____ ______ ____________________
Mail_____ _________________________
Messenger.......... ..................................... .
Order, stock, shipping. .... _______
Pay roll and timekeeper.
Record...................... ...................................
Statistical................................................. .
Telephone. ................... .............................
Traffic and rate
_______ __________
Bond and security................... ....................
Transit
Trouble dispatcher.............. ................. .
Yard clerk___ ________ _____ ________

151
119
62
75
72
223
57
105
193
119
121
133
143
70
70
124
31
91

2.5
2.0
1.0
1.2
1.2
3.7
.9
1.7
3.2
2.0
2.0
2.2
2.4
1.2
1.2
2.1
.5
1.5

88
92
17
3
33
182
10
5
53
56
63
66
138
2
35
72
26
14

58.3
77.3
27.4
4.0
45.8
81.6
17.5
4.8
27.5
47.1
52.1
49.6
96.5
2.9
50.0
58.1
(■)
15.4

63
27
45
72
39
41
47
100
140
63
58
67
5
68
35
52
5
77

41.7
22.7
72.5
96.0
54.2
18.4
82.5
95.2
72.5
52.9
47.9
50.4
3.5
97.1
50.0
41.9
(i)
84.6

Clerks not elsewhere classified_____ ______

Percent
of group
total
40.7
85.6
11.6
37.6

323

5.4

180

55.7

143

44.3

Finance and insurance
Manufacturing and wholesale distributors_ ______ ____________ _____ _
_
Other types of office................................ .

104

1.7

58

55.8

46

44.2

83
136

1.4
2.3

40
82

48.2
60.3

43
54

51.8
39.7

Special office workers..........................................

96

1.6

12

12.5

84

87.6

1 Percent not computed; base less than 50.




17

CHARACTER OF OCCUPATIONS—RICHMOND

Table III.—Number of women and men regular employees in the various types of

office, by occupational group—RICHMOND

M en

M en

Women

Women

M en

Women

M en

Women

M en

@
s
o
is

Clerks not
Other
clerks (see elsewhere
table II for classified Special
(duties
office
specific
depend on workers
occupa­
type of
tions)
office)

Ma­
chine
opera­
tors

Women

M en

Women

Total

Ac­
count­
ing
group

M en

Steno­
graphic
group

12

84

j

Type of office

N um ber of offices reportin

Number of regular employees

All types.............. .......
Banks
Other finance..________ _
Insurance
Railroads____ ____ ___
Other public utilities
Printing and publishing...
Tobacco
Other manufacturing
Wholesale distributor, own
goods______ __________
Wholesale distributor,
others’ goods................. _.
Department and apparel
stores.. ...
Federal Government
State government
City and county governments.. _____ ... ____
Other types of office...........

186 3,393 2,044 1,423

83 432 565 391 165

955 1,004

8
14
17
5
3
16
5
18

377
71
499
154
397
160
59
263

402
50
151
421
152
41
96
233

152
37
186
78
97
59
19
138

7
2
7
21
9
1
2
12

153
14
70
205
71
14
75
154

30
2
35
33

15

113

133

53

1

11

127

72

47

12
8
1

246
227
377

12
87
93

34
159
199

2
51

69
254

73
28

37
128

38 135
16 23
43 33
28 156
66 43
14 12
4 13
19 37

23
10
43
16
64
17
12
38

81
1
15
15
9
3

180

143

28

11

136
8
197
29
135
36
24
63

3

21
10
15
23
12
11
6
9

5

34

36

6

18

81

1-

9

2

9

12

41

9

27

34

3

9

2
4

90
18
32

1
24
22

27
15
37

2
10

33
92

34
51

2
17

7
4

11
2

8
42

13
7

9

1

52

13

22

4

5
1
1
2

11
8
10

18
2
1

13
1

Many of these clerks, both men and women, are in occupations that
require training or experience, such as claims examiners, cost, tax, rate,
actuarial, statistical, and hilling clerks. Larger groups of men than of
women are employed as record, stock, credit, and pay-roll clerks and
timekeepers, and in unskilled work usuallj regarded as beginners’ jobs,
such as messengers and as mail and transit clerks. The largest groups
of women are file clerks, PBX operators, and transit clerks, and inform­
ation clerks and receptionists, but substantial numbers are checkers
and record, stock, and pay-roll clerks.
Another group doing various kinds of work are classed as “clerks not
elsewhere classified.” They comprise employees for whom no specific
occupation was reported or of whom there were too few (less than 25)
in a single occupation to show separately. These have been tabulated
according to the type of office in which employed. Six in every 100
regular employees are in this class, and not far from three-fifths of the
total are women. The small groups for whom the occupations were
reported are employed chiefly as board markers, coin-counter clerks,
vault clerks, and cancelation or policy-change clerks in finance and
insurance offices; as ticket sorters and equipment-repair and replace­
ment-record clerks in railroads; as ticket sorters, draftsmen, and direc­
tory clerks in other public-utility offices; as estimators, pricers, and
production planners in manufacturing and wholesale offices; and as
schedule clerks, copy handlers, and counter and circulation clerks in
printing and publishing offices.




18

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 1940

Another class is the special-worker group. It consists of employees
whose primary duties are not of a clerical nature, since they are court
clerks and reporters, purchasing agents, underwriters, loan interview­
ers, and others doing special and nonclerical work. Only 2 percent of
the total office workers fall in this group and the majority of these are
men.
_
In addition to the regular office employees discussed, data were
obtained for executive, administrative, and clerical-professional
workers. The information regarding such employees in Richmond is
incomplete, particularly so in regard to the professional workers.
However, of the group scheduled, which comprises approximately 8per­
cent of the total, about four-fifths are in the various executive and
supervisory positions, such as general manager, department and assist­
ant department head, office manager, chief clerk, executive secretary,
and comptroller, and the others are accountants, auditors, actuaries,
and statisticians. Professional and technical workers who were not
included in this survey are attorneys, editors, advertising experts,
doctors, pharmacists, chemists, dietitians, nurse-secretaries and super­
visors, and various engineers and other scientific workers.




EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE OF OFFICE WORKERS
In general, young people entering the labor market in recent years
have at least finished grammar school and the majority have attended
high school. Most of them have no experience in anv particular type
of work and the extent of practical commercial courses offered by high
schools is quite limited, consisting usually of typing, shorthand, and
introductory bookkeeping.
Many firms prefer to employ these young inexperienced people on
beginning jobs, as messengers, mail and file clerks, typists, PBX oper­
ators, and information-desk clerks, and to have them get office experi­
ence in the one particular type of business. There are firms, on theother hand, that prefer to employ workers experienced in some
specialized type of office work or who have had extensive training in
courses offered by colleges or business and commercial schools.
Educational status.

Forty-six percent of the firms require that their new workers have a
general education; 43 percent specify that they must have high-school
education and 3 percent require college graduation. Sixteen percent
of the firms require business or commercial school training in addition.
Several other firms, including the various government offices, stated
that educational requirements vary according to position to be filled.
Age and experience.

Age records were obtained for nearly all employees, but over-all
office experience was reported for only about half of them, so a correl­
ation of age and experience has not been prepared. Generally,
however, it is natural to expect older workers to have the longer work
records.
The largest group of the total of all women are under 25 years (29
percent, in contrast to men’s 24 percent) and the largest group of the
total of all men are 40 and over (27 percent, in contrast to women’s
22 percent). Aside from these, the distribution by age is practically
the same for the two sexes.
Age and type of office.

The age composition of employees varies greatly by typo of office.
Older workers predominate in railroads, city and county governments,
and banks, whereas wholesale firms, manufacturers, and “other
finance,” “other public utilities,” and insurance offices employ con­
siderable numbers of young workers.
More than half of the women in railroads are at least 40 years of age
and more than half those in banks are 35 and over. In railroads,
banks, printing and publishing, city, county, and State governments,
in small offices, and the Federal Government the majority of women
are 30 years old and over. In contrast, from one-half to more than
three-fifths of the women in insurance, tobacco, wholesale trade, and
the residual groups other finance, other public utilities, and other
458912°—42-




4

19

20

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

manufacturing, are under 30 years of age. In fact, over one-third of
the women in wholesale offices, insurance, and the three residual
groups are under 25.
One-half of the men in railroad offices and nearly three-fifths (56
percent) in city and county government offices are 40 years old or more,
and just over half in Federal Government are 35 or over. Other offices
in which men of 30 or more predominate are banks, public utility
offices other than railroads, wholesale offices distributing other firms’
goods, and State government offices. From 30 to 38 percent of the
men in tobacco and “other manufacturing,” wholesale offices distribu­
ting other firms’ goods, and insurance offices and banks are under 25.
Table

IV.'—Age of employees, by type of office—RICHMOND

Type of office

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees Under
20
re­
ported years

Percent of employees whose age was—
25,
under
30
years

20,
under
25
years

30,
under
35
years

35,
under
40
years

40
years
and
over

WOMEN
Total.................................-...........

3, 380

6.6

22.6

17.0

17.6

13.9

22.3

Banks..... ..................................................
Other finance------ -------- ---------------Insurance.......... .............-.......................
Railroads_____ ____ _____ ____ ____
Other public utilities-..........................
Printing and publishing......................
Tobacco_______________ -..................
Other manufacturing-------------------Wholesale distributor, own goods.
Wholesale distributor, others’ goods
Department and apparel stores-----Federal Government--------------------State government------------------------City and county governments..........
Other types of office.................... .........

377
70
498
152
397
160
59
262
113
127
243
227
373
68
254

6.6
11.4
10.0
1.3
9.8
3.1
6.8
7.6
8.8
12.6
4.1
5.7
1.1
8.8
4.3

17.8
27.1
26.1
4.6
26.7
19.4
23.7
28.6
31.0
21.3
27.2
20.3
19.3
13.2
24.0

10.3
21.4
13.5
5.9
14.1
12.5
20.3
25.2
19.5
17.3
18.5
22.5
24.7
17.6
17.7

12.5
15.7
18.1
6.6
23.9
21.3
18.6
19.1
15.9
15.7
16.9
15.4
19.3
13.2
20.5

18.8
11.4
14.7
27.6
13.1
15.6
6.8
7.3
10.6
13.4
12.8
11.5
12.9
19.1
11.8

34.0
12.9
17.7
53.9
12.3
28.1
23.7
12.2
14.2
19.7
20.6
24.7
22.8
27.9
21.7

MEN
Total.............................................

i 2, 040

5.9

18.5

17.8

17.7

13.6

26.5

Banks.......................................................
Insurance...............................................
Railroads________________________
Other public utilities........................ .
Tobacco.................. ..............................Other manufacturing-------------------Wholesale distributor, own goods...
Wholesale distributor, others’ goods.
Federal Government................. ..........
State government.......... .....................
City and county governments...........

402
151
420
152
95
233
133
72
87
92
73

10.2
13.2
1.9
5.2
4.2
4.3
6.8
2.8
4.6

21.9
24.5
6.7
17.8
26.3
26.2
20.3
30.6
11.5
17.4
6.8

17.7
19.9
3.8
26.3
20.0
29.6
27.8
15.3
14.9
28.3
4.1

20.1
21.9
14.3
15.1
20.0
17.2
16.5
15.3
17.2
18.5
15.1

13.2
7.9
23.8
8.6
11.6
9.4
12.8
11.1
12.6
9.8
16.4

16.9
12.6
49.5
27.0
17.9
13.3
15.8
25.0
39.1
26.1
56.2

1.4

1 Includes employees in other finance (49), printing and publishing (41), retail stores (12), and other
types of offices (28), not shown separately.

A correlation of age and occupation shows that 50 percent of the
men and 52 percent of the women employed as stenographic clerks are
under 30, but that 26 percent of the men so employed, in contrast to
19 percent of the women, are 40 or more; that 47 percent of the women
and 53 percent of the men in accounting and bookkeeping jobs are
35 or more, most of those so reported being at least 40; and that only
51 percent of the women machine operators, in contrast to 75 percent
of the men in such jobs, are under 30, the majority in each case being
under 25.




EDUCATION AND EXPERIENCE---- RICHMOND

21

Where clerks other than those specified are concerned, in general
larger proportions of men than of women are under 30. For example,
60 percent of the men in finance and insurance together, in contrast
to 39 percent of the women, are under 30, and 25 percent of the women
but only 12 percent of the men are as much as 40.
Number of positions held.

A considerable proportion of the employees for whom over-all and
variety of experience were reported, 56 percent of the 1,568 women and
44 percent of the 1,017 men, had held office positions in more than one
firm. This was particularly so in the case of women who had been
employed for 3 or more years, almost two-thirds having been employed
by other firms. Of the men employed for less than 10 years, only
three-tenths had worked with 2 or more firms.
The great majority of women with less than 3 years of office experi­
ence had been employed by only 1 firm, but 59 percent of the 503
women with 3 and less than 10 years of office experience, and 66 per­
cent of the women and 55 percent of the men who had been working
for 10 or more years, had worked for 2 or more firms. Less than onesixth of the women, but one-fourth of the men, had seen continuous
service in 1 firm for 10 or more years.
Over-all experience and occupation.

The large majority of office workers in the Richmond firms visited
had beeen working for a considerable time; about one-half of the
women and three-fifths of the men had service records of 10 or more
years, and just over one-sixth of the women and about one-tenth of the
men had worked 5 and under 10 years. Only about one-eighth of each
group had been working for less than 2 years.
In several occupational classes large proportions of the women had
been in office work for 10 or more years—59 percent of the accounting
and bookkeeping clerks, 47 percent of the stenographic group, and
46 percent of the machine operators. Of the clerks not elsewhere
classified, 49 percent of those in various government offices and 40
percent of those in manufacturing and distribution had seen 10 or
more years of service.
Women with office experience of less than 3 years comprised 26
percent of the machine operators, but only 19 and 17 percent, respec­
tively, of the stenographic group and the bookkeeping and accounting
group.
No less than 74 percent of the men bookkeepers and accountants
had office experience of 10 or more years, and 63 percent of the steno­
graphic group also were so reported; but men machine operators who
had worked so long comprised only 32 percent. Among the clerks
not elsewhere classified, those with experience of 10 or more years were
90 percent of the total in railroads, 51 percent of that in wholesale
distributing, and 40 and 39 percent, respectively, of those in govern­
ment and manufacturing. Of the special office workers, 68 percent
had worked at least 10 years.
Men with office experience of less than 3 years comprised 42 percent
of the machine operators, but only 18 percent of the stenographic clerks
and an even smaller proportion—9 percent—of the bookkeepers and
accountants. Of the clerks not elsewhere classified, those with experi­
ence of less than 3 years comprised 30 percent of those in manufactur­
ing, 23 percent of those in wholesale distributing, 18 percent of those




22

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

in government, but only 6 percent of those in railroads. And less
than 2}i percent of the special office workers had experience of under
3 years.
Experience and type of office.

The number of years employees had been working for the firm in
which scheduled was reported for a total of 3,353 women and 1,998
men. Approximately 11 of every 100 women and 16 of every 100 men
had been with one firm for 20 years or longer, and similar numbers
had worked 15 and under 20 years. However, 34 of every 100 women
and 27 of every 100 men had been working for less than 3 years.
An examination of table V shows wide differences in the experience
records of employees in the various types of office. Railroad offices
employed the largest proportion of experienced workers, as threefourths of the women and nearly four-fifths of the men had been work­
ing for the present companies for 15 or more years and roughly only
one-tenth of each group had been employed for less than 5 years.
Table V.—Percent distribution of employees according to length of experience with

present employer, by type of office—RICHMOND
Percent employed by present firm—
Total
re­
Un­
port­ der
ed
1
year

Type of office

1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
10,
15,
20
un­
un­ un­ un­ un­
un­ un­ years
der
der
der
der
der
der
der and
2
3
4
5
10
15
20
years years years years years years years over
WOMEN

All types...................................

... 3,353

14,6

9.6

9.3

8.1

6.5

16.5

14.0

10.6

10.8

376
71
497
141
397
157
57
263
113
127
238
218
376
68
254

13.3
25.4
16.7
5.7
20.4
12.1
15.8
24.7
18.6
11.8
11.8
17.9
.5
13.2
16.9

8.2
7.0
7.6

1.9
5.6
8.0

5.0
11.5
5.3
13.7
14.2
13.4
12.2
16.5
9.3
13.2
11.4

3.8
5.7
10.5
15.6
10.6
7. 1
10.9
9.6
18.9
8.8
17.7

4.3
14.1
6.6
1.4
5.5
7.6
5.3
6.8
9.7
10.2
9.2
14.2
13.8
2.9
9.4

5.1
5.6
4. 6
2.1
6.5
1.3
10.5
3.4
12.4
5.5
7.1
16.5
7.4
8.8
7.5

17.3
16.9
14.1
1.4
17.4
14.0
12.3
15.6
19.5
18.9
19.3
16.5
22.6
26.5
13.4

9.0
16.9
18.3
14.9
21.9
21.0
14.0
9. 1
6.2
16.5
14. 7
.9
14.4
13.2
12 6

16.8
7.0
11.9
29.1
10.8
15.3
14.0
4.2
6.2
7.1
6.7
3.2
9.3
10.3
7.9

24.2
1.4
12.1
45.4
8.6
11.5
12.3
6.8
2. 7
9.4
8.0
4.6
3.7
2.9
3.1

Banks

Tobacco. _ _______ _______
_
-­
Other manufacturing- _
_____
Wholesale distributor, own goods
Wholesale distributor, others’ goods___
Department and apparel stores.-____
Federal Government.______ __________
State government.
. .
City and county governments
Other types of office............................... .

MEN
All types........................................... 1,998
Banks ___________ _____ ______ _____

Tobacco______________ ____ ______ _
Other manufacturing___ ________ ..
Wholesale distributor, own goods. ---Wholesale distributor, others’ goods___
Federal Government_________ ____ ___
State government___ ____ ________ ..
City and county governments

402
i 48
151
389
152
i 40
94
231
133
72
i 11
82
93
73
l 27

1 Percents not computed; base too small.




12.6

7.0

7.7

7.5

6. 1

13.1

13.8

16.5

15.9

14.4

8.5

5.7

7.0

4-7

16.9

13.9

14.2

14.7

11.9
5.4
13.2

6.0
.5
5.9

7.9
1.0
3.9

6.6
2. 1
13.8

3.3
2.1
7.2

16.6
1.5
13.8

20.5
8.0
23.0

14.6
40.1
9.2

12.6
39.3
9.9

11.7
16.9
17.3
16.7

2.1
15.6
6.8
6.9

4.3
12.6
12.8
2.8

12.8
7.8
4.5
6.9

4.3
5.6
5.3
9.7

12.8
13.4
18.0
15.3

22.3
11.7
18.0
11.1

10.6
7.8
11.3
13.9

19.1
8.7
6.0
16.7

17.1
1.1
11.0

9.8
8.6
2.7

14.6
24.7
5.5

9.8
12.9
6.8

31.7
11.8
6.8

17.1
23.7
19.2

7.5
21.9

4.3
17.8

5.4
8.2

EDUCATION AND EXPEDIENCE—RICHMOND

23

One-half of the women in banks and just over one-half of the men in
tobacco offices had worked 10 or more years. Service records of 10
or more years were reported also for over two-fifths of both women and
men in insurance and 1‘other public utility” offices, of the women
in printing and publishing and tobacco offices, and of men in city and
county government offices, banks, and wholesale offices distributing
others’ goods.
In contrast, roughly one-half both of men and of women in “other
manufacturing offices, two-fifths of those in Federal Government
offices, and two-fifths of those in wholesale offices distributing their
own goods had been employed for less than 3 years, as had more than
one-third of the women in other finance, retail stores, and city and
county governments, and of the men in State government.




EARNINGS IN 1940
The pay-roll data analyzed in this section wore obtained in 186 offices
and cover a total of 6,025 employees—2,452 men and 3,573 women.
The great majority of the total, 2,044 men and 3,393 women, are regu­
lar full-time employees. A relatively small number are employed in
supervisory, administrative, and executive positions or are professional
accountants and statisticians (393 men and 66 women), and a smaller
group work on a part-time or extra basis (15 men and 114 women).
METHOD OF PAY

Most of the employees in the offices scheduled, roughly three-fourths
of the total, are paid yearly or monthly rates of pay, but there is con­
siderable variation by type of office and certain classes pay some of
their employees by the week or by the day.
All employees in government offices and over 95 percent of those in
banks and “other finance” offices are on yearly or monthly rates of pay.
The proportion of employees who are paid these rates varies from
seven-tenths to nine-tenths or more in manufacturing other than
tobacco and printing, insurance offices,wholesale offices that distribute
their own merchandise, electric, gas, and telephone offices, and the
group of small offices. Nearly two-tliirds of both men and women
in tobacco offices and nearly as large a proportion of the men in whole­
sale offices that distribute merchandise of other firms also are paid by
the year or the month.
In contrast, all but 1 of 258 office employees in department and
apparel stores and more than three-fifths of both men and women in
printing and publishing offices and of women in wholesale offices dis­
tributing merchandise of other firms are paid by the week. In railroad
offices three-fifths of the women are paid weekly rates, but a similar
proportion of the men are on a daily rate of pay.
The proportion of men and women in each type of office who are
paid yearly or monthly rates of pay follows:

Type of office

Percent of employees
with monthly or year­
ly rates of pay
Women

City and county governments---------- -------------------------------------- --------------------

1 Percent not computed; base less than 50.

24




100.0
100.0
100.0
99.7
95.8
88.2
86.1
72.5
79.6
71.5
64.4
36.2
39.6
34.4
.4

Men

0)

100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0

«
0)

98.0
82.8
82.0
70.8
64.6
61.1
40.1

EARNINGS IN 1940—RICHMOND

25

In each type of office one or more persons are employed on a part­
time or extra basis. However, approximately three-fourths of the
129 such workers are employed in five types, as follows: Banks, insur­
ance, other public utilities,” and city and county governments, and
the group of small offices. The largest group of these part-time or
extra workers, just over two-fifths, are paid a weekly rate of pay;
one-third are paid daily or hourly rates.
MONTHLY RATES BY TYPE OF OFFICE

The average salary paid to men in Richmond offices amounts to
$133 a month, while women average $97. As in other cities studied,
there are extremely wide variations in the average salaries of employees
in the different types of office, and also in the proportion of employees
m the relatively high- or low-paid occupations in the same types of
office.
Women.

The average monthly salaries of women clerical workers range from
less than $90 in retail department and apparel stores, insurance, small
offices, and wholesale offices that handle other firms’ goods, to $110
m tobacco offices and to a high of $139 in railroad offices.
Women employed in printing and publishing, in electric, gas, and
telephone utilities, and in the various government offices have average
salaries varying from $100 to $109; and those in banks and other
finance, in manufacturing other than tobacco and printing, in whole­
sale offices distributing their own products, with averages at a lower
level, varying from $92 to $98.
The tables show for the Richmond offices the usual difference be­
tween men’s and women’s salaries. The average salary of women falls
below the average of men by $10 to $20 a month in State government,
small offices, printing and publishing, banks and other finance, and
railroad offices, but the difference is over $30 to $50 in the wholesale
offices, in manufacturing other than tobacco and printing and publish­
ing, and in Federal and city and county government offices.
The amount of the average salaries in the various types of office is
influenced to a considerable degree by the proportions of women
employed in relatively high-wage or low-wage occupations. For
example, more than one-half of the women in railroad offices, working
mainly as stenographers, billing and statement clerks, and secretaries,
have average salaries of more than $140 a month; and no occupational
group of 5 or more women averages so little as $120.
In tobacco offices over one-third of the small group of women,
including stenographers and pay-roll clerks, average more than $12o’
but nearly as many are machine operators and PBX operators with
averages below $100.
In the various government offices also there are fairly large numbers
of women in both high-wage and low-wage occupations. Nearly onefifth of the women in Federal offices are secretaries and bookkeeping
or other record clerks with average salaries of about $130 and over,
but nearly one-fourth are typists and file clerks averaging $94 and $93.
In State offices, which rank next in the wage scale, about one-tenth
of the women are secretaries and statistical and tax clerks, with sala­
ries of about $120 and over, and one-fourth are typists and file clerks




26

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

averaging about $90. More than a third (36 percent) of the women
in State offices are stenographers, and these average $107 a month.
One-fourth in city and county offices are secretaries and special office
workers, who average over $120, but nearly as large a group are
typists, who average only $78.
In department and apparel store offices over two-fifths of the
women work as cashiers, audit clerks, correspondence clerks, claims
examiners, ledger clerks, and typists, with average salaries varying
downward from $78 to $65. Only one occupational group with five
or more women averages as much as $100; these are secretaries.
In small offices, also, several occupational groups, with about onelialf of the women, have salaries varying from $66 to $79; these include
PBX operators, typists, machine operators, audit and ledger clerks,
stenographers, and record clerks. Only two groups, secretaries and
hand bookkeepers, with about one-fourth of the women, average as
much as $100.
There is considerable concentration of salaries in finance offices
other than banks and in insurance offices. No group in finance with
as many as five women averages more than $95 and no group averages
less than $85. In insurance offices less than one-fourth, including
check clerks, cashiers, ledger clerks, and secretaries, average more
than $100, and just over one-third, chiefly typists, file and record
clerks, and most machine operators, average less than $85. In whole­
sale offices distributing other firms’ goods, where the general average
salary of women is fairly low, about one-third are stenographers,
averaging $85, but nearly one-fourth are billing and statement clerks,
typists, file clerks, and PBX operators, who average less than this.
Banks, wholesale offices distributing their own goods, and manu­
facturing offices other than printing and publishing and tobacco are
in an intermediate position, with average salaries approximating the
general average for all women. The largest group of women in each
of these, varying from one-fourth in wholesale offices to over onethird in manufacturing other than tobacco and printing and publish­
ing, are stenographers, with average salaries varying from $96 in
wholesale offices to $108 in banks. However, one-fourth in each type
of office, including mainly typists, most machine operators, file clerks,
and billing and statement clerks in “other manufacturing” offices,
have averages below $90.
_
In electric, gas, and telephone offices and in printing and publishing
offices there are significant numbers of women in both relatively highwage and low-wage occupations. More than one-fifth in printing and
publishing are secretaries, hand bookkeepers, and cashiers, with
average salaries of more than $115, but nearly as large a group, in­
cluding PBX operators, copy handling and directory clerks, and
typists, average less than $85. Over one-fifth in the “other public
utilities” group, including trouble dispatchers, statistical clerks, sec­
retaries, audit and accounting clerks, and cashiers, average more than
$115, and one-fourth who are machine operators, ticket sorters, and
stock clerks have averages below $85.
Men.

In the case of men, railroad offices have the highest average salary,
followed by city and county governments and Federal Government;
in each of these the group averages more than $150. More than




EARNINGS IN 1940----RICHMOND

27

one-fourth of the men in railroad offices are in such high-wage occu­
pations as rate and statistical clerk, claims examiner, secretary, hand
bookkeeper, cashier, and repair, replacement, and equipment record
clerk, where average salaries are over $170; almost one-fifth are audit
clerks, with an average of $164.
Almost three-fifths of the small group of men in city and county
government offices are special office workers, secretaries, hand book­
keepers, cashiers, and record clerks, and these groups have average
salaries of $140 to almost $200. Slightly less than one-half of the
men in Federal Government offices are special office workers, claims
examiners, and audit and accounting clerks, with averages of more
than $140. About one-sixth of the men in Federal offices are stock
clerks, and these average $110. The three classes of government
have few men employed as messengers, mail and file clerks, machine
operators, or general office workers; as a rule these types of work
require little or no skill or extensive training and are low-wage occu­
pations.
Tobacco companies and wholesale offices that distribute their own
goods pay somewhat lower salaries though more than the general
average for all men. These offices also have substantial proportions
of high-wage employees; nearly one-fifth of the men in the wholesale
offices are hand bookkeepers, estimators, price and cost clerks, with
average salaries of more than $160, and over one-fourth are credit
and statistical clerks and cashiers, who average between $150 and
$160. About one-fourth of the office men in tobacco companies are
cost clerks, with an average salary of $159, and one-seventh are billing
and statement clerks and hand bookkeepers, who average more than
$170. Roughly one-fifth of the wholesale office men are stock, billing,
and statement clerks, machine operators, and mail and file clerks,
averaging less than $125, and about one-sixth in tobacco offices are
timekeepers, accounting clerks, and general clerks, with averages of
$110 or less.
Men's lowest average salaries, $115 and less, are found in printing
and publishing, State government, insurance, finance other than banks,
and small offices. About one-fourth of the small group of men in
printing and publishing offices are messengers and file clerks and half
as many are circulation, counter, and directory clerks; these average
below $85. Machine operators, file clerks, messengers, record and
check clerks, with averages below $100, comprise approximately onefourth of the men in the State government offices, and about onefifth are accounting clerks and mail clerks with averages of $110 or less.
In insurance offices, messengers, machine operators, and record
clerks, mail and general and cancellation clerks, with average salaries
of about $90 or less, make up two-fifths of the men clerical workers,
and in finance offices other than banks, board markers, ledger clerks,
and accounting clerks, with average salaries varying from $65 to $95,
account for just over two-fifths of the men. In each of these four
office classes only from about one-tenth to approximately threetenths of the men are employed in occupations where average salaries
are as much as $140.
The average salaries of men in banks and in wholesale offices dis­
tributing others’ goods also are relatively low. More than two-fifths
of the large group of men in banks are transit clerks, machine operators,
messengers, and mail and file clerks, and these have averages varying
458912°—42------5




28

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

downward from $94 to $60. A large group of men in the wholesale
offices, nearly two-fiftlis, are in occupations—special office workers,
pricing clerks, hand bookkeepers, secretaries, cashiers, and several
groups of record clerks—averaging more than $140; however, approxi­
mately one-third, consisting chiefly of machine operators, messengers,
mail and file clerks, average $100 or less, half of this group as low
as $60.
.
The average salaries of men in manufacturing offices other than
tobacco and printing and publishing and in electric, gas, and telephone
offices are nearly as high as the general average for all men. About
one-tenth of the men in manufacturing offices and one-seventh of
those in the public-utility group are special office workers, hand
bookkeepers, and cashiers or tellers who have average salaries at the
levels of $160 to $200. In both classes there are fairly large groups
of messengers, mail and file clerks, and machine operators with
averages varying from $65 to $100.
The average and quartile salaries of employees in each type of
office are given in table VI.
Table VI.—Average

monthly salary rates of men and women regular employees
in offices, 1940, by type of office—RICHMOND
Men

Women

Average salary rates 1

Average salary rates 1
Type of office

Total
num­
ber of
women Mean

All types___________ _______ 3,393

$97

Quartiles
Me­
First dian Third
$78

Total
num­
ber of
men Mean

Quartiles
Me­
First dian Third

$95

$114

2,044

$133

$96

$131

$164

402
50
151

116
109
113

85
76
66

115
111
94

141
134
150

Insurance______ _____ -....................

377
71
499

98
92
85

80
80
66

100
89
81

111
101
101

Other public utilities------- --------—

154
397

139
101

126
80

137
101

152
118

421
152

159
129

136
101

161
132

185
155

Other manufacturing,...................... .

160
59
263

100
110
96

78
92
80

98
108
95

116
126
110

41
96
233

115
138
131

93
100

138
126

168
151

Wholesale distributor, own poods .
Wholesale distributor, others' goods.
Department and apparel stores-----

113
127
246

97
87
80

81
70
67

94
87
78

111
99
88

133
72
12

140
120

100
76

146
109

170
143

State government
--------------City and county governments-------

227
377
69

109
104
103

86
86
80

105
100
100

125
115
121

87
93
73

151
114
153

105
100
135

150
110
151

175
126
176

254

86

66

81

100

28

54

157

135

153

174

231

218

171

211

260

Supervisory (not included above):
All types-------- -------------------

i Mean—arithmetic average. First qaartile—one-fourth of the rates are below and three-fourths above
the figure given; median—one-half are below and one-half above; third quartile—three-fourths are below
and one-fourth above. Averages not computed on very small bases.

Distribution by rate.

The average is an excellent indicator of the general wage level in the
various types of office, but it is also important to know to what extent
the salaries of individuals fall above or below the general average and




Table

VII.—Percent distribution of men and women regular employees in offices according to monthly salary rate. 19^0, by type of office
RICHMOND
Women

Type of office

Percent1 of women with monthly
salary rate of—
Under
$75

$75,
under
$100

$100,

under
$125

$125,
under
$150

$150
and
over

Total
number
of
men

Percent1 of men with monthly salary rate of—

Under
$75

$75,
under
$100

$100,

under
$125

$125,
under
$150

All types.................. ..................

3,393

20.3

34.2

27.6

12.7

5.1

2,044

10.8

14.9

17.5

377
71
499

18.0
14.1
37. 1

27.3
52.1
35.7

41.6
23.9
19.0

10.3
8.5
5.0

2.6

16.7
28.5

19.9
18.0
23.2

22.4

1.4
3.2

402
50
151

18. 2
24.0

14. 6

Railroads................................... ........... .
Other public utilities_____________

154
397

2.6

55.2
17.6

29.2

421
152

2.4
9.9

3.1
12.5

10.2
21.1

Printing and publishing.....................
Tobacco______ _______ ____ ______
Other manufacturing--------------------

10.2

$200

20.1

Banks__________________ _________
Other finance--------- --------------------Insurance____ ____ —.........................

$150,
under

22.0

20.0

$200

and
over
9.0

8.6

18.7
16.0
13.9

11.3

23.3
25.0

48.7
28.3

12.4
3.3

4.2

19.9

24.9

13.0
34.8

160
59
263

20.6
6.8

14.4

33.8
35.6
45.2

26.9
28.8
26.6

11.9
18.6
11.8

41
96
233

10.4

1.9

6.0

16.7
18.5

15.6
21.9

11.5
25.3

32.3
18.0

13.5
10.3

Wholesale distributor, own goods ...
Wholesale distributor, others’ goods.
Department and apparel stores____

113
127
246

15.0
33.9
44.3

41.6
41.7
43.1

25.7
19.7

15.9
3.1

1.8
1.6

133
72

5.3
23.6

19.5
13.9

11.3
22.2

15.0
15.3

39.1
13.9

11.1

Federal Government_____________
State government___________ _____
City and county governments...........

227
377
69

1.8

36.1
38.5
34.8

33. 5
40.6
29.0

4.6

14.9
21.5
5.5

12.6

36.6
13.7

17.2
32.3
21.9

33.3
6.5
43.8

3.0

7.8

EARNINGS IN 1 9 4 0 — RICHMOND

Total
number
of
women

Men

27.7

Other types of office -------------- -----Supervisory (not included above):
All types___________ ________

13.0

11.0

6.9

1.9

11.1

1.2

.4
11.9
5.1

11.6

11.6

87
93
73

3.9

9.8

12

16.7
15.9
5.9

35.8
54

2.8

28

1.1

17.2
2.2

15.1

1 Percents not computed on very small bases.




to

cC

30

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

where the concentration of salaries occurs in the different offices.
The details in regard to salary distribution are given in table VII.
Roughly three-fifths of the men in railroad and city and county
government offices earn $150 and over, but in State government offices
less than one-tenth and in finance offices other than banks less than
one-fifth earn as much as $150. The great majority, three-fifths, in
insurance, other finance, and wholesale offices distributing other
firms’ goods have salaries of less than $125.
The contrast is even more striking among women. More than fourfifths in railroad offices, but less than one-twentieth in retail stores
and wholesale offices distributing other firms’ goods, are paid salaries
of $125 or more. Considerably more than four-fifths in the retailstore offices and two-thirds or more in “ other finance,” insurance, small
offices, and wholesale offices distributing other firms’ goods are paid
salaries of less than $100.
MONTHLY RATES BY OCCUPATION

Salary rates not only vary by type of office but vary among in­
dividuals by occupation. Consequently, a clearer understanding
must be gained by ascertaining, first, the variations in salaries paid
to employees doing different kinds of work, and second, the variations
in the salaries of employees in different office classes who are engaged
in the same type of work.
Table YIII shows, for men and women in each occupational group,
the mean salaries (computed for groups of 25 or more persons) and
the quartile salaries (computed for groups of 50 or more).
Stenographic group.

Stenographic workers, chiefly secretaries, stenographers, and typists,
are largely women; over two-fifths of all women office workers are in
these occupations, more than one-fourth being stenographers. Secre­
taries are the highest-paid group of women, with an average salary
of $126 a month. They have their highest average in railroad offices,
$170, but also have relatively high averages in insurance offices, $155,
State government, $148, and in “other public utilities,” $139. Banks,
printing and publishing, and city, county, and Federal Governments
pay their women secretaries salaries that average approximately $130.
Their lowest averages, varying from $92 to $110, are in finance other
than banks, retail-store offices, wholesale offices distributing their own
goods, and small offices.
_ _
.
Women stenographers have their highest average salaries in railroad
offices, $141, and in tobacco offices, $121; their lowest are in small
offices, $77, retail-store offices, $84, and wholesale offices distributing
others’ goods, $85. In the remaining 10 classes, stenographers average
from $90 to $110, the lower amount in insurance and city and county
governments and the higher amount in electric, gas, and telephone
offices.
.
.
Typists and other clerks (correspondence clerks and dictatingmachine transcribers) have an average salary of $83 a month. In
railroad offices these women average $125, and in wholesale offices
distributing their own goods they average $105. They average more
than the general average, from $88 to $96, in “other public utilities,”
and State and Federal Government offices, and slightly less, from $78




31

EARNINGS IN 19 40—RICHMOND

Table VIII.—Average monthly isalary rates of men and women regular employees

in offices, 194-0, by occupation—RICHMOND
Women

Occupation

Men

Average salary rates1 2
Total
num­
Quartiles
ber of
wom­ Meap
en
Me­
First dian Third

Average salary rates1
Total
num­
ber of
men Mean

Quartiles
First

3,393

$97

$78

$95

$144

2,044

$133

Stenographic group:
Secretary.................................. .
Stenographer......... ................ .......
Typist and other----------- ------ -

193
871
359

126
102
83

100
85
69

126
101
81

150
120
96

25
32
26

167
111
126

Accounting group: •
Audit, accounting, bookkeep­
ing clerk............ ..........................
Bookkeeper, hand-----------------Cashier, teller..............................

277
50
105

101
119
100

76
99
75

101
112
95

118
140
120

334
83
148

Machine operators:
Bookkeeping and billing--------Calculating............ .......................
Other...............................................

157
157
77

91
95
89

77
80
72

88
92
881

101
105
101

88
92

103
85

77
71

97
82

126
101

33
182

81
87

75

86

97

53
56
63
66
138

87
99
93
108
85

71
79
75
87
74

79
98
87
109
83

106
116
113
126
100

35
72
26

100
94
122

80

101

110

Me­
dian Third

All occupations

Other clerks:
Billing, statement, collection...
Checker________________ ____
Claims examiner...................... .
Cost and production...................
Credit............................................ .
File........................... ....................
Mail......................... ...................
Messenger....... ...............................
Order, stock, shipping
Pay roll and timekeeper...........
Record.........................................
Statistical.......................................
Telephone................................ .
Traffic and rate_______ _____ _
Bond and security...................
,
Transit_______ ______________
Trouble dispatcher
Yard clerk...................................

91

46
116

87
94

Special office workers.........................

54

139
174
149

113
136
121

141
173
146

161
201
171

97

86

75

86

100

68

100

76

97

126

63
27
45
72
39
41
47
100
140
63
58
67

139
110
174

101

140

166

131
143
93
87
62
120
122
115
156

154

176

55
100
92
91
126

60
120
121
113
151

141
150
135
180

68
35
52

178
143
94

161

180

198

63

100

116

156

136

156

165

111

46

100

114

45
62

139
129

100

126

153

208

170

200

251

231

$218

$171

$211

$260

12

Supervisors 2...... ..................................

$164

84

69

$131

77

Clerks not elsewhere classified in—
Finance and insurance
Manufacturing and wholesale
distributors _________ ____
Other types of office.....................

$96

$157

71
70

$135

91
90

$153

$174

1 Mean—arithmetic average. First quartile—one-fourth of the rates are below and three-fourths above
the figure given; median—one-half are below and one-half above; third quartile—three-fourths are below
and one-fourth above. Averages not computed on very small bases.
2 Not included in total.

to $82, in city and county governments, banks, and other manufactur­
ing. Typists earn less than $70 a month in insurance and retail-store
offices and in wholesale offices distributing others’ goods.
Relatively few men, about one-twentieth of the total, hold steno­
graphic positions. The average salaries of these men vary from $111
for stenographers and $126 for typists and other clerks (correspondence
clerks and dictating-macliine transcribers) to $167 for secretaries.
Railroad offices pay the highest salaries, the average varying from $133
for stenographers to $213 for secretaries. City and county offices pay
an average of $143 to their men secretaries and “other public utilities”




32

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 1940

pay them an average of $131.
facturing” averages $128.

The typist group in “other manu­

Accounting group.

Men included in this group have average salaries varying from $139
for the audit, accounting, and bookkeeping clerks and $149 for
cashiers and tellers to $174 for hand bookkeepers. Men doing hand
bookkeeping average $230 in tobacco offices, just over $200 in insur­
ance offices, and from nearly $180 down to $166 in city and county
governments, wholesale offices distributing their own goods, banks,
and printing and publishing offices. Such employees have their
lowest salaries, from $131 to $159, in small offices, wholesale offices
distributing others’ goods, and the residual groups other finance and
other manufacturing.
Railroad and insurance offices pay their cashiers just over $180,
compared to the $172 average in city and county governments, over
$160 in the electric, gas, and telephone offices, about $155 in wholesale
offices distributing their own goods, and $140 in banks. The audit
group also have their highest average in railroad offices, $155; these
workers average close to $140 in Federal Government and banks,
about $130 in wholesale offices distributing their own goods, and in
“other public utility” and “other manufacturing,” and from $116
down to $91 in insurance and State government, wholesale offices
distributing others’ goods, tobacco, and “other finance.”
There are fewer women than men in the accounting occupations,
and their salaries are considerably lower. Women cashiers and tellers
average $100, the audit, accounting, and bookkeeping group average
$101, and the hand bookkeepers $119. Printing and publishing and
the “other public utilities” group pay their cashiers and their tellers
just over $120, and banks and insurance offices average below $110,
but in retail stores, other finance, and small offices cashiers average
from less than $80 to $94. Hand bookkeepers average close to $120.
in insurance, “other manufacturing,” and small offices, but only $86
in retail stores.
Federal Government and railroad offices pay women audit, account­
ing, and bookkeeping clerks salaries that average about $135, or
approximately $25 a month more than these clerks average in banks,
State government, and electric, gas, and telephone offices, about $45
more than they earn in “other manufacturing,” insurance, and “other
finance,” and about $60 more than they average in retail stores and
small offices.
Machine operators.

Office-machine operators are largely women; they number 391, or
12 percent of all the office women included, while men operating office
machines number 165, or about 8 percent of the male office force.
The average of the salaries paid to women varies from $95 for the
calculator operators to $91 for bookkeeping- and billing-machine
operators and $89 for those operating other machines, such as ad­
dressing, duplicating, tabulating, key-punch, and check-writing
machines.
Women calculator operators have their highest salaries in railroad
offices, nearly $140, followed by wholesale offices distributing their
own goods, then State government, tobacco, and wholesale offices




EARNINGS IN 1940—RICHMOND

33

distributing others’ goods; they are paid the least, below $90 in each
case, in banks, “other manufacturing,” insurance, and the “other
public utility” group. Women operating bookkeeping and billing
machines average $100 or mbre in Federal Government, “other manu­
facturing,” and State government offices, just below $100 in printing
and publishing, wholesale offices distributing others’ goods, and “other
finance,” less than $90 in wholesale offices distributing their own
goods, retail stores, and “other public utility” offices. Railroad
offices have a considerably higher average, nearly $130, for women
operating other types of office machines, followed by State govern­
ment, “other public utilities,” and “other manufacturing” offices,
with averages below $100, insurance and bank offices with over $80,
and small offices with an average of $75.
Men operating bookkeeping and billing machines have an average
of $86 a month. This is slightly less than the average for women
operating such machines, due to the fact that four-fifths of the men
are in banks and average $88, whereas only 7 percent of the women
are in banks, where they average $70. Men operating all other types
of machines have been tabulated together and these have an average
varying from $87 to $106 in insurance, “other public utilities,” State
government, and “other manufacturing,” but more than $125 in
railroads.
Other clerks.

There are many other office employees, in a wide variety of occupa­
tions, and though a number of them have duties somewhat similar in
different types of offices it is not practicable to group them in classes.
Many of these employees are doing highly skilled or technical work,
such as claims examiners, statistical, rate, and cost and production
clerks, and are paid relatively high salaries comparable to those of the
better-paid employees in other occupational groups. Others, how­
ever, are doing work that requires little or no experience, usually
regarded as beginning occupations, and these are paid much lower
salaries.
Women tabulated as “other clerks” generally are not those paid at
the higher wage levels. Women trouble dispatchers have much the
highest average, $122, followed by statistical and tax clerks with $108.
State government and the “other public utility” group pay a high
average to statistical and tax clerks, but in banks and retail stores
these workers earn less than the general average.
Women record and transit clerks, pay-roll clerks and timekeepers,
bond and security clerks, and billing, statement, and collection clerks
arc in an intermediate position, with average salaries varying from
$93 to $103. On the basis of groups of five or more employees, rail­
road, “other public utility,” Federal Government, and tobacco of­
fices usually pay salaries above the general average for women in
these groups, and small offices, retail stores, printing and publishing,
“other manufacturing,” and wholesale offices distributing others’
goods pay such workers less than the general average. Insurance
offices pay billing, statement, and collection clerks more than the
general average, but pay their bond and security and record clerks
below such level. In banks the opposite is true; bond and security
clerks are paid more and billing, statement, and collection clerks are
paid less than the general averages for their respective groups.




34

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

Women “other clerks” in low-wage occupations include order,
stock, and shipping clerks, file clerks, PBX operators, and check and
credit clerks; these have average salaries varying from $87 down to
$81. Tobacco, bank, and Federal Government offices usually pay
these workers relatively good salaries; retail stores and wholesale
offices distributing others’ goods pay them less than the general
average. Insurance offices pay more than the average to check
clerks, but less to file clerks and PBX operators. File and order,
stock, and shipping clerks have relatively low average salaries and
PBX operators a relatively high one in “other manufacturing”; but
in the “other public utility” group file and check clerks have averages
above the general averages and order, stock, and shipping clerks have
one below the figure for all such clerks combined.
There are 994 men classed as “other clerks.” The highest-paid
groups, with average salaries of $155 to $178, are cost and production
clerks, statistical and tax clerks, yard clerks, claims examiners, and
traffic and rate clerks. Railroad offices pay these workers consider­
ably more than they average in other offices, varying from $186 to
$200. The “other public utility” and “other manufacturing” offices,
as also insurance and banks, pay statistical and tax clerks salaries that
average below $150, and tobacco companies show an average of less
than $150 for traffic and rate clerks. Claims examiners average over
$210 in insurance offices and about $120 in those of State government.
Cost and production clerks earn more than the general average in
tobacco offices, but less in “other manufacturing,” these two types of
office employing nearly nine-tenths of all such clerks reported.
At a lower level in the wage scale, with average salaries varying
from $143 down to $110, are credit clerks, bond and security clerks,
billing, statement, and collection clerks, pay-roll clerks and time­
keepers, and order, stock, and shipping, record, and check clerks.
Bond and security clerks in hanks earn more than the general
average, but those in other finance offices earn less than such average.
Credit clerks earn above the general average in wholesale offices
distributing their own goods, but less than such average in banks.
Billing, statement, and collection clerks have a high average in tobacco
offices, one slightly lower in railroad offices, and one considerably less
in “other manufacturing” and in banks. The group of “other public
utility” offices pay more than the general average to pay-roll clerks
and timekeepers, but such workers have lower average salaries in
tobacco and “other manufacturing.” Order, stock, and shipping
clerks, the largest of these occupational groups, have their highest
averages in tobacco and “other manufacturing,” in wholesale offices
distributing their own goods, and in State government, and their
lowest in banks and insurance offices, wholesale offices distributing
others’ goods, Federal Government, and the residual public utility
offices. City and county government and “other public utility”
offices pay high wages to record clerks, but in “other manufacturing”
and insurance offices these clerks are below the general average.
Check clerks have their highest average in railroad offices, but rela­
tively low averages in State government and insurance.
I ho lowest-paid men are transit, file, and mail clerks, and messen­
gers; these have average earnings varying from $94 down to $62.




EARNINGS IN 1940—RICHMOND

35

Railroads pay file and mail clerks considerably more .than the general
average, but pay their messengers about the same as the general
average. File clerks have relatively low averages in State govern­
ment, the “other manufacturing” group, and insurance offices. Mail
clerks are paid best in State government, about the same as the
general average in banks, and relatively poorly in the “other manu­
facturing” group. Messengers are paid more than the general average
in “other manufacturing,” Federal Government, and “other public
utilities,” and less than the general average in insurance, printing and
publishing, and banks.
Clerks not elsewhere classified.

Office employees whose specific occupations were not reported or
were in occupational groups of too few employees to show separately,
numbering less than 25, are classified by type of office in which
employed. Among the few men reported (table VIII), the average
salaries of men vary from $100 in finance and insurance to $139 in
manufacturing and wholesale distributing. In other types of office
men have an average salary of $129.
Women clerks not elsewhere classified have an average of $87 in
manufacturing and wholesale offices, $91 in finance and insurance, and
$94 in the other types of office.
Special office workers.

These employees are classed separately because usually they have
some duties not strictly office clerical work. Eighty-four men but
only 12 women are in this group. The men have an average salary
of $208 a month, one-fourth of the group averaging just over $250.
For certain offices the averages follow: Nearly $240 in Federal Govern­
ment and in wholesale offices distributing their own goods; something
over $210 in manufacturing other than tobacco and printing and
publishing and in retail stores; something over $190 in banks; and
something over $170 in city and county governments, electric, gas,
and telephone utilities, and insurance.
The small group of women classed as special office workers, most of
whom are in city, county, or State governments, average $135.
Supervisory, executive, and clerical-professional.

This includes supervisors, administrators, and executives, and such
professionals as accountants and statisticians. The number for whom
wage data are reported comprises 393 men and 66 women. The en­
tire group of men have an average salary of $243. By occupation the
average varies from $218 for supervisors to $247 for accountants and
to $312 for the administrators and executives.
In the various types of office, men in the supervisory, administra­
tive, and professional group have averages as follows: Less than $200
in State government; $209 to $229 in wholesale offices distributing
their own goods, other finance, banks, “other public utilities,” and
city, county, and Federal Governments; roughly $250 in wholesale
offices distributing others’ goods, retail trade, and railroad offices;
over $260 in “other manufacturing,” about $290 in insurance and
tobacco; nearly $325 in printing and publishing.
The small group of women in this class, of whom just over fourfifths are supervisors, have an average of $171; supervisors alone aver­
age $157,




Table IX.

Percent distribution of men and women regular employees in offices according to monthly salary rate, 1940, by occupationRICHMOND
Women

Total
of
women

All occupations 2_.
Stenographic group:
Secretary_________ _________________
Stenographer_______________________
Typist and other___________________
Accounting group:
Audit, accounting, bookkeeping clerks
Bookkeeper, hand__________________
Cashier, teller______________________
Machine operators:
Bookkeeping and billing____________
Calculating______ __________________
Other_____ ______________ ______ ____
Other clerks:
Billing, statement, collection
Checker________ _ _ _ _____
Cost and production________
File_______ ____ ___________
Messenger_________________
Order, stock, shipping _____
Pay roll and timekeeper_____
Record_______ ____________
Statistical____ _____________
Telephone_________________
Traffic and rate_____________
Transit____________________
Yard clerk_________________
Clerks not elsewhere classified in­
Finance and insurance______
Other types of office________
Special office workers..
Supervisors 3 _______
1 Percents not computed on very small bases.
3 Not included in total.




Men

Percent1 of women with monthly salary
rate of—

Percent1 of men with monthly salary rate of—■
number
of men

Under
$75

$75,
under
$100

$100,
under
$125

$125,
under
$150

3,393

20.3

34.2

27.6

12.7

5.1

2,044

193
871
359

2.6
11.8
34.8

19.2
32.8
42.6

24.9
33.5
16.7

27.5
17.3
5.0

25.9
4.5
.8

25
32
26

277
50
105

22.4
4.0
23.8

20.9
22.0
29.5

35.4
38.0
24.8

13.4
14.0
11.4

7.9
22.0
10.5

157
157
77

20.4
17.2
27.3

47.8
45.2
40.3

23.6
24.8
24.7

7.0
10.2
7.8

1.3
2.5

88
92

22.7
29.3

29.5
43.5

20.5
20.7

21.6
6.5

5.7

$150
and
over

Under
$75

$75,
under
$100

$100,
under
$125

$125,
under
$150

$150,
under
$200

10.8

14.9

17.5

20.1

27.7

9.0

334
83
148

3.0
1.4

10.8
1.2
9.5

17.7
12.0
15.5

26.6
22.9
25.0

36.8
33.7
36.5

5.1
30.1
12.2

97

24.7

48.5

24.7

2.1

68

14.7

36.8

22.1

23. 5

2.9

63
27

4.8

15.9

15.9

14.3

39.7

9. 5

2.8

15.3

27.8

43.1

11.1
.7
3.2
1.7
16.4

$200
and*
over

182

23.6

52.2

19.2

3.8

1.1

41

53
56
63
66
138

35.8
19.6
22.2
10.6
28.3

34.0
30.4
41.3
27.3
44.9

22.6
28.6
27.0
28.8
23.9

3.8
16. 1
6.3
30.3
2.2

3.8
5.4
3.2
3.0
.7

140
63
.58
67

2.1
9.5
8.6

22.1
22.2
25.9
4.5

30.0
22.2
25.9
14.9

27.1
19.0
27.6
17.9

17.9
23.8
10.3
46.3

72

20.8

19.4

55.6

4.2

68
52

26.9

21.2

36. 5
2.6

7. 7
42.9

7. 7
49.4

17.7

21.0

27.4

25.8

3.2

.4

4.8
3.0

3.6
7.8

40.5
27.7

51. 2
61.0

69
116
12
54 |

29.0
30.2

24.6
25.9
_____ 1.9

0>

40.6
20.7
11.1

1.4
19.8
24.1

4.3
3.4

46
62

63.0

84
231

4.8

2 Total exceeds details due to the omission of occupations having as many as 50 for neither sex.

22.1
5.2

OFFICE W O RK AND OFFICE W O R K ER S IN 1 9 4 0

Occupation

CO

Chart II—DISTRIBUTION OF WOMEN AND OF MEN ACCORDING

TO MONTHLY SALARY RATES, BY OCCUPATION—RICHMOND.
Under
*100

$125,
under
$150

□

STENOGRAPHIC GROUP

$100,
under
3125

mx

1

$150
and
over

i

—I

100 percent

Secretary

Stenographer

Y/omen

Typist and other

AAAZAAm

Y/omen

Women

'VAAAAA/AAA/AA
im:iJ

ACCOUNTING GROUP
Women

1AAAAZ2222A22M

Bookkeeper, hand
Men

Women

AAA/AA/AA

Cashier, teller
Men

Audit, accounting,
bookkeeping clerk

WZZZ1

Women
Men

vaa/aaaaaaaa:

AA'AAA

MACHINE OPERATORS
Women
Bookkeeping and billing
Men

Calculating

Women

OTHER CLERKS
Women
Order, stock, shipping

Men

_______ VAAAAAAAAA

Women

'

VAAAAAAAA ■
SMMHi

V//////y//A~Z„.

Pay roll and timekeeper
Men

V//////A
VA//AAAAAAA

Statistical

.............1

V//y
Women

VAAAA/TAAa I

Record
Men

Women
Transit

AA/AAAAAAa
aa///////////////////a.\

Men

Billing, statement,
collection

Checker

File

Women

VAAAAAAX

Telephone




37

38

OFFICE WORK A'ND OFFICE WORKERS IN 1940

Distribution by rate.

Table IX gives in some detail the salary distribution of the employ­
ees. It is apparent that there is wide variation in concentration.
In only two groups do as many as half the women fall in a $25 inter­
val; 52 percent of the women file clerks earn $75 and under $100 and
56 percent of the transit clerks earn $100 and under $125. More
than two-fifths of the women machine operators, check and record
clerks, and telephone operators earn $75 and under $100; and over
one-third of the stenographers, hand bookkeepers, audit, accounting,
and bookkeeping clerks, and over two-fifths of the finance and insur­
ance clerks not elsewhere classified, earn $100 and less than $125.
The proportion of women with salaries of $150 or more varies from
less than 2 percent of the telephone operators, typists, file clerks, and
bookkeeping- and billing-machine operators to 22 percent of the hand
bookkeepers and 26 percent of the secretaries.
The concentration of men’s salaries is at a higher level; three-fifths
of the traffic and rate clerks, more than two-fifths of the yard clerks,
statistical clerks, cost and production clerks, and special office workers,
and over one-third of the billing, statement, and collection clerks
and the accounting group receive salaries of $150 and under $200.
Just over one-half of the special office workers earn at least $200.
Nearly nine-tenths of the messengers have salaries below $75.
WEEKLY EARNINGS COMPARED WITH SALARY RATES

The foregoing analysis has given the monthly salaries that office
workers receive for full-time work. However, though office work
generally is fairly steady, some employees may work overtime and
others lose time during a month. For this reason a transcript was
made of the actual amounts received by the employees for a oneweek pay period.
Week’s earnings records were copied for 3,287 women and 1,767
men, the same numbers for whom the monthly salary rate was re­
ported in each type of office but railroad offices, where week’s earn­
ings records were available for only one-third of the employees for
whom monthly rates were reported.
The average earnings on the week’s pay roll are $30 for men and
$22 for women. When these are increased to a monthly basis it is
apparent that there is relatively little difference between earnings and
rate: The earnings would equal $130 for men and $95 for women,
instead of the respective rates of $133 and $97.
The relative position of the different offices on the basis of average
week’s earnings is the same as the relative position based on average
monthly rate; that is, men have their highest week’s earnings in rail­
road offices followed by city and county governments, Federal Govern­
ment, wholesale offices distributing the irown products, and tobacco
offices. Lowest average week’s earnings received by men are in
small offices and in “other finance” and insurance offices. Women
have their highest week’s earnings in railroads, followed by tobacco
and the government offices; their lowest averages are in retail stores,
insurance, small offices, wholesale offices distributing others’ goods,
and “other finance.”




EARNINGS IN 1940—RICHMOND

39

There are only 5 instances—men in printing and publishing, the
distribution of others’ products, finance other than banks, and manu­
facturing, and women in railroad offices—where the actual earnings
exceed the rate by as much as $3 a month. For the last named the
difference was practically $4, for men in distribution it was well over
$5, and for men in printing and publishing it was more than $6. The
only significant cases of earnings falling below the rate are men in
railroads, for whom the difference was $3, and men in the small offices,
for whom it was about $8.50.
Women employees
Type of office
Number

All types............. .....................
Banks____ ____ __________________
Other finance____________________
Insurance________________________
Railroads.............. ............... .
........
Other public utilities ___________
Printing and publishing__________
Tobacco_________________________
Other manufacturing_________
Wholesale distributor, own goods .
Wholesale distributor, others’ goods
Department and apparel stores____
Federal Q overament_____________
State government________________
City and county governments_____
Other types of office______________
1 Not computed; number too small.




Average
week's
earnings

Men employees

Number

Average
week’s
earnings

3,287

$22. 00

1,767

$30.00

377
71
499
48
397
160
59
263
113
127
246
227
377
69
254

22. 50
21. 50
19. 50
33. 00
23. 50
23. 00
25. 50
22. 50
22. 50
20. 50
18.50
25. 00
24.00
23.50
20.00

402
50
151
144
152
41
96
233
133
72
12
87
93
73
28

27.00
26.00
26. 00
36.00
30.00
28.00
32.00
31.00
32. 50
29.00

0)
35.00
26. ,50
35. 50
22. 50

HOURS OF WORK
Weekly hours.

There is considerable variety in the number of hours employees are
expected to work in the different offices. However, just over half of
the employees, 52 percent, employed in 77 of the 160 offices reporting,
are on a regular schedule of 39 to 40 hours, and only 12 percent of the
workers, employed in 40 offices, have regular working hours of more
than 40. Fifteen percent of the workers, employed in 9 offices, have
no schedule that is the same from week to week.
Insurance offices maintain the most favorable workweek, as twothirds of the employees have a regular schedule of less than 37% hours
and no one is on a schedule of more than 39 hours. Approximately
half the employees in wholesale offices distributing their own goods
and just over half those in electric, gas, and telephone offices are on
a regular schedule of 37% hours. About three-fourths in tobacco
offices and three-fifths in “other manufacturing” offices have a work­
week of over 35 and including 38 hours.
The most unfavorable workweek is in railroad offices, where more
than four-fifths of the employees have irregular work schedules, and
in retail-store offices, where nearly nine-tenths are scheduled to work
over 44 hours. The majority of the employees in banks (69 percent),
in wholesale offices distributing others’ goods (64 percent), and in
printing and publishing (62 percent) are expected to work 40 hours
a week.
All employees in State government offices have a regular schedule
of 39% hours, and all Federal Government workers and over four-fifths
of the city and county government workers have one of 39 hours.
About four-fifths in the small-office group are scheduled to work 39
and under 40 hours.
Overtime work and pay.

The policy in regard to overtime work and pay was reported by
154 firms. Of these, 84 reported no overtime work, but in the other
70 there was some overtime during the year. In this latter group
were 16 firms (in banks, other finance, insurance, printing and pub­
lishing, “other manufacturing,” retail stores, Federal Government,
and small offices) in which employees worked overtime but received
no compensation for such hours. Nine firms (in insurance, tobacco,
“other manufacturing,” wholesale offices distributing their own goods,
stores, and small offices) gave compensatory time off, and in 2 firms
employees working overtime were given pay for an evening meal.
Among the remaining 43 offices, the policy in 19 (in banks, other
finance, “other public utilities,” printing and publishing, tobacco,
other manufacturing, wholesale distributing of own goods, stores, and
small offices) was to pay the regular rate of pay for overtime hours,
and the policy in 24 (in banks, other finance, insurance, railroads,
printing and' publishing, manufacturing other than tobacco and
40




HOUBS OF WORK---- RICHMOND

41

printing and publishing, and wholesale offices distributing own or
others’ products) was to pay time and a half for overtime.
Ihe amount of overtime paid for in the one-week pay period taken
was reported by the ffims visited. The numbers of employees who
received pay for overtime work are 120 women, or 4 percent of the
total, and 137 men, or 7 percent of all men. No employee in insur­
ance, tobacco, retail stores, or city, county, and State governments
received pay for overtime work in that week.
Of the 120 women paid for overtime work, over seven-tenths were
in banks and other finance and wholesale offices distributing own or
others’ products, and over one-fifth were in printing and publishing and
the “other manufacturing” group. Just over one-half of the 137
men were in banks and other finance and “other manufacturing,”
and nearly three-tenths were in wholesale offices distributing own or
others’ goods.
The overtime hours worked by women were few, as 65 percent of
the group were paid for less than 2 hours and 20 percent for 2 and under
4 hours. Only 7 percent of the group were paid for 6 or more hours
of overtime; these were employed in printing and publishing, “other
manufacturing,” wholesale distributing of others’ goods, and small
offices.
Though nearly one-tliird of the men were paid for less than 2 hours
of overtime, it appears that men had considerably more overtime
work than women had, since one-seventh were paid for as many as
10 hours and nearly one-fifth for 6 and under 10 hours.




EFFECT OF EXPERIENCE AND AGE ON RATES
OF PAY
The general differences in salaries paid to employees in various
offices and occupations have been discussed. However, experience
and age have a significant bearing on the amount of the salaries paid
to workers, and it is important to correlate these factors with the
salary rates.
Monthly rates paid to beginners.

In the offices visited in Richmond, data were obtained for a total of
250 beginners—144 women and 106 men—who were working at the
time of the survey. Wholesale offices employed the largest group,
about one-sixth of all, but banks and other finance, “other manufac­
turing,” and government offices each employed about one-eighth of
the total. Only three types of office, insurance, printing and pub­
lishing, and tobacco, had less than 5 percent.
For the majority of the girls the beginning jobs were as stenogra­
phers, typists, machine operators, general office clerks, and telephone
operators; about three-fourths of the total were in these occupations.
Just over one-tenth were in occupations included in the accounting
group of clerks. The remaining girls were employed as billing,
statement, record, credit, order, shipping, pay-roll, and file clerks,
as tube-room girls, and as messengers and receptionists.
Wage data were reported for 134 girls and their average monthly
salary was $67. About throe-fifths of the group earned $60 and under
$80 and one-fourth earned less than $60. Only 3 percent received as
much as $100 a month.
One-third of the men were employed as messengers and somewhat
more than one-third as machine operators, file clerks, general office
clerks, timekeepers, shipping clerks, board markers, receptionists, and
as statistical and transit clerks.
The average monthly salary of the 100 men beginners with wage
data reported was $74; more than half the group, 53 percent, had
salaries of $60 and under $80, and 24 percent earned less than $60, but
as many as 17 percent earned $100 and over.
Percent with a beginning monthly rate of—
Sex

Number Average
of
monthly
begin­
salary
rate
ners

Under
$50

$50,
under
$60

$60,
under
$70

$70,
under
$80

$80,
under
$90

$90,
under
$100

$67
74

4.5
5.0

20.9
19.0

35.1
37.0

23.9
16.0

9.0
4.0

3.7
2.0

Women
Men........ ..............

134
100

$100
and
over
3.0
17.0

Occupational experience and salary advancement.

In many offices employment records in detail were not complete,
but records of over-all office experience were available for a total of
42




EFFECT QF EXPERIENCE AND AGE----RICHMOND

43

2,753 employees, of whom 1,632 were women and 1,121 were men.
As there are too few employees in the detailed occupations to show
separately, employees doing somewhat similar types of work are
combined into major groups. The classes used here are: The steno­
graphic workers, including secretaries, stenographers, typists, and a
few dictating-machine transcribers and correspondence clerks; the
accounting group, including hand bookkeepers, cashiers, tellers, and
audit, accounting, and bookkeeping clerks; office-machine operators;
and special office workers. All others are tabulated only by type
of office.
On examining table X it is apparent that there is an appreciable
advance in the average salaries of employees as their experience in
office work increases. Newly employed women, those with less than
2 years in office work, have an average salary of $71 a month; in contrast,
women who have been working 5 but less than 10 years average $96,
and those with 10 or more years of experience have an average of $115.
Nearly one-half of the women are stenographic workers; with less
than 2 years of office experience these average $72 a month, but as
they gain in experience their average salary increases to $101 for the
group at 5 and under 10 years and to $121 for the large group in office
10 or more years.
The most experienced women in the accounting group, having at
least 10 years of office work, average $50 a month more than the small
group who have worked less than 3 years, and the most experienced
machine operators average $27 a month more than those inexperienced.
In the manufacturing and wholesale distributing offices, women
doing the more general kinds of clerical work after 10 or more years
of office experience average $39 more than clerks with less than 3
years of experience. In the other types of office such difference
is $40.
The men just starting office work average $77, or $13 less than the
group with 1 and under 2 years of work, $31 less than those at 4 and
under 5 years, and $84 a month less than the group with 10 or more
years of experience. The average salary of $161 reported for the men
who began work at least 10 years ago is due partly to the fact that a
larger proportion of employees have advanced with experience in the
higher-wage occupations. For example, nine-tenths of the residual
group in railroad offices, seven-tenths of the accounting workers and
special office workers, and over six-tenths of the stenographic workers
have 10 or more years of experience, in contrast to two-fifths or less
of the machine operators and of the residual group in finance and
insurance and government offices.
There are large differences in the salaries paid to men in the various
experience groups. Those in the accounting group less than 3 years
at work have an average salary $64 below the average for those 10
or more years at work, and the beginners among machine operators
average nearly $40 a month less than the operators at work 5 or more
years. Among the clerks classified only by type of office, those in
manufacturing offices who have worked 10 or more years have an
average over $70 higher than the average for clerks with less than 3
years of experience.




44

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

Table X.—Average monthly salary 1 of employees with over-all years of experience

reported, by occupational group—RICHMOND

Employees
with over-all
experience
reported
Occupational group

Number and average salary * of employees whose experience
since first office job was—
Under 3
years

3, under 5
years

5, under 10
years

10 years and
over

Aver­ Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­
Num­ Aver­ Num­ Aver­ Num­
age
age
age
age
age
ber salary ber salary ber salary ber salary ber salary
WOMEN
$100

326

$74

221

$87

283

$96

802

$115

104
103
98

148
37
50

76
68
82

116
21
26

89

145
31
27

101
94
100

370
127
86

121
118
109

51

77

11

6

9

25

79

110
135
148

91
97
91

27
20
33

72

15
24
13

24
25
22

96

44
66
80

111
106
107

All occupations ______ 1,632
Stenographic group------------Machine operators.......... .........
All other 1 in—
Manufacturing and

779
216
189

67

89

4

4
MEN

Accounting group
All other 2 in—
Manufacturing

1,121

$138

203

$88

121

$103

121

40
308
66

148
146
92

7
28
28

96
74

4
25
10

97

4
26
7

46
206
166
98
85
65

97
163
126
135

91

7
8
25
12
16
, 12

100

117

19
12
49
23
15
21

41

All occupations..............

204

1

no

2

$126

676

$161

120

25
229
21

173
160

128

16
186
65
50
34
22

169
163
160
119

28

219

4
27
13
20
10
10

1 Not computed for groups of less than 25.
1 Includes both “other clerks” and those “not elsewhere classified."

Figures indicate that, with few exceptions, employees with corre­
sponding experience records have somewhat better salaries when they
have remained with one firm than when they have worked for two
or more employers.
This difference is much less pronounced in the case of women than
of men. Women who have been working 10 or more years average
$4 a month more when their experience is with one firm than when they
have worked for two or more employers, and those with 3 and less
than 4 years of experience average $2 a month more when the work
has been for one firm. However, the average salaries are the same
for the groups with 2 and under 3 years of experience, and women
who have had 5 and under 10 years of work in 2 or more firms average
$8 a month more than the corresponding group working with one firm.
The average salaries of men who have worked in only one firm
exceed the averages of those who have worked in two or more firms
by $4 a month when the experience is less than 3 years, by $17 a month
when it is 3 and less than 5 years, by $8 when it is 5 and less than 10
years, and by $6 when the experience is 10 years or longer.




EFFECT OF EXPERIENCE AND AGE----RICHMOND

45

Type of office and salary advancement.

Records of the number of years that employees had worked in the
office in which employed at time of survey were very nearly complete;
they were available for 3,353 women and 1,998 men. The average
monthly salaries of those employees, grouped according to number of
years with the firm, are given in table XI. Though these figures
show that continuous service for one firm is important in securing
increases in salary, there are extremely wide differences between the
beginners’ and the experienced workers’ salaries in the various types
of office.
Continuous service with the same firm appears to be more advanta­
geous to men than to women, as their salary advancement is much
more rapid. For example, women who have worked in the same
office for 20 or more years have an average monthly salary higher by
$54 than the average of women employed for less than a year, but the
difference between the average salaries of the corresponding groups
of men is $98 a month. This probably is due to the fact that of the
technical jobs, or jobs that require considerable experience, more are
filled by men than by women, and advancement to these jobs from
occupations that are more like women’s would account partly for the
greater increases in the salaries of men. As previously noted, a
much larger proportion of the men than of the women are in account­
ing and bookkeeping occupations, or in keeping various kinds of
specialized records, and as special office workers.
From the extreme right-hand columns of table XI it is possible to
compare the average salaries of the newer employees and those 15
or more years in the service. For women such averages differ by
$30 to $38 in stores, manufacturing other than printing and publishing
and tobacco, and State government; by $40 to $45 in insurance, all
offices combined, banks, and the residual group of other types of
office; and by respectively $52 and $58 in printing and publishing
and the “other public utilities” group. Among the men for whom
comparisons are possible, the averages for the more experienced
employees are $66 and $67 above those of recent employees in “other
manufacturing” and “other public utilities,” $75 in all offices com­
bined, $79 in railroads, $83 in banks, and $111 in insurance.
The actual change from the first to the present salary in an office
was reported for 602 women and 522 men. For the great majority of
these employees—83 percent of the women and 86 percent of the
men—such change was an increase. For 15 percent of the women
and 11 percent of the men there had been no change in salary; the
majority of these had been with the firm less than 3 years. For less
than 2 percent of the women and between 2 and 3 percent of the men
the present salary was less than the first salary; of these 24 employees,
8 had worked for the firm 10 or more years and 7 had worked 5 and
under 10 years.
Of the 948 employees who had received increases in salaries, twofifths of the women and half of the men had been working for 10 or
more years, but one-fourth of the women and one-fifth of the men had
worked for less than 3 years, so it is to be expected that there would
be wide variations in the amount of the increase in salary received by
different individuals.




Table XL—Average monthly salary 1 according to length of service with present firm, by type of office—RICHMOND

1,124

$78

716

$121

88
27
161
8
116
46
18
142
49
41
83
96
108
24
117

70
76
66

154
6
119
105
77
42
15
29
10
21
35
17
49
9
28

113

salary

A verago

N um ber

15 years
and over

Average
salary

Under 3
years

N um ber

N um ber

Average
salary

Average
salary

N um ber

20 years
and over

|

Average
salary

N um ber

10, under 15, under
20 years
15 years

N um ber

N um ber

Average
salary

N um ber

5, under
10 years

N um ber

Num ber

Average
salary

4, under
5 years

Average
salary

3, under
4 years

Average
salary

2, under
3 years

Average
salary

1, under
2 years

Average
salary

salary

A vcrage

N um ber

Under 1
year

WOMEN
Total-.........................................

Other types of office- ........ .............. ............




3,353
71
497
141
397
157
57
263
113
127
238
218
376
68
254

$97
98
92
85
139
101
99
111
96
97
87
80
108
104
103
86

490
50
18
83
8
81
19
9
65
21
15
28
39
2
9
43

$72
67
62
68
79
63
93
67

322
31
5
38
20
18
3
36
16
17
29
36
35
9
29

$80
74
68

86
67
97
87
74

312
7
4
40
15
9
6
41
12
9
26
21
71
6
45

$85

72

96
74
91
78

271
16
10
33
2
22
12
3
18
11
13
22
31
52
2
24

$91

79

106
97

219
19
4
23
3
26
2
6
9
14
7
17
36
28
6
19

$92

90

104
99

553 $101
65
12
70
2
69
22
7
41
22
24
46
36
85
18
34

103
86
110
110
85
126
107
92

470 $107
34
12
91
21
87
33
8
24
7
21
35
2
54
9
32

107
96
116
107

88
115
102

355 $116
63
5
59
41
43
24
8
11
7
9
16
7
35
7
20

108
102
141
126

121

361 $126
91
1
60
64
34
18
7
18
3
12
19
10
14
2
8

116
109
147
134

72
76
86
83
75
68
96
90
72

106
145
130
128
117
98
128
117

O FFICE W O RK AND OFFICE W O R K ER S IN 1 9 4 0

Type ol office

N um ber

Number and average salary 1 of employees who had been with present firm—
All em­
ployees
reported

MEN
Total........................................................ 1,998 $132

Other manufacturing. _____
Wholesale distributor, own goods
Wholesale distributor, others’ goods
Department and apparel stores!........ .........
Federal Government... _______
State government____________ _________
City and county governments...............
Other types of office_____
__
' Not computed for groups of less than 25.




116
107
113
159
129
115
138
131
140
120
152
114
153
100

251

$80

58
8
18
21
20
9

63

39
23
12
3
14
1
8
6

98

139

$95

153 $113

149 $106

77
7
9
2
9
3
2
36
9
5
1
8
8
2
4

5
12

9
10

6
110

121 $122

262 $136

276 $140

329 $158

124

127

142

93

21

29
17
2
1
12
23
4
7

128

18
6
5
1
8
12
5
3

2

318 $178
59

115

168

543

$93

647

$168

11"

72

11G

155

l80~

160
147
13
7
7
1
26

31
24
143

150

27

2

20
12

104

111’
107

162
38
22

1

3

18
10

3
14

136

95

100
1

17

1

177

E FFE C T OF E X PE R IE N C E AND AGE ---- RICH M O N D

Other finance..................................... .
Insurance ______ ___________________
Railroads
Other public utilities__________ ______

402
48
151
389
152
40
94
231
133
72
11
82
93
73
27

-4

48

OFFICE WORK A'ND OFFICE WORKERS IN 1940

As shown in the following summary, the increase from the first to
the present monthly salary in the same company was less than 50
percent for three-fifths of the women but was at least 100 percent for
one-seventh of their group. Among the men, on the other hand, not
far from one-half had received salary increases of 100 percent or more,
and for only one-third was the increase less than 50 percent.
Amount of salary increase
Number of
employees
with in­
creases be­
100
tween first Under 25 25, under 50, under 75, under centper­
and
and present percent 50 percent 75 percent 100 per­
cent
over
salaries

Experience with present firm

Percent of employees
......

499

28.3

32.3

16.4

8.6

14.4

Under 3 years............. ...................................

120
88
87
204

68.3
33.0
16. 1
7.8

23.3
43.2
56.3
22.5

6.7
19.3
11.5
23.0

.8
4.5
10.3
14.2

5.7
32.4

Total women....................... .

5, under 10" years
10 years and over--------- ------ ---------------

.8

.......... ....................

449

18.9

14.5

12.9

7.3

46.3

3, under 5 years
5, under 10 years ______________ ____
10 years and over....................................... .

93
71
58
227

52. 7
19.7
15.5
5.7

34.4
25.4
10.3
4.0

12.9
29.6
10.3
8.4

11.3
19.0
6.2

14.1
44.8
75.8

Total men........

Age and salary, by type of office.

The average monthly salary increases consistently with age of
employees, and the increase is more rapid for men than for women.
The youngest women, those under 20, have an average salary of $68
a month, compared to just over $100 for those who are 30 and under
35 and $116 for womeD of 40 or more, the last named a difference of
$48. Men who are 40 or more years old average $171, or $107 above
the average of men who are under 20.
As shown in table XII, the extent of salary increase with age varies
greatly with type of office. Comparing the women of 20 and under
25 years with those of 40 years and over—the largest groups and
almost equal in size—the average salaries of the older women exceed
the averages of the younger women by the following amounts: $20
and under $30 in stores, the residual “other types,” State government,
and wholesalers distributing others’ goods; $30 and under $40 in
“other manufacturing,” insurance, Federal Government, and the total;
and $40 to $50 in banks, printing and publishing, and “other public
utilities.” For the corresponding age groups of men the differences
in average salary are much greater: $65 in railroads, $73 in other
public utilities, $78 in “other manufacturing,” $81 in banks, and $84
for all offices combined.




Table XII.—Average monthly salary 1 of employees in the various age groups, by type of office

RICHMOND

Number and average salary 1 of employees whose age wasTotal
employees
Type of office
Aver
age
salary

Num-

Num
salary

Aver
salary

25, under 30
years

Num

Numsalary
WOMEN

All types

3, 380

Banks
Other finance
Insurance.
Railroads
Other public utilities.
Printing and publishing
Tobacco.......... .............
Other maiiufacturing
Wholesale distributor, own goods
Wholesale distributor, others’ goods
Department and apparel stores
Federal Government
State government .
City and county governments
Other types of office
MEN
All types
Banks
Other finance
Insurance
Railroads.
Other public utilities
Printing and publishing
Tobacco_______ _
Other manufacturing
Wholesale distributor, own goods
Wholesale distributor, others’ goods
Department and apparel stores
Federal Government
State government.
City and county governments
Other types of office

30, under 35
years

salary

35, under 43
Num
ber

Aver
age
salary

40 years and
over
Num-

A versalary

E FFE C T OF E X PE R IE N C E AND AGE — RICH M O N D

Num­
ber

Under 20 years

20, under 25

CD
■ Not computed for groups of less than 25.




50

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 1940

Age and salary, by occupation.

There are wide variations with age in the occupational classes also
he larger differences in salaries are found in the occupational groups
in which some employees do highly technical or specialized work and
others are in jobs requiring little or no skill or training; for example, the
stenographic workers include both secretaries and typists, and the
accounting group includes hand bookkeepers as well as audit, account­
ing, and bookkeeping workers.
Women in the stenographic group who are 40 years old and over
average $41 a month more than the larger group who are 20 and under
-5. 1 he difference is $45 for the accounting clerks but only $29 for
the machine operators. Among the women classed only by type of
office, the older group averages $20 more than the younger group in
government, $23 more in insurance, and $35 more in manufacturing
and wholesale distribution and in the residual “other types.” For
men, the difference between the younger and the older group is $78
for those m accounting, $80 for “other clerks” in manufacturing, and
$87 tor the uncfassined clerks in finance and insurance.




Table XIII.—Average monthly salary 1 of employees of various ages, by occupational group—RICHMOND
Number and average salary 1 of employees whose age was—
Employees
reported

20, under 25
years

ber

Average
salary

Average
salary

ber

Average
salary

ber

25, under 30
years

30, under 35
years

Averber

salary

ber

35, under 40
years
Aver-

40 years and
over

Average
salary

Number

salary

Number

Aversalary

WOMEN
All occupations_________ ____ ... Stenographic group..------------------------------ -----------------M achine operators_______ ______________________ ______
All other 2 in—

$97

223

$68

765

$79

573

$93

595

$102

471

$110

753

$116

1. 419

101

102

70

362

82

274

97

230

109

177

115

274

123

390

92

43

72

98

79

59

95

74

97

47

102

69

108

39

102
96
121

57

110
97

53
40

111
104
105

3, 380

19

19
208

90

54

76

35

70

89

24
86

35

75

91

16
26

83

111
104

4

2

I
MEN

_______________

$133

120

133
146
92

1
5
15

282
228
268
133
129
105

103
161
125
130
121
115

50
6
22
8
4
9

84

All other 2 in—
Finance and insurance

2,040
82
564
165

All occupations.----------------- -------- ------------------------

208

• Not computed for groups of less than 25.
Includes both “other clerks” and those “not elsewhere classified."

2




$64

$87

363

25
60
66
57

377

100
94
79

15
98
42

74
12
67
30
21
21

73
89
90

44
5
67
37
23
28

1

4

$119

362

119
100

14
105
23

111
127
134
117

51
31
52
29
21
18
18

$142

278

142

6
106
9

125
155
151
151

28
54
26
12
19
10
8

$155

540

$171

163

21
190
10

172

140
162
157

35
120
34
17
41
19

160
174
169

53

E FFE C T OF E X PE R IE N C E AND AGE ---- RICHM OND

Occupational group

221

139

Cn
k

ANNUAL EARNINGS
Regularity of employment.

To show the amount of employment that office workers may expect
on an annual basis, records of the number of weeks worked and the
earnings received for such work were copied for all employees who
had obtained employment prior to 1939. In general, employment is
much steadier for office workers than for employees doing other kinds
of work, even in the same firm.
A larger number of women than of men lost some weeks of work in
1939, though in both cases the proportion of employees affected was
less than 4 percent.
All employees in finance offices other than banks and in city, county,
and State government offices, and all men in printing and publishing,
tobacco, wholesale, and retail-store offices, were paid for the 52 weeks
(including paid vacations) of the year. With one exception, in no
type of office were there more than 3 in 100 men who did not work
throughout the year, but among the women there were 7 in 100 in
“other manufacturing” and insurance offices, 9 in 100 in printing and
publishing offices, and 11 in 100 in retail-store offices who lost some
time during the year; most of these employees who missed time were
in the class who worked 39 and under 52 weeks.
Annual earnings by type of office.

In 1939 the average annual earnings of women office workers in
Richmond amounted to $1,210; one-seventh of the entire group had
earnings of less than $900 and nearly one-eighth had as much as $1,600
for the year. Railroad offices show much the highest average for
women, $1,674, followed by tobacco offices with an average of $1,362.
In printing and publishing, the “other public utility” group, the
various government and finance offices, and wholesale offices dis­
tributing their own goods, women’s average earnings were between
$1,200 and $1,300 a year. Lowest average earnings were those in
insurance and small offices and wholesale offices distributing others’
goods, where women averaged about $1,080 to $1,085, and in retailstore offices where they averaged $980.
Railroad offices also show the highest average earnings for men,
$1,938 for the year. Wholesale offices distributing their own goods
and city and county and Federal Government offices paid men
amounts that averaged from $1,801 to $1,898, and tobacco offices had
an average of $1,736 a year. At the other extreme are finance and
insurance offices, where men averaged less than $1,500, and State
government offices, where they averaged $1,337, equivalent to just
over $110 a month.
There are wide differences in the annual earnings of individual em­
ployees in the various types of office. For example, less than onetenth of the women in retail-store offices and wholesale offices dis­
52




ANNUAL EARNINGS—RICHMOND

53

tributing others’ goods earned as much as $1,500; in contrast, over
one-fourth in city and county and Federal Government and in printing
and publishing offices, and four-fifths in railroad offices, earned $1,500
or more. Less than 2 percent of the women in railroad offices, about
14 percent in other public utility offices and banks, but from 37 to 59
percent in wholesale offices distributing others’ goods, small offices,
and retail offices had annual earnings of less than $1,000.
The distribution of annual earnings show's a wider range for men
than for women. Less than 10 percent of the men in State govern­
ment offices and 14 percent in banks, compared to 33 percent in city
and county government offices and 45 percent in railroad offices,
earned $2,000 or more. No man in city and county governments and
only 2 percent in railroads, but 18 percent in banks and State govern­
ment and 29 percent in insurance, earned less than $1,000 a year.
Annual earnings by occupation.

On the basis of occupation, the highest-paid women.workers are the
secretaries, who averaged $1,517 a year, and the hand bookkeepers,
who averaged $1,452. Several groups, including cashiers, tellers,
statistical clerks, billing, statement, and collection clerks, stenogra­
phers, audit, accounting, and bookkeeping clerks, transit clerks, cal­
culating-machine operators, unclassified clerks in “other offices,” and
bond and interest clerks, averaged over $1,200 but less than $1,300,
or just over $100 a month through the year. The lowest-paid women,
with average earnings of about $1,050 down to $1,024, were the file
clerks, the PBX operators, and the audit and check clerks. Typists
and order, stock, and shipping clerks averaged $1,067.
The average annual earnings of men varied from a low of $769 for
messengers and $1,005 for bookkeeping- and billing-machine operators
to more than $2,050 for claims examiners and hand bookkeepers, over
$2,100 for traffic and rate clerks, and $2,430 for special office workers.
Yard clerks, statistical clerks, secretaries, and unclassified clerks in
manufacturing and distributing offices also had relatively high earn­
ings, their averages being above $1,800 a year.




Table

XIV.—Percent distribution 1 of employees according to annual earnings for work in 48 weeks or more of 1939,
by type of office—RICHMOND

Cn

Percent1 of employees who worked 48 weeks or more in 1939 and earned—

WOMEN
All types----------- ------ -----------------------

Insurance _

______

__

------ 2, 539 $1, 210

_____ _ _

Department and apparel stores.._____________

...

Other types of office......................................... .............




294
41
394
126
293
108
45
169
78
94
171
155
337
52
182

1, 247
l' 221
1/078
1, 674
1, 292
1, 296
1, 362
1,196
1, 215
1,086
'980
1, 286
1, 219
1,287
1,085

2.4

5.0

6.8

13.4

13.4

10.0

13.6

10.3

5.9

7.1

4.2

2.0

2. 4

5.1

6.1

14.6

9.9

20.1

20.7

5.4

8.5

1.7

2.7

9.5

7.4

13.2

16.2
.8
12. 3
9.3

9. 2
4.6

6.6
.8
18. 8
14.8

8.6
4.8
15. 7
12.0

4.8
11.9
9.6
6.5

3.6
23.8
7.8
8.3

2.0
13. 5

.9

5.1
9.2

14.0
1. 6
7.8
12.0

9.6

.3
3.8

4.6

3. 6
3. 9
14.9
18.7
2. 0
.3
1.9
15.3

5. 4
6. 4
9. 6
15.2
1. 9
.3
5.7
10.5

17. 2
8.9
10. 6
18.2
21. 9

14 2
20. 5
16.0
15.2
10. 3

16. 0
7. 7
18.1
9.9
7. 7

11.8
23.1
8. 5
7.0
16 8

11 8
3.8

6 5

5 9
7. 7

2.2
6.5

3.9

9. 6
17.0

15. 4
11.5

9. 6
4.9

15. 4
14.8

4.1
3 9
9. 6
7.1

4. 3
3.5
7. 7
3 0
7.7
3.8

2.4

1.4

1.2

0.5

0.3

.8
14. 3

1.0
11.1

1.3
7.1

.8
7 9

.5

.3

2.8

5.6

1 3

1.2
7 1
11. 5
3.3

2.8
1.2
.6

5.8
4.2

1.2

1.1

1.1

1.5
3.3

2.2

i. 9
..........

O FFICE W O RK AND OFFICE W ORKERS IN 1 9 4 0

Type of office

MEN
1,625 $1, 663

1 Percents not computed where base less than 50.
1 Not computed; number too small.




1,483
1, 448
1,456
1,938
1,584
1,569
1,736
l’ 583
1,801
l| 682
(2)
1,898
1, 337
1,874
(<)

10.5

1.4

2.3

2.7

5.1

4.9

4.7

7.1

6.1

5.5

8.9

6.6

5.0

8.9

5.4

9.4

5.4

1.2

5.4

5.4

5.7

5.4

5.0

10.4

8.8

6.0

10.4

6.3

5.0

8.5

2.2

5.7

2.8

5.6

8.7
.6

4. 7
.6
.8

5.5
.3
3.2

10.3
.8
2.4

11.0
.8
6.6

7.1
.6
5.7

6.3
1.7
12.3

3.9
5.5
4.9

5.5
4.7
7.4

6.3
6.1
9.0

2.4
6.4
9.8

.8
9.7
2.5

5.5
8.3
12.3

3.2
9.7
1.6

3.9
17.2
13.9

2.4
13.6
4.1

12 6
13.6
3.3

.6
1.0
1.8

2.5
3.0
1.0
3.6

7.4
4.2
5.0
7.3

4.9
6.1
4.0
1.8

4.9
11. 5
2.0
10.9

7.4
7.9
3.0
9.1

4.9
6.1
4.0
9.1

3.7
8.5
5.0
3.6

6.2
10.9
7.0
10.9

3.7
7.9
4.0
5.5

9.9
2.4
8.0

6.2
4. 2
15.0
10.9

8. 6
6. 7
10.0
1.8

7.4
4. 2
16.0
7.3

6.2
3.6
4.0
1.8

14.8
10.9
11.0
14.5

4.7

3.2

3. 2
16.8

4. 6
6.0
4.8

6.0
1.6

4. 6
19.3
4.8

1. 6
9. 6
3.2

3.1
9. 6
1.6

14.1
18.1
6.3

4. 6
2.4
15.9

6.3
1. 2
1. 6

18. 8
3. 6
15.9

1. 2
11.1

14.3

2. 4
3.2

23.3
2.4
15.9

1.2
1.2

1.2

7.8

ANNUAL EARNINGS ---- RICHM OND

317
34
127
361
122
28
81
165
100
55
7
64
83
63
18

Oi
Cnt

56

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 194 0

Table XV.—Average annual earnings of employees who worked 48 weeks or more

in 1989, by occupation—RICHMOND
Women

Occupation

Secretaries__________ ______ _____ ____
Bookkeepers, hand............................... .......
Cashiers, tellers.............................................
Statistical clerks
Billing, statement, collection clerks
Stenographers
Audit, accounting, bookkeeping clerks- Transit clerks_________ _____ ______
Calculating-machine operators
Clerks not elsewhere classified, other
types of office_____________ _________
Bond and security clerks
Pay-roll clerks and timekeepers
Clerks not elsewhere classified, manu­
facturing and wholesale distributors.
Bookkeeping- and billing-machine oper­
ators-- __________________________
Clerks not elsewhere classified, finance
and insurance
Record clerks............................................. .
Other machine operators
Typists and other
Order, stock, shipping clerks
File clerks1
Telephone operators
Checkers_______________ ______ ______




Men
Average
year’s
earnings
$1,517
1,452
1,281
1,280
1,267
1.256
1,237
1,229
1,221

1,207
1,203
1,192
1,160
1,139
1,138
1,103
1.093
1,067
1,067
1,054
1,050
1,024

Occupation

Special office workers_ ______ _________
_
Traffic and rate clerks...
Bookkeepers, hand-.__________________
Claims examiners
Secretaries and correspondents....................
Yard clerks_______________ ____ ______
Statistical clerks_________ ______ ______
Clerks not elsewhere classified, manuff cturing and wholesale distributors___ -.
Cashiers, tellers- . Cost and production clerks
Credit clerks._____ ____________________
Billing, statement, collection clerks...........
Audit, accounting, bookkeeping clerks.
Clerks not elsewhere classified, other types
of office___ ____
Pay-roll clerks and timekeepers
Bond and security clerks
Order, stock, shipping clerks
Record clerks and checkers
Stenographers and typists__________ ____
Clerks not elsewhere classified, finance
and insurance.______________________
Transit clerks_
Other machine operators............_________
Mail and file clerks _ _
Bookkeeping- and billing-machine opera­
tors.................................................................
Messengers............................................... .........

Average
year’s
earnings
$2,430
2,120

2, 077
2,057
1,905
1,866

1,855
1,807
1,775
1,760
1,710
1,692
1,675
1,590
1,516
1,485
1,424
1,360
1,353
1,340
1,294
1, 245
1,196
1,005
769

PERSONNEL POLICIES
Employment policies.

In nearly three-fourths of the offices one person or central depart­
ment is responsible for employing new workers. Usually such person
is a firm official, as the president., vice president, executive secretary,
or office manager, but in several instances these duties are performed
by a lower staff officer, as the auditor, comptroller, cashier, chief clerk,
or registrar. Nine percent of the firms have a personnel department
or director to handle employee problems. Over one-fifth of the total
reported that the employment of new workers is not a centralized
function but that the supervisor or head of each department or section
does his own hiring.
In regard to source of applicants, 142 offices reported the methods
by which they secure new workers; and though many firms obtained
workers by several methods, it is interesting to note that in about onehalf of the firms applicants obtain jobs through their own initiative,
that is, they make personal application or are recommended by friends
employed by the firm. Three-tenths of all firms consult high schools,
colleges, or business or commercial schools and over one-fifth secure
workers through employment agencies or newspaper advertisements.
Sex preferences.

No firms scheduled in Richmond reported that all office positions
are open to men only or to women only. Information as to preference
for either sex was not reported in 42 firms (including the State gov­
ernment), and the employment of workers in the Federal Government
offices is regulated according to Civil Service requirements. Of the
remaining firms, however, 101 reported that some positions are filled
by women only and 70 employed only men for some jobs; conversely,
35 firms have no jobs exclusively for women and 66 have no jobs to
be filled by men only.
In nearly all cases where women are preferred exclusively for some
jobs they are employed largely as stenographers, typists, secretaries,
PBX operators, and file clerks. This is particularly true in finance and
insurance offices, manufacturing offices, wholesale, and retail-store
offices, and the small offices. Some of the firms in the factories,
stores, and small offices also employ only women as calculating-machine
operators, billing clerks, bookkeeping-machine operators, cashiers, and
receptionists. Railroad offices prefer women as calculating-machine
operators, PBX operators, and file clerks, and prefer men only on jobs
that definitely are not suitable for women, such as secretaries who do
considerable traveling or clerks in such departments as the round­
house and warehouse departments.
The positions filled by men are extremely varied. Generally men
are preferred in supervisory positions and in accounting and auditing
work. In addition, finance and insurance offices employ men as
tellers, messengers, and field representatives or agents, and manufac-




57

58

OFFICE WORK AND OFFICE WORKERS IN 1940

turing and wholesale offices hire them as estimators, pricers, and stock
and mail clerks.
Marital status.

Thirty-one firms did not report their policy regarding the employ­
ment of married women, but more than four-fifths of the remaining 155
asserted that marital status is not a consideration when employing
workers. The types of firm that do not employ married women in­
clude finance offices (5), insurance offices (8), railroads (2), manufactur­
ing offices (7), wholesale offices (2), and small offices (4). One-tenth
of the firms reported also that women who marry while in service are
not allowed to remain with the firm.
Over three-fifths (63 percent) of the women employed are single, less
than three-tenths (28 percent) are married, and one-eleventh are
widowed or divorced. The proportion of women who are single
varies from 50 to 70 percent in all types of office except retail stores,
where the proportion is 47 percent, and insurance offices, where 85
percent are single. More than two-fifths (44 percent) of the women
in retail-store offices and over one-third of those in tobacco, printing
and publishing, and city and county government offices are married.
In contrast, married women comprise only one-tenth of the women in
insurance offices and just over one-fifth of those in finance offices other
than banks.
The majority of the men, 58 percent, are married, but 39 percent are
single. Single men outnumber married men in banks, other finance,
and insurance offices, printing and publishing, and small offices.
Age.

Many firms did not specify any age requirements for new workers,
but some stated that they prefer to employ young workers who may be
trained in the practices of the firm rather than workers experienced in
other types of business. More than two-fifths of all firms said they
would employ beginners under 20 years of age, and only 1 percent
reported a minimum age requirement as high as 25 years. Six percent
reported that they would not employ anyone over 25 or 30 and 1
percent employ no one over 35 or 40.
Salary reviews.

Nearly one-fourth of the firms stated that they review salaries at
periodic intervals, either annually or semiannually, for the purpose of
determining promotions and raises, and over one-sixth said they have
a promotions policy with irregular advancement or raises depending
on seniority, the individual employee’s ability, type of job, or on gen­
eral business conditions.
Dismissal.

Of the 128 firms reporting on dismissal practices, the majority give
a dismissal wage, advance notice, or both such wage and notice." In
10 percent of these firms the dismissal wage or notice is for 1 week, in
29 percent for a 2-week or half-month period, and in 8 percent for as
much as one month. In 30 percent of the firms a wage or notice is
given but the amount was not reported.




PERSONNEL POLICIES---- RICHMOND

59

Vacations.

I he vast majority of firms give their office workers vacations.
Three percent in insurance, printing and publishing, manufacturing,
retail stores, and small offices, give no vacations, and 16 percent made
no statement concerning vacations.
Basic vacations of 1 week or 10 days were reported by 35 percent of
the firms, of 2 to 3 weeks by 40 percent. In the majority of these
firms the vacation is not granted until after the employee has worked
a specified time, usually 6 months or a year. The Federal agencies
grant 26 days of annual leave, and one manufacturer allows vacations
of 1 month to office workers.
Sick leave.

The amount of sick leave granted to office workers is not so definite
as in the case of vacations, but about four-fifths of the firms reported
that sick leave is allowed. Of 18 firms reporting the amount of sick
leave, 8 allow 15 days, 5 allow 1 week, 4 give 2 weeks, and 1 gives 3
weeks. In the other firms the amount of leave depends on the
individual case or on the length of service with the firm.
Insurance and hospitalization policies.

As many as 71 firms reported that their office employees are covered
by group life and disability insurance policies; in 58 percent of these
the employees pay all costs, in 28 percent both the firm and the
employees contribute, and in 14 percent the insurance is supported
entirely by the firm.
Seventy-five firms reported hospitalization plans for the workers.
In 7 percent of these both the company and the workers make contri­
butions but in the others the workers pay all costs.
Retirement policies.

Retirement pension systems were reported by only about one-fifth
of the firms. These are in finance and insurance, railroads and other
public utilities, manufacturing, wholesale and retail trade, and Federal
Government. Of these, throe-fourths reported a definite retirement
system for all regular office workers; less than one-tenth had plans that
covered only part of the force, and one-sixth stated that retirement
plans varied according to individual cases.




RICHMOND’S SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR TRAINING
OFFICE WORKERS
There are many educational institutions in Richmond that offer
courses designed to qualify students for office work. Some of them
teach only a few courses to give a knowledge of one particular line of
office work, but others offer complete courses to train the student in
the business fundamentals, from typing and filing to bookkeeping and
advanced accounting. These schools include public and parochial
high schools, colleges, private business or commercial schools, officemachine schools conducted by the machine distributors, a corre­
spondence school, and the Department of Adult Education conducted
by the Richmond Public Schools.
Four junior high schools offer typing and business training courses;
during the 1939-40 school year "a total of 413 students completed
business training and 141 completed typing. These subjects are not
intended to equip students for immediate office employment but are
offered as “try-out” subjects, and to prepare the students to take a
commercial course in senior high school.
Three public and three parochial senior high schools offer commercial
subjects, and in each group two of the schools are for white children
and one is for Negro children. All these schools teach typing, book­
keeping, and shorthand; in addition, some of them give courses in
transcribing, office practice, commercial law, commercial art, business
arithmetic, or business English.
_
In the 1939-40 school year, 1,052 students were enrolled in the
commercial course in the two public high schools for white students;
114 of them graduated. The school for Negro students has no
commercial course, but more than 125 students were enrolled in
commercial subjects and as many as 47 of 326 graduates had taken
some commercial work.
One of the parochial schools for white students is a 4-year school
and about 70 percent of the students were commercial majors, but the
other school is only a 2-year commercial school, and the 2-year course
is not considered sufficient to prepare a student for office employment.
The parochial school for Negro students offers commercial subjects
to graduate students only. The enrollment in these three schools in
commercial subjects in November 1940 totaled 108 white and 39
Negro (graduate) students, and 45 white and 30 Negro students had
been graduated in June 1940.
None of the high schools has an organized placement service and
though it was reported that requests for students sometimes were made
by employers, the number probably would not exceed 40 or 50 a year.
The Department of Adult Education, part of the public school
system, is an evening school for high-school graduates. During the
1939-40 school year there was a total enrollment in the commercial
department of 581 students, and 348, or 60 percent, completed the
courses they were taking. The subjects given include typing, short­
hand, bookkeeping, business English, spelling, arithmetic, and
commercial law.
An evening technical school, the Virginia Mechanics’ Institute, has
a department of business in addition to engineering or science depart60




SCHOOL FACILITIES—RICHMOND

ments, and offers courses in banking, accounting, business adminis­
tration, traffic management, and credits and collections. Post­
graduate courses in banking and accounting also are given. The total
number of students taking business courses was not reported, but
32 students completed a 4-year “diploma” course in 1940. From 90
to 95 percent of the students in the Department of Adult Education
and the V irginia Mechanics7 Institute were already employed, so
both schools consider placement service a very incidental function
of the schools.
There is also a branch of an accounting correspondence school in
Richmond. In 1939 from 30 to 35 courses were sold, but the local
representative had no record of the number who completed the course.
Practically all the people taking these courses were employed and
could not be considered a potential supply of new office workers.
Four private business schools and four office-machine schools give
courses designed specifically to prepare students for office work.
All the business schools offer complete stenographic courses, including
stenography, typing, business English and spelling, indexing and filing,
and office routine; and secretarial courses, including the subjects just
mentioned plus bookkeeping, secretarial correspondence, commercial
law, accounting, and business administration. One of these specializes
m medical secretarial and stenographic courses, and one offers various
foreign languages that may be combined with the different courses of
study. The other two schools offer advanced business, accounting,
and bookkeeping courses in addition to the secretarial and stenographic
courses, and one of these also teaches stenotyping.
There is a large turn-over of students in the business schools, as
courses vary in length and there is no regular term of semester arrange­
ment; rather, students enroll when convenient and leave when their
course is completed. Further, it was reported that there is such a
demand for competent office workers that a considerable number leave
before they complete the course; one school reported that approxi­
mately three-fourths of the students who enroll complete their course,
but another reported that only about 3 of every 10 do so.
Each of the business schools maintains a free employment service for
their own students and graduates; and 3 of the 4 reported that they
also place other persons, charging a registration or placement fee.
in November 1940, approximately 835 students and 255 night students
were enrolled in these 4 schools. The number of day students who
completed their course in 1939-40 totaled roughly 335. Nearly all
the night students were employed and were taking the additional
training so as to increase their efficiency in their work.
The business-machine schools teach the operation of only the ma­
chines distributed by the firms with which they are connected. Only
1 of the 4 offers regular courses of instruction and the other 3 give
individual instruction to persons interested in a particular type of
machine or to persons working in an office where new types of machines
have been installed. The number enrolled in November 1940 totaled
116 persons, but the number completing courses in the year 1939 was
estimated to be about 265. The number of placements made by 3 of
the 4 schools during the year was estimated to be about 80 in perma­
nent jobs and 410 in temporary jobs; persons placed in temporary
jobs more than once during the year are counted each time they are
employed.




o


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102