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U3 3'*H3
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU, No. 113

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND
UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
CERTAIN INDICATIONS FROM VARIOUS
SOURCES, 1928-31




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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
FRANCES PERKINS, SECRETARY

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, DIRECTOR

BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU, No. 113

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND
UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
CERTAIN INDICATIONS FROM VARIOUS
SOURCES, 1928-31
BY

MARY ELIZABETH PIDGEON

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1933

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D,C.




Price 15 cents




CONTENTS
Page

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Letter of transmittal
xi
Part I.—Introduction and scope of report
1
Scope of the report
2
Part II.—General summary
4
Unemployment of women-------------------------------------------------Extent of the unemployment of women________________________
5
Unemployment in various States and cities,
-------------5
_
Unemployment in main occupational groups--------------6
' Unemployment in particular industries1----------------------------------6
Duration of unemployment----------------------------------------Ages of the women unemployed____
- ------------------7
Unemployment among foreign-born and Negro women-------------7
Responsibility of unemployed women for support of others---------7
Fluctuations in the employment of women_________________________
8
Employment fluctuations within the year----- -------- ---------------9
Decline in employment within the 4 years-------------------------------10
Irregularity and declines for women and men--------10
Data published by States on activities of public employment agencies,
11
Part III.—Women’s unemployment_________________________________
13
Information from the Federal census of unemployment as it applies to
women
13
Unemployed women according to the census of 1900----------------14
Unemployed women according to the census of 1930----------------16
Unemployment in main occupational groups---------------------16
Duration of unemployment____________________________
19
Women heads of families unemployed_____ ______________
19
Ages of unemployed women--------------------------------19
Reasons for unemployment of women-------------------- --------20
Unemployment of women in selected States----------------------20
Unemployed women according to the census of January 1931-----23
Unemployment in main occupational groups-------------------------26
Duration of unemployment _______________________________
26
Ages of unemployed women------------------------------------26
Nativity and color of unemployed women,
------------------27
Women unemployed in 1900 and in 1931--------------------- —
28
Summary—Unemployment of women, census of 1930 and 1931 ,,
29
Special studies of the unemployment of women_______________________
31
Character of the 21 studies included
33
Surveys by Women’s Bureau agents__ — --------------------33
South Bend —----------------------------------------------------------33
Women in the cigar industry________
,
-------------33
Intensive studies of selected city areas------33
Three cities in New York _____________________________
33
Philadelphia -33
New Haven___________________________________
3
Employment histories of women----------------------------3
Detroit
34
New York
________________________________________
34
Philadelphia__________________________________ ________
35
Women in 4 summer schools,,
________
—
35
Surveys of entire working population
35
Baltimore_____________________________________
— 35
Bloomington, Ind_________________________________
35
Bridgeport, Conn
—
36
Waukesha, Wis 36
Findings of the 21 studies as to unemployed women----------------36
Extent of unemployment
36
Unemployment in various occupations----------------------------------37




m

IV

CONTEXTS

Part III.—Women’s unemployment—-Continued.
Special studies of the unemployment of women—Continued.
Findings of the 21 studies as to unemployed women—Contd.
Duration of unemployment___________ ____________________
Reasons for unemployment
39
Responsibility of unemployed women for support of others. .
Age---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nativity and color
43
Part-time employment
43
Summary of data from 21 special unemployment studies____
Part IV.—Data in regard to fluctuations in the employment of women____
General sources of employment data
Special analyses of employment data
State material available by sex
Illinois employment data
Character of the data
Employment indexes reported (not by sex).
Industries selected for inclusion
53
The general movement in manufacturing employment in the 4
years
53
All manufacturing in each year
53
Low employment level in 1930 and 1931 in various manu­
facturing industries
54
Employment movement in special manufacturing groups or
industries
Metals, machinery, and conveyances___________
Electrical apparatus__________________________________
Watches and jewelry
Sheet-metal work and hardware______________________
Food, beverages, and tobacco —
Slaughtering and meat packing_______________________
Confectionery
Clothing and millinery
Men’s clothing
Women’s clothing
Printing and paper goods
Job printing
Paper boxes, bags, and tubes
Furs and leather goods
Boots and shoes
Chemicals, oils, and paints
Textilest_________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing industries
65
Telephone industry
65
Department stores
65
Hotels and restaurants
66
Laundries
67
Summary of employment movement of women in Illinois, 1928,
1929, 1930, 19311____
General employment level
67
Irregularities within the year
68
Declines in employment in the 4-year period______________
Evidences as to replacement
New York employment data__________________
Character of the data
Groups included in the present consideration______________
The general movement in manufacturing employment in the 4
years
Employment in special manufacturing groups or industries------Clothing
Women’s clothing
Men’s clothing1______________________________________
Laundering and cleaning___________
- ---------------Men’s furnishings_____________________
Women’s headwear__________________
Women’s underwear




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CONTENTS

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V

Part IV.—Data in regard to fluctuations in the employment of women—Con.
New York employment data—Continued.
Employment in special manufacturing groups or industries—Con. Page
Textiles
81
Knit goods (except silk)
82
Woolen, carpet, and felt factories_______________________
83
Silk factories_______________________________ ________
83
Food and tobacco
84
Candy
84
Bakery products
84
Canning and preserving
85
Tobacco industry
87
Furs, leather, and rubber goods
87
Shoes
87
Gloves, bags, and canvas goods_________________________
88
Printing and paper goods
89
Printing and bookmaking
90
Paper boxes and tubes
90
Metals and machinery
91
Machinery and electrical apparatus_____________________
92
Summary of employment movement of women in New York, 1928,
1929, 1930, 1931
92
General employment level
92
Irregularities within the year
93
Declines in employment in the 4-year period_________________
93
Evidences as to replacement
94
Ohio employment data
95
Character of the data
95
Groups included in the present consideration______________
96
The general movement of employment in main occupational
groups
97
Wage earners in all industries
97
Wage earners in manufacturing
98
Wage earners in service
98
Wage earners in transportation and public utilities----------99
Wage earners in trade
100
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in all industries.
100
Salespeople not traveling---------------------------------------The general movement in the employment of wage earners in
manufacturing industries
101
Textiles
103
Men’s clothing
103
Women’s clothing
103
Hosiery and knit goods
105
Rubber products______________________________ ___________
105
Tires and tubes
105
Food and kindred products
106
Bakery product's
107
Paper and printing__________________
107
Printing and publishing
108
Tobacco
108
Cigars and cigarettes
108
Iron and steel
109
Foundry and machine-shop products___________________
109
Leather and leather products
110
Boots, shoes, cut stock, and findings__________________
110
Stone, clay, and glass products
111
Pottery, terra-cotta, and fire-clay products--------------------111
Metals and metal products other than iron and steel------------111
Copper, tin, and sheet-iron products____________________
111
Gas and electric fixtures, lamps, and reflectors------------112
Vehicles
112
Automobiles and parts
114
Miscellaneous manufacturing
114
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies_________
115
Radios and radio parts............................................




101

1

VI

CONTENTS

Part TV. Data in regard to fluctuations in the employment of women—Con.
Ohio employment data—Continued.
Summary of employment movement of women in Ohio, 1928,
1929, 1930, 1931_______________________________________ 117
Seasonal movements
117
General employment level
117
Evidences as to replacement
118
Irregularities within the year
118
Declines in employment in the 4-year period______________
Studies of employment fluctuations affecting women________________
Studies by the Women’s Bureau
122
Women in slaughtering and meat packing_________________
Women in the radio industry
123
Firms reported in South Bend, Ind
124
The Minnesota studies
124
Summary of studies of employment fluctuations affecting women _
Data from three States in regard to woman-employing industries not
reported by sex
131
Comparison of employment fluctuations affecting women in various
industries in four States
133
Part V.—Data published by States on activities of public employment
agencies as they apply to women, 1928-31__________________
Variations among the States in public employment agencies________
Growth of public employment agencies in the United States________
Public-employment data considered in this report__________________
State reports classifying data by sex in the period 1928 to 1931_____
Terminology used in State reports and character of their statistics.
Preponderance of demand made at agencies for certain types of
work_____________________ ___________________________ ______
Extent of demand reported for woman help
146
Year's data from employment agencies
148
Monthly reports on applications and help wanted
149
Relative numbers of women and men applying and called for_
_
Seasonal indications
150
High points in demand for women and men employees_________
Applications and help wanted as compared with year previous. _
Relation between applications and demands for help___________
States reporting some occupational data on applications and help
wanted___________________
Occupational data in six large industrialStates_________________
Occupational data in six States having a few general classifications
Summary of occupational data
158
Bibliography----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------References on unemployment of women cited in this report_________
References on fluctuations of employment cited in this report_______
References on employment agencies cited in thisreport______________
Reports of State public employment agencies containing some data
by sex, 1928 to 1931
Appendixes
165
A.—General tables 167 to 215
B.—Methods used by New York State Department of Labor in prep­
aration of employment figures, as described in special bulletin
143-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C.—Information by sex published by State-supported employment
agencies, 1928-31

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139
140
141
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157
160
160
161
162
163
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216
221

TEXT TABLES
1. Percent of women and men, 10 years of age and over, reported as un­
employed, 1900, by normal occupation
14
2. Number and percent of women and men reported as unemployed in
classes A and B combined, by selected manufacturing industries or
industry groups, April 1930
3. Number and percent of women unemployed in classes A and B com­
bined, by selected States, April 1930
4. Number and percent of women and men unemployed in classes A and
B combined, in 19 selected cities, January 1931___________________




’
18
21
24

CONTENTS
.

.

5. Period of idleness of women unemployed in classes A and B combined,
by city, January 1931I
27
6. Women and men normally in gainful occupations in 11 cities, 1930____
7. Extent of unemployment, as indicated in 13 studies in 7 cities and in 2
specilized studies
35
8. Comparison of number of employees reported in Census of Manu­
factures, 1929, with numbers in manufacturing reported to State
labor agencies
50
9. Relative importance of various industries and industrial groups in the
employment of women wage earners in Illinois, August 1930_______
10. Difference between highest and lowest index numbers of employment
within the year, and during 4-year period, Illinois, 1928-31________
11. Relative importance of various industries and industry groups in the
employment of women wage earners in New York, average for 1929_ _
12. Difference in woman employment from high to low point in the year,
1929 and 1931.,.._1_______________________________________
13. Difference between highest and lowest index numbers of employment
within the year, and during 4-year period, New York, 1928-31____
14. Relative importance of various industries and industry groups in the
employment of women wage earners in Ohio, September 1928______
15. Difference between highest and lowest index numbers of employment
within the year, and during 4-year period, Ohio, 1928-31_________
16. Percent variation in numbers employed between month of maximum
and month of minimum employmentin 4-yearperiod, 1928-31_______
17. Variation in employment between month of highest and month of
lowest employment in 4-year period, 1928-31, Ohio and three Min­
nesota cities
128
18. Percent declinefrom November 1929 to November 193 fin indexes "of
employment in chief woman-employing industries in certain impor­
tant industrial States not reporting employment data by sex______
19. Occupational distribution of women in four States
133
20. Industries showing greatest and least fluctuations in employment in
each of 4 years in three States
134
21. Difference between month of highest employment and month of lowest
employment in 4-year period, 1928-31, for Illinois, New York, and
Ohio in selected industries included in study
135
22. Terminology of reports of State public employment offices__________
23. Percent women in specified occupations formed of all persons reported
gainfully employed in the census, of all help wanted at agencies, and
of all women wanted at agencies—selected States, 1930__________
24. Percent women formed of all persons gainfully occupied and of all
help wanted, in selected occupation groups in five States, 1930_____

VII
Page

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69
72
76
94
102
119
127

132

142
145
147

APPENDIX TABLES
I. Numbers and proportions of the women unemployed in chief
woman-employing occupational groups, selected States, April
II. Unemployment of women by occupational group, 19 cities,
January 1931
III. Unemployment of women by age group, 19 cities, January 1931____
IV. Unemployment of women by nativity and race, 19 cities, January
V. Industrial distribution of women employees in selected industries in
Illinois
171
VI. Indexes of employment for women and men in selected industries
in Illinois, 1928-31
VII. Industrial distribution of women in selected manufacturing indus­
tries in New York
176
VIII. Indexes of employment for women and men in selected manufac­
turing industries in New York State, 1928-31
IX. Industrial distribution of manufacturing employees in selected in­
dustries in Ohio
182
X. Index of employment for women and men in selected industries in
Ohio, 1928-31___________ _____ ________________________________




168
169

174

178

184

VIII

CONTENTS

XI. Proportion of persons employed in maximum month in the year who
were off the pay roll in month of minimum employment, by in­
dustry—three cities in Minnesota, 1928-31
XII. Index of employment in selected industries, November of each year
in 4-year period, three States not reporting by sex, and indus­
?
trial distribution of women according to U.S. Census of 1930_
_
XIII. Applications, help wanted, placements, and help wanted per 100
applications, by year and by State including in its reports any
information by sex—women
194
XI V. Extent of woman employment and extent to which places "open
and placements reported applied to women in 14 selected States
1930’
XV. Monthly data from State reports on activities of public employ­
ment offices—12 States
197
XVI. Difference between 1929 and 1931 in numbers of women asking for
employment and number of women workers called for by em­
ployers, by selected occupations
212

188
190

i96

CHARTS
1. Index of employment in all manufacturing, Illinois, 1928-31, by sex..
2. Index of employment in electrical apparatus, in sheet-metal work
and hardware, and in watches and jewelry, Illinois, 1928-31, by
sex
gg
3. Index of employment in confectionery, and in slaughtering and meat
packing, Illinois, 1928-31, by sex
58
4. Index of employment in clothing and millinery, Illinois, 1928-31,"by
sex..-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. Index of employment in job printing, and in paper boxes, bags, and
tubes, Illinois, 1928-31, by sex62
6. Index of employment in boots and shoes, Illinois, 1928-31, by sex.. .
7. Index of employment in chemicals, oils, and paints, Illinois,'1928-31,
by sex--------------- .•-------- --------------------------------------------------------------’
8. Index of employment in textiles, Illinois, 1928-31, by sex_________ .
9. Index of employment in telephone, in department stores, and in
laundering, cleaning, and dyeing, Illinois, 1928-31, by sex_______
10. Index of employment in all manufacturing, New York State, 1928-31,
all employees
’
11. Index of employment in ail manufacture, New York State, 1928-31,
by sex------------------------------------------------------------------- .-------------------12. Index of employment in clothing and millinery, New York State,
1928-31, by sex. (See also chart 13.)'_________
13. Index of employment in women’s headwear and in women’s under­
wear, New York State, 1928-31, by sex. (See also chart 12.)_____
14. Index of employment in textiles, New York State, 1928-31, by sex..
15. Index of employment in bakery products, in candy, and in tobacco,
^
New York State, 1928-31, by sex
85
16. Index of employment in canning and preserving, New York State,
1928-31, by sex
86
17. Index of employment in shoes, and in gloves, bags, and canvas goods,
New York State, 1928-31, by sex
88
18. Index of employment in printing and paper goods, New York State,
1928-31, by sex
89
19. Index of employment in metals and machinery, New York State,
1928-31, by sex____________________________________________
20. Index of employment of wage earners, Ohio, 1928-31, by sex. (See
also chart 21.)
21. Index of employment of wage earners in telegraph and telephone, and
^
in stores, Ohio, 1928-31, by sex. (See also chart 20.)_____________
22. Index of employment of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks,
Ohio, 1928-31, by sex—all industries_____________________________
23. Index of employment of salespeople (not traveling), Ohio, 1928-31,
by sex—stores (retail and wholesale)
101
24. Index of employment in textiles, Ohio, 1928-31, by sex... .
25. Index of employment in tires and tubes, Ohio, 1928-31, by sex...




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99
100
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CONTENTS

IX
Page

26. Index of employment in food and kindred products, Ohio, 1928-31,
by sex----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------27. Index of employment in paper and printing, Ohio, 1928-31, by sex__
28. Index of employment in cigars and cigarettes, Ohio, 1928-31, by sex..
29. Index of employment in iron and steel and their products, Ohio, 1928­
31, by sex
110
30. Index of employment in boots, shoes, cut stock, and findings, Ohio,
1928-31, by sex,
31. Index of employment in pottery, terra-cotta, and fire-clay products,
Ohio, 1928-31, by sex
111
32. Index of employment in copper, tin, and sheet-iron products, and in
gas and electric fixtures, lamps, and reflectors, Ohio, 1928-31, by
sex______________________________________________________________
33. Index of employment in automobiles and parts, Ohio, 1928-31, by
sex---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------34. Index of employment in electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies,
Ohio, 1928-31, by sex
115
35. Index of employment in radios and parts, Ohio, 1928-31, by sex_____
36. Ratio of help wanted to 100 applications—women in 5 States, 1928-31.




106
108
109

111

113
114
116
153




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
United States Department of Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, May 22, 1933.

I have the honor to submit a report evidencing the
fluctuations in employment to which women are subject and indi­
cating the extent of their unemployment.
The frequent uncertainty of employment and the distressing periods
of unemployment to which women are subject, particularly in certain
industries in which their labor is an important factor, constitute a
potent cause of human waste in industry—a subject upon which this
Bureau has been carrying on an extensive study over a considerable
period of time.
_
For the country as a whole, the data on employment fluctuations
and unemployment as they apply to women represent but fragments
that give intimation of the entire situation. In the present report,
these partial data have been brought together from various sources
in an effort to show something of what the entire picture may be.
The material analyzed has been gathered from four types of sources:
Reports on unemployment issued by the United States Bureau of the
Census; regular reports on employment in various industries collected
monthly by sex in 3 States, and similar data for woman-employing
industries in 3 other States that are important in woman employment
but that do not collect figures by sex; reports printed or mimeographed
by officials in 24 States and giving data by sex as to activities of Statesupported employment agencies.; 24 special studies of the unemploy­
ment of women or of their employment fluctuations, made by the
Women’s Bureau and by various other authorities.
I acknowledge with especial appreciation the courtesy of the various
State labor departments in cooperating with the Bureau in the collec­
tion of this material, some of them having gone to considerable trouble
to provide unpublished data.
By no means all the individuals and agencies that have given assist­
ance in tins report can be enumerated, though I am grateful to all,
but particular mention should be made of the careful reading and
helpful comment made by officials in 12 States on the parts of the
manuscript citing their material, and by the following persons familiar
with the difficulties of presenting data from public employment
agencies: Annabel M. Stewart, coauthor of a recent study on this
subject; Dr. Gladys Palmer, director of Extension Studies of the
State Employment Office in Philadelphia; Dr. W. E. Parker, director
of research, and Mabel E. Crafts, director of Service and Farm
Division, of the Public Employment Center of Rochester, N.Y.
This report is the work of Mary Elizabeth Pidgeon, chief of the
research division of the Women’s Bureau.
Respectfully submitted.
Madam:

Mary Anderson, Director.

Hon. Frances Perkins,
Secretary of Labor.




XI

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND
UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
CERTAIN INDICATIONS FROM VARIOUS SOURCES, 1928-31

Part I.—INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE OF REPORT
Among the many requests that come to the Women’s Bureau for
material throwing light on a great variety of phases of women’s work,
a type that has assumed frequent importance is concerned with the
extent to which women suffer unemployment, the changing volume
of woman employment under the economic conditions prevailing in
the past few years, and the relationship such changes bear to the
fluctuations in numbers of women seeking employment along various
lines.
_ _
_ _
One of the important sources of human waste in industry lies in the
continual, often extreme, fluctuation in the employment of women
from month to month and year to year. This report cannot seek
to discover the complex causes of the frequent changes observed or
of unemployment; it only can find and present certain available
indications of the directions of change or the extent of unemployment
among women.
_
_ •
There is no complete information as to the relative extent of un­
employment among women at comparatively frequent intervals in
the whole United States, though the results of a question on this
subject included in the decennial census in some years give a modicum
of data.
#
.
Regular periodic figures showing changes in the volume of woman
employment in certain industries can be obtained from a few States
but not for the entire country. NaturaUy, these do not show the
full extent of unemployment even in any given time or place, although
there is evidence that they do give quite definite indications as to
unemployment, especially in relation to certain industries.1 Neither
do they afford a knowledge of what is happening to individual women
or to any particular group, though scattered special studies have been
made along these lines by both the Women’s Bureau and other
authorities.
_
State reports on public employment agencies add other fragmentary
information, since they show in some degree the periods in whichi
i See, for example, Dewhurst, J. Frederic. Employment Fluctuations in Pennsylvania, 1921 to 1927,
pp. 90fL Also Journal of American Statistical Association. June 1931. A. C. C. Hill, Jr., The Brookings
Institution. Employment Statistics as Measures of Unemployment. This study is an examination of
British figures on employment indicating that unemployment increases as the employment reported
decreases in certain industries, and vice versa, though in respect to other industries this did not necessarily
prove to be the case.




1

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

increases or decreases in the applications of women to such agencies
occur in some of the States and the extent to which such applications
are effective in obtaining jobs.
An examination of the various types of information mentioned in
the foregoing offers some suggestion as to the extent to which con­
siderable numbers of women who have been in gainful employment at
some time either are without such work at another time or are under
the necessity of finding a new job and adjusting to it; the great irregulari ties of employment to which women are subject, particularly in
certain industries; the aggravation of the serious problem of earning
a living constituted by this lack of job stability; and the relative
difficulty women who have been dislocated have in finding new work
at various times or places or in various industries.
. The assembling of these data in a single report will serve to identify
in a general fashion the characteristic employment situation of women
in j given period, to form a valuable background to more intensive
studies of the experiences of particular groups of women, and to sug­
gest the rich possibilities that might lie in the extension of such in­
formation should other States or localities find themselves able to
obtain similar material and to publish it in somewhat more complete
form.
SCOPE OF THE REPORT
The present study seeks to bring together in one place, with some
analysis of findings, four types of material pertinent to the irregulari­
ties of employment of women within a recent period, namely, a brief
summary and discussion of the extent of unemployment among women
by the censuses of 1930 and January 1931; the extent and direction of
fluctuations in the employment of women in certain of the more
outstanding woman-employing industries as reported from official
sources in certain States during the four years 1928 to 1931, inclusive,
with some analysis of the same; brief summaries of the findings as
to employment fluctuations and unemployment in certain recent
studies made by the Women’s Bureau and other authorities; and a
statement of the extent to which the various States make available
information as to the activities of their public employment agencies
as these affect.women, and the extent to which any indication of the
employment situation touching women can be obtained from such
reports.
Since this is not an. investigation of a particular group of women,
naturally it cannot give original information as to the duration of
unemployment, the number of times unemployed, or other matters
connected with the personal history of individuals, except in that
part of the report that summarizes the findings of other studies, some
of which deal with these aspects of the problem. For the most part,
only data available in published form have been used, and it has not
been possible to survey reports from local employment agencies.
No account has been taken of reports applying particularly to relief
activities or to any made-work projects; these are for the most part
handled by entirely separate agencies, and while in a few cases they
may have had some influence in increasing applications for jobs or
employment-office placements this effect has not been great in the
period of study.




INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE OF REPORT

6

A more detailed list of the types of material included and the sources
from which these are obtained is as follows:
1. Reports as to unemployment of women:
a. United States Census of Unemployment, 1930 and 1931.
b. Special studies by various authorities.
2. Data on fluctuations in the employment of women:
a. Data published periodically by sex in three large industrial States:
Illinois—18 industries or industrial groups.
New York—23 industries or industrial groups.
Ohio—26 industries or industrial groups.
b. Data from various special studies.
.
c. Fluctuations in employment in certain important woman-employing
industries in three States issuing periodic reports on employment
not separated by sex: Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
3. Types of data concerning women from State reports of activities of public
employment agencies—23 States reporting by sex.




Part II.—GENERAL SUMMARY
Some general statement may be made as to the sources of infoimation and the situations they show in connection with the unem­
ployment of women, the fluctuations in their employment, and the
data published by State-supported employment agencies. This study
does not attempt to recite individual case histories, however typical
certain of these might be considered. It brings together from a vari­
ety of available sources information serving to outline the picture of
the extent of unemployment, to show something of the personal
status of the unemployed, and to indicate the degree in which montlito-month fluctuations in employment affect women, especially in cer­
tain industries or occupations.
The findings here presented give abundant evidence of the insecurity
of employment among women; the long duration of unemployment in
a considerable proportion of cases; the youth of many jobless women;
and the especial severity of the situation in certain industries and
occupations. Further, they show the fluctuations in emplovment
from month to month—much more extreme in some industries or
occupations than in others—and the decline in emplovment in the
early years of the depression, usually from the 1929 peak to the low
point ol 1930 or 1931. The available data indicate that, relative to
the extent of employment of either sex, fluctuations and declines
frequently have affected women to a greater extent than they have
men; that women to a greater extent than men are employed at the
Peak periods in certain highly seasonal industries and later laid off;
and that the industries and occupations in which the variations are
most extreme often are exactly those within which women workers
must make their livelihood.
UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

The sources of the data on the unemployment of women that have
been analyzed in this report are census material, chiefly that for 1930
and 1931, and 21 special studies made bv the Women’s Bureau and bv
various other agencies and ordinarily covering particular localities or
industries. Wlule the causes of the unemployment reported from
these sources have been too complex and varied for satisfactory
detailed analyses, it may be stated confidently that they can be
assigned primarily to economic and business conditions.
The census reports on unemployment for the two years cited
classify as A and B, respectively, persons out of work, able to work
and seeking work, and persons laid off. The present discussion of the
unemployed comprises these two groups combined, since they are
likely to include most of those for whom joblessness caused wholly or
mainly by economic or business situations is the primary problem.




GENERAL SUMMARY

5

These two groups include over three fourths of the total of the unem­
ployed women, eliminating consideration of those unable to work or
voluntarily idle. (See p. 16.)
Such reports as are available on the subject indicate that the num­
bers working only part-time at least approximate and often exceed
those totally unemployed (see p. 44), so it may be safely assumed that
the problems outlined in the following pages of this summary are
doubled or more than doubled in extent and degree of seriousness.
The unemployment census of January 1931 covers 19 large cities
in various parts of the United States 1—a combination that represents
practically one fourth (23.6 percent) of the women normally in gain­
ful occupations in the entire country. Consequently, its findings
may be considered generally indicative of the situation in the indus­
trial sections of the country as a whole. In respect to the points
covered, its accuracy probably is superior to that of the 1930 unem­
ployment census for the United States, since it was concerned solely
with unemployment and was not part of a population count. How­
ever, the material is presented in the main by city without totals for
the whole, which makes it less easy to obtain general information for
the entire sample on such matters as, say, the situation in particular
industries as against that in other industries.
Information as to the extent and basis of each of the 21 special
studies considered will be found elsewhere in the text in connection
with discussion of the study in question (p. 31 and following).
Extent of the unemployment of women
The census of 1930 reported 668,661 women unemployed in all
classes combined and 501,502 in classes A and B combined. That of
January 1931 reported 479,283 women out of work (A and B com­
bined) in 19 cities. Since tills represented 18.9 percent of the women
normally gainfully occupied in those localities, if this proportion be
applied to all employed women in the United States, the total number
of women unemployed in January 1931 must have approximated at
least 2,000,000. In two of these same cities other agencies made
studies of special samples in 1931, affording some information on
extent of industrial unemployment among women. In these the
proportions of women reported unemployed were fairly similar in the
census and in the special sample studied: Buffalo, special sample 21.6
percent, census IS percent; Philadelphia, special sample 23.7 percent,
census 24.3 percent.
Unemployment in various States and cities
The States reporting 50,000 women or more gainfully occupied
and having the largest proportions of women unemployed as reported
in April 1930 were Rhode Island, Massachusetts, and Florida; the
smallest, Alabama and Mississippi. (See p. 21.) In January 1931,
in Houston 26 percent of the women were reported unemployed, and
there were over 20 percent in Philadelphia, New Orleans, Chicago,
Detroit, Birmingham, Cleveland, and St. Louis. The smallest pro­
portion was 9.4 percent in San Francisco, while Denver and Seattle
each reported 11.7 percent. (See p. 25. In every case classes A
and B alone are included.)i
i For New York only 3 boroughs were reported, but these may be considered representative of the city as
they include 85 percent of the women normally in gainful occupations.
179570°—33—2




6

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Unemployment in main occupational groups
From whatever available source considered, the manufacturing
industries and domestic and personal service—the two largest womanemploying occupational groups—had suffered greater proportional
(as well as greater numerical) unemployment than had any other
group. In January 1931 the women unemployed (classes A and B)
formed nearly one third of those usually in manufacturing, nearly one
fourth of those ordinarily in domestic and personal service, practically
one fifth of those, in trade, and over one tenth of those in clerical
occupations and in transportation and communication. In every
city the professional group had the smallest proportion unemployed,
but it must be remembered that in many cases women so trained are
likely to go into other than professional work rather than remain
wholly unemployed. (See p. 30.) Special studies in 1931 that give
proportions of women unemployed in occupational groups—namely,
those made in a New York city—show somewhat smaller proportions
unemployed in manufacturing than the census of that year indicated,
a distinctly larger proportion than reported by the census in domestic
and personal service, somewhat smaller proportions in trade and
transportation, but a very much larger proportion unemployed in
clerical occupations than the census indicated—32.5 percent against
12.1 percent.
Taking 18 States that normally employed 200,000 or more women,
according to the Census of Occupations in April 1930, it is found that
the proportions of women unemployed in manufacturing were greatest
in Massachusetts and North Carolina, least in Texas and Wisconsin.
In domestic and personal service and in trade the range in proportions
unemployed was not great; in the first-mentioned occupational
group, proportions of women unemployed were greatest in Michigan,
least in Wisconsin. In 9 of these 18 States, the manufacturing in­
dustries had the greatest proportions of woman employment, in the
remaining 9, domestic and personal service. Trade usually came
next in proportions unemployed. (See p. 22.)
Unemployment in particular industries
The data for April 1930 afford information as to relative extent of
unemployment in various industries for the United States as a whole.
These show women unemployed in the greatest proportions in woolen
and worsted mills, the manufacture of electrical machinery and
apparatus, cigars and tobacco, cotton factories, and certain food
industries. In each of these except cigars and cotton—in the latter
the proportion was the same—smaller proportions of men than of
women were out of work.
Industries showing men unemployed in the greatest proportions
were woolens and worsteds, automobiles, cigars and tobacco, and
shoes. (See p. 18.)
Duration of unemployment
Naturally, as unsettled economic conditions continue over an
extended period, studies made at later dates would be likely to show
larger proportions out of work for long periods than would surveys
made earlier. Census data for January 1931 showed that in 11 cities
and 2 New York boroughs at least one fifth of the unemployed women




GENERAL SUMMARY

7

had been out of work over 6 months, the proportion running as high
as 36.9 percent in Detroit. (See p. 26.) Special studies made in 1931
in 5 cities showed for the women unemployed that from 16.4 percent
in Philadelphia to 36.7 percent in Buffalo had been out of work a
year or longer.
Ages of the women unemployed
The indications are that unemployment has borne heavily upon
the younger groups of women, in some cases their proportion unem­
ployed being greater than their place in the woman population and
in normal employment. Data from the census of April 1930 arranged
in 5-year groups for those 20 to 60 years of age and over (see p. 19)
show that for each sex the largest proportion of those out of work
were 20 to 24 years old; of the unemployed women about 56 percent,
and of the men about 37 percent, were under 30; of the women
about 12 percent, of the men about 23 percent, were 50 or older.
In the census of January 1931 the group of women under 20 held
the largest proportion of unemployed, ranging from 17.8 percent to
36.6 percent in the various cities and boroughs reported. Of the
girls under 20 normally gainfully occupied, more than 30 percent in
7 cities and between 20* and 30 percent in 8 other cities and the 3 New
York boroughs were unemployed at that date. (See p. 26.) In five
studies—three of them made in 1931—the proportions of the women
unemployed who were under 25 were greater than were the propor­
tions of women in the general population and of those normally in
gainful occupations who were under 25. (See p. 41.)
Unemployment among foreign-born and Negro women
The census of January 1931 shows that in every city and borough
reported very much larger proportions of the Negro women and
smaller—usually considerably smaller—proportions of the foreignborn than of the native white women were unemployed. (See p. 27.)
Three of the special studies made—two made in New York cities
and one in Philadelphia, two in 1931—indicate that the proportion of
foreign-born women in the unemployed group was less than its pro­
portion in the population or that normally in gainful occupations (see
p. 43), but the proportion of Negro women unemployed was decidedly
greater than their place in the population and in gainful employment
Responsibility of unemployed women for support of others
The studies of women’s unemployment analyzed afford few data
for gauging the extent to which women out of jobs have others depend­
ent upon them, though various surveys of the Women’s Bureau indi­
cate that many employed women are responsible for a large share in
family support. The unemployment census of 1930 shows that
48,648 unemployed women—approximately one tenth of all those out
of jobs—were heads of families, which according to the census defini­
tion means the dependency of others upon them. If information
could be obtained for a later date, almost certainly it would show this
proportion enlarged. In some of the special studies, from practically
one fifth to well over one half the unemployed women had others
dependent upon them, but not all of these were responsible for the
complete support of others besides themselves. (See p. 40.)




8

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

The material summarized up to this point has had to do with
women out of work at a given time or for certain periods of time.
Other material shows the changes in numbers employed from month
to month. The data that can be obtained on this subject give over­
whelming testimony to the severe extent to which women in com­
parison with men are affected by fluctuations in employment in every
year in industries that are large employers of women, and to the
extent to which women, as compared to men, are the sufferers from
employment decline.
The basic information available on fluctuations in women's employ­
ment in important industrial areas within the period 1928-31 is con­
tained in periodic reports on employment in three large industrial
States—New York, Ohio, and Illinois; in a few studies made by the
’Women’s Bureau, mostly relating to particular industries; and in
special reports for three Minnesota cities. In the case of three large
industrial States—Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsm—
wdiose regular reports on employment are not by sex, certain of the
industries showrn are known to be large woman employers, and some
indication as to fluctuations within these industries is afforded.2
For consideration in this report the more important woman-employ­
ing industries or occupation groups were selected. The Illinois, New
York, and Ohio data used include the following numbers of industries
or occupation groups:
Manufac­
turing

Total

Ohio___ ____________________________________________________________

18
23
26

14
23
20

The material available varies considerably in the three States in
relative importance of different employment groups, in types of report­
ing, and consequently in statistical basis. For these reasons, exact
and complete comparisons frequently cannot be made. However, a
few of the more striking facts can be commented upon, such as the
extent to which certain industries showed more or less extreme fluc­
tuation of woman employment than did others, both within each year
and within the 4 years, and the relative extent to which women and
men were affected.
In each case an index of employment forms the basis of the discus­
sion, the variations reported being measured in points of difference
between the high and the low index in the period covered. Inci­
dentally, it should be mentioned that in most cases the highest index
of employment came at some time in 1929, the lowest ordinarily in
1930 or 1931 (in a few cases in 1928). The characteristics of the data
from each of the States included are given in some detail in the con­
sideration of the States in question (see pp. 50, 51, 70, and 95) and
afford a basis for evaluating the index used in each case.
2 A few States that do not rank high in the industrial employment of women, notably Iowa and Kansas,
also keep periodic records of employment by sex.




9

GENERAL SUMMARY

Employment fluctuations within the year
Certain industries that employ large numbers of women are com­
monly known to be highly seasonal. These and some other industries
showed decided variations in the employment of one or of both sexes
in practically every year in each State in which they were a factor
important enough for inclusion. A marked similarity was shown in
the position taken by certain industries or groups in their relation to
other industries or groups in.extent of these variations, regardless of
the locality under consideration.
Great irregularity in the employment of both sexes ordinarily was
shown in the. manufacture of radios and radio parts, of automobiles,
and of electrical machinery and supplies; in some of the clothing
groups; in certain of the food industries known to be seasonal, notably
canning, meat packing, and in some instances candy or confectionery;
and, especially for women, among employees in stores, even if the
December peak be left out of account. Variations between high and
low employment index within the year sometimes ran well over 100
points.. Reports from certain Women’s Bureau studies show the
following proportions of the women on pay rolls in the maximum
week of the year who were not on the rolls in the week of minimum
employment or at the time interviewed:
Radios and parts (1929)—53.5 percent to 86.3 percent in various branches
of the industry.
South Bend, various industries (1930)—about 21 percent.
Slaughtering and meat packing (1928)—27.9 percent to 45.5 percent in
5 cities.

Industries or occupation groups that ordinarily showed greater
regularity of employment were the clerical groups reported; the
telephone industry; certain service occupations; paper and printing;
and in some cases men’s clothing. Printing and certain branches of
clothing are likely to be more strongly organized than some other
industries.
The points of difference between the high and the low index in
employment in all manufacturing in the three States in each of the
4 years were as follows:
Women

Men

State
1928
Illinois.______ ______________
New York____ _____________
Ohio..__________________________

10
20
15

1929
11
12
15

1930
22
14
12

1931
14
12
10

1928
8
4
13

1929
8
7
19

1930
20
13
191

1931
15
12
13

In the three Minnesota cities combined the proportions of women
on the rolls at the maximum of employment but not on the rolls at
the minimum were as follows:
1928—10.0 percent
1929—6.1 percent
1930—5.6 percent
1931—5.3 percent




10

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Decline in employment within the 4 years
Variation between high and low index in the 4-year period fre­
quently resolves itself into a showing of the entire decline from the
1929 high to the 1931 low.. Such declines were especially great in the
employment of women in automobiles and electrical apparatus..
Employment variations for women or for the two sexes combined
were notable in some cases in certain of the clothing, textile, and
metal industries. Relatively small declines in woman employment
occurred in printing and publishing, in laundering and cleaning, and
among clerical groups and telephone employees. The points of de­
cline in the 4-year period in the indexes of all manufacturing em­
ployment, combined are as follows:

Points of decrease,
over 4-year period
State

Women

Massachusetts_ ______ ______________________________________
_
Pennsylvania... ... ................... ........
......

45
42
33

Men
43
49
32

Percent
decrease
Novem­
ber 1929;
to No­
vember
1931
Both
sexes

30.6
24.8
30.8

Irregularity and declines for women and men
The summary for all manufacturing on page 91 indicates that in
1928, 1929, and 1930 the variation between high and low employ­
ment in Illinois and New York was greater for women than for men—
in New York very much greater—but that by 1931 this condition
had changed. In Ohio men’s employment fluctuated more than
women’s in each year but 1928.
Reports for the Minnesota cities show the proportions of persons
employed at the maximum who were not on the rolls in the minimum
month of the year. For Minneapolis these show the condition just
noted for Ohio: Larger proportions of women out of work in 1928,
larger proportions of men in each of the other 3 years. In the city
of St. Paul larger proportions of women than of men were out of
work in every year.
If separate industries be considered, as measured by the variation
between high and low index of employment within the year, the
irregularity of employment in the important woman-employing in­
dustries here considered was greater for women than for men in Ohio
in every year in 18 of 26 groups, including 11 of 19 manufacturing
industries; in Illinois, in each of the 18 industries or groups included,
in nearly every year; in New York, in every year in 6 (and usually
in 5 other) of the 23 groups included. The employment fluctuation
was the greater for men in Ohio among wage earners in ah industries,
the service group, and radio manufacture; in none of the 18 Illinois
or 23 New York industries or groups was fluctuation the greater for
men in every year, though it usually was so in New York in 3 of the
clothing and textile groups.




GENERAL SUMMARY

11

Variations during the 4-year period were greater for women than
men in Illinois in practically every industry group; in New York, in
12 of the 23 groups included; in Ohio, in 18 of the 26 groups, including
15 of the 20 manufacturing industries or groups. In all the manu­
facturing industries taken together, employment decline was slightly
greater for women than for men in Illinois and New York, the greater
for men in Ohio, and this is based on the manufacturing total as re­
ported by the State, which includes industries outstanding as em­
ployers of men as well as the woman employers selected for discussion
in the present report.
DATA PUBLISHED BY STATES ON ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC
EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

State reports as to public employment agencies have been exam­
ined for the years 1928 to 1931. Within this period 23 States had
issued some data by sex in certain publications dealing with these
agencies. One of these reports data for a private agency only.
Fourteen of these, nine of them relatively important in woman
employment, afford some information in each of the 4 years. (See
table XIII in Appendix A.)
The variations among the States in types of reporting make accur­
ate comparison of their material wellnigh impossible. The usual sub­
jects reported upon were applications or registrations, help wanted,
referrals, and placements; a few States have computed the ratio of
applications to places open.
The reports do not show the number of separate individuals that
have sought employment through the agency nor the number of
separate places open. Their chief indication is the extent of activity
of the offices and the pressure of the work at given intervals. In some
instances a State has varied its method of reporting within the 4 years.
While they show nothing as to individuals or the rise of new occupa­
tional opportunity, nevertheless general indications as to labor
market movements can be obtained from these data. Certain of the
newer offices established through cooperation of public agencies and
private endowment are working toward the development of methods
of reporting that will in the future supply data lending themselves
more adequately to fruitful analysis than has been the case in the
past.
Data on help wanted showed a preponderance of demand at the
agencies for domestic and casual workers, though manufacturing
workers formed a large proportion of those asked for in Pennsylvania
and roughly one tenth in New York and Minnesota in 1929 and 1931.
Clerical help wanted usually was small.
Demands for women constituted considerable proportions of all
calls for help. While this may have been expected from the numbers
of domestic workers wanted, still, in several States where the data
enabled such analysis, the proportions of women wanted in domestic,
clerical, and manufacturing work also considerably outran their pro­
portions engaged in these respective occupations according to the
census of 1930,




12

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

In half the 14 States for which such data could be analyzed,3 there
was an increase in the proportion of woman help wanted, continuous
either throughout the four years or after 1929. This fact cannot be
confidently assigned to any one reason, but rather its causes are
varied and complex.
So far as. the data for the 4 years in 13 States with complete records
afford any indication of the employment situation of women, applica­
tions or registrations for jobs had been greater in 1931 than in any
other year in 7 of the 13 States, and in 4 of these the rise in applica­
tions had been continuous from year to year. In 10 of the 13 States
the jobs open to women were fewer in 1931 than in any other of the 4
years, and the decline in help wanted had been continuous after the
peak of 1929. In 12 of the 13 States the ratio of help wanted to appli­
cations of women w*as lower in 1931 than in any other year—very
much lower in at least 6 States.
Twelve important woman-employing States afford some informa­
tion by month, though not in all these is the entire 4-year period
covered. It is not surprising that in 9 of the 12 States demands for
woman help reached a high point in 1929 that never again was reached.
More men’s than women’s applications and greater demands for male
than female help ordinarily were reported except in two States.
However, demands for women exceeded those for men for the most
part in two other States in 1930 and in three more in 1931.
If applications for both sexes among the larger manufacturing
woman-employing States in each year be compared month for month
with those in the preceding year, it is found that only in three States
did those of 1929 ordinarily exceed those in 1928, for men in two States
and for women in two, and the irregularity of the data affords little
significant information. The use of this method in an analysis of the
material on demands for help seems somewhat more fruitful, giving
the following rather consistent showing: In most months more places
were open in 1929 than in 1928 in five States for both sexes and in
two other States for men. Demands for help, as compared month
for month with year preceding, ordinarily were fewer in 1930 than in
1929, and still fewer in 1931.
With basic material of such irregularity, little of importance can
be shown in regard to various occupations, though some type of occu­
pational classification was included in reports from 12 States for some
or all of the 4 years. A large part of the work was in handling casual
and domestic and personal labor. Ordinarily, declining demand for
help and increasing pressure for jobs characterized most occupational
groups, and these movements caused especially great discrepancies
between the applications and the help wanted in the clerical and in
the manufacturing occupations.
3Includes Michigan, for which 1928 and 1929 data are not in hand. However, figures for 1930 and 1931
are available, and as Michigan is an important industrial State it has been included in table XIV though
Nevada and Arkansas were omitted. (See table XIII.)




Part III.—WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT
INFORMATION FROM THE FEDERAL CENSUS OF UNEM­
PLOYMENT AS IT APPLIES TO WOMEN

Information at frequent dates in regard to the extent of unemploy­
ment among women in the whole United States is not available. It is
obvious that even in any given locality the situation as to employ­
ment would be in a constant state of change and would differ from
month to month and even from day to day. An accurate and com­
plete picture could be obtained only by regular and frequent collec­
tions of data—a task that is not likely to be undertaken in the near
future for women in the entire country. Monthly reports as to em­
ployment changes in a few of the States give some indications of un­
employment so far as various industries are concerned, but cannot
be taken as complete measures of unemployment at any given time
even in the States that collect them.1 Some information on this sub­
ject has been made available at long intervals in connection with cer­
tain of the decennial reports of the United States census.
An effort has been made in five census years to ascertain the extent
of unemployment, and such information as has been prepared is by
sex. The question regarding months unemployed in the year was
asked first at the census of 1880, but tabulations were not made, owing
to the expense and to the fact that at least in connection with a part
of the data secured there was “grave doubt as to the reliability of the
information.” The first statistics on this question were published
in 1890, warning being given that they “should be regarded as ap­
proximate” ; tabulations showed that about 15.1 percent of the persons
ordinarily having gainful occupations were unemployed during some
part of the census year. There had been 510,613 women and 3,013,117
men without jobs, and the proportion of women was 13.7 percent of
those normally in gainful occupations, smaller than that of men, which
was 15.6 percent. In 1900 the results tabulated showed 22.3 percent
unemployed, and these figures are accepted as more accurate than
those of 1890, because in the later year the instructions were simpler
and more definite, and for other reasons.2 There were 1,241,492
women and 5,227,472 men without jobs, though the proportion of
women unemployed in relation to those normally in gainful occupa­
tions was 23.3 percent—greater than that of men, which was 22 per­
cent. In 1910 the returns were not printed, and in 1920 the question
was omitted entirely. In 1930 the schedule differed from those of
earlier years, seeking to ascertain number of persons unemployed on
the day preceding the enumerator’s call rather than, as formerly,
number unemployed at some time within the year, though in 1930 a
special schedule also inquired as to length of time those not employed
.

1 For report of a study indicating the degree in which the extent of unemployment can be gauged from
periodic data on employment, see footnote 1, p. 1.
2 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census, 1900.
to corrections in 1890 figures.




Occupations, p. ccxx if. See also p. lxvi in regard

13

14

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

on that day had been without work. The results were not compared
with those of previous decades, since the character of the information
was so dissimilar.3
UNEMPLOYED WOMEN ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS OF 1900

A brief comparison of men and women as regards unemployment
in 1900 4—the early year for which the fullest data are available—
may be given here from the figures shown by industry in the following
table:
Table

1.—Percent of women and men, 10 years of age and over, reported as un­
employed, 1900, by normal occupation a
Women
Occupation

Normally Percent Normally Percent
gainfully unem­ gainfully unem­
occupied ployed occupied ployed

All occupations *_____ __________________________
Professional service____________

Men

. _

______________

Manufacturing and mechanical pursuits______ _________
Clay, stone, and glass:
Glass workers ______________ ___________________
Potters
Food and kindred products:
Bakers______ ... _ ............ ........ ........................ ..
Confectioners______ ____________________ _____
Leather and its finished products:
Boot and shoe makers and repairers................. ... _.
Manufacturers and officials_ _________ ______ ____ _
_
Metal:
Clock and watch makers and repairers..
Gold and silver workers _________________ ______
Paper and printing:
Bookbinders
Box makers (paper).. ... ___ ___ _______ ______
Paper- and pulp-mill operatives.. .................................
Printers, lithographers, and pressmen __________
Textiles:
Carpet-factory operatives_______ ______ ___________
Cotton-mill operatives ...... __________________ _
Hosiery- and knitting-mill operatives............ ..............
Silk-mill operatives.......... ........... .......................................
Woolen-mill operatives
Other and not specified textile-mill operatives ..............
Dressmakers___... ____ _________________

5,319,397

23.3

23, 753,836

22.0

50.9
17 1

19.5
13.5
34.7

22.4

9, 404,429
827,941
3, 485, 208
4, 263, 617
«5, 772, 641

2, 621
2,940

45.5
34.4

47, 377
13, 200

59.9
32.8

4, 328
9,214

9.9
16.6

74,860
21,980

11.3
11.2

39,510
3,360

42.5
8.1

169,393
239,649

31.7
6.8

4,815
6,380

11.9
28.8

19,305
19,732

11.3
25.3

15, 632
17,302
9,424
15,981

16.7
20.4
21.1
16.5

14, 646
3,796
26,904
139,166

14.6
18.8
16.9
15.0

9,001
120, 603
34,490
32, 437
30,630
rf51,182
344, 794
7,623
86,120
146,105
30,941
68,935
20, 671
43,497

24.4
14.9
20.0
25.8
21.1
18.6
19.8
34 9
26.3
24.2
22.1
26.4
22.1
31.1

10,371
125,788
12,630
22,023
42, 566
d73,930
2,090
15 110
1,739
4,837
8,491
160,714
8,862
87,955

25.0
13. 1
20.3
29.3
19.5
* 18.9
20.8
41.0
8. 1
32.5
23.7
27.0
23.8
27.2

7,768
3, 580
7,374
2,158

20.0
39.6
21.3

4, 503
23, 361
14,492
28, 663

17.1
9.7
31.0
20.9

977,336
430,597
2, 095,449
503,347
«= 1, 312,668

Milliners...___... _______ ________ ________
Seamstresses_____________ ________ ______ _
Shirt, collar, and cuff makers_ ____________ ____
_
Tailoresses___________________ ______________ ____
Other and not specified textile workers____ _________
Tobacco and cigar operatives................................
...........
Miscellaneous industries:
Glove makers................................. ........................
Rubber-factory operatives.___ ______________ _____
Upholsterers_______________________ _______ _____

28.3

° TJ.S. Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census, 1900. Occupations, p. cxxviii ff., all industries included
that were listed under manufacturing for women.
h Industry titles are those used by the TJ.S. Bureau of the Census, but group titles have been supplied to
facilitate comparisons.
• Total exceeds details as only selected industries are shown separately.
d Other textile operatives includes bleachery and dye works operatives for men.
• Percent computed by Women’s Bureau.

For either sex, in all occupations taken together, the proportion
unemployed was more than one fifth of those normally in gainful
occupations, and it was somewhat greater for women (23.3 percent)
3 Ibid. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. I, p. 5.
4 The census year in 1900 was from June 1, 1899, to May 31, 1900.




15

WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

than for men (22 percent). Altogether there were 1,241,492 women
and 5,227,472 men out of work. In the three occupational groups
employing the fewest women—professional service, trade and transpor­
tation, and agriculture—larger proportions of women than of men were
unemployed. In the largest^—domestic and personal service—about
17 percent of the women were unemployed, and in the group next in
size—the manufacturing and mechanical industries—22.4 percent.
Both these employed many more men than women, and in both con­
siderably larger proportions of the men were unemployed, respectively
34.7 percent and 28.3 percent. The census figures show that pro­
fessional service was the only main group in which larger numbers of
women than of men were unemployed, 219,019 of the former and
111,547 of the latter being without jobs. The proportions were 50.9
percent and 13.5 percent, respectively.
The data show that in four manufacturing occupations that ordi­
narily are pursued in factories—paper-box making, bookbinding,
cotton manufacture, and glove making—both larger numbers and
larger proportions of women than of men were unemployed; and this
also was the case with milliners. Larger numbers (though not larger
proportions) of women than of men were without jobs in hosiery and
silk mills, in shirt, collar, and cuff factories, and as dressmakers and
seamstresses, as well as in a “not specified” group of textile workers.
In 18 of the 30 important woman-employing occupations listed as
manufacturing and mechanical industries—some of which occupations,
such as dressmakers, seamstresses, milliners, were not chiefly of factory
character—larger proportions of women than men were unemployed.
Three of these—cotton mills, tobacco and cigar, and boot and shoe
factories—employed more women than any other of the strictly factory
industries, and in these respectively 14.9, 31.1, and 42.5 percent of the
women and 13.1, 27.2, and 31.7 percent of the men were out of work.
The largest proportions unemployed among the women except for the
case of boots andshoeswereinindustriesordinarily employing relatively
few women—45.5 percent of the glass workers, 39.6 percent of the rub­
ber-factory operatives, 34.4 percent of the potters, and 34.9 percent of
the hat and cap makers. In the second and third of these four, larger
proportions of women than of men were unemployed. But the same
four, together with boots and shoes, were among the half dozen in­
dustries outranking all others in proportions of men unemployed.
The summary following shows the proportions of the men and
women usually engaged in certain occupations who were out of work
for specified lengths of time in the census year:
Percent of women and men, 10 years of age and over, reported as unemployed in 1900,
by industry and by period of unemployment 1

Occupational gfoup

Percent of unemployed
women who were out of
work—

Percent of unemployed
men who were out of
work—

4 to 6
7 to 12
1 to 3
4 to 6
7 to 12
1 to 3
months months months months months months
All occupations------- ------------------- ------ -

47.1
48.8
50.7
42.2
39.3
50.0

39.1
45.3
32.1
41.7
34.9
35.4

13.8
5.9
17.2
16.1
25.8
14.6

i U.S, Bureau of the Census. Twelfth Census, 1900. Occupations, p. ccxxxv.




49.6
52.3
42.7
46.5
48.4
49.7

39.6
39.8
39.7
42.2
35.7
38.4

10.8
7.9
17.6
11.3
15.9
11.9

16

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

The proportion of unemployed women who had been out of work
more than 6 months was greater than that of men out of work for this
period, the figures being 13.8 percent for the women and 10.8 percent
for the men. In 3 of the 5 main occupational divisions-—domestic
and personal service, trade and transportation, and manufacturing
and mechanical pursuits—considerably larger proportions of the
unemployed women than of the unemployed men had suffered such
prolonged idleness.
UNEMPLOYED WOMEN ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS OF 1930'

In the census of April 1930 the unemployed were reported in seven
classes, as follows:

.

Class A.—Persons out of a job, able to work, and looking for a job.
B.—Persons having jobs but on lay-off without pay, excluding those
sick or voluntarily idle.
C.—Persons out of a job and unable to work.
D.—Persons having jobs but idle on account of sickness or disability.
E.—Persons out of a job and not looking for work.
F.—Persons having jobs but voluntarily idle, without pay.
G.—Persons having jobs and drawing pay, though not at work (on
vacation, etc.).

If class G be excepted, persons in classes A and B combined formed
well over four fifths of those unemployed (85.1 percent of the men,
and 77.2 percent of the women). These are the main groups that
may be considered quite definitely to have been without work from
causes largely industrial or economic; and in addition, many of those
on lay-off had been out of work so long that the effects of their unem­
ployment were similar to those for persons in class A. Consequently
the analysis that follows will be confined chiefly to these two classes.
While persons in classes C and D combined—unable to work—formed
over one tenth of the total number unemployed (G excepted), 14.9
percent of the women and 11.1 percent of the men, and while the social
problem created in their case was serious, it did not arise solely from
lack of job. Those voluntarily idle formed only 3.7 percent of the
unemployed women and 1.9 percent of the unemployed men (still
excepting G). Those in class E cannot be placed in a specific category,
since undoubtedly many were discouraged from seeking work by the
hopelessness of the industrial situation, while others may not have de­
sired work; women in this class formed only about one fifth (20.5 per­
cent) as many as in class B alone; men about one tenth (9.7 percent.)
Some analysis of the findings of the Census of 1930 will set forth
this material relating to classes A and B in its application to women.
Unemployment in main occupational groups
The unemployed women in the seven classes A to G combined,
668,661 in number, formed 6.2 percent of all those reported as ordi­
narily having gainful occupations; unemployed men, 8.5 percent. If
those idle but receiving pay (class G) are excepted, 6 percent of the
women and 8.3 percent of the men were jobless. The women in
classes A and B combined formed 4.7 percent of those ordinarily gain­
fully occupied, the men 7.1 percent. The extent to which those in
the more important woman-employing occupational groups were re­* *
s The figures for women gainfully employed in vol. I of the unemployment census, which are the basis
* :S1S lotion of the report, differ somewhat from those later issued as final by the Bureau of the Census.
As the differences are so slight, only some 20,000 in a total of about 10% million, it is not thought necessary
to revise this section to conform to the correct figures later made available. For the final figures see section
on the unemployment census of January 1931, p. 23ff.




17

WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

ported affected by unemployment in classes A and B combined is
shown in the summary following. Through the subsequent discus­
sion, where the term “unemployed” is used, it will refer specifically
only to those in classes A and B combined.

Industry group

Percent of normally
gainfully occupied
unemployed in
classes A and B
combined 1
Women
4.7
4.6
7.7
10.7
7.4
5.5
4.8
2.4
3.9
1.2
2.3

Men
7.1
6.0
11.3
12.0
11.9
19.2
9.6
3.1
3.9
1.4
6.8

1 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. I, tables 9 and 10, pp. 15
and 16. Percents computed by Women’s Bureau. Throughout vol. I clerical workers are included in
the totals of each occupation group in which they worked. Vol. II, which reports clerical occupations as
a separate group, had not yet appeared when this summary was prepared.
2 Figures not given for the three smallest woman-employing groups—forestry and fishing, extraction of
minerals, and public service—nor for those “not otherwise specified.” These census reports did not sepa­
rate clerical workers from their respective industries.

The foregoing summary shows that the women ordinarily engaged
in the two largest woman-employing occupational divisions—domestic
and personal service and the manufacturing and mechanical indus­
tries, figures for the clerical group being not obtainable—had suffered
from unemployment in larger proportions than had those in any other
such division. Among the main manufacturing combinations, tex­
tiles and automobile factories and repair shops showed the largest
proportions of women unemployed. In every main occupational
group (except trade, where the proportions were the same) larger
proportions of men than of women had suffered unemployment. With
the exception of domestic and personal service, considerably larger
numbers of men than of women were out of work in each of the main
occupational groups.
Unemployment in chief manufacturing industries employing women.—
To give somewhat more detailed consideration to unemployment in
manufacturing, table 2 shows the numbers and proportions of both
sexes that were unemployed (in classes A and B combined) in the 16
largest woman-employing manufacturing industries or groups—all
those in which more than 45,000 women were engaged in the country
as a whole. In the order of numbers of women unemployed, the
industries or manufacturing groups in which more than 5,000 women
were without work were as follows:
Clothing industries.
Cotton mills.
Woolen and worsted mills.
Food and allied industries other than bakeries and slaughtering and meat
packing.
Electrical machinery and supply factories.
Cigar and tobacco factories.
Knitting mills.
Shoe factories.
Textile mills other than cotton, knitting, silk, and woolen and worsted.
Silk mills.
Iron and steel industries other than blast furnaces and automobile factories.




18

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Table 2.—Number and percent of women and men reported as unemployed in classes

A and B combined, by selected manufacturing industries or industry qroups, April
1930 1
'
W omen
Industry or industry group

Clothing industries-_________ _______________
Cotton mills_________________ ________
Printing, publishing, and engraving
Other iron and steel industries
....... ......... ......
Other food and allied industries 3_.____ _
Knitting mills......................... ....................
Shoe factories
_________________
Other textile mills 4___ ________ _________
Chemical and allied industries_________
Silk mills___________ ____ ____
Electrical machinery and supply factories
Cigar and tobacco factories
Metal industries, except iron and steel
Paper and allied industries
Woolen and worsted mills...................... ............
Automobile factories______ ______ ______

Men

Unemployed
in classes A
and B

Normally
gainfully
occupied Num­
ber
413, 925
160, 487
114, 574
109, 430
107, 619
101, 552
99, 246
98, 592
86,378
85, 344
82, 680
78,628
55, 259
51, 478
50, 110
45, 272

31,413
17, 455
5, 013
5,225
10, 902
9,291
8, 367
8,243
3,125
7,038
9, 860
9,310
4, 304
2,788
11,002
3, 461

Per­
cent
7.6
10.9
4.4
4.8
10.1
9.1
8.4
8.4
3.6
8.2
11.9
11.8
7.8
5.4
22.0
7.6

Normally
gainfully
occupied
375, 386
261, 914
427, 187
1, 648, 523
352, 797
72, 476
172, 083
176, 602
534, 672
90, 545
295, 834
71, 024
276, 531
191, 843
89, 809
594,889

Unemployed
in classes A
and B
Num­
ber
40,160
28, 584
21, 707
156,158
23, 383
7, 750
20, 203
18, 612
27,135
9, 036
28, 436
9, 396
27, 057
10, 709
18, 935
80, 909

Per­
cent
10.7
10.9
5.1
9. 5
6.6
10.7
11.7
10.5
5.1
10.0
9.6
13.2
9.8
5.6
21.1
13.6

1 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. I, tables 21 and 22, pp.
53-55. Percents computed by Women’s Bureau. All industries or industry groups were included that
employed 45,000 or more women, omitting independent hand trades and “other” manufacturing. The
next in order, not included, was bakeries, employing 40,450 women. At the time of preparation of this
table the final census report on unemployment (vol. II, general report), which segregates clerical workers
had not appeared. Thus clerical workers in the factories are included in this table in the industry totals
both of employed and unemployed.
2 Other than blast furnaces and automobile factories.
3 Other than bakeries and slaughtering and meat packing.
4 Other than cotton, knitting, silk, and woolen and worsted.

It is not surprising that the two largest woman-employing indus­
tries—clothing and cotton—had the largest numbers of jobless women,
though other industries had larger proportions unemployed. In
electrical machinery and supply factories, cigar and tobacco plants,
the food industries group given, cotton mills, and especially woolen
and worsted textiles more than one tenth of the women were unem­
ployed; in the last named more than one fifth of the women were
without jobs.
While more men than women were unemployed in all the industries
or manufacturing groups listed except knitting mills, in three of these—
woolen and worsted mills, electrical machinery and supply factories,
and the food group specified—larger proportions of the women than
of the men normally so engaged were unemployed. The following
list shows the proportions of women and of men unemployed in the in­
dustries in which more than 5 percent of the women were without jobs:
Industry or industry group

Percent unem­
ployed in classes
A and B
Women

Electrical machinery and supply factories_________________
Cigar and tobacco factories__________ __________ ______ _______
Cotton mills - _ ______________ _____ _____________ ____
Food and allied industries, other than bakeries and slaughtering and meat packing___

Silk mills

_______ ________ _
Metal industries, other than iron and steel._______
- -___
Clothing industries_________________ ____
______________________

Paper and allied industries.............................................................. ................




22. 0
11. 9
11. 8
10. 9
10.1
9.1
8. 4
8. 4
8. 2
7.8
7. 6
7. 6
5.4

Men
21 1
9.6
13. 2
10 9
6.6
10. 7
11. 7
10. 5
10.0
9.8
10. 7
13.6
5.6

19

WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

Duration of unemployment
The summary following gives some indication of the length of
unemployment periods.
Percent of those
in classes A
and B 1

Period of unemployment

Women
29.1
9.7
2.3

Men
23.3
11.3
2.7

i U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. I, table 4, p. 10. Percents
computed by Women’s Bureau.
a Included in preceding group.

The foregoing shows that in April 1930 about one tenth of the
women and an even larger proportion of the men unemployed had
been out of work 27 weeks—approximately 6 months—or longer,
and more than 2 percent of each sex for over a year.
Women heads of families unemployed
Reports as to family relationship showed that one half (50.4 per­
cent) of the unemployed men were heads of families. This does not
appear strange, but it may be more surprising to learn that prac­
tically one tenth (9.7 percent) of the unemployed women in the same
groups were heads of families.6 A total of 48,648 women who were
heads of families were out of work, and by the census definition a
head of family was so classified only if someone was dependent upon
her for support.
Ages of unemployed women
The proportions of unemployed in the various age groups may be
seen from the following:
Age distribution a of—
Women

Men

Unemploy­ Normally
ed (classes gainfully
A and B)
occupied

Unemploy­ Normally
ed (classes gainfully
A and B)
occupied

Age

All ages
10 to 19 years------------------------------------------- ---------—
20 to 24 years------- ------- ----------------------------------25 to 29 years.. ...................................................................
30 to 34 years------------------------- ------- ------- -------------35 to 39 years------- ------------- -----------------------------40 to 44 years..________ __________ _____________
45 to 49 years.. --------- --------------- ------- ------------ 50 to 59 years-------- ... . ----------------------------------60 years and over _________________________
..

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

20.6
22.1
13.5
9.6
9.2
7.2
6.1
7.9
3.7

15.5
21.8
14.3
10.4
9.7
7.9
6.6
8.8
4.9

9.1
15.8
12.0
10.2
10.6
S. 8
9.2
14.0
9.2

7.9
12.6
12.4
11.7
12.0
10.6
9.4
13.8
9.5

« U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. I, table 6, p. 13; Ibid.
Occupation Statistics: U.S. Summary, table 19, p. 42. Percents computed by Women’s Bureau.
e U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. I, table 7, p. 14. Percents
computed by Women’s Bureau.




20

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

The foregoing summary shows that for both sexes the greatest pro­
portions of the unemployed were 20 to 24 years of age, the largest
age group among all employed women and the second largest among
all employed men. Of the women, 22.1 percent of the unemployed
and 21.8 percent of those normally employed were of these ages. Of
the men, the respective proportions were 15.8 and 12.6 percent.
In the age groups under 25, the proportions unemployed were
greater than the proportions at work for both sexes.
Larger proportions of the women than of the men unemployed were
under 30 years of age; this difference was especially great in the case
of those under 20, over one fifth of the women unemployed against
less than 10 percent of the men without work being in this age group.
Smaller proportions of the women than of the men unemployed were
30 or older; this difference was especially great for the older workers—
7.9 percent of the unemployed women were 50 to 59, 3.7 percent were
60 and over, while the respective proportions for men were 14 and 9.2
percent.
Reasons for unemployment of women
In the enumeration an attempt was made to discover the reasons
for unemployment, but many of the reasons necessarily were of so
general a character that the more fundamental causes scarcely could
be ascertained. About one fourth of the women and three tenths of
the men in class A and nearly two fifths of each sex in class B reported
being out of work from causes grouped as economic, and between one
third and two fifths of each sex in each class for reasons classified as
“immediate or superficial”, though such general replies as “no work”
or “cannot find work” were tabulated in this category. About 12
and 15 percent of the women in each class and somewhat larger pro­
portions of the men had been left jobless by the seasonal character
of their industries. In class A, 10 percent of the women and 4.9 per­
cent of the men suffered from personal disability, a cause eliminated
by definition from class B. In class A, 6.4 percent of the women and
3.6 percent of the men were jobless because of dissatisfaction, a cause
almost negligible in class B; however, only 3.4 percent of the women
and 1.5 percent of the men in class A were out of work from avowed
choice to be so, a reason that was not applicable to those on lay-off
(class B). Family reasons had thrown out of work relatively small
proportions except for women in class B, in which group 8,709
women—6.6 percent of all unemployed—had no jobs for causes so
classified. Labor disputes or breakdown of plant and equipmenthad caused loss of job to only an extremely small proportion of either
sex in either class.7
'
Unemployment of women in selected States
The extent to which women were unemployed in the various
States may be seen from table 3, which lists the 37 States in which
50,000 or more women were engaged in gainful occupations.
7 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. I, table 5, p. 12.




WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

21

Table 3.—Number and percent of women unemployed in classes A and B com­

bined, by selected States, April 1980 1

Normally
gainfully
occupied

State

New York.............
Pennsylvania___
Illinois__________
California_______
Ohio___________
Massachusetts—
Texas___________
New Jersey-------Michigan_______
Georgia................
Missouri________
North Carolina...
Alabama_______
Indiana_________
Mississippi_____
Wisconsin______
South Carolina...
Minnesota______
Tennessee______
Louisiana_______
Virginia------------Connecticut____
Iowa___________
Maryland______
Florida_________
Kentucky_______
Oklahoma---------Washington_____
Arkansas_______
Kansas_________
Nebraska_______
Rhode Island___
West Virginia___
Colorado................
Oregon_________
Maine__________
New Hampshire..

1,418, 716
806, 755
717, 231
558, 814
541, 058
529, 968
423, 018
417, 706
360, 701
312, 322
299, 994
273, 322
254, 402
236, 014
231, 940
215, 693
206, 878
201, 294
195, 888
191, 938
182, 721
178, 368
163, 824
158, 295
150, 404
147, 200
129, 811
127, 097
119, 497
119, 453
89, 899
87, 952
82, 754
81, 176
81, 321
68, 623
50, 045

Unemployed in classes
A and B
Number

Percent

70,139
40, 226
38,436
30,480
26,250
35,468
15,632
23,051
21,943
12,027
13,920
12,603
5,658
10,642
3,687
7,384
6,792
7, 704
7,193
7,751
7,348
8,917
4,273
5, 258
9,765
6,331
4,970
6,855
2,993
3, 549
3,084
9,901
2,903
3,842
5, 238
3,841
3,038

4.9
5.0
5.4
5.5
4.9
6.7
3.7
5.5
6.1
3.9
4.6
4.6
2.2
4.5
1.6
3.4
3.3
3.8
3.7
4.0
4.0
5.0
2.6
3.3
6.5
4.3
3.8
5.4
2.5
3.0
3.4
11.3
3.5
4.7
6.4
5.6
6.1

ment, vol. I, table 12, p. 16. Percents computed by Women’s Bureau. All States are included___ ___ ________ t__
The next in order, not included, was South Dakota with 37,363 women gainfully occupied. For relation
to census figures reported in vol. II, see footnote 5, p. 16.

As might bo expected, the three States with the largest numbers of
women gainfully occupied—New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois—had
also the largest numbers of unemployed women,"but some other States
had larger proportions without jobs. In Rhode Island, while the
number unemployed was less than 10,000, this represented more than
10 percent (11.3) of those ordinarily in gainful occupations, a much
larger proportion than in any other State. As regards proportions
unemployed (where these were 5 percent or more) the order of the
States employing 50,000 or more women was as follows:
Percent unem­
ployed in classes
A and B

State

Women

Massachusetts
Florida___
Oregon.. ___
Michigan._________ _________
New Hampshire.. _______ ...
Maine................... ...... ..................
179570°—33-




-3

11.3
6.7
6.5
6.4
6.1
6.1
5.6

Men
12. 5
9.8
6.5
8.0
11.2
7.4
7.2

State

Percent unem­
ployed in classes
A and B
Women
5.5
5.5
5.4
5.4
5.0
5.0

Men
8.2
9.1
9.9
7.4
9.8
8.4

22

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

In all of the 13 States listed in the foregoing except Florida, both
larger numbers and larger proportions of men than of women were
unemployed.
Unemployment of women in main occupational groups in certain
States.—In each of 18 States more than 200,000 women ordinarily

were in gainful occupations, and these numbers are sufficiently large
to justify some consideration of the extent of the unemployment in
various main occupational divisions. Table I in appendix A lists
these States and gives a basis for such an analysis. In the census
report from which this table was prepared clerical workers were not
reported as a separate group but were included in other occupational
groups. In 13 of these States more than 10,000 women (3.7 to 6.7
percent of those normally employed) were unemployed in classes A
and B combined; in 11, the unemployed were 4.5 percent or more of
the total. In only 8 States 8 employing fewer than 200,000 women
were such large proportions unemployed.
In half of these 18 States the manufacturing group had the largest
numbers of unemployed women, but in the other half 9 there were
more out of work in domestic and personal service than in any other
classification. In California, Minnesota, and Texas more women were
unemployed in both domestic and personal service and trade than in
manufacturing. Where it was not first in numbers, domestic and
personal service took the second high place in the unemployment of
women. Next in order came trade, except that in five Southern
States professional service or agriculture or both exceeded trade in
numbers of women unemployed.10 11
Ordinarily, relatively few of the
unemployed women were in agriculture, public service, or transporta­
tion and communication. As might be expected, in all but 5 States 11
the smallest numbers of women unemployed were in public service;
and in these public service was next to agriculture. Transportation
and communication—in the case of women, mainly telephone operat­
ing—was third lowest in 12 States.
Naturally the largest numbers of unemployed in the various groups
were likely to be in the States in which the most women were in gainful
occupations. In 5 of the 7 groups, New York had more jobless women
than any other State, the exceptions being agriculture, in which many
States outranked New York, and public service with 3 States having
larger numbers. In agriculture, the greatest number of unemployed
was in South Carolina, followed by Georgia and then by Texas. In
manufacturing, Massachusetts came next to New York, and in
domestic and personal service, transportation and communication,
and trade, Illinois held second place, though in the last named Cali­
fornia was a close third. California came second in number of women
unemployed in professional service and first in number unemployed
in public service.
The proportion unemployed, more significant than number, ran
highest where manufacturing was concerned in Massachusetts, and
lowest in Texas. In domestic and personal service the highest was in
Michigan, the lowest in Alabama. In the other chief occupational
8 Rhode Island, Florida, Oregon, New Hampshire, Maine, Washington, Connecticut, and Colorado; in
each of these 3,500 but less than 10,000 women were unemployed.
s California, Michigan, Texas, Missouri, Georgia, Alabama, Minnesota, South Carolina, and Mississippi.
10 Georgia, North Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, and South Carolina.
11 These 5 were New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, and Indiana.




WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

23

groups, highest and lowest proportions of women unemployed were
as follows:
Highest

Public service.

________________________

Lowest
Wisconsin.
Mississippi.
Wisconsin.
Do.
Georgia and Wisconsin.

The census publication from which material for this section of the
present report has been abstracted and computed gives detailed infor­
mation in regard to cities of 50,000 and over, full consideration of
which cannot be undertaken at this time. The summary shown in the
subsequent discussion (p. 25) shows the extent of unemployment
reported in the cities with more than 20,000 women in gainful occu­
pations in Illinois, New York, and Ohio, the three States for which
periodic employment data are presented in part IV of this report.
Eleven cities are included, and in the case of New York the three
boroughs having over 20,000 women workers are shown separately.
UNEMPLOYED WOMEN ACCORDING TO THE CENSUS OF
JANUARY 1931 >2

In January 1931 the Bureau of the Census followed its study of the
extent of unemployment by a survey made in 19 selected cities12that
13
were industrially important and that were scattered in all sections
of the United States. The numbers and proportions of those who
were found to be without jobs at this time maybe seen from table 4.
As this was a single project within areas and was not complicated by
the collection of the mass of additional information necessary at the
time of taking the usual decennial census, the results may be assumed
to be especially accurate, except for the personal equation that
necessarily enters into all projects executed by diverse human beings.
On this point the census report makes the following statement:
* * * the attention of the enumerator in April 1930 was primarily directed
to the enumeration of the population, with the unemployment census as a sec­
ondary consideration, while in January 1931 the enumeration of the unemployed
was the one and only object of the census. In the second place the two censuses
were taken at different seasons of the year. In certain industries and occupa­
tions employment is seasonal, and January is likely to be the month of minimum
employment. In the northern States this is particularly true of such occupations
as the building trades, laborers on roads and streets, and operatives in fruit and
vegetable canneries.14

On the whole the January 1931 reports showed considerably more
unemployment than did those of April 1930, both for men and for
women, but because of the differences inherent in the two counts it
scarcely could be said that there was an increase in unemployment in
the last 9 months of 1930 fully equal to the difference shown in the
two counts.
12 The figures for women gainfully employed in vol. II of the unemployment census which are the basis
for this section of the report are those issued as final by the Bureau of the Census. For this reason they
differ, to an unimportant extent, from those in the section on the unemployment count of April 1, 1930
(pp. 16 to 23). See U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. II, p. 9.
13 In the case of New York, only the boroughs of Bronx, Brooklyn, and Manhattan are included, but
these had 85 percent of all women with gainful occupations.
14 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. II, p. 365.




24

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

These cities employed 23.C percent of the women normally in gain­
ful occupations in the United States, and their situation may be
considered fairly typical of that in the industrial sections of the country
as a whole.
The women unemployed formed 18.9 percent of those normally in
gainful occupations in all these localities combined. If this propor­
tion be applied to all employed women in the United States, it would
give an estimate of well over 2,000,000 women out of work in January
1931.
In 10 of the 18 cities and in each of the 3 New York boroughs
reported,15 more than 10,000 women were reported unemployed in
January 1931, running over 96,000 in the highest. The order of the
cities was as follows: New York (3 boroughs only), Chicago, Phila­
delphia, Detroit, Los Angeles, St. Louis, Cleveland, Boston, New
Orleans, Pittsburgh, and Buffalo. (See table 4.)
Table 4.—Number and percent of women and men unemployed in classes A and B

combined in 19 selected cities, January 1981 1
Women
City

Men

Unemployed

Normally
gainfully
occupied

Number

Unemployed

Percent

Normally
gainfully
occupied

Number

Percent

19 cities 2-------------- --------

2, 533, 762

479,283

18.9

6,932, 225

1,818,968

26.2

New York (3 boroughs only) 2___

737, 996

117,408

15.9

1,916,233

414,059

21.6

Manhattan
Brooklyn-----------------------Bronx.......................... ..........

319,899
280, 773
137, 324

45,836
48, 557
23,015

14.3
17.3
16.8

675,135
828, 526
412, 572

135,467
191, 998
86, 594

20.1
23.2
21.0

Chicago........... . ......... ........ ........
Philadelphia--------------------------Los Angeles Detroit_____________
Boston, ___________
_____
St. Louis... ------------------------Cleveland
San Francisco------------------------Pittsburgh,., ----------- ---------Minneapolis_____ ____ ________
New Orleans. _. ----------------- --Buffalo ... . . _ ------------------Seattle____
Denver... _____ Houston
Birmingham
Dayton------------------ ------------Duluth----------------------------------

406, 750
246,136
163, 385
140,879
108,416
106, 583
98,968
84,352
69,925
64,437
61, 108
58, 249
45,365
37, 704
37, 689
32,199
22, 862
10, 759

96,264
59,865
23,135
33,382
19,561
21,735
21,159
7,935
13,542
7,830
14, 561
10,461
5,312
4,423
9, 786
7, 615
3,859
1,450

23.7
24.3
14.2
23.7
18.0
20.4
21.4
9.4
19.4
12.2
23.8
18.0
11.7
11.7
26.0
23.6
16.9
13.5

1,152,108
643,714
417, 348
548, 610
246,930
279, 500
295, 874
249, 221
208, 666
147.491
143,230
180,961
130,194
92,681
99,709
81,046
66, 441
32, 218

353,980
186, 672
82,085
190,107
69. 229
70, 831
103, 665
38,076
65, 884
31,032
34,151
63, 276
29,792
17,989
22, 302
20,230
17,607
8, 001

30.7
29.0
19.7
34.7
28.0
25.3
35.0
15.3
31.6
21.0
23.8
35.0
22.9
19.4
22.4
25.0
26.5
24.8

1 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. II, p. 370ff.
2 In the case of New York, 3 boroughs only, but they had 85.5 percent of the entire city’s working women.

In each of the 18 cities and the 3 New York boroughs reported
from about one tenth to about one fourth of the women were unem­
ployed, the smallest proportion being 9.4 percent in San Francisco.
In 9 of them, from about one fifth to slightly over one fourth of the
women were without jobs. These 9 cities are as follows:
15 In the case of New York, only the boroughs of Bronx, Brooklyn, and Manhattan are included but these
had 85 percent of all women with gainful occupations.




25

WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT
Percent unem­
ployed in classes
A and B

City

Women

Women

Men

26.0
24.3
23.8
. 23.7
23.7

Detroit

Percent unem­
ployed in classes
A and B

City

Men
25.0
35.0
25.3
31.6

23.6
21.4
20.4
19.4

22.4
29.0
23.8
30. 7
34.7

1 In 3 cities unemployment was reported separately for whites and Negroes in the 1930 Census of Unem­
ployment and was correlatedwith numbers gainfully employed. In each of the 3, more whites than Negroes
were unemployed in both sexes, except that for women more of the Negroes than of the whites were out of
work in Birmingham. In each city the least proportion of unemployment was among white women, next
Negro women, next white men, and the greatest degree of joblessness was among Negro men. The pro­
portions unemployed were as follows:
Men

Women
White
Birmingham_____

___

________

Negro

3.5
4.1
5.3

New Orleans________________ _________ __

White

4.4
5.4
8.0

Negro
7.7
8.4
13.4

6.1
6.0
10.2

Although considerably larger numbers, as well as somewhat larger
proportions, of men16 than of women were reported as being unem­
ployed, still the foregoing discussion shows that the numbers and pro­
portions of women without jobs were very large; where from one tenth
to more than one fourth of the women in gainful occupations were
without work, severe social and economic dislocation entailing an
immeasurable amount of suffering is indicated.
The summary following shows the extent of unemployment as
reported in April 1930 and in January 1931 in cities employing over
20,000 women in the three States discussed in part IV of this report.
Unemployed in classes A and B
Census of April 1930°

Locality

Number | Percent

Census of January 1931
Number

Percent

WOMEN
New York:
New York (3 boroughs only)«>____________
Manhattan______________
Brooklyn_____________
Bronx________ __________ _
Buffalo_________ _________
Illinois—Chicago___________ _______
Ohio:
Cleveland______ ______________
Dayton_________ ____________

42, 578
18, 385
15, 227
8,966
2, 946
26,869

5.8
5.7
5.4
6.5
5.0
6.6

117, 408
45, 836
48, 557
23, 015
10, 461
96, 264

15.9
14.3
17.3
16.8
18.0
23.7

6, 575
1,315

6.6
5.7

21,159
3,859

21.4
16.9

191,065
71, 222
79,306
40,537
19,945
141,065

10.0
10.6
9.6
9.8
11.0
12.2

414,059
135, 467
191, 998
86, 594
63, 276
353, 980

21.6
20.1
23.2
21.0
35.0
30.7

43, 660
6, 457

14.8
9.7

103, 665
17, 607

35.0
26.5

MEN
New York:
New York (3 boroughs only)*____
Manhattan_________ _________
Brooklyn___________ . . _
Bronx___________________________
Buffalo_______________________ .
Illinois—Chicago_____________________
Cleveland
Dayton__________________

“For purposes of comparison between the two censuses of unemployment, the base (number of normally
gainfully occupied women) is in each case the revised figure from vol. 11
6 In the case of New York, 3 boroughs only, but they had 85 percent and 82.4 percent, respectively, of
the entire city’s working women and men.18
18 Except in Houston, in which the proportion of women unemployed was larger.




26

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Unemployment in main occupational groups
The summary following shows the extent of unemployment in the
various occupational groups in these cities:

Domestic and personal service...................... .......................................................
Trade_____________________________ _________________

Normally
gainfully
occupied

Percent
unem­
ployed

i 2, 533. 762

Industry

18.9

721, 568
686, 661
467,003
310,867
258,923
83,811

24. 2
13. 0
4.8
19. 4
10.1

1 Total exceeds details because several less important groups are omitted.

This summary shows as unemployed well on to one third of the
women normally in manufacturing in these cities, about one fourth of
those in domestic and personal service, practically one fifth of those
in trade, and over one tenth of those in clerical occupations and in
transportation and communication. The smallest proportion of
unemployed was in the professional group, but such figures are not
wholly representative of displacements in these occupations, since
many normally so employed accept other types of work in times of
stress.
Table II in appendix A shows by city the proportion of unemploy­
ment in the various occupational groups. The largest proportions
unemployed in any occupational group were in manufacturing in 8
cities and the 3 New York boroughs, in domestic and personal service
in 8 cities, and in trade in the 2 Minnesota cities.
In every city over 10 percent were unemployed in domestic and
personal service, in manufacturing, and in trade. From 30 to 40
percent were unemployed in domestic and personal service in 8 cities,
from 30 to 37.9 percent in manufacturing in 5 cities. The proportions
unemployed formed over 10 percent of those in clerical occupations in
15 cities and in transportation and communication in 7 cities. In
every case the smallest proportion unemployed was in professional
service.
Duration of unemployment
Table 5 shows the women unemployed 27 weeks or longer and those
out of work for a year or more. In 11 cities and 2 boroughs of New
York at least one fifth of the women reported as unemployed had been
out of work more than 6 months, this proportion running as high in
one city (Detroit) as 36.9 percent. In 5 cities from 5 to 8 percent of
the unemployed women had been out of work over a year.
Ages of unemployed women
The youth of the unemployed woman is shown strikingly in table
III in appendix A, which reports the proportions unemployed among
normally gainfully occupied women of certain ages. In every city,
those under 20 had the largest proportions unemployed. The range
in the various age groups was from 17.8 percent to 36.6 percent, with
more than 30 percent of the girl workers in 7 cities out of a job, and




27

WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

Table 5.—Period of idleness of women unemployed in classes A and B combined,

by city, January 1931 1
Unemplo yed for—
City

27 weeks or longer
Number

Birmingham___ _____________
Buffalo________________________
Chicago-_____
________
Cleveland-.. ______________________ _______ __
Dayton___________________________
Denver __
____
Detroit... ___________ ___________ __________ .
Duluth. ________ __________ _____
Houston.. _________________________________
Los Angeles____________________________________
Minneapolis. _
New Orleans_____________________________ ___
New York (3 boroughs only) . . ________ .....
Bronx
Brooklyn. ________________________________
Manhattan _. _ _______________ ______ _
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh____ ________________________________
San Francisco _ _ _________________ _____ . ___
Seattle _ _. „
___________________
St. Louis_ ____
_

1, 643
4,186
2, 342
28, 017
5, 797
887
585
12, 307
285
1,201
4,034
1,475
3, 594
24, 389
5,129
10, 765
8, 495
11, 974
3,119
1, 432
894
5,180

Percent
21.6
21 4
22.4
29.1
27.4
23.0
13.2
36.9
19.7
12.3
17.4
18.8
24.7
20.8
22.3
22.2
18.5
20.0
23.0
18.0
16.8
23.8

53 weeks or longer
Number
256
975
428
5,696
1,148
117
74
2,673
42
141
663
306
597
4, 505
880
2,013
1,612
2,158
697
242
209
770

Percent
3.4
4.1
6.9
5.4
3.0
1.7
8.0
2.9
1.4
2.9
3.9
4.1
3.8
3.8
4.1
3.5
3.6
5.1
3.0
3.9
3.5

1 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. II, table 5, p. lllff and
table 4, p. 374ff. Percents computed by the Women’s Bureau.

between 20 and 30 percent in 8 cities and the 3 boroughs of New York.
Of the women 20 and under 24, over 20 percent were out of work in
8 cities. Ordinarily women 50 and over had the smallest proportions
of unemployed.
Nativity and color of unemployed women
Table IV in appendix A shows the proportions of the employed
native white, foreign-born, and Negro women who were out of jobs in
the various cities. In every case, regardless of numbers involved,
the proportion out of work was very much greater among Negro, and
was less—usually considerably less—among foreign-born than among
native white women. In the group of cities, 16.9 percent of the native
white women were unemployed, over 15 percent in 10 cities, the
highest being 22.2. Of foreign-born white, 12.4 percent were out of
work, over 10 percent in 5 cities and 2 boroughs, and as high as 16.4.
Of Negro women, 42 percent were jobless and as high as 58.5 percent.
Reference to the census figures on gainful occupations shows that
in each of the 19 cities the place of the foreign-born women in unem­
ployment was less than their place among women normally gainfully
employed, and that of native white women usually was so (except in
Boston, Buffalo, Duluth, San Francisco, and Seattle, and the Bronx
and Brooklyn boroughs). For Negro women the opposite was the
case—in every city they formed a larger proportion in the unemployed
group than they aid of the women normally in gainful work—except
in Birmingham and New Orleans, which have large populations of
Negro women at work.




28

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Women unemployed in 1900 and in 1931
The unemployment counts of 1900 and January 1931 differ in
method, extent, and occupation classification and probably in other
matters affecting their accuracy. Nevertheless, certain rough com­
parisons seem significant. The following summary indicates that
while the unemployment of women had increased greatly from the
earlier to the later period, the extent of their gainful occupation had
increased still more.
Women 10 years of age and over
Employment status
1900

1931

5,319,397
1, 241,492

i 10,752,116
2 2, 032,150

Percent
increase
102.1
63.7

1 Total number gainfully employed in 1930.
2 Estimated from proportion of women reported unemployed in January 1931 in 18 cities and 3 boroughs
of New York.

The extent of unemployment in certain occupational groups can be
considered in the two years. With the exception of agriculture in
1900 and clerical occupations in 1930 (not separately available in
1900, but included within certain of the other groups used here),
these were the three largest woman employers. The proportions of
women unemployed in these groups were as follows:
Percent of women
unemployed in—
Occupation group 1
1900

1931

23.3

18.9

17.1
22.4
11.1

24.2
30.3
3 17.1

1 TJ.S. Bureau of the Census. Twelfth census, 1900. Occupations; and Ibid. Fifteenth Census, 1930.
Unemployment, vol. II. Omitting agriculture in 1900 and clerical occupations in 1930, the three largest
woman-employing groups remaining in each year have been reported here.
2 Total exceeds details.
3 In 1931, trade was combined with transportation and communication.

The foregoing shows that in each of these important woman em­
ployers considerably larger proportions were jobless in 1931 than in
1900, the difference being far greater than any that might possibly be
accounted for by the relatively slight differences in the occupation
classification used in the two periods. In each year, those in manu­
facturing industries had suffered by far the greatest proportion of
unemployment, and the increase in proportions unemployed had been
greater than in either of the other occupation groups. Domestic and
personal service came second in proportions out of work.




WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

29

SUMMARY—UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN, CENSUS OF
1930 AND OF 1931

The census of April 1930 showed 668,661 women unemployed on
the day before the enumerator’s call—6.2 percent of all those normally
in gainful occupations. These were reported in seven classes, of which
the first two (A, those out of work, able to work, and looking for a job,
and B, those laid off) are most clearly representative of the economic
dislocation that had taken place. While data for these two classes by
no means cover all the classes of unemployment, including the ill,
disabled, and other groups, they do include well over three fourths of
the jobless women.
Of the women without work at the taking of the census (classes A
and B combined), about one tenth (over 48,500, or 9.7 percent) had
been unemployed for 27 weeks—approximately 6 months—or longer,
and more than 11,500 (2.3 percent) had been out of a job for over
a year. The heavy economic responsibilities of these women are
indicated by the fact that about one tenth of those who were reported
jobless in classes A and B (9.7 percent) were heads of families; this
applies to more than 48,600. Large proportions of the women in
these two classes were comparatively young, over one fifth of them
(22.1 percent) being 20 and under 25; altogether over 214,000 were
less than 25. Larger proportions of the women than of the men
unemployed were under 30 years of age.
Those in the two largest woman-employing groups—manufactur­
ing and domestic and personal service—had suffered from unemploy­
ment not only in the largest numbers but in the greatest proportions.
Among the manufacturing industries, as was to be expected, those
in which the largest numbers of women were engaged had the greatest
numbers of unemployed. From clothing manufacture 31,413 were
without jobs, from cotton mills 17,455, from woolen and worsted mills
and from “other food and allied industries” 17 over 10,000 each. Of
those ordinarily in woolen and worsted mills, 22 percent were jobless,
as were roughly 11 percent of those in electrical supplies, in cigar
and tobacco factories, and in cotton factories.
Naturally the three States in which the largest numbers of women
were gainfully occupied had also the largest numbers of unemployed
women, but four other States had larger proportions out of work.
In New York over 70,000 had no work; in Pennsylvania over 40,000
and nearly as many in Illinois; over 35,000 in Massachusetts; over
30,000 in California; and in Ohio over 25,000. The largest propor­
tion of gainfully occupied women out of work was in Kliode Island,
followed by Massachusetts and Florida.
_
Ordinarily larger numbers and larger proportions of the men than
of the women were unemployed, but there were notable exceptions
to this in some industries. Where from one twentieth to more than
one fifth of the women ordinarily engaged in industries usually large
employers of women were without work, where many of these had
been unemployed for long periods, and where considerable numbers
were heads of families, severe social and economic dislocation entail­
ing an immeasurable amount of suffering is indicated.
u Except bakeries and slaughtering and meat packing, which were reported separately.




30

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

In January 1931 the Bureau of the Census followed its study of the
extent of unemployment by a survey of 19 selected cities that were
industrially important and that were scattered in all sections of the
United States.18 These cities normally employed 23.6 percent of the
women in gainful occupations in the United States, and their situation
may be considered typical of that in the industrial sections of the
country as a whole. Since this was a single project within defined
areas and not complicated by the collection of the mass of additional
information necessary at the time of taking the usual decennial
census, the results may be assumed to be especially accurate.
On the whole, the January 1931 reports showed for both men and
women considerably more unemployment than those of April 1930
had shown, but it cannot be said that the entire amount of this increase
represented increase in unemployment in the 9-month period involved.
The reports for January 1931 showed 18.9 percent of the women nor­
mally in gainful occupations in these localities to have been out of work.
If this be applied to the women through the whole country, well over
2,000,000 women must have been unemployed in January 1931 (classes
A and B alone).
For the city of New Itork only 3 boroughs were surveyed, but these
covered 85.5 percent of all the working women of the city. In these
boroughs more than 117,000 women were out of work. ' More than
96.000 were out of work in Chicago, over 59,000 in Philadelphia, over
30.000 in Detroit, and between 10,000 and 25,000 in each of seven
other cities. For the 18 cities and the 3 New York boroughs the
proportions of women unemployed ranged from 9.4 percent in San
Francisco to 26 percent in Houston. In 8 of these cities more than
one fifth of the women were without work.
In all these cities combined (normally employing practically one
fourth of the gainfully occupied women in the country) the women
unemployed formed nearly one third of those usually in manufactur­
ing, nearly one fourth of those in domestic and personal service,
practically one fifth of those in trade, and over one tenth of those in
clerical occupations and in transportation and communication. In
every city the professional group had the smallest proportion of un­
employed women, but it must be remembered that in many cases
women so trained are likely to go into other than professional work
rather than remain unemployed.
In 11 cities and 2 boroughs of New York at least one fifth of the
women reported as unemployed in January 1931 had been out of work
more than 6 months, many for more than a year.
As for age, the unemployed woman in many cases is very young.
The normally gainfully occupied who were under 20 had the largest
proportions unemployed, ranging from 17.8 to 36.6 percent in the
various cities.
Begardless of size of city and number of its employed foreign-born
and Negro women, the proportion of unemployment was very much
greater among Negro, considerably less among foreign-born, than it
was among native white women. (See p. 27.)
Such comparisons as could be made of the census of unemployment
in 1900 and that taken in January 1931 indicate that, while the pro­
portion of all women unemployed' in 1931 was somewhat less than in
1S Really 18 cities and 3 boroughs ol New York City.




31

WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

1900, it was considerably greater at the later than at the earlier date
in three of the most important woman-employing groups. In each
year the manufacturing industries had by far the largest proportions
unemployed; domestic and personal service came second.
_
It must be remembered that in the whole of the foregoing discussion
the data cited represent by no means the full extent of unemployment,
but they show approximately four fifths of the amount. The reader
is reminded that they apply only to the classes designated as A and B
and defined by the Bureau of the Census as persons out of a job, able
to work, and looking for a job, and persons haying jobs but on lay-off
without pay, excluding those sick or voluntarily idle.
SPECIAL STUDIES OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

While data on the unemployment of women are fragmentary, it is
of interest to review the more outstanding of certain scattered studies
that show some information on this subject. These ordinarily seek
to gage the extent of unemployment and to analyze the data in regard
to those who are without jobs, sometimes dealing with their occupa­
tional distribution, age, duration of unemployment, job history,
racial character, or family responsibility. Scarcely ever does a study
include material on all these subjects. A few give some information
as to part-time work as well as unemployment.
Facts in regard to unemployed women will be reviewed here from
21 studies that appear to be the most complete and reliable in the
information they make available in the respective fields they seek to
cover. It is not claimed that this exhausts the entire number of
such studies. Some have been omitted purposely because their
information was too fragmentary or uncertain, or because they
focused more especially on the extent of relief supplied rather than on
analysis of factors connected with the jobless themselves; still others
may not have come to the attention of the Women’s Bureau. The
studies analyzed here are the following:
THE 21 STUDIES INCLUDED

19

Unemployed

women
1. Data from surveys made by the agents of the Women’s Bureau:
694
South Bend, Ind., 1930 and 1931-------------------------------------- ______
667
Women in the cigar industry, 1929 and 1930--------------------- ______
2. Intensive studies of selected city areas: 19
.. 168 to 649
Buffalo, 1929, 1930, 1931
133
New Haven, 1931-----------------------------------------------------------Philadelphia, 1929, 1930, 1931---------------------------------------- 1,045 to 4,019
311
Syracuse, 1931___________________________________________ ______
Rochester, 1931--------------------------------------------------------------- ______3, 800
3. Studies of employment history of unemployed women:
432
Detroit, 1925-30------------------------------ - - ---------------------------- ______
107
New York, American Woman’s Association, 1931-------------- ______
Philadelphia, 1929 (a study of applicants for work)----------- ______
151
514
Women in four summer schools, 1925-30-------------------------- ______
4. Surveys of unemployment in the entire working population: 19 1,933 to 2,104
Baltimore, 1928, 1929, 1930----------------------- ------------------70
Bloomington, Ind., 1930--------------------------------------------------- ______
557
Bridgeport, Conn., 1931--------------------------------------------------- ______
123
Waukesha, Wis., 1931____________________________________ ______
« other towns have made some type of unemployment survey. Many of these are not available, some
have not analyzed data by sex nor put them in printed form. It has not been possible to include a com­
plete record of such surveys.




6Z

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

. The foregoing indicates that information as to unemployed women
is very meager.-’0 The list shows that all these studies taken together
give some type of information for approximately 14,000 unemployed
women, well over half of whom were in Philadelphia or one of the
four New York cities surveyed. The total includes only 3 percent
as many women as were reported out of work, able to work, and
looking for a job in the survey of 19 cities made by the Bureau of the
Census in January 1931. Table 6 shows that in each of the 12
separate cities from which some reports were available over 21 per­
cent of the woman population normally was gainfully employed, in
6 of them as high as 28 percent.
Table 6.— Women and men normally in gainful occupations in 11 cities, 1930 1
Total population 10
years of age and over
City

Number and percent of total population
normally in gainful occupations
Women

Women

Men

Men
Number

New York, N.Y ____
Philadelphia, Pa_______
Detroit, Mich_____
Baltimore, MdBuffalo, N.Y___
Rochester, N.Y______
Syracuse, N.Y______
New Haven, Conn___Bridgeport, Conn.......... ............
South Bend, Ind_______
Bloomington, Ind_____ .
Waukesha, Wis______
1 U.S. Bureau of the Census.

2,908,826
825,817
601, 554
340,601
238,895
143,044
88,799
69,180
60,971
41, 984
7, 537
6,860

2, 908, 736
808,075
672, 325
326,608
234,564
135, 069
86, 654
65, 261
60,026
42,680
7.096
7, 340

Percent

Number

862,860
246.136
140,879
101.136
58, 249
41,992
'23,878
20,046
17,363
10,978
1,611
1,609

29.7
29.8
23.4
29.7
24.4
29.4
26.9
29.0
28.5
26.1
21.4
23.5

2,324, 599
643, 714
548, 610
260,936
180,961
102,863
67,181
49, 192
46, 702
33,465
5,437
5, 292

Percent
79.9
79.7
81.6
79.9
77.1
76.2
77.5
75.4
77.8
78.4
76.6
72.1

Fifteenth Census, 1930. Population: Occupation Statistics, p. 23.

The iollowing summary of the occupational distribution of most of
the women employed in 10 * 20 these cities shows that while there
21 of
was great variation among the cities, with two exceptions, the largest
proportions were in manufacturing or domestic and personal service,
with clerical occupations running a relatively close second in some
cases, taking third place in others, and in one city being as high as
domestic and personal service.

City®

New York, N.Y-_.
Philadelphia, Pa...
Detroit, Mich____
Baltimore, Md___
Buffalo, N.Y_____
Rochester, N.Y_
_
Syracuse, N.Y___
New Haven, Conn.
Bridgeport, ConnSouth Bend, Ind...

Percent of employed women who were inNumber of
women
gainfully Manufac­ Domestic
employed, turing and and per­ Clerical oc- ProfessionTrade
1930
mechanical
sonal ' cupations al service
industries
service
862,860
246.136
140,879
101.136
58, 249
41,992
23,878
20,046
17,363
10,978

20.5
27.0
14.9
23.1
16.8
28.8
16.3
27.2
37.6
28.5

25.5
28.1
31.0
35.3
25.6
19.8
26.9
22.6

16.5
23.2

30.1
22.7
26.7
19.0
26.9
25.5
26.9
24.8
23.4
25.0

11.9
10.5
12.3
10.5
14.7
13.9
16.0
15.0

9.3
11.3
7.9

11.3

10.3

12.1

8.1

9.2

11.6

9.8

11.8

8.2

° See footnote 21.
20 While not all such surveys are included here, no large or otherwise outstanding one that reports inforcon.cerping wJ°™en 1S omitted intentionally if it came within this period.
Bloomington and Waukesha omitted. For cities under 25,000 the Bureau of the Census does not report
occupational envisions.




WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

33

In Philadelphia well over 50 percent and in Baltimore and New
Haven over 40 percent of the women in manufacturing were in the
textile or clothing industries, which also employed the largest group
of those in factory occupations in Bridgeport and South Bend. Nearly
40 percent of the relatively small number reported in Detroit as in
manufacturing were in iron and steel plants.
CHARACTER OF THE 21 STUDIES INCLUDED

A brief outline of the character of each of the studies is given below.
Surveys by Women’s Bureau agents
South Bend.—In August and September of 1930 the Women’s
Bureau made a survey of 3,245 women in South Bend and Misha­
waka, Ind.22 All these women, who were visited in their homes by
Bureau agents, had been employed at some time within 12 months,
but at the time of interview 21.4 percent of them were out of work.
Women in the cigar industry.—In a study of women in the cigar
industry23 made from the spring of 1929 to the summer of 1930, the
Women’s Bureau agents interviewed 1,150 women in various towns
and cities, persons who had been deprived of their jobs in 1925 or at
some time within the next 4 years.
Intensive studies of selected city areas
Three cities in New York.—A study of unemployment in Buffalo in
the first week of November 1929, made by the New York State De­
partment of Labor, proved of such value that, with the cooperation
of the Buffalo Foundation, it was continued at the same period of the
year in 1930 and in 1931. In 1931, studies of the same sort were made
in Syracuse and Rochester.24 In the first two cities college or uni­
versity students in the social sciences served as the enumerators,
using a simple and comparable schedule that included data on em­
ployment status, sex, age, weeks idle, and whether head of family.
The data taken from all applicants to the Rochester Public Employ­
ment Center between June and October 1931 were analyzed by the
research division of the office. These included 7,600 unemployed,
about 38 percent of the total number estimated to be unemployed
in the city on November 1, 1931. About half of these were women.
Philadelphia,—In Philadelphia, unemployment surveys of selected
areas were made in April 1929, 1930, and 1931, through the coopera­
tion of the Department of Industrial Research of the Wharton School
of Finance of the University of Pennsylvania and the Bureau of Com­
pulsory Education in the city, experienced attendance officers serving
as enumerators and the statistical analysis of the material being made
by the university.28 In 1929, the survey included 31,551 families;
in 1930, 36,665 families; and in 1931, 36,410 families.* 21 * * * * * * * * *
iiU.S. Department of Labor. Women’s Bureau. Wage-Earning Women and the Industrial Conditions
of 1930. A survey of South Bend, Ind. Bui. 92, 1932.
T
_ ,
2a ibid. The Effects on Women of Changing Conditions in the Cigar and Cigarette Industries. Bui. 100,
1932
21 New York State Department of Labor. Unemployment in Buffalo. Special Bui. 163, November
1929: Special Bui. 167, November 1930; Special Bui. 172, November 1931. Unemployment m Syracuse,
November 1931, Special Bui. 173. Rochester Progress Report, Public Employment Center of Rochester
December31,1931.
_
,__
,
, .
. , .
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Social and Economic Character of Unemployment in Philadelphia,
Bui 520, April 1929. Ibid. Bui. 555, 1930. University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School of Finance and
Commerce. Industrial Research Department. Special Reports, 1931. The 1929 study included 166 school
census blocks, which often are larger than a city block, that in 1930 included 171, and that in 1931 included
150. The 1929 sample represented between 6 and 7 percent of the total population and families of the city,
those of 1930 and 1931, about 8 percent each




34

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Women formed about one fourth of those reported as unable to find
work—23.4 percent in 1929, a larger proportion, 25.5 percent, in 1930
and 23 percent in 1931.26
These studies give relatively little information as to the unemployed
woman, although, of course, unemployment in a family imposes great
hardships upon its women. Data as to age and duration of unem­
ployment are reported by sex, although the totals upon which percents
are basod are not always available from the publications. Occupa­
tional data are classified as manual, clerical, executive, and unspeci­
fied, and data in regard to them are not given by sex.
New Haven.—This survey, which was made in May and June of
1931, became available some time after the abstracts had been made
from the other studies reported in this section.27 Consequently, cer­
tain data afforded by it are inserted here after completion of the
organization of this part of the report. It was published by the de­
partment of statistics of the Russell Sage Foundation, and is based
upon a random sample of over 2,400 New Haven families normally
having 3,661 wage earners, and of 6,221 individual wage earners,
over half of whom were women. Of these women, approximately 3
percent were employers or were working on their own account, and
the figures used here are those given in the section of the report that
deals with the wage earners alone.
The bulk of the report is taken up with discussions of representa­
tiveness of the sample, tests of the material by census data, and detail
of definition and method. Thus it will form an invaluable aid in
method of undertaking future studies where comparable results are
desired.
Of 917 women reported who normally were members of the full­
time employment market (including new recruits), 14}( percent were
unemployed though able and wanting work. The report includes
tabulations for each sex by age, reason idle, duration of unemploy­
ment, extent of full pay received in week prior to visit, and usual
occupation and industry. Women’s occupations given (in addition
to employers and those working on own account) are professional,
clerical, skilled, semiskilled, unskilled (largely domestic workers),
and a grouping of clerical, executive and professional, and of skilled,
semiskilled, and unskilled.
Employment histories of women
In four studies attempts were made to ascertain something of the
employment history or general employment status of groups of women.
Detroit.—Case studies of 560 unemployed women in Detroit were
made through interviews by students of the University of Michigan
and tabulated by the Women’s Bureau in Washington.28 All these
were women who had applied to employment agencies in the city,
and their histories were taken for a period of 5 years or more from
January 1925 to date of interview in the first 5 months of 1930.
The findings indicated that women’s jobs are particularly unstable
and their rate of turnover unusually large.
New York.—A. study made in 1931 by the American Woman’s
Association of New York has been directed especially toward ascer-* 37 38
!« This did not include those who were sick, superannuated, or indifferent. See p. 36 ot the survey of 1930.
37 Hogg, Margaret H. The Incidence of Work Shortage. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, 1932.
38 U.S. Department of Labor. Women’s Bureau. Unemployed Women in Detroit. In preparation




WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

35

taining the general employment status of its membership, which is
chiefly among business and professional women in that city.29 Out
of the total of 1,914 reporting, 1,690 were salaried. The remainder,
not included here, were working on their own account. For the pur­
poses of the present report some information is afforded as to status
of employment by occupation grouping, age, responsibility for support
of dependents, and reasons for job separations. The study also
gives much material of interest on such subjects as educational
status by occupation and earnings by age, occupation, and education.
Philadelphia.—In a study of the occupational experience over a
3-year period of 1,132 applicants for employment in Philadelphia,
172 women were included.30 These were selected carefully as a
sample of nearly 4,000 who had applied for work in 39 establishments,
mostly of a manufacturing character, and to 6 placement agencies,
in each case during the first week in March 1929. All the data in
regard to women were classified according to marital status, there
being 125 single, 30 married, 15 widowed, and 2 divorced women.
Women in jour summer schools.—A study was made of the employ­
ment history of 609 students who had attended the industrial schools
at Bryn Mawr, Barnard, Wisconsin, or in the South, in the summer
of 1928, 1929, or 1930.31
Surveys of entire working population
Since the recent economic situation has focused attention so
directly on the need of solving the problem of unemployment, many
communities have attempted some method of gaging the full extent
of the existence of this problem within their territory. Some of these
had taken such action at a fairly early date; others made it possible
to compare findings at various dates by undertaking surveys at a
period later than the Federal census of unemployment of April 1930,
or by following an earlier survey of their own with others; many
began such work only after the need for relief measures became very
pressing, and the information they furnish ordinarily bears more
strongly on the relief than on the employment angle of the situation.
It has not been possible to make a general survey of what individual
communities have done along this line, but the studies of four towns
or cities may be summarized here.
Baltimore.—-In February, or February and March, 1928, 1929, and
1930, the Commissioner of Labor and Statistics of Maryland under­
took a survey of unemployment in the city of Baltimore, assisted by
the metropolitan police, who engaged to make a house-to-house
canvass.32 Effort was made to confine the study to those able to
work and seeking jobs. No reports were made as to those on part­
time work.
Bloomington, Ind.—In the small city of Bloomington, Ind., with a
population 10 years of age and over of less than 15,000, every home in
the city was visited in February 1930 by students in a survey of unem­
ployment in which the State University and the City Free Employ­
ment Bureau were cooperating.33 There were found unemployed 542
American Woman’s Association. The Trained Woman aud the Economic Crisis, New York, 1931.
30 Occupational Experience of Applicants for Work in Philadelphia, by Burton R. Morley, University of
Pennsylvania, 1930, p. 23.
U.S. Department of Labor. Women’s Bureau. The Industrial Experience of Women Workers at the
Summer Schools, 1928 to 1930. Bui. 89.
3a Monthly Labor Review, May 1929, p. 59, and April 1930, p. 24.
33 Ibid., July 1930, p. 37.




36

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

men and 70 women. In addition, 608 were on part time, but these
latter data are not given by sex in the report.
Bridgeport, Conn.—-On the basis of the records of the registered
unemployed, the citizens’ emergency committee on unemployment
and relief in Bridgeport, Conn., ascertained that of the 3,463 persons
that were registered for jobs on January 15, 1931, 557 were women
and 2,906 were men.34
Waukesha, Wis.—In an employment census taken in the town of
Waukesha, W is., in June 1931, the data were reported by sex and
analyzed according to age, 579 women and 3,094 men being reported.36
There were 924 men and 123 women reported idle.
FINDINGS OF THE 21 STUDIES AS TO UNEMPLOYED WOMEN

Extent of unemployment
Some of the surveys reviewed include unemployed persons only and
give no data as to extent of unemployment. However, in seven of
the cities and in the American Woman’s Association and summerschool groups extent is indicated. These data are shown in table 7.
It will be remembered that the United States Bureau of the. Census
found that of the women normally employed in 19 cities nearly 20
percent were out of work in January 1931.36
Table 7.—Extent of unemployment, as indicated in 13 studies in 7 cities and in 2

specialized studies
Women

Men

Women and men

Families

Number
Number
Number
City or group of women and Number
report­
report­
report­
report­
year
ing em­ Percent ing em­ Percent ing em­ Percent ing em­
unem­
unem­
unem­
ploy­ ployed ploy­ ployed
ploy- ployed
ploy­
ment
ment
ment
ment
status
status
status
status
Baltimore:1
1928
1929
1930
Buffalo:
1929......... .......................
1930____ ___________
1931
New Haven, 1931_________
New York, American Wom­
an's Association, 1931____
Philadelphia:
1929
1930
1931
South Bend, 1929-30
Syracuse, 1931_____________
Waukesha, 1931
Women in 4 summer schools,
1928-30_____________ ___

<* 2,005
“ 1,933
* 2,104
2,833
2, 715
3,010
917

*

“ 13, 468
1.9 « 11,244
•11,680

2.0
2.1

5.9
15.9

21.6

d

14.5

1,653

23.7
21.4
18.7
13.8

10.9

12,739
11,315
Ml, 789

7.3
6.5
6.7

*
b

27.7
19.5

15,164
14,002
15,624
2,991

9.9
19.9
26.5
(0

9,006
8,477
9,557

* 10.1
« 16.5
« 21.9

26.4

58,866
69,884
67,150

10.4
15.0
25.5

23.2
21.4

7,301
5, 207

22.1
20.1

31, 551
36, 665
35, 592
2, 700
4, 582

/ 47.3
4.0
* 19.3

20.8

6.5

(•)
<•)
16,944
3,245
1,663
892

12,331
11,287
12, 614
2,074

5.2 ° 15,473
4.3 “ 13,177
4.1 «13,784

Percent
having
one or
more
members
unem­
ployed

543

h 82.

8

48,641
0 2,031
5,638
4,315

12.6

15.6

21.2

5

“ Data are unemployed persons. Percentages based on comparison with census of occupations, 101,13fi
women and 260,936 men normally gainfully occupied.
b Families having persons unemployed. Percentages based on estimate made in study that approxi­
mately 175,000 families were in the city.
c Proportions of heads of families unemployed.
d Unemployed on day of visit, though 16 percent had earned no pay in the previous week.
* Data not reported.
/ Prom report, 1931, p. 4 and table 7. This includes those on part time. Also, 12 percent of the families
reported all employable members unemployed (4,259 families). From report 1,1931, p. 5 and tables 11 and
Data for husbands and fathers only.
Some weeks of unemployment in the year.
34 Ibid., May 1931, p. 17.
35 Industrial Commission of Wisconsin.
Wisconsin Labor Market. September 1931, pp. 25, 26, and 27
36 See p. 24, where this census of unemployment is discussed.
•
h




37

WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

In 1930 the Buffalo study shows 15.9 percent of the women included
to have been unemployed, and that for South Bend shows 21.4 per­
cent of the women out of work at the time of interview though em­
ployed earlier in the year. Of the women in summer schools, 82.5
percent had had some full weeks of unemployment in the year pre­
ceding their reports. In 1931 the smallest proportion of women
unemployed was 6.5 percent of the specialized group of women in the
American Woman’s Association study. In all other cases the pro­
portion was above 13 percent, running as high as 23 percent in Phila­
delphia. For men the range in this year was from about 19 percent
to about 28 percent.
Unemployment in various occupations
Reports from 11 studies in 9 of the cities reviewed give data on
occupations of those surveyed, but only 7 of these—5 in New York,
and the New Haven and South Bend studies—are in the form of
reports on proportions unemployed within a total group surveyed in
the same occupation. Consequently, in most cases the data do not
indicate the relative extent to which unemployment strikes those in
varying types of employment; they merely show the extent to which
certain occupations were represented in the sample studied, and in
this connection even a comparison with the distribution in the census
of occupations would serve only to test this sample. The proportions
unemployed of those studied in various occupations in the New York
cities, in New Haven, and in South Bend were as follows:
Percent of women unemployed in the sample taken of
those in—
City or group of women and year

Trade,
Domestic
Manufac­ and person­ transporta­
tion, and
turing
al service communi­
cation

Buffalo:
1929_________
1930______________ ____ __________
1931____ _________________ ____
3 4

7.7
20.3
25.5
17. 5

New York, American Woman’s Associa12. 2
South’Bend, 1929-30 .
7 20.6 to 54.6
23.1
Syracuse, 1931-------- --------------------- —

9.3
24.9
29.5
3 * 15.0
19.3
22.9

3.5

10.8

17.8

Clerical
service

11.0

w

32.5

3 8.0

(6)
8

24.0
14.6

(«)

10.6
21.2

Professional
service

5.0
7.6
7.8
36.0
3.1
10.3

1 Figures too small for the computation of a percentage.
2 From section of report dealing with wage earners only and omitting employers and those working on
own account.
3 Idle from lack of work.
4 The classification used is semiskilled workers.
5 The classification used is unskilled, but chiefly domestic workers for women.
6 A large group of women, 400, were classed as in commercial pursuits, but these were not all clerical;
11.5 percent of them were unemployed. The group in transportation and communication was too small
to justify reporting percent unemployed.
7 Nearly 21 percent of those reported in manufacturing wearing apparel and automobiles and parts were
unemployed, as were 54.6 percent of those making machinery and electrical supplies.
8 This percentage is for stores only.

The foregoing summary shows that the occupations whose em­
ployees had suffered in the greatest proportions were in the manu­
facturing, clerical, and domestic and personal groups (which are also
the largest woman employers). In Buffalo the domestic and personal
employments showed the largest proportion out of work in 1930,
while the clerical group had the largest proportions unemployed in
both 1929 and 1931.
179570°—33----- 4




38

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

The next summary is intended to give a rough picture of the occu­
pational distribution of the unemployed in four studies that did not
report proportion unemployed within each occupation included.
City and year

1

Number of
unemployed
women with
occupations
reported

Proportions of the unemployed women surveyed who were in—
Manufac­
turing and Domestic
person­
mechanical and service
occupations al

2,104
557

Detroit, 1925-30..

2 444

3

10, 448

4

28.8
27. 5
23.6
84. 7

Clerical Professional
occupations service

Trade

37.8
47.9
42.6

13.3
4.8
9.9

13.9
8.4

1.4

20. 0

9.4

1 Only the latest date surveyed reported. Surveys reported in the summary just preceding are omitted
here.

212 of the 444 women were not unemployed.
3 All unemployed persons.
Occupations were not reported by sex in this Philadelphia survey. In 1931
the study gives a detailed classification of occupational distribution by sex but not in relation to unem­
ployment.
4 Called manual, and probably includes part-time unemployment.

The foregoing shows the largest groups of the unemployed studied
to have been in domestic and personal service in three cases (with
manufacturing second) and in manufacturing in the other case.
Reference to the occupational-distribution table on page 32 shows
that for the most part the proportions of unemployed women who
were in the manufacturing and domestic and personal groups were
considerably greater than the proportions of all women workers that
were in these occupations, while in the clerical and professional groups
the degree of unemployment suffered was less than the proportion of
workers so employed.
Duration of unemployment
Some report was made as to duration of unemployment in 13 studies.
In 10 of these, from 8.6 to nearly 25 percent had been without work
6 months but less than 1 year. In four of the reports for 1931, from
28.7 to 36.7 percent of the women included had been out of work a
year or longer, while in the other study only 1.5 percent had been
unemployed so long; all but one of those reporting for 1931 showed
that over one tenth of the unemployed women had been jobless as
long as this. The following summary gives an approximate showing
as to the duration of unemployment in the studies cited:
City or group of women and year

Buffalo:
1929
_
___ ___ ______
1930 _____ ___________________
1931
.............. ..................New York, American Woman’s AssoPhiladelphia, 1929 1 2
34

Women in 4 summer schools, 1928-30..

Number of
Percent of women who had been out of work
unemployed
approximately 1—
women with
extent of un­ 3 months 4 months 5 months 6 but less 1 year or
employment or longer or longer or longer than 12
longer
reported
months
190
156
382
630
2 432
884

72.1

31.6

3.2
11.3

22.4
18.8
36.7
30.8
1.5

11.6

76.2
6.5

101

151
3, 501
487
281
4 667
448

24.2

24.3
2.5

67.0
37.6

72.3
16.6
54.6
27.3

16.6
47.9

41. 7
28.8

19.4

12.5

21.2

24.7

8.6

23.8
14.2
14.8
10.5

1 Term “approximately” used to avoid a number of footnotes explanatory of slight differences.
2 Total unemployed at some time from January 1925 to May 1930.
3 Study of applicants for work.
4 Reporting time unemployed for industrial reasons between separation and first subsequent job.




28.7
4.6
16.4
29.9
5.2

39

WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

In addition to the foregoing information on duration of unemploy­
ment, three of the studies report on number of jobs held by women
over a period of time. In Detroit, of 437 women reporting for the
years 1925-30, nearly one tenth had held six or more jobs and another
one tenth had held five. In the cigar study, of 1,006 women reporting
on this subject, 52.5 percent had held more than one job since their
first unemployment (1925 or later), and 22.2 percent had had to change
jobs at least three times. In the study of applicants for work in
Pliiladelphia, 37 percent of the 172 women reported had held three
or more jobs over a 3-year period, 13 of them having held four or
more. In the New Haven study, time since one day worked and time
since any job held for one month were reported. Of 884 women re­
porting these items, 4 percent had not worked for 6 months or more
and 6 percent had not held a month’s job for 6 months or longer.
Reasons for unemployment
While the causes of unemployment are too complex for analysis to
be attempted from the reports under consideration, 11 of these studies
show reasons for loss of job or for being out of work as given by the
unemployed persons or by the investigators. In one of these, 31 per­
cent of the women were jobless from lack of work; in three of these,
from 74 to over 93 percent of the women were unemployed because
laid off or unable to find work; and in the seven others, from 32.6 to
100 percent of the reasons given were from causes purely industrial
in character and in no sense owing to the workers themselves. In
none of the studies—except that made in New York by the American
Woman’s Association—was a larger proportion than approximately
one third out of work because of illness, indifference, or for other
reasons that could be classified as purely personal in character, and
in most cases the proportion due to such causes was very much lower.
The following summary shows the extent to which causes due to the
industry or place or type of employment were reported to be the basis
of unemployment:

City or group of women and year i

Bloomington, 1930____________ ________________
Buffalo, 1931_________________________________
Detroit, 1925-30___ ________ ______ ______ _____
New Haven, 1931_____ ____ __________________
New York, American Woman’s Association, 1931.
Philadelphia, 1931___________ _____ ___ ____ ___
South Bend, 1929-30____________ ______________
Syracuse, 1931................................................................
Waukesha, 1931—..................... ..................................
Women in cigar industry, 1929-30..____________
Women in four summer schools, 1928-30................* *

Percent unemployed or
Number of
having lost jobs for
unemployed
reasons classified as—
women with
cause of
unemploy­ Due to the
ment
industry or Entirely
reported
business,2 personal3
58
649

4 882
6 917
7 688

3, 665
681
311
116
1,150
428

74.1
97.5
« 58.5
31.0
32.6
89.7
70.6
93.9
85.3
3 100.0
9 57. 2

25.9
2.5
35.1

2.0

67.4
10.3
29.4
6.1

14.7
15.0

1 Only the latest date surveyed reported.
2 Includes laid off, unable to find work, shut down, slack work, low wages, unhealthful working condi­
tions, reduction of force, business dissolved, technological changes, and company reorganization.
3 Includes ill, unable to work, or removal of family or worker.
4 Reasons of unemployment of 416 women reporting in five years.
* Also 5.9 percent of the total lost jobs for reasons partly industrial.
6 For 66.5 percent of the women the reasons were inapplicable and for five tenths percent unknown.
7 Number of job separations of salaried women in the years 1926-30.
s Laid off at time of change to machinery; 96 percent because of close of factory, the remainder on account
of slack work.
8 Also 17.8 percent of the total were on vacation without pay.




40

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Responsibility of unemployed women for support of others
Some report as to the responsibility of unemployed women for the
support of others was given in eight of the studies. In four of these,
this took the form of showing how many had others dependent upon
them. In the selected New York group about one fifth of the women
had dependents as had over one half of those in two of the other
studies. In South Bend of 368 women who were the sole support of
their families about 40 percent had four or more dependents. Data
for these four cities are shown in the following summary:

City or group of women and
year

Number
of unem­
ployed
women
reporting
pendents

Percent having dependents
Some dependents
Total

557
315
2

Total

4 or more

52.1

102

New York, American Woman’s

Dependents other
than children

Children
3 or more
25.7

7.9

3 or more
«

21.6

368

56.6

Total

40.5

i Too small for computation. Base less than 50. 19 of the 44 women reporting had 3 or more dependents,
a Women who were sole support of family, though not necessarily unemployed.

In the Buffalo and Syracuse studies in 1931 about one fifth of the
women reported were heads of households, and the following summary
shows that in each case at least 22 percent of these heads of house­
holds were unemployed or working less than half time:
Women heads of
households

Percent of women heads
of households that
were—

City and date of survey
Number

590
347

Percent of
all reported
19.7
20.9

Unem­
ployed
15.8
20.5

Working
less than
half time
7.1
7.8

Of the women in summer schools, 459 reported on contributions to
the family, nearly nine tenths of them making such contributions.
Just over half gave 50 percent or more of their earnings to the family,
about one fifth giving their entire wage.
The remaining one of the eight studies that gives some indication
of the responsibility unemployed women have for the support of others
is that of Rochester, in which their average number of dependents
ranged from 1.7 and 1.1 for domestic workers to 0.9 for factory work­
ers and 0.75 for clerical workers.
Age
It is of especial significance to make a comparison of the propor­
tions unemployed at various ages with the proportions in the popu­
lation and with those ordinarily gainfully occupied according to the




41

WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

census of 1930.
are as follows:

The data afford tiffs to some extent for 10 cities, and

Percent of women un­
der 20 years of age in
the—
City or group of women and
year i

Bridgeport, 1931
Buffalo:
1930____________________
1931
Detroit, 1925-30
New Haven, 1931
New York, American Woman’s

Syracuse, 1931..

Percent of women un­
der 25 years of age in
the—

Total Nor­
Total
Unem­ popu­
popu­
lation 2 mally ployed lation 2
gain­
10
10
fully group
years occu­
re­
years
and
ported and
older pied 3
older
23.9
21.5
21.7
23.4
20. 3
20.7
20. 3
22.7
19.7
20. 7

21.7
16.9
15.0

20.1

17.1
16.9
13.4
17.5
12.4
«

23.3
21.6

25.7
18.0
21.0

15.7
13.3
io 21.9

34.4

Percent of women 60
years of age and over
in the—

Total
Nor­
popu­
mally Unem­ lation 2
ployed
gain­
10
fully group
re­
years
occu­
and
pied 3 ported older
43.7

32.6
34.4
34.3

40.8
39.8
43.6

51.6
51.6
48.0
42.0

32.7
32.2
30. 6
35.3
30.5
32.8

42.7
39.5
35.1
42.7
34.3
(»)

10.6

34.7

8

48.4
36.4
40.4

4.0

10.3

3.8

11.7

4.6

8.3

2.8

6.2

5.9
57.9

0

Nor­
mally Unem­
gain­ ployed
fully group
re­
occu­ ported
pied 3

6

10.6
12.1

8.4

12.1
11

16. 6

2.0

4.2
4.9
2.5
5.6

1.6
2.1
1.8
4 3.6
s 13.7
7 3.9
8 3.4
7 1.0

3.2
« 7.9

I
3
3
4

Only reports of date nearest 1930 included.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Population: Age distribution, p. 724ff.
U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Occupation Statistics, p. 136ff.
50 and over.
6 45 and under.
6 25 and over.
7 Over 60.
8 Over 55.
9 Occupation figures not given for cities under 25,000.
10 20 and under.
II 55 years and over—not possible to get by 5-year groupings for cities under 25,000.

The foregoing, giving complete data for women under 20 in seven
cities, shows their proportions somewhat less in four cities in the un­
employed group than in the general population. Though the propor­
tions of the unemployed who are so young are large, still they are, in
two of the cities, less than the proportions among girls under 20 nor­
mally employed.
If the entire group of women under 25 be considered, however, a
different situation appears. With a few exceptions, the unemployed
are found to outstrip—in most cases to a large extent—the pro­
portions of persons of those ages, both in the general population and
in the group of normally employed.
In 7 of the 10 studies the proportions unemployed who were 60 or
more were notably less than the proportions of the gainfully employed
who were of such ages; and with the exception of New Haven, they
were very much smaller than the proportions of the women in the
entire population who were 60 or over.
The following summary shows the proportions of the unemployed
women and men who were especially youthful and those who were far
advanced in years. The report on the four summer schools is not
included, since the schools had a general age range for admission;
in tiffs case the median for the group of 586 women reporting was
about 24 years.
,




42

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Percent who were—
Number of
unemployed
reporting age Under 20 Under 21 Under 25 60 years
years
years
years and over

City or group of women and year <

WOMEN
510
649

Detroit, 1925-30!....................... ..................................
New Haven, 1931- __ _________
New York, American Woman’s Association,

23.3
25.7
18.0

869

19312________________ _________________

34.7
51.6
48.0
42.0

21.6

3444

102

3, 694
3, 778
690
308
114

Rochester, 1931................ ......................... ...............
South Bend, 1929-30 2___....... ............ .................
Waukesha, 1931.......... ....................................

21.0

9

15.7
13.3
21.9

1.6
1.8

• 5.9
e 57.9

3

3.6
13.7

4
3

73.9
8 3.4
7 1.0

48.4
36.4
40. 4

7

3.2
7.9

MEN
Bridgeport, 1931. _
Buffalo, 1931____
New Haven, 1931.
Philadelphia, 1931.
Rochester, 1931...
Syracuse, 1931___
Waukesha, 1931__

2,746
3, 497
2,019

8.4
6.1

7.9

12,002

3,806
1,302
896

1 Only the latest date surveyed reported.
2 Men not reported.
312 of the 444 were not unemployed.
* 50 and over.
* 45 and over.

9

4.0
4.8

9.0

19.8
21.3
21.4
6 31.6
6

15.7
18.3

4.5
19.4
io 13. 2
« 11.0
7 2.0
7

19.2
15.8

6 25 and under.
7 Over 60.
3 Over 55.
9 20 and under.
10 55 and over.

From the foregoing summary it is apparent that a large proportion
of the unemployed women were young. In four of the studies more
than one fifth were under 20; in two studies over one half were under
25 years of age; and in six other cases from 34.7 to 48 percent were
rmder 25. In every study in which the other sex was reported, a
much smaller percentage of the men were so young. However, in
practically every case more unemployed men than women were 60
or older, the proportions ranging from 2 to 19.4 percent for the former,
and from 1 to 13.7 percent for the latter. The New Haven report
gave different top age ranges for the two sexes, roughly 13 percent
of the women being 45 and over and of the men 55 and over.
Evidence from a special report of the Massachusetts Department
of Labor and Industries37 as to those registered in the four public
employment offices in the State in the first 10 months of 1930 gives a
similar showing as to the large proportions of unemployed women
who were at the younger ages. The figures follow:

Sex

Regis­ Percent who were—
trants
at 4 em­
ploy60 years
ment Under 25 and over
years
offices
7,756
12,669

49.5
29.6

0.1

1.4

37 Massachusetts. Department of Labor and Industries. Special Report, January 1931. Report of an
investigation as to the causes of existing unemployment and remedies therefor, p. 24.




43

WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

Nativity and color
Nine of the studies under consideration, applying to five cities,
made some report as to the nativity or color or both of the unemployed
women.38 Naturally, more foreign-born women would be unemployed
in communities where many such women resided than in those in
which only small numbers of them were represented. In the cases
that afford such information in respect to women—with the exception
of Bridgeport—the proportion of foreign-born women was less in the
unemployed group than it was in the total woman population of 10
years and over, or among the gainfully employed, but the proportion
of Negro women unemployed ordinarily was greater than their share
in the total woman population or among those in gainful employment.
The following summary shows these data for five cities in the census
year where available, or in the latest year if no survey was made in 1930.
Women normally in
gainful occupations

Women 10 years and over
City and year

1

Total

Per­
Per­
cent
cent
foreign Negro
born

340, 601
60,971
Buffalo, 1930
238, 895
88, 799
Syracuse, 1931
Philadelphia, 1931_ _ 825,817

10.4
31.9
23.2
18.4

17.3

6.0

101,136
17,363
58, 249
23,878
246,136

2.1
2.2
.8
11.1

21.8

Per­
Per­
cent
cent
foreign Negro
born

Total

21.7
16.6
12.8
13.8

29.6

2.6
2.8
1.1

17.4

Unemployed women

Total

2,104
657
430
289
3,821

Per­
Per­
cent
cent
foreign Negro
born
37.5

57.8
12.3

10.0

12.1
6.1

8.3
29.6

i 1931 given only when 1930 was not available.

Part-time employment
Seven of the studies under consideration included data by sex on
part-time work as well as unemployment. The most specific of these
were the Buffalo, Philadelphia, Syracuse, and Waukesha studies,
which showed the degree of part time engaged in—for example,
whether those reported worked less than one half time—and the New
Haven study, which showed whether these visited had received three
fourths, half, or less than half pay in the week preceding the interview.
These data are as follows:
Women

Men

Percent that were—
On part time

City and year
Total

Total
Buffalo:
1929
1930________________
1931
New Haven, 1931 .
Philadelphia, 1931_________
Syracuse, 1931 __ _
Waukesha, 1931-------- -------

Percent that were—

2,833
2,715
3,010
917
16,944
1,663
* 892

Less
than
half
time

5.2

1.1
2.6

16.1
“ 17.0
15.1
16.7

5.0
“3.0
4.1

12.0

8.1

6.8

d 6.8

On part time
Unem­
ployed

5.9
15.9

21.6

fc 14.5
23.7
18.7
13.8

Total
Total

12,331
11,287
12,614
2,074
48,641
5, 638
«- 4,315

6.7
17.8

22.1

“ 23. 5
13.5
19.9
20.7

Less
than
half
time
0.9
3.3
6.3
5.5
2.7
6.3
d 10. 9

Unem­
ployed

10.9

20.8

b

27.7
19.5
26.4
23.1
21.4

« Reports are of those receiving less than full pay the week before the visit.
b Unemployed on day of visit. During past week 16 percent of the women and 20 percent of the men
were unemployed.
« Total employable.
d Includes those on half time.
8* The New Haven study also reported on nativity but analyzed such data for men only.




44

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

The foregoing shows that the numbers working on part time for
some part of their work approached or exceeded the total of those
actually unemployed. In New Haven those receiving only part pay
the week before the visit exceeded the unemployed, though it may
have been that not all these were on part time. In the five studies in
1931, if those unemployed and those working half time or less be
taken together, the proportions were from somewhat less than one
fifth to more than one fourth of all the women surveyed, and from
one fourth to over one third of the men. In one city the proportion
at work only part of the time had increased in the same time and to
almost as great an extent as had unemployment.
The Bloomington study shows that nearly as many persons were
on part time as were unemployed, but the data were not reported by
sex. In South Bend, of 3,245 women studied, 62.8 percent had been
out of work for some weeks in the year and 60.2 percent had had some
part-time weeks. Of 1,826 women who reported number of weeks
they had worked only part time, 12 percent had had short time in
every week of the year and an additional 23 percent in weeks totaling
6 but less than 12 months.
The 1931 Philadelpliia study gives part time by age, and the show­
ing is as follows:
All ages
Women:
Total employable_______ _______
Percent on part time__________
Men:
Total employable..
____
Percent on part time______ ____ _
1

16 to 25
years

26 to 45
years

i 16,944
15.1

7,228
15.3

5,807
16.1

1,600
16.1

48,641
13.5

9,860
12.5

22,089
14.6

11,958
14.0

1

Over
years

Total exceeds details, as not all reported on age.

The foregoing indicates that the proportions on part time vary less
in the different age ranges than do the proportions unemployed. The
most youthful group of each sex has the smallest proportion on part
time, though the younger women were those that suffered unemploy­
ment in the greatest proportion.
Summary of data from 21 special unemployment studies
_ Extent of the unemployment of women.—The census survey of 19
cities in January 1931 reported nearly 20 percent of the normally
employed women in these localities as out of work. Fifteen special
surveys made in seven cities and two additional special studies afford
reports as to extent of unemployment. For those applying to 1931
the proportions of women unemployed range from 6.5 percent in a
special study applying largely to “white collar” workers to 23.7
percent in Philadelphia.
. Usual occupations of the women unemployed.—Eleven studies made
in nine cities afford some occupational data. In seven studies in five
cities the proportions of those normally employed in each occupation
group who were out of employment at the tune of the survey were
given. Those in manufacturing, clerical, and domestic and personal




WOMEN’S UNEMPLOYMENT

45

service had suffered most, while trade also had a large proportion
unemployed in one city; in Buffalo those in domestic and personal
service were the greatest sufferers in 1930, those in clerical occupa­
tions in 1929 and 1931. In four other studies the proportions of
those reported unemployed who were in the various occupations were
reported. In three of these, women in domestic and personal service
had suffered most (with manufacturing second), those in manufac­
turing in the other case. For the most part the proportions of
unemployed women who were in manufacturing and domestic and
personal service were greater than were the proportions of those
normally employed in these occupations as reported by the census;
in the clerical and professional group the opposite was the case,
though in several instances more than one tenth of those reported in
these occupations were without work.
Duration of women's unemployment.—Duration of the unemploy­
ment of the women out of work was reported in nine cities and two
industrial studies. In those made in 1931, from 2.5 percent to 24.7
percent had been out of work 6 months but less than a year; and from
1.5 percent to 36.7 percent, for a year or longer.
Reasons for unemployment of women.—In reports available for nine
cities and from two other special studies, as high as 97.5 percent of the
unemployed women in one city were out of work for reasons classi­
fiable as due to the industry or business in which they had been en­
gaged, no study—except that of the American Woman’s Associa­
tion—showing less than 32 percent unemployed for these reasons.
In most cases relatively small proportions were out of a job because
of reasons entirely personal, though this was the case for as high as
67.4 percent of those in the study of a specialized group made by the
American Woman’s Association in New York City.
Responsibility of unemployed women for support of others.—Surveys
in four cities showed that from about 21 percent to about 64 percent
of the unemployed women had dependents, and in one city over 40
percent of the women reported had four or more dependents. Re­
ports for two additional cities showed in each case about one fifth of
all the women included to he heads of families, and respectively 15.8
and 20.5 percent of the women heads of families to be unemployed.
Age of unemployed women.—Reports from 10 cities showed that in
every case except in the selected group surveyed by the American
Woman’s Association in New York from about one third to nearly
three fifths of the unemployed women were under 25. In eight
studies from 13.3 percent to 25.7 percent of the unemployed women
were under 20. Quite small proportions were as old as 60, though in
one case over 13 percent and in another nearly 8 percent of the
women without work were 60 or over.
Nativity and color in relation to women’s unemployment.—Data for
four cities show that the proportions of the unemployed who were of
foreign birth were less than the proportions of foreign born in the
total population or among the gainfully employed. Although in 3
of the 5 cities reporting Negro women, these formed only a small
proportion of the unemployed women, yet when compared with their
numbers in the population they bore more than their share of the
unemployment.




46

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Part-time employment of women.—Data for four cities showed the
proportions of those studied who were working part time, as well as
those unemployed, and those for one city showed the extent of full
pay received by those reported at work. The numbers having some
part time approached or exceeded the total of the unemployed, and
in one city where data were available for more than one year the
proportion working part time increased over the same period and
almost to the same extent as did unemployment. In five studies in
1931, if the unemployed and those working half time or less be taken
together, the proportions range from somewhat less than one fifth to
more than one fourth of all the women surveyed, and from one fourth
to over one third of all the men.




Part IV.—DATA IN REGARD TO FLUCTUATIONS IN
THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
GENERAL SOURCES OF EMPLOYMENT DATA

From an analysis of figures on the employment of women and men
over an 11-year period in an important industrial State the Women’s
Bureau found separate figures by sex necessary, especially in periods
of economic disturbance, if significant variations at such times are to
be understood for the two sexes.1 Persons familiar with employment
data are well aware that figures based on a combination of various
branches of an industry—for example, a total for food and allied
industries or for metal industries—may be very misleading if used in
an attempt to interpret the situation within one of the industries con­
stituting the group. In the same way a composite picture of the two
sexes in any industry may be misleading in determining what is
happening to either sex or to the two in relation to each other.
Despite this fact, it is not possible at the present time to secure
complete and adequate material as to the employment changes that
affect women. Three Federal agencies are important sources of em­
ployment statistics, but not one of these publishes such data by sex.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics collects monthly figures representing
large samples of various industries and industry groups, but these
never have included a sex classification. (New forms for reporting to
the Bureau of Labor Statistics are being worked out in 1933, and these
are to include a sex classification.) In recent years the Federal
Reserve Board has published periodical employment figures based
largely on those of the Bureau of Labor Statistics with the inclusion of
other sources, weighted according to value of the source and impor­
tance of the industry, and corrected mathematically by employment
reports of the biennial census of manufactures.2 The census of man­
ufactures formerly reported by sex the number of wage earners in
various manufacturing industries, but the custom of including a sex
classification was discontinued with the biennial reports, which began
in 1921. However, for the decennial census of manufactures data on
the average number of wage earners still were collected by sex in 1929,
but this was not the case with the monthly figures indicative of em­
ployment fluctuations, though these had been given by sex in pre­
ceding decennial reports. A careful analysis of these census data
from 1904 to 1925, inclusive, has been made, though of course it could
contain no information by sex since this was not reported in those
years.3
1 U.s. Department of Labor. Women’s Bureau. Variations in Employment Trends of Women and
Men. Bui. 73, 1930, pp. 19 and 48.
s See Federal Reserve Bulletin, December 1923, May 1925, p. 324, and November 1929, p. 706, and article
in the New York Times Annalist, February 21, 1930, p. 452. Other figures included in the index prepared
by the board have been taken from the Interstate Commerce Commission, the U.S. Employment Service,
the New York, Wisconsin, Illinois. Massachusetts, and Iowa departments of labor, and the Federal Reserve
Bank of Philadelphia. The correction by census data was intended to obviate any mathematical bias that
teuded to appear in some industries because of the method of combining the links into a chain of relatives in
cases where reporting gave only the percent change from preceding month in identical firms. See Federal
Reserve Bulletin, May 1925, pp. 325-326.
a Bursk, J. Parker. Seasonal Variations in Employment in Manufacturing Industries. University of
Pennsylvania Press. 1931.




47

48

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

SPECIAL ANALYSES OF EMPLOYMENT DATA

The consideration of employment statistics has been of interest
to a variety of groups and for a variety of reasons. Their movements
affect business plans, demands upon employment agencies, the
reporting of unemployment, and the relief programs of social agencies.
Consequently they have been a subject of considerable study, no
small part of it arising from an interest in measuring unemployment.
Their collection by certain national agencies has been referred to, as
has an analysis of data from one of these sources, and the reports in
some of the States that secure such figures by sex will be discussed
later. At this time a few special studies along this line should be
mentioned, although not all of these include data by sex or considera­
tion of this important phase of the subject.
In 1922 the American Statistical Association created a Committee
on Governmental Labor Statistics. As a result of its experiences this
committee, many of whose members were responsible for the collection
of employment figures in State or Federal bureaus, prepared a plan
for the collection of employment data and a statement of methods
recommended for their use. This was published by the Russell Sage
Foundation in 1926.4
Since the Ohio employment figures are especially complete and
well classified and have been available in practically comparable
form over a considerable period, they have been the subject of a
number of researches. The analysis of these data made by the
Women’s Bureau for the period 1914-24 already has been referred
to. Other studies have been made by the bureau of business research
of Ohio State University6 and the department of economics of
Oberlin College,6 for the most part stressing industries not large
woman-employers and covering years earlier than those in tbe
present study, though sometimes overlapping. Reports by the
Information Bureau on Women’s Work, Toledo, giving particular
attention to the sex classifications, will be mentioned in connection
with the discussion of special studies on the subject.7
Employment changes from month to month reported by the
Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry have been analyzed
for the years 1921-27.8 These data are not collected by sex, and
this period is prior to that under consideration in the present report,
but the statements as to methods employed are especially lucid.
STATE MATERIAL AVAILABLE BY SEX

In connection with recommendations made in June 1930, the
Committee on Governmental Labor Statistics listed 13 State bureaus
as collecting current monthly employment statistics. However, of
these only Illinois, Iowa, and New York have published such data* i
4 Hurlin, Ralph G., and William A. Berridge (editors). Employment Statistics for the United States.
1926.
fi Bell. Spurgeon, and Ralph J. Watkins. Industrial and Commercial Ohio. 1928. A summary by
industry and locality; and Watkins, Ralph J. Ohio Employment Studies. 1927. Deals chiefly with
construction and the heavy metal industries.
e Wooster, Harvey A., and Theodore E. Whiting. Fluctuation in Employment in Cleveland and
Cuyahoga County, 1923-1928.
i See p. 122.
s Pennsylvania. Department of Labor and Industry. Special Bui. No. 24, 1928. Dewhurst, J.
Frederic. Employment Fluctuations in Pennsylvania, 1921 to 1927.




fluctuations in the employment of women

49

in any form in a continuous series by sex.0 The Ohio figures are
collected by sex and are available in a very complete form, but they
have not been published by the State through the entire period of
collection. The Iowa data are much less in volume than those of
the other States under consideration, since this is not one of the
larger manufacturing States: The 1929 Census of Manufactures
reports only about one seventh as many manufacturing wage earners
in Iowa as in Massachusetts, the State next preceding it among the
five listed in table 8.9 11
10
The foregoing paragraphs show that the only available basis for
ascertaining changes in women’s employment at frequent intervals
in any consecutive way lies in the employment reports obtainable
from but four States, one of which cannot be considered chiefly in­
dustrial in character of occupations pursued by its people.11
In addition, mention must be made here of the recent studies of
the Employment Stabilization Institute of the University of Min­
nesota, which, though they do not constitute regular official State
labor department publications, give valuable data by sex that are
considered in a later part of the present report. (See p. 124.)
The differences in methods used and in systems of classification
frequently bar comparison even among these few States, although
it is possible to obtain certain indications of general lines of move­
ment in particular industries or employment groups.
Table 8 shows the average number of wage earners reported in the
preliminary releases of the decennial Census of Manufactures (1929),
and compares these with the average number of wage earners (men
and women combined) employed by manufacturing firms reporting
to the State in 1929, showing that in three States from 37 percent to
52 percent of such wage earners were reported to the State, and in
another, Ohio, the figure was approximately 97 percent.12 In Massa­
chusetts only about 16 percent of the wage earners (men and women
combined) were reported to the State, and, as already mentioned,
Iowa is not a large industrial State. In view of the facts stated in
9 While the monthly mimeographed information as to employment issued by the Massachusetts Depart­
ment of Labor and Industries is not given by sex, average weekly earnings for the month were given for
the period considered in this report for the women and men in all establishments that report such data
by sex—roughly, some 80 percent of the entire number of firms reporting to the State. An examination
of the data for a representative month showed the number of employees of both sexes combined to be only
about one sixth of the number reported in the census of manufactures of 1929. This seems too small a
proportion to justify any analysis of employment fluctuations by sex, in view of the fact that some were
from firms not giving data by sex, that the establishments reporting were not identical from month to
month, and that certain of the large woman-employing industries in the State v?ere not well represented.
i° The Iowa Employment Survey reports monthly on the numbers of men and women employed on
the pay day nearest the 15th of the month. In addition, the percent change in employment from the
preceding month is given for all employees (men and women together) in identical firms. (See the bi­
ennial report of the Iowa Bureau of Labor for the period ending June 30, 1928, p. 17.) These data are re­
ported by industry with a total of all industries (including in the total workers in trade, public service,
and laundries, as well as manufacturing groups).
The number of establishments in Iowa shown by the census of manufactures for 1929 was 3,317. An
average of 302 reported to the State, and this included those in trade, public service, etc., classified as
“various industries.” However, those establishments reporting, constituting so small a percent of the
total, were among the larger employers (as was also the case in Illinois), since the number of wage earners,
omitting the “ various industries” group, showed a monthly average of 42,823, over half the 81,678 reported
by the census as the average of the wage earners. It may be added that the Iowa reports also include state­
ments as to the number of firms on full time, part time, and shutdown, with employers’ estimates as to
general business outlook.
.
11 Besides, some data by sex have been collected in Kansas, though not so published. The census of
manufactures release of Feb. 11, 1932, shows the average number of manufacturing wage earners in that
State to be less than 60 percent of the number in Iowa.
12 Collection of material for this report was begun in the latter part of 1931. It was necessary to decide
on limitations of the data to be used considerably before the time when material was available either from
the Census of Manufactures (1929) or the Census of Occupations (1930). See note 1, p. 50. In connection
with the discussion in each State, tables from the 1930 Census of Occupations were added before publication
of the report, but these could not be used as the original basis of selecting industries to be discussed and no
attempt has been made to reconcile the census classification of industries with those used by each State
for reporting.




50

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

the foregoing and since lack of time and space prevents a fuller con­
sideration, this section of the report will be confined chiefly to an
analysis of the material offered by the three States of Illinois, New
York, and Ohio, with a summary of the Minnesota data.
8.—Comparison of number of employees reported in Census of Manufactures,
1929, with numbers in manufacturing reported to State labor agencies 1

Table

Data from U.S. Census of Manu­
factures, 1929

State

Illinois-.----- ------------ ------New York— -------------Massachusetts 5
Iowa------------ --------------------Ohio

Data from reports of
manufacturing in­
dustries to State
labor agencies 19292

Date of
census
release,
1932

Average
number
of wage
earners

Number
of estab­
lishments
reporting

691, 555
1,105, 966
557, 494
81, 678
741,143

3 1,057
over 1,500
2 838
3 7 302
10,035

Jan.
Jan.
Dec.
Jan.
Jan.

18
19
316
22
20

Number
of estab­
lishments

15, 333
39, 395
9, 872
3, 317
11,855

Average
number
of wage
earners
for the
year

4
2

256,213
484,170
107,364
7 42,823
718,108

Ratio of
average
number
of wage
earners
reported
to the
State to
average
number
reported
by the
census
4

37.0
43.8
19.3
52.4
96.9

1 Includes both men and women, since the census figures were not available by sex from the releases
received at the time of preparation.
2 In the case of Massachusetts the data are for 1930; 1929 figures not at hand.
3 Average number of establishments.
4 New York includes office employees in the total manufacturing figures, though they are omitted in
the figures for women on which the index of employment for women is based. Figures on office employees
are taken only in October of each year, and numbered 48,645 in October 1929. If this be subtracted from
the New York total of 484,170, the remainder forms 39.4 percent of that reported in the census of manufac­
tures. The list was enlarged somewhat in January 1930.
« Employment data not reported by sex, but in the period of study wages were reported by sex for
firms that furnished data by sex to the State.
e 1931.
7 Number of establishments is total number; number of employees omits those in “ various industries,”
most of whose employees are not in manufacturing (inciudes, for example, stores and laundries).

_ It goes without saying that considerable differences appear in the
industrial classifications and in the methods of reporting of the three
States. The characteristics of the data from each of the States dis­
cussed in detail will be given more fully just before the consideration
of the State in question. However, a general statement should be
made at this time in regard to the basis of reporting in each. In
New York it is a fixed list of reporting firms that represents roughly
one third of the manufacturing employees in the State; an index
based on June 1923 is given by sex, constructed after adjustment
by importance of the industry in the State and importance of men
and of women in the industry. (See appendix B, p. 216.) Ohio
tabulates the total figures reported, as the law requires all firms
employing three or more employees to report, and examination of the
figures has shown that this gives the results of a practically complete
record; simple unadjusted indexes have been prepared from these
figures by the Women’s Bureau, based on the monthly average of
1928, the year preceding the 1929 peak. In Illinois the percent
change from the preceding month is reported for identical establish­
ments. A method similar to that used by the Federal Bureau of
Labor Statistics, though in the case of Illinois such figures are given
separately for each sex; indexes of employment have been constructed
from these changes, with June 1928 used as 100.13
13 In constructing such an index from link relatives a single month had to be used as a base, June being
selected as the most nearly normal month available in the period of study. Since the period of study here
covers only 4 years, the errors incident to the link-chain method, as elaborated in connection with Federal
Reserve figures, cannot be considered serious. See footnote 2, p. 47.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

51

The question may arise as to the relative merits of these various
methods of reporting. Very little material exists on the subject
under consideration, and if the situations in the present and more
recent past are to be understood even partially, the tools at hand,
imperfect as these may prove at times, must be employed. While
due allowance must be made for faults of data, and while it is en­
couraging to know that efforts are proceeding toward instituting
systems of reporting more nearly approaching perfection than most
of those upon which the information now available is based, still
the securing of such perfection will require long growth, and analyses
incident to the present situation cannot in all cases wait upon its
ultimate assurance. Some error is likely to be present in practically
all statistical data, especially when they endeavor to picture the
results of such complex economic and social forces as those relating
to employment changes and unemployment. The Women’s Bureau
takes the reports of each State on their own basis, calls attention to
the character of the data, and attempts to give some picture of what,
in the form given, they appear to indicate in regard to the fluctuations
in women’s employment. The fact that the period of study here is a
short one minimizes the danger of certain types of error incident to
the systems in use in some States.
Obviously it is not possible to discuss in detail all the industries
reported in each of the three States, so they have been selected on
the basis of the numbers of women reported by the State where pos­
sible, though the proportions of the gainfully employed women
reported by the census of occupations in the industries selected for
discussion also are shown. In the case of New York, where the
numbers are not reported by sex, the selection of industries is made
primarily on the basis of their relative importance as woman em­
ployers as indicated by the census of occupations.
Naturally a consideration of the figures available for women does
not give a picture of the entire employment situation in an industry
or locality. However, it does indicate the extent of fluctuation to
which women are subject, and the figures for men’s employment
included in charts and appendix tables make it possible to compare
the changes occurring to women with those occurring to men.
ILLINOIS EMPLOYMENT DATA
CHARACTER OF THE DATA

Employment indexes reported (not by sex)
The employment figures collected in Illinois afford the basis for an
employment index reported monthly in the Labor Bulletin and run­
ning back to 1922, both for all industries and for all manufacturing.14
This is compiled with the average of 1922 equaling 100, changing
with the issue of June 1929 to the monthly average for 1925-27 as
100.15 16
None of the indexes are by sex. Beginning with the issue of
July 1928 the total numbers reported 18 are given without separation
by sex; figures for Illinois from the census of manufactures, shown in
a parallel column, indicate that the reports to the State in the various
14 Beginning with the August 1928 issue, pay roll index also has been published, covering the same period,
with the last 6 months of 1922 equaling 100, but not by sex.
15 Indexes were reconstructed back on the new base.
16 Numbers employed are reported as of the 15th day of the month. See issue of February 1930.




52

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

months of 1930 represent 40 percent or more of all its manufacturing
employment. These data are not by sex, and, as those familiar with
the census of manufactures are well aware, the biennial figures re­
ported by the census are not collected by sex. While the monthly
employment figures published in the decennial years usually have
been reported by sex, they were not so separated for 1929.
Table 9.—Relative importance of various industries and industrial groups in the

employment of women wage earners in Illinois, August 1930

Industry

Percent that all women wage
Percent
earners reported in the indus­
women
try or occupation formed of—
formed of
total in
nearest
obtainable Total em­ Manufac­ Specific
group in
turing
group
total
total
1930 census ployees
100.0

22.5
22.6

13.3

57.3
----

--------------

i

100.0

38.3

i

34.8
47.6
29.8

100. 0

52.5
18.1
10.5

29.1

17.3

1 100. 0

16.0
60.0

36.3
32.6

73.4

15.9

i

100.0

48.2
30.1
10.6

36.1

i

37.6
51.7

59.6
24.1
7.8

Furs and leather goods 2----------------------------------------

i

46.3

100. 0

94.4

14.7
60.6
7.8
5.7
94.4

100.0

3.9
3.0
1.5
1.5
.2
29.7

i

100.0

7.8

i

100.0

99.1

27.0

26.5
5.2
56.6
63.9

100.0

64.2
35.8

1 Total exceeds details, as not all details are reported in full. For more complete table, with explanation
of use of August for this analysis, see appendix A, p. 171.
a Not considered separately. Contains relatively few women outside the groups reported.
3 Not considered separately, because of notable differences and seasonal tendencies of industries,
i This main group considered as well as certain of its details as it contains considerable numbers of women
outside the groups shown.
3 Not considered separately. Fewer than 1,000 women in the total.

The data available represent a sample for the State. The size of
this sample is indicated by a comparison of the figures with those
reported in the United States Census of Manufactures. From this




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

53

source are found reported 15,333 establishments in 1929; in the
same year about 7 percent of that number—an average of 1,057
manufacturing establishments—are included in the monthly State
reports on employment. The employees of these establishments are
a considerably larger sample of the average of 691,555 wage earners
reported by the 1929 Census of Manufactures—the monthly average
reported by the State in 1929 being 256,213, nearly two fifths (37
percent) of the census figure. Of course this does not necessarily
give the proportional representation to each industry nor to the two
sexes. For basis on which analysis by sex is made, see page 50.
Industries selected for inclusion
Naturally it was not possible to include in the present report the
entire range of these industrial and occupational groups in consider­
ing the employment of women. Table V in appendix A shows the
relative importance of the various industries as reported both by the
State and by the census. On the general basis of significance in
woman employment, in addition to the manufacturing total, 17
groups were selected for consideration. These include 3 main manu­
facturing groups and 14 separate industries; 10 of the latter were in
manufacturing, 4 in nonmanufacturing. The accompanying table 9,
selected partly from appendix table V, indicates the classes con­
sidered and their relative importance and shows the proportions
women formed in the industries analyzed.
THE GENERAL MOVEMENT IN MANUFACTURING EMPLOYMENT
IN THE 4 YEARS «

All manufacturing in each year
The general seasonal contour of women’s manufacturing employ­
ment is illustrated in chart l.17 Each of the 4 years showed a low
point in April, and a low point in July followed by a rise, although in
1929 the July low was so slight as to be almost negligible. July
normally was followed by a rise; in 1928 and 1929 this rise reached the
high point of the year in September and some decline was shown
thereafter; in 1930 and 1931 the rise following July proceeded only
as far as August, after which a decline began and continued steadily
to approximately the end of the year. In 1928 and 1929 the year
closed well above its beginning, but there was an almost continuous
decline throughout the 2 succeeding years. On the whole, the curves
for men presented the same general movement, but their contour was
far more regular, indicating the more frequent and extreme ups and
downs in employment to which women are subject. At the close of
1928, factory forces—men and women combined—were 7.1 percent
greater than at the close of 1927. Manufacturing employment in
December 1929 was about equal to that in December 1928.
At the close of 1930 the Labor Bulletin reports a decrease in em­
ployment from December 1929 in all industries—manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing combined, men and women—of 17.6 percent; at
this time the employment level was reported “considerably lower
than in any previous year covered by the indexes of the Department
of Labor”, and the average index figure for all industries (manu­
facturing and nonmanufacturing) for the year was 11.6 percent below
17

Based on indexes shown in table VI in appendix A, p. 174.

179570°—33---- 5



54

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

the average for 1929, and 6.4 percent below the figure for 1928, “the
lowest annual figure hitherto recorded.” The decline in 1931 was
almost as sharp as that in 1930; the December figure was 16 percent
below that of December 1930, and the average index figure for the
year was 16 percent below the average for 1930, which before that was
the lowest on record.
_ Much of the downward movement was due to the manufacturing
industries, which formed 57.3 percent of the whole and declined more
than the total.
Low employment level in 1930 and 1931 in various manufacturing
industries
A later consideration of particular manufacturing industries will
show which ones contributed especially to certain directions of move­
ment in the year. The decline in 1930 was reported to be “almost
universal”, and in 1931 “employment in all reporting Illinois indus­
tries declined steadily throughout the year until December.” The
general low level in i930 and 1931 was decidedly noticeable in boots
CHART 1—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN ALL MANUFACTURING, ILLINOIS,
1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1928=100]

Mar

Jun

Sop

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

and shoes,18 electrical apparatus, and watches and jewelry, in all of
which the downward trend was very marked for both sexes; in men’s
clothing; in women’s clothing in the last part of 1930 and throughout
1931 for men, with, however, a strong upward movement for women
in the first half of 1931; in sheet-metal work and hardware for both
sexes after July of 1930; in job printing at the close of 1930 and
throughout 1931, with especially sharp fluctuations for women; in the
chemical, oil, and paint group; in slaughtering and meat packing for
men but not for women; in confectionery in the last part of 1930 and
the first half of 1931 for men, but the level for women in these 2 years,
while somewhat below that of 1929 in nearly every month, was not
below the June 1928 base until the end of 1931.
For both sexes the lowest point of employment in the period of
study was in 1931 in about one half of the separate manufacturing
industries and in the group total, as well as in laundering and telephone.
18 These data show this to have been true for the firms reporting by sex. Maintenance of a better em­
ployment level in certain firms not reporting by sex kept up the industry as a whole better than some
other industries.




Fluctuations in the employment of women

55

The highest point of employment was in 1929 for both sexes in the
majority of cases, in 6 manufacturing groups, the group total, and in
telephone and laundries.
The entire decline in the index of employment in all manufacturing
from highest to lowest point in the 4-year period was 43 points for
men, 45 for women.
EMPLOYMENT MOVEMENT IN SPECIAL MANUFACTURING GROUPS
OR INDUSTRIES

Metals, machinery, and conveyances
This group employed nearly 40 percent of the women reported in
manufacturing, and from it the data for three industries were ex­
amined—electrical apparatus, watches and jewelry, and sheet-metal
work and hardware, employing respectively over one half, nearly
one fifth, and over one tenth of the women in the entire group.
Electrical apparatus.—In the making of electrical apparatus, the
general movement of women’s employment was quite similar to that
of men, though in some cases—notably in the latter part of 1929, or
in the comparison of 1929 with 1928—changes were more extreme for
women. (See chart 2.) July always presented a low point, though
not necessarily the lowest of the year, and judging from 1928 and 1929
the late fall was a normal high point. It was evident that untoward
business conditions, technological changes, or other factors had a
very adverse effect on employment in this industry, for the decline
from September and October 1929 for men and women was almost
continuous to the end of the 4-year period and was very rapid during
a considerable part of the time. The index of women’s employment
ran much closer to that of men’s in nearly every month of 1930 and
1931 than in the corresponding month of 1928 or 1929. After
February 1930 the employment of neither sex ever regained its June
1928 level; from this time on; men’s employment fell below any pre­
vious point in the 4-year period, and the same was true for women
after April 1930. The entire decline from highest to lowest employ­
ment index in the 4-year period—these being in 1929 and in 1931,
respectively—was 72 points for men and was considerably greater
for women, 94 points. Whether for men or for women, this was a
greater decline than in any other industry analyzed.
Watches and jewelry.—Usually there was some downward tendency
early in the year in this industry. (See chart 2.) July always was a
low month, since certain large plants shut down for a week or two for
inventory at that time; the apparently more regular showing in 1929
and 1931 is explained by the report period not coinciding exactly
with the time of the inventory. Ordinarily some rise came after
July—apparently more extreme in 1928 and 1930 than in the other
years—because of the preceding inventory just explained. Most re­
maining months of the year showed an upward trend in 1928 and
1929, a downward trend in 1930 and also in 1931, in which the gen­
eral employment tendency of the year was downward. Ordinarily
the employment of women tended to change in the same direction as
did that of men. The difference from highest to lowest index of em­
ployment in the 4 years was 45 points for men, somewhat more for
women—54 points—and these differences are nearly as great if the
July inventories be disregarded.




56

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

CHART 2—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN ELECTRICAL APPARATUS, IN SHEETMETAL WORK AND HARDWARE, AND IN WATCHES AND JEWELRY, ILLINOIS,
1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1928=100]
ELECTRICAL

SHEET-METAL

WORK

WATCHES

Mar

Jun

- Sep




Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 2 9

A P P A

AND

AND

Dec

AIDS

HARDWARE

JEWELRY

Max

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

19 5 1

Dec

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

57

Sheet-metal work and hardware —Women’s employment in this in­
dustry wfis considerably more irregular than that of men. (See chart
2.) there was a marked decline in 1931, though 1928 had opened
with employment very low, so that even as late as October 1931 the
index was above that of January 1928. The high point of employ­
ment for women m June of 1929 and July 1930 was followed in each
case, by a sharp decline. After August 1929 the index in no month
(except January 1930 and the 1931 peak in April) rose above that of
the corresponding month of the year preceding, and after May 1931
indexes were even below those for the corresponding months of 1928.
T or men there was some general similarity of employment movement
to that of women, but the month-to-month fluctuations ordinarily
were far less extreme for men, and their high and low points in the
year always differed considerably less than did those of women. The
entire decline in the index from highest to lowest point in the 4-year
period was 30 points for men, but for women it was much greater—
53 pomts.
Food, beverages, and tobacco
From this group, employing 17.3 percent of the women reported in
manufacturing, slaughtering and meat packing, and confectionery
were analyzed, each containing about one third of the women in the
entire group.
Slaughtering and meat packing.—While a very definite seasonal
movement was apparent in this industry, the fluctuations were con­
siderably less extreme than were those, especially for women in con.cJ1?ne^r' (See chart 3.) There was usually a slump in employment
in March or April, with a rise to a high point in June or as early as
May when the slump was in March. August represented another low
point m every year but 1929, and thereafter the general trend was
upward to the close of the year, with the exception of that for women
m 1930. A comparison of the separate curves for men and women
with that lor the industry as a whole, as given in the Labor Bulletin
■January-February 1929 issue, shows the men’s employment for 1928
more nearly following the line of total curve, in which the sharper
changes for the women become somewhat smoothed. In this com­
parison the year used as a base (100) was 1922. Employment for
men ran below the June 1928 level in practically ail of 1930 and 1931.
r or women it was above June 1928 from November of that year
through November of 1930, with only one exception. The difference
between the highest and the lowest employment index in the 4 years
was 26 points for men, 29 for women. For both sexes this was a
smaller variation than that existing in any other industry but tele­
phone, and for men, textiles in addition.
Confectionery.—In this industry, for the most part, the changes in
employment followed the same direction for the two sexes. (See
chart 3.) After the early spring season, ostensibly due to preparation
lor the ii,aster trade, there was always a drop to a low point in April
or March, a summer rise likely to be due to other branches of the
confectionery trade, and followed by a later rise to a high point of
the year in September or October, when Christmas candy is being
made. The fluctuations were much more extreme for women than
men in this highly seasonal industry. For women, employment sub­
sequent to June 1928 always was above that month except for July




58

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

1931 and the closing months of the same year; for men, employment
fell below the June 1928 level in July of the same year, in August,
October, and November 1930, and was below throughout 1931 until
October, when its rise was accompanied by a sharp decline in women’s
employment. The entire decline from highest to lowest index in the
4-year period was 55 points for men, and for women it was conCHART 3— INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN CONFECTIONERY, AND IN SLAUGH­
TERING AND MEAT PACKING, ILLINOIS, 1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1928=100]

suigiimn

liar

Jun
Sep
1928

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1929

im

Dec

heat

Mar

hoiks

Jun
Sep
1950

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1951

Dec

siderably greater—82 points—a degree exceeded by only two other
industries.
Clothing and millinery
As is likely to be the case with any composite group, this group as
a whole reflects the ups and downs of the various constituent indus­
tries in such a way as to give a very irregular picture. As a whole,




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

59

CHART 4—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN CLOTHING AND MILLINERY, ILLINOIS,
1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1928=100]
1 o ■ a n hmihhw
TOTAL

lien ■»••••••

(Includes certain Industries not shown separately)

CLOT

C L 0 T H I

10M£H

Mar

Jun

Sep

1928




Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

1929

IMG

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

1950

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

1951

Dee

60

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

it employed over one seventh of the women reported to the State as
in manufacturing. For women there was an upward movement at
the beginning of each year until the highest point of the year was
reached; a decline followed, with a minor rise in June, and from then
on a more or less steady fall to a low point in October or November.
(See chart 4.) Except for the first 3 months in 1928, the employment
of women is below the June 1928 level in every month throughout
the 4-year period; after August 1930 and in every month of 1931 em­
ployment was consistently below the lowest months of 1928 and 1929.
At the close of 1930 it was reported that this group as a whole—on
the 1925-27 base—had reported a smaller volume of employment for
each succeeding year of the index series (men and women combined),
and during 1931 there was an additional decline.
For men the fluctuation in the index for the 4-year period was 28
points. For women, the decline was much greater than for men,
being 41 points. For both sexes declines in most other groups were
considerably greater than in clothing. However, this was due partly
to the composite character of the group, the variations in the total
being less than those in the constituent industries analyzed.
Men’s clothing.—In each of the 4 years, employment in men’s
clothing, which employed nearly half the women reported in the cloth­
ing and millinery group, showed the customary seasonal movement—
relatively high in the beginning of the year, and again in June or
July when manufacture for the autumn trade is at its peak; very low
in April or May, and again in October or November. (See chart 4.)
This movement was very similar for the two sexes. In 1928 it was
reported in the Labor Bulletin that fewer workers were employed
than was the case in any of the preceding 7 years; although men’s
employment in the 4-year period under discussion kept on the whole
a closer approach to its June 1928 level than did women’s, neither
attained that level in any month except in early 1928 and, for men,
in addition, in June and July 1929. The 1930 and 1931 levels, both
for men and for women, were always below the corresponding month
in 1928 and 1929. The decrease in employment for the year 1930—
men and women combined, as shown by the average index figure
based on 1925-27—was reported as 16 percent. The difference from
the highest index to the lowest in the 4-year period was 31 points for
men, and considerably greater—being 41 points—for women.
Women’s clothing.—This industry, employing 30 percent of the
women in the clothing group, presented extreme irregularities in em­
ployment, and showed increases at times when the group as a whole
declined. For example, the index in women’s clothing in 1930—as
given by the State, based on 1925-27—had increased 13.7 percent
from that of 1929, while that for clothing and millinery as a whole
had declined 9.6 percent. Referring to another such instance, the
Labor Bulletin states: “Against this increase (that is, in women’s
clothing) * * * must be placed the increasing unemployment
among dressmakers doing work on an individual basis.” Though the
seasonal movements were marked, they were much less consistent from
year to year and much less similar for men and women than was the
case in men’s clothing. (See chart 4.) Employment ordinarily rose
in the early months of the year, and was low or declining in July, a
month usually high in employment in men’s clothing; a low point
also was reached in November, or somewhat earlier in the fall. The



FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

61

level of men’s employment was extremely low throughout 1931. In
about one third of the months reported in the 4-year period the move­
ment of women’s employment in this industry was the opposite of
that for men. Of course it must be remembered in this connection
that in the months for which numbers of each sex could be ascertained—
January 1930 and thereafter—these changes came within a total
number employed of well over 1,000—often over 2,000—women,
while ordinarily less than 300 men were reported. These employment
changes, where they were opposite for the two sexes, were as follows:
Percent change from employment in pre­
ceding month in—
Year and month

Clothing and
millinery
Both sexes

1928: February....... .............
March______ . _________
May________ _
July____ ________________
October. __ ___
. .
November. _ .............. ........

+1.9
-1.8
-.9
-1.6

1929: August___________
September____________
November_____ _____ _

Women’s clothing
Both sexes 1
+3.7
-1.1

+.2

Men
-0.6
+.6

Women
+5.2
-1.6

-.8

-6.7

-7.7
-4.5
+5.0

+3.8
+2.5
+1.5
-13.9

-9.2
-6. 0
+9.9

-6.1
— 1.1
+6.1

-1.6
-10.5
+8.4

+7.3
+2.6
-9.6

-3.6
-13.0
+11.8

-.8

1930: May__________

+.5

-.1

-2.7

+.3

1931: March___________
April_
_ . _

+.1

+2.9
+4.6
+8.2
-2.5
-2.4

-2.4
-4.1
-9.3
+7.1
+1.0

+3.7
+6.4
+ 10.6
—3.6
-2.8

August................. ...........
September_______ ___
1

-2.7
-3.0
-4.5
-1.1

Includes data from factories not reporting by sex.

The entire difference from highest to lowest index in the 4-year
period was 47 points for men, nearly twice as much for women—90
points. For either sex this was very much greater than the clothing
total or other industry analyzed in the group. In the 4 years only one
industry among all those included showed employment fluctuation for
women greater than this.
Printing and paper goods
This class employed slightly over one tenth of the women reported
in manufacturing, and job printing and paper boxes, bags, and tubes,
containing respectively about 60 percent and about 24 percent of the
women in the group, have been examined.
Job ■printing.—In this industry, as in some of the others discussed,
employment changes of women were very much more irregular and
extreme than were those of men, although the high and low months
for the two sexes corresponded in each year but 1930. (See chart 5.)
There was a very marked seasonal movement for both sexes, with
January the highest or second highest month of the year in each case,
and another high point in July or August; heavy losses of employment
occurred from January to a low point in April in each year, and again
in the fall after the late summer high period. The decline from the
highest to the lowest indexes of employment in the 4 years was 42
points for men, considerably greater for women—76 points. Only




62

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

three industries showed a greater decline in women’s employment,
only five in men’s.
_
Paper boxes, bags, and tubes.—Employment here was considerably
more irregular for women than for men, though the long-time trend
presented similarities and the employment level—on the June 1928
CHART 5 —INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN JOB PRINTING. AND IN PAPER BOXES,
BAGS, AND TUBES, ILLINOIS, 1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1928=100]
I a T 1 9 G

AGS.

BOX

Sep

Dec

Mar

Sep
19 2 9

Dec

Mar

D

TUBES

Sep
Jun
19 5 0

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 5 1

Dec

base—ordinarily was higher for women. (See chart 5.) For women,
the first 3 and the last 3 months of 1929 were below the corresponding
months of 1928; the same was true of every month in 1930, and the
months of 1931 fell still lower. Women’s employment showed about
the normal seasonal activity in the fall of 1931, although its general




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

63

level still was low, and that of men continued to decline except for a
slight October rise. The decline from the highest employment index
in 1928 to the lowest in 1931 was 32 points for men, but it was 49 points
for women.
Furs and leather goods
This group employed nearly 8 percent of the women reported in
manufacturing, and about 94 percent of the women in this group
were working in boots and shoes.
Boots and shoes.—In this industry the seasonal movement of em­
ployment is apparent in every year, with a low point in May, a high
point in August, and a more or less steady decline in the latter part
of the year. (See chart 6.) The course of employment is similar
for the two sexes, though at certain points one is affected more
extremely than the other; for example, in the sharp decline to May
CHART 6.—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN BOOTS AND SHOES, ILLINOIS, 1928-31
BY SEX
[June 1928=100]

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dee

Mar

Jun

Sep

Jun

Sep

Dec

19 5 0
1928, when men’s employment dropped noticeably lower. At no
time after September 1929 did employment for women, nor after
October of the same year for men, again recover its June 1928 level,
and the decline after August 1930 was almost continuous for both
men and women.19 The difference in the index of employment from
the highest to the lowest in the 4 years—and these were in 1929 and
1931, respectively—was 57 points for men, 65 points for women.
Chemicals, oils, and paints
No consistent seasonal movement applying to every year is appar­
ent in the employment curves for this group of industries. (See
chart 7.) It is immediately noticeable that the employment of
women was subject to much more extreme month-to-month fluctu­
ations than that of men. However, it must be remembered that this
is not a major woman-employing group, containing fewer than 4
percent of the women reported in manufacturing. For men, the
w See also footnote on p. 54.




64

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

employment level in relation to June 1928 was low throughout the
4-year period, going well above the base only in part of 1929, and
declining rapidly and almost steadily in 1930 and 1931. For women,
employment was well above the June 1928 level at the end of 1928
and 1929, but it was below in every month after April 1930. The
CHART 7.—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN CHEMICALS, OILS, AND PAINTS
ILLINOIS, 1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1028=100]

Jun

Sep

Dec

Max

Jua

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Mar

Jun

Sep

19 2
average employment in 1931 (men and women combined) was 20.5
percent below 1929 as reported by the State with the use of the
1925-27 average as 100. The employment index at the highest and
lowest points in the 4-year period differed by 32 points for men, but
very much more for women—47 points.
Textiles
This industrial group employed a very small proportion of the
women reported in manufacturing—3 percent—and its employment
CHART 8.—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN TEXTILES, ILLINOIS, 1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1928=100]

A
Wo

Mar

m«n\ /
Jun
Sap
1926

Deo

Mar

Jun
Sep
1929

Deo

v-//'» \

s* /~v
T T W

Mur

Jun
Sep
1930

/

Dec

Mar

\

Jun
Sep
1931

Dec

fluctuations were considerably more extreme for women than for men.
Except for a summer low point and a period of increased activity
in the autumn, seasonality was less consistently marked than in
certain other classes. (See chart 8.) January was a comparatively



FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

65

high month of the year for women in 1928 and 1930, a low month in
1929 and 1931. With the exception of several months of 1928 and
the fall of 1929, employment for either sex rose little above the
June 1928 level throughout the 4-year period. Employment in 1929
being comparatively low, where it declined further in 1930 and 1931
the difference was less marked than was the case in several other
industries. For men and women combined the 1930 yearly index
was the lowest on record, and on the average 2.9 percent fewer wage
earners were employed in 1931 than in 1930. The entire decline
from the highest to the lowest index of employment in the 4 years
was 19 points for men, veiy much more for women—46 points.
NONMANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

The four nonmanufacturing industries examined were all large
woman employers: The telephone industry, which employed 99 per­
cent of the women in public utilities; department stores from the
wholesale and retail trade group, of which it formed nearly three
tenths; and two classes representing respectively over three fifths
and over one third of the women in the service group—hotels and
restaurants and laundries (sometimes including cleaning and dyeing).
Telephone industry
Telephone employment showed a rather consistent movement
for both sexes during most of the period, rising to its highest point
in the summer of 1929 and falling almost continuously after the
summer of 1930. (See chart 9.) Whether for men or for women,
January, February, or March was the low point of the year in 1928
and 1929, but January was the highest point in 1931. In 1928,
1929, and 1930 the range from low to high employment was greater
for women than for men, but in 1931 the opposite was the case, there
being small difference between the sexes in this respect. In the 4-year
period there was less variation from highest to lowest employment
index in the telephone than in almost any other industry, and the
decline was practically the same for the two sexes—22 points for
men, 23 for women.
Department stores
The data show the seasonal movement common in this branch of
employment, with its relatively low level in the first part of the year,
and its rapid late autumn and early winter increase to handle the
Christmas trade. In 2 of the 4 years the December increases were
greater for women than for men. (See chart 9.) Except for the
seasonal movement before Christmas, the employment of women was
below June 1928 during most of 1928, and this was also the case in
1930, 1931, and the latter half of 1929 (excepting only December,
or November and December, in each case). Men’s employment kept
above its June 1928 level in almost all of 1928 and 1929 and in 6
months each of 1930 and 1931; consequently, it did not appear to
reflect the slump of the last 2 years so definitely as did the employment
of women. As early as 1928 the adoption of efficiency methods in
department stores was reported to have reduced the demand for
labor; and the employment decline from 1930 to 1931 averaged 6.4
percent. The difference between the highest and the lowest index
of employment in the 4 years was 40 points for men, considerably



6b

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OE WOMEN

greater for women—60 points. But if the usual December peak in
this highly seasonal employment be disregarded, the respective
declines were only 22 and 30 points, less than in almost any other
industry.
CHART 9—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN TELEPHONE, IN DEPARTMENT STORES
AND IN LAUNDERING, CLEANING, AND DYEING, ILLINOIS 1928-31 BY
SEX
’
[June 1928=100]
Women

TELEPHONE

Men

80

DEPARTMEB T

STORES

---------------------------“*-------#

ft

t
#

/

L A U S D E R I H G,

v ..

CLEANING,

7

AND

i

'</

%

V

DZEING

%
/'

mJt

" --

%
Mar

Jun
Sep
19 2 8

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 2 9

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 3 0

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 3 1

Dec

Hotels and restaurants
The reporting of employment in hotels and restaurants was begun
in June 1928,20 hence the decrease for June from the month preceding
is not available for both sexes; and as this was the base month taken,
analysis throughout the period must be omitted and only that based
on January ol each year given.21 On this basis women’s employment
was higher than men’s throughout 1929 and 1931 but not in 1930;
20
21

See statement in the Labor Bulletin, July 1928, p. 2.
Since all charts are based on June 1928, no chart will be shown for this industry.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

67

it was also somewhat more irregular than men’s in 1929, and espe­
cially in 1931, although the extreme irregularities presented in some
industries were absent. In each case the latter half of the year
showed better employment for women than the earlier part, but in
1931 men’s employment never again rose as high as it was in January,
while that of women went 13 points higher; their respective midyear
highs were much lower for men than for women, and the drop for
women was less than that for men, so that the year closed with
women in a very much better position in relation to their January
level than were men.
Laundries
Laundering formerly was classified with clothing, but in June 1928
a new service group was formed which included laundering.22 As it
had been reported before, however, an index based on June 1928 is
available from that time on for both sexes. On this basis, men's
employment had been better than that of women in all but 1 month
of 1928, in 6 months of 1929, and in the first half of 1930, but there­
after women’s employment was the better. The general downward
movement in 1930 and 1931 was very marked and was quite similar
for the two sexes. (See chart 9.) The decline from the highest index
of employment, which was in 1929, to the lowest, which was in 1931
for each sex, was 34 points for men but less for women—'31 points.
For women only two industries showed a decline of fewer points.
This is the only industry in which the decline was greater for men than
for women.
SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT MOVEMENT OF WOMEN IN ILLINOIS,
1928, 1929, 1930, 1931

Certain important features of the foregoing discussion may be
summarized to advantage. As would be expected, employment was
shown to have a markedly seasonal character in certain of the in­
dustries; for example, confectionery, job printing, watchmaking and
jewelry, men’s clothing, and department stores.
General employment level
The general employment level, as based on June 1928, showed
very many irregularities from the viewpoint of whether it was higher
for men or for women23—an industry in which one or the other held a
level consistently the higher was very hard to find. In general, the
level was higher for men in men’s clothing and boots and shoes as a
usual thing; in the clothing and millinery group in 1929 and 1931,
being irregular in the other years; in textiles after January 1930,
being irregular prior to that time; and for the most part in depart­
ment stores except in the December peak. It ordinarily was the
higher, for women in confectionery except early in 1928 and late in
1931; in chemical factories except for 6 months toward the end of
1930; in hotels and restaurants after reporting began, except in 1930;
and usually in paper-box factories, though with some irregularities.
In some industries there were notable differences in the various years
22 A class later termed laundering, cleaning, and dyeing.
23 Much greater irregularities than in New York, for example. The fixed-list system and the weighting
of the index according to relative proportions of men and women in the industry, as in New York might
have made the showing more clear-cut, as might the choice of a different base.




68

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

as to which sex held up better in employment; for example, a higher
level in meat packing was shown for men in 1928, but for women
after March 1929; in electrical-supply factories, for men in 1928 and
1931, for women in 1929 with 1930 irregular; in women’s clothing,
for men in 1928 and in 6 months of 1929, for women in most of 1930
and of 1931; in job printing, for women usually in 1928, for men in
1930 and 1931.
Irregularities within the year
The table on page 69 shows the points of difference between the
high and the low indexes in any one year and in the entire period, both
for men and for women. An examination of this indicates that in
every industry and in almost every year women suffered a much
greater employment variation from high to low point of the year
than did men. The difference between the two sexes in this respect
was especially great in the textile and chemical groups, in job printing,
and in sheet-metal work and hardware in every year, and in the fol­
lowing in most years: Confectionery, women’s clothing, paper boxes,
and department stores. Great differences from the high to the low
employment index for both sexes were found in electrical apparatus,
confectionery, stores, job printing, boots and shoes, and women’s
clothing. The least differences were found in the telephone industry,
and for men in textiles.
Declines in employment in the 4-year period
Whichever sex be considered, the decline in employment in 1930
and 1931 was extreme in the manufacturing group as a whole, as it
was in the making of boots and shoes and in electrical apparatus and
supplies. In certain industries employment held up fairly well until
the latter part of 1930 or until 1931, after which the decline was
extreme for both sexes; this was true in watches and jewelry and in
sheet-metal work and hardware. The decline in 1931 was decided—
though less extreme than in some industries—for either sex in laundry
and dry-cleaning establishments and in the telephone industry, and
for men in slaughtering and meat packing. In men’s clothing, paperbox making, and the chemical industries the level of employment for
either sex in 1930 and 1931 was, on the whole, decidedly lower than
was that in 1929, and the same was true in 1931 of job printing
and confectionery.
The entire decline from high to low index within the period was
greater for women than for men in practically every industry—in
some cases considerably greater. For both men and women the
greatest decline was in electrical-apparatus factories, 72 points for
men and 94 for women, and over 50 points of decline in the indexes
occurred for both men and women in boots and shoes and confec­
tionery. For women there was a decline of 90 points in women’s
clotiling and 50 points or over in job printing, sheet-metal work and
hardware, watch and jewelry factories, and department stores. For
men the smallest decline in manufacturing was 19 points in the textile
group, not a large employer in this State. For women the least decline
in manufacturing was 29 points in slaughtering and meat packing,
although employment had declined somewhat less in telephone, not
a manufacturing industry.




69

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Evidences as to replacement
The general direction of change appeared similar for the two sexes,
though fluctuations often were much more extreme for one than for
the other. For example, in watch and jewelry plants and in electricalapparatus factories, the employment of both sexes declined in 1931,
but for women more extremely than for men. The data give no
evidence that can be taken as indication of general or widespread
replacements of men by women in any industry at the time declines
were notable. There were some cases in which the employment of
one sex might increase somewhat for several months while that of the
other sex was declining, but such a period invariably would be fol­
lowed by movements in the same direction for both sexes, and these
Table

10.—Difference between highest and lowest index numbers of employment
within the year, and during 4-year period, Illinois, 1928-31
Number of points of difference between
high and low index in the year for—
Industry

Men

Women

Number of points
of difference be­
tween the highest
and the lowest
index in the 4year period for1—

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 Women
Manufacturing industries-----------------Metals, machinery, and conveyElectrical apparatus--------------Watches and jewelry-------------Sheet-metal work and hardware.
Food, beverages, and tobacco:
Slaughtering and meat packing..
Confectionery
Clothing and millinery----------------Men’s clothing---------------------Women’s clothing
Printing and paper goods:
Paper boxes, bags, and tubes----Furs and leather goods—Boots and

10

11

22

14

8

8

20

15

17
47
30

32
29

49
49
25

24
27
34

18
37

16
5
17

37
42
15

16
16
17

10

12
20
22
22

35

8

20

22

26
55
28
31
47

26
15

31
5

76
49

42
32

16
9
9

20
12

17

28

12
12

65
47
46

57
32
19

14
18

27

69

57

20

13

27
14
18
18

29
24

44
24

45
18

42
19

18
9

20

19
23
29

16
26
24

36
16
19

30
10

72
2 45
30

15
9

14
39
18

10

11

94
54
53

13
13

15
38
30
20

2

43

41

49
13
21

45

29
82
41
42
90

17
52
19
24
19

11

Men

12

Chemicals, oils, and paints. .........
Textiles.----------------- ---------- ------ -

23
35

Public utilities—Telephone----------------

9

9

8

10

3

8

6

12

23

22

45

23

53

32

17

26

47

10

60

40

Hotels and restaurants----------------- (•)
Laundering, cleaning, and dyeing— «

19

<*>
16

m
13

m
c)

5
18

8
22

10
10

31

34

Trade—Department stores 3----------------

9

(*>

i The high point ot the year was in 1929 In the majority of cases. The exceptions are: For both sexes, in
clothing and millinery, textiles, paper boxes, bags, and tubes, and men’s clothing in 1928; for men, in job
printing and department stores in 1930, in women’s clothing and in slaughtering and meat packing in
1928- for women, in women’s clothing in 1930 and in department stores in 1928. The low point of the year
was in 1931 in nearly all cases. The exceptions are: For both sexes, in men’s clothing and in watches and
jewelry in 1930; for men, in clothing and millinery in 1930, in sheet-metal work and hardware in 1928, and in
department stores in 1929; for women, in chemicals, oils, and paints and in textiles in 1930, and in slaughter­
ing and meat packing in 1928.
, .
„„
, „„
a If July be omitted in the 2 years when inventories were taken, 39 and 50.
3 If December be omitted:

10

Women.................. ..................... ..................... —..........
* Not reported until in August 1928 issue.
* Not reported until in July 1928 issue.
9 Included under clothing until July 1928 issue.
179570”—33------6




9

16
16

4 years

1931

1930

1929

1928

20

24

7
18

22

30

70

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

cases find explanation other than that of replacement of men by
women. Some consideration of women’s clothing and two of the food
industries, in which this question might appear, will serve as illustra­
tions. In women’s clothing, for example, where activity for women
showed an upward peak early in 1931 while that for men was declining,
the slump in the later months of the year was much greater for women
than for menj the entire decline in the year was 57 points for women
but only 13 for men. The movement served chiefly to illustrate the
fact that fluctuations for women were very much more extreme than
for men, which also was the case in 1929 and 1930. In meat packing,
while for women the general employment level, on the June 1928
base, was well above that of men, after the spring of 1929 the move­
ment for the two sexes took a similar direction and gave no evidence
of women replacing men. Except in 1931, the employment fluctua­
tion in each year was greater for women than for men. In confec­
tionery there was a great increase in women’s employment in 1930,
after declines had set in for men, but at the end of 1931 women’s
employment declined sharply while that of men rose, and in each of
the 4 years the fluctuation of employment was greater—usually very
much greater—for women than for men.
In all the groups, with but one exception, the employment of women
had declined more from its highest to its lowest index in the 4 years
than had that of men.
NEW YORK EMPLOYMENT DATA
CHARACTER OF THE DATA

The New York Industrial Bulletin publishes, as of the 15th day of
each month, figures on factory employment based on a fixed list of
reporting concerns that give, so far as possible, reports for a similar
proportion of each industry included. An index based on these
totals—men and women combined—includes the office as well as the
shop workers in the establishments covered, and is based on the
monthly average of employment, 1925-27. In ascertaining the pro­
portion of manufacturing employment reported by comparison with
the total given in the Census of Manufactures of 1929, it is necessary
to eliminate the clerical forces from the New York totals. The
numbers of these are reported to the State only in October of each
year, and if those for October 1929 be subtracted from the monthly
average of the New York employees reported in that year, it is found
that 39.4 percent of the manufacturing employees in the State are
included in the New York reports.21
Table VII in appendix A shows, for a selected month, the industrial
distribution of the employees reported to the State (men and women
combined, including both office and shop force); it also shows the
industrial distribution of women in manufacturing in the State
according to the Census of Occupations of 1930.
As is the usual case where reporting by sex is requested, not all
reporting firms are able to separate their figures by sex. Con­
sequently, data for women generally are less complete than are the
totals. Furthermore, certain industries that are large woman em­
ployers, such as clothing, are likely to be scattered in smaller estab-11
11

See table 8, p. SO.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

71

lishments than are some of the industries employing chiefly men—
for example, certain of those in the metal and machinery group—and
it always proves more difficult to get full representation in reporting
from many small concerns than from a smaller number of large
establishments. To correct, so far as possible, the unequal representa­
tion of the industries in the list reported by sex, the New York State
Department of Labor weighted the employment figures by sex both
according to the importance of the industry in the total volume of
manufacturing employment and according to the estimated numbers
of men and women it employed.25 The absolute figures on women’s
26
employment obtained after this weighting—average for 1929—have
been furnished to the Women’s Bureau by the New York State
Department of Labor, and they are shown in a statistical work sheet
in appendix B, with the proportion each industry forms of the total
woman employment. The indexes constructed for the two sexes
from the weighted figures are based on June 1923. In preparing these
indexes office employees were omitted, and the employment indicated
is that of shop workers only, as is specified in each monthly issue of
the Industrial Bulletin. As stated above, this is not the case with
the indexes for the two sexes combined. The establishments report­
ing by sex employ roughly one third of all factory workers in the
State;26 throughout the period studied it was stated that the list of
concerns reporting by sex employed “33 percent of the men and 27
percent of the women factory workers of the State.” This is the
only one of the four States reporting on employment changes by sex
that uses a fixed list of establishments,27 although the Ohio data are so
inclusive as to present the even basis of a fixed list. For basis on
which analysis is made here, see page 50.
Special Bulletin 143 of the New York State Department of Labor
analyzes in detail for each industry included the fluctuations in the
employment and earnings of both men and women from June 1923
to June 1925. Such an analysis has not been made for a later period,
although a bulletin issued in 1931 covers the employment data for the
two sexes combined from 1921 to 1930.28
Groups included in the present consideration
It is not possible to discuss in the text every industry reported.
The main groups selected are those sufficiently important as to engage
as many as 5 percent of the total number of women given in the
weighted absolutes shown on the statistical work sheet in appendix B;
two of these that are especially far from homogeneous in character
have been excepted from consideration—food products, and furs,
leather, and rubber—although certain of their component industries
have been included. The separate industries discussed are those
forming considerable proportions of their main groups, as shown by
the weighted absolutes referred to. The accompanying table indicates
the relative standing of the industries discussed here according to
the weighted absolutes for women prepared by the State. For a
complete list of these, see the statistical work sheet in appendix B.
25 The details of the method employed in constructing this index are set forth in Special Bulletin No. 143
of the New York State Department of Labor. Extracts from pp. 8ff. and 151ff. of this bulletin will be
found on p. 216 of appendix B, together with copy of sheet showing in greater detail the statistical method
used by the State in preparing weighted absolutes.
26 Industrial Bulletin, January 1930, p. 97.
27 The “fixed list” means that the firms were identical. However, the number of firms reported does
change from time to time, as substitutions become unavoidable or corrections are made according to changes
in numbers employed in various industries.
28 New York State Department of Labor, Special Bulletin 171,1931.




72

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Table 11 .—Relative importance of various industries and industry groups in the

employment of women wage earners in New York, average for 1929 1

Industry

All manufacturing. _____ ______
Clothing and millinery_____
Women’s clothing_____
Men’s clothing________
Laundering and cleaning
Men’s furnishings______
Women’s headwear____
Women's underwear___

Percent
women
formed of
total in
nearest
obtainable
group in
1930 census

32.0
56.7

Percent that the weighted
absolutes of all wage earn­
ers reported in the industry
or industry group formed
of—
Total em­
ployees in
manufacturing

Specific
group
total

100.00
100.00

56.0

43. 75
13.31
8.31
6.04
5.58
3. 39
3.82

Textiles. ______ _________
Knit goods (except silk)
Woolens, carpets, felts. _
Silk and silk goods____

50.9
61.3
41.0
58.8

14.80
3.92
3.87
2.55

100.00

Food and tobacco 2_______
Candy______________
Bakery products______
Canning and preserving.
Tobacco_____________

28.2
52.0
41.7
39.7
37.4

10.21

100.00

2. 33
1.97
1.84
1.84

22.78
19.30
18.05
18.01

Furs, leather, and rubber goods 2. .
Shoes___________________ _ _
Gloves, bags, and canvas goods.

9. 22
5.64
1.71

100.00

29.4

Printing and paper goods___________
Print ing and bookmaking________
Paper boxes and tubes.....................

28.9
32.4
52.0

9.07
5.51

100.00

1.86

60.81
20. 46

Metals and machinery______________
Machinery and electrical apparatus

10.3

7. 36
2. 71

100. 00
36.80

29. 43
20.24
13. 75
13. 43
9. 22
8.79
26.51
26.14
17. 21

61.11
18.54

rS’", t0or.w.0nr ’ monthly average of 1929, as furnished by the Division of Statistics and
? ^
Department of Labor All main groups included where the absolute figure
as 5 percent of all manufacturing; all specific industries where it is as great as 1.7 percent
2 lar from homogeneous m character, therefore not discussed.

THE GENERAL MOVEMENT IN MANUFACTURING EMPLOYMENT IN
THE 4 YEARS

Charts 10 and 11 illustrate the manufacturing index for men and
women combined, based on the average employment in the 3 years
1925-27, and the separate indexes for the two sexes, for which June
1923 is the base. (See table VIII in appendix A.) In each case the
years 1928, 1929, 1930, and 1931 are covered.
The combined curve shows considerably greater regularity than
does the separate curve for women. It is practically the same as the
curve for men and reflects the extent to which men predominate in
manufacturing. The 1925-27 average is below the June 1923 figure,
and consequently the curve based on the former assumes a generally
higher position. Throughout the 4-year period, employment for
either sex always was considerably below June 1923, though in 1929
the 1925—27 employment level for men and women combined was
approximated in several months and was somewhat overreached in
October.2J It must be remembered that the figures for the two sexes
.,,i‘,.Ey1ill?.y?Ient aIsolow prior to 1928. For example, the Industrial Bulletin for April 1928, discussing
flLTr0™61!001*151,1,?1?’ ?tates:. ,f'or.t,le Past two years manufacturing concerns in this State have
to theirforces in the busy season and have laid off more than the usual number in the
organization, alcfo;S-‘no7LUtoeftenmeSfon0e<ia”0r'SaV1Qg ma°hmery bUt *° the ronstant imProve™"‘ in




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

73

combined include the office forces, presumably largely women and
ordinarily much more regular in employment than the manufacturing
occupations.
The manufacturing employment of women is shown to have been
considerably more irregular than that of men; it was always low in
July and was high in March and in either September or October.
High and low points came at practically the same time in the year for
men as for women; but the extremes reached in either direction
ordinarily were not so great for men as for women.
CHART 10.—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN ALL MANUFACTURING, NEW YORK
STATE, 1928-31, ALL EMPLOYEES
[Average 1925-27 = 100]

Mar

Jun

Sep

Sep

Dec

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 3 0

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 5 1

Dec

19 2 9
19 2 6
In regard to 1928, the Industrial Bulletin (discussing men and
women combined, office employees included) comments as follows:

In 1928, factory employment in New York State stood at the lowest level ever
recorded. It was even below 1921, when the prosperity boom after the war was
badly punctured * * *. However, factory labor was in one sense better off
than previously, since it was not subject to sudden changes, the results of which
are sometimes more disastrous than a generally low level of employment.30

So far as women in shop occupations were concerned, this dictum
appears not to have applied entirely, since the index would indicate
that in 1928 they were subject to rather extreme changes from month
CHART 11— INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN ALL MANUFACTURING, NEW YORK
STATE, 1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1923=100]

Mar

Jun
Sep
1928

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1929

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1930

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1931

Dec

to month at some seasons of the year. The July low in 1928 was
especially severe for women industrial workers.
The year 1929 was better than 1928; the Industrial Bulletin states
that as a whole it “marked an advance of four points over 1928 and
of half a point over 1927,” and that “Except for the decline after the
fall peak, factory labor did not undergo any severe fluctuations from
month to month.”31 For July it was stated that the midsummer* 81
3° Industrial Bulletin, January 1929, p. 503. Throughout the entire discussion in New York, direct quo­
tations from the Industrial Bulletin, unless otherwise specified, refer to the index for men and women
combined, which includes office as well as shop workers.
81 Ibid., January 1930, p. 97.




74

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

dullness was much less than usual.32 This was more true for men
than for women industrial workers, for while the latter suffered a
less extreme drop from March to July than was the case in 1928,
nevertheless the drop to the July low was considerable in the employ­
ment of women though it was almost nonexistent in that of men.
Toward the end of the year (November) there were “widespread
seasonal losses”, which were greater than for the same time in any
other year except 1920.33 Among the industries in which declines at
the end of the year (for men and women combined, office forces
included) were particularly noted in the analysis in the Industrial
Bulletin, were the following:34 35
About half of the industries reported larger declines at this season than in the
past 6 years * * *. All of the metals showed general loss of forces, with half
of them decidedly below a year ago. Many of them were gaining in the previous
December * * *. Seasonal slackening continued in all the clothing indus­
tries, with reductions on a larger scale than in 1928 or 1927 * * *
Larger
losses than usual in all of the textiles contrasted with general gains last year.
Greater drops in pay roll than in employment indicated loss of activity in Decem­
ber. Both employment and pay rolls fell below a year ago in all industries except
knit goods where total pay rolls were about even with last December. Silk and
wool usually begin to pick up at this time. Cotton-mill forces were noticeably
lower than in several years as a result of monthly curtailment all through 1929
*
*i General cuts among all the foods made December a duller month than
usual. All of the food industries stood way below last year except candy * * *
Employment fell rapidly in piano and'other musical instrument firms, due to
general as well as a few large cuts * * *.

For women industrial workers considered separately in this year,
a notable decline began as early as October in canning (which would
be expected) and in the shoe industry (but, in the last mentioned,
with some rise in employment in December); after October the decline
was marked in several of the main industrial groups, including cloth­
ing and metals; the same was true of candy, tobacco, and bakery
products in the food group, and of gloves, etc., in the fur and leather
group. _ After November the textile and printing and paper goods
industries reduced the employment of women.
As was to be expected, employment during most of 1930 and 1931
was low compared with the 2 earlier years, after the heavy drop
beginning in October 1929. In January 1930 the lowest figure ever
recorded for that month was reported (for men and women combined,
including office forces), and it was estimated that over 100,000 persons
had been laid off since the preceding October.36 The only month in
the year that showed any net gain was September, and this amounted
only to about 2 percent.36 The index for November was reported to
be the lowest figure since the index began, in June 1914,37 and the
December index was still lower. The total decline in employment
from October 1929 to December 1930 was 23 percent38 and the
decline from October 1929 to December 1931 was 33 percent.39
So far as women in industrial occupations were concerned, after
April 1930 employment never again rose to the level of any month
in 1928 or 1929, with two exceptions—May and the early fall months
32
33
34
35

Industrial Bulletin, August 1929, p. 695.
Ibid., December 1929, p. 67.
Ibid., January 1930, p. 99.
Ibid., February 1930, p. 127.




36
37
38
39

Ibid., October 1930, p. 9.
Ibid., December 1930, p. 83.
Ibid., January 1931, p. 111.
Ibid., January 1932, p. 108.

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

75

of 1930 were above the summer low in 1928, and September 1930
climbed to the level of the July low of 1929. The fluctuation from
high to low employment within the year in the manufacturing total
for women shop workers was the same in 1931 as in 1929, but it must
be remembered that the level of employment was much lower in
1931 than in 1929. Both for men and for women, employment in
manufacturing as a whole was lower in each month of 1931 than in
the corresponding month of 1930. That certain of the important
woman-employing industrial groups contributed markedly to the
general low employment level in 1930 and 1931 is indicated from
table 12.
Table 12 shows that the 1931 low fell more than 10 points below
that of 1929 for women industrial workers in all manufacturing, in
most of the major groups, and in all the separate industries considered
except women’s clothing, women’s headwear, laundering and clean­
ing, silk manufacture, and candy making; the greatest differences
found were in certain of the metal, leather, textile, and printing and
paper goods industries, as well as in the total group metals and ma­
chinery, there being a difference of 30 or more points in woolens,
carpets, and felts, shoes, machinery and electrical apparatus, printing
and bookmaking, and the metals and machinery group. Even the
highest indexes in 1931 were below the lowest in 1929 for women
shop workers in all manufacturing, in certain major groups—textiles
(and two of its three details), metals and machinery (and in its
one group), in printing and paper goods (and both of its details),
and in men’s furnishings and bakery products.
With a few exceptions, the lowest index for women industrial
workers in the 4-year period was in a month of 1931 in every industry
and group discussed, and the highest was in 1929 in more than half
the cases. The entire range of points of difference from 1929 high to
1931 low was 30 points in all manufacturing and was greatest in the
following: Canning, 174; machinery and electrical apparatus, 97;
shoes, 63; and over 50 points in the total of metals and machinery and
in gloves, bags, and canvas goods; woolens, carpets, and felts; and
women’s clothing.
In over half the industries and groups included, the fluctuation in
the employment of women shop workers within the year—as meas­
ured by the difference between the high and the low index—was
greater in 1930 than in any other year. However, it was greatest in
1928 in knit wear, silk goods, and machinery and electrical apparatus,
as well as in the manufacturing group as a whole; greatest in 1929 in
bakery products, and laundering and dry cleaning; greatest in 1931 in
candy, tobacco, shoe, and paper box and tube factories. In knit
wear and in women’s headwear the difference in 1930 was the same
as in 1928; in laundries and dry cleaning the difference in 1929 was
the same as in 1928; and in candy the difference in 1930 was the same
as in 1929,




M

Table 12.—Difference in woman employment from high to low point in the year, 1929 and 1931
1929

Month

Low
Index

All manufacturing

October _________

92

Clothing and millinery
Women’s clothing_ _____
_
Men’s clothing...................
Laundering and cleaning.--

March_________
March___________
August_ ________
_
June......... ...........

91
109
92
134

Men’s furnishings

February, March...

71

Women’s headwear.. _ _
_
Women’s underwear

April
October, November.

98
67

April................. .

Month

80
64

Textiles __________________
Knit goods (except silk)_
_
Woolens, carpets, and felts.
Silk and silk goods
Food and tobacco:
Candy ...
Bakery products._

November
March, November..

105

October
February, March__

July—___ ______
July.........

June, August, December.
July_____
January............ . .

Canning and preserving__ September
Tobacco___ ___ . ____ May, October
Furs, leather, and rubber goods:
Shoes
September
Gloves, bags, and canvas October ..
goods.
Printing and paper goods
October, November.
Printing and bookmaking-. October ________
Paper boxes and tubes
November_______
Metals and machinery___ .
Machinery and electrical July
apparatus.

204
558
141

12

72
62
76
124

Index

19
47
16
10

March_______ ____

74

December

December____

...

101

80
128

9

52
56

11

58

10

i 59

89
57

16
9
32
14

i 130
■ 61

43
40

161
18

196
43

110
86

31
35

123

9

94

January, May, June.

90

4

104
80

February___ _____

97

68

7

12

December___ _____

95
107

15
38

September, October.

February, Decem­
ber.

46

June____ ________

110

Month

80

62

121

145

Month

1929 to 1931
Points
at—
of difference
High Low
Index high to points points
low

Low

74
69

January, February. _

i The highest index for 1931 was below the lowest index for 1929.




80

High

70
55

106
83

66

Points
of dif­
ference
high to
Index low

June, September,
October, Novem­
ber.
November, Decern-

48

1

80
62

October, November_

1

12

18

18

61
56
63

19
45
17

11
8
12

11
6

121

July
January, December.

50
43
50

13

23

21

39
15

9

2
13

9

21

41

10

16

17

25

39
4

June, July, August..

50
53

30
9

68

November, Decem­
ber.

54

62

(2)

6

22
8

15

September, October.

i 65
i 64

August, December..

166
25
45
37

21

63

73

i 80

30
18
78
63

100

January, February,
March.

62

10

21

27

67
51
54
48

13
15

24
14
45
81

30
17

11

16

«In this ease the highest index for 1931 was above the highest for 1929.

13

15

22

18

32
23

41

59

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Industry

1931

High

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

77

EMPLOYMENT IN SPECIAL MANUFACTURING GROUPS OR
INDUSTRIES

Clothing
The clothing and millinery group employed over 40 percent of the
women shop workers in manufacturing.40 Naturally, the index for
employment of women followed the marked seasonal movement usual
in these industries, with a spring and fall high and a summer low.
(See chart 12.) The differences between the extreme low and the
extreme high points in employment were quite similar for the two
sexes in each year, and for women they were the same in 1931 as in
1929. In each of the 4 years the summer low point for women was a
month or 2 months later than that for men, and the high point came
in the same month (March) for women as for men. The level of em­
ployment in clothing was not high within, the period of study, the
highest index for women being 91, for men slightly lower, both in
March 1929. Employment in 1930 and 1931 moved downward;
after January, the index for each month of 1930 was below that of the
corresponding month in 1929 for each sex, and with a few exceptions
those for 1931 fell still lower. Despite this fact, the decline was less
marked in the clothing industry than in many others.41 The 1931
high for women as well as for men was 11 points below that of 1929 ;
in no other industrial group included, and only in four of the separate
industries (including women’s clothing), was this difference so small
for women. The difference from the highest to the lowest index oyer
the entire 4-year period was 30 points for women, 31 for men.
The following industrial groups, women’s clothing, men’s clothing,
laundering and cleaning, men’s furnishings, women’s underwear, and
women’s headwear form from about 13 to about 3 percent of the
manufacturing total in the weighted absolute numbers. These in­
dustries will next be considered in order of size.
Women’s clothing.—The making of women’s dresses and other
outer clothing, which employed about three tenths of the women
workers in clothing and millinery, had variations in employment from
the busy to the dull and from the dull to the busy seasons much more
extreme than in other clothing groups and similar for the two sexes.
(See chart 12.) The index of women’s employment fell 53 points
from the high month in 1929 to the low month in 1931, while the
clothing group as a whole showed a difference of only 30 points. For
the most part, the index in each month of 1929 wras above that of the
corresponding month of 1928; a strike accentuated the slack season
in July 1929,42 followed by large gains in August,43 but the indexes
show that these movements had a much more marked effect upon the
employment of men than of women. The employment of women in
1930 was not below that of 1929 in every month, as was the case in
some other industries, but it fell below that of 1929 in the spring
season of high activity and also in the summer slack period, and
again at the end of the year. Some plants were closed entirely in the
month of July.44 Except for May and June, men’s employment
maintained a higher level throughout the year than did women’s.
« Proportions quoted throughout based on the weighted absolute numbers of women shop workers,
monthly average 1929. See text table 11, p. 72.
The lowest index for women in 1931 fell 19 points below the highest for 1931, which difference is less than
that for 9 of the 24 other industries or industrial groups.
42 Industrial Bulletin, August 1929, p. 696,
43 Ibid., September 1929, p. 727.
« Ibid,, August 1930, p. 316.




78

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

At the close of the year, the employment for the two sexes combined
(including office forces) was reported holding up better than in some
other branches of the industry.45 In 9 of the 12 months of 1931 the
CHART 12—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN CLOTHING AND MILLINERY, NEW
YORK STATE. 1928-31, BY SEX. (SEE ALSO CHART 13)
[June 1923=100]
Women —.
Wen ........
TOTAL (includes certain industries not shown separately)

50
A. -MEN'S

100 |—

—

CLOTHING

_

/ \
FURNISHINGS

25
C. -

-

Mar

Jun

Sep

1928

Dec

ROUEN'S

LAUNDERING

Mar

Jun

Sep

1929

CLOTHING

A N I N G

AND DRY

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

1930

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

193 1

employment level for men was better than that for women; but in
every month of 1931 the indexes, whether for men or for women, were
“ Industrial Bulletin, January 1931, p. 114.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

79

lower than they had been in the corresponding month in either 1929
or 1930,4fi and the same was the case in comparing 1931 even with 1928,
in most months for either sex. In December 1931 the employment of
women was 23 points below that of 1930; that of men, 17 points below
1930.
Men’s clothing.—This industry employed about one fifth of the
women industrial workers included in clothing. The employment
level46was notably higher for women than for men throughout the
47
4-year period, and the May and November lows were much the more
marked for men. (See chart 12.) The industry had been reported
tending downward after the spring of 1926.48 The index of women's
employment in this industry in every month in 1929 was above that
of the corresponding month in 1928, though the employment drop
for the two sexes combined (office forces included) was reported at the
end of the spring season to be greater than that for any other industry
at the time,49 the fall season was short,60 and the December reductions
greater than in 1927 or 1928.61 Beginning in March the 1930 index in
each month was below that of 1929; it was reported that heavy losses
in one of the larger shops accentuated the decline in March,62 and
that there was more than a seasonal loss in employment in the
industry as a whole in October.63 Some recovery in women’s employ­
ment was shown in 1931; in the busy season from March to May and
again at the end of the year the indexes were above those of 1930.
Over the 4-year period the lowest index of employment was below the
highest by 30 points for women, 37 for men.
Laundering and cleaning.—The laundering and cleaning of clothing
and other textile products is classified under clothing and millinery in
this State. Throughout the period under discussion, employment for
both sexes was considerably above that of June 1923, more so for
women than for men. (See chart 12.) For either sex, employment
in every month of 1929 was above that in the corresponding month of
1928. In 1930 the employment of men held up somewhat better than
that of women, July being the first month in which men’s employment
fell below that of the corresponding month of the preceding year.
In 1931 the employment of women in every month was below that in
the corresponding month of the year preceding, but for men this was
true only through March and again in December. The highest index
of employment in 1931 was below the highest in 1929 by only 6 points
for women and only 3 for men. The difference between the highest
and the lowest index in the 4-year period was 17 points for men as well
as for women—the least difference in any industry or industry group.
In most of the earlier months of 1931, through May, the employment
level for either sex was above the 1928 low.
Men’s furnishings.—In this industry, employment for both sexes
was lower throughout the 4-year period than in June 1923, though
less markedly so than in several other industrial groups. (See chart
12.) The highest index for women was 72, in November 1928; for
46 Except in July for men, a month in which a strike in 1929 had made employment exceptionally low.
See Industrial Bulletin, August 1929, p. 696.
47 In every case where mention is made of the employment level, it naturally will be understood that,
for whichever sex is referred to, this level is that measured by the base used for that sex, in most cases June
1923.
** Bulletin 171 cit. p. 87.
48 Industrial Bulletin, May 1929, p. 615.
40 Bulletin 171 cit. p. 87.
« Industrial Bulletin, January 1930, p. 99.
m Ibid., April 1930, p. 193.
w Ibid., November 1930, p. 39.




80

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

men it was 78, in February 1928. Except in a very few months, men’s
employment somewhat more nearly approached the June 1923 level
than did women’s. If the situation of women factory workers be
considered, this industry differed from most others discussed in the
fact that only in 2 months of 1929 was employment better than it had
been in the corresponding month of 1928; 1930 showed a decline from
1929 in each month and 1931 a still further decline (except in 1 month
which was very low in 1930). For women the 1929 high and the 1931
low differed by 30 points. In December 1931 there was a distinct rise
in men’s employment, though that of women was still falling. Over
CHART 13.—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN WOMEN'S HEADWEAR AND IN
WOMEN'S UNDERWEAR, NEW YORK STATE, 1928-31, BY SEX. (SEE ALSO
CHART 12)
[June 1923=1001
WomenX e
I. - WOMEN'S
HEADWEAR

WOMEN'S

Mar

Jun
Sap
1928

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1929

UNDERWEAR

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1950

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1931

Dec

the 4-year period the lowest index of employment was below the
highest by 31 points for women, 35 for men.
Women’s headwear.—In the making of women’s headwear the em­
ployment of men, as measured on the 1923 base, was very much better
than was that of women, throughout the 4-year period. (See chart
13.) The seasonal character of employment was marked, high activ­
ity coming always in March or April for women, and at varying
points in the spring season for men. Low points always were in July
for women, and their employment at this time was cut practically in
half, except in 1931 when its spring peak was not so high as in the
other years; declines were less in proportion for men than for women




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

81

with the exception of 1931, where the proportion was slightly higher for
men. Activity never again reached that of the spring season of 1928,
and for the most part (with a few exceptions) the months of each
succeeding year showed employment for both sexes below that of the
corresponding month in the year preceding. Even 1929 employment
was below that of 1928, except in May and July for women and in four
scattered months from March to August for men. Since the women’s
employment index never reached the heights attained by that of men
in 1928, the entire decline in the 4-year period was greater for men
than for women, 70 and 57 points for the respective sexes.
Women’s underwear.—In tins industry the index of employment for
men was well above that for women throughout the 4-year period (in
each case on the June 1923 base). (See chart 13.) Of course many
more women than men were in this industry, but it will be remembered
that the absolute figures were weighted on the basis of sex representa­
tion before the indexes were constructed. The seasonal character of
employment was marked, as would be expected in this industry, low
points coming in midsummer or midwinter, high points in the spring
(sometimes as early as February) or the fall. In some cases in both
the increases and the decreases in employment, men were affected
somewhat earlier in the season than were women. Except in the
winter seasons (January, February, and December) the employment
of both sexes in the months of 1929 was above that in the correspond­
ing months of 1928, in several cases in a degree greater for men than
for women. The 1929 season of fall activity never was reached again;
and with the exception of January for women, employment in each
month of 1930 was below 1929, that in 1931 still lower. This was
true for both sexes, except that women’s employment in September
1931 seemed to give promise of better activity than subsequent
months proved to be the case, and December also showed higher
employment than in 1930. The difference from high to low index
was greater for women than men in each year but 1928. The entire
decline in the 4-year period—that from the fall season of 1929 to the
summer slump of 1931—was somewhat greater for women than for
men, 24 and 21 points for the respective sexes.
Textiles
Approximately one seventh of the women workers in manufacturing
were in textile factories of one sort or another. The general level of
employment in the textile industries taken together was very low
compared with that of June 1923, the index during the entire 4 years
never rising above 80 for women, 90 for men. The level for men was
distinctly the better throughout the whole period; while the curves
for the. two sexes were very similar, the extremes from high to low
points in employment in the year ordinarily were somewhat less for
men than for women. (See chart 14.) For both sexes employment
in 1929 was good compared to that in 1928, but a decided drop came
in December, with a slight drop for men as early as November. In
January 1930 there was a general employment loss for the two sexes
combined. For both sexes the ensuing course was downward, with
the index for every month of 1930 below the corresponding month
of 1929, and the months of 1931—except August—falling still lower.
After April 1930 women’s employment never was so high as the
lowest point of the preceding 2 years, and by December that for the




82

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT

OF WOMEN

two sexes combined was below January 1921.64 Since the general
employment level was so low in this group, the decline from the
highest to the lowest index in the 4-year period was less than in a
number of other industries—30 points for either sex. Each of the
separate industries that follow represent very roughly 3 percent of
the women in the manufacturing total.
CHART 14— INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN TEXTILES, NEW YORK STATE 1928-31
BY SEX
[June 1923=100]
W o ■ e n ■■
TOTAL

U e n

(includes certain industries not shown separately)

KH1I

B. -

100

"■

SILK

£ X C £ P T

AND

i

SILK

|

SILK

GOODS

■

.+* *

AND

Mar

Jun

Sep

19 2

Dec

Jua
Sep
19 2 9

Dec

Max

Jun

Sep

FELTS

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

1 d SO

Knit goods (except silk).-—The general line of employment in knit
goods was quite similar to that in the textile group as a whole, being
low throughout the 4 years, better for men than for women, fairly
good in 1928 and 1929 as compared to the years following, and espe­
cially l°w in 1931. (See chart 14.) The highest index in the period
was 77 for men; it was only 65 for women, a high point that was
" Bulletin 171 eit., p. 75.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

83

lower than in any other branch of the textile industry. In the spring
and summer of 1928, several mills were closed for 3 or 4 months, and
toward the end of the year the larger mills were laying off.55 The
rise in 1929 was very slight compared to many other industries, and
the 1931 decline, while important, was somewhat less extreme than
in some other industries. The decline from the highest to the lowest
index in the entire 4-year period was 27 points for women, 32 for
men.
Woolen, carpet, and. felt factories.—The level of employment in this
group was considerably above that in some of the other textile in­
dustries analyzed; as in all the others considered, except cotton, the
level for men was well above that for women. (See chart 14.) For
either sex, the high employment index ran above that in any other
of the textile industries considered, and the decline to the lowest
point was greater than in any other hut cotton and greater for women
than for men. For women, the employment level was decidedly
better in every month of 1929 than in the corresponding month of
1928, but after the close of 1929 it never resumed so high a level as
the lowest in 1929; every month of 1930 was below the corresponding
month in 1929; except in certain spring and summer months, the
1931 level nvas still lower than that of 1930, and even in most of these
months it was below 1928; the decline from high to low in 1931 was
exceeded in only 6 of the 25 industries and industrial groups analyzed.
In general, the employment movement for men was similar to that
for women. The decline from highest index to lowest in the entire
4-year period was greater for women than for men—55 points for
the former, 51 for the latter.
Silk factories.—Men’s employment in silk factories maintained a
better level throughout than did women’s; the high index for women
fell 17 points below that for men—more than was the case in any
other industry in the group. In 1928 and 1929, the summer slack
period was especially notable for women, but in 1930 and 1931 it was
less extreme for them than for men. (See chart 14.) For both sexes
in 1930 and 1931, employment rose from the summer low to October
or November. For men, the best employment period in the 4
yearn was from August 1928 through March 1929; April showed a
decline, and after July the index for each month was lower than in
1928; in each month of 1930 (except September and October) the
index was below that of 1929, and those of 1931 were still lower, the
decline in this year being much more rapid for men than for women,
even though the low point of the year was not so low as was that of
women. For women, the situation differed somewhat from that of
men, since their employment level was low at all times. Their sum­
mer slack period in 1928 was especially marked, and this situation
seems to have been produced chiefly by factories up State rather than
in New York City.66 In August of 1928, it was reported that recovery
“ Bulletin 171 cit., p. 82.
« Indexes • lor June and July 1928 were as follows:
Men
June

July

68
91
• Industrial Bulletin, July, August 1928, pp. 316, 340.




85

Women
Points of
difference

+1
-6

June

66
46

July
64
27

Points of
difference

-2

84

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

from the summer dullness was greater in the silk factories than in
any of the other textiles.67 The women’s indexes in the months of
1929 began to fall below those of 1928 in October, whereas for men
this was the case as early as August; for women the indexes for every
month of 1930 fell below those of 1929, and for men for every month
through August, but for women those of 1931 fell still lower in only
5 of the 12 months—not in every month, as for men—and the year
closed with an index somewhat above that for nearly every month
of 1930. For women the difference between the highest and the
lowest index in the 4 years was less than in any other industry or
industrial group considered, except laundering and cleaning, being
only 20 points; for men it was 28 points.
Food and tobacco
Of the women shop workers in manufacturing, about 10 percent
were in this class. The seasonal character of certain of the industries
in this group is so marked and the other differences are so notable
that the group total has not been considered, but the following have
been analyzed separately, as in the absolute numbers they represent
roughly 2 to 1 percent of the manufacturing total: Candy, bakery
products, canning and preserving, and tobacco.
Candy.—In candy making, the employment of men showed con­
siderably less extreme changes within the year than did that of women;
in each of the first 3 years of the period it held a higher level for the
first part of the year than did women’s employment, but during the
fall peak relatively more women than men always were taken on.
(See chart 15.) It had been reported that the trend of employment,
for the industry in general, had been chiefly downward after 1926.58
Even though the rise in woman employment from Jiffy to October was
almost as great in 1929 as in 1928, in each month of 1929, except
January and August, the index of employment for women was lower
than in the corresponding month of 1928; and in 1930, from May
through November, the indexes were still lower than those of 1929.
At this time nearly every firm had fewer employees than before;
2 closed down entirely, 1 in July, 1 in August.69 The 1931
figures testify to some recovery, for the July low in women’s employ­
ment was followed by a sharp and almost continuous rise to an index
14 points above the previous high within the 4-year period—that of
October 1928—and the usual seasons of high activity showed a
marked improvement over those of each of the 3 previous years;
similarly for men, the indexes for May to December of 1931 were the
same or were above the figures for the corresponding months of 1930.
This was the only industry in which the highest index of women’s
employment for 1931 was above the 1929 high, the difference being
as great as 24 points. The entire range of employment fluctuation
within the 4-year period was much greater for women than for men,
the lowest indexes being respectively 64 and 41 points below the
highest.
Bakery products.—In nearly every month of the 4 years discussed,
employment in bakery products showed a steady decline from that
in the corresponding month of the preceding year. (See chart 15.)
Women were more seriously affected than men in this respect; in**

67 Industrial Bulletin, September 1928, p. 368,




** Bulletin 171 cit. p. 105.

69

Idem,

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

85

every month of 1931 the index for men was 16 points or more below
that for 1928, reaching 20 or more in June and from September on;
for women it was 22 points or more below 1928 in every month,
reaching 30 or more in the 3 fall months. The high woman employ­
ment in September 1931 was 30 points below that of the same high
month of 1928. In the entire 4-year period women suffered a greater
CHART 15.—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN BAKERY PRODUCTS, IN CANDY. AND
IN TOBACCO, NEW YORK STATE, 1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1923=100]

----------

CANDY

T D £ A C C 0

....... .A

Mar

Jun
Sep
1928

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1929

Dec

Mar

Juh
Sep
1930

Dec

Mar

Jim
Sep
1931

Dec

employment drop than did men, the lowest indexes being respectively
37 and 24 points below the highest.
Canning and preserving.—The highly seasonal character of the
canning and preserving industry is well known. In September—
usually the month of greatest employment—the index for women in
1929 exceeded that of 1928, and that of 1930 was still higher. How179570”—33----- 7




86

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

ever, in 1931 the September index fell 63 points below that of 1930.
A similar analysis could be made for men’s employment in September
of the successive years, but with less of a drop in 1931 than for women,
and somewhat more irregularity of employment in the latter half of
CHART 16—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN CANNING AND PRESERVING, NEW
YORK STATE, 1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1923=100]

'Women

1929. (See chart 16.) The range from high to low indexes in the
4-year period was more extreme in this than in any other industry,
and more extreme for men than women, the lowest index falling 229
and 295 points below the highest, for women and men respectively.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

87

Tobacco industry.—The year 1928 began shortly after the closing
of several large tobacco factories, and employment in this industry
consequently had been reduced.60 For men and women combined
(including office forces), it declined by 0.5 percent in November 1927,
7.5 percent in December, and 5.5 percent in January 1928.61 During
the 4-year period of study, the industry showed much greater regu­
larity of employment than did a number of others—less divergence
between high and low points of the year, and considerable similarity
in the fluctuations for the separate sexes. (See chart 15.) However,
the drop in 1930 and 1931 below employment in 1928 and 1929 is
especially marked, and this affected men more severely than women,
since in the 2 earlier years the employment of men was on a dis­
tinctly higher level than was that of women. The index of women’s
employment in 1929 was higher than that in 1928 in the first 6 months
of the year, and was on the whole fairly regular until October, after
which the drop was marked. In the industry as a whole, a loss of 10
percent in employment occurred from December 1929 to January
1930,62 and a sharp employment drop was recorded in December, due
to cessation of production in a few firms.63 The separate indexes for
women and men showed that this affected the former considerably
more than it did the latter. In every month of 1930 the index for
women was below the corresponding month in 1928. During most
months of 1931 woman employment was above that in 1930. The
highest index in 1931 was 15 points below the 1929 high, a difference
greater than that in 10, but less than that in 14, other industries or
groups of industries. In the 4-year period the entire decline from the
highest to the lowest employment index was 41 points for women, 53
for men.
Furs, leather, and rubber goods
The industries comprising this group (which contained nearly one
tenth of the women shop workers reported in manufacturing) appear
to be of such a composite character that the group total has not been
considered, but shoes and gloves, bags, and canvas goods have been
analyzed. These employed respectively more than 5 and nearly 2
percent of the workers in the manufacturing total.
Shoes.—The manufacture of shoes engaged over three fifths of the
women shop workers in the fur, leather, and rubber group. In com­
parison with other industries it presented exceptionally good activity
during most of the second half of 1929 and the first 8 months of 1930.
In September 1929, employment for men and women combined
(office force included) was reported greater than at any time since
1925.64 As compared with the June 1923 level, the employment of
women was considerably better throughout the 4-year period than
was that of men. The employment of women was consistently better
throughout 1929 and 1930 than at any time in 1928, except that it
was the same at the April low in 1929 as at the September high in
1928. Beginning after August 1930, a drop occurred that was almost
continuous to the close of 1931. (See chart 17.) After May 1931,
fewer women were employed than at any time within the 2 years
60 Bulletin 171 cit. p. 108.
Industrial Bulletin, December 1927, p. 86, January 1928, p. 121, and February 1928, p. 145.
fi2 Ibid., February 1930, pp. 127, 129.
03 Ibid., January 1931, p. 115.
64Bulletin 171 cit. p. 53.




88

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

preceding, and after October employment was even lower than at
any time in 1928. The general curve of employment for men was
similar to that for women, but, since the level never rose so high
for men, the drop from the highest to the lowest point in the 4 years
was less severe for them than for women—56 points for the former and
68 for the latter. For women, the decline in the index from the 1929
high to the 1931 low was 63 points; the only industries that exceeded
this fall in the employment of women during this 3-year period were
machinery and electrical supplies, automobiles and airplanes, and
one of a highly seasonal character in the food group.
CHART 17—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN SHOES, AND IN GLOVES, BAGS, AND
CANVAS GOODS, NEW YORK STATE, 1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1923 = 100]

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jim

Sep

Dec

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun * Sep

Dec

Gloves, bags, and canvas goods.—In plants manufacturing these
products, the employment of women was maintained at a higher level
than that of men in relation to the situation for both as of June 1923.
(See chart 17.) The employment of women in 1929 was, on the
whole, considerably better than in 1928. In 1930, as compared
with 1929, it was high in 2 of the 4 months of the spring and early
summer season of activity, but the summer low period fell below that
of 1929, and the autumn peak did not rise to the 1929 level except
in October. In 1931, the employment of women was lower in every
month than in 1930, and except at the spring peak when it exceeded
1928, and in February when it exceeded both 1928 and 1929, it was




89

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

lower throughout than in any of the 3 years preceding. The index
for the 1931 high was 21 points below and that of the 1931 low was 58
points below that of the 1929 high. In the 4-year period, the highest
index was above the lowest by 58 points for women, 64 for men.
Printing and paper goods
This group of industries contained nearly one tenth of the women
shop workers in manufacturing. While employment in the group
taken together did not reach the level of June 1923 at any time
CHART 18.—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN PRINTING AND PAPER GOODS, NEW
YORK STATE, 1928-31, BY SEX
[June 1923=100]
TOTAL

(includes certain industries not shown separately)

A. -PAPER

BOXES

AND

TUBES

100

75

50

B. -

PRINTING

ABB

B00KUAKIBQ

125

100

75

SO
Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

during the 4 years—whether for men or for women—the 1931 low
index for women did not fall nearly so low as did that in most other
industries. (See chart 18.) However, with the exception of a few
months in 1928, the level of employment for men was better than that
for women through the entire period. For women, employment in
nearly every month of 1929 was above that of the corresponding
month of 1928. December 1929 showed a decline from November,
and thereafter the levels of 1929 never were resumed, employment
in the months of 1931 falling still lower than in those of 1930. From




90

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

the highest point in the 4 years to the lowest, the index of women’s
employment declined 32 points; only 10 of the 25 industries or in­
dustrial groups under consideration showed less variation. The
decline for men had been very much less—only 18 points. The
following industries in this group have been analyzed: Printing and
bookmaking and paper boxes and tubes, forming respectively about 5
and nearly 2 percent' of the women included in the manufacturing
total.
_
Printing and bookmaking.—Of the women workers in printing and
paper goods, three fifths were in printing and bookmaking. Employ­
ment in this industry was considerably better for women and some­
what better for men than was that in plants making paper boxes and
tubes. (See chart 18.) A general upward trend had been reported
from 1924 to 1929.65 In 1928 it was noticeable that while there was
some decline for women in June, that for men in July was slightly
more marked, followed by somewhat less rise, so that women’s
employment was on a higher level than men’s in the last half of the
year. This situation continued through most of 1929, but in 1930
(except January) and throughout 1931 the decline wras considerably
more marked for women than for men. January 1930 “could not
hold the December gains”,66 and after January women’s employment
never rose so high as it was in 1929 (for men this was true after June),
while after May it was below the lowest of 1928 (for men this was not
true until after April 1931). It was reported that even in 1930—
despite the general decline—many firms retained their usual forces
and some few even increased notably.67 * That the employment de­
cline affected women considerably more than it did men is shown
by the fact that the indexes from the highest to the lowest in the
4-year period declined only 19 points for men, but fell 37 points for
women. Even though tins was the case, the decline in women’s
employment was greater than this in one half of the other industries
or industrial groups considered.
Paper boxes and tubes.—Factories producing these products appear
to have been largely responsible in maintaining a level of employment
for men better than that for women in the printing and paper group as
a whole, throughout the 4 years. The trend of employment in the
industry (for men and women combined and including office forces)
had been reported as tending downward from November 1926 to
July 1928, and this was attributed rather to improved machinery and
consolidations than to reduced output.63 At the close of 1928, con­
solidations had been completed and employment began to rise, but
this affected men somewhat more than women. Employment for
men was comparatively good in 1929, falling somewhat in 1930, but
with less marked irregularities from month to month than was the
case for women. (See chart 18.) In several months in 1929 workers
were reported laid off;69 this may have affected women more than
men, since men’s employment ordinarily was above 1928, though the
employment of women was at a low level, in no month being above
the corresponding month of 1928; during 5 spring and-summer months,
women’s employment was below that of any month in 1928. From
Bulletin 171 cit., p. 108.
Industrial Bulletin, February 1930.
67 Bulletin 171 cit. p. 73.
es Ibid., p. 70.
.
69 industrial Bulletin, 1929, May, p. 615, June, p. 648, and September, p. 727.
65
66




91

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

January 1930 on, employment for the most part continued lower even
than the August low of 1929, this being the situation that obtained
in all but 5 of the 24 months of 1930 and 1931. Declines or lay-offs
were reported in a number of months in 1930.70 The decline from the
highest index of employment to the lowest in the 4 years was 31
points for women, 21 for men.
Metals and machinery
The metal and machinery group, a large employer of men, employed
only about 7 percent of all the women shop workers in manufacturing.
As compared with June 1923, the level of employment in these in­
CHART 19.—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN METALS AND MACHINERY
YORK STATE. 1928-31, BY SEX

NEW

[June 1923=100]
TOTAL

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

(includes certain industries not shown separately)

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

dustries in 1928 and in 1929 was very good for women, maintaining
an index of from 90 to 110, and was much better for men than was
that of subsequent years, although their index ran only from 78 to 95.
(See chart 19.) In August 1929, although there had been no upward
tendency since May,71 this group was reported as the important factor
in having kept up employment in the State during the spring.72 73
Throughout 1930 and 1931 there was an almost steady downward
movement for both sexes, and even as early as December 1930 em­
ployment was reported lower than at any time since 1921.73 Women
!° Industrial Bulletin, 1930, February, p. 129, May, p. 229, June, p. 2fi0, August, p. 317.
71 Ibid., January 1931, p. ill.
72 Ibid., August 1929, p. 695.
73 Bulletin 171 cit., p. 23.




92

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

suffered a relatively much heavier loss of jobs than did men. The
entire drop in the 4-year period was that from the 1929 high to the
1931 low and was 44 points for men and 56 points for women.
Machinery and electrical apparatus.-—In plants that make these
products, which employ well over one third of the workers in metals
and machinery, the story told is one of great expansion in 1929
affecting women relatively more than men; of a drop at the end of
1929, especially severe in December for women; and of a level of
employment for women that after February 1930 never again rose to
the height of even the lowest month in the two previous years. (See
chart 19.) The employment increases in these plants in 1929 helped
to maintain the level of the entire industrial group to some extent
after other industries in the group were beginning to lose, and for July
1929 it was reported that there had been a monthly increase since
May 1928, except for a small January loss.74 75
After the decline began,
its entire extent as measured in the index of women’s employment from
the highest month of 1929 to the lowest of 1931 was 97 points, greater
than that in any other industry considered except the manufacture of
automobiles and airplanes and one seasonal food industry (canning).
For men the drop was 48 points. Even in the highest month of
employment for women in 1931, the index fell 43 points below the
lowest of 1929.
SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT MOVEMENT OF WOMEN IN NEW YORK,
1928, 1929, 1930, AND 1931

In summarizing what the employment figures considered in the
foregoing show for women, and the relationship of the movement in
this connection to that of men, certain features are salient. As would
be expected, the seasonal character of various industries produces
marked employment fluctuations—for example, those in the clothing
group and some of the food industries.
General employment level
The general employment level—as considered on the June 1923
basis—was consistently (or at least in almost every month) higher
for men than for women in 12 of the industries or industrial groups
considered,76 while it was consistently higher for women in only 5 76.
It was irregular in the clothing group and certain of the food industries
(candy and canning), being sometimes higher for one sex, sometimes
for the other, and in three industries the following strikingly consistent
variations in the position of the two sexes were notable: In the manu­
facture of tobacco, men’s employment level was the better on the
whole in 1928 and 1929, women’s in 1930 and in 1931; in printing
and bookmaking and in machinery and electrical supplies, women’s
employment usually was at a better level than men’s in 1928 and
1929, while men’s was the better in 1930 and 1931.77
74 Industrial Bulletin, August 1929, p. 695.
75 Men’s furnishings; women’s clothing; women’s underwear; and women’s headwear; the total textile
group; the woolen, knit, and silk-goods industries; bakeries; canneries (except at the peak season, so that
this is also in the irregular group); the printing and paper group; and paper boxes and tubes.
76 Men’s clothing; the metal and machinery group; shoes and gloves, bags, and canvas goods; and laun­
dering and cleaning.
77 At the risk of saying the obvious, it may be pointed out that this tells nothing as to whether a total of
more men or more women were employed in any industry, but merely measures the employment of each
sex on its own basis for June 1923, as is done through the discussion for New York.




fluctuations in the employment of women

93

Irregularities within the year
Men’s and women’s employment may be compared from the view­
point of whether or not the differences from high to low points within
each year varied greatly as between the two sexes. The table on
page 94 shows that women rather than men were the sufferers of the
greatest variation from high to low in any 1 year in a considerable
number of the industries in which this relation of the two sexes was
consistent throughout the. 4 years. For example, in each of the 4
years the decline from high to low employment was greater for
women than for men in the manufacture of woolens, shoes, machinery
and electrical .apparatus, in two of the food industries—candy and
bakeries—and in printing and bookmaking.
There was no industry in which the variation within the year
always was greater for men than for women, though in most years
it was so in men’s clothing, knit wear, and silk, as it was ordinarily,
though not always, greater for women in women’s clothing, women’s
underwear, and women’s headwear, in the textile group, and in
metals and machinery. In canning and preserving, women’s employ­
ment varied more than men’s in the first 2 years but men’s varied the
more in 1930 and 1931. In tobacco and glove factories, men’s em­
ployment varied more from the high to the low point than did women’s
in the .first 2 years, less in 1930 and 1931. In the remaining industries,
the differences. between men and women in this respect bore no
consistent relation.
. It is not surprising, to find that for both sexes the greatest variations
in employment within the year were in canning and preserving; the
least were in laundering and cleaning.
Declines in employment in the 4-year period
Extreme declines in the employment in 1930 and 1931 are apparent
in tobacco, the metal and machinery group, and printing and bookmalting; declines, were less extreme but decidedly noticeable in the
manufacture of silk and knit goods, shoes, and paper boxes, and in the
textile group as a whole.
It is important to consider the total decline from the highest to the
lowest point in the 4-year period, and in this connection it should be
mentioned again that in the majority of cases the highest month of
employment was in 1929, the lowest in 1931.78 In the 4 years, the
total decline from highest to lowest employment, except for the
highly seasonal canning industry, was greatest for women in ma­
chinery and electrical apparatus, for men in glove, bag, and canvas
factories. Besides, for both sexes there was a decline of more than 50
points in women’s clothing, women’s headwear, woolen goods, and
shoes; for men in tobacco; and for women in candy, gloves, and the
metal and machinery total. The least decline for men was in launder­
ing and cleaning, and the next was in the printing and paper goods
total; for women, the least was in laundering and cleaning, the next in
the silk industry, in which employment was low throughout the entire
period. The decline was the greater for men in 9 industries or in­
dustrial groups and the greater for women in 12 (including the group
total for manufacturing), while it was the same in 2. (See table 13.)
78

For exceptions, see footnote to table 13.




94

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Evidences as to replacement
The employment indexes analyzed in this section of the report do
not present evidence that there had been general large scale replace­
ments of men by women during the decline that occurred in most
industries in 1930 and 1931, but rather show the great extent to which
both sexes had suffered both loss and irregularities of employment.
Although there were instances in which employment had declined
less extremely for women than for men, there were more cases in which
declines had been the greater for women. The variation from highest
to lowest index in each of the 4 years was greater for women than for
men in 6 of the groups included, but in no group.was it greater for
men in every year; this variation was the greater in 3 of the 4 years
for women in 5 groups, for men in 3.
Table 13.—Difference between highest and lowest index numbers of employment

within the year, and during J^-year period, New York, 1928-31
Number of points of difference between
high and low index in the year for—
Industry

Women
1929

All manufacturing _

Men
1928 1929

Number of points
of difference be­
tween the highest
and the lowest in­
dex in the 4-year
period for1—
Women

Men

20

Clothing and millinery............
Women’s clothing---------Men’s clothing.----- ------Laundering and cleaning..
Men’s furnishings______
Women’s headwear-------Women’s underwear-------

31
52
37
17
35
70

Textiles_______ ____________
Knit goods (except silk)---Woolens, carpets, and felts.
Silk and silk goods..............

30
32
51
28

Food and tobacco:
Candy_______________
Bakery products---------Canning and preserving.
Tobacco......................... .

21

64
37
229
41

41
24
295
53

Furs, leather, and rubber goods:
Shoes.............................................
Gloves, bags, and canvas goods..

56
64

Printing and paper goods------Printing and bookmaking..
Paper boxes and tubes-----

21

Metals and machinery-------- ---------—
Machinery and electrical apparatus.

44
48

18
19

i The highest index for women was in 1929 in 13 of the 23 industries or groups taken, but in the following
it was in another year: In 1928, in men's furnishings, knit goods (except silk), silk and silk goods, bakery
products, tobacco, printing and paper goods, and paper boxes and tubes; m 1930, m canning and preserving
and shoes; in 1931, in candy. In glove, bag, and canvas factories, the 1930 high equaled that of 1929. For
men, the highest index was in 1929 in 15 industries or groups taken, but in the following it was m another
year: In 1928, in men’s furnishings, candy, bakery products, tobacco, and paper boxes and tubes In 1930,
in women’s clothing, canning and preserving, and shoes. The lowest index was in 1931, with the follow­
ing exceptions: For men, in 1928, laundering and cleaning; in 1930, candy. For women, in 1928, laundering
and cleaning, and silk and silk gopds; in 1930, men’s clothing and candy. The low point m women s em­
ployment in canning and preserving fell as low in 1930 as did that of 1931.

In a few industries employment of one sex showed some rise over a
short period while that of the other was declining, but this employ­
ment movement ordinarily was of a very temporary character and the




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

95

position of the two sexes would be reversed again within the next few
months, leaving their relative standing much as before. In one indus­
try—tobacco—employing a small proportion of the women in manufac­
turing, the employment level of women, lower than men’s in 1928 and
1929, was higher than men’s in 1930 and 1931; but in two groups
employing together a considerably larger proportion of the women
in manufacturing, women’s employment level, better than men’s in
1928 and 1929, was below that of men in 1930 and 1931.79
The general direction of employment movement through the 4 years
was decidedly similar for the two sexes, though there were many cases
in which the short-time fluctuations and the total decline occurring
were more extreme for one sex than for the other—usually more ex­
treme for women. In September 1930, in the manufacturing total,
women’s employment rose in a greater degree than did men’s, so that,
although in the remainder of the year employment declined in about
the same degree, women’s level was higher than that of men. A some­
what similar situation occurred in 1931, since women’s employment
rose in both August and September, men’s only in September, but the
decline from September to the close of the year was greater for women
than for men.
While the decline in manufacturing employment from January to
December of 1931 was considerably greater for men than for women,
the entire decline from highest to lowest index in the 4-year period
discussed was very similar for the two sexes, being slightly the greater
for women. It was the greater for women in 11 of the separate
groups taken (employing altogether well over one tenth of the women
reported in manufacturing, according to the census), the same for
both sexes in 2, the greater for men in 9.
OHIO EMPLOYMENT DATA
CHARACTER OF THE DATA

For a period running back to January 1914, the State of Ohio has
collected annually figures showing the numbers of men and women
employed in Ohio establishments, as wage earners, clerical forces,
and salespeople (not traveling), on the 15th or nearest representative
day of each month. The total of the wages paid each of these three
groups in the week of greatest employment in the year also has been
ascertained. These data have been” tabulated by the State except
for 1922; they have been published for 1914, 1915, 1923,. 1928, and
1929. Figures for 1930 and 1931 were furnished by the Ohio Division
of Labor Statistics to the Women’s Bureau for the present study.
This series of employment figures is of especial importance, not
only because of the type of classification used—showing both industry
and occupation—and the separation by sex, but because the figures
are much more complete than in the usual case where reports include
only such firms as can be induced to report in a certain way, or even
where samples representative of the industries of a State are selected.
Since 1923 the law has required all establishments regularly employing
three or more persons (before that, five or more), except those engaged
in interstate transportation and the various governmental departments
and agencies, to make reports. While this omits a considerable
number of those employing on a very small scale, especially in agri­
culture and household employment, the Women’s Bureau, after
a Printing and bookmaking, and machinery and electrical apparatus.




96

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

reducing the manufacturing classification to a basis comparable to that
of the United States Census of Manufactures, found the numbers of
wage earners reported by the State in 1919, 1921, and 1923 to consti­
tute some 97 or 98 percent of the numbers reported by the census of
manufactures for those years. There seems no reason to believe
that in more recent years these proportions have changed to such an
extent as to prevent treating the data as approximately complete.
The table on page- 50 indicates that the average number of men and
women wage earners in manufacturing reported to the State in 1929
formed 97 percent of the total reported by the census of manufactures
for the same year.
With the fullest cooperation from the Ohio Department of Indus­
trial Relations, Division of Labor Statistics, the Women’s Bureau
made a detailed analysis of the extent to which these figures showed
variations in the employment of women and men in Ohio industries
for the 11-year period 1914-24.80 This gave conclusive proof that
only where separate figures by sex are available can significant varia­
tions in employment for the two sexes be understood, especially in
times of economic disturbance. See page 50 for basis of the present
analysis.
Groups included in the present consideration
Naturally it was not possible for the present study to use the details
of all the various occupations reported, but a total of 26 groups have
been included.
The totals for two main occupational classes (wage earners and
bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks) were considered, the
total for salespeople not traveling, in which case those in wholesale
and retail stores formed such a large proportion of the whole that
these were taken instead of the total. Two of the four large groups
under wage earners—those in manufactures and service—were taken,
as were the important industries forming the bulk of the employees
in each of the other two large groups. The following gives a list of
chief large occupational groups used, with the proportions they formed
of all the women reported to the State in September 1928: 81

Occupational classes and industries considered

Wage earners in all industries_____ _________
Manufactures...
_________
Service_______ __ _______________
Transportation and public utilities _ ___
Telegraph and telephone, including messenger service
(85.8 percent of this group)___ __________
Trade, retail and wholesale______________
Stores, retail and wholesale (93.8 percent of this group)
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in all industries...
Salespeople not traveling, in all industries.___
Stores, retail and wholesale (91.3 percent of this group)___

Percent
women
formed of
total in
nearest
obtainable
group in
1930 census

17.9

Percent of all women
reported September 1928
employed in—
All occupa­
tions
61.3

Specified oc­
cupational
group
°

100.0

64.9

21.2

7.5
59.9
52.5
29.8

5.9
27.3
11.3

a Details aggregate less than total because too few for inclusion were reported in agriculture and
construction.
so U.S. Department of Labor. Women’s Bureau. Variations in Employment Trends of Women and
Men. Bui. 73. 1930. Since that time the series has been carried through 1929 in studies by Fred C.
Croxton and Frederick E. Croxton, published in the Monthly Labor Review of the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics of the U.S. Department of Labor, April and December 1930. The figures for 1928 and 1929 also have
been published by the State. Figures for 1930 and 1931 were furnished to the Women’s Bureau, as stated.
Other analyses of Ohio figures are referred to on pp. 48 and 122.
M For more complete list, and for explanation of date used for computation, see appendix table IX.




97

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

THE GENERAL MOVEMENT OF EMPLOYMENT IN MAIN
OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS

Wage earners in all industries
As may be expected, employment moved almost steadily upward
through 1928 and early 1929 until September of the latter year, fol­
lowing which a drop began that continued throughout 1930 and 1931,
CHART 20— INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT OF WAGE EARNERS, OHIO, 1928-31,
BY SEX. (SEE ALSO CHART 21)
[Average 1928=100]
ALL

^ '

INDUSTRIES

*

\\\
%

*%

\
ALL

MANUFACTURES

***

\

%

—

A

SERVICE

a/

V

m*

Mar

Jun
Sep
1988

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1989

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1930

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1951

Dec

with some rise in the spring of each year; 1930 closed well below the
lowest previous month, January 1928, and every month of 1931 was
still lower. The movement was similar for the two sexes, with chang­
ing directions up or down somewhat the more frequent for women,
but with somewhat the greater divergence between high and low points
in the year for men. (See chart 20.) Each year began with employ­



98

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

ment rather low, followed by some rise; in 1928 and 1929 the high
points of the year were in the summer or fall; the subsequent decline
tended to begin earlier for men than for women and in 1929 it was
noticeable for men as early as August. In 1930, after some rise from
January to April or May—greater for men than for women—employ­
ment declined almost steadily. The general decline both in 1930 and
1931 was almost twice as great for men as for women. (See table X in
appendix A.)
Wage earners in manufacturing
In the manufacturing industries, women represented roughly one
sixth of the wage earners.82 Further detail as to employment in
selected manufacturing groups will be given later.
The influence of manufacturing upon the employment total is
evident when the great similarity is noted between the movement
of the employment of wage earners in manufacturing and that in
all industries. (See chart 20.) Especially for women, the general
direction of change in some months was somewhat more accentuated
in manufacturing than in all industries. From the highest point in
1929 to the lowest in 1931, for both sexes the decline in the employ­
ment of wage earners was much more extreme in manufacturing than
in all industries, and the difference was much more extreme for women
than for men. In other words, manufacturing wage earners were
the most seriously affected at that time, those in the other occupa­
tional groups experiencing a relatively small decline. In 1930 and
1931 the decline from the highest to the lowest employment of women
in manufacturing was greater than that in all industries. This was
not the case with men, their declines in manufacturing and all indus­
tries being the same. Men’s total decline in these years was very
much greater than that of women.
Wage earners in service
The more important woman-employing groups in the service
classification are hospitals, hotels, laundries, office buildings (as
cleaners), restaurants, schools and colleges, and theaters. Women
form roughly two fifths of the group.83 The high points of the years
in employment for both sexes were in May or June and again in
September or October, with the comparatively low points at the
beginning and close of the year and in August; in both 1930 and 1931,
the September rise for women still left employment below the spring
and early summer months of the same year. (See chart 20.) In
this group the employment of both men and women was on a higher
level in each month of 1929 than in the corresponding month in 1928.
For women the continuing rise was maintained well into 1930, the
index for each month through August being above that of the corre­
sponding months in either of the 2 preceding years; but for men this
was not the case, for while employment in each month except Decem­
ber was above that in corresponding months of 1928, it was below
that in 1929. In 1928 and in 1929 women’s employment had been
distinctly below the level of men’s throughout the summer and early
82 In 1928, in September, the highest month for men, women formed 16.3 percent; in January, the lowest
month for women, they formed the same proportion; also in October, the highest month for women, the
proportion was nearly the same. In 1929 and 1930 practically the same percents prevailed.
83 In 1928, in September, highest month for men, women formed 39.2 percent; in January, lowest month
for women, they formed 40.9 percent; in October, the highest month for women, they formed 39.6 percent.
In 1929 and 1930 similar percents obtained.




99

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

fall months, but in 1930 the divergence in the levels for the two sexes
was, for the most part, greater than before, and the curve for women
was the higher, a situation that continued through 1931.
Wage earners in transportation and public utilities
In this main group of wage earners, so far as women were concerned,
those in the telegraph and telephone industries formed over 85 percent;
consequently this will be considered here rather than the group total.
Employment of wage earners of both sexes in the telegraph or tele­
phone industries (as measured by their own 1928 level) kept up much
better than was the case with manufacturing, though for women the
highest point was in 1929, and for both sexes no month after February
CHART 21— INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT OF WAGE EARNERS IN TELEGRAPH AND
TELEPHONE, AND IN STORES, OHIO, 1928-31, BY SEX. (SEE ALSO CHART 20)
[Average 1928=100]
Women

Men*

mmmmmmmmmm

TELEGRAPH

AND

STORES

Jun

Sep

19 2 8

(RETAIL

Dec

Jun

Max

Sep

Dec

mm m m

TELEPHONE

AND

RHOLESALE)

Sep
19 5 0

Dec

Max

Sep

Dec

19 3 1
1930 was so high as the corresponding month in the year preceding.
The fluctuation from high to low point within the year ordinarily was
greater for men than women, though in 1931 it was women who had
suffered most, and in the entire 4 years the decline was the greater for
women. The decline in 1930 was marked for both sexes, but despite
this fact and although the 1929 high was considerable, employment
never went so low in 1930 as it had gone in 1928. (See chart 21.)
In 1931 the break was decided, and employment fell below that of
1928 after May for women and after March for men. However, the
entire difference from point of greatest to point of least employment in
the 4 years was not so great as was the case in many other industries
and industry groups.




100

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Wage earners in trade
The trade group includes wholesale and retail stores; lumber, coal,
and scrap yards; and retail delivery of ice, milk, and water. Since
the women wage earners in stores form 93.8 percent of the total (see
summary, p. 96), these will be considered instead of trade as a whole.
It is immediately noticeable that the employment of wage earners in
stores was considerably more regular for men than for women, and
ordinarily it was higher for men in 1930 and 1931 than in 1928 and
1929. (See chart 21.) For either sex, employment was low in the
early months of 1928 and 1929, rising to the highest point at the end
of the year; but in 1930, though for men not so low in January as in the
2 preceding years and for women but little lower than in 1929, it was
in December considerably lower for women than in either preceding
December. In 1931 the low point for women was in February and
July; for men, in November; December employment was lower for
men than in any previous year included, but for women it exceeded
that of 1930. In each year, the employment of women rose in April
and reached a low point in July and August, before the rise at the
close of the year. In 1930 and in 1931 the general employment level
was considerably lower for women than for men through nearly all the
year, but this was not true in 1929 and was true for only a few months
in 1928. The entire decline in employment from highest to lowest
month in the 4 years was 31 points for women and only 18 for men.
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in all industries
Women formed about half the employees in this occupational group
in each month in the 4 years. For neither sex did employment show
very sharp changes, and it appeared much more regular than in any of
the other groups. (Chart 22.) Analysis of earlier data (see p. 122)
shows rise from 1914, and indicates this continued for both sexes well
into 1929, until August for men, September for women, and after
this the drop was slight for either sex. In 1930, employment
CHART 22 — INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT OF BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS,
AND OFFICE CLERKS, OHIO, 1928-31, BY SEX—ALL INDUSTRIES
[Average 1928=100]
120

At*"

1

100

80
Mar

Jun
Sep
1928

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1929

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1930

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1931

Dec

was very much better maintained for men than ror women; that for
women showed very slight changes from month to month prior to
July, and every month during the first half of the year was above the
corresponding period in 1929; after May the drop was almost con­
tinuous to the end of the year, which was below all of 1929 but still
well above all of 1928. The level of employment for men in 1930 and
1931 was considerably above that for women, though the opposite was
the case in 1929, and employment for the two sexes was very similar




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

101

in 1928. The difference in employment between the high point and
the low over the 4-year period was 18 points for women and 22 for
men.
Salespeople not traveling
Of the women employed in this occupation, over 90 percent were in
wholesale and retail stores, and consequently these will be discussed
instead of the total. The seasonal character of work in stores is well
known, and due to the December peak the fluctuation from high to
low point in women’s employment as salespeople in stores was very
much greater in each year than was the case with most other occupa­
tions reported. (See chart 23.) Roughly, half the workers in this
occupation were men, and their employment was considerably more
regular than was that of women; in general, this is true even if the
December peak, which affected women chiefly, be omitted. While
CHART 23.—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT OF SALESPEOPLE (NOT TRAVELING),
OHIO, 1928-31, BY SEX—STORES (RETAIL AND WHOLESALE)
[Average 1928=100]

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 5 1

Dec

the employment of women was lower in 1930 than in 1929, and was
still lower in most months of 1931, the lowest of all was at the beginning
of 1928. Except for the December peak, the employment of men in
1929 proceeded on a very much higher level—as measured by its 1928
average’—than did that of women; in 1930, however, men’s employ­
ment fell farther below its 1929 level than did that of womer., in most
months very much farther below; and in the first 4 and last 2 months of
1931 it equaled or fell below 1930. In the entire 4-year period, the
lowest points for both sexes were early in 1928, the highest a t the end
of 1929, the difference between the high and the low being very much
greater for women than for men, due primarily to the December peak.
THE GENERAL MOVEMENT IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WAGE
EARNERS IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES

In addition to the foregoing main classifications, more detail has
been considered for the wage earners in manufactures. This includes
four chief industrial groups and all industries reporting 2,000 or more
women. Five chief groups were not included because they contained
179570“—33--------8




102

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

relatively small numbers in addition to the workers in the particular
subgroups included. Four of the chief industrial groups—lumber and
its products, chemicals and allied products, liquors and beverages, and
stone, clay, and glass products—were not considered because they
contained only small numbers of women. The first three of these
contained less than 2 percent of the manufacturing wage earners;
stone, clay, and glass contained less than 6 percent, but one subgroup
from this class has been discussed—pottery, terra cotta, and fire-clay
products—since it employed over 2,000 women. In addition, the
miscellaneous group was not analyzed, but two of its industries have
been included. In using the material, simple unadjusted indexes
were constructed from the figures, with the use of the monthly average
of 1928-—a year before the peak of 1929 and the subsequent depres­
sion—as 100. The details relative to the foregoing discussion, and
the proportions the various groups employed of all the women in
manufactures or in the industrial group in question in September 1928,
are as follows:84
Table 14.—Relative importance of various industries and industry groups in the

employment of women wage earners in Ohio, September 1928 1

Industrial group and industry

Percent
women
Percent
formed of Percent of all all womenof
in
women wage
total in
earners in
chief indus­
nearest
manufac­
trial groups
obtainable
turing
specified
group in
1930 census
17.1
73.9

Textiles___________________________________ _______

100.0
24.7

14.8

82.0
17.7

10.3
7.8
7.8

28.5
44.5
34.4
41.0
73.7
73.7
3.9

Tobacco 2
Iron and steel and their products

7.2
6.9
6.9

6.0

43.7
16.4
15.6
24.2
23.3

Metals and metal products (other than iron and steel) 2___

5.8
5.7
3.7

12. 5

Automobiles and parts, including assembling plants----

11.1
12.4
}

30.2

100.0
38.9

(6)
f

{

1.7
1.4
11.9

12.1
100.0
83.4
100.0
24.9
100.0
38.5
100.0
79.0
100.0
42.3
100.0
89.7
100.0
60.8
100.0
35.5
43.6

100.0
91.8
100.0
35.4
17.3

1 September was selected as a representative month, showing neither a supreme peak nor a depression.
2 Not considered separately, as group contains relatively few women besides those specified.
3 The only industry except canneries reporting 2,000 or more women in this month, but canneries not
high enough to include in other months.
4 Not discussed, because group relatively so small in spite of the fact that about 40 percent of the group
represents other industries.
8 Not discussed, because fewer than 2,000 women in total.
6 Less than one tenth of 1 percent.

As has been outlined, 19 manufacturing industries or groups were
selected for analysis. This includes all industries that employed 2,000
31 For complete list see appendix table IX.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OP "WOMEN

103

or more women in September 1928,85 and those industrial groups in
which considerable numbers of women were in several smaller indus­
tries not separately analyzed.
Textiles
Textiles and clothing, classed together in Ohio reports, employ
about one fourth of the women wage earners in manufacturing. The
largest industries included are men’s clothing (including shirts and
coat pads), women’s clothing (including corsets), and hosiery and
knit goods, which together employ over 65 percent of the women in
the whole group.
The movement of employment in the group as a whole, composed
of such different industries, appears more regular than usually in
these industries taken separately. (See chart 24.) Except for some
instances in men’s clothing, the variation from high to low point of
employment within a year was less, for either sox, than the variation
in any of the separate industries. Nevertheless, the decline in 1930
was marked, employment generally being below that at any time
in 1928 or 1929, with most of 1931 lower still. Maher (op. cit., p.
122) shows some increase in woman employment, 1927. In 1930
employment in the entire group, for either sex, had declined more
than in men’s clothing but less than in women’s clothing or hosiery
and knit wear; in the entire 4-year period the difference between the
high and low points in the employment of women had been greater
than in men’s clothing, but less than in women’s clothing, in hosiery
and knit goods, and in 17 of the 22 other industries or industry
groups, including wage earners in all industries and in all manufac­
turing.
Men’s clothing.—Employment in men’s clothing was considerably
better in 1929 than in 1928 and kept up better in 1930 than was the
case with many other industries (see chart 24); for women the indexes
of 1930 were below those of 1929 in every month, but for men they
were above 1929 in the first 6 months of 1930. The men’s level of
employment in 1928 ordinarily was higher than the women's, except
that the latter rose higher in the spring and winter seasons of the
industry; after January in 1929, women’s level was the higher; in each
month in 1930, the men’s. Employment in 1931 was lower in every
case than in 1930, and was always lower for women than for men.
The variation from high to low employment was greater for women
than for men in every year but 1931, when it was the same for the
two sexes. The decline from the highest to the lowest index in the
4 years was the greater for women—32 points for them in contrast
to 21 points for men.
Women’s clothing.—This industry is likely to be very irregular from
month to month, with definite seasonal periods, and the Ohio figures
in the time of study were no exception. (Chart 24.) Maher (op. cit.,
p. 122) shows employment below 1921 usually, 1923-27, but rising
in 1927. Women’s employment in 1929 rose above that in 1928 in
the spring, again in August and September; that in 1930 was below
1929 in every month, usually below 1928. On the whole, it held up
less in 1930 than in men’s clothing. Further declines occurred in
most months of 1931, for both sexes, apparently affecting men
somewhat the more. The level of women’s employment usually was
85 With the exception of canneries in the food group; while more than 2,000 women were employed in this
highly seasonal industry in September, considerably less were so employed in other months.




104

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

CHART 24—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN TEXTILES, OHIO, 1928-31, BY SEX
[Average 1928=100]
Women --

TOTAL

Men •

(includes certain industries not shown separately)

WOMEN'S

Mar

Jun

Sep

19 2




Deo

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 2 9

Dec

CLOTHING

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 5 0

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

105

above men in 1929 and in the first half of 1930; but in 1929 the decline
from August to the end of the fall season was the heavier for women,
and their employment level in the fall season of 1930 did not rise so
high as did men’s. Fluctuations from high to low employment within
each year, and also the decline from highest to lowest in the 4 years,
were greater for women than for men.
Hosiery and knit goods.—In this industry Maher (op. cit., p. 122)
shows a decline almost continuous, 1923-27, in the employment of
women usually was better in 1929 than in 1928, with few exceptional
months at the end of the year; in 1930 it was above that of 1628 in
the first 6 months of the year but ordinarily was below 1929. (See
chart 24.) For men, employment in 1929 was higher than in 1928
only in 3 months; in 1930, except for January, it was below 1928 and
1929, and in 1931 it fell still lower. The level of women’s employ­
ment was above that of men’s in the summer and fall of 1928, through­
out 1929 except for December, throughout 1930 except for the July
low, and in every month of 1931. However, the variations from high
to low within each year and the decline from highest to lowest employ­
ment in the 4 years were considerably greater for women than for men.
Rubber products
These plants employed one tenth of the women wage earners in
manufacturing—larger than in any other industrial group but textiles.
Maher shows employment rising, 1923-28, especially for women.
Tires and tubes.- It is not surprising that over 80 percent of the
women in the rubber industry were in tire and tube factories. In
CHART 25.—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN TIRES AND TUBES, OHIO. 1928-31,
BY SEX
[Average 1928=100]

Mar

Jun
Sep
1928

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1929

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1950

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1951

Dec

1928 employment in such plants was good, and for women it rose
almost steadily from Majr to the end of the year (for men from Janu­
ary, but with some recession after September). In 1929 employment
was higher than in 1928 until toward the end of the year. For women
it rose considerably more than for men and remained above 1928



106

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

until November, although for both sexes decline began as early as
July 1929, and was continuous from that time till the end of 1930,
except for a slight recovery in the spring. (See chart 25.) The em­
ployment of either sex in 1931 was very much below that in any of
the 3 years preceding. With one exception, the employment level
for men was above that for women in the first half of 1928, and again
after July 1930 and throughout 1931, but in the intervening period
CHART 26—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN FOOD AND KINDRED PRODUCTS,
OHIO, 1928-31, BY SEX
[Average 1928=100]
TOTAL

(includes certain industries not shown separately)

- BAKERY

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 2 8

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 2 9

Dec

PRODUCTS

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

19 3 1
19 3 0
that of women was the higher—in some months considerably so.
Employment changes within any 1 year were considerably greater for
women than for men, as was also the decline from highest to lowest
point in the entire period.
Food and kindred products
The food industries employed nearly 8 percent of the women wage
earners reported in manufacturing. (See table 14, p. 102.) Taking




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OP WOMEN

107

this group as a whole, regardless of separate industries, women’s
employment in 1929 was generally high as compared to 1928; the
early months of 1930 started well in comparison with the beginning
of the 2 preceding years, but in the summer and again at the close
of the year employment was below corresponding periods of 1929,
and the indexes throughout 1931 fell still lower than corresponding
months of 1930. For men, 1929 was better than 1928 (except in 1
month) and employment rose still higher in 1930. While 1931
showed some decline from corresponding months of 1930, employ­
ment still was above 1928 and 1929. With the exception of the last
2 months of 1930 and of 1931, the employment level of women in
each year was considerably higher than that of men from September
to December. (See chart 26.) In the fall months this. may be
largely explained by the seasonal activity in the canneries, large
woman employers, and later the candy industry was at its height.
The difference between the high and low point during the 4-year
period was 78 points for women and 35 for men.
Bakery products.—The seasonal character of this industry, which
employed about one fourth of the women in the food group, was
especially marked for women and also was distinct for men. (See
chart 26.) In each year (except for men in 1931) there was a rise in
employment until June or July, and after a recession a rise to Sep­
tember or October, with a decline coming in December or earlier.
In every month and for either sex, employment was better in 1929 than
in 1928 and improved still further in 1930. A decline was shown in
1931, the more marked for women, since men’s employment still was
above all corresponding months of 1928 and 1929. That the extremity
of fluctuation to which women were subject in every year was greater
than that for men is indicated by the fact that the rise from the
early months to the high point of the year was greater for women than
for men—as high as 20 points for the former in 1929—while the decline
from the fall high to the end of the year was decidedly the greater for
women (except in 1931). The general employment level was higher
for women than for men in 5 summer and autumn months in 1928,
and throughout 1929 except for January and December, but it was
very much the higher for men in every month of 1930 and 1931. In
the 4-year period the difference between the high and the low employ­
ment was 36 points for women but 49 for men.
Paper and printing
About 7 percent of the women wage earners in manufacturing were
in the paper and printing industries, nearly two fifths of these being
in printing and publishing. In the group as a whole, the employment
of both sexes was good in 1928 and very much better in 1929, particu­
larly for women; in 1930, while the level ordinarily was not quite so
high as in 1929, and later in the year never again reached the height
of spring activity, still it usually was better than in 1928 until the
latter part of the year. (See chart 27.) In 1931, the women’s
employment level was below that of 1930 in each month, except
November, though it was above 1928 until October; for men employ­
ment was well below 1930 in every month and was below 1928 except
in January and February. In this group, as in other industries,
women suffered more extreme employment change in the 4-year
period than did men; the difference between the highest and lowest




108

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

index in the 4 years was 16 points for men but it was 22 points for
women.
Printing and publishing .-—The, employment level in this industry
was good in 1928, being quite similar for the two sexes: it was very
much better m 1929, and was especially high for women. (See chart
^ e;niph>yment was, on the whole, maintained better than
that in the entire paper and printing group, and still was on a much
higher level for women than for men; however, in this year the fall
season did not show such great increases as had been the case in 1928
and 1929. In 1931 employment was much better for women than
at any previous time in the 4 years, but the indexes for men, while
CHART 27—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN PAPER AND PRINTING OHIO 1928-31
BY SEX
’
'
’
[Average 1928=100]
B O m e n
Men
TOTAL (Includes certain industries not shovin separately)

*

PUBLISHING

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

never below 98, were lower than in 1930, and in most months lower
than in 1929. Again, women were shown to be more subject to
change within the year than men, the difference between high and
low points m a year always being the greater for women. The
dmerence between the high and low index in the 4-year period was
13 points for men, but it was 42 points for women, even if their hhrh
indexes in 1931 be disregarded.
Tobacco
Cigars and cigarettes. About 7 percent of the women wage earners
reported in manufacturing were in tobacco factories, nearly four fifths




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

109

of these making cigars and cigarettes. In this industry employment
decline was evident earlier than in most others, and men seem to have
suffered from this decline even more severely than women. (See
chart 28.) After November 1928 a decline was apparent, and for
both sexes in every month of 1929 employment was below the cor­
responding month'of 1928, in 1930 still lower; in fact, for men the
highest employment index in 1929 and in 1930 was below the lowest
in 1928, and for both sexes the 1930 high was below the lowest in
both 1928 and 1929. In 1931, for women most months showed still
further declines from earlier levels, but the employment of men
showed improvement over that of 1930. During all of 1929 and 1930,
in more than half the months of 1928, and in most months of 1931,
the employment level of women was above that of men. The entire
decline from the highest to the lowest index in the 4 years was some­
what similar for the two sexes; for men it was 48 points for women 51
points.
CHART 28— INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN CIGARS AND CIGARETTES, OHIO.
1928-31, BY SEX
[Average 1928=100]

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 2 8

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1929

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1 9 5 0

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1951

Dec

Iron and steel
Only about 7 percent of the women wage earners in manufacturing
were employed in the iron and steel group, although this is a dominant
group in manufacturing employment as a whole. In these industries,
employment, which started low in 1928, attained a high level in the
spring of 1929—the highest index being 111.6 for women, 114.9 for
men—but a rapid and almost steady decline set in after July 1929; in
December 1930 employment for both sexes was lower than at any
time in the 3 years preceding, and each month of 1931 was below any
corresponding month in the 4 years. Except for a few months at the
end of 1928 and the last 5 months of 1931, the employment level of
men was better than that of women. (See chart 29.) On the whole,
the movement of employment was similar for the two sexes, and the
decline was in about the same degree for each.
Foundry and machine-shop products.—This industry employed more
than two fifths of the women in the iron and steel group. In general
the movement of employment followed that of the whole group, but



110

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

the sharp decline in 1929 began later than was the case for the total.
(See chart 29.) For women the difference in the indexes from high
to low point in any year was greater in foundries and machine shops
than in iron and steel as a whole. For women the difference from
highest to lowest point in the 4 years was much greater in foundries
and machine shops than in the iron and steel group, but for men the
figures were the same.
CHART 29—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR
PRODUCTS, OHIO, 1928-31, BY SEX
[Average 1928=100]
W o m e
u e n _ _«».«.
TOTAL (Includes certain industries not shown separately)

A. -

Mar

Jun

PODHDRI

Sep

Dec

Mar

AND

Jun

Sep

MACHINE-SHOP

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

PRODUCTS

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Leather and leather products
Boots, shoes, cut stock, andfindings.—Six percent of the women wage
earners in manufacturing were employed in leather and leather-prod­
ucts factories, and of these about nine tenths were in the boot and
shoe group. In tliis industry women’s employment in 1929 was
better than that in 1928 in May and June and again in the second
half of the year; in 1930, however, it was considerably below 1929 in




111

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

every month and in December was 33 points below the highest in
1929. In half the months of 1931 it was below 1930. The general
level of employment was higher for women than for men in half the
months of 1928, throughout 1929 and most of 1930, and in every
month of 1931. This is another industry in which fluctuations from
CHART 30—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN BOOTS, SHOES. CUT STOCK, AND
FINDINGS, OHIO, 1928-31, BY SEX
[Average 1928=100]

Mar

Jun

Sep

Deo

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sap

Dec

Mar

Jun

gap

Deo

1 9 S 1

19 3 0

month to month are more marked for women than for men (see
chart 30); in every year the points of difference from the highest to
the lowest index within the year were considerably greater for women
than men. However, the entire decline from the highest to the low­
est point in the 4 years was somewhat greater for men than women—
36.8 points for the former, 34.1 for the latter.
CHART 31—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN POTTERY, TERRA-COTTA, AND FIRE­
CLAY PRODUCTS, OHIO, 1928-31, BY SEX
[Average 1928=100]

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

19 2 9

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 3 0

Dec

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

Stone, clay, and glass products
Pottery, terra-cotta, and jire-clay products.—The stone, clay, and
glass industries employed fewer than 6 percent of the women in
manufacturing, but some 60 percent of these were in the group




112

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

selected. The employment movement in the entire group is essential­
ly similar to the movement in this one industry, though employment
in the 4 years, especially for women, held up considerably better for
the total than for pottery and related industries, in which a decline
appeared especially early. The employment level for both men and
women was somewhat higher in 1928 than at any other time in 4
years; ordinarily it was better for women than men, except for parts
of 1928. (See chart 31.) The difference from high to low point
within any 1 year was greater for women than for men, and the
decline from the highest to the lowest index in the 4 years also was
the greater for women.
Metals and metal products other than iron and steel
This group also contains fewer than 6 percent of all women wage
earners in manufacturing. Nearly four fifths of these were in fac­
tories making copper, tin, and sheet-iron products or gas and electric
fixtures, lamps, and reflectors.
Copper, tin, and sheet-iron products.—In plants turning out these
products, employment of both sexes was good in 1928 and still better
in 1929. For men in the last 6 months of 1930 employment was not
so good as in the corresponding months in the year preceding- for
women in 1930 and for both sexes in 1931 employment was lower in
every month than in the corresponding month of the year preceding.
Both m 1930 and 1931 employment of women was below the level
for men throughout the entire year. (See chart 32.) In this industry
the difference between the high and low indexes of the year was
markedly greater for women than for men in 1928 and 1929, but was
greater for men in 1930 and 1931. The difference from the high
point of employment to the low in the 4-year period was greater
for women than for men—41 points for the former and 36 for the
latter.
Gas and electric fixtures, lamps, and reflectors—As in a number of
other industries, the employment of women in the making of these
products showed much more extreme changes than did that of men.
(pee chart 32.) For both sexes it was at a fairly good level in 1928
rising continuously for men after May, for women after July. While
m early 1929 the level was below the later months of 1928, it was
high through most of the year, and from February on, with one slight
exception, there was a steady rise to November for women and to
December for men; for women this was much more extreme than for
men, nsmg to an index of 204.8, while the high for men was only
130.1. Employment in 1930—relatively very low for both sexes—was
very much better for men than for women, and the same was the
case m 1931, though for both sexes employment in 1931 was below
that of each corresponding month in 1930. The decline from the
1929 high to the lowest point in 1931—the highest and lowest points
m
4 years—was 56 points for men, but it was as much as 150
pomts for women.
Vehicles
While less than 4 percent of the women wage earners in manufac­
turing were in this class, over 90 percent of the women in the vehicle
industry were m the plants making automobiles and their parts
employmg an appreciable number of women.




113

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

CHART 32— INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN COPPER, TIN, AND SHEET-IRON
PRODUCTS, AND IN GAS AND ELECTRIC FIXTURES, LAMPS, AND REFLEC­
TORS, OHIO, 1928-31, BY SEX
[Average 1928=100]
Women
COPPER,

AMD

Sep

19 2




T I N;

ELECTRIC

Dec

Mar

Jon

AMD

Hen

SHEET-IROM

FIXTURES,

Sep

Dec

Mar

LAMPS

Jun
Sep
19 3 0

PRODUCTS

AMD

EFLECTORS

Mar

Jun

Sep

Dec

114

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Automobiles and parts—In this industry employment in 1928 was
at a good level for women in the spring and fall seasons, some being
laid off in July and especially in August, and for men it was well
maintained from April through September. In 1929, when employ­
ment for both sexes was quite high early in the year, although some
falling off was noticeable as early as March, it was above correspond­
ing months in 1928 until August for men, and until October for
women, after which the general decline was marked for each sex.
The general level in 1930 was well below both of the 2 preceding
years, and the decline was continuous for men after April and for
women after May, with some upward movement for each sex in
December. (See chart 33.) For both sexes, employment in 1931
was very much below that of 1930. Women’s employment level (as
measured by its 1928 average) was above men’s in something over
CHART 33—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN AUTOMOBILES AND PARTS OHIO

1928-31, BY SEX
[Average 1928=100]

/#C\

/! *\ VYo m e n
i
% \
1 AtenX l
j

A

f

\ \

'

yr\

i

7

Mar

Jun
Sep
1928

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1929

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1930

Dec

Mar

\

Jun
Sep
1931

Dec

half the 48 months, including the entire year of 1929, but it was below
that of men throughout all of 1931. The changes from high to low
employment in each year were greater for women than for men.
This was true also of the decline from the highest to the lowest point
in the 4 years, which was 88 points for men, 97 for women; the ex­
treme peak of 1929 and the heavy decline of 1931 caused this em­
ployment fluctuation to be greater than in any other industry except
radio manufacturing for each sex and in addition for women in gas
and electric fixtures.
Miscellaneous manufacturing
Among the miscellaneous industries, two deserve analysis as con­
siderable employers of women: Electrical machinery, apparatus, and
supplies, and radios and their parts.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

115

Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies.—This industry pre­
sents an employment picture characteristic of several others—high
indexes through 1929, lower indexes through 1930 (those of 1930 were
also below those of 1928 after April for women and after June for
men), and still lower employment in 1931. (See chart 34.) For
both sexes, the starting point of receding employment seems to have
come after October 1929. In 5 early months of 1928, and through­
out 1929 until November, the employment level of women was above
CHART 34—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN ELECTRICAL MACHINERY, APPA­
RATUS, AND SUPPLIES, OHIO, 1928-31, BY SEX
[Average 1928=100]

Mar

Jim
Sep
1928

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1929

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
1950

Dec

Mar

Jim
Sep
1951

Dec

that of men, but throughout 1930 (except November) and 1931 (ex­
cept June) the men’s level was the higher. The variation from high
to low index in the year was greater for women than for men, except
in 1930, and the decline from highest to lowest index in the 4 years
also was the greater for women.
Radios and radio parts.—In the manufacture of radios and their
parts, the employment change from high to low within each year was
greater than in any other industry, whichever sex be considered—
except 1931 when it was exceeded in food and kindred products for
women. This change was greater in 1929 than in any of the other
years under consideration. (See chart 35.) Fluctuations from month
to month were extreme for both sexes. There were marked seasonal
tendencies in the industry, and little stability of employment was
evident. In early 1928 employment was low for both sexes; by
October the index had practically tripled for women—which was the
case for men a month later—and this was followed by a sharp drop
for women in the 2 months at the end of the year. In 1929 women’s
employment was above that of 1928 in every month, except for an
early summer slump and an extreme decline in December. In the
spring and early summer of 1930 employment was better than at this
season in either of the preceding years, and the decline in December
was considerably less sharp than in 1929. In all but 11 months of the
4-year period men’s employment was on a higher level than women’s
(each as measured by its own 1928 average). The difference between
the highest and the lowest index was as great as 166 points for women
and 254 for men, a degree equaled in no other industry for either sex.



EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOME
35—INDEX OF EMPLOYMENT IN RADIOS AND PARTS OHIO 1928-3
BY SEX
’
[Average 1928=100]

26

24<

??t

20C

18C

M&n

«

160

TtV?
Women
140

120

100

80

60

40
Jan

Sap

19 2 8




Doe

Mar

Jun

Sop

19 2 9

Doc

liar

Jun

Sop

19 3 0

Doc

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 5 1

Dec

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

117

SUMMARY OF EMPLOYMENT MOVEMENT OF WOMEN IN OHIO,
1928, 1929, 1930, AND 1931

The Ohio figures are not given out monthly as are those of Illinois
and New York, and 1929 is the last year for which they had been
published in full at the time this report was prepared. However, the
Ohio Department of Industrial Relations very kindly furnished the
Women’s Bureau with the complete data for 1930 and 1931.
Seasonal movements
As usually is the case in industrial employment, marked seasonal
movements are shown among wage earners in manufacturing, and
these applied to both sexes. They appeared particularly great in the
plants producing radios and radio parts,86 and only somewhat less so
among those in the food and kindred industries. Distinct though less
extreme seasonal movements in employment also are noticeable from
the Ohio figures in hosiery and knit wear, men’s and women’s clothing,
and (especially for women) the making of pottery. The group of
salespeople (not traveling) in wholesale and retail stores also showed
seasonal trends.
General employment level
On the base used—the monthly average of 1928—the general level
of employment ordinarily (that is, in most months in each of the 4
years and in practically all months in 1 or more of these years) was
notably higher for women than for men wage earners in factories
producing women’s clothing, hosiery and knit wear, shoes, and cigars
and cigarettes, in printing and publishing, and in the telegraph and
telephone industry.
'
This level ordinarily was higher for men than for women wage
earners in foundries and machine shops, iron and steel, and radio
manufacture; and for sales people (not traveling) in wholesale and
retail stores except at the peak season.
On the whole the employment level was the higher for women in
1929 but for men thereafter (in each case on their own 1928 basis)
among bookkeepers, stenographers, and clerks, and as wage earners in
the following groups: Stores, food and kindred products (except at the
peak season), bakery products, gas and electric fixtures, electrical
machinery and supplies, men’s clothing, tires and tubes, and automo­
biles and parts; in the last two cases the change from a higher index
for women to a higher for men came after the middle of 1930.
Beginning in the last months of 1929 and proceeding almost con­
tinuously through 1930 and 1931, data for both sexes showed a marked
decline in the employment of wage earners in manufacturing, some­
what greater for men than for women, and a decline for women book­
keepers, stenographers, and office clerks.
In several of the manufacturing industries the declines in wage
earners were especially extreme. Among these, that in cigars and
cigarettes and that in pottery were beginning to be marked as early
as 1928, that in automobiles and parts early in 1929. In mid 1929
the decline became noticeable in foundries and machine shops and
tire and tube factories, and somewhat later in the year in textiles, in
the iron and steel group as a whole, and in electrical machinery plants.
83 That there is extreme fluctuation in employment in such plants as these is corroborated in the Women’s
Bureau study of this industry summarized on p. 123.
179570°—33------ 9




118

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

In 1930 it was marked in factories making gas and electric fixtures
and, especially for women, in copper, tin, and sheet-iron plants. In
1931 the declines were greater for men in radio and automobile
manufacture, for women in food and radio manufacture.
In several manufacturing industries that kept up well through
most of 1929 a decline that was notable, even though less extreme
than in some other industries, occurred in 1930; this was true in
hosiery and knit wear, shoes, women’s clothing, paper and printing,
and (especially for women) in men’s clothing and among wage earners
in stores; it was true also among telegraph and telephone workers.
Evidences as to replacement
The indexes give no definite evidence indicating replacement of
men by women on any appreciable scale in any industry or occupa­
tional group. They do show great irregularity of employment for
both sexes in certain occupations, the variation in the 4-year period
being greater for women than for men in 18 of the 26 groups included
in this discussion. (See table 15.)
The general direction of employment change from month to month
usually was similar for the two sexes, though it sometimes was much
more extreme for one than the other. Sometimes for 2 or 3 months
at a stretch employment would increase for one sex at the same time
that decreases were shown for the opposite sex, but ordinarily this
would be counteracted to a large extent by the movement in the
months following. In 11 industries or occupation groups—one of
them men’s clothing, which employed about one tenth of all women
wage earners in manufacturing—the employment level for women
was higher than that for men in 1929 but fell below men’s thereafter
(in each case on their own 1928 base).
The data give further evidence of a fact frequently observed—that
the employment of women often is more irregular than that of men,
women being used for extra help in peak periods and then laid off.
For example, women wage earners in all manufacturing industries
combined were taken on at the opening of the season of fall activity
in each year, while employment for men remained at the same level
as before (1928), or declined (1929, 1930, and 1931), but thereafter
the decline occurring to the end of the year was greater for women
than for men. In 13 of the groups included, the employment of
women fluctuated more extremely within each of the 4 years than did
that of men, and in 8 other groups it was the greater for women in 2
or 3 of the years.
Irregularities within the year
Table 15 shows for both sexes the differences from high to low points
in each year and the extent of the entire decline from the highest to
the lowest point within the 4 years. For both sexes the greatest
differences in every year were in the making of radios and radio parts,
except for women in the food group in 1930 and 1931. For men the
industries in which differences were next greatest were automobiles in
1928, 1929, and 1931, and the iron and steel group in 1930. For
women fluctuations always were great among wage earners in the
combined food group, in "the automobile industry, and among sales­
persons in stores, where changes were considerable even without the
December peaks.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

119

Table 15.—Difference between highest and lowest index numbers of employment

within the year, and during 4-year period, Ohio, 1928-31
Number of points of difference between
high and low index in the year for—
dustry

Men

Women

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931
W age earners in—
All industries_____
__________
All manufacturing industries
Service________
_________ ..
Transportation and public utilities:
Telegraph and telephone, in­
cluding messenger service-----Trade:
Stores, retail and wholesale- .. ...
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks (all industries)......... ....................
Salespeople not traveling:
Stores, retail and wholesale

12

10

15
7

15
9

Number of points
of difference be­
tween the highest
and the lowest index in the 4-year
period for i—
Women

Men

10
12
8

10

17
13
13

17
19
15

19
19
13

13
13

9

31
42

46
49
24
33

7

11

22

8

10

16

14

19

10

20

8

36

22

22

16

22

12

11

4

3

31

18

6

6

6

7

5

6

4

7

18

22

57

52

43

38

16

18

5

5

58

35

12

16

11

4

6

12

8

33

28

13

12

8

6

5

11

8

32

21

25
23

29
30

24
31

12
12

18
9

17

20

21

17

35
47

34
38

34
30

9
67

8

27

17
15

4
19

5
4

7

75
78
36

9

27
62
13
9
14

57

48'
35
49
16
13

13
25

4
15

26

10
12

8

10

11

20

24

16

51
56

48
62

31

19

13

16

14

24

16

63

62

17

25

26

18

9

19

18

34

37

12

20

13

9

7

11

11

65

63

Wage earners in manufacturing, by in­
dustry:
Textiles---___ ________________
7
Men’s clothing (including shirts
and coat pads)____ ______ 7
Women’s clothing (including
corsets)
16
Ilosiery and knit goods............. . 29
Rubber products:
Tires and tubes____ _______ 24
Food and kindred products...........
57
Bakery products.......................... 18
Paper and printing
9
Printing and publishing.............
9
Tobacco:
Cigars and cigarettes.
15
Iron and steel and their products_
_ 19
Foundry and machine-shop
products..___ ________ ____ 30
Leather and leather products:
Boots, shoes, cut stock and find­
ings— 22
Stone, clay, and glass products:
Pottery, terra cotta, and fire­
12
clay products
Metals and metal products (other
than iron and steel):
Copper, tin, and sheet-iron prod­
21
ucts__________ _____ _____
Gas and electric fixtures, lamps,
and reflectors__ ___________
24
Vehicles:
Automobiles and parts (includ­
ing assembly plants)
39
Miscellaneous manufactures:
Electrical machinery, apparatus,
and supplies.
35
Radios and parts _ _ _
114

20
8

8
8

17

26
5
5
5

20

7

6

7
7

6

6

22

8

•

21

10

14

14

16

20

17

41

36

98

12

11

13

40

16

7

150

56

68

30

27

34

65

23

23

97

88

28
164

19
62

25
51

29
131

17
168

22

84

16
55

76
166

56
254

1 The highest index for women was in 1929 in 20 of the 26 industries or groups taken, for men in 15 groups,
but in the following it was in another year: For both men and women, in 1928 in cigars and cigarettes and
in pottery, terra cotta, and fire-clay products, in 1930 in food and kindred products and in bakery products;
for women in 1928 in hosiery and knit goods, in 1930 in service; for men, in 1928 in boots, shoes, cut stock, and
findings, and women’s clothing; in 1930 in men’s clothing, copper, tin, and sheet-iron products, and wage
earners in telegraph and telephones, and in stores, and bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks. The
lowest index was in 1931 for men in 16, for women in 19 of the 26 industries or industry groups. In the
following it was in 1928: For both men and women, in food and kindred products, bakery products, print­
ing and publishing, radios and parts, in service, and salespeople in stores; for men, in copper, tin, and sheetiron products, in telegraph and telephone, and wage earners in stores; for women in paper and printing;
in 1930 for men in cigars and cigarettes.

Variations from high to low employment within each year were
least for women and were extremely low for men among bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks; they tended to be low among wage
earners in the paper and printing industry, and were relatively low




120

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

for women among wage earners in the service group, and for both
sexes among wage earners in men’s clothing and in cigars and cigar­
ettes in 1930, when this industry was at such a low ebb.
Women had suffered greater changes in employment within each
year than had men—in stores, both as wage earners and as salespeople,
and as wage earners in 11 of the 19 separate manufacturing industries
or industry groups, most of which are those known to be important
woman employers.
The fluctuation within each year was greater among men than
women as wage earners in the radio industry, and also was somewhat
the greater for men as wage earners in all industries, in manufacturing
as a whole (except in 1928), and in service. In iron and steel and in
copper, tin, and sheet-iron products—the former the most important
employer of men—the fluctuations in the employment of wage earners
were greater for women than for men in each of the first 2 years but
were the greater for men in 1930 and 1931. In the following indus­
tries fluctuations were greater for men than for women in 1930, but
were the greater for women both before and after 1930 and also in the
4 years taken as a whole: Cigars and cigarettes, gas and electric
fixtures, and electrical apparatus and supplies.
Ordinarily where declines were the greater for men, though they
previously had been the greater for women, this appeared to be due
to an arresting of the decline in women’s employment rather than to a
notable increase in the decline for men.
Declines in employment in the 4-year period
When the total decline in employment from highest to lowest index
in the 4 years is considered, it is found that among bookkeepers,
stenographers, and clerks, and among wage earners reported in all
industries as well as those in all manufacturing, men had suffered
somewhat more than women had; the respective points of decline
were as follows:
Men
22

All manufacturing wage earners----- --------------------------------------------------------------

46
49

Women
18
31
42

Despite the foregoing, in 18 of the remaining groups—those selected
as the important woman employers—the decline had been greater
for women than for men, while in onlv 5 had it been greater for men.
The greatest decline in employment for both sexes was in the manu­
facture of radios and radio parts. In only 7 industries or industry
groups for men and 3 for women had employment declined less than
30 points; a decline of over 75 points occurred in the employment
of both sexes in radio and automobile manufacture, and of women in
gas and electric fixtures, in electrical machinery and supplies, and
in food products.
The points of difference in the employment index for the period
1928 to 1931 in industries in which such differences ranged from
13 points to 254 points—the greatest drop in employment—was as
follows:




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
100 and over:
Men:
Radios and parts
254
Women:
Radios and parts
166
Gas and electric fixtures, lamps, and reflectors_________________
70 but less than 100:
Men:

Automobiles and parts
Women:

50

40

30

20

150

88

Automobiles and parts________________________________________
Food and kindred products
78
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies__________________
Tires and tubes
75
but less than 70:
Men:
Pottery, terra-cotta, and fire-clay products_____________________
Iron and steel and their products
62
Foundry and machine-shop products
62
Gas and electrical fixtures, lamps, and reflectors_______________
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies__________________
Women:
Pottery, terra-cotta, and fire-clay products____________________
Foundry and machine-shop products
63
Saleswomen in stores
58
Printing and publishing1_________________________________
Iron and steel and their products ____________________________
Cigars and cigarettes
51
but less than 50:
Men:
Wage earners in all manufactures
49
Bakery products
49
Cigars and cigarettes
48
Tires and tubes
48
Wage earners in all industries___ J
46
Women:
Hosiery and knit goods_________
Wage earners in all manufactures
42
Copper, tin, and sheet-iron products
41
but less than 40:
Men:
Hosiery and knit goods
38
Boots, shoes, cut stock, and findings ___ _____________________
Copper, tin, and sheet-iron products
36
Food and kindred products
35
Salespeople in stores
35
Women’s clothing
34
Telegraph and telephone (including messenger service)_________
Women:
Bakery products
36
Telegraph and telephone (including messenger service)_________
Women’s clothing
35
Boots, shoes, cut stock, and findings
34
Textiles
33
Men’s clothing
32
Wage earners in all industries_________________________________
Wage earners in stores, wholesale and retail____________________
but less than 30:
Men:
Textiles_
Wage earners in service
24
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks__________________
Men’s clothing
21
Women:
Paper and printing
22
Wage earners in service
22




121

97
76

63
56
56
65
57
56

47

37

33
36

31
31
28
22

122

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Less than 20:
Men:
Wage earners in stores, retail and wholesale___________________
Paper and printings _ ...
Printing and publishing---------- ---------------------------------------------Women:
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks________________

18
16
13
18

STUDIES OF EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AFFECTING
WOMEN

The following studies of employment fluctuations give attention
to such situations as they affect women: Certain studies made by
the Women’s Bureau; some of those based on the Ohio figures; a
report made in New York State; and recent Minnesota studies.
Only the first and the last named deal especially with a period as late
as 1931.
A report of the New York State Department of Labor analyzed
data from June 1923 to June 1925 in so thorough a manner that its
method and content may be said to point the way for later work.87
Unfortunately, no later New York material has been presented in
complete form by sex.
From Ohio, a summary analysis of the figures as they become
available has been made for several years by Fred C. Croxton and
Frederick E. Croxton, reporting the data by sex, and sometimes
published in the Monthly Labor Review. In addition to the studies
referred to on page 48, a special study of data for Cleveland and
Cuyahoga County covered the years 1923-28.88 In the last named,
while the basic tables published were not by sex, the situation as to
women’s employment was mentioned at a number of points in the
discussion.
Especial attention has been given to the Ohio figures for industries
employing many women, by Amy G. Maher of the Information Bureau
on Women’s Work (Toledo), who has made studies of employment in
textile and rubber plants, the latter covering 1914 to 1928, and of
clerical workers from 1914 to 1929. The last named was published
by the Women’s Bureau, and showed this type of employment to have
risen continuously, in an especially great degree in offices. After
October 1929 the number of clerical employees in factories showed
a decline to the end of the year for each sex, greater for women than
for men. During 1930 there was an almost continuous decline through
the year.
STUDIES BY THE WOMEN’S BUREAU

Women in slaughtering and meat packing
In a survey of women in slaughtering and meat packing made in
1928 Women’s Bureau agents took from the pay rolls of plants in
five cities records of employment in each week throughout a year’s
time. These applied to over 2,600 women, and showed that in the
plants visited in these cities the minimum employment in the year
ranged in the various cities from about 72 percent to less than 55
87 New York Department of Labor. Employment and Earnings of Men and Women in New York
State Factories, 1923-25. Special Bui. 143. 1926.
88 W ooster, Harvey H. and Theodore E. Whiting. Fluctuation in Employment in Cleveland and Cuya­
hoga County 1923-28. Earlier basic studies of these data, not reaching the period under discussion here,
were: Watkins, Ralph J. Ohio Employment Studies, 1927, dealing primarily with the construction
industry, not a large woman employer, and Bell, Spurgeon, and Ralph J. Watkins, Industrial and Com­
mercial Ohio, vols. I and II, Manufacturing Industries. Ohio State University Press. 1928.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

123

percent of the maximum. To put it another way, from about 28
percent to more than 45 percent as many women as were on the pay
rolls in the week of highest employment were not on the rolls at the
period of lowest employment.89 The data on which the foregoing
statements are based are as follows:
Number of women re­
ported on pay rolls
in—

City 1

Percent
minimum
forms of
Maximum Minimum maximum
week in
week in
the year
the year

Sioux City___
___ ____
St. Paul..______ ___________
Ottumwa
East St. Louis
Omaha___ ______ _________
1

374
517
135
129
238

204
351
91
93
164

Women not on rolls in
week of minimum
employment

Number

54.5
67.9
67.4
72.1
68.9

Average
number
Percent of of women
employed
number em­
ployed at
maximum

170
166
44
36
74

45.5
32.1
32.6
27.9
31.1

283
421
111
111

203

All plants in Sioux City, St. Paul, and Ottumwa; some plants in East St. Louis and Omaha.

In certain of the important woman-employing departments the
variations were even greater than they were in the industry as a
whole.
Women in the radio industry
In 1929 the Women’s Bureau made a survey of fluctuation in em­
ployment in representative plants of the radio industry. These
plants were classed in throe groups, according to whether making
sets, tubes, or parts and accessories. In this industry employment
goes up during the year, the decline occurring between fall and spring.
In each of the three groups over 50 percent of the women on the pay
rolls in the peak month had not been on the rolls at the minimum,
these proportions being about 54 percent in tubes, 65 percent in sets,
and 86 percent in parts and accessories. At the same time Ohio
employment figures for this industry were examined, and here 80
percent of the women were off the rolls at the minimum in 1929,
the drop coming at the end of the year. The data from the pay rolls
for the three branches of the industry and from the Ohio sources,
each for 1929, are as follows:
Number of women
reported on pay
rolls in—
Percent
Source of data

16 plants making receiving sets...........
15 plants making tubes....... ................
4 plants making parts and accessories.
15 plants reported by Ohio Department of Industrial Relations.........

Women not on pay
rolls in month of
minimum employ­
ment

forms of
Maximum Minimum maximum
month in month in
Number
the year the year

Average
number
of women
Percent of employed
number
employed
at maxi­
mum

14,935
11,495
1,406

5,169
5, 340
193

34.6
46.5
13.7

9, 766
6,155
1,213

65.4
53.5
86.3

9,800
7,906
771

3, 666

743

20.3

2,923

79.7

2,196

“ Some of those employed at the minimum may have been other than the actual persons employed at
the maximum, but at least the specified proportion of those employed at the maximum were not on the
books at the minimum, and still others also may have been replaced.




124

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

That 1929 was no exception, but in a number of cases the employ­
ment of women had shown even greater fluctuation in the 2 years
preceding, is indicated by the following:

Source of data

Percent employment of wom­
en in minimum month was
of that in maximum in—
1927

1928

21.3
53.4

12.8

25.0
46.2
26.8

1929
28.4
51.6
20.3

1 Numbers of establishments reported differed somewhat in the various years, though always employing
a very large proportion of the total in this industry in the State.

Firms reported in South Bend, Ind.
In the survey of South Bend, Ind., figures for a year’s period—•
September 1929 to September 1930—were furnished by three impor­
tant establishments that employed 2,759 women in September 1929.
If the numbers on the pay roll in September 1929 be taken as 100, and
relatives be computed on these, the employment index in each suc­
cessive third month shows the great fluctuation in the year and the
great differences among the firms. The figures follow:
Establishment
Month
No. 1

No. 2

No. 3

100.0

100.0

100.0

69.3
81.7
77.3
72.4

102.5
103.0
87.1
82.0

62. 6
121.5
131.8
116.9

THE MINNESOTA STUDIES

Practically the only recent analysis giving information on employ­
ment fluctuations of women—with the exception of those of the
Women’s Bureau—is that made in the report “Employment Trends”,
issued in November 1931 and later brought up to date, by the Employ­
ment Stabilization Research Institute of the University of Minnesota,
as a part of the background for a project of employment stabilization
to be undertaken by the institute and the Tri-City Employment
Stabilization Committee.
This report analyzes employment data collected in 122 St. Paul
establishments over a 6-year period, in 106 in Minneapolis for 5 years,
and in 183 in Duluth for 4 years—ending with December 1930 for
Minneapolis and St. Paul, and with June 1930 for Duluth.90 Some
interpretation is made on the basis of seasonal fluctuations, trend
through the period, and effects of depression. The employment
figures are given by sex for the total, retail and mail-order houses,
wholesale firms, manufacturing, public utilities, construction and
building materials, and miscellaneous. In all cases, except in the
occupational analysis mentioned later, clerical workers in the indus­
w In the later supplement, 1931 figures for each city were made available.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

125

tries are included with the others. Each main industry group is then
broken down into smaller groups, the data for some of which-—those
important as woman employers'—are given by sex. Next, employ­
ment in the following main occupational groups, and in subdivisions
of each of these, is given: Skilled, semiskilled, unskilled, sales, clerical,
miscellaneous. These occupational figures are not reported by sex
except for Minneapolis, for which data on women are given for the
main groups (excepting skilled workers) and for certain separate
occupations, presumably those important in woman employment.
Table XI in appendix A shows for manufacturing, trade, and two chief
woman-employing manufacturing industries, the proportions of the
persons employed in the maximum month in the year who were not
on the rolls in the month of lowest employment.91 For all occupations
taken together these percentages were as follows:
Three cities
Women
1928_________
1929 __________
1931_________

10.0
6.1

5.6
5.3

Men
9.1
8.3
' 8.5
11.7

St. Paul
Women
13.9
14.8
7.9
12.0

Minneapolis

Men
5.7
7.5
7.2
8.1

Women
14.8
5.6

8.8

4.1

Men
13.7
14.2
11.5
15.6

Duluth
Women
15.0
12.7

8.6

9.2

Men
15.5

8.6
8.8
10.0

In the case of women, and for the three cities combined, the pro­
portion on the rolls at the maximum who were not on the rolls in the
month of lowest employment was highest in 1928, and higher than that
of men in that year. In each other year this proportion was larger for
men than for women, the highest being in 1931. This gives color to
the theory that women sometimes hold their jobs better than do men.
However, when the different cities or different industries are consid­
ered, another situation sometimes appears. In St. Paul the differ­
ences between high and low employment always were larger—usually
considerably larger—for women than for men. These differences
for men were lower in St. Paul than in either of the other cities. In
Minneapolis the proportion usually was much the larger for men, and
in 3 of the 4 years the figure for men was considerably larger than in
either of the other cities.
The summary next presented shows of the three cities the propor­
tions of men and women employed at the maximum who were not
on the rolls in the month of minimum employment, in manufacturing,
stores, and two chief woman-employing manufacturing groups—
clothing and food. In the case of stores, December is omitted, as it is
too abnormal a peak month for fair comparison.
In spite of the omission of the December peak, stores ordinarily
showed great differences between maximum and minimum employ­
ment of women, and St. Paul stores showed great differences for men.
Larger proportions of women than men were off the books in the
minimum month of employment in every year in each of the cities
but St. Paul, where this was the case only in 1931. The smallest
proportion out of work in stores usually was in Minneapolis, whether
for women or men; the largest usually was in Duluth among the
women, in St. Paul among the men.
91

See footnote, p. 123.




126

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Percentages on the rolls at maximum employment who were not on the rolls at mini­
mum employment
Duluth

Minneapolis

St. Paul

Sex and year

Manu­
Manu­ Cloth­
Manu­
Food Stores1 factur­ Cloth­ Food Stores1
factur­ Cloth­ Food Stores1 factur­ ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
Women:
1928
1929....... .
1930
1931
Men:
1928
1929______
1930
1931..........
1

21.1

18.2
8.4
12.1

7.6

12.6
11.8

8.5

19.8
17.8
18.4
19.5

32.6
18.3
18.0
14.3

23.3
24.3
22.4
19.4

10.9
9.2
9.3

3.1
2.7
8.4
16.5

18.4
19.0
19.4
25.7

21.0

10.4

15.5
15.7
14.3
10.5

30.3
25.8
26.7
14.1

12.4
16.2
13.3
15.8

4.0
3.8
24.5
5.8

9.5
9.7

11.2

11.2

22.0

18.4
23.1

8.2

7.1

20.3
35.5
11.4
18.8
15.1
13.9

22.9
24.1
14.1
21.5

28.1
39.1
26.8
16.3

46.1
29.8
17.7
14.7

27.5
28.7
27.7
36.8

17.7

11.0

26.0
15.1
13.8
9.3

17.3
16.7
15.9
27. 1

8.6

17.1
15.9

5.7
10.5
8.5

December omitted from comparison.

The manufacturing total in St. Paul and Duluth had greater dif­
ferences from high to low employment for women than for men
(except in 1930), and these cities had much greater differences for
women than appear for Minneapolis, in which a larger proportion
of men than of women were off the books in each year. The smallest
proportion of women off the books at the minimum usually was in
Minneapolis, of men usually in St. Paul; the largest proportion of
either sex off the books usually was in Duluth.
The figures for clothing and for food differ strikingly, by sex and
by city. In clothing, in Duluth a larger proportion of women than
men were out of work in the minimum month in every year, but in
Minneapolis and St. Paul—where many more clothing workers were
employed than in Duluth—in 3 of the 4 years a larger proportion of
men than of women were out of work in the month of minimum
employment.
In the food industries in every city in every year a larger propor­
tion of women than men were out of work in the month of minimum
employment. This is all the more interesting since the food industries
vary considerably in the three cities. For Minneapolis approxi­
mately 900 women were employed in the maximum month (in 1929),
only the total for the food industries being given. In St. Paul about
500 women were in the food group at the maximum, two fifths of
them being in meat packing. In Duluth the numbers of women
are smaller and the characteristic food industries considered worth
giving separately in the reports are flour and grain and “dairy and
other food products.” In each city considerably more men than
women were employed in the food industries.
Table 16 following shows for the entire 4-year period 1928-31 the
variation in employment in the manufacturing and sales groups just
discussed for each year. The proportions employed at the maximum
but not employed at the minimum in the 4 years ranged, for women,
from 21.8 percent in Duluth to 25.8 percent in St. Paul and Minne­
apolis, and for men from 23.4 percent in St. Paul to 38.7 percent in
Minneapolis. These proportions off the books were greater for men
than for women both in the totals and in all manufacturing except
in St. Paul and in stores except in Duluth. However, in the two




*

1

Table

*

16.—Percent variation in numbers employed between month of maximum and month of minimum employment in l+-year period, 1928-31 1

Year in
which
maximum
occurred

Number
employed
in month
of mini­
mum 1
2

Percent
minimum
employ­
ment was
below
maximum

Number
employed
in month
of maxi­
mum

Year in
which
maximum
occurred

Number
employed
in month
of mini­
mum 2

Percent
minimum
employ­
ment was
below
maximum

Number
employed
in month
of maxi­
mum

Year in
which
maximum
occurred

Number
employed
in month
of mini­
mum 2

Percent
minimum
employ­
ment was
below
maximum

WOMEN
Total_______________

6,966

Manufacturing................. ......
Clothing..........................
Food............................. .
Department stores and mailorder houses 5

1,601
590
515

1928
1928
1928

2,084

1929

5,171
3

25.8

10, 210

1928

7,572

25.8

2,840

1929

1,228
297
4 347

23.3
49.7
32.6

4, 625
2, 772
903

1928
1928
1929

3,063
1,747
577

33.8
37.0
36.1

806
317
237

1929
1928
1930

1,089

1929

47.7

2,110

1930

1, 343

36.4

587

2,220

21.8

543
181
123

32.6
42.9
48.1

371

36.8

1931

4
3

4

MEN
Total........................... .
Manufacturing................... . - Clothing...........................
Food....... ...................... .
Department stores and mailorder houses 6................ ......




28,577

1928

21,889

23.4

1928

21,192

38.7

9, 493

1928

6,

616

30.3

8,586
518
3,978

1929
1928
1929

7,028
267
6 3, 221

18.1
48.5
19.0

8,

667
771
2,952

1929
1931
1928

5, 595

3, 351
174
1,413

1928
1929
1928

2,

2,141

35.4
42.4
27.5

062
130
970

38.5
25.3
31.4

1,259

1928

554

56.0

2,188

1928

1,107

49.4

156

102

34.6

34,585

6444

1928, 1929

TOTAL, THREE CITIES
Number
employed
in month
of maxi­
mum
19,689
71, 777

Year in
which
maximum
occurred
1928
1928

Number
employed
in month
of mini­
mum 2
15,066
49,697

Number and percent
minimum employ­
ment was below max­
imum
4,623
22,080

FLUCTUATIONS IN TH E EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Number
employed
in month
of maxi­
mum

Industry

Duluth

Minneapolis

St. Paul

23.5
30.8

1 Employment trends in St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Duluth, University of Minnesota, Employment Stabilization Research Institute.
2 In 1931 unless otherwise noted.
3 In 1929.
4 In 1928.
5 December excluded from comparison.
6 In 1930.

fcO

128

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

manufacturing groups most important as woman employers—the
clothing and the food industries—the proportions off the books were
greater for women than for men in all cases except for clothing in
Minneapolis. This is quite striking in view of the variations between
the different localities in the types of industries included in the groups,
especially food.
, The actual numbers employed in Ohio and the three Minnesota
cities so nearly approximate the whole that the decline in these num­
bers from 1928 to 1931 can be examined. This is shown in the table
following for groups of wage earners that can be found as nearly as
possible comparable in Ohio and in the Minnesota cities:
Table 17.—Variation in employment between month of highest and month of lowest

employment in 4-year period, 1928-31, Ohio and three Minnesota cities
Percent difference (from maximum to minimum)
in actual numbers employed in—
Industry
St. Paul

Minneap­
olis

Duluth

Ohio 1

WOMEN
25.8
Manufacturing—.......................... ......................................
Men’s............ .........................................
Women’s____________
Food—____ ____________________________
Department stores and mail-order houses 2.....................

25.8

21.8

23.3
49.7

33.8
37.0

32.6
42.9

32.6
47.7

36.1
36.4

48.1
36.8

27.0
36.8
27.8
32.6
49.1

21.8

MEN
23.4
Men’s____ _______ _ ____________
Women’s___________ _
Food__________________________________ _____
Department stores and mail-order houses 2. _

38.7

30.3

40.7

18.1
48.5

35.4
42.4

38.5
25.3

43.6

19.0
56.0

27.5
49.4

31.4
34.6

18.8
32.2
27.7
24.8

1 In manufacturing, wage earners; in stores and mail-order houses, salespersons not traveling (wholesale
and retail).
2 Month of highest employment excludes December, too abnormal a peak for comparison.

The difference between maximum and minimum in women’s em­
ployment in 1928-31 was greater in stores (December peak omitted)
than in manufacturing in each of the Minnesota cities, but the opposite
was true in Ohio. The manufacturing groups that could be shown
were those of the clothing and food industries. Differences in the
clothing industries were the greater in St. Paul and Minneapolis, in
the food industries in Duluth and in Ohio.
As regards distinction by sex, the differences between liigh and low
were greatest for women in St. Paul, for men in the other Minnesota
eities and in Ohio. In the separate manufacturing groups, except
for clothing in Minneapolis, women’s employment showed more fluc­
tuation than did men’s. In stores (December peak omitted) women’s
employment fluctuated more than men’s in Duluth, differences being
the greater for men in the other cases.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

129

In addition to the industrial classification of the Minnesota data,
an occupational classification is given which yields some information
by sex. The following summary shows for the 4-year period 1928-31
the proportions of men and women off the books in the minimum
month of employment in the various occupational groups in Minneap­
olis, and the same type of information from Ohio, the only other one
of the States under consideration that reported by occupational group­
ings that could be made somewhat comparable with the Minnesota
figures.
Persons out of work
at minimum

Employment at—
Maximum

Occupational group

Number

Year

Mini­
mum i

Percent of
number
Number employed
at maxi­
mum

MINNEAPOLIS
Women:
Clerical —

2,380
647
3,317

1928
1929
1928

1,778
339
3 2,183

602
308
1,134

25.3
47.6
34.2

Clerical------------------------------- ------- ------------

2, 664
2,279
2,742

1928
1928
1928

1,723
1,748
2,087

941
531
655

35.3
23.3
23.9

86, 511
34, 512
123,780

1929
1929
1929

72,739
3 27,003
78,175

13,772
7, 509
45,605

15.9

90,649
36, 251
631,767

1930
1929
1929

73,973
3 27, 260
356,434

16, 676
8, 991
275, 333

18.4
24.8
43.6

OHIO
Women:
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks.
Salespersons not traveling, in trade 2....... ........
Wage earners in manufacturing-----------------Men:
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks----Salespersons not traveling, in trade 2-----------Wage earners in manufacturing------------------

21.8

36.8

f The low point was in 1931 in Minneapolis, and in Ohio except where specified.
2 December omitted from comparison.
3 1928.

The foregoing shows that in the sams group more men than women
were employed, both in Minneapolis and in Ohio. The proportions
not on the rolls at the minimum were larger for women than for men
in Minneapolis, but in Ohio the opposite was the case.
Among the clerical workers in Minneapolis, more women than men
were employed, and both the number and the proportion not on the
rolls in the month of minimum employment were greater among
women than men. In Ohio, more men than women were in the group
of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and both a larger
number and a larger proportion of men than of women were not on
the rolls in the month of minimum employment. Of course, the con­
tent of the groups is likely to have differed considerably in the two
localities.
_
Among the semiskilled workers in Minneapolis, the numbers of
women and of men were similar, but larger numbers and proportions
of men than of women were not on the rolls in the month of minimum
employment. Among the wage earners in manufacturing in Ohio—




130

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

the workers who most nearly correspond to the Minneapolis semi­
skilled—many more men than women were employed at the maximum,
and many more of the former than of the latter were not employed
at the minimum, but the proportion not on the rolls was only about
7 points greater for men than for women.
SUMMARY OF STUDIES OF EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS
AFFECTING WOMEN

Few analyses have been made of data on the employment fluctua­
tions of women applying to the period under consideration in this
report. Three studies of the Women’s Bureau and a presentation of
recent Minnesota figures afford some data.
In the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in 1928 the propor­
tions of the women who were at work at the maximum but not on the
pay rolls in the minimum month of employment ranged from 27.9
percent to 45.5 percent in five cities surveyed. In radio manufactur­
ing in 1929 such proportions ranged from 53.5 percent to 86.3 per­
cent in the various branches of the industry.
In three plants in South Bend, taking September 1929 to represent
employment at 100 and computing relatives at 3-month intervals to
September 1930, the index for women had a range of 21 points in one
plant, about 31 in another, and 69 in the third.
In three cities reported in Minnesota, for all occupations taken
together, the proportions on the rolls in the month of maximum em­
ployment who were not on the rolls in the month of minimum employ­
ment varied in the 4 years from 5.3 percent to 10 percent for women,
and from 8.3 percent to 11.7 percent for men. While these differences
were greater for men than for women, the proportion of women off
the books at the minimum was larger than that of men in every year
in St. Paul, but (excepting 1928) the proportion was the higher for men
in Minneapolis. Even though the December employment peak in
stores be omitted from consideration, larger proportions of the women
in stores than of those in manufacturing were off the books in the
month of minimum employment in every city-in every year, and the
same was true of men in every year in St. Paul, and in 2 years each in
Minneapolis and Duluth.
In the entire 4-year period in each city the difference between the
maximum and minimum employment of women was greater in stores
(December peak omitted) than in manufacturing. Women’s employ­
ment showed greater fluctuation than men’s in the food industries in
each of the three cities, and in clothing except in Minneapolis.
Occupational figures for the sales group in stores and for a clerical
group were given by sex for Minneapolis and for Ohio, in each case
for 1928-31. Omitting December in the sales group, in Minneapolis
the differences between maximum and minimum employment were
greater for women than for men in the series of years taken, though
the opposite is true for Ohio. In the clerical group taken there were
larger differences for women than for men between maximum and
minimum employment in Minneapolis, but in Ohio the differences
were larger for men. Of course the content of the two groups is likely
to have differed considerably in the two localities.




FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

131

DATA FROM THREE STATES IN REGARD TO WOMANEMPLOYING INDUSTRIES NOT REPORTED BY SEX

Some consideration should be given here to the showing of employ­
ment indexes for the chief woman-employing industries in three
important industrial States that have reported such figures, although
these data are not as yet reported by sex. It is to be hoped that these
indexes eventually will be made available separately for women and
men. The States in question are Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and
Wisconsin.92 Table XII in appendix A shows certain of the basic
material used from these States and census data indicating the relative
importance as woman employers in the State of the industries dis­
cussed. Table 18 in the text gives the percent decline from November
1929 to November 1931 in the employment indexes for selected indus­
tries in each of the three States. November was chosen as a workable
month, since it was the last month given in the Massachusetts special
report, in which the data were so arranged as to be handled conven­
iently. The same month was taken for the other States to afford a
practical basis of comparison. November ordinarily is a month fairly
representative of autumn industrial activity, and in 1929 it came before
the depression had had a severe effect upon employment.
Naturally the comparison based on a single month does not give
the entire picture of employment fluctuation in the 4 years, but it is of
value in indicating differences in the same month of different years,
especially since other indexes have given evidence of the general
employment decline over this period. Furthermore, it is a striking
fact that the percent of decline from the index of November 1929 to
that of November 1931 is similar in the three States—about 30
percent in each, somewhat less than the others in Pennsylvania.
The decline in every comparable industrial group had been greatest
in Massachusetts—sometimes considerably greater than in the other
States—except that in hosiery and knit wear and in the metal groups
employment had declined more in Wisconsin than in either of the other
States, and in confectionery employment had increased considerably
in Massachusetts while it had declined in Pennsylvania. This was the
single instance of increased employment in an industry in the three
States.
Employment had declined over 10 percent in every industry in
each of the three States, with the exception of the one increase noted
above and of four Pennsylvania industries, the range of the declines
being from 11 percent to 45.7 percent in Massachusetts, from 2.5
percent to 32 percent in Pennsylvania, and from 10.2 percent to 44.7
percent in Wisconsin. The smallest decline was in Pennsylvania in
92 Sources of data: Massachusetts Department of Labor and Industries. Monthly mimeographed
reports on employment and a special report entitled “An Investigation of the Causes of Existing Unemploy­
ment, January 1931.’' Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry. Labor and Industry. Issued
monthly. Wisconsin Industrial Commission. Wisconsin Labor Market. Issued monthly. Three
other important industrial States—California, Michigan, and New Jersey—issued monthly reports on
employment changes, but not by sex. These are in a form similar to that used by Illinois—percent em­
ployment changes from month to month rather than indexes such as those of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania,
and Wisconsin—and since this form is so much more difficult to handle accurately it was not undertaken
where figures were not available by sex. For a full analysis of the Pennsylvania figures, showing in detail
the construction of the index used and comparing employment fluctuations with other economic and
business indicators, see Dewhurst, J. Frederic, Employment Fluctuations in Pennsylvania, 1921 to 1927.
In Michigan an employment index is prepared by the Bureau of Business Research of the State Univer­
sity. Maryland, Oklahoma, and Rhode Island report some employment data, not by sex, but these are
not among the larger woman-employing States, all employing fewer women than Iowa, for which data
regarding women have not been analyzed. See p. 49.




132

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

every industry that could be compared with that in another State,
except hosiery and knit wear and confectionery, in which declines were
greater in Pennsylvania than in Massachusetts.
The industries in which the decline in employment was greatest in
Massachusetts were men’s clothing and boots and shoes; in Penn­
sylvania and Wisconsin the metal group, with one of the textile
industries second in each case—woolen and worsted in Pennsylvania
and hosiery and knit wear in Wisconsin. Cotton goods showed a
relatively large employment decline in Massachusetts and Pennsyl­
vania, as did foundries and machine shops and woolens and silk goods
in Massachusetts, electrical machinery in Massachusetts and Penn­
sylvania, and shoe manufacture in Wisconsin.
The least employment decline in Massachusetts was in hosiery and
knit wear (bearing in mind that in confectionery there was an increase),
in Pennsylvania in cigars and tobacco,93 and in Wisconsin in printing
and publishing. The industry last named also showed a small decline
relative to the other industries in Massachusetts and Pennsylvania,
as did paper and wood pulp in Massachusetts, shoes and confectionery
in Pennsylvania, and clothing in Wisconsin.
18.—Percent decline from November 1929 to November 1981 in indexes of
employment in chief woman-employing industries in certain important industrial
States not reporting employment data by sex

Table

Massachusetts

Industry

Pennsylvania 2

1

Percent
decline
November
1929 to
November
1931

All industries----Textiles:
Woolen and worsted
goods.
Hosiery and knit
goods.
Clothing industries:
Men's clothing____
Boots and shoes. ----Printing and publishmg.
Paper and wood pulp...
Food, confectionery___
Rubber footwear ___
Electrical machinery,
apparatus, and sup­
plies.
Foundry and machine
shops.

30.6
43.7
36.1
34.1

11.0

45.7
23.4
44.8
15.6
20.4
« 24.7
22.7
35.3
36.7

Industry

All

Wisconsin 3

Percent
decline
November
1929 to
November
1931

manufac-

24.8

Textile products____

14.8
20. 2
30.8

Woolen and worsted goods.
Hosiery
Knit goods, other.

13.9
13.9
16.0

Paper and printing...

5.4
5.8

Electrical apparatus,
machinery,
and
supplies.6
Metal products..........
Cigars and tobacco.._
Chemical products...

7.7
29.8

Industry

All

Percent
decline
November
1929 to
November
1931

manufac-

30.8

Textiles *____ ____

18.2

Hosiery and other
knit goods.

19.5

Printing and publishing.

18. 5

10.2

Food industries

16.6
16.8

Metal____ ________

44.7

32.0
2.5

20.1

1 Massachusetts Department of Labor and Industries. Special report of an investigation as to the
causes of existing unemployment. January 1931. Indexes based on average for 1925, 1926, and 1927.
2 Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry. Labor and Industry. Monthly issues. Indexes
based on average for 1923-25.
3 Wisconsin Industrial Commission. Wisconsin Labor Market. Monthly issues. Indexes based on
average for 1925, 1926, 1927, except 1928 indexes which were based on January 1922.
4 Clothing included under textiles.
® Increase.
fl Reported under metal products.
93 This is of especial interest in view of the fact that the declines in this industry had been so considerable
in Ohio and New York. See statement in this connection pp. 87 and 109. Although according to these offi­
cial Pennsylvania figures, employment in Pennsylvania had declined from November 1929 to March 1931,
production in this industry had doubled from 1926 to 1930 in the Philadelphia area. (See Women’s Bureau
Bulletin 100, p. 15.)




133

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

COMPARISON OF EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AFFECT­
ING WOMEN IN VARIOUS INDUSTRIES IN FOUR STATES

Owing to the differences in relative importance of the various
employment groups, in occupational classification, in type of reporting,
and, consequently, in the statistical basis of the material used, it is
not possible to make exact and complete comparisons of the situation
in the four States whose reports on woman employment have been
analyzed. However, a few of the more striking facts with relation
to how certain industries compare with others in the extent of
fluctuation in woman employment may be commented upon.
Census data for 1930 show that in the three States of Illinois, New
York, and Ohio from about 17 percent to about 21 percent of the
employed women were in manufacturing industries, in Minnesota
about 10 percent. (See table 19.) In the four States from one fourth
to three tenths of the women were in domestic and personal service,
roughly one tenth were in trade, and from one fifth to over one fourth
were in clerical pursuits.
Reports in the four States all include women in manufacturing.
Those of New York cover no others, but the remaining three States
all report for trade. In addition to this, women in certain service
employments are reported in Illinois and Ohio—much more inclusive
in Ohio—in clerical pursuits in Ohio and for the city of Minneapolis,
and in the telegraph and telephone industry in Ohio and in the
telephone industry in Illinois and Minneapolis. Table 19 shows the
proportions the industry groups reported formed of all employed
women as reported by the census of 1930.
Table

19.—Occupational distribution of women in four States1
Percent of all women reported in—

Industry
Illinois
All occupations___ _
Manufacturing and mechanical industries
Clothing industries. _ _
Metal and machinery 2.
Iron and steel,
machinery and
vehicle industries.
Metal industries
(except iron and
steel)__________
Electrical machinery and supply
factories ______
Food and allied industries............................
Paper, printing, and
allied industries.......
Shoe factories________
Trade_ ____ __________
_
Saleswomen_________
Domestic and personal
service_______________
Hotels and restaurants3
Laundering, cleaning,
and dyeing 4_
___
Telephone operators. _ ...
Clerical occupations_____

Ohio

100.0

17.5

New York

100.0
100.0
20.0

16.9

18.9
100.0

100.0
100.0

15.6
17.2

21.1

51.6

27.1

17.0

47.3

5.6

31.4

55.2
26.9

3.1
26.6

100.0
20.1

7.3

11.3

4.7

61.8
29.3

100.0

17.1
2.7
21.4

2.9

5.4

100.0

63.3
24.3

33.5

12.4
12.8

3.4
100.0

100.0
20.0

17.5
i

6.2
100.0

10.2
100.0

49.0

4.0

6.0

10.5

100.0
100.0

35. 5
4.6

100.0

25.6

9.8

Minnesota

8.3

4 0
3.8

6.3
2.1
100.0

10.6

100.0

30.8

100.0
21.0

56.3
26.6

100.0

13.5
3.2
26.3

5.8

59.0

2.7
20.4

5.2

U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Occupation Statistics.
Not possible to get as a census group. Figures used are totals of the 3 groups shown.
Housekeepers and stewards, cooks, waiters, other servants.
Laborers and other operatives in cleaning, dyeing, and pressing shops, and laborers and other operatives
in laundries.
1
2
3
4

179570°—33--------10




20.—Industries showing greatest and least fluctuations in employment in each of

4

years in three States

134

Table

Points of difference between high and low index of employment within the year for
Men

State and year
Greatest

Least

Industry or occupation

Points of
difference

1928 Confectionery................ .
1929______ ----- do

52
49

1930
Women’s clothing..___
1931______

69
57

Industry or occupation

Greatest
Points of
difference

Industry or occupation

Least
Points of
difference

Industry or occupation

Points of
difference

Illinois:1

New York:2
1928

Machinery and electrical
apparatus.
1929
Women’s clothing
1930______ ___ do_____ __________
Candy
1931

Ohio:3
1928

Radios and parts........... .

1929______ _ do
_
1930
Radios and parts; food and
food products.
1931

Food and kindred products.

44
47
49
62

114
164
62
67

Telephone
Men’s clothing; telephone..

Printing and bookmaking;
paper boxes and tubes.
Printing and paper goods..
Laundering and cleaning. _.
ing and cleaning; bakery
products.
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks.

9

37
27

8
10

47
35

8

8

36

4

47
44
43

6

7

168
84

7

55

Paper boxes, bags, and
tubes.
Bakeries; woolens, carpets,
and felts.
Printing and paper goods..

Bookkeepers, stenogra­
phers, and office clerks;
printing and publishing;
wage earners in stores.
Wage earners in stores

1 Index numbers based on June 1928.
» Excludes canning and preserving, because of extreme fluctuations, and because these fluctuations were much greater than was the case in this industry in any other State
industry second in fluctuation in New York is presented here. Indexes based on June 1923.
• Index numbers based on average for 1928.




6

131

4
Bookkeepers, stenogra­
phers. and office clerks;
all wage earners.

6
6

Watches and jewelry;
hotels and restaurants.

*

4

3

The

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Women

FLUCTUATIONS IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

135

Table 20 shows the industries in which variation of employment was
greatest and was least within each year in Illinois, New York, and
Ohio. The greatest differences between the high and low employment
for women in any 1 year were in candy, confectionery, or women’s
clothing in New York and Illinois, except that in New York in 1928
the greatest was in machinery and electrical apparatus; in Ohio they
were in the radio industry in 3 years and in the food group in 1931,
and the variation was the same for the food group as for radios and
parts in 1930.
Table 21 shows for both men and women the points of difference
in the employment indexes in various industries over the 4-year
period 1928-31 in New York, Ohio, and Illinois.1 2 3 * * * 7 * * io * 12 13
Table 21.—Difference between month of highest employment and month of lowest

employment in 4-year period 1928—31 for Illinois, New York, and Ohio in selected
industries included in study
Points of difference in index of
employment
Industry
New York 23

Illinois 1

Ohio 4

5

WOMEN
45
41
42
90

33
30
30
53
56

94

97

76
49
65
60

32
37
31
68

42

TO

32
35
56
76
78
22
57
34
58

22

31
23

36

MEN
43
28
31
47

32
31
37
52
44

72

48
18
19

42
32
57
47

56

34

23

22

1 Index numbers based on June 1928.
2 Index numbers based on June 1923.
3 Shop workers only.
* Index numbers based on average for 1928.
6 Wage earners, except the store group, who were sales persons,
# Clothing included in textiles.
7 Electrical apparatus in Illinois.
...
.
» Job printing in Illinois; printing and publishing in Ohio,
® Paper boxes and tubes in New York.
io Boots, shoes, and findings in Ohio, shoes in New York,
n Salespersons in stores, wholesale and retail.
12 Not reported before July 1928.
13 Telephone and telegraph and messenger service m Ohio.




21

49
21

34
62
56
35
16
13
37
35
24
33

136

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

If the manufacturing total and the chief woman-employing groups
outside manufacturing be considered over the 4-year period, the great­
est difference between high and low point in employment for both
sexes is found among salespeople in stores, both in Illinois and in
Ohio. In Illinois the least fluctuation was among telephone employees,
in Ohio in the service group.
Among the various manufacturing industries the greatest employ­
ment fluctuation for women in the 4-year period was in electrical
machinery, apparatus, and supplies, both in Illinois and New York;
this industry came second in Ohio, with variation somewhat greater
in the food group. In Illinois women’s clothing came second, then
job printing; in New York boots and shoes came second, then the
metal and machinery group, followed closely by women’s clothing.
In Illinois and New York the employment of women varied least
in the clothing and millinery group, or in one of the clothing indus­
tries; it varied considerably less in men’s than in women’s clothing.
In Ohio the least variation was in the printing and paper group, with
men’s clothing second.
Reports for Ohio and the Minnesota cities so nearly approximate
total employment that the actual variation from 1928 to 1931 in the
numbers reported is of some significance. This may be seen for the
main industry groups in table 17, page 128. Total declines for women
in the 4 years ranged from 21.8 to 27 percent. In two cases they were
greatest in the clotliing industries, in the other two in the food indus­
tries. Some data by occupations are afforded by the Ohio and Minne­
apolis studies. (See p. 129.) In each case smaller proportions for the
clerical than for the sales group of those employed at date of maxi­
mum employment were not on the rolls in 1931. In both these groups
smaller proportions employed in Ohio than in Minneapolis were not
on the rolls in 1931 (except for men in sales).
Variations in woman employment in the period under discussion
were very considerable in almost every industry and group for which
rough comparisons could be made among the four States. However,
the data presented in the foregoing, whether given on the basis of
points of variation in the employment index or of percentage differ­
ence between maximum and minimum numbers employed, showed
a marked similarity in the position taken by certain industries or
groups in their relation to other industries or groups, and in the extent
of these variations, regardless of the State or city under consideration.
This illustrates the fact that great fluctuations in woman employ­
ment are more common in some industries than in others, and that
some either have regularized employment more effectively than have
others or have had less serious problems of regularization due to the
character of the industry.
The differences between high and low in the 4-year period were
greater for women than for men—often considerably greater—in 18
of the 26 Ohio groups, in all but 1 of those in Illinois, in 12 of 23 in
New York, in the Minnesota cities in the totals and in all manufac­
turing except in St. Paul, and in stores except in Duluth.




Part V.—DATA PUBLISHED BY STATES ON ACTIVI­
TIES OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES AS
THEY APPLY TO WOMEN, 1928-31
Public employment agencies well may be thought of as a source of
information upon what has happened to women as employees in a
period of economic readjustment. In certain countries in which the
administration of some system of social insurance is closely connected
with the public authority for job placement much can be learned
along this line from the records resulting.
But in the American States no such systems have existed in corre­
lation with the methods of occupational placement, and an examina­
tion of the reports issued by the various States concerning the activi­
ties of their public employment offices shows the great diversity found
when the practices of 48 Commonwealths are traced with regard to
any single subject. In this country so few public employment offices
have existed in relation to the need of placing workers, and conse­
quently the use of these has been so limited as to afford only a minor
source of employment information for any group of workers or em­
ployers. However, it has been demonstrated that the relation of
demand for workers to applicants for jobs is of considerable value in
showing the trend of the labor market.1
VARIATIONS AMONG THE STATES IN PUBLIC
EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

The variations among the States in existence of such agencies,_ in
method of their establishment, in type or extent of State supervision
or control, in fundamental organization, and in method of administra­
tion, are manifold. At the beginning of 1931, 17 States had no laws
establishing State employment offices, and 8 States that had such
laws had not put offices into operation.1 Of those that are in exist­
2
ence, some are administered by a superintendent or director, some are
assigned to bureaus having other duties, some are assigned to a mem­
ber of the State industrial commission, some have no central direction
(though receiving State money), some are supervised directly by the
office of the commissioner of labor.3
More than this, the records kept, if any, and the manner of report­
ing these, vary widely even with well-established offices. As stated
by Dr. Bryce M. Stewart of the Industrial Relations Counselors, Inc.,
at the conference of governors of seven eastern States on unemploy­
ment and other interstate industrial problems held at Albany in
January 1931—
As far as the public employment offices are concerned there are nearly
as many statistical procedures as there are offices and State services.4
1 By William A. Berridge with the assistance of Woodlief Thomas. For description of methods used,
see Federal Reserve Bulletin, February 1924. p. 83fE. Dr. Berridge’s index combined the data for several
States, correcting for seasonal variation, industrial importance of the State, and other variables. See also
footnote 27 on p. 149.
2 The American Labor Legislation Review. March 1931, p. 94.
a United States Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly Labor Review, January 1931, pp. 20-21.
* Proceedings of Conference on Unemployment and Other Interstate Industrial Problems, Albany, N.Y.,
January 1931, p. 29.
lo7




138

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

The varied types of differences found from office to office and State
to State have been summarized weli in an articie in the Federal
Reserve Bulletin of February 1924, describing the methods used by
William A. Berridge and Woodlief Thomas in preparing from such
data, taken from several States, an index of the labor market. The
statement is as follows:
The statistical data available vary widely from State to State in many respects.
Most of the statistics are collected weekly, and monthly figures usually represent
the sum of 4 or 5 weeks. This practice makes possible comparison between
different items for the same month, but makes difficult comparison with other
months or with data from other States using different periods. In some offices
records are kept more accurately or more completely than in others, and recourse
to the bureaus by both employers and employees is more common in some local­
ities, hence the statistics provided by the different offices vary as to comprehen­
siveness. Furthermore, such a variety of definitions of terminology exists that
the various items are frequently not at all comparable as between different States.
For example, in certain States an applicant for a position is listed every time he
inquires at the office, although he may inquire every day in the week before he
is given a position, whereas in other States he is registered only once during the
period. There are similar diversities in the recording of employers’ applications
for workers. Moreover, definitions have from time to time been changed in
some States, thereby interrupting the continuity of the series. Variation is found
also in geographical and occupational representation. Certain States have
offices only in the largest cities or industrial communities, whereas in others they
are more widely distributed. Generally many lines of work are covered by the
operations of the offices—manufacturing, clerical, building, domestic, agricultural,
and others; but it is nevertheless true that in many offices the greater part of the
applications are confined to a limited number of job classifications. This may
be due to the local importance of certain industries in some instances but not in
all. Not infrequently an office has been established with the view of catering
almost exclusively to one class of work, such as domestic or professional or
commercial service.

In 1929 the International Association of Public Employment
Services requested the Committee on Governmental Labor Statistics
of the American Statistical Association to undertake a study of the
statistics of public employment offices in order that a better and more
uniform system of reporting such data from the various States might
be developed. This involved examination of the methods established
in certain important European countries with long experience along
these lines, as well as in Canada and the States of the United States
operating employment services. The plan suggested for the United
States by the report5 was based on a daily record of transactions in
each office and central compilation of statistics from this record in
State or Federal bureaus of labor statistics. It also suggested that
the actual numbers of openings and applicants available on a given
date should be given in addition to statistics on the volume of trans­
actions over a given period, as is now the practice.
GROWTH OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES IN THE
UNITED STATES

In the United States public employment agencies generally have
developed from a beginning in local offices, chiefly municipal, though
in some instances initiative appears to have been taken first by the
State. Their history goes back over 60 years, and that of State initia­
tive in their connection over 40 years. The first free employment
agency seems to have been established in San Francisco in 1868, fol5Stewart, Annabel M. and Bryce M. Statistical Procedure of Public Employment Offices, Russell
Sage Foundation. 1933. cb. XVI, p. 267ff.




ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

139

lowed by one in New York City in 1869.6 An Ohio act of 1890
drafted and sponsored by the Municipal Labor Congress of Cincin­
nati constitutes the first service under State authority, though it pro­
vided that the salaries of the superintendents and clerks employed
should be paid by the city in which offices were established.7 Early
agencies under municipal control were those established during depres­
sion years in Los Angeles in 1893, and in Seattle, Wash., in 1894;
these were followed by offices in Detroit in 1895 and Superior, Wis.,
in 1899.8 9
'
The lead taken for the States by Ohio was followed by Iowa in 1892
on the “mail-order” basis, and by New York in 1896, in an act
repealed 10 years later.8 9 Offices were established in Kansas and
West Virginia in 1901.8 Acts giving the commissioner of labor
authority to provide for public employment offices were passed by
Illinois, Missouri, and Nebraska before 1900, and by Connecticut,
Wisconsin, Michigan, Minnesota, Colorado, Oklahoma, Rhode Island,
and Indiana before 1910.9 New York, whose earlier legislation had
been repealed, passed such an act in 1914.9 In 1904, a western asso­
ciation of free employment bureaus was formed by tbe commissioners
of labor of Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Oklahoma,
and South Dakota, to secure better distribution of farm labor during
harvest.8 Massachusetts established its first agency in 1906 in Bos­
ton, and it has differed from most other States in not soliciting local
financial support in the maintenance of its offices.10 * By 1900, 6
*
States had 13 offices; by 1910, 19 States had 61 offices; by 1916 there
were 96 public employment offices in this country; and by 1928, 35
States and the District of Columbia had 170 offices.6 8
PUBLIC-EMPLOYMENT DATA CONSIDERED IN THIS REPORT

For the purposes of the present study, some showing may be made
as to States that have reported data by sex from their public-employ­
ment services in the 4 years 1928-31 and the type of such information
reported; and some analysis may be made of the direction of the
stream of applications and of available jobs in the years covered,
always remembering, however, a fact that will be more fully discussed
later—that, on account of repetitions in applications and placements,
their numbers ordinarily do not represent occurrences in respect to
individuals. No consideration of the administrative set-up and type
of placement organization in the various States can be undertaken
here, nor can account be given of the many local factors that have
affected reporting from time to time.11 The material dealt with is
6 Proceedings of the Conference on Unemployment and Other Interstate Industrial Problems, Albany
N.Y., January 1931. Address of Bryce M. Stewart, p. 23.
7 Ibid., and Monthly Labor Review, January 1931, p. 11.
s Stewart, Annabel M. and Bryce M. Statistical Procedure of Public Employment Offices, Russell Sage
Foundation, 1933, pp. 215-216.
» Preliminary Report of Joint Legislative Committee on Unemployment, New York State. Feb. 15,
1932, p. 136.
10 Massachusetts. Preliminary Report of the Special Commission on the Stabilization of Employment,
December 1931, pp. 19 and 20.
n Examples representative of the manifold local details that may affect employment-office figures at
some time are given in the following. In Illinois there was a noticeable increase in applications in October
1930. It was stated that this was in part affected by a local unemployment census at which time persons
registered were referred to the free employment office in Chicago. Their applications continued through
December and to some extent may have done so in January. Available jobs also may have been increased
at this time, since employers were urged to cooperate. Another instance may be cited from Pennsylvania,
where greatly increased applications in 1932—a year later than the coverage of the present report—were
attributed to a considerable extent to a greater publicity urging those out of jobs to use the office in
Philadelphia.




140

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

only such as is available from official State publications, usually those
printed or mimeographed, and in a very few cases the State furnished
additional unpublished data from its files. It does not include sepa­
rate data from the few new offices now devoting attention to the
preparation of more accurate statistics, except where these are incor­
porated into State reports, or where special mention is made of such
inclusion.
STATE REPORTS CLASSIFYING DATA BY SEX IN THE PERIOD
1928 TO 1931

The period for which State reports have been examined includes
the 4 years 1928 to 1931. States are listed in appendix C (p. 221)
according to type and contents of reports. In all, 23 States had
published some information on the activities of their State public
employment agencies within this time.12 In one of these (New
Hampshire) none of the data reported were by sex, and in another
(Oklahoma) they were not by sex before 1931; a third (Missouri) had
issued no report since 1928.
In most cases the data comprised registrations or applications for
jobs, help wanted, persons referred, and those placed. One of the
States (California) gave no report on applications or registrations.
(See appendix table XIII.)
Seven of the remaining. 19 States (New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois,
Ohio, Massachusetts, Michigan, and New Jersey) are among the 9
largest woman employers in the United States, based on number of
gainfully employed women as reported in the census of 1930; 4 others
(North Carolina, Indiana, Wisconsin, and Minnesota) employ con­
siderable numbers of women. The other 8 are not among the largest
woman employers, and consequently their reports cover only relatively
small numbers of women,13 although three of them (Virginia, Con­
necticut, and Iowa) are within the first half of the States when ranked
as to woman employment, and another (Rhode Island) though a
small State has well over two fifths of its employed women in
manufacturing.
Seven of the 11 States cited in the foregoing paragraph as among
the more important woman employers—that is, all but Indiana,
Michigan, Massachusetts, and North Carolina—have reported appli­
cations, help wanted, and placements monthly by sex and occupation
through the 4-year period covered by this report.14
Considering the foregoing primarily from the view of the importance
of the States in woman employment, the types of data they furnish
are as follows:
Among the first half of the States ranked according to the United
States census, 8 have issued no reports within the period of study, 1
has not included applications in its reports, and 1 reported for 1928
only. For 10 of the remaining 14 ranking in the first half of the
States, reports giving monthly figures are available, and for the other
4 States annual or biennial figures are given, though 1 gives monthly
figures in its annual report. These 14 and the 1 additional State,
which though small has a large proportion of its employed women
That fc, reports of the State; this takes no account of the additional States that reported some activities
of offices to the United States Employment Service, of reports of private agencies, separate city reports,
nor of Colorado State reports based on the activities of private agencies alone.
“ Arkansas, Connecticut, Iowa, Kansas, Nevada, Rhode Island, Virginia, and West Virginia,
14 Monthly and occupational data for Massachusetts, though recorded in the State office by month and
occupation for each sex, are published by sex only for the year’s totals and not by occupation.




141

ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

in manufacturing occupations (Rhode Island), will be considered as
follows (in order of importance as woman employers): New York,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Michigan,
North Carolina, Indiana, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Virginia, Connec­
ticut, Iowa, and Rhode Island. The types of data reported by sex
in these States are shown in the summary following.
Data reported by sex in latest reports of 15 States, 1928-311

State

Applications or registra­
Places open or help
Placements
tions
wanted, etc.
Rank of
State in
census as
Industry
Industry
Industry
woman
employer Year Month or occu­ Year Month or occu­ Year Month or occu­
only
only
only
pation
pation
pation
1
2

3
5

6
8

9

12

14
16
18

21
22

Rhode Island,.

23
32

X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X

X

X
X
2 X
X
X
2 X

X
X
X
X
X
X

X

X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X

X

X
X
2 X
X
X
2 X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
2 X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

2

X
X

X
X
X

1 Others in the first half of the States ranked according to woman employment are accounted for as follows
(figure after State indicates rank of State in woman employment): No report of applications, California
(4); report only for 1928, Missouri (11); no reports, Texas (7), Georgia (10), Alabama (13), Mississippi (15),
South Carolina (17), Tennessee (19), Louisiana (20), Maryland (24).
2 Monthly figures given in annual report.

TERMINOLOGY USED IN STATE REPORTS AND CHARACTER OF
THEIR STATISTICS

From an examination of the State reports of the activities of public
employment offices the diversity in their terminology is immediately
apparent.15 Table 22 gives the terms used in designating the types
of information ordinarily made public by the 22 States that have
issued some reports by sex.
In attempting an interpretation of the figures from the States, it
must be remembered that what they actually show is the volume of
office activity within a given period, with some general indication of
the direction of the movements of labor supply and demand. They
do not show the exact number of separate individuals that have
sought employment through the agency nor the exact number of
separate jobs open. In some places the custom is to count an indi­
vidual every time he or she comes into the office. It is important to
note that even where several States or offices use exactly the same
terminology the meaning may be entirely different. For example,
the term “registrations” as used in some cases may be similar to
“applications” used elsewhere—either word may mean persons newly
applying according to the form required, or it may comprise both
new registrants and renewals, or it may refer to all persons who14
14 For some analysis of the content of these statistics, see Stewart and Stewart, op. cit. p. 22211. and pp.
248-264.




Arkansas__
California...
Connecticut

4*

Illinois........ .
Indiana--------Iowa________
Kansas______
Massachusetts.

Applications
Registrations.
Applications
ment.

Help wanted

Referred

Help wanted
for employ­

Registrations______
-----do-----------------Registration for jobs.
Registered________
Registrations______

Applications
help.

Referred.
for

Applications.

Minnesota.
Missouri. ..

Registrations____________
Number of applications for
employment.

Nevada.

Number of persons applying
for work.

New Jersey___
New York........
North Carolina.
Ohio_________

Registrations........................ .
-----do----------------------------___ do___________________
Total number of applicants
(new registrations separate
after June 1930).
Registered______ ____ ____ ___ do__________ -----do................... .
Persons applying................... Persons asked for. Persons sent to
positions.
Registrations or new regis- Help wanted,
Referred
trations (used interchange­
ably).
Attendance_________________ _____
Registrationsdo
Persons referred...
___ do................................... .......... do
Referred
Persons applying (called ----- do--------Persons referred to
new registrations in 1930 |
positions.
and 1931 in annual reports).

Rhode Island .

Virginia....... .
West Virginia.
Wisconsin_
_

1
2

Reported placed..
Placements_____
Situations secured.

Situations secured to applications for employment.
Employees furnished to applicants for help. Both
by sex for each month.
Ratio of persons registered to every 100 positions open.

Placed
Percent of applicants placed.
Persons receiving po­ Percent of openings filled.
sitions.
Placed.......................... Percent of persons referred placed.
Positions filled
Placed
Persons placed in posi­ Number registered per 100 places open (by month).
tions.

Terminology used in 1931 or nearest available annual or monthly report.
The States listed here are those that have issued some reports by sex in the period 1928 to 1931. See footnote 12, p. 140.




Ratios (usually not by sex)

Help wanted____ Referred
Placed______ ______•
Calls___________ -----do.................... -----do______ ______ _
Jobs offered
Number referred.. Number placed
Help wanted____ Referred
Placed
Persons called for Persons referred to Positions reported
by employers.
positions.
filled (include dup­
lications).
Help wanted.
Referred
Placements
Percent placements of total applications.
Percent placements of total referred.
___do______ ,___
.do.
Verified placements.. _
Positions offered
Number of applicants
by employers.
put to work.
Number of places filled.
Number of places un­
filled.
Number of persons
Number of persons re­
requested by em­
ported placed.
ployers.
Help wanted____ Referred.
Reported placed____ Number of placements per each 100 registrations.
___ do__________
..do...
Placed......... ......... ...... Number of workers registered for each 100 places open.
—do...
Reported placed____
-----do................... .
..do...
----- do.......................

Michigan..

Oklahoma___
Pennsylvania..

Placed

2

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

State

142

Table 22.—Terminology1 of reports of State public employment offices

ACTIVITIES OP PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

143

called at the office within a given period, regardless of number of
times some individuals may have appeared. In regard to these great
variations in terminology, a further example is afforded by the follow­
ing quotation from a comprehensive study of public employment
offices made several years ago by the Russell Sage Foundation:"
What is a renewal? The question has confused and embroiled employment
workers for years. When a man applies for work several times before getting it,
how shall we record his applications and show them in our statistics? The
practice of those offices which still refuse to record by registration or otherwise
the requests of applicants whom they cannot place oh the spot cannot be con­
sidered a basis for general statistics in any case.
There have been some two dozen methods, many of wrhich vary only in details
and in definitions of terms. It would not profit us to go into all of them.
According to one method a single registration is valid for 1 week (or 2
weeks, or a month, or other definite period), and further appearances at office
on the part of the applicant are not recorded within the period unless he shall
have been placed. After the period elapses or after he has been placed, the first
subsequent application is recorded as a new registration.
According to another method a registration is the filling out of a card; all
subsequent applications for work (only one application being noted for the same
day) are “renewals” of that registration; unless the registration has been allowed
to lapse for 2 (or 1, or 3, or 10) calendar years without renewal, in which case
a new card is necessary, and then it is recorded as an entirely new application
or registration.
The elements of these typical methods have been combined in almost every
conceivable way * * *18

A more recent statement testifying to the fact that duplications in
applications cannot be eliminated is contained in correspondence
received by the Women’s Bureau in connection with the present
report, from a research official of one of the newer offices that is
attempting to organize its reporting in a more definite manner:
It is almost impossible to estimate the margin of error in the applicants’
figures. The recently accepted practice is to differentiate new applicants from
reapplicants and renewals or re-registrants. In the year 1932, for example, this
office had over three times as many reapplications "as new applications. But,
unless there is a master file between local offices and departments, there is apt
to be much duplication even among new applications. It is my impression that
only a few employment offices in the country have an accurate count of indi­
viduals seeking jobs for the first time. Certain junior employment offices and
the Rochester Employment Center have practically eliminated the duplication
of registrants for any reason.

The study of employment offices made by Annabel M. and Bryce
M. Stewart makes some analysis of the content of statistics issued
by different States on applications for employment.16
17
Even where a definite period is counted as one registration, and
additional visits to the office within that time are considered as
renewals, the same individual still may be counted more than once,
since he or she may be placed temporarily and, at the termination
of the work, apply to the office for another job and be counted again.
Similar duplications are likely to occur in recording the positions open
within a given period, as well as the placements, especially where
turnover is high.
Methods of following the candidate to insure that the referral
resulted in placement vary in different offices, some having no very
16 Public Employment Offices, by Shelby M. Harrison and associates. New York, 1924
Part Three
Methods of Organizing and Performing the Placement and Administrative Functions of a Local Office,
ch. XXVI. Employment Office Reports and Employment Statistics, by Leslie E. Woodcock, pp. 48448o, 486-487.
_
Stewart, Annabel M. and Bryce M. Statistical Procedure of Public Employment Offices, Russell
Sage Foundation, 1933, p. 222ff. and pp. 248-264.




144

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

adequate system of assuring that the worker actually was engaged.
Though placement actually is made in a job described as for a con­
siderable duration of time, the worker may remain only a day or a
week, leaving of his own accord, and may reappear seeking another
job, or the employer may dispense with his services and request a
more satisfactory person. A subsequent filling of that job counts
as another placement, and the demand therefor as an additional
number in the help-wanted column.
Some States report the ratio of applications to jobs open or of
placements to applications. Though in these States such data
scarcely can be used for determining with exactitude situations as to
individuals or as to particular occupations, they do give some indica­
tion of the movement of the labor market.18 Certain of the officials
of agencies in these States are quick to call attention to this fact and
to warn against an overstraining of the interpretation of the figures.
It cannot be emphasized too frequently that while the available
data may show more or less accurately the flow of work through the
office, and can form some basis for indication of the direction taken
in supply and demand in the labor market, yet they tell nothing
definite so far as concerns 'positions open or individual applicants and
(except in a few States that report new registrations during a given
period) they are indefinite as to pfacements since placements in tem­
porary employment (one or more days) and in employment of consid­
erable duration are not separated.19 Of course, this fact is especially
disappointing to persons expecting that employment-agency data may
afford exact information as to individual occupational problems, or
may indicate in some degree the extent of unemployment in a given
period, or the types of occupations that are particularly overcrowded
and of those that are more likely to afford pfaces. The fact is—as
indicated on page 146 that occupations are very unevenly represented
at the agencies, this representation often varying even from office to
office within any State.
In the future there is likelihood that much more accurate basic
data will be available. A few public employment offices with private
financiai assistance are endeavoring to improve method of procedure
and reporting.20 The three outstanding instances of this type of work
are the Public Employment Center of Rochester, N.Y.; the Minne­
sota Employment Stabilization Research Institute, with headquarters
at the State University and the three cities of Minneapolis, St. Paul,
and Duluth cooperating; and the State Employment Commission
located in Philadelphia. The valuable research carried on in connec­
tion with the placement in these centers bids fair to be the forerunner
of widespread improvements in connecting worker and job and of the
development of types of reporting that will afford more accurate
information on employment movements. None of them was in
existence early enough to provide records prior to the years of depres­
sion. The material used in this report, though it overlaps the creation
of some of these new offices, does not cover their data unless included
in the State reports used, and is in no degree representative of their
improvements in reporting.
18 See footnote 27 on p. 149.
16 The study of methods of reporting made under the auspices of the Committee on Governmental Labor
Statistics and referred to on p. 138, gives detailed information showing the methods used and the consequent
meaning of the data published in the American States, in several European countries, and in Canada.
20 For a popular discussion of the three new*type offices see the Survey Graphic for February 1933.




ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

145

PREPONDERANCE OF DEMAND MADE AT AGENCIES FOR CERTAIN
TYPES OF WORK

The numbers of help wanted usually were especially concentrated
in certain occupations. Table 23 shows for several of the more im­
portant woman-employing States the proportions of those called for
at the agencies that were in demand for various selected types of
work.
Table 23.—Percent women in specified occupations formed of all persons reported

gainfully employed in the census, of all help wanted at agencies, and of all women
wanted at agencies—selected States, 1930
Percent the occupation specified formed of—

Occupation group and State

All help
wanted at
agencies 1

Domestic and personal service:3
New York............. ....... ............................
Pennsylvania..............................................
Illinois
Ohio.. _________ ___________ ______
Wisconsin____________________ _____ _
Minnesota..
... __________ ______
Manufacturing:
New York________ _________

419.7
«
24.2
18.4
6 31.3
’ 15.6

f

)

Pennsylvania_____ __________ _____
l
Illinois.. .. _____ ___ _____ ______ _ L
Ohio. _________
Wisconsin_____________ ____ _________
Minnesota... _______________________
Clerical:
New York __________________ ______
Pennsylvania. _ _____ _______ ______
_
Illinois________________ ____________ _
Ohio_______ ________ ________________
Wisconsin ________________ _______
Minnesota.. _______ ________ ___

9.6

8 20.9
9 18.1

23. 6
7.0
12.3
4.6
n 31. 4

10

3.3
12 6.3
4.1
3.8
13 2.6
3.6

Woman help
wanted at
agencies i

33.0

All persons
10 years of
age or more
gainfully
occupied in
the State 2

All women
10 years of
age or more
gainfully
occupied in
the State 2

12.5
8.9
10.3
9.3
7.7
9.3

26.6
27.2
26.9
29.3
27.0
30.8

9.0
4. 2 i
9 40. 4 \
io 4.2
3.6
4.4
3.8
ii 11.2

33.8
38.1

21.1

32.5
37.9
32.3

17.5
18.9
19.1

5.7

13.6
8.9
11.9
8.9
7.1

26.3
19.2
26.6
21.4
19.2
20.4

4

(>)

47.8
34.7
«84.5
35.5

8

12 7.2

6.4
4.6
13 3.8

6.0

20.8

8.1

26.5

10.2

Casual:1 215 4 * 6 7 * 9 10 11 12 13
14 3
42.2
is 18. 3
24. 5
42.0
(16)
34.7

46.9
is 28.1
36. 3
54.9
(16)
47.4

1 Data from State reports on public employment agencies.
For complete references see table XIII in
the appendix.
2 U.S. Bureau of the Census.
Fifteenth Census, 1930. Occupation Statistics.
3 The small proportions of help wanted reported in hotels and restaurants are included here.
4 Includes hotels and restaurants, and institutions.
6 Domestic and personal service not classified separately. Hotels and restaurants wanted 3.2 percent of
the total help asked for.
6 Includes homes, hotels, restaurants, and institutions.
7 State reports no figures for men. The percent given here is that which the women wanted in domestic
and personal service formed of the total help wanted for both sexes.
9 Skilled workers in manufacturing industries only (not the total of skilled workers wanted in all types of
occupation).
9 Semiskilled, including those in both manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries.
10 Unskilled, including those in both manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries.
11 Industrial for women; skilled and unskilled for men (probably including some not in manufacturing
employment).
12 Clerical and professional.
13 Office workers.
No census data sufficiently comparable.
15 Casual and day workers.
16 This classification not used in 1930. A. J. Altmeyer states that in 1930 common and casual workers
formed 50.5 percent of all placements. See Altmeyer, A. J. The Industrial Commission of Wisconsin,
1932, p. 248.




146

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Domestic and personal and casual workers form a large proportion
of all those called for in these States, the proportions ranging from
nearly one sixth to nearly one third of all help wanted for the former
and nearly one fifth to over two fifths for the latter. As high as 42
percent of those in demand in New York and in Ohio were for casual
work. Of course, it must be remembered that it is likely to be in this
type of occupation that duplications of individual calls may occur
with the greatest frequency. In 4 of the 6 States shown in table 23
practically half or more of the help wanted applied to the combined
groups of domestic and personal and casual and day workers. Those
wanted for domestic and personal service formed larger proportions
than such workers formed of all persons gainfully occupied. In
regard to the great number of casuals placed, A. J. Altmeyer in his
analysis of the work of the offices in Wisconsin writes as follows:
The fact that so many of the workers placed are classified as common and
casual laborers is conclusive evidence that the offices handle unskilled labor
primarily * * *. In any event, the labor market for skilled laborers is so
constituted that direct methods of bringing the man and the job together can
be depended upon to a larger extent than in the case of unskilled labor. There­
fore, the offices are probably performing the greatest social service when they
do handle unskilled labor primarily. Of course, this should not preclude render­
ing service as regards skilled labor as well. However, the big problem in
employment-office management is how to do both. This requires not only
breaking down of existing prejudices but also much more time and thought per
placement as well as better quarters and higher-grade personnel.21

The proportions of the workers wanted who were for manufacturing
jobs varied considerably from State to State, usually being below that
for domestic or casual or both but always above that for clerical help.
In New York and Ohio very roughly one tenth of the demands were
for manufacturing jobs, in Illinois and Wisconsin smaller proportions.
In Pennsylvania about one fifth of those wanted were for manufac­
turing work classified by the State as skilled, while another two fifths
were for semiskilled and unskilled jobs not all of which were in manu­
facturing. In Minnesota nearly one third of the demands applied
to industrial women combined with skilled and unskilled men.
The clerical help wanted was small in proportion—roughly 3 to 6
percent of the total.
EXTENT OF DEMAND REPORTED FOR WOMAN HELP

The demand for women employees at the agencies was large. Table
XIV in appendix A indicates that places open to women at employ­
ment agencies frequently formed a proportion of all the help wanted
that greatly exceeded the proportion all employed women formed of
the total employees in the State in 1930.22 In the 14 States included
in this table, woman employment according to the census of 1930
represented from about 17 to nearly 30 percent of the whole, while of
the places open in 1930 from 10 to 68 percent involved calls for
women. It is not surprising that a similar statement could be made
in regard to placements.23
21 Altmeyer, A J.
The Industrial Commission of Wisconsin, University of Wisconsin studies, 1932, p.
264. In 1930, 50.5 percent of the placements in Wisconsin had been those of common and casual workers.
(Ibid., p. 248.)
22 States shown on the table referred to were those in which reports were given or could be obtained for
the calendar year. Arkansas and Nevada had such reports also, but these were not analyzed owing to the
smallness of the numbers involved.
23 The wide range in help wanted and placements of women was due largely to differences in types of
situations handled.




ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

147

Though the large demand at the agencies for domestic employees
had a considerable share in producing the effect just commented upon,
table 24 gives evidence that even in this occupation there was a
demand for women that outran their position in gainful employment.
Table 24.—Percent women formed of all persons gainfully occupied and of all

help wanted, in selected occupation groups in jive States, 1930 1
Percent women formed of—
Those in the occupation specified who were—
All
per­
sons

Employed 2 in the
State in—

10

State

years All
of age help
or want­
more ed ,
gain­ in the
fully State3
occu­
pied
in the
State2

Do­
mes­
tic
and
per­
sonal
serv­
ice

Manufactur­
ing
and
me­
chan­
ical
in­
dus­
tries

New York_
_

Do­
Cler­ mestic Casual
ical and
occu­ per­ occu­
pa­ sonal pa­
tions serv­ tions
ice

1

Pennsylvania.
Illinois______
Ohio_______
Wisconsin___
Minnesota_
_

Wanted at agencies 3 in—

20.6

19.1

20.2

44.5
43.9
35.3
44.1

58.4
64.6

12.1

67.3

10.0

66.8

52.9

(5)

65.7
22. 5

79.9

10.3
11.3

50.1 io 87.8
49.8 io 82. 6
51.9 12 95. 3
(16)
51.3

65.8
57.4
(13)

60.3

Manufacturing occupations

Cler­
ical
occu­
pa­
tions

44.6.
Three groups . _ . 53.9
Skilled manufacturing 7_ 7.2
Semiskilled 8
80.4
Unskilled 8___ _____
6.4
Unskilled and semiskilled combined___ 38.5
68.6
u 22.7_
___ _
n 15.8
52.4
H 29.7__________________
15 51.6
17 15.7
74.1

1 The occupation groups selected are those most important in woman employment or in help wanted at
the agencies. The States given are all large woman employers for which this information could be obtained
from State reports on the agencies.
2 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Occupation Statistics.
3 Data from State reports on public employment agencies. For complete references see table XIII in
appendix A.
* Includes help wanted in hotels and restaurants and institutions, which formed in 1930 about 36.3 per­
cent of all help wanted in this group.
6 This occupation not given separately in published reports. Those wanted in hotels and restaurants as
skilled help (unskilled and semiskilled not reported separately) formed 5.1 percent of all help wanted of both
sexes.
6 Casual and day workers.
7 This is a total prepared by the Women’s Bureau for all skilled workers in manufacturing industries
proper. It is not the total computed by the State for skilled industrial workers, which includes also those in
mines, transportation, hotels, and trade.
8 Includes those not in manufacturing as well as those in manufacturing.
0 Clerical and professional.
10 Includes hotels and restaurants.
11 Manufacturing total prepared by Women’s Bureau.
12 Homes, hotels, restaurants, and institutions totaled by Women’s Bureau. The total in homes forms
84.9 percent of the entire domestic and personal service group.
13 Not reported separately in 1930 Operation of Public Employment Offices.
14 Does not include those in building and construction as is done in the other States and in census manu­
facturing and mechanical industries.
15 Office workers.
16 No figures given for men.
47 Term used4 ‘ industrial ’ ’ for women,4 4 skilled and unskilled ’ ’ for men (probably including some not in
manufacturing as in Pennsylvania).

From this table, which uses six large woman-employing States as its
sample of the situation, it may be seen that in the domestic and
personal and clerical and manufacturing help wanted, the proportion
of women in demand ordinarily exceeded to a very considerable degree
the proportion women formed of all persons employed in those occupa­
tions in the State according to the census. In the two first mentioned




148

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

it is not surprising to find that women were asked for to a greater
extent than was the case for the total of all help wanted at the agencies
though the same ordinarily was not true of manufacturing. Further,
over half the requests for casual or day workers were for women, even
though in most of these States this classification was separate from
domestic and personal service.
The demand for women as domestic and clerical workers may have
been especially heavy in the particular centers in which the agencies
were located. In some instances it may have been possible that
employers had formed a habit of consulting agencies especially where
woman help was wanted, depending for the men needed on other
sources, perhaps, because men are more likely than women to seek
jobs at the source of the work.
Table XIV in appendix A shows the proportions of women in the
help wanted in the various years covered. In half the 14 States (see
footnote 3, p. 12), including 4 of the 5 largest woman employers,
there was an increase in the proportion of woman help wanted, con­
tinuous either through the 4 years or after 1929. Whether or not
this may give any indication of some demand for women where men
had been employed, or whether it was largely attributable to a special
demand for those in certain occupations or to some administrative
rearrangement or expansion, is not possible to say with any certainty
on the basis of the evidence at hand.
In six States—some of them relatively smaller woman employers—
there was a decline in proportion of women wanted in 1931 as com­
pared to 1930, in one of these the drop being continuous through the
4 years.
YEAR’S DATA FROM EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

Year’s figures applying to women in the 23 States that have afforded
some data by sex within the period of study are shown in table XIII
in appendix A. This is the only table contained in the present report
that gives some showing of all the States affording any public employ­
ment agency data as to women within the period covered. However,
it must be noted that because of the varying methods of reporting,
the data for the States included on this table are not necessarily
comparable one with another. One of these States reports data only
for a private agency. For 13 of these States the record of applica­
tions, help wanted, and placements in the calendar year is available
throughout the 4 years 1928 to 1931, either as given in the annual
report or as obtained by adding monthly figures.24 For 3 other States
complete reports coinciding with the calendar year were obtainable
for 2 or 3 of the 4 years.25 Reports for the remaining 7 States were
incomplete for one reason or another.26
The method of adding monthly figures to obtain totals for the year
was employed by the States publishing such totals, whatever the
report year. It has been explained that there are duplications in the
24 Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Penn­
sylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, and Wisconsin. The report year did not coincide with the calendar
year in Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, New Jersey, Ohio, and Virginia, but monthly figures have
been added for the calendar year.
25 Arkansas, Michigan, and Nevada.
20 In Indiana, Missouri, North Carolina, and Oklahoma year's figures were given but not by calendar
year, and no monthly reports were given; California did not report applications; the Colorado State reports
referred to private agencies and were available for only part of the period. Figures given for West Virginia
are for the period Mar. 1, 1930, to Nov. 15, 1930.




ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

149

individuals applying and the places open in the month, and these
are increased by totaling the 12 months’ figures, in some cases probably
to a considerable degree and in most cases to a degree that cannot be
measured. This emphasizes the fact that information cannot be
obtained in this way as to the individual applicant. That the data
do not afford exact determination of these factors but serve only to
indicate in a very general manner the pressure of applicants on the
offices and the extent to which employers’ calls for help have come in
must be borne clearly in mind throughout the discussion of table XIII.
The data under consideration for the 13 States with complete
reports show that in 7 the number of applications or registrations for
jobs had been greater in 1931 than in any other year. And in 4 of
these States the rise in applications had been continuous from year
to year. In 4 of the 7 States and in 6 others—10 of the 13—the jobs
open were fewer in 1931 than in any other of the 4 years; in all of these
the decline in help wanted had been continuous after the peak of
1929. In connection with this analysis, the preponderance of domestic
and casual workers handled in most States must be considered.
Even though duplications exist that cannot be accounted for (as in
reports of both applications and help wanted), the ratio of applica­
tions to help wanted, such as some States publish for the two sexes
combined, gives at least a rough picture of the relationship of these
two factors in successive years.27
In the 4-year period included here, the ratio of help wanted to
applications as computed in the Women’s Bureau is lower for women
in 1931 than in any other year in 12 of the 13 States; in at least 6 of
them it is more than 10 points below any other year.
MONTHLY REPORTS ON APPLICATIONS AND HELP WANTED

Reference to the summary on page 141 shows that monthly data on
applications and help wanted were reported by sex for the following
12 States: New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, New Jersey,
Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Virginia, Connecticut, Iowa, and
Rhode Island;28 in 1 of these—Michigan—the full 4 years were not
available. These monthly data, so far as published for the 4 years
included in the study are shown in table XV in appendix A.
While the analysis that follows goes into considerable detail, it must
be borne in mind continually that its comparisons and findings are
only approximate, since the extent of duplication in the reports of
both applications and help wanted cannot be measured, and their
definitions vary with the States. Furthermore, in most States either
casual or domestic workers or both formed a large part of the entire
group covered, and consequently their employment changes greatly
affected the total. The following pages summarize the general situa­
tion; separate discussions for each State are given in appendix C.
Relative numbers of women and men applying and called for
Of the applications for jobs, in almost all cases more were by men
than by women in every State but New Jersey, where, on the whole,
27 William A. Berridge, in the study of the index of the ratio of openings to applicants referred to on p. 137,
included data from 6 States—Illinois, Massachusetts, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin—1919-23.
Finding a close agreement in the contour of their respective curves, he considered that such a ratio is of some
value as a labor-market barometer when used in connection with other labor-market indications. For
further description of Dr. Berridge's results, see Federal Reserve Bulletin, February 1924, pp. 83-87; Review
of Economic Statistics, July 1926; and Stewart, Annabel M. and Bryce M., op. cit., pp. 36-38.
28 Arkansas, Nevada, and Kansas also reported monthly by sex, but these States are not large woman
employers, and their monthly data for women were very small.

179570°—33--------11




150

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

women’s applications predominated, as they did in Minnesota
throughout most of 1930 and 1931 but usually not in 1928 and 1929.
Ordinarily, except in New Jersey and Rhode Island, more male than
female help was called for, but in 1930 women apparently were more in
demand than men in Connecticut and Virginia, for half the time in
Michigan and New York, and in 3 months in Minnesota; and in 1931
more women than men were wanted in Connecticut, New Jersey,
and in most months in Minnesota and New York, in half the month
in Virginia, and also in Michigan until late in the year, when calls for
male help again predominated. In Connecticut and in Michigan
(with a few exceptions) demands for help, whichever sex be con­
sidered, were lower in most of 1931 than in the corresponding months
of the year preceding, and consequently the fact that more women
than men were called for would appear to indicate very low turnover
in certain large man-employing industries (as, for example, in Michi­
gan). On the other hand, in New York more women were called for
in 1931, than in corresponding months of the year preceding, though
in most months fewer men were wanted in 1931 than in 1930. This
may have meant some substitution of women for men by employers
using the offices, or it may have meant increase in number of em­
ployers calling for help in industries employing many women, with
decline in calls from employers in industries engaging chiefly men,
or it may have been influenced by preponderance in demand in
certain types of occupations.29
Seasonal indications
For either sex there appeared to be a tendency in most States for
both applications and calls for help to be heavier in the spring and the
fall, a fact not surprising in respect to help wanted, since these ordi­
narily are seasons of good activity. Low points, both in applications
and in requests for help for either sex, came with decidedly greatest
frequency in the winter months.30
High points in demand for women and men employees
It is significant that in 9 of the 12 States at some time in 1929
demands for woman help touched a high point that never again was
reached; this period came as early as April in Ohio, in May in Wis­
consin, in the summer in New Jersey, Michigan,31 and Virginia,
and in the fall in Illinois, Iowa, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.32
In 7 of these States and 3 others the demand for men employees
reached its high point in 1929, as early as May in 5 of the States, in
the summer in the other 5. In 8 of the 12 States the high point never
again reached in demands for help came earlier for women than for
men; in 2 it was the earlier for men, in 2 it came in the same month
for both sexes.
The high point in help wanted that never again was reached came
earlier for women than for men in 3 of the 5 States that were large
employers of women—New York, Ohio, and Wisconsin. It :s of
29 See p. 148.
.
.
.
so In at least one State January registration tended to be high, owing to the fact that in that month a
complete reregistration takes place of all persons then remaining unplaced and still desiring to be registered.
31 No report prior to July 1929, therefore the high point may have come earlier in the year.
32 In 3 States (New York, Minnesota, and Pennsylvania) the spring 1928 high demand for woman help
never again was reached, though this was not the case with the 1929 high.




ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

151

interest to notice the relation of the demands for help in these States
in each year to the demands in the same months of the year preceding.
In New York, on this basis, requests for women were lower in the
majority of the months of 1929 and of 1930 than in the year preceding,
but they were somewhat higher in 1931 than in 1930. For men they
were higher in 1929 but lower in 1930 and 1931. Thus, while requests
for men ordinarily remained up in 1929 and those for women declined,
the opposite was the case in 1931, women being relatively more in
demand.
In Ohio the situation in this respect was similar for the two sexes,
both men and women being more in demand in 1929 than in most
corresponding months of 1928, but ordinarily less wanted in 1930 and
in 1931 than in the year preceding.
In Wisconsin each year showed in most months a smaller demand
for both men and -women than in the corresponding months of the
previous year.
Two of the States in which the high point in the demand for help
never again reached came earlier for men than for women were
employers of considerable numbers of women in manufacturing—
Illinois and Connecticut.
In Illinois, as in New York, 1931 was significant in showing, in
most months, the demand high for women but low for men as com­
pared with the corresponding months of 1930, which had been low
for both sexes.
In Connecticut the situation was quite similar for men and women,
both ordinarily being more in demand in 1929 than in 1928 but less
wanted in 1930 and in 1931 than in the year preceding.
Applications and help wanted as compared with year previous
The foregoing discussion in connection with the high point in de­
mand for help according to sex may be followed by a consideration of
applications and help wanted from one year to the next in 9 of the
more important manufacturing States in which comparisons can be
made for the entire period of study.33
Applications.—It was to be expected that 1930 and 1931 would see
applications increase over the year preceding. For the more impor­
tant manufacturing woman-employing States, this was true in most
months of 1930 for both sexes in Illinois,34 New York, Pennsylvania,
and Rhode Island and in 1931 in all months in New York and in most
months in Pennsylvania; in Minnesota it was true of women in 7
months of 1930 and of 1931. However, the pressure of demand for
jobs in 1930 was less than in the year before for both sexes in every
month in Wisconsin, and for women in all months and men in most
months in Ohio, for men in all months in Minnesota, for both men
and women in 6 months in New Jersey, and for women in most months
and for men in 6 months in Connecticut. Similarly in 1931 applica­
tions of both sexes in Illinois, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Ohio, and Con­
necticut, and of men in Minnesota, were lower in most months of the
year than in the corresponding months of 1930. This may have been
due to changed reporting, to other office changes, or—a reason likely
to have considerable weight—to the general discouragement of
33
34

Ohio included. See discussion on Ohio in appendix C, p. 231.
See footnote II, p. 139.




152

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

workers in applying to agencies for jobs. One or more of these
reasons undoubtedly obtained in most of the States reported.
It would seem reasonable that in 1929—a year of relatively good
industrial activity-—applications for jobs might be less than in 1928,
barring special occurrences in some industries or in some localities, or
special efforts on the part of the offices to extend their field of service.
Among the larger manufacturing woman-employing States this was
the case for both sexes in at least half the months in Wisconsin and
New York, for women in Pennsylvania, and for men in 6 months in
New Jersey and Minnesota. However, applications for jobs in
important manufacturing States in 1929 exceeded those of 1928 for
both sexes in all or most months in Illinois, Ohio, and Connecticut,
for men in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island, and for women in 7 months
in Minnesota and New Jersey.
Demands for help.—It was to be expected that 1929 demands for
help would exceed those of 1928, and such was the case for both
sexes in most months in Illinois, Ohio, New Jersey, Connecticut, and
Rhode Island, while more men, but not more women, than in 1928
were wanted in New York and Pennsylvania. In Minnesota and
Wisconsin fewer women were wanted in 1929 than in 1928 in 7
months, fewer men in 6. Again, it was to be supposed that requests
for help would be lower in 1930 than in 1929, and possibly still
lower in 1931. This was true of 1930, for all the States included
and for both sexes in all or most months (except for men in Rhode
Island), and in 1931 for men—again excepting Rhode Island—in all
States and for women in most cases. However, it may be very
significant that in the three largest industrial States included—New
York, Pennsylvania, and Illinois—demands for woman help in most
months of 1931 exceeded those of 1930, while demands for men were
below those of 1930. In Wisconsin, for both sexes there were
decreases in most months in each year in requests for help.
Relation between applications and demands for help
If the number of demands for help in each 100 applications be
considered in States reporting in all four years—always remembering
that there are unmeasured duplications in each of these categories—
it is found that in 9 States (6 of them important as regards women in
manufacturing) more women than men employees in relation to their
respective applications ordinarily were called for. In Wisconsin
relatively more men than women were called for most of the time
until 1931, after which the ratio of help wanted to applications
ordinarily was higher for women than for men.
For both sexes the ratio of help wanted to applications showed a
tendency to be high in some cases in the fall and more frequently in
the spring. It was low for men usually in the winter months; for
women in some cases in the winter but more often in summer.
It was the usual case in most States and for both sexes to find the
ratio of help wanted to applications higher in 1929 than in the corre­
sponding months of 1928, lower in 1930 than in 1929, and still lower
in 1931.
The ratios of woman help wTantcd to the applications of women
have been charted for five large industrial States and are shown on
page 153. These illustrate both the seasonal character of the labor
market and the definitely lower plane upon which it moved in the




ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

153

CHART 36.—RATIO OF HELP WANTED TO 100 APPLICATIONS—WOMEN IN 5
STATES, 1928-31

Illinois

I | Pennsylvania

Wisconsin

Ohio

/ •

Mar

Jun

Sep




Dec

liar

Jun
Sep
19 2 9

Deo

Mar

Jun

Sep

19 5 0

Dec

Mar

Jun
Sep
19 5 1

Dec

154

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

depressed years of 1930 and 1931 as compared to 1928 and 1929. The
similarity of the general employment shown for each of these States
is striking. A more detailed analysis of the monthly data in the more
important woman-employing States will be found in appendix C.
STATES REPORTING SOME OCCUPATIONAL DATA
APPLICATIONS AND HELP WANTED

ON

Occupational data of some type are reported by sex in 14 States.
Six of the large woman-employing States among these—New York,
Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin, and Minnesota-—report
according to a somewhat detailed classification of the main womanemploying occupations. Five other States classify data for women
under three main occupation groupings-—clerical and professional,
industrial, and domestic (New Jersey, North Carolina, Indiana,
Kansas, and Arkansas) and a very detailed list in Rhode Island can
be fitted into these same general groups.36 Figures from the two
remaining States-—Connecticut and Iowa—have not been presented,
in the former case because occupations are reported only for situations
secured, and in the latter case because totals given are those for a
biennium, and the State is relatively such a small woman-employer
that occupation figures published each month have not been totaled
for inclusion here.
An abstract from this material as it applies to women is given in
appendix table XVI-A for the six important industrial States that
report by a detailed classification, and in appendix table XVI-B for
six States whose material has been grouped under three chief occupa­
tional heads. These tables show the applications and help wanted in
each chief woman-employing occupation group in 1929 and 1931 (or
1929 and 1930 for those States 36 for which information for 1931 was
either not completed or not comparable.).
_
The data reported for New York, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Minne­
sota, Kansas, and Rhode Island apply to the calendar year. Those
for other States are for a fiscal year ending either June 30 (Illinois,
Ohio, New Jersey, North Carolina, Arkansas) or September 30
(Indiana). In all cases but North Carolina and Indiana, monthly
publications would enable calendar-year totals to be obtained by
occupation, but since at best the employment figures are so far from
satisfactory, and afford basis for only very rough interpretation, this
extra presentation was not undertaken.
The analysis that follows must be taken only as a very general
suggestion of what the figures reported contain. Differences in
classification as between the States and even variations from year to
year in a single State, unreported differences in status of offices,
changes due to such outside factors as stimulation of use of offices by
certain groups, and many other matters that are of significance
locally but that must remain unaccounted for here, would have to
enter into any attempt at real interpretation of the data. Little
vocational or occupational information can be obtained from these
data other than that of the most general indication of possible situa-* 38
35 This classification was used by a number of States since it was the one under which reports were made to
the Federal Employment Service. See Stewart, Annabel M. and Bryce M. Op. cit. p. 238.
38 Arkansas, North Carolina, and Wisconsin. The Arkansas biennial report for the period ending
June 30, 1932, gives no tabulations for employment agencies. That for the same period in North Carolina
(a mimeographed report) omits help wanted. Wisconsin changed its classification in 1930.




ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

155

tions. In the ordinary case the greatest bulk of the applications and
placements were those in domestic and personal service or in casual
work.
Occupational data in six large industrial States
The six large industrial States having relatively full occupation
classifications will be considered first. In four of these—Pennsyl­
vania, New York, Wisconsin, and Minnesota—the information is for
the calendar year, in the other two (Illinois and Ohio) the year ends
June 30.
Casual workers.—Casual workers ordinarily formed the largest, or
one of the largest, groups of those applying, called for, and placed. In
most cases these included domestic day workers, sometimes even
when domestic workers were classed elsewhere. In Pennsylvania
semiskilled industrial, and in Illinois domestic and personal-service
workers, ran neck and neck with casual workers; in Wisconsin the
latter group greatly exceeded the casuals after 1929 (due to the adop­
tion of a more complete classification).37 In New York either casual
or domestic workers were most in demand, and the greatest number
of applications came from casuals until 1931, when they were
exceeded by the clerical group.
It would be expected that applications for this type of work—
casuals—would increase, especially when opportunities for other work
became less and people in desperation sought whatever they could
get. Such increases might be minimized by especial concentration of
the offices on some other occupation or phase of work, by changes in
the method of registration or reporting, or by various other local
factors. Such increases in applications occurred in 1931 as compared
to 1929 in New York, Pennsylvania, and Minnesota. The inclusion
of domestic day workers in the casual group contributed to this
increase in some cases. Considerable declines occurred in Wisconsin,38
Illinois, and Ohio. Calls for help of this type declined heavily in all
States but Minnesota, though in Pennsylvania there was some rise
in 1931 above 1930.
Workers in domestic and personal service.—Another large group ordi­
narily was that of domestic and personal workers. These occupations
were not listed separately in Pennsylvania, and in Illinois hotel and
restaurant employees—who formed a separate group in the other five
States—were combined with the domestic and personal occupations.
(This may account for the fact that this formed the largest group of
registrations in Illinois in every year.) In Wisconsin, the group in
1929 was domestic and personal, and in the 2 succeeding years the
bulk of these were given under the caption “homes”, with a small
number under “institutions” given separately. Those in “homes”
after 1929 formed the largest group of persons applying for work in
this State. Hotel and restaurant workers were kept distinct in each
year in Wisconsin.
Applications for domestic and personal work increased steadily
after 1929 in each of the five States in which they were reported. The
increases in 1931 over 1929 in Ohio, Illinois, New York, and Minnesota
” This new classification was adopted after the U.S. Employment Service discontinued its earlier report
form (form Emp. 44) at the close of 1929. Prior to that time the Wisconsin classification had been influenced
by that used by the Federal service, as was also the case in other States. See footnote 35, p. 154.
as Because classifications changed in 1930, this year instead of 1929 is compared with 1931.




156

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

were respectively 17.5, 21.6, 81, and 98.6 percent. In Wisconsin there
was a 6 percent increase in 1931 over 1930.39 Demands for this type of
help had decreased considerably in Illinois and Ohio (year ending
June 30 in each). In Wisconsin there was also a decrease from 1930
to 1931. In New York and Minnesota, on the other hand, they had
increased—the number in 1931 was nearly twice that in 1929.
Workers in hotels and restaurants.—Applications for employment in
hotel and restaurant work showed increases similar in degree to those
in the domestic and personal classification in New York, and in
Pennsylvania they had increased considerably. In Wisconsin the
persons applying for such positions had fallen off more than 10 per­
cent, though those desiring work in homes had increased,40 and in
Ohio and Minnesota there was a falling off of about one fifth. De­
mands for help from employers showed the same movement in respect
to hotel and restaurant workers as for those in domestic and personal
service in Ohio—a steady decline after 1929. In New York and in
Minnesota, however, while demands for domestic and personal
workers had increased from 1929 to 1931, those for hotel and restau­
rant employees had declined; this may or may not be accounted for
in part by some overlapping in the classifications. Pennsylvania was
the only State in which some increase was shown in persons asked for
for hotel and restaurant work.
Workers in clerical, professional, and technical occupations.—A great
increase in applications for jobs ordinarily occurred among clerical
workers, and in New York this group of registrants was larger than
that in any other occupation in 1931 and second only to the casual
workers in 1928 and 1929, while it ranked third in 1930. In Pennsyl­
vania and Ohio it included professional applicants, in Wisconsin pro­
fessional and technical in 1929, clerical only thereafter. Steady
increases in the numbers seeking work of this kind were shown after
1929 in three States; 1931 applications were nearly twice those of
1929 in New York, and had increased over 40 percent in Illinois and
55 percent in Pennsylvania. In Wisconsin and Ohio a decline was
shown, but the decline was negligible in each case and was chiefly
from 1929 to 1930. In Minnesota the decline was great.
The decline in demand for this type of help was universal. In
Wisconsin the help of this type wanted in 1931 had declined more
than one third from the 1930 demand, in New York it had declined
nearly one half, in Minnesota more than one half, and in Ohio nearly
one third from the 1929 demand. The discrepancy between the de­
mand for these workers and the numbers seeking jobs was very great,
ordinarily being likely to exceed that in any other group.
Workers in manufacturing occupations.—Naturally the manufactur­
ing industries showed quite different classifications. For these, New
York has reported only totals. Pennsylvania reported a semiskilled
and an unskilled group, the latter including workers in other employ­
ments in addition to manufacturing; those included as skilled manu­
facturing workers have been totaled by the Women’s Bureau. Similar
totals have been prepared for Wisconsin, Illinois, and Ohio. The
39 No comparison of 1929 to 1931 can be made, as classification is not the same, being “domestic and per­
sonal service” in the former and “homes” in 1930 and 1931.
<0 These data for Wisconsin apply mainly to positions for work in resort hotels, as the bulk of other hotel
and restaurant placement was handled by an effective private agency until toward the close of 1931.




ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

157

three major manufacturing groups reported in Pennsylvania, Wis­
consin, and Ohio are clothing and textiles, metals and machinery
(metals and metal products in Pennsylvania), and food, beverages,
and tobacco (food and kindred products in Pennsylvania); they are
clothing and textiles, metals and machinery, and printing trades in
Illinois. Numbers applying to specific industries ordinarily are too
small to warrant any attempt at analysis.
Applications for industrial employment had increased steadily after
1929 in New York, Pennsylvania, and Minnesota, those in 1931 being
above 1929 by nearly 300 percent in the Pennsylvania skilled groups,
nearly 80 percent in New York, and 12 percent in Minnesota. In
Illinois, Ohio, and Wisconsin applications for this type of work had
declined, which was the case with several other groups in these States,
only registrations for domestic and personal work increasing in all
three, for clerical in Illinois, and for trade in Wisconsin and Ohio.
On the whole, demands for help declined notably in all States but
Pennsylvania, though in New York and Wisconsin a slight rise
occurred in 1931, not, however, approximating 1929 for New York;
in Pennsylvania the decline was among the unskilled, while there had
been a considerable increase in demand for the semiskilled and nearly
40 percent increase in the requests for skilled help. This may have
reflected a desire to substitute more skilled help for unskilled at a
time when the market showed a surplus of workers and when a high
type of labor could be had relatively cheap. In Ohio 1931 showed
little more than half the help wanted that was in demand in 1929.
The discrepancy between the demand for help and the number of
applications for jobs was especially great in the manufacturing indus­
tries in some instances—for example, in the totals for Wisconsin and
among skilled workers in Pennsylvania, even though the demand for
them had increased.
Workers in wholesale and retail trade.—One woman-employing group
of importance remains to be considered—that of trade (classed as
wholesale and retail trade in each of the five States reporting,
mercantile establishments in the later years in Wisconsin). In four
States, applications for this employment had increased in 1931 over
1929 (or over 1930 as in the case of Wisconsin), those in 1931 being
nearly two thirds greater than in 1929 in Ohio, well over 50 percent
greater than 1929 in Pennsylvania. The only State in which decline
was shown was Illinois.
The demand for help reported in trade during this period had
increased in three States and had declined only in Illinois and New
York, and in the last named 1931 showed some increase over 1930.
The increase in calls for workers in trade in the three States was con­
siderable, the 1931 figure being over one fourth greater than that of
1929 in Pennsylvania, nearly three fifths greater than 1930 in Wis­
consin, and over one half as great again as 1929 in Ohio.
Occupational data in six States having a few general classifications
It has seemed to insure greater clarity to discuss separately the six
States having a few general occupation classifications41—Indiana,
New Jersey, North Carolina, Kansas, Rhode Island, and Arkansas—
41

See footnote 35, p. 154.




158

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

though in a number of instances the data relating to these occupation
groups were similar to those in States reporting under a fuller classi­
fication. The largest number of applications, calls for help, and
placements were either for domestic and personal service or for
casual workers. The domestic and personal service workers also had
been one of the largest groups in the five States that reported this
classification. The smallest groups served in Indiana, North Caro­
lina, and for the most part in Rhode Island were the industrial women,
and in Kansas, New Jersey, and for the most part in Arkansas were
the clerical and professional workers.
Applications for industrial and clerical work had for the most part
increased through the entire period. reported (as also was the case in
three of the six States considered heretofore), except that the latter de­
clined in Indiana and North Carolina in 1931 (years ending September
30 and June 30, respectively) and industrial work declined in Kansas
in 1931. Applications for domestic work had declined from 1929 to
1931 in New Jersey, North Carolina, and Indiana, but they had
increased in Rhode Island, Kansas, and Arkansas. It will be
remembered that they had increased in the five States formerly
discussed that reported this classification.
Demands for help in all the classifications ordinarily decreased after
1929, in some instances sharply. Placements, likewise, ordinarily
had declined after 1929 with the following exceptions: In Indiana (year
ending September 30) those for domestic and industrial workers
increased somewhat in 1931, while clerical placements increased in
1930, decreased in 1931; in Rhode Island clerical and industrial
workers increased consistently after 1929; and in Arkansas placements
in each occupational group were somewhat larger in 1930 than in 1929,
and 1931 figures are not available.
For all occupational groups the ratio of help wanted to applications
was highest in 1929, lowest in 1931 in most cases, though in Indiana
this showing was irregular, with the lows in 1928 or 1930. In each
State the largest numbers placed in relation to those applying, in the
three classifications presented, were in domestic and personal service.
Practically always the number of persons wanted in relation to those
applying was much smaller for the clerical workers than for any other
group.
Summary of occupational data
The largest groups handled by the offices usually were the casual
and domestic and personal workers.
In general it may be said that applications increased steadily
throughout the period—1928 to 1931 inclusive—ordinarily without
regard to occupation, though this increase in Illinois was confined to
the clerical and domestic and personal groups, in Wisconsin to the
occupations last named. Declines occurred' in those asking for
domestic and personal work in New Jersey, North Carolina, and In­
diana, and for clerical and hotel and restaurant jobs in Minnesota.
In several States specially great increases occurred in those seeking
clerical jobs.
Declines in demands for help were usual in most States, with notable
exceptions in some groups. Help wanted increased on the whole in




ACTIVITIES OF PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES

159

wholesale and retail trade in Ohio and Wisconsin as well as in Penn­
sylvania. In Wisconsin, Minnesota, and New York the demand for
those in domestic and personal service increased in these States,
though in Wisconsin the figure for 1931 was less than that for 1930.
In Pennsylvania the declines applied only to persons asked for as
clerical and professional, casual and day workers, and in the unskilled
trades, demands for those in other occupation groups having in­
creased. Especial declines were notable in the demand for clerical,
technical, and professional workers, 1929 requests for them having been
cut in 1931 by practically one half in New York and Minnesota and by
about one third in Ohio and Wisconsin.




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Hogg, Margaret H.

The incidence of work shortage. Russell Sage Foundation, 1932.
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of existing unemployment and remedies therefor.
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of Pennsylvania, 1930.
New York. Department of Labor.
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Unemployment in Syracuse. Special bulletin 173, 1931.
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Occupations.
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1929; Bui. 555, 1930.
Monthly Labor Review: Surveys of unemployment in Baltimore, Md.,
May 1929 and April 1930; Unemployment in Bloomington, Ind., July
1930; Study of unemployed registered at Bridgeport, Conn., May 1931.
-------------------- Women’s Bureau.
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South Bend, Ind. Bui. 92, 1932.
The effects on women of changing conditions in the cigar and cigarette
industries. Bui. 100, 1932.
The industrial experience of women workers at the summer schools, 1928-30.
Bui. 89, 1931.
Unemployed women in Detroit, 1925-30. Bui. 107, 1933.
University of Pennsylvania. Wharton school of finance and commerce.
Unemployment in Philadelphia families. Special report No. 1; Social char­
acteristics of unemployment in Philadelphia. Special report No. 2; Dura­
tion of unemployment in Philadelphia. Special report No. 3; Industrial
and occupational characteristics of unemployment in Philadelphia.
Special report No. 4. 1931.
Wisconsin. Industrial Commission.
Wisconsin Labor Market, September 1931.
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and Ralph J. Watkins.
Industrial and commercial Ohio, 1928.
Bursk, J. Parker.
Seasonal variations in employment in manufacturing industries. University
of Pennsylvania Press, 1931.
Croxton, Fred C. and Frederick E.
Fluctuations of employment in Ohio, 1928 and 1929.
In Monthly Labor Review, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Also unpublished figures for 1930 and 1931, supplied by State.
Dewiiurst, J. Frederic.
Employment fluctuations in Pennsylvania, 1921-27.
In Special Bulletin No. 24, Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry,
1928.
Hill, A. C. C., Jr.
Employment statistics as measures of unemployment. In Journal of
American Statistical Association, 1931.
Hurlin, Ralph G., and William A. Berridge (editors).
Employment statistics for the United States, 1926.
Bell, Spurgeon,

Illinois.

Department of Labor.

The Labor Bulletin, 1928-31.

Iowa.

Bureau of Labor.

Biennial report for period ending June 30, 1928.
Maher, Amy G.
Ohio wage earners in the manufacture of textiles and textile products.
Ohio wage earners in the manufacture of rubber products, 1914-28.
Department of Labor and Industries.

Massachusetts.

Monthly mimeographed reports, 1928-31.

New York.

Department of Labor.

Special bulletins No. 143, 1929; No. 171, 1931.
The Industrial Bulletin, 1928-31.
Employment and earnings of men and women in New York State factories,
1923-25. Special bulletin 143, 1926.

Pennsylvania.

Department of Labor and Industry.

Labor and Industry, 1928-31.

United States.

Department of Labor.

.

Women’s Bureau.

Variations in employment trends of women and men. Bui. 73, 1930.
Fluctuations of employment in the radio industry. Bui. 83, 1931.
The employment of women in slaughtering and meat packing. Bui. 88, 1932.
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in Ohio, 1914 to 1929. Bui. 95,
1932.

--------- Federal Reserve Board.

Federal Reserve Bulletins, December 1923, May 1925, and November 1929.
J.
Ohio employment studies, 1927.

Watkins, Ralph
Wisconsin.

Industrial Commission.

Wisconsin Labor Market, 1928-31.
Wooster, Harvey A., and Theodore E. Whiting.
Fluctuation in employment in Cleveland and Cuyahoga County.




1923-28.
161

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Altmeyer, A. J.
The^Industrial Commission of Wisconsin.

University of Wisconsin Studies.

American Labor Legislation Review, March 1931.

A., and Woodlief, Thomas.
Articles in Federal Reserve Bulletin, February 1924, and in Review of Eco­
nomic Statistics, July 1926.
Harrison, Shelby M., and associates.
Public employment offices. Russell Sage Foundation. New York, 1924.
Berridge, William

Massachusetts.

Special commission on the stabilization of employment.

Preliminary report, December 1931.

New York.

Joint legislative committee on unemployment.

Preliminary report, February 1932.
Conference on unemployment and other interstate industrial problems.

January 1931.

Albanv.

Proceedings.

Stewart, Annabel M. and Bryce M.

Statistical procedure of public employment offices.
tion. New York, 1933.

United States.

Department of Labor.

Russell Sage Founda­

Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Monthly Labor Review. January 1931.
Woodcock, Leslie E.
Employment office reports and employment statistics. In Public Employ­
ment Offices, by Shelby M. Harrison and associates, New York, 1924.
162




REPORTS OF STATE PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES
CONTAINING SOME DATA BY SEX, 1928 1 TO 1931
Arkansas:

Biennial reports of Bureau of Labor and Statistics, 1927-28 and

1929-30.

Biennial reports of Department of Industrial Relations, 1927-30
and 1930-32.
Colorado: Biennial reports of Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1927-28 and De­
cember 1928 to July 1930.
Connecticut: Biennial reports of Bureau of Labor Statistics, periods ended
Dec. 1, 1928 and 1930; typewritten monthly reports of Bureau of Labor,
February 1928 to January 1932.
Illinois: Annual reports of Department of Labor, years ended June 30, 1928 to
1930; Labor Bulletin, published monthly by Department of Labor, February
1928 to January 1932.
Indiana: Annual reports of Industrial Board, years ended Sept. 30, 1928 to 1931.
Iowa: Biennial reports of Bureau of Labor, periods ended June 30, 1928 to 1932;
Iowa Employment Survey, published monthly by Bureau of Labor, February
1928 to January 1932.
Kansas: Annual report of Public Service Commission, Labor Department, year
ended Dec. 31, 1928; annual reports of Commission of Labor and Industry
(Labor Department), years ended Dee. 31, 1929 to 1931; Labor and Industrial
Bulletin, published monthly by Commission of Labor and Industry, January
1932.
Massachusetts: Annual reports of Department of Labor and Industries, years
ended Nov. 30, 1928 to 1931.
Michigan: Labor and Industry, published by Department of Labor and In­
dustry, December 1930; mimeographed reports of public employment bureaus,
July 1929 to December 1931.
Minnesota: Biennial report of Industrial Commission, period ended June 30,
1928; biennial reports of Industrial Commission and Department of Labor and
Industry, periods ended June 30, 1930 and 1932; mimeographed annual re­
ports of Industrial Commission, 1928 to 1931.
Missouri: Annual report of Labor and Industrial Inspection Department, year
ended Nov. 5, 1928. (Public employment office report, year ended Sept. 30,
1928.)
Nevada: Biennial reports of Commissioner of Labor, 1927-28 and 1929-30.
New Jersey: Industrial Bulletin, published monthly by Department of Labor,
February 1928 to January 1932. (September issue in each year includes an­
nual summary.)
New York: Industrial Bulletin, published monthly by Industrial Commissioner,
February 1928 to January 1932; annual reports of Industrial Commissioner,
1928 to 1931.
North Carolina: Biennial reports of Department of Labor and Printing,
periods ended June 30, 1930 and 1932.
Ohio: Annual reports of Department of Industrial Relations, years ended June
30, 1928 to 1931; mimeographed annual reports of Department of Industrial
Relations and TJ.S. Employment Service cooperating, years ended June 30,
1929 to 1931; mimeographed semiannual reports of Department of Industrial
Relations and U.S. Employment Service cooperating, periods ended June 30
and Dec. 31, 1928 to 1931; mimeographed monthly reports of Department of
Industrial Relations and U.S. Employment Service cooperating, February
1928 to January 1932; mimeographed weekly reports of Department of In­
dustrial Relations and U.S. Employment Service cooperating, 1928, and Jan. 5,
to Sept. 21, 1929.i
California:

i Or nearest year reported.




163

164

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Annual report of Department of Labor, year ended June 30, 1931.
(Bulletin No. 10-A.)
Labor and Industry, published monthly by Department of
Labor and Industry, March 1928 to February 1932. (February issue in each
year includes annual summary.)
Rhode Island: Annual reports of Commissioner of Labor, years ended Septem­
ber 30, 1928 to 1931.
Virginia: Annual reports of Department of Labor and Industry, years ended
Sept. 30, 1928 to 1932.
West Virginia: Biennial report of Bureau of Labor, 1929-30.
Wisconsin: Wisconsin Labor Market, published monthly by Industrial Com­
mission, January to September 1930; yearly reports, January 1931 and January
1932; mimeographed monthly reports, Operation of Public Employment
Offices, May 1928 to December 1931; mimeographed annual reports, Opera­
tion of Public Employment Offices, calendar year 1930 and year ended June
28, 1930.
Oklahoma:

Pennsylvania:




APPENDIXES
APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES
APPENDIX B—METHODS USED BY NEW YORK STATE
DEPARTMENT OF LABOR IN PREPARA­
TION OF EMPLOYMENT FIGURES;
STATISTICAL WORK SHEET USED BY
NEW YORK STATE IN PREPARING
WEIGHTS
APPENDIX C—INFORMATION BY SEX PUBLISHED
BY STATE-SUPPORTED EMPLOYMENT
AGENCIES, 1928-31

170570°—S3--------12




165




APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES
Table I.—Numbers and 'proportions of the women unemployed in chief woman-employing occupational groups, selected States, April 19301

All occupational
groups 1
2

State

Nor­
mally
gain­
fully
occu­
pied

Manufacturing
and mechanical

Agriculture

Unem­
ployed,
1930

Unem­
Nor­
ployed,
mally
1930
gain­
fully
Num­ Per­ occu­ Num­ Per­
ber cent pied ber cent

New York................ 1,418,716 70,139
Pennsylvania
806, 755 40, 226
Illinois.- -.
717,231 38, 436
California.-........ .
558,814 30,480
Ohio________ _____ 541,058 26, 250
Massachusetts... .. 529,968 35,468
Texas______ ____
423,018 15, 632
New Jersey............. . 417,706 23,051
Michigan.
360,701 21, 943
Georgia ...
312,322 12,027
Missouri_____ ____ 299, 994 13, 920
North Carolina____ 273, 322 12, 603
Alabama___ ____ . 254, 402 5, 658
Indiana .
236,014 10,642
Mississippi .
231,940 3, 687
Wisconsin................ 215, 693 7,384
South Carolina
206, 878
Minnesota
201,294 6, 792
7,704

4.9 7,457
85
5.0 7,275
5<J
5.4 8,453
7C
5.5 12,058 418
4.9
73
2,093
6.7 8,457
101
3.7 80,032 1,013
5.5 2,241
47
156
6.1 85,, 687 1,695
3.9 6 721
4.6 12,856
114
4.6 70,680
591
104,472
331
2.2
4.5 6,080
33
1.6 142, 222 284
3.4 9,198
35
3.3 88,595 1,777
3.8 9,417
96

Transportation
and communi­
cation

Trade

Public service

Unem­
Nor­
ployed,
mally
1930
gain­
fully
occu­ Num­ Per­
pied ber
cent

Unem­
Nor­
ployed,
mally
1930
gain­
fully
occu­ Num­ Per­
pied ber cent

Unem­
Nor­
ployed,
mally
1930
gain­
fully
occu­ Num­ Per­
pied ber cent

Unem­
Nor­
ployed,
mally
1930
gain­
fully
occu­ Num­ Per­
pied ber
cent

i.i 399,695 29,138 7.3 72,865 1,682
. 7 262,068 19, 932 7.6 32,956
814
.8 178, 268 12, 764 7.2 44,339 1,148
3.5 83, 341 5, 427 6.5 27,021
791
.9 143,873 9, 723
6.8 24,896 643
4.8 205, 346 21, 941 10.7 18,950
468
1.3 38,203 1,926 5.0 16, 661
350
228
2.1 138, 329 11,818 8.5 20,134 477
2.3 82,
6,829 8.3 17,095
569
3, 225
6,281
118
2.0 48,357 4,208 6.7 14,692 318
.9 70,410
6.0 4,194 80
71,585
9.4
.8 24, 636 6, 741
.3
1,497
3,798
73
.5 65,041 4,262 6.1 9,701
198
7, 371
618 6.6 2,810
8.4
72
.2 55, 261 2,867 5.2 9, 526 152
.4
33, 352 1,922 5.8 1,826
38
2.0 29,716 1,641 5.5 9,927 270

1.0

2.3 250,182
2.5 138,097
2.6 147, 456
2.9 133,374
2.6 101,217
2.5 83, 753
2.1 59,803
2.4 74, 315
3.3 67, 083
1.9 21,872
2.2 56,145
1.9 16, 708
1.9 15, 849
2.0 42,290
10,149
2.6 37,062
1.6 8,088
2.1 40,147
2.7

9,296
5,242
6, 576
6,562
4,026
3, 593
2,280
2,505
3, 576
903
2,174
571
519
1, 388
315

1,021
272
1,838

3.7 12,696
3.8 7,665
4.5 5,807
4.9 9, 431
4.0 5, 330
4.3 5,907
3.8 3, 565
3.4 3, 794
5.3 4, 327
4.1 1,310
3.9 2, 370
3.4 1,255
3.3
1,201
3.3 2,300
3.1
652
2,268
2.8 625
3.4
4.6 2,173

124
146
146
249
91
82
63
46
77

10
55
25
13
62
15
18
8
52

Domestic and
personal service

Professional
service
Unem­
Nor­
ployed,
mally
1930
gain­
fully
occu­ Num­ Per­
pied ber cent

1.0 232, 563 6,348
1.9 127, 603 2, 223
2.5 113,816 3,102
2.6 120,210 5,146
1.7 92, 543 1,822
1.4 83,715 1,966
1.8 67, 316 1,650
62, 466
1.2 66,390 1,224
1.8 28,299 1,473
947
.8
2.3 47,410 1,173
31,168
2.0 22,494 674
664
1.1
2.7 40, 582
927
2.3 16,335
531
.8 41, 558 661
1.3 16,822
508
2.4 46,846

Unem­
Nor­
ployed,
mally
1930
gain­
fully
occu­ Num­ Per­
pied ber cent

2.7 373,516 14,014
1.7 213, 748 8,986
2.7 191, 795 10,513
4.3 156,774 9,191
154,950
2.0 118,278 8,429
2.3
5,580
151,311 7,325
2.6 103,127 4,932
2.0
7,714
2.2 108,258 4, 733
3.3 118,543
2.5 91,389 5,085
75,481
2.2 80,517 3,438
2,390
3.0
2.3 66,007 3,121
3.3 51,440 1,699
1.6 56, 237 2,061
3.0 56, 515 2,021
60, 789 2,379

1,002 2.1

3.8
4.2
5.5
5.9
5.4
4.7
4.8
4.8
7.1
4.0
5.6
4.6
3.0
4.7
3.3
3.6
3.6
3.9

1 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. I, tables 6 and 7 under each State section, p. 91ff. Percents computed by Women's Bureau.
Clerical occupations, which later (in vol. II) were reported separately, were included with other groups in this data—see footnote 1, table 2, p. 18. The States selected include all
those in which 200,000 or more women were engaged in gainful occupations. Over 10,000 women were reported unemployed in classes A and B in all these States but Alabama,
Mississippi. Wisconsin. South Carolina, and Minnesota. As many as 4.5 percent of the gainfully occupied women were unemployed in classes A and B in all these States but Alabama,
Georgia, Minnesota, Texas, Wisconsin, South Carolina, and Mississippi. The following States not employing 200,000 women had as large proportions unemployed: Rhode Island,
11.3 percent; Florida, Oregon, and New Hampshire over 6 percent; Maine, Washington, and Connecticut 5 percent or over; Colorado 4.7 percent; these 8 States all had less than 10,000
unemployed in classes A and B. Classes A and B include persons out of a job though able and willing to work and persons on lay-offs without pay.
2 Details aggregate less than total because two occupational groups not important in woman employment—forestry and fishing and extraction of minerals—are not shown
separately.




City

19 cities
Birmingham____
Boston
Buffalo
Chicago-- .........
Cleveland
Dayton..
Denver .. ___
Detroit
Duluth..... ......... Houston. _____
Bos Angeles
Minneapolis
New Orleans
New York s____
Bronx
Brooklyn___
Manhattan..Philadelphia
Pittsburgh____
San Francisco___
Seattle
St. Louis

Nor­
mally
gain­
fully
occu­
pied

II.— Unemployment of women by occupational group, 19 cities, January 1931 i
Manufacturing and
mechanics

Transportation and
communication

Professional service

Trade

Domestic and per­
sonal service

Unemployed, Nor­ Unemployed, Nor­ Unemployed, Nor­ Unemployed, Nor­ Unemployed, Nor­ Unemployed, Nor­
Unem­
1931
1931
1931
1931
1931
1931
mally
mally
mally
mally
mally
mally ployed, 1931
gain­
gain­
gain­
gain­
gain­
gain­
fully
fully
fully
fully
fully
fully
Num­ Per­ occu­ Num­ Per­ occu­ Num­ Per­ occu­ Num­ Per­ occu­ Num­ Per­ occu­ Num­ Per­ occu­ Num­ Per­
ber
ber
ber cent pied
ber cent
cent pied
cent pied
ber cent pied
ber cent pied
ber
cent pied

2, 533, 762 479,283
32,199
7,615
108,416 19, 561
58, 249 10, 461
406, 750 96,264
98,968 21,159
22, 862 3, 859
37, 704
4, 423
140,879 33,382
10, 759
1,450
37, 689
9, 786
163,385 23,135
64,437
7,830
61,108 14, 561
737, 996 117, 408
137,324 23,015
280, 773 48, 557
319,899 45,836
246,136 59,865
69,925 13, 542
84, 352
7,935
45, 365
5,312
106,583 21,735

18.9 467,003 141,559

30.3

83,811

8, 505 10.1

23.6
18.0
18.0
23.7
21.4
16.9
11.7
23.7
13.5
26.0
14.2

21.3
35.2
35. 1
37.9
25.6
21.4
15.9
29.4
20.4
25.7
17.5
16.9
24.6
29.5
29.6
31.3
27.5
36. S
27.9
16.1
17.7
26.0

628
3, 556
2, 332
17,01C
3,056
718
1,194
4, 834
443
1,047
4,282
1,824
1,472
25, 277
5, 961
11, 434
7,882
5,884
2,674
3, 513
1, 18C
2,882

67
332
394
2, 276
362
56

12.2
23.8
15.9
16.8
17.3
14.3
24.3
19.4
9.4
11.7
20.4

1,926

20,668
9,800

74,068
21,036
4,799
3,788
20,978

888
3,299
19,306
8,822
9, 44C
153,98C
30,032
64,95C
58,998
66, 534
6, 908
11,047
4, 769
24,947

411
7,284
3,444
28,049
5,391
1,027
603
6,172
181
847
3,381
1,488
2, 325
45,443
8,903
20,341
16,199
24,473
1,929
1,774
842
6,495

102
562
36
146
468
143
136
2,108
494
936
678
568
262
193
82
212

10.7
9.3
16.9
13.4

11.8
7.8
8.5

11.6
8. 1
13.9
10.9
7.8
9.2
8.3
8.3

8.2
8.6
9.7

9.8
5.5
6.9
7.4

258,923 50,144
2,509
10,646
6,887
42,888
10,918
2,526
4, 543
16,276
1,304
3,631
23,632
7. 362
5,788
60, 228
13,809
23, 655
22, 764
22, 256
9, 602
10, 994
6 239
10,, 694

661
2,424
1,440
9,584
2,426
447
651
3,990
338
714
3, 574
1,401

1,221
9, 702

2,637
4, 669
2,396
5,169
2, 466
1,175
874
1,887

19.4 310,867 14,775

4.8 721,568 174,409

24.2 686,661 89,443 13.0

26.3

6.3
4.3
3.3

30.7
18.2

3,670
22.8 14, 996
20.9
8, 576
22.3 42,225
22.2 11,801
2,642
17.7
14.3
5,968
24.5 17, 348
1,922
25.9
19.7
4,141
15.1 28, 575
19.0
9,603
6,187
21.1 88,328
16.1
19.1 13,381
19.7 28, 81C
10.5 46,137
22.9 25, 735
26.6 9, 272
10.7 12, 463
13.1
7, 258
18.4 10,157

232
647
281
2, 574
499
79
183
788
93
182

2,210
402

231
3,875
881
1,428
1, 566
1,059
339
444
331
326

6.1
4.2
3.0
3.1
4.5
4.8
4.4
7.7
4.2
3.7
4.4
6.6
5. C

3.4
4.1
3.7
3.6
4.6
3.2

18,139
28,922
14, 884
101,934
27, 879
6, 518
11.993
43,620
3,460
17,819
45,904
18,151
28,299
197,205
18,615
50,292
128,298
69.07C
23,81C
19,162
13,074
31,725

5, 561
5,250
3,000
33,087
9,409
1, 748
2,033
16,128
540
7,122
8,769
2, 511
9,298
28, 607
2,094
7,150
19,363
21,008
6,160
2,244
2,069
9,865

1 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. II, table 9, p. 413ff. Percents computed by Womens’ Bureau.
2 Details aggregate less than total because agriculture, forestry and fishing, extraction of minerals, and public service are not shown separately
3 Includes only 3 boroughs, but they contain over 85 percent of the gainfully employed women in the city.




Clerical occupa­
tions

20.2
32.5
33.7
26.8
17.0
37.0
15.6
40.0
19.1
13.8
32.9
14.5
11.2
14.2

15.1
30.4
25.9
11.7
15.8
31.1

5,262
674
29,453 3,609 12.8
12.3
15,640 1,889
128,028 20, 576 12.1
16.1
24,099 3,057 12.7
5,610
500 8.9
10,024
823
8.2
37, 569 5,722 15.2
2,701
270
10.0
7,647
749 9.8
40,794 4,689 11.5
18,575 1,879
9,722 1,319 10.1
13.6
212,01C 27,617 13.0
55,307 7,999 14.5
101,283 14.006 13.8
55,42C 5,612
55,84C 7, 546 10.1
13.5
17,895 2, 379 13.3
27,005
7.8
12, 296 2,101 9.0
1,109
26,491 2,935

11.1

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

All occupational
groups 2

168

Table

Table III.— Unemployment of women by age group, 19 cities, January 1931
All ages 1
2

City

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

7,615
19, 561
10, 461
96,264
21,159
3, 859
4, 423
33, 382
1,450
9,786
23,135
7.830
14. 561
117, 408
23,015
48, 557
45, 836
59, 865
13, 542
7, 935
5,312
21, 735

23.6
18.0
18.0
23.6
21.4
16.9
11.7
23.7
13.5
26.0
14.2
12.2
23.8
15.9
16.8
17.3
14.3
24.3
19.4
9.4
11.7
20.4

Normally
gainfully
occupied

3,288
13,565
9,871
63,643
16,297
2, 549
3, 929
21,128
1,601
4,128
10,318
7, 439
7, 779
123, 693
27,366
60,888
35,439
41,717
12,305
6,013
3,644
16,621

Unemployed,
1931
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

964
4, 578
3,086
21,588
4,675
535
720
6,935
331
1,510
2,435
1,555
2, 597
30, 497
6, 652
15, 768
8,077
14, 468
' 3,162
1,103
647
4,375

29.3
33.7
31.3
33.9
28.7
21.0
18.3
32.8
20.7
36.6
23.6
20.9
33.4
24.7
24.3
25.9
22.8
34.7
25.7
18.3
17.8
26.3

Normally
gainfully
occupied

6,995
24, 467
13,869
96, 304
24, 296
5,298
7, 019
34,876
2,824
8, 446
27, 524
15, 652
12,192
188,148
41,535
82, 349
64, 264
55, 514
17, 096
16, 861
8,962
23,401

50 years and over

25 to 49 years

Unemployed,
1931
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

1,774
4, 578
2,822
22, 095
5,180
836
858
7,887
383
2,144
4,339
1,824
3,062
32, 025
7,196
14, 551
10, 278
13, 976
3,153
1,741
1,041
4, 394

25.4
18.7
20.3
22.9
21.3
15.8
12.2
22.6
13.6
25.4
15.8
11.7
25. 1
17.0
17.3
17.7
16.0
25.2
18.4
ia3
11.6
18.8

Normally
gainfully
occupied

19,074
52,990
27,756
209, 129
49,947
11,816
20,049
74,413
5,316
21,879
98,875
34, 219
33,135
357,122
60,180
115,909
181,033
118,391
32,596
49,208
25,790
53,755

Unemployed,
1931
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

4,381
7,834
3,882
46, 512
10,041
2,040
2, 253
16,908
616
5,502
13,388
3,617
7,689
47,844
8,161
15,829
23,854
26,982
6,172
4,167
2,763
11,096

23.0
14.8
14.0
22.2
20.1
17.3
11.2
22.7
11.6
25.1
13.5
10.6
23.2
13.4
13.6
13.7
13.2
22.8
18.9
8.5
10.7
20.6

1 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. II, table 6, p. 383fl. Percents computed by Women’s Bureau.
Details aggregate less than total because group with age unknown is not shown separately.
s Includes only 3 boroughs, but they contain oyer 85 percent of the gainfully employed women in the city.

Normally
gainfully
occupied

2,813
17,233
6, 645
37,098
8,292
3,175
6,663
10,336
1,017
3,112
26,536
7.059
7,962
68,045
8,104
21,251
38,690
30, 318
7,876
11,691
6,896
12,738

Unemployed,
1931
Num­
ber
489
2,543
633
5,933
1,242
440
590
1,614
120
627
2,930
826
1,183
6,851
954
2,331
3,566
4,323
1,042
890
853
1,844

Per­
cent
17.4
14.8
9.5
16.0
15.0
13.9
8.9
15.6
11.8
20.1
11.0
11.7
14.9
10.1
11.8
11.0
9.2
14.3
13.2
7.6
12.4
14.5

A-

32,199
108,416
58. 249
406, 750
98, 968
22, 862
37, 704
140, 879
10, 759
37, 689
163, 385
64, 437
61,108
737, 996
137,324
280,773
319,899
246,136
69, 925
84,352
45, 365
106, 583

Unemployed,
1931

20 to 24 years

APPENDIX

Birmingham
Boston__________ ______________
Buffalo_______ _____
Chicago------------------------------------Cleveland
Dayton_____ ___________________
Denver. ________________ __ Detroit-------------------------------------Duluth.._______ ________ _______
Houston
Los Angeles
Minneapolis......... .............................
New Orleans. __________ ____ .
New York 3 ____________ ... ___
Bronx________ _____________
Brooklyn. __________ _______
Manhattan
Philadelphia............. ......... .................
Pittsburgh
San Francisco
Seattle................................................
St. Louis________________ ____ _

Normally
gainfully
occupied

Under 20 years

0
IS

2
ts
SJ
t>
F
►
w
F
IS

m

2




Oi

eo

170

Table IV.— Unemployment of women by nativity and race, 19 cities, January 19811
Native white

Unemployed,
1931
City

Normal­
ly gain­
fully
Num­
occu­
pied
ber

Birmingham....... _ 32,199
Boston_____ ... .. 108, 416
Buffalo____ ______
58, 249
Chicago..................... 406, 750
Cleveland98,968
Dayton
22,862
Denver
37, 704
Detroit
140, 879
10, 759
Houston
37, 689
Los Angeles
163, 385
Minneapolis
...... 64, 437
New Orleans
61,108
New York *
737, 996
Bronx.
137, 324
Brooklyn. ___ 280, 773
Manhattan____ 319, 899
Philadelphia___ _ 246, 136
Pittsburgh_____
69, 925
San Francisco
84, 352
Seattle___ ______ 45, 365
St. Louis-------------- 106, 583

7,615
19,561
10,461
96, 264
21,159
3,859
4,423
33, 382
1,450
9,786
23,135
7,830
14, 561
117,408
23,015
48, 557
45,836
59,865
13, 542
7,935
5,312
21, 735

Unemployed, 1931

Normal­
ly gain­
fully
Per­ occu­ Class A 3 Class B 3
pied
cent

23.6
18.0
18.0
23.6
21.4
16.9
11.7
23.7
13.5
26.0
14.2
12.2
23.8
15.9
16.8
17.3
14.3
24.3
19.4
9.4
11.7
20.4

Foreign-born white

13,745
74, 243
46, 906
285,044
68,741
19, 293
32,675
94,093
8,912
21,490
124, 260
56,376
31,980
433,537
91,366
190, 843
151,328
169,280
54, 756
64, 222
36, 279
83, 097

1,898
11,359
6, 479
48,077
10,205
2,220
3,254
15,266
1,118
2, 782
15, 910
6,513
4, 429
61, 514
14, 344
29, 822
17, 348
31, 529
7, 773
5,863
4,010
10, 635

177
3,066
2,374
10,179
2,071
445
414
2,628
87
161
907
495
538
6, 214
1,081
3,856
1,277
5,977
1,471
480
468
2,207

Negro

Unemployed, 1931

Classes A
and B
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

2,075
14, 425
8,853
58,256
12,276
2,665
3,668
17,894
1,205
2,943
16, 817
7,008
4, 967
67, 728
15,425
33, 678
18, 625
37,506
9, 244
6, 343
4,478
12,842

15.1
19.4
18.9
20.4
17.9
13.8
11.2
19.0
13. 5
13.7
13.5
12.4
15.5
15.6
16.9
17.6
12.3
22.2
16.9
9.9
12.3
15.5

Normal­
ly gain­
fully
occu­ Class A3 Class B 3
pied

386
30,115
9,675
76,535
19,231
1,009
3,030
31,230
1,776
1,041
21,944
7,416
1,486
229, 239
43,605
75,995
109, 639
34,033
8,235
17, 363
7,914
5,994

9
3,041
637
9,208
2,180
70
138
3,271
207
60
1,643
548
46
24, 923
6,225
9, 191
9,507
4, 018
572
1,150
606
443

2
872
290
2, 665
661
24
39
662
27
11
106
85
7
3,652
933
1,745
974
801
209
123
94
96

Unemployed, 1931

Classes A
and B
Num­
ber

Per­
cent

11
3,913
927
11, 873
2, 841
94
177
3,933
234
71
1,749
633
53
28,575
7,158
10, 936
10, 481
4,819
781
1,273
700
539

2.8
13.0
9.6
15.5
14.8
9.3
5.8
12.6
13.2
6.8
8.0
8.5
3.6
12.5
16.4
14.4
9.6
14.2
9.5
7.3
8.8
9.0

Normal­
ly gain­
fully
occu­ Class A s Class B 3
pied

Classes A
and B
Num­
ber

18,067
4,027
1,621
44,421
10,967
2,559
1,610
15, 381

5,046
949
623
24, 617
5, 445
986
459
10,590

483
273
58
1,373
595
114
33
941

5,529
1,222
681
25,990
6,040
1,100
492
11,531

30.6
30.3
42.0
58.5
55.1
43.0
30.6
75.0

14, 395
8,454
619
27, 531
74, 704
2,327
13,825
58,552
42.729
6,923
772
487
17,436

6,341
3,093
181
8,420
19,886
401
3,375
16,110
15,762
2,838
145
111
7,750

304
141
5
1,116
1,172
30
562
580
1,775
678
12
4
594

6,645
3,234
186
9,536
21,058
431
3,937
16,690
17, 537
3, 516
157
115
8, 344

46.2
38.3
30.0
34.6
28.2
18.5
28.5
28.5
41.0
50.8
20.3
23.6
47.9

1 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Unemployment, vol. II, table 2, p. 370ff. Percents computed by Women's Bureau.
2 Details aggregate less than total because of nativity groups not shown separately.
3 Class A—Persons out of a job, able to work, and looking for a job; Class B—Persons having jobs but on lay-off without pay, excluding those sick or voluntarily idle.
* Includes only 3 boroughs, but they contain over 85 per cent of the gainfully employed women in the city.




Per­
cent

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

All classes 2

*

*

?

Table V.—Industrial distribution of women employees in selected industries in Illinois
Women wage earners in Illinois as reported by U.S. Census of Occupations, 1930 2 3

Women wage earners as reported by the State of Illinois for August 1930 1
Main industrial
groups
Percent

Number

Number

Percent
All industries *---- -----------------------

57.3 100.0

Manufacturing and mechanical industries..

15,892

38. 3

Clock and watch factories________

Iron and steel, machinery and vehicle




Number

Percent

715,468 100.0______
125,324
5, 744

17.5 100.0
....

4.6

Electrical machinery and supply fac-

100.0
Slaughter and packing houses. ...
2,609
36.3
2,345
32.6
757
10.5
549
7.6
368
5.1
179
2.5
163
2.3
Dairy products____ ____________
80
1.1
70
1.0
65
.9
1 Illinois Department of Labor, Labor Bulletin, September 1930, p. 56.
3U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Occupation Statistics, Illinois, table 4.
3 Only groups having 1,000 or more women are shown here. Percents computed by Women's Bureau.
* “Other" not specified occupations have not been shown separately regardless of size.
* Included in miscellaneous manufacturing in the census.
7,185

17.3

8,347
2,874
1,672
747
663
468
392
376
190
72
37
30
24

100.0
52.5
18.1
10.5
4.7
4.2
2.9
2.5
2.4
1. 2
.5
.2
.2
.2

Percent

3,133
1,925
10,024

5.436

....

....

9.8

<«>

4.3

12,263

100.0
54.5
33.5

2, 923
4, 622
1,573

100.0
23.8
37.7
12.8

APPENDIX A— GENERAL TABLES

72,378 100.0______
41,491

All industries........... ....................... .

Subdivisions of
main groups

Industry

Industry
Number

Main industrial
groups

Subdivisions of
main groups

Women wage earners as reported by the State of Illinois for August 1930

6,609

Percent
___

15.9

Men’s shirts and furnishings_____
Women’s hats________ _________
Overalls and work clothes________
Printing and paper goods........ ...........
Job printing___________________

Subdivisions of
main groups
Industry

Number
Clothing and millinery_____
Men's clothing.-___ _______ ____
Women’s clothing______________

Women wage earners in Illinois as reported by U.S. Census of Occupations, 1930 2 3

4,413

___

10.6

Number

3,188
1,992
629
600
144
38
18
2. 630
1, 064

Main industrial
groups

Percent

Number

100 0
48 2
30.1

25,116

9.1
2.2
.6

9,858
3,883
2,563

100. 0
59. 6

Percent

Subdivisions of
main groups
Number

Percent

20.0
1,221

Printing, publishing, and engraving

....

7,470

4.9

4,918

65.8

7, 043

90.7

1,587

27.5

2.0
6.0

150
140
Furs and leather goods ___ _
Boots and shoes___________ _____

3,253

Chemicals, oils, and paints

1,624

___

7.8

3,070

100.0
94.4

7, 761

100.0

2,664

....

6.2

___

2.1

21
___

3.9

Mineral and vegetable oils..............
Paints, dyes, and colors___ _____
Textiles__________ ________________
Knit goods______________ _____
Miscellaneous textiles. _...................
Thread and twine.............................




1,232

....

3.0

690
598
243
93
481
330
190

15. 0
5 7
100.0
39. 0
15.4

5,774

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Industry

Main industrial
groups

172

Table V.—Industrial distribution of women employees in selected industries in Illinois—Continued

*

4

Stone, clay, and glass------- ------------Glass............. ............ ............ .......
Brick, tile, and pottery------------Miscellaneous stone and minerals.
Lime, cement, and plaster______

Trade—wholesale and retail.
Mail-order houses-------Department stores____
Wholesale groceries........
Wholesale dry goods---Milk distributing-------Metal jobbing...............

Services.............. ................................... .
Hotels and restaurants-------------Laundering, cleaning, and dyeing.

See footnotes on p. 171.




21,467

29.7

5,665

7. 8

3,755

5.2

100.0
65.0
25.4
5.5
4.1
100.0
91.0
6.8
1.5
.8

21,267
132
48
20

100.0
99.1
.6
.2
.1

3,740
1,527
159
148
56
35

100.6
66.0
27.0
2.8
2.6
1.0
.6

2,409
1,346

100.0
64.2
35.8

1,515

1.2

Foremen and overseers (manufacturing).
Transportation and communication--------Telephone operators................................
Telegraph operators--------- ---------------

2,218
26,517
22,280
1,768

___
1.8
3.7 100.0
84.0
6.7

Trade...................................................-........
Salesmen and saleswomen, etc----------Salesmen and saleswomen_______
“Clerks” in stores---------------- --------Retail dealers....................... ........ ...........
Groceries..----- ------------------------Dry goods, clothing, boots and shoes
Candy and confectionery—...........
Real-estate agents and officials----------Real-estate agents______________
Insurance agents, managers, and officials Domestic and personal service---------------Waiters..------------- ------ -----------------Housekeepers and stewards-------------Housekeepers in hotels, restaurants,
boarding houses, etc----------------Laundry operatives......... .....................
Cooks------------------------------------------Cooks in hotels, restaurants, board­
ing houses, etc..............................
Other servants in hotels, restaurants,
etc........................ ........ ............ ..........
Laundresses (not in laundries)
Boarding- and lodging-house keepers...
Barbers, hairdressers, and manicurists .
Midwives and nurses (not trained)----Nurses (not trained)____________
Charwomen and cleaners
Restaurant, cafe, and lunchroom keep­
ers____________________ _________
Janitors and sextons
Cleaning, dyeing, and pressing shop
workers................................................-

75,342
42,969

10.5 100.0
___ 57.0

13,970
8,407

....
....

Lumber and furniture industries

18.5
11.2

1,683
1,059
192,311
18, 756
14,442

41, 596

100.0
96.8

2,156
1,504
1,075

100.0
25.6
17.9
12.8
100.0
98.5

1,658
26.9 100.0
....
9.8
....
7.5

12,800
11,744

....
....

6.7
6.1

11,730
9.915
9,271
9,134
7,781

....
....
....
___
....

6.1
5.2
4.8
4.7
4.0

3,004

....
....
___

1.4
1.4

1,652

....

13.3

1.6

2,773
2,750

100.0
1,922

APPENDIX A— GENERAL TABLES

Public utilities______________
Telephone_______________
Railway car repair-----------Water, gas, light, and power.
Street railways___________

413
161
35
26
563
42
9
5

1.5

Wood products............... ....................
Furniture and cabinet work___
Miscellaneous wood products—
Saw and planing mills________
Pianos and musical instruments.

.9

100.0
6,305

53.7

7,634

100.0
98.1

^1
CO

174

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
Table VI.—Indexes of employment for women and
[June 1928=100]
All manufacturing

Electrical apparatus

Watches and
jewelry

Sheet-metal work
and hardware

Month
1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931
Women:
January...
February. _
March___
April____
May_____
June.........

1.3 100.0 103.0
101.5 101.5 102.4
99.0 102.7 100.5
97.2 102.6 95.5
97.0 104.4 94.4
100.0 106.9 92. 1

July_____
August___
September.
October...
November.
December.,
Men:
January_
_
February..
March.......
April_____
May.,....... .
June_____

93.8 100.6
96.6 103.1
97.8 104.9
97.4 106.2
98.4 106.7
100.0 106.8

July______
August___
September.
October___
November.
December.

97.0 105.1
94.5 114.5
88.4 120.0
87.1 123.1
88.1 125.3
100.0 129.7

112.3
107.9
103.7
93.6
83.9
80.5

66.4 101.6
60.6 101.3
57.7 100.9
58.0 100.7
57.2 100.6
56.0 100.0

109.1 107.0 88.0 73.0 90.3
87.1
111.4 105.6 88.6 86.1 103.0 102.6 88.8
111.6 104.4 83.5 88.2 107.9 100.7 96.5
111.2 101.7 84.4 96.2 100.3 99. 1 100.2
108.3 101. 2 75.8 Q4 113. 2 97.8 96.6
105.5 100. 74.7 ioo!o 119. 1 109.9 95.1

85.9 75.4 88.0 114.7
91.1 78.3 86.2 125.0
88.8 75.5 91.6 129.5
85.8 70.3 102.0 137. 1
81.3 66.0 103. 1 136. 1
81.1 67.3 100. 115.7

94.6 106.5
97.5 107.4
104.1 110.
103. 1 107.9
101.3 109.0
101.4 105.3

80.3
80.4
79.1
78.5
79.4
77.8

68.7
70.7
70. 1
72.6
67.7
63.7

53. 61.3
57.2 99.7
51.3 101.0
48. 9 104.1
44.2 107.0
42.8 108.0

104. 1
104.5
105.2
105.5
110.4
108. 6

100.5 79.8
100.8 79.3
100.3 79.5
98.8 78.3
97.0 76.8
94.7 73.8

103. 1 106.7 104.7
103.3 111.9 101.6
101.6 114.9 97.4
100.7 114. 90.7
101.3 116.1 85.4
100.0 122.9 80.9

58.0
98.3
97.2
96.8
94. 5
93.1

66.9 100.9 104.2 104.3
67.4 100.4 105.6 103.6
66.0 100.2 106. 6 101.6
65.0
1.1 106.2 100.0
63.3 100.0 104.9 98.4
100.0 103.2 98.0
62.0

1.7 105.8 88.9 71.8 102.7 112.5 70.5 59.6 66.8 101.7
101.1 107.9 87.2 71.0 105.7 115.3 70.8 58.7 99.5 103.4
101.2 108.4 84.9 69.2 114.3 116.8 70.6 55.1 100.3 103.8
101. 1 106.3 82.5 67.1 118.4 116.4 70.7 53.4 102.3 104.2

62. 1
96.8
96.1
94.6
101.3 104.7 80.7 65.0 113.2 115.7 67.7 51.8 103.3 105.9 93.5
101.8 101.3 81.0 65.3 110.8 106.9 68. 4 51. 3 104.0 105.4 90.4
Paper boxes, bags,
and tubes

Job printing

74.6 102.4
74.0 101.3
73.7 103. 1
66.3 102.8
65. 102.9
61.4 100. 1

116.5
104.9
91.8
97.2
95.3
97.4

112.5
99.1
89.3
96.1
91.2
87.3

67.2

79.7 80.3 102. 1 91.2
84.0 91.9 102.8 92.3
79.0 94.2 106.2 92.8
76.9 95.6 110.3 91.7
74.6 98.0 109.3 91.6
74.4 100.0 108.3 106.6

99.6
99.9
96.2
95.3
97.4
95.0

74.0 95.6
73.9 102.1
75.7 97.5
74.0 101.6
71.6 101.5

91.7
86.7
86.5
87.0
86.7
82.9

109.4
105.5
103.5
98.7
93.4
68.0 102.2 93.6

Boots and shoes

Montn

106.5
104.7
101.3
102.3
103.0
99.9

92.7
89.2
82.4
74.7
66.1

Chemicals, oils, and
paints

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931
Women:
January____
February___
March_____
April----------

119.3
118.1
94.8
90.3
105. 7
June_______ 100.0

120.3
90.6
93.0
83.6
95. 7
96.8

108.9
86.0
74.0
71.5
97. C
86.6

93. S
90.9
65.6
61.7
75.4
70.3

July..............
August____
September.. _
October____
November.
December...

116. 3
115.8
119.0
104.4
109.7
109.5

114.0
127.1
117.4
93.9
91.4
105.4

109. 7
106.4
64.7
67.4
73.3
89.5

65.3 100. 5 100. 6
88.2 101.9 106.4
53.2 107. 9 110.3
54.3 118.2 112.9
51.4 m. s 118.4
58.1 115.1 106.3

111.3
106.8
97.3
93.6
94.6
mo. o

113.8
107.3
103. 1
99. 1
101. 0
106. 5

114.6
105.0
98.7
96.8
99.8
104. 1

103.8 102.8
98.1 104.5
90.2 104.6
87.2 103. 4
85.5 98.6
81.7 100. 0

109.9
106. 1
100. 1
99.5
101.2
107.3

112.8
114.2
105.7
101.9
102.0
108.8

111.4
105.1
89.7
88.8
91.6
95.4

Men:
January___
February_
_
March
April... _ _.
May_______
July
August____
September...
October____
November.. _
December...

1 No report before June 1928




101.4
100. i
105.4
100.2
99. 8
100.0

98.6
94. C
101.4
107.1

95.4
91. 2
91.3
88.7

85.7
81.1
85.2
81.9

104.8
105.3
96.6
92.2

102.6
103. 2
100.1
103.2

92.6
93.6
92.3
89.6

80.0
82.5
81.5
80.6

93.3
94.7
95.fi
100.8

102.2
105.2
117.4
125.4

100.2
97.6
104.1
100.9

86.8
91.6
92.7
93.7

114.4 87.0 81.0 100.0 102.0 89.6 68.1 100.0 121. 7 86.7 85.2
96.8
103. 7
102.5
96.7
93.0

74.6 104.1
91.6 101.6
93.2 101.0
90.5 102.2
83.0 102.2

111.5
107.2
98.3
93.9
92.6

94.2
91.7
88.7
78.4
77.9

69.9
61.9
55.6
46.1
47.4

97.9
102.7
100. 1
101.2
99.7
96. 3

92.8
88.8
87.6
90. 1
86.4
86.1

79.4
80.8
79.4
78.2
78.9
78 7

101.6
103.8
100.2
96.0
76.0

103.0
103.2
99.5
100.5
100.8

93.2
94.2
95.5
94.1
93.0

81.9 91.3
83.0 93.7
83.2 94.9
79.7 98.2
73.1 100.2

82.4 100. 7 95. 0
89.4 104.2 96.1
77.0 106.5 98.3
74.3 107.6 98.5
72.7 104. 9 100.2
80.1 102.1 93.7

84. 5
82.6
88.8
84.4
82.2
77.8

78.6 105.3
77.6 106.0
78.6 102.9
75.6 104.6
75.4 103.1

111.4
111.3
108.2
98.8
95.2

97.9
94.6
89.7
82.7
81.1

71.3
64.9
54.9
56.7
62.3

110.7 116.9
114.5 110.2
116.7 113.4
108.5 115.9
104.5 109.8

100.2
101.0
100.6
99.2
99.6

87.9
81.7
81.3
78.0
82.4

93.5
96.8
95. 7
86.1
81.2

99.3
101.0
101.9
104.0
103.0

95.2
94.5
97.6
98.6
97.5

83.4
83.8
83.0
83.7
83.4

103.1
100.5
97.0
96.8
95.5

90.9
88.5
83.6
78.8
79.5

75.1
75.6
75.8
74.4
72.0

175

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES
men in selected industries in Illinois, 1928-31
[June 1928=100]

Slaughtering and
meat packing

Clothing and
millinery

Confectionery

Men’s clothing

Women’s clothing

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931

113.1
121. 1
118.1
112.1
127. 8
132.7

97.4
95.5
97.9
94.2
90.4
100.0

103.4 107.9
103.2 114.4
100.0 108.9
99.8 106.3
107.6 108.5
106.2 113.5

100.2
94.6
91.7
92.0
97.4
95.5

110.2
108.0
106.2
91.0
94. 2
100.0

96.9
93.2
95.3
99.4
104.3
107.6

108.9
109.6
115.2
110.6
117.9
119.6

107.6
105.4
108.4
107.0
105. 6
99.2

96.5
95.4
99.0
99.5
102. 7
105.3

109.8 127. 1
106. 9 139. 9
130.5 153.3
143. 2 161.1
120.7 146. 4
122. 1 120.8

102.2 108.3
103. 6 103. 9
100.1 102.4
95.4 98.5
96.6 102.8
100.0 102.8

102.6
99.9
93.5
91.3
90.8
97.7

100.1 102.7
98.4 103. <]
99. C 105.4
101.7 105.8
105. 1 106. li
109.5 107.0

94.1
90.6
92.0
91.3
94.5
94.7

1929

90.1 89.6 74.9
94.1 94.1 79.4
93.3 97.7 80. 4
89.8 86.0 80.3
84.1 84.7 79.9
93.6 86.8 80.4

104.8
105. C
102.3
96.0
92.3
100.0

129.3 95.0
129.4 101.7
137.0 118.7
126.9 85.6
110.5 79.5
107.5 83.6

91.8 80.0 76.7
84.1 85.0 71.7
82.7 80.9 71.8
81.1 71.8 69. 1
85.7 67.5 62.4
86.2 70.7 69.9

98.3
98.1
96.5
94.2
81.4
93.7

87.9 80.8 74.7
85.8 80.6 75.6
84.9 79.3 74. 1
74.5 67. & 73. 1
79.0 66.6 66.3
82.9 74.6 72.3

102.8 99.9 96.5 87.4
102.7 99.7 97.2 88.9
99.7 98.8 92.8 87.6
93. C 95.2 77.0 84.4
95.0 93.8 81.7 78.0
100.0 101.8 88.1 82.0

102.5
103.1
99.0
90.7
93.6
100.0

99.4 94.3 86.9
98.6 94.5 87.9
97.5 89.5 86.8
93.6 72.5 83.4
92.9 78.7 77. 1
101.3 87.7 80.6

94.5 112.0 108.8 112.3
91.2 116.8 106.5 110.1
87.3 114.7 104. S 103. 5
86.7 107. 2 101.}? 106.2
86.5 104.3 109. 2 104.7
86.2 100.0 111.5 104.8
86.1
84. C
85.6
85. ^
86. i
90.8

98.7
104.1
106.8
111.9
106. 5
106.4

110.9
113. 2
116.7
128.5
116. S
114.8

Textiles
1928

113.2 103.2 100.9
117.7 111.7 103.3
103. 2 108.8 102.5
120. 0 101.0 99. 2
128. 3 104. 1 96.7
141.0 104.2 100.0

1930

89.6
91.2
87.6
87.4
86.0
85.0

95.3
92. 3
91.7
91. 2
83.9
89.0

102.0 73.7
96.0 76.4
100.7 87.5
96.5 108.6
92.7 103.9
101.5 104.7

99.7
98.8
99.0
96.5
91.5
98.6

101.8 89.0 89.8
97.8 88.9 87.9
95.9 86.0 84.3
87.5 75.2 80.7
93.7 75.0 78. C
97.1 83.2 84.9

Telephone
1931

1928

1929

1930

98.7
100.4
101.5
103. 1
105.8
106.6

102.5
100.0
99.3
101.2
103.3
103.6

99.7
97.9
97.5
94.2
90.1
98.3

95. 1 82.6 76.5 102.8 96.3 115.0 88.3
95.6 82.9 76.3 108.1 104.2 132.3 97.7
95.4 82.2 75.8 106.4 108.1 149.8 101.3
86.2 63.2 70.8 102.1 107.8 156.5 107.8
77.6 67.2 66.7 101.3 104.6 157.0 119.2
88.3 80.8 69.2 100.0 113.6 139.4 124.0

1928

102.0 106.0
105.3 111.9
108.2 112.8
105.3 113.8
98.9 110.7
104.2 97.3

77.7
85.6
83.5
80.1
72.7
81.9
76.8
82.3
83.1
80.8
75.5
75.5

Laundering, cleaning,
and dyeing
1930

99.0
99.6
104.1
106. 0
105. 0
106.2

113.3
106.6
103.2
103.3
104. 1
103.5

98.7
95.0
95.7
92.2
91.7
92.5

89.6 97.8 99.4 83.3 86.6 102.6 111.0
88.2 98.8 93.9 82.3 79.4 99.3 117.5
87.5 95.5 94.7 83.5 84.4 100.8 111.0
86.6 100.9 98.3 99.8 88.3 98.7 104.0
85.9 103.7 99. 1 106.7 93.3 97.3 100.5
85.4 139.8 116.5 135.1 111. 2 98.1 102.4

102.2
102.7
99.9
103. 1
100.9
97.8

91.8
90.0
91.4
88.2
86.8
86.1

105.1 100. 1 92.5 92.5 98.1 98.5 103.3
105.2 100.2 96.8 98. 1 98.2 98.4 102.0
107.3 95.8 96.2 100.1 98.7 98.8 101.3
102.7 96.3 102.7 101.3 100.9 100.5 102.2
101.1 99.0 101.6 101.3 101.0 104.9 104.7
100.0 99.7 97.0 97.3 100.0 103.5 103.3

96.7
96.0
96.6
96.2
95.5
95.0

107.8
109.4
102.2
104.5
100.8
100.0

106.3 103.7 102.5
103.7 100.8 96.6
91.3 99.8 98.0 o
104.7 102.4 98.6
102.0 99.1 101.9
102.2 98.3 104.0 100.0

102.8
100. 1
103.5
107.5
104.9
104.2

115.0
110.7
107.5
109.5
108.0
107.4

92.8
91.2
91.6
89.2
89.2
86.8

95.0 100.0 100.3 105.4 103.8
90.6 97.4 101.5 105.9 104.1
94.2 96.4 100.1 104.8 103.4
97.6 94. £ 99.8 105.3 100.8
93.3 89.fl 98.9 104.9 100.7
90.9 89.7 98.8 102.3 98.7

93. 3
86.7
84.4
89. C
88.5
88.4

102.3
99.7
107.8
104.9
106.9
116.8

102.0 94.1 98.3 102.9
100.9 95.9 100.6 102.0
102.5 93.2 98.2 100.4
107.2 107.7 99.6 100.2
107.3 113.5 102.6 107.1
117.7 140.4 106.3 109.2

106.7
102.3
98.8
114.2
116.9
111. 1

100.7
97.2
95.9
96.8
94.8
93.5

88.2
86.3
89.3
87.4
85.4
82.8

89.4
83.8
91.1
90.1
96.8
95.3

82.4
84.9
108.3
93.4
94.4
90.1

96.3
93.3
103.9
113. 1
109. 9
102.8

99.3 92.6
105.9 98.2
102.5 102.4
108.3 99.4
107. 1 96.8
101.2 93.9

95.9
93.9
93.3
92.2
92.8
84.9

74.5 93.5
82.9 93.1
90.9 92.8
92.3 94.3
91.7 97.4
93.1 100.0

84.6 85.2 101.8 108.0 103.7
71.8 78.4 102.0 107.5 101.7
79.5 77.5 100.4 105.8 99.9
90.8 82.8 99.0 104.4 98.2
90.3 76.1 98.4 104.4 97.3
86.5 *76.1 97.4 103.3 96.1




95.0 94.8
94.2 95.1
93.3 94.6
92.5 97.2
91.6 95.2
90.7 100.0

100.9
102.3
109.4
103.6
101.6
102.9

1930

88.8
100.7
108.6
103.3
92.4
72.8

96.5
93.0
90.4
79.2
66.6
91.9

1929

106.0
117. 3
102.2
101.8
98.6
100.0

1929

108.8
108. 1
108.7
102.3
106.2
100.0

100.8 89.2 90.5 102.5 103.2
96.2 88.2 87.8 115.7 110.7
93.0 84. 1 83.4 117.9 113.6
82.9 72.8 79.8 119.7 116.6
91.4 73.7 77.7 103.1 105.4
95.5 84.7 85.4 100.9 100.4

Department stores
1931

90.8 103.7 94.1
93.6 100.0 101.7
95.2 87. (J 111.3
89.5 95.9 102.2
98.4 107.2 89.1
95.0 102.9 87.9

91.6
88.9
88.5
92.4
88.1
87.4

1931

1928

97.8
90.7 0)
90.6
92.6
93.4
92.7 100.0

1931

Main industrial
groups

Industry

Subdivisions of
main groups
Industry

Number

Percent

466,357

100.0

167,067

Metals and machinery......... ........

35.8

Machinery and electrical apparatus____

Silverware and jewelry____________
Structural and architectural iron________
57,891

12.4

Women’s clothing_______ _______
Women’s underwear_______
Women's headwear___________________

Woolens, carpets, and felts....................... .
Knit goods, except silk_____ _____ _____
Silk and silk goods................................ .

47, 320

10.1

Other textiles (including dyeing and fin-

100.0
30.9
13.0
11.5
10.9
8.0
7.4
7.0

21,089
11, 354
11,143
5,279
4,078
2,927
2,021

3.9
2.9
1.8
1.7
1.1
100.0
36.4
19.6
19.2
9.1
7.0
5.1
3.5

16,488
10, 538
6, 588
4,776

100.0
34.8
22.3
13.9
10.1

8,930
Bakery products....... .............. ..................

X

Percent

6,499
4, 765
2,926
2,798
1,757

Sheet metal and hardware ____________
Iron and steel________________________
Cooking, heating, and ventilating appa­
ratus________ _____ ____
Firearms, tools, and cutlery....... ................

Men’s clothing________ _____________

Number

51, 599
21, 759
19, 206
18, 293
13,445
12,397
11,623

Instruments and appliances.___ _______
Automobiles, airplanes, etc.......... ..........




Women wage earners in manufacturing and mechanical industries in New York as
reported by U.S, Census of Occupations, 1930 2 2

43, 793

9.4

13, 276

18.9
100.0
30.3

Main industrial
groups
Number

Manufacturing and mechanical industires *___________ ____________
Iron and steel, machinery, and vehicle indus­
tries____ _____ _______________________
Automobile factories... _.
Electrical machinery and supply factories.
Metal industries (except iron and steel)...........

Shirt, collar, and cuff factories__________
Glove factories_____ _________________
Corset factories_______
___
Hat factories (felt) _ __________________
Dressmakers and seamstresses (not in factories).
Milliners and millinery dealers.___
Textile industries_______________________
Woolen and worsted mills_
_
Knitting mills........ ............................ .......

Percent

297,958

100.0

6,684

2.2

2,380

105, 886

Number

1,082
4,568

35.5

Percent

100.0
16.2

(6)

.8

19,990
10, 936
4, 531
39,096

6.7
3.7
1.5
13.1

10,394
10,306
6,159
2,747
2,287

2,681
9, 772
8,172
4, 007
4,765
2,165

Carpet mills ................. ..............................
Lace and embroidery mills......... ................
Bakeries........................................................

Subdivisions of
main groups

10,177

3.4

2, 425

100.0
9.8
9.7
5.8
2.6
2.2

100.0
6.9
25.0
20.9
10.2
12.2
5.5
100.0
23.8

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Women wage earners in manufacturing as reported by the State of New York for
September 1928 1

176

Table VII.—Industrial distribution of women in selected manufacturing industries in New York

•4

Sugar and other groceries..
Candy...............................
Tobacco_______________
Meat and dairy products..
Canning and preserving...
Flour, feed, and cereals__
Beverages......................
Printing and paper goods_____
Printing and bookmaking-.
Miscellaneous paper goods.
Paper boxes and tubes____

Furs, leather, and rubber goods____
Shoes______________________
Gloves, bags, and canvas goods _
Rubber and gutta percha_____
Pearl, horn, bone, etc_________
Leather................... .....................
Furs and fur goods......................
Chemicals, oils, paints, etc________

38, 356

12.6
10.1

29,455
5,388
3, 513

76.8
14.0
9.2

Paper, printing, and allied industries............. .
Printing, publishing, and engraving-----Paper-box factories___________________
Blank book, envelope, tag, paper bag,
etc., factories______________________

100.0
66.2
11.0

Paper and pulp mills_________________
Compositors, linotypers, and typesetters____
Leather industries
Shoe factories________________________
Leather belt, leather goods, etc., factories.
Rubber factories------------ -------------------------

7,093
37,471

8.0

24, 788
4,108
2,682
2,510
1,910
1, 473
9,337
8,683
5,956
2,190

Wood manufactures_____________________
Furniture and cabinet work.......... .........
Pianos and other musical instruments..
Miscellaneous wood, etc_____________
Saw and planing mills...............................
Stone, clay, and glass____________________

7.2
6.7
5.1
3.9
100.0

26,166

4.7

4, 385
3, 306
3, 219
3,094
5,245

1.1

1.0

12,028

4.0

4,027
1.017

39.6
10.0

Chemical and allied industries.

100.0

5,705
2,526

47.4
21.0

1,946
1,134
13,824

.4
4.6

16.2

1,851

15.4
100.0

11, 405
2,071
1,175

82.5
15.0

(*)

4,915

22.8

8.4
37.8
22.2
20.2

100.0

Lumber and furniture industries.
Furniture factories_________

1,049

45.6

19.7
100.0

Brick, tile, and pottery__________
Miscellaneous stone and minerals.
Lime, cement, and plaster_______
Glass__________________________

2,899

35.7
33.2
100.0

8, 303
4,879
4, 443
4,326

Candy factories.................. ............
Fruit and vegetable canning, etc.
Cigar and tobacco factories___ ____ _

7.0
5.5
4.5
100.0

8.2

Oil products_________________________
Photographic and miscellaneous chemicals.
Drugs and industrial chemicals................
Paints and colors__________ ____ ______

Water, light, and power-

17.1
13.0

Clay, glass, and stone industries.

1,312

Foremen and overseers (manufacturing)..
Managers and officials (manufacturing)..

5, 714
2,115

31.3
23.6
23.0
22.1

1.9
.7

1 New York State Department of Labor, Industrial Bulletin, October 1928, p. 405. This includes office employees. The numbers are the actual figures reported. For weighted
absolutes see table 11, p. 72, and statistical work sheet, p. 219.
2 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Occupation Statistics, New York, table 4.
3 Only groups having 1,000 or more women are shown here. Percents computed by Women’s Bureau.
* ‘‘Other” not specified occupations are not shown separately, though more than 1,000 women fell in the group.
3 Included in miscellaneous manufacturing in the census.




A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

Pulp and paper .

7,468
5, 691
5, 508
4,414
3,061
2,404
1,971

178

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
Table VIII—Indexes of employment for women and men in
[June 1923=1001
All manufacturing

Clothing and millinery

,,, m , . ...
Women’s clothing

Men’s clothing

Month
I
1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 j 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931
Women:
January__
February..
March___
April____
May_____
June_____

76
75
81
76
72
76

80
84
85
84
76
87

88
86
79
69
67
72

67
75
80
80
70
70

July-------August___
September.
October__
November.
December.

82
85
87
86
81
79

87
92
91
90
84
80

81
82
82
67
62
65

73
71
79
73
63
65

Men:
January__
February._
March___
April_____
May_____
June_____

72
75
77
66
52
58

61
73
76
65
55
71

70
72
68
61
49
58

56
62
67
68
59
55

July..........
August___
September.
October___
November.
December..

66
75
69
65
58
58

81
83
76
73
70
62

69
71
69
62
57
50

63
64
66
60
52
46

Knit goods (except
silk)
Month

Woolens, carpets,
and felts

Silk and silk goods

Candy

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931
Women:
January...
February. _
March___
April____
May_____
June_____

81
82
83
79
91
93

89
89
95
98
97
100

88
81
77
75
66
59

61
70
76
80
74
75

64
64
64
60
59
57

64
65
66
64
61
60

62
62
62
58
55
54

54
55
56
60
55
53 .

July.........
August___
September.
October...
November .
December.

85
82
87
92
88
85

99
98
100
102
105
90

69
72
71
66
71
51

72
80
66
59
52
50

48
63
61
65
67
68

57
65
61
63
66
63

53
52
56
57
59
55

Men:
January...
February..
March___
April____
May........ .
June_____

96
97
95
96
99
95

100
101
103
105
108
108

95
95
96
99
91
89

84
92
93
92
91
89

75
79
79
77
78
75

85
83
83
81
79
79

July_____
August___
September.
October...
November.
December.

94
94
94
96
98
97

107
106
107
115
114
105

92
89
88
93
88
71

87
91
82
74
66
64

74
77
80
83
82
84

75
75
72
76
77
77




81
89
90
80
81
85

83
82
77
74
80
75

91
88
84
75
69
66

78
89
94
85
84
79

53
53
54
58
62
62

81
85
102
116
108
97

76
91
99
106
102
94

71
73
88
95
97
98

68
83
105
121
119
130

78
81
82
72
65
66

75
73
74
71
63
57

99
99
95
96
96
93

92
96
88
85
85
84

91
92
91
87
80
78

80
82
87
83
83
78

69
72
73
77
77
76

62
67
67
73
72
69

91
90
104
112
103
94

87
90
97
103
99
97

79
71
82
88
84
83

83
90
91
96
96
93

179

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES
selected manufacturing industries in New York State, 1928-81
[Jane 1923=100]
Laundering and
cleaning

Men’s furnishings

Women’s headwear Women’s underwear

Textiles

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931

122
120
117
119
120
121

*

4

s

*

125
125
124
130
131
134

130
124
125
125
129
129

125
121
123
124
126
128

69
71
71
66
65
64

67
71
71
68
64
62

60
62
61
56
52
49

43
44
46
46
46
45

91
85
98
100
90
87

78
74
93
98
91
82

74
78
93
92
83
67

62
68
89
89
76
63

60
65
63
60
58
57

56
64
66
62
60
62

58
62
64
60
57
56

51
55
58
57
54
50

69
72
72
72
71
70

71
74
77
77
76
72

70
71
69
67
63
62

50
53
57
59
58
57

127
123
125
124
124
124

132
126
133
133
133
130

130
126
128
130
127
125

127
123
126
124
123
121

64
62
66
71
72
71

63
62
67
66
66
62

46
46
49
50
48
47

45
47
48
48
45
41

50
64
88
93
89
82

52
63
86
90
80
67

43
60
82
78
67
59

50
74
S3
72
60
54

53
55
59
63
65
63

59
61
65
67
67
62

47
48
54
61
61
53

43
47
57
56
56
54

64
66
69
75
74
73

70
74
74
78
80
74

60
55
60
58
59
51

56
58
56
55
53
50

101
101
100
100
101
105

112
107
110
111
109
113

114
110
111
111
113
113

108
105
109
111
113
114

76
78
76
69
71
68

72
72
75
73
70
66

62
64
63
60
59
51

49
48
48
46
46
43

110
124
115
122
108
99

96
107
117
118
111
103

93
93
104
99
97
84

79
89
101
102
87
70

77
82
76
75
71
70

75
79
82
76
77
78

74
76
77
73
72
72

65
67
71
69
67
63

81
84
83
83
82
80

83
85
86
87
86
85

79
81
81
78
73
73

64
67
68
69
69
68

106
107
106
107
107
109

112
112
117
117
117
114

110
107
111
112
110
108

113
113
113
112
110
107

68
68
70
74
74
75

67
67
70
68
66
66

51
49
52
52
52
51

47
50
49
49
49
55

84
100
117
106
107
103

82
102
111
105
90
84

70
82
101
87
72
67

61
82
89
77
58
54

71
72
74
75
77
75

77
77
83
83
83
74

70
69
75
77
77
68

62
64
68
66
67
65

78
76
79
81
83
83

83
84
85
90
89
84

72
66
70
72
70
62

67
70
68
66
61
60

Bakery prod­
ucts

Canning and pre­
serving

Tobacco

Gloves, bags, and
canvas goods

Shoes

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931

82
81
85
81
82
84

79
83
83
81
78
80

68
69
68
65
65
71

60
59
59
57
58
57

43
63
55
66
56
81

49
69
54
55
63
68

34
33
33
30
37
82

30
32
33
34
34
69

47
46
53
55
52
52

53
56
56
56
58
57

34
35
39
38
38
38

18
37
39
40
40
41

100
107
106
100
90
93

116
113
118
110
114
118

137
141
146
134
144
134

123
120
120
115
110
106

79
78
91
89
84
82

75
69
72
78
73
71

67
61
63
63
63
61

55
55
61
57
54
54

78
167
158
149
83
71

116
169
204
139
102
43

170
171
259
136
98
36

110
121
196
58
52
35

59
57
57
58
57
57

56
57
56
58
53
40

38
38
40
40
42
32

39
41
39
41
43
42

99
108

no

106
105
100

129
138
141
135
128
130

140
143
130
129
116
116

106
110
101
95
83
78

94
93
92
93
93
94

92
94
93
92
92
92

82
83
82
83
82
83

76
76
76
74
76
74

66
68
72
69
69
79

69
70
69
65
70
80

69
61
60
65
76
115

61
56
56
64
71
99

63
62
73
75
71
72

70
70
69
70
67
66

36
32
38
37
37
38

24
35
40
41
42
43

94
96
98
93
82
82

97
100
98
98
97
97

112
116
119
113
119
117

100
100
106
103
101
92

93
91
95
96
95
96

90
87
88
89
87
86

82
80
83
79
83
77

75
74
75
75
74
72

136
100
149
118
96
75

118
103
173
132
99
65

348
151
262
152
114
62

186
121
235
91
65
53

74
73
75
76
75
77

67
67
65
69
63
51

36
37
39
38
40
38

42
42
39
43
44
43

90
98
98
95
90
91

104
109
107
104
103
107

119
119
114

99
96
92
82
63
71




no

101
98

82
94

100

95
83
73
72
81
90
94
89
63
84

56
50
47
60
67
71
68

48

180

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Table VIII.—Indexes of employment for women and men in selected manufactur­

ing industries in New York State, 1928-81—Continued
[June 1923=100]

Month

Printing and
paper goods
(total)

Printing and
bookmaking

Paper boxes and
tubes

Metals and ma­
chinery

Machinery and
electrical appa­
ratus

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931
Women:
January---February, _
March..
April........ .
May......... .
June.. ___

91
90
91
89
89
88

90
91
92
91
90
90

89
87
86
85
85
81

73
73
73
71
70
68

July............
August
September.
October___
November.
December..

86
89
91
93
95
92

91
91
91
94
94
93

81
79
80
80
80
75

63 95 102
63 95 101
07 96 100
68 97 104
68 101 101
66 98 102

Men:
January_
_
February._
March___
April. _ _.
May
June

95
95
94
92
92
92

94
96
94
94
94
93

95
95
96
95
94
92

87
87
89
87
87
83

96
96
96
94
95
95

July
August
September.
October___
November.
December..

90
88
90
93
94
95

93
93
95
97
96
97

89
88
89
90
89
90

81
79
80
80
80
79




94 98 100
94 97 96
94 99 95
93 99 95
97 100 94
94 101 90

80
78
79
75
75
72

80
75
78
77
75
78

74
75
74
73
71
71

65
67
68
67
68
65

58
60
59
59
59
58

90
92
95
98
99
99

102
105
107
108
107
110

88
86
83
82
83
80

65
63
64
65
63
61

91
90
86
90
92
93

117
120
122
125
128
140

93
90
85
84
84
80

64
63
62
61
57
58

90
87
84
86
82
81

70
68
67
67
68
68

74
74
77
79
82
79

70
68
74
78
80
76

63
63
68
71
74
65

51
54
63
66
66
60

97
98
103
107
109
107

110
106
108
109
105
95

75
72
72
72
70
67

58
54
59
56
57
54

99
98
116
124
130
126

145
132
136
143
132
107

74
70
68
72
68
67

59
53
61
59
57
48

96
98
96
96
96
96

98
98
99
98
97
95

91
90
93
91
90
86

85
83
82
80
79
77

88
90
91
87
86
90

86
87
88
87
85
84

72
75
78
76
75
75

78
79
79
80
80
80

87
91
93
94
95
94

84
82
81
81
79
77

63
64
63
63
62
59

81 90
80 93
79 95
79 98
79 99
79 101

93
91
89
87
85
84

69
69
69
68
67
65

93 95
91 95
93 97
94 100
96 99
97 100

92
91
92
93
93
93

84
82
83
82
82
81

75
79
79
92
93
91

90
87
89
91
89
88

80
80
81
80
77
76

74
75
79
80
80
77

79
80
81
83
84
85

94
92
93
92
89
86

72
71
70
68
67
65

56
53
53
52
52
51

79
81
83
86
88
90

79
78
76
75
76
71

62
57
58
57
56
56

103
101
103
104
101
97

179570°—33--------13




Main industrial
groups

Industry 4

Women wage earners in manufacturing and mechanical industries in Ohio as reported by
U.S. Census of Occupations, 1930»>

Subdivisions of
main groups
Industry

Number

Percent

113,747

100.0

28,152

24.7

Number

Percent

Main industrial
groups

Woolen, worsted, and wool felts (including
Silk and silk goods (including throwsters).
11,674

8,895

8,182

10.3
7.8

7.2

10,959
4,153
3,403
1,741

6,459

9,741
1,396

100.0
83.4
12.0

2,356
2,211
1,832

100.0
26.5
24.9
20.6

3,147
1,578
1,513

100.0
38.5
19.3
18.5

5.7

Calculating machines_____




______

6.9

15.6

8,236
1,725
2,634

6.1
4.3

8.1
1.7
2.6

43.6
35.5

3, 318
1,152

100.0
42.3
14.7

1, 736
1, 524
1,601
3,63/

7,429
4,060

Blank book, envelope, tag, paper bag, etc.,

Percent

4.0

6,273

6.2

1,047
1,340

100.0
31.3
27.5
100.0
10.1
22.9

(6)
100.0
25.8
33. 0
100.0

1,766
1,595
2,402
2,975

100.0
2,818
2,294

7, 840

5.4

15,884

100.0
38.9
14.8
12.1
6.2

Metals and metal products, other than iron
Gas and electric fixtures, lamps and reflec-

100.0

5,547

Number

Manufacturing and mechanical indus-

1,722
1,206

___________

Percent

101,791
Women’s clothing_______

Number

Subdivisions of
main groups

2.9

9,036

8.9

28. 2
25.4
38.3

1, 331

100.0
44. 7

Iron and steel, machinery and vehicle indus100.0

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Women wage earners in manufacturing as reported by the State of Ohio for September
1928 i

182

Table IX.—Industrial distribution of manufacturing employees in selected industries in Ohio

Automobiles and parts (including assem-

4,205

3.7

3,494

100.0

7,797

6.9

6,861

6.0

6, 562

5.8

1,916

5.2

100.0
60.8
20.5

5,446

5.4

3,987
1,348

1,567

100.0
91.2

3,259
1,524

100.0
59.8
28.0

5,503

100.0
29.4

1.5

1. 4

13,559

100.0
89.7

5,270

6,154

4, 807

4.9

1.7

1,615

100.0
79.0

4,999

6,162

38.7

91.8

11.9

Lumber and furniture industries

1,933

4,794
2,342
1,694

35.4
17.3
12.5

Foremen and overseers (manufacturing)--------

1.9

18, 742

100.0

18.4

1,895

1.9

1 Bulletin of the Department of Industrial Relations and the Industrial Commission of Ohio. Division of Labor Statistics. Report No. 19. Rates of Wages, Fluctuation and
Employment, Wage and Salary Payments in Ohio, 1928, p. 302ff.
2 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Occupation Statistics, Ohio, table 4.
3 Only groups having 1,000 or more women are shown here. Percents computed by Women's Bureau.
4 The Ohio classification is much more detailed than that in the other two States—Illinois and New York. This table includes all main groups of wage earners in manufacturing
where 1,000 or more women were employed and all the separate industries within these groups that employed 1,000 or more women.
* “ Other" not specified occupations have not been shown separately, regardless of size.
6 Included in miscellaneous manufacturing in the census.




A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

3,860

OO
CO

184

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS ANI) UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
Table X.—Index of employment for women and
[Average of 1928=100]
Wage earners in—

Month

All industries

All manufactures

Telegraph and telephone (including
messenger service)

Service

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931
Women:
January___
February___
March
April
May______
June.. ___

93. 4 102. €
96. C 105.5
97.6 106. 2
97.2 107. 4
98.4 108.1
100.4 108.9

97.8
98.0
99.1
99.7
99.6
98.9

84.5
86.7
88.3
89.1
89.5
89.4

102.8
106.8
106. 7
106. £
107.2
107.2

92.5
93.5
93.2
93.7
92.8
91.7

74. £
78.1
80. t
80. C
80.5
79.9

July............
August- ___
September-.
October____
November..December...

99.4 108.2
100. 9 109. 8
103.7 113.1
105.6 112.8
104. (1 108. 6
103.4 104.0

94.2
93. 9
96.0
94.8
91.9
90.2

86. 7 98.8 106.9
86.4 101. 8 110. (.
89.8 105. 1 114. 4
86.8 107.2 113.2
83.9 105. C 107. 4
82.6 103.4 99.8

86.5
87. 4
90. 4
88.5
84.6
81.9

77.4 99 6 112.3 113.3 112.9
78.2 99.6 111.4 111.9 110. 3
82.3 102.2 113.6 113.6 111.8
78.2 102.6 114. C 112.8 110. 2
74. <J 102.1 112. 1 lll.C 108.5
72.3 101.6 111.7 109.9 107.1

Men:
January___
February_
_
March_____
April............
May. .........
June

89.2 98.9
92.0 101.3
94.9 104.2
97.7 107.5
100.8 110.0
102.4 111.3

92.5
92.7
93.5
97. 1
98. 1
96.0

74.5 91.3
75. 0 95.8
76.2 98. 1
78.6 98.7
79.0 100.2
78. 1 101.0

104.8
108. 1
110. 1
111.4
112.6
112.2

93.6
94. C
93.8
95.6
94.8
91.5

73.3 92.5 101.6 101.5 98.2 87.4
74.1 92.3 102.1 101.4 99.4 87.6
75.4 94.3 105. 5 103.5 100.6 89. 1
76.2 99. 1 110.3 109.9 106. 3 103.7
75.7 101.7 113.0 111.2 107.6 105. 5
73.9 103.5 115.5 112.2 108.7 106.0

107.7 120.2
109. 1 119. 5
114.0 113.0
115.1 113.1
112.8 112.4
112.3 111.9

97.3
96.9
95.8
93.4
93.6
92.6

102.8
104.9
106.1
105.6
[03. 2
100.4

93.0
90.8
89.5
87.1
82.8
79.6

76.4 100.6 111.6
74.4 102.4 109.7
73.6 104.1 108. 7
71.3 103. 5 106.3
68.9 102.5 98.0
66.3 101. 8 94.1

87.1
84.8
83.6
81.6
78.4
76.9

71.5 102.6 114.9 108.7 107.1 104.3
69.1 103. 5 114.5 107.8 106.0 105. 7
68.2 105.4 116.5 109. 0 106.6 103.4
66.1 104.0 113.5 105. 5 103.4 102.9
65.2 101.2 110. 1 103.3 99.7 102.3
63.6 99.9 107.4 99.6 98.1 102.2

114.2 113.0
116.9 111.5
114.1 107.8
114. 1 104.7
115.9 100.7
117.3 100.4

91.3
91.1
90.5
89.8
88.9
88.9

July
August. ___
September..
October
November.._
December.. _

111.8
110.5
109.4
107. 7
99.7
94.6

92. C
96.1
97.8
96. 3
97.1
99.3

96.1 106.2
96.5 105.8
97.5 107.7
98.9 109.7
100.9 111.4
102.4 114.3

112. 7
112.9
113.7
115 2
117.2
117.6

109.1
110.4
111.4
113.2
114.7
116.1

95.6
95.7
96.3
97.8
100.4
103.6

117. 3
116.9
119.8
122. 2
123.7
125.9

119.8 104. 7
119.7 103.9
118.3 103.2
116.9 102.1
118.8 101.1
118.6 100.4

103.9 127.1 115.8
102.9 126.8- 112.3
101.2 124.3 107.4
100.6 123.3 107.0
101.2 125. 4 105.4
100.8 125.0 103.7

99.4
98.5
96.7
95.6
92.6
91.0

Wage earners in—Continued
Month

Women’s clothing
(including corsets)

Hosiery and knit
goods

Tires and tubes

Food and kindred
products

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931
Women:
January____
February---March
April
May______
June
July
August____
September.-.
October____
November.
December..-

98.4 97.9
105.6 104. 1
105.6 107.8
104. 5 106. 5
100.5 105.2
95.0 101.9

98.7
105. 6
107.7
103.9
103. 3
107.5

99.1
100. 1
97.2
97.6
99.0
107.9

73.5
76.3
74.6
72.8
76.5
81.0

87.7
84. C
83.0
83.2
85.6
83.3

59.6
58.3
61.9
61.3
63.9
64.5

129.5
124.8
120.8
112.6
103. 3
95.9

79.9
76.7
69.8
63.1
60.8
62.2

62.2 98.7 106.6
60.0 100.4 111.5
57.8 138.0 152.3
56.4 120.0 138.0
55.5 109.0 119.3
55.2 104.7 110.2

97.? 116.3
95. (J 119.7
95.9 122.6
90.8 126.9
88.6 129.1
91.8 130.3

80.9
84.8
86.8
86.1
90. C
100.7

92.4 97.2
90.4 100.3
97.8 98.7
96.6 98.5
102.1 101.9
111.9 103.3

87.6
89.6
89.3
90.6
94.0
99.5

89.9
106.2
101.3
94.0
82.6
83.6

82.7
95.1
90.0
88.4
76.7
76.8

88.6
91.9
95. 0
84.7
72.6
74.5

101.8
97.4
111.4
118.1
100.7
96.8

102.9
101.3
115. 9
111.2
99.9
92.9

89.6
92.0
100. 8
100.2
88.7
77.7

71.1 94.6
83.2 105.7
101.6 108.1
94.2 107.9
87.7 110.9
73.8 112.8

Men:
January___ 101.7 96.3
February. .. 104. 4 100. 2
103.9 101. 1
April
104.7 97.3
May______ 92.6 89.6
June
92.4 83.3

89.0
94.2
95.2
93.6
83.7
82.7

80.5
87. 1
89.3
84.7
74.3
78.4

93.4
99.4
100.6
101.0
101.2
100.0

96.3
99.2
101.0
100.7
97.0
99.0

96.6
96. 6
93.5
92.2
92.2
98.3

68.1
68.8
71.2
69.0
69.0
71.8

96.4 102.7
97.6 105.1
98. 3 106. 2
97.2 107.5
97.0 109. 7
98.5 111.7

83.4
81.9
80.6
82.4
84.0
83.0

67.5 91.0 96.8 111.0 105.4
66.1 92.0 96.5 110.8 104.9
65.0 92. 6 96. 7 110. 4 104.3
64.3 93.3 97.3 111.4 104.6
66.2 116.9 98.9 113.2 107.0
67.6 98.8 105.6 116.4 111.4

88.7
93.0
91.0
90.0
82.0
78.2

84.5
88.3
91.2
83.6
74.3
70.9

98. 5 96.2
97.0 96.0
102. 4 101.5
104. 9 105.1
101. 4 99. 0
99.7 96.5

90.9
81.7
89.6
89.4
84.0
76.9

69.7
75.1
84.1
78.7
74.9
67.6

100.3 110.7
103.9 105.0
104.7 100.6
103.7 94.7
101.8 87.8
100.5 84.9

79.1
76.5
71.1
68.4
67.1
67.2

67.0 100.0 106.1 115.0 109.4
66.0 100.8 106.7 114.7 113.8
64.3 110.6 116.8 125.8 123.4
63.4 105.0 109.0 119.8 110.7
63.6 102.2 106.2 114.8 106.7
63.3 96.8 101.1 110.4 104. 7

July
August____
September.-.
October____
November..
December. __

103.8
105.9
98. 0
100.8
91.9
90.0

90.1 .88.1 88.8
100.8 93.5 93.5
99.7 96.5 95.6
105.4 96.0 97.4
101.8 96.0 98.6
92.5 91.2 100.0

104.3
103. 1
101. 1
100.4
95.2
96.5

89.2
95.8
93.3
90.5
83.0
83.4




98.5 94.5
103.7 101.6
159.0 154.5
142.5 122.4
112.0 103.9
106.8 101.2

185

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES
men in selected industries in Ohio, 1928-31
[Average of 1928=100]
Wage earners in—
Continued
Stores (retail and
wholesale)

Wage earners in—
Bookkeepers, ste­
nographers, and
office clerks in all
industries

Salespeople (not
traveling) in re­
tail and wholesale
stores

Textiles

Men’s clothing
(including shirts
and coat pads)

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931

96.4
95.3
97.5
99.3
99.7
100.6

97.5
98.3
100.4
105.8
104.8
106. 1

96.7
95.5
98. C
103.5
102. 5
99.3

91.1
90.3
93.5
99.4
96.7
95.1

96.8
93.5
97.9
102.5
105.5
115.0

101.0
102.1
102.9
110.6
110.3
119.0

94.3
91.8
94.5
97.8
101.2
107.9

90.3
88.5
96.9
98.4
95.4
110.7

95.8
95.5
96.1
98.1
99.1
99.4

96.3
96.8
98.1
99.8
100.3
101.4

109.9 103.7
109.5 103.1
111.1 103.8
113.2 105.6
113.3 105.6
112.9 105.2

96.9 106.5 111.9 101.4 89 1
97.4 107.3 111.4 101.0 .88.4
98.0 108.0 111.8 101.1 93.6
98.7 109.1 111.6 100.5 96.2
99.0 109.8 111.6 100.3 96.0
99.8 110. 5 111.1 99.7 96.7
100.5 111.6 110.0
101.2 112.1 109. 5
101.6 112.2 108.6
101.7 112.1 107.2
101.9 112.4 106. 1
103.3 111.9 106.3
97.0 103.9
97.4 104.8
98.1 105.6
98.5 106.3
98.9 107.0
100.0 108.1

98.6
98.1
97.4
95.8
94.6
94.5

116.9 103.0
116.7 102.7
117.2 102. 5
117.2 101. 7
117.2 101.4
117.2 100.7

99.5 101.5 111.4 103.5 100.8 109.2 116.9
99.7 102.1 109.7 104.0 101. 5 110.1 116.0
102. 2 103.3 109.8 105.3 101. 6 109.8 114.5
103. 2 104. 5 110. 2 104.1 101.7 109.3 114.8
104.0 104.0 109.5 102. 9 102.1 109. 0 113.5
107. 5 107.4 111.7 104.2 102.4 108. 5 112.9

94.2
93.8
100.5
102.7
103.8
104.9

94.4 99.8
91.4 98.5
98.4 104.1
102.7 110.6
107.9 113. C
145.2 146.0

93. 3
93. 7
97. 4
105. 1
99. 3
98. 7

89.9 98.1 98.5
88.9 101.7 103.4
94. 1 102.3 106.2
99.4 100.3 105.9
98.4 100.0 105.5
97.7 99.6 106.6

91. 9 92.6 97.3
90. 1 91.7 99.0
95. 6 97.8 100.7
99. 5 98.7 103.8
105. 2 101. 2 99.2
132. 9 126.5 98.0

98.0 81.6
100.1 85.0
99.3 86.0
99.0 85.1
97.0 84.3
95.9 84.9

99.3
102.1
102.8
97.9
100.3
98.5

103.4 103.1 84.9
108.2 103.7 88.9
110.0 102.8 90.0
109.3 102.2 89.4
107.5 99.1 86.2
110.5 99.0 89.2

103.7
106.5
109.7
110.1
105.5
102.5

87.5 80.7 95.9
89.6 84.2 97.8
90.5 87.7 99.8
90.2 84.1 102.8
87.1 80.7 100.5
83.9 76.7 102.4

110.8
112.4
113.6
115.9
113.3
110.4

92.5 87.2
94.8 91.4
96.3 91.2
95.7 90.2
95.1 88.0
91.9 83.7

94.4 111.2 100. 0
94.5 110.9 99. 3
95.9 113.5 99. 6
97.2 116.0 101. 9
98.0 117.5 101. 5
99.4 118.7 101. 4

99.2 97.9
98.8 100.0
99. 6 100.9
101. 8 101.1
102. 6 100.3
102.8 100.6

99.2
101.1
102.9
104.3
103.0
103.6

97.0 80.4 100.3
97.8 82. 1 100.1
97.0 82.6 100.4
98.0 83.0 98.9
97.5 81.8 99.6
96.5 82.9 99.4

104.1 107.9 92.2
104.3 108.1 95.9
105.6 107.3 96.0
104.2 112.6 96.0
103.8 109.7 91. 4
106.1 109.5 95.4

100.0 99.4 119.0 99. 1
99.5 100.0 119.9 97. 7
98.4 102.0 122.7 99. 2
97.3 104.1 124.7 100. 1
96.2 104.8 125.5 100. 6
95.6 110.3 129.3 104. 5

101.2 98.9
100.8 99.5
101.0 99.7
100. 3 101.9
100. 4 99.7
103.5 99.7

103.7
101.6
102.5
103.4
100.5
98.6

91.5 82.8 97.6
89.0 82.4 99.7
89.6 83.8 100.7
90.2 81. 2 103.1
88.4 78.9 100.1
86.5 76.2 100.3

106.9 101.7 96.0
108.1 101.9 98.6
108.4 102.6 99.1
107.5 106.8 98. 5
107.2 104.4 95.5
105.8 103.6 91.6

W age earners in -Continued
Bakery products

Paper and printing

Printing and publishing

Cigars and ciga­
rettes

Iron and steel and
their products

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931

90.1
91.5
93.4
94.3
97.0
104. S

99.1 112.9 100.6
103.2 116.2 101.4
105.8 116.9 102.7
107.6 119.4 102.3
114.0 119.8 106.1
117.5 121.8 108.9

96.7 110.3
96.8 111. 9
99.0 112.0
97.9 112.9
99.0 113.5
100.4 112.6

109.3
107.8
111.4
110.4
108. 0
106.0

108.3
107.7
106. 6
105.7
106.3
104.4

97.6
96.0
98.9
97.7
98.5
100.3

104.9 115.2 120.3 105.2
100.7 111.7 116.0 102.3
107.9 115.5 125.8 107.7
108.0 119.3 121.6 105.2
106. 2 110.0 119.5 108.3
100.9 105.6 115.7 106.9

98.4
99.4
100.0
103.7
105. 8
103.1

97.6 101.4 144.4 132.3
98.1 102.0 145.5 130.9
98.3 102.4 145.1 131.7
97.2 104.6 145. 1 129.3
99.2 104.6 145.9 132.8
101.0 108.6 145.9 135.0

96.4 101.3
97.9 102.1
99.4 104.1
100.2 104.6
100. 0 105. C
100. 1 105.6

101.5
102. 2
103. 2
103. 9
103.2
103.4

97.6
97. 9
98.1
98.0
98.5
98.0

96.9
97.6
100. I
100.4
99.6
100.0

100.9
LOO. 8
101. 6
102.1
101.8
101.6

100.0 105.7
100.5 106.7
101. 3 107. (J
101. 5 107.6
101.3 107.1
101.3 105.8

101.9
100.8
100. 3
100. C
99. 3
99. 1

94.9
93.7
94.2
93. 4
92. 6
91.7

100.3
100. C
100. 5
101.4
101.4
101.9

108.3 145.4 135.3
107. 8 144. 4 133.3
108.4 144.9 132.2
108.2 141.8 132. 6
106.3 141.6 131.6
106.2 140.1 130.2




113.8 104. 0
114.4 103. C
117.0 103.7
118.7 104.1
117.5 103. 6
114.6 102.3

134.2 132. 3
134.2 131. 3
132.0 134. 3
129.7 132. 9
133. 9 127. 1
130.5 126. 0

101.0 99.3 131.8
100.0 101. 1 134.6
101.6 99.6 138.2
101.5 102. 2 134.5
104.3 104.5 132.9
101.5 104.3 133. 2

153.3
147. 8
145.9
145.8
146. 6
144.0

90.9
98.3
98.8
96.2
98.3
101.3

86.4 74.9 55.3
87.0 77.0 76.6
85.4 73.9 81.2
82.6 74.1 75. 1
80.1 75.2 81.5
80.5 76.7 75.4

90.3 101.3 81.8 62.8
95.8 108.3 83.2 64.7
97.8 109.1 82.2 66.2
97.2 110.0 82.8 66.5
96.9 111.6 81.2 66.3
97.8 108.7 78.2 63.8

123. 7
119. 6
121. 3
120. 9
121. 2
120. 8

138.3 101.2
135. 9 99.2
139. 1 99.8
137.6 105.5
144.2 106.0
141. 3 104.5

82.9
84.3
88.4
91.0
93.3
89.7

102.0
103.2
105.9
105.8
106.7
106.9

107. 6
108. 1
108. 7
109. 1
108. 8
108. 2

104.9
105.1
105.4
104. 9
106.3
106.0

99.2
104.1
104. b
100. 5
95.4
99.2

74.9 57.4 59.8
74.5 59.9 69.0
72.7 59.9 69.7
69.9 60.3 68.2
67.6 60.9 69.4
67.6 62.8 67.5

92.6
96.5
98.6
97.9
99.4
98.6

106.8
107.8
108. 6
109.4
109. 3
108.4

106. 4
105. 4
105. 1
105. 2
105. 5
105. 6

100.6
99. 9
100. 1
100.3
99.4
98.7

98.5
99.5
99.2
100.3
100. 6
97.8

67.5 63.6 68.0
68.6 63.5 69.7
68. 64.3 68.3
69. [ 65.6 68.2
68.] 63.1 68.6
68.0 63.8 66.6

99.2
101.9
103.0
104.5
104. 5
103.3

72.6 72.8 94.4
76.0 71.0 100.6
73.6 67.4 105.0
75.6 68.8 109.5
74.5 68.9 108.6
77.0 64.4 106.3

109.7 72.2 61.2
104.2 74.0 58.8
101.8 72.3 57.9
99.9 71.4 58.0
92.9 70.5 56.2
86.6 68.5 55.4
107.0 95.7 67.1
109.2 95.7 67.8
111.9 93.8 68.3
113.0 95.8 68.5
114.9 94.4 67.0
113.4 88.7 64.0
113.7
113.2
110.8
109.7
99.3
95.3

84.5 61.7
81.4 57.8
80.3 55.8
77.9 55.5
73.2 54.0
71.4 52.6

186

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
Table X.—Index of employment for women and
[Average of 1928=100]
Wage earners in—Continued

Month

Foundry and ma­
chine-shop products

Boots, shoes, cut
stock, and findings

Pottery, terra-cotta,
Copper,
and fire-clay prod­ sheet-iron tin, and
products
ucts

1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931 1928 1929 1930 1931
Women:

85.6 108. 2
93.9 116. 5
95.2 113.6
93. 0 111. 3
91. 7 111. 0
June---------- 94.9 108.8

77.6
80.6
83. 1
85.1
84.2
78.5

59.4 106.8 101.8
62. 6 103. 9 105.3
64.6 107. 2 99.4
65.8 95.2 95. 2
66. 5 93.7 96.4
64.9 92.2 93.7

86. 7
92.9
97.5
93. 7
87.7
89.7

95.8
98.7
98. 0
96. 0
99. 1
98.9

86.1
86.5
83.7
86.0
85.9
81.2

78.6
78.7
76.4
72.4
70.2
68.2

49.9 85.0 106.9
53.5 92.9 110.7
54.0 96.2 118.2
53.3 102.4 118.3
52.8 105.6 117.9
50.6 106.2 116.9

96.9
96.6
103.9
99.9
103.0
100.1

86.0
89.8
92.3
92.6
96.3
95.3

94.7 107. 9
98.2 105. 4
106.9 106. 3
114. 1 106.4
116.0 96. 5
December__ 116.0 85.9

73.4
74. 1
70.9
70.4
69.8
66.0

60.5 105.0 103.7 95.4 101.8
58. 0 109. 2 109.9 101.5 102. 1
59.1 104. 4 110. 5 97.6 96. 5
59.0 102. 5 108. 3 90.3 85.2
55.3 87.7 102.6 77.7 76.4
53.2 92.3 101.3 77.0 77.2

93.3
102.5
104. C
105.6
105.5
102.5

76.7
84.5
87.9
88.9
88.6
88.3

58.3
64.5
64. 5
68.0
69.2
63.7

41.1 99.9 121.9
48.9 103.6 123.6
49.9 102.7 119.2
52.5 104. 9 122.9
48.0 103. 8 113. 7
46.7 96.6 103.0

105.5
95.3
102.3
105. 2
102.4
99.6

88.0
89.6
96.3
87.9
84.6
82.8

90.3 106.3
93.9 111.0
95.4 114. 1
96. 5 114. 7
99.5 116.5
100.3 116.3

98.9
98.6
97.8
97.9
96.2
93.8

70.2
70.6
69.8
69. 6
68.8
66.2

102.8
109.1
103.8
96.8
95.0
96.6

95. 8
98.2
94.8
91.8
91.4
89.4

95. C
91.8
91. 1
88.6
83.2
89.0

78.2 94.4
82.3 97.2
85.7 98.4
85.8 101. 1
83. t 103.1
82.3 102. 3

77.1
74. 1
73. 1
75. £
78.2
78.2

70.8
72.4
71.2
70.5
67.4
68.5

48.8
50.1
50.5
50.7
49.6
48.6

106.4 126.9
110. 0 123.3
113. 5 126.7
116.0 128.1
119. 5 127.8
119.0 121. 0

105.3
111. 5
115.0
117.4
115.0
111.7

July_______ 100.2 116.5
102.8 115.4
104.0 113.9
105. 2 114. 1
105.4 107.8
December. ,106. 5 102.9

87.8
84.4
82.5
78.6
75.9
74.8

63.0
59.6
58.7
56.9
54.9
54.2

103.4
104.2
102. 5
100. 7
91.7
92.6

94.2
97.8
98.1
97. 'i
91.6
92.8

90.1
92.9
88.1
86.1
81.2
75.8

88.6
90.8
88.9
79.2
73. ]
74.2

99.3
102.4
102.2
102.2
100.8
96.6

73.8
75. b
77.4
76.6
75.6
71.1

61.7
64.7
63.3
64.4
64.5
62.6

42.5 101.9 120.2 114.1 109.6
44.4 105.2 119.2 114.3 108.9
43.7 106.2 121.6 117.7 110.0
45.3 103.8 122.5 119.3 111.3
42.8 104.7 118.5 114.0 107.0
40.1 101.2 112.9 108.1 100.5

July

June




98.8
99. 7
97.3
92.8
89.3
89.0

91.9
95.2
96.7
95.5
98.3
99.4

187

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES
men in selected industries in Ohio, 1928-31—Continued
[Average of 1928= 100]
Wage earners in—Continued
Gas and electric fixtures,
lamps, and reflectors
1930

1931

Automobiles and parts,
including assembling
parts

Electrical machinery,
apparatus and supplies

1928

1928

1929

1930

1931

1929

1930

1931

Radios and parts

1930

1931

140.2
138. 1
162. 2
159.5
167.8
141.3

102.7
90.2
75.3
84.3
73.0
80.0

63.8
166.6
173. 1
178.8
207.9
44.2

135.9
146.2
152.3
128.5
127.9
105.6

108.0
124.4
112.6
108.5
101.3
78.1

62.1
59.2
56.3
53.4
44.7
73.4

282.4
170.8
173.5
133.1
131.2
142.2

102.6
100.3
120.9
148.7
165.5
158.0

121.3
103.2
98.3
95.2
108. 0
114.4

99.1
130.0
144.5
140.8
175.3
161.8 1

185.0
235.7
262.0
299.0
254. a
130.7

158.5
169. 4
184.0
131.5
141.9
128.4

138. 2
150.0
135.7
138.5
133. 3
95.0

1928

1928

1629

100. 6
98.5
96.4
94.0
93.2
93.1

109.9
107.0
111.6
115. 3
115.2
119.0

81.9
77.7
77.5
75.7
75.1
71.8

65.4 73.4 126. 6
64.6 96.4 139.7
64.5 98.6 139.4
62.6 104.2 137.7
61.3 112.3 139.1
60.0 112.5 129.3

81.4
83.2
84.3
90.7
92.7
88.4

54.3 80.7
56.8 88.9
63.4 93.8
69.3 98.8
66.8 104. 3
61.5 103.3

130.8 92.2
130.0 91.3
128. 1 96.7
130.0 101.0
130.4 96.5
128.3 100.6

77.3
76.5
77.6
81.6
84.6
85.1

91.9
96.3
100.9
106.2
112.9
116.2

137.8
156.0
181.1
197.6
204.8
194.6

70.1
69.5
70.1
69.7
70.5
69.9

60.4 99.8 124.9
54.8 94.6 108. 6
59.0 102.6 111.8
59.2 101.3 92.2
59.0 98.0 72.0
57.2 106.3 74.6

80.0
74.8
69.9
63.9
62.7
66.8

58.6
55.3
52.0
45.0
42.5
45.8

98.9
97.4
101.8
105.9
110.5
115.6

131.3
132.8
131.4
135.4
114.8
107.9

90 5
83.8
84.5
87.4
88.6
82.4

76.6
63.5
63.2
59.9
61.5
62.7

132.1
151.0
130.3
156. 1
152. 8
129.4

97.7 89.8 102.0
97.3 95.9 102.1
95.3 97.3 99.8
95.9 100.8 100.1
94.9 103.6 97.6
96.1 106.6 94.4

79.5 77.1 121.6
79.9 90.7 135.6
80.7 97.9 134.2
79.4 103.0 132.9
76.1 109.3 127.2
74.5 111.5 120.9

81.2
84.3
85.7
88.2
85.4
80.4

63.6 83.6
62.8 87.8
66.3 91.5
70.3 94.9
70.1 99. C
66.0 101.3

117.6
122.8
123.6
124. 3
123.7
123.0

104.3
106.3
106.9
108.6
107.9
103.0

83.5
82.1
83.7
84.9
85. C
82.3

73.9
74. C
74.7
75.5
75.4
75.2

73.9
70.6
67. C
65.4
65. C
68.2

62.6
57.1
54.2
47.8
53.2
51.2

100.6
101.4
107.2
110. C
110.6
112.2

123.8
124. C
124.1
124. c
117. 1
108.2

97.5
93. S
90.7
88.8
87. c
86.2

77.4
71.6
70.6
69.3
70.4
70.4

102.6
104.2
107.9
105. 5
101.4
101.1

111.5
116.8
122.7
127.6
126.2
130.1

91.9
91. €
90.1
88.9
86.4
85.8




102.9 115. 0
101.7 99. £
103. 6 100. C
98.9 89.7
97.5 70. 7
105.7 73.7

1929

52.6 172.7
59.9 179.2
54.8 92.2
49.4 78.9
41.9 52.8
89.8 47.7

188

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Table XI.—Proportion of persons employed in maximum month in the year who

were off the pay roll in month of minimum employment, by industry—three cities
in Minnesota, 1928-31 1
St. Paul

Industry or occu­
pation and year

Minneapolis

Duluth

Employment
Number
in—
and percent
by which
minimum
is below
Maxi­ Mini­ maximum
mum mum
month month Num- Perber cent

Employment
Number
in—
and percent
by which
minimum
is below
Maxi­ Mini­ maximum
mum mum
month month Num- Perber cent

Employment Number
in—
and percent
by which
minimum
is below
Maxi­ Mini­ maximum
mum mum
month month Num- Perber cent

WOMEN
Total:
1928
1929
1930
1931

6,820
6,966
6, 391
5,877

5,870
5,937
5,889
5,171

950
1,029
502
706

Manufacturing:
1928
1929
1930
1931

1,601
1,501
1, 451
1,425

1, 263
1,228
1,329
1,252

338
273
122
173

Clothing:
1928
1929
1930....... ...........
1931

590
574
560
369

473
472
457
297

Food:
1928
1929
1930
1931_______

515
426
500
495

1,888
2, 084
1,854
1,360

Department stores
and mail-order
houses:1*
2
1928
1929
1930
1931
Semiskilled: *
1928___
1929_________
1930_________
1931_________
Sales:6
1928__
1929...................
1930_________
1931_________
Clerical: s
1928-.
1929_________
1930-..
1931_________

13.9 10, 210
14.8 9, 678
7.9 9,031
12.0 7,898

8, 702
9,134
8, 239
7, 572

1,508
544
791
326

14.8
5.6
8.8
4.1

2,815
2,840
1,642
2,446

2,393
2,478
2,414
2, 220

422
362
228
226

15.0
12.7
8.6
9.2

21.1
18.2
8.4
12.1

4,625
4,377
3,877
3,338

4,123
3.975
3,517
3,063

502
402
360
275

10.9
9.2
9.3
8.2

704
806
683
782

643
608
587
614

161
194
96
168

22.9
24.1
14. 1
21.5

117
102
103
72

19.8
17.8
18.4
19.5

2,772
2,518
2,424
2,093

2,686
2,450
2, 220
1,747

86
68
204
346

3.1
2.7
8.4 •
16.5

317
297
276
264

228
181
202
221

89
116
74
43

28.1
39.1
26.8
16.3

347
348
410
424

168
78
90
71

32.6
18.3
18.0
14.3

877
903
820
777

716
731
661
577

161
172
159
200

18.4
19.0
19.4
25.7

228
235
237
232

123
165
195
198

105
70
42
34

46.1
29.8
17.7
14.7

1,448
1, 577
1,438
1,089

440
507
416
271

23.3
24.3
22.4
19.9

2,093 3 1,654
2,071 1,651
2,110 1,361
1,515 1,343

439
420
749
172

21.0
20.3
35.5
11.4

4 570
4 571
4 519
4 587

4 413
4 407
4 375
4 371

157
164
144
216

27.5
28.7
27.7
36.8

2, 380
2,247
2,178
2,134

2,310
2,153
1,923
1,778

70
94
255
356

2.9
4.2
11.7
16.7

623
647
510
457

453
556
398
339

170
91
112
118

27.3
14.1
22.0
25.8

3,317
3| 245
2,953
2, 656

2,183
3, 032
2, 552
2, 493

1,134
'213
401
163

34. 2
6.6
13.6
6.1

TOTAL, THREE CITIES
Maximum Minimum Number and percent
by which minimum
month
month
is below maximum
1928________________________________ ___________
1929
1930 ________________
1931

19,689
19,156
17,850
15,903

17,718
17,983
16,843
15,066

1,971
1,173
1,007
837

10.0
6.1
5.6
5.3

1 Employment Trends in St. Paul, Minneapolis, and Duluth; University of Minnesota, Employment
Stabilization Research Institute.
2 An 11-month period used for stores and sales occupations, December being excluded because of its
abnormal employment. For Duluth, figures are for department stores only.




189

APPENDIX A—GENERAL TABLES

Table XI.—Proportion of persons employed in maximum month in the year who
•were off the pay roll in month of minimum employment, by industry—three cities
in Minnesota, 1928-31 1—Continued*
St. Paul

Industry or occu­
pation and year

Minneapolis

Duluth

Employment
Number
in—
and percent
by which
minimum
is below
Maxi­ Mini­ maximum
mum mum
month month Num- Perber cent

Employment
Number
in—
and percent
by which
minimum
is below
Maxi­ Mini­ maximum
mum mum
month month Num- Perber cent

Employment Number
in—
and percent
by which
minimum
is below
Maxi­ Mini­ maximum
mum mum
month month Num- Perber cent

MEN
Total:
1928
1929...................
1930
1931

28, 577
27, 815
26,307
23,818

26, 953
25, 736
24, 416
21, 889

1,624
2,079
1,891
1,929

5.7
7.5
7.2
8.1

34,585
33,430
29, 484
25,115

29, 862
28, 674
26, 097
21,192

4, 723
4, 756
3, 387
3,923

13.7
14.2
11.5
15.6

9, 493
9, 325
8,282
7,352

8,017 1,476
8, 523
802
7, 557
725
6, 616
736

15. 5
8.6
8.8
10.0

8,373
8,586
7, 975
7, 678

7,736
7,500
7,036
7,028

637
1,086
939
650

7.6
12.6
11.8
8.5

8,662
8, 667
7, 471
6,643

7,590
7, 259
6, 477
5,595

1,072
1,408
994
1,048

12.4
16.2
13.3
15.8

3,351
3,177
2,983
2,451

2, 759
2,904
2, 474
2, 062

592
273
509
389

17.7
8.6
17.1
15.9

518
513
478
347

464
400
390
267

54
113
88
80

10.4
22.0
18.4
23.1

579
520
588
771

556
500
444
726

23
20
144
45

4.0
3.8
24.5
5.8

173
174
152
142

154
164
136
130

19
10
16
12

11.0
5.7
10.5
8.5

Food:
1928............. .
1929
1930
1931

3, 972
3,978
3, 759
3, 647

3, 358
3, 352
3, 221
3,263

614
626
538
384

15.5
15.7
14.3
10.5

2, 952
2, 862
2,664
2,304

2, 672
2,583
2, 366
2,141

280
279
298
163

9.5
9.7
11.2
7.1

1,413
1,302
1,250
1,069

1,045
1,106
1,077
970

368
196
173
99

26.0
15. 1
13.8
9.3

Department stores
and mail - order
houses: 2
1928
1929
1930
1931

1, 259
1,00-1
888
645

878
745
651
554

381
259
237
91

30.3
25.8
26.7
14.1

2.188 3 1,942
2,119 1,721
1,637 1.390
1, 285 1,107

246
398
247
178

11.2
18.8
15.1
13.9

4
4
4
4

4
4
4
4

27
26
21
38

17.3
16.7
15.9
27.1

2, 593

2,253
2,038

2, 485
2,480
1,954
1,723

179
113
299
315

6.7
4.4
13.3
15. 5

Sales:6
1928_________
1929_________
1930_________
1931_________

2, 279
2,277
2,053
1,810

2,038
2,151
1,919
1,748

241
126
134
62

10.6
5. 5
6.5
3.4

Clerical:5
1928_________
1929. ..............
1930_________
1931_________

2,742
2,711
2, 642
2,412

2, 596
2, 591
2,479
2,087

146
120
163
325

5.3
4.4
6.2
13.5

Manufacturing:
1928
1929............ .
1930
1931
Clothing:
1928
1929
1930
1931

Semiskilled: 5
1928_________
1929_______ __
1930_________
1931_________

2, 664

156
156
132
140

129
130
111
102

TOTAL, THREE CITIES
Maximum Minimum
month
month
1928_________ _______ ________________ _____
1929_____________
1930
1931____________________ _______________________

71,777
70,082
62,917
56, 285

65,234
64, 245
57, 598
49, 697

Number and percent
by which minimum
is below maximum
6,543
5,837
5, 319
6, 588

9.1
8.3
8.5
11.7

* January and February excluded, as a large new firm was added in March. Figures cover 10 months.
< Department stores only.
.
* Reported by sex only for Minneapolis.
8 Reported by sex only for Minneapolis. December excluded (see note 2),




XII.—Index of employment in selected industries, November of each year in 4-year period, three States not reporting by sex, and industrial
distribution of women according to U.S. Census of 1930

Percent
1928
1929 Novem- Novem- Novem- Novem- decrease,
Novem(aver­ (aver­
ber
ber
ber
ber
ber 1929
age for age for
1928
to No­
1929
1930 i
1931 s
year)
year)
vember
1931

Industry

Subdivi­
Main indus­
Percent
sions of
trial groups main groups women
formed
of total
Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ em­
ber
cent ber cent ployees

MASSACHUSETTS 3 4
Manufacturing and mechanical

Cotton goods
Woolen and worsted goods._
Silk goods_____ _____
Hosiery and knit goods___ ________

89.3

89.0

90.6

86.8

70.4

60. 2

30.6

72. 9
84. 7
98. 1
83. 5

76.9
79.9
86. 2
76.2

76.2
86.7
95.8
77.5

73.9
74. 2
82. 9
83. 4

51. 4
62. 3
67. 2
69. 9

41.6
47.4
54.6
74.2

528,999

43.7
36. 1
34. 1
11.0

Manufacturing and mechanical

29.2

164, 977 100.0
63, 219

38.3

13, 878

8.4

5, 705
1,652
26, 761

3.5
1.0
16.2

45.7
47.0
38.7
63.5
74.3

2.3
2.3
100.0
1,846 13. 3
1,185 8.5

25.8
41.9
76.4
58.3
90.1

100. 0
24.991 93. 4
1,147
4. 3
5.4
100.0
3,659 41.3

99.8
91.7
33.8
37.7
10.5
39.3
28.8

2,331

26.3

44.3

22.7
100.0
3.394 61.3

61.2
40.3
65.7

Textile “dyeing, finishing, and
Men’s clothing....... ............................
Women’s clothing

99. 3
118. 9

100. 2
125. 8

107. 1
122.1

87.0
109.5

72. 5
103. 2

47.2
83.9

45. 7
23.4
Dressmakers and seamstresses (not

Boots and shoes.
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings..

91. 8
104. 5

Paper and wood pulp
Printing and publishing, book, job,
and newspaper............................—

94. 5

95.8

94.8

95.9

101. 9

106.0

104.5

110.1




87.5
109.6

91.7
102.8

80.8
109.8

65. 6
84. 7

44.6
61.6

44.8
43.9

85. 2

76.3

20.4

103. 5

92.9

15.6

Paper, printing, and allied industries.

8,867

Prfhting, 'publishing and enBiank book, envelope, tag, paper
Candv factories................... ..........

21.3
100. 0
45. 6
24. 0
7. 2
6.3

5,539

3.4

28, 820
15, 168
4, 561
3, 993
1,484
1, 461

2,014

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Employment of women in manu­
facturing and mechanical indus­
tries as reported by U.S. Census
of Occupations, 1930

Index ol employment, men and wemen combined, as reported
by State, 1928 to 1931

190

Table

4

90.8
100.0

92.3
109.2

101.6
103.1

99. 9
113.7

107.5
94.5

124.6
72.0

5 24.7
36.7

Metal industries (except iron and

Iron and steel, machinery, and veMiscellaneous manufacturing indusElectrical machinery and supply
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and

96.2
99.3

96.7
92.6

101.3
104.2

92.0
88.1

68.1
76.4

59.5
68.1

35.3
22.7

2.0

4,410

.8
.6

2, 497

35.5
39.0
55.4

100.0

33.9

22.8
25.0

33.4
32.3
14.8
9.5

1L1

11.9

1, 266
1,055

100.0
43.7
37.4

2.7

19,583

1,457
1, 246

1.5

4, 473
4,889

11.0

PENNSYLVANIA6 7
Manufacturing-

89.5

95.1

85.6

71.5

24.8

803, 892
Manufacturing and mechani-

Metal products_______
Electrical apparatus.
Textile products....________
Cotton goods___________
Woolen and worsted goods.
Silk goods______________
Hosiery_______ ______—
Knit goods, other________

89.2
196.7
97.7
82.3
90.9
101.1
109.9
92.5

92.4
131.8
104.8
77.6
87.7
106.0
134. 2
105.3

82.3
111.9
96.6
60.4
58. 2
107.0
118. 7
101.8

62.8
92.5
89.3
61.9
60.7
91.3
115.5
88.5

32.0
29.8
14.8
20.2
30.8
13.9
13.9
16.0

Metal industries (except iron and
Iron and steel, machinery, and veBlast furnaces and steel rolling

21.6

212, 818 100. 0
1,972
5,383

2.5

80,207

37.7

41,334

19.4

Tailoresses...

10, 543
2,126
1,796

15.4
100.0
1,486
1,948
3,368
36, 183
26, 814
2,071
1,662
13,337
6,248
1,075

________

Dressmakers and seamstresses (not in

15.0

.9

5.0
1.0
.8

2.4

27.6
100.0
2.4
4.2
45.1
33.4
2. 6
2.1
100. 0
32. 3
15.1
2.6

1.2
53.5
60. 5
46. 7
60.1
58.4
28.6
57.5
74. 7
87. 2
58. 7
25.1

3
H
W
>
F
>

w
F
F
GO

99.6
88.1
10.7

1 November selected for comparison with November 1931.
2 Selected because latest month given in Massachusetts report.
3 Special report of an investigation as to the causes of existing unemployment and remedies therefor, January 1931; monthly mimeographed reports on employment. Average
for 1925, 1926, 1927=100.
* U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Occupational Statistics, Massachusetts
5 In this case employment increased.
6 Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry. Labor and Industry. Issued monthly. Average for 1923-25= 100.
7 U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930. Occupation Statistics, Pennsylvania.




APPENDIX A

Foremen and overseers (manufactur-

3, 335

CO

XII.—Index of employment in selected industries, November of each year in 4-year period, three States not reporting by sex, and industrial
distribution of women according to U.S. Census of 1930—Continued

Employment of women in manu­
facturing and mechanical indus­
tries as reported by U.S. Census
of Occupations, 1930

Index of employment, men and women combined, as reported
by State, 1928 to 1931

Industry




Percent
1929 Novem­ Novem­ Novem­ Novem­ decrease,
1928
Novem­
(aver­ (aver­
ber
ber
ber 1929
ber
ber
age for age for
to No­
1929
1930
1931
1928
year)
year)
vember
1931
100.0

112.8

101.2

104.1

7.7

100.6
97.7

103.3
106.3

104.9
85.5

100.7
84.9

87.2
94. 1

100.7
97.7

87.8
96.9

95.3
92.0

Industry

Food and allied industries._

Subdivi­
Main indus­
Percent
sions of
trial groups main groups women
formed
of total
em­
Num­ Per­ Num­ Per - ployees
ber
cent ber cent
8,025

3.8

2.5
20.1

Cigar and tobacco factories
16,388
Chemical and allied industries... ... 2,608

7.7
1.2

5.4
5.8

5,029

2.4

5,611

2.6

2,943

1.4

Paper, printing, and allied industries.
Printing, publishing, and engrav-

Miscellaneous manufacturing indus-

100.0
42.2
26.7

100.0
47.0
100.0
3, 494 69.5
100.0
1,226

.9
7.7

3, 519

1.7

2, 480
1,317

28.6
53.2
35.4
72.7
10.0
42.6
23.6
33.9
30.6

44.2
23.5
100.0
1,958 66.5

38.9
63.8
7.1
11.7
9.4

1,130

100.0
6.9

22.7
25.0

4,130

1,964
16,297

Electrical machinery and supply
Foremen and overseers (manufacturing)----------------------------------------

3,388
2,140

25.3

18.1
10.2

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

PENNSYLVANIA—Continued

192

Table

WISCONSIN s 9
All industries... 215,214
Manufacturing.

125.4

98.6

78.5

68.2

30.8

150.3

98.3

71.1

54.4

44.7

19.1

Manufacturing and mechanical
Iron and steel, machinery, and vehi-

41,057 100.0
Metal (iron, steel, and other).

Food industries.

75.3
(10)
123.3
151.7
86.6
m
(10)

112.6

100.2
106.5
108. 6
134.9
95.2
100.0
92.7

78.3
84.0
96.7
125.4
79.8
84.4
76.3

95.9

95.3

82.1
86.8
90.6
121.2
77.9
80.5
78.6

18.1
18.5
16.6
10.2
18.2
19.5
15.2

79.8

16.8

1

Shoe factories-___ _____
Paper, printing, and allied industries.
Paper and pulp mills___________
Textile industries_____________ _
Knitting mills____ _______ ..
Suit, coat, and overall factories __
Dressmakers and seamstresses (not in
factories). ... ______
Milliners and millinery dealers____
Food and allied industries
Candy factories. ___
_ ____
Lumber and furniture industries. _
Cigar and tobacco factories_________
Miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries_ ___________________
_
Electrical machinery and supply
factories________ ______ ___
Rubber factories. __ __________

1,767

4.3

4.6

1,302
4,968

3.2
12.1

2,755

6.7

100.0
83.5
100.0
1,373 49.8
100.0
5,857 82.7
100.0
1,168 22.6

22.4
33.3
41.5
19.7
12.5
67.3
73.7
78.1
74.9

100.0
1,073 37.9

99 8
97.3
18.9
65.5
6.5
51.7

7,085

17.3

5,163

12.6

3,138
1,009
2,830

7.6
2.5
6.9

1,259
1,082

3.1
2.6

5,096

4,146

12.4

100.0
1,156
1,003

22.0

22.7
19.7

32.7
22.8

l92TiSSi°92I7n=lMtriaI Commission- wisconsin Labor Market, January 1929 and March 1932. In indexes for 1928, January 1922=100; thereafter the monthly average
■ U.S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census, 1930.
111 Not available separately.




Occupation Statistics, Wisconsin

APPENDIX A— GENERAL TABLES

Leather...___ _______________
Shoes____________________
Paper industries______________
Printing and publishing_______
Textiles (includes clothing)_____
Hosiery and other knit goods.
Clothing_____ ^............... ......

Metal industries (except iron and
steel)_ ______ ____
_

11.3

CO
GO

information by sex—women 1

1929

1931

1930

1928

1929

1930

1931

1928

1929

1930

1931

1928

1929

1930

1931

STATES IN WHICH REPORTS WERE GIVEN OR COULD BE OBTAINED FOR THE CALENDAR YEAR
608
23,686
94,164
21,927
5,218
Massachusetts 6
8,757
pi
Michigan4________
33, 709
374
New Jersey4___ ____
100, 853
New York 9___ _____
76,142
Ohio4. ......... ............. io 126, 284
Pennsylvania----------37, 559
9,673
Rhode Island 11-------- /
\
2,226
5,732
Wisconsin.. ----------44,662

Connecticut4.
Illinois 5

721
27, 069
98, 096
23, 665
5, 600
8,466
p)
34,145
354
105,151
71, 637
io 131,010
30, 361
9, 716
2, 761
5,827
44, 716

26, 552
101,253
25,124
6,121
8, 789
40,829
34, 575
327
104, 500
92, 877
io 110,214
36,931
12,350
2, 543
5,219
38, 218

214
19,406
20,171
92, 793
63,186
11,474
26, 026
6,164
3,170
9, 291
11, 477
<■)
39, 907
20, 807
35, 604
p)
218
82, 703
79, 367
125, 237
52,229
io 87,914
88,798
15, 503
52, 583
12, 485 }■ 2,387
2, 712
5, 769
4, 586
32,928
38,139

321
21,805
69, 482
10, 997
3, 560
12, 540
p)
19, 684
205
88, 471
51, 381
92, 294
14, 462
2,878
5,949
32,393

18, 517
49,952
10, 336
3, 227
8,059
11, 696
19, 613
167
62,058
49,012
62,681
12,936
2,282
4,990
21, 532

11,040
47, 880
7,103
2,779
6, 560
9, 745
19,638
0

49,804
56,708
54,064
14,997
1, 717
3, 822
19,138

266
17. 683
54,209
9,914
2, 776
9,166
o
18,004
168
68, 447
43, 742
76, 529
10, 696
2,042
4,127
24, 751

403
19, 874
58, 414
9, 627
3,084
9,986
(o
16,157
195
74,667
42,019
78, 572
10,840
2,410
4, 461
24,382

17, 581
44, 366
9,435
2,771
6. 500
10, 616
16,871
160
52, 978
39, 273
55, 655
11,275
1,946
3,892
16, 742

35.2
81.9
67.1
52.3
60.8
131.1
o
61.7
0
58.3
77.2
42,234
68.6
41,569
70.3
47,687
41.3
13,167
/ 24.7
1,481 \ 107.2
3,038
100.6
73.7
14,802

10,624
43,137
6, 524
2, 576
5,039
8, 604
17,321

44.5
80.6
70.8
46.5
63.6
148.1
o
57. 6
57.9
83.9
71.7
70.4
47.6
29.6
104.2
102.1
72.4

69.7
49.3
41.1
52.7
91.7
37.5
56. 7
51.1
71.6
52.8
(10)
35.0
18.5
89.7
95.6
56.3

54.7
51. 6
27.3
45.1
70.6
24.4
55.2
<7>
60.2
45.3
20.2
28.5
13.8
63.3
83.3
50.2

80.9

77.0

76.4

66.6

56.2

STATES IN WHICH REPORT FOR CALENDAR YEAR COULD NOT BE OBTAINED
California 12------------Indiana 12.....................
North Carolina 12____




p)
13,206
4,846

12,891

(8)
13 37,611
11,531

15, 472

14,338

(»)

1,095

(*)

(s>
11,492
9,479
24, 708

9,914
3,163

(»)

10, 435

8,882

10, 307

8,064

(*)
0
8, 784
(8)
13, 026

(•)
8,028
3,108

28,103
13 11, 240
7,664

26,812

8, 311
9,595

7,704

5,031
12,235

28,858

240

7,858

—

75.1
65.3

52.7

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

1928

Help wanted per 100 applications

Placements

Help wanted

Applications or registrations 2

194

Table XIII.—Applications, help wanted, placements, and help wanted per 100 applications, by year and by State including in its reports any




A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

1 This is the only table in the report showing some data for all States that gave any reports for women in the period of study. These data are not necessarily comparable State
for State because of their varying methods of keeping records and of reporting. Data included in this table have been taken from the following sources: Date of publications includ­
ing public employment service. Arkansas: Biennial reports of Bureau of Labor and Statistics, 1927-28; 1929-30. California: Biennial report, Department of Industrial Relations,
1927-30. Colorado: Biennial report of Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1927-28; December 1928-July 1930. Connecticut: Reports of Bureau of Labor Statistics, biennial periods ending
December 1,1928 and 1930. (Employment figures reported are for year ending June 30.) July 1930 to December 1931, typewritten monthly reports. Illinois: Annual reports of De­
partment of Labor, fiscal years 1928 to 1930, and monthly publications of the Department of Labor, July 1929 to January 1932. Indiana: Annual reports of Industrial Board, fiscal
years ending Sept. 30,1928 to 1931. Iowa: Iowa Employment Survey, monthly publication of Bureau of Labor, February 1928 to January 1932. Kansas: Annual reports of Commis­
sion of Labor and Industry, years ending Dec. 31, 1929 to 1931, and annual report of Public Service Commission, Labor Department, year endmg Dec. 31, 1928. Massachusetts: An­
nual reports of Department of Labor and Industries, years ending Nov. 30,1928 to 1931. Michigan: Monthly reports of the Michigan Employment Bureaus, January 1930 to Decem­
ber 1931. Minnesota: Mimeographed annual reports Public Employment Service of Minnesota, calendar years 1928-31. Missouri: Annual report of Department of Labor and
Industrial Inspection, year ending Nov. 5,1928. Nevada: Biennial reports of Commissioner of Labor, periods ending Dec. 30, 1928 and 1930. New Jersey: The Industrial Bulletin,
published monthly, February 1928 to January 1932. New York: The Industrial Bulletin, published monthly, February 1928 to J anuary 1932. Ohio: Monthly reports of Department
of Industrial Relations, U.S. Employment Service cooperating, February 1928 to January 1932. Oklahoma: Annual report of the Department of Labor, year ending June 30, 1931,
Bui No 10-A North Carolina: Biennial reports of Department of Labor and Printing, July 1, 1928, to June 30, 1930, and July 1, 1930, to June 30, 1932. Pennsylvania: Labor and
Industry, published by Department of Labor and Industries, February 1929 to 1932. Rhode Island: Reports of Commissioner of Labor, 1928 to 1931. Virginia: Annual reports of
Department of Labor and Industry, years ending Sept. 30, 1928 to 1932. West Virginia: Biennial report of Bureau of Labor, 1929-30. Wisconsin: Mimeographed reports, Operation
of Public Employment Offices, Annual reports January 1930 and January 1931, monthly reports January 1931-December 1931.
2 The foliowing States use the term “applications”: Colorado, Connecticut, Missouri, Nevada, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.
3 The Arkansas biennial report for 1927-28 and for 1929-30 gives data for years ending June 30; since these include monthly data, totals can be obtained for the calendar years 1928
and 1929. Reports for Fort Smith alone have been used, as this is the only State-supported office, the 3 others being Federal or Federal and local. Totals for the 4 offices are not
given by month, so calendar year could not be ascertained. The biennial report for the period ending June 30, 1932, gives no employment-office figures.
4 Report year ends June 30 in Connecticut, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Ohio, September 30, in Virginia; but monthly figures totaled by Women s Bureau for
calendar year. The Connecticut report states that the report year ends December, but employment figures are reported for period ending June 30.
5 In Illinois the report year ends June 30, and no year’s totals are reported after 1930; monthly figures for each calendar year totaled by Women s Bureau.
e The Massachusetts report states that the report year ends Dec. 1, but the employment figures given include those for December.
7 Report not published.*
* Fromfigures furnished by New York State Department of Labor and omitting juniors handled and a small number of figures from cooperating agencies, both of which are in­
cluded in the later years in the annual reports of the State and in the Industrial Bulletin.
, .
,
,
„__
70 Before July 1930 “ applicants ” were reported; beginning in that month “ new registrations ’ first were reported, and the total number of applications included those new
registrations. In this month and thereafter the mimeographed monthly report of the Department of Industrial Relations carries a footnote stating, ‘ Total number of applications
includes new registrations. To get the number of renewals, subtract the new registrations from the total applications.” The figures used here represent the applicants in 1928
and 1929, the “ new registrations” in 1931, and in 1930 “ applicants” in the first 6 months, “ new registrations” in the last 6 months. That these data are comparable appears from the
figures and also has been verified by the State.
n The first figure represents “ attendance”; the second, “ new registrations.”
_
_ ..
, ,,.
.
12 Only totals for year given and year ends June 30 in California, Oklahoma, and North Carolina, and September 30 m Indiana and Missouri.
13 Report is issued by State but covers activities of private agencies as none is State supported. The figures given for Colorado represent a 13-month period. Report for year
ending November 1928 gives only placements. No report for period December 1928 to May 1929. Report for 1930, year ending June 1930.
14 The figures given for West Virginia are for the period March 1, 1930, to Nov. 15, 1930.

CA

Extent of woman employment and extent to which places open and placements reported applied to women in 14 selected States, 1930

Employment, 1930 2

1930

Number

Connecticut..
Illinois_____
Iowa_______
Kansas_____

New York___
Ohio________
Pennsylvania.
Rhode IslandWisconsin___
Virginia_____

677, 208
3,184,684
912,835
694,232
1,814, 315
1,927, 347
992, 798
1, 712,106
5,523, 337
2,615, 764
3, 722,103
297,172
1,129,461
880,211

Women
Per­
Total
Total
cent number Num­
Per­ number
ber
cent

178,00/ 26.3
715, 468 22.5
163, 522 17.9
119,160 17.2
528,999 29.2
359,822 18.7
200,965 20.2
416, 512 24.3
1,415,105 25.6
539,606 20.6
803,892 21.6
87,829 29.6
215, 214 19.1
182, 267 20.7

39,349
153.906
34,607
37,149
33, 527
(4)
66,751

125,991
120,646
217, 524
48, 046
3,475
125, 658
11,491

19,406
63,186
11,474
3,170
11, 477
(4)
20, 807
79, 367
52,229
88, 798
15, 503
2, 387
32,928
5, 769

49.3
41.1
33.2
8.5
34.2
31.2
63.0
43.3
40.8
32.3
68.7
26.2
50.2

I

Women

w omen

44,154 21. 805
179,343 69,482
34,112 10,997
44,136
o. 560
36, 695 12. 540
(4)
65, 996 19. 684
137,418 88,471
124,051 51,381
241,699 92, 294
54,802 14. 462
4, 252
2,878
124,165 32,393
12, 761
5. 949

Women

Total
number Number

Total
Per- number
cent

35. 539
112,178

52.1
44.5
37.8
9.9
34.7
49.3
44. 1
68.3
47.7
43.9
36.0
57.5
35.3
53.9

27. 351
'

23,228
23, 719
44, 457
90, 803
102. 735
142, 749
35. 952
3, 967
60,998
9,260

*^ose in which reports were given or could be obtained for the calendar year
analj zed owing to the smallness of the numbers involved
J
| !?r®mBqUtr®t®u„0'iht® C,ens^-.
Census, moi Occupation Statistics, United States Summary.
4 DatTnof published0* PUb lC employmeilt; agencies. For complete reference see table XIII.




Women

18,517
49,952
10,336
3, 227
8,059
11,696
19, 613
62, 058
49, 012
62, 681
12,936
2, 282
21, 532
4,990

19,178
102,964
18,937
29,838
16, 915
19,912
33,998
77,700
(4)
121,925
35,076
4,858
48,128
9,502

11,040
47,880
7,103
2,779
6, 560
19, 638
49,804
54,064
14. 997
19,138

Total
number

34, 212
102, 812
26,413
31,604
19,430
22, 503
41,752
78,498
84,453
130, 352
30, 773
3, 438
52, 021
8,061

Num­
ber

17, 581
44, 366
9,435
2, 771
6,500
10, 616
16,871
52,978
39, 273
55,655
11, 275
1,946
16,742
3. 892

Arkansas and Nevada also had such reports, but these were not

t

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEM PLOYM ENT OF WOMEN

Wromen
State 1
Total
number

Placements reported,
19303

Places reported open 3

196

Table XI\.

7

T

#

Table XV.—Monthly data from State reports on activities of public employment offices—12 States

CONNECTICUT *
1795T0
Month

Appli­
cations
for
help

Situa­
tions
se­
cured

Appli­
cations
for em­
ployment

Appli­
cations
for
help

Situa­
tions
se­
cured

Appli­
cations
for
help

Situa­
tions
se­
cured

Appli­
cations
for em­
ploy­
ment

Appli­
cations
for
help

Situa­
tions
se­
cured

2, 531
1,931
2, 111
2,384
2, 348
2,313
2, 439
2,093
2, 367
2,470
1,776
1,789

1,721
1,325
1,502
1,786
1,892
1,649
1,573
1,362
1,599
1,733
1,154
1,221

1,635
1,262
1,437
1,674
1, 769
1,555
1,509
1,309
1,432
1,635
1,163
1,201

2,060
1,982
2,140
1,895
1,438
1,566
1, 569
1,467
1,601
1,450
1,421
1,582

1,165
1,068
1,332
1,305
820
719
844
751
854
719
685
778

1,116
1,056
1,286
1,238
803
705
826
715
792
668
664
755

76.8
78.2
83.8
82.4
86.9
73.8
76.7
73.1
83.9
86.6
92.2
88.8

83.4
81.7
77.1
86.8
83.3
81.2
76.2
77.6
84.8
82.9
75.5
75.1

68.0
68.6
71.2
74.9
80.6
71.3
64.5
65.1
67.6
70.2
65.0
68.3

56.6
53.9
62.2
68.9
57.0
45.9
53.8
51.2
53.3
49.6
48.2
49.2

3, 324
2,448
2,684
3,142
3, 329
2,833
3,057
2, 639
2,810
3,169
2, 425
2,400

1,580
1,197
1,367
1,779
1,951
1,513
1,501
1,274
1,387
1,447
998
1,028

1,541
1,174
1,304
1,736
1,887
1,478
1,477
1,249
1,362
1,424
980
1,019

2,866
2,703
2,777
3,008
1,989
1,812
1,947
1,863
2,048
1,933
1,587
1,480

920
712
994
1, 042
627
604
626
531
598
603
483
398

914
706
986
1,028
613
598
614
516
567
585
478
397

43.5
46.2
49.8
60.1
67.8
66.7
68.4
61.2
73.8
75.3
67.3
61. 5

57.4
57.4
61.0
72.1
76.1
75.3
70.8
65.2
67.4
67.8
59.1
62.9

47.5
48.9
50.9
56. 6
58. b
53.4
49.1
48.3
49. 4
45. 7
41. 2
42.8

32.1
26.3
35. 8
34.6
31. 5
33.3
32.2
28.5
29. 2
31. 2
30.4
26. 9

Appli­
cations
for em­
ploy­
ment

1928

1929

1930

1931

WOMEN

April.------------------------July

.. ____

1,681
1,603
1,688
1,656
2,179
2,357
1,973
2,199
2,047
2,433
2,020
1,850

1, 291
1,253
1,415
1,364
1,894
1,739
1,514
1,607
1,718
2,106
1,863
1,642

1,215
1,173
1,330
1,250
1,711
1,611
1,404
1,497
1,572
1,899
1,536
1,485

1,955
1,653
2,089
2,343
2,353
2,344
2,297
2,281
2,499
2,803
2, 221
2,231

1,631
1,351
1,610
2,034
1,961
1, 903
1,751
1,769
2,119
2,324
1,677
1,675

1,495
1,246
1,429
1,857
1,788
1, 702
1, 586
1,605
1,907
2,115
1,555
1,589
MEN

January.. ------------- --------February. ______ . ... ...
April---------------------------- --­
May----------------------- ------July
August--------------------- ---- September ________________
December--------------------------For footnotes see end of table.




2,525
2,403
2'492
2, 577
3,037
2,937
2,550
2,938
2, 716
3,015
2,429
2,403

1,099
1,109
1,241
1, 549
2,058
1,960
1,743
1,797
2,004
2, 270
1, 635
1,478

1,039
1,043
1,186
1,459
1,928
1,821
1,611
1,686
1,885
2,123
1,535
1,370

2,697
1,965
2,740
2,752
3,215
2,829
2,732
3,013
2,983
3,374
2,888
2,895

1, 549
1,128
1, 672
1,984
2,446
2,131
1,935
1,965
2,012
2, 287
1,708
1,532

1,433
1,029
1,598
1,875
2, 285
1,958
1, 768
1,839
1,885
2,185
1,613
1,489

A PPEN D IX A — GENERAL TABLES

Appli­
cations
for em­
ploy­
ment

Number of applications for help
to 100 applications for em­
ployment 2

1931

1930

1929

1928

198

Table XV.—Monthly data from State reports on activities of public employment offices—12 States—Continued

ILLINOIS 3
1929

1930

1931

Number of help wanted to 100
registrations 2

Regis­
Help
trations wanted

Regis­
Placed trations Help
wanted

Placed

Regis­
Help
trations wanted

Placed

Regis­
Help
trations wanted

Placed

1928

1929

1930

1931

WOMEN
January
February_________ _______

July.............. ...... ........ ...........
August.___ ______________
December

8,679
7,130
8,204
7, 649
8,316
8,199
7,958
7,798
7, 872
8, 729
7,048
6, 582

4, 565
3,968
5,331
5,161
5,815
5,122
4,869
5, 565
5,835
6,164
5,194
5,597

4,019
3,542
4,668
4,417
5,054
4, 365
4, 227
4, 755
4, 824
5,189
4,421
4,728

8,048
6,864
8,126
8,642
8,083
8, 254
9,271
8, 543
8,504
8,802
8,197
6,710

5, 503
4, 641
5,748
6, 519
6,493
5,893
5,629
6, 320
6, 588
6,353
5,021
4,774

4,558
3,960
4,807
5,599
5,484
4,892
4,785
5, 313
5,304
5, 337
4, 286
4,089

9, 210
7, 733
8,047
8,672
8,293
8,034
9,063
7, 702
8,843
9,356
8,442
7,858

4,418
3, 826
4, 252
5,033
4,683
3,827
3, 469
3,536
4,178
4,116
4,134
4,480

3,806
3,351
3,691
4,348
4,022
3,479
3,187
3,231
3,686
3, 776
3, 772
4,017

9,930
7,188
7,550
7,784
6,885
7,753
8,957
7, 526
8,270
8,175
6,905
5,870

4,491
3,839
4,448
4, 617
4,066
4,067
3,689
3,658
4,274
3,668
3,473
3, 590

3,975
3,374
3,894
4,043
3,718
3,701
3,489
3,333
3,806
3,356
3,161
3,287

52.6
55.7
65.0
67.5
69.9
62.5
60.7
71.4
74.1
70.6
73.7
85.0

68.4
67.6
70.7
75.4
80.3
71.4
60.4
74.0
77.5
72.2
61.3
91.1

48.0
49.5
52.8
58.0
56.5
47.6
38.3
45.9
47.2
44.0
49.0
57.0

45.2
53.4
58.9
59.3
59.1
52.5
41.2
48.6
51.7
44.9
50.3
61.2

5,202
4,327
6,222
7,063
6,270
5,133
4, 796
4,197
4,665
5, 424
• 4, 589
4, 338

4,875
3,839
5,761
6, 507
6,025
4,875
4,594
3,948
4,433
5,137
4,335
4,117

17,853
11,329
13,435
13,696
11,850
13,322
13,009
10,760
11,420
12, 614
9,775
10,044

3,916
3,562
4, 765
5,388
4, 521
4,545
5,107
3,826
4,692
4, 614
4, 549
5,599

3,710
3,426
4,490
4,964
4, 362
4,278
4,565
3, 547
4,302
4,238
4i 107
5,417

34.5
42.6
52.6
62.5
67.9
57.7
69.3
72.8
78.7
78.1
66.8
59.4

47.0
53.5
59.9
74.6
80.9
72.1
70.8
72.6
71.4
65. 9
52.1
49.5

33.5
35.2
45.0
49. 3
47.6
42.6
38.1
40. 5
40. 5
30 8
28. 7
27.2

21.9
31.4
35.5
39.3
. 38.2
34.1
39.3
35.6
41.1

MEN
January

July--------------------------------August ______ _____________
November............. .....................




12,580
9, 592
11,349
11, 567
12, 728
12, 008
12,466
12,827
12, 960
14,450
11, 708
10,497

4, 336
4,086
5,974
7,227
8,642
6,931
8, 640
9, 340
10,200
11,287
7, 825
6,232

4,019
3, 774
5,516
6, 609
7,814
6,357
7, 581
8,352
9,022
9,913
7,094
5,846

13, 509
10, 595
13, 329
14, 536
14,641
13, 534
15,898
15,039
15,022
15, 213
14,487
14,041

6, 352
5,667
7,985
10,846
11,843
9, 763
11,248
10, 919
10, 721
10,020
7,548
6,949

5,721
5,067
7,120
9, 686
10, 314
8, 655
10, 030
9,820
9, 487
9, 216
7,199
6,456

15,536
12,289
13, 834
14, 330
13,175
12, 038
12, 577
10, 358
11,517
17, 609
15,981
15,954

46.5
55.7

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

1928
Month

IOWA 4

Month

Regis­
trations
for jobs

Regis­
Jobs Number
offered placed trations
for jobs

Regis­
Jobs Number
offered placed trations
for jobs

Number of job offered to 100
registrg tions 2

1931

1930

1929

1928

Regis­
Jobs Number
offered placed trations
for jobs

Jobs Number
offered placed

1928

1929

1930

1931

July

___________________

1, 774
1,254
1,611
2,066
1,838
1,674
2, 210
1,623
2,156
1,846
1, 744
2,131

969
750
804
1,101
940
827
1,103
864
1,181
964
874
1,097

819
633
714
933
840
738
951
766
976
838
763
943

1,595
1,869
1,672
1,949
2,397
1,834
1,871
1, 832
2,348
1,969
2,007
2, 322

756
819
727
932
1,128
859
864 .
892
1,159
950
911
1,000

645
728
651
823
974
751
747
785
965
832
823
903

2,193
1, 857
1, 887
2,495
1, 948
1,926
2, 212
1,842
1,872
2,524
1,923
2,445

1,837

964
757
794
1,096
893
819
972
764
747
994
742
794

882
692
711
990
903
707
683
919
674
734

1,920
2,028
2,057
2, 571
2,153
2,446
2,066
2, 846
2,071
2,087

1,163
909
1,038
1,685
1,369
1,302
2, 272
1,911
1,229
1,476
1, 722
939

1,162
909
1,035
1, 681
1,366
1, 299
2, 252
1,910
1, 228
1,475
1, 722
939

3,958
4, 253
4, 175
4,477
4, 542
5,471
4, 693
5,624
4, 352
6,866
4,907
5,098

542
541
548
611
694
677
585
714
541
692
468

44.0

54.6
512
59.8
487
49.9
492
53.3
539
51.1
612
49.4
684
540
49.9
53.2
657
487 • 54.8
52.2
633
50.1
438
51.5
443

47.4
43.8
43.5

48.2
45.4
43.1

39.4
38.6
32.5

29.9
19.4
22.0
26.9
34.7
33.4
35.0
44.7
43.8
47.9
52.4
36.8

25.1
23.1
25.4
38.7
38.5
41.6
42.1
51.6
47.4
45.5
49.2
33.0

25.8
23.2
25.0

42.1

48.7

29.5
27.8
28.5
30.1
33.7
26.3
27.2
29.2
26.2
24.3
22.6
23.5

MEN

July

_____ ______ -- ___

5,101
4,026
4,185
5,729
4,497
4.491
6,000
5,682
5,745
5, 294
6, 339
6,242

1, 527
781
919
1,541
1, 559
1,500
2,098
2,540
2,516
2,536
3,319
2,297

1,388
776
919
1, 539
1,541
1,459
2,078
2,496
2,445
2,457
2,635
2,112

3,923
3,915
4,020
4, 583
5, 569
4,495
4,730
5,890
5,775
4,824
5,361
5,509

984
904
1,022
1,773
2,143
1,869
1,989
3,041
2,740
2,193
2,640
1, 817

979
901
1,017
1,747
2,124
1,809
1,950
3, 022
2, 658
2,136
2, 577
1,793

4, 508
3,911
4,145
5, 858
4, 510
4,336
6,163
5,205
4, 825
5, 644
5,004
5,362

624
774
641
846
1,005
1,063
907
1,093
797
1, 039
1,523
1, 522

624
774
641
846
1,005
1,063
907
1,093
797
1,036
1, 523
1, 520

30.4
30.0
36.9
36.7
25.5
26.2
34.4
17.5

15.8

A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

WOMEN

19.4
17.7
29.9

For footnotes see end of table.




co
CO

Monthly data from State reports on activities of public employment offices—12 States—Continued

200

Table XV.

MICHIGAN 5
1930

Number of help wanted to
100 registered 2

1931

Regis­
tered

Help
wanted

Placed

Regis­
tered

Help
wanted

Placed

Applica­
tions

Help
wanted

885
718
963
1,179
1,263
858
872
813
1,032
1,089
900
1,124

814
663
873
1,088
1,154
812
828
769
864
932
842
977

3, 435
2,726
3,387
2,981
3,159
3,633
3, 679
3,400
3, 636
3, 768
3, 569
2,534

1,047
695
947
913
924
842
658
652
878
804
668
717

1,087
793
975
1,447
1, 704
1,030
857
761
875
815
885
794

1,071
804
961
1, 386
1, 629
1,030
837
775
900
828
873
793

5, 927
5, 574
5, 405
4, 704
4, 629
4,401
5,640
5, 300
5,981
6,099
6, 222
5, 292

677
511
666
734
769
583
666
577
815
900
1,673
1,596

Place­
ments

1929

1930

1931

WOMEN
January. __
February..
March___
April........
May____
June____
July.........
August__
September.
October.. .
November.
December.

2, 877
2,676
2,559
2, 730
2,443
2,464

1,393
1,331
1,337
938
646

1,196
1,113
997
839
596

2,768
2, 237
2, 632
2,999
3, 364
3,115
4,106
3,069
4,223
5,053
3, 834
3,429

964
626
812
772
810
747
578
578
736
729
609643

48.4
49.7
52.2
34.4
26.4
33.2

32.0
32.1
36.6
39.3
37.5
27.5

23.5
32.8

30.5
25.5
28.0
30.6
29.2
23.2
17.9
19.2
24.1
21.3
18.7
28.3

22.8
15.7
20.5
30.3
34.6
19. 7
16. 2
14.5
16.1
13.2
11.3
12.7

11.4
9. 2
12.6
15. 6
16. 6
13. 2
11.8
10.9
13 6
14.8
26.9
30.2

21.2

26.5
24.4

21.6

MEN
January.................... . .
February____________
March_______________
April_______________ .
May______ ________
June____ _
July_____________________
August_____________ _
September_________ ___
October______________
November____ _____
December_____________




3, 873
3,687
3, 556
4, 373
2, 799
4,304

2,407
2,147
2,028
1,748
1,092
1,341

2,239
2,056
1, 933
1, 715
1,076
1,366

4, 768
5,049
4, 759
4, 773
4,927
5, 227
5,304
5, 251
5,445
6,193
7,832
6, 260

634
499
679
706
753
585
617
549
779
887
1,645
1, 582

62.1
85.2
57.0
40.0
39.0
31.2

EM PLOYM ENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

1929
Month

MINNESOTA6
1929

1928
Month

Number of help wanted to 100
registrations 2

1931

1930

Help Verified Regis­
Help Verified
Regis­
Help Verified Regis­
Help Verified Regis­
place­
place­
place­
place­
trations wanted ments trations wanted ments trations wanted ments trations wanted ments

1928

1929

1930

1931

January......... .....................
February_____ _____ ______
March ___
April_______ ___ .
May. _______ ___________
June........................... ..............
July... ......... ........... .................
August___________________
September_________ ______
October
November_________________
December_ _
_

3,739
2,802
2,778
2, 773
3, 667
2,705
2, 729
2,318
2,683
3,130
2,248
2,137

2,177
1,671
1,805
1,917
2, 680
1,507
1, 571
1,532
1,543
1, 795
1,194
1,415

2,020
1,554
1,626
1, 679
2,360
1, 295
1,299
1,205
1,247
1,505
1,015
1,199

2,699
2,403
3, 279
2,860
2, 645
3, 533
2, 375
3, 221
3,021
3,475
2, 553
2,081

1,354
1,064
1,586
1,735
1,655
2,021
1,492
2,161
1,930
2,055
1,345
1,286

1,177
904
1,279
1,419
1,313
1,655
1,200
1,742
1,530
1,724
1,140
1,074

2,923
2, 307
2, 680
3, 517
2,850
3, 317
2,402
3, 291
3,192
3, 743
2, 367
1,986

1, 485
1,285
1,452
2,150
1,825
1,825
1,473
1,970
1,701
1,863
1,289
1,295

1,257
1,105
1,168
1,859
1,550
1,602
1,319
1,653
1, 423
1, 656
1,119
1,160

2,962
2,850
2, 557
4,022
2,961
3,205
3,528
2, 780
2,856
3,268
2, 560
2,056

1, 624
1, 406
1, 529
2,409
1, 798
1, 708
1,943
1,501
1,501
1,737
1,262
1,220

1,413
1,253
1,303
2,102
1,576
1,508
1,753
1,316
1, 316
1,532
1,126
1,123

58.2
59.6
65.0
69.1
73.1
55.7
57.6
66. 1
57.5
57.3
53.1
66.2

50.2
44.3
48.4
60.7
62.6
57.2
62.8
67.1
63.9
59.1
52.7
61.8

50.8
55.7
54. 2
61. 1
64.0
55.0
61.3
59.9
53.3
49.8
54. 5
65.2

54.8
49.3
59.8
59.9
60. 7
53.3
55.1
54.0
52.6
53.2
49.3
59.3

1,891
1,330
1,197
2, 907
2, 276
2,485
3, 207
3,234
1,635
2,329
1,380
973

1,714
1, 211
1,019
2, 652
2,129
2,308
2,879
3, 553
2,161
3,051
1,301
903

1, 218
1,064
1,076
2,265
1,965
1, 352
2, 425
1,153
1, 421
1,720
1,172
772

941
858
839
1,843
1,609
1,154
2,100
846
1,117
1, 450
974
629

849
751
754
1,611
1,533
1,040
1,939
796
1,038
1,328
895
596

98.5
95.0
91.1
89.8
93.7
89.4
96.4
98.6
101.1
96.1
90.3
88.5

91.2
89.6
90.3
92.0
93.1
94.1
102.0
97.2
96.0
94.8
92.8
91.9

86.5
83.8
82.4
88.2
90.1
92.4
95.3
92.1
87.2
87.0
88.2
85.0

77.3
80.6
78.0
81.4
81.9
85.4
86.6
73.4
78.6
84.3
83.1
81.5

MEN
January.. . _ —
_ -------February__ _
_ ____ _
March _____________ ____ April___________ ________
May----- ------------------- -----June
July-_____________________
August------------------ ------------September________
-— —
October______ _____________
November____ ________ —
December

3,183
2,292
2,142
3,191
5,855
3,468
4,586
5,123
5, 282
7,310
3,642
2,372

3,136
2,178
1,951
2,865
5,484
3,101
4, 419
5,052
5, 342
7,027
3, 289
2,100

2,545
1,818
1,651
2,602
5,033
2,805
3,818
4,326
4, 350
5, 999
2, 938
1,947

2,627
2, 535
2,987
3,556
5,249
5,179
5,649
6,174
4, 762
5, 374
2, 954
1,893

2,397
2, 271
2, 697
3,271
4,889
4,874
5, 762
6,004
4, 571
5,095
2,741
1,740

2,053
2, 047
2,359
2,884
4, 321
4,408
4,892
5,306
3,966
4, 551
2,531
1,565

2,187
1,588
1,452
3,295
2,527
2, 689
3,365
3, 511
1,876
2,677
1,565
1,145

A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

WOMEN

For footnotes see end of table.




to

o

202

Table XV.—Monthly data from State reports on activities of public employment offices—12 States—Continued

NEW JERSEY7

Month

1929

Number of help wanted to 100
registrations 2

1931

1930

Regis­
Help Report­ Regis­
Help Report­ Regis­
Help Report­ Regis­
Help Report­
ed
ed
ed
ed
trations wanted placed trations wanted placed trations wanted placed trations wanted placed

1928

1929

1930

1931

WOMEN
January..... ..................................
February__________________
March............... ........... ........... .
April_____________ _____ .
May
June _______________
July.............................. ...............
August_________________
September___
.
October ________ ______
_
November............................... .
December.......--........ ........ ...

7,080
7, 363
9, 852
8,052
8,271
10,411
8,308
7, 482
9,796
7,909
7, 450
8,879

4,959
4,862
7,186
6,802
6,498
8,023
6,159
6,122
9,041
6,592
5,911
7,212

4, 300
4,151
6, 275
5,711
5,624
7,018
5,333
5,108
7, 394
5, 773
5, 360
6,400

6,962
7,436
10, 648
8, 717
9,053
10,829
7,990
10, 001
8,811
7,705
9, 675
7,324

6,246
6,275
8, 484
7, 857
7, 367
9, 594
6, 304
7,950
8, 267
7,049
7,907
6,171

5, 200
5,437
7,410
6, 437
6, 217
8,039
5, 326
6, 486
6,737
5,917
6,865
4,596

10,008
8,229
9,007
8,804
10,926
9,497
11, 453
8,069
8,644
10,107
5,305
4,451

6,237
5,118
4, 934
5, 984
7, 087
5,271
5, 251
4, 405
6,041
6,415
2,866
2,449

5, 492
4, 448
4, 301
4,990
6, 013
4,557
4, 483
3,609
5,042
5,606
2,373
2,064

9,717
7,585
7, 655
7,903
9,340
8,069
8,869
3, 659
4,618
5,619
4, 375
5,294

5, 564
4, 778
5.107
5, 285
6,047
4, 795
4,937
2, 394
3,149
2,955
2,239
2,554

4,838
4,000
4,409
4,451
5,282
4,305
4,390
1,774
2,444
2,390
1,849
2,102

70.0
66.0
72.9
84.5
78.6
77.1
74.1
81.8
92.3
87.9
79.3
81.2

89.7
84.4
79.7
90. 1
81.4
88.6
78.9
79.5
93.8
91.5
81.7
70.6

62.3
62.2
54.8
68.0
64.9
55.5
45.8
54.6
69.9
63.5
54.0
55.0

57.3
63.0
66.7
66.9
64.7
59.4
55.7
65.4
68.2
52.6
51.2
48.2

2,199
1,890
2,026
2,936
3, 631
2, 567
2,621
1,971
2,193
3,115
1,553
2,043

2,021
1,635
1,771
2,469
3,293
2,335
2,329
1,761
2,041
2,590
1,325
1,950

9,651
5,172
4,880
5,029
6,018
4,940
5,630
3,152
3,673
4,620
4,809
13,920

3,149
2,130
2,273
2,689
3, 202
2,157
2,314
1, 414
1,570
2,088
1,922
2,988

2,897
1,887
1,939
2,468
2,809
2,016
2,120
1,303
1,341
1,866
1,717
2,895

47.8
48.4
56.8
71.8
73.9
69.1
68.7
75.0
79.1
78.6
71.7
67.4

65.6
65.4
69.5
80.6
84.0
79.8
70.9
76.4
76.9
77.8
65.6
51.7

42.5
48.5
44.5
58.3
49.3
48.3
42.9
47.4
47.0
52.1
39.5
42.0

32.6
41.2
46.6
53.5
53.2
43.7
41.1
44.9
42.7
45.2
40.0
21.5

MEN
January........................ ...............
February ...................................
March_____________ ______
April--. .
.
May_______________ ______
June........................ ........... ........
July----- ---------------- --------August____________ _______
September___ _____________
October---___ _________ ____
November
December_____ ____________




4,841
4,453
6,114
5,471
5,879
6, 967
5,756
5,481
6,852
5,869
5,204
5, 587

2,314
2,155
3,470
3,927
4,346
4,817
3,957
4,111
5,422
4,611
3,731
3,763

2,054
2,006
3, 240
3, 588
4,051
4, 254
3,582
3, 644
4,952
4,126
3,461
3,461

4,566
4, 723
6,381
5,641
5,788
7, 670
5, 431
6,295
5, 474
5, 523
5, 363
4,284

2, 996
3,088
4, 432
4,544
4,863
6,121
3,850
4,811
4, 210
4,297
3,519
2,216

2,582
2,674
4,164
4,039
4, 272
5, 508
3, 448
4, 208
3,845
3,769
3,248
2,079

5,174
3, 895
4, 454
5, 032
7, 364
5,318
6,114
4,154
4,661
5,975
3,983
4,864-

EM PLOYM ENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

1928

T

NEW YORK8

Month

1930

1929

1928
Applica­ Registra­ Help
tions
wanted
tions 9

Placed

Applica­ Registra­ Help
wanted
tions
tions 9

Placed

Applica­ Registra­ Help
tions
wanted
tions 9

Placed

WOMEN
6,430
7,418
5,907
6,473
8, 220
6,264
5, 321
6,668
5,637
7,672
5, 403
4, 729

2,117
2,356
1,678
1,786
2,398
2,123
1,749
2,014
1,728
2,528
1,651
1,277

3,663
4,180
4,082
4, 576
5,967
4, 229
3,336
4,591
4,707
5,644
3,861
3,393

3, 111
3,580
3,469
3,743
5,128
3, 573
2,877
3,748
3, 816
4, 543
3, 248
2,906

6,703
4,902
5,699
5,819
7,251
6,394
6,489
4, 922
io 6, 344
7,081
5, 309
4, 724

1,946
1,569
1,760
1, 624
2,158
2,116
2,074
1, 370
io 1, 888
2,243
1, 826
1,498

5,133
3,485
4,061
4, 610
5,662
4, 687
4,006
3,340
io 5,007
5, 233
3, 308
2,849

4,171
2,881
3,381
3, 815
4,695
3,679
3, 498
2,746
io 3, 795
4, 256
2, 711
2, 391

Number of help wanted to 100 applica­
tions 2

1931

6,253
5,800
6,667
io 7,657
8,246
8,102
8, 239
7,283
8,887
9, 576
8,473
7,694

2,506
2,416
2, 444
io 2, 732
2,625
2, 960
2,971
2, 408
3,206
3, 666
3,074
2, 535

3,144
2,930
3,760
io 4, 805
4, 914
4,203
3,284
3,711
5, 384
4, 772
3,983
4,122

2,530
2,336
2,859
io 3,817
3,987
3,326
2,979
3,037
4,156
3,864
3, 215
3,176

Number of help wanted to 100 registra­
tions 2

Month
Applica­ Registra­ Help
wanted
tions 9
tions

Placed

1928

1929

1930

1931

1928

1929

1930

1931

WOMEN—Continued

For footnotes see end of table.




8, 398
7,862
9, 731
10, 018
9, 642
11,136
10, 793
9, 266
11.272
12, 804
13,032
11, 283

3,096
2,666
3,119
3,367
3,585
4, 964
4,149
3,466
4,523
5,809
5,837
(“)

4, 361
3,848
5,030
5,422
4,967
4,866
4,388
4,053
5,919
5,175
4, 483
4,196

3,231
2,893
3, 779
4,072
3, 788
3,651
3,457
2,857
4,006
3,741
3,111
2,983

57.0
56.3
69.1
70.7
72.6
67.5
62.7
68.9
83.5
73.6
71.5
71.7

76.6
71.1
71.3
79.2
78.1
73.3
61.7
67.9
78.9
73.9
62.3
60.3

50.3
50.5
56.4
62.8
59.6
51.9
39.9
51.0
60.6
49.8
47.0
53.6

51.9
48.9
51.7
54.1
51.5
43.740.7
43.7
52.5
40.4
34.4
37.2

173.0
177.4
243.3
256.2
248.8
199.2
190.7
228.0
272.4
223.3
233.9
265.7

263.8
222. 1
230.7
283.9
262.4
221.5
193.2
243.8
265.2
233.3
181.2
190.2

125.5
121.3
153.8
175.9
187.2
142.0
110.5
154.1
167.9
130.2
129.6
162.6

140.9
144.3
161.3
161.0
138. 5
98.0
105.8
116.9
130.9
89.1
76.8

203

January_______ _____________
February............. ............ .........-.
March---------------------------------- April----------- ------------------------May_____ ___________ -........ .
June-------- -------- ------------------July.................................................
August....................... ...................
September___________________
October-------------------------------November---- ------ -------- --------December-------------------------------

A PPEN D IX A — GENERAL TABLES

January.-- ----- ----------------------------------------------February________ _________
---------------------March----- ----- - ------------ --------------- -----------April------------------ _______________ ----------- -­
May---------------- ___________________ ------ ____
June_________________ _____ -. ---------- - ------July_____________________ ____________________
August— -------------------------- ------------------------September
October--------- -------------------- ------------------------November____________________ ______
_____
December ___________________ ______ ____ _____

204

Table XV.—Monthly data from State reports on activities of public employment offices—12 States—Continued

NEW YORK—Continued
1929

1930

Applica­ Registra­ Help
tions 9
tions
wanted

Placed

Applica­ Registra­ Help
tions 9
tions
wanted

Placed

Applica­ Registra­ Help
tions 9
tions
wanted

3,247
2,827
3,438
5,059
7,945
6,039
5,721
4,668
io 5,720
7,139
3,454
2,895

10,923
10,177
10, 680
io 13,087
13,876
12,432
11,409
9, 731
11,606
11,875
10, 686
12,110

Placed

MEN
January___ ____ ______________ _ __
February______ _____________ ____ ____ ____
March_________ ______
April..............
... . ____ ... . . ___
May________________ _____
June______________________ _____
July __________
________________________
.
August___________________________
September______________ ________ __________
October___ _____________________ ______ _ ___
November___________ ____________ ____
December______ _ _

6,746
12, 370
8,595
9, 517
12,251
8,448
7,835
10,487
9,436
12,052
7, 727
7,008

3,104
4,936
3, 226
3,248
4,033
2,880
2,868
3,700
3,065
4,180
2,910
2,604

2,550
3,470
3,686
5,715
9,030
5,888
5,273
7,467
7, 523
9, 448
4, 714
3, 653

2,035
2,732
2,801
4,429
7,346
4,788
4,335
5,927
5,886
7,597
3,985
3,024

8,954
7,158
7,611
8,800
12,292
9,535
9,831
8,237
9,235
11,546
7,956
8,914

3,858
2,965
3,024
2,806
3,835
3, Oil
3,366
2, 843
io 2,973
3,809
2,995
3,478

4,281
3,785
4,715
6,338
9, 650
7,480
7,226
5,877
io 7, 270
8,626
3,977
3,445

Number of help wanted to 100 applica­
tions 2

1931

4, 597
4,128
4, 634
io 5, 641
5,465
5,446
4,947
4,144
4,880
4, 973
4,140
4, 642

2,831
2,877
3,589
io 5,880
7,245
5,259
4,092
3,485
5,157
5,161
4,058
4,089

2,368
2,265
2,861
io 4,756
6,221
4,242
3,588
2,896
4,407
4,472
3,529
3,566

Number of help wanted to 100 registra­
tions 2

Month
Applica­ Registra­ Help
tions 9
tions
wanted

Placed

1928

1929

1930

1931

1928

1929

1930

1931

MEN—Continued
January__________ ____________ _______________
February___________ _________________________
March_________ _ __ ___ ___ ______ _____
April
__ ___
May_________________ ________________
June______________
__________ _ ___
July____________ _______ __________
August____ ____________________ _____
September___________________________
October______
_ ______ ____________________
November________ ___________ ____________ ___
December_________________ ________________ __




13,804
13,146
16,341
17, 745
15,894
14, 073
15, 638
12,868
13,999
15,539
13,731
(>■)

5,334
4,788
7,078
7, 636
6,602
6, 410
6, 566
5,591
5,976
7,161
5,689
(■■)

3, 228
4,125
5,113
6, 697
5,499
4,041
4, 050
3,037
4,233
4,171
3,272
(>■)

2,742
3,705
4,365
5,856
4,868
3,423
3, 450
2,533
3, 525
3,543
2,755
(io

37.8
28.1
42.9
60.1
73.7
69.7
67.3
71.2
79.7
78.4
61.0
52.1

47.8
52.9
61.9
72.0
78.5
78.4
73.5
71.3
78.7
74.7
50.0
38.6

25.9
28.3
33.6
44.9
52.2
42.3
35.9
35.8
44.4
43.5
38.0
33.8

23.4
31.4
31.3
37.7
34.6
28.7
25.9
23.6
30.2
26.8
23.8

82.2
70.3
114.3
176.0
223.9
204.4
183.9
201.8
245.4
226.0
162.0
140.3

111.0
127.7
155.9
225.9
251.6
248.4
214.7
206.7
244.5
226.5
132.8
99.1

61.6
69.7
77.4
104.2
132.6
96.6
82.7
84.1
105.7
103.8
98.0
88.1

60.5
86.2
72.2
87.7
83.3
63.0
61.7
54.3
70.8
58.2
57.5

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

1928
Month

l

w

OHIO «
1928

Month

Total
number
of appli­
cants

Help
wanted

1930

1929
Total
Reported number
placed of appli­
cants

Help
wanted

Total
Reported number
placed of appli­
cants

1930 is

Total
nelp Reported number of New reg­ Help
istra­
wanted
placed applica­
tions I3 wanted
tions 13

Reported
placed

January...
February..
March.....
April____
May____
June_____
July_____
August_
_
September
October...
November.
December .

9, 439
8, 559
10, 733
11,479
12,885
12,028
10, 253
10,607
10,439
10,980
9, 751
9,131

5,474
5, 382
7, 482
8, 503
9. 972
6,993
6, 539
7, 729
8,102
7,956
6, 644
8,020

4,815
4, 839
6, 575
7, 247
8, 782
6, 303
5, 725
6, 456
6,600
6, 736
5,840
6,611

10,436
8,892
10, 974
12,969
11,894
11,166
11, 363
10, 782
11, 393
12,190
10, 321
8, 630

7,981
6, 188
8,118
10, 583
9, 528
7,661
6,937
7,444
8, 623
7,887
5, 867
5, 477

9, 824
8,806
9, 562
11,146
11,403
10,081

5,080
4,885
5,642
7,619
7,368
5, 211

4,486
4,264
4, 776
6, 683
6, 650
4, 834

9,138
8,491
9,947
7,996
6,863
6,957

4, 390
4, 231
5, 240
4,405
3,999
4,611

3,954
3,746
4, 591
3, 902
3,661
4,108

Number of help wanted to2—

1931
Month

23, 596
22,275
24,806
23,702
20,168
18,888

Total
number New reg- Help Reported
istraof appli­ tions 13 wanted
placed
cations 13

100 new registra­
tions 13

100 applicants 13
1928

1929

|

1930

1930

1931

W OMEN—Continued

For footnotes see end of table.




23, 609
21, 062
22, 288
24, 270
23,873
25, 295
23,291
21, 481
22, 250
22, 827
20, 313
17, 243

8,023
7,306
8, 371
9, 291
8, 782
7,846
6,892
6,564
7, 303
6,644
5, 583
5, 309

4,751
4, 480
5, 458
6,273
5, 826
4, 527
3, 885
3,783
4, 548
3, 792
3, 265
3,476

4,172
3, 898
4, 737
5, 618
5,185
3, 917
3, 521
3, 284
3, 970
3,385
2,941
3,059

58.0
62.9
69.7
74.1
77.4
58.1
63.8
72.9
77.6
72.5
68.1
87.8

76.5
69.6
74.0
81.6
80.1
68.6
61.0
69.0
75.7
64.7
56.8
63.5

51.7
55.5
59.0
68.4
64.6
51.7

48.0
49.8
52.7
55.1
58.3
66.3

.

59.2
61.3
65.2
67.5
66.3
57.7
56.4
57.6
62.3
67.1
58.5
65.5

205

January..,
February.
March. __
April____
May_____
June_____
July_____
August_
_
September
October...
November.
December.

A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

WOMEN

206

Table XV.—Monthly data from State reports on activities of public employment offices—12 States—Continued

OHIO—Continued

Month

Total
number
of appli­
cants

1929

Total
Help Reported number
wanted
placed of appli­
cants

1930

Total
Help Reported number
wanted
placed of appli­
cants

1930 is

Total
Help Reported number of New reg­ Help
istra­
wanted
placed
applica­
tions 13 wanted
tions 13

Reported
placed

MEN
January__
February-March___
April____
May_____
June-------July-------August___
September.
October- __
November.
December .

12, 530
12,181
15,440
18, 766
22,300
16,963
16, 593
17,944
17,371
19,871
15, 394
14,032

5, 621
5, 949
9, 065
13, 147
16, 527
10, 675
10, 979
12, 641
12, 321
13, 735
9,530
8,536

5, 252
5, 552
8, 386
12,194
15, 503
10,067
10,166
11,742
11, 582
12,708
8,859
7,900

16,833
14, 293
18, 793
28, 343
27, 474
22, 710
21,428
18,932
19,163
18,601
14, 384
12,452

8,548
8,096
11, 374
19, 286
19, 985
15, 768
13,926
12,195
13,088
12, 443
8,115
6,581

7, 694
7,037
10,102
17,290
18, 073
14, 385
12,825
11,281
11,938
11' 577
7,642
6,191

14, 714
13, 557
15, 268
16,951
15,921
13,123

6,015
6,223
8,914
10,427
9,638
6,209

5,641
5, 726
8,178
9; 617
8,984
5,776

11,652
11,204
11,493
15,146
15,194
16,034

4,988
4,848
5,172
5,501
5, 802
6, 331

4,685
4, 514
4,815
5,187
5, 532
6, 042

Number of help wanted to 2—

1931
Total
number New reg­ Help Reported
istra­
placed
of appli­ tions i3 wanted
cations 13

Month

55, 630
53, 564
53, 585
63, 589
60, 346
71, 424

100 new registra­
tions 13

100 applicants 13
1928 |

1929

|

1930

1930

1931

MEN—Continued

July

December--------------------------------------- ------------ ------------------------------------------




72, 909
67, 682
81, 280
80, 774
75, 203
73, 584
63, 253
59, 296
56, 168
57, 530
54, 080
57, 015

14, 442
11,672
14,165
16, 897
14,100
11,045
9,485
9, 011
9, 533
9, 187
7,928
7,787

5, 920
5, 846
7, 970
9.936
8,845
5, 425
4, 735
3,988
4,410
4,248
3,302
3,236

5, 636
5, 558
7,665
9,609
8,583
5, 225
4, 547
3,794
4,190
4,013
3,187
2,992

44.9
48.8
58.7
70.0
74. 1
62.9
66.2
70.4
70.9
69.1
61.9
60.8

50.8
56.6
60.5
68.0
72.7
69.4
65.0
64.4
68.3
66.9
56.4
52.9

40.9
45.9
58.4
61.5
60.5
47.3

42.8
43.3
45.0
36.3
38.2
39.5

41.0
50.1
56.3
58.8
62.7
49.1
49.9
44.3
46.3
46.2
41.6
41.6

EM PLOYM ENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

1928

PENNSYLVANIA 14

Month

Number of persons asked for to
100 persons applying *

1931

1930

1929

1928

Persons Persons Persons Persons Persons Persons Persons Persons Persons Persons Persons Persons
apply­ asked receiving apply­ asked receiving apply­ asked receiving apply­ asked receiving
ing for for by
ing for for by
ing for for by
ing for for by
posi­
posi­
posi­
posi­
posi­
posi­
posi­
posi­
em­
em­
em­
em­
tions ployers tions 15
tions ployers tions 15
tions ployers tions 1S
ployers tions lfi
tions

1928

1929

1930

1931

3,264
3,127
4, 324
2,772
3,054
3,812
2,597
2,699
3,922
2,830
2,421
2,737

January...
February..
March___
April____
May_____
June_____
July_____
August___
September.
October__
November.
December.

1,138
972
1,509
1,353
1,719
1,466
915
1,043
1,702
1,132
1,159
1,395

728
665
1,016
925
1,160
1,003
676
696
1,167
846
821
993

2,465
2,369
2,941
2, 390
2,351
3,074
2, 211
2,014
2,924
2,500
2,597
2, 525

1,181
1,066
1,320
1,342
1,251
1,415
1,052
1,089
1,437
1,245
1,079
985

817
727
983
1,010
933
1,070
772
815
1,053
979
859
822

2,682
2,773
3,294
2, 767
2,928
3, 747
2, 529
2,410
4, 043
3,378
3,151
3,229

875
890
1,140
1,124
1,334
1,092
672
787
1, 501
1,178
1, 211
1,132

1
1
1
1

747
772
969
952
141
982
607
629
260
072
104
040

3, 216
3, 390
4, 515
3, 776
4, 373
5,908
3, 920
4, 021
5, 305
4, 490
4, 633
5,036

1,038
1,215
1,529
1,416
1,492
1,411
983
981
1, 605
1,154
1,095
1,078

901
1,101
1, 394
1,231
1,285
1, 256
887
843
1,364
1,007
957
941

34.9
31.1
34.9
48.8
56.3
38.5
35.2
38.6
43.4
40.0
47.9
51.0

47.9
45.0
44.9
56.2
53.2
46.0
47.6
54.1
49. 1
49.8
41.5
39.0

32.6
32.1
34.6
40.6
45.6
29.1
26.6
32.7
37.1
34.9
38.4
35.1

32.3
35.8
33.9
37.5
34.1
23.9
25.1
24.4
30.3
25.7
23.6
21.4

1,669
1,580
2,312
2,148
2, 621
2, 554
1, 531
1,670
2,036
1,522
1,626
1,747

1, 345
1, 277
1,914
1, 722
2, 222
2, 232
1,354
1,416
1,762
1,347
1,340
1,567

5, 294
5, 399
7, 791
6, 237
6,116
7,660
6,036
6,113
8,390
7, 729
8, 395
9, 295

1,532
1,540
1,927
2, 215
1,995
1,908
1,332
1,161
1,613
1,446
1,377
2, 033

1,379
1,366
1,705
1,821
1,682
1,718
1,191
1,038
1,465
1,314
1,237
1,910

28.7
35.3
37.5
45.9
47.0
47.0
54.8
55.4
60.4
59.8
49.6
44.5

37.3
41.0
42.2
55.5
56.9
64.3
59.1
59.2
55.3
64.2
47.1
37.1

29.9
26.7
29.7
36.0
38.8
32.2
25.8
27.9
27.3
25.1
24.5
23.9

28.9
28.5
24.7
35.5
32.6
24.9
22.1
19.0
19.2
18.7
16.4
21.9

1

MEN

May
July
September...

..........................

December___________ _____

For footnotes see end of table.




6,477
5,627
6,139
4, 759
5,360
7,104
5,646
5,254
6,616
5,290
5,359
5,680

1,858
1,989
2,302
2,185
2, 517
3, 340
3,095
2, 911
3, 997
3,164
2,659
2, 526

1,334
1,528
1,655
1,739
1,922
2,595
2,393
2, 262
3,188
2,663
2,104
2,053

5,899
6, 736
7, 520
5,919
6,086
8,117
6,636
5,597
7, 430
5,858
5,609
6,744

2,198
2, 760
3,174
3,284
3,461
5,223
3,921
3,312
4.107
3,758
2,640
2,502

1,743
2, 251
2, 535
2,466
2,718
3,789
2,826
2,541
3,401
2, 735
2,119
2,033

5, 589
5,907
7,786
5,973
6,756
7,923
5,926
5,978
7,445
6, 065
6, 649
7, 320

A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

WOMEN

to

o
<1

208

Table XV.—Monthly data from State reports on activities of public employment offices—12 States—Continued

RHODE ISLAND «

At­ Regis­ Help
tend­ tra­ want­
ed
ance tions

©
©
s

At­ Regis­ Help
tend­ tra­ want­
ed
ance tions

Xi
8
03
£

Number of help wanted
to 100 attendance2

1931

At­ New Help
tend­ regis­ want­
tra­
ance tions 17 ed

'O
©
Js
E

At­ New Help
tend­ regis­ want­
tra­
ance tions17 ed

146
145
136
223
230
198
112
110
214
182
119
131

1,181
1,149
1,031
1,095
1,021
1,100
1,081
920
840
1,040
943
1,084

377
339
220
158
127
222
194
192
159
222
183
319

59
41
80
117
194
125
72
112
129
132
128
303

1,446
5,634
4,485
2,402
1, 254
1,327
1,272
957
1,086
1,294
1,091
1,180

367
3,408
1,101
867
456
546
358
329
300
230
276
237

Number of help wanted
to 100 new registrations2
1930 11931

©
©
CS
5

1928

1929

1930

1931

1928

1929

137
169
189
154
141
130
118
114
155
180
122
108

119
134
157
139
126
126
101
90
134
156
104
95

20.8
21.5
23.8
23.9
27.7
24.8
17.7
20.7
40.7
25.3
24.2
27.1

31.7
29.3
23.3
33.9
27.4
25.4
21.7
25.9
50.8
35.4
32.1
22.5

17.3
20.1
17.3
27.2
22.9
20.9
11.1
13.8
23.2
18.4
15.2
15.2

11.6
14.7
18.3
14.1
13.8
11.8
10.9
12.4
18.5
17.3
12.9
10.0

105.3
105.0
114.6
113.8
104.8
107.4
99.3
108.0
113.4
100.9
101.7
109.8

107.3
115.8
114.6
111.7
114.2
100.0
120.0
119.6
121.6
117.4
96.2
52.6

67.3 36.3
107.0 49.9
151.8 85.9
123.2 97.5
110.3 110.0
99.6 58.6
62.1 60.8
67.7 59.4
96.9 97.5
77.7 81.1
79.2 66.7
70.4 33.9

116
206
878
409
271
182
423
225
163
138
80
50

114
193
829
405
240
141
426
214
145
124
77
46

4.0
4.2
5.0
8.5
7.8
9.8
11.1
18.2
10.6
12.9
9.6
7.7

5.5
5.5
5.2
10.4
20.8
14.7
11.1
11.1
17.2
13.1
7.4
3.5

3.9
3.7
6.6
9.1
12.4
12.3
8.4
11.0
13.2
9.2
8.6
20.5

8.0
3.7
19.6
17.0
21.6
13.7
33.3
23.5
15.0
10.7
7.3
4.2

38.7
52.9
63.7
91.7
83.0
94.1
121.0
150.0
93.3
85.4
89.1
83.0

47.9
77.0
65.6
102.7
156.8
102.0
81.0
102.7
110.4
61.7
34.8
18.3

16.8 31.6
24.2
6.0
43.5 79.7
48.3 47.2
63.4 59.4
60.4 33.3
46.3 118.2
42.0 68.4
46.9 54.3
42.7 60.0
31.0 29.0
68.3 21.1

WOMEN
January. . _
February___
March_____
April______
May_______
June_______
July
August- _ _
September___
October____
November___
December___

8.54
781
890
863
871
879
804
720
685
861
724
741

169
160
185
181
230
203
143
138
246
216
172
183

178
168
212
206
241
218
142
149
279
218
175
201

143
145
181
171
197
182
120
120
245
206
148
184

786
724
806
703
791
849
883
848
697
915
861
853

232
183
164
213
190
216
160
184
291
276
287
365

249
212
188
238
217
216
192
220
3.54
324
276
192

220
184
160
184
182
200
132
169
290
278
241
170

989
836
967
996
1,117
1,060
1,158
1,068
1,065
1,122
926
1,046

254
157
110
220
232
223
206
217
255
265
178
226

171
168
167
271
256
222
128
147
247
206
141
159
MEN

January-------February- .. March_____
April
May
--June_______
July...... ..........
August
September___
October
November___
December.......

1,340
1,067
1,157
1,168
1,132
965
881
824
784
1,132
942
1,073




137
85
91
108
106
101
81
100
89
171
101
100

53
45
58
99
88
95
98
150
83
146
90
83

41
46
50
71
82
72
83
83
81
136
79
69

1,261
1,030
1,138
1,086
1,046
1,037
1,038
1,029
861
1,132
1,494
2,025

144
74
90
110
139
149
142
111
134
240
319
382

69
57
59
113
218
152
115
114
148
148
111
70

60
60
53
88
110
132
111
101
121
133
95
56

1,683
1,255
1,354
1,376
1,784
1,372
1,104
1, 205
1,241
1,465
1,475
1,533

393
190
207
259
350
280
201
317
350
316
410
460

66
46
90
125
222
169
93
133
164
135
127
314

EM PLOYM ENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEM PLOYM ENT OF WOMEN

Month

1930

1929

1928

VIRGINIA «
1928
Month
Regis­
Help
trations wanted

1929
Posi­
tions
filled

Regis­
Help
trations wanted

1930
Posi­
tions
filled

Regis­
Help
trations wanted

Number of help wanted to 100
registrations 2

1931
Posi­
tions
filled

Regis­
Help
trations wanted

Posi­
tions
filled

1928

1929

1930

1931

January----------------------- -----February___ _____ ____ ...
March____
________ __
April . ____ _____ ___
May _
June...
July
August
September..- ________ ...
October--------- -------------------November
December

486
387
506
416
433
549
426
459
682
534
410
444

463
386
499
481
473
533
408
425
690
469
424
518

328
282
347
311
348
398
318
321
491
330
306
347

472
381
494
486
435
676
414
551
517
468
568
365

516
340
491
500
440
670
367
616
595
455
538
421

339
259
387
364
319
522
304
454
413
359
420
321

401
348
523
398
527
465
347
514
477
440
464
315

377
326
554
427
512
419
284
458
470
382
419
362

276
258
410
330
403
336
245
378
348
300
335
273

515
391
390
366
371
336
312
382
411
476
377
259

493
369
356
333
317
257
234
354
363
298
217
231

372
288
286
275
254
212
206
269
276
241
172
187

95.3
99.7
98.6
115.6
109.2
97.1
95.8
92.6
101.2
87.8
103.4
116.7

109.3
89.2
99.4
102.9
101.1
99.1
88.6
111.8
115.1
97.2
94.7
115.3

94.0
93.7
105.9
107.3
97.2
90.1
81.8
89.1
98.5
86.8
90.3
114.9

95.7
94.4
91.3
91.0
85.4
76.5
75.0
92.7
88.3
62.6
57.6
89.2

691
473
579
591
665
568
497
577
546
461
594
773

368
252
443
442
499
386
278
342
305
257
292
406

336
229
434
416
499
371
296
314
325
257
285
407

1,196
1,501
1*653
586
523
571
440
606
498
801
491
433

612
1,041
1,448
377
279
350
226
370
291
262
213
211

606
1,045
1, 435
367
272
335
222
347
290
252
208
206

47.1
62.0
63.3
61.3
76.6
62.8
54.9
44.6
74.2
77.0
78.1
70.2

62.5
74.3
74.9
80.8
80.0
63.2
72.2
76.8
79.5
75.4
67.9
72.8

53.3
53.3
76.5
74.8
75.0
68.0
55.9
59.3
55.9
55.7
49.2
52.5

51.2
69.4
87.6
64.3
53.3
61.3
51.4
61.1
58.4
32.7
43.4
48.7

MEN
January ___________________
February--------------------------March
Aprii_._ _____________
—May... --------------------------June___ July____________ _
August
September
October
November
December_________ ______

707
558
795
755
640
786
703
840
1,007
818
599
694

333
346
503
463
490
494
386
375
747
630
468
487

287
337
468
392
452
459
359
352
670
549
381
439

710
703
1,082
911
734
937
673
814
605
614
789
599

444
522
810
736
587
686
486
625
481
463
536
436

437
428
733
674
523
646
469
578
521
458
510
435

A PPEN D IX A — GENERAL TABLES

WOMEN

For footnotes see end of table.




to

8

210

Table

XV.—Monthly data from State reports on activities of public employment offices—12 States—Continued
WISCONSIN 19

Month

1929 2°

1930

Number of help wanted to 100
persons applying 2

1931

Persons Help
Persons Help
Appli­
Posi­
Appli­
Posi­ applying wanted Persons applying wanted Persons
Help
Help
placed
placed
cations
tions
cations
tions
by em­
by em­
for work wanted secured for work wanted secured for posi­ ployers in posi­ for posi­ ployers in posi­
tions
tions
tions
tions

1928

1929

1930

1931

WOMEN
January ____________ ____ February
March____________________
April............. ............ ............ .
May------------- -------------------June
July____ __________________
August_____
September......... October.___________________
November_____ ___________
December___ ___ __________

3,144
2, 847
4, Oil
3, 420
4,606
3, 833
4,577
3, 356
3,800
4,792
3, 417
2,859

1,879
1,748
2,597
2,810
4,207
2,738
3,286
2,867
3,085
3,397
2,082
2, 232

1,526
1,459
1,960
2,002
2,968
2,115
2,441
2, Oil
2,242
2,726
1,736
1,565

3, 837
3,136
3,231
3,621
4,571
3,991
3,557
4,105
3, 793
4,957
3,232
2,685

2, 507
1,924
2,304
3,014
4,135
2,983
2, 549
3, 443
3,062
3,184
1,693
1,595

2, 043
1,541
1,804
2,132
2,879
2,250
1,893
2,333
2,132
2,688
1,477
1, 210

3,712
2, 791
2,940
3,073
4,073
3,375
2,598
3, 416
3,131
4,061
2,791
2,257

1,884
1, 515
1,691
2,077
2,966
1, 855
1,512
1,993
1,556
1,869
1,309
1, 305

1,495
1, 214
1,310
1,562
2,246
1,428
1,206
1, 537
1,222
1, 503
1,043
976

3,405
2,978
2, 733
3,811
3,076
3,345
3, 596
2,935
3, 307
4,006
2, 722
2,223

1,661
1,365
1,402
2, 371
1,794
1, 523
1,971
1,430
1,658
1,724
1,124
1,115

1,166
1,079
1, 111
1,775
1,375
1,206
1,543
1,073
1,241
1,407
909
917

59.8
61.4
64.7
82.2
91.3
71.4
71.8
85.4
81.2
70.9
60.9
78.1

65.3
61.4
71.3
83.2
90.5
74.7
71.7
83.9
80.7
64.2
52.4
59.4

50.8
54.3
57.5
67.6
72.8
55.0
58.2
58.3
49.7
46.0
46.9
57.8

48.8
45.8
51.3
62.2
58.3
45.5
54.8
48.7
50.1
43.0
41.3
50.2

3,429
2,359
2,869
4,045
5,450
3,678
3,276
3,363
2,816
3,812
2, 208
2,161

3,182
2,145
2, 544
3, 458
4,855
3,110
2,839
3,132
2,535
3,515
2,011
1,953

5,170
4,588
4, 320
6,385
5,591
5,370
6, 287
4,451
5,320
6,898
4,170
4,190

2,067
1,656
2,178
3,573
2,615
2,587
3,341
2,276
2,061
2,649
1,938
2,049

1,949
1,502
1,922
3,145
2,344
2,270
2,946
1,924
1,819
2,424
1,739
1,874

52.3
55.8
60.6
73.6
90.3
84.8
94.0
96.4
100.8
91.6
75.9
69.7

75.1
74.4
73.3
86.3
95.0
86.8
92.5
86.6
87.8
85.1
68.0
62.2

51.2
53.3
56.1
60.9
74.4
71.0
71.4
63.8
55.1
62.8
48.0
49.3

40.0
36.1
50.4
56.0
46.8
48.2
53.1
51. 1
38.7
38.4
46.5
48.9

MEN
January .
February
March____________________
April
May_________ __________
June______________________
July..----- ------- ----------- ------August____
September----------- ------------October_____ ______________
November_______ __________
December---------------------------




5,435
5,286
7,478
7,869
12,308
9,854
13,475
10, 589
11,578
14,290
7, 502
5,481

2,840
2,949
4, 528
5,793
11,115
8,359
12,666
10, 204
11,666
13,094
5, 696
3,820

2,236
2,338
3, 757
4,575
8,918
7,064
10, 063
7,749
8,877
11,078
5,411
3,499

10,094
7,068
6,977
10,297
15, 234
10, 515
9,071
10,648
8,886
10,378
5,838
4, 991

7,585
5,259
5,116
8,888
14, 470
9,130
8,392
9, 219
7,806
8,832
3,972
3,103

6, 524
4,628
4,088
8,994
11,299
7,861
6, 588
7,881
6, 511
7,934
3, 672
2,821

6,698
4, 425
5,110
6,638
7, 321
5,182
4,591
5,271
5,108
6,066
4, 596
4,380

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEM PLOYM ENT OF WOMEN

1928

211




A PPEN D IX A— GENERAL TABLES

1 From biennial reports of State Bureau of Labor Statistics, fiscal years, 1928 to 1930, and typewritten monthly reports, July 1930 to December 1931.
2 Computed in Women’s Bureau.
3 From annual reports of State Department of Labor, fiscal years 1928 and 1929, and monthly reports August 1929 to January 1932.
* From monthly reports of State Bureau of Labor, Iowa Employment Survey.
s From July 1929 to June 1930; from December 1930 copy of Labor and Industry, published by the Department of Labor and Industry. From July 1930 to January 1932; from
mimeographed monthly reports of activities of Michigan Public Employment Bureaus. “Registered” in Labor and Industry. “Applications” and “Placements” on mime­
ographed sheets.
8 From annual report of the Public Employment Service operated by the Industrial Commission of Minnesota, for each calendar year. The commercial and professional division
was organized in each city in July 1931. The numbers for each month reported by this division were not by sex (except for verified placements) and have been omitted in the monthly
figures given here. In 1931 the clerical group (which at that time may have absorbed the commercial and professional applicants) formed over one tenth of the women’s registrations
but only about 4 percent of their help wanted and placements; for men the proportions in the clerical group were very small.
7 From the Industrial Bulletin, published monthly by the State Department of Labor.
g From unpublished data furnished by the New York State Department of Labor. Totals differ from those given in State reports and in the Industrial Bulletin, for the follow­
ing reasons: They exclude junior placements, which were included in the figures published in the State reports and in the Industrial Bulletin prior to September 1929; they exclude
also reports from certain relatively small agencies cooperating with the State, whose figures are included in reports in the Industrial Bulletin in April 1930 and thereafter.
8 Includes registrations (as shown in column 2) and renewals as computed in the Women’s Bureau.
10 See footnote 8.
11 Not published.
12 From mimeographed monthly reports of Ohio Department of Industrial Relations. Before July 1930, “applicants” were reported; beginning in July, “new registrations”
and “applications.” In this and succeeding months the report carries this footnote: “Total number of applications includes new registrations. To get the number of renewals
subtract the new registrations from the total applications. ”
13 See footnote 12.
14 Figures are from monthly reports in Labor and Industry, published by the State Department of Labor and Industry.
15 Placement of casual or day workers recorded for only 1 placement a week.
48 From annual reports of State Commissioner of Labor.
17 Term “registrations” used interchangeably with “new registrations.”
15 From annual reports of State Department of Labor and Industry, 1928 to 1931, year ended September 30.
19 From mimeographed monthly reports of State Industrial Commission.
20 After June 30, 1929, terms used were the same as in 1930 and 1931.

employers, by selected occupations

Pennsylvania (calendar year)

New York (calendar year) *

Percent increase
Persons applying Persons asked for or decrease 1929­
by employers
for positions
31 in—

Workers
registered
Industry

Industry
1929

1931

1929

30,361

52,583

14, 462

4,868
2,869
1,166
8,312
823
7, 682
2,002

7, 647
6, 918
1, 782
11,100
3, 267
13, 466
5,537

999
857
475
4,952
377
5, 295
749

1931

Persons Persons
apply­ asked
ing for for by
em­
jobs
ployers

1929

Total *_______________
Total6
Clerical and professional
Hotel and restaurant -----------Wholesale and retail trade-----Casual and day workers
Skilled manufacturing workers*.
Semiskilled _______ ____ Unskilled




Percent increase
Workers called for or decrease 1929­
31 in—

14, 997

+73.2

+3.7

817
1,389
609
3,768
524
6, 574
678

4-55.0
4-141.1
4-54.2
4-33.5
+297.0
+75.3
+176. 6

-18.2
+62. 1
+28. 2
-23.9
+39.0
+24.2
-9.5

Clerical__... ________
Domestic and personal
Hotels and restaurants
Trade, wholesale and retail— _
Casual workers _ ...
Manufacturing (total)...............

1931

1929

1931

84,205

130,980

59, 364

58,811

14,862
14, 486
7,953
10,077
26,188
10,638

29,459
26, 222
14,506
13,813
27,857
19,122

5,026
10, 331
4, 483
4, 479
26,833
8, 211

2,582
20, 651
3,810
3, 797
20,836
7,135

Workers W orkers
regis­
called
tered
or
+55.5

-0.9

+98.2
+81.0
+82.4
+37. 1
+6.4
+79.8

-48.6
+99.9
-15.0
-15.2
-22.3
-13.1

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEM PLOYM ENT OF WOMEN

A.—SIX STATES PRESENTED BY DETAILED OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATION!

212

Table XVI.—Difference between 1929 and 1931 in numbers of women asking for employment and number of women workers called for by

Wisconsin (calendar year)

179570

New registrations

Illinois (year ending June 30)

Help wanted

Percent increase
or decrease 1930­
31 in—

Registrations

1931

1930 4

1931

38,218

38,139

21, 532

19,138

-0.2

-11.1

5,149
21, 719
244
4, 558
1, 706
736
3,473

5,133
23, 037
276
4, 018
1,997
50
3,044

819
16,011
142
2,046
710
613
828

523
14, 933
144
1, 314
1,118
30
838

-0.3
+6.1
+13.1
-11.8
+17.1
(7)
-12.4

-36.1
-6.7
+1.4
-35.8
+57.5
(7)
+1.2

1931

Regis­
Help
trations wanted

94,004

Total5
Clerical________ __________
Domestic and personal, hotel
and restaurant.
Total manufacturing 8
Wholesale and retail trade
Casual workers
1

Ohio (year ending June 30)
Applicants3

New
registra­
tions

Help wanted

Industry

98,354

68,021

49,441

+4.6

-27.3

11,870
36,130

16, 742
43, 942

3, 764
28, 728

3,459
24, 675

+41.0
+21.6

-8.1
-14.1

3,372
472
31, 710

3,057
366
23,679

2,677
420
27,056

1,599
187
17, 058

-9.3
-22.5
-25.3

-40.3
-55.5
-37.0

—---------------------------------------—
Minnesota (calendar year)

“ Appli­
cants ” in
1929 to “ new In help
registra­
wanted
tions ” in
1931

1931

1931

1929

1931

127, 492

273,832

99,011

95,049

58,191

-22.3

-38.8

10, 326
21,631
10, 425
7, 475
253

34, 323
63, 778
25, 440
24, 180
853

10, 228
25,406
8, 454
7,043
413

4,098
21,684
8, 514
5,021
337

2,750
16, 932
4,042
2, 790
517

-0.9
+17.5
-18.9
-5.8
+63.2

-32.9
-21.9
-52.5
-44.4
+53.4

76,674

122,143

46, 460

54, 979

30, 691

-39.4

------------------------

Registrations

Help wanted

Percent increase
or decrease
1929-31 in—

1929

Percent increase or
decrease 1929-31

1929

Jot footnotes

1929

1931

1929

1931

Regis­ Help
trations wanted

34,145

35,604

19, 684

19, 638

+4.3

6,806
4, 365
8, 307
4,139
10, 528

3,747
8, 671
6, 499
4,635
12, 052

1,905
3,540
4,095
1,908
8,236

890
5,298
2, 457
1,903
9,090

-45.0
+98.6
-21.8
+12.0
+14.5

A PPEN D IX A----GENERAL TABLES

Total ®..........................
Office workers....... ................ _
Homas_________ _____
Institutions _____ _
Hotels and restaurants. ___
Mercantile establishments
Casual labor 7 ... ________
Manufacturing 8

Total8___

1931

Industry
New
Help
registra­ wanted
tions

1930 4

Clerical and professionals
Domestic and personal__
Hotel and restaurant___
Total manufacturing 8___
Wholesale and retail
trades.
Casual workers

Percent increase
or decrease 1929­
31 in—

1929

Industry

Help wanted

Industry

-44.2

Total
Clerical..
Domestic________ ____
Hotel and restaurant_
_
Industrial... ____ _
Casual........ . ..............

-63.3
+49.7
-40.0
(’)
+10.3

see end of table.




00

Registrations

Help wanted

Percent increase
or decrease
1929-31 in—

1931

Regis­ Help
tra­
tions wanted

Industry

1931

1929

Total

1929

Registered

Help wanted

Percent increase
or decrease
1929-31 in—

1929

1931

1929

1931

Regis­ Help
tered wanted

Percent increase
or decrease
1929-31 in—

1929

1929

1931

Regis­ Help
tra­
tions wanted

1931

86,860 63,331

+1.2

-27.1

5,600

6,164

3,560

2,779

+10.1

-21.9 n 2, 761 H 2,712 u 2,878 ii 1,717

3,694 3,257
72, 697 53,257
10,469 6,817

+40.6
-4.2
+6.4

-11.8
-26.7
-34.9

705
3. 366
1,529

841
3,997
1,326

261
2,379
920

198
2,071
510

+19.3
+18.7
-13.3

-24.1
-12.9
-44.6

Registrations

Calls

Industry

Percent increase
or decrease
1929-31 in—

Registrations

Help wanted

Percent increase
or decrease
1929-30 in—
Regis­ Help
tra­
tions wanted

1931

1929

1931

Regis­
tra­
tions

Calls

1929

1930

1929

1930

12,891

11, 492

10,435

8,784

-10.9

-15.8

15,472

14, 338

10,307

8,064

12

2,646
9,348
897

12

2,434
7,914
1,144

121,095

8,701
639

820
7,563
401
12

-8.0
-15.3
+27.5

72
508
11

-25.1
-13.1
-37.2

2, 516
11, 544
1,412

2, 372
10, 424
1,542

768
9,017
522

644
6,891
529

-7.3
-5.7
-9.7
+9.2

-21.8
-16.1
-23.6
+1.3

233
1,072
579

17
756
11

-1.8

-40.3

42 +223.6 +147.1
-48.8
387 +111.0
90 +5163. 6 +718. 2

Arkansas (year ending June 30)

North Carolina (year ending June 30)

1929




Help wanted

12, 639
76, 715
15, 339

Indiana (year ending Sept. 30)

Clerical and professional. __
Domestic..............................
Industrial....... ....................

Registrations

103,469 104,693

Clerical and professional__ 8,987
Domestic---------- ------------ 80,062
Industrial______________ 14, 420

Total_______ _____

Rhode Island 10 (calendar year)

Kansas (calendar year)

New Jersey (year ending June 30)

Registrations

Help wanted

Percent increase
or decrease
1929-30 in—

1929

1930

1929

1930

Regis­ Help
tra­
tions wanted

4,765

5,662

1,950

2,247

+18.8

+15.2

56
2,052
139

+72.8
+12.9
+66.9

+19.1
+13.4
+47.9

224
4, 269
272

387
4,821
454

47
1,809
94

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF W OMEN

B.—SIX STATES PRESENTED BY GENERALIZED OCCUPATION CLASSIFICATIONS «

214

Table XVI.—Difference between 1929 and 1931 in numbers of women asking for employment and number of women workers called for by
employers, by selected occupations—Continued




APPENDIX A— GENERAL TABLES

, * Data on this table taken from the following sources: Pennsylvania: Monthly publications of Department of Labor and Industry. Labor and Industry for February 1930 and
1932 includes annual report for calendar years 1929 and 1931. New York: Monthly reports of Department of Labor, Industrial Bulletin. Totals for calendar year added by the
women s Bureau. Wisconsin: Industrial Commission, Wisconsin Labor Market, January 1931 and 1932, includes annual report for calendar years 1930 and 1931. Illinois: Twelfth
annual report of Department of Labor, year ending June 30,1929, and compiled by Women’s Bureau from Labor Bulletin for fiscal period ending June 30, 1931. Ohio: Eighth annual
report of Department of Industrial Relations for year ending June 30,1929, and mimeographed report for year ending June 30,1931. Minnesota: Mimeographed Annual Report of the
Public Employment Service operated by the Industrial Commission of Minnesota.
2 Junior placements were included.
., 3 This term changed to “ applications” July 1930. After July 1930, applications (including new registrations) as well as new registrations were given, the latter corresponding to
the applicants given prior to this time; consequently “applicants” in 1929 is compared with “new registrations” in 1931
4 Classifications changed in 1930, therefore 1929 not comparable with 1931.
f Total exceeds details because small groups not shown separately and miscellaneous classifications have been omitted, even though the numbers sometimes were large
6 Decline of less than one half of 1 percent.
6
7 The decline in this case was so great as to raise the question whether there was not some additional change in classification or in emphasis placed by the offices upon certain
types of employment.
^
8 Manufacturing totals prepared by Women’s Bureau.
9 Data on this table taken from the following sources: New Jersey: Industrial Bulletin, year’s report in September issue. Kansas: Annual reports of Commission of Labor and
Industry, calendar year Indiana: Annual reports of Industrial Board, year ending Sept. 30. North Carolina: Biennial report of Department of Labor and Printing for 1928-30 and
biennial report of Department of Labor, years ending June 30,1930-32. Rhode Island: Annual reports of Commissioner of Labor, calendar year. Arkansas: Ninth biennial report of
Bureau of Labor, year ending June 30, 1929-30.
10
1930, Rhode Island began the system of counting any individual applicant only once in the year. Prior to that time a person was counted every time coming into the office,
(bee report of Commissioner of Labor, 1930, pp. 34-35.) The Rhode Island occupations were combined by the Women’s Bureau. For clerical and professional occupations- Book­
keepers, office clerks, pharmacists, teachers, stenographers, shipping clerks. For domestic and personal service: Attendants, chambermaids, cooks, laundry, clean and dye,
matrons, domestics, kitchen and pantry, nurses, waiters and waitresses, elevators, cleaners, barbers, and hairdressers (last 3 groups, 1930 only). For the industrial group- Jewelrv
printing, textiles, rubber, hand sewing, power machines, bakers, leathers, paper box, radio tubes, paper and bags.
11 Total exceeds details, since not all groups shown separately.
12 Indiana uses only the term “clerical.”

fcO

i—1

Oi

APPENDIX B
METHODS USED BY NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENT OF
LABOR IN PREPARATION OF EMPLOYMENT FIGURES, AS
DESCRIBED IN SPECIAL BULLETIN 1431
EXTRACT FROM PAGE 8 AND FOLLOWING—WEIGHTING OF
FIGURES

When the reports were retabulated, group totals and grand total
were obtained by weighting the figures for the separate industries.
In steel mills, railroad shops, and industries where the workers were
mostly men, it was possible to secure reports for a very large propor­
tion of the workers in the whole industry. In textile mills, shoe fac­
tories, paper-goods factories, and organizations where men and women
were scattered through the plant, often working in the same depart­
ments and sometimes at the same processes, it was more difficult to
cover a large section of the industry. Time-clock cards and pay
rolls were made up with numbers or with initials only in place of
first names, so that it was necessary to invent a special system for
classifying the workers by sex. Many firms went to great lengths to
cooperate with the bureau in making this useful information public.
In a few industries, mostly concentrated in New York City, it was
not possible to persuade enough firms of the importance of the material
they could make available.
Because the make-up of the list of reporting factories was deter­
mined by internal conditions, the representation of the different
industries varied enough to affect the totals and the conclusions.
Small changes in the metal industries would have counted for much
more than large increases or decreases in clothing and textiles. This
was avoided by weighting each industry division according to its
importance in the total volume of manufacturing. The details of
this process are described on page 151.1 The totals are now corrected
2
so that they are not affected by the high or low representation of the
separate industries.
The month of June 1923 was used as a base because it was the
best practicable period. When the fixed list was established it was
found in some industries that reports were missing for July, August,
September, or October of 1923. The newness of the idea of separating
pay rolls and the interference of summer vacations made it impossible
to obtain complete information. For that reason it was decided not
to tabulate any figures for those months for the groups or the grand
total. That fact prevented the use of the average for the year 1923-24
as the base and left the choice to June 1923, or November 1923.
A detailed attempt was made to tabulate the figures with November
1923 as a base. It was found, as was anticipated, that not only was
1 Extracted from Employment and Earnings of Men and Women in New York State Factories, 1923-25,
New York Department of Labor, June 1926, p. 8£f, 151U.
2 See p. 217, post.
216




APPENDIX B

217

manufacturing in general quite seriously affected by a depression but
the course of the downward movement varied so from industry to
industry that it was impossible to judge the effect of the subsequent
changes. June 1923 is not only the beginning of the series but is also
a month when labor was generally well employed before signs of
dull business had begun to appear. On these charts the base line is
June 1923, but in some cases it was not possible to carry the lines on
the chart back of November.
In all cases the figures for men and women separately refer to shop
workers only. A small proportion of office workers is included in the
figures for “all employees”, but their inclusion in the separate figure
would have had too much influence on earnings for women.
EXTRACT FROM PAGE 151 AND FOLLOWING

Given the number of men and women in the whole industry it was
an easy matter to find out how much of the industry was included in
the reporting concerns. Obviously the number of employees rather
than the number of firms was used in each case.
The difficulty of seeming reports varied so from one industry to
another that the fist covered 95 percent of the workers in the steel
mills and from 3 to 4 percent of those in men’s clothing. Up-State
concerns were much better represented than those in New York City,
with more than twice as large a share of the up-State workers covered.
The representation for men was better than that for women.
* * * June 1923 was used to compute these percentages
because it was found by experience to be better to use a single month
during which industrial conditions were undisturbed rather than a
longer period at a time when some of the representative factories
were either lagging behind or going ahead of the whole industry
temporarily. Seasonal difficulties were avoided because the repre­
sentative list was compared with the totals for a given industry for
the same month, and so both were at the same point on the seasonal
curve.
If a sample could be arbitrarily selected, a representative list of
reporting factories w ould give each industry the same weighting in the
reporting list that it has in the total for all factories. Firms that can
and will report separate pay rolls for men and women cannot be
arbitrarily selected, however. They are taken as they come.
Because of the unevenness -with which the industries were covered,
their weighting in the reporting list is in many cases quite different
from their true weighting.
A comparison of clothing and metals tells the whole story. The
metal factories of the State employ about 2}{ times as many men as
the clothing factories. In the reporting list they provide about 20
times as large a part of the total as the clothing"group. The effect
of this on an uncorrected index of employment in June 1924, with the
metal-working factories making sharp cuts in operations, is obvious.
Similar discrepancies are to be found in the subdivisions.
Equally important differences held true for the women workers.
These irregularities are now removed and the indexes of employ­
ment and pay rolls and the average earnings for industry groups
and the total are based on figures corrected to put each industry
in its true relation to the other industries that make up the total of
manufacturing.




218

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

For this recourse was had to the percentage representation figures.
The figures for the reporting plants in each industry were divided by
their precentage representation and therefore given a representation
of 100. This meant that each industry in the total was restored to
its original importance. Corrections were made for a few strikes.
The mathematical process involved in adjusting by representation
was simple.
Number of employees,
cotton mills, reporting firms
Percent representation,
cotton mills

Estimated
number of employees
cotton mills,
all firms.

The addition of these items gives the corrected group totals and
grand totals.
Even here, however, there is a complication. In the knitting mills
15 percent of the men are covered in the reporting factories. In
adjusting these figures it is safe to assume the sample is representative.
In the men’s furnishings division there is a coverage of 18 percent.
But a large part of that is in the big up-State collar factories, and a
small part in the smaller New York City tie- and cravat-making shops.
Theoretically it would have been possible to weight all industries
separately for New York City and up State, but the slight refinement
in the figures would by no means have justified the great amount of
work involved.
FIXED LIST METHOD

All these adjustments were involved in the main decision to re tabu­
late the men’s and women’s reports on a fixed list basis. There is no
possible way to secure accurate results except by using a fixed list of
reporting concerns.
The first returns for men and women were used without any
attempt to establish a constant list because reporting was so irregular.
There is more likelihood that an office manager in the rush of vacation
or holidays will send in his total figures without the separations than
that he will fail to send in the regular report. One is much more
trouble than the other, and not quite so important. Until recently
it was considered unwise to urge firms to separate their pay rolls.
This and the absence of data for interpolating made it impossible to
establish a fixed list.
The use of these early results was severely restricted because of the
changing list of firms. Average earnings often showed large varia­
tions from month to month that were traceable only to differences in
reporting firms and were no evidence of increase or decrease in the
volume of wage payments as a whole.
It would have been possible to compute changes in employment
and pay rolls by the link-and-chain method, that is to take the firms
reporting in a given month and by retabulating the previous month’s
record, compute changes from one month to another for a tentatively
fixed list. A series of index numbers could be built up from these
figures, but an actual trial of the method and analysis of the differences
shown made it clear that the results were not satisfactory. Also,
it would have been impossible to change the average earnings.
All of the 10 years’ experience with the Labor Market is evidence
against the use of the link-and-chain method. The Labor Market
represents 37 percent of the State’s factory workers, and the reports for




219

APPENDIX B

men and women combined are only 27 percent. Separated the actual
number of men and of women is much smaller than the Labor Market
figures and small differences would have had correspondingly more
weight.
Statistical worksheet used by New York State in 'preparing -weights for women’s
index
U.S. Census of
Manufactures,
1929
Industry or industry groups

Total

New York State tabulations by sex—weighted abso­
lutes—average 1929

Average Per­ Number Per­ Per­
Per­
Per­
number cent of of men cent of cent Number cent of Number cent
of
and
of wage total
total col. 3 to of men total women of
col. 1
total
women
earners
1,105,966 100.00 1,125, 690 100.00

101.8

835,347 100.00

290,343 100.00

Stone, clay, and glass.
Miscellaneous stone and
minerals
Lime, cement, and plaster
Brick, tile, and pottery .
Glass..............................

23,709

2.14

29,384

2.61

124.4

28,249

3.38

1,135

.39

5, 532

.50

10,004

.89

180.8

9,260

1.11

744

.26

6,421
5, 756
6,000

.58
.52
.54

5, 607
7,396
6,379

.49
.66
.57

87.3
128.4
106.3

5,519
7, 396
6,075

.66
.89
.72

88

w
304

.03
p)
.10

Metals and machinery_____
Silverware and jewelry..
Brass, copper, and aluminum
Iron and steel..................
Structural and architectural iron.......... ......
Sheet metal and hardware. _ .
Firearms, tools, and cutlery-----------------------Cooking, heating, ventilating apparatus _ ...
Machinery and electrical
apparatus
Automobiles, airplanes,
etc..
____________
Railroad equipment and
repair shops__
_ ...
Boat and ship building..
Instruments and appliances

324, 750
9, 813

29. 36
.89

338, 534
9,145

30.07
.81

104.2
93.2

317,154
7,670

37.97
.92

21,380
1,475

7.36
.51

27,930
20,988

2. 52
1.90

43,701
14,495

3.88
1.29

156.4
69.1

41,085
14,411

4. 92
1. 73

2,616
84

.90
.03

Wood manufactures... ___
Saw and planing mills...
Furniture and cabinet
work
Pianos and other musical
instruments .
Miscellaneous wood, etc.
Furs, leather, and rubber
goods................................
Leather _____________
Furs and fur goods
Shoes______ ____ _____
Gloves, bags, canvas
goods___
Rubber and guttapercha..
Pearl, horn, bone, etc_
_
Chemicals, oils, paints, etc_.
Drugs and industrial
chemicals_____ ______
Paints and colors
Oil products... ...
Photographic and miscellaneous chemicals.

7,017

.63

5,030

.45

71.7

5,030

.60

28,085

2.54

24,679

2.19

87.9

22,376

2.68

2,303

.79

10,331

.93

8,904

.79

86.2

8, 214

.98

690

.24

6,280

.57

7,510

.67

119.6

7,242

.87

268

.09

107,735

9.74

100,937

8.97

93.7

93,069

11.14

7,868

2.71

35,037

3.17

46,306

4.11

132.2

45, 317

5.42

989

.34

35,893
10,811

3.24
.98

38,854
8,088

3.45
.72

108.2
74.8

38, 645
8,088

4.63
.97

209
p)

.07
p>

24,830

2.25

30,886

2.74

124.4

26, 007

3.11

4,879

1. 68

62,192
12,050

5.63
1.09

59,065
14,050

5. 25
1.25

94.9
116.6

54, 397
13,440

6.51
1.61

4,668
610

1.61
.21

30,438

2.76

26,619

2.36

87.4

25, 319

3.03

1,300

.45

5,405
14,299

.49
1.29

8,991
9,407

.80
.84

166.4
65.8

8, 549
7,090

1.02
.85

442
2,317

. 15
.80

97, 649
6,364
13, 985
38, 524

8.83
.49
1.26
3.48

83, 269
4,478
7,809
44,748

7.40
.40
.69
3.98

85.2
83.6
55.8
116.2

56, 494
4,310
6, 307
28, 387

6.76
.52
.76
3.39

26,775
168
1,502
16, 361

9.22
.06
.52
5.64

26, 518
8, 601
4, 667

2. 40
.78
.42

14, 396
4,137
7,701

1.28
.37
.68

54.3
48. 1
165.0

9, 432
3,453
4,606

1.13
.41
.55

4, 964
684
3,095

1.71
.23
1.06

52,952

4.79

43, 368

3. 85

81.9

34,208

4.10

9,160

3.15

18,252
7, 221
15,210

1.65
.65
1.38

13,056
5,861
12,441

1.15
.52
1.11

71.5
81.2
81.8

10, 037
5,141
9, 719

1.20
.62
1.16

3,019
720
2, 722

1.04
.25
.94

12,269

1.11

12,011

1.07

97.9

9, 311

1.12

2, 700

.92

15, 613

1.39

95.6

14, 379

1.72

1,234

.43

Pulp and paper
16, 327
1.48
1 Not computed, number of firms is too small




•

p)

p>

220

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Statistical work-sheet used hy New York State in preparing weights for women’s
index—Continued
U.S. Census of
Manufactures,
1929

New York State tabulations by sex—weighted abso­
lutes—average 1929

Industry or industry groups
Average Per­ Number
Per­
Per­ cent
Per­ Number Per­
number
of men
cent
cent of col. 3 to Number cent of
of
of wage cent of
and
of men
total
total col. 1
total women of
earners
women
total
Printing and paper goods___
Paper boxes and|tubes._.
Miscellaneous paper
goods_______________
Printing and bookmaking, ----------- ------ -----

103,995
12,290
12, 712

1.15

9,116

.81

71.7

4,186

.50

4, 930

1.70

78, 993

7.14

74,136

6.58

93.8

58,129

6.96

16,007

6. 51

Textiles ______ _______
Silk and silk goods
Woolens, carpets, felts.-.
Cotton goods...
Knit goods, except silk__
Other textiles

97, 249
11,238
34,440
6,192
31,558
13,821

8. 79
1.02
3.11
.56
2.85
1.25

87,605
11,455
30, 029
6, 633
19, 386
20,102

7.78
1.02
2. 67
.58
1.72
1.79

90.1
101.9
87.2
107.1
61.4
145.4

44, 642
4,062
18, 800
3, 591
7,998
10,192

5. 34
.49
2.25
.43
.95
1.22

42,963
7,393
11,229
3,042
11,388
9; 910

14. 80
2. 55
3. 87
1.05
3. 92
3. 41

Clothing and millinery____
Men’s clothing. _____
Men’s furnishings. _ ___
Women’s clothing.........
Women’s underwear
W omen’s headwear
Miscellaneous sewing_
_
Laundering and cleaning.

218,538
48, 668
30, 610
102, 096
4,702
18, 550
13, 912

19.76
4. 40
2.77
9.23
.42
1.68
1.26

249,119
78,401
27,925
72,677
13,181
16,709
9,284
30,944

22.13
6. 96
2.48
6.46
1.17
1.49
.82
2. 75

114.0
161.1
91.2
71.2
280.3
90.1
66.7

122,085
52, 686
10,864
35, 295
2,013
4,998
2,752
13,478

14. 62
6.31
1.30
4. 23
.24
.60
.33
1. 61

127,034
25, 715
17, 061
37, 382
11, 168
11,711
6, 532
17, 466

43.75
8.31
5. 58
13. 31
3. 82
3. 39
2. 30
6.04

Food and tobacco
Flour, feed, and cereals..
Canning and preserving.
Sugar and other groceries.
Meat and dairy products.
Bakery products. ____
Candy. ______ ______
Beverages_______ _____
Tobacco

97,666
4,170
8,477
12, 528
10,018
33,704
13,600
6,468
8,701

8. 83
.37
.76
1.13
.91
3.05
1.23
.59
.79

113,009
4,753
10, 070
12, 878
13,333
40,833
13, 709
6,555
10,878

10.03
.42
.89
1.14
1. 18
3.63
1.22
.58
.97

115.7
114.0
li8.8
102.8
133.1
121.2
100.8
101.3
125.0

83,356
4,101
4,718
8,478
12, 344
35,110
6, 954
6,112
5, 538

9.98
.49
.57
1.02
1.48
4.20
.83
.73
.66

29, 653
652
5,352
4,400
989
5, 723
6,755
443
5, 340

10. 21
. 22
1. 84
1. 52
.34
1.97
2. 33
. 15
1.84

Water, light, and power

10,939

.99

13,903

1.24

127.1

13,884

1.66

19

.01




9. 40
1.11

92,823
9,571

8.25
.86

89.3
77.9

66,500
4,185

7.96
.50

26,323
5, 386

9.07
1.86

APPENDIX C
INFORMATION BY SEX PUBLISHED BY STATE-SUPPORTED
EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES 1
TYPE OF DATA
Alabama.—No agencies receiving State funds.
Arizona.2 3—No agencies receiving State funds.
Arkansas.—Biennial reports of the Bureau of Labor and Statistics for

the
periods ending June 30, 1930 and 1932. (The first reports available since
1924.) The later report gives no tabulations for employment agencies;
that for 1929-30 gives registrations, help wanted, referred, and reported
placed, by sex, month, and three occupation groupings, for the Fort Smith
office, the only one supported by the State. (See p. 15 of report.) Totals
for the four offices (the others supported in whole or part by Federal funds)
are given by sex and occupation grouping for each year of the biennium
(ending June 30) but not by month. The great majority of the women
reported were from domestic occupations.
California.—The biennial report of the Department of Industrial Relations
concentrates on placements, giving these by industry and sex both for per­
manent and temporary offices-; by sex and agency; by sex, industry, and
agency; and by month and agency, with totals in each case for the biennium
for each year, or for both. Employees wanted and applicants referred are
given by city, with totals for the biennium but not by sex. Reports of num­
bers applying are not given. Monthly mimeographed reports of the Divi­
sion of State Employment Agencies give numbers placed in the month,
but not by sex.
Colorado.—The biennial report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics gives the
numbers of applications and placements for private employment agencies
by sex and month, with total for 13-month period. No agencies are supportd
by the State within the period of study.
Connecticut. The biennial report of the Bureau of Labor Statistics gives for
each year the numbers of applications for employment, applications for help,
and situations secured, by sex and month for each office in the State, with
totals for all offices. These reports also are issued monthly, typed on printed
forms. The ratios of situations secured to applications for employment,
and of employees furnished to applications for help, are given by sex and
month for each office and for all offices together. Detailed statements of
situations secured, by occupation, is given by sex for each office, totaled for
all offices. A similar statement is given by nationality. Maximum and
minimum wages paid in the positions filled in each office are given by sex
and occupation, for 6-month periods.
This is the only State reporting as to nationality and wage. A detailed
occupation classification is given by sex for placements only, totals for year
ending September 30, and no monthly data.
Delaware.2—No report was issued within the period of study.
Florida.2—No agencies receiving State funds.
Georgia.2—No agencies receiving State funds.
Idaho.2—No agencies receiving State funds.
Illinois.—The annual report of the Department of Labor gives the numbers of
registrations, help wanted, and placed, by sex and month, and by sex and
industry, with totals for the year. This information is reported for each
office and for all offices together, as is the number of persons registered for
®*®h 100 places open, the latter by month and by industry but not by sex.
The information noted in the foregoing forms the year’s recapitulation of
data issued monthly in the Labor Bulletin.
See footnotes on p. 223.




221

222

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Indiana.—The annual reports of the Industrial Board are given in the Indiana

Year Book. The numbers of registrations, calls, referred, and placed are
reported by sex under a general occupation classification for each office,
with a total for all offices for the year ending September 30. No monthly
reports are issued.

Iowa.—The biennial report of the Bureau of Labor gives the numbers of registra­

tions, jobs offered, applicants referred, and those reported placed, by sex
and occupation. This is the 2 years’ report on the same information, except­
ing occupation, given monthly in the Iowa Employment Survey.

Kansas.—The annual report gives numbers registered, help -wanted, referred,

and placed, by sex, occupation, and month, for each city and for all cities
together. Occupations are reported under the usual three headings, in the
form of totals for the year by city only. No monthly reports are issued.
Kentucky.—No agencies receiving State funds.
Louisiana.—No agencies receiving State funds.
Maine.4-—No figures reported.
Maryland.2—No agencies receiving State funds.
Massachusetts.—The annual report of the Department of Labor and Indus­

tries gives the numbers of registrations, persons called for by employers,
persons referred to positions, and positions reported filled, by sex for each
office and for all offices combined. The monthly data and the occupational
data are not by sex. Monthly mimeographed reports are not by sex.
Michigan.—The December issue of Labor and Industry (published quarterly)
gives by sex the year’s figures on numbers registered, help wanted, referred,
and placed, and percent placements formed both of total registered and of
total referred. The information by sex is given by the month, and also is
given for each office with totals for all offices.
Minnesota.—The biennial report of the Industrial Commission gives the num­
bers referred and verified placements by sex and month for each city but with
no total for all cities. The number of persons referred to positions and the
number of verified placements are given by sex, month, and occupational
group for each city. Reports of numbers applying are not given. No
monthly reports are issued.

Mississippi.—No agencies receiving State funds.
Missouri.—The annual report of the Labor and Industrial Inspection Depart­

ment gives the numbers of applications for employment, applicants put to
work, applicants unplaced, positions offered by employers, number of places
filled, and number of places unfilled, by sex and occupation for each city
and for all cities. No report has been issued since 1928. No monthly
reports are issued.
Montana.2—No agencies receiving State funds.
Nebraska.—No agencies receiving State funds.
Nevada.—The biennial report of the Commissioner of Labor gives the numbers
of persons applying for work, requested by employers, and reported placed,
by sex and month for each office separately. Reports also are made on fee­
charging agencies, with a comparison of their placements and those of public
agencies (not by sex).
New Hampshire.—No reports by sex except for minors.
New Jersey.—The Industrial Bulletin, published monthly, gives the year’s report

of the Department of Labor in the September issue, including the number
of registrations, help wanted, referred, and reported placed, by sex, city,
and occupational group. The number of placements per each 100 registra­
tions is given by sex and city. This information is published by the month
also.
New Mexico.—No agencies receiving State funds.
New York.—The annual report of the Industrial Commission gives only place­
ment figures by sex. The Industrial Bulletin, published monthly, gives the
numbers of registrations (including renewals), help wanted, referred, and
placed, by sex, city, and industry, with a total for all cities.
See footnotes on p. 232.




APPENDIX C

223

North Carolina.—The biennial report of the Department of Labor and Printing
for 1928-30 and of the Department of Labor for 1930-32 give employment
data for fiscal years ending June 30. The 1928-30 report states that this
Department maintained public employment offices through cooperation of
the Federal and local Governments. While not strictly State offices, there­
fore, data concerning them are given in the State report. In the earlier
report registrations, help wanted, referred, and reported placed are given
by sex in three general industrial groups. The later report omits help
wanted. Data are not given by month.
North Dakota.1—No agencies receiving State funds.
2*4
Ohio.—The annual report of the Department of Industrial Relations gives the
numbers of applicants (new registrations separate after June 1930), help
wanted, referred, and reported placed, by sex and occupation for each city
with a grand total for the State. Monthly mimeographed reports give the
same information for each month with an additional fuller occupation classi­
fication.
Oklahoma.—The annual report of the Department of Labor gave for the first
time in the year ending June 30, 1931, the numbers registered, help wanted,
referred, and placed for each office and for all offices combined, by sex. The
Oklahoma Labor Market, published monthly, contains a record of place­
ments only, by occupation but not by sex.
Oregon.2—No agencies receiving State funds.
Pennsylvania.—Labor and Industry, the monthly publication of the Depart­
ment of Labor and Industry, gives the year’s report in its February issue.
Each month reports are given on numbers of persons applying for positions,
asked for by employers, sent to positions, and receiving positions, by sex
and industry or occupation. The percent of applicants placed, percent of
openings filled, and percent of persons referred placed are given by sex.
Rhode Island.—The annual report of the Commissioner of Labor gives attend­
ance, new registrations, help wanted, referred, and placed, by sex and month,
and by sex with a detailed occupation classification.
South Carolina.—No agencies receiving State funds.
South Dakota.2—No agencies receiving State funds.
Tennessee.—No agencies receiving State funds.
Texas.2—No agencies receiving State funds.
Utah.—No agencies receiving State funds.
Vermont.2—No agencies receiving State funds.
Virginia.—The annual report of the Department of Labor and Industry gives
registrations, help wanted, persons referred, and positions filled, by sex and
month. Total attendance at the offices is reported by month though not
by sex. No monthly reports are issued.
Washington.2—No agencies supported by State funds.
West Virginia.—The biennial report of the Bureau of Labor, 1929-30, gives an
employment-office report for the period March 1 to November 15, 1930.
The report is by sex for registrations, referred, and placed. No other report
has been issued within the period of study.
Wisconsin.—The Labor Market published monthly by the Industrial Commis­
sion gives the year’s report in its January issue. Number of workers regis­
tered for each 100 places open is given by month but not by sex. Both the
annual report and the monthly issues give numbers of applicants, help
wanted, referred, and placed, by sex and industry, and by sex after January
1930. The mimeographed information on Operation of Public Employment
Offices issued monthly, reports by sex back to 1916.
Wyoming.—No agencies supported by State funds.
1 The outline given here aims especially to show the type oi data published in the States, by sex. See
footnote 12, p. 140. Tor a more complete presentation of the material published in the States, see Stewart,
Annabel M. and Bryce M. Statistical Procedure of Public Employment Offices. 1933. pp. 248-264.
a 111 11 states, of which this is 1, the U.S. Employment Service acts through a State representative. The
public employment service concerns itself with farm labor almost exclusively.
a A special agent of the U.S. Employment Service in Arizona states that the Phoenix Free Employment
Bureau, supported by State and Federal funds, was operated during part of the period surveyed. This
official has supplied the Women’s Bureau with reports of its activities by sex for a 5-month period beginning
in July 1931, earlier records having been destroyed and not appearing by sex in the annual reports of the
State. Apparently this State, which is not industrially important, falls with those stated as dealing chiefly
with farm labor, the agency receiving Federal funds and not giving iigures by sex, in State reports.
4 Maine has conducted a free public employment agency in conjunction with the Federal Department of
Labor and the State Chamber of Commerce in the city of Portland. Reported in biennial report, 1927-28.




224

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
Summary

Number
of States

1. States that have published in State reports some data by sex in some

22
recent year 1
Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas,
Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nevada, New
Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma,2 Pennsyl­
vania, Rhode Island, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin.
a. States whose reports make available in some form data on appli­
cations, placements, and help wanted, all by occupation, by year,
and by month for all or most of the period of study
8
Arkansas,3 Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, New Jersey, Ohio, Pennsyl­
vania, Wisconsin.
b. States whose reports make available all the data listed in a except
those by occupation
5
Connecticut,4 Michigan,5 Nevada,6 Rhode Island,4 Virginia.
c. States whose reports make available fewer data than arc listed in a
and b________________ ______ _
_
9
(1) All types of data reported monthly, but only placements yearly,
by sex: New York.
(2) All, or practically all, types of yearly data reported, but nothing
by month:

Indiana, Missouri,7 Massachusetts,8 North Carolina,® Okla­
homa,10 2.
(3) Number of applications or registrations not reported:
California.

(4) Totals for 8 months in 1930 only: West Virginia.11
(5) No yearly data available; monthly data not by occupation:

Iowa.
2. States issuing reports, but not giving data by sex

New Hampshire.12
3. States not issuing reports on public employment agencies13
Alabama, Arizona, Colorado,1 Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho,
Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, Montana,
Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oregon, South Carolina,
South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Washington,
Wyoming.
Annual Data

by

1
25

Sex

1. Applications:
a. States reporting applications or registrations by sex14__________

Arkansas, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts,
Michigan,15 Missouri,16 Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina,
Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, West
Virginia,17 Wisconsin.
b. States reporting applications by sex and occupation14__________
Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas,18 Missouri,16 New Jersey, Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Wisconsin.

18

10

1 Colorado has some reports by sex, but these concern activities of private agencies only. For these, ap­
plications and placements are reported, the data being for a 13-month period ending June 30, 1930.
2 Does not separate data by sex prior to report for period ending June 30, 1931.
3 The Arkansas biennial report gives data for years ending June 30, but this is available for 2 years
only.
4 Year’s data include occupational distribution by situations secured, but data by months do not in­
clude any occupational distribution.
8 Figures not published before July 1929.
6 Monthly figures very small, not exceeding 45 women applicants in any month.
7 No report later than 1928.
8 Nothing by sex by month or by occupation.
9 Only totals for year given and years ending June 30; 1930 last year reported.
10 No occupational distribution.
11 Office reestablished February 1930. See Monthly Labor Review, January 1931.
12 Reports are kept by sex in the office but not published by sex.
13 This does not mean that these States do not make reports of employment-office activities to the United
States Public Employment Service.
11 Iowa has reported applications, placements, and help wanted by sex and occupation, but the data are
biennial only. Iowa monthly figures can be added to obtain annual.
15 Beginning July 1929.
16 Latest, 1928.
17 Total for 8 months in 1930 only.
18 Totals for year not given by occupation. Would involve large amount of labor to do this from monthly
data.




225

APPENDIX C
Annual Data

by

Sex—Continued

2. Applications and placements:

ol states

а. States reporting both applications and placements, by sex14________
Arkansas, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts,
Michigan,15 Missouri,19 20
Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina,
Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, West
Virginia,17 Wisconsin.
б. States reporting both applications and placements, by sex and occu­
pation 14:
Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas,18 Missouri,18 New Jersey, North
Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Wisconsin.
3. Applications and help wanted:
a. States reporting both applications and help wanted,14 by sex_____
Arkansas, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Massachusetts,
Michigan,15 Missouri,19 Nevada, New Jersey, Ohio, Oklahoma,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Virginia, Wisconsin.
b. States reporting both applications and help wanted, by sex and occu­
pation14 10
Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas,18 Missouri,19 New Jersey, Ohio,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Wisconsin.
4. New registrations:
States reporting “new registrations”
4
Ohio, for annual and by month. Wisconsin, for part of the period,
annual. Rhode Island, for annual and by month. New York,
in annual report gives registrations and renewals.
Monthly Data

by

in

State Reports Giving Some Data
for This Study

by

1. Calendar year _______
Kansas—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.
Massachusetts 19—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.
Nevada—1928, 1929, 1930.
New York 2°—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.
Pennsylvania—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.
Rhode Island—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.
West Virginia—1930 (but reported for 8 months only).
Wisconsin—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.

Sex

16

15

9

15

15

and

Available

_ _

g

19 Report states report year ends December 1, but totals given in report include December figures.
20 Gives only monthly figures. Totaled for calendar year by Women’s Bureau.
See footnotes on p. 224.




11

Sex

1. Applications:
а. States reporting applications by sex_______________________________
Arkansas, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minne­
sota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, Virginia, Wisconsin.
б. States reporting applications by sex and occupation________________
Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin.
2. Applications and placements:
a. States reporting both applications and placements, by sex__________
Arkansas,3 Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minne­
sota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, Virginia, Wisconsin.
b. States reporting both applications and placements, by sex and occu­
pation
9
Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin.
3. Applications and help wanted:
а. States reporting both applications and help wanted by sex______
Arkansas, Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minne­
sota, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, Virginia, Wisconsin.
б. States reporting both applications and help wanted by sex and occu­
pation
9
Arkansas, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York,
Ohio, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin.
Years Covered

18

226

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

Years Covered

in

State Reports Giving Some Data
for This Study—Continued

by

Sex

and

Available
Number
of States

2. Year ending June 30
Arkansas 21—1928, 1929.
California—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.
Colorado 1 22—1930.
Connecticut 21—1928, 1929, 1930, 193I.23
Illinois 21—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.22
Iowa 21—1930-32 (biennial report).
Michigan 21—1930, 1931.23
Minnesota 21—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.22
New Jersey 21—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.
North Carolina—1929, 1930, 1931.

12

Ohio 21—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.

Oklahoma—1931.
3. Year ending September 30
Indiana—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.
Missouri—1928.
Virginia21—1928, 1929, 1930, 1931.

3

SUMMARY OF MONTHLY DATA BY STATES
[Consult table XV and p. 149]

Connecticut: January 1928 to December 1931
The data used as the basis of the analysis following have been
obtained from annual reports of the Bureau of Labor Statistics cover­
ing fiscal years 1928-30 and typewritten monthly reports July 1930
to December 1931.
Both applications and placements dropped markedly, beginning in
November 1930 and continuing (not in complete progression with
each month) through 1931, the fall being especially decided in May
1931 and thereafter. This was true in the main for both women
and men.
In the 4 years, the smallest number of both applications and place­
ments, whether for men or for women, was in January, February,
November, or December. May and October seemed to be the peak
months.
The number of persons applying always exceeded the help wanted,
and both for men and for women the ratio dropped at the end of
1929 (November) and never showed recovery. The ratio, always
higher for women than for men, was very low for both in 1931.
More applications were made by men than by women in every
month but one, but situations were secured for more women than
men in 31 of the 48 months, 22 of the 31 being in the second half of
the 4-year period. The exceptional months in which more men
than women were placed were April to October in 1928, March to
August and October and November in 1929, and April and May
in 1930.
With the exception of the first few months in 1928 for men, the
ratio of situations secured to persons applying was lower in 1930
than in the earlier corresponding months, and still lower in 1931.
Tins was true for both men and women, although the proportion of
placements was higher for women than for men in every month
throughout the period.
21 Monthly figures would enable calendar year to be obtained.
22 Report year ends Nov. 30, 1928; June 30, 1930. Only placements reported in 1928.
23 Data for 1931 from sources other than annual or biennial reports. See table XIII.
See footnote on p. 224.




APPENDIX C

227

Illinois: January 1928 to December 1931
The data used as a basis for the analysis following have been ob­
tained from monthly issues of the Illinois Labor Bulletin and from
annual reports of the State Department of Labor.
There was no marked heightening of number of registrations
during any one period, for either men or women. With each sex,
the largest numbers applied in January 1931, the next in October
1930. (See footnote 11, p. 139.) There wTas some tendency in most
years for registrations to be high in October and lower in December or
February; placements tended to he high in the spring (for both sexes
in October in 1928, for men in December in 1931) and low in February
(for women in July 1930 and in November 1931).
There were always more persons registering than places to he
filled. The ratio of help wanted to men registering ran high in the
mid months of 1929, but dropped slightly in September and sharply
thereafter. For women, although there was some decline earlier, the
sharp drop began in January 1930. For both sexes the ratio was lower
in every month of 1930 than in the corresponding months of 1928
and 1929. The situation appeared worse for men than for women.
For men, the ratio in the months of 1931 ordinarily fell still lower
than in 1930, but this was not true for women.
There were more registrations of men than of women and more of
the placements made were of men in every month throughout the 4
years with but two exceptions (January 1928 and January 1931).
However, relation between registrations and placements would make
it appear that a larger proportion of women than of men were placed
in every month in 1931 and in 1930 (except July) and also in 7 months
of 1928 and in 5 months of 1929.
Occupational data.—For the data on occupations the figures are
taken from the annual and monthly reports of the Department of
Labor, which give information for fiscal years ending June 30. The
occupational information in this State, so far as women are concerned,
is classified into the following chief groups in addition to manufac­
turing: Clerical, domestic and personal service, wholesale and retail
trade, casual workers. Reports for manufacturing industries have
been totaled by the Women’s Bureau, the chief women’s groups
included being clothing and textiles, metals and machinery, and the
printing trades.
The largest numbers of registrations, demands for help, and place­
ments were for either domestic and personal service or casual work.
Registrations for domestic and personal (including hotels and res­
taurants) and for clerical work had increased, the last mentioned being
in the year ending June 30, 1931, over 40 percent above then- 1929
figure. Thoseformanufacturing, trade, and casual work had declined.
The help wanted had declined in all occupational groups, the
decrease being especially great in demands for workers in trade, in
manufacturing, and for casual workers. The discrepancy between
the need for jobs and the help wanted appeared particularly large for
clerical workers.
Iowa: January 1928 to December 1931
The data forming the basis of the analysis following have been
obtained from issues of the Iowa Employment Survey, a monthly
publication of the State bureau of labor.




228

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

No marked point at which applications increased or at which de­
mands for help declined could be ascertained. However, in the case
of both sexes, there began regularly in August 1930 what had been
true m about half the months preceding, that fewer jobs were offered
in each month than in the corresponding month of the year before.
There was some tendency for applications and offers of jobs for
either sex to be high in the spring or fall, sometimes running into the
summer, and for the most part to be low in January or February.
There were always more registrants than places available, always
more registrations of men than of women, and more jobs were offered
men than women. However, with the exception of 3 months in the
entire 4 years, the ratio of jobs offered to registrations was higher for
women than for men.
Michigan: July 1929 to December 1931
The data available in this case cover only the last 2% years of the
survey and have been obtained from monthly reports of the Michigan
Employment Bureau. They show no significant point of increase in
registrations, though for both sexes these are smaller in number in the
months reported in 1929 than in the corresponding months in either of
the later years. While there always were more registrants than help
wanted, the demand for help of either sex suffered a definite drop in
October 1929 and never thereafter rose to its previous figure. In
the last 3 months of the year more women were wanted in 1930 than
in 1929; the last 3 months of 1931 showed a distinct improvement in
demands for men but a decline in those for women.
There always were more registrations by men than by women.
Until July 1930 more men were wanted than women; thereafter the
opposite was true, with the exception of a few months in 1931. Place­
ments of men always outnumbered those of women except for seven
months of 1931 and two months late in 1930. The ratio of help
wanted to registrations was higher for men than for women until
December 1929 and again after October 1931; in the months inter­
vening it was the higher for women.
Minnesota: January 1928 to December 1931
The data used as a basis for the analysis following have been ob­
tained from the mimeographed Annual Report of the Public Employ­
ment Service Operated by the Industrial Commission of Minnesota,
1928, 1929, 1930, and 1931. The last-named includes a 6-month
report of the commercial and professional offices of the public employ­
ment service operated for experimental purposes by the Tri-City
Employment Stabilization Committee (St. Paul, Minneapolis, and
Duluth). Table XV in the appendix gives the totals of registrations,
help wanted, and placements for the three cities combined, with the
number of help wanted to each 100 registrations. Table XVI in the
appendix shows the increase or decrease from 1929 to 1931 in regis­
trations and help wanted in the more important occupational groups
reported.
A definite point showing increase or decrease in registrations, help
wanted, and placements is not marked for either sex. In most months
the. numbers of help wanted, and of placements for either sex, and of
registrations for men were greater in 1928 or 1929 than in the two later
years, numbers of men’s placements being especially low in 1931.




APPENDIX C

229

Practically always there were more registrations than help called
for. With one exception for women, for either sex the ratio of help
wanted to registrations was highest in 1928 or 1929; it was lowest for
men in 1931, for women in 1931 in 8 of the last 9 months of the year.
Registrations of men exceeded those of women in most months of
1928 and 1929, but those of women were the greater in most of 1930
and in 1931. Ordinarily more male than female help was wanted
until 1931 when more women usually were in demand. More of the
placements were of men than of women in the first 2 years and in
most of 1930, but in 1931 ordinarily more were those of women than of
men. The ratio of help wanted to registrations always was consider­
ably higher for men than for women.
Occupational data.—Reports are made for the following occupa­
tional groups: Clerical, domestic, hotel and restaurant, industrial,
and casual. As in many of the other States, the largest groups both
of registrations and help wanted were those for casual work, either
domestic or hotel and restaurant work being second.
In all occupations combined, women’s registrations had increased
from 1929 to 1931 by only a little over 4 percent* help wanted had de­
clined less than one half of 1 percent. From 1929 to 1931 women’s
registrations for domestic work had nearly doubled, and those for
industrial and casual work showed increase. Women’s registrations
for clerical work in 1931 had declined from the 1929 number by about
45 percent, those for hotel and restaurant work by about 22 percent.
Calls for women as domestic help were nearly half again as great in
1931 as.in 1929, and those for casual work had increased 10 percent;
for clerical work, however, the demand had declined over 50 percent,
and a very slight decline was shown in calls for industrial workers.
New Jersey: January 1928 to December 1931
The data used in the analysis following have been obtained from
monthly issues of the Industrial Bulletin, published by the Depart­
ment of Labor, the year’s report appearing in the September issue.
Registrations show no marked tendency to increase at one particu­
lar point, although more registrations were made by women in 1930
than in 1931 in 11 months, and in 1929 than in 1928 in 7 months;
more by men in 7 months and in 6 months, respectively. For women'
in 4 months of 1929 and in 6 months of 1930, the numbers w'ere larger
than in any other year.
Ordinarily, registration was greatest in the late spring or summer
months, placements were highest in September, May, or June. In
every year but 1931, both registrations and placements were fewest
in the midwinter months; this is true of both men and women, and
the peak or slump months in registration and placements ordinarily
were similar for the two sexes.
For both sexes there always were more registrants than places open.
The ratio of help wanted to registrations dropped sharply at the end
of 1929, and was lownr in each month of 1930 than in the correspond­
ing month in either of the years preceding; and it was still lower in
the months of 1931 than in 1930 in the majority of cases. This ratio
was higher for women than for men in every month but May 1929.
There were fewer placements in each month of 1930 than in the
corresponding month of the 2 years preceding (except in several
months for women), and fewer still in 1931 in 7 months for men and
179570°—33--------16




230

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

in every month but March and December for women. More regis­
trations were made by women than by men in nearly every month,
and more placements were of women than of men. Further, the
relation between registrations and placements would make it appear
that a larger proportion of women than of men ordinarily were placed.
Occupational data.—The data cover the period 1928 to 1931 and
are from the Industrial Bulletin, September of each year. The
largest numbers of registrations, help wanted, and practically all
those reported placed were in domestic and personal service.
Registrations had increased for industrial employment, and greatly
so for clerical and professional work, the number in the last-named for
the year ending June 30, 1931, being over 40 percent more than that
in the year ending June 30, 1929. Those for domestic occupations
had declined somewhat in 1931.
Help wanted had declined from the middle of 1929 to the middle
of 1931 in each occupation group, by a larger proportion for the
industrial workers than for any others.
The discrepancy between demands for help and registrations for
work was greatest for clerical and professional workers.
New York: January 1928 to November 1931
The data used as a basis for the analysis following have been ob­
tained from monthly issues of the New York Industrial Bulletin.
There was no period in which registrations appeared to show a
marked rise either for men or for women, although, with one exception
for men, they were considerably higher in each month of 1931 than
in the corresponding month in any other year. For women', they
tended to be high in the month of October or, as in 1931, in November,
but the figures for men showed little uniformity of high month. In
practically every month more men than women registered. In every
month there were more applications made by men than by women.
The number of places to be filled was always below that of persons
applying, though for the most part exceeding the new registrations.
The ratio of help wanted to applications and to new registrations
showed a marked drop for both sexes in November 1929; and for both
sexes in practically every month of 1930 it was far below the corres­
ponding month of either earlier year. In 1931, this discrepancy
between jobs and persons seeking them had widened still further, and
in nearly every month of that year the ratio of number of jobs to
number of persons registering or number of applications—whether
of men or of women—was much lower even than in 1930. The
number of jobs available per 100 persons registering and applying was
considerably higher for women than for men throughout 1930 and
1931, and the same was true in many months of 1928 and 1929, though
jobs apparently were somewhat more available for men than for
women in summer and early fall of the years last mentioned.
Fewer placements of women were made in the last month of 1929
and the first months of 1930 than at any other time, and of men in
the first months of 1928 and the first months of 1930. Beginning in
May, in every month of 1931 fewer men were placed than in the
corresponding month in any other year. The same did not apply to
women throughout, although it was true in May and October.
In most months, more placements were made of men than of women,
but in the earlier months of each year the opposite was true (January




APPENDIX C

231

to March, 1928; January and February, 1929; January, February,
and August, 1930; January, and June, to December 1931). However
the proportion of placements in relation to persons registering was
higher for women than for men in nearly every month of the 4 years.
Likewise, judging by the relation between placements and all appli­
cations, it would appear that in most months a larger proportion of
women than of men applicants were placed.
Occupational data.—The data on occupations were taken from the
monthly Industrial Bulletin, published by the State Department of
Labor. This information is classified into the following occupational
groups: Clerical, domestic and personal service, hotels and restaurants,
wholesale and retail trade, casual workers, and manufacturing, only
a total being given in each case. The largest numbers of women
registered were for casual work until 1931, when these were exceeded
by clerical workers. The numbers of women asking for clerical and
domestic work ordinarily were similar.
Women’s registrations had increased in all groups from 1929 to
1931, in most cases continuously from year to year. Those for clerical,
hotel and restaurant, manufacturing, and domestic and personal work
in 1931 were nearly double those of 1929. Calls for all types of women
workers had declined except those for domestic service, which were in
1931 nearly double the 1929 number. Decreases in demands for
clerical workers were especially great, those in 1931 being scarcely
half those in 1929, and the discrepancy between the registrations and
the demands for help were very great in this occupation.
Ohio: January 1928 to December 1931
The data used as a basis for the analysis following have been ob­
tained from mimeographed material issued monthly by the Ohio
Department of Industrial Eolations, and the occupational totals are
from its semiannual reports.
Up to July 1930, the reports of number of applicants appear to
correspond with new registrations as reported separately from total
applications in July 1930 and thereafter. Thus the figures may be
considered as an unbroken series, based on “applicants” at first and
“new registrations” in the later reports. In these, there were fluc­
tuations with low periods and high periods both for men and for
women, but no general trend appeared; on the whole, more men and
women registered for work in 1929 than in any other year, and the
fewest of all were in 1931.
The high point in placements, whichever sex be considered, was in
the spring of 1929. A decided drop came after October of that year.
Although there was some recovery in the spring months of 1930, this
proved to be only temporary. For both sexes the last 5 months of
1931 showed the fewest placements in the 4 years.
In every month more men than women applied, and (except in
December 1931) more men than women were placed. However, in
almost every month throughout the 4 years, help was in demand for
larger proportions of the women than of the men registering. The
ratio of help wanted to new registrations usually was low for men at
the beginning and at the end of the year, and tended to be high for
both sexes in the spring.
In each month of the first half of 1929 and through most of 1931,
the cases of help wanted formed a larger percentage of the numbers




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EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

of men and women registering than in the corresponding month of
the year preceding, but from the middle of 1929 until about the end
of 1930 (for women through October, for men the entire year) the
ratio was below that of the year before.
Occupational data.—These data are taken from the totals given in
annual reports of the Department of Industrial Relations, which give
information for fiscal years ending June 30. The material, except
that for manufacturing, is classified into the following main occupa­
tional groups: Clerical and professional, domestic and personal,
hotel and restaurant, wholesale and retail trade, and casual workers.
The reports for manufacturing have been totaled by the Women's
Bureau, the chief of these that affect women being clothing and
textiles; food, beverages, and tobacco; leather, rubber, and allied
products; metals and machinery; the printing trades; and paper
manufacture.
The greatest number of applications, demands for help, and
placements were those for casual workers, though these showed
a steady decline after the 1929 high point. Applications showed
a decided increase throughout the period of study for work in
domestic and personal service and after 1929 in trade; they declined
in 1931 for clerical, manufacturing, and hotel and restaurant workers.
Requests for help had declined in all occupation groups but that
of trade, which had increased by over half in 1931 from its 1929
figure. The proportional decreases had been especially great in
manufacturing and hotels and restaurants, in the latter the 1931
help wanted being less than half that of 1929; in the former it had
decreased well over two fifths, and demands for clerical workers in
1931 had decreased about one third.
_ The discrepancy between applications and help wanted was greatest
in clerical in every year, and also was very large in manufacturing
in the year ending June 30, 1931. In trade occupations the demand
for workers in the offices of this State had exceeded the supply in
each of the 4 years.
Pennsylvania: January 1928 to December 1931
The data used as a basis for the analysis following have been
obtained from the issues of Labor and Industry, published monthly
by the Pennsylvania Department of Labor.
There was no point at which there was a decided increase in either
men or women applying, though the number was high in the closing
months of 1931, and for women higher in June 1931, for men in
December 1931, than in any other month in the 4-year period.
There was a tendency with both sexes for the number of persons
applying for positions to be high in June and for the most part low
in the later summer months or in January.
There always were more persons applying than were asked for
by employers, and there was a marked falling off in requests for
help after 1929, especially for men. For both sexes, the ratio of
persons asked for to persons applying was higher in most months
of 1929 than in corresponding months of 1928, but it showed a
marked falling off for both sexes in 1930 and, except for a slight
increase in February, still more in 1931, being especially low for
men in the last months of 1931.




APPENDIX C

233

Throughout the period, more applications were made by men
than by women and more placements were of men than of women.
Occupational data.—The data on occupation were taken from the
annual reports of the Department of Labor and Industry, published
in February. These data were given by occupation for the 3 years
after 1928, and these were organized into the following chief groups
in which women applied for work (outside the manufacturing in­
dustries): Clerical and professional, hotel and restaurant, whole­
sale and retail trade, and casual and day jobs. Semiskilled and
unskilled manufacturing groups were reported, and data for the
more skilled manufacturing occupations have been totaled by the
Women’s Bureau, the main women’s industries included being as
follows: Clothing; textiles; food and kindred products; leather, rubber,
and composition goods; metals and metal products; paper and printing.
In each year, the largest numbers, both of women applying for
work and of those asked for by employers were either in the semi­
skilled or the casual and day-work group.
The applications of women for positions in all chief occupations
had increased in most cases continuosuly from year to year. This
growth was especially great for the various manufacturing groups
and for hotel and restaurant work, and the 1931 applications for
positions in clerical and professional work and in trade were more
than 50 percent greater than were those in 1929.
. In this State, employers’ requests for women workers had declined
in only three of the seven chief groups—clerical and professional,
casual and day, and unskilled industrial. In the other four groups
demand had increased, and 1931 requests exceeded those of 1929
by from about 28 percent to over 124 percent. In connection with
the various manufacturing groups, this may have reflected some
shift in emphasis of the office on service for workers or employers of
certain types; with the clerical and professional the movement was
such as was manifest in other States.
The discrepancy between employers’ requests for women and
women’s applications for jobs was very great in the clerical and
professional occupations and also was great for the unskilled workers,
each of these groups having shown a large increase in applications
with a notable decline in requests for such services.
Rhode Island: January 1928 to December 1931
Data for this State have been obtained from annual reports of the
Commissioner of Labor, covering the calendar year. With the
exception of 2 months later in the year in the case of men, the “at­
tendance” of both sexes was markedly heavier in 1930 than in either
of the earlier years; likewise, new registrations,1 particularly for
men, showed an especial increase ip 1930, though in about half the
months of 1931 there was a decline for each sex both in attendance
and in new registrations.
While attendance of men usually was greater than that of women,
more of the registrants were women than men until 1930, when the
situation changed markedly.
Practically always more women than men were in demand. In
almost every month of 1928 and 1929, and even in several months of
1930, there were more demands for woman help than there were new
1 Called registrations in 1928 and 1929.




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EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

registrants, though attendance always was considerably greater than
the demand for help. Among the men, almost an opposite situation
was indicated: Many more were newly registered in every month
of 1930 and in 1931 than were called for, and the same was true in
most months of the two earlier years.
The ratio of help wanted to new registrations was higher for both
sexes in the majority of cases in 1929 than in corresponding months of
1928, but much lower in 1930 than 1929, except in two spring months
and December for women, and in December for men. This ratio was
lower in 1931 than in 1930 for women in most months and for men in
just half the months. This ratio almost always was higher for women
than for men, usually considerably so.
Occupational data.—The occupational data in this State have been
given by a long and detailed classification. In many classes few
persons were reported, and consequently they have been grouped here
into the generalized classification used in a number of States. (See
footnote to table XVI in the appendix for details of this grouping.)
The largest numbers of new registrants, as well as of help wanted,
were in the domestic group. In this type of work, registrations had
increased greatly from 1929 to 1931, while help wanted in 1931 was
only a little over half that in demand in 1929. For industrial and
clerical and professional work, registrations had increased more than
demands for help.
Virginia: January 1928 to December 1931
The data for this State were available through 1931 from the annual
reports of the Department of Labor and Industry for fiscal years
ending September 30. Those on registrations show no point of par­
ticular increase for either sex, though for men they were especially
high in the first 3 months of 1931.2 Both registrations and calls for
help showed some tendency to be low in midwinter or in July, high
from March to June.
There were always more men registering than called for, but for
women the discrepancies between demand and supply were not so
great as in most States—indeed, there were months in every year,
with the exception of 1931, when requests for help exceeded the
number of registrants.
No specific point of decline in help wanted can be noted, except
for men after March of 1931, but for the most part the demands for
both sexes were less in each month of 1930 than in 1929; in the
majority of cases, those of 1931 were still lower. While in every
month there were more registrations of men than of women, and in
about half the months more men than women were asked for, the
ratio of help wanted to registrations always was higher for women
than for men. More men’s than women’s positions were filled except
in 5 months of 1930 and 1 of 1928.
Wisconsin: January 1928 to December 1931
The data used as the basis of the analysis following have been
obtained from mimeographed monthly reports of the Wisconsin
Industrial Commission.
2 Unless the figures may be explained in some other way, unusual activity in the offices, especially in
behalf of men, is notable in the first 3 months of 1931.




APPENDIX C

235

Applications were markedly lower in 1930 and 1931 than was the
case, for the most part, in 1928 and 1929, and this was true for both
men and women, although there seemed no specific point at which the
decline began.
With one exception, applications were in excess of help wanted,
whether for men or for women. For the months that could be com­
pared, the ratio of help wanted to applications was lower in 1930 in
every case, for both sexes, than in the earlier years, and was still lower
in 1931 except for women in September. This ratio ordinarily was
higher for men than for women until December 1930, after which it
ordinarily was the higher for women.
For both sexes, placements showed a decided drop in November
1929, and the former level never was recovered, almost every month
that could be compared in 1930 and 1931 being below that in the
earlier years.
Both placements and applications showed a slump at the end of each
year, for both sexes. More applications were made by men than by
women and more of the placements were of men in every month
throughout the period. Also, the relation between applications and
placements would make it appear that a larger proportion of men
than of women were placed (except in February, May, September,
and October, 1931). As between the two sexes, these proportions
varied much less through 1931 and in the first 4 months of 1930 than
at any other time.
Occupational data.—The data on occupation were taken from the
annual reports of the Industrial Commission. The classification in
this State was changed in 1930, though information could be obtained
for substantially the same main groups as those used in 1929. No
occupational data by sex were given for 1928, so the period under
consideration for this part of the data covers only 3 years. The
chief groups of women registrants in 1930, outside manufacturing,
were as follows: Office workers (in 1929, the grouping was entitled
clerical, professional, and technical); homes, institutions, hotels and
restaurants (in 1929 the first two were combined under domestic and
personal service, and in later years the “home” group vastly exceeded
that of “institutions”); mercantile establishments (classed as whole­
sale and retail trade in 1929); and casual labor. Registrations for
manufacturing work have been totaled by the Women’s Bureau, the
main groups included being as follows: Food, beverages, and tobacco;
leather and its finished products; metals and metal products; paper
and paper products, printing and publishing; rubber and composition
manufactures; and textiles and textile products.
The numbers, both of persons applying for positions and help
wanted by employers, were greatest for casual workers in 1929,
domestic and personal being second in that year and “homes”
greatly exceeding all others in each of the 2 later years.
Persons applying for positions had declined in the classes office
workers, hotels and restaurants, and casual workers, and in the
manufacturing total; in the case of the first-named group the changed
classification in 1930 may have affected the numbers so reported, and
in the case of casual workers the decline was so extreme as to indicate




236

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATIONS AND UNEMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN

that changes in office organization or reporting probably were respon­
sible. Registrations for positions in “homes” and in hotels and
restaurants in 1931 showed some increase over 1930, while those for
mercantile jobs had increased still more. Help wanted had increased
by more than half in mercantile establishments; it had declined some­
what in homes, very much more in hotels and restaurants and for
casual workers, though especially in the latter case there is question
whether changes in classification or in emphasis placed by offices may
have made the decline appear unduly great.
Though for office, hotel and restaurant, and casual work both
applications and demands for help were less in 1931 than in 1930
there still were many more applications than the help wanted.




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