View PDF

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN'S BUREAU, No. 95

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS
AND OFFICE CLERKS IN OHIO
1914 TO 1929




[Public—No. 259—66th Congress]
IH. R. 13229]
An Act To establish in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as the
Women’s Bureau

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be
established in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as the
Women’s Bureau.
Sec. 2. That the said bureau shall be in charge of a director, a
woman, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice and
consent of the Senate, who shall receive an annual compensation of
$5,000. It shall be the duty of said bureau to formulate standards
and policies which shall promote the welfare of wage-earning women,
improve their worldng conditions, increase their efficiency, and ad­
vance their opportunities for profitable employment. The said
bureau shall have authority to investigate and report to the said de­
partment upon all matters pertaining to the welfare of women in
industry. The director of said bureau may from time to time publish
the results of these investigations in such a manner and to such
extent as the Secretary of Labor may prescribe.
_
Sec. 3. That there shall be in said bureau an assistant director,
to be appointed by the Secretary of Labor, who shall receive an
annual compensation of $3,500 and shall perform such duties as
shall be prescribed by the director and approved by the Secretary
of Labor.
_
Sec. 4. That there is hereby authorized to be employed by said
bureau a chief clerk and such special agents, assistants, clerks, and
other employees at such rates of compensation and in such numbers
as Congress may from time to time provide by appropriations.
Sec. 5. That the Secretary of Labor is hereby directed to furnish
sufficient quarters, office furniture, and equipment for the work of
this bureau.
Sec. 6. That this act shall take effect and be in force from and
after its passage.
Approved, June 5, 1920.




UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. N. DOAK, Secretary

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

BULLETIN

OF THE WOMEN’S

BUREAU,

NO. 95

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS
AND OFFICE CLERKS IN OHIO
1914 TO 1929
BY

AMY G. MAHER

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON : 1932

FOR SALE BY THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS, WASHINGTON, D. C.







CONTENTS
Page

Letter of transmittal
Introduction
Changes from 1914 to 1929
Proportion of men and women in clerical group______________________
Rates of pay______________________________________ ____
Medians of money rates
Ratio of women’s wage rate to that of men___________________
Medians of the real rates
All industries
Manufactures
Offices
Stores, retail and wholesale
Year’s earnings
All industries
Manufactures___ :
Offices
Stores
Eight industrial counties—year’s earnings, 1929_______________
Employment fluctuation
Appendix—Tables and charts

v
]
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
9

TABLES
Table 1. Distribution of employed persons according to whether wage
earners, sales people (not traveling), or bookkeepers, stenogra­
phers, and office clerks, 1914 and 1929, by sex_____________
2. Proportion of men and women in total group of bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks in all industries, 1914 to 1929_
3. Proportion of men and women in total group of bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks in manufacturing, 1914 to
1929_______ ________ ___________________ 1______________
4. Proportion of men and women in total group of bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks in offices, 1914 to 1929______
5. Proportion of men and women in total group of bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks in stores, retail and wholesale,
1914 to 1929
6. Money wage rates and real wage rates of bookkeepers, stenogra­
phers, and office clerks in all industries, 1914 to 1929, by sex_
7. Money wage rates and real wage rates of bookkeepers, stenogra­
phers, and office clerks in manufacturing, 1914 to 1929, by
sex-----------------------------------------8. Money wage rates and real wage rates of bookkeepers, stenogra­
phers, and office clerks in offices, 1914 to 1929, by sex________
9. Money wage rates and real wage rates of bookkeepers, stenogra­
phers, and office clerks in stores, retail and wholesale, 1914 to
1929, by sex
16
10. Ratio of women’s wage rate to that of men, bookkeepers, ste­
nographers, and office clerks in the various employment
groups, 1914 to 1929
11. Year’s earnings of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks
in all industries, 1918 to 1929
12. Year’s earnings of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks in manufacturing, 1918 to 1929_____________________
13. Year’s earnings of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks
in offices, 1918 to 1929
14. Year’s earnings of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks
in stores, retail and wholesale, 1918 to 1929_______________
15. Year’s earnings of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks
in all industries in eight counties, 1929____________________




m

11
11
12
12
13
13
15
15

16
17
17
18
18
19

IV

CONTENTS

Table 16. Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in all industries,
1914 to 1929, by sex
17. Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in all manufac­
turing, 1914, to 1929, by sex
18. Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in offices, 1914 to
1929, by sex
19. Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in stores, retail
and wholesale, 1914 to 1929, by sex

20
24
26
30

CHARTS
No. 1. Increase in real weekly-wage rates of bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks, 1914 to 1929, by sex and employment group-2. Increase in year’s real earnings of bookkeepers, stenographers, and
office clerks, 1918 to 1929, by employment group_____________
3. Trend of employment of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks in all industries, 1914 to 1929, by sex__________________
4. Trend of employment of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks in manufacturing, 1914 to 1929, by sex________________
5. Trend of employment of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks in offices, 1914 to 1929, by sex
28
6. Trend of employment of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks in stores, 1914 to 1929, by sex
29




14
19
22
23

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
United States Department of Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, February 26, 1982.
Sir : I have the honor to submit herewith a report on the earnings

and trends of employment of office workers in the State of Ohio over a
period of 16 years, based on the returns made by employers to the
Division of Labor Statistics and written by Amy G. Maher, direc­
tor of the Information Bureau on Women’s Work.
Clerical employment is absorbing an increasingly large number of
women workers. In 1929 almost three-tenths of all women employed
in Ohio were in this group.
Respectfully submitted.
Mary Anderson,

Hon. W. N. Doak,
Secretary of Labor.




Director.

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFFICE
CLERKS IN OHIO, 1914 TO 1929
INTRODUCTION

_ In Ohio, the division of labor statistics has collected from employers
in the State their weekly wage rates, pay-roll totals, and employment
figures for the years 1914 to 1929, inclusive. In 1924 the scope of the
law was enlarged to require reports from all establishments employing
three or more workers, whereas the requirement in 1921 to 1923 had
been for those employing five or more and from 1914 to 1920 the law
included all persons known to be employers. The wage rate is
reported for the week of greatest employment during the year, and
includes bonuses and commissions and an allowance for board or
room, or both, if these are furnished the worker as part of his wages.
The employment figures reported are those for the 15th of the month
or the nearest representative date.
This report is the fourth in a series prepared from the figures de­
scribed by the Information Bureau on Women’s Work (Toledo), which
has as its special interest the conditions under which women work.
It has published previously three reports of industrial groups, selecting
them according to their importance as woman-employing industries
in Ohio. The first is entitled “Wage Rates, Earnings, and Fluctua­
tion of Employment: Ohio, 1914-1926 (inclusive)”; the second, “Ohio
Wage Earners in the Manufacture of Textiles and Textile Products:
1914-1927”; and the third, “Ohio Wage Earners in the Manufacture
of Rubber Products: 1914-1928.” The present study is concerned
with the group designated bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks by the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics. It covers practically
all clerical workers 1 as far as employment is concerned and clerical
workers 18 years of age or over where wage rates are concerned.
These women form a very important part of the gainfully employed
women in Ohio; in 1929, almost three-tenths (28.1 per cent) of all
women employed were in the clerical group.
From the figures collected it has been possible to compute medians
of weekly rates, both money and real rates, and employment fluctua­
tion over the 16-year period, except for 1922. For this year, the only
figures available are for bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks
in offices.2 Average year’s earnings could not be computed for this
same period of years, as in 1914 only an industry’s total pay roll was
given, and in 1915 to 1917 the employment figures and pay-roll totals
were not always for the same establishments. For these reasons,
year’s earnings have been computed only as beginning with 1918.
Since the pay-roll totals as compiled by the division of labor statistics
1 Excludes interstate transportation and governmental activities, not reported to the State; also mines
and quarries, employing in 1929 only 133 women in any type of employment.
2 See Table 18. From 1914 to 1924, offices were classed as “trade,” but in 1925 they were transferred to
“service.”




1

2

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

are not given by sex, it has been possible only to compute average
year’s earnings for the total group of workers, not for men and women
separately.
Changes from 1914 to 1929.
In the statement following, the increases during the period studied
are shown for a number of important figures.
1914

Number of clerical* workers (bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
Proportion of women among all clerical workers-------------------per cent..
Median of weekly money rates of clerical workers:
Median of year’s earnings, all clerical workers----------------- ------------------

1929

Per cent
increase

641,737

1,278, 993

99.3

58,889
40.5

168,127
50.5

185.5
24.7

$17. 47
$10. 52
1 $1,086
100.0

$38.57
$22.40
$1,677
166.4

120.8
112.9
54.4
66.4

11918; earlier figures not obtainable.

PROPORTION OF MEN AND WOMEN IN CLERICAL GROUP

The average number of men and women employed in 19293 in all
lines of employment in Ohio was 1,278,993. Of these, about fourfifths (80.1 per cent) were wage earners, about one-sixteenth (6.8
per cent) were salespeople not traveling, and the remainder, more
than one-eighth (13.1 per cent) were bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks. (See Table 1.)
The proportions of men and women employed in these groups varied
greatly. Almost seven-eighths of the males (86.2 per cent) as com­
pared with about three-fifths of the females (60.4 per cent) were wage
earners. Slightly more than one-twentieth of the males (5.3 per
cent), as contrasted with almost one-eighth of the females (11.5 per
cent), were salespeople. Only about 2 in 23 (8.5 per cent) of the
gainfully employed men, as compared with almost 2 in 7 (28.1 per
cent) of the gainfully employed women, were engaged in clerical
occupations, although the numbers of men and women thus engaged
were very similar, 83,257 and 84,870, respectively, a total of 168,127
employed in 42,216 establishments.
To supplement the information on the men and women employed
as clerical workers in 1929, an analysis has been made of the number
and proportion of men and women thus employed in the period begin­
ning with 1914. (See Tables 2 to 5.) During the first three years
covered in this study, 1914 to 1916, the proportions of men and women
in clerical occupations in all industries varied little; about three-fifths
were men and about two-fifths women. (Table 2.) As would be
expected, in the years 1917 to 1919, during and immediately following
the participation of the United States in the World War, the propor­
tion women formed of the clerical group increased from 41.6 per cent
in 1916 to 49.3 per cent in 1919. From then on, the proportions
varied only slightly. In 1929 women formed a little more than onehalf (50.5 per cent) of all persons employed in clerical occupations.
3 Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




BATES OF PAY

3

Three employment groups—manufacturing, offices, and stores—
employ the great majority, though by no means all, of the clerical
workers. (Compare Tables 3 to 5 with Table 2.)
In manufacturing pursuits, the same increase was noted as for the
all-industries group in the proportion of women employed preceding
and during the war and in the slight variation from 1919 on. Prior to
1918, less than 40 per cent of the total group were women; in 1918,
43.2 per cent were women. The proportion varied less than 1 per
cent from 1919 to 1929. As in all industries, the proportion women
formed of the clerks in the manufacturing group was greatest in 1929.
The figure was 43.9 per cent in manufacturing. (Table 3.)
In offices, the proportion of women employed advanced much more
markedly during the war period than was the case in the two groups
already discussed. In 1917 women formed 45 per cent of the total
group, while in 1919 they were 56.8 per cent, the highest reported.
From that year on the variation was not so great as this; the maximum
difference was 2.4 points. In 1929 the proportion of women was
slightly less than in 1919, the figure being 54.9 per cent. (Table 4.)
During the period from 1914 to 1920, the proportion women formed
of the clerical workers in retail and wholesale stores increased from
52.4 per cent to 69 per cent. There was a drop of 2.6 points from 1920
to 1921, but from then on the proportion of women varied only
slightly. In 1929, 68.8 per cent of the total group were women.
(Table 5.)
RATES OF PAY
When an analysis is undertaken of the wage rates paid employees
for the work pursued, it must be borne in mind that the rate is for
full-time work. In some cases the money earnings that the worker
receives will be greater than the wage rate, due to overtime, and in
other cases less, due to short time, from either industrial or personal
causes. It is the money earnings actually received that determine
for the most part the standard of living of the worker and of those
dependent on him.
MEDIANS OF MONEY RATES

As mentioned previously, medians of weekly money rates have been
computed for this study. The median of a given group means that
one-half of the group fall above and one-half below that point, and
applied to money rates it means that one-half of the group are paid
at a higher rate and one-half at a lower rate than the specified median.
Medians of the weekly money rates were computed for all groups in­
cluded in the study for the years 1914 to 1929, with the exception of
the year 1922. From these, the indexes of the weekly rates have been
computed on 1914 as a base. (See Tables 6 to 9 and Chart 1.) _
The median of the weekly wage rates for men employed in all
industries increased from $17.47 in 1914 to $38.57 in 1929, an increase
of 120.8 per cent and a rise unbroken during all the years reported
except the extremely depressed year of 1921. For women the increase
was not so great, being from $10.52 to $22.40, or 112.9 per cent, and
again unbroken except in 1921. In manufacturing, the increase was
considerably greater for men than for women, from $17.82 to $40.88,
or 129.4 per cent, while that for women was from $10.83 to $22.28, or
106894°—32------ 2



4

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

105.7 per cent. The actual increase in the medians of the wage rates
of men in offices was from $19.33 to $43.12, or 123.1 per cent, while
that for women was considerably less, from $12.40 to $23.46, or 89.2
per cent. The per cent increases for the men and women employed
in stores were more nearly alike, 123.5 per cent for men and 121.1 "per
cent for women. The actual increases were from $15.70 to $35.09
for men and from $9.54 to $21.09 for women.
Ratio of women’s wage rate to that of men.
The ratio of the women’s median weekly money rates in clerical
work to that of men has been computed for the four industrial sub­
divisions for the years 1914 to 1929, with the exception of 1922. (See
Table 10.) It is interesting to note that in every year since 1916 the
women’s rate compares least unfavorably with the men’s for clerical
workers in stores. This more nearly comparable position of women is
not to be explained by high wage rates for women in stores, but by
the depressed rates for men in that employment.
MEDIANS OF THE REAL RATES

The figures discussed previously show the increases in the medians
of the money rates computed over a period of years, but they do not
take into account the real purchasing power of the dollar. It is this
that is of utmost concern to the worker. To change these figures on
money rates to the actual purchasing value, use has been made of the
index figures showing changes in the cost of living in the United States
as worked out by the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.4
These index figures as computed are based on the average for 1913.
Since the figures on rates available in this study began with the year
1914, the index figures have been computed also with December, 1914,
as a base. The index numbers on the two bases, December of each
year being used because no other figure is available for the years
1914 to 1917, are as follows:
Index numbers showing changes in cost of living in the United States, December,
1914) to December, 1929
Date

Average
for 1913= December
1914=100
100 1
100.0

December:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918.....................
1919
1920

97.1

103.0
105.1
118.3
142.4
174.4
199.3
200.4

100.0
102.0
114.9
138.3
169.3
193.5
194.6

U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Date

December:
1921
1922___________
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929_
_

Average
for 1913= December
1914=100
[100i

174.3
169.5
173.2
172.5
177.9
175.6
172.0
171.3
171.4

169.2
164.6
168.2
167.5
172.7
170.5
167.0
166.3
166.4

Monthly Labor Review, vol. 30, No. 2, February, 1930, p. 241.

By use of these index numbers, the median money rates have been
transformed into median real rates by dividing the money rate for
each year by the index number of the cost of living for that year (see
text preceding index numbers) and multiplying by 100. In inter­
< U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly Labor Review, vol. 30, No. 2, February, 1930, p. 241.




RATES OF PAY

5

preting these real rates deflated from money rates, it must be remem­
bered that the results show only the relation of the succeeding years
to conditions as they were in 1914. The latter was selected, first,
because 1914 was the first year for which the Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics had compiled statistics comparable with those of later
years, and secondly, because the cost-of-living index figures from the
Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics were available for December of
1914 to December of 1929, inclusive. From these median real rates,
the relation between the actual goods or services that the worker could
buy in any specified year as compared with those he could have bought
in 1914 is apparent. These comparisons are of great value when it is
remembered that a 16-year over-all period is covered by this study.
All industries.
Although the median of the money rates from 1914 to 1929 for men
in all industries increased one and one-fifth times (120.8 per cent),
when the money rates are deflated to real rates the increase in actual
value is seen to be slightly less than one-third (32.7 per cent). During
the years 1916 to 1919 the median of the real rates was less than the
figure for 1914. The low mark was reached in 1917, when the median
was 91.4 per cent of the 1914 figure. (See Table 6 and Chart 1.)
The increase in the median of money rates for women in all indus­
tries for the period 1914 to 1929 was one and one-eighth times (112.9
per cent) and for the increase in median real rates less than threetenths (27.9 per cent). The median of the real rates for women was
less than the figure for 1914 for a period of years even greater than that
in the case of the men—from 1915 to 1920. The lowest index figure
was 87.1, for 1918.
Manufactures.
In manufacturing, the increase in the median of money rates for
men from 1914 to 1929 was practically one and three-tenths (129.4
per cent), while that in the median of real rates was less than two-fifths
(37.9 per cent). As in all industries, 1916 to 1919 was marked by a
drop in the median real rates for men below the 1914 level. The
lowest median real rates in manufacturing were those in 1917.
For women in manufacturing the increase in median real rates was
less than one-fourth (23.6 per cent), compared with about one and
one-twentieth (105.7 per cent) in the money rate. The period over
which the real rates were less than those in 1914 was the same as in
all industries, and the lowest point was in 1918. (See Table 7 and
Chart 1.)
Offices.
The increase in the median of money rates of men employed in
offices over this period of years was almost one and one-fourth times
(123.1 per cent), compared with slightly more than one-third (34
per cent) in the case of the real rates. Median real rates in offices
were less than in 1914 in the years 1916 to 1920, a year longer than in
all industries and in manufacturing. The lowest level was reached
in 1916, when the median of the real rates was slightly more than
seven-eighths of the figure for 1914.
The increase from 1914 to 1929 in median real rates for women was
about one-eighth (13.7 per cent), compared with about nine-tenths
(89.2 per cent) in the case of money rates. As was noted for men,



6

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

the real rates for women were less than in 1914 for a year longer than
in all industries and manufacturing, such conditions lasting from 1915
to 1921. In 1918 the women’s real rate fell practically 25 per cent
below the 1914 rate. (See Table 8 and Chart 1.)
Stores, retail and wholesale.
As would be expected from the very close proportionate increase
from 1914 to 1929 in the median money rates for men and women
employed in stores, the increases in real rates were about the same
for the two sexes, for men slightly more and for women slightly less
than one-third. Real rates were less than in 1914, for both men and
women, in the years 1916 to 1919, but maximum decrease for both
men and women over this period was less than 10 per cent. (See
Table 9 and Chart 1.)
YEAR’S EARNINGS

As before stated, it was not possible to compute year’s earnings of
clerical workers previous to 1918; nor was it possible to compute
those of women at any time, since the pay-roll totals are not given
by sex. Average year’s earnings, both money and real, have been
computed for all clerical workers, as have the percentage deviations
in real earnings from the figure for 1918. (See Tables 11 to 14 and
Chart 2.)
In 1929 the year’s money earnings of clerical workers had a higher
average in offices, $2,013, than in manufacturing, $1,792, or in stores,
$1,310. The average for all industries was $1,677. From these
figures, average weekly earnings have been computed by the simple
process of dividing by 52, the results being $38.70 for offices, $34.45
for manufacturing, $25.20 for stores, and $32.25 for all industries.
As compared with these averages for clerical workers, money
earnings of all wage earners in Ohio averaged $1,457 for the year and
$28 per week, and for all salespeople not traveling $1,374 for the year
and $26.40 per week.6 The gain over 1918 in real earnings was 33.7
per cent for the wage earners and 56.3 per cent for the salespeople.
All industries.
Real earnings for the year were computed from the money earnings
by the use of the index figures quoted before, using December, 1914,
as a base. During the over-all period of 12 years, the average of
real earnings of the clerical employees in all industries increased
nearly three-fifths (57.3 per cent) over the average for 1918. (See
Table 11 and Chart 2.) This was only slightly higher than the gain
for salespeople, 56.3 per cent, but it was considerably greater than
that for those classed as wage earners, 33.7 per cent. From 1918
to 1924 the index.increased from 100 to 144.8, during the next year it
fell to 139.6, but it rose again during the next four years and reached
157.3 in 1929.
Manufactures.
The increase during the period 1918 to 1929 in a year’s real earnings
of clerical .workers was only slightly less in manufacturing than in
all industries, or 56.5 per cent. The increase over this period was
practically continuous, although the rate varied. (See Table 12 and
Chart 2.)
Toledo Alfl30agpA2nUaI EarninBS in 0hio’ ^'S-1929 inclusive. Information Bureau on Women’s Work,




7

EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATION

Offices.
Clerical workers in offices had the greatest increase, average real
earnings for 1929 being 80.6 per cent above those for 1918. The
increases wore not continuous. In 1919 there was a drop below 1918,
with increases until 1924, when the index was 143.4. In 1925 there
was another slight drop, but from that time on the increase was con­
tinuous, the greatest in one year being that from 1928 to 1929, 156.1
to 180.6. (See Table 13 and Chart 2.)
Stores.
For clerical workers in stores, the increase over the 12-year period
was very similar to those in manufacturing and in all industries, or
54 per cent. The increase was great from 1918 to 1921, or 45.4 per
cent. (See Table 14 and Chart 2.)
Eight industrial counties—year’s earnings, 1929.
A year’s average in money earnings and in real earnings was com­
puted for the counties in which are located the eight largest cities in
the State.6 Real earnings had the lowest average among the clerical
workers in the counties in which Columbus and Cincinnati are located
and the highest in the counties in which are Cleveland and Akron.
(See Table 15.)
EMPLOYMENT FLUCTUATION

From the employment figures reported for the 15th of each month
(or nearest representative day), 1914 to 1929, the average numbers of
total employees and of men and women have been computed. The
year 1914 has been taken as the base for the indexes of employment.
(See Tables 16 to 19 and Charts 3 to 6.)
_
As noted previously, in 1929 an average of 168,127 clerical workers,
employed in 42,216 establishments, was reported for the State. In
the three subdivisions tabulated, manufactures, offices, and stores,
as well as in all industries, the percentage gain in number employed
generally is greater for women than for men. In the 16-year over-all
period, the increase in the average number of men clerical workers in
all industries was 137.5 per cent, and for women it was 256 per cent.
(See Table 16 and Chart 3.) As will be seen from the table and chart,
the trend of employment of men in all industries was upward from 1914
through 1920; in 1921, the depression year, it dropped, but started
rising again in 1923, continuing this rise until late in 1929, after which
a slight decline was noted. The same is true of women, the decrease
being marked in 1921.
_
In manufacturing lines, the percentage increase over the 16-year
period was greater for women than for men—160.4 per cent as com­
pared to 99.9. For both men and women the gains continued from
1914 through 1920, as in the case of those employed in all industries,
dropping in 1921, due to the depression and, on the part of women,
to the fact that after the close of the war more men were seeking
employment. The increase began again in 1923 (1922 figures are
not available) and continued practically without a break until the
close of the period. (See Table 17 and Chart 4.)
e U. S. Bureau of the Census. Fifteenth Census: 1930, vol. 1, Population,




pp. 835 and 486-860.

8

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

One of the outstanding facts in the study is the very great increase
in the employment of clerical workers in offices. (See Table 18 and
Chart 5.) In the 16 years the average number of women employed
increased to eight times the 1914 figure, and that of men to almost
four times such figure. In the same time the number of all employed
persons in the State did not quite double; for men the increase was
about nine-tenths (89.6 per cent) and for women it was about one and
two-fifths (138.9 per cent). Furthermore, from 1914 to 1930 the
population of the State increased less than one-third (32.2 per cent).7
The increase for men in offices was considerable from 1914 through
to 1917, but there was a tremendous drop in 1918, when the figure was
37.4 per cent below that of 1917. From 1918 to 1923, employment
increased and decreased irregularly, but from 1923 on the gains were
continuous through 1929.
For women as for men, the average number employed increased
from 1914 through 1917. In 1918 a very slight drop occurred, but
by 1920 there was an increase of 90 per cent over the 1918 figure. In
1921 there was a decline, not made up until 1924, but from 1924
through 1929 there was an unbroken increase, until in 1929 there were
practically eight times as many women in offices as there were in 1914.
The average number of men in clerical positions in stores decreased
greatly from 1914 to 1915 (see Table 19 and Chart 6) and remained
below the 1914 figure until 1920. An almost continuous increase
was noted from 1920 through 1929, but the gain over 1914 was only
28.1 per cent.
Among the women clerical workers in stores, the increase in number
was continuous from 1914 through 1920, in which period it more than
doubled. In 1921 there was a decline, but this was followed by an
unbroken gain, the average for 1929 being more than two and onehalf times the 1914 figure.
The increases from 1914 to 1929 in numbers of clerical workers
were as follows: In manufacturing establishments, 21,417 women
and 22,204 men; in offices, 9,841 women and 6,838 men; and in stores,
9,582 women and 1,565 men. In all industries, which includes other
groups than these, the increase was 61,032 women and 48,207 men.
7 Computation based on figures from Fifteenth Census of United States, 1930, vol. 1, Population, p. 835,
and Census of Manufactures, 1914, vol. 1, p. 1147. Population: 1914 (estimated)—5,026,898; 1930—6,646,697.




APPENDIX
TABLES AND CHARTS







APPENDIX—TABLES AND CHARTS
Table 1.—Distribution of employed persons according to whether wage earners,

salespeople (not traveling), or bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, 1914
and 1929, by sex
Per cent who were—

Average
number 1

Sex and year

Book­
keepers,,
stenog­
raphers,
and office'
clerks

Wage
earners

Sales
people (not
traveling)

641,737
1,278,993

86.2
80.1

4.6
6.8

9.2:
13.1

Male:
1914____________________________________________
1929

515, 256
976, 787

90.4
86.2

2.8
5.3

6. S'
8.5

Female:
1914____________________________ _ _______
_
1929

126, 481
302,206

69.2
60.4

11.9
11.5

18.8
28.1

Total:
1914_________________________________ ______
1929____________ ______ ________ ____________

i Arithmetic average of the 12 monthly figures reported, these being the numbers employed on the 15th
of the month or the nearest representative day.

Table 2.—Proportion of men and women in total group of bookkeepers, stenog­

raphers, and office clerks in all industries, 1914 to 1929
Male

Female

Total

Year

Number

1914..________ _____________________________ ____
1915
1916
1917
1918_________________________ ___________________
1919
1920
1921__________________ _____ ___________________ _
1922 »____ ______ ________________________________
1923________________ ____ ____________ __________
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928...____
1929

Per cent Number
of total

58,889
66, 574
79,360
91,247
104,264
116,185
130,857
110,481

35,050
39,052
46,352
51,559
53,996
58, 848
66, 545
55,803

59.6
58.7
58.4
56.5
51.8
50.7
50.9
50.5

23,838
27, 523
33, 008
39,688
50,269
57, 337
64, 312
54, 678

40.5
41.3
41.6
43.5
48.2
49.3
49.1
49.5

126, 470
133, 235
138, 800
146, 255
150, 848
154,287
168.127

63, 997
67, 456
69,855
73,247
75,006
77,341
83,257

50.6
50.6
50.3
50.1
49.7
50. 1
49.5

62, 472
65, 779
68, 945
73, 008
75, 842
76,946
84,870

49.4
49.4
49.7
49.9
50.3
49.9
50.5

i Figures not obtainable.

106894°—32-




3

Per cent
of total

11

12

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

Table 3.—Proportion of men and women in total group of bookkeepers, stenog­

raphers, and office clerks in manufacturing, 1914 to 1929
Male
Year

Female

Total
cent
Number Pertotal Number
of

1914________________
1915________ _______ _____________________________
1910______________ __ ____________ .
1817
1918__________________________
1919
1920_____________________________
1921__________________
19221_____________________ ______ ______
1923_______________
1924___________________
1925_ _____________
1926_____________________________________________
1927
1928__________________
1929

Per cent
of total

35, 576
41,512
49, 079
55,741
62,155
68,249
73,035
57,965

22. 224
26,150
30, 959
34, 306
35, 315
38, 489
41, 863
32, 713

62. 5
63.0
63.1
61.5
56.8
56.4
57.3
56.4

13, 352
15, 362
18,120
21, 436
26, 839
29, 760
31, 172
25,252

37. 5
37.0
36.9
38.5
43.2
43.6
42. 7
43.6

65, 538
65. 963
68, 387
71,195
71,769
72,041
79,197

37,379
37,743
38,851
40,223
40,423
41,090
44,428

57.0
57.2
56.8
56.5
56.3
57.0
56.1

28, 159
28, 220
29, 536
30, 973
31, 346
30, 951
34, 769

43.0
42.8
43.2
43.5
43.7
43.0
43.9

J Figures not obtainable.
S'

Table 4.—Proportion of men and women in total group of bookkeepers, stenog­

raphers, and office clerks in offices, 1914 to 1929
Male
Year

Number

1914
1916

___ ____
___ _____ ____

_________________

1918
____________ ____ __________
1919
______ ________________________ - 1920
_______________________________
1921
___________________________
1922
_______ ___________
1923 _
........ -______ _________________________
1924
_______________________________ _________
1925
________________
1926
_________________________
1927
. _____ _______
1928
- ___
1929
___________________________ ______




Female

Total

3, 816
4,151
5. 389
7, 537
5, 856
8,430
11, 001
9,230
9,361
10, 989
12,691
13, 718
14,316
16, 075
18, 207
20,495

2,405
2,452
3,123
4,143
2,595
3,643
4,809
4,109
4,079
4,879
5,665
6, 259
6,451
7,136
8,299
9,243

Per cent Number Per cent
of total
of total
63,0
59.1
58.0
55.0
44.3
43.2
43.7
44.5
43.6
44.4
44.6
45.6
45.1
44.4
45.6
45. 1

1,411
1,698
2,266
3,394
3,26 i
4,787
6,193
5,121
5, 282
6,110
7, 025
7,459
7,865
8, 939
9, 908
11, 252

37.0
40.9
42.0
45.0
55.7
56.8
56.3
55.5
56.4
55.6
55.4
54.4
54. 9
55. 6
54.4
54. 9

13

APPENDIX—TABLES AND CHARTS

Table 5.—Proportion of men and women in total group of bookkeepers, stenog­

raphers, and office clerks in stores, retail and wholesale, 1914 to 1929
Female

Male
Total

Year

Number

1914
1915
1916
1917 _
1918

_________________________ _______________
. ___
___________________________ ______ _____
....................... -

1920
1921 _

. .
______________________ ____ _____________

1923 _
1924 _
1925
1926
1927-_
1928
1929

_________________________________ _______
_______________________________
.

-

Per cent Number Per cent
of total
of total

11,688
10,871
12, 681
14,052
14,754
16.576
18,161
16,992

5, 562
4, 470
5, 007
5, 204
4, 751
5, 212
5,626
5,703

47.6
41.1
39.5
37.0
32.2
31.4
31.0
33.6

6,126
6, 400
7,673
8, 848
10, 003
11,364
12, 535
11, 289

52.4
58.9
60.5
63.0
67.8
68.6
69.0
66.4

19,006
19,453
20, 221
20, 906
21. 462
21,689
22,835

6,148
6,370
6,426
6, 841
6,791
6, 828
7,127

32.3
32.7
31.8
32.7
31.6
31.5
31.2

12,859
13, 083
13, 795
14, 065
14,671
14,861
15,708

67.7
67.3
68.2
67.3
68.4
68.5
68.8

i Figures not obtainable.

Table 6.—Money wage rates and real wage rates of bookkeepers, stenographers, and

office clerks in all industries, 1914 t° 1929, by sex
Real rates 1

Weekly money rates
Male

Female

Male

Female

Year
Relatives
Median of Relatives Median of Relatives
Median
(1914=
Median
(1914=
(1914=
actual
actual
100)
100)
100)
rates
rates
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921...........................
1922 2
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928...........................
1929

Relatives
(1914=
100)

$17.47
17.88
19.13
22.09
27.38
31.16
35.32
34.97

100.0
102.3
109.5
126.4
156.7
178.4
202.2
200.2

$10.52
10.63
11.24
12.77
15.50
17.97
20.10
20. 06

100.0
101.0
106.8
121.4
147.3
170.8
191.1
190.7

$17.47
17. 53
16. 65
15.97
16.17
16.10
18.15
20.67

100.0
100.3
95.3
91.4
92.6
92.2
103.9
118.3

$10.52
10. 42
9. 78
9. 23
9.16
9.29
10.33
11.86

100.0
99.0
93.0
87.7
87.1
88.3
98.2
112.7

35.39
36. 67
37.12
37. 63
38. 20
38. 47
38. 57

202.6
209. 9
212.5
215.4
218.7
220.2
220.8

21.02
21.48
21.78
22.09
22.28
22.35
22.40

199.8
204.2
207.0
210.0
211.8
212.5
212.9

21.04
21.89
21.49
22.07
22.87
23.13
23.18

120.4
125.3
123.0
126.3
130. 9
132.4
132.7

12. 50
12. 82
12.61
12.96
13. 34
13.44
13. 46

118.8
121.9
119.9
123.2
126.8
127.8
127.9

1 Computed from cost-of-living index of TT. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Figure for December, 1914,
constitutes base, 100. December figures used throughout. (See p. 4 for explanation.)
2 Figures not obtainable.




14

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO
Chart 1. INCREASE IN REAL WEEKLY-WAGE RVTES OF BOOKK'FFPPR*?

clbrks’ ^ToR^E|Y°sFExB?5gKFESoRl:

[Figure for 1914 equals base, 100]
IT. S. Department of Labor
Women’s Bureau

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

ALL INDUSTRIES

MANUFACTURING

OFFICES

STORES

191+ 1915 1916




191/ 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 192+ 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929

15

APPENDIX—TABLES AND CHARTS

Table 7.—Money wage rates and real wage rates of bookkeepers, stenographers,

and office clerks in manufacturing, 1914 to 1929, by sex
Weekly money rates
Male

Real rates 1 2

Female

Male

Female

Year
Median of Relatives Median of Relatives
Relatives
(1914=
<31914=
Median
(1914=
Median
actual
actual
100)
100)
100)
rates
rates
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922 2____________
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929

Relatives
(1914=
100)

$17.82
18. 26
19. 54
22. 55
28. 43
32.19
36. 61
36. 37

100.0
102.5
109.7
126.5
159.5
180.6
205.4
204.1

$10.83
10.84
11.48
12.98
15.78
18. 20
20. 27
20.16

100.0
100.1
106.0
119.9
145.7
168.1
187. 2
186.1

$17.82
17.90
17. 01
16.31
16. 79
16. 64
18.81
21. 50

100.0
100.4
95.5
91.5
94.2
93.4
105.6
120.7

$10.83
10.63
9.99
9. 39
9.32
9.41
10.42
11.91

100.0
98.2
92.2
86.7
86.1
86.9
96.2
110.0

37.08
38. 61
39. 17
40.14
40.75
40. 99
40.88

208.1
216.7
219.8
225.3
228.7
230.9
229.4

20.99
21.37
21.79
21.94
22. 28
22. 22
22.28

193.8
197.3
201.2
202.6
205.7
205.2
205.7

22. 05
23. 05
22. 68
23. 54
24. 40
24. 65
24. 57

123.7
129.3
127.3
132.1
136.9
138.3
137.9

12.48
12. 76
12.62
12.87
13. 34
13.36
13. 39

115.2
117.8
116.5
118.8
123.2
123.4
123.6

1 Computed from cost-of-living index of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Figure for December, 1914,
constitutes base, 100. December figures used throughout. (See p. 4 for explanation.)
J Figures not obtainable.

Table 8.—Money wage rates and real wage rates of bookkeepers, stenographers, and

office clerks in offices, 1914 t° 1929, by sex
Weekly money rates
Male

Real rates 1

Female

Male

Female

Year
Median of Relatives Median of Relatives
Relatives
actual
(1914=
actual
(1914=
Median
(1914=
Median
100)
100)
100)
rates
rates
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922 2____________
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929

Relatives
(1914=
100)

$19. 33
19. 77
19. 66
24. 03
29.55
34. 31
37.13
37. 76

100.0
102.3
101.7
124.3
152.9
177.5
192.1
195.3

$12.40
12.15
12.31
13.71
15. 79
18.48
20. 53
20. 79

100.0
98.0
99.3
110.6
127.3
149. 0
165.6
167.7

$19.33
19.38
17.11
17. 38
17.45
17.73
19. 08
22.32

100.0
100.3
88.5
89.9
90.3
91.7
98.7
115. 5

$12.40
11.91
10.71
9.91
9.33
9.55
10. 55
12.29

100.0
96.0
86.4
79.9
75.2
77.0
85.1
99.1

37. 53
40. 05
39. 78
40. 66
41. 06
41.88
43.12

194.2
207.2
205.8
210.3
212.4
216.7
223.1

21.64
21.98
22. 26
22. 84
22.93
23.46
23. 46

174.5
177.3
179.5
184.2
184.9
189.2
189.2

22. 31
23.91
23.03
23. 85
24.59
25.18
25. 91

115.4
123.7
119.1
123.4
127.2
130.3
134.0

12.87
13.12
12.89
13.40
13. 73
14.11
14.10

103.8
105.8
104.0
108.1
110.7
113.8
113.7

1 Computed from cost-of-living index of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Figure for December, 1914,
constitutes base, 100. December figures used throughout. (See p. 4 for explanation.)
2 Figures not obtainable.




16

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

Table 9.—Money wage rates and real wage rates of bookkeepers, stenographers, and

office clerks in stores, retail and wholesale, 1914 1° 1929, by sex
Real rates 1

Weekly money rates
Male

Female

Male

Female

Year
Relatives
Median of Relatives Median of Relatives
Median
Median
(1914=
(1914=
actual
(1914=
actual
100)
100)
100)
rates
rates

Relatives
(1914=
100)

1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921

$15.70
16. 76
17.89
20. 27
24.42
27.44
31.67
31.24

100.0
106.8
113.9
129.1
155.5
174.8
201.7
199.0

$9.54
10. 01
10. 73
11.97
14.61
17.34
19.18
18.97

100.0
104.9
112.5
125.5
153.1
181.8
201.0
198.8

$15.70
16. 43
15. 57
14.66
14.42
14.18
16.27
18.46

100.0
104.6
99.2
93.4
91.8
90.3
103.6
117.6

$9. 54
9. 81
9. 34
8. 66
8. 63
8. 96
9. 86
11. 21

100.0
102.8
97.9
90.8
90.5
93.9
103.4
117.5

1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929

31.98
33.11
33. 35
33. 88
34. 40
34. 72
35.09

203.7
210.9
212.4
215.8
219.1
221.1
223.5

19. 92
20.40
20.45
20.92
20.97
21.15
21.09

208.8
213.8
214.4
219.3
219.8
221.7
221.1

19. 01
19. 77
19. 31
19.87
20.60
20. 88
21.09

121.1
125.9
123.0
126.6
131.2
133.0
134.3

11.84
12.18
11.84
12.27
12.56
12.72
12.67

124.1
127.7
124.1
128.6
131.7
133.3
132.8.

1 Computed from cost-of-living index of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Figure for December, 1914,
constitutes base, 100. December figures used throughout. (See p. 4 for explanation.)
2 Figures not obtainable.

Table 10.—Ratio of women’s wage rate to that of men,1 bookkeepers, stenographers,

and office clerks in the various employment groups, 1914 to 1929

•

Y ear

1914__________________________________ ________________
1915_
_ ______________________ __________ ___
1916_____
1917........................................................ -_______ ______________
1918-.1919.. _ .
1920
1921. _____________________________________ ___________
1922 2__________________________________ ______ _________
1923-____
1924___________________________________________________
1925 ____ --- _______________________________ -................
1926
1927
1928
1929___________________________________________________
1 Based on medians of weekly money rates.




All indus­ Manufac­
tries
turing

Offices

Stores,
retail and
wholesale

60.2
59.5
58.8
57.8
56.6
57.7
56.9
57.4

60.8
59.4
58.8
57.6
55.5
56.5
55.4
55.4

64.1
61.5
62.6
57.1
53.4
53.9
55.3
55.1

60.8
59.7
60.0
59.1
59.8
63.2:
60.6
60.7

59.4
58.6
58.7
58.7
58.3
58.1
58.1

56.6
55.3
55.6
54.7
54.7
54.2
54.5

57.7
54.9
56.0
56.2
55.8
56.0
54.4

62.3
61.6
61.3
61.7
61.0
60.9
60.1

2 Figures not obtainable.

APPENDIX---- TABLES AND CHARTS

17

Table 11.—Year’s earnings of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in all

industries, 1918 to 1929
Average amount per employee
Total wage
Average
payments by number of
employers
employees

Year

Real earnings 1
Money
earnings
Actual

1918____________________________ _______ _
1919_____________________________ _______
1920
1921______________________________
1922 2________________ ____________ ______
1923
1924___________________________
1925
1926_______________ ____ ________________
1927_______________________________
1928
1929____ ______ ______ ___________________

Relative
(1918=100)

$113, 268, 144
152,690,186
195, 573, 486
163,589, 396

104, 264
116,185
130, 857
110,481

$1,086
1,314
1,495
1,481

$641
679
768
875

100.0
105.9
119.8
136.5

188,694,543
207,015,167
214,608, 478
230,689,854
244,426,090
252,050, 747
282,017, 895

126,470
133, 235
138, 800
146, 255
150, 848
154, 287
168,127

1,492
1,554
1, 546
1, 577
1,620
1,634
1,677

887
928
895
925
970
983
1,008

138.4
144.8
139. 6
144.3
151.3
153.4
157.3

1 Computed from cost-of-living index of XJ. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Figure for December, 1914,
constitutes base, 100. December figures used throughout. (See p. 4 for explanation.)
2 Figures not obtainable.

Table 12.—Year’s earnings of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in

manufacturing, 1918 to 1929
Average amount per employee
Year

Total wage
Average
payments by number of
employers
employees

Real earnings 1
Money
earnings
Actual

1918_____ ____________ ____ _______ ______
1919_____ ___________________ _____ ______
1920____________________________________
1921______________________________
1922 2___________________________________
1923_____________________________ _______
1924__________________________________ _
1925___________________________
1926____
1927___________________ ____ _____
1928___ ____
1929____________________________

Relative
(1918=100)

$72,401, 476
99,616, 384
118,045, 344
89,700, 261

62,155
68, 249 '
73,035
57, 965

$1,165
1,460
1,616
1, 547

$688
755
830
914

100.0
109.7
120.6
132.8

105, 092, 484
108,441, 736
116,531,491
121,169, 678
127,339, 270
126, 630,061
141,959,719

65, 538
65, 963
68, 387
71,195
71, 769
72,041
79,197

1,604
1,644
1, 704
1, 702
1, 774
1, 758
1, 792

954
981
987
998
1,062
1,057
1,077

138.7
142.6
143.5
145.1
154.4
153.6
156.5

i Computed from cost-of-living index of II. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Figure for December, 1914,
constitutes base, 100. December figures used throughout. (See p. 4 for explanation.)
1 Figures not obtainable.




18

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

Table 13.— Year’s earnings of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in

offices, 1918 to 1929
Average amount per employee
Total wage
Average
payments by number of
employers
employees

Year

Real earnings 1
Money
earnings
Actual

1918__________ ____ _____________ ____ _
1919_________________________
1920___________________________
1921______________________________
1922 2.......................................
1923
1924
1925___________________________
1926
1927_____________________________
1928_____________ _____ ____________
1929________________________________

Relative
(1918=100)

$0,644, 321
10,449, 361
16,031, 468
13,944, 327

5,856
8,430
11,001
9, 230

$1,135
1,240
1,457
1,511

$670
641
749
893

100.0
95.7
111.8
133.3

16, 705, 632
20, 420, 468
21, 987, 567
23, 338, 357
26, 848, 769
31, 654, 279
41, 246,320

10,989
12, 691
13, 718
14, 316
16,075
18,207
20,495

1,520
1,609
1,603
1,630
1,670
1,739
2,013

904
961
928
956
1,000
1,046
1,210

134.9
143.4
138.5
142.7
149.3
156.1
180.6

i Computed from cost-of-living index of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Figure for December, 1914,
constitutes base, 100. December figures used throughout. (See p. 4 for explanation.)
! Figures not obtainable.

Table 14.—Year’s earnings of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in

stores, retail and wholesale, 1918 to 1929
Average amount per employee
Year

Total wage
Average
payments by number of
employers employees

Real earnings 1
Money
earnings
Actual

1918____ ______ _______ _______ _
1919____ _______________ ____ ______ _
1920_________________________________
1921________________________________
1922 2,________________
1923_____ __________________________
1924_______________________________
1925
1926____ _________ ______ ________________
1927_____ ____
1928
1929_____________________ ______

Relative
(1918=100)

$12, 767, 466
16,790, 590
22, 754,143
21,379, 923

14,754
16,576
18,161
16,992

$865
1,013
1,253
1,258

$511
524
644
743

100.0
102.5
126.0
145.4

23,712, 779
25,021, 238
25,604, 866
27, 867,178
28,490, 223
28, 233, 953
29,911, 611

19,006
19, 453
20, 221
20,906
21,462
21,689
22,835

1,248
1,286
1,266
1, 333
1, 327
1,302
1, 310

742
768
733
782
795
783
787

145.2
150.3
143.4
153.0
155.6
153.2
154.0

1 Computed from cost-of-living index of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Figure for December, 1914,
constitutes base, 100. December figures used throughout. (See p. 4 for explanation.)
2 Figures not obtainable.




19

APPENDIX—TABLES AND CHARTS
Chart 2.—INCREASE IN YEAR’S REAL EARNINGS OP
BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND
OFFICE
CLERKS, 1918 TO 1929, BY EMPLOYMENT GROUP. (See
Tables 11 to 14)
[1918=100]
U. S. Department of Labor
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial
Women’s Bureau
Relations. Division of Labor Statistics

----- ALL INDUSTRIES
-MANUFACTURING
----- OFFICES
........STORES.

1918 1919 1920 1921 1982 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929
Table 15.— Year’s earnings of bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in all

industries in eight counties, 1929

County

Cuyahoga (Cleveland)
Franklin (Columbus)___
Hamilton (Cincinnati)
Lucas (Toledo)______ ________ _________________
Mahoning (Youngstown). _
Montgomery (Dayton)___________
Stark (Canton)___
Summit (Akron)____

Total wage
Average
payments by
employers employees

$89,737,510
16,969, 739
43,662, 238
19,349, 341
10, 580, 247
16,495, 990
9, 281, 217
22, 713, 566

1 Computed from cost-of-living index of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.




Average amount
per employee
Money
earnings

Heal earn­
ings i

47,831

$1,876

$1,127

28,131
11,857
5,910
9,868
5, 753

1,552
1, 632
1,790
1, 672
1,613

933
981
1,076
1,005
969
1,121

20

Table 16.—Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in all industries, 1914 to 1939, by sex
ALL EMPLOYEES

Year

1914
1915____
1916___________________
1917
1918
1919
1920-...
1921
1922 2
1923
1924
1925___
1926 ...
1927___ ___
1928...... .................. ..............
1929_____

ofestab­
lish­
Rela­
ments Average tives
report­
for
(1914=
ing
year 1
100)

Number employed on 15th of month or nearest representative date

Janu­
ary

Febru­
ary

March

April

May

June

July

August

Per cent
Septem­ October Novem­ Decem­ minimum
employ­
ber
ber
ber
ment is of
maximum

14,149
17, 981
20, 017
21, 624
22, 709
23, 652
27, 241
23, 562

58,889
66,574
79, 360
91,247
104,264
116,185
130', 857
110,481

100.0
113.0
134.8
154.9
177.1
197.3
222.2
187.6

58,799
63, 926
74,114
87,121
99, 427
108, 982
127, 527
116, 749

58,601
63, 973
75,002
87, 753
100,119
109,652
129,878
114,827

58,835
64, 608
76, 666
88, 497
101, 477
110, 757
131, 663
113, 728

59, 208
64, 917
77, 267
89, 440
101, 797
112,013
133,173
111, 968

59,011
65, 523
77, 921
90, 397
103, 295
112, 862
133, 591
111, 706

59,182
66, 506
79, 083
91, 513
105, 384
114, 476
134, 724
110,431

59,273
66,836
80,237
92,339
106,687
117, 523
135,528
109,146

59,184
67, 314
81,180
93,182
107,030
119.914
134,056
108,414

59,024
67, 913
81, 624
93, 060
106, 749
120,076
131,133
107j 555

58,695
68, 361
82,223
93,450
106,260
120,856
128,539
106,849

58,239
68, 959
83, 016
94,137
106, 761
122, 749
126, 213
106, 994

58,612
70,057
83, 988
94, 070
106, 223
124, 364
124, 258
107, 409

98.3
91.2
88.2
92.5
92.9
87.6
91.7
91.5

25, 904
30, 439
33, 443
36; 004
38, 509
39, 979
42; 216

126, 470
133; 235
138, 800
146,255
150,848
154,287
168,127

214.8
226.2
235. 7
248.4
256.2
262.0
285.5

121,208
132, 263
135, 487
142,501
148, 058
149,557
162,332

122,166
132,726
136,197
142, 911
148, 545
150, 289
163,553

123, 829
133,194
136, 712
144, 033
149, 241
151, 266
164, 791

124,678
133, 934
137, 220
144, 677
150, 007
152,161
166, 209

126, 076
133, 320
137, 593
145, 599
150, 339
152, 640
167,267

127, 599 128,644
132, 966 133,639
138, 332 139,765
146, 274 147,515
151, 285 151,823
154,101 155,284
168,657 '170, 388

128,815
133,479
140,287
147,970
152,060
156,348
171, 385

128, 529
133, 435
140, 289
148, 038
152, 329
156,788
171, 296

128, 306
132,991
140,570
148,014
151,858
156,968
170,786

128, 538
133, 091
141, 239
148, 586
151,897
157,415
170,847

129, 248
133, 781
141, 913
148, 944
152, 733
158, 626
170, 007

93.8
98.8
95.5
95.7
96.9
94.3
94.7

MALES
1914
1915
1916______ ______ ______
1917___________________
1918
1919
1920
1921

14,149
17, 981
20, 017
21, 624
22, 709
23, 652
27, 241
23,562

35, 050
39, 052
46,352
51, 559
53,996
58, 848
66, 545
55, 803

100.0
111.4
132.2
147. 1
154.1
167.9
189.9
159.2

34,864
37,284
43,096
49, 668
54,128
53, 778
65, 586
59, 388

34,663
37,274
43, 667
50,151
54,227
54, 419
66. 605
58, 340

34, 750
37, 644
44, 714
50,589
54,850
55,255
67,448
57, 621

35,200
37,852
44, 989
51, 089
54,512
56,001
68, 081
56,732

35,116
38, 299
45, 463
51,397
55,032
56, 746
68, 244
56,328

35, 340
39,009
46, 298
52,062
55,512
57, 935
68, 561
55,624

35, 499
39,418
47,121
52, 602
55,392
59, 689
68,957
54,965

35, 521
39,807
47, 808
52, 764
54,770
61, 670
68, 208
54; 722

35,293
40,024
47,786
52,290
53,269
61, 486
66, 382
54, 241

34,984
40, 297
48, 031
52, 015
52,068
61, 933
64, 676
53,877

34, 581
40,585
48,400
52,130
52,133
63, 094
63, 407
53, 925

34, 790
41, 127
48, 856
51, 949
52,056
64, 169
62,385
53,871

97.4
90.6
88.2
94.1
93.8
83.8
90.5
90.7

1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929

25, 904
30, 439
33, 443
36,004
38, 509
39, 979
42. 216

63,997
67, 456
69, 855
73, 247
75,006
77, 341
83, 257

182.6
192.5
199.3
209.0
214.0
220.7
237.5

61,217
67,089
68.180
71,496
73,477
74, 990
80, 389

61, 785
67, 367
68, 407
71,815
73,869
75, 318
81, 017

62,712
67, 464
68, 699
72,284
74,122
75, 885
81, 701

63,104
67, 810
68. 965
72, 627
74, 542
76, 219
82, 251

63, 693
67, 459
69, 192
73, 060
74, 779
76, 472
82, 786

64, 432
67, 282
69, 770
73, 399
75,309
77, 338
83, 600

65,154
67, 784
70, 589
73, 869
75, 582
77, 944
84, 488

65, 390
67, 798
70,877
74, 208
75, 824
78, 494
85,127

65,134
67,556
70,813
74,179
75,910
78,606
84, 935

65,065
67, 292
70,816
73, 861
75,470
78,690
84,534

65,067
67, 218
70, 982
74, 072
75, 465
78, 979
84,336

65, 216
67, 354
70, 967
74, 091
75, 724
79,162
83, 916

93.6
98.9
96.1
96.3
96.8
94.7
94.4




BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

Number of em­
ployees

FEMALES




14,149
17, 981
20, 017
21, 624
22, 709
23, 652
27,241
23, 562

23, 838
27, 523
33,008
39,688
50,269
57, 337
64, 312
54, 678

100.0
115. 5
138.5
166.5
210.9
240.5
269.8
229.4

23, 935
26, 642
31, 018
37, 453
45, 299
55, 204
61, 941
57,361

23, 938
26, 699
31, 335
37, 602
45, 892
55, 233
63, 273
56,487

24,085
26, 964
31, 952
37, 908
46, 627
55, 502
64, 215
56,107

24, 008
27, 065
32, 278
38, 351
47,285
56, 012
65, 092
55, 236

23,895
27, 224
32, 458
39, 000
48, 227
56,116
65, 347
55, 378

23,842
27, 497
32, 785
39,451
49,872
56, 541
66,163
54, 807

23, 774
27, 418
33, 116
39, 737
51,295
57, 834
66, 571
54,181

23, 663
27, 507
33, 372
40, 418
52, 260
58,244
65,848
53,692

23, 731
27, 889
33,838
40, 770
53, 480
58, 590
64, 751
53, 314

23, 711
28 064
34, 192
41, 435
54, 192
58, 923
63, 863
52, 972

23, 658
28, 374
34, 616
42,007
54,628
59, 655
62, 806
53,069

23, 822
28, 930
35,132
42, 121
54,167
60, 195
61, 873
53, 538

98.2
92.1
88.3
88.9
82.9
91.7
92.9
92.3

25,904
30, 439
33, 443
36,004
38, 509
39, 979
42,216

62, 472
65, 779
68,946
73,008
75, 842
76, 946
84, 870

262.1
275.9
289.2
306.3
318.2
322.8
356.0

59,991
65, 174
67, 307
71, 005
74, 581
74, 567
81, 943

60, 381
65, 359
67, 790
71,096
74, 676
74, 971
82, 536

61,117
65, 730
68, 013
71, 749
75, 119
75. 381
83, 090

61, 574
66,124
68, 255
72, 050
75, 465
75, 942
83, 958

62, 383
65, 861
68, 401
72, 539
75, 560
76, 168
84,481

63,167
65, 684
68, 562
72,875
75, 976
76,763
85,057

63, 490
65,855
69,176
73, 646
76, 241
77, 340
85, 900

63, 425
65,681
69, 410
73, 762
76,236
77, 854
86, 258

63, 395
65, 879
69, 476
73, 859
76, 419
78,182
86, 361

63, 241
65, 699
69, 754
74, 153
76, 388
78. 278
86, 252

63, 471
65, 873
70, 257
74, 514
76, 432
78, 436
86, 511

64, 032
66, 427
70, 946
74, 853
77, 009
79, 464
86, 091

93.7
98.1
94.9
94.9
96:8
93.8
94.7

I Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

’ Figures not obtainable.

A PPEN D IX — TABLES AND CHARTS

1914
1915.__________________
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921.......................................
1922 2
1923
1924 _________________
1925
1926
1927...________________
1928
1929

bO

22

U. S. Department of Labor
Women’s Bureau
' Monthly average of 1914-100
158,889 fU5,050 F.g3,838




(See Table 16)

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

CHART 3.—TREND OF EMPLOYMENT OF BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFFICE CLERKS IN ALL INDUSTRIES, 1914 TO 1929, BY SEX

Chart 4.—TREND OF EMPLOYMENT OF BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFFICE CLERKS IN MANUFACTURING, 1914 TO 1929, B”i SEX
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

Monthly average <*1914*100
T 35,576 K22,22i EI3.35Z




J i f£i

APPENDIX — TABLES AND CHARTS

(See Table 17)
U. S. Department of Labor
Women’s Bureau -

to

00

24

Table

17.—Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in all manufacturing, 1914 1° 1929, by sex
ALL EMPLOYEES

1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921............... .......................
1922 2
1923
1924
1925____________ _____
1926
1927
1928
1929____________ _____ -

Number employed on 15th of month or nearest representative date

Janu­
ary

Febru­
ary

March

April

May

June

July

August

Per cent
minimum
employ­
Septem­ October Novem­ Decem­ ment is of
ber
ber
maximum
ber

6, 749
7,884
8, 299
8,600
8,858
9, Oil
9, 652
8,632

35,576
41,512
49, 079
55, 741
62,155
68, 249
73, 035
57, 965

100.0
116.7
138.0
156.7
174.7
191.8
205.3
162.9

35,661
39,309
45,322
52,865
58, 750
64,064
72, 282
62,858

35, 453
39, 730
46, 074
53, 359
59, 485
64, 355
74, 244
61, 417

35,633
40,199
47, 292
53, 936
60, 500
65,003
75,234
60,504

35,809
40, 288
47, 649
54, 519
60, 612
65, 647
76, 012
59, 477

35,658
40, 732
48, 266
55, 270
61, 518
65,949
76, 080
58,782

35,795
41,307
49,076
55,871
62, 637
66,872
76, 563
57,674

36, 031
41,824
49,817
56, 479
63, 488
68, 740
76,396
56, 584

35,944
42,215
50,589
57,207
63, 983
70, 616
74,699
56,310

35,654
42, 595
50, 573
57, 086
63, 795
70, 453
72, 306
55, 731

35, 344
42, 936
50,881
57, 273
63, 623
71, 254
69, 814
55, 381

34,937
43, 297
51, 402
57,700
64,093
72, 592
67, 405
55,445

34,993
43, 717
52, 002
57, 332
63, 371
73,444
65, 385
55, 417

97.0
89.9
87.2
91.6
91.7
87.2
85.4
88.1

8,701
9,125
9, 502
9,704
9,880
9,937
10, 035

65, 538
65, 963
68, 387
71,195
71, 769
72,041
79,197

184.2
185.4
192.2
200.1
201.7
202.5
222.6

62,685
65,984
66, 909
69, 464
70, 673
69, 999
76, 631

63, 486
66,279
67, 275
69,840
71,172
70,325
77,417

64, 558
66, 365
67, 610
70, 433
71,443
70, 751
78, 036

65,190
66, 653
67, 614
70, 598
71, 697
71,192
78, 381

65, 767
66,105
67, 793
71,005
71, 772
71,284
78,807

66,429
65, 585
68, 082
71,134
72, 062
71, 906
79, 578

66, 770
65, 941
68, 755
71, 594
72,208
72, 537
80,467

66,661
65,813
68,945
71,866
72,083
73, 084
80,943

66,443
65, 621
69, 219
71,904
72,420
73, 300
80,643

66,245
65, 695
69,278
72,074
71,998
73,376
80,400

66, 041
65, 769
69, 666
72, 423
71,860
73, 241
80,048

66,177
65, 743
69,500
72, 010
71,836
73,495
79,008

93.9
98.4
96.0
95.9
97.6
95.2
94.7

MALES
1914.......................................
1915
1916___________________
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
19222 .
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929.................... ..................




6,749
7,884
8,299
8,600
8,858
9, Oil
9,652
8,632

22, 224
26,150
30, 959
34, 306
35, 315
38, 489
41, 863
32, 713

100.0
J17.7
139.3
154.4
158.9
173.2
188.4
147.2

22,213
24, 703
28,492
32,819
34,991
35, 395
41, 980
35,899

22,024
24,949
29, 007
33,188
35, 200
35, 759
42,840
34; 986

22,088
25,186
29, 756
33, 558
35, 847
36, 257
43, 380
34, 386

22, 417
25, 253
29,948
33, 899
35, 478
36, 707
43, 765
33, 553

22,321
25,557
30, 448
34,123
35,801
37,003
43,816
33,200

22,439
26,036
31,017
34, 616
36,154
37, 588
43,823
32,418

22, 616
26, 467
31, 595
35, 010
36,161
38, 747
43, 767
31, 780

22,590
26, 717
32,131
35,203
35, 964
40, 303
42,806
31,592

22,337
26,892
31,945
34, 897
35,054
40,034
41,188
31,300

22,067
27,114
32, 054
34, 749
34,227
40,464
39, 616
31,129

21,691
27,302
32,360
34,820
34,469
41,414
38,149
31,196

21,881
27,630
32, 752
34, 785
34, 438
42,194
37,230
31,121

95.9
89.4
87.0
93.2
94.7
83.9
85.0
86.7

8,701
9,125
9, 502
9, 704
9,880
9,937
10,035

37, 379
37, 743
38, 851
40, 223
40,423
41,090
44,428

168.2
169.8
174.8
181.0
181.9
184.9
199.9

35, 775
37,855
38,028
39, 349
39,825
40,003
42,911

36,197
37,992
38, 237
39, 553
40,099
40,131
43,405

36, 846
37, 983
38, 446
39, 806
40,194
40, 430
43, 760

37,188
38, 247
38, 483
39, 997
40,406
40, 623
44,004

37,457
37,882
38,599
40,235
40,466
40,663
44,194

37,842
37, 507
38,805
40, 221
40, 676
40,989
44, 703

38,085
37,802
39, 061
40, 495
40,678
41,365
45,234

38,042
37,683
39, 210
40, 660
40, 661
41, 690
45, 422

37,874
37, 607
39, 222
40,619
40,714
41, 750
45, 266

37, 797
37,452
39,327
40,490
40,461
41,781
45, Oil

37,685
37, 429
39, 446
40,673
40, 403
41, 776
44,811

37, 755
37,478
39, 345
40, 574
40,492
41,873
44,413

93.9
97.9
96.4
96.7
97.8
95.5
94.5

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

Year

Number of em­
ployees
Number
ofestab­
lish­
Rela­
ments Average tives
for
report­
(1914=
year 1
ing
100)

FEMALES




6,749
7,884
8,299
8,600
8,858
9, Oil
9,652
8, 632

13, 352
15, 362
18,120
21, 436
26,839
29, 760
31,172
25, 252

100.0
115.1
135. 7
160.5
201.0
222.9
233.5
189.1

13, 448
14, 606
16,830
20, 046
23, 759
28, 669
30, 302
26, 959

13,429
14, 781
17,067
20,171
24,285
28, 596
31,404
26, 431

13,545
15,013
17, 536
20,378
24,653
28,746
31,854
26,118

13,392
15,035
17, 701
20, 620
25,134
28,940
32, 247
25,924

13,337
15,175
17,818
21,147
25, 717
28,946
32, 264
25,582

13,356
15, 271
18,059
21, 255
26,483
29, 284
32, 740
25, 256

13, 415
15, 357
18,222
21, 469
27, 327
29, 993
32, 629
24,804

13,354
15,498
18, 458
22,004
28, 019
30, 313
31,893
24,718

13,317
15, 703
18,628
22,189
28, 741
30, 419
31,118
24,431

13,277
15,822
18,827
22, 524
29, 396
30, 790
30,198
24, 252

13,246
15,995
19,042
22,880
29,624
31,178
29, 256
24,249

13,112
16, 087
19, 250
22, 547
28, 933
31, 250
28,155
24,296

96.8
90.8
87.4
87.6
80.2
91.5
86.0
89.9

8,701
9,125
9,502
9, 704
9,880
9,937
10,035

28,159
28,220
29, 536
30, 973
31, 346
30, 951
34, 769

210.9
211.4
221.2
232.0
234.8
231.8
260.4

26,910
28,129
28,881
30,115
30,848
29,996
33, 720

27, 289
28, 287
29,038
30,287
31,073
30,194
34,012

27, 712
28, 382
29,164
30, 627
31,249
30, 321
34,276

28,002
28,406
29,131
30, 601
31,291
30, 569
34, 377

28, 310
28, 223
29,194
30, 770
31,306
30, 621
34, 613

28, 587
28, 078
29, 277
30,913
31,386
30, 917
34,875

28,685
28,139
29,694
31,099
31, 530
31,172
35, 233

28,619
28,130
29,735
31,206
31, 422
31, 394
35, 521

28,569
28,088
29, 997
31, 285
31, 706
31, 550
35, 377

28,448
28,169
29,951
31, 584
31, 537
31, 595
35,389

28, 356
28, 340
30, 220
31, 750
31,457
31,465
35,237

28,422
28, 265
30,155
31,436
31, 344
31, 622
34, 595

93.8
98.8
95.6
94.9
97.3
94.9
94.9

1 Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

a Figures not obtainable.

APPENDIX — TABLES AND C H A R T S

1914............... ......... .............
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922 2___ ________ ______
1923
1924_____________ ____
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929................... .................

to

Or

26

Table 18.—Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in offices,1 1914 to 1929, by sex
ALL EMPLOYEES

1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929

235
289
369
488
515
594
803
676
722
779
982
1,088
1,252
1,403
1,601
1,826

3,816
4,151
5,389
7,537
5,856
8,430
11,001
9,230
9,361
10,989
12,691
13, 718
14,316
16,075
18, 207
20,495

100.0
108.8
141.2
197.5
153.5
220.9
288.3
241.9
245.3
288.0
332.6
359.5
375.2
421.3
477.1
537.1

Number employed on 15th of month or nearest representative date
Per cent
minimum
employ­
Septem­ October Novem­ Decem­ ment is of
ber
ber
maximum
ber

Janu­
ary

Febru­
ary

March

April

May

June

July

August

3,819
4,071
5,103
7, 324
5, 768
7,630
10, 749
9,736
8,806
10, 520
12, 440
13, 252
13,847
15,639
17,469
19,662

3,854
4,100
5,194
7, 450
5,771
7,822
10,855
9,586
9,041
10, 621
12, 562
13, 529
13, 860
15, 753
17,683
19,844

3,880
4,138
5,310
7,456
5,809
7,995
11,015
9,570
9,109
10, 788
12, 637
13, 459
14,105
15, 943
17, 855
19, 930

3,845
4,139
5,290
7,481
5,834
8,061
11,075
9,476
9,279
10,888
12, 728
13, 508
14,189
16,031
17,882
20,096

3,845
4,124
5,242
7,433
5,858
8,179
11,062
9,400
9, 299
11, 096
12,695
13, 527
14, 213
15, 956
18,029
20,349

3,819
4,145
5,266
7,587
5,928
8, 379
11,144
9,320
9, 373
11,177
12, 695
13,600
14, 296
16, 201
18,263
20, 511

3, 790
4,122
5,428
7,614
6, 016
8, 754
11,323
9,169
9, 553
11,180
12, 755
13,943
14, 502
16,200
18, 443
20, 718

3,809
4,157
5, 497
7,619
5, 987
8,820
11, 263
8,971
9, 556
11,219
12,747
14,033
14, 598
16,374
18,594
20, 951

3,790
4,189
5,581
7,587
5, 903
8, 868
11,007
8,917
9,572
11,231
12, 736
13, 860
14, 629
16, 285
18, 568
20, 921

3,790
4,190
5,561
7,615
5, 790
8,850
10,984
8,834
9,567
10,975
12,771
13,920
14,495
16,232
18,422
20,893

3,790
4, 213
5, 577
7,644
5, 796
8,875
10,833
8,855
9,601
11,105
12, 733
13,931
14, 480
16,160
18, 594
20, 950

3, 763
4,219
5,619
7,634
5,810
8, 925
10, 708
8, 927
9, 580
11,069
12, 789
14, 055
14,574
16,125
18,681
21,109

97.0
96.5
90.8
95.8
95.9
85.5
94.6
90.7
91.7
93.7
97.3
94.3
94.7
95.5
93.5
93.1

2,411
2,439
3,042
4,138
2,680
3,479
4,812
4,182
4, 068
4, 934
5,649
6,104
6, 383
7,125
8,168
9,131

2, 407
2,464
3,062
4,192
2,654
3,578
4, 823
4,173
4,114
4, 931
5, 664
6,183
6, 448
7,188
8,319
9,252

2,393
2,427
3,157
4, 220
2,626
3,825
4,891
4.084
4,192
5,002
5,710
6,432
6, 571
7,158
8, 445
9,321

2,396
2,442
3,189
4,171
2,606
3,912
4,929
4,020
4,199
4,985
5, 719
6, 446
6, COO
7, 283
8, 493
9,516

2, 391
2,463
3, 223
4,095
2,485
3,884
4,841
3,984
4,185
5,019
5,671
6,450
6,625
7,229
8,471
9,494

2,401
2,487
3,219
4,076
2,422
3,898
4,811
3,935
4,164
4,862
5,714
6,455
6,555
7,219
8,411
9,506

2,405
2, 501
3,223
4,090
2,408
3,913
4, 779
3,918
4,156
4,952
5,700
6,455
6, 539
7,201
8, 550
9,514

2,384
2,492
3, 224
4,054
2,431
3, 928
4,707
3,956
4,153
4, 909
5,746
6,516
6,547
7,153
8, 613
9, 572

97.9
96.3
91.5
96.1
88.6
81.8
95.5
90.9
89.1
93.0
96.2
91.5
93.7
95.2
92.0
92.5

MALES
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924..______________ _.
1925
1926
1927
1928
1929




235
289
369
488
515
594
803
676
722
779
982
1,088
1, 252
1,403
1,601
1,826

2,405
2,452
3,123
4,143
2,595
3,643
4,809
4,109
4,079
4,879
5,665
6,259
6,451
7,136
8, 299
9, 243

100.0
102.0
129.9
172.3
107.9
151.5
200.0
170.9
169.6
202.9
235.6
260.2
268.2
296.7
345.1
384.3

2,405
2, 430
2,951
4,128
2, 717
3,214
4, 723
4,309
3,743
4,666
5,527
5,962
6,209
6, 934
7, 927
8, 855

2,415
2,409
3,026
4,167
2,698
3, 297
4,744
4,268
3,935
4, 687
5, 596
5, 994
6,265
6,983
8,032
8,904

2,434
2,431
3,103
4,182
2,705
3,410
4, 818
4, 246
3, 979
4, 772
5,638
6,040
6,317
7,066
8,095
8,909

2, 419
2, 443
3,055
4, 204
2,703
3,380
4,829
4,228
4, 065
4, 826
5,650
6,068
6,353
7, 090
8, 068
8, 936

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

Year

Number of em­
ployees
Number
ofestab­
lish­
ments Average Rela­
tives
report­
for
(1914=
ing
year2
100)

FEMALES

_______________
--______________
____ ____
..

1919
1920
1921
1922
1923

. . ___
__________ - - .. ..............- ___

1926
1927
1928
1929

-

____________ _
_______
____________
_________

.




1

235
289
369
488
515
594
803
676
722
779
982
1,088
1,252
1,403
1, 601
1,826

1,411
1, 698
2,266
3, 394
3,261
4,787
6,193
5,121
5, 282
6,110
7,025
7,459
7,865
8,939
9,908
11,252

100.0
120.3
160.6
240.5
231.1
339.3
438.9
362.9
374.3
433.0
497.9
528.6
557.4
633.5
702.2
797.4

1,414
1,641
2,152
3,196
3,051
4,416
6,026
5,427
5,063
5,854
6,913
7,290
7,638
8,705
9,542
10,807

1,439
1,691
2,168
3,283
3,073
4, 525
6, 111
5,318
5,106
5, 934
6, 966
7,535
7, 595
8, 770
9,651
10,940

1,446
1,707
2, 207
3, 274
3,104
4,585
6,197
5,324
5,130
6,016
6, 999
7,419
7,788
8,877
9, 760
11,021

1,426
1,696
2, 235
3,277
3,131
4,681
6, 246
5, 248
5,214
6,062
7, 078
7,440
7,836
8,941
9, 814
11,160

In 1914 to 1924, classified in Trade; transferred to Service in 1925.

1,434
1,685
2, 200
3,295
3,178
4, 700
6,250
5,218
5,231
6,162
7,046
7,423
7,830
8,831
9,861
11,218

1,412
1, b&i
2,204
3, 395

3,274
4,801
6,321
5,147
5, 259
6,246
7,031
7,417
7,848
9,013
9,944
11,259

1,397
1, 695
2, 271
3,394
3,390
4,929
6,432
5,085
5,361
6,178
7,045
7,611
7,931
9,042
9, 998
11,397

1,413
1,715
2,308
3,448
3,381
4, 908
6,334
4,951
5,357
6,234
7,028
7,587
7,998
9,091
10,101
11,435

1,399
1, 726
2,358
3, 492
3,418
4,984
6,166
4,933
5,387
6, 212
7,065
7,410
8,004
9, 056
10, 097
11,427

1,389
1,703
2,342
3, 539
3,368
4,952
6,173
4,899
5,403
6,113
7,057
7,465
7,940
9,013
10, on
11,387

1,385
1,712
2,354
3, 554
3,388
4,962
6,054
4, 937
5,445
6,153
7,033
7,476
7,941
8,959
10,044
11,436

2 Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

1,379
1,727
2, 395
3,580
3, 379
4, 997
6,001
4,971
5,427
7,043
7,539
8,027
8, 972
10,068
11,537

95.4
95.0
89.9
89.3
89.3
88.4
93.3
93.0
93.7
97.7
96.1
94.6
95.8
93.7

APPENDIX — TABLES AND CHARTS

1914
1915
1916
1917

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO




28

Chart 5.—TREND OF EMPLOYMENT OF BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFFICE CLERKS IN OFFICES, 1914 TO
1929, BY SEX
(See Table 18)
[Scale reduced because of extreme fluctuation]
TJ. S. Department of Labor
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Women’s Bureau
Division of Labor Statistics
Month!/ average or 1914 ■ 100
T 3,816 M2.405 El,411

&£ £

1 3 X £ £

Monthly averaqe of 1914-100




APPENDIX — TABLES AND CHARTS

CHART 6—TREND OF EMPLOYMENT OF BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFEICE CLERKS IN STORES, 1914 TO 1929, BY SEX (See Table 19)
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U. S. Department of Labor
Women’s Bureau

to

CD

19.—Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in stores, retail and wholesale, 1914 to 1929, by sex

30

Table

ALL EMPLOYEES

1914...
1915...
1916...
1917...
1918...
1919...
1920...
1921._.
1922 2
1923—
1924...
1925...
1926...
1927...
1928._.
1929—

Number employed on 15th of month or nearest representative date
Per cent

•minimum

Febru­
ary

March

April

May

June

July

August

11, 741
10,655
12, 315
13, 670
14,494
15,818
17, 569
17,258

11, 730
10, 657
12,468
13, 720
14, 645
15, 937
17, 771
17,248

11, 799
10, 703
12,506
13,803
14,468
16,137
17,994
17,105

11,646
10, 752
12,472
13,837
14, 612
16,233
18, 032
16, 978

11,624
10, 780
12,490
13, 901
14, 672
16, 302
18,088
16, 864

11,431
10, 753
12, 585
14, 009
14, 701
16,702
18, 403
16,810

11,392
10, 738
12, 579
14, 008
14, 773
16, 844
18,459
16, 663

11,614
10,907
12, 751
14,138
14, 972
17,017
18, 455
16, 710

11,678
11,006
12,965
14,371
14,828
17,039
18,323
16,661

11,689
11,183
13,214
14,527
14, 951
17, 340
18, 556
16, 789

12,160
11, 573
13, 514
14, 849
15, 340
17, 753
18, 742
17,209

93.7
92.1
91.1
92.1
94.3
89.0
93.6
94.6

18,459
19, 231

18,662
19, 420
20,065
20,604
21,151
21, 391
22, 320

18, 521
19, 579
20,198
20, 661
21,252
21, 397
22, 626

18, 759
19, 356
20,177
20, 711
21,227
21,377
22, 616

18, 959
19, 263
20,147
20,744
21, 291
21, 415
22, 496

19,189
19, 305
19, 983
20, 917
21, 321
21, 456
22, 772

19,143
19,275
20,061
20,832
21, 346
21, 573

19,197
19,393
21,036
21,645
21,954
23,290

19, 519
19, 537
20, 532
21, 277
21, 790
22, 255
23, 530

20, 056
20,187

22, 888

19,183
19, 603
20,029
20, 937
21, 328
21, 745
23,133

21,947
22,735
23,115
23,944

91.9
95.3
94.2
93.5
93.0
91.9
92.3

2,708
3,157
3,366
3,695
4,021
4,271
4,932
4, 218

11,688

100.0

10,871
12,681
14, 052
14,754
16, 576
18,161
16, 992

93.0
108.5
126.2
141.8
155.4
145.4

11, 754
10, 742
12,312
13, 795
14, 597
15, 793
17,543
17,608

4,634
5, 666
6,107
6, 603
7,195
7,485
8,061

19,006
19,453
20,221
20,906
21,462
21, 689
22, 835

162.6
166.4
173.0
178.9
183.6
185.6
195.4

18, 428
19, 287
20,036
20, 680
21, 315
21, 344
22,300

120.2

employ­
Septem­ October Novem­ Decem­ ment is of
ber
ber
ber
maximum

Janu­
ary

20,002

20, 526
21,141
21,248
22,110

20,200

21, 222

MALES
1914.1915..
1916..
1917..
1918..
1919..
1920..
1921..
1922 2
1923—
1924­
19251926__
1927..
1928­
1929..




2,708
3,157
3,366
3,695
4, 021
4, 271
4,932
4, 218

5, 562
4,470
5, 007
5, 204
4, 751
5, 212
5,626
5,703

100.0
80.4
90.0
93.6
85.4
93.7
101.2
102.5

5,586
4, 370
4, 863
5,139
4, 990
4, 778
5,395
5,906

5,569
4,336
4, 877
5,138
4, 946
4, 826
5, 391
5,791

5,532
4, 372
4, 993
5,157
4, 949
4, 920
5,489
5,752

5, 570
4,387
4,980
5,181
4,886
5.005
5,551
5,710

5, 517
4,420
4,897
5,181
4,943
5,091
5,546
5,676

5, 540
4, 438
4, 903
5,184
4,795
5,192
5,605
5,659

5, 497
4,461
4, 997
5, 222
4, 670
5, 303
5,751
5,666

5, 496
4,507
5,038
5,223
4, 649
5, 397
5,786
5,634

5,570
4, 531
5,052
5,205
4, 568
5,415
5,755
5,655

5,566
4, 550
5,123
5, 248
4,509
5,461
5,623
5,637

5, 573
4,595
5,155
5,276
4,502
5,546
5,847
5, 660

5,729
4, 678
5, 211
5,300
4, 604
5, 609
5, 772
5,685

95.9
92.7
93.3
96.9
90.2
85.2
92.2
95.4

5, 666
6,107
6, 603
7,195
7,485
8,061

6,370
6,427
6,841
6,791
6,828
7,127

110.5
114.5
115.6
123.0
122.1
122.8
128.1

5,926
6, 301
6,388
6,747
6,723
6, 686
6,929

5, 996
6, 302
6, 371
6,732
6,722
6,661
6,899

6,108
6,368
6,381
6,769
6,741
6,706
6,985

6,063
6,357
6,422
6, 751
6,765
6, 721
7, 075

6,090
6,315
6, 422
6,749
6,744
6,739
7,077

6,118
6,315
6,436
6, 778
6,758
6, 771
7,086

6,177
6,338
6,391
6,858
6,770
6,813
7,175

6,219
6, 370
6,405
6,879
6,795
6,851
7,229

6, 216
6, 380
6, 426
6,902
6,798
6, 911
7, 258

6,228
6,417
6,436
6,922
6,856
6,949
7,280

6,283
6,451
6, 498
6,963
6,859
7, 015
7,266

6, 347
6, 522
6, 542
7,038
6, 965
7,116
7,266

93.4
96.6
97.4
95.7
96.5
93.6
94.8

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

Year

Number of em­
ployees
Number
of estab­
lish­
ments Average Rela­
tives
report­
for
(1914=
ing
year 1
100)

FEMALES
2 708
1915__________ _________
1916
1917
1918
1920
1921

4, 218

6,126
6 400
8 848
10' 003
11, 364
12, 535
11, 289

13 795
14, 065

1926
1927
1929

t




8^ 061

15, 708

6,168
6, 372
7,449
8' 656
9'607
11, 015
12,148
11, 702

6,172
6, 319
7,438
8,532
9,548
10,992
12,178
11,467

6,198
6,285
7,475
8,563
9,696
11, 017
12,282
11,496

6,229
6,316
7,526
8,622
9,582
11,.132
12,443
11, 395

6,129
6,332
7,575
8,656
9,669
11,142
12,486
11,302

6,084
6,342
7,587
8, 717
9, 877
11,110
12,483
11, 205

5,934
6,292
7,588
8,787
10, 031
11, 399
12,652
11,144

5,896
6, 231
7,541
8,785
10,124
11,447
12, 673
11, 029

6,044
6,376
7,699
8,933
10,404
11, 602
12, 700
11,055

6,112
6, 456
7,842
9,123
10, 319
11, 578
12, 700
11,024

6,116
6, 588
8, 059
9,251
10,449
11, 794
12, 709
11,129

6,431
6, 895
8, 303
9, 549
10, 736
12,144
12, 970
11, 524

209.9
213.6
225. 2
229. 6
239. 5
242. 6
256.4

12, 502
12, 986
13, 648
13' 933
14' 592
1< 658
15, 371

12,463
12,554
13,052
12,929
13,684
13, 631
13, 835
13,794
14,419
14,410
14, 587 . 14,685
15,335
15,211

12,458
13, 222
13, 776
13, 910
14,487
14, 676
15, 551

12, 669
13,041
13, 755
13,962
14,483
14,638
15,539

12, 841
12, 948
13, 711
13, 966
14, 533
14,644
15, 410

12, 967
13, 592
14,059
14, 551
14, 643
15,597

12, 905
13, 656
13, 953
14, 551
14, 722
15, 659

13, 223
13, 603
14, 035
14, 530
14,834
15,875

12, 976
13,764
14,114
14, 789
15,005
16,010

13,086
14, 034
14, 314
14, 931
15, 240
16, 264

13, b65
14,680
14, 909
15, 770
15, 999
16, 678

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

3 Figures not obtainable.

91.7
90. 4
89. 6

APPENDIX — TABLES AND CHARTS

12,859
1924

100.0
104. 5
125.3
144.4
163.3
185. 5
204. 6
184.3

CO

PUBLICATIONS OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU
[Any of these bulletins still available will be sent free of charge upon request]

*No.
*No.
No.
No.
*No.
No.
No.
*No.
*No.
*No.

1. Proposed Employment of Women During the War in the Industries of
Niagara Falls, N. Y. 16 pp. 1918.
2. Labor Laws for Women in Industry in Indiana. 29 pp. 1919.
3. Standards for the Employment of Women in Industry. 8 pp. Fourth
ed., 1928.
4. Wages of Candy Makers in Philadelphia in 1919. 46 pp. 1919.
5. The Eight-Hour Day in Federal and State Legislation. 19 pp. 1919.
6. The Employment of Women in Hazardous Industries in the United
States. 8 pp. 1921.
7. Night-Work Laws in the United States. (1919) 4 pp. 1920.
8. Women in the Government Service. 37 pp. 1920.
9. Home Work in Bridgeport, Conn. 35 pp. 1920.
10. Hours and Conditions of Work for Women in Industry in Virginia.
32 pp.

1920.

No. 11. Women Street Car Conductors and Ticket Agents. 90 pp. 1921.
*No. 12. The New Position of Women in American Industry. 158 pp. 1920.
*No. 13. Industrial Opportunities and Training for Women and Girls. 48 pp.
1921.
*No. 14. A Physiological Basis for the Shorter Working Day for Women. 20
pp. 1921.
No. 15. Some Effects of Legislation Limiting Hours of Work for Women. 26
pp. 1921.
No. 16. (See Bulletin 63.)
No. 17. Women’s Wages in Kansas. 104 pp. 1921.
No. 18. Health Problems of Women in Industry. 6 pp. Revised, 1931.
No. 19. Iowa Women in Industry. 73 pp. 1922.
*No. 20. Negro Women in Industry. 65 pp. 1922.
No. 21. Women in Rhode Island Industries. 73 pp. 1922.
*No. 22. Women in Georgia Industries. 89 pp. 1922.
No. 23. The Family Status of Breadwinning Women. 43 pp. 1922.
No. 24. Women in Maryland Industries. 96 pp. 1922.
No. 25. Women in the Candy Industry in Chicago and St. Louis. 72 pp. 1923.
No. 26. Women in Arkansas Industries. 86 pp. 1923.
No. 27. The Occupational Progress of Women. 37 pp. 1922.
No. 28. Women’s Contributions in the Field of Invention. 51 pp. 1923.
No. 29. Women in Kentucky Industries. 114 pp. 1923.
No. 30. The Share of Wage-Earning Women in Family Support. 170 pp.
1923.
No. 31. What Industry Means to Women Workers. 10 pp. 1923.
No. 32. Women in South Carolina Industries. 128 pp. 1923.
No. 33. Proceedings of the Women’s Industrial Conference. 190 pp. 1923.
No. 34. Women in Alabama Industries. 86 pp. 1924.
No. 35. Women in Missouri Industries. 127 pp. 1924.
No. 36. Radio Talks on Women in Industry. 34 pp. 1924.
No. 37. Women in New Jersey Industries. * 99 pp. 1924.
No. 38. Married Women in Industry. 8 pp. 1924.
No. 39. Domestic Workers and Their Employment Relations. 87 pp. 1924.
No. 40. (See Bulletin 63.)
No. 41. Family Status of Breadwinning Women in Four Selected Cities. 145
pp. 1925.
No. 42. List of References on Minimum Wage for Women in the United States
and Canada. 42 pp. 1925.
No. 43. Standard and Scheduled Hours of Work for Women in Industry. 68
pp. 1925.
No. 44. Women in Ohio Industries. 137 pp. 1925.
* Supply exhausted.

32




PUBLICATIONS OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU

33

No. 43. Home Environment and Employment Opportunities of Women in
Coal-Mine Workers’ Families. 61 pp. 1625.
No. 46. Facts about Working Women—A Graphic Presentation Based on Cen­
sus Statistics. 64 pp. 1925.
No. 47. Women in the Fruit-Growing and Canning Industries in the State of
Washington. 223 pp. 1926.
*No. 48. Women in Oklahoma Industries. 118 pp. 1926.
No. 49. Women Workers and Family Support. 10 pp. 1925,
No. 50. Effects of Applied Research upon the Employment Opportunities of
American Women. 54 pp. 1926.
No. 51. Women in Illinois Industries. 108 pp. 1926.
No. 52. Lost Time and Labor Turnover in Cotton Mills. 203 pp. 1926.
No. 53. The Status of Women in the Government Service in 1925. 103 pp.
1926.
No. 54. Changing Jobs. 12 pp. 1926.
No. 55. Women in Mississippi Industries. 89 pp. 1926.
No. 56. Women in Tennessee Industries. 120 pp. 1927.
No. 57. Women Workers and Industrial Poisons. 5 pp. 1926.
No. 58. Women in Delaware Industries. 156 pp. 1927.
No. 59. Short Talks About Working Women. 24 pp. 1927.
No. 60. Industrial Accidents to Women in New Jersey, Ohio, and Wisconsin.
316 pp. 1927.
No. 61. The Development of Minimum-Wage Laws in the United States, 1912
to 1927. 635 pp. 1928.
No. 62. Women’s Employment in Vegetable Canneries in Delaware. 47 pp.
1927.
No. 63. (See Bulletin 98.)
No. 64. The Employment of Women at Night. 86 pp. 1928.
*No. 65. The Effects of Labor Legislation on the Employment Opportunities of
Women. 498 pp. 1928.
No. 66-1. History of Labor Legislation for Women in Three States. 136 pp
1932.
No. 66-11. Chronological Development of Labor Legislation for Women in the
United States. Revised, December, 1931. 176 pp. 1932.
No. 67. Women Workers in Flint, Mich. 80 pp. 1929.
No. 68. Summary: The Effects of Labor Legislation on the Employment Op­
portunities of Women. (Reprint of Chapter II of bulletin 65.) 22
pp. 1928.
No. 69. Causes of Absence for Men and for Women in Four Cotton Mills. 24
pp. 1929.
No. 70. Negro Women in Industry in 15 States. 74 pp. 1929.
No. 71. Selected References on the Health of Women in Industry. 8 pp. 1929.
No. 72. Conditions of Work in Spin Rooms. 41 pp. 1929. '
No. 73. Variations in Employment Trends of Women and Men. 143 pp. 1930.
No. 74. The Immigrant Woman and Her Job. 179 pp. 1930.
No. 75. What the Wage-Earning Woman Contributes to Family Support. 21
pp. 1929.
No. 76. Women in 5-and-10-cent Stores and Limited-Price Chain Department
Stores. 58 pp. 1930.
No. 77. A Study of Two Groups of Denver Married Women Applying for Jobs.
11 pp. 1929.
No. 78. A Survey of Laundries and Their Women Workers in 23 Cities. 166
pp. 1930.
No. 79. Industrial Home Work. 20 pp. 1930.
No. 80. Women in Florida Industries. 115 pp. 1930.
No. 81. Industrial Accidents to Men and Women. 48 pp. 1930.
No. 82. The Employment of Women in the Pineapple Canneries of Hawaii.
t
30 pp. 1930.
No. 83. Fluctuation of Employment in the Radio Industry. 66 pp. 1931.
No. 84. Fact Finding with the Women’s Bureau. 37 pp. 1931.
No. 85. Wages of Women in 13 States. 213 pp. 1931.
No.-86. Activities of the Women’s Bureau of the United States. 15 pp. 1931.
No. 87. Sanitary Drinking Facilities, with Special Reference to Drinking
Fountains. 28 pp. 1931.
Supply exhausted.




34

BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND CLERKS IN OHIO

No. 88. The Employment of Women in Slaughtering and Meat Packing. 211
pp. 1932.
No. 89. The Industrial Experience of Women Workers at the Summer Schools,
1928 to 1930. 62 pp. 1931.
No. 90. Oregon Legislation for Women in Industry. 40 pp. 1931.
No. 91. Women in Industry. A Series of Papers to Aid Study Groups. 79
pp. 1931.
No. 92. Wage-Earning Women and the Industrial Conditions of 1930. A
Survey of South Bend. 84 pp. 1932.
No. 93. Household Employment in Philadelphia. 88 pp. 1932.
No. 94. State Requirements for Industrial Lighting. A Handbook for the
Protection of Women Workers, Showing Lighting Standards and
Practices. (In press.)
No. 95. Bookkeepers, Stenographers, and Office Clerks in Ohio, 1914 to 1929.
34 pp. 1932.
No. 96. Women Office Workers in Philadelphia. 17 pp. 1932.
No. 97. The Employment of Women in the Sewing Trades of Connecticut—
Preliminary Report. 13 pp. 1932.
No. 98. Labor Laws for Women in the States and Territories. (Revision of
Bulletin 63.) (In press.)
Pamphlet—Women’s Place in Industry in 10 Southern States. 14 pp. 1931.
Annual Reports of the Director, 1919*, 1920*, 1921*, 1922, 1923, 1924*, 1925,
1926, 1927*, 1928*, 1929*, 1930*, 1931.
Supply exhausted.




O


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102