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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
B U L L E T I N O F T H E W O M E N ' S B U R E A U , N o . 73

VARIATIONS IN
EMPLOYMENT TRENDS
OF WOMEN AND MEN




[PUBLIC—NO. 259—66TH

CONGRESS]

[H. R. 13220]
An Act To establish in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as the
Women s Bureau

}
n&JSSSi of AmericaS ema t « a n d H oassembled, That there shallthe
7 t h e n Congress u s e
Representatives of
United States
be
t o be known as the
Wcmen s Bureau D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r a
SEC. 2 That the said bureau shall be in charge of a director a
woman, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice

t on of $o,000. It shall be the duty of said bureau to formulate
standards and policies which shall promote the welfare of WRZS " 1 1 '
improve their working .conditions, increase their
" ^ ^ f r 6
their opportunities for profitable employment The said bureau shall have authority to investigate and
report to the said department upon all matters pertaining to the
welfare of women m industry. The director of said bureau may
irom time to time publish the results of these investigates^Z
a ™
r
a f
0 « u c h e ^ e n t a s the Secretary of Labor may prescribe
bEG. 3. That there shall be in said bureau an assistant director
to be appointed by the Secretary of Labor, who shall receive an
annual compensation of $3 500 and shall perform such duties as
of Law. 131 " 6801,

J

%

direCt°r a n d

p r o v e d by the SecreLry

w f f 4"
? T e i s J h e r e J ) y authorized to be employed by said
afhtr j j ^ C l e f k a i ; d S U c h S P e c i a l a ^ e n t s ' assistants, clerkl, and
other employees at such rates of compensation and in sAch numbers
as Congress may from time to time provide by appropriations.
BEC. 5 I hat the Secretary of Labor is hereby directed to furnish
thi?bu?eau Ua]
'
furniture, and equipment for the work of
aftl?Cilsaage.tMS
^ ^
Approved, June 5, 1920.




^

effeCt a n d

be in f°rce f r o m

and

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, SECRETARY

WOMEN'S

BUREAU

MARY ANDERSON, Director

BULLETIN

OF

THE

WOMEN'S

BUREAU,

NO.

VARIATIONS IN
EMPLOYMENT TRENDS
OF WOMEN AND MEN

[
w

mm rfi

E S i

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON: 1930

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.




73




C O N T E N T S
Page

Letter of transmittal
P A R T I. Records studied and methods of presentation
Introduction
Source and type of basic data
Qualifications of data
Accuracy
. Completeness
Continuity
Statistical method employed
Source and preparation of the basic
figures
Classification
Compilation of charts
P A R T II. Variations in employment trends
Introduction
Summary
Long-term trends of employment
Factors that influence variations in men's and women's employment
trends
Size of classification
Clerical workers
Sales people
Wage earners
Agriculture
Service
Trade
Transportation
Manufacturing
Classification
Seasonality
Relative importance of men and women
General economic conditions
The war
Clerical workers
Sales people
Wage earners
Agriculture
Service
Trade
Transportation
Manufacturing
Summary
„
The depression of 1920-21
Clerical workers
Sales people
Wage earners
Agriculture
Service
Trade
Transportation
Manufacturing
Summary
Strikes
Summary
Industrial developments
P A R T III. General tables.




III

v
1

1
2
3
3
4
9
12
12
14
15
17

17
18
19
23
23
24
24
25
26
26
28
29
29
30
31
33
34
34
34
35
36
36
36
36
37
37
43
43
44
44
45
45
45
46
46
46
48
48
49
49
52

IV

CONTENTS
Page

PART I V . Appendixes

107

A. Schedule form, Division of Labor Statistics, Ohio
108
B. State classification of wage earners in 1923
111
C. Variations in men's and women's employment in iron and steel and
textile manufacturing
117
The manufacture of iron and steel and their products
117
Bolts, nuts,washers, and rivets
123
Screws, machine and wood
124
The manufacture of textiles
125
The clothing industry
*
126
The men's clothing industry
130
The women's clothing industry
135
Hosiery and knit goods
140
Cloth gloves
141
PART V. General charts
At end of report
TEXT TABLE
Census and State figures compared, 1923

6

TEXT CHART
Index of employment of wage earners, iron and steel industry in Ohio

10

GENERAL TABLES
Table

1. All employees: All industries
Wage earners:
2.
All industries
3.
Agriculture
4.
All manufactures
5.
Chemicals and allied products
6.
Iron and steel and their products
7.
Iron and steel—Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets
8.
Iron and steel—Screws, machine and wood
9.
Food and kindred products
10.
Food—Bakery products
11.
Food—Canning and preserving
12.
Food—Confectionery
13.
Leather and leather products
14.
Leather—Boots, shoes, cut stock and
findings
15.
Liquors and beverages
16.
Lumber and its products
17.
Metals and metal products other than iron and steel
18.
Metals—Gas and electricfixturesand lamps and reflectors.
19.
Paper and printing
20.
Paper—Printing and publishing
21.
Paper—Boxes (fancy and paper) and drinking cups
22.
Stone, clay, and glass products
23.
Stone, clay, and glass—Glass
24.
Stone, clay, and glass—Pottery, terra-cotta, and fire-clay
products
25.
Rubber products
26.
Rubber—Tires and tubes
27.
Textiles
28.
Textiles—Hosiery and knit goods
29.
Textiles—Men's clothing (including shirts and coat pads)_
30.
Textiles—Women's clothing (including corsets)
31.
Textiles—Cloth gloves
32.
Tobacco manufactures
33.
Tobacco—Rehandling
34.
Tobacco—Cigars and cigarettes, chewing and smoking tobacco, and snuff
35.
Vehicles
36.
Vehicles—Automobiles and parts
37.
Miscellaneous products




52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88

CONTENTS

Table 38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.

Wage earners—Continued.
4
Miscellaneous—Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies
Service
Service—Laundries and dry cleaners
Service—Hotels
Service—Restaurants
Transportation and public utilities
Transportation and public utilities—Telegraph and telephone (including messenger service)
Trade, retail and wholesale
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks:
All industries
Trade, retail and wholesale
Trade—Stores, retail and wholesale
Trade—Offices
All manufactures
Sales people (not traveling):
All industries
All manufactures
Trade, retail and wholesale
Trade—Stores, retail and wholesale

V
Page
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105

GENERAL CHARTS
[See end of report]
Chart 1. All employees: Trend of employment in all industries, Ohio, 1914 to
1924, by sex.
Wage earners—Trend of employment, Ohio, 1914 to 1924, by sex:
2.
All industrial.
3 a and b. Agriculture (chart b has curve smoothed by moving average).
4.
All manufactures.
5.
Chemicals and allied products.
6.
Iron and steel and their products.
7.
Iron and steel—Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets.
8.
Iron and steel—Screws, machine and wood.
9.
Food and kindred products.
10.
Food—Bakery products.
11.
Food—Canning and preserving.
12.
Food—Confectionery.
13.
Leather and leather products.
14.
Leather—Boots, shoes, cut stock and findings.
15.
Liquors and beverages.
16.
Lumber and its products.
17.
Metals and metal products other than iron and steel.
18.
Metals—Gas and electric fixtures and lamps and reflectors.
19.
Paper and printing.
20.
Paper-—Printing and publishing.
21.
Paper—Boxes (fancy and paper) and drinking cups.
22.
Stone, clay, and glass products.
23.
Stone, clay, and glass—Glass.
24.
Stone, clay, and glass—Pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay products.
25.
Rubber products.
26.
Rubber—Tires and tubes (1918 to 1924).
27.
Textiles.
28.
Textiles—Hosiery and knit goods.
29.
Textiles—Men's clothing (including shirts and coat pads).
30.
Textiles—Women's clothing (including corsets).
31.
Textiles—Cloth gloves (1918 to 1924).
32.
Tobacco.
33.
Tobacco—Rehandling (1918 to 1924).
34.
Tobacco—Cigars and cigarettes, chewing and smoking tobacco,
and snuff (1918 to 1924).
35.
Vehicles.
36.
Vehicles—Automobiles and parts.
37.
Miscellaneous products.
38.
Miscellaneous—Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies.




CONTENTS

39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.

Wage earners—Continued.
Service.
Service—Laundries and dry cleaners.
Service—Hotels.
Service—Restaurants.
Transportation and public utilities.
Transportation and public utilities—Telegraph and telephone
(including messenger service).
Trade, retail and wholesale.
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks—Trend of employment,
Ohio, 1914 to 1924, by sex:
All industries.
Trade, retail and wholesale.
Trade—Stores, retail and wholesale.
Trade—Offices.
All manufactures.
Salespeople (not traveling)—Trend of employment, Ohio, 1914 to
1924, by sex:
All industries.
All manufactures.
Trade, retail and wholesale.
Trade—Stores, retail and wholesale.




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
U N I T E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R ,
WOMEN'S

BUREAU,

Washington, July 1, 1929.
SIR : I am submitting herewith a report on the variations in employment trends of women and of men in the State of Ohio over an 11-year
period. The study was made at the request of the committee on
governmental labor statistics appointed by the American Statistical
Association. The figures on which the study is based were made
available to the bureau by the division of labor statistics of the
Department of Industrial Relations of Ohio. Acknowledgment is
made of the courtesy of the Ohio officials in assisting in the solution
of the problems that arose and in answering the many inquiries.
Miss Mary van Kleeck and Mr. Ralph G. Hurlin, respectively chairman and secretary of the committee on governmental labor statistics, have been consulted freely as to procedure and method and
have given generously of their time and judgment. Other members
of the committee, independent economists, Ohio employers, and the
commissioner and certain members of the staff of the United States
Bureau of Labor Statistics also have lent cooperation. To all these
persons my grateful thanks are extended.
The analysis of the charts has been made by Mary N. Winslow, in
charge of special studies in this bureau, and the reports on the iron
and steel and textile industries, appearing as an appendix, were
prepared by Frances V. Speek and Peter A. Speek.
Respectfully submitted.
M A R Y A N D E R S O N , Director.
H o n . JAMES J.

DAVIS,

Secretary oj Labor.




VII




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS
OF WOMEN AND MEN
PART I. RECORDS STUDIED AND METHODS OF
PRESENTATION
INTRODUCTION

The present study was suggested at a meeting in New York City,
on April 13 and 14, 1923, of the committee on governmental labor
statistics appointed by the American Statistical Association. This
committee is concerned with improvements in methods of collecting
and presenting employment statistics, and its membership consists of
representatives of State and Federal bureaus and other organizations
actually collecting employment data. One of the problems that have
presented themselves to this committee has been whether or not
employment statistics should be collected and presented separately
for men and women.
For many years it has been the custom of the United States Bureau
of the Census in its reports on employment in manufacturing industries
to present figures showing the number of male and. of female wage
earners. This practice was discontinued in the report for 1921 and
has not been resumed. In some of the States where regular employment statistics are gathered it is customary to give the results only
for the total of both sexes. In a few States the figures are given
separately for males and females.
Naturally, in collecting and presenting employment statistics any
simplification of the basic facts required is very much to be desired,
provided that such simplification does not reduce the usefulness and
significance of the facts. It is, therefore, highly desirable that before
finally adopting any simplified method of presenting statistics on
employment there should be careful examination of the possibility of
the loss, through such simplification, of fundamentally important
facts and the obscuring of others.
Women form a comparatively small minority of the persons
employed in wage-earning pursuits. It is inevitable, therefore, that
in any general statistical presentation of employment figures the
trends indicated would be chiefly influenced by the trends of men's
employment.
But although women are in the minority among wage earners, the
present developments of the economic and industrial life of the country are bringing about significant changes in their status. If public
policies are to be guided wisely toward the stimulation of employment
and the reduction of unemployment for all wage earners it will be
necessary to know just how the developments of women's employment differ from those of men's. If there is no great difference in
trends for the two sexes, figures giving employment statistics for the
two groups combined will be adequate and will be simpler of collection




1

2

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

and presentation. But, on the other hand, it may be that women's
employment is subject to different influences and reacts differently
from men's. If this is so, it will be essential that employment trends
for each sex be known.
In view^ of the importance of this problem in relation to the employment of women and the lack of any adequate data to illuminate it,
the committee on governmental labor statistics asked the Women's
Bureau to consider the possibility of a statistical study of State
records of employment in Illinois and Ohio. The committee unanimously agreed that such a study would throw a good deal of light on
fluctuations in employment and would show whether it should be
urged that employment figures be collected separately for men and
women.
SOURCE AND TYPE OF BASIC DATA

In planning the study it was thought originally that Massachusetts
or Illinois would be found to have the most complete employment
statistics by sex over a period of years. Investigation showed, however, that Illinois, though it secures data by sex, tabulates and
publishes only the total figures, and that the continuity of the Massachusetts series was broken in 1921 when the State followed the lead
of the Federal census and asked for the total number of employees
only, an unfortunate occurrence that lessened the value of the data,
as 1921 figures show what happened to the two sexes in severe industrial depression. Furthermore, for neither of these States are figures
available on the numbers of clerks and sales people.
A much more satisfactory and significant field for study was
indicated in the figures available in the State of Ohio. Since 1914
this State has collected monthly figures on employment, by sex, for
wage earners, clerical workers, and sales people not traveling. For
the years 1916 to 1922 these figures have not been published; for 1922
they had not, at the time of inquiry, even been tabulated. But it
was apparent that here was the most promising field, since material
was available on the sex distribution of clerks and of sales people, as
well as wage earners, for the years 1914 to 1924. Accordingly, Ohio
was selected as the field for study.
Throughout the course of this study the Women's Bureau has been
fortunate in receiving the fullest cooperation from the Ohio Division
of Labor Statistics. That division has not only furnished the basic
data necessary for the study but has been of great help in the analysis
and interpretation of the figures after they were compiled.
The Ohio law creating the bureau of labor statistics was passed
May 5, 1877, and the first commission was appointed two days later.
A report for the year ended June 30, 1877, was issued, though of the
1,021 blanks sent to employers only 405 were returned. Most of
these reported total number of employees only, and gave but one
figure for the year, as did the reports for 1878 to 1885. For 1886 to
1891, practically without a break, sex and industry were reported and
tabulated; in 1892 and 1893, special reports on women were made;
and since 1894 the numbers of men and women in the various occupations have been presented separately. At the time of the present
ktudy, then, the employers of the State had for 30 years been reporting
their employees by sex, an experience that augurs well for the
authenticity of the figures.




RE COEDS STUDIED AND METHODS OF PRESENTATION

3

Separation by sex, but only the year's average, was the form of
reports until 1914, when the present system was installed, under
which a statement made in the month of January gives the number
of men and of women employed on the 15th (or nearest representative
day) of each month of the calendar year just ended, wage earners,
clerical workers, and sales persons not traveling being reported
separately. It is this valuable series of monthly data, culminating in
reports for 30,439 establishments and 1,055,720 employees in 1924,
that constitutes the basis of the present report.
The schedule sent to employers (Form 1124) has remained practically unchanged throughout the 11-year period. The form and
instructions are reproduced in an appendix to this report.
This form, with a letter, is sent to employers on January 1 of each
year. Replies must be filed on or before the last day of January. It
is explained in the letter that the report asked for is distinct from the
semiannual pay-roll report furnished the auditing department of the
industrial commission in connection with workmen's compensation
insurance. It is stated further that if the employer's business was
disposed of during the year a report covering the period before such
transaction must be made, and the present status of the business, with
name and address of present owner, must be reported. It is not
stated that replies must be certified before a notary.
A number of form letters are used for the subsequent correspondence in regard to the reports submitted—questions unanswered or
misunderstood, inconsistencies, only part of the year covered, and
so on.
Since 1920, blanks have been sent to every employer coming under
the compensation law, which law was compulsory, in the years 1921
to 1923, for all employers having five or more employees, compulsory
in 1924 for all employers having three or more employees, and in both
periods optional with employers having fewer employees. For the
years 1914 to 1920 the blanks were sent to every employer whose
name could be secured, so that the change in 1921 to the list of those
having five or more employees resulted in a reduction in the list of
firms covered.
QUALIFICATIONS

OF

DATA

Accuracy.
Every effort is made by the Ohio Division of Labor Statistics to
insure that the figures sent in are accurate. The schedules are edited,
checked with those received in earlier years, and compared with the
reports on total pay roll submitted to the workmen's compensation
authorities. Incomplete or inaccurate schedules are returned to the
employers for correction.
Form A-21 sent out by the workmen's compensation authorities
calls for the total wages paid for a year, and Form 1124 sent out by the
division of labor statistics calls for the weekly rate. " I n this w a y "
to quote the division of labor statistics, "we can check the two reports,
and if there is a discrepancy or any cause whatsoever for questioning
the accuracy, we immediately return the report and ask that same be
corrected, and in some cases to be verified under oath. For the year
1923, we returned 3,031 reports for correction. * * * We endeavor to impress upon employers that we do not wish any figures
other than actual figures, taken from their time book or pay-roll
reports, but * * * we can not help the creeping in of some errors




4

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

because we receive reports from thousands of employers in the
State of Ohio.
" W e feel assured that these reports are as near correct as they can
be, under existing conditions. I might add that it is the general
opinion of employers in the State of Ohio, that our report and Form
A-21 of the auditing department are compared, and they therefore
attempt to give us accurate figures because the auditing department
has traveling auditors to make a check on every pay roll in the State."
Completeness.
In the 11 years the data collected have been of three grades of completeness: (1) All persons known to be employers—1914 to 1920;
(2) all persons known to have five or more employees and some electing to be insured though having fewer than five employees—1921 to
1923; and (3) all persons known to have three or more employees and
again some electing to be insured—1924.
The State reports are considered to cover everything but interstate railroads and mines and quarries. Actually, however, considerable numbers of employers are not included. For example, only a
few farms, relatively speaking, are reported, because commonly
they have not as many as three or five employees, as the case may be.
The same qualification applies to the number of establishments reported in other classifications where small units are customary. The
omissions, however, though probably affecting to a considerable
degree the accuracy of the number of establishments reported in such
classifications, are not equally serious when the numbers of employees
are considered; for the total number of employees in these small
establishments, employing less than three or five persons, would form
a very small proportion of the employees enumerated in the reported
establishments. Their omission, therefore, probably has had very
little effect on the validity of the figures as representing total employment in the State.
This is illustrated by comparing the figures reported by the State
with those reported by the Federal census for the same periods. In a
comparison with the United States census of manufactures of the
numbers of wage earners in manufacturing in the Ohio figures, the
differences are found to be small. For such comparison there were
excluded from the census totals the figures for cars and general construction and repairs of electric and steam railroad shops, since these
were not tabulated by the State, and there were excluded from the
State totals the figures for custom tailoring and tobacco rehandling,
not taken by the census. Thus made comparable, the Federal figures
exceed the State figures for 1919 by only 2.7 per cent, for 1921 by only
2.1 per cent, and for 1923 by only 1.6 per cent. In other words, if the
Federal census may be considered as 100 per cent, the State reports
covered, in 1919, 97.3 percent; in 1921, 97.9 per cent; and in 1923,
98.4 per cent. Federal and State governments alike call for the
number of wage earners on the 15th of the month or the nearest
representative day. Moreover, when the State system of reporting
was put on a new basis in 1914, and reports by the month were called
for, the manufacturing establishments were classified as closely as
local conditions would permit like the 1909 United States census of
manufactures.
Greater differences exist between Federal and State reports of
numbers of establishments. Though the invariable rule of the State



R E COEDS STUDIED A N D METHODS OF P R E S E N T A T I O N

5

is to report as two or more establishments any firm whose operations
fall into two or more classes,1 a practice resorted to by the Federal
census only occasionally or in some cases, the inclusion by the latter
in 1919 of all firms whose annual product was worth as much as $500
operated to make the Federal number of establishments very much
greater than that of the State, the Federal figures exceeding the
State figures by 81.9 per cent. In 1921 and in 1923 the Federal
census excluded all firms whose value of product was less than $5,000,
but the numbers of establishments exceeded by 33.5 per cent and 28.9
per cent, respectively, the numbers reported by the Ohio authorities.
That these discrepancies in numbers of establishments make so
slight a difference in numbers of employees is due to the fact that such
small numbers of wage earners are in the factories with an output of
less than $5,000 value.
In spite of the indications of harmony between State and Federal
figures there are a few gross examples of dissimilarity. Perhaps the
most striking is that appearing at the close of 1919 in the rubbergoods industry, where the Federal figure, which from January to
October had practically equaled the State figure, unaccountably falls
below it in November and December by 17.4 and 20.1 per cent,
respectively. Since tires and tubes formed 95 or more per cent of the
rubber industry, through the courtesy of the largest Akron employers
the State figures were verified, and from inquiry of the Bureau of the
Census it was learned that the peculiarity of the November and
December figures had been noted but could not be explained.
Assignment of the electric-lamp industry to different groups by
State and Federal statisticians probably accounts for the discrepancies
between the two authorities apparent in the groups "electrical
machinery, apparatus, and supplies" and "gas and electric fixtures
and lamps and reflectors." The Federal figure very much exceeds
the State figure in the first group mentioned and falls far short of it
in the case of the second group. The discrepancy is much diminished,
however, when the two groups are thrown into one.
The most exaggerated case of Federal and State figures disagreeing
in an unimportant industry, where the Bureau of the Census reports
more employees in the manufacture of screws, by several hundred
per cent, than does the State, appears to be due to the census having
included, with plants producing machine screws, plants producing
special parts, most of which are threaded, made on screw machines.
In fact, by 1923 the group is so described.
The table next presented shows in detail a comparison of the State
and Federal figures for 1923.
i For example, a tobacco manufacturer making his own boxes is required to submit two reports, one covering the tobacco manufacture and one the manufacture of boxes, and each is considered as the report of an
establishment. This is the rule whether the various operations are in separate buildings or under one roof.




6

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN
Census and Statefigurescompared—1923
Establishments
Industry (terminology is that of State)

All manufactures 1 _
Chemicals and allied products 2
Food and kindred products
Bakery products 3
Canning and preserving 4
Confectionery
Iron and steel and their products 5
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets 6_._
Screws, machine and wood 7
Leather and leather products
Boots, shoes, cut stock and findings 8_
Liquors and beverages 9
Lumber and its products 10
Metals and metal products other than iron
and steel11
Gas and electric fixtures, lamps and
reflectors 12
Paper and printing
Boxes, fancy and paper; drinking
cups 13-_
Printing and publishing 14__
Rubber products
Tires and tubes 15
Stone, clay, and glass products 16_
Glass
Pottery, terra - cotta and fire-clay
products; brick and tile, clay 18
Textiles ™
Men's clothing, including shirts and
coat pads 20
Women's clothing, including corsets 21.
Gloves, cloth 22_
Hosiery and knit goods 23
Tobacco—Cigars and cigarettes; chewing
and smoking tobacco and snuff 24_.
Vehicles 25
Automobiles and parts 26
Miscellaneous—Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies 27

United
States
census
11,013
524
2, 374
1,115
100

State

650, 737 +10, 556
+4, 678
18,903
29, 335 +2, 302
+3,172
7,823
1, 700 +1,000
-508
4,068
238,036 +11,336
-669
5, 518
+2, 695
790
16, 266 +1,206
+952
13, 362
-270
2,195
- 1 , 573

+1.6
+24.7
+7.8
+40.5
+58.8
-12.5
+4.8

23
28
173

117
1,647
27
6
145
56
124
1,007

661, 293
23, 581
31, 637
10, 995
2,700
3, 560
249, 372
4,849
3,485
17,472
14, 314
1,925
25,270

497

456

20,987

34,148

-13,161

-38.5

41
1,481

51
913

2,448
38,003

4,944
34, 766

-2,496
+3, 237

-50.5
+9.3

70

3,821
17,474
46,758
42,476
48,302
9, 539

4,111
17,842
46,864
42,885
43, 052
9, 536

-290
-368

-7.1

119
75
674
43

-409
+5,250
+3

-1.0
+ 12. 2

377
646

348
592

30,902
40,859

27,890
42, 581

+3,012
- 1 , 722

+10.8
-4.0

212
116
30
39

189

15,434
5,063

+2,165

4,617

13,269
5,883
2,474
4,937

+16.3
-13.9
+13.6
-6.5

238
348
254

142
331

11,838
58, 747
46, 750

11,325
64, 520
51,123

+513
- 5 , 773
- 4 , 373

+4.5
-8.9

195 I

152

26, 300

16, 206

+10,094

+62.3

121

1,812

66
1,186
103
53
756
34

8,543
382
1, 278
377

Total employees (average for year)
Number and per
cent by which
census figure exUnited
ceeds ( + ) or is
State
States
less than (—)
census
State figure
Number I Per cent

82

668

112

30
35

2,811

-106

-820

+337
-320

-12.1

+341.1
+7.4
+7.1
-12.3
-5.9

-2.1

-.2

Census, total manufactures minus operations of railroad companies, not covered by State reports.
State omits custom tailoring (under textiles) and tobacco rehandling, not covered by Census reports.
2 Census, chemicals and allied products minus liquors, a State group, and ammunition, coke, fireworks,
and mucilage and paste, included by the State in miscellaneous.
3 Census, bread and other bakery products.
4 Census excludes one fish cannery, number of employees not reported.
6 Census, from machinery, iron and steel and their products not including machinery, metals and metal
products other than iron and steel, and transportation equipment, air, land, and water.
6 Census, under iron and steel, which see.
7 Census, screws, machine, and screws, wood.
8 Census, boots and shoes other than rubber, boot and shoe cut stock and boot and shoe findings, not made
in boot and shoe factories.
8 Census, from chemicals and allied products and food and kindred products.
10 Census, lumber and allied products minus certain things (metal furniture, for example) thrown elsewhere by State.
11 Census, from metals and metal products other than iron and steel, iron and steel and their products
not including machinery, and lumber and allied products (metal furniture).
12 Census, gas and electric fixtures not including lamps and reflectors and lamps and reflectors not including electric lamps.
13 Census, boxes, paper and other not elsewhere classified. Drinking cups not obtainable.
14 Census, printing and publishing (three classes) and bookbinding and blank-book making.
15 Census, rubber tires and inner tubes.
16 Census, same and sand and emery cloth from miscellaneous.
17 Less than 0.05 per cent.
18 Census, pottery including porcelain ware and clay products (other than pottery) and nonclay refractories. Brick and tile, clay, combined with the pottery group for the State because not separable from this
group in the census.
19 Census, textiles and their products and mattresses and artificial flowers and feathers, from miscellaneous. State omits custom tailoring, not covered by census report.
20 Census, clothing, men's (regular factories and contract shops) and shirts.
21 Census, clothing, women's (regular factories and contract shops) and corsets,
22 Census, gloves and mittens, cloth, not made in textile mills.
23 Census, knit goods.
24 Census does not collect data for tobacco rehandling.
25 Census, transportation equipment, air, land, and water, minus locomotives not made in railroad repair
shops (included by the State in iron and steel). See also footnote 1.
26 Census, motor vehicles and motor-vehicle bodies and parts.
27 Census, same minus locomotives,
1




R E COEDS STUDIED A N D M E T H O D S OF

PRESENTATION

7

A considerable discrepancy between State and Federal figures appears in the case of certain industries, some of which can be accounted
for and others of which can not. The somewhat compensating differences in the two groups "electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies" and "gas and electric fixtures, lamps and reflectors"—respectively plus 62.3 per cent and minus 50.5 per cent—may be due in part
to a different classification of electric lamps, as suggested. When the
two groups are thrown together the per cent by which the Federal
census exceeds the State is reduced to 36.
In some industries employing large numbers the disagreement
among the various authorities is slight or unimportant. For example,
the State reports 37 establishments, with almost 24,000 employees, as
making munitions in 1918, and for the same year the Directory of Ohio
Manufacturers 2 reported 19 establishments, with about 19,000 employees, so engaged. In 1919, according to the State figures, the
munitions plants had dwindled to 8, with about 2,400 employees, and
the Federal census found 3 establishments making ordnance and
accessories and 3 making ammunition, throwing these in the group
"not elsewhere specified," with number of employees not reported.
To test the general accuracy of the Ohio figures and the validity
of the trends of employment represented by them, the Women's
Bureau has compiled the figures on employment given by the Federal
census of manufactures for 1914, 1919, 1921, and 1923, subject to
the necessary reclassification, has computed index numbers of employment based on the average for 1914, and has plotted the resulting
curve on the charts showing curves for the employment figures given
by the State authorities. The similarity of the trends indicated by
the two sets of figures is very marked. Occasionally there are divergences, but these are probably due more to a difference in classification than to inaccuracy or inadequacy in the State figures.
In making this comparison every effort was made to insure similarity
of classification, but in some cases certain differences were unavoidable.
The State classification of wage earners in 1923 is presented in
Appendix B. This 1923 classification was used as the base to which
the State classifications of earlier years and the Federal census figures
for 1914, 1919, 1921, and 1923 were made to conform. For example,
in 1923 the Federal census tabulated in the machinery group such
things as calculating machines, scales and balances, sewing machines,
etc., formerly classed in iron and steel. Through the courtesy of the
Bureau of the Census, which supplied detailed and unpublished figures, it was possible to lift these from the machinery group and restore
them to iron and steel, and this was done in every instance.
Important differences between State and Federal classifications,
existing in 1923, are shown in the list following.
2 Ohio Industrial Commission.
Department of investigation and statistics. Directory of Ohio Manufacturers, 1918. Report No. 35.




8

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN
Industry

Agricultural implements.
Ammunition
Bells
Belting and hose, woven and
rubber.
Beverages
Calculating machines, etc
Coke
Electrical machinery, etc
Emery wheels and other abrasives, including sand and
emery cloth.
Firearms
Fire extinguishers, chemical
Fireworks
Foundry and machine-shop
products.
Galvanizing
House-furnishing goods, miscellaneous.
Ice, manufactured
Liquors
Locomotives not made by railroad companies.
Malt
Mattresses, pillows, and cotton
felts.
Metal furniture
Millinery and lace goods, including artificial flowers and
feathers.
Mucilage and paste
Munitions
Musical instruments
Pens, gold
Pumps and windmills
Scales and balances
Sewing machines, cases, and
attachments.
Typewriters and parts
Vehicles (see also Locomotives).
Washing machines and clothes
wringers.

Census group

State group

Machinery
Chemicals
Metals other than iron and
steel.
Textiles; rubber

Miscellaneous.
Do.
Iron and steel.

Food
Machinery
Chemicals
Machinery
Stone, clay, and glass; miscellaneous.

Liquors.
Iron and steel.
Miscellaneous.
Do.
Stone, clay, and

Iron and steel
Metals other than iron and
steel.
Chemicals
Machinery; metals; iron
and steel.
Iron and steel
Textiles

Miscellaneous.
Do.

Miscellaneous.

Do.
Iron and steel.
Metals.
Miscellaneous.

Food
Chemicals
Transportation equipment;
machinery.
Food
Miscellaneous; textiles

Do,
Liquors.
Iron and steel.

Lumber
Textiles; miscellaneous.

Metals.
Textiles.

Chemicals
Iron and steel; chemicals. _
Musical instruments
Metals
Machinery
do
do

Miscellaneous.
Do.
Do.
Do.
Iron and steel.
Do.
Do.

_do_
Transportation equipment.
Machinery

Do.
Vehicles.
Miscellaneous.

Liquors.
Textiles.

With such differences in classification the difficulties of compiling
comparable figures for the two groups were enormous.
To make the Federal figures comparable with the State figures on
the basis of the 1923 classification it was necessary to reclassify
many census industries. Examples of this are next presented.




RE COEDS STUDIED AND METHODS OF PRESENTATION

9

For all manufactures: Cars and general shop construction and repairs, electric and
steam railroad shops, were omitted from the census figures.
For iron and steel:
Calculating machines, scales and balances, typewriters, sewing machines, gas
or electric locomotives, pumps, and foundry and machine-shop products
were taken from machinery.
Bells were taken from metals.
Steam locomotives not made in railroad shops were taken from transportation
equipment.
For liquors and beverages:
Malt and beverages were taken from food.
Liquors were taken from chemicals.
For metals:
Galvanizing was taken from iron and steel.
Metal furniture was taken from lumber.
For stone, clay, and glass: Sand and emery cloth was taken from miscellaneous.
Vehicles were taken from transportation equipment.
Cars and general shop construction and repairs, electric and steam railroad
shops, were omitted from census total.
For textiles: Mattresses and artificial flowers and feathers were taken from
miscellaneous.
For miscellaneous:
Agricultural implements, electrical machinery, etc., and washing machines
were taken from machinery.
Coke, fireworks, and mucilage and paste were taken from chemicals.
Ammunition, munitions, and firearms were taken from chemicals and iron
and steel.
Belting and hose, woven and rubber, were taken from textiles and rubber.
House-furnishing goods, miscellaneous, were taken from textiles.
Ice, manufactured, was taken from food.
Fire extinguishers, chemical, were taken from metals.
Pianos, organs, etc., and other musical instruments were taken from musical
instruments.

With the classifications made as nearly identical as is possible the
indications of trend of employment in Ohio resulting from the two
sets of figures are nearly enough alike to substantiate the fluctuations
shown by the more detailed and continuous State figures.
Continuity.
In discussing trends of employment over a period of years the most
important factor in the statistical foundation must be the continuity
of the samples taken for the period under discussion. It is in this
connection that appear the most serious qualifications of the material
studied. For the establishments reported by the Ohio Division of
Labor Statistics are not the same throughout the 11 years, nor is the
classification of the establishments always alike, nor is the scope of
the figures identical. It would seem at first glance that these qualifications would so limit the validity of the trends represented as to
make them of little significance. Consideration of the extent to
which these various qualifications can affect the figures reported,
however, shows that they are not so serious as they at first appear.
Taking first the changes in the number of establishments reporting,
it is plain from the comparison just given between the State and the
Federal census figures that on the whole the State figures represent
with great accuracy the volume of employment, although the actual
number of establishments in the State is not so accurately reported.
In a study of employment trends it is the volume of employment that
is the important aspect, and therefore a fluctuating number of establishments reporting may give a more accurate picture of the situation
than where reports from only identical establishments are considered.
64130°—30-

2




#

10

V A R I A T I O N S IN E M P L O Y M E N T T R E N D S OF W O M E N A N D M E N

The figures have been carefully studied for the effect of changes in
the establishments reported and in only occasional instances have
these changes appeared to affect the validity of the trends indicated.
The 1915 figures in the telegraph and telephone industry afford an
interesting example of the importance of the continuity of the sample
as a basis for employment curves. It will be noted that the numbers
of male employees reported for January, June, and December exceeded greatly the numbers reported for other months. This appears
to be due to the fact that at least one large company did not begin
until 1916 to report employment for each month and in 1915 reported
only for January, June, and December.
There was a decided drop between 1914 and 1916 in the Ohio
figures for screws, machine and wood, in the numbers of establishments and employees. A sufficient number of firms did not report
for 1915, therefore there are no figures for that year. But in 1914
INDEX

OF EMPLOYMENT

OF WAGE EARNERS, IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY
IN OHIO
[Average month, 1923, equals 100]

120

100

\

\
\

80

/

-=

A

//'

//
//

//
y?

/7

G
O

//

//

/ /
Y

. establishwents tizz — uz*
— Index corripu'fgd from tepor}s of Z.2,11'denf"i'cal
Index compwfa H m reports of 1 £ £ sis \jBleSts.uz3, I,l95es?s. I^I
d o
1 9
,

1

1

4-0

I

I 9 23

I 924

there were 8 establishments, employing 1,740 persons, and by 1916
there were only 3 firms, employing 611 persons. This may have
been due to a change in classification between the years reported.
The apparent decrease in glass probably was due to the inclusion
of extra establishments in 1918. Since no figures for 1916 and 1917
were available and the establishments increased from 23 in 1915 to
64 in 1918, the curve is not representative, the increase probably
being due to a change in classification.
Such examples give emphasis to the need for careful examination
of all the figures before reaching conclusions as to trends of employment, but they are not sufficiently numerous nor obscure to seriously
qualify the figures presented. This is illustrated clearly in the foregoing chart, which shows the great similarity between the trends
of employment for the years 1922, 1923, and 1924 in the iron and
steel industry, as shown by weighted index numbers for three main
branches of this industry as compiled and plotted by K. J, Watkins




RE COEDS STUDIED AND METHODS OF PRESENTATION

11

in his study of employment trends 3 in 227 identical establishments
and similar index numbers compiled from the varying number of
establishments reporting the figures presented in the present study.
It is plain that the employment trends were very much the same in
the 227 identical establishments and in the 1,150 to 1,200 establishments during the same years.
A more serious qualification of the figures presented is the changes
that have been made in their classification at different times during
the 11-year period under discussion.
In 1923 the State's rule in tabulating wage earners was that every
industry should appear for which three or more establishments
reported and 100 or more wage earners were represented, smaller
groups going into the residual class of n. o. c. (not otherwise classified) at the end of the table. In tabulating clerical workers, three
or more establishments must report and 50 or more bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks be represented for an industry to be
listed under its own title, and a similar requirement was the rule in
tabulating sales people.
In the earlier printed reports—those of 1914 and 1915—the requirement had been more strict. At least 200 employees were to be represented in the case of wage earners and at least 100 in the case of
clerical workers and of sales people for the industry to be reported
under its own name.
The not-otherwise-classified group also contains the establishments
not falling into any special division of the code.
In the 11-year period for which figures are presented, 30 industries
for which provision is made in the State classification of wage earners
in 1923 are never reported separately but are included, unless they
had gone out of business, in the n. o. c. group. The list follows:
Wage earners in the manufacture o f —
Chemicals: Bluing; bone, carbon and lamp black.
Food: Glucose and starch.
Iron and steel: Horseshoes, not made in steel works or rolling mills; locomotives, not made by railroad companies;4 typewriters and parts.
Liquors: Malt.
Lumber: Billiard tables and materials.
Metals: Babbitt metal and solder; gold and silver, leaf and foil; needles,
pins, hooks and eyes.
Paper: Type founding and printing materials; wall paper.
Rubber: Garments.
Stone, clay, etc.: Burial vaults, concrete; statuary and art goods.
Textiles: Upholstery materials; waste; wool pulling, including scouring.
Vehicles: Wheelbarrows.
Miscellaneous: Artists' materials; engravers' materials; firearms and ammunition; fuel, manufactured; house-furnishings goods, miscellaneous;
jewelry and instrument cases; lapidary work; mucilage and paste; and
paving materials.
Wage earners in service—Shoe repair.

Perhaps the most serious aspect of the omission of figures for the
years 1916 and 1917 for certain of the subclassifications is the fact
that when an industry was classed in one group in 1915 and in another
group in 1918 there is no telling how it was classed in 1916 and 1917,
and the Ohio authorities are not able to supply this information.
Watkins, Ralph J. Ohio Employment Studies. Ohio State University Studies, Bureau of Business
Research Monographs, No. 7. 1927. pp. 23-34.
* The Directory of Ohio Manufacturers, 1918, reports a firm with 2,000 employees as making locomotives.




12

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

Thus it is not possible to make the statement that mattresses, for
example, were transferred from miscellaneous to textiles in such and
such a year. It can only be said that in 1914 and 1915 mattresses and
spring beds were in the miscellaneous group and in 1918 to 1924
mattresses, pillows, and cotton felts were in the textile group.
After editing, classifying, and tabulating, the original schedules
are kept by the State office for not more than a year. A card file of
employers is maintained, but when a firm has reported for six years
and the card is full the card is destroyed. Furthermore, even the
work sheets of the reports prior to 1921 were accidentally destroyed
by fire, in October, 1922, precluding any further reference to settle
questions of classification.
Although these changes in classification that have occurred during
the period under discussion have probably altered somewhat the
general trends of employment as indicated by the charts and curves
for some of the smaller classifications, they do not, of course, influence
greatly the trends represented in the larger classifications. These
are so inclusive as to have been practically unchanged during the 11
years, or, if they have been changed, the alterations have affected
such proportionately small numbers that they would be reflected to
only a very small degree.
From the viewpoint of the present study the changes in classification can not be considered to affect materially the significance of the
figures. For the purpose of this study is to compare the trends of
men and of women and the extent to which they are affected in the
same way by certain economic situations. The minor changes in
classification that have been made from 1914 to 1924 probably have
had very little effect in bringing about a difference or greater similarity
of trend for the two sexes. It is unlikely that except in the very small
and unimportant classifications such changes can have altered the
relative importance of either sex in the classification.
Of course, the smaller the classification the greater the possibility
of distortion of the curves showing trends of employment accompanying any change in the classification or inclusiveness of the figures.
For this reason, therefore, it is in the larger classifications only that
the fluctuations and comparisons of trends can be considered uninfluenced by the changes in statistical method that have been made
during the 11 years.
STATISTICAL M E T H O D

EMPLOYED

Source and preparation of the basic figures.
The figures furnished by the State comprise the number of employees—total, male, and female—for each month of the year, the
period covered being 1914 to 1924 for the main industrial groups and
most of the subgroups, and 1918 to 1924 for the remaining subgroups.
The first plan was to confine the study to the years 1918 to 1923
and only those figures were supplied for the subgroups. Later, when
it was decided that figures over a longer period would be more significant, data for 1914 and 1915 were copied from the published
reports. No such record was available for 1916 and 1917; accordingly,
these years are missing for a considerable number of the subgroups.
Though the figures for 1922 had never been tabulated by the State,
they seemed essential for the continuity of the figures; so at the request




RE COEDS STUDIED AND METHODS OF PRESENTATION

13

of the Women's Bureau, and at the bureau's expense, the 24,124
reports received by the State for that year were tabulated in the Ohio
office in the usual way and the tables were sent to Washington. At
the time this was done it was believed by the Women's Bureau that
reports on clerical workers were important only for those in offices
and reports on sales people only for those in stores. Accordingly,
these subgroups were tabulated and the totals for sales and clerical
workers were not secured. The grand total of all employees, therefore, is not available for 1922.
From the 12 monthly figures the Women's Bureau has computed
the average number of employees for the year. It also has computed,
by dividing the month of highest employment into the month of
lowest employment, the per cent that the minimum employment is
of the maximum—an important figure showing the variability of
employment within the year.
Figures and charts are presented in this report for all the main
classifications except construction and fisheries. These two groups
employ so few women (well under one-half of 1 per cent in 1923) as
to be unimportant in this study. They are, of course, included in
the grand totals for all wage earners and all employees.
Not all the sub classifications of the figures have been presented
separately in table and chart form. Many of these smaller classifications contained either numerically or proportionately unimportant
groups of women and it was felt that analysis of the difference of
trends between the sexes in such subclassifications would add little of
real value to the present study. Selections for presentation and
analysis necessarily were limited by the time and funds available for
the study and attempt was made to limit the selections to those subclassifications that might represent important tendencies in relation
to fluctuations especially of women's employment. The list following
shows the classifications for which figures and curves are presented
in this study.
CLASSIFICATION

FOR

WHICH

FIGURES

AND

CURVES

ARE

PRESENTED

All employees in all industries.
Wage earners in—
All industries.
Agriculture.
All manufactures.
Chemicals and allied products.
Food and kindred products.
Bakery products.
Canning and preserving.
Confectionery.
Iron and steel and their products.
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets.
Screws, machine and wood.
Leather and leather products.
Boots, shoes, cut stock and findings.
Liquors and beverages.
Lumber and its products.
Metals and metal products other than iron and steel.
Gas and electric fixtures and lamps and reflectors.
Paper and printing.
Boxes (fancy and paper) and drinking cups.
Printing and publishing.
Rubber products.
Tires and tubes.




14

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

Classification—Continued.
Wage earners in—Continued.
All manufactures—Continued.
Stone, clay, a'nd glass products.
Glass.
Pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay products.
Textiles.
Cloth gloves.
Hosiery and knit goods.
Men's clothing (including shirts and coat pads).
Women's clothing (including corsets).
Tobacco manufactures.
Cigars and cigarettes, chewing and smoking tobacco, and snuff.
Rehandling.
Vehicles.
Automobiles and parts.
Miscellaneous products.
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies.
Service.
Hotels.
Laundries and dry cleaners.
Restaurants.
Trade, retail and wholesale.
Transportation and public utilities.
Telegraph and telephone (including messenger service).
Bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks in—
All industries.
All manufactures.
Trade, retail and wholesale.
Offices.
Stores, retail and wholesale.
Sales people (not traveling) in—
All industries.
All manufactures.
Trade, retail and wholesale.
Stores, retail and wholesale.

In addition to the numbers of employees, figures were supplied by
the State to show the number of establishments reporting annually.
In this connection it is important to note that the number of establishments is the same for clerical workers and for sales people as for
wage earners, since the number reporting is, as the term implies, the
number returning schedules. Thus agriculture, in the basic and
unpublished figures, shows the same number of establishments in
the clerical-workers' table as is shown for wage earners, the 548
establishments in 1923 having about 230 bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks; and thus construction shows its 5,883 establishments to have about 650 sales people not traveling.
Classification.
Information concerning the classification of employees as wage
earners, clerical workers, or sales people appears on the back of Form
1124. (See Appendix A.) Supplementing this, the bureau has
learned by correspondence with State authorities that the following
also are classed as wage earners:
Bundle wrappers, messengers and errand positions, canvassers and
collectors, cashiers in stores and restaurants, cash-register operators,
insurance agents (wage earners in offices), nurses in training in hospitals; that wage earners in service, theaters, include actors, ushers,
stage hands, cleaners, etc.; that wage earners in service, professional,
probably are mostly cleaners and do not include nurses in training




RE COEDS STUDIED AND METHODS OF PRESENTATION

15

in hospitals; and that waitresses and cooks of hotel restaurants are
included in service, hotels, if the restaurant is considered part of the
hotel and are included in service, restaurants, if it is not.
Accountants, bank cashiers, and office clerks handling sales are
included in bookkeepers, stenographers, and office clerks, and realestate agents and bond salesmen are tabulated as sales people not
traveling.
Supervisory positions come under the heading " superintendents
and managers/' appearing only in question 8 on Form 1124, relating
to total wage and salary payments. N o figures whatsoever pertain
to owners.
Compilation of charts.
To facilitate the interpretation and analysis of the mass of figures
presented here, the Women's Bureau has prepared charts for each
of the classifications for which figures are presented.
These charts show the trend of employment in two ways. One
series is confined to the changes within a year and is plotted separately
for each year from index numbers based on the number of employees
in January. In this series the figures are illustrated separately for
men and women, but the total is not given.
The other series shows a continuous curve for the 11-year period,
the base being the average number of employees in 1914. In this
series the figures are illustrated separately for men and women and
a third curve shows the trend of employment for the total. In most
of the manufacturing classifications for 1914, 1919, 1921, and 1923,
curves are plotted also to illustrate the trends indicated by the
United States census of manufactures.
For the series based on the average for 1914 it was proposed at
first to compute the seasonal variation and then to correct the exaggerated curves to eliminate the element of growth, but this idea had
to be given up because of the differences from year to year in number of establishments reporting. Accordingly, in each case December and January are linked only by a dotted line.
A study of the charts is facilitated by grouping them in various
combinations. For convenience in so doing the graphs are presented separately, accompanying the bulletin in an envelope instead
of being bound with the text. The scale is the same throughout 5
except that canning and preserving, whose seasonal fluctuation is
very great, is not comparable with the other industries.
For the agricultural classification, in order to eliminate the effect
of the extreme seasonal employment, a supplementary curve has been
plotted, based on a 12-month moving average. It is possible from
this chart to analyze the trends for men and women with less confusion than when the extremes of employment also are indicated.
The curves follow the exact relatives, even where obviously there
is something wrong, as, for example, in confectionery. Here the
men's and women's curves based on 1914 would appear to be transposed in the years 1916 to 1918 and again in 1921 were it not that the
curves based on January are so evidently not transposed. Through
inquiry of the State authorities the tabulations themselves were corroborated, but the original records had been destroyed by fire.
Candy manufacturers interviewed could throw no light on the ques* Owing to lack of space, the charts do not carry the zero line.




16

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

tion; especially could they not believe that several hundred men were
taken on in 1921, which was " a rotten year" in the candy trade.
The rapidly increasing use of machines was referred to, as was the
possibility of ice-cream manufacture and bakeries being reported
with confectionery.
Ice-cream manufacture was decided upon as largely responsible
for the peculiarity of the curve for men's employment in the earlier
years. Curves comparing the confectionery and the dairy products
industries make it clear that ice cream was tabulated with confectionery prior to 1918, and that, beginning with that year, it was
supposed to be tabulated with dairy products; but the new plan
was not wholly in effect until 1919.
There is no explanation of the fact that in 1921 women constituted
only 46.4 per cent of all confectionery employees instead of around 60
per cent. In this year the average of total employment—4,692,
exactly as it was in 1918—has the sexes in positions opposite to those
in 1918, women comprising 53.6 per cent of the employees in the
earlier year and men comprising 53.6 per cent of those in 1921.




PART II. VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS
INTRODUCTION

The figures on employment for men and women in Ohio presented
in this discussion show the trends of employment for men and for
women in 54 classifications. For each of these classifications curves
have been computed, according to the methods described in the
preceding pages, that show graphically when and to what extent trends
for the two sexes have differed or coincided. Taking them in all,
perhaps the most striking fact about the curves is the extent to which
they indicate similarity in the trends of employment of men and of
women. Often the indexes of men's and women's employment
in the different classifications run in more or less parallel lines, up
or down as the general trend of the classification may be. Even
seasonal trends are very likely to be similar for the two sexes and,
therefore, represented faithfully in the curve for the total.
But this similarity of trend is not always found in men's and
women's employment. There are certain classifications where trends
are similar and others where the trends differ widely. There are
certain periods of economic disturbance or stimulation where the
course of employment for men and that for women have taken very
divergent paths. There are certain occupational concentrations for
each sex which may result in extreme similarities or extreme differences
in the course of employment. It is the significance and extent of
these differences and similarities that are of foremost importance in
estimating the validity for each sex of the trends indicated by the
figures showing totals and not differentiating by sex.
There are four main types of differences between the trends of the
two sexes that appear in the curves presented as illustrations. The
first, and probably the most significant to women, is the difference
in the long-term trends. In many of the classifications the figures
when separated by sex show a distinct tendency toward an increasing
importance of women throughout the 11-year period under consideration. In a few classifications there has been apparently a decrease in
women's importance, but this is not nearly so often the case.
Another kind of difference in the trends for men and women is
found in certain of the classifications that are affected by seasonal
variation. In some of these classifications there is a distinct seasonal
trend for women and not for men; in others the seasonal trend is more
extreme for men than for women.
A third type of difference is that caused by some economic situation
such as the war or the depression of 1920-21, and a fourth is seen
as the result of strikes that may affect women or men or both.
The figures and curves showing the trends of men's and women's
employment through 11 years in Ohio will illustrate the importance
of these differences in relation to the validity of the trends indicated
by the figures for the totals. They will show also what are the




17

18

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

governing influences that react toward the establishment of similarities
or differences in trends for men and women. Although employment
figures from only one State, and for only 11 years, can not be considered to be comprehensive enough to form a basis for generally
applicable findings, they will be serviceable as indications of probabilities that can be tested through more comprehensive data.
In the following discussion of the variations in trends for the
two sexes and the factors that influence these variations it is important
to bear in mind that the material is presented as only illustrative of
the different situations. Many of the classifications have been
selected for presentation in this study because they illustrate significant situations as far as women's employment is concerned. Because
of this selective basis the enumeration of groups of these classifications
as illustrating one or another type of variation can not be considered
to offer any conclusive foundation for the assertion of the frequency
of occurrence of the variation in question.
The purpose of this study is to provide some basis for guiding
policies as to whether employment figures should be collected and
presented separately for each sex. Although all the 54 charts have
been considered in preparing the different sections of the study, no
attempt has been made to present a complete analysis of the figures
and curves for each classification in its relation to the various situations
discussed. Instead the method has been to describe only such
classifications as are significantly illustrative.
In some cases the figures and curves have proved so erratic in their
variations, because of seasonal factors, smallness of the numbers
included, changes in classification, or differences in the number of
establishments reporting, that they provide significant illustration of
only a few of the many factors that influence variations in men's and
women's employment. In such cases, these classifications are cited
only in those connections for which they seem important. The qualifications of the basic material have been discussed in earlier pages of
this study. The interpretations of the material have been made in
the light of these qualifications, but it has not been considered necessary to confuse the discussion by constant reiteration of the fundamental make-up of the data.
Although as an indication of general industrial trends throughout
a period of years employment statistics that are not based on reports
from identical establishments may leave something to be desired,
nevertheless, as an indication of the variability of trends for the two
sexes and the validity of the total figures as an indication of trends
for each sex, such statistics should be fairly reliable. As such, they
are presented here in the hope that they will provide enlightenment
regarding the extent to which women's and men's employment trends
present separate problems that must be studied separately if they are
to be dealt with intelligently.
SUMMARY

To indicate general long-term trends of employment, in most
classifications the curve for the total of both sexes seems to be adequately representative. The curve for the total, however, fails to
indicate changes in the relative importance of the two sexes and does
not show the different influences of seasonal employment on the two
sexes.



VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS

19

Although the changes in relative importance of the two sexes appear
in the more inclusive curves not to have been very great, such changes
as are indicated become of far greater significance when they are considered in the smaller classifications that together make up the more
inclusive figures.
There is greater similarity between trends for the two sexes when
the classifications are compiled along occupational lines.
The effects of changes in economic conditions—war, depression,
strikes—are not consistently the same for both sexes nor, through
different classifications, are they consistently the same even for one
sex.
Separate figures by sex must be available for periods of economic
disturbance if the significant variations for the sexes are to be
understood.
LONG-TERM

TRENDS

OF

EMPLOYMENT

There is one aspect of the long-term trends of employment that
from the standpoint of the industries studied, of the general interest
of the employees, and of the well-being of the State itself is of primary
importance. This is the general trend of employment—whether it
is increasing or decreasing. From the standpoint of women, developments in their relative importance in wage-earning pursuits are of
extreme significance, as they indicate the extent to which women
are getting increasing opportunity and are becoming more essential
units in the economic system. If men are being let out from a plant
in greater numbers than women, that may seem something on which
the women are to be congratulated. But the fact that employment
is decreasing at the same time for both sexes is by no means a matter
of congratulation even for the sex whose decreases are the smaller.
And so the trend up or down in employment is really the most farreaching and important tendency to be discovered through a study
of employment figures.
The figures for the 11 years in Ohio show a remarkable similarity
in the general trend of employment for the two sexes. Ignoring the
temporary peak of employment caused by the war and the drop
caused by the depression of 1920-21, the curves show with few
exceptions that employment has been on an upward trend for both
sexes during the 11 years. It is only in some of the subsidiary classifications of the wage earners in manufacturing that declining employment is shown. However, both when employment is declining
and when it is increasing the general trend is almost universally the
same for the two sexes. The only exceptions to this situation are of
very minor significance. For example, in the manufacture of tobacco
the total curve shows for 1924 a very slight decrease in employment
since 1914, for the women there was an actual increase of about 12
points, and for the men there was a decrease of about 30 points.
Somewhat the same situation is reflected in the figures showing employment in the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes, etc., but here
the curves for the total and for the men show a decided decrease,
while that of the women remains about the same.
Also, in the manufacture of glass products apparently there has
been, during the 11 years, a decrease in total employment and a
decrease in men's employment but an increase in women's employ-




20

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

ment. This probably is not accurate, as no figures are available for
1916 and 1917 and the figures for 1918 show an increase over 1915
of 23 (56.1 per cent) establishments reporting. The 64 establishments in 1918 employed 16.1 per cent women, while the 41 in 1915
employed only 9.3 per cent women. It is probable therefore that the
inclusion of the extra establishments in 1918 altered the character of
the classification so that the relative position of the women's index
based on the 1914 average is not representative. * :
With such minor exceptions it may be stated that, on the whole,
the general course of employment in Ohio as illustrated in the figures
is upward for both men and women, and this tendency is represented
with a fair degree of accuracy by the figures and curves for the total.
In the few cases where the tendency is downward this tendency
usually is the same for both sexes and is illustrated by the curves for
the total.
Even when the trends in employment from one year to the next are
considered, the similarity between the two sexes is almost as marked
as in the case of the trends over the 11-year period. In a few years,
however, notably 1915, 1918, 1919, and 1924, there are a number of
classifications in which there is a difference in trend for the two
sexes, shown by comparing for each sex the figure giving average
employment for the year with the corresponding figure for the year
before. In other words, from 1917 to 1918, of the 42 comparisons
possible, there are 24 in which the average employment of both sexes
shows the same trend, but there are 17 in which average employment, increased for women but decreased for men and there is 1 in
which average employment increased for men but decreased for
women. The year 1918 was exceptional in this regard and the
curves show how rapidly after the war was over men's and women's
employment resumed its normal similarity of course. Next to 1918
the most conspicuous extent of difference in trend is evident in
comparing average employment for the two sexes in 1923 and 1924.
In these two years it is possible to make 54 comparisons. In 37
classifications the trend from one year to the next is the same for
both sexes. In 10 classifications the average employment for women
is higher in 1924 than in 1923 while for men it is lower, and in 7
classifications the men's figure has increased while women's has
decreased.
Such comparisons in average employment from year to year probably are not so significant as the curves that show the actual trend
from month to month. The average figures may be too strongly
influenced by the effect of seasonal or other temporary stimulation
within the year to give, in certain classifications, a fully reliable indication of the trend for the year. Nevertheless, the lack of any extensive difference in the general trends for the sexes as indicated by
these averages is a significant supplement to the similarities indicated
by the more detailed curves. Taking them in all, of a total of 482
possible comparisons of average employment between two consecutive years, the changes indicated are alike for the two sexes in 390
instances and different in only 92. Of these 92 differences there are
54 cases where the women's average goes up and the men's goes dowm,
and 38 where the men's goes up and the women's goes down.




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT

TRENDS

21

An especially important aspect of long-term trends for women is
shown by the figures that indicate, over a period of years, whether
women have tended to decrease or to increase in the wrage-earning
group.
It is possible for total figures to give a fairly accurate indication
of whether or not the trend of employment over a certain period has
been up or down, and if this situation applies alike, even though not
equally, to both sexes the long-term trend in this respect as shown by
the total may be generally indicative of the situation for men and
women considered separately.
It is obvious, however, that no figures showing only the developments of total employment can be indicative of changes in the proportionate importance of any of the components of the total figures.
If such changes have occurred they will be entirely lost sight of when
figures are given only for total employment. The extent and significance of the information that would thus be obscured are well illustrated in the curves computed for the Ohio employment figures,
where it is apparent that in the majority of cases the figures for the
total fail to indicate the development in women's employment that
took place during the 11-year period.
The trend toward increased proportionate importance of women is
particularly striking and consistent in the clerical classifications, all
of which show not only considerable and steady increase for both
sexes but a marked increase in the proportion of women.
Similar increases, though not nearly so conspicuous nor so consistent, are evident in the more inclusive classification showing the
figures for all employees. In transportation and public utilities also
the proportion of women increased during the 11 years, although the
last 3 years of the period show a tendency toward a slightly decreased
importance.
In the manufacturing industries as a whole there seems to have
been very little permanent change in the proportionate importance
of women among the wage earners, but this is not true when the
figures are examined for the separate manufacturing classifications.
Among these groups there are many examples of increased importance
of women, as in the manufacture of iron and steel and their products;
electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies; miscellaneous manufacturing; pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay products; stone, clay,
and glass products; and rubber products. In none of these is the
proportionate increase for women indicated by the total curve,
although in every case the total curve does show the general trend of
employment during the period under consideration.
In a few cases the increased proportionate importance of women
is due more to a decrease in the number of men than to any development in actual employment for women. This is apparent in the
figures for tobacco manufacturing and for its subsidiary group, the
manufacture of cigars and cigarettes, etc. It also appears in the
curves for the manufacture of leather and leather products and the
subsidiary group, the manufacture of boots, shoes, etc. In these
classifications the total figures, although they indicate decreases in
employment, give no idea of the extent to which men have lost their
relative importance among the wage earners.




22

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

In a smaller number of classifications it is apparent that women
became of less importance during the 11-year period. This is true of
sales people, to a less degree of wage earners in trade, retail and wholesale, and to a slight degree of wage earners in service. It is apparently true also in the curve for all wage earners, but the situation
illustrated there may be only a temporary fluctuation, as it does not
show the long-term tendency that is characteristic of the trends in
the other groups. In the manufacturing classifications some examples of decreasing importance of women are found in the curves for
boxes (fancy and paper) and drinking cups, metals and metal products, and printing and publishing. For those groups where there has
been a significant decrease in the proportionate employment of women
this fact would be totally lost sight of if the figures on employment
were shown only for the total.
Of course there is a remaining group of classifications in which the
relative importance of the sexes did not change conspicuously during
the 11-year period. This is not the case in any of the larger classifications, with the possible exception of the wage earners in all manufactures, where the change in proportionate importance of the sexes was
not consistent nor regular nor very great during the period. In a few
of the subsidiary groups of manufacturing, however, it is evident
that there has been little permanent change in the relative importance
of the sexes during the period.
Probably the most conspicuous example of similarity in the longterm trends for the two sexes is in the classification of wage earners
in the manufacture of textiles. Here the proportionate increases for
men and women during the 11 -year period are almost identical. However, in the subsidiary groups for which figures on textile manufacturing are shown this similarity is not so exact. The most conspicuous
divergence is in the manufacture of hosiery and knit goods, where the
proportionate importance of women was considerably less in 1924
than in 1914. In the manufacture of men's clothing there was apparently a slight increase in the relative importance of women among the
wage earners during the 11-year period, but this appeared to be
diminishing at the close of the period. In the manufacture of
women's clothing the curves of employment seem to indicate a
decided increase in the proportionate importance of women in spite
of a general decrease in employment for both sexes. This increase,
however, may be due more to a change in the establishments reporting
between 1914 and 1915 than to any significant development in the
industry. In the manufacture of cloth gloves, another division of the
textile classification, there is a very great similarity in the long-term
trends for the two sexes.
Additional illustrations of similarity of long-term trends for the
two sexes may be found in canning and preserving and in the manufacture of lumber and its products.
In cases such as these the figures and curves showing trends for total
employment are quite accurately indicative of the long-term trends
for each sex, but they are very much in the minority. It is more
usual to find in the various classifications that there has been a change
in the relative importance of the sexes and that this is not indicated
in the figures showing only total employment.




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS
FACTORS T H A T INFLUENCE VARIATIONS IN M E N ' S A N D
E M P L O Y M E N T TRENDS

23
WOMEN'S

In studying the illustrations presented of the differences in extent
of variability between the trends of employment for men and women
it is immediately apparent that this variability differs to marked
degrees in the different classifications. In some cases the ups and
downs of the curve showing the trend of employment for the total
number are duplicated with great accuracy by the curves showing
trends for men and women separately. In other cases there is a wide
divergence of one sex or the other from the curve for the total.
Occasionally the trends indicated by the total curve are representative
of neither men's nor women's employment.
If the significance of the curve for the total as an indication of
trend for either sex is to be evaluated adequately, it will be necessary
to discover whether there are any influences that make consistently
for any one type of deviation for either sex or that bring about a
greater similarity. In other words, how is the resemblance between
the curve for each sex and the curve for the total affected by the size
of the group; by the scope of the industries and occupations included;
by the relative importance of the two sexes; by the seasonal requirements of the industries included; by the developments within industry leading to changes in product and methods of production; by
the concentration of one or the other sex in certain definite occupational lines; by the influences of general economic conditions, such
as the war or the depression of 1920-21; or by local situations, such
as strikes, affecting more limited groups included in the classification? If certain of these factors can be shown to have a consistent
and predictable effect upon the resemblance between the trends for the
two sexes and that for the total it may be possible to accept as accurate the indications of the total, making such qualifications for either
sex as the type of the classification and the period under discussion
may require. If this can not be done, if the effect of these various
factors is so erratic as to permit no generalization, the only alternative will be to require employment figures separately for each sex
if the significant trends of women's employment are to be made clear.
Size of classification.
It is almost a truism of statistics that the larger the numbers
from which a curve is drawn the smoother will be the curve. This
does not apply, however, when considering the extent of resemblance
between the curves for men and women indicated in these charts
based on Ohio employment statistics.
Considering first the curves that indicate the trends for all the
employees covered by the Ohio figures, apparently there were three
periods when there were distinct differences in trend for men and
women. The chief differences in the curves are the more rapid increase
of men from 1914 to the middle of 1917, the more rapid increase of
women during the latter part of 1918, both due probably to the
war, and a smaller decrease of women than of men during the last
months of 1920.
The differences that appear in the smaller classifications are neither
consistently greater nor consistently less than those in the largest of
all classifications. The classifications that make up the total group,




24

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

of all employed persons, are most of them very distinct in type, and
some show great similarities and some great differences in the trends
for the sexes.
Comparing the figures for all employees with those for the three
groups wage earners, sales people not traveling,^ and bookkeepers,
stenographers, and office clerks, which together make up the allinclusive group, it is obvious immediately that it is the figures for the
wage earners that influence the general curve most strongly. Although
the employment of wage earners reached in 1921 and 1924 a level that
was slightly lower than that of all persons, the general shape of the
curve of employment for the two groups during the 11-year period
is very similar.
There is, however, one important exception to this similarity: In
1924 the total curve for all wage earners indicates a decided decrease
in employment that is not shown to any great extent for all employees.
Furthermore, in the years 1923 and 1924 the women in the all-employees curve maintained a higher level than did the men and during
the last months of 1924 women's employment was increasing rapidly
while men's was decreasing. This is not true where the smaller
group, wage earners, is considered. Here the employment of men
and women was on practically the same level in 1923, while in 1924
the employment of women dropped to a level well below that of
men and showed no tendency to a greater increase during the late
months of the year. Obviously, then, although there is remarkable
similarity in the trends for the two sexes in these two groups there
are differences that are extremely significant.
Clerical workers.

Examination of the figures for the sales and clerical groups shows
that the difference in the trends for the sexes between the curve for
all wage earners and that for all employees is due chiefly to the
influence upon the latter of the figures for clerical workers. In this
group, although the trends for the two sexes are very similar throughout the 11-year period, with the exception of 1918, the women
increased greatly in relative importance late in 1917 and all through
1918 and maintained their position after that time. It is plainly the
influence of the figures for this group that is chiefly responsible for the
differences in trend for the two sexes between the wage-earners
group and the larger classification of all employees.
Sales people.

This fact becomes even more plain when the figures for sales people
not traveling are considered. The figures for this group illustrate
the effect of seasonal demands on women's employment in sales occupations, showing greatly increased numbers of women during the
latter part of each year. The seasonal aspect of sales work is not
nearly so evident in the figures for men's employment. Ignoring this
difference in seasonal demands, however, the general trend of men's
and women's employment in sales work did not differ greatly until
1921, when the index of women's employment became considerably
less than that of men's and continued so, with the exception of the
seasonal stimulation at the end of each year, through 1923 and 1924.
The situation with the sales people in respect to the different trends
for men and women during 1923 and 1924 is, therefore, more like the
situation with the wage earners and is not represented by the curves
for all employees, of whom the sales people are a part.



VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS

25

Examination of the most important classes of sales work discloses
very great similarity among them. In each case one subclassificationy
includes the vast majority of the employees in the larger g r o u p s
For example, of sales people in all industries the sales people in trade
formed 83.7 per cent in 1914, while the sales people in trade consisted
chiefly of the sales people in stores—98.7 per cent in 1914. The sales
people in all manufactures being in a minority among all sales people
showed a greater deviation from the trends for the larger group and
for its more important subclassifications.
The significant difference in trend between sales people in manufacturing and those in trade is that in manufacturing the 11-year
period saw women's index of employment rise above that of men
from the middle of 1915 to the end of 1920. After that it dropped
below men's at first only slightly but by 1924 to a considerable degree.
In trade the index of men's employment was noticeably below women's (except for the seasonal increase of women at the end of each
year) only during a few months in 1918 and the first half of 1919.
After that it was consistently and increasingly higher than women's.
Another difference in employment trend between the sales people
in trade and those in manufacturing is that in manufacturing there is
not nearly so great a seasonal factor in women's employment as
there is in trade. Women's employment fluctuated to only a very
slight degree in manufacturing, while in trade there was a decided
peak in their employment in December of each year.
The course of employment for men and women in sales work
in manufacturing is very different from that of the men and women
wage earners in manufacturing. This difference shows the effect of
occupational classification upon the comparative trends for the two
sexes. When for wage earners men's employment increased more
rapidly than women's between 1915 and the middle of 1917, for sales
people women's employment increased more rapidly than men's
from the end of 1915 to the end of 1918. While the index for the women in sales remained consistently above the index for men from 1915
to the end of 1920, the index for the women wage earners during the
same period was above the men's only for five months in 1918 and two
months in 1919, and these two periods were not consecutive. In
1921, when the men's index dropped lower than the women's for the
wage earners, the women's dropped lower than the men's for the sales
people. In 1924, when the women in sales work were well below the
men, the women wage earners were at first equal to men and then
above them.
The long-term trends indicate for both sexes a greater rate of increase in sales work than in the wage-earning group. At the close of
1924 the index of employment for wage earners had reached only
135 for men and 145 for women, while the men in sales work had an
index of 187 and the women an index of 168.
Wage earners.

The group of wage earners forms by far the largest part of the total
of all employees, the number of all wage earners in 1914 being 86.2
per cent of the number of all employees in that year, and the number
in 1924 being 81.5 per cent.
The five chief groups in which the wage earners are classified
are agriculture, manufactures, service, trade, and transportation
64130°—30




3

26

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

and public utilities. Construction and fisheries also are groups of
wage earners, but because of the fact that these classifications are not
important so far as women are concerned they have not been included
in this study.
It is apparent in examining the curves for these groups that manufacturing is the only one that is represented typically in the curve
of all wage earners.
Agricvlture.—In agriculture the number of wage earners employed
is subject to such violent seasonal fluctuation that the figures and
curves showing employment in this classification are difficult of analysis from the standpoint of long-term variations in trends for the two
sexes.
Also, unfortunately, the figures upon which these curves are based
can not be considered so representative as those that form the basis for
the other charts. It goes without saying that the limitation of the
establishments reporting to those with three or more employees,
explained in an earlier section of this report, has affected materially
the representative character of the returns for wage earners in agriculture. As a matter of fact, the United States census of occupations
for 1920 reports for Ohio more than 70,000 persons as farm laborers
working out. Undoubtedly there is a very large amount of agricultural work done on farms having fewer than three employees, and as
none of the employers on such farms would be expected to report to
the State authorities th£ agricultural figures are very far from complete. Nevertheless, the figures given show clearly the outstanding
characteristics of this group and the differences between men's and
women's employment.
To eliminate as far as possible the distracting fluctuations in the
curves for agriculture resulting from the seasonal employment in
this classification, another set of curves, based on a moving average
of the original figures, has been drawn. By this method the curves
are smoothed sufficiently to give a more readily appreciated picture
of general trends in the classification. After examining the extreme
variations between and fluctuations in men's and women's employment indicated by the curves showing monthly employment, it is
striking to find in the smoothed curves how much more closely the
general trends for men and women resemble the trends indicated by
the curve for the total. The differences in the trends for men and
women illustrated by this smoothed curve do not resemble in general
the differences that appear in the classification of wage earners in all
industries.
During the years 1918, 1919, and 1920 the index of women's employment in agriculture was consistently higher than the index of
men's and in 1922 the women's curve fell well below the men's, but
in 1924 women were below men in the all-wage-earners group but
above them in agriculture.
It is evident that, even eliminating the intense seasonal fluctuations
for women that occur in agriculture, the employment curve for women
is much more sensitive than is men's. The general long-term trends,
however, are not very different.
Service.—Another of the subsidiary groups of wage earners in all
industries is that which includes the wage earners in service. In
1914 the average number of employees in this group numbered 21,578,
which is only 3.9 per cent of the number of all wage earners at that




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT

TRENDS

27

date. By 1924 the average had increased to 62,834, or 7.3 per cent of
the number of all wage earners.
The differences in the trend of employment for men and women in
the all-wage-earners curve are not reflected in the curves for those
engaged in service. With the exception of the close of 1918, the employment indexes for men and women in service run in parallel lines,
with little deviation for either sex from the curve of total employees.
The last half of 1918 saw a drop in the curve of men's employment
that was not paralleled for the women, but by the middle of 1919
the men had more than regained their position and in spite of considerable fluctuations in the succeeding years the relative importance of the
two sexes has not changed greatly.
Although increasing and decreasing at approximately the same rate,
the employment of women wage earners in service has remained consistently subordinate in importance to that of men.
Neither the similarity between the curves for men and women in
this group nor the fairly consistent increases for both sexes throughout
the 11-year period are indicated in the curves for all wage earners.
The curve for total wage earners in service is adequately representative of both long-time and seasonal trends for both sexes.
To discover whether this similarity of trend for the two sexes is
really characteristic of this branch of work, the analysis of trends in
service occupations must be carried one step further to show to what
extent .this similarity applies to smaller classifications within this
industrial group. It is quite possible that the trends for the two sexes
in one of the smaller groups may, when combined with those of other
groups, so offset each other that the similarities evident in the curves
for all wage earners in service may not be typical of the components
of this classification.
Three important industries the wage earners in which form part
of this service classification are hotels, restaurants, and laundries
and dry cleaners. The curves for these three groups show some
important differences in men's and women's employment that are not
reflected in the total curves for both sexes in the same groups and that
are not duplicated in the variation indicated by the curves for all
service classifications combined.
Taking first the hotels, which employed in 1914 an average of
5,410 wage earners, of whom 37.5 per cent were women, and 11,725
wage earners in 1924, of whom 43.2 per cent were women. In 1915
the curve for the total shows a sharp increase in employment in July
and a sharp decrease in October. This fluctuation is entirely the
result of a similar movement in men's employment, for women's
employment decreased very slightly in July and rose very slightly
in October. Clearly in this instance the curve for the total would
give a very erroneous impression of the progress of women's employment in hotels in that year. The next discrepancy between the trend
indicated by the total curve and that for each of the two sexes occurs
in 1918. Here the employment as shown by the total curve did not
fluctuate very greatly. The index at the beginning of the year was
181; at the end of the year it was 179 and the increase in the summer
months amounted to less than 10 points. This course of employment
is typical for neither the men nor the women, and it is the result of the
neutralizing effect of combining the figures for men and women when




28

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

the trends of their employment were in opposite directions. After
1918 the total curve indicates with considerable fidelity the seasonal
and long-term trends for both sexes, although it fails to reflect the
decrease in the proportionate importance of women during the
summer of 1922 and the total proportionate gain that women have
made in this industry since the beginning of 1918. Women have
held to an astonishing degree the gains they made in this type of
work during the war. This is a fundamentally important fact as
far as women are concerned that would be lost sight of if the figures
for employment were not separated for the two sexes.
In restaurants the curve for the total wage earners follows very
closely the trends for both men and women—but here again are two
instances where a deviation from the normal similarity of trends for
each sex limits the representative character of the total curve. In
1918 the men and women wage earners in restaurants, like those in
hotels, followed different courses of employment. The women
increased rapidly through September and decreased, though not so
rapidly, from September to December. The men decreased as the
women increased, and having reached their lowest point in October
increased to December. The result of those opposite trends was, of
course, that they offset each other and the curve for the combined
figures is representative of neither. Later on, in 1922, the men
experienced an unprecedented increase, reaching a very high point
by September and decreasing at practically the same rate afterwards.
The women's curve shows no such peak, but instead, with only one
or two breaks, had a fairly consistent increase throughout the year.
The increase of the men was so great as to influence the total curve
to such a degree that the total resembles the men's trend much more
than it does that of the women.
With these exceptions, however, the total gives usually a trustworthy picture of the trends for both sexes in restaurants.
In laundries and dry cleaners the total curve is representative of
both seasonal fluctuations and long-term trends for men and for
women. The only thing—but a very important thing—that it fails
to show is the degree to which men are becoming more important
among the wage earners in this industry. Starting with the beginning of 1919 the men's proportionate importance increased, until by
the middle of 1920 they were well above the index for women. Since
that time they have maintained their relative numerical superiority.
Trade.—Turning to the classification of wage earners employed
in trade (retail and wholesale) it is apparent that the total curve is
representative of the trends for the two sexes to very much the same
extent as in the service classification.
Although the curve for total wage earners in trade does not bring
out the seasonal aspect of women's employment nor the temporarily
increased importance of women from 1918 to 1921, it does give a very
close approximation to the long-term trend of employment for each
sex, the index in December, 1924, being 223.5 for all wage earners,
while that for men was practically the same, and the women's index,
due chiefly to the characteristic seasonal increase in December, was
228.7.
Aside from the differences in seasonal trend for the two sexes the
most significant difference in the curves for employment of men and
of women in trade that is not shown by the curve for all wage earners




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT

TRENDS

• 29

and that does not appear in the curves for the other groups of wage
earners is the increased proportionate importance of women wage
earners in trade during the years 1918, 1919, 1920, and the first half
of 1921. Before and after this period the index of women's employment, with exceptions for occasional seasonal fluctuation, was less
than the index for men, but in March, 1918, the index for women
became 16.3 points higher than that of men and stayed higher to a
greater or less degree until after June, 1921. Apparently women then
resumed their normal place and the curve of their employment
fluctuated about that of the men very much as it did during the
first four years of the 11-year period.
Transportation.—For the wage earners in transportation and public
utilities the curve for the total shows a greater deviation from the
curve for women than appears in trade, service, manufactures, or
all industries. Both the curves for each year and the long-term
curves for the 11-year period show marked differences in trend for
the two sexes, and, probably because of the small proportion that
women formed of the total employees (17.9 per cent in 1914 and 20.4
per cent in 1924), the curve for the total parallels that of the men and
does not reflect the situation with regard to the women. It is apparent
from the curves for the two sexes that women increased rapidly in
proportionate importance from the beginning of 1917. During 1919
they lost some of their importance while the men increased slightly,
but after this the women remained at a fairly consistently higher
level than the men until the early part of 1922, when there was an
increase in men's employment that was not paralleled by the women.
From then on, ignoring considerable seasonal fluctuations among the
men, the relative importance of women has decreased somewhat.
As the very great majority of the women who are classified as wage
earners in transportation and public utilities are telephone operators,
it seems likely that this decrease in proportionate importance is due
to the introduction of automatic telephones. If so, it is an important
trend and affects large groups of women. It would be entirely
obscured in a curve that included the figures of employment for both
sexes.
On the other hand, as an indication of general long-term trends for
this group the curve for the total would be fairly indicative of the
situation for each sex, with an index in December, 1924, of 167 for the
total and of 161.2 and 193.4 for the men and women, respectively.
The greater rate of increase for women than for men would, however,
be lost sight of, as would the extent to which women have lost some
of the gains they made during the war and postwar years.
Manufacturing.—For wage earners in manufacturing the similarity
of the curves to those for all wage earners is very great, but even
here a striking discrepancy in the trends for the two sexes is apparent.
The chart for wage earners in all industries shows that in 1924 women's
employment dropped from a relatively high index to one that was
considerably below that of men. In manufacturing this did not occur.
On the contrary, at the beginning of 1924 men's and women's employment was on very nearly the same level and subsequently women
decreased at a less rate and then advanced at a greater rate than did
men. It was not until the latter part of the year that the trend of
women's employment started downward, while men's went up.




30

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

With this exception the general trend of employment as well as
the differences for the two sexes was strikingly similar for all wage
earners and for wage earners in manufacturing. The total curve in
the manufacturing as in the all-wage-earners classification, however,
fails to indicate certain differences in the curves for the two sexes
that are of great importance in view of the fact that these differences
resulted from well known economic conditions. From the early part
of 1915 the effect of the World War on men's and women's employment was not the same. Both groups increased in numbers but men
increased more rapidly, until by January, 1917, they had reached
an index about 25 points above the index for women. After that the
women began to increase more rapidly, until by July, 1918, they had
almost reached the men's level, and afterwards they exceeded it.
These fluctuations for the two sexes can be traced definitely to the
war. At first, before the entry of the United States, men's employment increased more rapidly as the industries stimulated by the
demands from foreign countries were those that manufactured munitions or metal goods in which large numbers of men were employed.
With the entry of the United States into the war increases in employment stopped at first and then women began to be employed in
increased numbers. At the close of 1918, with the cessation of war,
the curve of women's employment naturally came tumbling down
more rapidly than men's, as the women, to meet the necessities of
war production, had been taken on beyond the saturation point
while the minimum of men had been employed. These fluctuations
in employment for the two sexes are not reflected in the curve for
total wage earners in all manufactures. It is impossible that they
should be, as in one or two cases they are in opposite directions.
The curve for total employees therefore reflects the trend of the larger
group—the men—and does not represent the trend for the women
except when their trend is similar to that of the men. This occurs
in a number of years. Speaking roughly, the curve for the total is
representative of both sexes in 1914, 1915, 1919, 1920, most of 1922,
1923, and the first part of 1924.
It is in the crucial years, from a standpoint of economic significance, that the differences come for the two sexes, and in those
years curves separate for men and women are necessary if the facts
are to emerge.
Carrying the analysis through all the minor classifications of wage
earners in manufacturing would only emphasize what the foregoing
accounts have shown. Each classification has its characteristic
similarities or variations for the two sexes, and these do not combine
in the more inclusive classification so as consistently to offset or to
emphasize each other. Combining the figures for several groups
has not resulted in a flattening out of dissimilarities. Evidence of
dissimilarity in the largest classifications is of course not so extreme
as in some of the smaller groups, but on the other hand there are not
a few of the smaller groups where the resemblance in trend for the
two sexes is far more marked than in the larger groups.
Classification.
Apparently it is the type more than the size of the classifications
included that influences the variability of trend for men and women.
It takes very little study of the curves to show that when the classifi-




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS

• 31

cation is a fairly homogeneous one, built along functional lines, there
is a far greater similarity in the trends for the sexes than when the
classification is such as to include many widely different types of
industry and occupation. For example, the similarity of trend for the
two sexes in the clerical (bookkeepers, stenographers, and office
clerks) and in the sales group is very marked, and the trends for men
and women clerical workers in manufacturing establishments are
much more like those for other groups of clerical workers than they
are like those for the wage earners employed in the same manufacturing establishments.
The same is true for the clerical workers employed in trade. The
trends for the two sexes in this case are more like those of the clerical
workers in manufacturing and of all clerical workers than they are
like those of the wage earners in trade.
Naturally in any inclusive classification the extent of variation
between the sexes will be weighted by the extent of the variations
that appear in the components of the classification most important
numerically. If, as in the classification of textiles, the subclassifications are on fairly homogeneous lines, the trends for the sexes in
the larger classification will show less variation than when the classification covers a very broad and heterogeneous group of subciassifications having little occupational similarity. This situation is represented in the iron and steel curves, where the trends for the two
sexes are far more divergent than in the more selective classification
of textile manufacturing.
Other instances of very general classifications where the variations
between the sexes are noticeably erratic are miscellaneous manufacturing and the manufacture of metals and metal products. On
the other hand is the classification of paper and printing, which is an
example of an inclusive classification whose component groups represent more similar occupational concentration for the two sexes. In
this classification the trends for the two sexes are much more alike.
With as complicated a subject as trends of employment it is not
possible to isolate the effect of any one factor when so many influences are bringing about increases and decreases for each sex. But
it seems safe to state that if employment figures were consistently
classified in homogeneous groups in regard both to the occupational
concentrations of the sexes and to the product, the trends for the two
sexes would be very similar and very faithfully reproduced in the
figures for the total.
Seasonality.
In some industries a distinctly seasonal tendency for one sex or the
other disturbs what would otherwise be a very great similarity between the sexes, and brings about, in consequence, a divergence of
one of the sexes from the trend indicated by the total figures. It is
more usual, however, for both sexes to be affected by the seasonal
stimulation, although not usually to the same extent.
On the whole, the curves for the Ohio figures show that where
there is a distinct seasonal trend for one sex and not for the other
this trend is reflected, if it is sufficiently marked, in the total curve.
For example, the total curve for sales people in all industries indicates a considerable increase of employment at the end of each year.




32

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

Actually this increase is found principally among the women, although
the men have it to a certain extent. On the other hand, the seasonal
fluctuation indicated by the total curve for wage earners in service
applies to both men and women.
Intense seasonal fluctuation occurring for either sex that is much
in the minority is not reflected in the total curve. This is illustrated
by the curves for wage earners in trade, where the seasonal fluctuation indicated for women is reflected in the total curve to only a very
limited extent, the women in this classification forming onfy about 19
per cent of the total employees.
The curves showing the trend of employment for wage earners in
agriculture present an almost dramatic picture of seasonal fluctuation
in this line of work. Wage earners in this classification are faced
with extremely seasonal work that fluctuates more greatly for women
than for men. The curve for total employees follows almost exactly
the curve for men, due to the very large proportion men formed of all
employees (about 93 per cent). The extreme peaks of women's
employment during June are not indicated in the curve for total
employees, but that June is the season of highest employment for
both sexes is plain from the total curve.
Another example of exceedingly great seasonal fluctuation where
the total does not show the extent of the fluctuation for women, but
indicates with considerable accuracy the seasonal trends for both
sexes, is canning and preserving. Here, although the proportion of
women among all wage earners (about 40 per cent in 1924) is far
larger than in agriculture, the high peak of their employment in tho
summer is not fully indicated by the total. However, the same
months are also the busy months for men, so the general seasonal
character of the group is indicated very accurately by the total.
The manufacture of confectionery is a third example of highly
seasonal employment, but in this case, probably because there are
more women than men in the classification, the total curve follows
the women's seasonal fluctuations more closely than the men's.
The manufacture of bakery products is another example in the
manufacture of food and kindred products of a seasonal industry for
which the total shows the type of seasonal stimulation for each sex
but not the more extreme fluctuations for the women.
The manufacture of automobiles and parts is somewhat seasonal
and the seasonal variations are indicated in'the total. The fluctuations in women's employment, although very great, probably are not
due chiefly to seasonal factors, and therefore, although the total for
this industry is by no means representative of women's trend, it is
not because of a difference in seasonal demands.
The curves showing employment in the manufacture of men's and
women's clothing indicate a certain degree of seasonality for both
sexes, which is very accurately represented by the total. As an
indication of the seasonal problems of the clothing industry, however,
the trend shown by these curves is probably not representative of a
field wider than the State for which the figures are presented. For
both the men's and women's clothing industries in Ohio are influenced
by factors that make for greater steadiness of employment than may
be expected in other localities.




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT

TRENDS

• 33

Relative importance of men and women.
The proportionate importance of either sex in the total for any
one classification does not seem to be a strong influence toward either
similarity or dissimilarity in trend for the two sexes. Of course
where there is a difference in trend the total curve will most closely
resemble the numerically superior sex, but it is not apparent that
there is more actual difference in trend where one sex is very much
in the minority than where they are on a more equal basis. For
example, in the manufacture of iron and steel and their products,
where women in 1924 formed less than 3 per cent of all employees,
the trends for the two sexes were not greatly unlike except for the
war years 1917 and 1918 and to a less degree in 1915 and 1916, and
such differences are found in the great majority of industrial classifications irrespective of the proportionate importance of the sexes.
In the other classifications in which women formed a very small
proportion of the wage earners there were different degrees of variation between the trends for the two sexes, but these differences
apparently were dependent upon other factors than the proportionate
importance of women. In .the manufacture of lumber and its
products, where the proportion of women was around 6 per cent,
there were marked differences in trend for the two sexes not only in
•1917 and 1918 but in 1919 and 1921. These differences are plainly
due not to the great disparity in the proportionate importance of the
two sexes but to economic conditions accompanying and following
the war. In the manufacture of liquors and beverages, where women
formed only about 2 per cent of the wage earners, certain extreme
variations occur for the women that are not duplicated by the curves
for the men. In this case, however, the extreme fluctuations for the
women are due chiefly to the very small actual number of women—
varying from 27 to 249 over the 11-year period—and a consequently
small base number for the 1914 index, which would inevitably result
in a curve showing very great fluctuations.
In the manufacture of automobiles and parts, where women formed
about 5 per cent of the wage earners, the very extreme fluctuations
for the women that do not occur fpr the men probably are due chiefly
to the fact that the employment of women in this industry is comparatively new. They are being experimented with—added in
great numbers when there is a rush of work, laid off just as rapidly
when times are dull; taken on for the manufacture of some new
product and laid off when certain styles are discontinued. They are
still the "extras" in this type of work, and this is a more fundamental
reason for the erratic course of their employment than is the fact
that they are in a minority in the industry.
Although the proportionate importance of the sexes does not seem
to have an important bearing on the extent of variation between the
trends of employment for the two sexes, it does, of course, play a very
leading part in determining the resemblance of the total curve to
one or the other sex.
When trends of employment for men and women are similar the
curve for the total of both sexes represents the situation with considerable fidelity. Where the trends are different—and these are
the crucially important spots as far as women's opportunity is




34

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

concerned—the curves for the total illustrate most closely the trend
for the sex that is most important proportionately and this usually
is the men.
General economic conditions.
Probably it is the effect of general economic conditions that causes
the most violent deviation for the two sexes from the trend indicated
by the curve for the total. The outstanding example of this will
be found in comparing the course of men's and women's employment
during the period of the World War and during the depression of
1920-21.
THE WAR

From a comparison of the curves for bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks, for sales people, and for wage earners it is apparent
that the readjustments and stimulations resulting from the war did
not affect the trends of men's and women's employment in the same
way. For example, the curves for all wage earners show that with
the early part of 1915 both men's and women's employment began
to increase but the increase was much more rapid for men than for
women. It was not until the middle of 1917 that women's increases
began to catch up with the men's. In 1918, although men's employment increased at a fairly rapid rate, women's employment increased
even more rapidly, until by August, 1918, the women's index equaled
the men's. After August, 1918, the women continued to increase for
a few months while the men decreased, but during the last month of
the year, after the war was over, women decreased as well as the men.
This decrease continued for both sexes until March, 1919, and for
women it was prolonged until June, by which time men's employment
had picked up again and their index once again equaled and then
exceeded that of the women. No such variation in trend of employment for the two sexes as a result of the war is found in the
curves for clerical workers and sales people.
Clerical workers.

Among the clerical workers the effect of the war apparently was to
increase the employment of women at a greater rate than the employment of men. The women's curve started to ascend at a greater
rate than men's at the beginning of 1917 and continued so until the
end of 1918, but the curve was not a fluctuating one for either sex
and their increases had very much the same trend. The war, however, left the women in clerical work in a very much better position
than the men.
In the smaller classifications of clerical workers the war seems to
have affected the trends for the two sexes in very much the same way
except for the year 1918. In manufacturing, the men and women
clerical workers increased at almost exactly the same rate until the
last part of 1917. From then on until almost the end of 1918 the
women increased rapidly while the men showed a slight decrease.
Almost as soon as the war was over, however, men began to increase
again, but they did not regain to any great extent the proportionate
importance that had been theirs before the United States entered
the war. In trade also, the effect of the war, except for 1918, was to
stimulate employment for both men and women clerical workers,




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS

• 35

but the men's employment, although following the same trend as
women's, has steadily become less important.
Clerical workers in trade are divided into two groups, representing
employment in offices and in stores. For these two groups the
year 1918 showed the decrease in men's employment and the increase in women's that are characteristic of the larger classifications
of clerical workers. The beginning of 1915, however, showed a
condition in stores that was not paralleled in offices. In the beginning
of this year there was apparently a great drop in men's employment,
followed by a slight increase throughout the year. This great drop
at the beginning of the year can not be attributed to a change in
the number of establishments reporting, as in this respect there
was an increase of 449 between 1914 and 1915. This decrease, as
well as the course of men's and women's employment in clerical
work in stores, although unlike the curves for offices is similar to
those for all clerical workers in trade.
Sales people.

For the sales people there seems to have been practically no change
in the trends for the two sexes resulting from the war. The curves
for the two sexes maintain the same relative positions almost without
exception, until the beginning of 1918. For the first few months of
1918 men's employment remained much as usual but women's
employment increased, and wher men's employment showed an
unusual decrease at the last part of 1918 the women maintained their
usual great seasonal increase and started 1919 in a better position
than did the men, who, however, quickly regained their usual position in the industry and by August the curves for the two sexes started
to resume a shape similar to that preceding 1918. Evidently for the
sales group what small effect the war had on accentuating differences
in trend for men and women came later than it did for all wage
earners, the group so largely influenced by the manufacturing
industries.
Examination of the smaller classifications of sales persons shows
that although the war seems to have brought about a slight increase
in the importance of women in sales work in manufacturing, on the
whole it does not seem to have had a very important effect on differences in trend for men and women in sales work. The year 1915 saw
an increased proportion of men employed in sales work in trade but
this increase in proportion held true only for that year, and after that
there was little significant change in the trends for the two sexes
until March, 1918, when women began to assume the slightly increased
importance that they retained until the middle of 1919. In manufacturing, the curves for the sales people show a drop in employment
for both sexes in 1915. This may be due to a cessation of selling
activities in manufacturing at the beginning of the war, or it may be
due to some change in the establishments reporting. Whatever its
cause, however, it did not result in any important change in the relative position of men and women in this type of work. After 1915 the
women's curve showed a slight superiority over the men's, but increases in employment were not severe. Nineteen hundred and eighteen saw the characteristic, but very slight, increase for women and
decrease for men. The recovery in 1919 was quick and along similar
lines for both sexes.




36

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

Wage earners.

When the important classification of wage earners is considered
it is immediately apparent that the effect of the war in causing variations in men's and women's employment was far more marked and
more diverse here than in the classifications of clerical workers and
sales people.
For the men and women wage earners in agriculture, service, trade,
and transportation and public utilities, the variations in trend resulting from the war are not at all similar to the variations indicated by
curves for wage earners in all industries.
Agriculture.—In agriculture the curves based on the moving average show that the women started to increase more rapidly than did
men in 1914. In the latter part of 1917 their rate of increase became
considerably greater than that of men and continued so throughout
1918. In fact women held most of the proportionate importance
gained during the war until 1921. The extent to which women in
agriculture profited by the war is not indicated by the total curve.
Service.—In service occupations as a whole the relative importance
of men and women wage earners seems not to have been affected at
all by the war until the middle of 1918, when men's employment decreased rapidly although women's continued along a normal course.
By the middle of 1919 the men's curve had risen again until they
had more than regained their former position of superiority in this
classification.
Study of some of the smaller classifications of wage earners in
service shows that the variations in^trend for the two sexes that appear
in the total classification were representative of the situation for the
men and women wage earners in hotels and restaurants but not those
in laundries and dry cleaners.
Ignoring a temporary and apparently seasonal fluctuation for the
men in hotels during the summer months of 1915 and a marked increase for the men in restaurants during the last quarter of 1916,
there was a general and quite steady upward trend for men and
women during the first years of the war, from the beginning of 1915
through 1917. In 1918 came the characteristic decrease of men and
increase of women that appears in so many of the charts for this
year. In restaurants 1919 saw a quick return to a similarity of
trend for the two sexes, but in hotels men did not regain the position
that they lost in 1918, although the trend of their employment was
very similar to that of the women.
In laundries and dry cleaners the war does not seem to have
changed the relative position of the men and women wage earners.
There was a great increase in the number of men employed for a few
months in the first half of 1915 but otherwise the indexes of men's
and women's employment were very similar through 1918.
Trade.—In trade (retail and wholesale) the curve of women wage
earners was, except for occasional seasonal fluctuations, consistently
subordinate to men's through the early years of the war. It was
not until the beginning of 1918 that the women's curve mounted
above the men's. During the latter part of 1918 the characteristic
slight decrease for men and considerable increase for women occurred
and women maintained their gains after this, with certain seasonal
fluctuation, until the middle of 1921.




VARIATIONS IN

EMPLOYMENT

TRENDS

• 37

Apparently the effect of the war emergency in increasing the proportionate employment of women came at about the same time in
trade as in manufacturing, but lasted after the close of the war in
trade as it did not in manufacturing.
Transportation.—In transportation and public utilities the effect of
the war on the relative position of men and women became evident
early in 1917, when the women's curve started above the men's. By
the end of 1918 the index of women's employment was more than
50 points above the index for men, and although there was a slight
decrease in the relative importance of women during 1919 their
curve remained well above that of men, and continued so through
1924.
About one-fourth of all the wage earners in transportation and
public utilities and practically all the women are included in the
classification of wage earners in telephone and telegraph (including
messenger service). It is in this group, therefore, that analysis will
most clearly isolate the varying effects of the war on men's and
women's employment.
It is difficult to say from the curves what part the war played
in changing the trends of men's and of women's employment in this
classification. From 1914 to 1918 the rate of increase for both sexes
was greater than in subsequent years. On the whole, the trends for
the two sexes were very similar, but the violent, though temporary,
deviations for the men may be due to war necessities. In June, 1917,
soon after the entry of the United States into the war, there was
apparently a rapid decrease in men's employment. There was no
corresponding decrease for women. In fact, with minor fluctuations
women's index of employment rose slightly, while men's continued to
decline until the end of 1918. After that women's employment fell
while men's rose during 1919.
Manufacturing.—In manufacturing, the curves showing trends for
men and women wage earners indicate that during the early years
of the war, from the beginning of 1915 to the middle of 1917, men's
employment increased more rapidly than did women's, though employment for both sexes was on the upgrade during this period. After
the middle of 1917 increases in men's employment ceased and there
was even a slight decrease for them. At the same time women's
employment was experiencing a much more rapid increase than in
the earlier years of the war. This rapid increase for women continued until the last month of 1918. The decreases in men's employment, however, that had started in the middle of 1917 shortly after
the entrance of the United States into the war, did not continue for
very long. In fact, the first half of 1918 saw men's employment
increasing again, although not at so great a rate as women's. After
the middle of 1918 the men started to decrease again while women's
employment was still going up. The armistice in November, 1918,
was followed by a rapid drop in women's employment, but it does
not seem to have had a very striking effect on men, whose employment continued to decline after the armistice at about the same
rate as before. In the depression immediately following the war, in
1919, women's employment decreased more than men's, but recovery
came at about the same time for both.
The variations in trend for men and women indicated in these
curves for all manufactures are by no means typical of the many




38

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

different industries that, combined, make up the classification of all
wage earners in manufacturing. In the first place the general trend
of employment indicated for all manufactures is not typical of the
trends in all the subclassifications. In some manufacturing industries
the early years of the war brought about a decrease of employment
rather than the stimulation indicated in the all-manufacturing figures.
In other industries the influence of the war years was neither stimulation nor decrease of employment; instead, conditions seem not to
have changed greatly.
Examples of such dissimilarity between the general trends indicated
by the all-manufacturing curves and those for the smaller classifications may be found in the following: The manufacture of leather and
leather products, where the war years showed no stimulation of
employment and a sharp drop for a few months during the latter
part of 1917; in the manufacture of pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay
products, where the stimulation of employment caused by the war
was slight and took place chiefly during the first half of 1915; in the
manufacture of tobacco, where the early years of the war saw decreasing employment and from 1917 on through 1918 the decreases for
men were accelerated, although women increased during 1917; and
in the manufacture of textiles, where the war years produced very
little stimulation of employment. Of course an increase of employment during the early years of the war was a more usual trend in the
general run of industrial classification, but the exceptions just noted
are an indication of the possible diversity of effect that may result
in various industries from any changed economic situation.
Differences caused by the war in the trend of men's and of women's
employment are no more consistently alike in the various industrial classifications than are the general trends of employment.
In all manufacturing the year 1915 showed a greater rate of increase
for men than for women, and in 1916 rates of increase for the two
sexes were very much alike, with a very slightly greater rate for men.
This was by no means, however, a universal difference. In fact,
among the industries that show increased employment for these two
years there is a very great variety in the way in which men's and
women's employment increased during 1915 and 1916. Examples of
similarity of the differences in trend for the sexes may be found in
the manufacture of textiles and of pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay
products, where in 1915 the increase for men was more rapid than for
women and in 1916 there was very little difference in the rates of
increase for the two sexes. But the curves showing trend of employment in the manufacture of iron and steel and their products, in its
subsidiary group the manufacture of bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets,
and in the manufacture of hosiery and knit goods show that the
increases of men were more rapid than those of women in 1915 while
the women increased more rapidly than did the men in 1916. The
increases were greater for men in both 1915 and 1916 in the manufacture of rubber products and of chemicals and allied products, and
greater for women in both years in the manufacture of metals and
metal products, of paper boxes, and of miscellaneous products.
The two sexes increased at about the same rate in 1915 and the
men increased at a greater rate in 1916 in the manufacture of stone,
clay, and glass products; while there was very little difference in
either year in the rates of increase for the two sexes in canning and
preserving.



VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT

TRENDS

• 39

These variations in trend of employment seem not to be based on
any consistent differentiation of product, and it does not seem possible
to establish any classification of industry or occupation that can be
expected to produce similarities in variation of employment for the
two sexes. Comparison of the trends for the two sexes during the
years 1917 and 1918 yields equally important illustrations of the
different effects of the war on the employment of men and women in
different classifications.
In 1917 the curves for all manufacturing indicate that men's and
women's employment did not fluctuate greatly. There was a very
slight upward tendency for the women from the middle of the year,
and a slight downward tendency for the men at the end of the year,
but these variations were not very marked. Study of the different
manufacturing classifications shows, however, that this evenness and
similarity of trend was by no means entirely representative of conditions in all manufacturing, although it is probably more generally
characteristic than were the trends indicated for 1915 and 1916. For
example, fluctuations were similar for men and women, and only
very slightly up or down, in the manufacture of paper and printing;
pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay products; metals and metal products; and liquors and beverages. The trend of employment was also
alike for men and women, but distinctly down in the manufacture of
boots and shoes and distinctly up in the manufacture of chemicals
and allied products. There were differences in trend, but very slight
differences, for the men and women in the manufacture of bolts, nuts,
etc.; textiles; and stone, clay, and glass products, where the men's
employment went very slightly down and the women's very slightly
up. A downward trend for both sexes but more emphasized for
men occurred in the manufacture of paper boxes, and an upward
trend, which was more emphasized for women, occurred in miscellaneous manufacturing.
A stimulation in employment during the first half of the year
occurred for both sexes in the manufacture of hosiery and knit goods,
but the increases were greater for women than for men and the
subsequent decreases were greater for men than for women, with the
result that the end of the year 1917 saw men's employment practically
where it had been at the beginning of the year, while there had been
an increase in the number of women.
Very distinct differences of trend for the two sexes occurred in the
manufacture of lumber and its products, where men's employment
decreased decidedly; in the manufacture of iron and steel and their
products, where men increased slightly but women decreased considerably; and in the manufacture of rubber products, where men
decreased slightly but women increased decidedly.
On the whole, except in a few industries the year 1917 seems to
have witnessed a slowing up of the increases that took place in 1915
and 1916, and the stimulation of men's and women's employment was
not so striking as it had been. If the analysis of the figures were carried further and the trends were examined month by month throughout the year, greater variations between the trends for the two sexes
might appear, for April, 1917, saw the entry of the United States
into the war and after a month or so during which war orders w^ere
being placed and plans put under way for the recruiting of the war
forces, employment tendencies were distinctly altered. The reflec-




40

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

tion of this change of trend, that probably started in the latter part of
1917, is found clearly in the employment figures for 1918. During
the course of this year economic conditions altered so radically that
it is necessary to study separately the course of employment in the
two parts of the year if the significant differences in men's and
women's trends are to be made apparent.
The curves for all manufacturing show that during 1918 women's
employment increased very rapidly throughout the year until November, after which there was an abrupt falling off in their numbers.
The curve of men's employment was quite different. In the first
place, although their employment increased during the first half of
the year, the increases were not nearly so great as those of the women,
and the men's employment started to decline several months earlier
than did the women's, although again at a very much slower rate than
the later decreases of the women. The decreases for the men began
after August, 1918, when the second draft had gone into effect, while
the decreases for the women did not start until after November,
following the armistice.
The variations indicated for the two sexes in the all-manufacturing
curve are indicative of the trends of employment in some, but by no
means all, of the smaller classifications in manufacturing. In fact,
the curves showing the trend of employment for the year 1918, based
on the average for January of that year as 100, show that there were
far more classifications in which the trends for the two sexes were
alike than might be supposed from a knowledge of the industrial and
military necessities of that year.
The classifications in which the differences in trend for men and
women were very much like those indicated for all manufacturing
include iron and steel and their products, chemicals and allied products,
bakeries, lumber and its products, rubber products, tires and tubes,
automobiles and parts, miscellaneous manufacturing, and electrical
machinery, apparatus, and supplies. However, even in some of these
classifications there were certain ways in which the variations for the
two sexes did not agree with those shown for all manufacturing. For
example, in iron and steel the rise for the women was much more
exaggerated than in all manufacturing, while there was very little
fluctuation in the men's employment; in bakery products there was
no decrease in women's employment after the armistice; in the manufacture of rubber products considerably greater decrease was indicated for the men than in all manufacturing; and in the manufacture
of electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies there was no increase,
and toward the latter part of the year there was even a decrease in
men's employment.
In some classifications, although the variations for the two sexes
were not those indicated by the figures and curves for all manufacturing there nevertheless were decided differences in trend. In the
manufacture of confectionery, for example, apparently there was a
great drop for women and a corresponding increase for men in the
middle of the year, quickly followed by a decrease for men and an
increase for women; in the manufacture of boots and shoes there was
a sharp decrease for the men after June, but the women's employment
did not show the sharp and consistent increases through the year that
appeared ill some other classifications; also, there was no decrease
after the armistice for either men or women. In metals and metal




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS

• 41

products fluctuations were very much alike for the two sexes until
September, after which there was a continued decrease for men but a
short increase for women until after the armistice, when women decreased slightly. In stone, clay, and glass products the increases for
women started later in the year than in all manufacturing, and the
increases continued, with a drop for one month, until September,
after which, employment for women remained on practically the same
level; for the men, employment experienced a sharp decrease after
June, which wTas continued, but less sharply, after July. Employment in glass manufacturing saw a sharp drop for men in the middle
of the year, followed by a slight drop for women, then a slight increase
for men and a considerable increase for women; after the armistice
women's employment decreased slightly, but men's increased.
In most of the other classifications studied there was a marked similarity of trend for the two sexes throughout the year. Conspicuous
examples of this similarity are all textiles and its subsidiary groups, the
manufacture of men's and of women's clothing; tobacco and its subsidiary groups, the manufacture of cigars and cigarettes and rehandling; paper boxes; and gas and electric fixtures.
The immediate effect of the armistice upon men's and women's
employment in the different classifications provides a very graphic
illustration of the variations in trend for the two sexes that may be
expected to occur in different industrial classifications.
As in all manufacturing, in the manufacture of iron and steel and
their products, lumber and its products, automobiles and parts, and in
miscellaneous manufacturing, the rise in women's employment was
checked following the armistice, and a sharp decline ensued, while
men's employment after the armistice followed generally the fluctuating decrease that had started early in the year. In the other classifications there was great variety in the trends for the two sexes at this
time. Women suffered a similar reversal of employment trends, from
an increase to a decline, in the manufacture of chemicals and allied
products, metals and metal products, rubber products, tires and tubes,
glass, and electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies; but men's
employment, except in metals and metal products, rubber products,
and tires and tubes, showed a reversal also, and instead of continuing
on a downward trend as in all manufacturing started up after the armistice. In the manufacture of metals and metal products men continued their downward trend, while in rubber products and tires and
tubes an upward trend for men had started one month before the armistice. Another group of industries in which the trend for women
was down after the armistice was textiles and its subclassifications,
men's clothing and hosiery and knit goods, but here the downward
trend was for both sexes alike and had been in effect before the armistice.
In not a few cases the armistice seems to have been followed by an
increase of employment for women. In fact, a downward trend for
women that had been in effect before the war was reversed after the
armistice, and increased employment for women was indicated, in
bakery products, paper and printing, the tobacco industry and its two
subclassifications, and the manufacture of pottery, terra-cotta and
fire-clay products. In tobacco men's employment reversed its course
after the armistice, from a downward to an upward trend, and in paper
and printing men's employment continued its upward trend; but in
64130°—30




4

42

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

the case of bakery products and the pottery group, although an increase of women came after the armistice the men's employment continued to decline. In the manufacture of liquors and beverages the
reversal from a downward to an upward trend for women came a
month before the armistice, the men continuing downward for the
rest of the year. A continued upward trend for women both before
and after the armistice was apparent in the manufacture of bolts,
nuts, etc., cloth gloves, leather and leather products, paper boxes,
boots and shoes, and gas and electric fixtures. In only three of these
classifications, however—boxes, boots and shoes, and gas and electric
fixtures—did men's employment also follow an upward course. In the
manufacture of bolts, nuts, etc., and in leather and leather products
men's employment remained about the same, with neither increase
nor decrease after the armistice. In the manufacture of cloth gloves,
although the armistice was followed by a continued slight increase for
women, men's employment continued to decrease slightly. The armistice brought about neither a stimulation nor a retardation of women's employment in the manufacture of women's clothing and of
stone, clay, and glass products, but for men in these classifications employment continued to decline as it had done before the armistice.
In practically all the classifications in which there was a difference
of trend for the two sexes during 1917 and 1918, the trends indicated
by the total figures and curves followed the trends for men rather than
those for women. Very occasionally, as in the manufacture of electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies, the variations for the two
sexes were so extreme that the total was representative of neither sex,
but on the whole the total curve was very much more likely to show
the ups and downs of men's employment with a fair degree of accuracy but to be representative of the women's trend only so far as the
women's resembled the men's.
The period of depression following the war, during the early part of
1919, had generally a more serious effect on women than on men.
Women's employment during this depression dropped further than
men's or dropped when men's did not in all manufacturing, leather
and leather products and its subclassification boots and shoes, paper
boxes, automobiles and parts, miscellaneous manufacturing, electrical
machinery, apparatus, and supplies, iron and steel, cloth gloves, bolts,
nuts, etc., hosiery and knit goods, lumber and its products, rubber products, and rubber tires and tubes. Men's employment dropped more
than women's in some classifications, including gas and electric fixtures and chemicals and allied products. Occasionally the decreases
were about the same for both sexes, as in the manufacture of metals
and metal products, textiles, men's clothing, and tobacco. In these
last groups, however, textiles and tobacco, there was almost no drop
for either sex.
In some of the classifications employment did not seem to suffer as a
result of the depression immediately following the war. For example,
increases in employment that were similar for both sexes occurred in
1919 in the manufacture of pottery, terra-cotta and fire-clay products,
women's clothing, bakery products, and printing and publishing. In
the more inclusive classification of paper and printing, however, although increases were very much alike for both sexes, they came later
in the year. The early months of 1919 showed in paper and printing
a very slight decrease for women and a correspondingly slight increase




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT

TRENDS

• 43

for men. In stone, clay, and glass products and its subclassification
glass manufacturing, there were increases for both sexes but greater for
men, and these increases were followed later in the year by decreases,
a decrease only for women in the larger group but in the subclassification for both sexes.
In the classifications in which there were decreases for both sexes
recovery was not always at the same time for each. Women's
employment did not pick up until later than the men's in the manufacture of gas and electric fixtures, iron and steel, cloth gloves, and
metals and metal products. On the other hand, women's employment started to increase before the men's did in the manufacture of
bolts, nuts, etc., hosiery and knit goods, and chemicals and allied
products.
Summary.
During the entire war period and including the months immediately following the war the employment figures for Ohio manufacturing industries show that there was considerable diversity in the
trends of men's and women's employment. The curves showing
the long-term trends illustrate that during this period women gained
a position of increased importance among the wage earners in a number of classifications and retained it, to a greater or less extent,
throughout the rest of the period studied. In other classifications
the increased importance of women resulting from the war was only
a temporary situation and did not last beyond the period of economic
necessity that brought it about. To what extent the first or second
of these conditions applies is of vital importance in studying the
developments of women's employment. Only detailed employment
figures by sex will afford a basis of adequate information about such
tendencies. The great diversity of trends throughout the war period
in the various industrial classifications gives added emphasis to the
need for separate employment figures by sex if proper understanding
of and provision for the development of women's employment
opportunities is to be undertaken.
T H E DEPRESSION

OP

1920-21

Second in importance only to the war in its effect on trends of
employment is the depression of 1920-21 that hit industry to a
greater or less degree all over the United States. Many other periods
of depression, equally or more severe, have affected the industries of
the country, but within the 11-year period under discussion it is the
years 1920-21 that stand out as a time of greatly decreased employment. Study of the tendencies of men's and women's employment
during the war has shown great variations according to the industrial
or occupational classification of the employees. But the years of the
war saw a great dislocation in the normal demand and supply of male
labor. There was inevitably a certain degree of substitution of women
for men and an acceleration of women's employment as men were
drawn off for military necessities. These conditions would be almost
certain to result in a considerable variation in trend of employment
for the two sexes.
But in a time of general economic depression such as occurred in
1920-21 the complicating factor of a dislocated labor supply does




44

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

not enter in, and it is possible to view the variations in trend for men
and women as affected by more normal economic fluctuations, instead
of, as in the war years, by peculiar and individual circumstances and
necessities.
On the whole, the depression of 1920-21 showed several variations
in the trend of men's and women's employment. Examining first the
most inclusive curve, that which shows the figures for all employees,
it appears that the depression, as reflected in a decrease of employment, started for both sexes about the same time, around the middle
of the year 1920; that the ensuing decrease of employment was more
severe for the men than for the women; and that recovery started
for both sexes in about the middle of 1921 but was at first slightly more
rapid for women than for men. In the classifications that make up
the group of all employees the effect of the depression does not seem
to resemble consistently the trends indicated in the larger classification. Here again, as has appeared in connection with the effect of
other factors on the employment of men and women, the course of
employment at a time of economic depression seems to vary for men
and women most directly in relation to the type of occupation in
which they are classified.
Clerical workers.

With the clerical workers, for example, the decrease in employment that started in August, 1920, affected both sexes to about the
same degree. The proportionate decrease for men and women was
practically the same, and their recovery subsequent to 1921 was
apparently at the same rate.
Examining the subclassifications of clerical workers it is apparent
that the depression hit the men and women clerical workers in manufacturing and trade in the same way, the outstanding difference being
that in trade the decrease started about six months later than it did
in manufacturing.
The clerical workers employed in offices were affected by the depression a few months earlier than were those employed in stores, the
decrease of employment for the former starting in August of 1920
while in stores it did not start till the first months of 1921. In both
cases, however, the effect was the same for both sexes.
Sales people.

For the sales people a different story appears from the curves. In
the first place the depression did not affect either sex until 1921 and
then it affected the women more than the men. In fact, from the
beginning of 1921 the men in this classification assumed a more
important proportion than the}^ had had before and this importance
continued and increased through 1924.
On the whole, the depression of 1920-21 apparently had only a very
slight effect on the general course of employment in sales work. It
brought a slightly greater reduction for women than for men in sales
work in trade. In manufacturing, the number of salesmen did not
decrease at all but the women's curve fell below the men's. Since the
drop caused by the depression women have never regained their
relative position in sales work, either in trade or in manufacturing.
However, the effect of the 1920-21 depression was not very great,
especially among the men and women sales people in manufacturing.




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS

• 45

The course of employment for them, in fact, shows less depression at
this time than do the curves for any of the other large classifications
except wage earners in service.
Wage earners.

While trends for the two sexes in the clerical and sales classifications
were comparatively similar during the depression, this was not so
generally the case in the classification of all wage earners. The
depression struck the men and women wage earners at about the same
time, around July, 1920. The ensuing decreases for both sexes continued through i920, but in the beginning of 1921 women, whose
employment had not then decreased so much as men's, started slightly
on the upward grade, while men decreased a little more. After
March the trends for the two sexes were fairly similar, with the
women maintaining their superior position throughout the year and
not losing it in 1922 until a more rapid increase among the men after
January brought them on a level with the women by August. Women
wage earners, therefore, although they felt the results of the depression
almost simultaneously with the men, did not suffer so greatly from it.
This does not apply, however, to the smaller classifications of wage
earners, some of which were strongly affected and others very little
influenced by the depression, while the comparative extent to which
decreases in employment affected the men and women differs greatly.
Apparently the depression did not play an important part in influencing the relative position of men and women wage earners in service,
trade, or transportation.
Agriculture.—In agriculture, however, it is apparent from the chart
based on moving averages that the depression of 1920-21 brought
with it a very much more rapid and extensive decrease for women
than for men. Although the slight decrease experienced by the men
lasted only until December, 1921, women's continued until August,
1922.
Service.—In service the second half of 1920 witnessed a decline in
numbers of both men and women, but this decline was not very much
greater than the usual seasonal decrease during the latter part of each
year and the trend was the same for each sex. The year 1921 saw
a slight decrease for both men and women, although the usual seasonal
increase for each sex occurred. Trends for the two sexes were similar.
After the slowing up of 1921 the course of employment was resumed,
with seasonal fluctuations and a steady upward trend for each sex.
For the three subclassifications of service the depression of 1920-21
is not reflected very strongly in the employment curves. Naturally
the restaurants show the greatest change in employment at that time.
The increased employment in restaurants following the war was
sharply accentuated for both men and women during the first half of
1920. The decrease for the men started in August, while for the
women it started about two months later. However, by March, 1921,
the women's curve began to pick up again, and the men's followed
suit a month later, so that the early part of 1921 saw employment for
both men and women in restaurants again increasing. Throughout
the two years 1920-21 there was very little deviation from the total
by either men's or women's curve.
In hotels the depression had practically no effect on the relative
position of men and women. Allowing for the usual seasonal increase
for each sex in the summer months, the general trend was slightly




46

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF W O M E N AND MEN

downward for both men and women from the beginning of 1920 to
the end of 1921. The seasonal trends were similar for men and
women, but the men's curve maintained a consistently subordinate
position. In 1922 men's employment increased for the busy summer
season very much more than did women's, so that for a short time
the men achieved a relative position similar to that of 1917. This
was only a temporary recovery, however, and the last two years of
the period saw the women's curve again well above the men's.
In laundries the depression seems not to have had a great effect
on the employment of either sex. There was a decline in employment for both men and women, starting late in 1920 and continuing
through 1921, after which employment started on the upgrade.
Throughout this period the relative position of men and women and
the trends of their employment were very similar.
Trade.—In trade the course of the depression is rather difficult to
trace, owing to the irregularity in the curves that probably is due to
a great decrease in the number of establishments reported. It is
evident, however, that during the period of depression women lost
the relative importance of the position they had held since the early
part of 1918 and in the middle of 1921 their curve resumes, roughly,
a position in relation to the men's curve similar to its position before
1917.
Transportation.—For wage earners in transportation the depression
of 1920-21 did not change greatly the relative position of the two
sexes. There was a certain decrease of employment for both men
and women during 1921 and women became, proportionately, slightly
less important than they had been in 1920, but the difference was not
very great.
In the subclassification of transportation that comprises telephone
and telegraph occupations, the depression of 1920-21 apparently had
no very serious effect upon the men and women. Decreases in employment for both sexes started in the last part of 1920. There was
a slight seasonal stimulation for the men during the middle months
of 1921, but a low point was reached for both sexes in the spring of
1922. After that, employment increased, on the whole, for both
sexes. Evidently, therefore, the depression hit the telephone and
telegraph workers later than it hit manufacturing and clerical workers
and their recovery did not start until a few months after the others.
Manufacturing.—It is for the wage earners in manufacturing that
the greatest variations appear in the effect of the depression on the
trend of employment for the two sexes.
The decrease in employment in the all-manufacturing classification due to the depression started for the men after June, 1920, the
earlier decline apparent in the figures for April and May being due
chiefly to strikes in the iron and steel industry. Women's employment was affected by the depression about the same time as the men's.
The drop in employment was sharp and rapid for both sexes, but was
somewhat greater for men than for women. The beginning of 1921
saw the start of recovery for women, but the men continued to decline slightly until after the middle of the year. After that the trend
for both sexes was upward, except for minor fluctuations, until the
middle of 1923. On the whole, therefore, it can be said that in the allmanufacturing group the depression did not affect women so severely




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT

TRENDS

•47

as men. Decreases in employment were not so severe, and recovery
came sooner.
Here again, however, the more detailed classifications do not show
that this was consistently the case in all industrial groups. Though
in the very great majority of the subclassifications the figures show
that the depression was more severe for women than it was for men—
in other words, that the decreases in women's employment were proportionately greater than those in men's employment—some classifications show very marked differences between the sexes in the extent
of the decreases, as in the manufacture of glass, automobiles and
parts, and paper boxes; in others the differences were slighter, and
in still others the extent of the depression was very similar for the
two sexes. In a very few cases, notably the manufacture of rubber
products and metals and metal products, the men seem to have
suffered more than did the women.
But the actual proportionate decreases in employment accompanying the depression are not the sole measure of its effects. There
must also be considered the duration of decreases, and here too the
conditions were not alike for men and women. In all manufacturing
it appears that decreases in employment due to the depression started
for the men and women in July, 1920, while the women's recovery
started early in 1921, and the men's not until after the middle of
the year.
These variations are far from typical of the conditions in the smaller
classifications. For example, in the manufacture of electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies the decrease started in men's employment in July, 1920, and in women's employment a month later,
while recovery started for the women in March, 1921, but for the
men not until December. In the manufacture of metals and metal
products the decrease started five months earlier for the men than for
the women (July, 1920, for the men and December for the women)
and recovery started in September, 1921, for both sexes, though it
was sharper for the men. In the lumber industry, the decrease
started a month earlier for the men than for the women (July and
August of 1920, respectively) but recovery for the men began in
February, 1921, and was six months ahead of the women's recovery.
In some important classifications the depression appears to have
affected the women earlier than it did the men. This occurred in the
manufacture of chemicals and allied products, where decreases started
in women's employment in August, 1920, two months earlier than for
men. In this classification, however, women's employment recovered
in February of the year following, while men's did not start up again
until August. In the manufacture of rubber products the decreases
for women came in April, 1920, a month earlier than for the men,
but recovery came at the same time (February, 1921) for both, though
it was more rapid for the men. In the manufacture of leather and
leather products also the depression affected women earlier than
men, the decreases for the women starting in February and for the
men in April of 1920. In this case, however, although recovery came
in December, 1920, for both sexes, it was more rapid for women than
for men. In miscellaneous manufacturing the depression started at
the same time (August, 1920) for both sexes, but recoveiy for the
women started in August, 1921, four months before the recovery for
the men.




48

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

Summary.

It would be possible to multiply many times the instances of
variation in the effects of the depression on men's and women's
employment, but it is not necessary to detail further examples to
show that such effects are not constant for any group of industries
and that no figures giving employment trends only for total
wage earners can illustrate the many important deviations from
the total that may occur for either sex.
Surely it is of very great importance that, at a time of approaching
depression, any community should be able to predict whether the
problem of unemplo}anent is going to strike first at the women or at
the men wage earners, and during a period of depression it is equally
necessary that there should be some basis for judging whether it is
for men or for women that relief will come first. Such a basis
will be afforded by adequate and comparable employment statistics
by sex, but if the figures available are for the two sexes combined the
essential units in any constructive program for the prevention and
relief of unemployment will not be available.
STRIKES

Another factor that brings about considerable variation in the
trends of men's and women's employment in manufactuiing industries is the occurrence of strikes. Sometimes a strike will have only
a limited local effect; sometimes its influence will extend far beyond
the confines of the industry to which apparently it is limited. In
almost every case the effect of a strike will show to a different degree
in the employment figures for men and for women, depending upon
the extent of organization and the proportionate importance of either
sex in the industry affected by the dispute.
The 11-year period under discussion in Ohio saw many instances
of trade disputes and strikes in the various industries for which figures
have been presented. Some of these disputes were so limited as to
locality and involved so few workers that their effect is not discernible in the figures and curves showing trends of employment. Others,
notably the great steel strike of 1919, caused marked fluctuations in
employment not only in the industry itself but in many allied industrial groups.
The effect of the strike in the iron and steel industry is discussed
in considerable detail in a later section of this study, dealing specifically with the iron and steel industry. (See Appendix B.) It is necessary to discuss here, therefore, only the variations in the effect of
this situation on the employment trends for the two sexes. The
figures and curves for the iron and steel classification show a sharp
drop in employment in October, 1919 (the strike began late in September), for both the men and the total. This drop was not paralleled
in the figures for women's employment, which indicate that women
were affected to only a very minor extent by this strike.
That this is not always the case, however, is illustrated by fluctuations in employment in the same industry during April and May of
1920. At this time the decrease in women's employment, although
not so severe as the decrease among men, nevertheless shows the effect
of strike conditions, the labor disturbances being a strike of railroad
switchmen and yard crews, that began in Chicago on April 9 and soon
spread to other cities, and a strike of machinists in Cincinnati in May.




VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS

•

49

An illustration of strikes that affected women's employment very
much more seriously than men's may be found in the curves and
figures for employment in the manufacture of pottery, terra-cotta
and fire-clay products. In this classification the curves show a very
great drop in women's employment in October and November of 1922.
This drop was reflected in a similar but not nearly so extensive decrease in men's employment. The fluctuations indicated here were
the result of extensive strikes in the potteries, where almost all the
women in this classification were employed. As a result of these
strikes, caused by wage disagreements and occurring in October and
November, seveial thousand workers in the general ware and sanitary ware branches of the industry quit work. About 50 per cent
of the women were out of employment. The men's numbers were
reduced less than 25 per cent.
The influence of these strikes on employment fluctuation is shown
also in the figures for the more inclusive classification of stone, clay,
and glass products. In neither classification, however, would the
figures or curves for the total show to how great a degree these strikes
affected women.
Summary.

A detailed study of many of the other industries for which employment figures are given would yield examples of numbers of strikes
that involved considerable groups of men or women workers or both.
The examples just described, however, give adequate illustration of
the fact that strikes influence employment of men and women to
varying degrees. Employment figures classified by sex are essential
if these variations are to be shown.
INDUSTRIAL

DEVELOPMENTS

In studying the different aspects of women's employment it is a
well-known fact that more far-reaching and significant than any local
labor disputes or even than any temporary change in economic conditions is the influence of changing industrial practices and products
and developments in the use of machinery. It is here that lies the
key to the development or retardation of women's opportunity. It
is the part played by these changes and developments that must be
fully understood if the wisest use of women is to be achieved. Employment figures inevitably are an important element in illustrating
the effects of sucb industrial changes as are being made and the figures
and curves presented here afford some interesting illustrations of the
value of differentiating these figures by sex to indicate the effects of
developments in the industry. For example, the figures for the
tobacco industry show a considerable decrease for the men wage
earners over the 11-year period and a very much increased proportionate importance of women. This is the result of more than one
factor, but it probably illustrates chiefly the effect of recent developments in cigar making. Beginning about 1919 the cigar-manufacturing industry in Ohio, as elsewhere, has been revolutionized by the
introduction of machines. Forced into their use by the acute shortage
of labor in 1919, manufacturers adopted them more and more widely.
It was estimated in 1924 that by that time only about 5 per cent of




50

V A R I A T I O N S I N E M P L O Y M E N T T R E N D S OF W O M E N A N D M E N

the total cigar production was exclusively handmade; about 30 per
cent was solely machine made, the remainder consisting of cigars in
which both machine and hand operations were employed.1 The
decline in handwork was outlined by the president of the Cigar
Makers' International Union in September, 1925. He said that in
1923 the union had 13,305 people making cigars by the out-and-out
hand method, but in 1925 they had only 7,817, a decrease of 5,488
within two years. In the same time the number of workers employed
on the automatic machine had increased from 1,928 to 3,528.2
In Ohio many small plants, with their old-style handwork, were
forced out of business, unable to compete with the large plants
equipped with automatic machines. In the smaller plants men had
been employed. They had worked for short periods of a few months,
and were more like stragglers or tramps in the industry. In the large,
modern, machine-equipped plants in Ohio, mostly in the hands of a
few big corporations, few men were employed, and the greater number of these were maintenance men. The manufacturers preferred
girls, because they were faster, neater, and more economical wrappers.
At one time of labor shortage in 1919 it was said that the real anxiety
was about women, who wxre wanted everywhere for the lighter
employments, and several companies were installing certain comforts
and conveniences in their factories to attract them. In the large
plants employment was quite steady and the women worked the year
around.
This development in the importance of women in the cigar industry
is of great significance. It is clearly illustrated by the curves and
figures on employment differentiated by sex.
Another type of development, in which women are becoming of less
importance, is taking place in telephone employment. Here, where
women have for many years been a most important factor, the
introduction of automatic telephones is apparently decreasing their
employment. This is illustrated clearly in the figures and curves
for the telegraph and telephone industry, where since 1920 the curve
of men's employment has risen disproportionately.
In the manufacture of boots and shoes the development of fancier
styles has been accompanied by the increased proportionate employment of women, as they are used for the stitching on shoes, and this
work has increased greatly with the modern styles. The employment curves for this classification show, since the middle of 1922, a
steadily increasing proportion of women among the wage earners
that undoubtedly is a reflection of the changes taking place in the
industry itself.
The curves for the paper-box industry illustrate the effects of
changes in product. From 1914 to 1920 women constituted from 50
to 60 per cent of all employees; by 1924 their proportion had dwindled
to 38 per. cent. This decline seems to have been due to the greater /
development of the folding-box and shipping-case branches of the
industry. The expense of shipping set-up paper boxes has contributed
to the success of the folding box, and the heavy paper carton is replacing the wooden packing box. In these lines the employment of
men is much greater than that of women.
1 The Tobacco Industry. Chas. D. Barney & Co., New York, 1924, pp. 26, 27.
Perkins, George W. Women in the Cigar Industry. American Federationist, September, 1925, p. 809.

2




VARIATIONS

IN EMPLOYMENT

TRENDS

• 51

Other classifications show other industrial influences at work to
vary the trends of men and women workers. The comparative
newness of the automobile and electrical-manufacturing industries
has resulted in more experimentation with women and resultingly
great fluctuations in their employment when compared with men's;
while the long-established methods and more standardized products
of the clothing industries apparently have produced a greater degree
of similarity in the ups and downs of employment for the two sexes.
Whatever the influence of industrial change may have been, its
full effect will not be disclosed unless it is possible to consult and
compare figures showing the trend of employment for each sex
separately, and herein lies the chief value of presenting employment
figures with this amount of detail.




Ot
to

PART III. GENERAL TABLES
TABLE 1.—ALL EMPLOYEES: ALL INDUSTRIES
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees i of maxi- January February
mum
All employees:
1914 _
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
192 0
192 1
1922 2
192 3
1924
Males:
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
1922 2
1923
1924
Females:
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
192 0
192 1
1922 2
192 3
1924




<
1
>

Number employed i n March

April

May

June

July

648, 352
749,952
944, 534
1, 035, 462
1, 081, 878
1, 059, 646
1. 182, 950
796, 826
821,800

662, 025
745, 954
941, 971
1, 041, 991
1, 075, 783
1, 019, 542
1,186, 454

August

September

645, 207 649, 753
760 394
785, 170
965, 426 975, 094
1,037, 783 1, 037, 168
1, 083, 004 1, 057, 368
1, 092, 856 1, 102, 395
1, 147, 260 1, 135, 287
803, 371 810, 285

October

639, 893
788, 190
977, 845
1, 034, 987
1,057, 610
1, 069, 109
1, 093, 248
817, 522

November

December

597, 802
608, 038
808, 729
793, 256
982, 577
984, 921
1, 031, 836 1,001, 521
1, 045, 660 1, 026, 273
1, 104, 026 1, 130, 025
950, 765
1, 022, 510
810, 8s2
819, 907

641,737
737,106
928, 356
1, 019, 546
1, 041, 992
1, 039, 150
1, 123, 955
812, 605
25,

665, 806
659, 404
635, 205 638, 594 650,761
681, G 9 70S, 833 726, 387
S
641, 274 655,143
79.3
916, 226
822, 946 852, 236 874, 3S4 902,118
83.6
977, 022 982, 662 1, 009, 603 1, 010, 482 1, 033, 973
93.8
981,479
90.6
993, 326 1, 024, 647 1, 029, 512 1, 047, 370
984,912
969, 317 970, 875 981, 282 985,813
85.8
80.1 1, 141, 427 1,131, 891 1, 1(57, 525 1, 170, 761 1, 157, 384
822,124
809, 183 808, 031 818, 214 813,112
96.9

1, 070, 998
1, 055, 720

993, 797 1, 014, 709 1, 056, 337 1, 071, 261 1, 093, 231 1,116,212 1,092, 820 1,103, 270 1, 089, 471 1, 083, 372 1, 076, 264 1, 061, 231
89.0
93.6 1, 052, 544 1,069, 752 1, 085, 609 1, 096, 980 1, 068, 307 1,034,165 1, 027, 173 1, 035, 618 1, 054, 552 1, 057, 996 1, 039, 749 1, 046,197
810
621
232
046
202
991
858
290

472, 819
657,498
805, 455
808, 551
799,195
890, 349
733, 530
608,941

844, 379
817, 388

835, 822
798, 333

816,232
797,684

126, 644
143, 028
168, 268
185, 946
226,133
225,920
237,044
193, 635

127, 041
146, 213
172,022
189, 418
228, 798
229,482
231,985
196, 642

124, 228
146, 635
173, 689
189, 790
230,458
234, 035
224, 652
197, 617

124,983
151, 231
177,122
192,973
227,078
239, 67'^
217, 235
201,941

236,954
237, 545

238, 993
240,608

240,442
241,416

244, 999
248, 513

92.9
91.8
85.1
77.7
96.6

506, 820
508, 372
671, 766
799. 420
792,194
770, 525
908, 308
628, 484

509, 406
519, 910
697, 310
805, 512
800, 055
757, 348
898, 545
614, 231

520, 693
543. 302
715, 905
828, 829
824, 916
759,428
928,933
611,192

537,042
570, 340
740, 171
830, 427
827, 599
770, 251
930, 494
622, 247

532, 556
588, 380
755,139
855, 228
842, 914
775, 993
917, 749
618, 207

536. 594 525, 571
613, 428
606, 817
779, 269 781, 288
860, 923 - 855, 231
862, 679
859, 488
841, 867
808, 016
940, 281
943, 849
606, 873
626, 819

521, 796
622, 475
801, 984
856, 768
861, 766
870, 959
908, 872
612, 291

523,
642,
806,
851,
831,
876,
898,
616,

836, 748
817, 494

88.1
93.3

773, 792
816, 829

790, 265
830, 675

824, 762
843, 818

838, 205
854, 487

859, 568
831,125

878, 084
799, 994

858,143
797, 226

805, 364

852, 517
817. 007

126J 481
140, 334
164, 009
182, 902
213, 155
220, 081
234,961
195,179

94.4
87.9
85.4
91.8
87.5
89.5
94.1

128, 385
132, 902
151, 180
177, 602
189, 285
214, 387
233,119
193, 640

129,188
135, 233
154, 926
177, 150
193, 271
211, 969
233, 346
194, 952

130, 068
138, 687
158, 479
180. 834
199, 731
211,447
238, 592
196, 839

128, 764
138, 493
161, 94 7
180. 055
201, 913
211,031
240, 267
195,967

126, 848
138, 007
161, 087
178, 745
204, 456
209, 820
239. 635
194, 905

125,431
139,137
162, 702
181,068
216, 295
213, 526
242,605
194, 981

122, 781
136, 524
163, 246
180, 231
219,199
217, 779
242, 669
189,953

123,411
137, 919
163, 442
181, 015
221, 238
221, 897
238, 388
191,080

234, 250
238, 226,

89.8
92.5

220,005
235, 715

224,444
239, 077

231, 575
241,791

233,056
242,493

233, 663
237,182

238,128
234, 171

234, 677
229,947

234,062
230, 254

515,
596,
764,
836,
828,
819,
888,
617,

1

256
772
347
644
838
069
994
425

88.0
77.3
82.8

82.1

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

109
142
826
222
235
475
243
650

2 Figures not obtainable. 00

512,
641,
805,
845,
828,
839,
861,
620,

852
977
823
569
812
627
263
880

483,
646,
811,
842,
815,
869,
797,
622,

TABLE

2.—WAGE EARNERS: ALL INDUSTRIES

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

Year

All employees:
1914
1915...
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Males:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Females:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924

Number employed in-

March

April

May

June

558 573, 248
613 647, 787
902 826, 843
457 910, 624
619 928, 599
247 858, 781
970 1, 002, 058
971
665, 055
903 779, 196
6G0 934, 290
634- 839, 935

14, 149
17, 981
20, 017
21, 624
22, 709
23, 652
27, 241
23, 562
24, 124
25, 904
30, 439

553,138
638, 344
812, 088
887, 877
895, 726
876, 103
942, 925
655, 340
750, 403
889, 627
860, 379

87.7
77.9
82.8
93.4
89.9
85.7
76.9
96.5
74. 1
87.9
92.5

547, 213
546,163
713, 759
850, 750
841, 025
832, 424
965, 466
658, 602
617, 183
821, 527
861, 334

551,
560,
742,
856,
852,
815,
954,
648.
639,
841,
877,

276
725
829
886
360
933
090
783
948
515
747

562, 619
585, 972
762, 388
881, 069
881, 072
815, 660
986, 870
647, 620
667, 033
879, 715
891, 393

576, 394
611, 992
787, 875
880, 515
8S5, 824
823, 726
988, 016
659, 576
696, 600
893, 122
900, 438

570,
628,
801,
903,
902,
827,
973,
654,
734,
913,
873,

14. 149
17, 981
20, 017
21, 624
22, 709
23, 652
27, 241
23, 562
24,124
25, 904
30, 439

465, 569
541, 118
699, 574
764, 737
754, 727
737, 757
797, 601
537, 345
625, 644
743, 881
715, 902

86.8
76.0
82.1
92.6
91. 1
85.1
75.9
96.5
72.1
87.4
92.3

457, 505
454, 834
610, 845
729, 783
717, 667
696,174
818,694
545, 237
503,116
685, 363
717,112

460, 308
466, 528
635, 846
735, 300
725, 489
682,056
807, 803
532,001
522, 293
701,032
730, 343

471, 407
489, 457
653, 187
757, 880
749, 478
683,005
997
529, 464
547, 364
734, 035
742, 990

487,152
516. 030
676, 925
758, 970
752, 583
692, 623
837, 755
541, 237
576,346
746, 846
752, 621

482, 796
533, 553
691, 353
783, 461
767, 596
697, 203
824, 679
537, 559
614, 297
767, 369
729, 525

14, 149
17, 981
20, 017
21, 624
22, 709
23, 652
27, 241
23, 562
24, 124
25,904
30, 439

87, 569
97, 225
112, 514
123, 140
141, 000
138, 347
145, 324
117, 995
124, 759
145, 746
144, 477

90.1
89.2
86.7
94.4
80.9
86.7
82.3
93.3
84.7
91.0
92.8

89, 708
91, 329
102, 914
120, 967
123, 358
136, 250
146, 772
113,365
114, 067
136,164
144, 222

90, 968
94, 197
106, 983
121, 586
126, 871
133, 877
146, 287
116, 782
117,655
140,483
147, 404

91,212
96, 515
109, 201
123,189
131, 594
132, 655
149, 873
118,156
119, 669
145, 680
148, 403

89, 242
95, 962
110, 950
121, 545
133, 241
131,103
150, 261
118, 339
120, 254
146. 276
147, 817

87. 762
95, 060
110, 549
119. 99G
135, 023
130, 044
149, 291
117,412
120, 606
146, 291
144,109

July

August

September

October

November

December

560, 395
652,116
828, 574
903, 607
934, 382
895, 898
997, 747
642, 354
789, 017
910, 266
832, 913

558,056
662, 590
849, 473
905, 960
935, 737
926, 607
964, 163
650, 230
806, 956
921, 373
842, 205

561, 822
685, 425
856, 723
903, 480
908, 919
934, 658
954, 033
657, 356
808, 714
905, 279
859, 685

551, 266
686, 976
857, 373
900, 379
909, 230
899. 846
914, 088
663, 838
812, 688
898, 921
862, 863

519, 259
690, 686
862, 542
895. 941
895, 965
930, 765
844, 326
665, 316
819, 629
889, 399
842, 351

505, 549
701,081
854,771
861, 856
872, 982
951, 694
770, 271
650, 374
832, 969
866, 458
840, 053

486, 579
551, 195
714, 673
788, 455
783, 713
725, 757
850, 312
546, 840
654, 684
784, 635
698, 357

475, 549
557, 476
715, 841
782, 259
7S7, 324
759, 401
846,306
527, 721
663, 529
763, 895
695, 134

471. 819
566, 279
735, 884
783, 786
787, 349
786/, 335
815, 845
533,485
679,416
774, 928
703, 382

473, 264
585, 486
740, 511
778, 601
758, 237
791, 759
806, 817
538, 231
678, 345
757, 847
715, 035

463,156
584, 909
739, 033
773, 258
757, 187
754,185
771, 473
542, 698
682, 816
749, 865
715, 665

434, 437
588, 993
743, 814
769,482
743, 452
782,965
709,178
543, 865
687, 303
740, 688
696, 333

422, 860
598, 681
736, 973
735,611
726, 644
801,616
645, 355
529, 799
698, 219
720,069
694, 330

86, 669
96, 592
112, 170
122,169
144, 886
133, 024
151, 746
118, 215
124, 512
149, 655
141, 578

84, 846
94. 640
112, 733
121, 348
147, 058
136, 497
151, 441
114, 633
125, 488
146, 371
137, 779

86, 237
96, 311
113, 589
122,174
148, 388
140, 272
148, 318
116, 745
127, 540
146, 445
138, 823

88, 558
99, 939
116, 212
124, 879
150, 682
142, 899
147, 216
119,125
130, 369
147, 432
144, 650

88,110
102, 067
118, 340
127, 121
152, 043
145, 661
142, 615
121,140
129, 872
149, 056
147,198

84, 822
101, 693
118, 728
126,459
152, 513
147, 800
135,148
121,451
132, 326
148, 711
146, 018

82, 689
102,400
117, 798
126, 245
146,338
150, 078
124, 916
120, 575
134, 750
146, 389
145, 723

)

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




Or
03

TABLE

Year

All employees:
1914__
191.5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
192 2
1923
192 4
Males:
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
192 0
192 1
192 2
1923
1924
Females:
191 4
191 5
1916_
1917__
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
192 2
1923
1924

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of em- • ment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum




April

July

May

August

September

October

November

2,317
2,985
3,717
4, 695
4, 725
4,583
4, 540
4, 546
4, 297
4,108
5,606

2,375
3,159
3,962
4,861
4, 985
4, 619
4, 923
4, 504
4, 594
4, 454
5, 739

2,486
3, 222
4,481
5,306
5, 644
5, 505
5,428
4, 956
5,188
5, 256
6,320

2, 521
3, 797
4, 805
5, 648
5, 226
5,823
5,841
5,086
5,215
5,475
6,909

2,451
3, 261
4,375
5,313
5,080
5,129
5,124
4, 781
4, 907
5,072
6,455

2,237
3,003
4,143
5,041
4,894
4,671
5,099
4,447
4, 451
4, 870
6,201

2,303
2,940
3,863
4, 514
4, 598
4,402
4,903
4,296
4,125
4,911
5,932

2,065
2,598
3,373
4,178
4,035
3,877
4,383
3,837
3,832
4,313
5,178

1,491

1,513
1,889
2,641
3,127
3,380
3, 246
3,314
3,047
2, 869
3, 014
3, 771

1,652
2, 235

2,171
2,798
3,517
4,406
4,359
4, 276
4,204
4,222
4,069
3, 778
5,227

2, 218

2,948
3,739
4,569
4, 618
4, 316
4, 574
4,219
4,317
4, 085
5, 359

2,337
2,964
4,162
4,855
5,123
5,050
5, 068
4, 589
4, 889

2,358
3,393
4,306
5,228
4,874
5,280
5, 273
4,790
4,946
5, 069
6,416

2,325
3,062
4,099
4,943
4, 701
4,797
4,809
4,515
4, 664
4,742

2,105
2,819
3,861
4, 669
4, 507
4,353
4, 766
4,186
4,242
4, 503
5,805

2,173
2, 762
3, 621
4,206
4,199
4, 078
4, 593
4,063
3, 944
4, 589
5,601

1,965
2,449
3,201
3,936
3, 725
3,641
4,120
3,640
3, 658
4,048
4,898

146
187
200
289
366
307
336
324
228
330
379

157
211
223
292
367
303
349
285
277
369
380

149
258
319
451
521
455
360
367
299
452
439

163
404
499
420
352
543
568
296
269
406
493

126
199
276
370
379
332
315
266
243
330
387

132
184
282
372
387
318
333
261
209
367
396

130
178
242
308
399
324
310
233
181
322
331

149
172
242
310
236
263
197
174
265
280

153
270
363
450
520
552
586
504
519
548
732

1,992
2, 612
3,448
4,164
4,174
4,082
4,274
3, 924
3, 922
4,044
5,090

63.2
54.8
59.1
59.8
64.8
59.1
62.8
62.7
58.0
59.2
58.5

2,543
3,148
3.318
3,118
3.319
3,003
2,922
3,000
3, 756

153
270
363
450
520
552
586
504
519
548
732

128

60.7
35.9
29.1
38.8
38.4
42.5
35.7
53.7
49.8
43.1
46.7

159
145
175
200
258
203
240
186
195
230

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months. CO

March

1,776
2,396
2,980
3, 764
4,226
3,830
3,821
3, 772
3,472
3, 573
4,339

63.1
53.2
55.9
58.7
62.3
58.0
60.3
63.8
58.6
58.4
57.7

314
343

February

1, 624
2,042
2,797
3,314
3, 603
3,500
3, 552
3, 272
3,057
3,230
4,013

2,120
2,811
3, 685
4,459
4, 511
4,403
4, 592
4,185
4,138
4,358
5,433

261
216

Number employed i n -

1,590
2,019
2,688
3,323
3,518
3,376
3, 522
3,243
3,108
3,195
3,986

153
270
363
450
520
552
586
504
519
548
732

199
237
295
337
321
318

Cn

3.—WAGE EARNERS: AGRICULTURE

1,860

111

153
156
187
223
254
238
225
188
216
242

2, 818

3, 528
3,943
3, 544
3, 552
3, 541
3,278
3,303
4,032
124
161

162
236
283
286
269
231
194
270
307

100

December

TABLE

4.—WAGE EARNERS: ALL MANUFACTURES

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting
of maxi- January
mum

Number employed in—

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

706, 940
718, 463
707, 237
451,457
580,800
649, 914
588, 643

403,684
527,183
661,477
684, 235
705,173
715, 291
615,308
469,865
596,109
641, 739
584,337

363,449
426,353
559,105
593, 505
613, 075
609,370
614,462
367,407
491,168
561,900
478,311

365,889
441,814
563,468
590,818
593,185
613, 020
602,350
370, 467
490, 256
548,491
491, 602

360,188
444,009
563, 240
590,177
595,038
574, 350
574,468
377, 789
496,414
543,307
494, 735

339, 608
451, 537
572, 412
592, 082
589, 773
605, 290
522,615
386,897
504, 901
539, 568
486, 530

65,942
71, 270
85, 207
87,399
111, 755
103,018
106,478
78,816
88,348
101,212
91,579

67,652
74,347
87,317
90, 250
113,755
105, 443
104,887
80,990
90,544
101,423
97,041

67, 219
75, 877
88, 998
92,480
115,017
107, 857
100,001
82, 563
89, 454
102, 957
99, 012

64, 076
75, 646
89, 065
92,153
115,400
110,001
92, 693
82,968
91, 208
102,171
97,807

437,089
486, 527
628, 208
682,379
699,656
678, 525
715,858
460, 671
546,435
654,142
606, 558

87.0
77.0
84.4
96.8
91.7
85.5
71.5
92.2
72.3
90.6
84.6

445,302
420,903
562,646
672,039
664,397
662,393
763,282
473,861
447,293
619,518
637,166

451, 748
439,125
592, 371
679, 985
675, 277
647, 251
754, 615
469, 515
470, 432
641, 812
653,143

460, 258
455, 815
609,412
694,158
693, 514
642, 943
776, 484
463,942
495,367
670,124
660,479

462, 988
467, 025
616, 469
681, 553
687, 682
638,470
764, 545
465, 469
513, 615
669,847
649, 612

449, 761
473,452
618, 969
687, 859
701, 208
635, 636
742, 673
465, 024
536, 076
677, 290
614,109

446, 060
486, 857
633,802
690, 745
716, 286
656,151
762, 219
461, 296
565,817
683.434
572, 216

432, 074
487, 670
629,192
680,480
722, 232
687, 685
753,182
437, 025
567, 530
656, 706
558,864

429,391
497,623
644, 312
680,904
724,830
712,388
720, 940
446,223
579, 516
663,112
569, 890

433, 541
516,161
650, 785

6, 749
7,890
8,299
8, 600
8,858
9, 011
9, 652
8, 632
8,403
8,701
9,125

370, 239
414,787
543,940
593,224
594, 884
577, 722
611, 740
381, 568
461, 015
553,190
509, 953

86.0
75.3
84.1
96.1
93.8
86.0
70.9
90.3
70.5
90.6
83.9

376, 091
354,429
485, 998
582, 961
575, 035
563,108
655, 552
399, 751
370, 965
525,302
539,341

381,060
369,050
511, 744
590,437
582, 732
550,423
647, 251
391, 653
390,127
543,230
552,445

389, 744
384, 220
527,437
604,179
597,379
547, 549
666, 544
385,173
413, 706
567, 521
559,347

394, 892
396, 713
533,485
593,970
590, 097
545,033
654, 822
386, 733
431, 650
567,341
550, 235

383,053
404,046
536, 607
602, 064
601, 858
543,187
634, 072
386, 785
454, 092
575, 633
518, 507

380.435
416,335
550,332
603,487
608, 681
561, 002
652, 244
382, 600
481,136
579, 635
479, 465

367, 937
418,463
545, 252
594,116
612,156
588, 950
644,135
361,151
481, 629
555,847
469,143

6, 749
7, 890
8,299
8, 600
8,858
9, 011
9,652
8,632
8,403
8, 701
9,125

66,850
71, 741
84, 268
89,155
104, 772
100,803
104,117
79,103
85, 419
100, 952
96,606

88.2
87.3

69, 211
66, 474
76, 648
89, 078
89,362
99, 285
107, 730
74,110
76,328
94, 216
97,825

70,688
70, 075
80, 627
89, 548
92,545
96,828
107,364
77,862
80,305
98,582
100,698

70,514
71,595
81, 975
89,979
96,135
95,394
109,940
78,769
81, 661
102, 603
101,132

68, 096
70, 312
82, 984
87,583
97, 585
93, 437
109, 723
78, 736
81,965
102,506
99,377

66, 708
69, 406
82, 362
85, 795
99,350
92,449
108, 601
78, 239
81,984
101, 657
95,602

65, 625
70, 522
83, 470
87, 258
107, 605
95,149
109,975
78,696
84, 681
103, 799
92,751

64,137
69, 207
83, 940
86,364
110, 076
98, 735
109,047
75,874
85,901
100,859
89,721

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months*




92.8
77.4
82.5
75.4
89.3
82.4
90.8
88.7

November

427, 407
519,886
652,238
682,657
710,055
682,207
674,469
460,352
585,868
646, 264
593, 747

6,749
7,890
8,299
8,600
8,858
9, Oil
9, 652
8,632
8,403
8,701
9,125

86.1

October

681,068

Or
Ox

TABLE 5.—WAGE EARNERS: CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

February

89.9
84.8
90.0
91.1
91.9
80.9
76.6
90.4
87.8
91.2

10,915
11,410
13,825
15, 777
18,009
19, 353
20, 347
15, 543
16, 015
18, 672
17, 978

10,915
11, 599
14,144

9, .540
10, 916
13, 237
15,192
16, 753
17, 000
18, 065
13, 312
15, 268
16, 954
16, 303

90.1
84.6
88.3
90.3
94.7
79.5
77.7
89.2
89.0
90.8
89.8

9,607
10, 183
12,331
14,174
16, 361
16, 928
17, 956
14, 003
14, 478
16, 791
16, 239

9, 575
10, 322
12, 647
14, 563
16, 335
16, 498
18,064
13, 602
14, 722

1,239
1,302
1, 476
1,634
2,221
2,422
2,275
1, 656
1, 721
1,949
1, 702

82.2

1, 308
1, 227
1, 494
1,603
1,648
2,425
2, 391
1, 540
1, 537

1,340
1,277
1,497
1,623
1,949
2,275
2,379
1,646
1, 578

10, 779

247
301
317
340
351
369
411
360
373
382
392

18, 974
19, 422
20, 340
14, 968
16, 989
18, 903
18,005

247
301
317
340
351
369
411
360
373
382
392
247
301
317
340
351
369
411
360
373
382
392

12, 218

14, 713

16, 826

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




Number employed i n -

85.8
88.3
87.8
63.6
87.1
65.7
83.9
77.9
88.6
79.5

1,881
1, 739

16,186

18, 284
18, 773
20, 443
15, 248
16, 300
18,828

18, 356

16, 802

16, 580

2,026

1, 776

March

April

July

May

August

September

11, 253
11,832
14, 581
16, 864
19, 251
18,125
21, 505
15,156
16, 374
19, 304
18,864

11,355
12,069
14, 766
16, 719
19, 028
17, 637
20, 820
14, 812
16, 512
19, 106
18,978

10,997
11, 924
14,509
16, 703
18, 550
18, 140
20, 074
14, 435
16, 565
19, 178
18, 451

10, 737
11,864
14, 807
16,911
18, 609
18, 985
20, 922
14, 197
16, 435
19, 119
17, 829

10, 558
11, 889
14, 607
16, 888
19,187
19,715
21, 366
14, 068
16, 883
19,177
16, 874

10, 574
12, 089
14, 876
17, 145
19, 377
20, 871
21,418
14, 498
17, 269
19, 386
17,166

11,240
13, 089
15, 364
17,311
19,459
21, 809
21, 298
15, 496
17, 710
19, 539
18,117

9,901
10, 525
13,103
15, 209
17, 249
15,810
19, 090
13,491
14, 800
17, 270

10,031
10, 759
13, 323
15, 059
16, 973
15, 380
18,477
13,142
14, 885
17,107
17,164

9,714
10, 652
13,067
15,108
16, 405
15, 849
17, 754
12, 830
14, 929
17, 126
16, 671

10, 594
13, 343
15, 332
16, 386
16, 505
18, 540
12, 565
14, 797
17,158
16, 115

10, 611

9, 376

9,406
10, 876
13,467
15, 614
17,063

10, 012

1,352
1, 307
1,478
1,655
2,002
2,315
2,415
1, 665
1, 574
2,034
1, 843

1,324
1,310
1, 443
1,660
2, 055
2,257
2, 343
1, 670
1, 627
1,999
1,814

1, 283
1, 272
1, 442
1,595
2,145
2,291
2, 320
1,605
1,636
2,052
1, 780

1,248
1,270
1,464
1,579
2,223
2,480
2,382
1, 632
1,638
1,961
1,714

17, 021

13,179
15, 229
16, 891
17,164
18, 868

12,492
15,156
17, 277
15, 409

1,182

1, 278
1,428
1,659
2, 296
2,551
2, 498
1, 576
1,727
1, 900
1,465

18, 994
12, 867
15, 520
17,443
15, 495

11,760
13, 963
15, 700
17,020
19, 345
19, 016
13, 812
15, 942
17, 629
16, 474

1,168

1,228

18, 281

1, 213
1,409
1,531
2,314
2,590
2, 424
1, 631
1, 749
1,943
1, 671

1, 329
1,401
1,611
2,439
2,464
2,282
1,684
1, 768
1, 910
1, 643

October

10, 210

12, 552
14, 886
17, 080
19,194
20, 520
20, 404
15, 435
17, 606
18, 504
17, 789
9,033

11, 200

13, 392
15,437
16,721
17, 991
18,127
13, 600
15, 725
16, 579
16,110
1,177
1,352
1,494
1, 643
2,473
2, 529
2,277
1, 835
1, 881
1,925
1, 679

November

10, 270
12, 844
14, 913
17, 142
19,140
20, 003
19, 010
15, 559
17, 964
18, 201

17, 737
9,158
11,474
13,339
15, 439
16, 550
17, 478
17,067
13, 787
16,003
16, 262

16,047

1,112
1, 370
1, 574
1,703
2,590
2,525
1,943
1, 772
1,961
1,939
1, 690

TABLE

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees i of maxi- January February
mum

Year

All employees:
1914
1915_
19161917_
1918_
1919
1920
1921_
1922
1923
1924Males:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Females:
1914
1915
1916
1917_
19181919
1920_
1921
1922
1923
1924
1

6.—WAGE EARNERS: IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS
Number employed in-

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

1,245
1,394
1, 490
1,583
1,635
1,687
1,797
1,667
1,613
1,647
1,673

78.3
70.0
81.8
94.6
95.1
79.8
78.2
69.4
60.9
89.0
79.0

158,945
141,309
210, 268
256, 851
260, 471
262, 719
278, 796
184, 993
140, 990
221, 850
238, 390

158, 793
149, 012
222, 857
257,355
261,511
247, 464
273, 372
172, 593
150, 299
227, 806
243, 497

161, 957
155, 543
230, 041
264, 432
267, 384
239, 715
284, 009
162, 411
164,159
240, 903
244,067

164,
161,
229,
257,
262,
232,
274,
154,
171,
239,
236,

746
342
770
134
262
595
824
695
698
038
303

155, 634
163, 792
232, 392
262,900
268, 388
232, 842
260, 073
152,142
182, 914
245,405
219, 356

157,424
171,416
240,106
263, 787
267, 329
234, 843
275, 016
145,447
195, 278
249, 272
193, 284

152, 719
173, 935
235, 434
261, 709
273,151
246, 578
277, 535
128, 310
197, 511
243, 668
192, 901

148,
178,
243,
264,
273,
253,
273,
135,
201,
246,
196,

204
299
849
653
891
443
682
411
783
646
660

147, 782
184, 823
246, 122
265, 398
267, 632
254, 069
279, 608
137, 489
201, 412
240, 146
199, 627

143, 906
186,112
246, 564
270, 901
273,485
209, 605
269,161
142, 958
211, 385
238, 252
203, 280

128,924
191,441
253, 718
271, 583
270, 790
236, 211
250,121
150, 845
217, 385
234,425
200, 524

134,609
201,972
257,017
265,351
265, 965
259,982
222,049
147,795
231,346
229,022
213, 744

1,245
1,394
1,490
1, 583
1, 635
1,687
1, 797
1,667
1,613
1,647
1,673

_

151,137
171, 583
237, 345
263, 504
267, 688
242, 505
268,187
151, 257
188, 847
238, 036
215,136
148,175
168, 420
232, 736
257, 597
259, 732
234, 741
260, 274
146, 808
183, 573
230,953
208, 929

78.1
69.8
81.9
93.9
96.3
79.5
78.4
69.2
60.9
89.1
79.1

155, 944
138,456
206, 507
249, 624
255, 005
253, 878
270, 608
179, 743
137,155
215, 249
231,800

155,665
146,109
218, 825
250, 819
255, 893
239, 703
265, 219
167, 735
146,075
220,815
236,503

158, 719
152,497
225,912
257, 771
261, 519
232,080
275, 416
157, 526
159, 700
233, 633
237,106

161, 511
158, 280
225, 443
250, 798
255, 893
225, 243
266,425
149,961
166, 975
231, 571
229, 688

152, 560
160, 652
227, 788
258,029
261, 336
225, 542
251, 759
147, 597
177, 774
237,812
213,159

154, 379
168, 203
235, 438
258, 652
259,416
227, 639
266,492
141,120
189, 690
241, 620
187,463

149, 793
170, 753
230, 681
256, 656
264, 385
239,062
268, 989
124,462
192,001
236, 272
187, 472

145, 346
175, 141
239, 010
259, 295
264, 821
245, 632
265, 656
131, 450
196, 060
239, 340
191, 278

144, 953
181, 664
241, 171
259, 425
258, 194
246, 234
271, 811
133, 430
195, 689
233, 319
193, 875

141,067
182, 829
241, 526
264,390
263, 494
201, 848
261, 682
138, 758
205, 529
231,464
197,113

126,190
188, 027
248, 535
265,813
260, 514
228,180
243,260
146, 372
211,191
227, 783
194,317

131, 979
198,428
251,993
259, 889
256, 312
251, 846
215, 974
143, 542
225,032
222, 556
207, 375

1,245
1, 394
1,490
1,583
1, 635
1, 687
1, 797
1,667
1,613
1,647
1,673

2,961
3,163
4, 609
5,908
7, 956
7,765
7,913
4,449
5, 274
7,083
6, 208

81.2
80.5
72.6
67.4
53.2
81.5
70.7
73.3
60.7
84.5
77.0

3,001
2,853
3, 761
7,227
5,466
8,841
8,188
5,250
3,835
6,601
6,590

3,128
2,903
4,032
6,536
5,618
7,761
8,153
4,858
4,224
6,991
6,994

3, 238
3,046
4,129
6,661
5,865
7,635
8,593
4,885
4,459
7, 270
6,961

3, 235
3,062
4, 327
6,336
6,369
7,352
8,399
4, 734
4, 723
7,467
6,615

3,074
3,140
4,604
4,871
7, 052
7,300
8, 314
4, 545
5,140
7,593
6,197

3,045
3, 213
4,668
5,135
7,913
7,204
8, 524
4,327
5,588
7,652
5,821

2,926
3,182
4, 753
5, 053
8, 766
7, 516
8,546
3,848
5, 510
7,396
5,429

2,858
3,158
4,839
5, 358
9,070
7, 811
8,026
3,961
5,723
7,306
5,382

2, 829
3, 159
4, 951
5. 973
9, 438
7, 835
7, 797
4, 059
5, 723
6, 827
5, 752

2,839
3, 283
5,038
6, 511
9,991
7, 757
7,479
4,200
5,856
6,788
6,167

2,734
3,414
5,183
5, 770
10, 276
8,031
6,861
4,473
6,194
6,642
6,207

2,630
3,544
5,024
5,462
9,653
8,136
6,075
4,253
6,314
6,466
6,369

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




Cc
r
•1
<

TABLE 7 . — W A G E EARNERS: IRON AND STEEL—BOLTS, NUTS, WASHERS, AND RIVETS

Year

All employees:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Males:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Females:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

Number employed in—

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

15
18
23
23
26
30
30
30
26
27
28

2,636
4,006
5, 167
5,490
5,948
5,389
5, 533
3, 324
4,503
5, 518
4, 602

77.9
70.4
80.3
94.3
96.2
77.0
91.2
60.2
50.3
87.9
69.1

2,705
3, 369
4,604
5,449
5,900
5,833
5,615
4,407
2, 747
5,278
5,287

2, 759
3, 487
4,879
5,574
5,959
5, 413
5, 436
3, 799
3,239
5, 420
5, 559

2,921
3,574
4,931
5,644
5, 956
5,265
5, 629
3,822
3,428
5,644
5,426

2,859
3, 995
4,842
5,539
5,847
5,497
5, 568
3,672
3, 816
5,619
5,358

2,722
4,786
4,993
5,534
5,992
5,194
5,328
3,482
4, 276
5, 799
4,577

2,689
4,082
5,156
5,590
6,009
5,146
5,461
3,139
4, 768
5,735
4,081

2,661
3, 873
5,141
5,476
6,042
5,377
5,618
2,653
4,984
5,817
3, 855

2,659
3,905
5.224
5, 512
5,881
5, 735
5,663
2,884
5,286
5,649
3,839

2,574
4,055
5, 367
5,358
5,812
5,747
5, 678
2,872
5,232
5, 353
4,121

2,500
4,170
5,472
5,323
5,988
4,491
5,771
2,992
5,359
5,396
4,165

2,307
4, 266
5, 661
5.504
5,967
5, 299
5, 364
3,194
5,462
5,397
4,357

15
18
23
23
26
30
30
30
26
27
28

2,179
3, 418
4,396
4, 743
5,034
4, 522
4,658
2,763
3, 750
4,603
3, 797

78.0
66.8
81.1
93.4
95.2
76.7
90.6
60.4
49.7
89.3
71.7

2,225
2, 824
3,992
4, 686
5,042
4,843
4,731
3, 646
2, 263
4, 392
4,347

2,239
2,937
4, 116
4,842
a 115
4,545
4, 561
3,143
2,694
4, 479
4,499

2,412
2,984
4,159
4, 902
5,089
4,430
4,715
3,142
2,851
4, 695
4, 419

2,348
3,435
4, 100
4, 819
4,985
4, 659
4,678
3, 077
3,157
4, 657
4,435

2,231
4,230
4,190
4,800
5,129
4,398
4, 496
2,896
3, 524
4,790
3,814

2,232
3, 497
4,355
4,835
5,099
4,312
4, 591
2,657
3,961
4,731
3, 369

2,238
3,266
4,327
4,747
5,114
4, 535
4, 731
2,202
4,161
4, 837
3,227

2,205
3, 304
4, 439
4,773
4, 963
4,825
4,755
2,440
4,425
4, 767
3.225

2,141
3,456
4, 601
4, 597
4,881
4,854
4, 795
2,390
4, 367
4, 493
3,412

2,085
3, 571
4,700
4, 596
5,018
3, 721
4, 900
2,490
4,499
4, 527
3,418

1,906
3,656
4, 846
4, 733
4,967
4, 427
4.505
2,622
4, 557
4, 552
3,609

15
18
23
23
26
30
30
30
26
27
28

457
588
771
747
914
867
875
561
753
915
804

76.0
83.5
75.1
91.6
82.9
77.8
90.3
58.3
53.5
78.4
57.9

480
545
612
763
858
990
884
761
484
886
940

520
550
763
732
844

509
590
772
742
867
835
914

511
560
742
720
862
838
890
595
659
962
923

491
556
803
734
863
796
832
586
752
1,009
763

457
585
801
755
910
834
870
482
807
1,004
712

423
607
814
729
928
842
887
451
823

454

433
599
766
761
931
893
883
482
865
860
709

415
599
772
727
970
770
871
502

401
610
815
771
1,000
872
859
572
905
845
748

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




00

868

875
656
545
941
1, 060

680

577
949
1,007

601

785
739
918
910
908
444
861

882
614

747

TABLE

Year

All emplovees:
1914
1915 2
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Males:
1914
1915 2
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920.
1921
1922
1923
1924
Females:
1914
1915 2
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924.




8.—WAGE EARNERS: IRON AND STEEL—SCREWS, MACHINE AND

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

WOOD

Number employed in-

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

8

1,740

78.5

1,835

1,822

1,889

1,925

1,815

1,739

1, 723

1,661

1, 527

1,511

1,608

1,818

3
7
3
5
5
4
5
6
6

611
758
535
762
741
338
468
790
517

80.6
79.8
84.9
76.8
60.7
56.5
47.3
72.9
56.4

543
661
498
636
810
394
268
785
546

560
738
484
706
878
415
316
852
653

579
799
537
717
905
438
417
866
643

611
804
545
771
802
469
475
838
597

588
828
556
757
821
331
458
765
511

558
791
546
748
760
332
499
797
468

616
812
570
760
746
285
526
907
368

663
739
549
805
745
287
532
822
460

674
738
553
797
659
280
567
785
481

651
741
523
821
620
283
506
720
481

653
742
544
798
586
265
501
680
479

627
706
524
828
549
275
543
661
520

8

1, 534

77.4

1, 623

1,603

1, 666

1,707

1, 611

1, 529

1,504

1,453

1,340

1, 321

1,419

1,630

3
7
3
5
5
4
5
6
6

451
513
316
483
471
239
320
527
331

80.0
81.7
84.5
74.8
62.0
67.2
52.1
76.9
67.5

422
487
295
404
525
264
200
553
338

404
543
284
439
544
267
242
543
400

432
575
305
433
568
285
280
581
388

458
545
314
484
518
299
314
569
367

438
547
315
491
518
259
319
542
326

417
505
332
479
466
247
343
514
309

455
519
325
482
475
211
348
578
270

488
470
317
534
475
214
368
553
293

505
472
325
540
430
208
384
510
310

475
501
321
492
398
213
351
474
313

450
513
336
499
378
202
330
456
312

463
484
328
523
352
201
355
447
343

8

206

83.9

212

219

223

. 218

204

210

219

208

187

190

189

188

3
7
3
5
5
4
5
6
6

160
245
219
279
270
99
148
263
187

59.6
59.4
80.0
70.5
58.5
37.1
36.2
65.0
38.4

121
174
203
232
285
130
68
232
208

156
195
200
267
334
148
74
309
253

147
224
232
284
337
153
137
285
255

153
259
231
287
284
170
161
269
230

150
281
241
266
303
72
139
223
185

141
286
214
269
294
85
156
283
159

161
293
245
278
271
74
178
329
98

175
269
232
271
270
73
164
269
167

169
266
228
257
229
72
183
275
171

176
240
202
329
222
70
155
246
168

203
229
208
299
208
63
171
224
167

164
222
196
305
197
74
188
214
177

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

2 Figures not obtainable.

Oi
CO

TABLE

Year

loyees:

9.—WAGE EARNERS:LUMBERAND

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

ITS

PRODUCTS

o

Number employed in-

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

865
1,198
1,289
1, 364
1,439
1,475
1, 601
1,426
1,243
1,278
1, 366

17,855
21, 016
24, 074
26, 374
27, 933
30, 067
30,335
27, 706
28,058
29,335
29,323

72.4
73.4
77.2
77.9
79.5
74.9
75.4
80.0
76.3
73.8
82.0

15,981
19,403
21,769
24,124
25, 030
28,136
29, 582
26,648
25,003
26, 236
27,933

15,926
19, 224
21, 786
24,010
25, 343
26,843
27,947
25,699
25, 577
26, 462
28,081

16,220
19,015
21,890
24, 233
25, 804
26, 396
27, 581
25, 674
25,425
26, 452
28,004

15,997
18, 552
22, 024
23,964
25, 865
26, 459
27,423
25, 375
25, 304
26, 038
27, 597

16,069
18,898
22,174
24, 250
26, 111
27, 036
27,973
25, 689
25, 295
26, 754
27, 627

17, 320
20,379
23, 005
25, 652
28,329
30,183
30, 529
27, 675
27, 665
29,459
28, 777

17, 262
20,176
23,199
25, 760
27, 352
29,947
31,125
26, 350
26, 768
28, 782
29, 534

18,958
21, 776
25, 068
26, 393
30, 565
32, 348
32,123
29,005
29,004
31,126
29,133

22,008
25,262
28,184
30,755
31, 503
35, 224
36,378
31, 725
31, 638
35, 283
33, 668

21,492
23,638
27,418
29,921
29,811
33,133
33,600
30, 510
32, 752
33, 205
32, 236

19,062
23, 237
27,155
29, 234
29,582
33,256
31, 321
29,833
31, 686
31,927
30, 250

17,968
22, 631
25, 220
28,193
29, 904
31,843
28,438
28, 289
30, 581
30,302
29,036

865
1,198
1,289
1, 364
1,439
1,475
1,601
1, 426
1,243
1,278
1, 366

13,365
16,125
18, 579
20, 243
20,904
22, 317
22, 790
21,670
21, 799
22, 507
22,852

79.9
77.8
81.7
82.2
83.5
80.1
78.0
83.3
78.8
75.7
86.5

12,274
15,389
17, 365
18,897
19,157
21,080
22, 211
21, 327
19,792
20,148
22,048

12, 254
15,081
17,166
18, 724
19, 295
20,052
21,095
20, 209
20,000
20,051
21,941

12, 372
14,827
17,182
18, 736
19,475
19,987
20,627
20,087
19,997
20,137
21,949

12, 328
14,491
17,185
18,807
19, 560
20, 239
20,810
19,991
19, 987
20,026
21, 794

12, 296
14, 739
17,400
19,157
19, 753
20, 714
21, 362
20, 377
19, 834
20, 709
21,890

13,185
15, 646
17, 794
20,120
21, 380
23,057
23,109
21,836
21, 570
22, 734
22,666

13, 146
15, 704
18,153
20,021
20, 799
22, 591
23,490
21, 364
21, 018
22, 574
23,437

14,183
16, 795
19, 597
20,494
22,947
23, 939
23,932
22,922
22, 265
24,118
23,183

15, 334
18, 619
21,022
22, 774
22,797
24,946
26,432
24,005
23, 611
26,446
25,188

15, 010
17, 385
20,332
21,806
21,932
23,538
24, 620
23,133
25,121
24, 959
24,387

14, 221
17, 522
20,427
21,953
21, 721
24,040
23, 526
22,862
24, 528
24,531
23,273

13, 775
17, 300
19,330
21,433
22,027
23,620
22, 262
21, 924
23, 869
23,646
22,472

865
1,198
1, 289
1, 364
1,439
1,475
1, 601
1,426
1,243
1,278
1,366

4,490
4,891
5,495
6,131
7,030
7,750
7,545
6,036
6,259
6,829
6,472

55.0
60.4
61.5
62.8
67.5
60.5
62.1
64.6
64.9
68.0
67.7

3, 707
4,014
4,404
5, 227
5,873
7,056
7,371
5,321
5, 211
6,088
5,885

3, 672
4,143
4,620
5, 286
6,048
6, 791
6, 852
5,490
5,577
6,411
6,140

3,848
4,188
4, 708
5,497
6,329
6,409
6,954
5,587
5,428
6,315
6,055

3.669
4, 061
4,839
5,157
6, 305
6, 220
6,613
5,384
5,317
6, 012
5,803

3, 773
4,159
4, 774
5,093
6, 358
6, 322
6,611
5, 312
5,461
6,045
5, 737

4,135
4, 733
5,211
5, 532
6,949
7,126
7,420
5,839
6,095
6, 725
6,111

4,116
4,472
5,046
5, 739
6,553
7,356
7, 635
4,986
5, 750
6,208
• 6,097

4,775
4,981
5,471
5,899
7,618
8,409
8,191
6,083
6,739
7,008
5,950

6,674
6,643
7,162
7,981
8, 706
10, 278
9,946
7, 720
8,027
8, 837
8,480

6,482
6, 253
7, 086
8,115
7, 879
9,595
8,980
7,377
7,631
8, 246
7,849

4,841
5,715
6,728
7,281
7,861
9, 216
7,795
6,971
7,158
7, 396
6,977

4,193
5, 331
5,890
6,760
7, 877
8, 223
6,176
6,365
6,712
6,656
6,564

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.







TABLE 10.—WAGE EARNERS: FOOD—BAKERY PRODUCTS
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emof maxi- January February
reporting ployees
mum

Number employed in—

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

4,391
5,215

4,521
5, 217

4, 558
5, 216

4,445
5,116

4,462
5, 253

4, 549
5, 302

4,505
5,287

4,484
5, 217

4, 630
5,287

4, 589
5,322

4,557
5,478

5,903
6,159
6,927
6,193

5,926
6,196
6,955
6, 229
6,408
7, 558
7,872

5, 890
6,129
6,975
6, 078
6,418
7,471
7, 779

6, 255
6,233
7,090
6,094
6,416
7,626
7,713

6,444
6,416
7,369
6,315

7, 249
7, 671

5,947
6,164
6,926
6,177
6, 363
7, 387
7,806

7, 870
7, 866

6, 571
6, 557
7, 331
6, 367
6, 778
8, 002
7, 755

6, 521
6, 456
7,118
6,311
6,496
7, 781
7, 629

6, 504
6, 551
6,976
6,403
6, 708
8, 039
7, 874

6,632
6,563
7,175
6,465
8, 779
8,279
7, 747

6,562
6, 734
7,206
6, 541
8,975
8, 387
7,844

95.8
93.9

3,431
3,913

3, 534
3,895

3, 567
3,904

3,439
3,810

3,461
3,868

3, 504
3, 892

3, 456
3, 907

3, 485
3, 853

3, 582
3, 895

3, 528
3,910

3, 536
4,057

94.1
90.7
94.4
92.8
66.4
87.2
96.4

4,391
4,454
5,092
4,683
4,823
5,654
5, 844

4,422
4,450
5, 101
4, 661
4, 860
5, 689
5,921

4, 398
4,491
5, 061
4, 683
4, 853
5, 773
5,960

4, 288
4, 456
5,135
4, 583
4,893
5, 726
5,859

4, 353
4, 537
5, 227
4, 628
4, 874
5,833
5, 744

4,467
4, 606
5, 361
4, 747
5, 060
5,999
5,876

4,516
4,694
5, 350
4, 803
5,110
5, 834

4, 527
4, 686
5, 229
4,813
4,994
6,009
5, 816

4, 508
4, 747
5,194
4, 940
5, 070
6, 257
5,907

4, 558
4, 781
5, 283
4,889
7.060
6, 349
5, 817

4,496
4, 857
5,356
4,934
7,190
6,485
5,901

1,012

90.5
91.6

960
1, 302

1,322

991
1,312

1,006

1, 306

1,001
1,385

1,045
1,410

1,049
1, 380

999
1,364

1,048
1, 392

1.061
1,412

1,021

1,871
1, 774
1,859
1, 534
1,605
1, 795
1,913

68.0

1,512
1,705
1,835
1, 510
1,445
1, 595
1,827

1,525
1,714
1,825
1,516
1, 503
1,698
1,885

1, 528
1, 705
1,894
1,546
1, 555
1,785
1,912

1, 602
1,673
1,840
1,495
1,525
1, 745
1,920

1,902
1,696
1, 863
1,466
1, 542
1, 793
1,969

1,977

2,055
1,863
1,981
1, 564

1,994
1,770
1,889
1,498
1, 502
1, 772
1,813

1,996
1, 804
1, 782
1, 463
1,638
1,782
1,967

2,074
1,782
1,892
1, 576
1,719
1,930
1,930

2,066

2,008
1, 568
1, 626
1, 871
1, 990

4,516
5, 278

94.8
93.4

407
403
451
371
367
377
421

6, 320
6, 412
7, 078
6, 302
7,109
7,823
7, 772

90.3
93.5
92.9
69.5
86.4

366

3, 504
3,912
4,449
4, 639
5, 219
4, 768
5, 504

407
403
451
371
367
377
421

6, 028

5, 860
1, 367

407
403
451
371
367
377
421

December

88.0

88.8
82.4
91.0
81.0
82.6
91.1

6,268

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

6, 686

1, 810

6,101

1,668
1,901
1,921

2 Figures not obtainable.

1, 421

1, 877
1, 850
1, 607
1, 785
1,902
1, 943

C*

TABLE

Year

All employees:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Males:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Females:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

Number employed in-

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

80
90
92
92
93
89
85
72
77
82
85

1,808
1,709
1,509
1,711
2,015
1,783
1,673
1,227
1,479
1,700
1,567

12.7
10.5
12.2
10.7
9.7
14.2
9.2
8.7
10.2
9.9
13.8

7i9
603
611
607
627
755
617
326
464
582
689

653
590
595
584
584
738
561
391
537
656
707

760
717
687
712
649
735
617
429
594
660
751

684
744
688
831
750
815
714
508
603
675
821

798
857
701
907
888
1,066
841
759
762
755
881

1,649
1,832
1,356
1,571
2,650
2,748
1,791
1,923
1,886
2,413
1,287

1,716
1,588
1,326
1,989
1,652
1,539
1,988
984
1,362
1,395
1,938

3,037
2,932
2,655
1,972
4,742
3,355
2,523
2,611
3,089
3,090
1,745

5,128
5,596
4,863
5,442
6,029
5,162
6,102
3,734
4,567
5,853
4,995

3,831
2,625
2,686
3,338
2,865
2,343
2,371
1,481
1,997
2,145
2,731

1,806
1,436
1,186
1,615
1,682
1,304
1,374
906
1,082
1,280
1,369

916
983
751
965
1,064
836
581
667
811
898
893

80
90
92
92
93
89
85
72
77
82
85

997
1,108
1,008
1,143
1,296
1,153
1,057
820
966
1,105
934

12.9
11.1
13.0
11.4
11.3
15.5
10.9
10.5
10.7
9.5
14.5

375
416
401
406
435
514
429
254
312
367
423

349
391
402
412
414
480
409
289
350
421
432

388
458
448
492
453
543
443
300
401
438
475

406
527
492
634
528
644
518
365
433
457
556

484
598
538
696
636
748
632
539
547
526
601

1,003
1,148
917
1,076
1,775
1,950
1,204
1,334
1,365
1,622
787

921
1,012
966
1,403
1,057
1,002
1,218
640
882
917
1,192

1,867
2,054
1,880
1,394
3,045
2,164
1,598
1,795
2,008
2,023
1,052

2,714
3,531
3,094
3,575
3,651
3,088
3, 741
2,418
2,928
3,875
2,926

1,876
1,568
1,678
1,984
1,687
1.312
1,283
926
1,161
1,271
1,584

1,034
917
775
1,025
1,131
829
761
586
680
818
709

552
680
509
622
735
558
446
399
523
525
476

80
90
92
92
93
89
85
72
77
82
85

811
600
500
568
720
630
616
406
514
595
633

11.5
9.1
9.2
9.2
7.1
8.2
5.7
5.5
9.3
10.9
12.8

344
187
210
201
192
241
188
72
152
215
266

304
199
193
i72
170
258
152
102
187
235
275

372
259
239
220
196
192
174
129
193
222
276

278
217
196
197
222
171
196
143
170
218
265

314
259
163
211
252
318
209
220
215
229
280

616
684
439
495
875
798
587
589
521
791
500

795
576
360
586
595
537
770
344
480
478
746

1,170
878
775
578
1,697
1,191
925
816
1,081
1,067
693

2,414
2,065
1,769
1,867
2,378
2,074
2,361
1,316
1,639
1,978
2,069

1,955
1,057
1,008
1,354
1,178
1,031
1,088
555
836
874
1,147

772
519
411
590
551
475
613
320
402
462
660

364
303
242
. 343
329
278
135
268
288
373
417

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




11.—WAGE EARNERS: FOOD—CANNING AND PRESERVING

TABLE

12.—WAGE EARNERS: FOOD—CONFECTIONERY

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

94
104
126
131
148
131
138
133
120
117
111
94
104

2.625
2,639
3,641
4,336
4,526
4,575
4,795
3,918
3,323
3,970
3,090

1,168

78.1
74.8
78.7
79.3
78.8
70.8
78.3
75.6
68.3
73.1
69.5

2,015
2,204
1,979
1,540
1,700
2,493
1,385
1,545
1,299

2,011

1,333

1,169
2,094
2,239
2,068
1,476
1,634
2,554
1,299
1,512
1,317

1,572
1,459

1,546
1,517
1,760
2.164
2,622
2,966
2,918
2,082
2.165
2,598
1,905

1,625
1,532
1,762
2,283
2,849
2, 732
2,930
2,121
1,938
2,492
1,807

104
126
131
148
131
138
133
120
117
111

1,750
1,790
1,976
2,470
2.515
3,199
2,994
2.178
2,205
2,514
1,887

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




2,741
2,701
3,856
4,522
4,917
4,208
4,564
4,675
3,237
4,004
3,124

60.4
64.8
66.3
71.5
80.5
60.2
69.4
57.6
63.3
64.1
64.0

111

131
148
131
138
133
120
117

March

2,919
3,100
4,317
4,944
4,692
4,835
4,647
4,692
3,712
4,068
3,199
1,310
2,341
2,474
2.177
1,636
1,653
2.514
1,507
1,554
1,312

126

2,634
2,677
3,771
4,357
4,661
4,508
4,568
4,564
3,583
4,200
3,238

Number employed i n -

49.0
55.7
53.6
58.3
65.9
54.4
65.1
41.0
57.8
59.1

1,053
1,180

1.626

2,132
2,547
3,035
3,095
1,425
1,938
2,425
1,791

1,088
1,160
2,193
2,039
1,542
1,650
2,482
1,418
1,602

1,116

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

2,651
2,695
3,888
4,330
4,837
3,967
4,282
4,532
3,171
3,707
2,811

2,611
2,763
3,875
4,328
4,496
3,812
4,151
4,308
3,272
3,512
2,620

2,497
2,797
4,022
4,623
4,298
3,897
4,282
4,102
3,478
3,468
2,764

2,358
2,711
4,186
4,859
4,499
4,355
4,134
3,451
3,047
3.363
2,704

2,854
2,933
4,137
5,070
4,696
4,840
4,879
4,267
3,713
3,748
2,829

3,550
3,490
4,805
5,618
4, 572
5,793
5,351
5,702
4,196
4,578
3,793

3,901
4,071
5,378
6,055
4, 546
6,298
5,779
5,990
4,817
5,250
4,093

3,443
3.950
5,489
5,864
4,916
6,335
4,968
5,657
4,492
4,818
3,749

1,115

1,123
1,242
2,294
2,363
2,168
1,412
1,560
2,430
1,346
1,393

1,108

1,106

1,117
1,289
2,395
2, 558
2,246
1,527
1,586
2,344
1,537
1,391
1,189

1,308
2,552
2,684
2,394
1,497
1,583
2,173
1.364
1,366
1,186

1,202
1,322
2,504
2,767
2,511
1,719
1,700
2,373
1,498
1,453
1,230

1,334
1,486
2, 555
2,716
2,183
1,857
1,835
2,721
1,687
1,704
1,504

1,349
1.551
2,544
2,684
2,033
1,944
1,864
2,874
1,903
1,869
1,592

1,251
1,465
2,538
2,651
2,096
1,977
1,677
2,650
1,707
1,800
1,451

1,488
1,521
1,581
1,965
2,328
2,400
2,591
1,878
1,926
2,119
1,514

1,380
1,508
1,627
2,065
2,052
2,370
2,696
1,758
1,941
2,077
1,575

1,250
1,403
1,634
2,175
2,105
2,858
2, 551
1,278
1,683
1,997
1,518

1,652
1,611
1,633
2,303
2,185
3,121
3,179
1,894
2,215
2,295
1,599

2,216
2,004
2,250
2, 902
2,389
3,936
3,516
2,981
2,509
2,874
2,289

2.552
2,520
2,834
3,371
2,513
4,354
3,915
3,116
2,914
3,381
2,501

December

2,192
2,485
2.951
3,213

1,160

2,202
2,254
2,175
1,399
1,583
2, 510
1,321
1,426
1,166
1,536
1,535
1,686

2,076
2,662
2,568
2,699
2,022

1,850
2,281
1,645

2,820

4,358
3,291
3,007
2,785
3,018
2,298

C
O

TABLE

Year

loyees:

Number Average
of estab- number
lishments of emreporting ployees 1

12
5
14
7
11
6
160
11
6
16
5
18
5
14
4
18
3
145
18
3
152
14
7
11
6
160
11
6
16
5
18
5
14
4
18
3
15
4
138
12
5
14
7
11
6
160
11
6
16
5
158
14
4
18
3
145
18
3

17,735
17, 581
18,346
17,465
16,855
17, 790
16,395
15,947
14,875
16, 2 6
6
15,043
11, 605
11,225
11,899
11,316
10, 5 7
7
11, 2 3
5
10, 7 1
6
9,957
9, 5 5
6
10, 2 6
3
9, 025
6,130
6,356
6,447
6,149
6,278
6, 537
5,634
5,990
5,310
6,030
6,018

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




13.—WAGE EARNERS: LEATHER AND LEATHER PRODUCTS
Number employed in-

Per cent

mnm m
ii u
employment is
of maximum

79.6
88.4
94.7
80.1
91.2
83.3
63.7
74.0
70.1
91.8
89.0
80.7
89.4
94.5
82.7
87.2
85.8
64.6
72.4
73.2
89.4
88.6
77.5
84.7
93.8
75.4
90.2
77.2
62.0
71.6
62.7
88.4
89.1

January February

18, 7 0
4
18,317
18,075
18, 7 4
5
17,372
16,878
19,013
13,251
16, 4 8
3
16, 1 9
9
15, 5 8
0
12,210
11, 7 0
8
11, 7 9
7
11, 9 4
2
11,315
10, 5 2
2
12,487
8,437
10,345
10,383
9,477
6,530
6,537
6,296
6,830
6,057
6,356
6,526
4,814
6,093
5,816
6,031

19,309
18,134
18,709
19,173
17, 2 6
9
17, 2 0
1
1, 71
8 8
14, 0 9
6
16, 5 6
4
16,894
15,889
12, 7 0
6
11, 6 6
8
12,162
12,350
11,174
10,814
12,338
8,848
10,519
10,772
9,519
6,549
6,448
6,547
6,823
6,122
6,396
6,443
5, 2 1
2
6,027
6,122
6,370

March

18,351
17, 7 4!
8
18,600 j
18, 4 4
9
17,333
16, 7 2
7
18,911
14, 5 4
3
16,312
17,033
15,832
12,194
11,420
12,178
11,930
11,124
10, 7 3
2
1, 50
2 0
9,110
10,402
10,719
9, 5 2
5
6,157 j
6,364
6,422
6, 5 4
6
6, 2 9
0
6, 0 9
4
6,411
5,424
5,910
6, 3 4
1
6,280

April

May

June

July

15,371
16,577
18,123
17,436
17, 230
16, 5 8
0
18, 5 8
6
15, 0 3
7
15, 242
16,394
14, 840
10,297
10, 7 6
8
11,871
11,400
11,013
10, 6 8
7
12, 215
9,419
9, 7 7
8
10,390
8,880
5,074
'5, 7 1
9
6,252
6,036
6, 2 7
1
5,830
6,353
5, 6 4
5
5,455
6,004
5,960

16,718
16,389
18,160
18,051
17, 2 9
2
16,980
18,157
15, 5 9
7
12,529
15, 6 1
7
14, 1 9
8
10,965
10, 5 7
2
11,790
11,506
11,037
10, 8 6
8
11,872
9, 6 2
5
8,371
10,092
8,492
5, 7 3
5
5,862
6,370
6, 5 5
4
6,192
6,094
6,285
5,927
4,158
5, 5 9
7
5, 6 7
9

17,966
17, 024
18, 5 9
2
18,008
17,442
17,334
17, 6 7
4
16, 380
11,540
16, 037
14,145
11,666
10,839
11,975
11, 6 1
9
11,009
11,113
11,549
10,113
7, 7 8
1
10, 0 8
8
8, 4 7
6
6,300
6,185
6, 5 4
5
6,317
6, 4 3
3
6,221
6, 0 8
9
6,267
3,822
5,949
5, 6 8
7

18,524
17,444
18, 7 6
3
17, 9 9
9
17,155
17,864
17,000
16, 7 7
0
13, 2 1
8
16, 2 5
9
14, 7 7
9
11,947
11, 0 8
9
12, 0 6
9
11,674
10,548
11,460
11, 0 5
7
10, 2 5
0
8,589
10,244
8, 760
6, 5 7
7
6, 3 6
4
6,640
6,325
6,607
6,404
5,925
6, 502
4, 6 2
9
6, 0 1
5
6,037

August

18,415
17,815
18, 669
17,041
16,313
18,076
16, 042
17, 2 1
1
14, 248
16, 3 7
6
15, 2 7
1
11,848
11,323
12,055
11,199
9, 8 6
6
11,547
10, 5 8
0
10, 486
9,119
10, 244
8,960
6,567
6,492
6, 6 4
1
5,842
6,447
6, 5 9
2
5,534
6,725
5,129
6,123
6, 2 7
5

September

17,419
17,581
17, 962
15,360
16, 4 5
9
17,841
14, 5 5
6
17,016
14,909
16,167
15,242
11,313
11,208
11, 5 3
9
10, 2 1
1
10,090
11,418
9, 5 8
5
10, 4 1
3
9,531
10,116
9,106
6,106
6,373
6,369
5,149
6,405
6,423
5, 0 7
0
6,585
5,378
6,051
6,136 |

October

16,650
17,317
17, 735
15, 6 1
9
15,903
18,923
13,376
16, 500
15, 2 0
9
16, 2 9
2
15,176
10,928
10, 9 6
1
11, 5 4
0
10,227
9,943
11, 7 2
2
8,782
10,361
9,811
10,113
9,102
5, 722
6,401
6,231
5,464
5,960
7,201
4,594
6,139
5,479
6,116
6,074

November

17,722
18,041
18,256
16,495
16,187
19,282
12,120
17,898
15, 7 4
0
16, 2 6
7
14, 9 8
6
11, 5 0
8
11,407
11,805
10,688
9,873
11,895
8,072
11,650
10, 045
10,037
9,052
6,142
6,634
6,451
5,807
6,314
7,387
4,048
6,248
5,659
6,239
5,916

December

17,643
18, 5 6
4
18, 5 9
9
17, 0 4
7
16,304
19,808
12, 5 4
6
17,148
16, 4 7
6
15,629
14, 7 6
1
11,555
11, 7 0
1
11,976
10,993
9,932
12,259
8,178
10, 7 3
7
10,546
9,633
8,934
6,088
6,836
6,623
6,081
6,372
7, 5 9
4
4,386
6,375
5,921
5,996
5,782

TABLE 14.—WAGE EARNERS: LEATHER—BOOTS, SHOES, CUT STOCK AND FINDINGS
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

14,431
13,995
1,0
51 8
1,8
39 3
1,6
30 9
14, 7 7
0
13, 2 9
7
1 , 77
3 2
1,2
19 3
1 , 32
3 6
12, 5 7
0
8, 7 0
7
8,314
8,974
8, 2 1
5
7,386
8,547
8,095
7,945
6, 9 6
4
7,721
6,888

5, 6 1
6
5,681
6,135
5, 7 2
3
5,683
6,161
5,184
5, 7 2
8
4, 9 7
7
5, 6 1
4
5,621
i Arithmetic average of the 12 months. CO




75.8
85.2
93.9
75.3
88.3
84.1
63.0
73.2
61.8
90.1

88.8

75.9
85.6
93.7
76.9
82.0
87.0
64.0
70.7
62.2
89.0
88.4
74.8
83.5
93.3
73.0
88.8
78.9
61.3
71.4
60.7
86.8
89.0

1,8
52 5
1 , 68
4 3
1,0
51 1
15,430
13, 5 0
7
14, 0 8
7
1,6
54 4
1,4
13 0
13, 9 1
7
1,3
33 8
1 , 70
2 8
9,233
7
8, 7 3
9, 0 2
7
8,982
8,002
8,066

9,427
6, 7 0
1
8,135
7, 7 7
8
7,158
6,052
5,865
6,029
6,448
5, 5 8
6
6,012
6,037
4, 6 0
3
5,836
5,551
5,622

Number employed in—

February

15,764
14,396
15, 4 1
4
1 , 77
5 3
13,498
14,371
1 , 29
5 2
12,161
1 , 91
3 4
1 , 97
3 2
13,166
9,712
8, 6 3
2
9,177
9, 2 5
8
7,929
8,287
9,272
7,124
8,193
8,121
7,220
6,052
5, 7 3
7
6, 2 4
6
6,452
5,569
6,084
5,957
5,037
5,748
5,806
5,946

March

14,850
14,000
1,4
52 3
15,119
1,8
34 4
1,0
40 8
15,280
1,5
25 3
13,623
14, 0 1
5
13,088
9,193
8.308
9,112
8,902
7,859
8,247
9,384
7.309
8,030
8,101
7,223
5,657
5,692
6,131
6,217
5,625
5, 7 1
6
5,896
5,244
5,593
5, 9 0
5
5, 8 5
6

April

11,949
12,929
14,857
14,134
1,4
34 4
13, 7 0
3
1,7
49 6
12,929
12, 5 8
7
13, 4 4
1
12,154
7, 3 7
6
7,812
8, 9 7
1
8,452
7.815
8,167
9,174
7,469
7,412
7,796
6, 618

4,582
5,117
5,940
5, 6 2
8
5, 6 9
2
5, 5 3
6
5,802
5,460
5,166
5, 6 8
1
5,536

May

June

14, 7 4
5
13, 6 5
0
15,325
14,471
13, 6 5
1
14,381
14, 2 2
7
1,7
40 4
8,635
13,062
11,759
8, 8 8
9
8,106
8,073
7,660
9,082
8,902
8. 5 1
4
8,445
7,830
7,849
8,474
8,289
8,693
8,918
7, 7 7 8,003
0
5,092
5,870
7, 5 1 7.534
0
6,385
5, 2 4 5,856
9
5, 5 2
3
5,198
6,063
6, 2 3
4
5,930
6.163
5, 7 5
8
5,580
5,907
5,805
7
5, 7 0 5, 5 9
6
5, 7 0 6,071
1
4
3, 8 1 3, 5 3
9
5, 5 8
2
5.164
9
5, 3 7 5, 2 1
0

13,400
12,858
14,965
14, 6 8
0
13,429
14, 0 4
9
14, 6 8
7
13, 4 7
1
9,761
12, 6 5
6
11,692

July

15,369
13,824
1 , 40
5 3
14,420
13, 2 4
2
14, 7 1
8
13, 7 3
4
14,445
1 , 21
0 3
1 , 39
3 9
12,497
9,242
8,135
9,101
8, 5 1
2
7, 2 2
5
8.730
8; 3 7
2
8,140
5, 8 0
8
7,748
6, 7 8
9
6,127
5, 6 9
8
6, 3 9
2
5, 8 9
9
5,972
6, 0 1
5
5,416
6,305
4,351
5,651

August

September

1,7
52 4
1,5
41 3
15,372
1,7
34 1
12,439
14, 8 6
8
12,991
1,6
48 7
11,160
13, 5 5
2

14,282
13, 9 5
0
14, 7 9
0
11,852
12, 7 7
3
14, 6 8
8
11, 7 6
2
14, 6 4
1
11,747
13,374

9,164
8,324
9,084
8,051
6,565
8,763
7, 8 4
7
8,381
6,378
7,798
6,986

8,631
8, 2 7
0
8, 662
7,144
6,921
8,701
7,138
8,260
6, 7 7
2
7,699
7,045
5,651
5, 6 8
9
6,047
4, 7 8
0
5,816
5,987
4,588
6,354
5,020
5,675
5, 7 3
6

12,881

6,110

5,829
6,288
5,420
5, 8 4
7
6,123
5,117
6,486
4, 7 2
8
5,727
5,895

12, 808

October

13,510
13,941
14, 5 3
0
12, 216
12,025
15,379
10,716
14,108
12, 020
13,403
12, 6 8
4
8,246
8, 2 4
2
8, 600
7, 2 6
2
6,720
8,685
65 2
,3?
8,196
6,948
7, 7 9
1
6, 9 5
8
5,264
5, 7 7
1
5,903
4,990
5,305
6,694
4,183
5,912
5, 0 2
7
5, 6 4
8
5, 6 3
6

November

14,471
1 , 69
4 0
14,912
12,937
12,462
15,772
9, 7 5
3
15,497
12, 3 2
2
13,409
12,452
8,785
8, 6 7
7
8,807
0
7, 6 8
6, 8 7
2
8,884
6,036
9,485
7,101
7,624
6,946
5, 6 6
8
5,932
6,105
5,329
5, 6 5
3
6,888
3, 6 9
9
6,012
5, 2 1
2
5, 7 5
8
5,506
Oi

o>
o

TABLE 15.—WAGE EARNERS: LIQUORS AND BEVERAGES
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

178
198
192
179
182

167
150
121

10
2
124
140

178
198
192
179

6,020
5, 936
6,460
6, 343
5, 820
4, 533
3,652
2,671
2, 234
2, 195
2,015
5,960
5,853
6,347
6,238
5,718
4, 432
3, 454

81.9
89.3
78.6
82.2
69.6
67.3
64.9
65.3
71.8
65.8
70.4
81.6
89.0
78.7
82.2

2,626

120
124
140

2,191
2,152
1,962

68.9
67.4
65.6
65.3
71.8
65.1
70.2

178
198
192
179

60
83
113
105
102
101
198
45
43
43
53

66.2
61.7
57.9
77.0
73.3
41.9
53.0
50.0
61.5
50.0
39.7

182

167
150
121

182

167
150
121

120
124
140

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




5, 572
5, 641
5,788
6,119
5, 722
4, 528
3, 378
2, 402
2,023
1, 865
1, 733

5, 524
5,694
5,828
6,044
5, 731
4,405
3,412
2,368
2,001

1,876
1, 754

Number employed in—

March

5, 524
5,690
5.978
6,176
5.979
4, 414
3,426
2,443
2,078
1, 937
1,839

5,509
5, 564
5,696
6,015
5, 622
4, 398
3, 227
2, 359
1,991
1,836
1, 680

5,462
5, 621
5,736
5,948
5, 636
4,269
3, 229
2,324
1,963
1,849
1, 723

5, 468
5,618
5,878
6,081
5,883
4, 279
3, 220
2,383
2,036
1,887
1, 787

63
77
92
104
100
130
151
43
32

62
73
92
96
95
136
183
44
38
27
31

56
72
100
95
96
135
206
60
42
50
52

April

5,801
5, 878
6,160
6,209
6,069
4, 452
3, 603
2,675
2,172
2,027
1,978
5, 741
5,801
6,058
6,107
5,960
4, 332
3, 404
2, 621

2,128
1,975
1, 927
77
102
102
109

120

199
54
44
52
51

May

6,066
6.089
6, 346
6,297
6,087
4, 679
3, 798
2,687
2,304
2,212
2.090

June

6,643
6,112

6,736
6,706
6,426
5,282
4, 257
3, 060
2,534
2,613
2,204

July

6,690
6,254
6,977
6,873
6,501
5,192
4,120
3, 329
2,553
2,788
2,375

59
70
99
113
107
127
220
45
45
54
40

53
74
102

106

106
136
233
49
50
54
58

54
66

100
100

92
249
45
52
44
78

October

November

5,797
5,825
6,448
5,891
4,938
3, 824
3,193
2,284
2,014
1,938

5,876
6,475
6,132
5,134
4, 331
3, 499
2,535
2,214
2,078
1,973

6,529
6,195
7,242
6,975
6,442
4,967
3, 964
3,037
2,499
2,636
2,367

6,236
6,027
6, 876
6,520
5,915
4,506
3,641
2,881
2,411
2,369
2,126

5,962
5,783
6, 347
6,031
5.046
4,271
3, 311
2,500
2,167
2.047
1, 917

5, 730
5, 721
6, 289
5, 797
4,833
3, 767
3.024
2,249
1,969
1,885
1, 778

51
96

66
90
117
105
94
78
209
43
38
36
58

77
93
128

67
104
159
94
105
57
169
35
45
53
40

6,580
6,291
7,368
7,097
6, 545
5,051
4,196
3,089
2,543
2,687
2,431

6,590
6,038
6,634
6,588
6,320
5,146
4,024
3, 011
2,484
2, 559
2,146

September

6,302
6,117
6,993
6, 625
6,009
4, 584
3, 850
2,924
2,449
2,405
2,184

6,744
6,320
7,083
6, 973
6, 601
5,284
4, 369
3, 374
2, 605
2,832
2,453

6,007
6,019
6,247
6,184
5,980
4,552
3,578
2,642
2.259
2,158
2,050

118

August

16
2
122

103
84
232
52
44
51
64

101
88

60
188
35
47
31
56

1,818

December

TABLE

16.—WAGE EARNERS: LUMBER AND ITS PRODUCTS

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

783
802

.,003
914
932
, 007
, 130
783
802

26,861
25,010
28,452
28,817
25, 268
25, 276
26, 828

20, 841
22,974
26, 843
25, 307

88.1
91.4
91.5
80.7
81.9
88.2

76.7
90.2
92.5

27, 583
23,289
26, 343
28, 793
24, 608
22, 533
27, 761
19, 295

28,013
24,263
27,190
29,119
25,161
23,023
27,148

19,666

20,611

25,134
24,482

20,415
25,726
25,388

86.4
89.1
87.8
90.8
90.2
79.9
81.5
87.0
[77.2
90.3
92.5

25, 781
21,919
24, 959
27, 384
22, 997
20,818
25,893
17, 812
18, 376
23, 425
22,992

26,178

913
923
, 003
914
932
,007
, 130

25,133
23, 591
27, 019
27, 265
23, 332
23, 643
24, 829
19, 439
21, 378
24, 992
23, 783

783
802
860
899
913
923
, 003
914
932
,007
, 130

1,728
1,419
1, 433
1, 552
1, 936
1, 633
1, 999
1,402
1, 596
1,851
1, 524

86.0
92.8
92.2
84.9
71.1
76.6
82.4
85.1
68.7
I 84.4
91.4

1,802

1,835
1,377
1,435
1,440

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




1, 370
1,384
1,409

1,611

1,715

1, 868

1,483
1,290
1, 709
1,490

22, 886

25, 755
27, 679
23, 535
21, 316
25, 316
19,124
19, 015
23, 992
23,777

1,626

1,707
1,832
1,487
1,400
1,734
1, 611

Number employed in—

March

April

May

June

July

28, 268
25, 031
27, 942
29, 617
25, 875
22,944
27, 735
20,716
21,145
26,133
25, 851

28,175
25, 456
28,173
28,859
25,449
22, 678
27, 396
20,853
21, 762
26,432
26, 268

28,007
25,163
27, 743
29, 555
25, 287
24,800
27, 245
20, 842
22, 550
26, 782
25, 681

27, 508
25,394
28, 784
29, 659
25,989
25, 689
27, 915
21, 677
23,184
27, 872
25, 238

26,364
24,677

26,487
23, 635
26,441
28,105
24,180
21, 403
25, 785
19,294
19, 720
24,366
24, 279

26, 373
24,008

26, 217
23, 740
26, 351
28,013
23, 579
23, 327
25,174
19,460
21, 013
24, 969
24,176

25, 778
23, 969
27, 362
28,053
24,165
24, 205
25,773
20, 298
21,651
25,954
23, 732

22,82?

1, 790
1, 423
1, 392
1, 542
1,708
1,473
2,071
1,382
1, 537
1,813
1,505

1,730
1, 425
1, 422
1, 606
1,824
1,484
2,142
1,379
1, 533
1,918
1,506

1, 781
1, 396
1, 501
1, 512
1,695
1, 541
1,950
1,422
1,425
1, 767
1, 572

26, 688

27, 392
23, 785
21, 268
25, 327
19,458
20, 344
24, 660
24, 682

1,802

1,448
1, 485
1, 467
1, 664
1,410
2,069
1, 395
1,418
1, 772
1,586

August

September

October

November

26, 546
25,025
28.690
28; 995
26,062
26,414
27,627
20, 362
23, 626
27, 533
24, 592

26,131
25,187
29, 094
28,383
24,863
26, 293
27,133
20, 779
23,982
27, 357
25,019

25,909
25, 874
29, 095
27, 837
24, 720
27, 212
26,122
20,843
24, 764
27, 554
25, 570

25,369
24, 704
29,911
27,962
24, 370
27, 630
25,105
21,882
25, 349
27,336
25,734

24, 673
23, 301
27,238
28,164
24,470
24, 607
25, 731
19,089
22,035
25,916

24,864
23, 596
27, 293
27, 376
23, 941
24, 814
25, 508
19, 034
21,945
25,697
23,119

24, 416
23, 768
27, 668
26, 781
22. 703
24, 621
25, 085
19, 413
22, 257
25, 478
23, 534

24,196
24, 446
27, 673
26,229
22, 453
25, 448
24, 094
19,386
22, 922
25, 588
24, 065

23,749
23,227
28,417
26,431

1,691
1, 376
1,423
1,629
2,080
1, 585
2.147
1, 265
1,580
1,875
1,485

1,682

1, 715
1,419
1,426

1,713
1, 428
1,422

1,620

2,267
1, 764

2,260
1,808

28,661

29,793
26, 550
26,192
27, 878
20, 354
23, 615
27, 791
24, 308

1,429
1,397
1,619
2,121
1,600

2,119
1, 328
1,681
1,836
1,473

1,602

2,160

1,672
2,048
1, 366
1,725
1, 879
1,485

1,608

2,028

1,457
1,842
1,966
1,505

22,110
25,822
23,157
20,423
23,470
25, 310
24,185
1,477
1,494
1, 531

1,948
1,459
1,879

2,026

1, 549

December

TABLE

17.—WAGE EARNERS: METALS
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

April

May

June

17, 733
18, 767
24, 389
24, 571
31, 013
27, 293
35, 645
23,715
25, 755
35, 966
32, 858

17,116
18, 675
24, 780
24, 745
31, 800
27, 453
35, 024
23, 392
27,142
36, 029
30,949

17, 333
19, 065
25, 491
25, 566
32, 791
28, 420
36, 391
22, 464

86.4
73.0
89.4
93.3
85.9
76.7
74.5
88.8
66.2
85.5

13,851
14, 528
19,971
19, 503
24, 570
21,090
29, 223
18,429
20,090
30, 640
28,058

13, 666
15,187
19, 556
18, 833
24, 563
21,138
28, 736
18, 675
21, 052
30, 384
26, 762

13, 228
15, 094
19, 981
18, 948
25, 218
21, 360
28,190
18, 585
22, 351
30, 287
25, 056

13, 522
15, 435
20, 687
19, 762
25, 969

80. 1

13, 303
13,009
18, 493
19, 850
22, 895
22,134
29.156
17, 569
17,143
28,402
26,127

68.9
67.8
82.9
88.8
85.5
90.1
91.6
69.6
77.7
91.9
87.0

4,779
3,006
4, 553
5, 747
6,138
6,501
6, 775
5,583
4,012
5, 548
5,726

4,2*84
3,512
4, 762
5,875
6,755
6,305
6,867
5,537
4, 668
5, 593
6,042

4, 067
3,580
4, 833
5, 738
6, 450
6,155
6,909
5,040
4, 703
5,582
6,096

3, 888
3, 581
4, 799
5,797
6,582
6,093
6,834
4,807
4,791
5,742
5,893

85.8
72.0
88.3
93.6

294
296
331
339
395
409
457
432
406
456
471

12.994
15, 491
20, 056
19, 588
24,994
23, 259
27, 452
18,110
22, 755
28, 558
24, 779

294
296
331
339
395
409
457
432
406
456
471




March

18,135
18,040
24, 733
25, 378
31, 325
27, 395
36, 090
23,966
24, 758
36,233
34,100

17,024
19,198
24.993
25, 433
31, 800
29, 643
34, 404
22, 745
27, 522
34, 148
30, 496

4, 030
3, 707
4,937
5,845
6,806
6,384
6, 952
4,635
4, 768
5, 590
5,717

86.0
80. 2

77.9
84.6
68. 1

87.8
81.6

18, 082

STEEL

g>

Number employed i n -

16, 015
23, 046
25, 597
29, 033
28, 635
35, 931
23, 152
21.155
33, 950
31,853

294
296
331
339
395
409
457
432
406
456
471

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months. CO

ND METAL PRODUCTS OTHER THAN IRON AND

28,861

35,853
29, 411

22,186

29, 238
18, 196
24, 037
30, 019
23, 856
3, 811
3, 630
4,804
5, 804
6,822

6,234
7,153
4, 268
4, 824
5,834
5,555

July

15, 574
18, 705

25, 074

24, 867
33, 537
29, 485
35, 751
20, 863
28, 788
34,437
27,834

August

September

October

November

December

16, 739
19, 413
25, 509
25, 613
33, 752
31,290
34,994
20, 733
29,460
33, 717
28, 062

16,947
20, 213
25, 092
25, 476
32,801
30, 078
34, 205
21, 525
29,395
32, 282
28,851

16,885
20, 861
25, 573
25, 615
32, 478
30, 835
33, 336
22, 594
30, 017
32,166
29, 421

15, 928
21, 566
25,970
26,254
32,169
33, 244
31, 468
23, 233
30, 522
32, 319
29, 657

15, 672
22,249
26,088

12,800

12, 783
16, 705
20, 377
19, 663
25, 388
24, 340
26, 214
18, 355
25,109
26, 587
23, 760

12, 031
17, 309
20,488
20,191
24, 989
26,478
24, 363
18,951
25, 448
26, 594
23,915

11,973
17,813
20, 597
20, 075
23,612
27,490
21,772
18, 509
25,879
26, 210
24,244

4,102
4,156
5,196
5,952
7, 090
6,495
7,122
4,239
4,908
5, 579
5, 661

3,897
4, 257
5, 482
6,063
7,180
6, 766
7,105
4,282
5,074
5, 725
5,742

3,699
4,436
5,491
5,947
7,137
6, 556
6,592
4,303
5,163
5,589
5,774

12, 283
15,319
20, 411
19, 483
26, 380
23,133
28, 555
16, 929
23,977
28,818
22,470

19, 665
26, 657
24, 915
27, 861
16, 829
24, 527
28, 328
22, 758

12, 879
16, 294
20, 063
19, 474
25, 891
23, 684
27, 072
17,407
24, 546
26,919
23, 368

3, 291
3,386
4, 663
5, 384
7,157
6,352
7,196
3, 934
4,811
5,619
5,364

3, 939
3, 711
4,903
5, 948
7,095
6, 375
7,133
3, 904
4,933
5, 389
5,304

4, 068
3,919
5,029
6, 002
6, 910
6,394
7,133
4,118
4,849
5,363
5,483

15, 702

20, 606

26, 022

30, 749
34,046
28, 364
22,812

31, 042
31, 799
30,018

TABLE

18 — W A G E EARNERS: METALS - G A S AND ELECTRIC FIXTURES AND LAMPS AND REFLECTORS
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

Year

All employees:
1914
1915_
1916 2
1917 2
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Males:
1914
1915
1916 2
1917 2
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Females:
1914
1915
1916 2
1917 2
1918
1919
1920
1921
19221923
1924-




Number employed in-

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

38
40

78.5
65.2

6,064
3, 512

5, 745
3,603

5, 736
3, 853

5, 224
4,198

5,007
4,085

5,124
4,196

4, 758
4,130

5,019
4, 289

5,075
4,472

5,149
4,803

5, 014
5,077

4,793
5,386

43
46
48
43
40
51
50

6, 460
5, 710
6,682
4, 539
4,288
4,944
5,151

90.5
79.5
87.9
57.9
82.4
90.2
93. 1

6, 674
6,061
6, 330
6, 333
3, 835
4,839
5,084

6, 631
6,211
6,316
6,039
4,147
4,904
5,256

6,881
6, 272
6,290
5,747
4, 226
4,945
5, 305

6,504
6,062
6, 367
5, 347
4, 296
4,964
5, 306

6,359
5,785
6, 486
4, 646
4, 375
4,957
5,192

6, 324
5, 741
6, 619
4,035
4,248
5, 010
4, 977

6, 413 1
5, 097
6, 553
3, 761
4,151
4, 929
4, 940

6,339
4, 989
6, 870
3, 694
4,219
4,705
4,983

6, 226
5, 299
6, 979
3, 689
4, 275
4,853
5,089

6, 370
5, 352
7,159
3, 667
4,399
4,944
5,136

6,356
5,810
7,124
3, 668
4, 633
5,053
5, 255

6,442
5,837
7,084
3, 842
4, 653
5, 219
5, 292

38
40

:

5, 226
4, 300

2, 936
2, 268

81.6
64.2

3,100
1,783

3,075
1,917

3, 265
2,124

3,035
2,369

2,927
2,263

3,102
2, 301

2,801
2,168

2,848
2,256 1

2,845
2, 276

2,848
2, 395

2, 728
2,587

2, 663
2, 776

43
46
48
43
40
51
50

2,873
2, 685
3,358
2, 269
2,230
2,526
2,550

93.7
72.0
88.2
57.1
78.1
92.4
92.4

2,990
2,885
3, 273
3,176
1,926
2,427
2, 503

2,904
2,968
3, 339
2,982
2,123
2,517
2,580

2,932
3,041
3,185
2, 788
2,177
2, 553
2,653

2, 878
2, 976
3, 264
2, 741
2, 238
2,582
2, 615

2,807
2, 847
3, 329
2, 261
2, 265
2, 585 ,
2,564

2, 807
2, 836
3, 288
2, 056
2,199
2, 597
2, 451

2,853
2,191
3,151
1,908
2,153
2, 596
2, 451

2,802
2,195
3,434
1,892
2,171
2,424
2,492

2,803
2, 356
3, 440
1, 814
2,232
2,439
2, 552

2,888
2, 371
3,496
1, 820
2, 378
2, 463
2, 537

2,869
2, 740
3, 523
1,842
• 2, 465
2,504
2,599

2,947
2,810
3, 572
1, 948
2, 435
2,624
2,607

38
40

2,289
2,032

66.0
64.6

2,964
1,729

2,670
1, 686

2, 471
1, 729

2, 189
1,829

2,080
1, 822

2, 022
1,895

1,957
1, 962

2,171
2,033

2, 230
2,196

2,301
2, 408

2,286
2,490

2,130
2,610

43
46
48
43
40
51
50

3, 587
3,025
3,324
2, 270
2,058
2, 418
2,601

86.7
86.2
81.3
57.1
86.1
87.9
92.5

3, 684
3,176
3,057
3,157
1,909
2,412
2, 581

3, 727
3,243
2,977
3,057
2,024
2,387
2,676

3, 949
3, 231
3,105
2, 959
2,049
2, 392
2, 652

3, 626
3, 086
3,103
2, 606
2, 058
2, 382
2, 691

3, 552
2, 938
3,157
2, 385
2,110
2, 372
2, 628

3, 517
2, 905
3, 331
1,979
2,049
2, 413
2, 526

3, 560
2,906
3,402
1, 853
1,998
2, 333
2, 489

3, 537
2,794
3,436
1,802
2,048
2,281
2,491

3, 423
2,943
3, 539
1,875
2,043
2,414
2,537

3, 482
2,981
3, 663
1, 847
2,021
2, 481
2, 599

3,487
3, 070
3,601
1,826
2,168
2, 549
2, 656

3,495
3,027
3, 512
1,894
2,218
2, 595
2, 685

2

Figures not obtainable.

O
S
CO

TABLE 19.—WAGE EARNERS: PAPER AND PRINTING
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

806
915
928
930
958
938
992

915
928
930
992
869
886
913

915
928
930
958
938
992




Number employed i n -

February

26,678
26, 287
29, 339
29, 627
29, 825
31, 894
35, 711
29, 946
32, 207
34, 766
37, 182

94.4
93.1
90.9
96.0
96.9
85.2
93.0
90.4
88.1
94.5
93.3

27, 231
25, 907
27, 881
29,952
29,627
29, 724
35,300
29, 496
30, 227
33, 635
35, 872

27, 247
26, 054
27, 968
29,91'3
29, 842
29, 814
35, 282
30, 288
30, 351
33, 847
36, 240

19,
20,
22,
22,
22,
23,
26,
22,
24,
26,
28,

613
025
232
513
326
719
461
813
349
391
838

95.5
94.0
92.1
95.7
96.0
84.8
94.4
89.3
89.2
95.7

19, 755
19, 882
21, 214
22, 851
22, 434
21, 947
26, 172
22, 420
23, 068
25, 704
27,859

19. 864
19, 834
21, 372
22, 770
22, 615
22, 062
26, 084
23,112
23,196
25, 833
28,120

7, 066
6. 262
7,107
7,114
7,500
8,174
9,251
7,133
7,858
8, 375
8,345

90.3
89.1
84.8
95.4
92.0
85.9
88.9
93.6
84.6
90.6
92.1

7,476
6, 025
6, 667
7,101
7,193
7,777
9,128
7, 076
7,159
7,931
8,013

7,383

* Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

O

6,220

6,596
7,146
7,227
7,752
9,198
7,176
7,155
8,014
8,120

August

September

October

November

May

June

July

27,240
25,903
28, 746
29, 917
29,817
29,955
35, 791
29, 850
31,106
34, 677
36. 755

26,935
25, 858
28, 964
29, 878
29, 834
30,482
35, 647
28, 329
31, 361
34, 737
36,842

26,691
25,829
29,174
30,154
30,018
31,108
36, 071
28, 956
31, 956
34, 878
37, 017

26, 201
25,606
29, 328
29,424
30, 089
32, 581
36, 664
29, 452
32, 405
34, 736
36, 918

26, 391
25, 701
29, 696
29, 296
30, 329
33,133
36, 562
29, 866
32, 965
34, 790
37,162

26, 258
26, 542
30, 102
29, 368
29, 399
32, 839
35, 844
29, 978
33, 284
34, 908
38. Q06

26,484
27, 053
30, 539
29,246
29,447
33,809
36,107
30,808
33, 672
35,427
38,455

26,209
27, 371
30, 658
29,352
29,507
34,477
35, 321
31, 352
34, 003
35, 590
38,151

22,953
22, 703
22,185
26, 383
22, 637
23, 454
26, 255
28, 425

19, 997
19, 833
21, 940
22,792
22, 518
22, 235
26, 345
22, 625
23, 592
26, 265
28, 521

19,959
19, 739
22, 170
22, 644
22, 463
22, 651
26, 373
21, 409
23, 792
26, 370
28, 514

19. 735
19, 754
22, 306
22, 858
22, 454
23, 211
21, 994
24,181
26, 466
28, 683

19, 352
19, 516
22, 213
22, 356
22, 380
24, 338
27, 087
22, 552
24, 347
26, 443

19, 366
20, 229
22, 692
22, 363
21, 865
24, 521
26, 542
22, 912
24, 973
26, 623
29,463

19, 507
20, 495
22, 891
22,098
21, 786
25, 238
26, 797
23, 441
25, 306
26, 677
29, 750

19, 333
20, 659
22, 883
22,171
21,925
25, 516
26,408
23,984
25, 640

28, 681

19, 388
19, 696
22, 460
22, 338
22, 524
24, 837
27, 072
22, 913
24, 775
26, 346
28,929

7,403
6,215
6,749
7,116
7,309
7,744
9,470
7, 238
7,375
8,209
8,221

7, 243
6,070
6,806
7,125
7,299
7,720
9,446
7,225
7,514
8,412
8, 234

6,976
6,119
6, 794
7,234
7,371
7,831
9, 274
6, 920
7,569
8, 367
8,328

6, 956
6,075
6, 868
7,296
7,564
7,897
9,385
6, 962
7,775
8,412
8, 334

6,849
6,090
7,115
7, 068
7,709
8,243
9,577
6,900
8,058
8, 293
8,237

7,003
6,005
7,236
6, 958
7,805
8, 294
9, 490
6,953
8,190
8,444
8,233

6,892
6, 313
7,410
7,005
7,534
8,318
9,302
7, 066
8,311
8, 285
8,543

6, 977
6,558
7,648
7,148
7,661
8, 571
9,310
7, 367
8, 366
8,750
8,705

6,876

March

27,400
26,128

28, 359
30,069
30,012
29,929
35, 853
29, 875
30, 829
34, 464
36, 646
19, 997
19,913

21, 610

April

26, 686

26, 868

29, 563
6, 712

7,775
7,181
7,582
8,961
8, 913
7,368
8, 363
8, 722

TABLE

Year

All employees:
191 4
191 5
1916 2
1917 2
191 8
191 9
192 0
192 1
192 2
1923
192 4
Males:
191 4
191 5
1916 2
1917 2
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
192 2
1923
1924
Females:
191 4
191 5
1916 2
1917 2
191 8
191 9
1920..
1921
1922...
1923
1924




20.—WAGE EARNERS: PAPER—PRINTING AND PUBLISHING

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

Number employed in—

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

636
712

15, 257
15,505

94.9
94.8

15, 683
15, 359

15, 551
15, 511

15, 627
15, 526

15, 600
15, 377

15, 341
15, 364

15, 225
15, 348

15,088
15, 223

15,135
15,159

14,884
15,483

14, 995
15, 849

14, 972
15, 868

14, 979
15,991

729
709
752
630
642
668
723

15,009
16, 407
18,233
16,121
16, 488
17, 842
19, 672

94.3
81.7
96.6
92.2
90.3
94.6
94.4

15, 526
14, 752
17, 833
16, 353
15, 838
17, 306
19,127

15,
15,
17,
16,
15,
17,
19,

453
141
993
229
656
457
259

15, 274
15, 512
18, 290
16,303
15,999
17, 682
19, 270

15,145
15, 843
18, 313
16, 255
16, 209
17, 760
19, 344

15, 156
16, 080
18,300
15,152
16, 290
17, 672
19, 475

14, 984
16,175
18, 329
15, 796
16, 555
17, 741
19, 757

14, 660
16, 638
18,461
16,425
16, 590
17,838
19,744

15,096
16,810
18,438 .
16,354
16, 741
18,062
19, 784

14, 680
16,958
18, 062
16, 308
16,847
17,871
19,969

14, 825
17, 226
18,447
15, 995
16, 896
18,188
20,031

14, 641
17, 704
18, 315
16,061
16, 899
18, 230
20,033

14, 672
18, 046
18,012
16, 219
17, 332
18, 289
20, 269

636
712

11, 837
• 12,423

96.3
94.7

11, 978
12,405

11, 980
12, 428

12, 024
12,418

12, 070
12, 376

12,002
12, 343

11, 897
12, 280

11, 717
12,089

11, 702
12,178

11, 625
12,438

11, 703
12, 644

11,667
12,701

11, 674
12, 771

729
709
752
630
642
668
723

11, 622
12, 645
14, 099
12, 843
13, 056
14,003
15, 901

92.6
81.8
97.1
90.6
91.4
96.5
94.3

12,144
11, 374
13, 856
12, 972
12, 606
13, 724
15,439

12,
11,
13,
12,
12,
13,
15,

121
686
959
877
552
784
535

11, 999
11, 975
14,125
12, 874
12, 764
14, 016
15, 542

11, 763
12,198
14, 066
12, 846
12, 852
13, 962
15,648

11, 729
12, 307
14,109
11,948
12,912
13,928
15, 680

11, 542
12,458
14,140
12,435
13,074
13, 945
15, 942

11, 293
12, 807
14, 244
13,091
13,007
13, 988
15, 990

11, 642
12, 999
14, 267
13,146
13,119
14,054
16, 054

11,317
13,111
13,955
13,186
13, 257
14,111
16,151

11, 320
13, 297
14,197
12, 828
13, 358
14, 086
16, 203

11, 244
13, 618
14, 235
12, 917
13,447
14, 220
16, 244

11,353
13, 907
14, 038
12, 997
13, 726
14, 214
16, 378

636
712

3, 420
3,082

88.0
91.7

3,705
2,954

3, 571
3,083

3, 603
3,108

3, 530
3,001

3, 339
3,021

3,328
3,068

3,371
3,134

3,433
2,981

3, 259
3, 045

3, 292
3, 205

3, 305
3,167

3,305
3, 220

729
709
752
630
642
668
723

3, 387
3, 762
4, 134
3, 278
3, 432
3, 839
3, 771

93.4
81.6
93.5
91.0
85.7
87.3
94.8

3, 382
3, 378
3, 977
3, 381
3,232
3, 582
3, 688

3, 332
3, 455
4,034
3, 352
3,104
3,673
3, 724

3, 275
3, 537
4,165
3,429
3, 235
3, 666
3, 728

3,382
3, 645
4,247
3,409
3, 357
3, 798
3, 696

3, 427
3, 773
4,191
3,204
3, 378
3,744
3, 795

3, 442
3,717
4,189
3, 361
3,481
3, 796
3,815

3,367
3,831
4, 217
3, 334
3, 583
3,850
3, 754

3,454
3, 811
4,171
3, 208
3, 622
4,008
3,730

3, 363
3,847
4,107
3,122
3,590
3, 760
3,818

3, 505
3, 929
4, 250
3,167
3,538
4,102
3,828

3, 397
4,086
4,080
3,144
3,452
4,010
3,789

3, 319
4,139
3,974
3,222
3,606
4,075
3,891

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

2 Figures not obtainable.

TABLE 21.—WAGE EARNERS: PAPER—BOXES (FANCY AND, PAPER) AND DRINKING CUPS
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

2,831
2,426
2,897
2,928
3,058
3,464
3, 545
2, 694
3,508
4,111
4,179

89.1
85.5

73.0
89.8
89.4

2,917
2,349
2,608
3,050
2, 795
3, 362
3, 648
2, 745
2, 955
3, 966
4,047

1, 382
1,034

90.3
90.1
84.9
94.3
85.3
79.8
83.7
77.3
70.7
90.7
90.1

1, 421
1,021
1,096
1, 235
1, 263
1, 452
1, 580
1,455
1, 659
2,315
2,473

87.3
82.1
76.0
84.8
84.1
78.3
78.1
81.7
76.2
86.3
86.3

1,496
1,328
1, 512
1, 815
1, 532
1,910

1, 212

1,197
1,403
1, 542
1, 565
1, 419
2,052
2,429
2,578
1,449
1,392
1,685
1,731
1, 654
1,923
1,980
1, 275
1,455
1, 682
1, 601

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months. CO




80.6

89. 7
85. 1
79.8
80.5
82.2

2,068

1,290
1,296
1, 651
1, 574

Number employed in—

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

2,842
2,539
3,097
2,847
3, 009
3, 696
3, 481
2,820
3, 855
4, 363
4, 490

2,750
2,671
3, 237
2, 883
3,055
3,878
3, 334
2, 948
4,046
4, 409
4,427

1,363

1, 340
1,095
1,270
1, 205
1, 432
1, 689
1, 474
1, 589
2,345
2, 553
2, 708

3,089
4,041
4,183

2,918
2,390
2,748
2,964
3, 020
3,180
3, 552
2,720
3,251
4, 013
4,114

2,853
2,382
2,769
2,955
3,052
3,096
3, 463
2,512
3, 323
3, 959
4,108

2,845
2,315
2,836
2,951
3,124
3,209
3,589
2,422
3, 392
4,067
4,049

2,744
2,323
2,905
2,964
3, 239
3, 539
3, 845
2,433
3, 635
4,102
4,012

2,720
2,285
2,986
2,816
3,175
3, 603
3, 723
2,485
3, 759
3,960
4,056

2,779
2,437
2,980
2,808
2,917
3, 544
3, 651
2, 650
3, 770
4,176
4,266

1,424
1,046
1,186
1,175
1, 403
1,386
1, 569
1, 410
1, 899
2,376
2,540

1, 418
1,019
1,186
1,167
1, 415
1, 382
1, 547
1,279
1,996
2, 358
2,538

1, 420
987
1,209
1,238
1,481
1, 466
1, 642
1,242

1,348

1, 026
1, 218

1, 342
1, 461
1, 563
1, 476
1, 711
2, 391
2, 525

1,447
1,034
1,196
1,175
1,380
1,406
1, 564
1, 490
1,741
2,379
2,561

1, 333
988
1, 268
1,184
1, 439

2,186

1, 641
1, 352
2,256
2,320
2,539

1, 326
1, 022
1,235
1,179
1, 361
1, 607

1,540
1, 341
1, 494
1,883
1, 634
1, 914
1, 992
1,386
1,344
1, 628
1, 573

1,527
1,361
1, 540
1,842
1,665
1,854
2,039
1, 331
1,348
1, 662
1, 622

1, 494
1, 344
1, 562
1, 789
1,617
1,794
1, 983
1,310
1,352
1, 637
1, 574

1,435
1, 363
1,583
1, 788
1,637
1, 714
1, 916
1,233
1, 327

2,977
2,373
2,620
3,101
2, 976
3, 375
3, 555

2,974
2,395
2,736
3,017
3,045
3,260
3, 603

3,055
4,019
4,098

1,437
1,032

2, 862

1, 126
1, 218

fcO

2,821

1,601

1, 570

2,026

1,233
1, 459
1, 601
1,653
1, 276

2,464
2.524

2,477
2,505

1,425
1,328
1,627
1, 713
1, 643
1,743
1, 947
1,180
1, 366
1, 603
1.525

1, 396
1,297
1, 687
1,731
1,780
1, 938
2,192
1,157
1, 449
1,625
1, 507

1, 660

1,387
1,297
1, 718
1, 632
1,736
1, 943

2,082

1,133
1, 503
1, 640
1, 517

1,061

1, 259
1,175
1,400
1, 661

1,620

1,543
1, 462
2, 254
2, 529
2, 744

1,453
1,415
1,745
1, 629
1, 556
1, 937
2,031
1, 263
1, 532
1, 720
1,619

1, 479
1, 478
1, 838
1, 672
1, 609
2,035
1,938
1,358

1, 387
2,238
2, 456
2,647

1,601

1,834
1,746

1, 410
1, 576
1, 967
1, 678
1, 623
2,189
1,860
1, 359
1,701
1,856
1, 719

December

TABLE

o
CO

o

Year

C
O

O

All employees:
1914
1915
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
192 0
192 1
192 2
1923
1924
Males:
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
192 0
192 1
192 2
192 3
192 4
Females:
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
192 2
1923
1924

Number employed i n -

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

90.6

37,117
34, 351
40, 883
42,858
35, 538
31,173
38, 940
32, 698
30,149
38, 825
40,810

37,087
35,382
41, 662
42, 307
35, 583
32, 337
38, 965
31, 847
32, 234
39,857
42,620

38, 936
38, 445
42, 784
44, 271
36, 936
33, 816
40, 760
31, 379
33, 736
42, 317
44,026

41,345
39, 890
44, 565
46,147
37, 271
35, 535
41,119
31, 517
34, 759
43,171
44,122

41,620
41,142
45,061
47.151
38, 212
35,828
40, 872
31, 964
36, 229
44, 001
44,610

40, 741
40, 398
44, 746
46, 890
38, 091
37,137
40, 346
32, 607
37, 618
45,154
43,930

37, 595
37,815
43, 410
42, 415
34,473
37, 792
40,129
29, 714
37, 297
43, 731
40,415

38.153
38, 546
43, 877
43, 268
34, 320
38, 854
40, 617
30, 250
37, 714
44, 830
42, 517

40,170
40,164
44, 835
43, 246
34, 008
40, 251
40, 690
31, 373
37,103
44, 085
42,808

39, 228
40, 504
45,162
42, 609
33, 507
41, 055
40, 761
34, 395
32, 247
44, 034
43,473

38,058
40, 996
46,621
41, 885
32,133
40, 689
39, 968
33, 663
32, 461
43, 775
43,070

35,467
34,653
39, 056
38, 546
30, 013
31, 561
34, 488
27, 325
30, 086
36,625
36,821

85.8
82.5
87.2
82.9
80.9
73.9
93.5
87.1
78.7
85.3
90.5

33,650
30, 345
36, 024
37, 768
30, 622
26,142
33, 426
27, 367
25,456
32,909
34, 623

33, 550
31, 221
36,734
37,443
30,673
27,205
33,398
26,614
27,301
33, 720
36,283

35,440
34,144
37, 772
39,288
31, 930
28, 566
35, 088
26, 376
28,667
35,889
37, 664

37, 842
35,681
39, 519
41, 069
32, 327
30,279
35, 374
26, 801
29, 681
36, 648
37, 813

38.152
36,775
40,033
42,009
33,074
30, 530
35, 327
27, 336
31, 218
37, 553
38, 275

37,345
36,082
39, 667
41, 720
32, 820
31,828
34, 834
28,108
32, 338
38, 567
37, 733

34,623
33, 827
38, 462
37, 573
29,136
32, 767
34, 752
25, 779
32,081
37, 387
35,115

34,913
34.154
38, 952
38, 401
29, 207
33, 566
34,891
26,173
32, 359
38,353
36, 781

36, 823
35, 581
39, 812
38, 237
28, 588
34, 813
34, 919
27,035
31, 701
37, 537
36,955

35, 853
35, 762
40,112
37, 619
28,117
35, 389
34, 770
29, 586
28,841
37, 435
37, 386

34, 678
36, 215
41, 335
36,613
26, 764
34,864
34,006
28, 629
29,034
37,156
36, 972

3, 375
4,388
5,040
5,045
5,179
5,355
5,680
4,729
4,823
6, 427
6,076

84.0
82.9
91.8
91.8
90.6

3,467
4,006
4,859
5,090
4,916
5,031
5, 514
5,331
4, 693
5,916
6,187

3,537
4,161
4,928
4,864
4,910
5,132
5,567
5,233
4,933
6,137
6,337

3,496
4, 301
5, 012
4, 983
5,006
5, 250
5, 672
5,003
5,069
6, 428
6,362

3,503
4,209
5,046
5,078
4, 944
5, 256
5, 745
4, 716
5, 078
6, 523
6,309

3,468
4,367
5,028
5,142
5,138
5,298
5,545
4,628
5,011
6,448
6,335

3, 396
4,316
5,079
5,170
5, 271
5, 309
5,512
4,501
5,280
6,587
6,197

2,972
3,988
4, 948
4,842
5, 337
5,025
5,377
3, 935
5,216
6,344
5, 300

3,240
4,392
4,925
4,867
5,113
5,288
5,726
4,077
5, 355
6,477
5, 736

3, 347
4,583
5,023
5,009
5, 420
5,438
5, 771
4,338
5,402
6, 548
5,853

3,375
4,742
5,050
4.990
5,390
5,666
5.991
4,809
3,406
6,599
6,087

3,380
4, 781
5,286
5, 272
5,3"
5, 825
5,962
5,034
3,427
6,619
6,098

610
721
712
702
683
693
713
637
664
674
711

38,842
39,041
44, 096
43, 591
35,192
36, 916
40,168
32, 054
34, 909
43,052
42,898

83.5
87.7
84.9
84.1
75.9
94.5
86.4
79.9

610
721
712
702
683
693
713
637
664
674
711
610
721
712
702
683
693
713
637
664
674
711

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




22.—WAGE EARNERS: STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS PRODUCTS

86.6

86.0

73.8
63.1
89.4

-a
CO




TABLE

23.—WAGE EARNERS: STONE, CLAY, AND

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

GLASS—GLASS

Number employed i n -

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

9,698
10,078

62.0
64.9

10,694
9,897

10,671
10,245

10,920
10, 524

11,270
10,348

10,607
10, 375

9,792
9,946

7,157
7,775

6, 993
8, 432

9,102
9, 549

9,406
10, 318

9,921
11, 542

11,371
10,163

12, 286
8, 775
10, 985
9,253
7,167
9,161
7,800

12, 736
9,930
11,235
8,202
8,276
9, 226
8, 592

12,896
10,352
11,457
7,004
8, 647
9,876
8,745

12,352
10, 449
11,200
7,159
8,495
9,829
8, 560

12,678
9,432
11, 623
6,921
8, 347
10,060
8, 643

12,611

9,932
10, 565
6,957
8,842
10,123
8,556

9, 249
8,488
10, 257
5, 525
8, 585
8,838
6,629

9, 711
9, 658
11,215
5,491
8,484
9, 702
7,061

10, 711
10,830

10,628

7,202
8, 506
9, 536
8,060

71.7
71.7
88.2
59. 3
77.7
90.3
75.8

5, 862
8, 348
9, 559
7,514

11,319
10,972
7, 551
8, 564
9,439
7,975

10, 248
11,845
11,334
8,060
9,092
9,476
8,295

8, 871
9,143

60.4
65.6

9, 798
9,065

9,738
9,341

10,018
9, 597

10,373
9,419

9, 727
9,428

8,949
9,046

6, 587
7,112

6, 267
7, 571

8,292
8,583

8, 577
9,287

9,091
10,423

9, 535
8,477
9, 358
6,136
7,178
8,000
6,916

65.8
72.2
89.5

10,658
7,189
9,222
7, 734

11,185
8, 595
9, 679
5, 881
7,316
8,240
7,469

10, 677
8,705
9, 330

7,647
6, 597

11,111
8, 270
9,473
6,842
7,001
7, 718
7,356

10, 871
7, 740
9,820
5,888
7,142
8,470
7,356

10,720
8, 228
8,878
5,946
7, 512
8, 531
7,289

7, 362
7,154
8, 788
4,814
7, 232
7,419
5, 764

8,006
8,127
9,491
4,795
7,057
8,183
6, 217

8, 675
9,196
9,474
5,081
6, 929
8,035
6, 540

8,604
9, 527
9,081
6,511
7, 220
7,807
6,857

8,198
9,915
9,437
6,873
7,692
7,961
7,150

827
936

61.1
57.6

896
832

933
904

902
927

947

843
900

570
663

726
861

810
966

1,031

830
1,119

1,836
1,686
1, 762

79.3
69.1
77.4
45.8
79.8
86.7
65. 1

1,628
1, 586
1,763
1,519
1,139
1,514
1,203

1,625
1,660
1,762
1,360
1, 275
1,508
1,236

1,711
1,757
1,778
1,123
1,331
1,636
1,276

1,807
1,692
1,803
1,033
1,205
1,590
1,287

1,891
1,704
1,687
1, 011
1,330
1, 592
1,267

1,887
1,334
1,469
711
1,353
1,419

1,705
1, 531
1, 724
696
1,427
1, 519
844

2,036
1, 634
1,714
781
1,419
1,524
974

2,024
1, 792
1,891
1,040
1,344
1, 542
1,118

2,050
1,930
1,897
1,187
1,400
1,515
1,145

11,120

1,066

1,328
1,536
1,144

62.0

77.0
87.0
77.2

6,028

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

6,106

7,178
8, 237
7, 264

1,675
1,744
1,870
1,053
1,317
1, 592
1,296

*Figures not obtainable.

11,188

December

TABLE

2 4 — W A G E EARNERS: STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS—POTTERY, TERRA-COTTA AND FIRE-CLAY PRODUCTS
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

144
187
193
186

190
190
193
188
183
183
183
144
187
193
186

190
190
193
188
183
183
183
144
187
193
186
190
190
193
188
183
183

Number employed i n -

February

18, 974
17,419
17, 515
22, 405
22, 620

89.2
83.9
94.0
91.4
91.3
86.6
93.2
85.4
71.5
87.7
89.3

14,858
16, 319
19,840
19,955
17, 268
16, 774
18, 929
17, 561
16, 644
20,445
22, 369

15,353
17,079
20,115
19, 547
17,334
16,740
18, 750
17, 647
17,191

12,970
15, 287
16, 794
16, 404
13, 841
14,620
15,188
13,845
14,118
17,647
17,847

87.9
83.3
93.9
90.4
89.3
85.7
93.2
85.3
77.2
87.8
90.0

12,602

2,260
3,365
3, 777
3,584
3, 317
3,590
3,786
3, 575
3,397
4, 758
4, 772

91.7
85.2
94.3
92.6
95.1
89.5
92.2
83.3
49. 1
87.4
86.3

15, 229
18, 652
20, 571
19,988
17,158
18, 210

March

April

22,972

15, 690
18, 502
20, 323
20, 079
17, 673
17, 279
19, 394
17, 784
17,619
21,929
23, 501

15, 750
18,915
20,400
20, 308
17. 545
17, 727
19, 256
16,893
18,032
22, 261
23,062

13, 231
16,156
16, 203
13, 995
13, 377
15,291
13,847
13,169
16,110
17,523

13,053
13,906
16, 367
16,051
14,063
13, 328
15,063
13,874
13,614
16,641
18,014

13, 393
15, 205
16, 586
16, 519
14, 390
13, 845
15,624
14, 002
13, 968
17, 267
18, 566

13, 449
15, 728
16, 651
16, 662
14, 295
14, 284
15, 501
13,319
14,356
17,469
18,192

2,256
3,088
3,684
3,752
3, 273
3,397
3,638
3, 714
3,475
4,335
4,846

2,300
3,173
3,748
3,496
3, 271
3,412
3,687
3,773
3, 577
4, 520
4,958

2, 297
3, 297
3, 737
3, 560
3,283
3,434
3, 770
3,782
3,651
4,662
4,935

2,301
3,187
3,749
3,646
3,250
3,443
3,755
3, 574
3,676
4,792
4,870

21,161

May

15, 769
19, 214
20, 711
20,477
17, 747
18, 264
18,196
17, 260
18, 608

22, 197
22, 907
13, 491
15, 885
16, 934

June

15,600

15,064
18, 553

20,001
20, 794
17, 682
18, 408
18,494
17, 430
18, 940

20,611

18,808

22, 828

22, 378

18, 010

13, 354
15, 481
16, 207
17,146
14, 326
14, 885
14, 795
14,016
15,100
17,979
17,610

2, 278
3, 329
3, 777
3,656
3, 308
3, 528
3,628
3, 513
3, 717
4, 721
4,897

2,246
3,327
3,794
3, 648
3, 356
3, 523
3,699
3,414
3,840
4,849
4, 768

16, 821

14,439
14, 736
14, 568
13, 747
14, 891
17, 476

July

20, 296
17, 593
18, 684
18, 723
16, 008
18, 623
22, 796
20, 980
12,953
15,315

16, 861

16, 640
14,177
15,060
14,955
12, 859
14, 860
18,022

16,702
2, 111

3, 238
3, 750
3,656
3,416
3,624
3, 768
3,149
3,763
4,774
4,278

August

September

October

November

15,035
19,347

14,490
19,150
21,109
19,388
16, 235
19,087
19, 276
18, 067
13, 678
23,305
22, 599

15, 584
19,153
20,938
20,411
17, 277
18, 561
18, 674
16,426
19, 070
22,947
22, 642

15,486
19,343
20, 884
19,995
16,693
19, 047
19, 070
17,068
19,134
22, 792
22, 679

13,316
15, 707
17, 207
16, 875
13,900
14,887
14, 810
13,122
15, 237
18,138
17,907

13,190
15,812
17,121
16, 441
13, 346
15, 341
15,146
13, 594
15, 247
17,914
17,967

12, 759
15, 722
17, 073
16,133
13, 306
15, 553
15,594
15,079
11,975
18,158
18,045

15, 577
17, 203
15,850
12,953
15, 291
15,367
14, 306
11, 770
18, 345
17,838

2,268
3,446
3,731
3, 536
3,377
3, 674
3,864
3,304
3,833
4,809
4,735

2, 296
3, 531
3, 763
3, 554
3,347
3, 706
3,924
3,474
3,887
4,878
4,712

2,276
3,625
3, 795
3,474
3, 330
3,785
3,936
3,673
1,946
4,919
4,791

2, 270
3, 573
* 3,906
3, 538
3,282
3,796
3,909
3,761
1,908
4,960
4,761

20,868

19,607
16, 636
19, 338
19, 530
18, 752
13, 921
23, 077
22, 836

12, 220

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months. CO




Oi

TABLE 25.—WAGE EARNERS: RUBBER PRODUCTS
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

41
59
78
82
93
108
114
107
109
119
120

21,088
28,010
42,401
55,418
49, 236
66,367
61,671
31, 270
43, 617
46, 864
47, 207

74.6
60.1
71.5

41
59
78
82
93
108
114
107
109
119
120

18, 798
25, 645
39, 328
51, 603
41, 935
59, 987
56,182
27, 649
38, 641
40, 245
40,213

73.8
58.3
70.2
84.3
66.1
36.3
60.0
71.2
62.7
82.6

41
59
78
82
93
108
114
107
109
119
120

2,290
2,365
3,073
3,816
7,301
6,381
5,489
3,621
4,976
6,619
6,994

77.4
80.4
88.9
73.9
52.5
61.7
50.1
78.1
72.4
78.2
76.9

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




66.5
37.5
61.9
72.0
66.0
82.8

81.0

Number employed in—

March

April

September

October

November

June

July

24,236
28,754
41, 775
58,050
50,126
61, 789
79, 884
35, 258
42, 968
54, 922
45, 375

21,647
30,332
42, 576
58, 642
52, 885
63, 918
74, 666
33,601
47, 208
50, 573
42, 531

20,866
31, 027
41, 981
59,139
52,391
67,814
66, 094
36,101
48,469
36, 514
42, 966

19, 544
30,162
42, 661
54,939
51, 569
72,148
50,410
37, 545
48,060
42,048
46, 578

19,889
30,267
42,670
52, 895
47,076
72,461
41,376
33, 930
46, 632
39, 570
51, 345

19,393
30,826
43, 733
52,335
45, 922
75,206
44,056
31, 582
46, 628
40,378
51,032

19,501
31,055
46, 272
52, 651
46,031
77,336
35,073
31, 491
47, 060
41, 995
49, 672

21, 867

17,496
27,872
39, 645
50,973
43,102
65, 969
45,275
33, 540
43,045
35, 785

17, 719
27,990
39, 682
48, 989
38,282
66,168
36,889
30, 524
41, 553
33, 587
44,010

17, 238
28,541
40, 742
48, 267
36, 659
68, 544
39,954
28, 247
41, 335
34, 310
43,347

17, 362
28,809
43, 063
48, 394
37, 067
70,421
31, 414
27, 942
41,438
35, 567
41,898

2,048
2,290
3, 016
3,966
8,467
6,179
5,135
4,005
5,015
6,263

2,170
2, 277
2,988
3,906
8,794
6,293
4, 487
3,406
5,079
5,983
7,335

2,155
2,285
2,991
4,068
9,263
6,662
4,102
3, 335
5,293
6,068
7,685

2,139
2,246
3,209
4,257
8,964
6, 915
3,659
3, 549
5,622
6,428
7, 774

21,553
21,221
38,866
55,753
50,688
56,180
78, 053
23, 975
36,981
53,107
46, 719

23,511
23,304
40,376
58,190
49, 742
56,810
80, 767
25, 337
37,868
54,464
47, 441

25,031
26,454
43,126
58, 245
48, 634
58,682
82,063
30, 844
38, 688
55, 312
47,142

16, 656
17, 741
32,444
49, 287
44,067
47, 247
70, 329
20,113
30, 752
44,057
38, 568

18, 978
18, 990
35, 741
52,284
45, 262
49, 953
71,486
20,453
32, 549
46, 556
39,883

20, 865
20, 959
37, 232
54,627
43, 700
50, 928
74,071
21,867
33,331
47, 230
40,412

22,500
23, 939
40, 043
54, 739
42, 398
52, 836
75,470
27,061
34,085
47,862
40,101

38, 681
54, 516
43, 601
56,114
73, 455
31, 285
38,095
47, 604
38, 733

19, 528
27, 775
39, 540
54, 989
44,848
58, 318
68, 279
29, 813
42,073
43,267
36,337

18, 768
28, 514
38.925
55, 443
44, 278

2, 540
2,055
2,888
3,476
4,862
6,288
6, 548
3,127
4,130
5,828

2, 575
2, 231
3,125
3,469
5,426
6,227
6, 567
3, 522
4,432

2, 646
2,345
3,144
3,563
6,042
5,882
6,696
3,470
4,537
7,234
7,029

2,531
2, 515
3,083
3,506
6,236
5,846
6,593
3,783
4, 603
7,450
7,041

2,369
2,546
3,094
3,534
6,525
5,675
6,429
3,973
4,873
7,318
6,642

2,119
2,557
3,036
3, 653
8, 037
5, 600
6, 387
3, 788
5, 135
7,306
6,194

2,098
2,513
3,056
3,696
8,113
5,928
5, 914
3,834
5,295
6,504
6,040

6, 551

August

May

19,196
19,796
35,332
52, 763
48,929
53, 535
76,877
23,240
34, 882
49,885
45,370

6,836

OS

26, 208

61, 886

60,180
32, 267
43,174
30,010
36.926

December




TABLE

26.—WAGE EARNERS: RUBBER—TIRES AND TUBES

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

Number employed i n -

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

48, 929
51, 295
75,109
21,983
32, 241
46,257
40,620

50,688
53,896
76,401
22,563
34,062
49,193
41,747

49, 742
54, 552
79,077
23, 732
34,643
50, 384
42, 292

48, 634
56,434
80, 513
29, 078
35, 224
51, 040
41,847

50,126
59, 582
78, 283
33,400
39, 285
50, 581
40,499

52,885
61, 738
72, 917
31,868
43, 331
46, 185
38, 262

52, 391
65, 562
64, 228
34, 368
44, 650
32, 294
38,735

51, 569
69, 747
48, 607
35, 858
44, 409
38,107
42, 081

47,076
70, 037
39, 632
32, 230
42,983
35, 829
46, 738

45, 922
72, 610
42, 389
29,852
43,084
36, 630
46,105

46,031
74, 734
33, 563
29,635
43, 509
38,193
44, 719

65.9
35.7
59.5
71.4
60.4
82.0

44,067
45, 799
69,321
19,316
28,963
41, 534
35,035

45,262
48, 514
70, 534
19,606
30,602
43,842
36,137

43,700
49,449
73,114
20,910
31, 201
44,403
36, 579

42,398
51,407
74, 582
25, 996
31, 765
44,883
36,177

43, 601
54, 709
72, 542
30,177
35, 595
44, 546
35,186

44, 848
56,928
67, 318
39,437
40,238
33,340

28, 816

44, 278
60,471
59,147
31,194
40,553
27,087
33,935

43,102
64, 419
44, 267
32,484
40, 557
33,027
36,622

38, 282
64, 581
35,886
29, 456
39, 028
31,005
40, 678

36,659
66,841
38,996
27,187
38, 910
31,684
39, 740

37,067
68, 714
30, 556
26, 776
39,011
32, 874
38,237

52.5
59.2
45.9
79.0
71.4
76.7
73.0

4,862
5,496
5,788
2, 667
3, 278
4, 723
5,585

5,426
5, 382
5,867
2,957
3,460
5,351
5, 610

6,042
5,103
5,963
2,822
3,442
5,981
5, 713

6,236
5,027
5,931
3,082
3, 459
6,157
5,670

6, 525
4, 873
5,741
3, 223
3, 690
6,035
5,313

8,037
4, 810
5, 599
3,052
3, 894
5,947
4,922

8,113
5,091
5,081
3,174
4,097
5, 207
4,800

8,467
5, 328
4,340
3, 374
3,852
5,080
5,459

8, 794
5,456
3, 746
2, 774
3,955
4, 824
6,060

9, 263
5,769
3, 393
2,665
4,174
4, 946
6,365

8,964

49,236
63, 981
60,005
29, 597
40,155
42,885
42,412

66.1
36.4
61.3
72.2
63.3
81.9

41,935
58, 441
55,239
26,626
36, 289
37,467
36,699

7,301
5,540
4,766
2,971
3,866
5,418
5, 713

81.0

1 Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

2 Figures not obtainable.

6,020

3,007
2,859
4, 4
5,319
6,482

TABLE 27.—WAGE EARNERS: TEXTILES
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

00

Number employed in—

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

eptember

October

November

535
657
678
708
757
767
810
680
689
679
687

31.102
35, 497
38,925
39,905
40,503
39,364
41,058
34,170
37,556
44,316
40, 234

83.0
90.3
92.8
95.5
88.0
84.5
71.1
77.6
89.4
91.8

32,523
33,280
37,202
39, 363
39,537
37, 220
43,307
28,421
34,846
41,756
41,083

33,647
35,805
39,390
40, 335
41, 033
37,010
43,814
31,498
36, 740
43, 786
42,289

33,482
36,665
39,847
40,972
41, 510
36,990
44,485
32, 844
37,252
45,226
42,534

33,043
35,920
39,342
40,581
41,561
36,305
43,895
33,791
37,356
45, 231
42,225

31,687
34,330
38,052
39,141
40,675
36,360
43, 715
34, 077
36,786
45,095
40, 718

31,209
34,827
38, 226
39, 781
41, 540
37,615
43,330
34, 695
37, 450
45,504
39,004

30,381
34,864
38, 767
39, 730
42,171
39,956
42, 265
34,545
37, 790
45, 408
37,999

30,327
35,851
39, 535
40,107
40,855
41,650
41,419
35, 306
37, 807
44,529
38, 746

30,382
36,310
39, 486
39,892
41,137
41,876
40,345
35,709
38, 210
44,148
39,945

30,182
36, 855
40,084
40,340
40, 419
42, 257
38, 669
36,640
38, 821
44,508
40, 220

28,445
35,773
38,581
39,507
38, 501
42,151
35,824
36,351
38,970
43,957
39,278

535
657
678
708
757
767
810

10,535
12, 394
13,363
13, 498
13,811
13,376
14,573
11,359
12,992
15, 201
13, 635

85.2
90.1
93.3
92.9
86.7
84.5
72.5
81.6
90.5
93.6
92.0

10, 751
11.463
12,850
13, 523
13, 680

11,083

15, 474
9,934
12,123
14. 702
13, 796

11,091
12, 257
13,344
13,468
13,981
12,507
15,627
10,551
12,475
15,204
14,117

13, 775
13,984
14,441
12.671
15,914
10,966
12, 743
15,631
14, 222

11,149
12, 531
13,543
13.832
14, 312
12,315
15, 417
12,942
15, 576
14,170

10,852
12,119
13,037
13, 429
13,871
12,316
15,290
11,214
15, 574
13, 699

10,883
12,333
13, 208
13, 664
14, 082
12, 864
15, 546
11, 334
13,060
15, 636
13,182

10, 627
12,355
13, 293
13, 520
14,177
13, 507
15,059
11,504
13,159
15, 388
13,079

10,376
12,650
13,583
13,533
13,924
14,166
14, 496
11,544
13. 265
15,132
13.189

10,329
12,608
13, 565
13.356
13,979
14,284
14,103
11, 757
13,339
14,939
13,520

10, 213
12, 716
13, 651
13, 445
13, 757
14, 381
13, 590
12,091
13, 399
15,011
13, 620

9,575
12, 510
13, 302
13,238
13,012
14,336
12.823
12,056
13,303
14,977
13,474

20,566
23.103
25, 563
26,407
26, 692
25,988
26,486
22,811
24,564
29,115
26, 599

81.7
90.4
92.1
95.3
87.8
84.4
70.3
75.3
88.5
90.1
88.0

21,772
21, 817
24,352
25,840
25, 857
24, 619
27,833
18,487
22, 723
27,054
27,287

22,556
23, 548
26,046
26, 867
27,052
24, 503
28,187
20, 947
24, 265
28. 582
28,172

22,399
24,043
26,072
26,988
27, 069
24,319
28, 571
21, 878
24, 509
29,595
28, 312

21,894
23. 389
25, 799
26, 749
27, 249
23,990
28, 478
22,603
24, 414
29, 655
28,055

20,835
22,211
25,015
25, 712
26, 804
24,044
28, 425
22, 863
23, 966
29, 521
27,019

20, 326
22,494
25, 018
26,117
27,458
24, 751
27, 784
23, 361
24, 390
29,868
25,822

19, 754
22, 509
25,474

19.951
23,201
25.952
26, 574
26,931
27,484
26,923
23, 762
24, 542
29, 397
25, 557

20,053
23,702
25,921
26, 536
27,158
27, 592
26, 242
23,952
24,871
29,209
26, 425

19,969
24,139
26,433
26,895
26, 662
27,876
25,079
24, 549
25, 422
29,497
26,600

18,870
23, 263
25, 279
26, 269
25,489
27, 815
23,001
24, 295
25, 667
28,980
25, 804

679
687
535
657
678
708
757
767
810
680
689
679

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




12, 601

12, 622

11,188

12,820

26, 210

27,994
26,449
27, 206
23,041
24, 631
30,020
24,920

December

TABLE 2 8 . — W A G E

EARNERS: TEXTILES—HOSIERY AND KNIT GOODS

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

Number employed i n -

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

3,874
3,485
4,120
4,773
4,819
4,417
4,965
3,836
4, 416
4,937
4,157

80.1
80.5
85.5
86.3
79.2
70.3
54.7
66.4
85.8
78.9

4, 221
3,135
3, 687
4,373
4, 542
3,928
4,969
2,924
3,947
4,251
4,053

4,173
3,101
3,821
4,592
4,591
3,629
5,127
3,091
4,152
4,478
4,200

4, 263
3,188
3,980
4, 659
4,686
3, 756
5,323
3,240
4,457
4,838
4, 355

4,185
3,196
4,038
4, 679
4, 828
3, 790
5, 325
3, 573
4, 534
5,057
4, 334

4, 211
3, 373
4,135
4,728
5,020
4,027
5,627
3,933
4, 421
5, 092
4, 223

4,000
3,444
4,146
4, 860
5, 339
4, 228
5,636
4,171
4,475
5,386
4,125

3,597
3,531
4, 263
5,066
5,401
4,548
5,440
4,100
4,509
5,300
4,088

3, 642
3, 653
4, 228
4,979
5,183
4,856
5,434
4,176
4,414
5,117
4,021

3,605
3, 737
4, 257
4,954
4,849
4,879
5.181
4.182
4,484
5,226
4,440

3, 713
3, 850
4,294
4,921
4,622
5,059
4,652
4,404
4,486
5,240
4, 302

744
754
911
972
975
928
1,019

79.8
77.3
88.1
92.1
77.4
78.5
59.0
74.9
87.6
91.3
86.0

762
658
834
931
923
840

812
680
890
985
932
814
1,097
725
992
1,055
1,030

794
675
925
974
955
854
1,084
750
1,013
1,076

717
920
972
1,001
873
1,131
829
994
1,063

764
758
927
1,008
1,077
881
1,138
886
1, 017
1, 078
976

747
779
913
1,007
1,069
931
1,104
883
1,016
1,084
953

721
843
919
995
1,063
1,018
1,116
896
997
1,073
948

722
820
932
992
1,022
997
1,053
896
1, 016
1,064
977

743
821

704
891
993
995

766
652
859
966
933
827
1,081
754
956
1,031
1,011

993
1,028
918
940
1,088
961

930
940
897
1,031
775
918
1,004
1,042
902

3,459
2,477
2,853
3,442
3,619
3,088
3, 907
2,220
3,056
3, 258
3,058

3,407
2,449
2,962
3,626
3.658
2,802
4,046
2,337
3,196
3,447
3,189

3, 451
2,508
3,090
3,674
3, 754
2,942
4, 226
2,515
3, 465
3, 783
3,325

3. 391
2,521
3,113
3, 705
3, 873
2, 936
4,241
2,823
3,521
3,981
3, 314

3,411
2,656
3, 215
3, 756
4,019
3,154
4,496
3,104
3,427
4,029
3, 235

3, 236
2,686
3, 219
3,852
4, 262
3,347
4,498
3, 285
3, 458
4, 308
3,149

2,850
2, 752
3, 350
4,059
4, 332
3,617
4, 336
3, 217
3,493
4, 216
3,135

2,921
2,810
3, 309
3,984
4,120
3,838
4, 318
3, 280
3,417
4,044
3,073

2,883
2,917
3,325
3,962
3,827
3,882
4,128
3, 286
3,468
4,162
3, 463

2,970
3,029
3, 358
3,958
3, 629
4,031
3, 734
3,464
3,500
4,152
3, 341

2,81
2,980
3,383
3,812
3, 598
4,105
3,003
3, 321
3,594
3,812
3,072

1,054
971
3,130
2, 731
3,209
3,802
3,844
3,489
3,945
2,997
3,427
3, 883
3,186
i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




80.0
80.9
84.3
84.8
79.5
67.9
53.6
64.1
85.0
75.6

1,062

1,020

3,461
3,801
4,313
4,752
4,495
5,136
3, 778
4, 239
4,598
4,854
3,974
653
821

<1

TABLE

00
o

2 9 — W A G E EARNERS: TEXTILES—MEN'S CLOTHING (INCLUDING SHIRTS AND COAT PADS)

Year

All employees:
191 4
191 5
1916 2
1917 2
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
1922
1923
1924
Males:
191 4
191 5
1916 2
1917 2
191 8
191 9
1920
19211922_
1923
1924
Females:
191 4
191 5
1916 2
1917 2
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
192 2
1923
192 4




Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

Number employed in—

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

226
151

9,634
9,303

86.3
87.3

9,737
8,513

10,033
8,946

10,161
9,448

10, 277
9,407

9,971
9,304

9,459
9,241

9,210
9,063

9,385
9,298

9,504
9,478

9,604
9,749

9,393
9,570

8,870
9,618

161
168
191
175
178
189
184

9,067
9, 497
10,974
10, 353
11, 771
13, 269
13,139

85.6
77.7
77.0
64.3
87.8
89.9
87.7

9,023
8,668
10,946
7,644
10,937
12,336
13, 372

9,307
8,730
11,298
8,942
11,511
12,907
13, 710

9,659
8,680
11,653
9,658
11,534
13,205
13,928

9, 513
8,549
11,626
10,016
11,679
13, 277
13, 743

9,296
8,762
11,738
10,079
11,645
13,434
13,460

9,165
9,089
11,187
10,297
11,711
13,398
12,882

9,094
9,419
10,831
10,260
11,665
13,193
12,213

8,951
9, 769
11,066
10,918
11,486
13,327
12,638

9,120
10,002
11,040
11,356
11,930
13,471
13,070

8,870
10,460
10,872
11,674
12,289
13,671
13,167

8,546
10, 837
10,387
11,887
12,455
13,728
12,826

8,265
11,001
9,041
11,503
12,411
13,282
12,656

226
151

3,066
2,846

86.4
85.2

3,072
2,575

3,145
2,763

3,206
2,891

3,278
2,910

3,160
2,833

3,072
2,793

2,966
2,769

3,003
2,834

3,040
2,886

3,056
3,024

2,958
2,937

2,831
2,942

161
168
191
175
178
189
184

2, 703
2,817
3,221
2,986
3,444
3, 772
3,863

85.1
77.0
78.8
72.1
92.9
87.5
92.8

2, 721
2,499
3,179
2,398
3,326
3,449
3,864

2,703
2, 540
3,303
2,645
3,365
3,531
3,894

2,887
2,585
3,443
2,848
3,390
3,697
3,985

2,869
2,508
3,398
2,924
3,436
3,759
3,936

2,843
2, 560
3,438
2,906
3,392
3,801
3,910

2,744
2,725
3, 287
2,920
3,406
3,829
3, 774

2,699
2,827
3,165
3,008
3,368
3,797
3,697

2, 725
2,952
3,256
3,078
3,446
3,875
3, 797

2,676
3,035
3,230
3,202
3, 524
3,918
3,931

2,606
3,133
3,203
3,312
3,581
3,862
3,946

2,509
3,196
3,039
3,327
3,549
3,943
3,855

2,458
3,245
2,712
3,263
3,542
3,804
3,772

226
151

6,568
6,457

86.3
88.3

6,665
5,938

6,888
6,183

6,955
6, 557

6,999
6,497

6,811
6, 471

6, 387
6,448

6,244
6,294

6,382
6,464

6,464
6,592

6,548
6,725

6,435
6,633

6,039
6,676

161
168
191
175
178
189
184

6,364
6,680
7,753
7,367
8,327
9,497
9, 275

85.8
77.9
76.3
61.3
85.5
90.6
85.6

6,302
6,169
7,767
5,246
7,611
8,887
9,508

6,604
6,190
7,995
6,297
8,146
9,376
9,816

6, 772
6,095
8,210
6,810
8,144
9,508
9,943

6,644
6,041
8,228
7,092
8,243
9, 518
9,807

6,453
6,202
8,300
7,173
8,253
9,633
9, 550

6,421
6,364
7,900
7,377
8,305
9,569
9,108

6.395
6, 592
7,666
7,252
8,297
9.396
8, 516

6,226
6,817
7,810
7.840
8,040
9,452
8.841

6,444
6,967
7,810
8,154
8,406
9,553
9,139

6,264
7,327
7,669
8,362
8,708
9,809
9, 221

6,037
7,641
7,348
8,560
8,906
9,785
8,971

5,807
7,756
6,329
8,240
8,869
9,478
8,884

1

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

2 Figures not obtainable. 00

TABLE

Year

All employees:
191 4
191 5
1916 2
1917 2
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
1922
192.3
1924
Males:
191 4
191 5
1916 2
1917 2
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
1922
1923
1924
Females:
191 4
1915
1916 2
1917 2
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
192 2
1923
1924




30.—WAGE EARNERS: T E X T I L E S — W O M E N ' S CLOTHING (INCLUDING CORSETS)

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees i of maxi- January
mum

Number employed in—

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

79
104

6,208
8,814

67.1
82.4

6,533
7,914

7,228
9,150

6,916
9,442

6, 526
8,949

5,529
8,022

6,029
8,638

6,383
8,992

6,693
9, 367

6,552
9,455

6,134
9,350

5,123
8,707

4,847
7, 787

117
128
127
131
121
112
109

8,028
8,158
7,408
6,091
5, 671
5,883
4, 748

81.7
82.0
60.8
76.6
86.2
75.9
73.2

7,944
7,739
8,591
5,496
5,312
5, 770
5,028

8, 599
8,104
8,644
6,418
6,041
6,229
5,346

8,626
8,122
8, 566
6,614
6,056
6,289
5,255

8, 437
7,999
8,054
6, 575
5,674
6,059
5,266

7, 792
7, 382
7,509
6,202
5, 330
5,971
4,930

8,085
7,935
7, 574
6,437
5.646
5; 980
4,465

8,675
8, 547
7,279
6,645
5,884
6,384
4,589

7, 572
9,007
7,448
6,675
5,944
6,288
4,883

8,324
8,971
7,184
6,104
5,856
5.949
4,664

8,070
8,318
6,710
5, 628
5, 742
5, 585
4, 576

7,123
7,790
6,070
5,176
5, 349
5,241
4,056

7,086
7,979
5,258
5,113
5,219
4,847
3,912

79
104

2, 373
2,958

70.6
77.8

2,481
2,702

2,664
3,070

2,531
3,153

2,440
2,918

2,135
2, 520

2, 374
2,855

2,481
3, 038

2,569
3,240

2,506
3,220

2,396
3,173

2,017
2,964

1,880
2,639

117
128
127
131
121
112
109

2, 615
2,512
2, 506
1, 767
1,545
1,444
1,264

73.2
76.5
65.1
78.6
85.7
79.1
79.5

2, 763
2,382
2,849
1,768
1,453
1,438
1,310

2,954
2,505
2,860
1,898
1,644
1,542
1,397

2,930
2,562
2,817
1,910
1,639
1, 553
1,353

2, 781
2,470
2,599
1,824
1,567
1,498
1,347

2,434
2,147
2,319
1,599
1,416
1,453
1, 256

2,618
2,368
2, 524
1,745
1,504
1,428
1,163

2,815
2,613
2,430
1,893
1,629
1,540
1,275

2,375
2,759
2,560
1,955
1,646
1,510
1,340

2,671
2,806
2,530
1,806
1,589
1,431
1, 251

2,647
2,656
2,456
1,693
1,581
1,388
1,235

2,228
2,425
2,264
1,570
1,461
1,316
1,110

2,162
2,447
1,861
1,537
1,411
1,228
1,131

79
104

3,835
5,857

65.0
81.9

4,052
5,212

4,564
6,080

4,385
6,289

4,086
6,031

3,394
5,502

3,655
5,783

3,902
5,954

4,124
6,127

4,046
6,235

3,738
6,177

3,106
5,743

2,967
5,148

117
128
127
131
121
112
109

5,413
5, 646
4, 902
4, 324
4,126
4,439
3,484

83.5
83.8
58.7
75.3
86.2
74.7
70.4

5,181
5, 357
5,742
3, 728
3,859
4,332
3,718

5,645
5,599
5,784
4, 520
4,397
4,687
3,949

5,696
5,560
5,749
4,704
4,417
4,736
3,902

5,656
5, 529
5,455
4, 751
4,107
4, 561
3,919

5,358
5,235
5,190
4,603
3,914
4, 518
3,674

5,467
5,567
5,050
4,692
4,142
4, 552
3,302

5,860
5,934
4,849
4,752
4,255
4,844
3,314

5,197
6,248
4,888
4,720
4,298
4, 778
3,543

5.653
6,165
4.654
4,298
4,267
4, 518
3,413

5,423
5,662
4, 254
3,935
4,161
4,197
3,341

4,895
5, 365
3,806
3,606
3,888
3,925
2,946

4,924
5,532
3,397
3,576
3,808
3,619
2,781

1

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

2

Figures not obtainable.

*

00

TABLE

Year

All employees:
1914 2
1915 2
1916 2
1917 2
1918
- -- 1919
- -- _
19201921
- 1922- 19231924
Males:
1914 2
1915 2
1916 2
1917 2
1918
- 1919- .
192019211922
1923
1924
Females:
1914 2
1915 2
1916 2
1917 2
1918
1919
1920 _
1921
1922
1923
1924




31.—WAGE EARNERS: TEXTILES—CLOTH GLOVES

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

Number employed in—

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

,

2,906
2,285
2,148
2,083
1,875
2,818
2,348

35
33
35
34
30
30
29

2,740
2,178
2,434
1,527
1,740
2,474
2,332

85.8
70.8
80.1
46.6
78.6
73.6
73.3

2,496
2,616
2,192
1,871
1,628
2,073
2,625

2,551
2,469
2,264
1,852
1,618
2,201
2,614

2,597
2,281
2,361
1,776
1,617
2,267
2, 580

2,589
2,146
2,437
1,385
1, 576
2, 332
2,439

2,614
1,866
2,426
1,314
1,564
2,337
2,373

2,714
1,851
2,456
1,251
1,639
2,469
2,242

2,862
2,029
2,485
970
1,841
2,626
1,924

2,909
2,113
2,601
1,109
1,903
2,633
2,007

2,855
2,125
2,561
1,322
1,750
2,570
2,244

2,883
2,186
2,681
1,649
1,877
2,630
2,305

2,904
2,166
2,594
1,736
1,990
2,735
2,282

35
33
35
34
30
30
29

379
307
379
205
221
316
315

82.1
75.1
71.3
61.3
81.3
72.7
82.5

364
328
370
236
218
269
342

355
308
383
221
216
283
349

348
284
380
216
209
293
345

350
279
377
205
210
296
328

349
260
371
191
200
308
322

359
272
392
185
204
319
293

378
322
395
155
223
325
288

409
312
410
163
228
333
290

424
316
422
192
226
332
318

407
323
392
211
229
319
303

403
330
357
227
241
343
299

398
346
301
253
246
370
304

35
33
35
34
30
30
29

2,361
1,871
2,055
1,322
1,519
2,158
2,017

85.0
69.0
79.6
44.5
78.0
73.7
71.7

2,132
2,288
1,822
1,635
1,410
1,804
2,283

2,196
2,161
1,881
1,631
1,402
1,918
2,265

2,249
1,997
1,981
1,560
1,408
1,974
2,235

2,239
1,867
2,060
1,180
1,366
2,036
2,111

2,265
1,606
2,055
1,123
1,364
2,029
2,051

2,355
1,579
2,064
1,066
1,435
2,150
1,949

2,484
1,707
2,090
815
1,618
2,301
1,636

2,500
1,801
2,191
946
1,675
2,300
1,717

2,431
1,809
2,139
1,130
1,524
2,238
1,926

2,476
1,863
2,289
1,438
1,648
2,311
2,002

2, B5l
1,836
2,237
1,509
1,749
2,392
1,983

2,508
1,939
1,847
1,830
1,629
2,448
2,044

1

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

2

Figures not obtainable.

TABLE

Year

loyees:

32.—WAGE EARNERS: TOBACCO MANUFACTURES

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

Number employed in-

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

12,801
12,640
12,065
13,405
12,991
13,211
15,725
13,400
12, 756
12,995
12,667

88.2
86.0
89.6
91.4
84.8
85.4
89.9
87.5
81.1
86.5
89.4

12,941
12,531
12,205
13,343
13,405
12,840
15,664
13,415
12,286
13,090
13,589

13,665
13,311
12,798
13, 670
13,565
13,216
15,310
14,341
12,351
13,073
13,327

13,774
13,813
12, 787
13, 728
13,959
13,131
15,521
14,284
12,384
13,825
13,395

13, 532
13,299
12,296
13,440
13,951
12,865
15,713
13,406
11,995
13.167
12,484

13,114
12,689
11,825
13,144
12,927
12,657
15, 664
12, 564
11,640
12,271
12,320

12,380
12,446
11,835
13,282
13,875
12,728
16,259
12,801
11,948
12,861
12,165

12,463
11,881
11,627
13,066
12,706
12,815
16,011
12,543
11, 776
11,955
12,147

12,305
11,944
11,466
12, 975
12,685
12,933
15,836
12,991
13,002
12,707
12,226

12,148
12,271
11,528
12,962
12,279
12, 797
15,886
13,301
13,287
12, 661
12,329

12,481
12,415
11,832
13,324
11,913
13,543
16,033
13, 712
13,760
13,404
12, 608

12,383
12,506
12,136
13,743
11,832
14,177
16,190
13,767
14,291
13,458
12, 758

12,424
12,576
12,448
14,178
12,800
14,828
14,614
13,676
14,354
13,466
12,658

209
240
242
239
246
249
269
226
210
213
191

4,048
4,131
3,971
3,815
3,432
3,381
3,902
3,484
3,466
3,242
2,879

86.5
82.7
84.9
84.3
76.0
77.6
89.5
84.6
73.8
78.2
88.6

4,215
4,285
4,095
3,985
3,768
3,132
4,152
3,455
3,178
3,406
3,055

4,397
4,474
4,408
4,125
3,753
3,180
3,942
3,653
3,150
3,499
3,007

4,344
4,646
4,370
4,163
3,969
3,205
3, 714
3,869
3,217
3,726
3,057

4,300
4,331
4,136
4,043
3,916
3,112
3, 934
3,499
3,177
3,494
3,038

4,064
4,089
3,899
3,754
3,430
3,110
3,882
3,323
3,049
3,127
3,003

3,891
3,952
3,851
3, 725
3,436
3,285
4,062
3,319
3,091
3,223
2,785

3, 954
3,844
3,741
3,624
3,305
3,328
3,967
3,292
3,103
2,914
2,709

3,803
3,850
3,800
3,624
3,254
3,415
3,875
3,275
3,676
2,976
2, 738

3,806
3,960
3,755
3,508
3,148
3,375
3,795
3,407
3, 767
3,017
2, 790

3,949
3,982
3,796
3, 712
3,048
3,628
3,853
3,611
3,979
3,152
2,765

3,911
4,043
3,874
3,644
3,016
3,800
3,924
3,547
4,069
3,185
2,745

3,943
4,114
3,933
3,872
3,136
4,008
3,724
3, 554
4,131
3,186
2,859

209
240
242
239
246
249
269
226
210
213
191
1

209
240
242
239
246
249
269
226
210
213
191

8,753
8,509
8,094
9,590
9,560
9,829
11,823
9,916
9,291
9,753
9,788

88.5
87.7
90.0
90.7
84.5
87.1
88.8
86.5
84.0
87.9
88.4

8,726
8,246
8,110
9,358
9,637
9,708
11,512
9,960
9,108
9,684
10,534

9,268
8,837
8,390
9,545
9,812
10,036
11,368
10,688
9,201
9,574
10,320

9,430
9,167
8,417
9, 565
9,990
9,926
11,807
10,415
9,167
10,099
10,338

9,232
8,968
8,160
9,397
10,035
9, 753
11,779
9,907
8,818
9,673
9,446

9,050
8,600
7,926
9,390
9,497
9,547
11,782
9,241
8,591
9,144
9,317

8,489
8,494
7,984
9, 557
10,439
9,443
12,197
9,482
8,857
9,638
9,380

8,509
8,037
7,886
9,442
9,401
9,487
12,044
9,251
8,673
9,041
9,438

8,502
8,094
7,666
9,351
9,431
9, 518
11,961
9,716
9,326
9, 731
9,488

8,342
8,311
7,773
9,454
9,131
9,422
12,091
9,894
9, 520
9,644
9, 539

8,532
8,433
8,036
9,612
8,865
9,915
12,180
10,101
9, 781
10,252
9,843

8,472
8,463
8,262
10,099
8,816
10,377
12,266
10,220
10,222
10,273
10,013

8,481
8,462
8,515
10,306
9,664
10,820
10,890
10,122
10,223
10,280
9,799

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




i

TABLE

Year

All employees:
1914 2
1915 2
1916 2
1917 2
1918
1919_ _
1920
1921 _
1922 .
19231924Males:
1914 2
1915 2
1916 2
1917 2
1918
1919 _ 1920
1921
1922
.
1923
1924 _
Females:
1914 2
1915 2
1916 2
1917 2
1918_
1919
1920
.
1921
1922
1923
1924




33.—WAGE EARNERS: TOBACCO—REHANDLING

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees i of maxi- January
mum

Number employed in—

March

February

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

!
74
77
' 85
74
69
71
62

1, 423
1, 777
1, 826
1,650
1,533
1,670
1, 708

59.0
64.3
78.0
56.9
69.8
48.8
73.3

622
632
769
672
615
644
677

59.2
49.4
67.3
62.9
58.9
44.9
64.9

1,702
1,602
1,910
2,102
1,790
2,094
1,769

1,863
1, 550
1,813
2,151
1,830
2,131
1,862

1,868
1,561
1,963
1, 885
1, 731
1, 867
2,040

1,697
1, 632
2,035
1, 761
1, 695
2,022
1,716

589
558
955
792
588
725
717

806
517
889
913
752
964
732

785
483
770
775
760
831
826

799
498
819
699
691
680
804

676
582
825
602
633
712
674

592
1,096
925
1,130
690
777
1,078

896
1,085
1,021
1,189
1,038
1,130
1,037

1,078
1,067
1,043
1,376
1, 070
1,300
1, 036

1, 069
1,063
1,144
1, 186
1,040
1,187
1,236

1,021
1,050
1,210
1,159
1,062
1,310
1, 042

1,181
1,654
1,880 !
1,922
1,278
1,502
1, 795

1, 194
1, 655
1,903
1, 625
1,286
1,336
1, 927

74
77
85
74
69
71
62

1
i
i

599
585
944
641
597
571
745

I, 388
1, 771
1, 795
1, 499
1,284
1,562
1, 552

1, 271
1,697
1,718
1,475
1,451
1,454
1,520

1,169
1, 895
1, 729
1, 371
1,514
1, 647
1,496

1,103
2,143
1, 659
1, 238
1,617
1,653
1, 528

1, 212
2,410
1,587
1, 224
1,616
1,735
1,685

597
602
701
574
448
433
641

605
635
692
579
467
493
621

539
622
652
636
532
468
598

489
718
665
644
611
573
573

477
805
672
610
643
608
536

506
977
643
598
657
671
661

838
1,148
1,221
969
859
606
960

783
1,136
1,103
920
817
1,069
931

732
1, 075
1,066
839
919
986
922

680
1,177
1,064
727
903
1,074
923

626
1, 338
987
628
974
1,045
992

706
1, 433
944
626
959
1,064
1,024

1, 435
1,750
1,922
1,543 ;
1,307
1,039
1,601

1
74
77
85
74
69
71
62

801
1, 145
1,057
978
918
1,026
1,030

54.9
73.3
75.8
45.5
64.4
46.3
74.6

595
1, 070
959
984
689
765
1,182

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

2

Figures not obtainable.

TABLE

3 4 — W A G E EARNERS: TOBACCO—CIGARS AND CIGARETTES, CHEWING AND SMOKING TOBACCO, AND
SNUFF
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

Year

All employees:
1914 2
1915 2
1916 2
1917 2
1918_
1919_
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Males:
1914 2
1915 2
1916 2
1917 2
1918_
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923
1924
Females:
1914 2
1915 2
1916 2
1917 2
1918
1919
1920
1921
1922
1923-_
1924

Number employed in—

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

172
172
184
152
141
142
129

.




11, 568
11,435
13, 899
11, 751
11, 223
11,325
10, 960

86.6
89.1
89.6
85.2
77.8
88.1
88.1

12, 211
11,185
13, 761
11, 790 :
11,000
11, 754
11, 662

12, 384
11,562
13, 430
12, 419
11,073
11,571
11, 532

12, 257
11,529
13,611
12,182
10, 594
11,731
11,626

12,088
11,315
13, 900
11, 255
10,165
11,036
10, 622

11,059
11,096
13, 701
10, 679
9, 909
10,404
10, 280

12,178
11,096
14, 224
11, 040
10, 253
10,839
10, 449

11, 271
11,065
14,089
11,000
10,469
10, 916
10, 546

11, 297
11,162
14, 041
11,492
11,718
11,145
10,674

11,008
11,100
14,168
11,826
11, 836
11, 207
10,809

10, 744
11, 648
14,304
12,341
12, 246
11,757
11,112

10, 729
12,034
14, 531
12, 529
12,674
11,805
11, 230

11, 588
12,418
13,027
12, 452
12, 738
11, 731
10, 973

172
172
184
152
141
142
129

2,809
2, 750
3,133
2,812
2,851
2,598
2,202

80.1
84.0
86.5
88.4
67.9
86.3
88.9

3,169
2, 547
3,208
2,814
2, 581
2,835
2,310

3,164
2,622
2,987
2, 861
2,562
2, 774
2,290

3,163
2,688
2,825
2,956
2,465
2, 762
2,325

3,131
2,629
3,164
2,724
2,417
2,663
2,212

2, 631
2,612
3, 063
2,624
2, 358
2,447
2,199

2, 760
2,703
3,237
2,717
2,458
2,511
2, 111

2, 708
2,726
3, 266
2,718
2,655
2,481
2,068

2, 649
2,780
3,183
2,696
3, 209
2,483
2,117

2,609
2,753
3,143
2,771
3, 235
2,549
2,192

2,559
2,910
3,188
2,967
3, 368
2,579
2,192

2, 539
2,995
3,252
2,937
3, 426
2,577
2,209

2, 630
3,031
3,081
2,956
3,474
2,515
2,198

172
172
184
152
141
142
129

8, 759
8, 685
10, 766
8, 939
8, 372
8, 727
8, 758

86.9
88.8
88.2
84.0
81.5
86.2
86.4

9,042
8,638
10, 553
8, 976
8,419
8, 919
9,352

9,220
8,940
10,443
9,558
8,511
8,797
9,242

9,094
8, 841
10, 786
9, 226
8,129
8,969
9,301

8,957
8, 686
10, 736
8, 531
7, 748
8, 373
8, 410

8, 428
8,484
10, 638
8,055
7, 551
7,957
8,081

9,418
8,393
10,987
8,323
7,795
8, 328
8,338

8, 563
8, 339
10,823
8,282
7, 814
8,435
8,478

8,648
8, 382
10,858
8, 796
8, 509
8,662
8, 557

8,399
8, 347
11,025
9,055
8,601
8,658
8,617

8,185
8, 738
11,116
9, 374
8,878
9,178
8,920

8,190
9,039
11, 279
9,592
9,248
9,228
9,021

8,958
9, 387
9, 946
9,496
9, 264
9, 216
8,775

1

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

2 Figures not obtainable. 00

00

Ox




TABLE

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

March

April

May

September

October

November

36,398
45,086
56, 525
58,439
74, 762
79,132
51, 040
30, 926
46,043
58, 573
38,642

34,673
46,002
53,478
57,411
74,457
79,033
37, 775
31,152
47,181
59.390
36, 593

35, 201
53, 934
70, 085
43,449

51,119
64, 243
37,874

33, 758
44,524
57,086
61,169
72, 700
76, 501
63, 923
29,063
49, 768
59,103
39, 013

35, 888
36, 605
51, 276
65,491
68,346
59,836
75,417
33, 445
48,034
67,152
49,164

33, 269
38, 004
51,467
62, 541
69,054
63, 628
77,803
33, 741
51,915
66,456
41, 499

31,893
39,419
52, 660
60,456
69,991
69, 316
75, 913
32, 011
47, 386
64,309
36,175

31, 834
40, 571
53, 752
59,800
70,455
71,098
68,934
27, 536
48, 910
60,876
35,970

32, 710
42,982
54, 867
58, 644
67, 695
72, 928
61,175
27, 686
47, 638
56,102
36,845

35, 297
43,382
54,284
56,052
69,164
75,404
49,214
29,475
44,254
55, 529
36,391

33, 599
44,415
51,461
55,030
68, 897
75, 015
36, 583
29,717
45.391
56, 281
34, 344

1,335
1, 545
2,129
2, 591
4,007
2, 582
3,973
1,359
1,901
3, 640
2,322

1,013
1,471
2,217
2, 614
4,852
2, 773
3,997
1,460
2, 019
3,629
1,950

1,002
1, 535
2,102
2,467
4,832
2,839
3,875
1, 562
2,199
3,580
1,872

1,641
2,186
2,471
5,313
3,328
3,237
1,275
2,209
3,367
1,904

1,048
1, 542
2, 219
2, 525
5,005
3, 573
2, 748
1,377
2,130
3,001
2,168

1,101
1, 704
2,241
2,387
5,598
3,728

1,074
1, 587
2.017
2,381
5,560
4.018
1,192
1,435
1, 790
3,109
2,249

35,973
31,716
47, 263
64,934
62,216
67, 926
83, 524
28,874
33, 741
60, 702
57, 929

37,095
33,305
51, 231
67,972
64,737
68,115
81,926
30,861
35, 851
65,154
60,084

38,168
34,219
52,932
69,423
69,969
70,340
84,016
33,117
40,068
69, 423
61, 473

38,583
35, 822
53,176
68, 588
70, 734
71,621
81, 867
35,401
46, 268
70,377
61,504

37,223
38,150
53, 405

318
344
358
360
374
390
416
363
320
331
328

34, 394
38, 524
51, 541
60,918
67,174
69, 063
66,131
30, 744
44, 315
61, 204
44, 608

85.6
65.1
82.9
80.6
85.0
78.7
41.5
80.3
62.7
58.6

34,927
30, 534
45,495
62,107
59,884
64, 800
79, 623
28,232
32, 574
57,643
55,320

35,865
32,017
49, 261
65, 050
62,142
65, 018
77, 988
30, 217
34,654
61,938
57, 297

36,830
32,958
50,873
66,463
66,698
67,181
80,039
32,320
38,753
65,883
58,614

37,193
34, 472
50, 997
65,824
67, 035
68, 510
77, 703
34,304
44, 625
66, 794
58, 656

318
344
358
360
374
390
416
363
320
331
328

1,136
1,482
2,115
2,608
4,313
3, 277
3,152
1,197
1, 774
3,316
2,343

69.6
69.4
77.0
80.4
41.7
64.3
23.9
41.1
52.8
82.4
65.5

1,046
1,182
1,768
2,827
2,332
3,126
3,901
642
1,167
3, 059
2, 609

1,230
1,288
1,970
2,922
2,595
3, 097
3,938
644
1,197
3,216
2, 787

1,338

2,059
2,960
3,271
3,159
3, 977
797
1,315
3, 540
2,859

1,390
1,350
2,179
2,764
3,699
3,111
4,164
1,097
1, 643
3,583
2,848
2

August

32,802
42, 212
55,938
62, 271
75, 768
74,426
72,171

85.0
65.3
82.8
80.6
82.1
78.0
40.7
81.4
62.6
82.6
59.5

1, 261

July

32,895
40,954
54, 762
62, 923
74,823
72,155
79, 788
33, 573
49, 585
67,889
38,047

35,530
40,006
53, 656
63, 526
71,487
72, 340
69, 283
31, 941
46, 089
64, 520
46,952

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

o*

Number employed i n -

318
344
358
360
374
390
416
363
320
331
328

82.6

00

35.—WAGE EARNERS: VEHICLES

68,082

72,353
62,418
79,390
34,804
49, 935
70, 792
51,486

34,282
39,475
53, 684
65,155
73, 906
66,401
81,800

28,811

1, 826

1,451
1,789
3,044
2,251

Figures probably do not include airplanes and ships and boats.

December




TABLE 36.—WAGE EARNERS: VEHICLES—AUTOMOBILES AND PARTS
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

Number employed i n -

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

Hr
x

72

21,342
28,952

77.5
65.7

19,473
22,582

20,277
23,446

21,187
23,906

21,887
25,268

20, 795
27,244

19,208
29,015

19,208
30,274

20, 661
31,682

21, 730
33,063

24, 784
33, 592

23, 289
33,009

165
201
240
215
195

51,171
51,179
55,322
24, 545
37,491
51,123
39,262

86.3
63.6
35.8
70.7
59.7
80.8
55.9

46,093
46,735
66,622
19,878
27, 268
46, 560
49,873

47,302
46,413
65, 645
20, 735
28,313
50,803
51,816

51,917
47, 945
67, 237
23, 074
32,393
54, 537
53,382

51,924
49,132
65,903
26,836
38, 705
56,120
52,895

52,852
39,925
65, 071
28,048
42,330
57, 070
43,020

53,427
43, 728
67,009
28,105
45, 696
56, 259
35,590

53,097
49,882
65, 754
27,320
41, 526
54,336
30, 605

53,310
52,679
58,675
23,415
42,296
50,801
30,544

50,418
55,508
51,310
23,179
40,282
46,255
31,655

51,485
58,959
38,782
24,820
36,032
46,134
31,622

51,669
60,414
27, 796
24,591
36, 518
47,356
29,836

72
100

20, 515
27,743

77.3
65.7

18, 729
21, 648

19,393
22,432

20,229
22, 939

20,865
24, 214

19,829
26,055

18,514
27, 829

18, 518
28,993

19,962
30, 277

20,954
31, 757

23, 948
32,129

22,477
31,683

165
201
240
215
198
195

47,404
48,333
52,531
23, 509
35,829
47, 973
37,100

89.2
63.7
36.4
72.0
59.7
80.7
54.8

44, 022
44,007
63,140
19,327
26,157
43, 649
47,395

44,988
43,730
62,132
20,231
27, 209
47, 751
49,197

48,973
45,186
63, 717
22,435
31,167
51,183
50,709

48,666
46,415
62,179
25,924
37,166
52, 735
50, 237

49,379
37, 773
61,534
26,848
40, 537
53,630
40, 875

49,134
41,397
63,451
26,802
43,782
52,838
33,802

48,865
47,471
62,287
25,901
39,441
50, 904

48,631
49,783
55, 794
22,308
40,209
47, 581
28,833

46,035
52,390
48,871
21,992
38, 273
43,417
29,706

46,686
55, 690
37, 221
23, 559
34,379
43, 260
29, 586

56,862
26,832
23,341
34,870
44,400
27, 787

72
100

827
1, 210

67.5
63.8

744
934

958
967

1,054

1,022

966
1,189

694
1,186

699
1,405

776
1,306

836

812
1,326

165
201
240
215

3, 767
2,846
2,791
1,036
1,662
3,150
2,162

43.2
60.6
22.7
35.5
52.9
82.5
64.0

2,071
2,728
3,482
551
1,111
2,911
2,478

2,944
2,759
3,520
639
1,226
3,354
2,673

3, 258
2,717
3, 724
912
1, 539
3,385
2,658

3,473
2,152
3,537
1,200
1, 793
3,440
2,145

4,293
2,331
3, 558
1,303
1, 914
3,421
1,788

4, 679
2,896
2,881
1,107
2,087
3,220
1,711

4,383
3,118
2,439
1,187
2,009
2,838
1,949

4,799
3,269
1, 561
1,261
1,653
2,874
2,036

December

4,705
3, 552
964
1,250
1,648
2,956
2,049

188

188

198
195

2,314
2,683
3,513
504
1,104
3,052
2,619

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

4,232
2,411
3,467
1,419
2,085
3,432
1, 715

» Figures not obtainable.

00

TABLE

37.—WAGE EARNERS: MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emof maxi- January February
reporting
mum

Number employed i n -

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

466
591
663
715
671
680
761
686
700
733
798

23,637
32.504
53,341
52,147
66, 084
49,198
52, U99
31, 754
37. 800
41, 902
44, 093

83.4
73.4
74.5
88.3
72.7
79.7
65.8
91.3
71.9
85.4
89.2

24,503
27,938
42,766
52,811
54,910
47.193
54,864
32,433
29,872
37, 719
44,636

24,830
29,312
45,765
52,658
56,354
45,315
54, 509
31,620
31,411
40,373
45,965

25,279
30,306
48, 562
52,311
58,435
46,166
55,825
32,206
32,979
42,410
46,407

25,036
31,096
51,813
49, 743
58, 798
45,885
55,818
33,462
34, 998
42,911
46, 558

24,339
31,599
53, 783
49, 912
63,629
44,172
55,157
33, 262
37, 858
43, 441
44,415

24,179
32,296
56,103
50, 552
69, 056
46, 508
57, 070
32, 535
40, 206
44,154
43, 232

23,928
32,377
56,523
49, 794
72, 046
49, 507
57, 207
31, 071
40, 757
43, 491
41, 671

23,853
32,499
57.110
51.111
72, 799
51, 753
53,843
31,145
40,916
42, 503
41, 526

23,107
33,811
56,267
52,228
71,579
51,840
52,136
31,149
•*1,021
42, 260
42, 489

22,150
34,917
56,617
53,187
73,360
52, 646
48,305
30,914
40. 669
41,952
43, 872

21, 343
35,822
o7, 360
55,125
75,536
53,978
42,819
30,555
41,519
41,152
44,127

466
591
663
715
671
680
761
686
700
733

20, 612
27, 794
44, 576
44,894
54,186
39, 990
42, 379
26, 272
30, 637
33,929
35, 324

82.4
74.2
77.1
89.9
80.2
80.7
67.0
88.4
73.5
85.4
90.5

21, 509
23,879
36, 746
45, 572
47, 228
37, 481
44,840
26, 980
24, 534
30,647
35, 757

21,809
25, 058
39,149
45,607
48, 646
36, 683
44, 423
26,325
25,610
32, 691
36, 725

22,193
25, 928
41,140
45,366
49, 938
37,441
45,474
26,818
26, 796
34,255
37,201

21,964
26, 614
43,183
43,275
49,844
37,468
45,185
27, 988
28,390
34, 589
37, 039

21, 284
27,088
44,887
43, 276
53,765
36, 400
44, 639
27. 630
30, 553
35,100
35, 625

21,175
27, 711
47,060
43, 792
57, 342
38, 017
46,309
27,154
32, 531
35,888
34,801

20,812
27, 948
47,223
43, 044
58, 915
40, 599
46,349
25,876
33, 050
35, 507
33, 712

20,663
27, 932
47, 643
44, 218
58,872
42, 224
43, 496
25, 801
33, 203
34, 626
33, 654

19, 993
29,124
46, 739
44, 836
57, 018
42,177
42, 312
25, 767
33, 298
34, 410
34,348

19,152
29, 867
46, 613
45, 201
57, 530
42, 608
39.460
25, 245
32, 916
33,856
35, 022

18,491
30,199
47,194
46,680
58, 502
43, 678
34,988
24, 728
33,372
33,132
34,967

466
591
663
715
671
680
761

3, 025
4, 710
8, 765
7,253
11,898
9, 208
9, 720
5,482
7,163
7, 973
8, 769

87.7
68.8
59.2
76.3
45.1
75.4
60.4
89.2
65.5
84.8
82.7

2,994
4,059
6,020
7, 239
7,682
9, 712
10,024
5,453
5,338
7,072
8,879

3,021
4, 254

3,086
4,378
7, 422
6,945
8, 497
8, 725
10, 351
5, 388
6,183
8,155
9,206

3,072
4,482
8, 630
6, 468
8, 954
8, 417
10, 633
5, 474

3, 055
4,511
8,896
6,636
9,864
7,772
10, 518
5, 632
7, 305
8, 341
8, 790

3,004
4, 585
9, 043
6, 760
11,714
8, 491
10, 761
5,381
7, 675
8, 266
8,431

3,116
4,429
9,300
6, 750
13,131
8,908
10,858
5,195
7,707
7,984
7, 959

3,190
4, 567
9,467
6,893
13,927
9, 529
10,347
5,344
7, 713
7,877
7,872

3,114
4,687
9, 528
7,392
14, 561
9, 663
9,824
5,382
7, 723
7,850
8,141

2,998
5, 050
10,004
7,986
15,830
10, 038
8,845
5,669
7, 753
8,096
8,850

2,852
5,623
10,166
8,445
17, 034
10,300
7,831
5,827
8,147
8,020
9,160

686

700
733

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




6, 616

7,051
7, 708
8, 632

10,086

5,295
5,801
7, 662
9,240

6, 608

8,322
9, 519

Decent
ber

TABLE 3 8 — W A G E EARNERS: MISCELLANEOUS—ELECTRICAL MACHINERY, APPARATUS, AND SUPPLIES




Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

6,955
10,884

141
jl36
138
152

168

113
121

141
136
138
152
168
61

113
121
141
136
138
152

168

6,976
9,119

18, 757
21,644
24, 661
11,913
16, 072
16,206
19,122

94.0
69.1
51.0
93.1
69.6
84.5
80.0

6,151
9, 551

113

121

87.1
70.2

70.6

15, 410
17.331
19,840
10,036
12, 917
13,134
15,144

94.2
70.6
54.1
91.2
72.8
86.1

82.0

Number employed i n -

March

April

July

August

September

October

November

7,168
10, 003

7, 229
10, 563

7,091
10,826

6, 963
10,850

7, 083
10,471

7,189
10, 698

11, 212

6, 929
11,794

6,437
12, 315

18, 229
20,467
27, 510
12.142
12, 577
14,560
20,177

18, 326
20,023
27, 574
11, 755
12, 9i6
16, 286
20,840

18, 551
20,264
28, 318
11,777
13, 668
17,232
20,939

18, 599
20, 054
27, 928
12,310
14, 461
17,097
20, 748

18, 974
18, 20?
27, 258
12, 300
15,865
17,138
18,642

18, 807
18, 942
27,830
11,618
17,107
16, 797
17,954

19, 402

27, 888
11, 462
17, 248
16, 752

19, Oil
22, 385
24, 957
11, 802
17, 646
15,346
16, 759

18, 758
22,858
24,005
11, 998
17, 645
15, 967
17,802

18, 734
24, 064
21,137
11, 954
17,627
16,191
19,006

18,853
25, 222
17,080
11, 708
18, 078
15, 787
19,657

6,272
8,046

6, 276

6,384
8,780

6,465

8,602

9, 231

6,303
9, 511

6,202
9, 507

6,119
9,176

6,180
9,339

6,122
9,827

6,104
10,367

5,770
10,832

15,807
16, 267
22, 698
10, 028
11,103
13, 779
16, 552

22,196
10, 525

15, 664
14, 945

10,463
10,473
11,877
15, 843

15, 761
16,025
22,124
10,095
10,639
13,134
16,324

10, 349
12, 664
13, 796
14, 898

15,445
15,167
22,152
9, 726
13, 694
13, 599
14,481

15, 549
16, 768
22,106
9, 600
13, 735
13, 348
13,652

15,293
17, 856
19,685
9, 855
14,027
12, 422
13,570

15,003
18,104
19, 300
10, 025
14,104
13, 090
14, 349

14,964
19,110
17,418
9, 926
14,137
13,189
15,014

14,910
20,094
14, 220
9,749
14,391
12, 930
15,241

1,315

761
1,343

964
1, 295

1,009
1, 359

1,385

825
1,427

667
1,483

3, 310
3, 257
5, 638
1, 951
3, 201
3,342
3,744

3,362
3, 775
5,678
1,892
3,413
3,198
3,473

3,853
4,118
5, 782

3,718
4, 529
5,272
1,947
3,619
2, 924
3,189

3, 755
4, 754
4, 705
1, 973
3, 541
2,877
3, 453

3, 770
4, 954
3, 719
2,028
3,490
3,002
3,992

3,943
5,128
2, 860
1, 959
3,687
2,857
4,416

15,833
16,383
22,281

15, 567
16,088

11, 682

13, 685
16, 270

67.4

704
1,073

717
1,169

784
1,223

764

3, 347
4,313
4,821
1,877
3,155
3,072
3, 978

60.8
62.7
37.5
81.5
57.1
77.7
66.7

2,396
4,084
5,229
1, 679
2,104
2,683
4,334

2,565
3,998
5,450
1,660
2,277
3,152
4,516

2,744
3, 997
5,620
1,749
2,565
3, 453
4, 387

3,032
3,966
5,732
1, 785
2, 779
3, 412
4, 478

1

June

9, 771

804
1,333

66.1

May

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

21, 620

2

20,886

16, 268

1,862

3, 513
2, 920
3,100

7,105

Figures not obtainable. 00

00
CO

TABLE 3 9 . — W A G E

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees i of maxi- January , February| March
mum

21, 578
28,191
32, 209
38, 420
38, 376
40, 175
46, 421
46,163
48, 745
56, 224
62, 834

93.8
88.5
87.8
90.6
90.5
90.3
90.2
93.5

2, 556
2, 563
3, 847
2, 823
3,032
3,341
4,233

12, 230
16, 878
19, 553
22, 895
22, 855
24, 236
28, 432
27, 330
29, 474
33, 379
37, 483

94.3
84.9
85.9
90.5
87.0
87.9
88.6
92.5
83.1
84.5
89.7

1,069
1, 469
1,788
2,111
2, 556
2,563
3, 847
2, 823
3,032
3,341
4, 233

9,347
11,312
12, 656
15, 525
15, 522
15,939
17, 989
18,833
19, 272
22, 845
25, 351

93.2
93.4
90.9
90.7
91.6
94.1
92.1
94.9
91.0
88.8
93.7

1,069
1,469
1, 788
2, 111

2, 556
2, 56.3
3, 847
2,823
3, 032
3.341
4,233
1,069
1,469
1,788
2,111

1

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




86.8

86.2
91.3

EARNERS:

CO

SERVICE

o

Number employed i n -

April

May

June

July

21, 502
26,491
29, 909
36, 359
37, 629
37, 555
43, 646
45,334
44, 965
51, 430
59, 582

21,376
26, 458
30, 048
36. 501
37, 562
37,862
43, 741
45, 270
45,137
52, 225
60, 341

21, 530
26, 954
30, 510
37, 446
38,345
38, 475
44, 568
45, 887
46,118
53, 242

21,856
27, 859
31, 212
38,024
38, 997
39, 629
45, 823
47, 295
47, 237
54, 430
63, 607

22, 058
28, 299
32,104
38, 607
39, 720
40, 772
46, 823
47,164
48, 229
56, 058
64, 545

22.159
28, 930
32, 984
39,822
40, 327
41,498
48, 033
47, 793
49, 845
58, 159
65, 244

21,811
29, 878
33, 452
39, 757
39, 546
41, 247
48, 392
47,130
50, 219
57, 362
63, 934

12,110
15, 536
17, 908
21, 630
22, 856

12,181

26, 514
26,467
26, 652
30, 230
35,102

12,087
15, 558
17, 965
21, 687
22, 731
22, 412
26, 521
26,435
26, 814
30, 718
35, 677

12, 432
16, 635
18, 878.
22, 756
23, 704
23,891
28,171
28,149
28, 580
32, 382
38, 046

12, 448
16, 928
19, 505
23, 079
24,158
24, 764
28, 918
28, 060
29, 242
33, 406
38, 727

12, 515
17, 260
19, 948
23, 805
24. 214
25.160
29, 741
28, 455
30, 111
34, 518
39,120

12,332
18, 308
20, 244
23, 686
23, 470
24, 918
29, 936
30, 744
33, 890
38, 320

9, 392
10, 955
12,001
14, 729
14, 773
15,375
17,132
18, 867
18,313
21, 200
24, 480

9,289
10, 900
12,083
14,814
14, 831
15,450
17, 220
18, 835
18,323
21, 507
24, 664

9, 424
11,224
12,334
15, 268
15, 293
15, 738
17, 652
19,146
18, 657
22, 048
25, 561

9, 610
11,371
12, 599
15, 528
15, 562

9,644
11, 670
13, 036
16, 017
16,113
16, 338
18, 292
19, 338
19, 734
23,641
26,124

9, 479
11, 570
13, 208
16, 071
16,076
16,329
18, 456
19, 044
19, 475
23, 472
25, 614

22,180

61, 206

15, 912
18, 316
22,335
23,352

22, 892

27.142
26,812

27, 457
31, 451
36,362
9,349
11,042
12,194
15,111
14, 993
15, 583
17,426
19, 075
18, 661

21, 791
24,844

16,008

17, 905
19,104
18, 987
22,652
25, 818

28, 086

August

September

October

November

21, 656
29, 906
34, 056
40,134
39, 421
41, 579
48, 350
46, 113
50, 449
57, 944
63, 527

21, 652
29, 606
33,140
39, 584
38, 666
40, 814
48, 099
46, 142
51, 790
59, 664
64, 329

21,359
28,163
33, 321
38,821
36, 505
41,187
47, 421
45, 765
50, 975
58, 736
63, 702

21,185
27,964
33, 271
38, 234
36, 615
40, 764
46, 694
45,384
50, 213
57, 956
62, 509
12, 039
16, 653
20,383
22, 755

12, 325

12, 318

20, 853
23, 901
23, 299
25, 232
29, 910
27, 563
31,000
34, 573
38, 299

20,134
23, 692
22, 553
24, 794
29, 500
27, 538
32, 059
35, 778
38, 803

12,179
16, 799
20,450
23,046
21, 070
24, 937
28, 911
27,170
31, 071
34, 982
38, 015

9,331
11, 645
13, 203
16, 233

9, 334
11,394
13, 006
15, 892
16,113
16, 020
18, 599
18, 604
19, 731
23, 886
25, 526

9,180
11,364
12,871
15, 775
15,435
16, 250
18, 510
18, 595
19, 904
23, 754
25, 687

18, 261

16,122

16, 347
18, 440
18, 550
19, 449
23,371
25, 228

18, 212

21, 210

24, 799
28,351
26, 904
30, 319
34, 447
37, 060
9,146
11,311
12,888

15, 479
15, 405
15, 965
18,343
18, 480
19, 894
23, 509
25, 449

December

TABLE 4 0 . — W A G E

EARNERS:

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

6,757
7, 732
8,439
8, 627
7, 765
7,837
8, 325
7,308
7,172
8, 890
9,717

92.3
89.8
91.6
93.9
89.6
94.3
94.5
92.2
87.1
89.3
91.5

332
291
287
305
344

2,180
2,622
2, 766
2, 807
2, 599
2, 784
3,091
2,836
2, 709
3,319
3,707

95.6
82.2
91.7
92.3
87.9
89.3
90.1
93.1
87.0
89.1
88.3

237
270
281
295
294
281
332
291
287
305
344

4, 577
5,110
5, 673
5,820
5,166
5,052
5,234
4,473
4, 463
5, 570
6, 010

90.7
94.1
89.8
93.5
89.5
96.2
95.0
89.6

237
270
281
295
294
281

332
291
287
305
344
237
270
281

295
294
281

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




86.0

88.5
93.4

SERVICE—LAUNDRIES

March

April

6,759
7, 481
8,194
8, 671
8,038
7, 758
8, 385
7, 555
6, 959
8, 691
9, 622

7,985
8, 404
8, 761
8,141
7, 947
8, 531
7, 545
7, 070
8,788
10,113

2, 751
2,797
2, 584
2,885
2, 750
2, 479
3,080
3, 422

2,127
2, 394
2, 635
2, 745
2, 529
2, 593
2, 910
2,780
2, 523
3,109
3, 464

2,155
2,469
2,686
2,828
2, 660
2,677
3,064
2, 890
2,609
3, 240
3, 626

2, 213
2, 846
2, 783
2,910
2, 748
2,809
3,178
2,930
2,731
3,341
3, 866

4,630
4, 997
5,456
5, 792
5,305
4,986
5,192
4, 711
4,101
5.142
5, 836

4, 556
4, 908
5, 462
5, 792
5,259
4, 986
5,177
4, 633
4,141
5, 207
5,889

4, 604
5, 012
5, 508
5, 843
5,378
5,081
5,321
4, 665
4, 350
5,451
5, 996

4, 673
5,139
5, 621
5, 851
5,393
5,138
5, 353
4, 615
4,339
5, 447
6,247

8,102

7, 570
8,077
7,461
6, 580

8, 222

9,258

2.141
2,422
2, 620

DRY

CLEANERS

Number employed i n -

6, 683
7, 302
8, 097
8, 537
7, 788
7, 579
8,087
7,413
6, 664
8,316
9,353

6, 771
7, 419
8, 076
8, 543

AND

6,886

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

6, 987
7, 952
8, 510
8,696
7,981
7, 883
8, 431
7,390
7, 275
9.187
9,804

6, 869
7, 677
8, 692
8,837
7, 701
7,992
8,398
7,343
7, 257
9,067
9, 873

6, 741
7, 718
' 8,817
8,825
7, 597
7, 854
8,156
7, 051
7,243
9, 033
9, 627

6, 747
7,815
8, 665
8,710
7,581
7, 851
8,363
7,142
7, 422
9, 211
9,789

6,630
7, 799
8, 589
8, 563
7,412
8, 026
8, 463
7,199
7,477
9,172
9, 760

6, 558
7, 741
8, 588
8,404
7, 293
7,934
8, 459
7,130
7,478
9,032
9,677

2. 221

2,870
2, 727
2, 774
3,201
2,943
2,713
3, 401
3, 876

2,872
2,782
2,848
2, 672
2,841
3,183
2, 864
2, 758
3, 455
3, 794

2,200
2, 559
2, 853
2.832
2, 574
2,840
3,156
2.833
2, 746
3, 275
3,770

2,182
2, 594
2,858
2,843
2, 518
2,843
3, 071
2, 761
2, 729
3, 396
3, 685

2,195
2,629
2, 787

2,194
2, 620
2, 786

2,524
2,851
3,148
2,805
2, 793
3,403
3, 806

2,514
2, 892
3,197
2,871
2, 848
3, 415
3, 773

2,176
2,583
2,839
2,771
2,464
2,879
3,164

4, 767
5, 217
5, 719
5, 811
5, 348
5, 090
5, 287
4, 564
4,372
5, 601
6,189

4, 766
5, 080
5, 728
5, 848
5,309
5. 042
5,248
4, 526
4, 517
5, 732
6, 010

4, 669
5,118
5, 839
6, 005
5, 127
5,152
5, 242
4,510
4, 511
5, 792
6,103

4, 559
5,124
5, 959
5, 982
5,079
5, 011
5,085
4,290
4,514
5, 637
5,942

4, 552
5,186
5, 878
5, 904
5, 057
5,000
5, 215
4,337
4, 629
5, 808

4, 436
5,179
5, 803
5, 762
4, 898
5,134
5. 266
4,328
4, 629
5, 757
5, 987

December

6, 992
8,131
8,537
8, 681

8, 075
7, 864
8,488
7, 507
7,085
9,002
10, 065
2, 225
2,914
2, 818

2,806

2, 801

2,860

2,796
3,409
3, 721
4,382
5,158
5, 749
5,633
4,829
5, 055
5, 295
4, 270
4, 682
5,623
5,956

C
O

TABLE 4 1 . — W A G E
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees i of maxi- January February
mum

166

246
300
351
356
330
352
318
303
348
390
166

246
300
351
356
330
352
318
303
348
390
166

246
300
351
356
330
352
318
303




March

April

May

June

July

5,405
8,877
8,784
9,865
10, 234
11,187
11,891
11,381
11,577
12,408

5,339
7,632
8,695
9,706
10, 020
10,806

9,412
10,195
11,114

10,613
10, 531
10,079
10,977
11, 903

5,521
7, 594
8,646
9,966
10, 262
11,330
11,471
11, 258
10,724
12,457
12,846

3,449
4,651
5,357
6, 226
5,922
5,885
5,795
5, 764
5,539
5,998
6,049

3,406
4, 634
5,350
6,071
5,941
5,901
5,716
5, 799
5,499
5,949
6,304

3,440
4, 650
5,332
• 6,155
5,865
5,932
5, 761
5, 825
5, 616
6,009
6,285

3,425
4,698
5,493
6,073
5, 972
6.104
5,889
6.105
5,891
6,071
6,603

3, 291
4,850
5,644
6,022
5,925
6,326
6,085
6,044
6,080
6,396
6, 787

3,467
4,796
5,570
6,187
6,058
6,538
6,619
6,502
6,372
7, 222
7,268

3,384
6.154
5,624
6,199
5,939
6,427

2,044
2, 741
2,916
3,464
3, 849
4,373
4,480
4,336
3,853
4,152
4, 796

2,025
2,752
2,949
3,537
3, 911
4, 348
4, 431
4,381
3,913
4, 246
4,810

2,034
2, 751
2, 989
3, 593
3,894
4,358
4,438
4, 415
4,018
4, 273
4,889

2,025
2,772
2,963
3, 669
4,020
4,425
4,482
4, 432
3,935
4,423
5,035

2,048
2,782
3,051
3,684
4,095
4,480
4, 528
4,487
3,999
4,581
5,116

2,054
2, 798
3,076
3,779
4, 204
4,792
4,852
4, 756
4,352
5, 235
5, 578

2,021

5,493
7,302
8,273
9,690
9, 771
10, 258
10,275
10,100
9,392
10,150
10,845

5,431
7,386
8,299
9,608
9,852
10, 249
10,147

3,383
5,163
5, 599
6,232
5, 790
6,171
6,204
6,040
6,433
6,669
6,655

94.8
72.4
91.0
93.2
89.6
90.0
83.3
85.5
74.2
82.0
83.2

2,027
2, 793
3,080
3,693
4,133
4,529
4,710
4,430
4,128
4,776
5,069

96.3
94.7
89.6
89.6

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

Number employed i n -

5,450
7, 470
8,456
9,742
9,992
10, 529
10,371
10, 537
9,826
10,494
11,638

95.4
79.9
91.1
93.3
94.2
90.5
84.7
85.6
79.3
81.0
84.4

78.1
85.8

SERVICE—HOTELS

5,474
7,401
8,321
9,748
9,759
10, 290
10,199
10, 240
9,634
10, 282
11,174

5,410
7,955
8,680
9,924
9,923
10,700
10, 914
10,470
10,561
11,444
11, 725

86.5
85.7

EARNERS:

10,180

12,661

6,821

6,577
7,136
7.155
7,176
2,723
3,160
3, 666
4, 295
4, 760
5,070
4, 804
4,441
5, 253
5,485

September

October

November

5, 346
9,014
9,085
10,074
10,170
11,287
11,980
11,203
11,847
12,526
12,489

5,389
9, 240
8,915
10, 257
9,855
10,744
11,149
10,343
11, 430
12, 256
11,803

5,404
7,895
9,007
10, 293
9,799
10,736
11, 204
10,171
11,319
12,290
11,718

5,401
7, 839
8,907
10,155
9,664
10,484
10,941
9,959
10,892
11,875
11,398

3,317
6, 225
5,829
6,270
5,837
6,448
6,860
6,506
7,411
7,213
7,079

3,388
6,402
5,718
6,461
5, 594
6, 212
6, 297
6,026
7,300
7,183
6,752

3,389
5,020
5,857
6,426
5,556
6,190
6,366
5,938
7,158
7, 256
6,721

3,352
4,970
5,748
6,409
5,430
6,058
6,173
5,772
6,781
6,924
6,520

2,029
2,789
3, 256
3,804
4,333
4,839
5,120
4,697
4,436
5, 313
5,410

2,001
2,838
3,197
3, 796
4, 261
4, 532
4,852
4,317
4,130
5,073
5,051

2,015
2,875
3,150
3,867
4,243
4, 546
4,838
4,233
4,161
5,034
4,997

2,049
2,869
3,159
3,746
4,234
4,426
4,768
4,187
4, 111
4,951
4,878

August

December

TABLE 4 2 . — W A G E

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

EARNERS:

SERVICE—RESTAURANTS

Number employed in—

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

2,294
3,263
4,419
4,886
5,163

6, 200

2,287
3, 231
4,454
4,933
5,085
6,145
7,345
6,343
8,262
8,331
9,018

167
220
272
280
327
406
440
365
421
465
615

96.6
95.1
82.5
89.7
94.7
87.3
86.0
93.8
77.5
88.7
94.1

2,283
3,105
3,679
4.432
5,107
5,414
6,795
6, 255
6,842
7,551
8,516

2,258
3,108
3,674
4.461
5,092
5,439
6,803
6,124
6,819
7,564
8,506

2,277
3,105
3, 734
4,468
5,075
5,476
6,917
6,174
6,924
7,695
8,600

2,316
3,157
3,824
4,572
5,197
5,471
7,072
6, 220
7,148
7, 708
8, 664

2,337
3,191
3,816
4,599
5,249
5,821
7.345
6,375
7.756
8,012
8, 797

2,335
3,212
3,931
4,683
5,272
6,021
7,846
6,433
7,987
8,144
9,011

2,323
3,218
3,867
4, 719
5, 217
5,990
7,900
6,244
8, 206
8,362
8,963

2,301
3, 221
4,074
4,783
5, 248
6,056
7, 797
6,324
8,363
8,261

8,516

7,615
6,387
8,426
8,412

167
220
272
280
327
406
440
365
421
465
615

1,134
1, 702
2,233
2,368
2,339
2,920
3,706
3,007
4,213
3,952
4,399

95.4
93.6
78.3
91.2

1,128
1,650
2,026
2,255
2,478
2,711
3.433
2,990
3, 485
3,724
4, 215

1,116
1,646
2,008
2,275
2,465
2,701
3,423
2,922
3,498
3,691
4, 226

1,123
1,643
2,042
2,252
2.461
2,718
3,460
2,934
3,615
3,777
4,286

1,139
1,665
2,097
2,331
2,498
2,701
3,532
2,962
3, 780
3,758
4,263

1,158
1, 693
2,098
2.346
2,492
2,865
3,743
3,061
4,190
3,919
4,364

1,152
1, 700
2,176
2,381
2,381
2,961
4,071
3,079
4,313
3,981
4,589

1,152
1, 720
2,141
2,358
2,236
2,988
4,089
2,994
4, 545
4,070
4,512

1,146
1, 724
2,264
2,415
2, 256
3,026
3,975
3,014
4,664
4,028
4,479

1,149
1,756
2,289
2,469
2,216
3,111
3,947
3,120
5,003
4,176
4,469

1,121
1,756
2,562
2,426
2,169
3,090
3, 756
3, 039
4,607
4,085
4,474

1,115
1,745
2,566
2,442
2,179
3,099
3,588
3, 013
4, 518
.4,070
4,466

167
220
272
280
327
406
440
365
421
465
615
1

2,300
3,190
4,003
4,698
5,177
5,860
7,368
6,306
7,803
8,076
8,825

1,167
1,487
1, 769
2,331
2,839
2,939
3,662
3,299
3,590
4,124
4,425

96.5
96.2
87.6
87.4
83.3
86.9
85.2
93.8

1,155
1,455
1,653
2,177
2,629
2,703
3,362
3, 265
3,357
3, 827
4,301

1,142
1.462

1,154
1.462
1,692
2, 216
2,614
2,758
3,457
3, 240
3,309
3, 918
4,314

1,177
1,492
1,727
2,241
2,699
2, 770
3,540
3,258
3,368
3,950
4,401

1,179
1,498
1,718
2, 253
2.757
2,956
3, 602
3,314
3,566
4, 093
4,433

1,183
1,512
1, 755
2,302
2,891
3,060
3, 775
3,354
3,674
4,163
4,422

1,171
1,498
1,726
2,361
2,981
3,002
3,811
3,250
3,661
4, 292
4,451

1,155
1,497
1,810
2,368
2,992
3,030
3,822
3,310
3,699
4,233
4,434

1,172
1,509
1,854
2,438
3,138
3,081
3,944
3,412
3,798
4,340
4, 529

1,173
1,507
1,857
2,460
2,994
3,110
3,859
3,348
3,819
4,327
4, 562

1,172
1,486
1,888
2,491
2,906
3,046
3, 757
3,330
3,744
4,261
4,552

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




December

83.7
93.7
69.7
88.4
91.9

86.6

88.2
93.8

1,666

2,186
2,627
2,738
3,380
3,202
3,321
3,873
4,280

8,913

2,321
3, 265
4,143
4,907
5,354
6,192
7,891
6,532
8,801

CO
CO

TABLE 4 3 — W A G E

EARNERS: TRANSPORTATION

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

798
996
1,137
I,149
1,134
1,081
1,146
1,048
1,071
1,129
1,271
798
996
1,137
1,149
1,134
1,081

1,146
1,048
1,071
1,129
1, 271
996
1,137
1,149
1,134
1,081

1,146
1,048
1,071
1,129
1,271

34,380
45,179
50,098
53, 084
52, 037
53, 357
56,115
51, 368
51, 462
56, 877
59, 320

81.1

88.0
94.0
94.5
87.5
94.0
83.9
84.6
91.0

PUBLIC

CO

UTILITIES

Number employed in—

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

31,443
41,409
45, 201
49,600
50,952
51, 545
52, 467
51,082
46, 538
52, 076
56, 669

31,292
39,330
43.813
48, 941
51, 340
51, 622
51, 702
49,881
46,899
51, 568
56,966

30,625
40, 286
44,657
50,882
51,979
51, 776
52, 778
50,042
46, 764
53,004
57,450

32,705
42,826
47,622
52, 734
52,162
52,805
54,155
51, 718
47,932
54,772
59,158

35,323
45, 717
49,946
55, 449
52, 702
53,807
55, 596
51, 265
50,051
56, 807
60,589

37,189
48,926
51, 722
55, 405
53,462
53,953
57,360
52, 858
52,181
58,909
61,807

38,193
47, 370
53,025
55,615
53,156
54, 551
57, 748
52, 914
54, 614
59,841
62, 277

38, 305
47, 488
53,978
55,023
53,082
54, 570
58,147
52, 612
55,420
60,955
61, 427

36,771
48,036
54,026
54,208
52,054
54, 519
58, 359
52,138
55, 500
59, 423
60, 326

35, 831
47,089
53,053
53, 950
52,044
53,981
59,061
51,193
54,156
59, 476
59,300

33,622
46,848
52,827
53,690
51, 253
54,064
58,487
50,983
54,129
58,544
58,452

28, 221

77.1
78.0
79.2
87.3
92.1
90.8
87.1
92.5
80.5
82.8

25, 436
33,645
37,331
40, 111
40,197
39,437
40, 880
39,814
35, 751
40,869
44, 743

25, 340
31.814
35,859
39,320
40,257
39, 507
40,176
38, 755
36, 215
40,387
44,801

24, 586
32, 685
36, 538
40,941
40,803
39, 879
41,111
38,977
36,085
41,483
45, 211

26, 504
35,089
39, 534
42,553
41,042
41,101
42,250
40,729
37,417
43,116
46,897

29,148
37,923
41,656
45,016
41,695
42, 234
43, 547
40, 284
39,421
45,046
48, 358

30,859
40, 770
43,199
44, 774
41,732
42,398
44,809
41,853
44, 223
46,975
49, 470

31,817
39, 465
44,380
44, 704
41, 591
43,171
44,806
41,898
43,400
47, 778
49,928

31,897
39,612
45.140
44,167
41,606
43,429
45, 451
41,666
44,403
48,801
49,186

30,444
40,148
45,295
43,486
40, 723
43, 363
45,675
41, 335
44, 437
47,472
48, 478

29, 727
39, 286
44,343
43,146
40,369
42,905
46,116
40, 399
43,153
47,729
47, 590

27,592
39,026
43,819
42,812
39,529
42,875
45, 512
40,303
42,985
46,756
46,724

6,159
7,829
8, 478
10,447
11,373
11,511
12, 356
10,944
10,899
11, 745
12,079

92.9
92.2
87.4
87.0
90.9
91.4
88.8
94.6
93.8
92.0
94.8

6,007
7, 764
7,870
9,489
10, 755

5,952
7,516
7,954
9,621
11,083
12,115
11,526
11,126
10,684

6,039
7,601
8,119
9,941
11,176
11,897
11,667
11,065
10, 679
11, 521
12, 239

6,201
7,737
8,088

6,175
7,794
8,290
10,433
11,007
11, 573
12,049
10,981
10,630
11,761
12,231

6,330
8,156
8,523
10,631
11,730
11,555
12, 551
11,005
10,958
11,934
12,337

6,376
7,905
8,645
10,911
11, 565
11,380
12,942

6,408
7,876
8,838
10,856
11,476
11.141
12,696
10,946
11,017
12,154
12,241

6,327
7,888
8, 731
10,722
11,331
11,156
12,684
10,803
11,063
11,951
11,848

6,104
7,803
8,710
10,804
11,675
11,076
12,945
10, 794
11,003
11, 747
11, 710

6,030
7,822
9,008
10,878
11,724
11,189
12,975
10,680
11,144
11,788
11, 728

37, 350
41,620
42,637
40, 664
41, 846
43, 759
40, 423
40, 564
45,132
47, 241

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




80.0
80.4

AND

12,108

11, 587

11, 268

10, 787
11, 207
11,926

11,181

12,165

10,181

11,120
11, 704
11,905
10,989
10, 515
11,656
12,261

11,016

11, 214
12,063
12,349

December

TABLE 4 4 — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R A N S P O R T A T I O N A N D P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S — T E L E G R A P H A N D T E L E P H O N E ( I N C L U D I N G M E S S E N G E R SERVICE)
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting
of maxi- January February
mum

297
341
403
414
389
360
387
365
405

77.4
87.6
87.6
94.9
96.2
90.4
96.3
91.9
91.9
94.5

297
341
403
414
389
360
387
365
405
399
390

3, 521
5, 460
6, 271
7,839
6, 649
6, 549
7,188
6,832
6,921
7, 553
7,885

297
341
403
414
389
360
387
365
405
399
390
1

9,558
13,188
14,611
18,147
17, 760
17, 730
19, 237
17, 526
17, 596
19,024
19, 697

6,037
7, 728
8, 341
10, 308
11,111
11,181
12, 050
10,694
10, 675
11,470
11,811

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




9,396
13, 262
14, 242

Number employed in—

March

April

6,534
7, 344
6,858
7,321
7,914
8,151

3,564
5,468
6,306
7,356
6,438
6,762
7,385
6,908
7,270
7,834
7,880

3,420
5,681
6,536
7,304
6,379
6,817
7,262
6,846
7,225
7,792
7,739

6,252
7, 754
8,673
10,706
11,242
10,817
12,361
10, 691
10, 788
11,833
11,974

6,177
7, 765
8, 571
10, 577
10,973
10,851
12,355
10, 567
10,833
11,646
11,586

5,983
7, 705
8, 573
10,631
11, 250
10, 771
12,615
10,556
10, 784
11,457
11,454

5,910
7,724
8,870
10,719
11,329
10,909

20, 111

10,110
13,390
15, 030
19, 202
18,019
17, 679
19,942
17,675
18, 240
19, 560
20,336

9,945
13,210
15, 283
18, 596
17,908
17.351
19, 705
17,549
18,109
19, 747
20,125

3,638
6,798
6,232
8, 524
6, 755
6,452
7,331
6,923
6,903
7,654
8,042

3,894
5, 607
6,542
8,428
6, 675

3,693
5,456
6,610
7,890

6,616

7,327
6,934
7,263
7,827
8,253

6,168
8,038
8, 377
10,493
11, 517

6,216
7,783
8,488
10,774
11,344
11,063
12,615
10,741
10,977
11,733
12,083

3,481
5, 579
6,487
7,444
6,757
6,267
6,938
6,874
6,610
7,262
7, 734

3,709
4,351
5,662
7,425
6,921
6,267
6,797
6,683
6,538
7,201
7,799

3, 323
4,301
5,994
8,080
6,892
6,374
6,935
6,632
6, 299
6,942
7, 615

3,364
4,556
6,030

6,997
6, 385
7, 252
6, 788
6, 501
7,146
7,699

4,890
5,931
8,630
6,791
6,554
7,237
6,862
6,650
7,389
7,917

93.7
92.5
87.4
87.0
91.8
91.6
89.3
94.7
93.8
92.4
94.8

5,915
7,683
7, 755
9, 368
10, 578
11,720
11,327
11,001
10,565
10,975
11,653

5,863
7,436
7,833
9,501
10,902
11,762
11,274
10,878
10,466
10,939
11,887

5,949
7,517
7,999
9,821
10,989
11, 545
11,397
10,815
10,462
11,273
11,958

6,105
7,648
7,964
10, 057
10,936
11,350
11,632
10, 737
10,301
11,412
11,975

6,045
7,697
8,157
10,314
10, 806
11,224
11,751
10, 738
10,423
11,508
11,954

8, 282

3, 549
5,586
6,586
7,532
6,443
6, 550
7,286
6,885
7,264
7,842
8,108

9,806
14,836
14,609
19,017
18,272
17, 673
19, 575
17,669
17, 633
19, 320

83.0
59.4
85.7
83.1
86.8
89.4
92.0
95.6
86.0
87.7
92.3

16,802

18, 558
19,674

17,416
17,401
19,641
17,452
18,097
19,488
19,694

9,330
13.405
15.406
18,023
17, 708
17,726
19,880
17,288
18,136
19,293
19,216

9,431
12,587
14,088
18,944
17, 597
17, 778
18,988
17,600
17,073
18,897
19,871

17,335
17,987
18,265
17,875
17,175
18, 237
19,387

16,812

9,547
13,173
14,879
17,987
17,688
17,533
20,000
17,464
18,054
19, 291
19,334

July

9,272
11,818
13,993
17,901
17,881
17,919
18, 332
17,447
16, 761
18, 215
19,573

12,204
13,994
18,339
17,933
17, 735
18, 884
17, 525

November

June

9, 572
11, 787
13,495
16,926
17,823
18,029
18,071
17. 561
17,004
18,140
19,686

11, 221

12,244
10, 746
10, 730
11,666
12,069

September

October

May

August

6,666

9,726
13,351
15,157
18,109

12,618

10,442
10,911
11,501
11,477

0

01

TABLE 4 5 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R A D E , R E T A I L A N D
Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

CO

WHOLESALE

OS

Number employed in—

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

26,744
33,178
38, 461
42,374
43,464
45,754
51,736
45, 286
48,364
52,663
56,070

93.4
86.9
86.5
96.2
96.5
84.7
94.2
95.5
83.3
88.3
90.7

25,801
31,433
36,120
41, 279
42,898
42,099
50,831
45,193
45, 297
49,831
54, 221

25,693
30,891
36,017
41,463
42,968
41,812
49,701
44,521
44,695
49,716
54,320

26,175
31,974
36,817
42,035
43,900
42,688
50,953
44,741
45,307
50,971
54,669

26,665
32,992
38, 204
42,449
43,896
44,117
51,392
45, 375
46,726
52,021
55,618

26,917
33,313
38,199
42, 701
43,834
44,705
51,308
45,009
47, 591
52,536
55,919

27, 335
32,988
38,365
42,854
44,227
45, 874
52, 289
45, 789
48,500
53,388
55,806

27,060
32,539
37, 759
42, 677
43,944
46, 553
52,741
44,684
48, 780
52,503
55,505

26,762
32,498
37,636
42,202
43,433
47,103
52,475
44,370
48,518
52,310
55, 292

27,497
33, 743
39,051
42, 528
42, 697
47, 707
52,540
44,942
49,155
53,195
56, 225

27,296
35,159
40, 507
42,629
43, 085
48, 225
52,420
46,169
50,335
53,885
57,488

27,054
35, 066
41,210
42,781
42,890
48, 809
52,197
46,443
51,802
55,307
57,997

21, 722
27,067
31,632
34,726
34, 597
36,138
41,359
36,581
39,528
42,892
46,103

92.4
87.9
87.6
96.1
94.1
84.2
93.9
95.6
85.1
90.2
92.3

20,844
25,483
29,897
33,819
34,700
33,007
40,855
36,433
36,955
40,586
44,567

20,804
25,366
29,886
34,085
34,848
32,711
39,902
35,897
36,639
40,820
44,791

21,033
25,887
30,098
34,160
34,991
33,337
40,538
35,839
36,953
41,584
44,893

21,348
26, 525
30,904
34, 282
35,144
34,327
40,915
36,368
37,975
42,396
45, 503

21, 862
27,073
31,173
34,832
35, 211
35,128
41,084
36,346
38,998
42,837
45,971

22,509
27,038
31, 595
35,118
35,448
36, 512
41, 894
37,142
39,784
43,677
46,035

22,441
27,018
31,369
35, 205
35,117
37, 214
42,485
36,432
40, 252
43,049
46,052

22,407
27, 204
31,623
34,967
34,963
37, 833
42, 250
36,348
40,141
43,055
46,043

22,474
27, 653
32, 227
34,983
33,767
37,924
42,000
36,644
40,439
43, 501
46,532

21,898
28,354
33,043
34,957
33.735
38, 263
41,763
37,404
41,128
43.736
47,176

21, 640
28,343
33,675
35,148
33,355
38, 572
41,508
37,489
42,021
44,463
47,377

5,021

80.4
77.8
79.6
88.6
82.0
86.4
90.1
83.9
76.0
78.8
80.5

4,957
5,950
6, 223
7,460
8,198
9,092
9,976
8, 760
8,342
9,245
9,654

4,889
5,525
6,131
7,378
8,120
9,101
9, 799
8,624
8, 056
8,896
9,529

5,142
6,087
6,719
7,875
8,909
9,351
10,415
8,902
8,354
9,387
9,776

5,317
6,467
7,300
8,167
8, 752
9, 790
10,477
9,007
8, 751
9,625
10,115

5,055
6, 240
7, 026
7,869
8,623
9, 577
10, 224
8, 663
8, 593
9, 699

4,826
5,950
6,770
7, 736
8, 779
9,362
10, 395
8, 647
8, 716
9, 711
9, 771

4,619
5,521
6,390
7,472
8,827
9,339
10,256
8,252
8,528
9,454
9,453

4,355
5, 294
6,013
7,235
8,470
9,270
10 225
8,022
8,377
9, 255
9, 249

5,023
6,090
6,824
7,545
8, 930
9,783
10, 540
8, 298
8, 716
9, 694
9, 693

5,398
6,805
7, 464
7,672
9,350
9,962
10,657
8, 765
9,207
10,149
10,312

5,414
6,723
7,535
7,633
9, 535
10,237
10,689
8,954
9, 781
10, 844
10,620

6,111

6,829
7,648
8,867
9, 616
10, 377
8, 705
8,836
9,771
9, 967
i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




TABLE 4 6 . — B O O K K E E P E R S ,




STENOGRAPHERS,

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

AND

OFFICE

CLERKS:

ALL

INDUSTRIES

Number employed i n -

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

58, 695
68,361
82,223
93, 450

120, 856
128, 539
106,849

58,239
68,959
83, 016
94,137
106, 761
122, 749
126, 213
106,994

14,149
17, 981
20,017
21, 624
22, 709
23, 652
27, 241
23, 562

58,889
66, 574
79,360
91, 247
104, 264
116,185
130,857
110,481

98.3
91.2
88.2
92.5
92.9
87.6
91.7
91.5

58, 799
63,926
74,114
87,121
99,427
108,982
127, 527
116, 749

58,601
63,973
75,002
87, 753
100,119
109,652
129,878
114,827

58,835
64,608
76,666
88,497
101,477
110, 757
131, 663
113, 728

59,208
64, 917
77, 267
89, 440
101, 797
112, 013
133,173
111, 968

59,011
65, 523
77,921
90,397
103, 259
112,862
133, 591
111, 706

59,182
66, 506
79, 083
91, 513
105,384
114,476
134, 724
110,431

59, 273
66,836
80,237
92,339
106, 687
117, 523
135,528
109,146

93,182
107, 030
119, 914
134,056
108,414

59,024
67, 913
81, 624
93, 060
106, 749
120, 076
131,133
107,555

25,904
30,439

126, 470
133,235

93. J

121,208
132,263

122,166

132, 726

123,829
133,194

124, 678
133, 934

126, 076
133,320

127, 599
132,966

128,644
133,639

128,815
133,479

128,529
133,435

128,306
132,991

128,538
133,091

14,149
17, 981
20, 017
21, 624
22,709
23,652
27,241
23.562

35,050
39,052
46,352
51, 559
53,996
58,848
66, 545
55,803

97.4
90.6
88.2
94.1

34,864
37,284
43,096
49,668
54,128
53,778
65,586
59,388

34,663
37,274
43,667
50,151
54,227
54,419
66, 605
58,340

34, 750
37, 644
44, 714
50,589
54,850
55, 255
67, 448
57, 621

35,200
37,852
44, 989
51,089
54, 512
56,001
56, 732

35,116
38,299
45,463
51,397
55,032
56, 746
68,244
56,328

35, 340
39,009
46, 298
52,062
55,512
57,935
68,561
55,624

35,499
39,418
47,121
52,602
55,392
59,689
68,95',
54,965

35, 521
39.807
47.808
52,764
54,770
61. 670
68,208
54,722

35,293
40,024
47, 786
52,290
53-, 369
61,486
66,382
54,241

34,984
40,297
48,031
52, 015
52,068
61', 933
64,676
53,877

34, 581
40, 585
48,400
52,130
52,133
63,094
63,407
53, 925

25,904
30,439

63,997
67,456

61,217
67,089

61, 785
67,367

62, 712
67,464

63,104
67,810

63,693
67,459

64,432
67, 282

65,154
67, 784

65,390
67,798

65,134
67,556

65,065
67, 292

65, 067
67, 218

14,149
17,981
20, 017
21, 624
22, 709
23, 652
27, 241
23, 562

23,838
27, 523
33,008
39, 688
50,269
57,337
64,312
54, 678

23,935
26, 642
31, 018
37,453
45, 299
55,204
61,941
57,361

23,938
26, 699
31,335
37, 602
45,892
55, 233
63, 273
56, 487

24, 085
26, 964
31, 952
37, 908
46,627
55, 502
64, 215
56,107

24, 008
27, 065
32, 278
38,351
47,285
56,012
65,092
55, 236

23,895
27, 224
32 458
39, 000
48,227
56,116
65,347
55,378

23,842
27,497
32, 785
39, 451
49,872
56, 541
66,163
54,807

23, 774
27,418
33,116
39, 737
51, 295
57,834
66, 571
54,181

23,663
27, 507
33,372
40,418
52, 260
58, 244
65,848
53, 692

23,731
27,889
33,838
40, 770
53. 480
58, 590
64, 751
53,314

23, 711
28, 064
34,192
41,435
54,192
58,923
63,863
52, 972

23, 658
28, 374
34, 616
42, 007
54, 628
59, 655

25, 904
30,439

62,472
65, 779

59, 991
65,174

60, 381
65,359

61,117
65, 730

61, 574
66,124

62,383
65, 861

63,167
65, 684

63, 490
65,855

63,425
65, 681

63,395
65,879

63, 241
65, 699

December

63,471
65,873

1

90.5
90.7

98.2
92.1
88.3
88.9
82.9
91.7
92.9
92.3

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

68, 081

59,184
67, 314

81,180

2 Figures not obtainable.

106, 260

62, 806

53,069

CO

TABLE 47.—BOOKKEEPERS, STENOGRAPHERS, AND OFFICE CLERKS: TRADE, RETAIL AND WHOLESALE




Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

Number employed in—

March

April

May

June

July

August

Septemr
ber

October

November

16,537
16, 279
19,438
23,159
22, 303
26, 638
30,905
27,778

18,718
22, 612
22,016
24,967
29,988
28,938

16,565
15,950
18,813
22,622
21, 948
25,180
30,128
28,425

16,596
16,009
19,108
22,696
22,132
25, 484
30,514
28, 377

16,640
16,068
19,133
22,828
21,976
25,765
30,815
28,120

16,518
16,122
19,064
22,836
22,166
25,998
30,832
27,925

16,513
16,190
19,126
23, 081
22,340
26,302
30,979
27, 763

16, 323
16,141
19,407
23,241
22,451
27, 111
31,487
27,538

16, 312
16,179
19, 470
23,264
22,490
27, 345
31,485
27,191

16,485
16, 393
19, 732
23, 322
22,577
27,580
31, 220
27,182

16,516
16,502
19,935
23,585
22,307
27,587
31,059
27, 033

16,504
16, 701
20, 201
23,761
22,421
27,943
31,159
27,180

31,839
34,070

93.1
96.3

30, 697
33, 633

30,838
33,693

31, 255
33,953

31, 218
34,213

31, 673
33,958

31,982
33, 874

32,252
33,992

32,263
33, 975

32,316
34, 289

32,063
34,122

32, 526
34, 224

8,611

6, 276

96.4
93.4
91.1
94.0
96.2
87.9
95.2
93.4

97.9
93.9
92.8
97.9
89.6
84.3
95.2
94.2

8,585
7,578
8,956
10, 275
8,635
9,145
11,231
10, 823

8, 613
7,614
8,901
10,333
8,555
9, 215
11, 304
10,753

8,559
7,656
8,803
10, 275
8,587
9,409
11, 284

8,564
7, 705
9,044
10,412
8, 253
10,005
11,574
10,590

8,629
7,825
9,177
10,255
7,971
10,197

10, 682

8,602
7,711
8,842
10,346
8,426
9,624
11,354
10, 679

8,570
7, 780
9,119
10, 377

11, 048

8,597
7,511
8,754
10, 235
8,642
8,930
11,043
10,884

10, 482

8,630
7,875
9,243
10, 269
7,808
10, 257
11,361
10,402

7,932
9,273
10,307
7,782
10, 373
11,579
10,404

11,546
12, 834

11, 651
12,909

11,873
13,016

11,888
13,018

12,028
12,978

12,074
12,994

12,226
13,064

12, 259
13,124

12, 293
13,081

12,147
13,162

12, 287
13,179

7,945
8,441
10, 054
12,420
13, 335

8,011
8, 431
10,152
12,421
13,497
16, 339
19, 283
17, 554

8,027
8,454
10, 232
12,495
13,421
16, 550
19,511
17,367

7,959
8,466

18, 966
17,890

7,968
8,439
10,059
12,387
13,306
16, 250
19,085
17,541

12, 561
13,579
16,589
19,548
17, 243

7,911
8,479
10, 284
12, 735
13, 914
16, 678
19, 625
17, 084

7,759
8,436
10, 363
12,829
14,198
17,106
19,913
16,948

7, 742
8,399
10, 351
12,887
14,290
17,152
19,837

7,856
8,568
10,555
13, 067
14, 606
17,383
19, 694
16, 700

7,886
8, 627
10, 692
13, 316
14,499
17,330
19,698
16,631

7,876
8,769
10, 928
13,454
14,639
17,570
19,580
16, 776

19,151
20, 799

19,187
20, 784

19, 382
20,937

19,330
21,195

19, 645
20,980

20, 880

19,908

20,026
20,928

20,004
20,851

20,023
21, 208

19,916
20,960

20, 239
21, 045

7, 730
9,009
10, 297
8,288
9,716
11, 362
10,642
12,046
13, 055

96.5

5,638

7,927
8,549
10,429
12, 862
14,016
16,922
19,543
17,136

94.6
92.5
89.6
89.9
89.3
90.1
95.2
93.0

6,2
7,6

19,793
21,016

92.5
96.1

16, 549
16, 008

7,567
8,664
10,192
8,681

8,801

11,022

16,166

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

10, 261

2

8, 200

10,193
11,648
10,496

Figures not obtainable.

11,526

December

eg

TABLE 4 8 . — B O O K K E E P E R S , S T E N O G R A P H E R S , A N D O F F I C E C L E R K S : T R A D E — S T O R E S , RETAIL AND WHOLESALE




Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

2,708
3,157
3,366
3, 695
4,021
4,271
4,932
4, 218

11,688

4,634
5,666

Number employed in—

1

February March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

16, 992

93.7
92.1
91.1
92.1
94.3
89.0
93.6
94.6

11, 754
10,742
12,312
13, 795
14,597
15, 793
17,543
17, 608

11, 741
10,655
12,315
13, 670
14, 494
15,818
17,569
17, 258

11,730
10, 657
12,468
13, 720
14, 645
15,937
17, 771
17, 248

11, 799
10,703
12,506
13,803
14,468
16,137
17, 994
17,105

11,646
10,752
12,472
13,837
14, 612
16, 233
18, 032
16,978

11,624
10, 780
12,490
13,901
14, 672
16, 302
18,088
16, 864

11,431
10,753
12,585
14,009
14, 701
16,702
18,403
16, 810

11, 392
10, 738
12,579
14,008
14, 773
16,844
18,459
16, 663

11,614
10,907
12,751
14,138
14,972
17, 017
18,455
16, 710

11,678
11,006
12,965
14,371
14, 828
17, 039
18,323
16, 661

11,689
11,183
13, 214
14,527
14, 951
17,340
18,556

19,006
19, 453

91.9
95.3

18,428
19, 287

18,459
19, 231

18, 662

19,420

18,521
19,579

18, 759
19, 356

18,959
19, 263

19,189
19, 305

19,143
19, 275

19,183
19, 603

19,197
19, 393

19,519
19,537

2,708
3,157
3, 366
3,695
4,021
4, 271
4,932
4, 218

5, 562
4, 470
5,007
5,204
4,751
5,212
5,626
5, 703

95.9
92.7
93.3
96.9
90.2
85.2
92.2
95.4

5,586
4, 370
4,863
5,139
4,990
4,778
5,395
5,906

5,569
4,336
4,877
5,138
4,946
4,826
5,391
5,791

5,532
4, 372
4,993
5,157
4,949
4,920
5, 489
5, 752

5,570
4, 387
4,980
5,181
4,886
5,005
5,551
5,710

5,517
4,420
4, 897
5,181
4,943
5,091
5,546
5, 676

5,540
4,438
4,903
5,184
4, 795
5,192
5,605
5,659

5,497
4,461
4,997
5, 222
4, 670
5, 303
5,751
5,666

5,496
4,507
5,038
5,223
4, 649
5, 397
5,786
5, 634

5,570
4,531
5,052
5,205
4,568
5,415
5,755
5,655

5,566
4,550
5,123
5,248
4,509
5,461
5, 623
5,637

5,573
4,595
5,155
5,276
4,502
5,546
5,847
5,600

4,634
5,666

6,148
6, 370

93.4
96.6

5,926
6, 301

5,996
6,302

6,108
6, 368

6,063
6, 357

6,090
6, 315

6,118
6,315

6,177
6, 338

6, 219
6, 370

6, 216
6,380

6, 228
6,417

6,283
6,451

2,708
3,157
3, 366
3,695
4, 021
4,271
4,932
4, 218

6,126
6,400
7,673
8,848
10, 003
11, 364
12, 535
11, 289

91.7
90.4

90.5
93.7
94.2

6,168
6, 372
7,449
8,656
9, 607
11,015
12,148
11, 702

6,172
6,319
7,438
8,532
9,548
10,992
12,178
11,467

6,198
6, 285
7, 475
8,563
9, 696
11, 017

6,129
6, 332
7,575
8, 656
9, 669
11,142
12, 486
11,302

6,084
6,342
7,587
8,717
9,877

11,496

6,229
6, 316
7,526
8, 622
9,582
11,132
12, 443
11, 395

12,483
11, 205

5,934
6, 292
7,588
8,787
10,031
11,399
12, 652
11,144

5, 896
6, 231
7, 541
8,785
10,124
11,447
12, 673
11,029

6,044
6,376
7, 699
8,933
10,404
11,602
12,700
11,055

6,112
6,456
7,842
9,123
10, 319
11,578
12,700
11,024

6,116
6,588
8,059
9,251
10,449
11,794
12,709
11,129

4, 634
5, 666

12, 859
13, 083

90.9
94.4

12,502
12,986

12,463
12, 929

12,554
13, 052

12,458
13, 222

12, 669
13,041

12, 841
12,948

13, 012
12,967

12,924
12,905

12,967
13, 223

12,969
12,976

December

13, 236
13,086

10,871
12,681
14,052
14,754
16, 576
18,161

1

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

12, 282

11, 110

2

Figures not obtainable.

CO

CO

TABLE 4 9 . — B O O K K E E P E R S ,

STENOGRAPHERS,

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

235
488
515
676
722
779

515
594
803
676
722
779
235
289
369
488
515
594
803
676
722
779

3,816
4,151
5,389
7,537
5, 856
8, 430

11,001

9, 230
9, 361
10,989
12,691

3,819
4,071
5,103
7,324
5, 768
7, 630
10, 749
9, 736
8,806
10, 520
12,440

3,854
4,100
5,194
7,450
5, 771
7, 822
10, 855
9, 586
9,041

10,621

12, 562

OFFICE

March

3,880
4,138
5,310
7,456
5,809
7,995
11,015
9,570
9,109
10,788
12,637

April

3,845
4,139
5, 290
7, 481
5, 834
8,061
11,075
9, 476
9,279
10, 888
12, 728

3, 845
4,124
5,242
7, 433
5, 858
8,179

11,062

9, 400
9,299
11,096
12, 695

2,405
2,430
2, 951
4,128
2, 717
3, 214
4, 723
4,309
3, 743
4, 666
5, 527

2,415
2,409
3,026
4.167
2, 698
3, 297
4, 744
4,268
3, 935
4, 687
5, 596

2,434
2,431
3.103
4,182
2,705
3,410
4,818
4,246
3,979
4,772
5, 638

2,419
2, 443
3,055
4,204
2, 703
3,380
4,829
4, 228
4,065
4, 826
5, 650

2, 411
2, 439
3,042
4,138

1,411
1,698

95.4
95.0
89.9
89.3
89.3
88.4
93.3
90.3
93.0
93.7
97.7

1,414
1,641
2,152
3,196
3,051
4, 416

1,439
1,691
2.168
3,283
3,073
4, 525
6,111
5,318
5,106
5,934
6,966

1,446
1,707
2,207
3, 274
3.104
4,585
6,197
5,324
5,130

1,426
1,696
2,235
3,277
3,131
4, 681
6, 246
5,248
5, 214
6, 062
7,078

1,434
1,685

2, 266

6.110

7,025

6,026

5,427
5,063
5,854
6,913

6,016

July

May

97.9
96.3
91.5
96.1
88.6
81.8
95.5
90.9
89.1
93.0
96.2

3,394
3,261
4, 787
6,193
5,121
5,282

CLERKS:

TRADE—OFFICES

O

o

Number employed in—

2, 405
2, 452
3,123
4,143
2, 595
3,643
4,809
4.109
4,079
4, 879
5, 665

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




97.0
96.5
90.8
95.8
95.9
85.5
94.6
90.7
91.7
93.7
97.3

AND

2,680

3,479
4, 812
4,182
4,068
4,934
5,649

2, 200

3, 295
3,178
4,700
6, 250
5,218
5,231
6,162
7,046

3, 819
4,145
5, 266
7, 587
5,928
8,379
11,144
9.320
9,373
11,177
12, 695

3, 790
4,122
5, 428
7,614
6,016
8,754
11,323
9,169
9, 553

August

September

October

November

3,809
4,157
5,497
7,619
5,987

3, 790
4,189
5, 581
7, 587
5,903
11,007
8,917
9, 572
11,231
12, 736

8, 868

3, 790
4,190
5, 561
7, 615
5,790
8, 850
10, 984
8, 834
9,567
10,975
12, 771

3,790
4, 213
5, 577
7,644
5, 796
8,875
10, 833
8, 855
9,601
11,105
12, 733

8,820

12,755

11, 263
8, 971
9, 556
11,219
12, 747

2,407
2, 464
3,062
4,192
2,654
3, 578
4, 823
4,173
4,114
4,931
5,664

2.393
2,427
3,157
4, 220
2,626
3,825
4,891
4.084
4,192
5,002
5, 710

2,396
2,442
3,189
4,171
2, 606
3,912
4,929
4,020
4,199
4, 985
5, 719

2, 391
2, 463
3, 223
4, 095
2,485
3, 884
4, 841
3, 984
4,185
5,019
5, 671

2, 401
2, 487
3, 219
4,076
2,422
3, 898
4, 811
3, 935
4,164
4,862
5, 714

2,405
2,501
3,223
4,090
2,408
3,913
4,779
3,918
4,156
4,952
5,700

1,412
1,681
2,204
3, 395
3, 274
4,801
6.321
5,147
5, 259
6,246
7,031

1,397
1,695
2,271
3.394
3,390
4,929
6,432
5.085
5,361
6,178
7,045

1,413
1,715
2,308
3,448
3,381
4,908
6,334
4,951
5,357
6,234
7,028

1, 399
1,726
2, 358
3,492
3,418
4, 984
6,166
4,633
5,387

1,389
1,703
2, 342
3, 539
3, 368
4, 952
6,173
4,899
5,403
6,113
7,057

1,385
1,712
2,354
3, 554
3,388
4,962
6,054
4,937
5,445
6,153
7,033

11,180

6, 212

7,065

December

TABLE 5 0 . — B O O K K E E P E R S ,




STENOGRAPHERS,

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

6,749
7, 884
8,299
8,600
8, 858
9, Oil
9, 652
8,632

35, 576
41, 512
49,079
55, 741
62,155
68, 249
73,035
57,965

97.0
89.9
87.2
91.6
91.7
87.2
85.4

8,701
9,125

65. 538
65,963

93.9
98.4

6,749
7,884
8,299
8,600
8, 858
9,011
9,652
8,632

22, 224
26,150
30, 959
34,306
35, 315
38, 489
41, 863
32, 713

95.9
89.4
87.0
93.2
94.7
83.9
85.0
86.7

8, 701
9,125

37, 379
37, 743

6, 749
7,884
8, 299
8, 600
8, 858
9, 011
9, 652
8, 632

13, 352
15, 362

8, 701
9,125

18,120

21, 436
26, 839
29, 760
31,172
25, 252
28,159

28, 220
1

OFFICE

CLERKS:

ALL

MANUFACTURES

Number employed i n -

March

April

May

June

July

35, 795
41,307
49, 076
55, 871
62, 637
66, 872
76, 563
57, 674

36,031
41, 824
49,817
56, 479
63, 488
68, 740
76,396
56, 584

September

October

November

35, 944
42, 215
50, 589
57, 207
63,983
70,616
74,699
56,310

35, 654
42, 595
50, 573
57,086
63,795
70,453
72,306
55,731

35,344
42,936
50, 881
57, 273
63,623
71, 254
69,814
55,381

34,937
43, 297
51,402
57,700
64,093
72, 592
67,405
55,445

August

35,453
39,730
46,074
53,359
59,485
64,355
74,244
61,417

35,633
40,199
47, 292
53,936
60, 500
65,003
75, 234
60, 504

35,809
40, 288
47, 649
54, 519
65, 647
76, 012
59, 477

35,658
40, 732
48, 266
55, 270
61, 518
65, 949
76, 080
58, 782

63,486
66,279

64, 558
66, 365

65,190
66, 653

65, 767
66,105

66,429 ,
65,585 j

66, 770
65,941

66,661

65,813

66,443
65,695

66,245
65, 621

66, 041
65, 769

22,213
24, 703
28, 492
32,819
34,991
35,395
41,980
35, 899

22,024
24,949
29,007
33,188
35, 200
35, 759
42,840
34, 986

22, 088

25,186
29, 756
33, 558
35, 847
36, 257
43, 380
34, 386

22, 417
25, 253
29,948
33,899
35, 478
36, 707
43, 765
33, 553

22, 321
25, 557
30, 448
34,123
35, 801
37,003
43,816
33, 200

22,439
26,036
31,017
34,616
36,154
37, 588
43, 823
32,418

22,616
26,467
31,595
35,010
36,161
38, 747
43, 767
31, 780

22, 590
26,717
32,131
35, 203
35,964
40,303
42,806
31, 592

22,337
26, 892
31,945
34,897
35,054
40,034
41,188
31,300

22,067
27,114
32,054
34,749
34, 227
40, 464
39, 616
31,129

21, 691
27,302
32, 360
34, 820
34,469
41,414
38,149
31,196

93.9
97.9

35, 775
37,855

36,197
37,992

36, 846
37, 983

37,188
38, 247

37,457
37,882

37,842
37, 507

38,085
37, 802

38, 042
37, 683

37, 874
37, 607

37, 797
37, 452

37, 685
37, 429

90.8
87.4
87.6
80.2
91.5
86.0

13, 448
14, 606
16, 830
20,046
23, 759
28,669
30,302

13,429
14, 781
17,067
20,171
24,285
28,596
31,404
26,431

13, 545
15,013
17, 536
20,378
24,653
28,746
31,854
26,118

13,392
15,035
17, 701

21,469
27, 327
29,993
32, 629
24, 804

13, 354
15, 498
18, 458
22, 004
28, 019
30, 313
31, 893
24, 718

13,317
15, 703

13, 277
15, 822
18, 827
22, 524
29, 396
30, 790
30,198
24, 252

13, 246
15,995
19,042

25,134
28,940
32, 247
25,924

13,356
15, 271
18,059
21, 255
26,483
29, 284
32, 740
25, 256

13, 415
15,357

20,620

13,337
15,175
17, 818
21,147
25, 717
28,946
32, 264
25, 582

29, 624
31,178
29, 256
24, 249

18.8

26, 910
28,129

27,289
28,287

27,712
28, 382

28,002
28, 406

28, 310
28, 223

28, 587
28,078

28, 685
28, 139

28, 619
28,130

28,448
28,169

28, 356
28,340

88.1

35,661
39, 309
45, 322
52, 865
58, 750
64,064
72, 282
62, 858

AND

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

60, 612

18, 222

2 Figures not obtainable.

18, 628

22,189
28, 741
30, 419
31,118
24, 431
28, 569
28,088

22, 880

December

TABLE 5 1 . — S A L E S P E O P L E

Year

All employees:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
192 1
1922 2
1923
1924
Males:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
192 1
1922 2
1923
1924
Females:
1914
1915
1916
1917
1918
1919
1920
192 1
1922 2 .
1923
1924




Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees i of maxi- January February
mum

(NOT

T R A V E L I N G ) : ALL

INDUSTRIES

Number employed in-

!
March

April

May

July

i June
I
1

August

September

October

November

December

14,149
17,981
20, 017
21,624
22, 709
23, 652
27,241
23, 562

29, 710
32,188
36,909
40, 422
42, 002
46, 861
50, 173
46, 784

83.1
81.0
78.5
83.4
85.5
80.6
85. 2
84. 2

29,193
31,185
35, 073
39, 151
41,027
43, 506
48, 434
46, 773

28, 717
30,445
34, 405
38, 023
40, 847
43, 732
47, 923
45, 573

29, 307
31,409
35, 330
40, 097
42, 098
44, 458
48, 992
46, 683

30, 204
31,924
36, 976
40, 527
41,891
45, 543
49, 572
46,670

29,835
32,251 !
36,403
40, 119
41,492
45, 704
49, 823 I
46, 435 !

28, 684
29, 595
31, 000
31, 661
35, 723
36. 045
39, 854
39, 516
40, 809
41,800
46, 225
46, 285
49,672 1 49, 675
45, 326
46,314

27,967
30, 490
34, 773
38, 641
40, 237
46, 335
49,041
44, 727

28,907
31, 832
36, 747
40, 628
41, 700
47, 661
50, 121
45, 374

29,932
32, 853
38, 249
41,158
42, 120
48, 407
50, 621
46, 835

30, 540
33, 611
39, 363
41, 758
42,934
50, 512
51,971
47, 597

33,641
37, 591
43,818
45, 598
47,068
53, 967
56, 236
53,099

25,904
30, 439

54, 901
62, 106

77.9
81.5

51,062
58,947

51,028
59, 279

52, 793
61, 022

53, 461
62, 608

53, 495 1
61, 353

54,323
61, 264

53,910
60, 621

53, 082
59, 934

55, 663
61, 432

56,145
62,142

58, 327
64, 307

65, 525
72,363

14,149
17, 981
20,017
21, 624
22, 709
23, 652
27, 241
23, 562

14,636
16, 602
18, 421
20, 348
20, 116
22, 465
24, 848
24, 278

95.2
91. 1
90.7
95. 1
95.4
83.8
93.2
94.4

14,451
16, 254
17, 825
19, 969
20, 399
20, 573
24, 028
23, 859

14, 435
16,108
17, 797
20,061
20, 339
20, 873
24,137
23, 890

14, 536
16, 201
18, 004
20, 360
20, 588
21,168
24,488
24,107

14, 690
16, 458
18, 257
20, 368
20, 504
21,627
24, 658
24,278

14, 644
16. 528
18, 323
20, 370 |
20, 286 1
22, 044
24, 826 1
24,320

14, 675
16, 613
18, 298
20,406
20,263
22, 324
24,976
24, 355

14,523
16, 534
18, 326
20, 370
19, 963
22, 777
25, 018
24,187

14, 456
16, 389
18, 292
20, 218
19, 647
22, 954
24,819
24, 084

14, 552
16, 632
18, 529
20, 331
19, 729
23, 230
25, 044
24, 178

14, 712
16, 771
18, 759
20, 296
19, 557
23, 509
25,114
24, 305

14, 792
17, 043
19, 018
20, 434
19, 617
23, 932
25, 273
24, 500

15,169
17, 690
19, 626
20, 991
20,495
24, 564
25, 790
25, 271

25, 904
30,439

28, 870
34, 136

87.9
90.6

27, 212
32, 628

27, 448
32, 965

28,015
33, 364

28,255
34, 056

28, 506
34,141

29,017
34, 355

29,094
34,308

28, 890
34,184

29, 536
34,416

29, 449
34, 431

30, 067
34, 782

30,947
36,000

14,149
17, 981
20, 017
21, 624
22, 709
23, 652
27, 241
23, 562

15,074
15, 586
18, 488
20, 075
21, 886
24,397
25, 326
22, 506

73.1
70.9
68. 1
73.0
77.2
77.7
78. 1
74.2

14, 742
14, 931
17, 248
19,182
20, 628
22,933
24, 406
22,914

14, 282
14, 337
16,608
17,962
20, 508
22, 859
23, 786
21, 683

14,771
15, 208
17, 326
19,737
21,510
23, 290
24, 504
22, 576

15, 514
15, 466
18,719
20,159
21, 387
23,916
24, 914
22, 392

15,191
15, 723
18,080
19, 749
21, 206
23, 660
24,997
22,115

14,920
15, 048
17, 747
19, 448
21, 537
23,961
24, 696
21, 959

14,161
14,466
17,397
19,146
20, 846
23,448
24,657
21,139

13, 511
14,101
16, 481
18, 423
20, 590
23, 381
24, 222
20, 643

14, 355
15, 200
18, 218
20, 297
21,971
24,431
25,077
21,196

15, 220
16, 082
19,490
20, 862
22, 563
24, 898
25, 507
22, 530

15, 748
16,568
20,345
21, 324
23,317
26, 580
26, 698
23,097

18,472
19,901
24,192
24, 607
26, 573
29,403
30,446
27,828

25,904
30,439

26,031
27,970

87.9
70.8

23,850
26, 319

23, 580
26,314

24, 778
27, 658

25, 206
28, 552

24,989
27, 212

25, 306
26,909

24, 816
26,313

24,192
25, 750

26,127
27, 016

26, 696
27, 711

28, 260
29, 525

34, 578
36, 363

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

2

Figures not obtainable.




TABLE 5 2 . — S A L E S

PEOPLE

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January February
mum

(NOT

TRAVELING):

ALL

MANUFACTURES

Number employed i n -

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

6,749
7, 884
8,299
8, 600
8, 858
9,011
9, 652
8, 632

3,902
3, 762
5, 035
5, 316
5,103
5, 346
5, 735
5, 680

96.1
95.9
94.5
94.8
97.0
85.3
93.7
96.3

3,825
3, 683
4, 870
5,104
5, 077
4, 886
5, 507
5, 622

3,839
3, 678
4,915
5,241
5,072
4,979
5, 586
5,613

3,858
3, 692
4,986
5, 328
5, 081
5,067
5, 648
5, 625

3,904
3,743
4,988
5, 289
5,131
5,135
5, 717
5, 652

3,908
3,789
5, 012
5, 335
5,152
5, 251
5, 723
5, 629

3,908
3, 768
5, 055
5, 363
5,175
5, 322
5,749
5, 660

3,909
3,787
5,098
5,365
5,160
5, 456
5, 774
5, 654

3,797
5,153
5,379
5,163
5, 520
5, 759
5, 695

3,921
3,787
5, 060
5,382
5, 061
5, 556
5, 803
5, 725

3,934
3, 780
5, 066
5,340
5, 018
5, 584
5,875
5, 725

3,937
3,807
5,098
5,314
5,042
5, 669
5,843
5, 729

8, 701
9,125

6, 363
7, 002

90.9
94.0

6,061
6, 722

6,129
6, 753

6,154
6,842

6,198
6,940

6,316
6,986

6, 380
7,053

6,459 !
7,108 I

6,385
7,137

6, 548
7,117

6, 505
7, 075

6, 558
7,146

6,749
7, 884
8,299
8, 600

8, 858
9,011
9, 652
8, 632

3,153
3, 013
4, 025
4, 243
4,005
4, 214
4, 507
4,646

97.5
95.2
94.3
95.8
95.9
86.3
94.4
96.4

3,098
2, 918
3, 894
4,129
4, 015
3, 860
4, 335
4, 575

3,109
2,917
3,938
4, 222
4,007
3,920
4,387
4, 583

3,132
2, 942
3, 988
4,287
4,019
4, 002
4, 454
4, 597

3,151
3, 010
3, 987
4, 254
4,042
4,030
4, 494
4,614

3,160
3, 056
4, 023
4,287
4, 062
4, 132
4, 505
4, 604

3,166
3, 039
4, 046
4, 308
4, 080
4,208
4, 545
4, 646

3,165
3, 063
4, 079
4, 306
4, 070
4,330
4, 552
4, 644

3,165 '
3,050
4,128
4,288
4, 056
4, 351
4, 537
4, 680

3,168
3.046
4.047
4, 265
3,953
4, 391
4,548
4, 686

3,176
3,032
4, 050
4, 210
3,912
4, 405
4,593
4, 691

3,170
3,046
4,058
4,181
3,915
4,469
4, 581

8, 701
9,125

5,171
5,834

92.2
94.2

4,925
5, 605

4,976
5,654

5,007
5, 719

5, 054
5, 774

5, 140
5,831

5,165
5,896

5, 266
5, 936

5, 221
5, 949

5, 335
5,946

5, 293
5, 878

5,332
5, 923

6, 749
7, 884
8,299
8, 600
8, 858
9, 011
9, 652
8, 632

749
749
1,010
1,072
1,098
1,132
1,228
1,034

91. 2
92.1
83. 5
90.3
81.4
91.3
93.2

727
765
976
975

726
750
998
1,041

1,048
1,090
1,119
1,218
1,025

742
729
1,009
1,055
1,095
1,114
1,204
1,014

744
724
1, 019
1,059
1,090
1,126
1,222
1,010

734
747
1,025
1,091
1,107
1,169
1,222
1,015

753
741
1,013
1,117
1,108
1,165
1,255
1,039

758
748
1,016
1,130

767
761
1, 040
1,133
1,127

1, 028

753
733
1, 001
1,035
1,089
1,105
1, 223
1,038

748

1,172
1,047

730
761
977
1,019
1,065
1,059
1,199
1,030

8, 701
9,125

1,192
1,169

85.8
87.6

1,136
1,117

1,153
1,099

1,147 |
1,123 I

1,144
1,166

1,176
1,155

1,215
1,157

1,193
1,172

1,164
1,188

1,213
1,171

1, 212

December

1, 062
1, 026

i Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

1,062

1,065
1,194

s

Figures not obtainable.

1,106

1,179
1,282
1,034
1,197

1,200
1,262

1,039
1,226
1,223
O

DO

TABLE 5 3 . — S A L E S P E O P L E

Year

All employees:
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
1922 2
192 3
192 4
Males:
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
1922 2
192 3
192 4
Females:
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
1922 2
192 3
1924




Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employment is
lishments of emreporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum.

(NOT

TRAVELING): TRADE, RETAIL

AND

WHOLESALE

Number employed in—

February

March

April

July

May

<1
August

ber

October

November

December

l-H
>
I1
—

o

24,874
27,355
30,156
32, 761
34,605
38,745
41,593
38,346

24,486
26,480
28,638
31,775
33,587
36,089
40,348
38,475

23,993
25, 748
27,938
30, 508
33,401
36,144
39,678
37,290

24,535
26,677
28,769
32,420
34,628
36,698
40,609
38,315

25,377
27,101
30,345
32,871
34,367
37,615
41,033
38,192

25,003
27,383
29,700
32,425
33,968
37,622
41,236
37,973

24,691
26, 797
29,256
32,066
34,240
38,159
41,029
37,831

23,776
26,107
28,815
31,758
33, 288
37,962
40,919
36,874

23,081
25,603
27,830
30,891
32,766
38,009
40,329
36,233

24,065
26,973
29,885
32,850
34,377
39,228
41,338
36,842

25, 062
27, 999
31,363
33,467
34,974
39,990
41,805
38,391

25,681
28,720
32,458
34,129
35,806
42,014
43,233
39,159

28,743
32,667
36,871
37,969
39,858
45,406
47,556
44,576

Ul

44,671
50,188

75.3
79.0

41,568
47, 736

41,351
47,846

42,931
49,348

43,443
50, 643

43,231
49,279

43,863
49,043

43,440
48,378

42,712
47,727

45,160
49, 345

45.687
50,153

47,768
52,338

54,895
60,421

g

10,630
12,624
13,006
14,035
14,220
16,058
17,839
17,171
6,276

80.3
78.4
75.5
80.3
82.2
79.5
83.4
81.3

93.4
89.8
89.2
93.3
92.1
82.6
92.8
93.3

10,538
12,410
12, 677
13,835
14,405
14,743
17,419
16,916

10,508
12,271
12,597
13,825
14,351
14,906
17,401
16,943

10,561
12,319
12,734
13,992
14,582
15,034
17,619
17,083

10,691
12,475
12,959
14,020
14,489
15,396
17, C86
17,147

10,637
12, 501
12,930
13, 999
14,263
15,659
17,806
17,195

10,617
12, 584
12,843
13,952
14,216
15,907
17,878
17,194

10,465
12,482
12,776
13,949
13.949
16,229
17,849
17,047

10,413
12,371
12,699
13, 832
13,699
16,378
17,698
16,899

10,536
12,619
13,005
13,944
13,921
16, 545
17,883
16,970

10,671
12, 772
13,242
14,025
13,900
16,846
17,940
17,167

10,773
13,019
13,494
14,233
14,002
17,208
18,148
17,381

11,154
13,666
14,117
14,819
14,866
17,841
18,741
18,113

20, 240
23, 838

87.2
89.1

19,231
22,973

19,308
23,076

19,699
23,252

19,781
23,711

19,835
23,682

20.211
23,765

20,231
23,694

20,087
23,625

20,660
23,944

20,613
24,084

21,156
24,479

22,064
25,774

14,244
14, 731
17,150
18,725
20,385
22,687
23,754
21,175

72.0
69.6
66.5
72.1
76.2
77.0
77.3
73.1

13,948
14,070
15,961
17,940
19,182
21,346
22,929
21,559

13,485
13,477
15,341
16,683
19,050
21,238
22,277
20,347

13,974
14,358
16,035
18,428
20,046
21,664
22,990
21,232

14,686
14,626
17,386
18,851
19,878
22,219
23,347
21,045

14,366
14,882
16,770
18,426
19,705
21,963
23,430
20,778

14,074
14,213
16,413
18,114
20,024
22,252
23,151
20,637

13,311
13,625
16,039
17,809
19,339
21, 733
23,070
19,827

12,668

13,232
15,131
17,059
19,067
21,631
22,631
19,334

13,529
14,354

14,391
15,227

18,906
20,456
22,683
23,455
19,872

19,442
21,074
23,144
23,865
21,224

14,908
15,701
18,964
19,896
21,804
24,806
25,085
21,778

17,589
19,001
22,754
23,150
24,992
27,565
28,815
26,463

24,431
26,350

67.1

22,337
24, 763

22,043
24,770

23,232
26,096

23.662
26; 932

23,396
25,597

23,652
25,278

23,209
24,684

22,625
24,102

24,500
25,401

25,074
26,069

26,612
27,859

32,831
34,647

1

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.

2

Figures not obtainable.

16,880

18,121

VI
—
£
•d
•
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o
H

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h3
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2

TABLE 54.—SALES P E O P L E ( N O T T R A V E L I N G ) : T R A D E — S T O R E S , RETAIL AND
a
C
O
o

Year

All employees:
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
192 2
192 3
1924
Males:
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
1920
192 1
192 2
192 3
1924
Females:
191 4
191 5
191 6
191 7
191 8
191 9
192 0
192 1
192 2
192 3
1924
1

Per cent
Number Average minimum
of estab- number employlishments of emment is
reporting ployees 1 of maxi- January
mum

24,550
26, 506
29, 768
32,298
33,999
38,093
40,840
37,058
38,842
43.146
48, 293

80.1
77.8
75.2
80.1
81.8
79.5
83.2

10,306
11,780

93.1
89.2
89.0
93.0
91.6
82.7
92.7
92.9
85.8
86.9

10,216
11,576
12,308
13,392
13,830 |
14,271
16,734
15,706
15,670
17,833
21,227

72.0
69.6
66.5
72.1
76.2
77.1
77.3
73.0
65.7
67.1
69.5

13, 942
14,066
15,960
17,937
19,162
21,233
22,893
21,534
20,768
22,306
24,723

12,620

13,576
13,635
15,525
17,123
15,911
16,414
18,750
21,994
14, 244
14,726
17,148
18, 722
20,364
22,568
23,717
21.147
22,428
24,396
26,300

Arithmetic average of the 12 months.




80.8

73.2
74.8
78.3

24,158
25, 642
28,268

31,329
32,992
35,504
39,627
37,240
36,438
40,139
45,950

WHOLESALE

Number employed i n -

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

23,663
24,912
27,562
30,055
32,799
35,554
38,951
36,042
35,507
39,904
46,028

24,209
25,843
28,386
31,958
34,038
36,082
39.871
37,034
36,350
41,474
47,518

29,962
32,405
33,761
36,989
40,273
36,909
38,697
41,977
48, 747

24,672
26, 539
29,310
31,955
33,361
36,993
40,482
36,713
38,287
41, 732
47,353

24,356
25,944
28,858
31,596
33,601
37, 508
40,256
36, 543
38, 721
42,323
47,089

23,441
25,251
28,425
31,287
32, 646
37,297
40,160
35,571
37, 583
41,862
46,439

22, 751
24, 746
27,437
30,416
32.155
37; 345
39, 555
34,936
36, 843
41,122
45,800

23,733
26,114
29,489
32,386
33, 751
38, 554
40, 589
35, 548
38,001
43,572
47,424

24,735
27,144
30,972
33.005
34,379
39,311
41,050
37,065
39, 729
44,125
48,244

25,351
27,868
32,065
33,668
35,217
41,307
42,466
37,834
41,451
46,200
50,423

10,184
11,439

10,241
11,489
12.353
13,533
14,013
14, 535
16,916
15,828
15, 770
18,273
21,466

10,367
11,640
12, 578
13,558
13,903
14,888
16,959
15,891
16,215
18,348
21,872

10,312
11,661
12,541
13, 534
13, 677
15,143
17,086
15,961
16,178
18,369
21,813

10,288

10,135
11,630
12,389
13,483
13,328
15,685
17,126
15, 776
16, 323

10,210

21,862

21,804

10,087
11,519
12,309
13,362
13,109
15,828
16,966
15,631
16,296
18,533
21, 746

11,765
12,612
13,484
13,316
15,980
17,173
15,704
16,566
19,108
22,073

10,349
11,921
12,853
13,566
13,325
16,279
17,224
15,873
16,784
19,089
22,229

10,448
12,171
13,103
13,774
13,432
16,637
17,419
16,085
17,067
19,627
22, 620

13,968
14.354
16,033
18,425
20,025
21, 547
22,955
21,206
20,580
23,201
26,052

14, 680
14,622
17,384
18,847
19,858
22,101
23,314
21,018
22,482
23,629
26,875

14,360
14,878
16, 769
18,421
19,684
21,850
23,396
20,752
22,109
23,363
25,540

14,068
14,209
16,410
18,109
20,003
22,134
23,115

13,306
13,621
16,036
17,804
19,318
21,612
23,034
19,795

12,664
13,227
15,128
17,054
19,046
21,517
22,589
19,305
20,547
22, 589
24,054

13,523
14,349
16,877
18,902
20,435
22,574
23,416
19,844
21,435
24,464
25, 351

14,386
15,223
18,119
19,439
21,054
23,032
23,826
21,192
22,945
25,036
26,015

December

14,903
15,697
18,962
19,894
21,785
24,670
25,047
21, 749
24,384
26,573
27,803

12,222

13,375
13,769
14,422
16,709
15,721
15,589
17,891
21,300
13,479
13,473
15,340
16,680

19,030
21,132
22,242
20,321
19,918
22,013
24,728

25,047
26,262

11,735
12,448
13,487
13,598
15,374
17,141
15,933
16,335
18, 706

20,610

22,386
23,617
25,227

18,688

21,260

23,174
24,635

O
Qjl




APPENDIXES
APPENDIX A. SCHEDULE F O R M , DIVISION OF LABOR STATISTICS, O H I O
APPENDIX B. STATE CLASSIFICATION OF W A G E EARNERS
IN 1923
APPENDIX C. VARIATIONS IN M E N ' S AND W O M E N ' S E M P L O Y M E N T IN IRON AND STEEL AND T E X TILE MANUFACTURING




107

APPENDIX A.—SCHEDULE FORM, DIVISION OF LABOR STATISTICS,
OHIO
[FRONT

Return promptly.

Retain duplicate.

OF

SCHEDULE]

See instructions on reverse side.

STATE OF OHIO DEPARTMENT OF INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS, DIVISION OF LABOR
STATISTICS
R E P O R T F O R Y E A R E N D I N G D E C E M B E R 31,1924

NOTES: A. If engaged in more than one industry, use a separate sheet for each. Report on Ohio operations only.
B. If operating in more than one county, separate reports must be made for
each county.
C. Send for additional copies of this form if you need them.
D. When it is impossible to give an exact answer to an inquiry, enter the
best possible estimate and add to the answer " E . "
E. Your report is not acceptable to this department until each of the following 11 questions has been answered.

In correspondence, please refer to this file
number.

1. Name of firm and establishment

(Answer for both when names differ)
2. Address of principal office: Street and number
; post office
3. Location of operations covered by this report
(Give both city and county location. See notes B and C at top of form)
4. Nature of business (if manufacturing, name principal products)
(See notes A and C at top of form)
5. Give date if plant changed hands during year
1924
Give name and address of former owner
Give name and address of present owner
6. Number of days in operation during year 1924...
7. Number of hours normally worked—
Other help
Office
help

Male

Female

a. Per day or shift
b. Per week
.
8. Give total wage and salary payments in dollars
only during year 1924, including bonuses and
premiums and value of board and lodging, if
furnished (do not include salaries of officials):
a. To wage earners
$
b. To bookkeepers, stenographers,
and office clerks
c. To salespeople (not traveling)...
d. To superintendents and managers.
Total of above items

9. Number of persons employed on 15th of each
month. If data are not obtainable for the 15th
of the month, enter data for the nearest representative day.
Wage earners Bookkeepers,
(include both
Sales people
stenogratime and
(not travelphers, and
Number
piece
ing)
office clerks
employed
workers)
on the
15th of—
FeMales males Males Fe- Males Females
males
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
May
June
July
Aug
Sept
Oct
Nov
Dec

10. Classified weekly rates of wages and salaries for week of greatest employment during year.
IMPORTANT.—Please note that it is weekly rate of wage rather than actual weekly wage which is asked
for under this question. See instructions for question 10 on the back of this form.
If your pay roll shows rates for 2 weeks or for 1 month, divide rates for 2 weeks by 2 and the rates for a
calendar month by 4K- Include both time workers and piece workers. In reporting rates of piece workers
use a normal week's earnings as a basis. Bonuses and premiums, if any, should be prorated and included
with rates of wages or salaries. If board or lodging is furnished in addition to wages or salaries, estimate
the value and include in reporting rates of wages or salaries. In reporting for retail stores do not report
for week_of special sales or week during holiday period,

108




APPENDIX A.—SCHEDULE

FORM

109

[FRONT OF SCHEDULE—continued]

Wage earners (include both time
and piece workers)
Males
Classified rates of wages per week for
the week ending—

Bookkeepers, stenographers, a n d
office clerks

Females

Males

Females

•P. hfl
© <3
3
!>>>

00 O

Males

Females

0
3

-a

, 1924

Sales people (not
traveling)

00 O 0 o
3 3
ft ©
hfi

O bfi
fl
3
§ 0 So 0 0
> 3
>>>3
C ° * ' " 00 o
O
bC^
O oo -j
5

b ^
O
Ploo
*

® as
P, ©
hfi ^

Under $5..
$5 but under $10...
$10 but under $12..
$12 but under $15..
$15 but under $20..
$20 but under $25..
$25 but under $30..
$30 but under $35..
$35 but under $40..
$40 but under $50..
$50 or over
11. IMPORTANT.—If manufacturing, give total value of products manufactured in 1924. Value reported
should be in dollars for all products f. o. b. factory, less selling expense $
Give name and value of different articles manufactured.
Name
Value
Name
Value
Name
Value
$
$-.-.
$
This is to certify that the answers to the inquiries on this sheet are complete and correct
to the best of my knowledge and belief.




By.

(Name)

(Official capacity)

110

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN
[BACK

GENERAL

OF

SCHEDULE]

E X P L A N A T I O N S AND INSTRUCTIONS FOR A N N U A L INDUSTRIAL
OF A L L O P E R A T I O N S IN O H I O D U R I N G 1 9 2 4

REPORT

For authorization and penalties see section 885 of the General Code, section 4
of the act defining the powers, duties, and jurisdiction of the State Liability
Board of Awards, and section 22, paragraph 10, and sections 24 and 43 of the
act creating the Industrial Commission of Ohio.
Questions 1 to 7.—These questions are self-explanatory.
Question 8.—The total wage and salary payments during the year should be
given separately for each of the four classes of employees indicated under 8a,
8b, 8c, and 8d. D o not include officials of the company.
Question 8a. — Wage earners: Include mechanics of all kinds, factory employees, shop foremen, laborers, laundry employees, cleaners and caretakers in
buildings, employees of alteration departments and of delivery departments in
stores, cash girls, check boys, farm hands, etc.
Question 8b.—Bookkeepers,
stenographeis, and office clerks: Include bookkeepers, typists, stenographers, copyists, timekeepers, draftsmen, filing clerks,
sales office employees, cashiers, etc.
Question 8c.—Sales people (not traveling): Include the selling force in stores
and other establishments. Do not include traveling sales people. Office clerks
handling sales should be included under 8b rather than under this heading.
Question 8d.—Superintendents
and managers: Include all superintendents and
managers but not shop foremen. Shop foremen should be included under 8a.
Question 9.—The information desired is the number of persons, under each of
the classifications given, in your employ on or near the 15th of each month, as
shown by the pay-roll records.
Employees should be grouped under the same
classifications as in 8a, 8b, and 8c. Superintendents and managers should not be
reported under question 9.
Question 10.—Under this question we wish you to select the week of greatest
employment, except as noted in regard to retail establishments, and enter your
people in the proper column opposite the weekly wage which they would have
received had they been in your employ full time during the entire week selected.
The usual timekeeper's rate book, in which is shown the amount earned per
week at each rate per hour and each number of hours per week, will be of great
assistance in bringing hourly rates to a weekly basis.
Enter sales people who work on a strictly commission basis opposite their
average weekly rate of wage for the year.
Employees should be grouped under the same classifications as in 8a, 8b, and
8c. Superintendents and managers should not be reported under question 10.
Question 11.—This question is self-explanatory.
Fill this form as indicated above and return it as promptly as possibly to the
division of labor statistics in the inclosed self-addressed envelope.
Form 1124.




THE

DEPARTMENT

OF I N D U S T R I A L

RELATIONS.

APPENDIX B.—STATE CLASSIFICATION OF WAGE EARNERS IN 1923 *
GENERAL

GROUPS

Agriculture.
Construction.
Fisheries.
Manufactures:
Chemicals and allied products.
Food and kindred products.
Iron and steel and their products.
Leather and leather products.
Liquors and beverages.
Lumber and its products.
Metals and metal products other than iron and steel.
Paper and printing.
Rubber products.
Stone, clay, and glass products.
Textiles.
Tobacco manufactures.
Vehicles.
Miscellaneous manufactures.
Service.
Trade, retail and wholesale.
Transportation and public utilities.
DETAILS OF

CLASSIFICATION

AGRICULTURE

Dairy farming.
Florists, fruit growers and nurserymen; seedmen; hothouses,
General farming.
Operating farm machinery, not by farmers; threshing; ensilage cutting;
shredding; hay baling.
Agriculture not otherwise classified.

corn

CONSTRUCTION

Brick, stone and cement work; mantle setting.
Electrical contracting.
Erecting or installing machinery.
General contracting, includes wrecking.
Oil, gas, and water; drilling or producing.
Painting and decorating.
Plastering, includes lathing.
Plumbing and steam fitting.
Sand and gravel excavating.
Sheet-metal work and roofing.
Street, road, and sewer contracting; water mains; grading, excavating, and
teaming.
Ventilating and heating.
Construction not otherwise classified.
FISHERIES (no subheads)
MANUFACTURES

Chemicals and allied products:
Baking powder and yeast.
Blacking, cleaning, and polishing preparations.
Bluing.
Bone, carbon, and lamp black.
i This list includes many items for which no figures appear in the 1923 report.




Ill

112

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

Chemicals and allied products—Continued.
Chemicals, acids, and wood distillation; sulphuric, nitric and mixed acids,
not including turpentine and rosin charcoal.
Dyestuffs and extracts.
Explosives.
Fertilizers, tankage.
Ink, printing and writing.
Oil, linseed, lubricating, and cottonseed, and oil cake.
Paint and varnish.
Patent medicines and drug compounds, includes drug grinding.
Petroleum refining.
Salt.
Soap, candles, grease and tallow.
Chemicals and altoed products not otherwise classified.
Food and kindred products:
Bakery products.
Canning and preserving.
Coffee, spices, and peanuts, roasting and grinding.
Confectionery.
Cordials, sirups, and flavoring extracts.
Dairy products and ice cream.
Flour-mill and grist-mill products; grain elevators and small businesses
connected with them.
Food preparations; breakfast foods; stock foods; macaroni; ice cream cones.
Glucose and starch.
Oleomargarine.
Slaughtering and meat packing.
Sugar.
Vinegar and cider.
Food and kindred products not otherwise classified.
Iron and steel and their products:
Blast-furnace products.
Boilers and tanks.
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets.
Burial vaults, steel.
Calculating machines, includes cash registers; time clocks and locks; gas
and water meters.
Cutlery and tools.
Doors and shutters, iron and steel.
Files.
Forgings.
Foundry and machine-shop products; bells; plumbers' supplies; steam
fittings; hardware; structural-steel fabrications.
Gas engines and tractors.
Horseshoes not made in steel works or rolling mills.
Locomotives not made by railroad companies.
Nails and spikes, cut, wrought, and wire.
Pipe, wrought.
Pumps and windmills.
Safes and vaults.
Saws.
Scales and balances.
Screws, machine and wood.
Sewing machines, cases and attachments.
Springs, coil.
Springs, steel car and carriage.
Steel works and rolling mills.
Stoves and furnaces.
Tin plate and terneplate.
Typewriters and parts.
Wire.
Wirework, wire rope, and cable.
Iron and steel and their products not otherwise classified.
Leather and leather products:
Belting, leather.
Boots, shoes, cut stock and findings.
Gloves and mittens, leather.




APPENDIX B . — S T A T E CLASSIFICATION

113

Leather and leather products—Continued.
Leather, tanned, curried, and finished.
Saddlery and harness.
Trunks and valises.
Leather and leather products not otherwise classified.
Liquors and beverages:
Liquors, malt.
Liquors, vinous.
Malt.
Mineral waters and beverages.
Liquors and beverages not otherwise classified.
Lumber and its products:
Baskets, wood, rattan, and willow.
Billiard tables and materials.
Boxes, cigar.
Boxes and packing crates.
Coffins and undertakers' goods.
Cooperage and related goods.
Furniture.
Furniture, wicker and reed.
Lasts.
Looking-glass and picture frames.
Matches.
W o o d pulp.
Saw-mill and planing-mill products.
Show cases.
Wood bending, turning, carving.
W o o d preserving.
Lumber and its products not otherwise classified.
Metals and metal products other than iron and steel:
Babbitt metal and solder.
Brass, bronze, and aluminum products.
Clocks, watches, and materials.
Copper, tin, and sheet-iron products, includes stamped and enameled ware.
Electro plating.
Galvanizing.
Furniture (metal) and office fixtures.
Gas and electric fixtures and lamps and reflectors.
Gold and silver, leaf and foil.
Jewelry, includes reducing and refining.
Lead, bar, pipe, and sheet.
Needles, pins, hooks and eyes.
Silverware and plated ware.
Smelting and refining, aluminum, brass, and copper.
Smelting and refining not from the ore.
Metals and metal products other than iron and steel not otherwise classified.
Paper and printing:
Bags, paper.
Boxes, fancy and paper; drinking cups.
Card cutting and designing.
Engraving and die sinking.
Envelopes.
Labels and tags.
Paper, includes stationery.
Photo-engraving.
Printing and publishing.
Stereotyping and electrotyping.
Type founding and printing materials.
Wall paper.
Paper and printing not otherwise classified.
Rubber products:
Druggists' sundries and toys, rubber.
Tires and tubes.
Rubber garments.
Rubber products not otherwise classified.




114

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

Stone, clay, and glass products:
Brick and tile, clay.
Cement.
Concrete products.
Crucibles.
Burial vaults, concrete.
Emery wheels and other abrasives, includes sand and emery cloth.
Glass.
Glass cutting and ornamenting.
Lime.
Marble and stone work; stone yards.
Mirrors.
Pottery, terra-cotta, and fire-clay products.
Statuary and art goods.
Stone and clay, crushing and grinding.
Wall plaster, includes hydrated lime.
Stone, clay, and glass products not otherwise classified.
Textiles:
Awnings, tents, and sails, includes auto fabrics.
Bags other than paper.
Buttonholes.
Carpets and rugs.
Clothing, men's, includes shirts and coat pads.
Clothing, women's, includes corsets.
Cordage, twine, jute and linen goods.
Cotton goods and small wares.
Custom tailoring, men's and women's.
Dyeing and finishing textiles, includes sponging.
Flags, banners, and regalia.
Furnishing goods, men's.
Gloves, cloth.
Hats and caps other than felt, straw, or wool.
Horse clothing.
Hosiery and knit goods.
Mattresses, pillows, and cotton felts.
Millinery and lace goods, includes artificial flowers and feathers.
Oilcloth and linoleum.
Shoddy.
Silk and silk goods, includes throwsters.
Upholstering materials.
Waste.
Wool pulling, includes scouring.
Woolen, worsted, and wool-felt goods, includes fur and felt hats.
Textiles not otherwise classified.
Tobacco manufactures:
Chewing and smoking tobacco and snuff.
Cigars and cigarettes.
Tobacco rehandlers.
Vehicles:
Airplanes and parts.
Automobiles and parts.
Bicycles, motor cycles, and parts.
Carriages and sleds, children's.
Carriages, wagons and materials, includes repairing.
Cars, steam and street railroad, not including operations of railroad companies.
Ship and boat building.
Wheelbarrows.
Vehicles not otherwise classified.
Miscellaneous manufactures:
Agricultural implements.
Artists' materials.
Belting and hose, woven and rubber.
Brooms and mops.
Brushes.
Buttons.
Coke.




APPENDIX B . — S T A T E CLASSIFICATION
Miscellaneous manufactures—Continued.
Dairymen's, poulterers', and apiarists' supplies.
Dentists' supplies.
Electrical machinery, apparatus, and supplies.
Enameling and japanning.
Engravers' materials.
Fancy articles.
Fire extinguishers, chemical.
Fire arms and ammunition.
Fireworks.
Foundry supplies.
Fuel, manufactured.
Fur goods.
Hair work.
Hand stamps, stencils, and brands.
House-furnishing goods, miscellaneous.
Ice, manufactured.
Instruments, professional and scientific.
Jewelry and instrument cases.
Lapidary work.
Models and patterns other than paper.
Mucilage and paste.
Munitions.
Musical instruments and materials other than pianos and organs.
Optical goods.
Paving materials.
Pens, fountain, stylographic, and gold.
Photographic apparatus and materials.
Pianos, organs, and materials.
Roofing materials.
Signs and advertising novelties.
Soda-water apparatus.
Sporting and athletic goods.
Steam packing.
Surgical appliances and artificial limbs.
Toys and games.
Umbrellas and canes.
Washing machines and clothes wringers.
Window shades and fixtures.
Miscellaneous manufactures not otherwise classified.
SERVICE

Advertising.
Banks.
Barbers and hair dressers.
Bowling alleys and parks.
Garages.
Hospitals.
Hotels.
Laundries and dry cleaners.
Office buildings, includes window cleaning.
Photographers.
Professional.
Restaurants.
Saloons.
Schools and colleges.
Shoe repair.
Social agencies.
Theaters.
Undertakers.
Service not otherwise classified, includes horseshoeing, cemetery care, etc.
TRADE, RETAIL AND WHOLESALE

Offices.
Retail delivery, milk, ice, and water.
Stores, retail and wholesale.
Yards, lumber, coal, and scrap.
Trade not otherwise classified.




115

116

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN
TRANSPORTATION A N D PUBLIC UTILITIES

Drayage and storage, includes livery stables and teaming.
Electric light and power.
Electric railroads.
Gas, illuminating and heating.
Natural gas.
Pipe lines (petroleum).
Steam railroads (intrastate).
Stockyards.
Taxicab service.
Telegraph and telephone, includes messenger service.
Transportation by water, includes stevedoring.
Waterworks.
Transportation and public utilities not otherwise classified,




APPENDIX C.—VARIATIONS IN MEN'S AND W O M E N ' S EMPLOYMENT
IN IRON AND STEEL AND TEXTILE MANUFACTURING
The report in earlier pages of this volume has shown in a general way some
of the outstanding variations in trends of men's and women's employment and
has illustrated the influence of different factors in causing these variations.
With so great a mass of material as that involved in the monthly employment
figures by sex for a period of 11 years in 54 classifications,1 obviously it is impracticable to give a detailed analysis of each set of figures and curves. Nevertheless, in many instances such analysis will yield most significant information
regarding the many economic factors that influence employment trends. T o
illustrate the importance of detailed information about the industry in any
attempt to interpret the real meaning of the trends of employment indicated in
the curves and figures, there is presented in the pages following an analysis of the
figures for two industrial classifications—the manufacture of iron and steel and
their products and the manufacture of textiles.
These two classifications represent two very different situations, as far as
women's employment is concerned. In iron and steel manufacturing women
form a very small percentage of the wage earners, but their proportionate importance has tended to increase during the 11-year period under discussion, and
changes and developments in industrial practices of recent years indicate that
women may become a more essential part of the working force in the industries
that form a part of or are allied with this leading industrial classification in
Ohio.
In the manufacture of textiles women form by far the greater part of the
working force. Their proportionate importance in the industry as a whole
changed practically not at all during the 11-year period 1914 to 1924. In fact,
textile manufacturing has been for many years one of the chief strongholds of
wage-earning women, and the comparative variations in employment for men
and women in^his classification should afford examples of the influence of factors
very different from those applying in iron and steel manufacturing, where women's
employment is comparatively new and unimportant.
THE MANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL AND THEIR PRODUCTS.

The manufacturing group that is of the greatest importance in the State of
Ohio is the iron and steel industry. In fact, the production of iron and steel
and the manufacture of their products is one of the basic industries in the
United States. With it are clearly interrelated other great industries, from
which it buys materials, as fuel, certain minerals, transportation services, etc.,
or to which it sells its products. There is no manufacturing industry that
does not consume iron or steel or their products in one form or another and in
varied quantities.
The conditions and fluctuations in other industries, therefore, are quickly
reflected in the iron and steel industry, while the latter, in turn, influences other
industries to a very marked degree. Therein lies the reason why the iron and
steel industry is counted as belonging to the "basic g r o u p " of the Nation's
industries and why it is considered as being a "barometer of trade." The
trend of employment in this industry should, therefore, be of more than local
significance. In fact, figures showing the employment of men and women in
this basic industry are indicative of trade and industrial activity throughout a
very broad field.
Especially is this true in Ohio, for this State contributes a large part of the
total iron and steel output of the country.
Within the State itself the industry assumes an even more important position,
so that employment figures may become of even greater significance when they
are considered from the viewpoint of the State.
In the first place, the industries classified by the Ohio Division of Labor
Statistics cover a wide range of industrial activity, from the basic process in the
i For four of the classifications figures from 1914 to 1918 were not available.




117

118

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

making of pig iron to the production of finished articles for consumption use.
The list of specific industries so included in 1923 is as follows:
Blast-furnace products.
Boilers and tanks.
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets.
Burial vaults, steel.
Calculating machines (including cash
registers, time clocks and locks, and
gas and water meters).
Cutlery and tools.
Doors and shutters, iron and steel.
Files.
Forgings.
Foundry and machine-shop products.
Gas engines and tractors.
Horseshoes, not made in steel works
and rolling mills.
Locomotives, not made by railroad
companies.
Nails and spikes, cut, wrought, and
wire.

Pipe, wrought.
Pumps and windmills.
Safes and vaults.
Saws.
Scales and balances.
Screws, machine and wood.
Sewing machines, cases and attachments.
Springs, coil.
Springs, steel car and carriage.
Steel works and rolling mills.
Stoves and furnaces.
Tin plate and terneplate.
Typewriters and parts.
Wire.
Wire work, wire rope, and cable.
Iron and steel and their products, not
otherwise classified.

In view of the scope of this list it is not surprising that more than one-fourth
of all the wage earners in the industries of the State are engaged in the production of iron and steel and their products. 2 For this reason the figures showing
trend of employment for the industry as a whole will repay careful analysis as
an index of conditions throughout the State. As an example of variations
between the trends of employment for men and for women the figures for iron
and steel are less important in viewT of the very small proportion of women
employed. Nevertheless, the figures and curves for this industry make possible
an illustration of the significance of total figures when one of the component
groups is very much in the minority. They provide also an opportunity to study
the comparative effects on the two sexes of the war, the 1920-21 depression, and
the steel strike of 1919, in an industry that was, of all the industries in the State,
probably the most seriously affected by each of these events.
From the standpoint of women's employment it will be necessary also to
consider certain branches of this industrial classification, as in the majority of
individual industries included women form so unimportant an element in the
labor force.
Of the various branches of the iron and steel industry, foundries and machine
shops and steel works and rolling mills employ the largest numbers of workers.
Together they employed over two-thirds of the men in the iron and steel group
of the State in 1923. Women, however, are but a small proportion of the total
working force in this group of industries, being only 3 per cent of the average
number of wage earners in 1923. More women were employed in foundries and
machine shops than in any other branch of the industry, but here, too, only a
small proportion of the total working force of those plants was made up of
women. The next largest group of women was that engaged in the manufacture
of bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets, and here they formed approximately onesixth of the wage earners. Although the number of women employed in the
manufacture of screws was smaller than in any of these other groups, they
formed a much larger proportion of the working force in this branch of the
industry than in the others, one-third of the total in 1923. Therefore, the
industrial groups last mentioned—the manufacture of bolts, nuts, washers, and
rivets and the manufacture of screws—have been selected for supplementary
analysis.
Seasonal fluctuations.
The figures on employment for the years 1914 to 1924 indicate no normal
seasonal movement of employment of any significance for either sex. In this
respect, therefore, the curve for the total is representative of conditions for each
sex.
Nor does the lack of seasonality in the iron and steel group seem to arise from
a balancing of the slack and dull seasons of the individual industries of which it
is composed. For none of these industries do the figures for either sex indicate
any fluctuations that tend to reappear each year.
2

U. S. Bureau of the Census. Biennial Census of Manufactures: 1923, pp. 1346-1352.




APPENDIX C . — I R O N AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

119

There were years in which there were wide differences between minimum and
maximum employment of both men and women, but such differences were due
ordinarily to conditions peculiar to the year rather than to recurring seasonal
factors. Changes from periods of great depression to periods of prosperity, or
the reverse movement, had more effect on employment of both men and women
than had seasonal demand.
Secular trend in iron and steel industry in Ohio.
The upward secular or long-time trend in the growth of the iron and steel
industry in Ohio from 1914 to 1924 had more bearing upon the trend of employment than had any small seasonal fluctuations.
During the severest depression in 1921 employment fell by 600 persons below
the lowest level in 1914. The average for the year 1924 shows a growth of
employment over the year 1914 of 64,000 persons. On the whole, discounting
the big fluctuations due to the war, depressions, and strikes, there has been a
steady secular trend upward, and this upward movement has been more marked
for women than for men.
Another factor that would materially affect the employment figures for the
period under consideration is that labor-saving devices and improved machinery
were being introduced in great volume into iron and steel mills and metalworking establishments. Each year brought its own special inducements for
plants to save on human labor. The war years made workers scarce and
high-priced and at the same time called upon the factories to produce an additional amount of work. The years of depression, 1914, 1921, and 1924, reduced
or eliminated profits and forced plants to center attention on means to reduce
labor costs.
So the effort to replace labor by machinery and by more intelligent planning
was never ending. And the results were successful. Fewer and fewer men
became necessary to produce the same or even an increased quantity of finished
material. An illustration of a plant in which the labor force was cut practically
in half is as follows:
In 1916 a Cleveland factory making automobile springs employed 1,800 men,
working in three shifts of 8 hours; they fabricated 2,500 tons of steel a month.
In 1917, by improvement of the internal transportation system, the addition of
more efficient methods of production, the introduction of labor-saving devices,
and the more intelligent application of the energy expended, the factory was
able to fabricate about the same amount of steel, 2,500 tons a month, with a
force of only 950 men, still working in three shifts of 8 hours. 3
Wire mills were enabled, by the introduction of improved material-handling
machinery, to increase the size of the wire bundles handled from the 50-to-75pound bundles in the early days to 200-pound bundles and, in 1923 or 1924, to
300-pound bundles. A mill that substituted 300-pound bundles for 150-pound
bundles could discharge 25 per cent of its employees, and at the same time
increase the capacity of the mill.4
In view of this constant and successful movement to replace labor by mechanical means, it is evident that the number of workers in the industry in Ohio
did not rise so high toward the end of the period 1914-1924 as it would have
done without the labor-saving installations and inventions. Although it is
difficult to estimate the actual extent of the influence of such changes in manufacturing methods they are important factors for consideration in connection
with any figures showing trend of employment. It is especially important to
take into account these changes when examining the greater increase among
women during the 11-year period. With so few women employed in the industry
changes leading to greater efficiency in production probably would apply to the
greatest extent among men's occupations, thereby giving women's employment
a position of apparently greater importance.
General factors affecting trends of employment.
For both men and women wage earners in the iron and steel industry in Ohio
the curves of employment based on the average of 1914 as 100 rose and fell
from 1914 to 1924 in response to the general expansions and contractions of
trade. This was the great influence shaping the course of employment in the
industry. Strikes were a secondary cause; their influence was responsible for
3 Daily News Record.
June 4,1917. p. 5. Fairchild publications, New York.
* Bennington, E. T. Standardization of Product Aids Handling. In The Iron Age, Jan. 29, 1925, pp.
344, 345. Iron Age Publishing Co., New York.




120

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

the sharp and sudden descent of the curve of employment for men late in 1919
and for many of the slight fluctuations in other years.
In general it is clear that the industry has a tendency to make rapid changes
in the employment of both sexes. Even so, however, the declines in the employment curves due to business depression or inactivity do not show the full extent
of the decline in production, for " I n slack times in the iron and steel industry
a larger number of men are carried on the pay roll than are required for mere
production. * * * As the industry picks up, more full-time operation
develops, and the output per man-hour does not rise so greatly as does the
output per m a n . " 5
The period 1914-1924 opened with a year of marked depression. The curve
of employment consequently was very low and descended in November to a
point approached only once thereafter, and that in July of 1921, a time of most
acute depression.
Throughout 1915 and 1916, urged upward by the tremendous growth and
expansion of the industry that began shortly after the outbreak of the World
War, largely due to the great volume of war orders placed with the iron and steel
trade in Ohio, the curve of total employment rose in an almost unbroken line,
arriving at a position about 70 points above the 1914 average. Until the close
of 1916 the trend of men's and women's employment was very similar and is
accurately represented by the total curve. For the next two years, however,
the trend of women's employment showed great fluctuations and marked deviation both from the total curve and from that of the men.
With the exception of these two war years, 1917 and 1918, when women workers were being introduced into iron and steel plants in great numbers, and of
the latter part of 1919, when the steel-strike influence was active, the employment
curve of women paralleled that of men with great exactness. Differences were
outweighed by similarities. It might be observed, however, that the employment of women was more sensitive than that of men, increasing in greater proportion during periods of advancing activity and decreasing with greater proportionate rapidity when the specter of depression appeared. This occurred during
the periods of rising employment in the early part of 1920, in 1922-23, and in
the first months of 1924: and in the periods of declining employment found after
the armistice, in 1920-21, and in the middle months of 1924.
Certain of the factors that apparently have influenced a deviation in trend
between women's employment and that of men are of interest in estimating the
validity of the total curve as an indication of trends for both sexes. For example,
in 1917 the employment curve for men showed throughout the year a slight
increase and no very great fluctuation. On the other hand, the employment
of women declined during the year from a high point in January and was very
erratic. January showed an increase of 43.8 per cent over the preceding December, and it was the high point in 1917. The number of women on the pay roll
was 7,227, or 2.8 per cent of the total, for January. Their numbers declined
sharply until the low point for the year was recorded in May at 4,871, or 32.6
per cent below January.
T h e employment of women increased somewhat in June but dropped again
slightly in July, so that from May through July it was far below the high points
of employment in the spring and fall. Large increases were made in September
and October, and employment in the latter month was only 9.9 per cent below
January. In November and December considerable declines again were recorded,
and the year ended with the number of women at 5,462, or 24.4 per cent below
January.
The declaration of war by the United States in 1917 affected industries in two
direct ways: First, after some weeks it greatly increased war orders, and second,
it made an inordinate demand upon the man power of the country for both
military and industrial purposes. The orders for war supplies continued to come
from the Allies abroad and now came from the home Government in a continuous
and ever-increasing stream. Accordingly, the manufacturers of war implements
and other war supplies constantly had to enlarge production facilities. The
producers of iron and steel and the manufacturers of their products in the State
of Ohio got their due share of the orders.
As a result, the iron and steel mills and the plants manufacturing their products were busy as never before. Employment increased, as seen in the employment figures. The production of iron and steel, as a basic industry, was essential
i Haney, Lewis H. Labor: Employment—Earnings—Efficiency.
357. Iron Age Publishing Co., New York,




In The Iron Age, Jan. 29, 1925, p.

APPENDIX C . — I R O N AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

121

for the carrying on of the war, and therefore the men employed in this industry
were exempt from conscription, which meant that the men already employed
held to their jobs and new men were taken on. This explains why the employment of men increased during the year while the number and the proportion of
women tended to decrease in the total group of iron and steel. Not only that,
but it throws light on the fluctuations in the employment of women. Men were
pressing for employment, while women could easily find more suitable work in
the industries not exempt from conscription and therefore more in need of workers.
But the entrance of the United States into the war in April was not followed
immediately by a stream of contracts for iron and steel products. On the contrary, there was a period of comparative quiet for two months or so—domestic
buyers and foreign governments hesitated, standing aside until the United
States Government should make known its wants. This uncertainty was a
dominant factor in the market as late as the end of May. On June 7 it was
reported in The Iron Age, from the Cleveland district, that iron and steel mills
were taking on as little additional tonnage as possible, holding themselves in
readiness for the Government's call upon them. Additional Government orders
had been placed, but only for small lots. The Iron Age of June 14 stated that
metal-working plants as a class had felt for some weeks that Washington was
too slow to take advantage of the manufacturing facilities of the country. At
this same time the machine-tool industry of the Cleveland district was said to be
still marking time pending Government orders. By the end of June Government buying of iron and steel was steadily increasing.6
Production in the industry was hampered from beginning to end of the year
by an insufficient fuel supply and insufficient railroad service. The lack of
coke caused the pig-iron output of 1917 to fall behind that of 1916—blast furnaces were banked for days at a time waiting for coke. And steel works fell
short of normal output at times because there was no coal for gas producers. 7
All these influences played a definite part in the fluctuation in the employment
curve for both men and women in this and other industries.
It is in 1918 that the greatest difference in the trends for the two sexes occurs—
in fact, the employment curves show an enormous increase for the women but
only a small one for the men. Nineteen-eighteen was almost entirely a war
year. Orders for war supplies were more pressing than ever before. This
explains the increasing employment in the manufacture of iron and steel and
their products. At the same time the heavy drafts of men for military service
overseas, approximately 2,500,000 men during the year, began to weigh even
upon the industries exempt from conscription, and among these the iron and
steel industry was constantly expanding, which meant that there was a constant
need for new hands. As men became scarce, women had to be taken on. This
in part explains the proportionate gain of women's employment over that of
men during the year, which was, in that sense, a women's year in the iron and
steel industry. The number of establishments reporting in 1918 was 1,635, an
increase of only 52 over the previous year. Men's employment fluctuated even
less during 1918 than during the preceding year, the minimum figure being 96.3
per cent of that for the peak. Although women did not replace men they formed
an additional labor force to meet the pressure for increased production. Their
employment advanced rapidly until November, when 88 per cent more women
were employed than had been on the rolls in January.
The almost perpendicular rise in the employment of women was unbroken
through November, in which month more than 10,000 women were employed in
the manufacture of iron and steel products in Ohio, the largest number at any
time during the period 1914-1924. The bulk of this increase came in foundries
and machine shops and in factories normally engaged in the manufacture of
calculating machines but at that time devoting a large part of their capacity to
the manufacture of war materials. The gains were most conspicuous in the latter
industry, with an increase of over 30 per cent in each of three successive months
in the spring of 1918. Although the peak of women's employment in these factories was reached in July, the number employed throughout the rest of the year
remained far in advance of employment at its opening. In the foundries and
machine shops women's employment, although advancing more slowly, continued
to increase steadily through November, and it was not until after the armistice
that it showed any slump. The number of men employed in the iron and steel
e The Iron Age, June 7, 1917, p. 1421; June 14, pp. 1446,1475; and June 28, p. 1575. Iron Age Publishing
Co., New York.
? Ibid., Jan. 3, 1918, p. 55.

64130°—30

9




122

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

group in December was slightly in advance of what it had been at the beginning
of the year, in spite of the fact that by that month their employment had begun
to fall off.
After 1918 the trends for men and women were very similar, with the exception
of the temporary decrease for the men resulting from the steel strike in 1919.
This strike, which caused a great break in the employment figures, lasted about
three months, beginning September 22 and ending officially early in January.
The Ohio employment figures for September were not affected by the strike,
since the call was issued for the 22d of the month. By October 15, total employment showed a drop of 44,464 (of whom 44,386 were men and 78 were women),
although on October 9 the"union estimated that the number of men out in the
Ohio districts was 107,000.8 By the time the November reports were compiled,
more than 25,000men had returned to work. By December the numbers of both
men and women employed were in excess of the numbers employed in September
before the calling of the strike. It is evident that the employment of women
was affected very little by the strike.
The effect of the 1920-21 depression was similar for women and men. Late in
September, 1920, the iron and steel industry in Ohio, as elsewhere, came to the
turn of the year and felt the beginning of the business recession that was to continue into the following year. Iron and steel remained active longer than did
some of the other industries. Declines in silk, cotton, rubber, and wool, that
started early in the year, caused a disturbance in mercantile lines in M a y .
The
automobile slump started in June. There was a sharp decline in building contracts in the first half of 1920. These and other branches of industry began their
declines because of the final revolt of buyers against high prices, and the consequent
very effective, though unorganized, general strike of buyers.
There was a feeling in the steel industry, in the summer and early fall, when
other lines were slowing up, that for once steel was not a barometer of general
trade, for signs of reaction were not noticed in steel until September. Employment in the industry in Ohio was higher at the middle of September than in
August, and almost as high as in March.
Many in the trade thought that the industry would run at a good rate practically until the end of the year. " October gave a blow to all such hopes. It was
proved again that the industries of the country are bound together in a way that
makes prosperity in one impossible alongside of depression in another. The steel
industry's readjustment might lag a little behind that of others, but it was
inevitable." 9
Women's employment in iron and steel industries began to decline in August,
1920, and their number continued to fall off with each month throughout the
rest of the year. Although men's employment was less in August than in July,
it increased again in September and it was not until October that the depression
showed itself. However, although activity began to fall off in October, employment of men in October was only 3.7 per cent below the September figure and in
some of the 25 branches under which the industry is classified in 1920 there was
an increase rather than a decrease. Most of the men who were out in October
had been in foundries and machine shops. Steel works and rolling mills practically held their own, while tinplate and terneplate mills actually were taking men
on. The per cent of loss was highest in the factories making gas engines and
tractors. By November men were being laid off much more rapidly. About
7,000 men were let out of foundries and machine shops alone, and steel works
and rolling mills also began to feel the real force of the depression, letting almost
5,000 men go in one month. Tin mills practically held their own. December
saw a decrease approximately half again as great as that in November. Over
10,000 men were laid off in steel works and rolling mills alone and 10,000 more
were let out of foundries and machine shops. Tinplate and terneplate mills,
which had maintained their forces well up to this time, turned off almost 2,500
workers, or more than two-fifths of their labor force of November. Blast-furnace
workers dropped in number more than during any previous month. By the
close of the year employment in the iron and steel industries had been hard hit,
although activity had been maintained longer in these industries than in most
others. In the opinion of the leading trade journals, the steel strike of 1919
served to keep activity high in the early part of the year because of the resulting
scarcity of steel. Eventually slackening of work in other industries caused a reaction in the steel industry. 10
U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly Labor Review. December, 1919, p. 84.
The Iron Age, Jan. 6, 1921, p. 2. Iron Age Publishing Co., New York.
" Ibid., p. 1.
8
9




APPENDIX C . — I R O N AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

123

Not only did women's employment begin to fall off earlier in 1920 than did
men's, but up to the end of the year their decline had been more rapid than was
the case with the men. In May women formed 3.2 per cent of the total number
of wage earners in the iron and steel industry, but by the end of the year only
2.7 per cent of those employed were women.
On the whole, however, the depression of 1920-21 hit men and women in the
iron and steel industry with approximately equal force. Men's employment
showed a decrease of 54.8 per cent between the month of highest employment in
1920 and the time of least activity in 1921, while the number of women wage
earners decreased 55.2 per cent during the same period.
In the recovery after the depression women seemed to share almost equally
with men. This may have been due somewhat to the fact that partly because
of the shortage of labor—its numbers being wholly inadequate t o the demands
of the industry as orders came pouring in—and partly because of its high cost,
efforts were continued this year to find means of securing the same production
at a lower labor cost. T o this end, in the machine-tool industry many of the
simple types of automatic machines were, in 1922, originated or modified.
The use of single-purpose or special machines, for which there was such an
enthusiasm during the time of the war, was markedly diminishing in favor of the
standard or all-purpose types of machine tools, but special machines still were
being used to some extent, often to handle the second operation on work coming
from automatic screw machines. This may have had some effect on maintaining
the employment of women, for women had been, during the war, considered
especially adapted for work at the special-purpose machines.
Conclusions.
Variations in employment in the iron and steel industry in Ohio were frequent
and comparatively large during the period 1914-1924.
The variations were caused usually by changes in the state of trade, rising demand or falling demand. Behind this were overexpansion and overcapacity.
Strikes and lockouts were a secondary influence upon the course of employment.
Seasonal influences appeared to be absent and consequently had no effect upon
employment.
The employment curve for women followed very closely that of men in the total
group of iron and steel manufacturing, except for 1917 and 1918.
The proportion of women workers increased during the war years and after the
war remained higher than it had been before.
The employment of women was not so adversely affected by strikes as was that
of men. During the great steel strike in 1919 women's employment declined by
an amount that was small in comparison with the decrease of men, so that the
result was an increase in the proportion of women workers.
The employment curve of women tended to be more sensitive than that of
men. It often rose comparatively higher during periods of advancing activity
and declined comparatively lower during periods of depression. In almost every
movement shared by the employment curves of both men and women, that of
women rose or fell with comparatively greater sharpness.
During the period 1914-1924 there were in the iron and steel industry many
improvements in machinery, many introductions of labor-saving devices. Consequently, for the same or a greater production toward the end of the period the
employment curve did not rise so high as it had done in the earlier years.
BOLTS, NUTS, WASHERS, AND RIVETS

The manufacture of bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets not made in rolling mills
is not a large branch of the iron and steel industry, but Ohio has more wage
earners thus employed than has any other State.11 Furthermore, it is of more
importance as a woman's industry than are most of the others in the group. In
1923, foundries and machine shops were the only establishments employing a
greater number of women and screw factories were the only ones in which women
formed a larger proportion of the wage earners. In fact, compared with the
figures for the iron and steel industry as a whole women appear to be a fairly
important factor in this smaller group, as in 1914 they formed 17.3 per cent and
in 1924 they were 17.5 per cent of the total employees.
In spite of the small number of establishments reporting in the group classified
as manufacturing bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets (from 15 to 30) there is a very
striking similarity between the general trends of employment in this industrial
11

U. S. Bureau of the Census.




Biennial Census of Manufactures: 1923, p. 423.

124

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

group and those for all iron and steel. In the smaller group the fluctuations
both up and down are more extreme than for the larger, but the shape of the
two curves, for the total employees, is remarkably similar. This is not so,
however, when the trends for men and women are considered separately. The
relative importance of the two sexes in the manufacture of bolts, nuts, etc. does
not seem to have altered to any significant extent as it has done in the entire
industry. The greater proportion of women in the smaller group naturally would
result in a closer resemblance between the curve for women and the curve for all
employees, but an even more potent factor in bringing about this similarity
probably is the small number of establishments reporting and the consequent
homogeneous character of the entire classification.
On the whole, the total curve in the manufacture of bolts, nuts, etc. could be
accepted as a very reliable indication of the trend for each sex. The only period
during which there appear marked differences in trend for the men and the
women is the year 1918, when the men's employment stayed practically on a
level throughout the year while women's increased considerably. This difference was anticipated in 1917, when men's employment decreased slightly and
women's increased, and it is due, of course, to the war. From the late months
of 1917 the employment of women increased until by the end of 1918 their index
had about reached that of the men, a condition that had not existed since 1914.
The depression of 1920-21 did not affect the women in this industry quite so
severely as it did the men, although trends for the two sexes were very similar.
Decreases for the women began a couple of months earlier than for the men and
the recovery of the women in 1921 began a month later.
SCREWS, MACHINE AND WOOD

Fewer workers were emplo} T ed in the manufacture of screws than in most of
the industries of the iron and steel group for which the Ohio employment figures
were secured. However, the figures for this group are given separate consideration here because of the fact that in Ohio women form a larger proportion of the
workers than in any other industry of the iron and steel group. Several branches
employ a larger number of women than does the manufacture of screws, but the
State employment figures show that in 1924 more than a third of all the wage
earners in screws were women. Furthermore, according to the census of 1923
Ohio has more people employed in manufacturing machine screws than has any
other State in the Union.12
Figures for this industry are available for all the years from 1914 to 1924
except 1915, when too few establishments reported to justify publishing separate
figures.
From the records of these 10 years there is no indication of a repeated
seasonal movement in activity. Although there were years in which there was
a rather wide range between minimum and maximum employment, these same
variations did not tend to recur year after year but rather were due to cyclical
fluctuations that varied in character from year to year.
The figures for 1914 are scarcely comparable with any of the other years for
which reports were made. More establishments reported during that year
than in any other and the minimum employment of men in 1914 was more than
twice the maximum employment of men in any other year. The probable
explanation of this has been discussed elsewhere in the report (see p. 10). In
this industry, therefore, it is more satisfactory to start comparisons with 1916.
In the graph showing fluctuations from month to month based on the 1914
average the changes in men's employment in the later years appear less important because of the fact that the number for the base year was very high in comparison with the other years.
The chief value of the curves for this very small group is as an illustration of
the violent fluctuations and deviations from the general trends in the larger
group that may be expected when a classification includes so few establishments.
In a classification that covers only from three to eight establishments, employing
only from 68 to 337 women over the 11-year period, the fluctuations of the curve
of employment necessarily are violent and can not be considered as indicative
of any but very local situations. It is apparent that in these few establishments
there were great irregularities in the employment of women and that these
irregularities did not affect the men, whose employment was steadier. Even so,
however, study of the trend of employment within each year indicates a certain
general similarity in a number of years. Women apparently increased and
2

U. S. Bureau of the Census. Biennial Census of Manufactures: 1923, pp. 14-32
36 5.
1




APPENDIX C.—IRON AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

125

decreased more rapidly than did men and their increases were likely to come
after and their decreases before those of men.
The numbers included probably are too small to shed much light on the effect
of the war and the depression of 1920-21 on the relative trends for the two sexes.
The curves for this group should be used merely as an example of the greater
sensitiveness of women's employment than men's and the violent irregularities
that can be looked for when the figures are so small that the effect of any local
situation is not minimized by the counteracting influence of conditions in other
localities.
THE MANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES

Textiles is the manufacturing group that employs the largest number and next
to the largest proportion of women wage earners. In this group as a whole an
average of more than 26,000 women were employed in 1924, and those women
formed 66.1 per cent of all the wage earners in the group. The curves of employment in textile manufacturing illustrate, therefore, the very opposite of the
situation that is shown in the manufacture of iron and steel and their products,
where the women employed in 1924 amounted to only 2.9 per cent of the total
employees.
The textile group as a whole, however, does not yield especially significant
information when considering the differences in trend of men's and women's
employment and the factors that influence these differences. For the classification "textiles" includes not only the various stages in the manufacture of the
products ordinarily included under that designation but their products—articles
made from cloth. The list of industries included under this classification is as
follows:
Awnings.
Tents and sails.
Bags, other than paper.
Buttonholes.
Carpets and rugs.
Clothing, men's.
Clothing, women's.
Cordage, twine, jute, and linen goods.
Cotton goods and small wares.
Custom tailoring, men's and women's.
Dyeing and finishing textiles.
Flags, banners, and regalia.
Furnishing goods, men's.
Gloves, cloth.

Hats and caps, other than felt, straw, and wool.
Horse clothing.
Hosiery and knit goods.
Mattresses, pillows, and cotton felts.
Millinery and lace goods.
Oilcloth and linoleum.
Shoddy.
Silk and silk goods.
Upholstering materials.
Waste.
Wool pulling.
Woolen, worsted, and wool-felt goods.
Textiles, not otherwise specified.

It is evident, with a knowledge of the great diversity of products within this
group, that the curves showing trends of employment will show little that is
significant in the likeness or unlikeness between the trends of men's and of
women's employment in textile manufacturing.
Examination of the curves for this industrial group- reveals an astonishing
degree of similarity between the employment trends for the two sexes. In no
other of the groups studied is there so close a resemblance in the trends of employment for men and women. It is possible that this marked resemblance may be
due in part to a tendency when men are in the minority for their employment
to follow closely the development of women's employment, but more probably
the similarity is due to the combination of individual industries, with conflicting
trends,1 into the larger classification.
The possibility of such a balancing effect is well illustrated by the lack of
indication of distinct seasonal trend for either sex in the curves for all textiles.
In none of the years reported did the textile group show marked seasonal fluctuation. In 8 of the 11 years the number of men employed during the lowest month
was 85 per cent or more of the maximum employment for the year, while for
women the percentage was at least that high in 7 years. For both men and
women the greatest difference between minimum and maximum employment
came in 1920 and was due to the general business depression rather than to sharp
changes of a seasonal character.
During most of the other years there tended to be two peaks of employment,
spring and fall, but the contrast with the slack months was not startling. Probably this tendency is due primarily to the prominent part that the clothing
industry forms of the larger textile group. The figures for textiles are the result
of combining those for industries that have marked busy and slack seasons at
certain times of the year with others whose seasons are in direct contrast or just
miss of coinciding, as well as those that show no tendency for brisk and slow
months to succeed each other in the same order each year." The spring and fall




126

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

seasons for women's clothing normally begin before those of men's clothing, while
hosiery and knit goods have a single extended season with a tendency for employment to be at its lowest in December, January, and February, and the manufacture of cloth gloves shows no regular seasonal movement in employment.
Scrutiny of seasonal changes in other subindustries that employ considerable
numbers of workers indicates the variety of conditions that exists within the
textile group. The manufacture of millinery and lace goods has two definite
busy seasons, but ordinarily the spring season comes earlier than in the two main
clothing groups, while the two busy seasons in custom tailoring come somewhat
later than in the ready-made-garment industry. The manufacture of cordage,
twine, jute, and linen and the manufacture of woolen, worsted, and wool-felt
goods show very little seasonal variation. These examples indicate the way in
which some industries tend to balance others within the same group and to lessen
the extent of fluctuation in the textile group as a whole. It is probable that a
person out of work because of the slack season in one branch of the textile classification is able to secure work in another branch whose busy season is on when
he is out of work. Thus the combined figures really fail to indicate the seriousness of the fluctuations.
Taking the textile groups as a whole, apparently the war had little effect on
the employment of either men or women. Here again it is probable that this
is due to the combination of conflicting figures for various groups. However,
it is interesting to see that for this group as a whole the only marked fluctuation
of employment came as a result of the depression of 1920-21, when employment
for both men and women started to decrease in April, 1920, and reached a low
point in January of the following year. From the middle of 1923 on there was a
tendency to a decrease in employment but it was not nearly so severe as the
decrease in 1920. In both cases the decreases applied alike to men and women.
There was also a short slump in employment at the close of the war, in the last
months of 1918, but the amount lost was rapidly regained during the latter half
of 1919 and employment for both men and women reached a high point in the
early months of 1920.
For this industrial group the curve for the total gives an almost completely
accurate picture of the trends for either sex. As a significant indication of the
trends for an industrial group, however, the curves for all textiles combined
probably are not of great value, as the classification covers too varied a group
to be fitted into an apparently limited industrial classification, while at the same
time it does not include a sufficiently great variety of products to make the
classification representative of a broader and more generally significant grouping.
The clothing industry.
Among the varied industries that are included in the classification of textiles
by far the most important is the manufacture of men's and women's clothing.
The manufacture of men's clothing employed in the year 1924 an average of
13,139 wage earners, of whom 70.6 per cent were women. This was not far
from one-third of all the wage earners included in the textile group, and the
women in the manufacture of men's clothing formed more than one-third of the
women wage earners in the larger classification. Closely allied to the manufacture of men's clothing is the manufacture of women's clothing, and although
it does not rank so importantly a very considerable proportion of the wage earners
in textiles are employed in the manufacturing of women's clothing. In 1924 the
average employment in this industry was 4,748, of whom 73.4 per cent were
women, and this was 11.8 per cent of all wage earners in textiles. These two
industries form outstanding examples of the so-called women's industries, and,
as such, examination of their employment curves should throw much light on
whether or not the similarity indicated in the all-textiles curves between the
trends for the two sexes can be considered typical for these more limited, but far
more significant, classifications.
For there are certain conditions that are characteristic of the clothing trades.
In the first place, small manufacturing units prevail. In 1914 there were 14,953
establishments in the United States engaged in these industries, 85.2 per cent
of which employed not more than 50 wage earners, almost two-thirds employing
not more than 20. Only 24 establishments in all had more than 1,000 employees. 13
Establishments in Ohio have been, in general, of greater size than those in New
York or in the United States as a whole.
13 U. S. Bureau of the Census.




Census of Manufactures: 1914, vol. 2, p. 177.

APPENDIX C.—IRON AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

127

The manufacturing units are not in the hands of great corporations. On the
contrary, a large proportion of the plants belong to or are under the control of
individuals. Of the 5,564 women's clothing establishments in the United States
in 1914, 42.9 per cent were under individual control, 16.8 per cent were operated
by corporations, and 40.2 per cent were under other forms of ownership, such as
partnerships, cooperative associations, etc. Of the 4,830 men's clothing establishments in the country in 1914, 52.2 per cent, or more than half, were under
individual control, 14.8 per cent were operated by corporations, and 33 per cent
were under other forms of ownership.14
Among these many small establishments there is little teamwork. Lack of
organization in the industry, lack of cooperation among the manufacturing
units and among the various markets, were named by one of the leading men's
clothing trade journals 15 as being responsible in part for the sorry plight of the
industry in the years of business depression beginning in 1920. This authority
also said that the clothing industry was the only important one without a central,
organized system of technical and business information, which accounted largely
for the crudities of the business. The many independent manufacturers have not
been governed by a clear and comprehensive purpose that would have enabled
them to control certain conditions to the benefit of their industry.
A third characteristic of the men's and women's clothing industries is that they
employ a larger proportion of women than of men as wage earners. Over 68 per
cent of the average number of wage earners in 1919 were women. 16
Fourth, in the needle industries at least, the number of highly skilled workers
is small. Most of the operations require a degree of skill that is easily acquired. 17
Fifth, the clothing industries are seasonal, some of them highly so. Since
most people buy their clothes for the summer in April and May and their winter
clothes in October and November, the industries that supply this clothing
naturally are seasonal industries, working to capacity during the months just
previous to the buying seasons, then slowing down until the approach of the
next season causes renewed activity.
In the men's clothing industry in Ohio the employment figures for 1914-1924
show that February, March, and April were months of increasing employment,
the increase sometimes beginning earlier, in January, sometimes extending later,
into May. After a period of decreased employment, activity recommenced, and
the months of August, September, and October witnessed increasing employment,
which sometimes reached its height in November.
In the women's clothing industry the Ohio employment figures show that
January to March w^as the period of greatest activity, in preparation for the
spring buying season, the second peak of employment being reached in July,
August, or September. Frequently from 1,000 to 1,500 more workers were
employed at the height of the season than during the dullest month preceding
or following it.
From these figures it is evident that the two busy seasons in the women's
garment industry tend to occur earlier than the corresponding seasons in the
manufacture of men's clothing and to be more sharply defined.
This is true in Ohio because the men's clothing industry in this State does a
good deal of special-order business, in which the manufacturer sells directly to
the individual who wears the suit, so that he gets his orders only a short time
before the wearing season.
The manufacture of men's clothing tends to be less sharply seasonal than that
of women's clothing. In each of the nine years for which data wrere supplied by
tfce Ohio Division of Labor Statistics, except two, the per cent that minimum
employment was of maximum was higher for men's clothing than for women's,
indicating that employment was steadier and did not suffer such large increases
and decreases as did employment in the women's clothing branch.
This is accounted for originally by the different demands that men and women
have in buying clothes. Men's garments have become standardized along
certain lines that change little from season to season, while women's garments
change a great deal.18
The differences in the seasonal character of the twro industries and the demand
that they make on their men and women wage earners would not appear, therefore,
U. S. Bureau of the Census. Census of Manufactures: 1914, vol. 2, pp. 179, 188.
Clothing Trade Journal. July, 1924. Editorial. New York.
U. S. Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth census: 1920. vol. 9, Manufactures, 1919, p. 1143.
See Experience with Trade Union Agreements—Clothing Industries. National Industrial Conference
Board. Research Report No. 38. The Century Co., New York. June, 1921. p. 8.
is Bryner, Edna. The Garment Trades. Survey Committee of the Cleveland Foundation. Cleveland,
Ohio. 1916. p. 29.
14
15
16




128

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

where figures are combined for the two. Instead, the tendency would be to
flatten out the curve so that the seasonal tendency for both industries would
appear to be much less marked. It is because the seasonal character of the
clothing industry presents such problems from the standpoint of both men and
women workers that the employment figures showing trends for the two sexes
are especially important. In studying these figures, moreover, it is well to bear in
mind that in respect to the seasonal problem the clothing industry is in a better
situation in Ohio than in many other localities, and the difference in trends for
the two sexes resulting from seasonal demands therefore would be less apparent.
Manufacturers of men's and women's clothing in Ohio have made determined
efforts to bridge over the dull seasons and to make employment more constant
throughout the year. It was said in 1918 that Cleveland appeared to be the
only women's clothing manufacturing center of any significance in which certain
methods were applied successfully for the regularizing of employment. 19
Dovetailing of products is the principal method adopted. There are several
forms of this. One form is the manufacturing of simpler or lower-priced garments
during the slack season. This is possible because the seasons for products in the
lower grades do not coincide with those for goods in the higher grades.
Another form of dovetailing is used by some firms that manufacture several
different lines of goods. One house makes eight lines of lighter garments for
women and shows practically no seasonal fluctuation.
Manufacturing one other line at such times as will fill in the slack season of
the principal line is a third form of dovetailing. The dress and waist factory
that supplemented this line with petticoats was an early example.
The manufacture of garments for stock is still another type of dovetailing.
For this purpose there is selected a garment so staple and so much in demand that
it can be made without regard to style or season. The foremost example of this
is the blue serge suit.20
One large Cleveland men's wear house makes the suit during slack periods
when last season's contracts have been filled and before orders have come in for
the next season. The entire force is then engaged in making blue serge suits,
lighter weight for summer and heavier weight for winter. There are six weeks
in the fall and eight weeks in the summer thus occupied. 21
A policy adopted by some Ohio firms to regularize employment is that of
extensive advertising of a few specific styles. This advertising creates a large
and permanent demand for a few styles and thus enables firms to manufacture in
advance of sales without incurring great business risks.
Some firms have adopted the policy of demanding longer delivery dates, to
obviate the necessity of temporary short-time expansion.
Another method used is that of engaging in some contract work for an allied
trade during the slack season of the year, and of giving the overflow during the
busy season to contract houses in order to avoid putting additional people on
the pay roll.22
The Clothing Trade Journal for May, 1924, speaks of the wonderful results
obtained by two firms from specializing on a few lines in place of the old-fashioned
endless diversity of styles and models. It does not, however, disclose where the
firms are located. The paper says:
A complete line of 150 models reduced to 24; another cut from 60 to 8; 30 to 60 layers cut at one time, instead
of as few as 3 or 4 under the old system; overhead reduced one-tenth and production and selling costs onethird; prices lowered, sales doubled, profits increased; production continuous the whole year around;
salesmen on the road 12 months of the year; number of customers from two to seven times greater than
before—these are some of the remarkable benefits reaped.23
J*"

There are two large clothing firms in Cleveland, one of which may have been
described in the paragraph above, that have been very successful in achieving
continuity of employment. One of them, manufacturing men's clothing, had had
in 1921 continuous production of from 45 to 51 weeks a year for several years.
This result was secured by standardizing products, adjusting them to a large
class of consumers who valued durability and service above style. B y concentrating its advertising on this product, by giving proper inducements to its
retail distributors in return for their accepting deliveries over an extended period
19 Emmet, Boris.
Labor Survey of Cleveland Cloak Industry.
Monthly Labor Review, August, 1918. p. 221.
20 U. S. Department of Labor.
United States Training Service.
Cloak, Suit, and Skirt Industry. Bui. 17. 1919. pp. 67-68.
21 Bryner, Edna.
The Garment Trades. Survey Committee of the
Ohio. 1916. p. 78.
22 Emmet, Boris.
Labor Survey of Cleveland Cloak Industry.
Monthly Labor Review, August, 1918. p. 222.
2 Clothing Trade Journal.
3
May, 1924. p. 71. New York.




U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Training Workers in the Women's
Cleveland Foundation.

Cleveland,

U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.

APPENDIX C . — I R O N AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

129

instead of at the opening of the season, the plant managed to have continuous
work.
The other firm manufactures women's garments. This company has closely
coordinated its selling policy with its production policy under scientific management. It follows the rule of "selling what it makes" instead of " m a k i n g what it
sells." Months before the selling season it determines the number and kinds of
garments it wants to make the following season in order to keep its plant at
capacity production. Designs are approved and quantity manufacture is begun.
The company has inspired its retailers with confidence in its judgment, the
reliability of its promises, and the value of its merchandise. Its salesmen are
given their quota and expected to sell it. Usually they do so. They are helped
because the goods of the company are sold under a trade-mark, widely known to
the public through national advertising. In the long run the firm is eminently
successful in maintaining production 51 weeks in the year, one week, during
which workers have a vacation with pay, being devoted to plant repair.24
The unions in their agreements with employers have attempted always to do
what they could to distribute employment more evenly throughout the months
of the year. They have made equal distribution of wTork and no overtime
during the dull season part of their contract. They have constantly endeavored
to raise wages to such an extent that the annual income of a garment worker
would enable him to maintain his family in comfort and decency, considering
that most of the workers are either totally or partially unemployed about 21
weeks yearly. They have tried to reduce the hours of work so as to make room
for the employment of a larger number of workers who otherwise would be
unemployed. 25
There was inaugurated in 1921 in Cleveland an agreement between the union
and employers in the women's clothing industry under which the employers
guaranteed to the workers a certain number of weeks of employment each year.
This is discussed in greater detail below, under the heading "Cleveland plan."
Although equal distribution of work in dull seasons is the rule, in many cases
it becomes necessary finally to lay off some workers. In Cleveland several firms
have a regular method of laying off so as to work as little hardship as possible.
" O n e method is to distribute the lay-off among the workers, each being laid off
from four to six and one-half weeks, one or two weeks at a time. * * *
Another method is to lay off the workers in proportion to the period of service
they have had with the firm, those longest with the firm having 100 per cent of
employment during the year. Some firms maintain that the extra workers they
take on in busy seasons are only makeshifts, not of a grade of skill that would
warrant keeping them."
In Cleveland methods of laying off are supplemented sometimes by devices to
assist workers over the dull seasons. " I n one establishment the workers are paid
a regular weekly wage, and account is kept of what they do at piece rates. What
they make above their regular weekly wage is held back each week and paid in a
lump sum at the end of the season to tide them over the dull period." 2 6
The results of these various methods of regulating employment in Ohio are
apparent in a study of the regularity of employment in the women's ready-towear-garment industry undertaken by the United States Bureau. of Labor
Statistics in 1915. This study gives a comparison of regularity of employment
in this industry as it occurred in Cleveland, New York, Chicago, and Boston.
This survey used variation in the amount of pay roll from week to week as the
index of unemployment. The average weekly pay roll for the year, found by
dividing the annual total pay roll for the establishment by 52, was taken as the
standard, 100 per cent.27
In the cloak, suit, and skirt industry the greater irregularity in the trade in
New York was found to be very marked. Cleveland showed the greatest regularity of employment, with Boston ranking second, Chicago third, and New York
fourth. Cleveland's range of variation from the average weekly pay roll was
74 per cent, as compared with 121 per cent in New York. The number of weeks
during which the variation was at least 20 per cent amounted to 21, as compared
24 Stone, N. I.
Continuity of Production in the Clothing Industry. The American Labor Legislation
Review. March, 1921. pp. 29-31.
25 Reisberg, Elias.
Combating Seasonal Unemployment in the Women's Garment Industry. American
Federationist. September, 1927. pp. 1078-1083.
26 Bryner, Edna.
The Garment Trades. Survey Committee of the Cleveland Foundation. Cleveland,
Ohio. 1916. pp. 75-76.
27 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Regularity of Employment in the Women's Ready-to-Wear-Garment Industries. Bui. 183. 1916. pp. 11-12.




130

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

with 38 in New York. Violent fluctuations occurred in only two weeks of the
year, as compared with eight weeks in New York.
The report said that Cleveland should rank next to New York in irregularity
if specialization were the only cause of irregularity, since the Ohio city was
second to New York in the extent to which its manufacturers confined themselves to the one broad line of cloaks, suits, and skirts. But Cleveland had two
steadying factors—the somewhat cheaper quality of the goods made and the
method of selling goods. 28
This difference in method of selling was described as follows:
New York City is, as far as women's garments are concerned, what is technically called a "buying"
market; that is, the goods are sold on the premises of the manufacturer to buyers who come for the purpose
of purchasing. Cleveland, on the other hand, is a "selling" market; that is, the goods are disposed of by
traveling salesmen who secure orders from buyers outside the city. These salesmen make every effort to
secure orders as far in advance of the season as possible, a method that diminishes the manufacturer's risk
and tends to regularize production.29

In the dress and waist industry, Cleveland showed greater regularity of employment than did New York, but less than did Boston, while its position in regard to
Chicago could not be exactly determined. 30
Other factors that undoubtedly were partly responsible for the greater regularity
of employment in Cleveland were the relatively larger size of establishments in
Ohio than in the country as a whole and the greater proportion of regular factories as distinguished from contract shops, for it was brought out in the Bureau
of Labor Statistics survey that large-scale production tends to regularize employment and that steadier employment is found in regular factories than in contract
shops. Data on the size of establishments and the proportion of regular factories
in the women's clothing industry will be found in the section of this report devoted
to the women's clothing industry.
Although no study is available comparing regularity of employment in the
men's clothing industry in Ohio with that of other States, all the evidence tends
to show that employment in this industry has been steadier in Ohio than in New
York or many of the other clothing centers. Among the facts pointing to this
conclusion are the following: Seasonal variations shown by the curve of employment from 1914 to 1924 are very slight; establishments in Ohio are of relatively
larger size than in the country as a whole, much larger than in New York City,
where most of the firms are of medium size or small, the industry being particularly in the hands of small manufacturers; 31 Ohio has a larger proportion of
regular factories and a smaller proportion of contract shops than are found in the
United States as a whole; in a survey made in Cleveland of 15 of the largest
manufacturing industries, the men's clothing industry led all the others in regularity of employment.
This greater regularity in the clothing industries of Ohio in comparison with
other localities should be borne in mind constantly when the Ohio figures showing
trends of employment for men and women wage earners are studied. If the
seasonal curve is more accentuated for women than for men in Ohio, it may be
supposed that an even greater difference will appear between the seasonal trends
for the two sexes elsewhere.
THE

MEN'S CLOTHING

INDUSTRY

The men's clothing industry in 1914 ranked seventeenth among the industries
of Ohio according to value of product and thirteenth according to number of
wage earners employed. 32 In 1919 the industry took fifteenth place according to
both value of product and number of wage earners.33
Cincinnati and Cleveland are the two great centers in the State for the making
of men's clothing. Cincinnati employed in 1923 one-half of all the men's
clothing workers in Ohio, and Cleveland more than one-third, 34 so that over
five-sixths of the men's clothing made in the State was manufactured in these two
cities. The percentage of women employed in making men's clothing is high.
In fact, this industry can be called one of the outstanding women's industries.
In Ohio, during the period from 1914 to 1924, there were about 70 per cent of
28 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Regularity of Employment in the Women's Ready-to-wear
Garment Industries. Bui. 183. 1916. p. 78.
2 Ibid., p. 60.
9
3 Ibid., p. 80.
0
3 U. S. Department of Commerce. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. The Men's Factory1
Made Clothing Industry. Miscellaneous Series, No. 34. 1916. p. 145.
32 U. S. Bureau of the Census.
Census of Manufactures: 1914. vol. 1, p. 1148.
33 U. S. Bureau of the Census.
Fourteenth census: 1920. vol. 9, Manufactures, 1919. p. 1142.
34 U. S. Bureau of the Census.
Biennial Census of Manufactures: 1923. pp. 1404, 1405.




APPENDIX C . — I R O N AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

131

women workers to about 30 per cent of men workers. Because of this great
preponderance of women and because of the extremely seasonal character of the
work the figures showing trends of employment for the two sexes will illustrate
the effects of some very important factors.
Since size of establishment has its relation to regularity of employment, and
since form of ownership throws some light upon size of establishment, it is of
interest to examine the prevailing forms of ownership in the industry.
The percentage of men's clothing establishments owned by corporations is
slightly higher in Ohio than for the country as a whole, for in the same year, 1919,
almost three-tenths of the establishments were in the hands of corporations as
against one-fifth in the United States. Almost one-half were owned by individuals and one-fourth by other forms, including partnerships. Furthermore, 66.9
per cent of all the men's clothing workers in Ohio were employed in corporateowned factories. 35
In 1914 the average number of wage earners to an establishment (found b y
dividing total average number of wage earners by number of establishments)
was 39 in Ohio, 28 in New York, 27 in Massachusetts, 59 in Illinois, and 20 in
Pennsylvania. 36 In 1923 the average was 75 in Ohio, 26 in New York, 33 in
Massachusetts, 92 in Illinois, and 35 in Pennsylvania. 37
From this it is seen that Ohio and Illinois continued to report larger establishments than did the other States foremost in the manufacture of men's clothing.
This fact, that the men's clothing factories of Ohio tended to be of larger size
than those of the rest of the country, should have had its influence in making
employment in this industry somewhat steadier in Ohio, since greater regularity
of employment has been found to exist in larger plants.
Regularity of employment also depends to a certain extent upon whether the
establishment is a regular factory or a contract shop.
In 1923 Ohio had a larger proportion of regular factories than had the United
States as a whole. Of the men's clothing establishments in Ohio, 63.8 per cent
were regular factories, whereas of men's clothing establishments in the United
States 59.6 per cent were regular factories. In Ohio 36.2 per cent of the establishments were contract shops, whereas in the United States 40.4 per cent were
contract shops.38
This fact of having a larger proportion of regular factories, combined with
that of having, in general, shops of larger size and a larger proportion owned
by corporations, should make employment in the men's clothing industry in
Ohio more regular than in the country as a whole.
Another and a very important factor in stabilizing employment in the clothing
industries is the extent of trade-union organization among the workers. The
history of the employment of trade-unionism in this industry in Ohio therefore
is of great significance in connection with a study of trends of employment.
Prior to 1914 the United Garment Workers had jurisdiction over the men's
clothing and shirt industries. However, its membership had always been uncertain and small in these trades, whereas it kept a fairly steady membership in the
overall industry. In 1914 the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America
split from the United Garment Workers and claimed jurisdiction over the men's
clothing and shirt industries.
With the Amalgamated, unionism spread rapidly in the men's clothing industry. The union was accepted in New York, Chicago, and Rochester in 1919,
a year in which a series of strikes occurred. By 1920 the Amalgamated wielded
a preponderating influence in these three cities and in most of the other men's
clothing centers. It has become a highly effective industrial union, with a membership increased to 170,000. During the prolonged period of depression in the
clothing industry, beginning late in 1920, the Amalgamated lost heavily in number of members, but by 1923 it showed a slight increase.39
Cincinnati and Cleveland were two men's clothing markets that remained
persistently nonunion. In 1918 Cincinnati was not in " t h e column of organized
clothing centers." 40 In 1924 it was reported that the union's attempts to organ35 U. S. Bureau of the Census.
Fourteenth Census: 1920. Manufactures, 1919, vol. 8, p. 110, and vol.
9, p. 1160.
36 Ibid.
Census of Manufactures: 1914. vol. 2, p. 180.
37 Ibid.
Biennial Census of Manufacturers: 1923. p. 288.
3 Ibid., pp. 282, 288.
8
39 Wolman, Leo.
The Growth of American Trade Unions, 1880-1923. National Bureau of Economic
Research. New York. 1924. pp. 50-52. Also Gilbertson, H. S. Meeting the Labor Problem in the
Clothing Industry. Administration, February, 1923, pp. 181-189.
40 Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.
Documentary History, 1914-1920. (Section 19161918.) p. 128.




132

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

ize the Cincinnati market met with distressingly little success. All forces
appeared to combine to keep the market nonunion. The press was hostile,
organized labor unfriendly, the city authorities not averse to using their influence against the union. A very important factor in the market was the large
firm of A. Nash Co. By refusing to accept the union, this company contributed
to " t h e prestige of Cincinnati as a flourishing nonunion center." 41
However, during all these years, 1914 to 1924, the Amalgamated was striving
to create a permanent, effective union organization of the Cincinnati market.
Many strikes and lockouts occurred in the course of the long struggle. There
was a hard-fought strike of about three months in 1919, following which collective-bargaining agreements were signed between the Amalgamated and a number
of individual clothing firms. The union did not remain at peace very long, for
a series of strikes and lockouts was brought into Cincinnati in 1920 by the
open-shop wave that was then sweeping the country. Agreements were renewed
with a number of houses in 1922, but on the whole the union's attempts to organize the market made little headway until the close of 1925, when an agreement
was effected between the Amalgamated and the A. Nash Co. 42
The Cleveland market has been only partly unionized, and only since 1920,
though a few agreements were signed with individual houses between 1915 and
1920. The first collective agreement in Cleveland was the indirect result of a
strike terminated in February, 1920, by acceptance of the decision of an arbitrator, who recommended that an agreement be concluded. Such an agreement
was made in October, 1920, between the Cleveland Clothing Manufacturers'
Association and the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. The contract
followed the Chicago contract of 1919 in the main, but omitted the trade board.
It was for one year. Among the nonunion shops in Cleveland are two very large
ones.
Most of the strength of the United Garment Workers is now in the overall
industry, and this union has agreements with a number of individual firms in
Cincinnati and Cleveland. 43
An examination of the Ohio employment figures shows that the proportion of
women employed in men's clothing in that State during the nine years for which
statistics are available remained extremely close to 70 per cent throughout. The
lowest such figure was for 1914, at 68.2 per cent, or 1.8 points below 70. The
year 1915 showed the next lowest percentage, 69.4. In all the other years except
1921 and 1923, which reported the highest proportions of 71.2 and 71.6 per cent,
respectively, the average proportion of women remained almost stationary at a
few tenths of a point above 70 per cent.
The proportion of women varied very slightly within the year.
In only one of
the nine years did it vary by as much as 3.4 points, and that was in 1921, the year
of depression. Within the other eight years the proportion varied b y less than 2
points; indeed, in one year it changed by only eight-tenths of a point.
Thus the proportion of women was far more constant in the men's clothing
industry than in the women's clothing industry, where in four of the years the
proportion varied by 2 to 4 points and in two of the years by as many as 6.4
points. Furthermore, throughout the period 1914-1924 the figure showing proportion of women for the year varied by only 3.4 points in the men's clothing
industry though in the women's clothing industry, where the tendency was for
the proportion to increase, it varied by as much as 13.7 points.
The curve of employment for wage earners in men's clothing does not at all
resemble that for wage earners in all manufacturing industries in the State,
except during 1924, the last year of the period. The chief difference, at once
apparent, is that employment in men's clothing, instead of rising as high as 80
points above the 1914 average during the war years 1915-1918 and the two
years immediately following, as did employment in the total of all wage earners
in manufacturing, remained close to the 1914 average until the end of 1919. In
1920 it did go above this average, as high as 20 points above it, declining in
December to below the average, but in this same year employment of wage
earners in all manufacturing was for the most part about 80 points above the
average, declining by December to about 25 points above the average.
In 1915 orders from Europe for war materials, giving a vast incentive to the
production of all kinds of metals, caused the curve of employment in all manu<i Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Documentary History, 1924-1926. pp. 17-18.
« The Amalgamated in Cincinnati: A Record of Struggle and Achievement. Cincinnati Joint Board,
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. May, 1928. pp. 23-30.
« U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Development of Collective Bargaining in the Men's Clothing Industry in the United States. Monthly Labor Review. June, 1922, pp. 1093-1108.




APPENDIX C.—IRON AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

133

facturing to rise sharply almost from the beginning of the year, but the rise of
employment in men's clothing was not nearly so great. This industry was a
branch of the purely domestic trade, which was repressed earlier in the year by
uncertainty and the fear of involvement in war. At the end of the year the industry was somewhat stimulated by a wave of purchasing that followed large earnings in industrial centers and the harvesting of record food crops.
Employment figures for men's clothing are lacking for 1916 and 1917, but considering the fact that the curves for 1915 and 1918 showed no tendency to rise
above the 1914 average there is no reason to suppose that they rose far above it,
if at all, in 1916 and 1917. In 1916 there was record activity throughout, due to
the enormous European orders for war materials, especially food and munitions.
The year was conceded by all to have been prosperous; wages were high. It is
evident, from reports in Bradstreet's, that clothing manufacturers in Ohio did a
business considerably above that in 1915. Without doubt, therefore, the curve
of employment in 1916 was somewhat higher than in 1915. In 1917, when the
United States itself was at war, the same influences were active as in 1918, and
in all probability the curve of employment in men's clothing was very much the
same as in 1918, that is, close to the 1914 average.
Total employment was, of course, at a high level during 1917 and 1918, because
of the feverish activity in supplying food, munitions, and other manufactures to
the armed forces. Men's clothing, however, was an industry that was not
stimulated by the war; at any event, not in Ohio. T o understand this one must
realize that the clothing industry is one that suffers readily from changes in the
prosperity of the consumer. "Clothing in the bulk may be a necessity, but the
garments that are actually sold include a large proportion of semiluxuries, which
are cut off in time of crisis." 44 During the war people were forced to economize.
Numerous campaigns were carried on to induce economy where it was not
forced. People were urged to wear old clothes and to be proud of doing so. It
is noted in Bradstreet's many times in the course of these two years that the
buying of wearing apparel had failed to broaden in a degree commensurate with
employment and record wages, presumably because of high prices dictating
economies, because of economy campaigns, and because saving by small investors
for the purpose of participating in the Liberty loans was quite general. Everywhere there was a turning away from luxuries and a tendency to forego anything
that was not essential. Also, of course, there were many thousands of young
men who had little or no use for civilian garb. For these reasons 1917 and 1918
saw greatly slackened production in men's civilian clothing.
It is true that the uniform trade partly filled the breach. But, though considerable work in the making of uniforms, overcoats, overalls, and other clothing for
the Army was carried on in Ohio, the great bulk of these contracts were placed in
New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. 45 In all the long list of war contracts
of $100,000 and over placed from April 6, 1917, to June 1, 1919, covering 1,116
pages, there were only seven contracts with men's clothing houses in Ohio, and
two of these were for the manufacture of canteen or breech mechanism covers.
It can be assumed that Ohio did not enjoy any larger share of the clothing contracts of less than $100,000. It was stated in the Daily News Record of January
1, 1928, that little uniform work was being done in Cleveland in proportion to
the contracts being executed in the New York market. 46
Another factor that reduced employment in the clothing industries, even when
there were plenty of orders, was the inability of manufacturers at times to get as
much material as was needed. Firms frequently had contracts but no goods,
and they were even forced to lay off workers. As an example of the inability
of companies to deliver on contracts, one men's clothing house of Cleveland
received on June 7, 1917, a contract of $148,665 for the making of wool service
coats. Eight months later, on February 2, 1918, the greater part of the contract
was canceled, leaving the net contract as amended at only $25,000.47
During the first half of 1919 employment in the men's clothing industry in
Ohio was still below the 1914 average, although employment in the total of all
wage earners in manufacturing was far above such average. The war, with its
44 Budish, Jacob M., and Soule, George. The New Unionism in the Clothing Industry.
Harcourt,
Brace, and Howe. New York. 1920. p. 32.
46 United States House of Representatives. 66th Cong., 1st and 2d sessions. Select Committee on
Expenditures in the War Department. Hearings. War contracts of $100,000 and over. Serial 1, vol. 2,
pp. 675-1791. Washington. 1919.
4 Daily News Record. Jan. 1, 1918. Fairchild publications, New York.
®
47 United States House of Representatives.
66th Cong., 1st and 2d sessions. Select Committee on
Expenditures in the War Department. Hearings. War contracts of $100,000 and over. Serial 1, vol. 2,
p. 1114. Washington. 1919.




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VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

emphasis on economy, was over, but high prices were holding down sales of
clothing; merchants were slow in placing orders, anticipating price reductions;
the mildest winter in years discouraged the buying of heavy winter apparel;
there was a good deal of unemployment, especially in centers that had specialized
in war work. Throughout the country wearing apparel was one of the least
favorably situated industries as regards new business coming in.
However, from about the middle of 1919 employment in the men's clothing
industry rose sharply to well above the 1914 average and remained there till
December, 1920. It was remarked in Bradstreet's that consumptive demand
seemed to have singled out lines that had been under the ban of war necessity
and that men's and women's clothing of all kinds was leading in activity. The
pent-up demand of the past years and buying by returned soldiers were incentives.
There were large crop yields, sold at high prices. The country was prosperous
and labor well employed. Men's clothing manufacturers of Cincinnati and
Cleveland reported business very good, their only difficulty being to secure
enough labor and material to fill all the orders.
At the close of 1920 and in the early part of 1921 employment in men's clothing
declined again below the 1914 average. In doing so it reflected the general
business depression prevailing at the time. As the chairman of the board of
arbitration in the clothing industry in Chicago said in one of his decisions,
" T h e clothing industry is a very dependent one; very dependent upon the ups
and downs in the general business situation." 48
The fact that employment in men's clothing rose again above the 1914 average
by the spring of 1921 and remained at varying heights of from 20 to 40 degrees
above this average during the remaining years of the series is due not so much
to improved business and better demand for clothing as to conditions in the
industry peculiar to Ohio.
One factor that alone accounted for much of the increase was the men's
clothing firm of A. Nash Co., famed for its application of the "golden rule"
policy. This establishment was said by the Amalgamated 49 to have been by
all odds the most important and the largest factor in the Cincinnati market
between 1920 and 1924. Organized in 1918, when it employed 29 persons, it
grew by leaps and bounds until in 1925 it reached a volume of business of more
than $12,000,000 and employed several thousand wage earners. The number of
wage earners was said to have been about 6,000 in 1924.50 Since the average of
the total number of wage earners in the industry in Ohio in 1924 was 13,139, it
can easily be seen what a determining influence the growth of this firm had upon
the employment curve of the industry during these years.
Another condition responsible for much of the increase in employment from
1921 to 1924 was the fact that Cincinnati, as a clothing market, was known as
the place favorable to nonunion settlement. The Amalgamated had failed to
unionize the market, although it had some agreements with separate houses.
The influence of the A. Nash Co. was felt here, too. The Amalgamated has
said 51 that with regard to unionization Mr. Nash " maintained a policy of silence
and inaction. Whatever his intentions, the leadership of his firm in the market
contributed to add to the prestige of Cincinnati as a flourishing nonunion center." 52
In 1924 the employment curve for men's clothing in Ohio declined somewhat,
very much as did that for all manufacturing, influenced by the general business
depression of 1924, but it still remained well above the 1914 average, due to the
factors outlined.
In the course of almost every year certain seasonal variations in the curve of
employment of the men's clothing industry will be noted. The spring peak is
reached anywhere in the five months February to June, and the fall peak in the
five months August to December. The two points of minimum employment are
reached in April, July, or August and in December or January. However, it
will also be noted that the seasonal variations are not sharp nor decided, sometimes being barely perceptible or conceded by other movements. This is in
marked contrast to the sharp seasonal fluctuations shown in the women's clothing
industry, and is an evidence of the greater regularity of employment in the
manufacture of men's clothing.
48 Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.
Research Department. The Clothing Workers of
Chicago, 1910-1922. Chicago Joint Board. 1922. p. 180.
o Ibid. Documentary History, 1924-1926. p. 17.
60 The Golden Rule's Success in Business.
Literary Digest. July 12, 1924. p. 30.
m Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. Documentary History, 1924-1926. p. 18.
52 In 1925, however, an agreement was effected between the Nash company and the Amalgamated.
See The Amalgamated in Cincinnati: A Record of Struggle and Achievement. Cincinnati Joint Board,
Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. May, 1928. p. 102.




APPENDIX C.—IRON AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

135

Perhaps the most significant thing about the trends of employment in the
men's clothing industry is the degree to which they are similar for men and
women. Both the long-term and seasonal trends are remarkably alike for the
two sexes. The curve for the total wage earners indicates within a very few
degrees the trend for each sex. It does not show the very slightly increased
superiority gained by the women by the end of the 11-year period, and it does
not show a somewhat more rapid and more extensive decrease among the women
wage earners at the time of the depression of 1920. With these exceptions,
however, it can be accepted as a remarkably accurate presentation of the situation
for the two sexes.
THE WOMEN'S CLOIHING INDUSTRY

The women's clothing industry in Ohio is not so important as the men's
clothing industry, but nevertheless it is an important employer of women and
illustrates trends of employment for the two sexes in an industry that has very
distinct seasonal problems and in which the proportionate employment of
women has increased during the 11-vear period.
In Ohio in 1919 the industry ranked eighteenth according to the value of its
product and twentieth according to the total number of wage earners employed, 53
so it does not assume a leading place among the State's industries. From the
standpoint of women, however, it has a more significant rank, for in 1924 the
Ohio employment figures show that only seven of the individual manufacturing
industries considered in this study employed more women workers and only
three employed a larger proportion of women.
In this industry, as in the manufacture of men's clothing, the seasonal trends
are somewhat modified in Ohio by local conditions that make for greater steadiness in employment. For example, in Ohio a far larger proportion of the women's
clothing establishments were owned by corporations and a much higher percentage of the workers were employed in such establishments than in the United
States as a whole. In 1919, 50.3 per cent of the Ohio establishments were owned
by corporations and 30.3 per cent by individuals, while in the United States the
figures were 21.3 per cent corporate owned and 35.5 per cent individually owned
establishments. Of the wage earners in the industry in Ohio, 78.5 per cent, but
in the United States only 37.5 per cent, were in the corporate-owned factories,
and only 12.3 per cent in Ohio, but 24.4 per cent in the United States, wTere in
plants owned by individuals. 54
Since factories owned by corporations tend to be of larger size and to be
governed by better accounting systems, and since greater regularity of employment is found in such establishments, the fact that Ohio has a far higher proportion
of corporate-owned establishments and of workers employed in such establishments than the United States as a whole should indicate, other things being equal,
that employment in the women's clothing industry is more regular in Ohio than
in the country as a whole.
The proportion of workers employed by corporations is smaller in the women's
clothing industry than in the men's clothing industry for the United States,
namely 37.5 per cent as compared with 56.2 per cent. However, the opposite is
true in Ohio, where 78.5 per cent of the wage earners making women's clothing
are found in corporate-owned factories, against 66.9 per cent of the wage earners
making men's clothing. 55
Another factor making for greater steadiness of employment in the manufacture
of women's clothing in Ohio is the larger size of the establishments. In 1924 the
small shop dominated the women's clothing industry as compared with the period
10 years earlier. In size of establishment the industry had become decentralized
and the small shop had gained on the large shop in a striking degree. This was
in direct contrast to the tendency in the men's clothing field, where the average
size of establishment increased during these years. Although there was a
distinct decrease in size of establishment in Ohio as well as in the rest of the
country during this period, the average number of employees per establishment
remained considerably higher than in other States.
In Ohio the average number of wage earners to an establishment in the industry,
found by dividing the total average number of wage earners by number of establishments, decreased from 58 in 1914 to 45 in 1923; in New York State it decreased
U. S. Bureau of the Census. Fourteenth Census: 1920, vol. 9, Manufactures, 1919. p. 1142.
« Ibid., vol. 8, p. 110, and vol. 9, p. 1160.
Idem.
53

55




136

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

from 28 to 16; in Massachusetts, from 30 to 19; in Illinois, from 34 to 20; in
Pennsylvania, from 36 to 24.56
The trend toward decentralization in the industry, in marked contrast to the
trend in industry generally, is explained by the growth of submanufacturing and
the fact that there were practically no changes in the technical conditions of
manufacture from 1914 to 1924. Most important of all, the experiments made
in scientific management and in efficiency schemes have shown that the large
shop based on division of labor becomes merely a collection of small shops under
one roof and that the advantages of such a large shop can be offset by the small
shops in a number of ways.57
The encroachment of the small shop upon the larger one in the various branches
of the industry has gone the furthest in the older centers of the industry, namety,
New York, Chicago, Philadephia, Boston, Cleveland, and Baltimore. In the
smaller communities to which the various branches of the industry migrated
between 1914 and 1924 the trend was to establish medium-sized and at times
even fairly large shops.58 It will be noted from the census figures quoted that
from the beginning to the end of the period 1914^1924 Ohio had women's clothing
establishments of larger average size than had the other States of importance in
the industry. The fact of the superior size of Ohio's establishments is brought
out by other census statistics, as follows: Ohio had in 1914 a smaller proportion
of women's clothing establishments employing as few as 50 wage earners than
had the United States as a whole, namely 75.9 per cent against 84.8 per cent; it
had a larger proportion of such establishments employing 51 to 250 wage earners
than had the United States as a whole, namely 19.4 per cent against 14.3; it had a
larger proportion employing 251 to 1,000 wage earners than had the United
States, namely 4.1 per cent against 0.9 per cent. Also, Ohio had one establishment employing over 1,000 wage earners, and as only one establishment employing
over 1,000 wage earners was reported for the United States, that one must have
been in Ohio.59
In Cleveland, though the average number of workers per cloak-and-suit shop
decreased from 126 in 1914 to 66 in 1921, it still remained over three times
greater than the average for New York, which was 19 workers per cloak-and-suit
shop in 1921.60
About one-fifth of the cloak-and-suit houses of Cleveland employed in 1918
about two-thirds of the total workers in that branch of the industry, indicating a
considerable degree of concentration. 61
Ohio had, in 1923, a much larger proportion of regular factories and a much
smaller proportion of contract shops than had the United States as a whole.
Of the women's clothing establishments in Ohio 92 per cent were regular factories,
whereas of women's clothing establishments in the United States only 77.4 per
cent were regular factories. In Ohio only 8 per cent of the establishments were
contract shops, whereas in the United States 22.6 per cent were contract shops.62
The final factor that should be considered in determining to what extent the
employment fluctuations in a State or locality are typical of a broader field is the
extent to which the industry is organized and operating under trade-union
agreements.
It is in the clothing industry that perhaps the most conspicuous examples are
found of trade agreements tending to regularize wages and employment and it is
quite possible that in a well-organized locality trends of employment may appear
far less fluctuating and seasonal than would be the case where no such trade
agreements exist.
The International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union is the one great union
exercising jurisdiction over the women's clothing industry.
The women's dress trade, in general, using lighter materials and requiring less
skilled work, employs great numbers of inexperienced girls and has been very
largely unorganized, even in New York City where the union is powerful.
Women's coats and suits, however, require expert tailoring and are made very
largely by men.
s« U. S. Bureau of the Census.
Census of Manufactures: 1914, vol. 2, p. 189; Biennial Census of Manufactures: 1923, p. 303.
87 Levine, Louis.
The Women's Garment Workers. B. W. Huebsch, Inc. New York. 1924. p. 415.
5 Ibid., p. 394.
8
69 U. S. Bureau of the Census.
Census of Manufactures: 1914, vol. 1, p. 1174, and vol. 2, p. 177.
60 Levine, Louis.
The Women's Garment Workers. B. W. Huebsch, Inc. New York. 1924. p. 395.
e1 Emmet, Boris. Labor Survey of Cleveland Cloak Industry. U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Monthly Labor Review, August, 1918, p. 229.
62 U. S. Bureau of the Census.
Biennial Census of Manufactures: 1923, pp. 297, 304.




APPENDIX C.—IRON AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

137

The cloak-and-suit industry had been highly organized, and the union controlled
the trade to a very large extent in Cleveland, Cincinnati, and Toledo. 6,i In
Cincinnati, effective collective bargaining on a large scale existed in the women's
ready-to-wear industries. In 1918 more than two-thirds of the cloak and suit
workers of the city were members of the union and worked under union conditions.
They were organized in three locals of the International, and all trade agreements
with employers were entered into in the name of the joint board that connected
the locals.
There was no unionism to speak of in the house-dress, kimono, and white-goods,
trade. The branch last named, however, was of comparatively little importance,,
since of the 1,600 garment workers estimated to be in Cincinnati in 1918, about
1,200 were in cloaks, suits, and skirts and only 400 in house dresses, kimonos,,
and white goods. 64
In Cleveland, the International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, beginning
with an unsuccessful strike in 1911, attempted for several years to build up an
organization but made little progress. In the summer of 1918 a strike was
called, the demands including a higher wage and machinery for adjusting disputes.
As some of the firms affected were engaged on Army contracts, Secretary of War
Baker intervened, and the questions at issue were submitted to a board of referees.
The awards of the referees were observed down to December 24, 1919, when an
agreement was signed by the Cleveland Garment Manufacturers' Association, the
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union, and the joint board of six locals,
and the board of referees. The agreement was to run for two years. It was
renewed in December of the years 1921, 1922, and 1923.65 Thus the women's
clothing market in Cleveland was nonunion until the close of 1919, after which
it was for the most part a union market, though there were some women's clothing
firms, including the largest, that did not sign the agreement with the union.
The agreement entered into on December 24, 1919, between the Cleveland
Manufacturers' Association and the Cleveland joint board of locals of the
International Ladies' Garment Workers contained several new and unusual
features. In fact, the agreement marked a revolution in the relations of Cleveland
manufacturers and union members. The new understanding was well expressed
in the preamble of the agreement:
In view of their primary responsibility to the consuming public, workers and owners are jointly and
separately responsible for the cost and quality of the service rendered. It is agreed that cooperation and
mutual helpfulness are the basis of right and progressive industrial relations, and that intimidation and
coercion have no proper place in American industry.66

Under the agreement a permanent board of referees was established, with
power to adjust matters that could not be settled between the parties, to provide
periodical wage scales for the industry, and to see that the agreement was fairly
observed.
The agreement contained many customary arrangements in the
industry, such as the following: Inside subcontracting was eliminated, each
worker to be employed directly by the firm; workers in outside shops were to
receive union wages; during slack periods work was to be distributed among all
workers as equitably as possible; strikes and lockouts during the agreement
were forbidden unless authorized by the referees.67
The most serious friction between employers and employees in the women's
clothing industry is caused by the alternation of busy and slack seasons. In the
slack season it is thought to be in the employer's interest to lay off as many as
possible; in the busy season it is sometimes said to be to the interest of workers
to decrease their rate of production as much as possible to keep them at work for
a longer period. In an effort to eliminate this seasonal difficulty, week work was
jtc be introduced into the shops under the agreement, but week work that was
based on "fair and accurate" standards of production. The distinctive feature
of the agreement was the provision that the union and the association should
jointly engage and pay industrial engineers to establish by means of time studies
fair and accurate standards of average production for a minimum weekly wage.
Each worker was to receive additional pay for every unit he or she produced in
excess of the minimum standard. 68
63 National Industrial Conference Board.
Experience with Trade-Union Agreements—Clothing Industries. Research Report No. 38. June, 1921. p. 96.
w Emmet, Boris. Trade Agreements in the Women's Clothing Industries of Cincinnati and St. Louis,
U, S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly Labor Review, March, 1918, p. 554.
National Industrial Conference Board. Experience with Trade-Union Agreements—Clothing Industries. Research Report No. 38. June, 1921. pp. 90-91. Also, Levine, Louis. The Women's Garment
Workers. 1924.
6 Mack, William J. Industrial Peace in Cleveland. The Nation. Feb. 16, 1921, p. 262. New York.
6
67 U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Adjustment of Labor Disputes in the Garment Industries in Cleveland. Monthly Labor Review, July, 1920, p. 56.
es Mack, William J. Industrial Peace in Cleveland. The Nation. Feb. 16, 1921, p. 263. New York.

64130°—30




30

138

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

In the two years that followed, the distinctive features of the agreement were
developed and put into operation. The report of the industrial engineers was
submitted in March, 1920, and in June of that year one of the plans of the engineers was put into operation. In July a joint bureau of standards was organized,
maintained b y the manufacturers and the workers.
A t a hearing in April, 1921, a scheme for continuity of employment in the
industry was adopted by the board of referees, and became the first experiment
of its kind in America. The board declared that the time had come to " break up
one of the vicious features of seasonal industry by providing for as much continuity of employment as possible."
Under the plan adopted, all regular workers were guaranteed 41 weeks of
employment during the year. If a worker failed to receive such employment
he was entitled to two-thirds of his minimum weekly wage for every week during
which he was unemployed. The employer's liability was limited to
per cent
of his direct labor cost for the guaranty period. T o provide for the payment of
unemployment benefits, each employer was to deposit each week a sum equal to
i y 2 per cent of his pay roll for the week. All the guaranty funds were placed
in the custody of the impartial chairman. 69
With the adoption of this scheme the essential features of the Cleveland plan
were complete. After six months' operation of the employment-guaranty plan
it was said that in four plants the full 20 wreeks' employment guaranteed was
provided and the fund w^as returned to the employers. A number of establishments saved the greater part of their guaranty deposit. In four plants the entire
fund was consumed and in two of these the fund was insufficient and a deficit
was incurred. 70 According to the manufacturers' association—
The result of the plan has, without any doubt, been an increase of work in the shops. It is true that
the work has often been increased at a loss to the employer and it is a question whether some manufacturers would not rather take a loss through the employment fund. However, the incentive is direct and
appealing, and appears to be the only way in which the evil of unemployment can be eradicated or
limited in this seasonal industry.7!

T h e agreement was renewed in 1921, 1922, and 1923, but only after some
friction and maneuvering and due to the patient efforts of the board of referees.
In M a y , 1923, the workers were granted an increase in wages. But in December,
1923, the board reduced the obligations of the employers. The guaranteed period
of employment was reduced to 40 weeks, and the compensation of the workers
during the time of unemployment was reduced f r o m two-thirds to one-half of
the minimum weekly wage. Employers were to give a surety bond to the board
of referees each week for an amount equal to 10 per cent of their direct labor pay
roll. The worker was not to draw on the fund until he had accumulated the full
12 weeks of permissible unemployment, but during his lay-off he could work at
another j o b and still draw his unemployment pay. Each employer was permitted
to employ once in each of the two seasons, for a period not exceeding four weeks,
additional " casual" workers not to exceed 20 per cent of the workers in any
department of his plant.
Also under the agreement going into effect on January 1, 1924, the joint board
of standards was abolished and thus was admitted to have failed of its purpose.
The failure was due to several causes, one of them being the personal element,
in that the time-study men were young and inexperienced.
In general, the
workers felt that the standards were neither fair nor accurate and that the machinery was unduly influenced b y the employers.
Nevertheless, the idea of
maintaining production standards under joint control of the workers and the
employers still remained part of the working agreement in Cleveland.
As to the employment-guaranty feature of the Cleveland plan, Dr. Levine*
believes it has given the most satisfactory results.
This scheme was prompted by the two-fold purpose of making the industry partly responsible for the
enforced idleness of the workers and of supplying an incentive to the employers to reduce seasonality of
employment Both purposes have been achieved in marked measure. The employers have devised various
wavs of keeping their employees working to the fullest extent possible. They have increased their sales
force and have cut garments ahead of sales. They have added other lines of work and have accepted orders
to be made up in idle time without any profit and at times even at a slight loss * * *
The Cleveland plan has given the workers and the employers in the Cleveland garment market six years
of unbroken peace In the words of the board of referees, it has passed out of the period of experiment.
6 Levine, Louis. The Women's Garment Workers. B. W. Huebsch, Inc. New York. 1924. pp.
9
370-372
™ U S Bureau of Labor Statistics. Experience Under Employment Guaranty in Cleveland Garment
Industry. p. 368.
7! Ibid., Monthly Labor Review. August, 1922, pp. 365-368.




APPENDIX C.—IRON AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

139

Still, its future depends on many uncertain factors, * * *. If the Cleveland market should continue
to shrink in size and importance, it may soon not have a wide enough basis for the maintenance of the
"plan". 72

In considering what effect the operation of the Cleveland plan might have
in reducing irregularity of employment as shown by the Ohio employment
figures, it must be remembered that the number of wage earners who were
directly or indirectly affected by the Cleveland plan was only about 3,000, while
the total average number of wage earners in the industry reported to the Ohio
Division of Labor Statistics was 6,091 in 1921, 5,671 in 1922, 5,883 in 1923, and
4,748 in 1924. The largest plant in Cleveland did not sign the agreement. The
number of workers employed by the 28 firms that signed the agreement with the
union in 1919 was about 3,000, but this decreased to about 2,000 between 1919
and 1924.73
In spite of the fact that the agreement under the Cleveland plan covered around
45 per cent of the workers reported by the Ohio employment figures, the curves
of employment do not show that the seasonal trend in the industry was very
greatly diminished.
In 1914 there were two periods of depression, during which the number of
wage earners was reduced 10.9 and 21.9 points, respectively, below the average
of that year, while the peak of employment in February was 16.4 points above the
yearly average and in August it was 7.8 points above that figure.
During 1921, 1922, 1923, and 1924 such peaks and depressions were somewhat
lessened but not eliminated. By 1924 the numbers for the times of greatest
employment were increased only 12.6 and 2.8 points above the average for the
year, while for the slack periods the numbers declined 6 and 17.6 points below
such average.
The following tabulation shows, for the two periods of greatest and least
employment, the deviation from the average for the year.
High and low employment in women's clothing
[Average for the year equals 100]

1914

1916
and
1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

116.4
89.1
107.8
78.1
1

1915

107.1
91.0
107.3
88.3

0)
C1)
0)
<9

107.4
97.1
108.1
88.3

99.6
90.5
110.4
95.5

116.7
98.3
100.5
71.0

108.6
101.8
109.6
83.9

106.8
94.0
104.8
92.0

106.9
101.5
108.5
82.4

112.6
94.0
102.8
82.4

Figures not available.

It is evident from this tabulation that more detailed employment figures would
be needed if the exact effect of this agreement were to be measured. In spite of
the fact that the majority of workers affected by this agreement were men, and
although the Ohio employment figures show a considerable degree of seasonal
fluctuation, the curves indicate a great similarity in the seasonal trends for the
two sexes. From this standpoint the total figures seem to give a very reliable
indication of the trend for each sex.
But the total figures do not indicate a conspicuous change that had come about
in the employment of women in this industry. In Ohio, from 1914 to 1924, the
proportion of women employed in the women's clothing industry showed a distinct tendency to increase. The average proportion of women in 1924 was 73.4
per cent, 11.6 points higher than the proportion in 1914, which was 61.8 per cent.
An increase was recorded in each year of the series (1916 and 1917 not being reported) except 1920 and 1924.
There is no evidence that the war and the drafting of men was responsible for
any of the increase in the proportion of woman labor. As already stated, figures
for 1916 and 1917 are lacking, but in 1918, the year in which the greatest substitution of women for men in factories took place, the proportion of women was very
little higher than in 1915. In 1918 the average for women was 67.4 per cent of
the total, only nine-tenths of a point higher than in 1915, three years previous.
72 Levine, Louis. The Women's Garment Workers. B. W. Huebsch Inc., New York. 1924. pp. 372380.
w Ibid., p. 374.




140

VARIATIONS IN EMPLOYMENT TRENDS OF WOMEN AND MEN

This was not so large an increase as was usually shown from year to year throughout the rest of the period. And 1919, the year of demobilization and the return
of men to industry, showed an increase of 1.8 points over 1918 in the percentage
of women employed. Furthermore, the average number of both men and women
workers wras lower in 1918 than in 1915. It may be concluded that war conditions caused no increase in the proportion of women employed in the industry and
may even have contributed to the decline in their actual numbers, although a
decline in number of workers was a continuing tendency in the women's clothing
trade. This conclusion is in harmony with the recognized fact that the trend of
woman labor during the war was away from the older f o o d and fabric industries
to the newer war-implement industries.
During the first part of the period under discussion, from 1914 to 1920, the
percentage of women employed in the manufacture of women's clothing was
lower than the percentage in the manufacture of men's clothing. But, with the
tendencies noted for women wage earners to increase proportionately in the
women's clothing industry and to remain at a more or less fixed proportion in the
men's clothing industry, the average proportion of women employed became very
nearly identical for the two industries in 1921: It was 71 per cent for women's
clothing and 71.2 per cent for men's clothing. After that, from 1922 to 1924,
with the same tendencies continuing, a higher percentage of women were engaged
in the making of women's clothing than of men's.
An explanation that may account for the lower proportion of women in women's
clothing during the earlier years of the period is that the making of men's garments wTas more fully standardized and subject to fewer changes than the making
of women's garments, with the result that more women could be used to advantage; and that styles in women's garments were more changeable and their manufacture not so routine in nature, with the result that fewer women could be used
than in the older and more stable branch of the wrork.74 The increased proportion
from 1922 to 1924 of women engaged in making women's clothing is believed to be
largely due to a trend toward the making of lower priced garments in Ohio,
lower priced garments allowing greater standardization.
Although the long-term trend for the men and women seems to have been
slightly different, resulting in an increased employment of women in the later
years, there is only one time during the entire period when the trends for the two
sexes appear very different. This was during the last part of 1920, when women's
employment decreased more rapidly, and then in the first half of 1921 women
increased more rapidly and did not experience the seasonal depression that
occurred for men. Obviously this was the result of the business depression that
occurred during those years. This depression apparently affected the women'sclothing industry a few wreeks earlier-than the men's clothing industry, but the
more rapid decline of women was typical of both. In the recovery from the depression the women's curve quickly resumed its normal position in relation to the
men's in both industries.
On the whole, although no very extensive deviations from the total curve
occurred for either sex, differences in trend were somewhat more marked in
women's than in men's clothing and very much more marked than in all textile
manufacturing.
Hosiery and knit goods.
A third group of industries classified as textiles in which women form a very
important proportion of the wage earners is the manufacture of hosiery and knit
goods. Only two of the industrial groups for which the Ohio employment figures were secured (cloth gloves and cigars and cigarettes) showed a proportion of
women wage earners larger than the 76.6 per cent they formed of the wage earners
in hosiery and knit goods.
In this industry, the curve of the total wage earners follows more closely the
trend for women than the trend for men. In fact, the curve for the total can be
considered to be accurately representative of the trends and fluctuations of
women's employment throughout the 11-year period. This is due, of course,
t o the great numerical superiority of women among the wage earners. The
men's curve does not deviate very greatly from the curve for the total but shows
certain minor differences.
Periods of depression apparently hit men's employment somewhat less severely
than they did women's. This is probably because, in this industry, many of the
men's occupations might be classed almost as part of the " o v e r h e a d . "
In
74 Bryner, Edna.
The Garment Trades.
Ohio. 1916. p. 19.




Survey Committee of the Cleveland Foundation.

Cleveland,

APPENDIX C . — I R O N AND STEEL AND TEXTILES

141

periods of depression work usually can be reduced easily by laying off the women,
but the men, being already employed practically to the minimum extent, can not
be let out without a greater dislocation of the plant.
Women constituted the major part of the working force, but in all the years
since 1914 they formed a slightly smaller percentage of the total than they did in
that year. In 1914 women were 80.8 per cent of all workers, on the average,
while in 1924, 76.6 per cent of the employees were women. This probably is due
to the increased employment of men on full-fashioned knitting machines.
Cloth gloves.
Of the industries studied under the textile classification, the group that employed the largest proportion of women in 1924 (86.5 per cent) was the manufacture of cloth gloves. Although the number of women employed was not very
large (2,017 was the average for 1924), in no other industrial group for which
figures were obtained was there so great a proportion of women among the wage
earners. This industrial group, therefore, offers a conspicuous example of the
validity of total employment figures as an indication of trends for women when
women are in the majority among the employees. It is evident from a study
of the employment curves for the seven years (from 1918) for which figures were
obtainable, that the curve for the total number of wage earners is almost identical
with that for the women only. The curves showing the fluctuations within each
year indicate even more strongly than in the manufacture of hosiery that women's
employment is more sensitive than men's. Apparently women are taken on
more rapidly during periods of rising employment and laid off more rapidly
when employment is decreasing. This probably is due—also as in hosiery manufacturing—to the fact that this is a woman's industry and men are employed
to a minimum extent at all times, so that reductions in the staff of men are not
made so easily as are reductions in the women's end of the work. During the
entire 7-year period, apparently, there has been little permanent change in the
relative importance of the two sexes, although during the period of rising employment in 1919 and 1920 the men's index increased slightly more than the
women's, and in 1922 and 1923 the increases for the men lagged a little behind
those of the women. On the whole, however, the developments were very similar for men and women. Unfortunately, the figures for this industry were not
procurable before 1918, so the effect of the war on the relative trends of the two
sexes can not be estimated. The effect of the depression of 1920-21, however,
is indicated in the curves. Apparently this depression hit cloth glove manufacturing a few months later than hosiery, and more than half a year later than
the manufacture of women's clothing. In fact, the beginning of the depression
in the manufacture of cloth gloves coincides more nearly with the depression in
iron and steel manufacturing than with the other textile groups for which figures
were secured. The fact that cloth gloves are work gloves, used by trainmen
and men in various forms of heavy manual work, explains this similarity in trend
between the manufacture of cloth gloves and that of iron and steel.







PUBLICATIONS

OF THE WOMEN'S

BUREAU

[Any of these bulletins still available will be sent free of charge upon request]
No. 1. Proposed Employment of Women During the War in the Industries of Niagara Falls, N. Y. 16
pp. 1918.
No. 2. Labor Laws for Women in Industry in Indiana. 29 pp. 1919.
No. 3. Standards for the Employment of Women in Industry. 8 pp. Third ed., 1921.
No. 4. Wages of Candy Makers in Philadelphia in 1919. 46 pp. 1919.
*No. 5. The Eight-Hour Day in Federal and State Legislation. 19 pp. 1919.
No. 6. The Employment of Women in Hazardous Industries in the United States. 8 pp. 1921.
No. 7. Night Work Laws in the United States. (1919), 4 pp. 1920.
*No. 8. Women in the Government Service. 37 pp. 1920.
*No. 9. Home Work in Bridgeport, Conn. 35 pp. 1920.
*No. 10. Hours and Conditions of Work for Women in Industry in Virginia. 32 pp. 1920.
No. 11. Women Street Car Conductors and Ticket Agents. 90 pp. 1921.
*No. 12. The New Position of Women in American Industry. 158 pp. 1920.
No. 13. Industrial Opportunities and Training for Women and Girls. 48 pp. 1921.
*No. 14. A Physiological Basis for the Shorter Working Day for Women. 20 pp. 1921.
No. 15. Some Effects of Legislation Limiting Hours of Work for Women. 26 pp. 1921.
No. 16. (See Bulletin 63.)
No. 17. Women's Wages in Kansas. 104 pp. 1921.
No. 18. Health Problems of Women in Industry. 11 pp. 1921.
No. 19. Iowa Women in Industry. 73 pp. 1922.
*No. 20. Negro Women in Industry. 65 pp. 1922.
No. 21. Women in Rhode Island Industries. 73 pp. 1922.
*No. 22. Women in Georgia Industries. 89 pp. 1922.
No. 23. The Family Status of Breadwinning Women. 43 pp. 1922.
No. 24. Women in Maryland Industries. 96 pp. 1922.
No. 25. Women in the Candy Industry in Chicago and St. Louis. 72 pp. 1923.
No. 26. Women in Arkansas Industries. 86 pp. 1923.
No. 27. The Occupational Progress of Women. 37 pp. 1922.
No. 28. Women's Contributions in the Field of Invention. 51 pp. 1923.
No. 29. Women in Kentucky Industries. 114 pp. 1923.
No. 30. The Share of Wage-Earning Women in Family Support. 170 pp. 1923.
No. 31. What Industry Means to Women Workers. 10 pp. 1923.
No. 32. Women in South Carolina Industries. 128 pp. 1923.
No. 33. Proceedings of the Women's Industrial Conference. 190 pp. 1923.
No. 34. Women in Alabama Industries. 86 pp. 1924.
No. 35. Women in Missouri Industries. 127 pp. 1924.
No. 36. Radio Talks on Women in Industry. 34 pp. 1924.
No. 37. Women in New Jersey Industries. 99 pp. 1924.
No. 38. Married Women in Industry. 8 pp. 1924.
No. 39. Domestic Workers and their Employment Relations. 87 pp. 1924.
No. 40. (See Bulletin 63.)
No. 41. Family Status of Breadwinning Women in Four Selected Cities. 145 pp. 1925.
No. 42. List of References on Minimum Wage for Women in the United States and Canada. 42 pp. 1925.
No. 43. Standard and Scheduled Hours of Work for Women in Industry. 68 pp. 1925.
No. 44. Women in Ohio Industries. 137 pp. 1925.
No. 45. Home Environment and Employment Opportunities of Women in Coal-Mine Workers' Families.
61 pp. 1925.
No. 46. Facts About Working Women—A Graphic Presentation Based on Census Statistics. 64 pp. 1925.
No. 47. Women in the Fruit Growing and Canning Industries in the State of Washington. 223 pp. 1926.
*No. 48. Women in Oklahoma Industries. 118 pp. 1926.
No. 49. Women Workers and Family Support. 10 pp. 1925.
No. 50. Effects of Applied Research upon the Employment Opportunities of American Women. 54 pp. 1926.
No. 51. Women in Illinois Industries. 108 pp. 1926.
No. 52. Lost Time and Labor Turnover in Cotton Mills. 203 pp. 1926.
No. 53. The Status of Women in the Government Service in 1925. 103 pp. 1926.
No. 54. Changing Jobs. 12 pp. 1926.
No. 55. Women in Mississippi Industries. 89 pp. 1926.
No. 56. Women in Tennessee Industries. 120 pp. 1927.
No. 57. Women Workers and Industrial Poisons. 5 pp. 1926.
No. 58. Women in Delaware Industries. 156 pp. 1927.
No 59. Short Talks About Working Women. 24 pp. 1927.
No. 60. Industrial Accidents to Women in New Jersey, Ohio, and Wisconsin. 316 pp. 1927.
No. 61. The Development of Minimum Wage Laws in the United States, 1912 to 1927. 635 pp. 1928.
Price 90 cents.
No. 62. Women's Employment in Vegetable Canneries in Delaware. 47 pp. 1927.
No. 63. State Laws Affecting Working Women. 51 pp. 1927. (Revision of Bulletins 16 and 40.)
No. 64. The Employment of Women at Night. 86 pp. 1928.
*No. 65. The Effects of Labor Legislation on the Employment Opportunities of Women. 498 pp. 1928.
No. 66. History of Labor Legislation for Women in Three States; Chronological Development of Labor
Legislation for Women in the United States. 284 pp. 1928.
No. 67. Women Workers in Flint, Mich. 80 pp. 1928.
No. 68. Summary: The Effects of Labor Legislation on the Employment Opportunities of Women.
(Reprint of Chapter II of Bulletin 65.) 22 pp. 1928.
No. 69. Causes of Absence for Men and for Women in Four Cotton Mills. 24 pp. 1929.
No. 70. Negro Women in Industry in 15 States. 74 pp. 1929.
No. 71. Selected References on the Health of Women in Industry. 8 pp. 1929.
No. 72. Conditions of Work in Spin Rooms. 41 pp. 1929.
No. 73. Variations in Employment Trends of Women and Men. 143 pp. 1929.
No. 74. The Immigrant Woman and Her Job. 175 pp. 1929.
No. 75. What the Wage-Earning Woman Contributes to Family Support. 20 pp. 1929.
No. 76. Women in 5-and-10-Cent Stores and Limited-Price Chain Department Stores. 58 pp. 1929.
No. 77. A Study of Two Groups of Denver Married Women Applying for Jobs. 10 pp. 1929.
Annual reports of the Director, 1919*, 1920*, 1921*, 1922, 1923, 1924*, 1925, 1926, 1927*, 1928*, 1929.
* Supply exhausted.




143

O




CHART 1.—ALL E M P L O Y E E S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T IN A L L INDUSTRIES, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, B Y S E X
[Excludes mines and quarries and interstate railroads]
U. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

In Jan. 5 0 3 , 3 7 Z M In Jan. £ 7 1 , 7 6 6 M I n J a n . 7 B $ 4 Z O M I n J a T L 7 9 2 , l 9 4 M In&n.
Figures
Iri Jan.506,8
77Q5Z5M Iixdan. 9 0 4 3 0 8 M In J a n . 6 2 ^ 4 8 4 M.
1 5 1 , 1 8 0 F.
1Q9,2S5F.
177,602 F.
233,119 F
1 2 9 , 3 6 5 F.
13 2 , 9 0 2 F.
19J.G40R
K I 4 9 f st5. rcprg. 1Z98f e s t s . r e p t g . zo,oi7 csts.Tcptg. 216 £ 4 csts. reptg. ZZ709 fsts.rcpt^. Z3.65Z rsts.rtptg. 27241 ests. rcptp. 25,5C£ esls.Tieptq. a v c u f a b l e

I u J a n . 7 7 3 . 7 ^ M I n J a a 8 l 6 , 8 2 9 M,
255,715 F.
2 2 0 , 0 0 5 F.
25,904 fttfi. reptq. J ( U 3 9 csis.ncptq.

J a n u a r y of eci c k y e a r = 1 0 0

\

I

I

F

O

T

1914




I

1915

i l ^ s y i g s s i i
1916

1917

1918

1919

i T i l T T i T
1920

1921

19 2 2

1923

1924

CHART 2.—WAOE EARNERS: TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN ALL INDUSTRIES, OHIO, 1014 TO 1924, BY SEX
[Excludes mines and quarries and interstate railroads]
U. S. Department of Labor
Sourcc: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics
Women's Bureau

160

InJaneaveiM In Jan.7n,lf2 M.
[nJan.457.505M. [n<$m454834M fn<Jaa6109^SM InJan.729.783M InJdn.7n6G7M JnJon.696,17Arrt lTkJan.8lflj694-M IncJdn545,237ft1 In Jem. 503,116 M
136,t6tF.
!025l4f:
UQ?50fv
IIX365f;
US772R
91329F
eaioeff
23LfiS2ests. TCfct^27247 esfs. renrg 2^562esrs.reoJgi 24.t24.ests.Tcbtg, 25.meits.rebty
14U9 cstj. rautt. 17,9816*5. re erg. 2aoi7e^s. rtttg.
180
January of ecuch year-tOO
160

160

M

]AQ
—-

120

120
A

too

too

"

60

60

€0

60

20D
180

200

1
Morvrhlv

nveraap.

ttf

WUUJDO

X55im

M4€>5,569^7,569
/

160

A

V

140

180
160

V

14Q

/

tzo
100

m
100

7

80

eq-

60

60
1914

1915




19J6

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

CHART 3a.—WAGE EARNERS: T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T IN AGRICULTURE, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, BY SEX
V. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau




Source: Ohio Department of Industrial RelationsDivision of Labor Statistics

CHABT 3b.—WAGE E A R N E R S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N A G R I C U L T U R E , OHIO, 1914 TO 1024, B Y S E X
[Based on the same figures as Chart No. 3a but smoothed by a 12-month moving average, centered at the middle of each month]
U. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau




Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

CHART 4 . - W A G E EARNERS: TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN ALL MAXUFACTtJltES, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, £ Y SEX
[Excludes manufacturing by railroad companies]
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

V. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

160

TJrfddn.523.302M. In«3an.5395i»MIn Jan. 37^09iMIn Jan3544£9M InJan485396M- [njan.5e^96irn InJan.575035M iTtjarussiioeM rnJatv65*552M, Inddn59a75ffrt In JanJ7ft965 I 1
7411 OF,
66A74F!
76,668 F.
flSt362F
6Sl07af:
99285 ff ^ „ 107,710 r.
r
94216 r
6az irF.
7&2&F.
ests. netjto. ffMlCSC. T D ai25 ests.rebrg.
E Tj.
tf
160
Jcmiidiy ofecu:h year -100
160

140

140

120

120

100

too

U5
160 &7Wests. TeJara. 7890 est* rebtg. 6i299 esti rebtg. &600 ests rewg. 8 B 8 eStiTCDTg.aoitesrs. -rectg. 9652 ests. rebtg. fl£32 ests.-reotg.

' A

60

60
60

60
200

200

i
1

.Monthly ave:rage ofWtMOO
160
X4.37069M3 7Q239r6^65C
160
140

—

— s t i a f ^

y

©ooC«r>sui
employtn«nt jelativss&omUj

120

\

160
140

1I

V — - v

J

100

160

A

*

V

120

100

60

60

60

60
1914

1915




1916

19H

1916

1919

1920

1921

19ZZ

1923

1924

CHART 5 . - W A G E EARNERS: TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN M ANUF A C T U E E OF CHEMICALS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924,
BY SEX
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
.
Division of Labor Statistics

\jt s. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

In Jan. 9,607M In Jan.iaiB3M In Jan.12,33lM fn JhnttJT&M InJarUWGlM In Janlfi^flM In Janl7,956h1 In Jan. 14,003 MIn Jan.14,47flM.In JaaiG.791 M.In Jaul6,239M
1,605f:
1.540E
f,739E
2M25F. , ,
1,537/:
llziF.
i.saiE
^39) F.
1,50BF.
ests. reoro. 351 esrs. meoro. 369 ests. recta Attests. Ttbto. 5€0«sls rtptQ. 37J •jt». rebtg. 382 ests. r€t)t<7. 392 esrs. rebfg.
24.7 estJ. rcctq.JOIesTB. ret>ra 3J7 CSfl rcDtg.
January of e a c h

year~)00

y
f

.i^

*

yX

y

^

n

h
1914




1915

H

n
^
1916

11
1917

i

1916

n

H
1919

i

^
1920

%

\

n

1921

s 1 1 »
1922

t i t
1923

S

i

?

5i )g

1924

CHART 6 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F I R O N A N D S T E E L A N D T H E I R P R O D U C T S , O H I O , 1914 T O 1024,
BY SEX
Source: Obio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

T
InJan.Z49.624M In Jan. 25^00 5f1In Ja.*t. 251,676 MlnJan.27460SM In Jan.l79j743M In Jan.t37Jt55M In Jan. 215J249M I I Jan. 231,800 fit
In Jem. 155,944*1 In Jau J3&A56M
6.590F
3,835 F.
7.Z27F.
5tZ50f.
J/66F.
6.601 F.
J.001F.
3,76 IF
2,853 F
.
IZ4S ejtj.Tebto. 1,394 *stiT«t>tg. 1.490 eitJ. TeDtg 1,583 ests, netttj. 1635 «ts. TetJtj. 1.687 esliTehtg. I797ests.rei)fg. f.667 ests. rrtrtg. 1.613 ests.rejjtg. 1.647 cstt. "nrtot<j. 1,673 tfltfreplg.
J a n u a r y of eci c h yea.r-100




hU

/

/;

f

S

—\ i

A

s

A

V;

r r i T T T T i T T T i '
1922
1923
1924

CHART 7 - W A G E EARNERS: TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL—BOLTS, NUTS, WASHERS, AND RIVETS,
OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, BY SEX
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics
.
In Jan. 2.225M In Jan. ZAZLtt In Jan. 3,992 MIn Jan. ^686 M.In Jan.5,042 MIn Jan 4,843 MIn Jan. ^731M. In Jan. J,646M In Jan. £263 MlnJan.A-392 M In Jan. 4347 M
484 F
340 F
545 F
612 F.
761F.
46O .
F
658 F * ' 990 F.
.
684F.
763 F.
78 estjs. reprg. Z3 ests. Teptg.
23 tits, rtptg.26 esTj, repiq.30 ests. repty 30 ests. Teetg. 30 ests, nesro. 26 ests. rfMg. 27'C5fS. TCfifj. 28 ests reDtgr. 220
ZZO15 €St3. reptg.
January ofe<ich year-100
U. S Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

ZOO

200

/•'
i
r
/
/

160

160

«
I/y

/

160

A
- V

140

120

160
140

jf
u

10 0

V

*

V

too

V

r

eo

120

l
v *

60

V

,

60

60

zo

40

Z40

240

220 Monthly average oft914-100.
7.2,636 M. 2,179 f. 457

ZZO

ZOO
o^oCensus
180

2Q0

^VN

employment
Tflaftv'esOo'j

160

160

160

140

140

T 20

1ZO

100

1C0

eo
^ ^
o I I o
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/
1914
1915
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

TTTS
1916

5 9 < T T T T Y T T l g T l ^ s T T T T r T ¥ g l ^ T T r T ^
•
1917

19)6

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

60

CHAitT 8.—WAGE EARNERS TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURE OF IRON AND STEEL-SCREWS, MACHINE AND WOOD, OHIO,
1914 TO 1924, BY SEX
U. S. Department of Labor
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Women's Bureau
*
Division of Labor Statistics
In
In Jan. 422 MIn Jan. 467 M. In Jan. 295 MIn Jan. 40^ M.In Jan. 525 M.In Jaw. 264M In Jan. 20 0 M Jan. 553 M,In Jan, 336M
In Jan. 1,6 2 3 M f i gures
1 30 f:
20 8 F.
203 F.
€SF
232 F.
nit:
285 F.
232 F
.
212 F.
12 J F
& tsis reptg. avai?able
3 ests reprg. 7 5StS reptg. J ests reptg. 5 ests reptg. 5 ests reptp. 4. ests. repty. 5 ests. reptg. 6 est* reptg. 6 esfs. refctg. 250
260
January ofea c h year = 1 0 0
260
260

240

240
220
200
JflO
160

A

•yd

\4Q

/ v

y l

120
100 V ^ L ^
60

220

V

• y

A
/V
t

i
r

/I

^ J p

Arv

/ v

U f ^

J

r
i

i

\

60

\

200
160
160
t

A
/ #4/ />\ \
V\
k

!

43

120
100"
60

A

V

40

60

40

JflO

160

160

160

J 40

1

120

120

100

100

60

60

60.

60

40

40

Z0

20

0

I T T I T T
1914




1915

o
3

c z £l
2
£ ^ si
1916

o
3

5

3
=
^
1917

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

40

C H A R T S - W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F F O O D A N D K I N D R E D P R O D U C T S , O H I O , 1914 T O 1924, b y S E X
"Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

180

In Jan.F2LZ7iM1 In Jdn.15,389 MJIn Jan.UJ65 M. In Jan.18,697 frt. In Jan.19,157 trt, In Jan.2(060M. In Jan 22.2 UM. In Jan2J,327/Yf, In Jaal9.792 M. In JarL2ft145 M. In Jan. 22,01% M.
5.227 F.
6.086 F.
5,211 F.
5.865F.
4.014n
4404F.
5,873 F.
57071:1
7,371 F.
A
7,056 £
1243
665 otvTcp 1198 e s t s . T t b T g . T . Z f l 9 €St5. rtbta. esta. rebfg.
1475 esi i rgbtg. M l g s t } rtetg, 1.426 esis. rebtg. ests. r«bt q. 1.276 tst*. re&tg. 1366 ests- rgptg. 1 8 0
J a n u a r y cf e a c h ycaT -100'

160

160

140

140

120

120

100

A *

100

80

60

19 K

1915




1916

1917

1916

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

19 2 C

CHART 1 0 — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T IN M A N U F A C T U R E O F F O O D — B A K E R Y P R O D U C T S , OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, B Y S E X
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

IfiO

In Jan.3,43fh1 In Jan.3L9l3frt. Figures
960 F
1J02F
269 ests. reDTfl, J66 estATiebtf avaii able

Fig ares
"Pj L 1
available

In Jan. 4 3 9 m In Jan.4454M. In Jan. 5,092M In Jan.4j663 M; In Jan.4,823 M In Jan5,654M In Jan. 5,844 M.
1,595 F
.
I.635F:
1,512 f.
1,827 F
1,445f:
f,510 F
1,105'E
377e$tiTCDt£ 4*1 ests. reptq.
407 cits, retrg.403 esti rewtj. 451 ests. rtDtg. 371 ests. rebtg.
160

January of c ich yeaMOO
160

160

r

j

140
120

140

*
*»
«

120

7
J ^hale

100

c f i *

100
60

80
*

60
220

r

200

Monthly average of 19MM
I 4576 M 4,504 1:1,012

160
160

140

#

200

/

r \jJ\f\

*

I
^Census
e mployment retails (total)

60
220

J
I

•

1

A i

IdO

r

!60

—
,r

/ vtoXe

120

\40

—*v>

120
•

100

100

80

t

8

J9I4




1913

1916

1917

1916

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

\B2U

60

CHART 11.—WAGE E A R N E R S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F F O O D - C A N N I N G A N D P R E S E R V I N G , OHIO, 1914 T O 1924,
BY SEX
TJ, S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau




[Scale reduced because of extreme fluctuation]

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

3
19 2 4

a

a

.CHART 12.—WAGE EARNERS: T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T IN M A N U F A C T U R E OF F O O D - C O N F E C T I O N E R Y , OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, B Y S E X
U. S Department of Labor
Women's Bureau




/•

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

CHABT 1 3 — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F L E A T H E R A N D L E A T H E R P R O D U C T S , O H I O , 1914 T O 1924,
BY SEX
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
U . S. Department of Labor
Division of Labor Statistics
Women's Bureau

160

In Jan. 12,210M. In Jan .11,780 M. In Jan. 11,779 M. In Jan. 11,924 M. In Jan. »,315 M In Jan. 101522 M In Jan.1£487M In Jan. &437M. In 0dn.m345M In Jan. 10.383 MIn Jan. 3A77M
6,031 F.
ft 093F.
6.526F
5,816E
6356F
6.057F.
6,531 F.
6,296 F.
§830 F.
4814 f;
6,5301:
138
136
160 ests. ncDt^ 161 ests. reotp. ests. rebtgi 136 «sti re Dtp. 14V ests. refctQ. 138 ests. reptg. 145 ests. Tzbtg. ests. rebtg.
152 esti ret)to. m ests. rebtq.161 ests. rebtq.

January oft>at:h year-100

160

ISO
o,

M

1X0
120

100
60

A

_

y v

V

140

120

fa

S :

A

V

\

60

A

100
60

\7

60

200
160

IflO

200
lontfly average of 1914-10(1
[17.755 M l 1,605 £6.130

IflO
160

160
140

140

poo Census

effiplovffletitttlatires ftotofl

120

120

J 00

100

60

60

60

^

s
1914

b

H
s
19)5




s

?

^
1916

s

^

^
1917

?

s
1918

I I
^
1919

1 1 ^
1920

n

s
1921

•• I I
1922

i

y
1923

u

i
1924

^

60

CHART 14.—WAGE EARNERS: TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURE OF LEATHER—BOOTS, SHOES, CUT STOCK AND FINDINGS, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, BY SEX
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U. S, Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

In
In Jan.. 9233 M Jan. 6,775 -MIn Jan. 9,0 72 M Jan. 8$6Z MInJan.flL002 M.In Jan. 6,066 M. Jan. 9427 M.In Jan. 61710 MIn Jaafi,13 5 M. Jan.7,7 67 M Jan. 715© M.
In
In
In
In
5665 F.
6.052F.
GA48 F.
5551 E
5,568 F.
A650F.
5,836 F:
6029 F.
6,037 E
5622 F.
S S EJG
5 S E> G
.
65 ests, rcptg.eo E T . R FT .67 E T . R P G 6A E T . R O G 64 E T . R TT .64est3. R D Q 66 E T . R D ^ 63 €5t5.rept^. 57 ET R JT . 56 ests.reptg. 56 ests. trptg.
S S CJG
S S CT .
SS ET.
CT.
S S E T.
I 60
180
January c a cK "year-100
160
I GO

140

1^-0

120

120

100
80

A

y

v

-tt*^

/

V

T

1 00

\

H , ,
V

60

V

60
60

160

tao

160 Jlontfily average of 19f4-10flL
I K W M . 6,770 f 5661

160

140 0< > Census
-w

\4Q

employment relatives <tst«J)

I ZD

120

pi-/

100

100

80

60

s

60

60

40

£
1314

1915




1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

2

S & S 1 i W ^
1923
1924

^

CHAKT 15.—WAGE E A R N E R S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E OF L I Q U O R S A N D BEVERAGES, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, B Y S E X
U. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

T
 1
1911*
19)5


Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

1916

1917

I9)FI

1919

1920

1921

1922

M ? §
1923

£

5

I vi
1924-

o

CHABT 1 6 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D OE E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F L U M B E R A N D I T S P R O D U C T S * OHIO, 1914 to 1924, B Y

160

I n J a n . 2 5 , 7 6 1 M I n J a n . 2 1 3 1 9 M. I n J a n . 2 4 , 9 5 9 ft! I n d a n 2Z334 M I n J a n . 2 2 5 9 7 ttt I n J a n . 2 0 6 1 6 M. I n J a n . 2 5 6 9 3 M I n J d n . i 7 , 8 U M. I n J a n . 1 6 , 3 7 6 M I n J a n . 2 } 4 2 5 M I n J a n 22,9 9 2 M
1,490 E
1.6 02f.
l,709f:
1.409 F.
1,611 f.
1,4-03 F.
U 90 E
1,37o F.
1.384E
1,715 F.
1,666 z
7fl3 e s t s . rcbt^. &oz e s t s . T C D t g , 660 e s t s . r c b t g . 0 9 9 e s t s . r e p t g . 913 e s t s . T e p t g . 9 2 3 e s t s . r m g . 1003 e s t s . TCptq. 9 1 4 e s t s . repty. 9 3 2 esta. reptg. t.007 £5t5.rept g. 1130 ests. TepTq.
January

o f e cick

SEX

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

T7. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

180

year'100

160

160
/V

140

140

f

MO

120
100

100
\

t

60

fiO

60

60

ZOO

180

200

I
HontKlv a v « r a o « of 191A - 1 0 0
1 2 ^ 6 6 1 n Z 5,133 F. 1,72 8

160
160

160
U0

UQ

Censas
emjaloyme nt TelaMvesfforalJ

120

120
I

100
/-N

80
60

«T?T

I
1914




19-15

1916

1917

r

>>

S

J^

100
60

, 60
i

1
1916

§
1919

1920

1921

mz

1923

1924

CHART 1 7 . - W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U f A C T U R E O F M E T A L S A N D M E T A L P R O D U C T S O T H E R T H A N I R O N
AND STEEL, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, B Y S E X
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

.n
In Jan.
InJan.13,303 M. InJaTi.73,009 M. lnJaTi.tftA93M. InJan.i9,850M In Jan. 22,895 MI Jar\.Z2,m M. z$,\56Kl 17,569M.In Jan. 17,143 m. In Jan. E£U02M In Jaa2$!27 M.
In Jan.
554SF.
5,747P.
6,775F,
Z.006 F.
. 6.136E
4553 F.
5.5 83 E ^ 4012 R
5,726 F
4,779 F.
6,501 F.
457
294. ests. rebtq. 296 ests. rtprg. 331 ests. TeJstg. 339 esis.Ttbtq. 395 Cits. TeDtg. 409 ests.rcbtg. ests. rcDtg. 432 eits. retrtt?. 406 ests.TCDtg. 456 esft.Tettg. 471 ests. rcpig.
s
»

January cfecL K year -100 ,
C

V
\

* »
-

V

V

J

r

Femate

4Z

\

N

\

I- i a a 1 S
1914




1915

s

X

i
1916

«

SI T aS I i
1917

1916

^

a

I^
1919

\

^

gi I 5 S 1 i
1920

1921

f

S s

r ^

I
1922

i

n S! i S
1923

1924

K

CHART 1 8 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F M E T A L S — G A S A N D E L E C T R I C F I X T U R E S A N D L A M P S
A N D R E F L E C T O R S , OHIO, 1914 T O 1924, B Y S E X
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

160

figures
InJan.3,Itf0M|lTiJdn. V78JM
2.964M
1,729 F
J
38 ests.repta.l 40 «sts.Wptg. a v a i l a bLl.e
J a n u a r y of

In Jan, 2^90 M InJdn.2J905M In«fcm.3,273M InJ£LTV3,176M I h J a r U 9 2 6 M lAJan.2 t 4E7M ITI Jan.2,503^
£412 F.
3,7 76 F.
3,654f.
4057F.
JJ57F.
1J90$E
£581F
43 ests.T*ptg, 4fi ests Teptg. 48 ests.repig 43 ests.meptg. 40 esrs-neptg. 51 est3.r«|atg. 50 estireatg

each

UO

/V

12 0

100

figures
a v a i l a b l e

V

A

tfafe

f

r

/

A

80

i

\

60
40

1 9 H

1915




1916

1917

1915

1913

1920

1921

1922

1925

1924

CHAR! 1 9 — W A G E EARNERS: T R E N D OP E M P L O Y M E N T IN M A N U F A C T U R E OP PAPER AND POINTING, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, B Y SEX
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

tJ. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

160

In Jan, 19,755 MIn Jan 1^882 C tIn Jan2t,214M In Jan. 22,851 M Jan.22/34hl BiJan.2i.947m In Jan Z6,\l2n Jan22A20MIn Jan^oesM. Ir>Jan.25,70AM In Jan. 27859m
r.
In
IM
7476F6,667F
7,931 F
.
8,013 E
7,1011:
7,183R
7,076E
9,1281:
7,777 f.
7.159E
806 ests. retJtg. 915 ests. Tebtq.
926 est*. ref>tg. 930 ests. reDtqi 956 ests. redtg. 938 ests. rebtg. 992 csts.ret)Tfl. 869 ests. r p Q 886 65ts. TEDtp. 913 ests. reDta 960 ests. rentg.
eT -

160

January of e ach year-100
160

160

140

140

120

100

^

r-v

120
too

60

60

60

60

200
160

200

1

Month lv averaae of 1914-100
12$678 M. 19,613 (f 7,066

160
160

160
140

120

140

ooocensus
em ploy men T Telativesftotal)

120
"*"*

100

100

60

80

60

io
191U




1915

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

.1923

60

S
1924

CHABT 2 0 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F P A P E R — P R I N T I N G A N D P U B L I S H I N G , O H I O , 1914 T O 1924,
BY SEX
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

XJ s Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

In Jan.1t.978M In Jan. ie,iW)5M

Figures

Figures

636 est*. Tepto. 1M ests. Tttto.

available

available

l,S 5UE

3J 05 f.

160

,
In Jan. 12.W4M Injlan.11,374 (VI. In Jan. 13,856 fttIn Jan. 12,972M In Jan. 12,606 M. In Jan. 13,724 M.In Jan. 15,439 M
3,688 F
.
3,582. R
3,977 F.
3,381 F.
\3.38ZF.
W
L f.
4378 F.
666«sr. ncptq. 7*3 ests. rcDtg.
729 ests. TttXQ. 705 ests. recta 752 ests.reptg. 6 5 0 ests. refit9. 6AZ e%tS. repTQ.
180

J a n u a r y of each year-100
160

160

140

140

ji

120

120
100

100
80

80

60

60

200

'

160

1

"

1

ZOO

•

Mnnthlu avernae
of 19J4J0O
F.3AZ0
T 15,2 57 H U f i137

160

160

160

UL0

140
empJoyme) ftrrelativesfloral)

150

120

100

100

*fi0

80

60
19 U




m

1916

1917

IT
f9)3

19)9

1920

} 60
1921

1922

1923

1924.

CHART 2 1 . - W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N

MANUFACTURE OF PAPER-BOXES (FANCY AND PAPER) AND DRINKING

CUPS, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, BY SEX

TJ» S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

M
\£ll M In Jan. 1,021 M In Jan. 1096 M In Jan. U35M In Jan. UG 3 In Jan. 1,4 5ZM In Jan. 1,58 oM In Jan. U55 M. In Jan. 1659 M In Jan. 2,515 M In Jan. 247J M.
1296 F
W15F
t€5I F.
1574 F.
1,290 F.
2,06a F.
X.496F.
1,51 Zf.
UZflF.
58
47 ests. reptg. SZ tsts.rcptq. ests.reptcj. 61 ests-reptq. 60 esrs. reptg. 64 ests.repta. 67 «19. Teptg, 67 Mts.repty 66 ests-Tmp- 70 estvrettfg. 73 esta-rfpt^.

In Jan.

J a n u a r y of € tuh year *100

r
fa*

m

V

Si/

s

T T ¥ T T T s T T f
1914




1915

1916

s

V

I T i T n i
1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

CHAKT 2 2 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F S T O N E * C L A Y , A N D G L A S S P B O D U C T S , O H I O , 1914, T O
1924, B Y S E X
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

160

In Jan.33,6t50M I n Jan.3G345M InJaiv36,024M. In Jan 37,7 G 6 hi In Jan.30,622lll In Jan, 2 6,142 MIn Jan.33,426M In Jan. 27,367M. I n Jan.25.456M InJaa3Z^09M. to Jan.34.fi 2 3 M.
4,693F:
J.090F.
4,916F.
3.467F.
5,031 f:
5331F.
5,9 teF.
6,157 F
A859FA006E
610 ests r*bta. 72! «StS. T€DT9. 712 ests. Tcbtg. 7 0 2 ests. rebtg. 6 8 3 ests. retrg. 693 ests. reotg. 713 ests. rtDTg. 637 ests. rebt?. 6 6 4 ests. rtbtq. 674 ests. refitg. 711 eits. ret>Tg.
160
J a n u a r y of e<i c h y e a r - 1 0 0

160

160

U0

140

.120

/ y

100

%

s *

fiO

V

120

A T
y

100

60

u

60

60
200

1
i

160

140

\ /

V

oooCensus
cmploymet t relativesftotalJ g J i f i J S v ^ ^ - /

sV

120

V

/

ige of 191L-100
1 6 0 Jionthly averc
I 3 & 6 4 2 M . 3 5 . 4 6 7 £0375

*

200
160
160
140
120
100

100
80

60

V
«

60

60
191A




19K5

1916

1917

1916

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

C h a r t 2 3 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F S T O N E , C L A Y , A N D G L A S S — G L A S S , O H I O , 1914 T O 1924,
BY SEX
U . S. Department of Labor
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Women's Bureau
Division of Labor Statistics
In Jan. 9,79AM In Jan. 91065 M.
Fl 9 urc 5
6965.
83 Z F.
J 6 ests. Teptg.
ests. re p i g . a v a i l a b l e

Figures
available

InJan.ia£56 M. In Jan. T f a 9 M In <Tan.&2Z7 hi In Jan. "?7JAM InJan. 6.0Z6 M In Jan. 2647 M InJati.^597 M
1.514 F. * *
V39F1.203 F(,586 F.
1,5 ISF.
1,628 F
6 4 esis. rebig. 55 ests. reptq. 49 est^re&tg. 4-4 esu. rcfetQ. 49 eSts-refrt^. 4 3 <sti. Tefctj. 3tf estf.wtJtg,

January of te ch y e a r - 1 OQJ

/—'

jsZtife}

""

'

A
*
A

V

1916

1917

1916

Yf

\ ^

«
•
*

V


19(
1915
http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/4
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

s*1

V *

1919

1920

if

\J

1921

1922

1923 •

1926

OHART 2 4 . - W A O E E A R N E R S : T R E N l ) O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A f c T U f i t l O F S T O N E , C L A Y , A N D G L A S g - f O T T E R Y ,
A N D F I K E - C L A Y P R O D U C T S , O f l l O , 1914 T O 1924, B Y S E X
TJ. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

160

TEEfcA-COTTA

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

In Jan. 12,6C^M In Jan.1}2J1 M In Jan. 16,156 M Indtin.1&20Jlt1 In Jan. 13395 M In Jan. 7^,177 lit In Jan. 15,2 91 M.In Jan. 73,347 M In Jan.i3,i69itf In Jan. 16.110M. In Jan. 17,523 M
J
2,2 56 F
.
3,7 \UE
3A75F.
3,397 E
WflE
3.273 F.
A335F.
J/752/;
36 S U
3.638 F.
14 A esti. rcptg. 157 «rts. reptg.
166 ests.reptg. 190 ests. TeBtg. 190 esis.te|iTg. 193 ests. re big. 180 ests, reptg. 16 3 ests.reptg. 103 ests. reptg. 183 «ts.repig.

160

J a n u a r y ofc ach ycar-100
140

140

1 zo

120
100

i
i

VB
M

60

100
80

j
u

eo

60

zo

40

i

220

r
(

ZOO Monthly

a v e r a g e of 1914-100
115,229 M.I2 . 9 7 0 f 2 , 2 6 0

160

A /
vvv^

s

140

JT

120
100

^




1915

1916

1917

1916

1919

*

1920

1921

ZOO
180
160

\r

V

140

120

v f Z
s

100

1

60
19 U

V

?

\ —

160

ZZO

1922

1923

. to
1924

CHAKT 25.—WAGE E A R N E R S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O FRUBBER—TIRESANDTUBES,OHIO, 1918 TO 1924, B Y S E X
U. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau




Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

CHAKT 26.—WAGE E A R N E R S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F RUBBER—TIRES A N D TUBES, OHIO, 1918 TO 1924, B Y
[Figures for 1918 same as entire group, rubber products]

U. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau


http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/ 1915
1914
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1916

1917

191Q

1319

1920

SEX

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

1921

1922

1923

1924

CHART 27.-WAGE EARNERS: TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES, OfllO, 1914 TO 1924, BY SEX
[U. S. Census does not collect statistics of custom-tailoring and dressmaking establishments]
TJ. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

180
160

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

In Jan. 10,751 ItlJln Jan. 11.463M In Jan.l2,850M In Jati. 13^523 M In Jan. 13^60M. Jan. 12,601 M. InJan.t5,474M. In Jan. 9,9 34M. In Jan. 12,123 M. In Jan. 14,702M. In Jan.13,796 M.
In
27,054 F.
27,267 F.
W 52 F
.
2 2,723 F
.
25,840 F.
21.772 F. I
21,817 F.
161,467 £
25.657F.
.24,619 F.
27,333 F.
689
67fl ests.ncptg. 708 ests. reptg. 757 ests. reDtg.
767 ests. rtbtq.ests. reotg. 660 est*, reotg. ests.retrtg. 6 7 9 csts.reotg. 6 6 7 ests. repty.180
610
535 ests. re{jrg.|657 ests. Tebtg.

January of each year-lOO

160

140

140

120

120

>

100

80
60

100

\

80
60

200

200

1
180 Jlonlhlv average of 1914-100
T 31,102 M.10,5;>5 E £0,566

<

180

160
140

120

160

flr

iKwCensus
employ merit relatives (tafaJ)

^ ^

140

V

120

100 ^ S f a ^ , . , ,

100

80

80

60

f 60
4914

1915




1916

1911

1916

1919

1920

19 21

1922

1925

1926

CHART 28.—WAGE EARNERS: TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES-HOSIERY AND KNIT GOODS, OHIO, 1914
TO 1924, BY SEX
IT. S. Department of Labor
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Women's Bureau
Division of Labor Statistics
634 I In Jan. 931M In Jan. 923M In Jan. 540*1 In Jan. I.062M In Jan. 704frt In Jan. 69iM In Jan. 993 M. In Jau 995M
K
A058F3,255 F.
5058 F.
3MBF.
J.6J9F.
3A59FA ZA71F.
£853F.
5056 F
.
&20F.
3,901 F.
reprp. 34 ests. refitg.
2t
39 ests, repfg.l 3/ esfs. rebtcj. 28 ests.rectg. 32 est*. retitg. 32 ests. rtptg. ests. reptg. 36 est«, Tefjtg. 34 ests. retitj. 36 ests. reut^. 35

In J a n . 762Mlln Jan. 6.58W In
Jmuory of each year -tOO

/

ft'

XX

•

1915




nTWiriTTTTTTJTTTTTTT^
1916

1917

1916

V

l\

7

/-A

JJ

/Matt

\

%\

1919

1920

FTTsTTTTTT
1931

1922

1923

1924

CHART 2 9 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D

OF E M P L O Y M E N T

IN

MANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES—MEN'S

CLOTHING

{INCLUDING

SHIRTS

A N D C O A T P A D S ) , O H I O , 1914 T O 1924, B Y S E X
[U. S. Census does not collect statistics of custom-tailoring establishments!
U . S. Department of Labor
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Women's Bureau
Division of Labor Statistics
In Jan. 3,1791ft In Jan. U93 M In Jan. 5,3 2 6 M In Jan. 3,449 M In Jan.3,864- M
.
In Jan. 2,721 M JnJan.ZA99M
Figures
In Jan. 3,072 ftf In Jan. z,5 75 M Figures
6,169 F.
9,508 F
7,767F.
not
8,387 F
6,30ZF,
5,246 F
1 F.
6,665M
5,938 F.
11 ut
h
available
a v a i lable 161 ests.reptg. 168 ests. reptg. 191 ests. refctg. 175 ests. wptg. 178 ests.reptg. 189 ests.TCfctg. 184 ests. reptg.
Zie ests.Teprp.llSJ ests.repta.
January of each year - 1 0 0

A
- W

r

\*
it
C

1914

1915




1916

1917

^ S

1916

1919

1920

19£1

1922

1923

1924

CHART 3 0 — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D

OF E M P L O Y M E N T

U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau
In Jan. £ 4 8 1 Win Jan. 2J02M

figures

Rgurcs

19 eats. reptg.|l04 csts-rcptg.

(mutable

available

4,0-SZFA

160

IN T E X T I L E S - W O M E N ' S
1924, B Y S E X

CLOTHING

(INCLUDING

CORSETS),

O H I O , 1914 T O

[U. S. Census does not collect statistics of custom-tailoring and dressmaking establishments]
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

5212 F
.

In
In Jan. 2,763 M In Jan. 2,382 M In Jan. 2,849M In Jan. 1766 M.Jan. 1,453 M. In Jan. 1,436 M In Jan. 1.310 M
l
3.716 F.
4*3.32 f.
5,181F.
5357F,
5,742 F.
JIS59F.
3,728 F
.
117 ests. rrptg.
121 ests.T-ebtg. 112 ests. repr^. 109 ests. reptg.
1ZS ests.rep19. 1£7«sre. reprg. 1 1 ests. ret>tg.
3
160

J a n u a r y o f c a c K year-IOO
140

140

1Z0
100

y \ A VA

AA

vv

1

V,J
V

•—\ \
\

60

120

V /v\
\A

\

100
80

60

60

AO

40

180
160

It 0

Monthly avera ge of 1914400
161208 M . 4 3 7 3
F.3,835

140

l.'.v

r\Af\

r-\\

7\ / V
f v
«

I 20
too

160

o^«CeTisus
'
cm J) Icy merit relatives (total)

140

> T v

• V y > . -1v A
/
V

V'A

SO

/ v ^ !

y
'

\ /

A

^

/X

v

12 0

\

100

Yy v ^ v

60

V

60

60
40

l

T T
I9I4




1915

1916

1917

1918

1919

:

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

40

CHABT 31.—WAGE EARNERS: TREND OP EMPLOYMENT IN MANUFACTURE OF TEXTILES-CLOTH GLOVES, OHIO, 1918 TO 1924, BY SEX
[ Departing
>
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

IT. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

1
Figures

no t

In Jan. 364M la Jan. 328M In Jan. 370 M In Jan. 23 6M In Jan. 216 M. Jan. 269 M.In Jan 342 M.
In
2,13 IF.
2,283 E
1,822 F.
2,263 F.
l,635f.
1,410 F
1,804 £ _
35 ests. rebtg. estj. reptg. 35 ests. reotg. ests. re&t g. 30 ests. reDtq. 30 ests. nefctg. 29 ests. reDtg.
33
34

availab e

160
i
January of etich year-100

160
140

140

120

\

100

4
*
1

%

J

\

60

120

N )

100

/

V

\7

60

V

ao
60
40

40

20

20

140

140
Monthly averaae of 1918-100
1 2 0 T. 2/740 M.3>'9 F. 2,3 61

120
*

100

100
•60

W

60

V

J

60

K

60
40

V

40

20

20
1914




1915

1916

1917

1924

CHABT 3 2 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F T O B A C C O , O H I O , 1914 T O 1924, B Y

SEX

[U. S. Census does not collect statistics of rebandling]
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U . S. Department of Labor
W o m e n ' s Bureau

In Jan. 4215 M In Jan. 4 2 6 5 M In Jan. 4095 M In Jan. Jt9fl5M In Jan. J,766M. In. Jan 3J32 M. In Jan 4152 M. In Jan 3 / 5 5 M In Jan 3,17flM In Jan 3.406 M In Jan. 3,05 5 M
ia534F
9J08F
St35flF.
11,512 F
9,960
F
S,7-26 F:
6.246F.
fi.MOF.
9,684F
9,63 7F
9,706 F. _
2A2 ests. rebtg. 239 ests. refttg. 246 ests. retxg. 249 ests. rebtg. 2 6 9 ests. re&tg. 226 ests. refltg. ZWests. refifc. 21$ ests. rzbtq. 191 esfs, reor^. 1 8 0
209 ests. rebrp. 2AO-ests, r e m
180
J a n u a r y ofe ach year - 1 0 0
!6C

160

140

140
/

120
A

100

- A
„.

v

y

120
A

V ^ A
V - ' ^ - s

r

« «
>

W

.

J

/

A

100

r

eo

BO

60

60

200
160

200

1
.Monthlv averaoe of 19J4-iflf)
ri^aor
M a r^753

ISO
16T0

160
140
120

ooeCcnSu»
emfcio/ment relatives &oraI)
120

100

^

V

s

^

-

j

100

y

/

eo

80

i eo

60
a
19 U




19/5

1916

1917

1916

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

a
1924

CHAKT 3 3 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F R U B B E R — T I R E S A N D TUBES, O H I O , 1918 T O 1924, B Y

I
Figures

SEX

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau
I
r>ot

I
available

745 M.
IT» J a n . 5 9 9 M hi Jan. 5 6 5 M. In Jan. 944 M. In Jan. 641 M. In Jan. 5 9 7 M. In Jan. 571 M. In Jan.
765 F.
1,162 F.
-595P
689K
9 5 9 r.
S84E
W70 F.
74 ests. rebtg. 7 7 ests, re&tg.
62 ests- rcfttg- ZOO
esfr- re>tg- 74 ests. rebto. 6 9 ests. m>tg._ 71

200
J a n u a r y of e a c h year-100
ISO

160

160

160

140

140

120

120

100

100

VV

60

80

60

€0

T T T f T T l s f l T t l T T I l T S T r i T l l T O
1 9 K

1915




1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

192!

1922

1923

1924

C h a r t 3 4 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D OT E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F T O B A C C O - O G A B S A N D C I G A R E T T E S , C H E W I N G A N D '
S M O K I N G T O B A C C O , A N D S N U F F , O H I O , 1918 T O 1924, B Y S E X
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U* S . Department of Labor
Women's Bureau
—

"F
FlgiLre s

not

In Jaa 3,JG9 M. In Jan. 2,547 M; In Jan. 3 2 0 S M In Jan. 2,8/4 M. In Jan. 2.56JM. In Jan. 2.835M, In Jan. £310 M.
S,919H
10,553 F
9.352 E
S.419F.
9.042 If
8,6 3fiH
a976F.
M2
172 ests: ret>tg. 172 ests. Ttftrta 184 ests. rebtg. 152 ests. recto. 14f ests. rebiq. ests ne&tp. 129 ests. teetg.
180

avatlabl £

180
January

c f ea t h

year-100
160

160

140

J40
s
t

120

120

«

J 00

100
V

" V ^ - J

ao

80

60

60
•

40

40
160

J

160

140

Monthlv a v e r a g e of 19IB -100
?.flC9 f 8 , 7 5 9
T11566

140
120

120

A

100

^

100

fiO

80

60

60

AO

1914




T T T T T T ¥ s F T T T T T
1915

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

19 21

?

%
1922

t?i

o

5

1

1923

to

£ 1

1924

j 40

CHART 3o.—WAGE EARNERS: T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T IN M A K L ' F A C T U R E O F VEHICLES, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, B Y S E X
U. S Department of Labor
Women's Bureau




-

[Excludes manufacturing by railroad companies]

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

CHART

3 0 — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T IN M A N U F A C T U R E O F V E H I C L E S — A U T O M O B I L E S A N D P A R T S , OHIO, 1914
T O 1924, B Y S E X
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

•U. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau




CHART 3 7 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F M I S C E L L A N E O U S P B O D U C T S , O H I O , 1914 T O 1924, B Y S E X
U. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

• Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

In
In
in Jan. 21.5 09 M Jan.2J.679M In Jan. 36,746 M.fn Jan.45,5 72 frl In Jan. 47,22 6 frl. Jan. 37,461 M.In Jan. 44,640 Ift In Jan, 26,960M, In Jan 24534 M. In Jan. 30,647 M In Jan, 35,75 7 M.
7,072 F _
S879F.
4453F
10.024F.
9.7I2F.
4 0 5 9?.
7.239 F.
5,336 F
2,994 F
.
6,020 F:
7652 F.
666
700
76!
115 ests. reotg ests. rct)tg. Geo ests. retitg. ests. Tcptg. ests. reptg. est* re tit q. 733 ests. refctg. 798 ests. reptg.
671
466 ests. rcdta 59J ests. rebta. 663 ests. rebtg
J a n u a r y of each year-100

A
r

)

<

...

y

N

S

a

1914.




^

S
1915

2

/ •

,

//
//

?

?
1916

0

H

S
1917

//

\
/

J-*'

a ?

I
19!

ft

! r

//

S I

\

2
1313

[/

? a
1920

2

I

^
1921.

s

H
1922

U

i

?
1923

S s

I

5

$

1924.

£

CHART 3 8 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N M A N U F A C T U R E O F M I S C E L L A N E O U S P R O D U C T S — E L E C T R I C A L
E R Y , A P P A R A T U S , A N D S U P P L I E S , OHIO, 1914 T O 1934, B Y S E X
U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau




MACHIN-

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

CHABT 39.—WAGE EARNERS: TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN SERVICE, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, BY BEX
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

IT. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

In Jan. 12J10M InJart.t5.536M, In Jan.n^OfllM In Jan. 2I.630M In Jaa22,856M, In Jan 22,16 0M. In Jan. 26,514m In Jon.26.467M In Jan.2G.652M In Jan.34230 M In Jan. 35,102 M.
14,729 F , „ 14,773F.
1QJ561F. Jfl,3l3F _ • 2UOOF
I7,132f
12.0 Ot F.
ia955F
15375F
9,392F
U69 ests. Teetg. (.758 ests. rebtg.
2.nfests. neuta £556 ests. ret>r<j 2,565 ests. rebtq.
3.847 ests.rcotg 2BZ3 esta.Veotq.
JL032 ests retrto. 3.341 ests. refta 4233 €sfs. refrtg. 120
120 1-069 «StS. TtfCtO.

eo

vS

^ —

100

100

v.

J a n u a r y o f i*ach yeaT-tOO

SO

300
280

Monthly average of 1914-100
127,576 M.12,230 F 9,347

260
240
220
200
100
A.-,

160
140
120

100
80

^

3o;

€ E 2
J 5

1914.




1915

Q- o

S

g
1916

o

«

a -ct o
1917

3

3 "S <j < M . a U
8 a B H a es
1919
1918

ITS
1920

<3

H^
1921

Ift

CHART 4 0 . - W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N S E R V I C E — L A U N D R I E S A N D D R Y C L E A N E R S , O B I 0 , 1914 >TO 1924,
U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

160

EES

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

In Jan. 2,141 M In Jan. 2 ^ 2 2 M Indan.2,620M In J a a 2,751 Ifl. In Jan. 2,797 M, III Jan. 2,584 M. InJan.2,865M. In Jan. 2,750 M. In Jan 2 ^ 7 9 M. In Jan 3^060 M. In.Jan.3^22 hi.
4,99lF._ 5,456?.
4.630F:
,
5.305 K
5,792 f;
5J92F.
4986E
4 7 1 1 if
4,101 £
5,142 fT
237 ests. rebtg. 270 ests. reotg. 281 ests. refitg. 295 ests. Teotg. 294 eats, refit?. 2flte*ts rebt^ 332 ests, rebtg. ests. TEDtg. M j e s p . reBty. 305 ests! rebtg. JUesw.ret)t^
291

160

January of ea t h . year - 1 0 0
160

160

140

140

120
100

120

*

.JlSlL^

100

eo

60

;60

60

200
100

200

. otl
M nhy
16,151

averaoe of 1914*100
nz5,160 £ 4 , 5 7 7

160

/

160
Male
UO

/•

'
-feniaJe^

f

100

140

*

\

—

120

160

^

120

y

100

80

60

60

«S d tui <£ £ a! ' J* <S
1914




1915

a:

q: i.i

1916

R

1!

c t3
u

J9I.7

*
1916

o: «J

e£

i

1919

a! ' *.3

C
£

Z

1920

C <J
L

oc

af

1921

ct

t7

oi ±

1922

d U
1923

£

<j

c

mi

a:

t 60

CHART 41—WAGE EARNERS: TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN SERVICE-HOTELS, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, BY SEX
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U/S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

n
In
In
In
In Jan. J,449tt! In Jan. 4651 M.In Jan.5,35 7 M.In Jaa 6,226 M.In Jan. 3,922 M. Jan. 5,665 M. Jan. 5,795 M.In Jan. 5,764-M,In Jan. 5,539 M.T Jan. 5,998 M. Jan.C^g M.
4,336 F
.
4152 F
47P6F.
3^853 F
2,916 F
3,349 F.
3464 F
2.04.4F
2,74) F
4373 F
4460 F
35!
166 ests. refctq. 246 ests. T<rptq. 300 ests. rttptg. ests. revtg. 356 ests. vetrtg.330 ests. retrtg. 352 ests. repta JfQ ests. ret)to. 303 ests. reptp. 348 ests refctQ 390 ests. neftfg.
January ofeach %A
: \
year -1<10
/
v

J

M

T I T T I l T f T I
19 K




1915

1916

1917

19J8

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

CHART 42 — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N S E E V I C E — R E S T A U R A N T S , O H I O , 1914 T O 1924, B Y
U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

SEX

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

In Jan. 1,12a M. In Jan. 1.650M In Jan. 2,026M In Jan. ^255 M. In Jan. 2.47AM In Jan. 2.7Iffrt In J a n 5433 ftt. I n J a n . 2£90M In Jan.,3U85M. In Jan 3,724 M In Jon. WSM
2.703F
2.6 29F.
3.265F.
,3,362 E
t,653f
1,455F.
A627E
4,30 f F.
3,35?F.
u s sr.
ests. mjta 365 ettJ. Ttptg. 421 ests. reDtg. 4 6 5 ests.refctg. 615 «S t&reptg.
J67 esfc. TeDtg. 220 esiS-TCUtg. 272 tsTS.TCDlj. 260 WtiTCDtp. 327 tsfs. reotgi 406 est*. rtbfg.
J a n u a r y ofc< ch y e a r - 1 0 0

A

.

19K

1915




1916

1917

1916

1919

\9Z0

1921

, A

1922

1923

1924

CHART 43.—WAGE E A R N E R S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N T R A N S P O R T A T I O N A N D P U B L I C UTILITIES, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, B Y S E X
[Excludes interstate railroads]
U. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics
InJan.40/97tt1 In Jan. 3943 7 M,In JarU4850M. In Jan.39,Bf4M, In Jan.35.751M lit Jan. 40.669M In t7arU4,743M.
In dan.25.436M. In Jan.33,645m. In Jan.3Z3.Jlh1 In Jan. 4-0,11 i ftt
11.207E
10,755 r
12,106 ft
10.767F
7,6701
6,001?.
11,2661:
11,926R
7,7 Gtf.
1I,5S7fT
798 ests. rejitq. 996 ests. rettg.
XI37 ests.reptg. ests. reU34 ests. rebtg. f,0flf ests. reptp. 1,146 ests. T^pTg. (.046 ests. reptg. 1.07f ests. Teptq. 1.m ests. retTQ.127/ eitj. reptg.
1U9
mo.
January of ea ch

/

/

year'100

/

*,
/

jgyfeTnale

y

r*

•

1914

1915




1916

1917

1916

1919

-

—

.

1920

19?!

1921

1923

1924

\

CHABT 4 4 . — W A G E E A R N E R S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N T R A N S P O R T A T I O N A N D P U B L I C U T I L I T I E S — T E L E G R A P H A N D T E L E P H O N E

(INCLUDING MESSENGER SERVICE), OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, BY SEX
[Excludes interstate railroads]

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

140

In Jan. 348lMJIn Jan. 5,5 79 M In Jan6.4S7M, In Jan.7,444 M. In Jan 6,757 M In Jan 6,267 M. In Jan. 6.93 sm In cJan.6,87^M In Jan. 6,6 tOM. In Jan. 7.262frl In Jaru 77J4 M.
y>755F'
10,9751: „ „ . 11,653 E
A
, ,
9,3 6fl F. „ „
J0,57flE
S,9t5F.|
76S3F
H327/T
11.0Q1E
10.5 65F.
11,72 Of:
297 est5. reprcj.pit ests. refctq. 403 ests. re org. 414 ests. reptg. 369 ests. rtbtg. 360 esis. reptg. 387 ests. re org. 365 ests. recto. 405 ests. repif 3 9 9 ests. refctg. 390 ests. rectg. 140

January of each year-100-

*

120

*

* \

*

\\

\ /

100
dO

T20
100

f

60

60

60
260

260

1

240 Monthlv averaae of 1914-100

13556

N

M. 3521 If 6037

220

f'

200

*
it

180

160

\

140

i

220

/

N

j!

a

240

/
V

200

w

J

Id 0

W

160

f

r

X40

120
100

120
100

-fey

so
1914

1915




T T
1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

g 3

t* a

192 J

I

Is?
1922

m5

t 80

S £
*
19 2 4

CHART 4 5 W A G E

EARNERS:

T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N T B A D E , R E T A I L A N © W H O L E S A L E , O H I O , 1914 T O 1924, B Y

SEX

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

a7H
96

In Jaa2QS44M In Jan. 25,45301) InJan.23897M. InJan3iS/9M. In Jan.3Z,700M In Jan.34007 M. In J a n 40,855 fll In Jan 3643 3M, In Jan36.955M In Jan4ft586M In Jan.44667 M
S245F.
SL654F.
6,221?.
0,342 f;
8,19 8fv
6.760F.
5,950f:
4957E
9,092 F.
WOE
CJ Q
3361 ests. reofa U12 ests rebra. 4.437 est* recto4908 ests. rebTQ. 5.330 ests. T I T 5657ests. re&tg. 6,589 ests.refitg. 5.636 esti re&tg. 6067 ests. reetq.6 2 7 6 ests. rebta. 7669 ests. n?£>Ta
January of each y e a r - 1 0 0

- V

J

I

*

v

v

/ K r - ' f

cdt

/ V

T T T T T T
1914-




1915

...

V

*

V

T r r n r T s T i T t T n T r i T r r r r i i T i i
1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924

C h a r t 4 6 — B O O K K E E P E R S , S T E N O G R A P H E R S , A N D O F F I C E C L E R K S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N A L L I N D U S T R I E S , O H I O , 1914 T O
J924, B Y S E X
U S. Department of Labor
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Women's Bureau
Division of Labor Statistics

1914




1915

1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1$Z4

CHAKT 4 7 — B O O K K E E P E R S ,

S T E N O G R A P H E R S , A N D OFFICE CLERKS: T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T IN T R A D E , R E T A I L A N D W H O L E SALER O H I O , 1914 T O 1924, B Y S E X
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U . S, Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

140

1Z0

In Jaa 11,546 M. In Jan. 12,634 M,
Y.
In Jart 6,604 M- In Jan. 7,567 M. In Jan 6,66 4 M In Jan. 10,192 M. In Jan. 6,68) M. In Jan. 6,80! M. InJauJt,022 I 1 In Jan. IT,046 M. Fi q u re s
20,799 F.
10,054 £
19,151 H
7,945 F.
16,966F.
1G.166 F.
17,890 F
12,420 R „
6,441 ff
13,335 F.
I36?esrs. rent 9. 4t72 ests. recta U.L17 ests. rebTtf 4908 ests. reotj. 5.330 ests. reoto. 5.657ests.reDfa 6.589 esis. repfg. 5fiJfl€SK re org. a v a i l a b l e . 6.276 ests. tcbtg 7669 ests. wetg.

140

J a n u a r y of eaich y e a r - 1 0 0
120
FejSS^

too

100

ao

SO
250

i

260

Jionthly averaae of 1914-TOOI I 6 S 3 7 M 6,f 311 f 7 9 2 7

j
*

240

J

220

j

1

240

1
1

220

2 00

200
-

160

160

(f

160

160
j
140

^rna

120

'

100
60

j

TotQ^p^

I

' ' — •

«

t9K

i tiC 3?
1915




pj <-»

ri

if

a:

1916

!

140

"

120

f

\

/
4

— —

/

c> "3 ~ ^
1917

"oT" j

100
a?

3<

1916

J

C t
L
1919

• - = J—^ %i
1920

z
1921

a: <.

ac

K
1921

a:

*J

i

a:
1925

ai

a*

1924.

a*

1

til

C h a r t 4 8 - B O O K K E E P E R S , S T E N O G R A P H E R S , A N D OFFICE C L E R K S : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N T B A D E - S T O t t t - i S R E T A I L A N D
W H O L E S A L E , OHIO, 1914 T O 1924, B Y S E X
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

XJ S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

140

In Jan. 5.5fleMJlnJan. 43 70M In Jan. 4663M. In Jan. 5,139 M.In Jan. 4990 M. In Jan. 4776 M. In Jan. 4395 M.In Jan. 5,906 M.
7.A49F.
8,656 F
.
a607F
11.015 K
11,702 F
12,K8 F
6,16 8iT|
6.372F
3J66 ests.tfeptft 1695 csts. rebta 4021 esrs. rtftg.4 2 7 1 etts. rtbtg. 4932 ests. ret>ta
4213 ests. re pt p.
2.703 ests. reDro|3.!5-7 ests. rebto-

Figures
avaYlable

In J a n . 5.9Z6 M. In Jan 6301 M,
12,502 F. „ „ 12*986H
463A ests. refctg
5.666 est5. vc&to.

1 40

January of each year-100
120
100

120

^

^

ttflsS^

100

eo

60

60

60

240

210

240

I
Monthlv av*raoe of /S/4-100
T.11,686 M.5,!562 If 6,12 6

22 0

200

200

\ .

160

160

160

160

UQ

1/0

120
^ Total ^ ^

too

-

—

'

y—

—

'

120

— —

^

100

60

60

60

^

^
19 K

m
1915




^

?
1916

^

1917

^

n

^

1916

M

1919

^

M
1920

^

n

H

192 J

n

^

1922

1923

I' 1

§ ^
1924

ii 60

<

CHART

4 9 . — B O O K K E E P E R S , S T E N O G R A P H E R S , A N D O F F I C E C L E R K S : T R E N D O F E M P L O Y M E N T I N TBADE—OFFICES, O H I O , 1914 T O
1924, B Y S E X
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
*
Division of Labor Statistics

IT. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

1 £0

MO

In
In Jan. 2.405 MIn Jan 2,43 OM In Jan £951M. In Jan. 4,12a MIn Jan. 2,7 i 7 M. Jan. 5214 M. In Jan. 4,723 M In Jan. 4,309m. In Jan 3,743 M. Jan. A666M. In Jan.5,5 27 M.
In
1.41Z.F.
6.026F.
1,641 F , „
AS54F
GfiisF.
3,196 F.
2 < 152F 5,427 F
5,065 R
4,416 r
3,051 E
235 ests. rcptg. 269 esls. refcTQ 3 6 9 esTs.reptg. 48$ ests. Teptj. 515 e s t s . Teptg. 59 4 ests. rcptg. 803 esls. rept<j. 676 wts. re|3tg. 12Z ests- reptg. 7 7 9 e s U r e p t g . 9 8 Z ests. r<ptq.

January ofe

year =.100

120

*r

100'

100
-

60

60
520

520
500

140

.Monthly average of 1914-JOG.
Iaei6
M . £ 4 0 5 E 1A11

500

7 "

M

480

460

-<60

440

440

420

420

JX 0

400

360

560

360

560

340

340

520

320

300

300

260

260,

260

260

240

240

220

ZZO

200

ZOO

160

180

T 60

160

140

140

ferrate.

120

120

Total _

too

100
60

t

C F T i T I l T I T t T T TI T T T T T T T

I9U




W15

1916

1917

1916

1919

i

TTTTTTTTTTTWTYTT

Ti
1920

1921

1921

1923

1924

60

CHART 6 0 . — B O O K K E E P E R S ,
U . S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

STENOGRAPHERS,

•

AND

OFFICE CLERKS: T R E N D
1914 T O 1924, B Y S E X

OF E M P L O Y M E N T

IN

ALL MANUfACTUBES,

Figures
In Jan. 22,213 M InJan24>703M lnJan.26,492M In Jan.32,8J9!H In Jau3499f M. lnJan.35,395 M. InJem.4l.980M. In Jan 3^599 M.
16 A30?.
£0,0461:
i 4,606 F.
2&669F.
' 3Q,iOZE
Z&59F.
26959 F.
6,749 ests. rebto. 7,884 ests-rebtp- $.299 ests.reprg &600 ests. rebta.
SL85fl ests recto.3.01 ffists,rebtg. 9.652 ests. reot?. fl.632 ests. recta. a v a i l a b l e

mhyear-loo
January of <
X N

j^JjiJe

T O l T T l T T l l
1914

1915




1916

T T T T T T T T T T T T F T X S
1917
1916
1919
mo

0210,

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

1921

In Jan. 35,775 M In Jan 3 7,655 M.
26,9/0 F.
26.1Z9E
6.70/ ests rebtg. a (25 «ts.reftto.

CHART 51.—SALESPEOPLE (NOT T R A V E L I N G ) : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N A L L INDUSTRIES, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, B Y S E X
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

U. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

160

In
In Jan. 14451 M, Jan. 1^254 MIn Jan. J7,82 5 M. IiJan. f9,969M In Jan. 2Q399M In Jan 20.573 M. Jaa24028MJIn Jdn.23,859M
n gures
[n
In
14937 F.
U.742F1
1S,I3ZF. „ ' ZQ.GZ&F.
W06f:
22,914E
17,246 K
22,933 V
.
23.562 esfi-TEpT^
f4X9 ests mrfg. 17.981 ests. rebtg.20.0)7 ests. re&Tg.
Zl.62Aests.vemZZ.709esls.nbtq
2M5Zes&nm 2ZU]esls. rebtg 23.562 ests. lepra available

In Jan272t2M, Ii Jan 32,625^
263 J 9E
•23.850F
25304 cs£*efetg. 3a43o«»5.Tmfa

January of each year-fOO
140
120
too

"V

160
140

i

120

2

too
60

ao

M

I9K

5

£

^




1915

U

^

1916

»

5

n

1917

H

n

1918

5

5

I

^

19)9

s

I

U

1920

s

I

S s

1921

s

^
1922

i r m x o i
1923

1924.

a

o

CHART 52.—SALESPEOPLE (NOT TRAVELING): TREND OF EMPLOYMENT IN ALL MAUNFACTURES, OHIO, 1914 TO 1924, BY SEX
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics

"U. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

200

In
In Jan. 3,098 M. Jan. 2,916 M. Jan. 3,694 M, Jaa 4,12 9 MIn Jan. 4,015 M. Jon. 3,86b M. Jon. 4,335 M. Jan. 4,5 75 M. figures
In
In
In
In
In
1,026 f.
976 F.
975 r
1,062 F.
1,047 F
U7Z F
IZlf.
76 5P.
6,600 ests. repty 6.856 esTs. repty 9011 ests. reptg.
8.299 ests. rcRfg.
9,652 ests. n f t .8.632 ests. rebtg. available
ecg
6,749 esTs. rebtg. 7.8A4 ests reptg

In Jan. 4,925 M. Jon. 5,6 05 M.
In
f, N 7 K
1.136 F
5,701 C T . reptg. ai25 eits.Tftit^
S5
200

January ofee ch year=100
180

160

160

160

140

140

120

120

^

100

100

60

ao

220

220,

200 Hanthty average of 19/4*100
1X902 M 3,153 f. 749

200

IfiO

180
y

160
W ® —
T° t0Ll

140

160

y Male

y

140

.

120

120
f

roq

•

100

80

, 60
19IA




1915

1916

1917

1920

1921-

1922

1923

1924

CHART

S3-SALESPEOPLE

(NOT

TRAVELING):

TREND

OF E M P L O Y M E N T
BY SEX

IN T R A D E , R E T A I L

V. S. Department of Labor
Women's Bureau

160

AND

W H O L E S A L E , O H I O , 1014 T O

1924,

Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Division of Labor Statistics
figures

< n
In Jan. 1J4I9M. InJan.1$9J6 M.
[lit JanJdS38MJJn Jan.l2,4J0ltf. In Jan.12677M. In Jan. 13,335 M T Jan. 14/05 ffl.In Jan. 14743
17SAO F.
1596JF:
2f,346 r.
13,946E I
14,070E
19,1621;
22,929 E 21.559 E
1361 ests. rebt9-14112 eat; . rebtg. 4437 eits. rgptg. 4936 ests. refttg. A330 Bits. Tgpty. 565 7 esti. retifcy. 3.669 ests. reptg. 5l€36 ests reptq.
— 9.

available

In
In Jan. 1 £23 J M. Jan. 22,975 M
24,763 E
22,237IF
&Z76 ests. Teuty. 76 S 9 ests. reptq.

160
4

J a n u a r y of each year-100
160

160

140

U0

120

120

100

2

V

100
60

60

I

i

S

1914

b

1

^
1915




s

^

6
1916

s

!

s
1917

?

?
1913

S

N

^
f9!9

S

S

?

?
1920

^
1921

r T T i ™ r i T T T T T i
1922

1923

1924-

CHART 54.—SALESPEOPLE (NOT T R A V E L I N G ) : T R E N D OF E M P L O Y M E N T I N T E A D E - S T O B E S , R E T A I L A N D W H O L E S A L E , OHIO, 1914
TO 1924, B Y S E X
U . S. Department of Labor
Source: Ohio Department of Industrial Relations
Women's Bureau
Division of Labor Statistics

19)4

1915




1916

1917

1918

1919

1920

1921

1922

1923

1924


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102