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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, SECRETARY

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU, NO. 63

STATE LAWS AFFECTING
WORKING WOMEN




▼
HOURS
MINIMUM WAGE
HOME WORK

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON
1927

[Public—No. 259—66th Congress]
[H. It. 13229]
AN ACT To establish in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as
the Women’s Bureau

Be it enacted by the Senate and House oj Representatives of the United
States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be estab­
lished in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as the
Women’s Bureau.
Sec. 2. That the said bureau shall be in charge of a director, a
woman, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice
and consent of the Senate, who shall receive an annual compensa­
tion of $5,000. It shall be the duty of said bureau to formulate
standards and policies which shall promote the welfare of wage­
earning women, improve their working conditions, increase their
efficiency, and advance their opportunities for profitable employ­
ment. The said bureau shall have authority to investigate and
report to the said department upon all matters pertaining to the
welfare of women in industry. The director of said bureau may
from time to time publish the results of these investigations in such
a manner and to such extent as the Secretary of Labor may prescribe.
Sec. 3. That there shall be in said bureau an assistant director,
to be appointed by the Secretary of Labor, who shall receive an
annual compensation of $3,500 and shall perform such duties as
shall be prescribed by the director and approved by the Secretary
of Labor.
Sec. 4. That there is hereby authorized to be employed by said
bureau a chief clerk and such special agents, assistants, clerks, and
other employees at such rates of compensation and in such numbers
as Congress may from time to time provide by appropriations.
Sec. 5. That the Secretary of Labor is hereby directed to furnish
sufficient quarters, office furniture, and equipment, for the work of
this bureau.
Sec. 6. That this act shall take effect and be in force from and
after its passage.
Approved, June 5, 1920.




U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, SECRETARY

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU, NO. 63

STATE LAWS AFFECTING
WORKING WOMEN




HOURS
MINIMUM WAGE
HOME WORK

'S’arjsoS,

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON
1927




CONTENTS
Page

Letter of transmittal
Laws regulating the length of the working day or week---------------------------Eight-hour laws
Eight-and-a-half-hour laws
Nine-hour laws
Ten-hour laws
Ten-and-a-quarter, ten-and-a-half, eleven, and twelve hour laws------Weekly hour laws
Summary of laws limiting daily and weekly hours----------------------------Laws providing for a day of rest, one shorter workday, time for meals, and
rest periods
Day of rest, one shorter workday
Time for meals
Rest periods
Summary
Night-work laws
Summary of all the laws affecting women’s hours of labor-----------------------Laws regulating home work-----------------------------------------------------------Minimum-wage laws
Index to labor laws in each State----------------------------------------------------Chaet I. Eight-hour and eight-and-a-half-hour laws-----------------13
II. Nine-hour laws
III. Ten-hour laws
IV. Ten-and-a-quarter, ten-and-a-half, eleven, and twelve hour lawsV. Weekly hour laws
25
VI. Laws providing for a day of rest, one shorter workday, time for
meals, and rest periods----------------------------------------26
VII. Night-work laws____________________________________ —
VIII. Home-work laws in the United States-----------------------------------IX. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States---------- Follows p.




m

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2
2
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3
4
4
4
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6
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8
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21
24

37
42
51




LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

U. S. Department of Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, August 15, 1927.
Herewith is transmitted a report showing the present status
of State laws pertaining to hours of employment, minimum wages,
and home work which affect working women.
Bulletin 40, “State Laws Affecting Working Women,” which
covers State laws affecting women in industry in 1924, has been so
much in demand that the Women’s Bureau feels confident that a
new bulletin covering the same subject will be of great value not only
as a source of information but as a comparative study of the changes
made by the States in their legislation regulating hours of employ­
ment, minimum wages, and home work.
This material has been prepared by Mrs. Mildred J. Gordon,
industrial research assistant of the Women’s Bureau.
Respectfully submitted.
Mary Anderson, Director.
Hon. James J. Davis,
Secretary of Labor.
Sir:




STATE LAWS AFFECTING WORKING WOMEN
AUGUST 1, 1927

LAWS REGULATING THE LENGTH OF THE WORKING DAY
OR WEEK
There are only four States in the United States Alabama, Florida,
Iowa, West Virginia—that do not have some sort of a law regulating
the hours of work for women. Indiana has but one limitation of
hours—that prohibiting the employment of women at night hi one
occupation—manufacturing. Georgia, North Carolina, and South
Carolina have limited the hours of work in only one industry—textile
manufacturing. All the other States have either definitely forbidden
the employment of women for more than a certain number of hours
per day or week, or have penalized all employment beyond certain
specified hours by providing that it must be paid for at an increased
rate.
Eight-hour laws.
The shortest period to which hours of work are limited is 8 hours
per day in 10 States—Arizona, California, Colorado, Kansas, Mon­
tana, Nevada, New Mexico, New York, 1 Utah, and Washington ■
the District of Columbia, and the Territory of Porto Rico. The
number of industries or occupations included in these laws varies
greatly.
.
California has the most inclusive legislation. An act of the legis­
lature in that State limits the hours of work strictly to 8 per day and
48 per week in any manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile estab­
lishment, laundry, hotel, public lodging house, apartment house,
hospital, place of amusement, or restaurant, or telephone or telegraph
establishment or office, or the operation of elevators in office buildings,
or any express or transportation company. In addition to the
industries and occupations covered by this act of the legislature the
hours of work in a number of other industries and occupations have
been limited by orders of the industrial welfare commission. Certain
of these orders limit to 8 per day and 48 per week the hours of those
employed in the dried-fruit-packing industry, in the nut-cracking
and sorting industry, as labelers in the fruit and vegetable canning
industry, as labelers or office workers in the fish-canning industry, or
as office workers in the fruit and vegetable packing industry; another
order limits the hours of workers employed in unclassified occupations
to 48 per week; another limits the employment of workers in general
* The New York law was passed March 30, 1927, to become effective January 1, 1928.




1

2

STATE LAWS AFFECTING WOBKING WOMEN

and professional offices to 6 days per week unless time and a quarter
is paid for the seventh day, and even in this case only 48 hours a
week may be worked; still another order requires that time and a
quarter be paid for all hours worked beyond 48 per week or for work
done on the seventh day of the week in the fruit and vegetable can­
ning or packing industry and the fish-canning industry. Thus by a
combination of methods of legislation California has limited the
hours of work for practically all women workers, except agricultural
workers and domestic servants.
.
Although the States in the group under discussion limit daily hours
uniformly to 8, the number of hours that a woman may work per
week varies. Arizona, California, Kansas, Utah, the District of
Columbia, and the Territory of Porto Rico allow only 48 hours work
per week. Nevada allows 56 hours; New Mexico and New York
each have several weekly limits. New Mexico has either no weekly
limit or different limits in various occupations, ranging from 48 hours
to GO hours per week. New York, due to overtime allowances and
provisions for a shorter workday per week, permits weekly hours of
48, 49K, and 51.2 Colorado, Montana, and Washington have no
weekly limit.
Eight-and-a-half-hour laws.
Two States—North Dakota and Wyoming—by acts of the legisla­
tures, provide for a working day of 8^ hours in specified industries
and occupations. The North Dakota law applies only to towns of
500 or more population and limits the weekly hours to 48. The
Wyoming law covers the whole State, but allows a working week of
56 hours.
Nine-hour laws.
Seventeen States Arkansas, Idaho, Kansas, Maine, Massachu­
setts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, New Mexico, New
York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Wisconsin—limit to 9 hours the working day of women in specified industries or
occupations. Two of these States—Massachusetts and Oregon—
limit the weekly hours to 48. Kansas allows 49^ hours per week in
laundries and factories and 54 hours per week in mercantile estab­
lishments. Ohio and Wisconsin allow 50 working hours per week,
New Mexico allows 56 hours, North Dakota 58 hours, Idaho sets no
weekly limit, and the remaining 9 States allow 54 hours per week.
North Dakota through its minimum-wage orders has established
hour limitations for the entire State that vary from the standard set
by the 8J4-hour act of the legislature, but has continued to increase
the number of women workers coming under some hour law.
Minnesota, though many of its women workers are limited to
9 hours a day, includes a greater number under a 10-hour law.
* S§e footnote on page




STATE LAWS AFFECTING WOBKING WOMEN

3

Ten-hour laws.
In this group are found the States of Connecticut, Delaware,
Georgia, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Minnesota,
Mississippi, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode
Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Virginia, and Wisconsin, 18
in all. The weekly hours show considerable variation. New Jersey,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island and South Dakota have the shortest
limit, 54 hours per week. Connecticut, Delaware, Mississippi (in
manufacturing only), South Carolina, and Wisconsin allow 55 hours;
Minnesota permits 58 hours; Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mary­
land, Mississippi (in all occupations except manufacturing), and New
Mexico, 60 hours; Illinois, Oregon, and Virginia, 70 hours. Three of
these States—:New Mexico, Oregon, and Wisconsin—limit the hours
of the majority of their women workers to less than 10 per day
and include only a few groups in their 10-hour laws. Georgia,
Mississippi, and South Carolina include both men and women in
their hour laws. Two of these laws, Georgia and South Carolina, are
very limited, covering only textile factories. Mississippi includes all
manufacturing in its 55-hour-week law, and has in addition a 60-hourweek law for women covering all occupations.
Ten-and-a-quarter, ten-and-a-half, eleven, and twelve hour laws.
In this miscellaneous group of laws are found the States of New
Hampshire, permitting a 103-4-hour day and a 54-hour week; Vermont,
a 103^-hour day and a 56-hour week; Tennessee, a 10J4_hour day
and a 57-hour week; and North Carolina, an 11-hour day and a
60-hour week for men and women employed in textile factories.
South Carolina appears on two charts (III and IV), as one of its laws
limits cotton manufacturing establishments to 10 hours per day and
another limits the employment of women in mercantile establish­
ments to 12 hours per day.
Weekly hour laws.
In addition to laws limiting daily hours in specified industries or
occupations, five States—Connecticut, Maine, Minnesota, New
York, Oregon—have legislation supplementing the laws regulating
both daily and weekly hours, and limiting only the weekly hours for
certain industries or occupations. For these weekly limits, Con­
necticut and Minnesota specify 58 hours; Maine and New York, 54
hours; Oregon, 56 hours in one occupation and 48 hours in another.
Summary of laws limiting daily and weekly hours.
In all, 43 States have laws that limit the number of hours that a
woman may work. In many States, however, the number of indus­
tries or occupations coming under the law is so small as to affect only a
61927°—27-----2




STATE LAWS AFFECTING WORKING WOMEN

small proportion of all working women in the State. A comparison
of the charts will show that generally the States which have laws
establishing the shortest working day and week are also the States
which bring the greatest number of industries or occupations under
the provisions of the law. (See Eight-hour and eight-and-a-halfhour chart.)
LAWS PROVIDING FOR A DAY OF REST, ONE SHORTER
WORKDAY, TIME FOR MEALS, AND REST PERIODS
Eighteen States, the District of Columbia, and the Territory of
Porto Rico have further regulated the hours of working women by
providing for breaks in their hours of employment. These laws
supplement the legislation on the length of the working day and
week.
J
Day of rest, one shorter workday.
Twelve of these States—Arizona, Arkansas, California, Delaware,
Kansas New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon
Pennsylvania, Washington—and the District of Columbia have
limited the number of days that a woman may work in succession,
in the majority of cases to six days out of seven.
Time for meals.
Thirteen States—Arkansas, California, Delaware, Kansas, Louisi­
ana, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, North Dakota, Ohio
Pennsylvania, Washington, Wisconsin—and the Territory of Porto
Rico have provided that a period of time varying from 30 minutes
to 1 hour must be allowed for the noonday meal.
Rest periods.
Twelve States—Arkansas, Delaware, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine,
Maryland, Massachusetts, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania,
Washington, Wisconsin—the District of Columbia, and the Territory
of r orto Rico have ruled that a woman can work only a fixed number
of hours usually five or six, without either a meal period or a rest
period of some sort.
Summary.
A great many of the States which have laws limiting the total
number of hours that a woman may work per day or per week have
not provided for any breaks in her employment. Forty-three
States have limited hours of labor but only 18 States have provided
iat women must have either a day or rest or one shorter workday, or
time for meals or rest periods.
In the States that have industrial commissions the orders for rest
periods, a day of rest, and time for meals have generally been issued




STATE LAWS AFFECTING WORKING WOMEN

O

for specific industries or occupations and have considered the special
conditions that apply to each case. For example, Oregon considers
the work in the telephone industry in the large city of Portland as
distinct from that in the State at large, and provides for 1 day of rest
in 7 in Portland, but only for 1 day of rest and 1 short day of 6 hours
in every 14 days for the State at large. In California, Oregon, and
Washington, the industrial welfare commission orders provide the
only form of regulation covering rest periods, time for meals, or 1
day’s rest in 7, although the daily and weekly hour legislation is
covered by acts of the legislature.
NIGHT-WORK LAWS
Sixteen States—California, Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, Kan­
sas, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North
Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Washington,
Wisconsin—and the Territory of Porto Rico prohibit night work for
women in certain industries or occupations. The laws of three of
these States—Indiana, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania cover
only manufacturing, and in South Carolina the law coveis only
mercantile establishments. In both Ohio and W ashington only one
very small group is covered—ticket sellers in Ohio and elevator
operators in Washington. In the remaining 10 States and the Terri­
tory of Porto Rico two or more industries or occupations are included.
Two States—Maryland and New Hampshire—limit the hours that a
woman may work at night to 8, although Maryland allows women to
work 10 hours and New Hampshire 10% hours during the day.
The most common period during which night work is prohibited is
from 10 p. m. to 6 a. m. A few of the States, however, set only an
evening limit after which work is not permitted. The longest period
of time during which night work is prohibited is from 6 p. m. to 6
a. m. in textile manufacturing in Massachusetts. Night-work
legislation is found not only in a much smaller number of States
than is legislation limiting the daily and weekly hours of work but m
many States which have both types of legislation the night-work
laws cover a much smaller group of industries or occupations.
SUMMARY OF ALL THE LAWS AFFECTING WOMEN’S
HOURS OF LABOR
No State has regulated each industry or occupation by the passage
of all types of hour-law legislation discussed in the preceding para­
graphs. States that regulate daily hours often fail to limit the num­
ber of weekly hours, or to provide for one day of rest in seven, lunch
periods, or rest periods, or to prohibit night work. A few States have




6

STATE LAWS AFFECTING WORKING WOMEN

a!, types of laws for their industries which employ the greatest
numbers of women, notably Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsyl­
vania,. where there are laws of these various kinds covering manu­
facturing establishments. The States that have industrial com­
missions seem to be establishing regulations that cover all these
points more rapidly than are the ones that depend on separate acts
ol their legislatures for each step.
LAWS REGULATING HOME WORK
About one-fourth of the States have laws either prohibiting or
“g h0me, WOrk' Since women
a very large proportion
, ^1 home workers, so that large numbers of them are affected by
such legislation, these laws are included in this report. Ten States—
NewYn f nva’ p'Taryl;lnd’. Massa°husetts, Michigan, Missouri,
New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee—have prohibited for all
except the immediate members of a family, certain forms of home
2; I"
manufacture of clothing, trimmings, and'tobacco
products. Moreover, certain requirements that must be met by any­
one doing home work are established by law in California, Connecti­
cut, New Jersey, and Wisconsin. Similar requirements for the
immediate members of the family doing home work are established
by law m all of the States, except Ohio, which allow only the immedi­
ate members of a family to do home work. In general, these require­
ments are for cleanliness, adequate lighting and ventilation, and
freedom from infectious and contagious disease. The majority of
these laws were passed a number of years ago. While all the other
types of laws considered in this report are constantly changing, the
only States that have changed their home-work laws or regulations
m the last five years are California, New Jersey, and Wisconsin.
MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS
Nine 3 States—California, Colorado, Massachusetts, North Dakota,
Oregon, South Dakota, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin—have
laws establishing a minimum wage for women workers. Two
. Utes South Dakota and Utah—have set a minimum wage by law
m specified industries or occupations. The remaining States—Caliiorma, Colorado, Massachusetts, North Dakota, Oregon, Washing­
ton and Wisconsin have created boards or commissions with power
to study the various occupations or industries and establish minimumwage rates for each or all of them. This has been done for one or
more groups of workers in all the States except Colorado, where
rough lack of a sufficient appropriation the commission has never
functioned. The awards of the boards or commissions are mandatory
• In Minnesota the attorney general has ruled that the law is unconstitutionauTaptfied to adult




women.

STATE LAWS AFFECTING WORKING WOMEN

7

in all the States except Massachusetts, where they can be enforced
only through the strong support of public opinion. The highest
wages set in any of these awards are $16 per week for all industries
in the State of California. Where the rates are set by law they have
not responded to the great rise in the cost of living since 1914. The
rate set by act of the legislature in Utah is $7.50 per week for experi­
enced women.




Index

to labor laws in each state

Alabama:
No laws...*___________________
Arizona:
8-hour day________________________
48-hour week________________________
Day of rest.___ __________________________
Arkansas:
9-hour day____________________________
54-hour week_____________________
Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods_______________
California:
8-hour day_________________________
48-hour week____________________________
Day of rest, time for meals_________________________
Night work________________________
Minimum wage____________________
Home work___________________
Colorado:
8-hour day________________________
56-hour week*______________________
Minimum wage_____________________
Connecticut:
10-hour day______________________
55-hour week_____________________________
58-hour week____________________________
Night work_______________________________
Home work__________________
Delaware:
10-hour day______________________
55-hour week______________________
Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods____________
_
Night work_______________________________
District of Columbia:
8-hour day_______ '____________________
48-hour week_____________________
Day of rest, rest periods___________________________
Florida:
No laws_________________________
Georgia:
10-hour day_______________________________
60-hour week___________________________
Idaho:
9-hour day__________________________
63-hour week *__________________________
Illinois:
10-hour day_____________________________
70-hour week*___________________________
Home work________________________________
* No weekly limit in law. This figure represents the daily limit multiplied by 7.

8




Page .

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1

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______
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13
13
26

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16
16
26

...........
13
-------13
-------26
-------37
Follows p. 51
-------44
...........
13
-------13
Follows p. 51
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_____
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21
21
25
37
45

_____
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21
21
27
37

_____
_____
-------

14
14
27

..........

1

-------------

23
23

____
____

17
17

------21
------21
____ 42,45

9

STATE LAWS AFFECTING WOBKING WOMEN

Indiana:
Night work------------------------------------ Home work------------------------------------Iowa:
No laws___________________________
Kansas:
8-hour day-------------------------------------9-hour day-------------------------------------48-hour week----------------------------------49J4-hour week-------------------------------54-hour week----------------------------------Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods
Night work------------------------------------Kentucky:
10-hour day-----------------------------------60-hour week---------------------------------Louisiana:
10-hour day-------- --------------------------60-hour week---------------------------------Time for meals, rest periods--------------Maine:
9-hour day----- -------------------------------54-hour week---------------------------------Rest periods----------------------------------Maryland:
10-hour day----------------------------------60-hour week---------------------------------Rest periods----------------------------------Night work..-------- ------------------- ---­
Home work----------------------------------Massachusetts:
9-hour day------------------------------------48-hour week--------------------------------Time for meals, rest periods-------------Night work-----------------------------------Minimum wage-----------------------------Home work----------------------------------Michigan:
9-hour day-------- ---------------------------54-hour week--------------------------------Home work------------------------------ --•
Minnesota:
9-hour day-----------------------------------10-hour day---------------------------------54-hour week-------------------------------58-hour week-------------------------------Time for meals----------------------------Minimum wage----------------------------Missouri:
9-hour day----------------------------------54-hour week-------------------------------Home work------------------------ -—--




Page

____
37
___ 42,45
____

1

____
____
____
____
____
____
____

14
17
14
17
17
28
38

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____

21
21

____
____
____

21
21
29

____
17
____ 17,25
.........
29
_____
21
_____
21
_____
30
_____
38
_____42,46
_____
17
...........
17
_____
30
_____
38
Follows p. 51
_____ 42,46
_____
18
_____
18
_____ 42,47
...........
18
_____
22
...........
18
_____ 22,25
______
30
Follows p. 51
______
18
............
18
______ 43,47

10

STATE LAWS AFFECTING WORKING WOMEN

Mississippi:
10-hour day_______________ _
55-hour week____________
60-hour week_____________
Montana:
8-hour day____________
56-hour week *____________
Nebraska:
9-hour day______________
54-hour week___________
Night work_______________
Nevada:
8-hour day_____________
56-hour week____________
New Hampshire:
1034-hour day________________
54-hour week_____________
Night work_________________
New Jersey:
10-hour day____________
54-hour week____________
Day of rest_________________
Night work_________________
Home work____________
New Mexico:
8-hour day________________
9-hour day_____________
10-hour day________________
48-hour week________________
56-hour week*_________
60-hour week____________
New York:
8-hour day1____________
9-hour day___________
48-hour week1______________
49}^-hour week 1_____________
54-hour week_________
Day of rest, time for meals_____________
Night work________________
Home work____________
North Carolina:
11-hour day____:i________
60-hour week_____________
North Dakota:
8J^-hour day_______________
9-hour day___________
48-hour week____________
58-hour week___________
Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods.^. _
Night work__________________
Minimum wage____________
« See foctniteon^1;




™S fW6 rePreSentS the daily limit

Page
---....................-

22

---.........-

23

-----------

22

-----------------------

14
14

— -.........
----------------------

18
18
38

---------------------

14
14

-------------------------------

24
24
39

-------------------

22
22

-------------------------------

31
39
47

-------------------

14
18

---------

22

---------14
---------- 14, 18

---------

22

---------15
---------18
---------15
---------15
--------- 18, 25
--------31
--------39
--------- 43, 48
------------------------------------------------------------Follows p
7.

24
24
16
19
16
19
31
39
51

state

Laws

Ohio:
9-hour day__________________________
50-hour week_______________________
Day of rest, time for meals-----------------Night work-------------------------------------Home work_________________________
Oklahoma:
9-hour day_________________________
54-hour week----------------------------------Oregon:
9-hour day_________________________
10-hour day-----------------------------------48-hour week----------------------------------56-hour week----------------------------------70-hour week*---------------------------------Day of rest, rest periods-------------------Night work------------------------------------Minimum wage-------------------------------Pennsylvania:
10-hour day________________________
54-hour week_______________________
Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods.
Night work________________________
Home work________________________
Porto Rico:
8-hour day_________________________
48-hour week----------------------------------Time for meals, rest periods--------------Night work-_______________________
Rhode Island:
10-hour day-----------------------------------54-hour week______________________
South Carolina:
10-hour day-----------------------------------12-hour day_______________________
55-hour week--------- _----------------------60-hour week---------------------------------Night work-----------------------------------South Dakota:
10-hour day_______________________
54-hour week--------------------------------Minimum wage------------------------------Tennessee:
lOJ^-hour day-------------------------------57-hour week______________________
Home work----------------------------------Texas:
9-hour day-----------------------------------54-hour week--------------------------------Utah:
8-hour day-----------------------------------48-hour week--------------------------------Minimum wage-----------------------------No weekly limit in law. This figure represents the daily limit multiplied by 7.

61927°—27------3



11

affecting woe king women

Page

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_____
_____
_____
_____

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19
33
40
43

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19
19

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19
___ ...
22
.......... 19,25
_____
25
_____
22
_____
33
_____
40
Follows p. 51
_____
22
_____
22
_____
35
...........
41
........... 43,48
...........
_____
...........
______

15
15
35
41

.............
______

23
23

______
............
______
______
........ ..

23
25
23
25
41

______
23
............
23
Follows p. 51
______
24
______
24
_______ 44, 50
______
______

20
20

______
15
______
15
. Follows p, 51

12

State laws affecting Wokking women

Vermont:
lOJ^-hour day__________________
56-hour week______________
Virginia:
10-hour day___________________
70-hour week*_______________
Washington:
8-hour day__________________
56-hour week*______________
Day of rest, time for meals, rest periods___________
Night work_____________________
Minimum wage_______________
West Virginia:
No laws___________________
Wisconsin:
9-hour day__________________
10-hour day________________________
50-hour week.*________________
54-hour week____________________
55-hour week____________________
Time for meals, rest periods________________
Night work__________ ______________
Home work___________________
Minimum wage____________________
Wyoming:
SJdj-hour day_______________________
56-hour week___________________

Page

------------------------.................
-------------

_

* No weekly limit in law. This figure represents the daily limit multiplied by 7.




24
24
23
23

.......... ..
15
------------15
--------36
-----------41
Follows p. 51
---------

1

--------

20

23

------------

---------------

20
20

-------------------------------Follows p.

23
36
51
51

---------------

16
16

41

Chart I.—EIGHT-HOUR

AND EIGHT-AND-A-HALF-HOUR LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS
PART A.—EIGHT-HOUR LAWS 1

State

California.
In “Henning’s General Laws of California,”
1920 (ed. by W. H. Hyatt), ch. 153, Act 2034,
pp. 1065-1067.

Overtime

Occupations or industries specified

48 hours..

Any manufacturing or mercantile establishment, confec­
tionery store, bakery, laundry, place of amusement,
hotel, restaurant, telephone or telegraph office or ex­
change, or other establishment. Exceptions: Domestic
work; nurses; telephone or telegraph office or exchange
employing 3 or less women; harvesting, curing, canning,
or drying of perishable fruits and vegetables during
period necessary to save products from spoiling.

48 hours..

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
laundry, hotel, public lodging house, apartment house,
hospital, place of amusement, or restaurant, or telegraph
or telephone establishment or office, or the operation
of elevators in office buildings, or any express or transpor­
tation company. Exceptions: Graduate nurses in hos­
pitals, and fruit, fish, or vegetable canning or drying
establishments during period necessary to save products
from spoiling.
General and professional offices.

Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No. 9,
1920.
Industrial Welfare Commission Orders, Nos.
3a, 5a, 6a, 7a, 8a, 11a, 15a, 1923.

48 hours, 6 days Work may be done on the seventh day if time
and a quarter is paid.
(basic).
48 hours, 6 days.

Industrial Welfare Commission Orders, Nos.
3a, 6a, and 8a, 1923.

48 hours (basic),
6 days (basic).

In emergencies more than 8 hours per day may be
worked if time and a quarter is paid for all
hours up to 12 and double time for all hours in
excess of 12, and if time and a quarter is paid
for first 8 hours of the day of rest and double
this time and a quarter for all hours over 8.

Labeling in the fruit and vegetable canning industry;
labeling and office work in the fish canning industry;
mercantile industry; laundry and dry-cleaning industry;
dried fruit packing industry; office workers in the citrus
packing or green fruit and vegetable packing industries;
manufacturing industry; nut cracking and sorting in­
dustry.
.
.
Fruit and vegetable canning industry; fish-canning indus­
try; citrus packing and green fruit and vegetable packing
industries.

Unclassified occupations.
Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No. 48 hours..
10a,1923.
Colorado.
Industrial Commission may allow overtime in Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishments,
In “ Compiled Statutes of Colorado,” 1921, ch.
laundry, hotel, or restaurant.
cases of emergency, provided the minimum
75, secs. 4118-4119, pp. 1033-1034, and ch.
wage is increased.________________________
77, sec. 4207, p. 1055._____________
1 Wisconsin has an industrial commission order limiting the working hours of women on street railways to 8 per day, but no women are employed in such a capacity in Wisconsin.




S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Arizona.
In “Session Laws of Arizona,” 1927, ch. 44,
pp. 106-107.

Weekly limit

CO

Chaet I.—EIGHT-HOUR

AND EIGHT-AND-A-HALF-HOUR LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS—Continued
PART A.—EIGHT-HOUR LAWS—Continued

State

Weekly limit

District of Columbia.
In “The District of Columbia Code,” 1924,
p. 613.

48 hours, 6 days.

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
laundry, hotel, or restaurant, or telegraph or telephone
establishment or office, or any express or transportation
company.

8 hours (basic),
6 days (basic).
48 hours_______

Telephone operators.

Montana.
In “ Revised Codes of Montana, ” 1921, Vol. I,
Political Code, Part III, ch. 219, sec. 3076,
pp. 1145-1146.
Nevada.
In “ Revised Laws of Nevada,” 1919, pp. 2774­
2775, and in “Session Laws of Nevada,”
1923, ch. 69, pp. 95-96.
New Mexico.
In “Session Laws of New Mexico,” 1921, ch.
180, secs. 1 and 4, pp. 386-388.

Ibid., sec. 7......... ..........




Occupations or industries specified

Public housekeeping occupation, i. e., the work of wait­
resses in restaurants, hotel dining rooms, and boarding
houses; all attendants employed at ice cream parlors, soda
fountains, light lunch stands, steam table or counter work
in cafeterias and delicatessens where freshly cooked foods
are served, and confectionery stores where lunches are
served; the work of chambermaids in hotels, lodging and
boarding houses, and hospitals; the work of janitresses, of
car cleaners, and of kitchen workers in hotels, restaurants,
and hospitals; elevator operators, cigar stand and cashier
girls connected with such establishments.
Retail stores; 2 hours daily during the week
before Christmas.

56 hours.......... .

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
telephone exchange room or office, or telegraph office,
laundry, hotel, or restaurant.
Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
laundry, hotel, public lodging house, apartment house,
place of amusement, or restaurant, express or transpor­
tation company. Exceptions: Nurses or nurses in train­
ing, harvesting, curing, canning, or drying of perishable
fruit or vegetable.

4 hours weekly if time and a half is paid and the
total hours of labor for a 7-day week do not
exceed 60.

Indefinite overtime allowed in emergencies
resulting from flood, fire, storm, epidemic of
sickness, or other like causes.

Any mechanical establishment or factory, or laundry, or
hotel, or restaurant, cafe, or eating house, or any place of
amusement. Exceptions: Females employed in offices
as stenographers, bookeepers, clerks, or in other clerical
work and not required to do manual labor; canneries or
other establishments engaged in preparing for use perish­
able goods; females engaged in interstate commerce where
the working hours are regulated by any act of Congress
of the United States.
Telephone establishment or office thereof. Exceptions:
Shift working between 9 p. m. and 7 a. in.; establishments
where 5 or less operators are employed and where the

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O E K IN G W O M E N

Kansas.
Public Service Commission Order, No. 5.
Aug. 1, 1927.
Ibid., No. 4, Aug. 1, 1927...........................

Overtime

average number of calls per hour answered by one opera­
tor does not exceed 230; females engaged in interstate
commerce where the working hours are regulated by any
act of Congress of the United States.
Factory, i. e., mill, workshop, or other manufacturing
9 hours daily, 49H hours weekly, may be worked
establishment; laundries.
in order to make 1 shorter workday per week.
463, pp. 1133-1135.
Additional overtime to the extent of 78 hours per
year may be worked, provided that not
more than 10 hours daily and 54 hours or 6
days weekly may he worked.
Establishments canning perishable products.
From June 15 to Oct. 15.
Id “Cahill’s Consolidated Laws of New
10 hours daily.
York,” 1923, ch. 32, sec. 173, p. 1197.
60 hours weekly.
6 days per week.
. .
From June 25 to Aug. 5, with the permission or
the industrial commission:
12 hours daily.
66 hours weekly.
6 days per week.
.
Exceptions: Work requiring continuous stand­
In "Industrial Code of New York,” 1920,
ing; labeling or packing cans.
Mercantile establishments. Exceptions: Dec. 18-24, inclu­
Industrial Commission Order, p. 187.
9 hours daily, 49J4 hours weekly, may be worked
sive; writers or reporters in newspaper offices may work t
In “Session Laws of New York, 1927, ch. 48 hours, 8 days
in order to make 1 shorter workday per week.
days per week.
453, pp. 1133-1135.
Additional overtime to the extent of 78 hours per
year may be worked provided that not more
than 54 hours or 6 days may be worked m any
1 week, and that daily hours must be lim­
ited to 10 except on 1 day per week.
Telephone opera­
1 hour daily it double time is paid and the maxi­ Any lucrative occupation. Exceptions: domestics over 16
^°r InSession Laws of Porto Rico,” 2d sess., 48 hours..
tors, telegraphers, artists, nurses, or
mum weekly hours are not exceeded.
years of age.
1919, No. 73, pp. 496-506.
Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
Utain "Session Laws of Utah,” 1919, ch. 70, p. 242. 48 hours..
laundrv, hotel, restaurant, or telegraph or telephone
establishment, hospital, or office, or any express or trans­
portation company. Exceptions: Packing or canning of
perishable fruits or vegetables, manufacturers of con­
tainers of same during packing season, emergencies when
life or property is in imminent danger.

NC*n^'Session Laws of New York,” 1927, ch.

«-

i industrial Welfare Committee has ruled that with certain exceptions women
ol Rest Chart.




Mechanical or mercantile establishment, laundry, hotel
or restaurant. Exceptions: Harvesting, packing, curing,
canning, or drying perishable fruits or vegetables, can­
ning fish and shellfish.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

''raSIn',1“Pierce’s Code of the State of 'Washing­
ton,” 1921, Vol. I, sec. 3456, p. 1057.

48 hours, 8 days

in manufacturing and public housekeeping occupations can only work 6 days per week. See Day
Or

Chart I.

EIGHT-HOUR AND EIGHT-AND-A-HALF-HOUR LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS—Continued
PART B —EIGHT-AND A-HALF-HOUR LAWS

State

Weekly limit

Wyoming.
In “Session Laws of Wyoming,” 1923, ch. 62.
pp. &2-S3.
’

48 hours, 6 days. 10 hours daily, 7 days per week, permitted in
emergencies provided weekly hour limit is not
exceeded. Emergency is defined as sickness of
more than one female employee, the protec­
tion of human life, banquets, conventions,
celebrations, session of the State Legislature,
reporter in any of the courts of the State.
56 hours..

Indefinite overtime allowed when an emergency
exists, or unusual pressing business, or neces­
sity demands it, if time and a half is paid for
every hour of overtime in any one day.

Chart II.—NINE-HOUR
State
Arkansas.
In “ Digest of the Statutes of Arkansas,” 1921
(e_d. by T. D. Crawford and Hamilton
Moses), ch. 117, secs. 7102-7114, pp. 1856­
1859, and in “Session Laws of Arkansas.”
3921, No. 140, pp. 214-216.
Industrial Welfare Commission Orders
“Regulating employment of females in
hotels and restaurants,” 1919.




Occupations or industries specified

Weekly limit

Any manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establish­
ment, hotel or restaurant, or telephone or telegraph estab­
lishment or office, or in any express or transportation
company. Exceptions: Villages and towns of less than
oOO population; rural telephone exchanges; small tele­
phone exchanges and telegraph offices where special rules
are established by the Workmen’s Compensation Bureau.
Any manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establish­
ment, laundry, hotel, public lodging house, apartment
house, place of amusement, or restaurant, or telephone
or telegraph establishment or office, or in any express
or transportation company. Exceptions• Telephone or
telegraph office or exchange in which 3 or less females
are employed; the harvesting, curing, canning, or drying
of any variety of perishable fruit or vegetable: nurses in
training in hospitals.

LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS
Overtime

*

Occupations or industries specified

54 hours, 6 days. Any industry, where it can be shown beyond Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
question of doubt that observance of the law
laundry, or any express or transportation company. Ex­
would work irreparable injury, may work over­
ceptions: Cotton factories, gathering of fruits or farm
time 90 days a year, with the permission of the
products.
industrial welfare commission if time and a
naif is paid for all hours over 9 per day.
6 days....... ..........

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

North Dakota.
In “Session Laws of North Dakota.,’ 1927,
ch. 142, pp. 186-187.

Overtime

Idaho.
. .
„
_
In “Compiled Statutes of Idaho, 1919, Vol.
I, Political Code, sec. 2330, p. 653.

Ibid., No. 3, Aug. 1, 1927

Maine.
In “Kevised Statutes of Maine," 6th ed.,
1916, pp. 1650-1652.
Massachusetts.
In “General Laws of Massachusetts,” 1921,
Vol. II, ch. 149, secs. 56-58, pp. 1564-1565,
and in “Session Laws of Massachusetts,”
1921, ch. 280, pp. 319-321.




49^2 hours-------- 2Yi hours of overtime weekly is allowed if daily
hours are not exceeded.
49M hours, 6 4Yi hours of overtime weekly is allowed in cases
of emergency. Canneries, creameries, condays.
densaries, and poultry houses are allowed this
overtime without penalty for 6 weeks during
their peak season or for 2 periods not to exceed
3 weeks each. Cream testers may work 6}4
days per week between May 1 and September
1, if weekly hours do not exceed 54. Poultry
dressing and packing businesses during the
season from October 15 to December 24 arc
allowed to work 11 hours per day and 58 hours
per week for 4 of these 6 weeks and 11 hours per
day and 60 hours per week for the remaining
2 weeks, provided 1 of these latter weeks falls
between November 1 and Thanksgiving and
the other between Thanksgiving and Christ-

Laundry occupations, i. e., laundries, dyeing, dry cleaning,
and pressing establishments.
Manufacturing occupation, i. e., all processes in the pro­
duction of commodities. Florists shops and candy mak­
ing departments of confectionery stores and bakeries are
also included. Exceptions: Millinery workrooms, dress­
making establishments, hemstitching and button shops,
and alteration, drapery, and upholstery departments o£
a mercantile establishment may obtain permission from
the women’s division of the public service commission to
operate under the mercantile order.

Mercantile establishments: includes all establishments
54 hours, 6 days. 10-hour working day allowed once a week, pro­
operated for the purpose of trade in the purchase or sale of
vided maximum weekly hours do not exceed 54.
any goods or merchandise, and includes the sales force, the
wrapping employees, the auditing and checking force,
the shippers, in the mail order department, the receiving,
marking and stock-room employees, sheet music sales
women and demonstrators, and all employees in such
establishments in any way directly connected with the
sale, purchase, and disposition of goods, wares, and mer­
chandise.
54 hours.

In order to get 1 short day per week, overtime is
permitted if the maximum weekly hours are
not exceeded.

Workshop, factory, manufacturing, or mechanical estab­
lishment, or laundry. Exceptions: Manufacturing es­
tablishment or business, the materials and products of
which are perishable.

48 hours.

In seasonal employments, 52 hours per week if
average for year is 48 hours per week. In
emergencies overtime is allowed in publicservice occupations. Hotel employees not em­
ployed in a manufacturing, mercantile,, or
mechanical establishment connected with a
hotel are permitted to work 1 hour overtime
daily if the maximum weekly hours are not
exceeded.

Factory or workshop or any manufacturing, mercantile,
mechanical establishment, telegraph office, or telephone
exchange, or any express or transportation company, or
any laundry, hotel, manicuring or hair-dressing estab­
lishment, motion-picture theater, or an elevator operator
or a switchboard operator in a private exchange.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Public Service Commission Order, No. 1,
Aug. 1, 1927.
Ibid., No. 2, Aug. 1, 1927.................................

Mechanical or mercantile establishment, laundry, hotel, or
restaurant, or telegraph or telephone establishment or
office, or any express or transportation company. Ex­
ceptions: Harvesting, packing, curing, canning, or drying
perishable fruits or vegetables.

Chart II.—NINE-HOUR

LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS—Continued
00

State
Michigan.
In “Session Laws of Michigan.” 1927. Act
No. 21, pp. 25-26.

Weekly limit

1 hour of overtime daily if the weekly hours are
not exceeded.

Factory, mill, warehouse, workshops, quarry, clothing,
dressmaking or millinery establishment, or any place
where the manufacture of any kinds of goods is carried
on, or where any goods are prepared for manufacturing,
or any laundry, store, shop, or any other mercantile
establishment, or any office or restaurant, theater, con­
cert hall, music hall, hotel, or operating an elevator, or
on street or electric railways. Exceptions: Preserving
and shipping perishable goods in fruit and vegetable
canning or fruit packing establishments.
Mechanical or manufacturing establishment, telephone,
or telegraph establishment in cities of the first or second
class. Exceptions: Canning if employment does not last
more than 75 days in any 1 year.

Missouri.
In “Revised Statutes of Missouri,” 1919, Vol.
II, ch. 54, Art. 4, sec. 6771, p. 2132.

54 hours..............

Nebraska.
In “Compiled Statutes of Nebraska,” 1922.
Civil Administrative Code, Title IV, Art.
II, secs. 7659-7661, pp. 2360-2361.

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment
or factory, workshop, laundry, or bakery, or restaurant,
or any place of amusement, or stenographic or clerical
work of any character in the above industries, or any
express or transportation or public utility business or
common carrier or public institution. Exceptions: Es­
tablishments canning and packing perishable farm prod­
ucts in places under 10,000 population for 90 days an­
nually; telephone companies; towns, or cities having a
population of 3,000 or less.

54 hours_______

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
laundry, hotel, or restaurant, office, any public-service
corporation in metropolitan cities and cities of the first
class.

New Mexico.
In “Session Laws of New Mexico,” 1921, ch
180, secs. 2, 3, 5, and 6, pp. 386-388.

New York.
“Cahill’s Consolidated Laws of New York,”
1923, ch. 32, sec. 182, p. 1198.




2 hours on Saturday in mercantile establishments Mercantile establishments; and person, firm or corpora­
provided the maximum weekly hours are not
tion engaged in any express or transportation or public
exceeded; 4 hours weekly in emergencies if
utility business or any common carrier. Exceptions:
time and a half is paid and the total hours of
Drug stores; females engaged in interstate commerce
labor for a 7-day week do not exceed 60.
where the working hours are regulated by an act of Con­
gress of the United States.
54 hours, 6 days.

Work in or in connection with restaurants in cities of the
first and second class. Exceptions: Singers and per­
formers of any kind, attendants in ladies’ cloak rooms
and parlors, employees in or in connection with the
dining rooms and kitchens of hotels or in connection with
employees’ lunch-rooms or restaurants.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Minnesota.
In “General Statutes of Minnesota,” 1913,
sec. 3S51, p. 879, and in “Session Laws of
Minnesota, 1927, ch. 349, p. 479.

Occupations or industries specified

In order to get 1 shorter workday per week, over­
time is permitted, if the maximum weekly
hours are not exceeded.

54 hours.

Overtime

Ibid., sec. 183, p. 1198......................................... 54 hours, 6 days.
Ibid., sec. 184, p. 1198........................... -........... 54 hours, 6 days

61927

North Dakota.
Minimum Wage Department Order No. 1,
1922.

58 hours..

Ohio.
.
In "Page’s General Code of Ohio,
I, sec. 1008, p. 12.

1926, Vol.

Oklahoma.
In “ Compiled Statutes of Oklahoma,
secs. 7222-7225, pp. 2579-2580.

1921,

Oregon.
Industrial Welfare Commission Orders, Nos.
37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, and 45,1919.




Public housekeeping occupation. (Public housekeeping
occupation includes the work of waitresses in restau­
rants, hotel dining rooms, boarding houses, and all at­
tendants employed at ice cream and light lunch stands
and steam table or counter work in cafeterias and del­
icatessens where freshljr cooked foods are served, and the
work of chambermaids in hotels and lodging houses and
boarding houses and hospitals and the work of janitresses
and car cleaners and of kitchen workers in hotels and
restaurants and hospitals and elevator operators.)

Factory, workshops, telephone or telegraph office, mil­
50 hours, 6 days. Mercantile establishments; 1 hour on Saturday...
linery or dressmaking establishment, restaurant, the
distribution or transmission of messages, in or on any
interurban or street railway car, or as ticket sellers or
elevator operators, or in any mercantile establishment
located in any city. Exceptions: Canneries and estab­
lishments preparing for use perishable goods daring the
canning season.
Telephone operators in time of disaster and Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishment,
54 hours..
laundry, bakery, hotel, or restuarant, office building or
epidemic if consent of employee is secured and
warehouse, telegraph or telephone establishment or office,
double time paid. Hotel and restaurant em­
or printing establishment, or book bindery, or any
ployees in emergencies may work 1 hour
theater, show house, or place of amusement, or any
overtime per day if consent of employee is
other establishment employing any female. Exceptions:
secured and double time paid.
Registered pharmacists, nurses, agricultural or domestic
labor, establishments outside of towns or cities of 5,000
population and employing less than 5 females.
48 hours, 6 days.

Manufacturing occupation, i. e., all processes in the pro­
duction of commodities. Includes the work performed
in dressmaking shops, and wholesale millinery houses, in
the workrooms of retail millinery shops, and in the
drapery and furniture covering workrooms, the garment
alteration, art needle work, fur garment making and
millinery workrooms in mercantile stores, and the candy
making department of retail candy stores, and of res­
taurants. Exceptions: Fruit and vegetable drying, can­
ning, preserving and packing establishments.
Mercantile occupation, i. e., the work of those employed
in establishments operated for the purpose of trade in
the purchase or sale of any goods or merchandise, and
includes the sales force, the wrapping employees, the
auditing or check inspection force, the shippers in the
mail-order department, the receiving, marking and stock
room employees, and sheet-music saleswomen and
demonstrators.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

O

Custody or management of or operation of any elevator
for freight or passengers in any building or place.
Conductor or guard on any street, surface, electric, sub­
way, or elevated railroad.

CO

Chart II.—NINE-HOUR

LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS—Continued

to

o
State

Weekly limit

Oregon—Continued
Industrial Welfare Commission Orders. Nos.
37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, and 45, 1919.

48 hours, 6 days.

48 hours..

Texas.
111 “P^^cd Civil Statutes of Texas,” 1925,
Vol. II, secs. 5168-5172, pp. 1450-1451.

54 hours.

Laundries in cases of extraordinary emergency,
provided consent of employee is secured, may
work 2 hours overtime per day, provided
weekly maximum is not exceeded and double
time is paid for all hours above 9 daily. W oolen
and cotton mills 1 hour daily, 6 hours weekly,
if double time is paid for all hours above 9
daily.

Wisconsin.
In “Wisconsin Statutes,” 1925, Vol. I, secs
103.01-103.04, pp. 1134-1135.
'

50 hours.

In “Industrial Commission Order regulating
pea-canning factories,” 1927.

54 hours.

In “Industrial Commission Order on factories
canning cherries, beans, com, or tomatoes.”
1927.

54 hours.

10 hours daily may be worked during emergency
periods, if time and a half is paid and such
periods do not exceed 4 weeks in any one year
and the weekly hours worked do not exceed 55
11 hours daily, 60 hours weekly, may be worked
in emergencies by women over 17 years of age
on not more than 8 days during the season, if
33 cents an hour is paid for all hours in excess
of 9 per day.
10 hours daily, 60 hours weekly, may be worked
m emergencies by women over 17 years of age,
on not more than 8 days during the season, if
33 cents an hour is paid for all hours in excess
of 9 per day.




Occupations or industries specified

Laundry occupation, i. e., all the processes connected with
the receiving, marking, washing, cleaning, and ironing,
and distribution of washable and cleanable materials.
The work performed in laundry departments in hotels
and factories.
Personal service occupation, i. e., manicuring, hairdressing
bartering and other work of like nature, and the work of
ushers in theaters.
Telephone or telegraph occupations in the city of Portland.
Pu^housekeeping occupation, i.e., hotel, restaurant,
boarding house, car cleaners, janitresses, elevator op­
erators.
^
Telephone and telegraph occupations outside of the city of
Portland. Exceptions: Rural telephone establishments
which do not require the uninterrupted attention of an
operator may be granted special licenses by the Indus­
trial Welfare Commission.
Factory, mine, mill, workshop, mechanical or mercantile
establishment, laundry, hotel, restaurant, or rooming
house, theater or moving-picture show, barber shop, tele­
graph, telephone, or other office, express or transporta­
tion company, State institution, or any other establish­
ment, institution, or enterprise where females are em­
ployed. Exceptions: Stenographers, pharmacists, tele­
phone and telegraph companies, mercantile establish­
ments in rural districts and in cities of less than 3,000
population.
’
Place of employment, i. e., manufacturing, mechanical, or
mercantile establishment, laundry, restaurant, confec­
tionery store, or telegraph or telephone office or exchange
or any express or transportation establishment
Pea-cannmg factories.

Canning cherries, beans, com, or tomatoes.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No 43,

Overtime

Chart

III.—TEN-HOUR LAWS

PART A—FOR WOMEN WORKERS

State

Overtime

Occupations or industries specified

Manufacturing or mechanical establishment.
55 hours, 6 days. 2 hours on 1 day weekly, provided weekly maxi­
mum is not exceeded.

Mercantile, mechanical, or manufacturing establishment,
laundry, baking or printing establishment, telephone and
telegraph office or exchange, restaurant, hotel, place of
amusement, dressmaking establishment, or office. Ex­
ceptions: Canning or preserving or preparation for canning
or preserving of perishable fruits and vegetables.

Illinois.
In “ Revised Statutes of Illinois," 1925 (ed. by
James C. Cahill), ch. 48, secs. 26-30, p. 1153.

Mechanical or mercantile establishment, or factory, or
laundry, or hotel or restaurant, or telegraph or telephone
establishment or office thereof, or any place of amuse­
ment, or any express or transportation or public utility
business, or common carrier, or public institution.

Kentucky.
In “The Kentucky Statutes," 1922, 6th ed.
(ed. by John D Carroll), Vol II, ch. 135b,
sec. 4866b-2, p. 2315.
Louisiana.
In “Constitution and Statues of Louisiana,"
1920 (ed. by Solomon Wolf), Vol. II, pp.
1082 and 1084.

Laundry, bakery, factory, workshop, store, or mercantile,
manufacturing, or mechanical establishment, or hotel, res-*
taurant, telephone exchange, or telegraph office.

Maryland.
In “Annotated Code of the Public General
Laws of Maryland,” 1924 (ed. by George P.
Bagby), Vol. II, Art. 100 secs. 54-57, pp.
3104-3105.




Mill, factory, mine, packing house, manufacturing estab­
lishment, workshop, laundry, millinery or dressmaking
stores, or mercantile establishments or hotel or restau­
rants or in any theater or concert hall or in or about any
place of amusement where intoxicating liquors are made
or sold, in any bowling alley, bootblacking establish­
ment, freight or passenger elevator, or in the transmission
or distribution of messages, whether telegraph or tele­
phone or any other messages, or merchandise or in any
other occupation whatsoever. Exceptions: Stores or
mercantile establishments on Saturday nights in which
more than 5 persons are employed.
2 hours on Saturdays and the 6 days before
Christmas in retail mercantile establishments
outside of the city of Baltimore, if two rest
periods of 1 hour each are granted on each day
overtime is worked and 9 hours constitute the
maximum day during the remainder of the
year.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Connecticut.
In “General Statutes of Connecticut," Revi­
sion of 1918, sec 5301, p. 1486.
Delaware.
In “ Session Laws of Delaware," 1917, ch. 230,
pp. 741-742.

Weekly limit

Manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, printing, baking,
or laundering establishment. Exceptions: Canning, pre­
serving, or preparing for canning or preserving of perish­
able fruits and vegetables.

*0

Chart

III.—TEN-HOUR LAWS—Continued

to

to

PART A—FOR WOMEN WORKERS—Continued
State

Overtime

58 hours.............. In order to get 1 shorter day per week overtime
is permitted if the weekly maximum hours
are not exceeded. Mercantile establishments
may work 11 hours on Saturdays, provided
the weekly maximum hours are not exceeded.
58 hours............ In order to get one short workday per week
overtime is permitted if the weekly maximum
hours are not exceeded.

In “ Labor Laws of Minnesota,” 1919, Laws
1909, ch. 490, p. 100 (issued by the Depart­
ment of Labor and Industries, St. Paul,
Minn.), and in “Session Laws of Minne­
sota,” 1927, ch. 349, p. 479.
Mississippi.
In “Annotated Mississippi Code,” 1917 (ed. 60 hours.............. Permitted in cases of emergency or public neces­
by William R. Hemingway), Vol. II, sec.
sity.
4527, p. 2166.
New Jersey.
In “First Supplement to the Compiled Stat­ 54 hours, 6 days.
utes of New Jersey,” 1911-1915, sec. 83, p.
866, and in “Session Laws of New Jersey,”
1921, ch. 194, p. 510.
New Mexico.
In “Session Laws of New Mexico,” 1921, ch.
180, sec. 7, pp. 386-388.

Oregon.
In “Oregon Laws,” 1920, Vol. II, sec. 6689,
p. 2676.
Pennsylvania.
In “Digest of Pennsylvania Statute Laws,”
1920, secs. 13540-13542, p. 1331.

In “Regulations affecting the employment of
women,” 1925, Rule W-10, May 19, 1925.




60 hours.............. Indefinite overtime allowed in emergencies re­
sulting from flood, fire, storm, epidemic of
sickness, or other like causes.

Overtime is allowed if time and a half is paid for
all hours over 10 per day.
54 hours, 6 days. 2 hours on not more than 3 days of the week, if
a legal holiday occurs during the week and
the maximum weekly hours are not exceeded.

Occupations or industries specified

Mercantile establishments, restaurant, lunch room, or eat­
ing house, or kitchen operated in connection therewith
in cities of the first and second class.
Manufacturing or mechanical establishment outside cities
of the first or second class. Exceptions: Canning if
employment does not last more than 75 days in any one
year.
Laundry, millinery, dressmaking, store or office, mercantile
establishment, theater, telegraph or telephone office, pr
any other occupation. Exception: Domestic servants.
Manufacturing or mercantile establishment, bakery,
laundry or restaurant. Exceptions: Canneries engaged
in packing a perishable product, such as fruits or vege­
tables; hotels or other continuous business where working
hours do not exceed 8 per day.
Any telephone establishment or office thereof; shift working
between 9 p. m. and 7 a. m. Exceptions: Establishments
where 5 or less operators are employed and where the
average number of calls per hour answered by one opera­
tor does not exceed 230; females engaged in interstate com­
merce where the working hours are regulated by an act
of Congress of the United States.
Canneries or driers or packing plants.
Any establishment, “The term ‘establishment’ when
used in this act shall mean any place within this Com­
monwealth where work is done for compensation of
any sort to whomever payable.” Exceptions: Nurses in
hospitals, work in private homes, farming, canning of
fruit and vegetable products.
Private home which through contract with telephone
company becomes an exchange. Exceptions: Night
work need not be limited as to hours if a general average
of at least 6 hours rest during the night is possible.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Minnesota.
In “General Statutes of Minnesota,” 1913,
sec. 3851, p. 879.

Weekly limit

Rhode Island.
tt _ . .
In “ General Laws of Rhode Island, Revision
of 1923, ch. 91, secs. 22 and 23, p. 405.
South Dakota.
In “Session Laws of South Dakota, 1923,
ch. 308, p. 328.

Factory, manufacturing, mechanical, business, or mercantile establishment.
12 hours daily may be worked on the 5 days
preceding Christmas.

Wisconsin.
In Wisconsin Statutes,
pp. 1134-1135.

iy/o, sec.

Hotel.

iuo.uz,

1 Virginia enforces section 4570 of the code of 1918, which prohibits work on Sunday.
PART B.—FOR ALL EMPLOYEES
Georgia.
. , . .
In “The Georgia Code,”(ed. by T. J. Michie),
1928, sec. 3137, p. 807.

Permitted to make up time lost, not to exceed
10 days annually, caused by accidents or other
unavoidable circumstances. Permitted to
work regularly more than 10 hours per day
provided weekly hours are not exceeded.

Cotton or woolen manufacturing establishments. Ex­
ceptions: Engineers, firemen, watchmen, mechanics,
teamsters, yard employees, clerical forces, cleaners,
repairmen.

Mississippi.
. „ . „
, ,
In “Annotated Mississippi Code,” 1917 (ed.
by Wm. R. Hemingway), Vol. II, sec. 4523,
pp. 2164-2165, and in “ Session Laws of Mis­
sissippi,” 1924, ch. 314, pp. 541-543.

30 minutes daily for the first 5 days of the week,
the additional time so worked to be deducted
from the last day of the week. 11M hours per­
mitted for night work on the first 5 nights of
the week and 3% hours on Saturday night
provided weekly hours do not exceed 60.

Mill, cannery, workshop, factory, or manufacturing estab­
lishment. Exceptions: Fruit or vegetable canneries;
cases of emergency or where the public necessity requires.

South Carolina.
In “Code of Laws of South Carolina,
sec. 24, p. 133.

60 hours of overtime may be worked annually
to make up lost time caused by accident or
unavoidable cause, but such time must be
made up within 3 months after it was incurred.

Cotton and woolen manufacturing establishments engaged
in the manufacture of yarns, cloth, hosiery, and other
products of merchandise. Exceptions: Mechanics, en­
gineers, firemen, watchmen, teamsters, yard employees,
and clerical force.




1922,

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Virginia.
In “Session Laws of Virginia,” 1926, ch. 538,
pp. 895-96.

Any employer, or other person having control of any
woman. Exceptions: Farm laborers, domestic servants,
telegraph and telephone operators, persons engaged in
the care of livestock.
Any factory, workshop, laundry, restaurant, mercantile or
manufacturing establishment. Exceptions: Bookkeepers,
stenographers, cashiers or office assistants', factories
packing fruits or vegetables; mercantile establishments
in towns of less than 2,000 or in country districts.

Chart

iv.—ten-and-a-quarter-hour,

ten-and-a-half-hour,

eleven-hour,

and twelve-hour laws

ts>

PART A.—TEN-AND-A-QUARTER-HOUR-LAW FOR WOMEN WORKERS
Weekly limit

New Hampshire.
In “Public Laws of New Hampshire,” 1926,
ch. 176, secs. 14-21, pp. 680-681.

54 hours..............

Overtime

Occupations or industries specified

Manual or mechanical labor in any employment. Excep­
tions: Household labor and nurses, domestic, hotel, and
boarding house labor, operators in telephone and tele­
graph offices, and farm labor, manufacture of munitions
or supplies for the United States or State during war
time. Mercantile establishments on the 7 days preced­
ing Christmas, provided annual weekly average does
not exceed 54 hours.

PART B.—TEN-AND-A-HALF-HOUR LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS
Tennessee.
In “Thompson’s Shannon’s Tennessee
Code,” 1918, secs. 4342a-51-4342a-52, pp.
1863-1864.

57 hours.

Vermont.
In “General Laws of Vermont,” 1917, sec.
5837, p. 1001, and in “Session Laws of Ver­
mont,” 1919, No. 160, p. 172.

Workshop, factory (i. e., manufacturing, mills, mechani­
cal, electrical, mercantile, art, and laundering establish­
ments, printing, telegraph and telephone offices, depart­
ment stores, or any kind of establishment wherein labor
is employed or machinery is used). Exceptions: Domes­
tic service and agricultural pursuits.

56 hours.

Mine or quarry, manufacturing or mechanical establish­
ment. Exceptions: In any manufacturing establishment
or business, the materials or products of which are per­
ishable, the commissioner of industries, with the approval
of the governor, may suspend the law for a period not to
exceed two months in any one year.

PART C.—ELEVEN-HOUR LAW POR ALL EMPLOY]EES
North Carolina.
In “Consolidated Statutes of North Caro­
lina,” 1919, sec. 6554, p. 595.




60 hours.......... ..

All factories and manufacturing establishments. Excep­
tions: Engineers, firemen, superintendents, overseers,
section and yard hands, office men, watchmen, repairers
of breakdowns.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

State

PART D.

-TWELVE-HOUR LAW FOR WOMEN WORKERS

Mercantile establishments.

South Carolina.
„ 1ftoo
In "Code of Laws of South Carolina,’ 1922,
Vol. II, Criminal Code, ch. 7, sec. 35, p. 137.

State

Weekly limit

C°n{^''Session Laws of Connecticut,” 1925, ch.

58 hours, 6 days.

208, pp. 3997-3998.
Ibid., ch. 158, pp. 3933-3934 and ch. 153, p. 3930. 58 hours..

^Ia InRevised Statutes of Maine,” 6th ed.,

54 hours..

1916, pp. 1650-1652.

Minnes<rta.^or Lawg Qt Minnesota,” 1919, Laws of 58 hours..
1909, ch. 499, p. 100 (issued by the Depart­
ment of Labor and Industries, St. Paul,
Minn.).
I^cw York
In “Cahill’s Consolidated Laws of New 54 hours, 6 days.
York,” 1923, ch. 32, sec. 185, p. 1198.
°refndiistrial Welfare Commission Order, No.

48 hours, 6 days

44, 1919.
Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No.
48, 1920.




56 hours..

Overtime

Occupations or industries specified

Public restaurant, caf§, dining room, barber shop, hair
dressing or manicuring establishment, or photo gallery.
Exceptions: Hotels.
.
... _
,
„
Anv bowling alley, shoe-shin mg establishment, or billiard or
pool room. Any mercantile establishment. Exceptions.
Mercantile establishments from Dec. 17 to 25 if employer
grants at least 7 holidays with pay annually.
Telephone exchange employing more than 3 operators,
mercantile establishment, store, restaurant, telegraph
office, or any express or transportation company, hxcepceptions: Millinery shops or stores on the 8 days prior to
Easter Sunday and on Dec. 17 to 24, inclusive; public
service in cases of emergency or in cases of extraordinary
public requirement.
Mercantile establishments outside cities of the first or
second class.
Messenger for a telegraph or messenger company in the
distribution, transmission, or delivery of goods or mesOffice occupation, i. e., stenographers, bookkeepers, typists,
billing clerks, filing clerks, cashiers, checkers, invoice™,
comptometer operators, auditors, attendants in physi­
cians’ offices and dentists’ offices, and all kinds of clerical
work.
Student nurses.

STATE LAWS AFFECTING WORKING WOMEN

Chart V.__ WEEKLY HOUR LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS

Chart VI—LAWS

PROVIDING r0E A ?£Iio°&EK
Day of rest or one shorter workday

Arizona.
In “ Session Laws of Ari­
zona,” 1927, ch. 44, pp.
106-107

Every employer shall provide for
1 full day of rest a week for every
female.

Arkansas.
In “Digest of the Stat­
utes of Arkansas, ” 1919
(ed. by T. D. Crawford
and Hamilton Moses),
eh. 117, secs. 7102-7107,
pp. 1856-1857.

Industrial Welfare Com­
mission Order, “Regu­
lating employment of
females in hotels and
restaurants,” 1919.
California.
Industrial Welfare Com­
mission Order, No. 4,
1919.
Industrial Welfare Com­
mission Order, No. 13,
1920.




No female shall be employed more
than 6 days in any one week.

Time for meals

No person, firm, or corporation
shall employ or suffer or permit
any woman ... to work more
than 6 days in any one week.

rest

Time allowed for noon luncheon
shall not be less than three-quar­
ters of an hour. (Females.)

No female shall be employed or
permitted to work more than 6
hours continuously without an
interval of at least three-quarters
of an hour. Exceptions: 6J4
hours’ continuous labor if such
employment ends not later than
half-past 1 in the afternoon and
the worker is dismissed for the
remainder of the day.

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mer­
cantile establishment, laundry or any
express or transportation company.
Exceptions: Cotton factories, gather­
ing of fruits or farm products.

Hotels and restaurants.

Females are entitled to 1 hour for
meals, either at noontime or at
evening, but at noon they may
not be permitted to return to
work in less than one-half hour.
Females are entitled to threequarters of an hour for the noon­
time meal, but they may not be
permitted to return to work in
less than one-half hour. They
are allowed 1 hour for the even­
ing meal.

to

Occupations or industries specified

Any manufacturing or mercantile es­
tablishment, confectionery, store,
bakery, laundry, place of amuse­
ment, hotel, restaurant, telephone or
telegraph office or exchange, or
other establishment. Exceptions:
Telephone or telegraph office or ex­
change employing 3 or less women;
nurses; adult women employed 6
hours or less per day.

No female shall be employed more
than 6 days in any one week.

No person, firm, or corporation
shall employ or suffer or permit
any woman ... to work more
than 6 days in any one week.

Rest periods

MEA“, AHD

Laundry and dry cleaning and manu­
facturing industries.
Mercantile establishments.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

State

™

Industrial Welfare Com­
mission Orders, Nos.
3a, 5a, 6a, 7a, 8a, 11a,
15a, 1923.

Every woman and minor shall be
entitled to 1 day’s rest in 7.
Exceptions: Emergencies, m
which case work may go on if
time and a quarter is paid for the
first 8 hours and double time for
all hours above 8.
Every employer employing wo­
Industrial Welfare Com­
men . . . shall provide for 1 full
mission Orders, Nos.
day of rest a week. Exceptions:
10a, 12a, 1923.
Women working 6 hours per day
may work 7 days per week.
Delaware.
No female shall be employed more
In “ Session Laws of Del­
than 6 days in any one calendar
aware,” 1917,’ ch. 230,
wreek.
pp. 741-742.
Industrial Welfare Com­
mission Orders, No. 9,
1920, and Nos. 3a, 6a,
8a, 1923.

District of Columbia.
In “The District of Co­
lumbia Code,” 1924,
p. 613.




No female shall be employed more
than 6 days in any one week.

Unclassified occupations; hotels and
restaurants.

Not less than 30 minutes shall be
allowed to every female . . . for
the midday .or evening meal.

No female shall be employed or
permitted to work more than 6
hours continuously without an
interval of at least three-quarters
of an hour. Exceptions: 6X
A
hours of continuous labor if such
employment ends not later than
half-past 1 in the afternoon and
the worker is dismissed for the
remainder of the day.

Mercantile, mechanical, or manufac­
turing establishment; laundry, bak­
ing, or printing establishment; tele­
phone and telegraph office or ex­
change; restaurant, hotel, place of
amusement, dressmaking establish­
ment, or office. Exceptions: Cannine or nreserving or preparation for

No female shall be employed or Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercan­
tile establishments, laundry, hotel,
permitted to work more than 6
or restaurant, or telegraph or tele­
hours continuously without an
phone establishment or office, or any
interval of at least three-quarters
express or transportation company.
of an hour. Exceptions: (1) 6X
A
hours continuous labor if such
employment ends not later than
half-past 1 in the afternoon and
the worker is dismissed for the
remainder of the day. (2) Es­
tablishments or occupation in
which less than 3 females are
employed.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Labeling in the fruit and vegetable
canning industry; mercantile indus­
try; labeling and office work m the
fish canning industry; laundry ana
dry cleaning industry; dried fruit
packing industry and office workers
in the citrus packing and green fruit
and vegetable packing industry,
manufacturing industry; nut crack­
ing and sorting industry.
General and professional offices; fruit
and vegetable canning industry; fish
canning industry; citrus packing and
green fruit and vegetable packing
industry.

No employer shall employ or suffer
or permit any woman to work
. . . more than 6 days in any one
week.

.fcO
—I

C“"

PE0VIMNG "“PASS

State

6 days shall constitute a basic week
for all women and minors.

Ibid., No. 1, Aug. 1, 1927.

Ibid., No. 2, Aug. 1, 1927. Employment for women and
minors shall be limited to 6 days
in a week, with l day of rest in

every 7 days

I^.. No. 3, Aug 1.192L ^---orininor^ll be™during each week.

Ibid., No. 4, Aug. 1, 1927.




Time for meals

Rest periods

Occupations or industries specified

The day’s work shall be divided [ Telephone operators.
into two shifts, one of which
shall not exceed 5 hours’ dura­
tion. (Females.)
No female person shall be per­ Laundry occupation, i. e., laundries
mitted to work more than 6
d^ei£?Vdry cleaning, and pressing
consecutive hours without relief
establishments.
for meals.

Relief for lunch shall be 1 hourprovided that the Women's'
Division of the Public Service
Commission on application of
both employer and employee
may reduce this period to onehalf hour. (Female workers.)
the meal relief shall not be less Not more than 5 hours shall be
than 45 minutes. (Females.)
worked in any one period with­
Exceptions: The Public Service
out relief for meals (Females )
Commission may grant a shorter
lunch period in any particular
industry or where the industry
operates on an 8-hour basis the
lunch period shall not be less
than 30 minutes.

ReliN formeals,! hour. (Woman
:— ,
x
■ v Divi­
or minor.) The Women’s urnai
sion of the Public Service Com­
mission, upon application show­
ing that both employer and em­
ployee prefer a shorter period,
may grant a lunch period of not
less than 45 minutes.

Relief for meals shall not be less
than 20 minutes. (Woman or
minor.)

No woman or minor shall be em­
ployed for more than 5 hours
without relief for meals.

No woman or minor shall be per­
mitted to work for more than 5
hours without relief for meals.

gg

Manufacturing occupation, i. e, all
processes in the production of com­
modities Florists’ shops and candymakmg departments of confectionery
stores and bakeries also are included.
Exception: Millinery workrooms'
dressmaking establishments, hem­
stitching and button shops, and alter­
ation, drapery, and upholstery de­
partments of a mercantile establish­
ment may obtain permission from
the Court of Industrial Relations to
operate under the mercantile order
Mercantile establishments; includes
all establishments operated for the
purpose of trade in the purchase or
sale of any goods or merchandise,
and includes the sales force, the wrap­
ping employees, the auditing and
checking force, the shippers in the
mail-order department, the receiving
marking, and stock-room employees!
sheet music sales-women and dem­
onstrators, and all employees in such
establishments in any way directly
co^nj^ed
the sale, purchase
and disposition of goods, wares, and
merchandise.
Public housekeeping occupation, i. e.,
the work of waitresses in restaurants,
hotel dining rooms, and boarding

STA TE LAW S

Public Service Commis­
sion Order, No. 5,
Aug. 1, 1927.

Day of rest or one shorter workday

TIME E0R MEALS, AND EEST

>

s
m

fcd
Q
i-3
w
3

O
3

o

Pd

g
M
3
o

3
o
s
H

5!

Louisiana.
In “Constitution and
Statutes of Louisiana,”
1920 (ed. by Solomon
Wolf), Vol. II, p. 1090.
In ‘ ‘ Constitution and
Statutes of Louisiana,”
1920 (ed. by Solomon
Wolf), Vol. II, pp. 1082
and 1084.

Maine.
In “Revised Statutes of
Maine,” 6th ed., 1916,
pp. 1650-1662.




All females shall be allowed 1 hour
each day for dinner. Excep­
tions: In case two-thirds of em­
ployees so desire, 30 minutes
only may be allowed

Each day, between the hours of All persons, firms, or corporations doing
business at retail.
10 a. m. and 3 p. m., not less than
30 minutes for lunch or recrea­
tion shall be allowed female
labor or female clerks.
Mill, factory, mine, packing house,
manufacturing establishment, work­
shop, laundry, millinery or dress­
making stores, or mercantile estab­
lishments, or hotel or restaurants, or
in any theater or concert hall or in
or about any place of amusement
where intoxicating liquors are made
or sold or in any bowling alley, boot­
blacking establishment, freight or
passenger elevator, or in the trans­
mission or distribution of messages,
whether telegraph or telephone or
any other messages, or merchandise,
or in any other occupation whatso­
ever. Exceptions: Stores or mercan­
tile establishments in which not more
than 5 persons are employed on Sat­
urday nights.
No female shall be employed or
permitted to work more than
6 hours continuously without an
interval of at least 1 hour. Ex­
ceptions: 6X hours’ continuous
A
labor if such employment ends
not later than half past 1 in the
afternoon and the worker is dis­
missed for the remainder of the
day.

Workshop, factory, manufacturing, or
mechanical establishment, or laun­
dry, telephone exchange employing
more than 3 operators, or mercantile
establishments, store, restaurant, tele­
graph office, or any express or trans­
portation company.
Exceptions:
Public services in cases of emergency,
or in cases of extraordinary public
requirement, manufacturing estab­
lishment, or business the materials
and products of which are perishable.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O B K IN G W O M E N

houses; all attendants employed at
ice cream parlors, soda fountains,
light lunch stands, steam table or
counter work in cafeterias and deli­
catessens where freshly cooked foods
are served, and confectionery stores
where lunches are served; the work
of chambermaids in hotels, lodging
and boarding houses, and hospitals;
the work of janitresses, of car cleaners,
and of k’tchen workers in hotels, res­
taurants and hospitals; elevator op­
erators, cigar stand and cashier girls
connected with such establishments.

to
cO

0“” V,'“LAWS PR0VIDING “"pAJSS %HEE«EKliil4SY'TIME F0R

REST

CO

o
State

Day of rest or one shorter workday

Time for meals

Minnesota.
In “General Statutes of
Minnesota,” 1913, sec.
3851, p. 879.




Manufacturing, mechanical, mercan­
tile, printing, baking, or laundering
establishments. Exceptions: Estab­
lishments employing less than 5
persons; canning, preserving or pre­
paring for canning or preserving of
perishable fruits and vegetables.
Mercantile establishments outside of
the city of Baltimore where work is
permitted for 12 hours on Saturdavs
Christmas Eve, and the 5 days pre­
ceding Christmas Eve

See “Time for meals”__

Factory or workshop in which 5 or
more women or persons under 18
years of age are emploved. Excep­
tions: Ironworks, glass works, paper
mills, letter-press establishments,
print works, bleaching works, or dye­
ing works, or continuous processes
exempted by the department of labor
and industries with the approval
of the governor.

I
| No woman shall be employed
more than 6 hours at one time
without an interval of at least
45 minutes for a meal. Excep­
tions: 614 hours at any one time
if such employment ends not
later than 1 o’clock in the after­
noon and the worker is dis­
missed for the remainder of the
day; 7J4 hours at any one time
if worker is allowed sufficient
opportunity to eat a lunch, and
if such employment ends not
later than 2 o’clock in the after­
noon and the worker is dis­
missed for the remainder of the
day.
At least 00 minutes shall be allowed
for the noonday meal. Excep­
tions: Commissioner of labor may
issue permits allowing a shorter
time.

At least 20 minutes for lunch shall
be allowed when employees are
required or permitted to work
more than 1 hour overtime after
6p.m. (females).

Mercantile establishment, restaurant
lunch room, or eating house, or
kitchen operated in connection there­
, hmchanical or manufacturing
establishment; telephone or telegraph
establishment in cities of the first and
second class.

GO
i>
-S
l>

to

A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Massachusetts.
In “General Laws of
Massachusetts,” 1921,
Vol. II, eh. 149, secs.
100-101, p. 1576.

Occupations or industries specified

No female shall be employed or
permitted to work more than 6
hours continuously without an
interval of at least a half hour.
Exceptions: 6\4 hours’ continu­
ous labor if she shall not be per­
mitted to work during the re­
mainder of the day. All females
shall have at least two rest inter­
vals of not less than 1 hour each.

Maryland.
In “Annotated Code of
the Public General
Laws of Maryland,”
1924 (ed. by George P.
Bagby), Vol. II, Art.
ICO, secs. 54-57, pp.3104­
3105.

Rest periods

New Jersey.
In “ First Supplement to
the Compiled Statutes
of New Jersey,” 1911­
1915, sec. 83, p. 866.

No female shall be employed,
allowed, or permitted to work
more than 6 days in any one
week.

New York.
In “ Session Laws of New
York,” 1927, ch. 453,
(a) sec. 172, pp. 1133­
1134, (b) sec. 181, pp.
1134-1135: and “ Cahills
Consolidated Laws of
New York,” 1923, ch.
32, (c) sec. 182, p. 1198,
(d) sec. 183, p. 1198, (e)
•sec. 185, p. 1198.

No female shall be employed more
than 6 days in any week.

In “ Cahill’s Consoli­ No female shall be employed more
than 6 days in any week.
dated Laws of New
York,” 1923, ch. 32,
sec. 184, p. 1198.
North Dakota.
In “Session Laws of No female shall be employed more
than 6 days... in any one week.
North Dakota,” 1927,
ch. 142, pp. 186-187.




Not less than 1 hour shall be al­
lowed for meals. Exceptions:
The commissioner of labor may
grant permission for a shorter
meal period. (Females.)

Factory, workshop, store, or mill.

Manufacturing or mercantile estab­
lishment; bakery, laundry, restau­
rant. Exceptions: Canneries en­
gaged in packing a perishable pro­
duct, such as fruits or vegetables;
hotels or other continuous business
where working hours do not exceed
8 per day.
(a) Factory, i. e., mill, workshop, man­
ufacturing establishment, laundries,
(b) Mercantile establishment. Ex­
ceptions: Writers or reporters in
newspaper offices, (c) Work in or
in connection with restaurants in
cities of the first and second class.
Exceptions: Singers and performers
of any kind, attendants in ladies
cloak rooms and parlors; employees
in or in connection with the dining
rooms and kitchens of hotels or in
connection with employees’ lunch
rooms or restaurants, (d) Custody
or management of or operation of
any elevator for freight or passengers
in any building or place. Exceptions:
Hotels, (e) Messenger for a tele­
graph or messenger company in the
distribution, transmission or delivery
of goods or messages.
Conductor or guard on any street,
surface, electric, subway or elevated
railroad.
Manufacturing, mechanical, or mer­
cantile establishment, laundry, hotel,
or restaurant, or telephone or tele­
graph establishment or office, or any
express or transportation company.
Exceptions: Rural telephone ex­
changes and in villages and towns of
less than 500 population.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O K K IN G W O M E N

At least 60 minutes shall be allowed
for the noonday meal. Excep­
tions: Commissioner of labor may
issue permits allowing a shorter
time.
.
, ,
,
At least 20 minutes for lunch
shall be allowed when employees
are required or permitted to
work more than 1 hour overtime
after 6p.m. (females).

In “Labor Laws of Min­
nesota,” 1919. Laws,
1909, ch. 499, p. 101
(issued by the depart­
ment of labor and in­
dustries, St. Paul,
Minn.).

CO

Chart

VI.- -LAWS PROVIDING «.BADAT 0/0*
State

Minimum Wage Depart­
ment Order, No. 2,1922.

Minimum Wage Depart­
ment Order, No. 4,
1922.

Minimum Wage Depart­
ment Order, No. 5,
1922.




Time for meals

Rest periods

30 minutes shall be allowed for
meals if they are furnished on
the premises; 60 minutes for
lunch if employees must leave
premises. (Females.)

No woman shall be employed for
more than 4 hours of continuous
labor without a rest period.

g

Occupations or industries specified

Public housekeeping occupation, i. e.,
the work of waitresses in restaurants,
hotel dining rooms, boarding houses,
and all attendants employed at ice
cream and light lunch stands, and
steam table or counter work in cafe­
terias and delicatessens where freshly
cooked foods are served and the work
of chambermaids in hotels and lodg­
ing houses and boarding houses and
hospitals, and the work of janitresses
and car cleaners and of kitchen work­
ers in hotels and restaurants and hos­
pital and elevator operators.
A 30-minute period for the noon No woman shall be employed for Manufacturing occupation, i. e., all proc­
meal shall be the minimum al­
more than 5H hours of continu­
esses in the production of commodi­
lowed. (Females.)
ous labor without a rest period.
ties. Includes the work performed
in dressmaking shops and wholesale
millinery houses, in the work-rooms of
retail millinery shops, and in the dra­
pery and furniture covering work­
shops, the garment alteration, art,
needlework, fur garment making, and
millinery workrooms in mercantile
stores, and the candy making depart­
ments of retail candy stores and of
restaurants, and in bakery and bis­
cuit manufacturing establishments,
in candy manufacturing and in book
binding and job press feeding estab­
lishments.
A 30-minute period for the noon No woman shall be employed for Laundry occupation, I. e., aH the proc­
meal shall be the minimum al­
more than 5 hours of continuous
esses connected with the receiving,
lowed. (Females.)
labor without a rest period.
marking, washing, cleaning, ironing,
and distribution of washable or cleanable materials The work performed
in laundry departments in hotels,
hospitals and factories.
Adequate time and provision at
Telephone establishments.
seasonable hours must be given
to the employees for meals.
(Females.)

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

North Dakota—Continued.
Minimum Wage Depart­
ment Order, No. 1,1922.

Day of rest or one shorter workday

SHORTERWORKDAY. TIME FOR MEALS, AND REST

Females shall be entitled to not
less than 30 minutes for meal
time in establishments where
lunch rooms are provided, and
to not less than 1 hour for meal
time in establishments where no
lunch rooms are provided.

In “ Pagers General Code
of Ohio,” 1926, Vol. I,
sec. 1008, p. 12.

No female shall be employed, per­
mitted, or suffered to work more
than 6 days in any one week.

Oregon.
Industrial Welfare Com­
mission Order, No. 36,
1918.
Industrial Welfare Com­
mission Orders, Nos.
37,38,39, and 41,1919.




No person shall employ any
woman . . . for more than 6 days
in one calendar week.

Factory, workshop, telephone or tele­
graph office, millinery or dressmak­
ing establishment, restaurant; the
distribution or transmission of mes­
sages, in or on any interurban or
street railway car, or as ticket sellers
or elevator operators, or in any mer­
cantile establishment located in any
city. Exceptions: Canneries and es­
tablishments preparing for use per­
ishable goods during the canning
season.
No woman shall be employed on All occupations.
two successive days without an
interval of 9 hours’ rest between
such days.
No person shall employ any Mercantile occupations, i. e., the work
of those employed in establishments
woman ... for more than 6 hours
operated for the purpose of trade in
of continuous labor without a
the purchase or sale of any goods or
rest period of at least 45 minutes.
merchandise, and includes the sales
force, the wrapping employees, the
auditing or check inspection force, the
shippers in the mail-order depart­
ment, the receiving, marking and
stock-room employees, and sheet
music saleswomen and demonstrators.
Manufacturing occupation, i. e., all
processes in the production of com­
modities. Includes the work per­
formed in dressmaking shops, and
wholesale millinery houses, in the
workrooms of retail millinery shops,
and in the drapery and furniture cov­
ering workrooms, the garment altera­
tion, art needle work, fur-garment
making and millinery workrooms in
mercantile stores, and the candy
making department of retail candy
stores, and of restaurants. Excep­
tions: Fruit and vegetable drying,
calming, preserving, and packing es­
tablishments

S T A T E L A W S A E E E C t I N G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Idem___

Factory, workshop, business office*,
telephone or telegraph office, restau­
rant, bakery, millinery or dressmak­
ing establishment, mercantile, or
other establishment.

CO­

CO*

Chart VI.—LAWS

PROVIDING FOR A DAY OF REST, ONE SHORTER WORKDAY, TIME FOR MEALS, AND REST
PERIODS FOR WOMEN WORKERS—Continued
?

State

Day of rest or one shorter workday

Time for meals

CO

.

Rest periods

Occupations or industries specified

Laundry occupation, i. e., all the proc­
esses connected with the receiving,
marking, washing, cleaning and iron­
ing and distribution of washable and
cleanable materials. The work per­
formed in laundry departments in
hotels and factories.
Personal-service occupation, i. e., mani­
curing, hairdressing, barbering, and
other work of like nature and the
work of ushers in theaters.
Office occupation, i. e., stenographers,
bookkeepers, typists, billing clerks,
filing clerks, cashiers, checkers, invoicers, comptometer operators, audi­
tors, attendants in physicians’ and
dentists’ offices, and all kinds of cleri­
cal work.
Telephone or telegraph occupations,
public housekeeping occupation, i. e.,
hotel, restaurant, boarding house, car
cleaners, janitresses, elevator opera­
tors.
Telegraph occupation.

Oregon—Continued.

No person shall employ any
woman ... for more than 6 days
in one calendar week.

No person shall employ any
woman ... for more than 6 hours
of continuous labor without a
rest period of at least 45 minutes.

Industrial Welfare Com­
mission Orders, Nos. 40
and 44,1919.

No person shall employ any
woman ... for more than 6 days
in one calendar week.

No person shall employ any
woman ... for more than 6 hours
of continuous labor between 7
a. m. and 8.30 p. m., without a
rest period of at least 45 minutes.

Industrial Welfare Com­
mission Orders, Nos.
42, 43, and 45, 1919.
Industrial Welfare Com­
mission Orders, Nos.
42 and 43, 1919.

No person shall employ any
woman ... for 7 consecutive
days without allowing 1 day
during which the hours of ernloyment shall not exceed 6
ours.
Industrial Welfare Com­ No person shall employ any
mission Order, No. 42,
woman ... for more than 6
1919.
days in one calendar week.
Commission may except ex­
changes employing less than 10
operators.
Industrial Welfare Com­ No person shall employ any
mission Order, No. 43,
woman for 14 consecutive days
1919.
without 1 full day of rest.
No person shall employ any
woman ... for 14 consecutive
days without 1 day of not more
than 6 hours’ work. Commis­
sion may except exchanges em­
ploying less than 10 operators.




No person shall employ any
woman ... for more than 6 hours
of continuous labor between 7
a. m. and 8.30 p. m., without a
rest period ef at least 45 minutes.

Telephone occupation in the city of
Portland.

Telephone occupation outside the city
of Portland.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Industrial Welfare Com­
mission Orders, Nos.
37, 38, 39, and 41, 1919.

Pennsylvania.
In “Digest of the Penn­
sylvania Statute Law,”
1920, secs. 1354 0-13542,
13545, 13546, p. 1331.

No female shall be employed or
permitted to work for more
than 6 days in any one week.




Any establishment. “The term ‘es­
tablishment' when used in this act
shall mean any place within the
Commonwealth where work is done
for compensation of any sort to
whomever payable.”
Exceptions:
Nurses in hospitals, work in private
homes, farming, canning of fruit and
vegetable products.
Hotels, boarding houses, charitable,
educational, and religious institu­
tions.
Short terms summer hotels operating
4 months per year.
Hotels and institutions employing not
more than 10 women.

Hotels employing more than 10 women.

Time allowed for meals shall be No woman shall work in each
period for more than 4 hours.
not less than 1 hour. (Females.)

Any lucrative occupation.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

The 1 day of holiday in 7 may be
subdivided into 2 days of 12
hours each at the discretion of
the industrial board. (Fe­
males.)
[Industrial Board], Rule Women employees may be granted
1 whole day of rest or (provided
W-3, December, 1926.
daily hours do not exceed 8) 2
half days in each calendar week.
Ibid., Rule W-l, Decem­ Women employees may be granted
1 day of rest per week by any
ber, 1926.
one of the following methods:
(1) 1 complete day; (2) 24 hours
consecutive rest beginning at
any hour of the day; (3) Sunday
off one week, a week day off the
next week; (4) alternate Sundays
off with one-half week day.
Equals 2 full days per fortnight;
(5) 2 half holidays of at least 5
hours each (only in case daily
hours do not exceed 8).
Women employees shall be given
1 complete <Jay off in each cal­
endar week, or 24 hours of con­
secutive rest beginning at any
hour of the day.
Porto Rico.
In “Session Laws of
Porto Rico,” 2d sess.,
1919, No. 73, pp. 496-497

Not less than 45 minutes shall be No female shall be employed or
permitted to work more than
allowed to every female em­
6 hours continuously without
ployed or permitted to work
an interval of at least 45 min­
. . . for the midday meal. Ex­
utes. If females work less than
ceptions: If females work less
8 hours per day, the interval
than 8 hours per day the mid­
between work periods may be
day meal time may be reduced
reduced to not less than 30
to not less than 30 minutes.
minutes.

8

Chart VI.-

-laws pboviding FOB aojy %rME#ggSt-WCSA/' TIME F0R MEAES’ A™

State

Industrial Welfare Com­
mittee Order, No. 25,
1921.
Industrial Welfare Com­
mittee Order, No. 27,
1921.
Industrial Welfare Com­
mittee Order, No. 28,
1921.
Industrial Welfare Com­
mittee Order, No. 29,
1922.
Wisconsin.
In “Wisconsin Statutes,"
1925, Vol. I, secs. 103.01­
103.02, pp. 1134-1135.




Time for meals

Minimum wage is set for a 6-day
week. (Females.)
Minimum wage is set for a 6-day
week. (Females.)

Not less than 1 hour shall be al­
lowed for a luncheon period.
(Females.)

Minimum wage is set for a 6-day
week. (Females.)

Not less than 1 hour shall be al­
lowed for a noonday luncheon
(Females.)

No female shall be employed for
more than 6 days in any one
week.

Occupations or industries specified

No female shall be employed more
than 5 hours without a rest
period of at least one-half hour.

No female shall be employed more
than 6 days in any one week.
Exceptions: Emergencies, when
women may be employed 10
days before a day of rest is given
them, provided they receive at
least 4 days rest in any 28-day
period.

Rest periods

Public housekeeping industry, i. e.,
linen-room girls, chambermaids,
cleaners, kitchen girls, dishwashers,
pantry girls, pantry servers, wait­
resses, counter girls, bus girls, elevator
operators, janitresses, laundry workers
(except when a commercial laundry
is operated), and any other occupa­
tion which would properly be classi­
fied under Public Housekeeping.
The establishment shall include:
Hotels, rooming houses, boarding
houses, restaurants, cafes, cafeterias,
lunch rooms, tea rooms, apartment
houses, hospitals (not nurses), phil­
anthropic institutions, and any other
which may be properly classified
under this industry.
Laundry, dry-cleaning or dye works
occupation, trade or industry.

No female shall be employed on a
shift of more than 6 hours with­
out a rest period of 15 minutes.

Telephone or telegraph lines or any
other public occupation. Exceptions:
Occupations regulated by orders
numbered 23, 25, 28 and 29.
Mercantile establishment.
Manufacturing occupations, trades, and
industries.

No female shall be allowed less
than 1 hour during each day or
night for dinner or other meals.
Exceptions: The commission
may modify this provision.

Place of employment (i. e., manufac­
turing, mechanical, or mercantile
establishment; laundry, restaurant,
confectionery store, or telegraph or
telephone office or exchange, or any
express or transportation establish­
ment) .

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Washington.
Industrial Welfare Com­
mittee Order, No. 23,
1921.

Day of rest or one shorter workday

§

Industrial Commission
Order No. 5,1918.

In cities of the first class, manufac­
tories which have convenient, ade­
quately equipped lunch rooms.
In restaurants where employees eat on
premises.

ers may be 45 minutes.

Industrial Commission
orders regulating pea
canneries, and regulat­
ing factories which can
beans, cherries, corn, or
tomatoes.

Chabt VII.—NIGHT-WORK

State
California.
. .
_ ,
Industrial Welfare Commission Orders,
Nos. 7a and 8a, 1923.
Industrial Welfare Commission Orders,
Nos. 11a and 15a, 1923.

Prohibition of
night work

The stretch of work between meal Pea canning factories; factories can­
ning beans, cherries, corn, or toma­
periods may never exceed 6 hours.
toes.
(Women.) There must be a rest
period of at least 9 consecutive
hours during each 24 hours.

LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS

Limitation of night work

continuous processes
to work
llp.m.to6a.m— Inat night is granted by where a permit commis­
the industrial
sion, time and one-half must be paid.

Connecticut.
.
In “ Session Laws of Connecticut,” 1925, ch.
208, pp. 3997-3998, and in same, 1927, ch.
144, pp. 4230-4231.
Ibid., ch. 158, pp. 3933 3934----- ------——----Delaware.
__ .
,,
sec. 3135, p. 1457, and in “ Session Laws of
Delaware,” 1917, ch. 230, pp. 741-742.
If any part of a female’s work is performed be­
tween 11 p. m. and 7 a. m. not more than 8 hours
of work in any 24 are permitted.
Indiana.
In “Burns’s Annotated Indiana Statutes,
1926, Vol. Ill, sec. 9411, p. 21.




Occupations or industries specified

Laundry and dry cleaning industry. Dried fruit packing
industry.
, .
.
.,
Manufacturing industry. Nut cracking and sorting in­
dustry. Exceptions: In continuous processes under a
permit from the industrial commission.
Public restaurant, caff, dining room, barber shop, hair­
dressing or manicuring establishment, photograph gal­
lery, any manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile es­
tablishment. Exceptions: Hotels. In the event of war
or other serious emergency, governor may suspend
limitations where he deems it necessary.
Any bowling alley, shoe-shining establishment, or billiard
or pool room.
Mechanical or manufacturing establishment, laundry,
baking or printing establishment, office or dressmaking
establishment. Exceptions: Canning or preserving, or
preparation for canning or preserving of perishable fruits
and vegetables.
Mercantile establishments, telephone and telegraph office
or exchange, restaurant, hotel, place of amusement.
Manufacturing.

STATE LAWS AFFECTING WORKING WOMEN

provided the stretch of labor be­
tween meals does not exceed 5
hours.
Meal periods of not less than 30
minutes must be given to all
women at the usual time for
meals, i. e., at or about 12 noon,
6 p. m., and 12 midnight.

Chart VII—NIGHT-WORK

State

Prohibition of
night work

Ibid., No. 1, Aug. 1, 1927.

9 p. m. to 6 a.

Ibid., No. 2, Aug. 1, 1927.

Maximum hours shall not exceed 12 for total
work time plus rest time and sleep time for
all operators regularly employed after 10.30
p. m.

9 p. m. to 6 a.

Ibid., No. 3, Aug. 1, 1927.

Limitation of night work

After 9 p. m

Maryland.
In “Annotated Code of the Public General
Laws of Maryland," 1924 (ed. by George
P. Bagby),Vol. II, art. 100, secs. 54-57,
pp. 3104-3105.
Massachusetts.
In “ General Laws of Massachusetts," 1921,
Vol. II, ch. 149, sec. 59, p. 1565.
Nebraska.
In “ Compiled Statutes of Nebraska," 1922,
Civil Administrative Code, Title IV,
Art. II, secs. 7659-7661, pp. 2360-2361.




Occupations or industries specified

Telephone operators.
Laundry occupation, i. e., laundries, dyeing, dry cleaning
and pressing establishments.
Manufacturing occupation, i. e., all processes in the pro­
duction of commodities. Florists’ shops and eandvmakmg departments of confectionery stores and bakeries
also are included. Exceptions: Millinery workrooms
dressmaking establishments, hemstitching and button
shops, and alteration, drapery, and upholstery depart­
ments of a mercantile establishment may obtain permis­
sion from the women's division of the public service
commission to operate under the mercantile order.
Mercantile establishments; includes all establishments
operated for the purpose of trade in the purchase or sale
of any goods or merchandise, and includes the sales force,
the wrapping employees, the auditing and checking
force, the shippers in the mail order department, the
receiving, marking, and stock room employees, sheet
music saleswomen and demonstrators, and all employees
m such establishments in any way directly connected
with the sale, purchase, and disposition of goods, wares
a°d merchandise. Exceptions: The women’s division of
the public service commission may permit mercantile
establishments to remain open one day per week until 10
p. m. in agricultural communities, for any specified num­
ber of weeks between June 1 and September 15.

a°y part of a female’s work is performed
before 6 a. m. or after 10 p. m., not more than
8 hours’ work in any one day is permitted.

CO
OO'

Manufacturing, mechanical, mercantile, printing, baking,
or laundering establishment. Exceptions: Canning, pre­
serving, or preparing for canning or preserving of perish­
able fruits and vegetables.

10 p. m. to 6 a.:

Man ufacturing.

6 p. m. to 6 a. n

Manufacture of textile goods.

10 p. m. to 6 a. i

Manufacturing, mechanical, or mercantile establishments,
laundry, hotel, or restaurant, office in metropolitan
cities and cities of the first class. Exceptions: Public
service corporation.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O B K lN G W O M E N

Kansas.
Public Service Commission Order, No. 5.
Aug. 1, 1927.

LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS—Continued

New Hampshire.
In “Public Laws of New Hampshire/' 1925,
eh. 176, secs. 14-21, pp. 680-681.

New Jersey.1
In “Session Laws of New Jersey,” 1923, ch.
144, pp. 312-313.
New York.
In “Session Laws of New York,” 1927, ch.
453, pp. 1133-1135.
Idem____
In “Cahill’s Consolidated Laws of New
York,” 1923, ch. 32, sec. 182, p. 1198.

Ibid., sec. 183, p. 1198.

If any female works at any time between the
hours of 8 p. m. and 6 a. m. on more than 2
nights per week, not more than 8 hours of work
are permitted in any 24 hours or more than 48
hours of work in any week.

10 p. m. to 6 a. m.

10 p. m. to 6 a. m.
10 p. m. to 7 a. m.
10 p. m. to 6 a. m.

10 p. m. to 7 a. m.

Ibid., sec. 184, p. 1198.

10 p. m. to 6 a. m.

Ibid., sec. 185, p. 1198.

10 p. m. to 7 a. in.

North Dakota.
Minimum Wage Department Order, No. 1,
1922.

1 a. m. to 5 a. m_.

11 p. m. to 7 a. m.
i This law contains no enforcement provision and therefore is without effect.




Manual or mechanical labor in any employment. Excep­
tions: Household labor and nurses, domestic, hotel, and
boarding house labor, operators in telephone and tele­
graph offices, and farm labor, manufacture of munitions
and supplies for the United States or the State during war
time, mercantile establishments on the 7 days preceding
Christmas, provided annual weekly average does not
exceed 54 hours.
Any manufacturing, mercantile establishment, any bakery,
laundry, or restaurant. Exceptions: Canneries engaged
in packing a perishable product, such as fruits or vege­
tables.
Factory, i. e., mill, workshop, or other manufacturing estab­
lishment, laundries.
Mercantile establishment. Exceptions: Dec. 18-24; writers
or reporters in newspaper offices.
Work in or in connection with restaurants in cities of the
first and second class. Exceptions: Singers and perform­
ers of any kind, attendants in ladies’ cloak rooms and
parlors, employees in or in connection with the dining
rooms and kitchens of hotels or in connection with
employees’ lunch rooms or restaurants.
.
Custody, management of, or operation of elevator for freight
or passengers in any building or place. Exceptions: If the
industry occupying the building starts work at 6 a.m.fthe
elevator operator may begin work at that hour. Women
over 21 years in hotels.
Conductor or guard on any street surface, electric, subway,
or elevated railroad.
Messenger for a telegraph or messenger company m the
distribution, transmission, or delivery of goods or mes­
sages.
Public housekeeping occupation, i. e., the work of waitresses
in restaurants, hotel dining rooms, boarding houses, and
all attendants employed at ice-cream and light-lunch
stands and steam table or counter work in cafeterias and
delicatessens where freshly cooked foods are served, and
the work of chambermaids in hotels and lodging houses
and boarding houses and hospitals, and the work of
janitresses and car cleaners and of kitchen workers in
hotels and restaurants and hospitals.
Elevator operators.

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Chart VII.—NIGHT-WORK

LAWS FOR WOMEN WORKERS—Continued
O

State

Prohibition of
night work

After 9 p. m_..

Ohio.
In, ‘‘-Page’s General Code of Ohio,” 1920,
Vol. I, sec. 1008-1, p. 413.

10 p, m. to 6 a. m

Oregon.
Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No.
37, 1919.

After 6 p. m..

Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No.
38, 1919,

After 8.30 p. m.

Industrial Welfare Commission Orders
Nos. 39 and 41,1919.

After 8.30 p. m..




Occupations or industries specified

Mercantile establishment, i. e., the work of those employed
in establishments operated for the purpose of trade in the
purchase or sale of any goods or merchandise, and in­
cludes the sales force, the wrapping force, the auditing or
checking force, the shippers in the mail-order department,
the receiving, marking, and stock room employees, and
sheet-music saleswomen and demonstrators and cigarstand girls.
Ticket sellers.
Mercantile occupation in Portland, i. e., the work of those
employed in establishments operated for the purpose of
trade in the purchase or sale of any goods or merchandise,
and includes the sales force, the wrapping employees the
auditing or check inspection force, the shoppers in the
mail-order department, the receiving, marking, and stock
room employees, and music saleswomen and demonstra­
tors. Exceptions: Cigar stands in hotels; confectionery
stores.
Mercantile occupation outside of Portland, i. e., the work of
those employed in establishments operated for the pur­
pose of trade in the purchase or sale of any goods or mer­
chandise and includes the salas force, the wrapping
employees, the auditing or check inspection force, the
shoppers in the mail-order department, the receiving
marking, and stock room emplovees, and sheet-music
saleswomen and demonstrators. Exceptions: Cigar stands
m hotels; confectionery stores.
Manufacturing occupation, i. e., all processes in the pro­
duction of commodities. Includes the work performed
in dressmaking shops and wholesale millinery houses, in
the workrooms of retail millinery shops, and in the
drapery and furniture covering workrooms, the garment
alteration, art needle work, fur garment making, and
millinery workrooms in mercantile stores, and the candymakmg department of retail candy stores, and of restau­
rants. Exceptions: Fruit and vegetable drying, canning,
preserving, and packing establishments.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O K K IN G W O M E N

North Dakota—Continued.
Minimum Wage Department Order. No. 3.
1922.

Limitation of night work

Laundry occupation, i. e., all the processes connected with
the receiving, marking, washing, cleaning, and ironing
and distributing of washable and cleanable materials, the
work performed in laundry departments in hotels and
factories.
Elevator operators.

Industrial Welfare Commission Order, No. 11 p. m. to 7 a. m.
45. 1919.
10 p. m. to 6 a. m.

Porto Rico.
In “Session Laws of Porto Rico,” 2d sess.,
1919, No. 73.

10 p. m. to 6 a. m.

South Carolina.
In “ Code of Laws of South Carolina,” 1922,
Vol. II, Criminal Code, ch. 7, sec. 35, p.
137.
Washington.
Industrial Welfare Committee Order, No.
23, 1921.

After 10 p. m.

Mercantile establishments.

After 12 midnight..

Elevator operators.

Wisconsin.1
Industrial Commission Order, No. 1, 1917— 6 p. m to 6 a. m_.
Industrial Commission Orders, Nos. 2 and
3, 1917.
In “Wisconsin Statutes,” 1925, secs. 103.01- ----------------------103.02, pp. 1134-1135.
Ibid., sec. 103.02, pp. 1134-1135.

Manufacturing establishment. Exceptions: Managers, su­
perintendents, or persons doing clerical or stenographic
work.
Any lucrative occupation. Exceptions: Telephone opera­
tors or telegraphers, artists, nurses or domestics, over 16
years of age.

If anv work performed between 6.30 p. m. and 6
a. m. it shall be limited to 8 hours per night, 48
hours per week.
If any woman works at any time between the
hours of 8 p. m. and 6 a. m. on more than one
night per week, not more than 8 hours of work
in any one night or more than 48 hours of work
in any one week are permitted.
If any woman works at any time between the
hours of 9 p. m. and 6 a. m., not more than 9
hours of work in any one night or more than 54
hours in any one week are permitted.

Manufactories and laundries. Exceptions: Pea canneries.
Mechanical or mercantile establishments, restaurant, con­
fectionery store, telegraph or telephone, express or trans­
portation. Exceptions: Work may be done on one night
per week without bringing establishment under this
Place of employment, i. e., manufacturing, morchamcal, or
mercantile establishment, laundry, restaurant, confec­
tionery store or telegraph or telephone office or exchange,
or any express or transportation establishment.
Hotels.

■ Wisconsin has an industrial commission order prohibiting night work for women on street railways, but no women are employed in such a capacity in Wisconsin.




S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN 'G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Pennsylvania.
In “Digest of Pennsylvania Statute Law,
1920, secs. 13540, 13541, and 13543, p. 1331.

Chart

VIII.—HOME WORK LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES

to

PART A—LAWS PROHIBITING HOME WORK

Mandatory clause

Places covered by law

Occupations or industries covered by
law

No room or rooms . . . shall be
used . . •

Room or rooms, apartment or
apartments in any tenement
or dwelling house used for
eating or sleeping purposes.

Manufacture, in whole or in part, of
coats, vests, trousers, knee pants,
overalls, cloaks, shirts, ladies’ waists,
purses, feathers, artificial flowers,
cigars . . . made, altered, repaired,
cleaned, sorted, or finished, in whole
or in part, for sale or for wages.

Immediate members of family living
therein.

No room or rooms . . . shall be
used . . .

Room or rooms, apartment or
apartments in any tenement
or dwelling house.

Manufacture of coats, vests, trousers,
knee pants, overalls, cloaks, furs, fur
trimmings, fur garments, shirts,
purses, feathers, artificial flowers, or
cigars for sale.

Immediate members of family living
therein.

No room or apartment. . . shall
be used ...

Room or apartment in any tene­
ment or dwelling house, or
part of any tenement or dwell­
ing house.

Manufacture, in whole or in part, al­
tering, repairing, or finishing of any
articles whatsoever.

Massachusetts.
In “General Laws of
Massachusetts,” 1921,
Vol. II, ch. 149, secs.
143-147, pp. 1584-1585.

Immediate members of family living
therein, i. e., husband, wife, their
children, or the children of either.
Tailor or seamstress employed by fam­
ily on articles for family. Articles for
exclusive use of person occupying
house.
Workshop on main or ground floor not
used for cooking or sleeping purposes
and having a separate entrance from
the rest of the building.

A room or apartment. . . shall
not be used for the purpose of
making. . .

A room or apartment in a tene­
ment or dwelling house.

Making, altering, repairing, or finish­
ing therein coats, vests, trousers, or
wearing apparel of any description.

Michigan.
In “ Compiled Laws of
Michigan,” 1915, Vol.
II, ch. 100, sec. 5343,
pp. 2032-2033.

Members of family dwelling therein.
Room or apartment in a tenement or
dwelling house, not used for living or
sleeping purposes, having a separate
entrance and not connected with any
room used for such purposes.

None of the work mentioned in
this section shall be done in
any room or apartment.

Any room or apartment used for Manufacture of coats, vests, trousers,
living or sleeping purposes orknee pants, overalls, skirts, dresses,
which is connected with room
cloaks, hats, caps, suspenders, jer­
or rooms used for such pur­
seys, blouses, waists, waistbands,
poses, and which has not a
underwear, neckwear, furs, fur trim­
separate and distinct outside
mings, fur garments, shirts, hosiery,
entrance.
purses, feathers, artificial flowers,
cigars, cigarettes, ... or making of
these articles in whole or in part.

Seamstress manufacturing articles for
family use.

State

Indiana.
In “Burns’s Annotated
Indiana Statutes,” 1926,
Vol. Ill, secs. 9422-9423,
pp. 26-27.
Maryland.
In “ The Annotated Code
of the Public General
Laws of Maryland,”
1924 (ed. by Geo. P.
Bagby), Vol. I, art.
27, secs. 301-305, pp.
1066-1070.




S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O K K IN G

Illinois.
In “Revised Statutes of
Illinois,” 1925 (ed. by
James G. Cahill), eh.
48, secs. 108-115, pp.
1166-1167.

Exceptions

3
o
K
!4

Any room or apartment of a tene­ Any article manufactured, altered,
repaired or finished.
ment house.

Immediate members of family living
therein.
Dressmakers who deal solely in the
custom trade direct to the consumer
and whose shops are on the ground
or second floor, and who have a per­
mit issued by the commissioners of
labor certifying that the premises are
well lighted, well ventilated, and
sanitary, and that there is 1,000 cubic
feet of air space for each person em­
ployed therein.
Bakeries for which certificate ©f exemp­
tion is issued.

Food, dolls, or dolls’ clothing, article
of children’s or infants’ wearing ap­
parel manufactured, altered, re­
paired, finished, in whole or in part.
Articles manufactured, altered, re­
paired, finished.

No dwelling . . . shall be used

Dwelling or room or building or
apartment thereof in or con­
nected with a tenement, dwell­
ing, or other building.

Carrying on any process of making
wearing apparel or goods for wear,
use, or adornment, manufacturing
cigars, cigarettes, or tobacco goods in
any form.

Immediate members of family living
therein.
Room or apartment having no window
or door or other opening into a
living or sleeping room of a tenement
or dwelling, and having a separate
entrance, and not in use for living or
sleeping purposes, and sufficiently
lighted, heated, and ventilated.

No room or‘apartment in any
tenement or dwelling house
. . . shall be used ... for the
manufacture ...

Room or apartment in any tene­
ment or dwelling house.

Manufacture of coats, vests, trousers,
knee pants, overalls, skirts, dresses,
cloaks, hats, caps, suspenders, jer­
seys, blouses, waists, waistbands,
underwear, neckwear, furs, fur trim­
mings, fur garments, shirts, hosiery,
purses, feathers, artificial flowers,
cigars, or cigarettes, or making in
whole or in part of these articles.

Immediate, members of family living
therein..

No articles shall be manufac­
tured . . .

Pennsylvania.
In “Stewart’s Purdon’s
Digest of the Statute
Law of Pennsylvania,
1700-1903,” secs. 52-56,
pp. 1606-1607, and in
“Supplement to Purdon’s Digest of the
Statute Law of Penn­
sylvania, 1905-1915,”
pars. 70-72, sec. 6123.

Members of family dwelling therein
and three additional persons.

Tenement house, in any portion
of an apartment, any part of
which is used for living pur­
poses.
In a part of a cellar or basement
•of a tenement house more than
one-half of its height below
the level of the curb.

No article of food . . . shall be
manufactured . . .

Ohio.
In “Page’s General Code
of Ohio,” 1926, Vol. I,
secs. 1020-1021, p. 415.

Manufacture of wearing apparel,
purses, feathers, artificial flowers, or
other goods for male or female wear.

Room or apartment in any tene­
ment or dwelling house.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Missouri.
In “ Revised Statutes of No room or apartment. . . shall
be used. . . .
Missouri,” 1919,Vol. II,
ch. 54, secs. 6834-8836,
pp. 2148-2149.
New York.
In “ Cahill’s Consoli­ No article shall be manufac­
tured ...
dated Laws of New
York,” 1923, ch. 32,
secs. 350-366, pp. 1213—
1214.

CO
t




Chart

VIII.—HOME WORK LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued

rf*.

PART A.—LAWS PROHIBITING HOME WORK—Continued

State

Mandatory clause

Places covered by law

Occupations or industries covered by
law

Exceptions

PART B.—LAWS REGULATING HOME WORK
State

Places covered by law

California.
In “Industrial Wel­
fare Commission
Order,” No. 11a,
and No. 15a, 1923.

Any place outside the place
of business of the person
giving out home work.




Occupations or industries
covered by law

Persons whose
work is con­
trolled by law

Requirements which must be met be­
fore home work is permitted

Manufacturing industry___ Women or minors. Persons hiring work done must ob­
tain permit from Industrial Welfare
Commission. Employer must keep
record of all names and addresses of
all home workers, of amount paid
each worker, amount of work per­
formed and piece rates paid.
Employer is not permitted to give
out home work to anyone employed
regularly at his place of business.

Exceptions

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Pennsylvania—Continued.
In “Stewart’s Purdon’s No person, firm, or corporation Any room or apartment in any Manufacture of coats, vests, trousers,
Room or apartment exempted by per­
Digest of the Statute
shall hire or employ any per­
rear building or building in
knee pants, overalls, skirts, dresses,
mit of factory inspector or his
Law of Pennsylvania,
son ...
the rear of a tenement or
cloaks, hats, caps, suspenders, jer­
deputy.
1700-1903,” secs. 52-56,
dwelling house.
seys, blouses, waists, waistbands,
pp. 1606-1607, and in
underwear, neckwear, furs, fur trim­
“Supplement to Pur­
mings, fur garments, shirts, hosiery,
don’s Digest of the
purses, feathers, artificial flowers,
Statute Law of Penn­
cigars, or cigarettes, or making in
sylvania, 1905-1915,”
whole or in part of these articles.
pars. 70-72, sec. 6123.
No person, firm, or corporation Kitchen, living room, or bed­ Manufacture or partial manufacture Resident members of family, i. e.,
engaged in the manufacture or
room in any tenement house
of clothing or other wearing apparel,
parents and their children or the
sale of clothing . . . shall bar­
or dwelling house.
cigars, cigarettes.
children of either.
gain or contract with any per­
son ... for the manufacture
Tennessee.
In “Thompson’s Shan­ No room or rooms . . . shall be Room or rooms, apartment or Manufacture for sale, in whole or in
Immediate members of family living
non’s Tennessee Code,”
used for the manufacture for
apartments in any tenement
part, of coats, vests, trousers, knee
therein.
1918, secs. 4342-a-59 to
sale ...
or dwelling house used for eatpants, overalls, cloaks, shirts, ladies’
4342-a-65, pp. 1865-1866.
mg or sleeping purposes.
waists, purses, feathers, artificial
flowers, cigars, all wearing apparel.

Connecticut.
In “General Statutes All buildings, apartments,
rooms, and places in any
of Connecticut, ” Re­
tenement or dwelling
vision of 1918, secs.
house used for residential
2355-2358, p. 729.
purposes.

Indiana.
In “Burns’s Anno­
tated Indiana Stat­
utes,” 1926, vol. Ill,
secs. 9422-9423, pp.
26-27.




Persons engaged in such work to
notify factory inspector within 30
days after the time of commencing
work. Work has to be done in clean
sanitary rooms properly lighted and
ventilated.

Room or rooms, apartment Manufacture, in whole or in Immediate mem­
bers of family
or apartments in any tene­
part, of coats, vests, trou­
living therein.
sers, knee pants, overalls,
ment or dwelling house
cloaks, shirts, ladies’
used for eating or sleeping
waists, purses, feathers,
purposes.
artificial flowers, cigars, or
House, room, or place.
any wearing apparel of
any kind whatsoever.
Any process of making, al­
tering or finishing, clean­
ing, sorting, in whole or in
part, for sale or for wages.

Persons so occupied or having control
of such workshop to notify board of
health within 14 days after the time
of commencing work.
Hours of work for females and list of
children employed, with their ages,
to be posted.
Premises to be kept in a cleanly state,
free from any matter of infectious
or contagious nature.
All articles made are subject to inspec­
tion and examination.
Employer to keep list of all work­
shops in his employ.

Making, in whole or in part, Immediate mem­
bers of family
any vests, coats, trousers,
living therein.
knee pants, fur, fur trim­
mings, shirts, purses,
feathers, artificial flowers,
or cigars for sale.

Person, firm, or corporation hiring
work done to obtain written permit
from chief inspector who investi­
gates premises where work is to be
done before granting permit.
Premises to be adequately ventilated.
Permit states maximum number of
persons who may be employed, pro­
viding for not less than 250 cubic feet
of air space per person between the
hours of 6 a. m. and 6 p. m., and for
not less than 400 cubic feet of air
space per person between the hours
of 6 p. m. and 6 a. m. Chief inspec­
tor may modify latter provision
allowing 250 cubic feet of air space
er person if electricity is used for
ghting.
Permit may be revoked at any time if
health of community or of those em­
ployed therein require it.
Permit to be posted.

No room or rooms, apart­
ment, or apartments in
any tenement or dwelling
house, or building in the
rear of a tenement or
dwelling house

S

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O L F IN G W O M E N

Illinois.
In “Revised Statutes
of Illinois, ” 1925,
(ed. by James C. Ca­
hill), ch. 48, secs.
108-115, pp. 1166­
1167.

Others than the
immediate
members of the
family.

Manufacture of artificial
flowers, purses, cigars, cig­
arettes, or any articles of
wearing apparel intended
for sale.

ȣ*Ctr

Chart VIII.—HOME WORK LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued

a>

PART B—LAWS REGULATING HOME WORK—Continued

State

Massachusetts.
In “General Laws of
M assachusetts,”
1921, Vol. II, ch. 149,
secs. 143-147, pp.
1584-1585.




Occupations or industries
covered by law

A room or apartment in any
tenement or dwelling
house, part of any tene­
ment or dwelling house.

Manufacturing in whole or
in part, altering, repairing,
or finishing therein any
articles whatsoever.

Immediate mem­ License to be obtained by persons Articles for the exclusive use
bers of family
desiring to do home work from chief
of person occupying hou^e.
living therein
of bureau of statistics, who consults Employment of tailor or
(husband, wife,
records of local health authorities and
seamtress by person or
their children, or
if premises are reported satisfactory
family to do work for such
the children of
has premises reinspected to verify
person or family.
either).
report.
W orkshop on main or ground
License states maximum number of
floor of any tenement or
persons who may be employed pro­
dwelling house not used for
viding for not less than 500 cubic feet
cooking or sleeping pur­
of air space per person.
poses and having separate
Premises to be inspected every 6
entrance and which is en­
months.
tirely separate from the rest
Premises to be free from infectious,
of the building.
contagious, or communicable disease,
and from all insanitary conditions.
Permit may be revoked at any time
if health of community or' those
employed therein require it.
Employer giving out work to keep reg­
ister of persons employed on home
work and to be sure that such
home workers are licensed.

A room or apartment in a
tenement or dwelling
house.

Making, altering, repairing,
or finishing coats, vests,
trousers, or wearing ap­
parel of any description.

Family dwelling
therein.

Requirements which must be met be­
fore home work is permitted

Exceptions

License to be obtained by persons Room or apartment in a tene­
desiring to do home work from thement or dwelling house not
department of labor and industry.
used for living or sleeping
Premises subject to inspection by
purposes having a separate
inspectors of the department of labor
entrance and not connected
and industry.
with any room used for
Premises to be in cleanly condition,
such purposes.
free from vermin, and all infectious Tailor or seamstress making
and contagious matter.
articles for family wear.
Employer giving out work to keep
register of persons employed on home
work and to forward such register
monthly to the department of labor
and industry and to be sure that
such home workers are licensed.
License to be posted.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Maryland.
In “ The Annotated
Code of the Public
General Laws of
Maryland,” 1924 (ed.
by G eorge P. Bagby),
Vol. I, art. 27, secs.
301 -305, pp. 1066­
1070.

Persons whose
work is con­
trolled by law

Places covered by law

Michigan.
In “ Compiled Laws of
Michigan/’
1915,
Vol. II, ch. 100, sec.
5343, pp. 2032-2033.

New Jersey.

In “Session Laws of
New Jersey,” 1917,
ch. 176, pp. 519-522.




Room or apartment in any
tenement or dwelling
house.

Manufacture of wearing ap­
parel, purses, feathers,
artificial flowers, or other
goods for male or female
wear.

Room or rooms, apartment
or apartments in any tene­
ment or dwelling house.
Building situated in the rear
of any apartment or dwell­
ing house.

Manufacturing, altering,
repairing, or finishing for
wages or for sale any arti­
cles whatsoever.

Written permit to be obtained by persons desiring to do home work from
factory inspector, who investigates
before granting permits.
Permit states maximum number of
persons who may be employed, pro­
viding for not less than 250 cubic feet
of air space per person.
Permit may be revoked at any time if
health of "community or of those em­
ployed therein requires it.
Factory inspector to prescribe amount
of light, heat, and ventilation.
Premises to be clean, sanitary, fit for
occupancy, and free from contagious
and infectious diseases.
Employer giving out work to keep reg­
ister of persons employed on home
work and to be sure that such home
workers are licensed.
Permit to be posted.

Manufacture of coats, vests,
trousers, knee pants, over­
alls,skirts, dresses, cloaks,
hats, caps, suspenders,
jerseys, blouses, waists,
waist bands, underwear,
neckwear, furs, fur trim­
ming, fur garments, shirts,
hoisery, purses, feathers,
artificial flowers, cigars,
cigarettes, or making 9f
these articles in whole or in
part.

Members of fam­
ily dwelling
therein and
three additional
persons.

Seamstress manufacturing
articles for family use.

Premises to be in clean and healthy
condition.
Employer giving out work to keep
register of persons employed on home
work.
Written permit to be obtained by per­ Tailor, seamstress, women's
exchanges not organized for
sons desiring to do home work or by
profit.
employer desiring to give out home
work from commissioner of labor,
who investigates premises for which
permit is requested before granting
permit.
Permit to last not longer than 6 months.
Permit states maximum number of
persons who may be employed
therein, providing for not less than
250 cubic feet of air space per person
between the hours of 6 a. m. and 6
p. m., and for not less than 400 cubic
feet of air space per person between
the hours of 6 p. m. and 6 a. m., but
the commissioner of labor may mod­
ify the latter provision.
Permit may be revoked at any time if
health of the community or of those
employed therein requires it.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O K K IN G W O M E N

Missouri.
In “Revised Statutes
of Missouri,” 1919,
Vol. II, ch. 54, secs.
6834-6836, pp. 2148­
2149.

Room or apartment in any
tenement or dwelling
house, building, or parts of
buildings.

Chart

VIII.—HOME WORK LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued
PART B.—LAWS REGULATING HOME WORK—Continued

State

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Persons whose
work is con­
trolled by law

Room or rooms, apartment Manufacturing, altering,
or apartments in any tene­
repairing, or finishing for
ment or dwelling house.
wages or for sale any arti­

Building situated in the rear
of any apartment or dwell­
ing house.

New York.
In “Cahill's Consoli­ Tenement house or any part
dated Laws of New
thereof.
York,” 1923, ch. 32, Any room or apartment of
secs. 350-366, pp. 1213a tenement house.

Premises to be properly lighted, in
clean and healthful condition, free
from vermin, and every matter of
infectious and contagious nature.
Employer to be sure that all home
workers in his employ have a per­
mit.
Permit to be posted.

cles whatsoever.

Manufacturing,
altering,
repairing, or finishing of
any articles whatsoever.

Immediate mem­
bers of family
living therein.

Pennsylvania.
In “Stewart's Pur- Room or apartment in any Manufacture of coats, vests,
don’s Digest of the
tenement or dwelling house.
trousers, knee pants, over­
Statute Law of Penn­
alls, skirts, dresses, cloaks,
sylvania, 1700-1903,”
hats, caps, suspenders, jer­
secs. 52-65, pp. 1606seys,
blouses,
waists,

Immediate mem­
bers of family
living therein. *




Requirements which must be met be­
fore home work is permitted

Exceptions

Tailor, seamstress, women’s
exchanges not organized for
profit.

License to be obtained by owner of Articles for sole use of occu­
tenement where persons desire to do
pant or his family.
home work from commissioner of Collars, cuffs, shirts, or shirt
labor, who acts upon favorable re­
waists made of cotton or
port by local board of health and
linen and laundered before
verification of this report by his own
selling.
office.
Dressmakers who deal solely
Premises to be inspected every 6
in the custom trade direct
months, to be well lighted and ven­
to the consumer and whose
tilated and allow 500 cubic'feet of air
shops are on the ground or
space per worker, to be in clean,
second floor, and who have
healthful, and sanitary condition,
a permit issued by the com­
to be free from infectious, conta­
missioner of labor certify­
gious, or communicable diseases,
ing that the premises are
and from vermin.
well lighted, well venti­
Permit may be revoked at any time if
lated, and sanitary, and
health of community or of those em­
that there is 1,000 cubic feet
ployed therein may require it or if
of air space for each person
children under 14 years of age are
employed therein.
employed- therein.
Rooms on main or ground
Employer giving out work to obtain
floor having separate en­
permit from commissioner of labor
trance unconnected with
and to keep a register of persons em­
living rooms not used for
ployed on home work and to be sure
cooking or sleeping pur­
that such home workers are licensed.
poses.
Permit to be obtained by person desir­
ing to give out home work from fac­
tory inspector, who investigates
premises where work is to be done
before granting it.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

New Jersey—Continued.
In “Session Laws of
New Jersey,” 1917,
ch. 176, pp. 519-522.

Places covered by law

1608, and in “Sup­
plement to Purdon’s
Digest of the Statute
Law of Pennsylva­
nia,” 1905-1915, par.
70-72, sec. 6123, and
par. 350, sec. 6816.

Any room or apartment in Manufacture of coats, vests,
trousers, knee pants, over­
any rear building or build­
alls, skirts, dresses, cloaks,
ing in the rear of a tene­
hats, caps, suspenders, jer­
ment or dwelling house.
seys, blouses, waists, waist­
bands, underwear, neck­
wear, furs, fur trimmings,
fur garments, shirts, ho­
siery, purses, feathers,
artificial flowers, cigar­
ettes or cigars or making
in whole or in part of these
articles.

Kitchen, living room, or bed­ Manufacture of clothing,
wearing apparel, cigars,
room in any tenement or
cigarettes, or the partial
dwelling house.
manufacture of these arti­
cles.
Room or rooms in any house, Manufacturing purposes.
rooming house, or tene­
ment.

Permit to state maximum number of
persons who may be employed
therein, providing for not less than
250 cubic feet of air space per person.
Permit may be revoked at any time if
health of community or if those em­
ployed therein require it.
Premises to be clean, sanitary, fit for
occupancy.
Employer giving out work to keep
register of persons employed on home
work and to be sure that such home
workers have permits.
Permit to be posted.
Permit to be obtained by persons desir­
ing to give out home work from fac­
tory inspector who investigates
premises where work is to be done
before granting it.
Permit to state maximum number of
persons who may be employed
therein, providing for not less than
250 cubic feet of air space per person.
Permit may be revoked at any time if
health of community or of those em­
ployed therein require it.
Premises to be clean, sanitary, fit for
occupancy, adequately ventilated,
and provided with fire escapes.
Employer giving out work to keep
register of persons employed on
home work and to be sure that such
home workers have permits.
Permit to be posted.
Resident members Certificates to be obtained by person
desiring to do home work from
of family, i. e.,
board of health.
parents and their
children or the Premises to be free from infectious or
contagious diseases.
chidren of
Permit may be revoked at any time if
either.
health of community or of those em­
ployed therein require it.
Permit to be obtained by persons de­
siring to do home work from board of
health.
Permit to last 1 year.
Processes of work not to be hazardous
to health or to create dust, foul odors,
or undue noise.
Premises to allow 400 cubic feet of air
space per person.

Seamstress, manufacturing
articles for use of family
living therein.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N




waist bands, underwear,
neckwear, furs, fur trim­
mings, fur garments,
shirts, hosiery, purses,
feathers, artificial flowers,
cigars, or cigarettes, or
making in whole or in part
of these articles.

CO

Chart

VIII.—HOME WORK LAWS IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued

Cu

O

PART B.-LAWS REGULATING HOME WORK-Continued

State

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Any dwelling, tenement
house, apartment house, or
lodging house in which a
room or rooms are devoted
or used for industrial home
work.

Manufacturing, finishing,
repairing, altering or han­
dling ... of any arti­
cle or articles the material
for which has been fur­
nished by the employer.

Persons whose
work is con­
trolled by law

Exceptions

Any person or per­ Permit to be obtained by persons de­ Seamstress manufacturing
sons in a home
siring to do home work from the State
articles for use of family
who manufac­
m local department of health, which
living therein.
ture, finish, re­
investigates premises where work is
pair, alter, or
to be done before granting it.
handle in any Permit to last 1 year.
manner, mate­ Premises to be clean, sanitary, and free
rial furnished by
from any infectious, contagious, or
the employer.
communicable disease.
Permit may be revoked at any time
and work must be withdrawn if any
infectious, contagious, or communi­
cable disease is found.
Employer giving out work to keep
register of persons employed on home
work and to be sure that such home
workers have permits.
Employer giving out work must con­
form to the regulations of the child
labor law and the women’s hour law.

Tennessee:
In “ Thompson’s Shan­ Room or rooms, apartment Manufacture for sale, in Immediate mem­
non’s Tennessee
or apartments, in any tene­
whole or in part, of coats,
bers of family
Code," 1918, secs.
ment or dwelling house
vests, trousers, knee pants,
living therein.
4342a-59 to 4342a-65,
used for eating or sleeping
overalls, cloaks, shirts,
pp. 1865-66.
ladies’ waists, purses,
purposes.
feathers, artificial flowers,
cigars, all wearing apparel.
Workshop, i. e., place where
goods or products are man­
ufactured, repaired,
cleaned, sorted, in whole
or in part, for sale or for
wages.




Requirements which must be met be­
fore home work is permitted

Persons engaged in such work to notify
board of health within 14 days of the
time of commencing work.
Premises to be kept in a cleanly state,
free from all matters of infectious or
contagious nature, and free from
vermin.
Articles manufactured to be inspected.
Employer giving out work to keep
register of persons employed on
home work.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N

Pennsylvania—Contd.
In “ Rulings of the In­
dustrial Board per­
taining to women in
industry," Rule
W-23,1922, pp. 13-15.

Places covered by law

Wisconsin:
In “Wisconsin Stat­
utes,” 1925, Vol. I,
secs. 1418b and 1729r,
pp. 1114 and 1378.

S T A T E L A W S A F F E C T IN G W O R K IN G W O M E N




home work must be
Tenement or dwelling house, Articles manufactured, al­ Persons employed Permit to give outthe industrial com­
or living therein.
obtained from
tered, repaired, or finished.
shed, or other building,
missioner by any person desiring to
situated in the rear of a
give out home work.
tenement or dwelling
Permit conditional on their observing
house.
minimum wage and child labor laws.
Permit may be revoked at any time for
failure to observe these laws.
License for premises where work is to
be done must be obtained by owner
or lessee of factory or contractor for
any owner or lessee who employs any
persons at home work from the com­
missioner of public health or local
health officer. Health office in­
vestigates premises before issuing
license.
Workers to be free from any infectious
or communicable diseases.
Premises to be inspected every year.
Permit may be revoked at any time if
health of community requires it.
Employer giving out work to keep
register of persons employed on home
work.

Chart

IX.—MINIMUM-WAGE LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES
ADMINISTRATION OF MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS

States
California.
In 1 'Henning’s General
Laws of California,”
1919 (ed. by W. H.
Hyatt), ch. 161, act
2107, pp. 1100-1105.

Body empowered to administer law

Method of selecting occupation or in­
dustry to bo considered by this body

Method of arriving at wage awards

Industrial welfare commission. (Com­ Investigation at discretion of com­ Commissioner calls a wage board com­
posed of an equal number of repre­
mission to determine necessity of
mission is composed of 5 persons, 1
sentatives of employers and em­
establishing a minimum wage in the
of whom shall be a woman appointed
ployees in the trade in question
occupation. Ivestigation con­
by the governor for term of 4 years.
with a member of the commission as
ducted by examining papers, books,
The members are to receive $10 per
chairman. The board investigates
witnesses, and by holding public
diem when employed at their
the trade and reports to the commis­
hearings at which employers, em­
duties.)
ployees, and other interested persons
sion; fixes the minimum wage neces­
sary. After a public hearing the
may testify.
commissioner fixes the minimum
wage for the trade.

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

Principles by which amount
of award is determined

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Classes of employees cov­
ered by law

Exceptions

Date of award

Occupations or industries

Refusal to comply with law
a misdemeanor. Em­
ployee may recover back
wages and costs.

Amount necessary to supply
the cost of proper living
and to maintain the health
and welfare of such
workers.

The various occupations,
trades, and industries in
which women and minors
are employed.

Women; minors (persons of
either sex) under 18 years
of age.

Women physically defec­
tive by age or otherwise
may be granted a special
license by commission.
License must be renewed
every 6 months.

July 31,1920

General and professional offices.

Apprentices: Special wages
set by commission during
specified period of appren­
ticeship.

Apr,

8,1923

Mercantile industry..

May 8,1923

May 9,1923

Wages adequate to supply
the necessary cost of living
and to maintain health.
Wages sufficient for living
wages for women and mi­
nors of ordinary ability.

Any occupation. (Occupa­
tion construed to include
“any and every vocation,
trade, pursuit, and indus­
try.”)

Women; minors (persons of
either sex under 18 years
of age).

Unclassified occupations.....................

Sept. 14,1923
Sept. 14,1923

Refusal to comply with law
a misdemeanor.

Fruit and vegetable packing industry.

Sept. 14,1923

Commission investigates an occupa­
tion by examining books and rec­
ords and by holding public hear­
ings at which employers, employees,
or other interested persons may
testify. Commission then sets
minimum wage for such occupa­
tions; or commission establishes a
wage board composed of not more
than 3 representatives of employers
in the occupation in question, an
equal number of representatives of
female employees, an equal num­
ber of representatives of the public,
and a member of the commission.
The representatives of the em­
ployers and the employees to be
elected by their respective groups;
at least 1 member of every group to
be a woman. The wage board in­
vestigates the occupation and re­
ports to the commission a minimum
wage, which the commission may
accept or reject.

Fruit and vegetable canning_______

Aug. 8,1923

Investigation at discretion of commis­
sion, or at the request of not less
than 25 persons engaged in occupa­
tion, to determine necessity of estab­
lishing a minimum wage in the oc­
cupation; investigation conducted
by examining books, papers, and
witnesses, and by public hearings at
which employers, employees, or
other interested persons may testify.

Laundry and dry cleaning

Aug. 8,1923

Industrial commission.1 (Commission
is composed of 3 members appointed
by the governor, with the consent of
the senate, for terms of 6 years, at a
salary of $4,000 per annum Not
more than 1 member may represent
employees’ interests nor may more
than 1 represent employers.)

Fish-canning industry

July 23,1923

Colorado.1
In “Compiled Statutes of
Colorado,” 1921, ch. 77,
secs. 4197-4217, pp. 1052­
1056.

Manufacturing industry

Hotels and restaurants...................
Nut cracking and sorting industry.

Classes of employees

Experienced women or
minors.

Amount of wages

$16 per
$69.33)4

month.

Inexperienced women:
18 years and over $12 per week; $52
per month.
Under 18 years.
$10 per week;
$43.33)4 per
month.
Experienced woman or $16 per week;
$69.3334
per
minor.
Inexperienced:
month.
Women______________ $12 per week.
Minors............. ............. $10 per week.
Experienced woman or $16 per week.
minor.
Inexperienced women or $9 per week.
minors.
Women or minors:
Experienced................. . $0.3334 per hour.
Inexperienced_________ $0.28 per hour.
Women or minors:
Experienced.................... $16 per week.
Inexperienced
$14 per week.
Experienced woman or $0.3334 per hour.
minor.
Inexperienced woman or $0.25 per hour.
minor.
Experienced woman or $0.3334 per hour.
minor.
Inexperienced woman or $0.25 per hour.
minor.
Experienced:
Woman or minor
$16 per week.
Minors where no women $12 per week.
are employed.
Inexperienced:
Women........... ................ $12 per week.
Minors
$10.56 per week.
Women or minors
$16 per week.
Experienced woman or $0.3334 Per hour.
minor.
Inexperienced woman or $0.25 per hour.
minor.

Women physically defective
or crippled by age or
otherwise or less efficient
than woman workers of
ordinary ability may be
granted special license,
stating wage; number so
licensed must not exceed
one-tenth of the total num­
ber employed in any
establishment.

1 Legislature has never made an appropriation sufficient to put this law into effect




61927°—27.

>

week;
per

(Follow p. 51.) No. 1

Chart IX.—MINIMUM-WAGE

LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued

ADMINISTRATION OF MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS—Continued

States
Massachusetts.
In “General Laws of
Massachusetts,” 1921,
Vol.II, ch. 151, pp. 1595­
1599.

Body empowered to administer law

Method of selecting occupation or in­
dustry to be considered by this body

Board of conciliation and arbitration. Investigation at discretion of board to
determine necessity of establishing
(Board is composed of the 3 asso­
a minimum wage in an occupation.
ciate commsisoners of the depart­
ment of labor and industries. These
commissioners must include 1 rep­
resentative of labor and one repre­
sentative of employers of labor, ap­
pointed by the governor for terms of
3 years.)

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

Principles by which amount
of award is determined

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Classes of employees cov­
ered by law

Organization by the board of a wage Publish names of all em­
board composed of an equal number
ployers refusing to com­
of representatives of employers of
ply with awards of the
the occupation in question and of
board.
persons to represent the female em­
ployees in said occupation, and of
one or more disinterested persons to
represent the public, but the repre­
sentatives of the public shall not ex­
ceed one-half the number of the repre­
sentatives of either of the other par­
ties. After study of the needs of the
employees and the financial condi­
tion of the occupation, the wage
board recommends a minimum wage
which the board may accept or re­
ject.

Wages suitable for a female
of ordinary ability based
on needs of the employee
and the financial condition
of the industry. Wages
adequate to supply the
necessary cost of living
and to maintain the work­
er in health.

Any occupation

Females, minors

Method of arriving at wage awards

Exceptions

Date of award

Any woman physically de­
fective may obtain a li­
cense fixing a lower wage.

Mar. 1,1920

Feb.

1,1920

July

1,1920

Feb.

1,1921

May 15,1922

May 15,1922
*
June 1,1922

June

1,1922

June 1,1922
July

1,1922

Mar. 1,1923
Jan.

2,1924

Apr.

1,1925

May 1,1925

July

1,1925

Jan.

1,1926

Mar. 1,1926
Jan.

1,1927

Mar. 1,1927

61927°—27. (Follow p. 51.) No. 2




Occupations or industries

Classes of employees

Men’s clothing and raincoats

Experienced females_____
Inexperienced females___
Experienced females........
Inexperienced females:
17 years and over____
Under 17 years of age.
Knit goods----------------------------------- Experienced females_____
Inexperienced................... .
Office and building cleaners----- ------ - Females.......................... .
Corset factories.------------ ---------------

Experienced females_____
Inexperienced females:
18 years and over____
Under 18 years of age..
Experienced employees__
Women’s clothing occupation
Inexperienced employees:
18 years and over____
Under 18 years of age.
Experienced employees..
Men’s furnishings factories
Inexperienced employees:
1G years and over____
Under 16 years of age.
Muslin underwear, etc., occupation... Experienced employees....
Inexperienced employees:
16 years and over.........
Under 16 years of age..
Retail stores_________ _________— Experienced employees....
Inexperienced employees:
Under 18 years. ___
All others__________
Laundries............ ........ .......................... Experienced employees__
Inexperienced employees..
Brush industry------ ----------------------- Females:
Experienced................
Inexperienced........ . _.
Manufacture of druggists’ prepara­ Females:
Experienced________
tions, etc.
Inexperienced ....... . _.
Canning and preserving and minor Experienced employees:
lines of confectionery.
18 years and over____
16 and under 18 years.
Under 16 years______
Inexperienced employees:
18 years and over____
16 and under 18 years.
Under 16 years______
Bread and bakery products____
Experienced employees....
Inexperienced employees:
16 years and over____
Under 16 years______
Experienced employees__
Millinery occupation. ..................
Inexperienced employees..
Stationery goods and envelopes..
Experienced employees....
Inexperienced employees:
16 years and over........
Under 16 years______
Experienced___________
Candy occupation____________
Inexperienced__________
Jewelry and related lines______
Experienced
Inexperienced__________
Toys, games, and sporting goods
Experienced___________
Inexperienced:
16 years and over----All others....................
Paper-box occupation

Amount of wages

$15 per week.
$7 per week.
$13 per week.
$10 per week.
$8 per week.
$13.75 per week.
$8.50 per week.
$15.40 per week.
$0.37 per hour.
$13.50 per week.
$10 per week.
$8.50 per week.
$14 per week.
$11 per week.
$9 per week.
$13.75 per week.
$9 per week.
$8 per week.
$13.75 per week.
$8 per week.
$7.50 per week.
$14 per week.
$10 per week.
$12 per week.
$13.50 per week.
$11 per week.
$13.92 per week.
$9.60 per week.
$13.20 per week.
$9.60 per week.
$13.00 per week.
$11 per week.
$9 per week.
$12 per week.
$10 per week.
$8 per week.
$13 per week.
$11 per week.
$9 per week.
$13 per week.
$6 per week.
$13.75 per week.
$11 per week.
$9 per week.
$13 per week.
$9 per week.
$14.40 per week.
$12 per week.
$13.50 per week.
$12 per week.
$10.50 per week.

Chart

IX.—MINIMUM-WAGE LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued
ADMINISTRATION OF MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS—Continued

States
Minnesota.1
In “General Statutes of
Minnesota,” 1913, secs.
3904-3923, pp. 889-891,
and in “ Session Laws of
Minnesota, ” 1921, ch.
81, pp. 85-86, and in
“Session Laws of Min­
nesota,” 1923, ch. 153,
pp. 173-174.

Body empowered to administer law

Industrial commission. (Commission
is composed of 3 salaried members
appointed by the governor by and
with the advice and consent of the
senate for 6-year terms).

Method of selecting occupation or in­
dustry to be considered by this body

Method of arriving at wage awards

Investigation at discretion of commis­ After the preliminary investigation
the commission may determine a
sion or on request of 100 persons en­
minimum wage for the occupation in
gaged in the occupation to determine
question. Or the commission estab­
the necessity of establishing a mini­
lishes an advisory board of not less
mum wage in the occupation. In­
than 3 or more than 10 representa­
vestigation conducted by examining
tives of employers in the occupation
papers, books, witnesses, and by
in question, an equal number of em­
holding public hearings at which
ployees, and one or more representa­
employers, employees, or other in­
tives of the public, but no more rep­
terested persons may testify.
resentatives of the public than in
either one of the other groups. At
least one-fifth of the membership of
this board must be women and the
public group must contain at least
1 woman. This board, after exami­
nation of books and witnesses,
recommends a miminum wage,
which the commission may accept
or reject.

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

Principles by which amount
of award is determined

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Classes of employees cov­
ered by law

Exceptions

Refusal to comply with law
a misdemeanor.
Em­
ployee may recover back
wages and costs.

Amount adequate to supply
living wages for women
and minors of ordinary
ability.

Any occupation (occupation
to include any business,
industry, trade, or branch
of a trade).

Women, minors (females
under 18 years of age,
males under 21 years of
age).

Women physically defective
may obtain a license fixing
a lower wage. Number of
licenses may not exceed
one-tenth of the number
employed in the establish­
ment.

Date of award

Jan.

1,1921

Occupations or industries

Any occupation.

Classes of employees

Amount of wages

Experienced:
Women or minors in
cities of 5,000 or more
population.
Women or minors in
towns of less than
5,000 population.

$12 per week: $0.25
per hour for all
hours in excess o
48 per week.
$10.25 per week;
$0,215 per hour
for all hours in
excess of 48 per
week.
$9.12 per week;
$0.19 per hour for
all hours in ex­
cess of 48 per
week.
$7.68 per week;
$0.16 per hour for
all hours in ex­
cess of 48 per

Inexperienced:
Females 18 years or over
in cities of 5,000 or
more population.
Females 18 years or over
in cities of less than
5,000 population.
Females under 18 years
in cities of 5,000 or
more population.
Females under 18 years
in cities of less than
5,000 population.

North Dakota.
In “Session Laws of
North Dakota,” 1919,
ch. 174, pp. 317-322.

Workmen’s compensation bureau.
(Bureau is composed of the commis­
sioner of agriculture and labor and
two other workmen’s compensation
commissioners appointed by the
governor for terms of 5 years at a
salary of $2,500 per annum.)

Investigation at discretion of bureau
to determine necessity of establish­
ing a minimum wage in the occupa­
tion. Investigation conducted by
examining papers, books, and wit­
nesses, and by holding public hear­
ings at which any interested persons
may testify.

Organization by the bureau of a con­
ference composed of not more than 3
representatives of the employers and
an equal number of representatives
of the employees in the occupation
in question, an equal number of
representatives of the public, and
one or more commissioners. After
investigation the conference recom­
mends a minimum wage, which the
bureau may accept or reject.

Wages adequate to supply
the necessary cost of liv­
ing and maintain women
workers in health. Rea­
sonable wages for minor
workers.

Any occupation (occupation
to include a business, in­
dustry, trade, or branch
thereof. Exceptions: A g.ricultural or domestic
service).

Women; minors (under 18
years of age).

Any female physically de­
fective by age or otherwise
may obtain a license fixing
a lower wage.

Apr. 4,1922

Public housekeeping, i. e., the work of
waitresses in restaurants, hotel
dining rooms, boarding houses, at­
tendants employed at ice cream and
light luenh stands and steam table
or counter work in cafeterias and
delicatessens where freshly cooked
foods are served; and the work of
chambermaids in hotels and lodging
houses and boarding houses and
hospitals, and the work of janitresses
and car cleaners and of kitchen
workers in hotels and restaurants
and hospitals and elevator operators.
Waitress or counter girl
Chambermaids and kitchen help____

Apr. 4,1922

ExperiencedInexperienced.
Experienced. .
Inexperienced.

Manufacturing occupation, i. e., all
processes in the production of com­
modities, i. e., includes the work
performed in dressmaking shops and
wholesale millinery houses, in the
workrooms of retail millinery shops,
and in the drapery and furniture­
covering workshops, the garment
alteration, art needle work, furgarment making and millinery work­
rooms in mercantile stores, and the
candy-making departments of retail
candy stores and of restaurants, and
in bakery and biscuit manufactur­
ing establishments, in candy manu­
facturing and in bookbinding and
job-press feeding establishments.
Biscuit and candy making--------------- Women:
Experienced—
Inexperienced
Bookbinding and job-press feeding_
_

Women:
Experienced. _
Inexperienced

1 The Attorney General has ruled that the law is unconstitutional as applied to adult women.




61927°—27.

$7.68 per week;
$0.16 per hour for
all hours in ex­
cess of 48 per
week.
$6.48 per week;
$0.1334 per hour
for all hours in
excess of 48 per
week.

$14.90 per week.
$11.90 per week.
$14.20 per week.
$11.20 per week.

$14 per week; $60.G7
per month.
$9 per week; $39
per month.
$14 per week; $60.67
per month.
$9 per week; $39
per month.

(Follow p. 51.) No. 3

Chart IX.—MINIMUM-WAGE

LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued

ADMINISTRATION OF MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS—Continued

States

Body empowered to administer law

North Dakota—Continued.
In “Session Laws of
North Dakota,” 1919,
ch. 174, pp. 317-322.

Method of selecting occupation or in­
dustry to be considered by this body

Workmen’s compensation bureau. Investigation at discretion of bureau
(Bureau is composed of the commis­
to determine necessity of establish­
sioner of agriculture and labor and
ing a minimum wage in the occupa­
two other workmen’s compensation
tion. Investigation conducted by
commissioners appointed by the
examining papers, books, and wit­
governor for terms of 5 years at a
nesses, and by holding public hear­
salary of $2,500 per annum.)
ings at which any interested persons
may testify.

Method of arriving at wage awards

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

Principles by which amount
of award is determined

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Classes of employees cov­
ered by law

Exceptions

Organization by the bureau of a con­
ference composed of not more than 3
representatives of the employers and
an equal number of representatives
of the employees in the occupation
in question, an equal number of
representatives of the public, and
one or more commissioners. After
investigation the conference recom­
mends a minimum wage, which the
bureau may accept or reject.

Refusal to comply with law
a misdemeanor.
Em­
ployee may recover back
wages and costs.

Wages adequate to supply
the necessary cost of liv­
ing and maintain women
workers in health. Rea­
sonable wages for minor
workers.

Any occupation (occupation
to include a business, in­
dustry, trade, or branch
thereof. Exceptions: Ag­
ricultural or domestic
service).

Women minors (under 18
years of age).

Any female physically de­
fective by age or otherwise
may obtain a license fixing
a lower wage.

Date of award

Occupations or industries

Classes of employees

Apr.

4,1922

All other manufacturing..

Apr.

4,1922

Mercantile occupation, i. e., the work Women:
of those employed in establishments
Experiencedoperated for the purpose of trade in
the purchase or sale of any goods or
Inexperiencedmerchandise, and includes the sales
force, the wrapping force, the audit­
ing or checking force, the shippers
in the mail-order department, the
receiving, marking, and stock-room
employees, and sheet-music sales­
women and demonstrators, and
cigar-stand girls.
Laundry occupation, i. e., all the pro­ Women:
cesses connected with the receiving,
Experiencedmarking, washing, cleaning, iron­
ing, and distribution of washable or
cleanable materials. The work per­
formed in laundry departments in
hotels, hospitals, and factories.
Inexperienced..

Apr. 4,1922

Apr.

4,1922

Telephone occupation..

Women:
Experienced. _.
Inexperienced .

Women in towns of 1,800
and over population:
Experienced...................
Inexperienced .

Oregon.
In “Oregon Laws,” 1920,
Vol. II, secs. 6668-6087,
pp. 2671-2676.

61927°—27.

Industrial welfare commission. (Com­ Investigation at discretion of commis­ Organization by the commission of a
mission is composed of 3 members
sion to determine necessity of estab­
conference composed of not more than
appointed by the governor for terms
lishing a minimum wage in the occu­
3 representatives of the employers in
of 3 years, 1 to represent the employ­
pation. Investigation conducted by
the occupation in question, an equal
ing class and 1 the employed.)
examining papers, books, and witnumber of representatives of the em­
nessess, and by holding public hear­
ployees, an equal number of repre­
ings at which interested persons may
sentatives of the public, and 1 or
testify.
more commissioners. After investi­
gation the conference recommends a
minimum wage, which the commis­
sion may accept or reject.

(Follow p. 51.)




No. 4

Refusal to comply with law
a misdemeanor.
Em­
ployee may recover back
wages and costs.

Wages adequate to supply Any occupation. (Occupa­
the necessary cost of liv­
tion to include any and
ing and to maintain health.
every vocation, pursuit,
trade, and industry.)

Women, minors (under 18
years of age).

Any woman physically de­
fective or crippled by age
or otherwise may obtain a
license fixing a lower wage.

Oct. 14,1919

Mercantile occupation, i. e., the work
of those employed in establishments
operated for the purpose of trade in
the purchase or sale of any goods or
merchandise, and includes the sales
force, the wrapping employees, the
auditing or check-inspection force,
the shippers in the mail-order de­
partment, the receiving, marking,
and stock-room employees, and
sheet music saleswomen and demon­
strators.
Manufacturing occupation, i. e., all
processes in the production of com­
modities: Includes the work per­
formed in dressmaking shops and
wholesale millinery houses, in the
workrooms of retail millinery shops,
and in the drapery and furniture cov­
ering workrooms, the garment alter­
ation, art needle work, fur garment
making and millinery workrooms in
mercantile stores, and the candy­
making department of retail-candy
stores and of restaurants.
Personal service occupation, i.e., man­
icuring, hairdressing, barbering, and
other work of like nature and the
work of ushers in theaters.
Laundry occupation, i. e., all the proc­
esses connected with the receiving,
marking, washing, cleaning, and
ironing, and distribution of washable
and cleanable materials. The work
performed in laundry departments
in hotels and factories.
Telephone and telegraph occupations.

Amount of wages

$14 per week.
To be determined
by conference be­
tween the board
and the em­
ployer and em­
ployee con­
cerned.
$14.50 per week;
$62.83 per month.
$9.00 per week;
$41.60 per month.

$14 per week, or
$13.50 per week
(if laundry privilcges are al­
lowed); $60.67
per month.
$11 per week; $47.67
per month.
$14 per week; $60.67
per month.
$10 per week; $43.43
per month.

In towns of under 1,800 pop­
ulation:
Experienced $12 per week; $52
per month.
Inexperienced .
$9 per week; $39
per month.
Women:
Experienced...
$13.20 per week.
Inexperienced$9 per week.

Women:
Experienced___
Inexperienced-..

$13.20 per week.
$9 per week.

Women:
Experienced ..
Inexperienced.

$13.20 per week.
$9 per week.

Women:
ExperiencedInexperienced .

$13.20 per week.
$9 per week.

Women:
ExperiencedInexperienced.

$13.20 per week.
$9 per week.

Chart IX.—MINIMUM-WAGE

LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued

ADMINISTRATION OF MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS—Continued

States
Oregon—Continued.
In “Oregon Laws,” 1920,
Vol. II, secs. 666S-6687,
pp. 2671-2676.

Body empowered to administer law

Method of selecting occupation or in­
dustry to be considered by this body

Method of arriving at wage awards

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

Principles by which amount
of award is determined

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Classes of employees cov­
ered by law

Exceptions

Date of award

Industrial welfare commission. (Com­
mission is composed of 3 members
appointed by the governor for terms
of 3 years, 1 to represent the employ­
ing class and 1 the employed.)

Investigation at discretion of commis­
sion to determine necessity of estab­
lishing a minimum wage in the occu­
pation. Investigation conducted by
examining papers, books, and wit­
nesses, and by holding public hear­
ings at which interested persons
may testify.

Organization by the commission of a
conference composed of not more than
3 representatives of the employers in
the occupation in question, an equal
number of representatives of the em­
ployees, an equal number of repre­
sentatives of the public, and 1 or
more commissioners. After investi­
gation the conference recommends a
minimum wage, which the commis­
sion may accept or reject.

Refusal to comply with law
a misdemeanor.
Em­
ployee may recover back
wages and costs.

Wages adequate to supply
the necessary cost of liv­
ing and to maintain
health.

Any occupation. (Occupa­
tion to include any and
every vocation, pursuit,
trade, and industry.)

Women, minors (under 18
years of age).

Any woman physically de­
fective or crippled by age
or otherwise may obtain a
license fixing a lower wage.

Oct. 14,1919

South Dakota.
In “ Session Laws of South
Dakota,” 1923, ch. 309,
p. 329.

Industrial commissioner.

Utah.
In “Compiled Laws of
Utah,” 1917, secs. 3671—
3674. pp. 782-783.

Commissioner of immigration, labor,
and statistics.

Washington.
In “Pierce’s Annotated
Code, State of Wash­
ington,” 1921, Vol. I,
secs. 3526-3546, pp. 1099­
1102.




Industrial welfare committee. (Com­ Investigation at discretion of the com­
mittee is composed of the director
mittee to determine the necessity
of labor and industries, appointed
of establishing a minimum wage in
by the governor with the consent
the occupation. Investigation con­
of the senate and holding office at
ducted by examining papers, books,
his pleasure), and the supervisor of
and witnesses, and by holding pub­
industrial insurance and the super­
lic hearings at which employer, em­
visor of industrial relations (ap­
ployees, and other interested per­
pointed by the director of labor and
sons may testify.
industries), and the supervisor of
women in industry (appointed by
the supervisor of industrial relations
with the approval of the director
of labor and industries).

Minimum wage fixed by law..

Refusal to comply with law
a misdemeanor. Em­
ployee may recover back
wages and costs.

Amount equals a living
wage.

Organization by the committee of a
conference composed of an equal
number of representatives of the
employers and of the employees in
the occupation in question and 1 or
more representatives of the public
but no more representatives of the
public than in either one of the
other groups, and a member of the
committee. The conference recom­
mends a minimum wage, which
the committee may accept or
reject.

Refusal to comply with the
1 aw a misdemeanor. Em­
ployee may recover back
wages and costs.

Wages adequate for their
maintenance. Wages ade­
quate to supply the neces­
sary cost of living and to
maintain the workers in
health.

Any woman or girl over the
age of 14.

Any regular employer of
female labor.

Violation of law a misde­
meanor, to be prosecuted
by all the city, State, and
county prosecuting offi­
cers.

Any factory,workshop, me­
chanical or mercantile
establishment, laundry,
hotel, restaurant, or pack­
ing house.

Women, minors (under 18
years of age).

Classes of employees

Public housekeeping occupation, i. e., Women:
the work of waitresses in restaurants,
Experienced___
hotel dining rooms, boarding houses,
Inexperienced...
and all attendants employed at ice
cream and light-lunch stands, and
steam table or counter work in cafe­
terias and delicatessens where freshly
cooked foods are served; and the
work of chambermaids in hotels and
lodging houses and boarding houses,
and the work of janitresses, and car
cleaners, and of kitchen workers in
hotels and restaurants, and elevator
operators between the hours of 7 a.m.
and 11 p. m. A retail candy depart­
ment conducted in connection with
an ice cream, soft-drink, or lightlunch counter, or with a restaurant.
Office occupation, i. e., the work of
those employed as stenographers, Women:
bookkeepers, typists, filing clerks,
Experienced...
billing clerks, cashiers, checkers, in­
Inexperienced.
voices, comptometer operators, au­
ditors, attendants in physicians’ and
dentists’ offices, and all kinds of
clerical work.
Packing, drying, preserving, canning Women:
perishable fruits or vegetables.
Experienced___
Inexperienced.-.
Experienced women

Women.

The various occupations,
trades, and industries.

Apprentices. Industrial
commissioner must be
notified of each appren­
tice and must give per­
mission for their employ­
ment.

Occupations or industries

Women (adult):
Experienced..
Inexperienced
Women (minor)..
Any woman physically de­
fective or crippled, by
age or otherwise, may ob­
tain a license fixing a
lower wage.

Oct.

4,1921

Dec. 14,1921
Dec. 14,1921

Public housekeeping, i. e., linen room
girls, chambermaids, cleaners,
kitchen girls, dishwashers, pantry
girls, pantry servers, waitresses,
counter girls, bus girls, elevator op­
erators, janitresses, laundry work­
ers (except where a commercial
laundry is operated), and any other
occupation which would properly
be classfied under public house­
keeping. The establishments shall
include hotels, rooming houses,
boarding houses, restaurants, cafes,
cafeterias, lunch rooms, tea rooms,
apartment houses, hospitals (not
nurses), philanthropic institutions,
and any other which may be prop­
erly classified under this industry.
Laundry, dry-cleaning or dye works
occupations, trade or industry.
Telephone or telegraph lines or in any
ublic occupation other than public
ousekeeping, laundry, dry-clean­
ing and dye works, mercantile and
manufacturing.
Mercantile establishments............. ......
Manufacturing occupations, trades
and industries.

Amount of wages

$13.20 per week.
$9 per week.

$60 per month.
$9 per week.

$0.27)4 Per hour.
$0. 22 per hour.

$12 per week.

$1.25 per day.
$0.90 per day.
$0.75 per day.

Females over 18 years of age. $14.50 per week;
$2.50 per day;
$0.35 per hour.
Minors..
$12 per week.

Females over 18 years of age

$13.20 per week.

Females over 18 years of age. $13.20 per week.

E

Dec. 31,1921
Jan. 22,1922

Females over 18 years of age. $13.20 per week.
Women:
Experienced............__
$13.20 per week.
Inexperienced______
$9 per week.
61927°—27. (Follow p. 51.) No. 5

Chart IX.—MINIMUM-WAGE

LEGISLATION IN THE UNITED STATES—Continued

ADMINISTRATION OF MINIMUM-WAGE LAWS—Continued

States
W ashington—C ontinued.
In “Pierce’s Annotated
Code, State of Wash­
ington,’' 1921, Vol. I,
secs. 3526-3546, pp. 1099­
1102.

Wisconsin:
In “Wisconsin Statutes,"
1923, Vol. I, secs. 104.01­
101.12, pp. 1118-1119.

Body empowered to administer law

Method of selecting occupation or in­
dustry to be considered by this body

Industrial welfare committee. (Com­ Investigation at discretion of the com­
mittee is composed of the director
mittee to determine the necessity
of labor and industries, appointed
of establishing a minimum wage in
by the governor with the consent
the occupation. Investigation con­
of the senate and holding office at
ducted by examining papers, books,
his pleasure), and the supervisor of
and witnesses, and by holding pub­
industrial insurance and the super­
lic hearings at which employer, em­
visor of industrial relations (ap­
ployees, and other interested per­
pointed by the director of labor and
sons may testify.
industries), and the supervisor of
women in industry (appointed by
the supervisor of industrial relations
with the approval of the director
of labor and industries).
Industrial commission. (Commission
is composed of members appointed
by the governor, with the advice and
consent of the senate, for terms of 6
years at a salary of $5,000 per year.)

Investigation at discretion of the com­
mission, or on the filing of a verified
complaint of any person, to deter­
mine the necessity of establishing a
minimum wage in the occupation.

Method of arriving at wage awards

Organization by the committee of a
conference composed of an equal
number of representatives of the
employers and of the employees in
the occupation in question and 1 or
more representatives of the public
but no more representatives of the
public than in either one of the
other groups, and a member of the
committee. The conference recom­
mends a minimum wage, which
the committee may accept or reject.

Principles by which amount
of award is determined

Occupations or industries
covered by law

Classes of employees cov­
ered by law

Exceptions

Date of award

Refusal to comply with the Wages adequate for their
law a misdemeanor. Em­
maintenance. Wages ade­
ployee may recover back
quate to supply the neces­
wages and costs.
sary cost of living and to
maintain the workers in
health.

The various occupations,
trades, and industries.

Women, minors (under 18
years of age).

Any woman physically de­
fective or crippled, by
age or otherwise, may ob­
tain a license fixing a
lower wage.

Oct. 27,1922

Minors......................

Any minor unable to earn
“a living wage” may ob­
tain a license fixing a lower
wage.

Aug. 1,1921

Means provided for securing
enforcement of award

Organization by the commission of an Each day an employer em­
advisory wage board selected to rep­
ploys a person at less than
resent fairly the employers, the em­
the legal minimum wage
shall be a separate offense.
ployees, and the public. The living
wage determined by the commis­
sion and this advisory board shall be
the legal minimum wage.

“Living wage," i. e., com­ Every person in receipt of, or
pensation sufficient to enentitled to, any compensa­
ablethe employee to main­
tion for labor performed for
tain herself under condi­
any employer.
tions consistent with her
welfare.

1926.

In “Session Laws of Wis­
consin,” 1925, ch. 176.

Industrial Commission. (Commission
is composed of members appointed
by the governor, with the advice
and consent of the senate, for terms
of 6 years at a salary of $5,000 per
year.)

Investigation at discretion of com­
mission to determine the wages
which are oppressive and unjust.

Commission may issue order correct­
ing wage situations revealed by its
investigations.

Payment of wages in viola­
tion of any order of the
commission shall be
deemed a violation of the
1 aw unless i t can be proved
that the order was un­
reasonable. Every day an
order is not complied with
is a separate offense.

:<No wage paid or agreed to
be paid by any employer
to any adult female em­
ployee shall be oppres­
sive." “Oppressive" is
defined as “any wage
lower than a reasonable
and adequate compensa­
tion for services rendered.”

61957°—27. (Follow p. 51.) No. 6




O

Every person in receipt of
or entitled to any com­
pensation for labor per­
formed for any employer.

Adult females..

Any adult woman unable
to earn the wage deter­
mined by the commission
may obtain a license fix­
ing a lower wage. Any
employer may obtain a
license to pay adult fe­
males less than the estab­
lished wage, if employer
shall satisfactorily estab­
lish that he is unable to
pay such wage.

Occupations or industries

Classes of employees

Mercantile, manufacturing, printing, Minors..
laundering, or dye works establish­
ments, sign painting, machine or
repair shop, or parcel delivery serv­
ice, or any other industry other than
public housekeeping occupation, ste­
nographer, bookkeeper, typist, bill­
ing clerks, filing clerks, cashier,
checker, invoiccr, comptometer op­
erator, or any clerical office work,
including assistants and helpers in
doctors’ and dentists' offices; any
occupation, trade, or industry not
mentioned above.
Any occupation, trade, or industry.
Exceptions: Seasonal industries.

Seasonal industries..
Seasonal industries..

Minors:
Over 17 years.
ExperiencedIn cities of 5,000 or
more.
In cities under 5,000.
Inexperienced___ ____
All others—
Experienced
Inexperienced___ ^___
Minors:
In cities of 5,000 or more.
In cities under 5,000___
Adult females:
In cities of 5,000 or more.
In cities under 5,000___

Amount of wages

$9 per week.

$0.25 per hour.
$0.22 per hour.
$0.16 per hour.
$0.20 per hour
$0.16 per hour
$0.25 per hour.
$0.22 per hour.
$0.25 per hour.
$0.22 per hour.

PUBLICATIONS OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU
[Any of these bulletins still available will be sent free of charge upon request]
No, 1. Proposed Employment of Women During the War in the Industries of Niagara Falls, N. Y. 16
pp. 1918.
No. I. Labor Laws for Women in Industries in Indiana. 29 pp. 1918.
No. 8. Standards for the Employment of Women in Industry. 7 pp. 1919.
No. 4. Wages of Candy Makers ih Philadelphia in 1919. 40 pp. 1919.
•No. 6. The Eight-Hour Day in Federal and State Legislation. 19 pp. 1919.
No. 6. The Employment of Women in Hazardous Industries in the United States. 8 pp. 1919.
No. 7. Night Work Laws in the United States. 4 pp. 1919.
•No. 8. Women in the Government Service. 37 pp. 1920.
•No. 9. Home Work in Bridgeport. Conn. 35 pp. 1920.
•No. 10. Hours and Conditions of Work for Women in Industry in Virginia. 32 pp. 1920.
No. 11. Women Street Car Conductors and Ticket Agents. 90 pp. 1920.
No. 12. The New Position of Women in American Industry. 168 pp. 1920.
No. 13. Industrial Opportunities and Training for Women and Girls. 4S pp. 1920.
•No. 14. A Physiological Basis for the Shorter Working Day for Women. 20 pp. 1921.
No. 16. Some Effects of Legislation Limiting Hours of Work for Women. 26 pp. 1'J21.
No. 16. See Bulletin 03.
No. 17. Women's Wages in Kansas. 104 pp. 1921.
No. 18. Health Problems of Women in Industry. 11 pp. 1921.
No. 19. Iowa Women in Industry. 73 pp. 1922.
•No. 20. Negro Women in Industry. 66 pp. 1922.
No. 21. Women in Rhode Island Industries. 73 pp. 1922.
•No. 22. Women In Georgia Industries. 89 pp. 1922.
No. 23. The Family Status of Breadwinning Women. 43 pp. 1922.
No. 24. Women in Maryland Industries. 96 pp. 1922.
No. 26. Women in the Candy Industry in Chicago and St. Louis. 72 pp. 1923,
No. 26. Worrion In Arkansas Industries. 80 pp. 1923.
No. 27. The Occupational Progress of Women. 37 pp. 1922.
No. 28. Women’s Contribution In the Field of Invention. 51pp. 1923.
No. 29. Women in Kentucky Industries. 114 pp. 1923.
No. 30. The Share of Wage-Earning Women in Family Support. 170 pp. 1923.
No. 31. What Industry Means to Women Workers. 10 pp. 1923.
No. 32. Women In South Carolina Industries. 128 pp. 1923.
No. 33. Proceeding of the Women’s Industrial Conference. 190 pp. 1923.
No. 34. Women in Alabama Industries. 86 pp. 1924.
No. 36. Women In Missouri Industries. 127 pp. 1924.
No. 36. Radio Talks on Women In Industry. 34 pp. 1924.
No. 37. Women in New Jersey Industries. 99 pp. 1924.
No. 38. Married Women in Industry. 8 pp. 1924.
No. 39. Domestic Workers and Their Employment Relations. 87 pp. 1924.
No. 40. See Bulletin 63.
No. 41. Family Status of Breadwinning Women in Four Selected Cities. 145 pp. 1925.
No 42 Listof Referenceson Minimum Wagefor Women in the United Statosand Canada. 42pp. 1925.
No. 43. Standard and Scheduled Hours of Work for Women in Industry. 68 pp. 1925.
No. 44. Women in Ohio Industries. 137 pp. 1925.
No 45 Home Environment and Employment Opportunities of Women in Coal-Mine Workers’ Families.
61 pp. 1925.
No. 46 Facts About Working Women—A Graphic Presentation Based on Census Statistics. 64 pp.
1925.
No. 47. Women in the Fruit-Growing and Canning Industries in the .State of Washington. 223 pp. 1926.
No. 48. Women in Oklahoma Industries. 118 pp. 1926.
No. 49. Womon Workers and Family Support. 10 pp. 1925.
No. 50. Effects of Applied Research Upon the Employment Opportunities of American Women. 54 pp.
1926.
No. 61. Women in Illinois Industries. 108 pp. 1926.
No. 62. Lost Time and Labor Turnover in Cotton Mills. 203 pp. 1926.
No. 53. The Status of Women in the Government Service in 1926. 103 pp. 1926.
No. 54. Changing Jobs. 12 pp. 1926.
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No. 57. Women Workers and Industrial Poisons. 5 pp. 1926.
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No. 60. Industrial Accidents to Women in New Jersey, Ohio, and Wisconsin. 316 pp. 1927.
No. 61. The Development of Minimum-Wage Laws in the United States, 1912 to 1927. (In press.)
No. 02. Women’s Employment in Vegetable Canneries in Delaware. 47 pp. 1927.
No. 63. State Laws Affecting Working Women. 51 pp. 1927. Revision of bulletins 16 and 40.
Annual Reports of the Director, 1919*, 1920*, 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1926, 1927.
•Supply exhausted.





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