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i

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU, No. 56

WOMEN
IN

TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES




A STUDY OF HOURS, WAGES,
AND WORKING CONDITIONS

[Public—No.
'

'

259—66th

Congress]

| IT. K. 13229]

An Act To establish in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as the
Women’s Bureau

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, That there shall be
established in the Department of Labor a bureau to be known as the
Women’s Bureau.
Sec. 2. That the said bureau shall be in charge of a director, a
woman, to be appointed by the President, by and with the advice
and consent of the Senate, who shall receive an annual compensa­
tion of $5,000. It shall be the duty of said bureau to formulate
standards and policies which shall promote the welfare of wage­
earning women, improve their working conditions, increase their
efficiency, and advance their opportunities for profitable employ­
ment. The said bureau shall have authority to investigate and
report to the said department upon all matters pertaining to the
welfare of women in industry. The director of said bureau may
from time to time publish the results of these investigations in such
a manner and to such an extent as the Secretary of Labor may
prescribe.
Sec. 3. That there shall be in said bureau an assistant director, to
be appointed by the Secretary of Labor, who shall receive an annual
compensation of $3,500 and shall perform such duties as shall be
prescribed by the director and approved by the Secretary of Labor.
Sec. 4. That there is hereby authorized to be employed by said
bureau a chief clerk and such special agents, assistants, clerks, and
other employees at such rates of compensation and in such numbers
as Congress may from time to time provide by appropriations.
Sec. 5. That the Secretary of Labor is hereby directed to furnish
sufficient quarters, office furniture, and equipment for the work of
this bureau.
Sec. 6. That this act shall take effect and be in force from and
after its passage.
Approved, June 5,1920.




0

5

IS

10

.
Ail industries tiuo AWWWVWWV
^
Printing and
publishing

i6-10
1-20

Overalls

15.10

Springs amt

ISJtO

General
mercantile

1*55
6*5

Miscellaneous
tobacco products

>320
7-60

Metal products

kkklUAW
1

>250

mattresses

63S

Yarns

1230

Misc. mfg.

1215

Misc. food prod.

11-75

Paper boxes

11.70

Meris shirts

^62S

Miscellaneous
clothing

n xq

Cotton goods

>w\x»xvx\xvvww

12.55

Knit underwear

IWVVXXWVW

^60

iWVVXWVXWViXX
xwwwwwwv

Hosiery

BaKery products

Bags
Candy

>0.20
&10 iXXXW kXXXXWWV
US
1.75
5.75

wWWWW
xvxvwxxvw

110

Womens dresses 7.50
6.15
and aprons
Woolen goods
Drugs and
chemicals

xxvxxxxxxxxxxxx^

7.50
600

9.45

5*10cent stores 7.20

Laundries

|igWgOBOB«gOiaiglBI|

Cigars

8.70

Wooden boxes

8.65

Misce llaneous
wood products

8.60
6.70

r
..
rurmture

&30




N\\|

!j»gwjWBwag»g>gwaf

MEDIAN WEEK'S EARNINGS, BY INDUSTRY

Negro

women

U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES j. DAVIS,

Secretary

WOMEN’S BUREAU
MARY ANDERSON, Director

BULLETIN OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU, NO. 56

WOMEN
IN

TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
A Study of Hours, Wages, and
Working Conditions




Sites qL

UNITED STATES
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON
1927




ADDITIONAL COPIES
OF THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FROM
THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
WASHINGTON, D. C.
AT

20 CENTS PER COPY

CONTENTS

m

1

'

Page
Letter of transmittal
vii
Part I. Introduction
1-5
Scope and method of investigation______________________
2
Summary of facts
4
II. Wages 7-37
Week's earnings 7-36
Timework and piecework
13
Week’s earnings and timeworked____________________
15
Earnings of full-time workers
21
Earnings and rates
23
Weekly rates! and scheduledweekly hours_____________
26
Full-time earnings and scheduled weekly hours_______
29
Earnings and experience
33
Earnings and age
35
Year’s earnings__________ 36-37
Earnings of night workers
37
III. Earnings of negro women39^4
Week’s earnings39-44
Week’s earnings and timeworked
40
Earnings of full-time workers
42
Earnings and rates
42
Weekly rates' and scheduledweekly hours_____________
43
Earnings and experience
43
Year’s earnings
44
IV. Scheduled hours__________
45-56
Daily hours
45
Weekly hours
48
Saturday hours
51
Lunch periods
52
Hours of night workers
52
Time lost and overtime
53
V. Working conditions57-82
General plant conditions57-68
Arrangement of rooms
57
Condition and material offloors
58
Stairways
59
Cleaning
60
Ventilation
61
Lighting________________________ ____________________
63
Seating
65
Sanitation 68-79
Drinking facilities
68
Washing facilities
70
Toilet rooms
73
Service equipment________________________________ 79-82
Lunch rooms
79
Cloak rooms
80
Rest rooms
81
Health equipment
82




in

IV

CONTENTS

Part VI. The workers83-86
Age---------------------------------------------------------------------------------Nativity
84
Conjugal condition
85
Living condition
85
Education
80
Appendixes:
General tables89-115
Schedule forms116-120

83

TEXT TABLES
Table 1. Number of establishments visited and number of men, women,
and children employed therein, byindustry________________
2. Distribution of women and their median earnings, by industry.
3. Distribution of women and their median earnings, by locality.
4. Number of timeworkers and pieceworkers and their median
earnings, by industry
13
5. Median earnings and time worked, by industry—women whose
time worked was reported in hours
16
6. Median earnings and time worked, by industry—women whose
time worked was reported in days__
7. Earnings of women who worked the firm’s scheduled week com­
pared with those of all workers, by industry_______________
8. Weekly rate and actual week’s earnings—all industries_______
9. Median rate and median earnings, by industry_____________
10. Median weekly rate and scheduled weekly hours, by industry.
11. Median earnings of women who worked the firm’s scheduled
weekly hours or days, by industry and scheduled hours____
12. Median earnings and time in the trade of women who supplied
personal information, by industry
34
13. Week’s earnings of women who supplied personal information,
by age group------------------------------------------------------------------14. Year’s earnings, by industry
37
15. Week’s earnings of negro women, by industry____ ;___________
16. Distribution of negro women and their median earnings, by
locality

20
22
24
25
27
31

36
39

49

17. Week’s earnings of negro women, by time worked____________
18. Earnings of negro women who worked the firm’s scheduled
week, by industry
42
19. Weekly rate and actual week’s earnings of negro women—
all industries

41

43

20. Week’s earnings and time in the trade of negro women who
supplied personal information—all industries______________
21. Scheduled daily hours, by industry
46
22. Scheduled weekly hours, by industry
49
23. Relation of Saturday hours to daily hours, by industry group..
24. Scheduled hours of night workers in textile manufacturing_
25. Time lost and overtime, by industry—women whose time
worked was reported in days
54
26. Time lost and overtime, by industry—women whose time
worked was reported in hours
55
27. Lighting of workrooms, by industry group__________________




3
8
12

43

51
53

63

CONTENTS

Table 28. Type and adequacy of seats in sitting and standing occupa­
tions—factories and laundries
66
29. Type of drinking facilities, by industry
69
30. Condition of washing facilities, by industry________________
31. Adequacy of toilet equipment, by industry___________________
32. General condition of toilet equipment, by industry___________

y
Page

71
74
76

APPENDIX TABLES
Table I. Week’s earnings, by industry
89
II. Week’s earnings of timeworkers and pieceworkers—all in­
dustries
III. Week’s earnings and time worked—all industries_____________
IV. Earnings of women who worked the firm’s scheduled week, by
industry
94
V. Weekly rate and actual week’s earnings, by industry__________
VI. Weekly rate and scheduled weekly hours—all industries______
VII. Year’s earnings of women for whom 52-week pay-roll records
were secured, by industry
493
VIII. Week’s earnings, by industry—negro women
105
IX. Scheduled Saturday hours, by industry 106
X. Scheduled daily and Saturday hours, by industry group_______
XI. Length of lunch period, by industry 109
XII. Hours worked less than scheduled, by industry 110
XIII. Hours worked more than scheduled, by industry_____________
XIV. Age of the women employees who supplied personal information,
by industry H2
XV. Conjugal condition of the women employees who supplied per­
sonal information, by industry
443
XVI. Living condition of the women employees who supplied per­
sonal information, by industry 444
XVII. Extent of schooling of the women employees who supplied per­
sonal information, by age at time of survey___________ ____

94
92

98
102

107

111

445

CHARTS
Median week’s earnings, by industryFrontispiece
Relation between earnings and hours worked
47
Relation between earnings of full-time workers and their scheduled
weekly hours
29
Scheduled daily hours
4r







LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL
United States Department of Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, September 16, 1926.
have the honor to submit herewith a report of wages, hours,
and working conditions of women in industry in the State of Ten­
nessee. This survey was requested by the State department of
labor and, following the policy of cooperation with State depart­
ments, the Women’s Bureau undertook to make the study in the fall
of 1924.
I fully appreciate the assistance received from the State officials
in giving us the benefit of their knowledge and experience of local
conditions. I also want to take this opportunity to acknowledge the
cooperation extended to us by the employers. Without their help
the Women’s Bureau could not have made this study.
Mrs. Ethel L. Best, economic analyst, was in charge of the survey,
and the report was written by Miss Ruth I. Voris, assistant editor.
Respectfully submitted.
Mary Anderson, Director.
Hon. James J. Davis,
Secretary.
Sir : I




vix

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
PART I
INTRODUCTION

Late in the fall of 1924 the department of labor of the State of
Tennessee, at the suggestion of interested organizations within the
State, asked that the Women’s Bureau of the United States Depart­
ment of Labor make a survey of the wages, hours, and working con­
ditions of the women working in the factories, stores, and laundries
of that State. Following its policy of cooperation with State depart­
ments of labor in the conduct of such investigations, the Women’s
Bureau undertook to make the sttidy. The actual field work was
begun in the latter part of February, 1925, and completed in May
of the same year.
The agents of the bureau were greatly assisted in their work by
the State department of factory inspection. Helpful suggestions
also were given by local secretaries of the Young Women’s Christian
Association, while the cooperation of the employers themselves made
possible the gathering of the facts.
According to 1920 census figures, 152,108 women were gainfully
employed in Tennessee, this number being 17.2 per cent of all the
women in the State. In most of the other States the proportion of
the total female population gainfully employed was greater than
this. Domestic service and agriculture claimed the majority of the
women workers in Tennessee, while manufacturing, trade, and trans­
portation combined gave employment to only a little over one-fifth.1
In the field of manufacturing no single industry assumed a con­
spicuous place. Flour-mill products stood first in importance, fol­
lowed by knit goods.2
In no manufacturing industry did Tennessee stand in advance of
other States in her contribution toward the total output of the
country. In the value of chewing and smoking tobacco produced
Tennessee ranks fourth among the States, and in the value of knit
lU. S. Bureau of the Census . Fourteenth census: Population, 1920.
v. 4. Occupa­
tions, pp. 47 and 108-122, Tables 8 and 15.
2U. S. Bureau of the Census. Biennial Census of Manufactures, 1921, p. 1485, Table
1046.




1

2

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

goods manufactured she stands fifth.3 In no other branch of the
textile industry does Tennessee contribute any large proportion of
the country’s output.
SCOPE AND METHOD OF INVESTIGATION

In a survey of this type it is not possible to visit every establish­
ment in the State employing women, for any such comprehensive
study would cost more than the result would justify. However, an
attempt was made to visit a representative number of establishments
in those industries employing the most workers, including both large
plants and small. Factories, stores, and laundries were surveyed in
27 cities and towns, the list being as follows:
Athens
Bemis
Bristol
Chattanooga
Clarksville
Cleveland
Clinton

Columbia
Dayton
Dyersburg
Elizabethton
Englewood
Erwin
Fayetteville

Harriman
Jackson
Johnson City
Kingsport
Knoxville
Loudon
Memphis

Murfreesboro
Nashville
Paris
Shelbyville
Springfield
Sweetwater
Union City

The establishments covered by the survey were visited by agents
of the bureau, who obtained through interviews with employers,
managers, and foremen, and by examination of the pay rolls infor­
mation on the total number of employees and the hours and wages
of the women workers. In order to obtain accurate and comparable
material all figures from the pay rolls were copied by the agents
themselves. The records taken from the books included data on the
earnings, rates, and hours of each woman for a representative cur­
rent week. In the majority of cases records were taken for a pay­
roll week in February, 1925, but occasionally, on the advice of the
management, another week was selected in order to make certain
that the figures obtained related to a normal working wTeek when no
unusual circumstances had affected the number of hours worked.
Records also wTere taken of year’s earnings for about 10 per cent
of the women who had been with the firm the whole year and had
worked not less than 44 weeks.
In addition to this material on wages and hours, information
relating to age, nativity, conjugal and living conditions, schooling,
and time in the trade was obtained from questionnaires distributed
in the plant and filled in by the employees.
Personal inspection was made by the agents of the conditions
under which the women worked, with special attention to such sub­
jects as seating, lighting, ventilation, and sanitary and service
facilities.
3 U. S. Bureau of the Census.
217, Tables 844 and 161.




Biennial Census of Manufactures, 1921, pp. 1005 and

3

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

The industries included in the survey, the number of establish­
ments visited, and the number of employees are given in the follow­
ing table:
Table 1.—Number

of establishments visited and number of men, women, and
children employed therein, by industry

Industry

All industries.
Manufacturing:
Candy................................................. ClothingMen’s shirts-----------------------Overalls......................................
Women’s dresses and aprons..
Other------ ------- ------------------Drugs and chemicals
Food products—
Bakery products........................
Other------------ ------- -----------Metal products................ .................
Paper boxes.........................................
Printing and publishing-------------Springs and mattresses...... ..............
Textiles—
Bags................
Cotton goods___
Hosiery----------Knit underwear.
Woolen goods...
Yarns-------------Tobacco products—
Cigars------------Other..................
Wood products—
Boxes_________
Furniture.........
Other............ .
Miscellaneous-------General mercantile------5-and-10-cent stores____
Laundries------ ------------

Num­
Total
ber
of es- number Num­
ber of
tab- of em­
lish- ployees men
ments

Number of women

Total

White

Negro

Num­
ber of
boys
under
16

1,420

216

30,900

14,140

16, 596

15,176

7

710

313

397

397

6
7
3
4
14

720
492
279
283
684

64
44
13
53
322

656
448
265
230
361

639
448
230
226
306

7
6
5
6
13
3

748
375
692
307
1,135
211

413
273
630
154
778
150

334
62
153
357
61

329
102
62
145
340
42

5
7
23

843
3,530
4, 733
3, 484
1,544
1,009

340
2,145
1,324
1,274
796
542

603
1,337
3, 348
2,206
726
467

441
1,293
3,322
2,193
726
459

600
1,062

54
508

527
554

520
356

438
1,274
1,207
710
2, 220
410
1,200

369
1,082
1,007
334
860
75
223

69
192
200
376
1,353
335
977

Num­
ber of
girls
under
16

6

5
6

4
6

3
8
11

4
16
14
18

102

69
53

106

1
1

62
44
26
13

25
22
...
5

23
39
4
17

8

19

139

122

375
1,317
335
329

1
36

5

2

648

The 16,596 women included in the survey were employed in fac­
tories, stores, and laundries. Practically one-half of the women
were working in some branch of the textile industry. One-fifth were
engaged in the manufacture of hosiery and more than one-eighth
in the manufacture of knit underwear. These two industries em­
ployed a larger proportion of the women surveyed than did any
others. In both of these industries the women formed the majority
of the total number of employees.
Laundries and the manufacture of furniture and of tobacco prod­
ucts other than cigars claimed the bulk of negro workers. In the
laundries and furniture factories the majority of the women em­
ployees were negroes. In most branches of the textile industry the
majority of the negro women were cleaners or sweepers, but in the
manufacture of bags they were employed at work more directly con­
nected with the manufacturing process.




4

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

The industries in which women and girls formed over half the
employees in the plants studied are as follows:
Per cent
Candy
_
_
_ __ 55.9
Men’s shirts
91.1
Overalls
91.1
Women’s dresses and aprons___ 95. 0
Other clothing
81.3
Drugs and chemicals
52. 8
Bags (textile)
59.7
Hosiery
71.6

Knit underwear
Citrars

__

Per cent
63.4
£»1 n

Miscellaneous manufacturing___ 53. 0
General mercantile

fil n

Laundries

.m 4

Included in the numbers given are 357 women employed on night
shifts. These women were in the various branches of the textile
industry, each of which had some women working at night.
SUMMARY OF FACTS
Extent of survey.
Number of cities and towns visited,______________________________
Number of establishments visited
216
Number of women employed in these establishments16, 596

28

Workers.
Percent
1. Proportion of negroes 8.6
2. Distribution of women in industry groups—
Manufacturing83. 9
Mercantile10.2
Laundries g 9
3. Conjugal condition of 9,761 women—
Single_____ ___________ 494
Married____________________________________
Widowed, separated, or divorced20.4
4. Age of 9,884 women—
Under 25 years54_ 2
25 and under 30 years_____________________ 43 9
30 years and over32.2
5. Living condition of 10,003 women—
Living athome 79. <3
Living with relatives outside their immediate family_____
7.9
Livingindependently 43 4
Hours.
Hour data for 216 factories, stores, and laundries may be summarized as
follows:
1. Weekly hours—
A schedule of 55 hours or more for 49.6 per cent of the women.
A schedule of 48 hours or less for 9.7 per cent of the women.
Hours less than scheduled worked by 44 per cent ot the women
for whom time worked was reported.
Hours more than scheduled worked by 5.6 per cent of the women
for whom time worked was reported.
2. Daily hours—
A schedule of 10 hours or more for 45.6 per cent of the women.
A schedule of 8 hours or less for 5.9 per cent of the women.




3

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

5

Hours—Continued.
3. Saturday hours—
Saturday hours shorter than the daily schedule for 93.4 per cent
of the women in factories.
Saturday hours longer than the daily schedule for 60.8 per cent
of the women in stores.
Wages.
Wage data for 216 factories, stores, and laundries may be summarized as
follows:
1. Week’s earnings—
Median week’s earnings for all industries—•
White women$11.10
Negro women
6. 95
Median earnings of full-time workers—
White women 12.45
Negro women
7. 40
2. Year’s earnings (February, 1924, to February, 1925) —
Median year’s earnings for all industries—
White women 629. 00
Negro women 386. 00
Working conditions.
For the 216 factories, stores, and laundries visited—
1. General workroom conditions were as follows:
(а) 51 factories and laundries had aisles narrow, obstructed, or
both; 11 stores had aisles behind counters too narrow for
workers to pass when seats were down.
(б) 63 establishments had floors of concrete or brick, and on only 13

of these were wooden platforms provided for any of the standing
workers.
(c) Natural light was unsatisfactory because of inadequacy or glare
for at least some of the women employed in 98 establishments.
(d) Artificial light caused glare for some or all of the workers in
116 establishments.
(e) In 58 factories and laundries no seats were provided for women
who stood at their work; in 32 factories and laundries none
of the women who sat all day at their work had seats with
backs.
2. The need for improved sanitation was as follows:
(а) The common drinking cup was found in 48 establishments, no
cups in 51 establishments not having fountains, insanitary
drinking fountains in 98 establishments.
(б) There were no washing facilities in 11 establishments, no towels
in 109 establishments, common towels in 61 establishments,
(c) An inadequate number of toilet facilities was reported in 169 of
the 416 toilet rooms found; 16 toilet rooms were shared with
the public.
3. The record of service facilities disclosed—
(а) No lunch room in 164 establishments.
(б) No cloak room in 61 establishments.
(c) No rest room in 161 establyishments.







A

PART II
WAGES

The earnings of women workers are of as great importance to
them as the earnings of any other group in the community. Their
earnings serve the same needs as those of other workers; they must
cover expenses of food, shelter, clothing, and important incidentals,
either for the woman alone or for herself and dependents. Only
so far as the wage covers satisfactorily the essential costs of living
can it be said to be an adequate wage. This report does not attempt
to set up any arbitrary standards as to what wage would be just
or adequate, for such a statement c6uld be based only on a study
of living cost in the communities affected. However, the figures
given are the amounts which the women wage earners of Tennessee
were actually receiving, and the reader can draw his own conclusions
as t.o the purchasing power of such earnings.
Because of the marked difference in the earnings of white and
negro women workers, all figures on wages have been handled sepa­
rately throughout. The earnings of the negro women may be found
in a later section.
WEEK’S EARNINGS

The figures on week’s earnings were copied from the pay rolls
of the establishments visited. The actual earnings of each woman
for one week, so far as possible a week in February, 1925, were
taken off. If that period had been an abnormal one in the plant,
or if records were not available for a week in that month, some
other pay roll was taken with the advice of the management. In
some of the plants visited the pay-roll period was longer than one
week, but the material was converted into terms of week’s earnings
so that comparable figures would be available for all of the women
included.
Records of actual earnings were obtained for 14,642 white women
employed in factories, stores, and laundries, and the distribution
of the women in the various wage groups is given in Table I in the
appendix. The median earnings for these 14,642 women were $11.10;
in other words, one-half of the women earned more than $11.10,
while the week’s earnings of the other half fell below that amount.
20725°—27---- 2




7

8

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

A comparison of the wage standards of the various industries may
be found in the following table:

,

Table 2.- Distribution of women and their median earnings by industry
Women employed
Industry
Number

All industries................................
Manufacturing:
Candy............. ..................... .........
Clothing—
Men’s shirts...........,................
Overalls...... ..............................
Women’s dresses and aprons
Other_____________________
Drugs and chemicals............ .........
Food products—
Bakery products__________
Other___________ _____ ___
Metal products_______ ________
Paper boxes_____ _____________
Printing and publishing_______
Springs and mattresses.......... .......
Textiles—
Bags.................................... .
Cotton goods______________
Hosiery___________________
Knit underwear........ ..............
Woolen goods_____________
Yarns......................... ................
Tobacco products—
Cigars____________________
Other_______________ _____
Wood products—
Boxes................ ..........................
Furniture_________________
Other..____ ______________
Miscellaneous.......... .....................
General mercantile________________
5-and-10-cent stores________________
Laundries....................... ..........................

Median
earnings,
week of
pay-roll
Per cent investi­
gation

14,642

100.0

397

2.7

9. 70

609
441
230
226
306

4.2
3.0
1.6
1.5
2.1

11.70
15. 90
9. 50
11. 30
9. 45

328
102
69
145
336
42

2.2
.7
.4
1.0
2.3
.3

9. 85
11.75
12. 50
11.70
16.10
15.00

439
1,109
3, 269
2,036
699
447

3.0
7.6
22.3
13.9
4.8
3.1

9.75
10. 80
10.20
12.30
9.50
12. 35

506
356

3.5
2.4

8. 70
13.20

69
53
120
363
1, 309
317
329

.5
.4
.8
2.5
8.9
2.2
2.2

8.65
8.30
8.60
12.15
14.15
9.20
8.95

$11.10

Rating the industries on the basis of the median earnings, the in­
dustry with the highest wage standard was printing and publishing,
with a median of $16.10. It was followed by the manufacture of
overalls, with a median of $15.90, and the manufacture of springs
and mattresses, with one of $15. None of these, however, was a lead­
ing woman-employing industry in the State. The lowest earnings
were those of the women employed in the manufacture of furniture,
whose median was only $8.30. Four other industries surveyed had
medians of less than $9—laundries, and the manufacture of wooden
boxes, of miscellaneous wooden products, and of cigars. The hosiery
mills visited employed more women than did any of the other in­
dustries surveyed, over one-fifth of all the women included in the
study, and for this group the median earnings were only $10.20, an
amount considerably less than the general median for all the women
surveyed. The women working in another branch of the textile in­




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

9

dustry, the manufacture of knit underwear, formed the group next in
size, and the median for these workers was $12.30.
As is usually the case, the two mercantile groups are in marked
contrast in the matter of wages. While the median earnings of
those who worked in general mercantile establishments was $14.15,
and only three other industries showed a higher median, the median
for the 5-and-10-cent store workers was only $9.20, or sixth from
the bottom of the list when the 27 industries are listed according
to the median earnings of the women employed.
The figures on earnings which have been cited relate to all the
women whose names appeared on the pay rolls for the week recorded,
without regard to the amount of time they had worked. As a result
the earnings recorded range all the way from less than $1 to more
than $40. However, the earnings of over one-half of the women fell
between $7 and $14, while practically three-fifths as many women
earned less than $7 as were in the group earning $14 or more.
The distribution of earnings in the various industries is classified
below:
Percentage of women earning less than $6
All industries_________
11.7
Metal products._ 1.7
General mercantile 2.8
Overalls 4.3
Miscellaneous manufacturing 4.7
Yarns 4,7
Tobacco products other than cigars 5.9
Paper boxes 6.9
Knit underwear 7.7
Printing and publishing 8.9
Men’s shirts 9.0
5-and-10-cent stores 9.5
Candy-----------------------9.8
Cotton goods10.4
Miscellaneous clothing____________________ _______________ 11.1
Laundries 12.2
Furniture^13.2
Drugs and chemicals 13.4
Food other than bakeryproducts13.7
Wooden boxes 14.5
Springs and mattresses16.7
Woolen goods16.7
Bags (textile)17.1
Women’s dresses and aprons17.8
Hosiery------------------------------------------------ _------------------------- 17,9
Miscellaneous wood products20.8
Cigars------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22.9




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Percentage of women earning less than $9
All industries31.3
General mercantile 9.4
Metal products10.2
Tobacco products other than cigars;11.8
Printing and publishing15.5
Overalls16.3
Miscellaneous manufacturing20.4
Paper boxes20.7
Knit underwear20.9
Springs and mattresses21.4
Tarns23.5
Food other than bakery products27.5
Men’s shirts___________________________________________ _28.2
Cotton goods---------------------------------------------------------------------30.3
Candy----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 35.8
Hosiery---------------------------------------------------------------------39.6
Bakery products40.5
Drugs and chemicals42.8
Bags (textile)43.3
Women’s dresses and aprons44.3
Woolen goods45.4
5-and-10-cent stores45.4
Laundries51.1
Cigars------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 54.2
Furniture---------------------------------------------------------------------------56.6
Miscellaneous wood products59.2
Wooden boxes60.9

Percentage of women earning less than $12
All industries____________________________ 56. 6
Tobacco products other than cigars 24. 7
General mercantile 28. 7
Overalls 28. 8
Printing and publishing 28. 9
Springs and mattresses---------------------------------------------------Metal products 44.1
Yarns 45. 9
Knit underwear.'-----------------------------------------------------------Miscellaneous manufacturing 48. 5
Food other than bakery products 52. 0
Paper boxes 53.1
Men’s shirts 53. 2
Miscellaneous clothing 55. 8
Cotton goods 61.0
Hosiery 63. 9
Bags (textile)-. 65.6
Women’s dresses and aprons_____________________________
Woolen goods 70.0
Bakery products 71.0
Laundries 71.1




33. 3

47. 6

68. 7

11

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Candy---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 74.1
Drugs and chemicals------------------------------------------------------- 74.8
Miscellaneous wood products------------------------------------------- 84.2
Furniture 84. 9
Cigars 86.2
Wooden boxes 89. 9
5-and-10-cent stores--------------------------------------------------------- 94.0

Percentage of women earning less than $15
All industries 76. 6
Printing and publishing--------------------------------------------------Overalls 45. 6
Springs and mattresses 50. 0
General mercantile----------- .■---------------------------------------------Tobacco products other than cigars 68. 0
Knit underwear--------------------------------------------------------------Men’s shirts------------------------------------------------------------------Miscellaneous manufacturing------------------------------------------Miscellaneous clothing 73.0
Paper boxes 75.9
Metal products 76. 3
Yarns 77. 6
Cotton goods------------------------------------------------------------------Hosiery 82. 0
Bags (textile)---------------------------------------------------------------Laundries---------------------------------------------------------------------Food other than bakery products 86. 3
Drugs and chemicals 86. 6
Woolen goods 86. 7
Women’s dresses and aprons 87.0
Candy---------------------------------------------------------------------------Furniture-----------------------------------------------------------------------Bakery products 94. 5
Miscellaneous wood products____ 95.0
Cigars 97. 2
5-and-10-cent stores 99.1
Wooden boxes100. 0

45. 5

53. 2
71.1
71. 8
72.5

81.6
83.6
83. 6

88. 7
94. 3

According to this summary of the distribution of earnings there
were only three industries—printing and publishing, overalls, and
springs and mattresses—in which half of the women reported earned
as much as $15. Although more than one-half of the general mer­
cantile workers earned less than $15, a smaller proportion of the
women of this group than of any other but one earned less than $6.
While the percentage of women earning less than $12 was lowest
in the manufacture of tobacco products other than cigars, there were
four other industries in which the proportion with earnings under
$15 was smaller, earnings between $12 and $15 being common for
the women employed in these factories.




12

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Over one-fifth of the women for whom figures were reported in the
manufacture of cigars had earned less than $6 during the week
recorded and only a little over one-eighth had earned as much as $12.
None of the women who worked in the wooden-box plants had re­
ceived amounts of $15 or over, and in five other industries over 90
per cent of the women for whom earnings were reported had received
less than $15.
As separate figures for some of the larger cities of the State might
be of interest to the people in those localities, the figures have been
tabulated separately for Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis, and
Nashville.
Table 3.—Distribution of women and their median earnings, by locality
Women employed
Locality
Number

Median
earnings,
week of
pay-roll
Per cent investi­
gation

14,642

Nashville________________________ ____________

2, 272
3, 788
1, 687
2, 592
4,403

15 5
25 9
17. 7
30.1

11 70
9. 25

More than 2,000 women were included in the industries surveyed in
Chattanooga, and 1,908 of these were employed in factories. Among
the manufacturing industries, hosiery and knit underwear took the
lead in furnishing employment for women workers, for 55.9 per cent
of the women working in factories in the city were employed in the
eight hosiery and knit-underwear mills which were visited. For both
of these industries the median for the women in Chattanooga was
higher than that for the State as a whole (for hosiery, $11.75 as
compared with $10.20, and for knit underwear, $12.85 as compared
with $12.80). The median earnings for all the women reported in
Chattanooga, irrespective of the industry in which they were
employed, were $12.30.
Almost nine-tenths of the 3,788 women surveyed in Knoxville were
employed in manufacturing industries, and of these over four-fifths
were working in textiles—cotton goods, hosiery, and knit underwear.
To avoid identification, separate wage figures for these industries in
Knoxville are not given, in two of the groups only two establish­
ments being visited. The wage standards of the women workers in
Knoxville were lower than those of the women reported in Chatta­
nooga, although their median was $11.95, higher than that for the
State as a whole.




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

13

Practically two-thirds of the 1,587 women employed in Memphis
were working in factories, and there was no one industry which pre­
dominated in the employment of women workers. The median for
the women in Memphis was $12.45, the highest amount of all the
localities included.
Over 2,500 women were covered in Nashville, with 86 per cent
of them working in factories. No single industry employed an over­
whelming majority of the women, although the clothing establish­
ments and bag and hosiery mills together claimed over two-thirds of
the women.
Figures on earnings were obtained for over 4,000 women employed
in other cities of the State, aside from the four mentioned. Over
nine-tenths of the women were employed in manufacturing indus­
tries and over one-third of these were working in hosiery mills, with
woolen mills and cigar factories next in the number of women
reported. Practically all the women in the State engaged in the
manufacture of woolen goods and cigars were employed outside of
the four cities specified, as were a considerable proportion of the
hosiery workers. The median earnings for the women outside the
cities were considerably lower than those for the women in the
four cities mentioned.
Timework and piecework.
In many factories Output forms the basis for calculating the
amount of the worker’s earnings, and the sum earned varies with
the amount produced. In other cases the worker’s earnings depend
entirely on the number of hours worked. In the first case the em­
ployee is classed as a pieceworker and in the second as a timeworker.
Occasionally one woman may have worked under a combination of
these two systems within one week.
Table 4.—Number of Hmeworkers and pieceworkers mid their median earnings,

by industry
Number and per cent of women who were
on—

Industry

Num­
ber of
women
report­
ed

Timework

Piecework

Both time­
work and
piecework

Both
time­
Time­ Piece­ work
work work and
piece­
Num­ Per
work
ber
cent

Num­
ber

Per
cent

Num­
ber

Per
cent

14,519

4,863

33.5

9,279

63.9

377

397

283

71.3

96

24.2

18

4.5

609
440

50
33

8.2
7.5

559
407

91.8
92. 5

230
60
26.1
226
15
6.6
1 Not computed, owiDg to small number involved.

157
211

68.3
93.4

13

5.7

All industries..........
Manufacturing:
Candy........ ............................
Clothing—
Men’s shirts..........
Overalls...........................
Women’s dresses and
aprons
Other............................




Median earnings of
women on—

2.6 $10.80 $11.25
9.35

11.90

16.05

15.90

8.00
12.50

9. 70
10.95

$11.68
13.00

(l)

14

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Table 4.—Number of timeworkers and pieceworkers and their median earnings,

by industry—Continued
Number and per cent of women who were
on-

Industry

Num­
ber of
women
report­
ed

Piecework

Num­ Per
ber
cent
Manufacturing—Continued
Drugs and chemicals..........
Food products—
Bakery products
Other
Metal products___ _____
Paper boxes.........................
Printing and publishing. __
Springs and mattresses___
Textiles—
Bags........ ................ .......
Cotton goods_____ _
Hosiery
Knit underwear.._ _ _
Woolen goods........... .
Yarns ...
Tobacco products—
Cigars......................
_
Other ______ __
Wood products—
Boxes
Furniture.......................
Other
Miscellaneous____ _______
General mercantile
5-and-10-cent stores_____
Laundries__________ _____

Timework

Num­ Per
ber
cent

Median earnings of
women on—

Both time­
work and
piecework

Both
time­
Time­ Piece­ work
work work and
piece­
Num­ Per
work
ber cent

272

158

58.1

113

41.5

1

0.4

$9.90

$8.70

(i)

328
102
59
144
299
37

178
73
32
47
253
6

54.3
71.6
54.2
32.6
84.6
16.2

149
29
27
93
45
31

45.4
28.4
45 8
64.6
15.1
83.8

1

.3

8. 85

11. 30

(0

4
1

2.8
.3

10.80
16. 70
«

12.40
12.10
16.50

(!)
(i)

430
1,107
3, 245
2,031
699
446

161
270
324
338
257
120

37.4
24.4
10.0
16.6
36.8
26.9

240
818
2,872
1,598
436
235

55.8
73.9
88.5
78.7
62.4
52.7

29
19
49
95
6
91

6.7
1.7
1.5
4.7
.9
20.4

9. 20
10. 40
9. 45
12. 45
8. 60
9. 50

9.85
11.20
10. 35
12.15
10. 25
13. 65

$10. 75
13. 50
9. 30
13. 30
0)
11. 70

505
355

11
126

2.2
35.5

493
197

97.6
55.5

1
32

.2
9.0

0)
12. 50

8. 70
15. 05

0)
12. 75

69
53
119
363
1,309
317
328

58
18
68
46
1,233
'317
328

84.1
34.0
57.1
12.7
94.2
100.0
100.0

11
22
49
315
2 76

41.5
41.2
86.8
5.8

13
2
2

24.5
1.7
.6

7. 65
8. 70
8. 65

8. 00
8. 45
12. 35
2 15.75

1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.

(>)
0)
(l)

8.95

2 Commission basis only.

There were 14,519 women for whom the method of payment was
reported, and the majority of these (63.9 per cent) were paid on a
piece-rate basis. All of the women employed in the laundries sur­
veyed were timeworkers, as were practically all the mercantile
workers. There was one group of the latter whose pay depended
entirely on the amount of their sales, and these women have been
classed as pieceworkers, the commision basis being more nearly com­
parable to piece than to time rate. Almost three-fourths of the
women in factories were employed as pieceworkers, but there was
considerable variation in practice among the various manufacturing
groups. The manufacturing industries with the largest proportion
of women whose earnings depended directly on the time worked were
printing and publishing, wooden boxes, miscellaneous food products,
and candy. The highest proportions of pieceworkers were found in
the manufacture of cigars and in the needle-trade groups.
For all industries taken together the median for the pieceworkers
was somewhat higher than that for the timeworkers, although a
larger proportion of the pieceworkers than of the timeworkers earned
less than $5 and a slightly smaller proportion earned as much as $20.
The difference in medians is due to a slight difference in distribution



WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

15

in the mid groups. (See Table II in the appendix.) In all but six
manufacturing industries—overalls, miscellaneous clothing, drugs
and chemicals, knit goods, miscellaneous wood products, and printing
and publishing—the median earnings of the pieceworkers exceeded
those for the timeworkers; in these industries, however, the opposite
was true. More detailed information on the distribution .of earnings
of the two groups of workers is available from unpublished material,
and those figures show that in three of these industries—overalls, mis­
cellaneous clothing, and knit goods—the highest amounts were earned
by those women who were paid on the basis of output, although the
timeworkers showed the higher median. In the printing and pub­
lishing industry there were only a few pieceworkers reported, and all
of them were employed at stitching and pasting rather than on any
of the printing operations. Their earnings were lower than those of
most of the timeworkers, none of them earning as much as $21, while
the earnings of the others went as high as $40.
Week’s earnings and time worked.
Thus far the discussion of earnings has taken no account of the
length of time worked during the week and has concerned itself only
with the actual amount of money paid to each woman for her work
during the week surveyed. While the amount earned may be the
essential thing, an analysis of earnings which considers only the
amount and gives no thought to the time required to earn that sum
is incomplete.
It is not always possible to obtain any record of time worked, and
frequently the material available is not in comparable form. Definite
record of the number of hours worked ordinarily can be secured for
the women whose pay is reckoned on the basis of hours worked. Not
always are such definite data recorded even for timeworkers. In
stores, and sometimes in other types of establishments, attendance
reports frequently show on how many days the women were present,
regardless of whether they remained at work throughout the day or
half day. For the pieceworkers it is even more difficult to obtain an
exact report of time worked, because many establishments see no
necessity of keeping a permanent record of the number of hours put
in by these workers whose pay depends entirely on output. In some
cases it is impossible to obtain any record for these women, even in
the rough form of the number of days on which the worker was in
attendance.
Earnings have been tabulated according to the hours worked, so
far as such material is available, in Table III-A in the appendix. In
the accompanying table is presented a summary of figures on earn­
ings and hours worked in the various industries, compiled from
unpublished material.




Table 5- -Median earnings and time worked, by industry—women whose time worked was reported in hours

oa

Women who worked during the week—

«
o
0
(>)

m

0)

1

1

m

1

m

1 m

1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.




0

(!)
0
0

1
2
1

0
0
0
0
16.00
0

8.65

2

o

13

fi)
0

3

0

1

6
2

0
0

3

12.60

(0

w
(i)
1 11.15
o

2
22

0
78 15.15
39 10.40

C1)

0
0
0

0)
10.30

0

0

12

18
13

(l)

17.15

0

13.50
11.25
10.15
12.25

63 11.05
24 12. 20

11.00

16
14
6
6

1

2
5
8
9

13

8.40
0

1

0
0

(1)
0

1

0

2

0

(l)
0

0
0

11.00

0

1 to

116 10.95

2 0
2 0
7 0
14 0
13
0
26 11. 65
0
44 17.90 62 18. 60 16 15.50
17 18.75

(>)
G)

0

1
1

0

0

0
0
0

0
0

8
14

1

earnings

!

earnings
Num ber

M e d ia n

1

1

M e d ia n

earnings

Num ber

M e d ia n

earnings

M e d ia n

N um ber

earnings

M e d ia n

N um ber

1

6 0
20 12.20
27 10.40

11. 00 6 (>)
83 10.50
9.10
109 9. 30
9.05 57 10.90 94 10.40
10.45 17 11.50 186 10.55
(i)
30 7. 90
8.40 11
20

«

0
0

0
0)
0)

0

Over 57
57 hours and un­ 60 hours
der 60
and
hours
over

$11.75 1,148 $11.30 395 $11. 60 2,089 $12. 55 742 $10.90 48 $15.00 42 $16. 35

o

5
3

Over 54
and un­
der 57
hours

1

31

13
16 17.25 1

<*>
0

5a

Num ber

earnings

C OT
•erg

$10. 20 124 $11. 40 798 '$10. M 114 $16. 70 300 $11.80
8.85

54 hours

|

M e d ia n

earnings

N um ber

M e d ia n

earnings

N um ber

Num ber

a>

M e d ia n

earnings

Num ber

1

(>)
(>)
(>>

m
0)

M e d ia n

(

earnings
Num ber

M e d ia n

[

1

earnings
Num ber

M e d ia n

earnings
Num ber

M e d ia n

All industries.......... 7, 680 $11. 00 538 $3. 75 437 $7.50 482
Manufacturing:
Candy...........................
349 9.95 17 3.40 19 7.15 28
ClothingMen’s shirts
22 10.75 1
Overalls
43 15.50 1
3
Women’s dresses and
aprons..........................
114 10. 35 5
3 0)
4
Other.............................
170 12.10 20 3.35 11 0 14
Drugs and chemicals
165 10. 05 4 0
4 0
1
Food products—
Bakery products............
42 11.35 4
1 ro
1
Other___ _____ ______
65 10. 40 6 0
6
2
Metal products
50 12. 45 2
3 0
2
Paper boxes
101 11.85 9
3 0 12
Printing and publishing. 285 16.90 23 5. 70 8 0 22
Springs and mattresses...
30 17.00 4
1 0
3
Textiles—
Bags.......... .................
412 9.55 59 3.35 16 7.00 34
Cotton goods............
817 10. 70 65 4.15 67 6.95 26
Hosiery..................... .
1,368 10.10 139 3. 50 97 8.35 137
Knit underwear____
1,719 12. 60 91 4.15 113 7.95 68
Woolen goods______
443 9. 80 10 0 21 5. 75 10
Yarns..........................
386 12. 35 11
16 7.60 18
Tobacco products—
Cigars.........................
161 8. 40 20 2.00 11
ro 6
Other........................... .
225 12. 55 16 4.85 20 8.00 62
Wood products—
Boxes_____________
58 8.65 3 0
2 0
3
Furniture__________
27 9.15 4
0
Other.. ^............ ..........
83 8.65 9
4
17
Miscellaneous...... ..........
220 11.15 12 0
6 0
4
General mercantile_____
29 20.15
5-and-10-eent stores_____
249 9.60
1 0
2
Laundries______ _____
3
47 8.95 3

If
11

Over 50
and un­
der 54
hours

0

28
18
46

0
0

3

14

2

0

2

36
18

0

126 9. 35
76 12. 75
108 13.10
22 13.00
2 0
2 0

154
16
95

0

0
0
0
0

2
2

0
(0

3
4
8
1 0
59 11.6, 31 10.85
28 20.35
164 9.70

0

(1)

56 12.65

0

15 11.65

222

6

60 10.90 31 10.50

0
2
1

1

1

0

___

34
3
32
24

8

1

0

6

5
380
291
745
99
132

2

0 10 0

8

0

8 0
15 12. 40
26 13. 85
1 0

0

0

12.10 23 8. 90
1 0
9.85 40 12.65 4 0
2 0
13.65 154 15. 35 23 16.85 20 16.85
10.80 243 9.85 9 0)
15. 30 62 12.25
93

100 13. 40

9. 85

19 9.05 19 9.25
8 0
36 8.70
4 0
50 11.55 24 13.00 2
68
8

0
0

«

9.40

0

11

0

”1

1

0

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Num ber

Industry-

Over 44
All women
Over 48
Under 30 and 39 and
and un­
reported
and un­
under
30 hours 39 hours under 44 hours der 48 48 hours der 50 50 hours
44 hours
hours
hours

17

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

There were 7,680 white women for whom figures on both wages
and hours worked were reported, and all but about 5 per cent of these
were employed in manufacturing establishments. However, all of
the industries surveyed were represented in the material correlating
earnings with hours worked. When all industries are combined and
the medians for the various hour groups are compared, the figures
show no definite relation between earnings and hours worked. The
**»
55

o
o
559

3

dollars

Under

30

39

44

0*er44 46

Ovtrtd

SO OnrSO

34

0»c,S4 SI

OverSI

tO

30
furtder * under hours Sunder hours * under hours funder hours funder hours funder lover
hours S'! hours 44hours
48 hours
SOhours
S4hours
SIhours
(tOhours

Hours WorKed
RELATION BETWEEN EARNINGS AND HOURS WORKED.

highest median is that of the women who had worked only 48 hours
during the week. There were only 114 women who had worked
exactly 48 hours, but of these one-half earned less than $16.70 and
one-half more than that amount. The women who stood next in
order on this basis were those who had worked 60 hours or more
and their median earnings were $16.35. The hour groups between
these two had wage levels considerably below these figures, with




18

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

medians in the vicinity of $11 or $12, except for the women who
had worked between 57 and 60 hours, for whom the median was $15.
The distribution of earnings within the various hour groups, as
well as the medians, indicates lack of relationship between the time
spent on the job and the amount of wages received. There were
women who had worked less than 44 hours during the week for
which figures were returned, who had nevertheless earned from $25
to $40. At the other extreme were women who had worked at least
60 hours and had received for that labor less than $11. The highest
amounts were earned by women in the 48-to-50 and the 50-to-54 hour
groups. Obviously the smallest amounts were earned by women who
had worked less than 30 hours, but there were women who had been
at work as long as 57-hours who had earned only $2 more than the
' lowest reported.
Not in all of the industries were wages and hours worked reported
for enough women to make any comparison among hour groups.
Those industries in which a median could be given for the women
in more than one hour group are listed below with the hours worked
by the women who had the highest median, classified according to
whether or not the group with the highest median was also the
longest hour group for which a median was available.
Industries in which the highest median did not accompany the highest hour
group
Hours worked by women
with highest median

Candy_______ _____________
Overalls___________________
Miscellaneous clothing_____
Drugs and chemicals_______

..
..
_
..

Paper boxes_______________
Printing and publishing____
Bags (textile)_____________
Hosiery----------------------------Woolen goods______________
Yarns_____________________
Miscellaneous wood products
5-and-10-cent stores________

_
.
_
.
.
-

Over 50 and under 54.
44.
Over 48 and under 50.
Over 44 and under 48, and
over 48 and under 50.
Over 50 and under 54.
Over 50 and under 54.
50.
54.
Over 50 and under 54.
Over 54 and under 57.
39 and under 44.
Over 50 and under 54.

Industries in which the highest median accompanied the highest hour group
Hours worked by women
with highest median

Women’s dresses and aprons_____
Springs and mattresses_________
Knit goods--------------------------------Cigars___________________________
Tobacco products other than cigars.
Wooden boxes____________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing_____




.. Over 54 and under
. Over 44 and under
- Over 57 and under
and 00 and over.
. 57.
_ Over 54 and under
57.
.. 57.

57.
48.
60,

57.

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

19

In the majority of the industries in which a comparison was
possible the women who had the highest medians had not worked
the longest hours. Even when the group with the highest median
was that with the longest hours in that particular industry, ordi­
narily these hours were not long when compared with those in some
other industries. In only one industry—the manufacture of knit
goods—did the over-57-and-under-60 or 60-and-over groups appear
as those in which the median earnings of the women were high.
In discussing the absence of correlation between hours worked and
earnings it must be remembered that some of the women who worked
the smaller number of hours nevertheless had worked their full
scheduled week while others had lost some time from their normal
schedvde. It is probable that earnings bear a closer relation to the
proportion of the regular week worked than to the number of hours.




Table 6.

Median earnings and time worked, by industry—women whose time worked was reported in days

fcO
O

Women who worked during the week on—
All women
reported

Manufacturing:
Candy........................................ .
Clothing—
Men’s shirts.............. ...............
Overalls___________________
Women’s dresses and aprons.
Other............... ......................
Drugs and chemicals_________
Food products—
Bakery products ................. .
Other________ _____ _______
Metal products___________
Paper boxes________ _____ ____
Printing and publishing______
Springs and mattresses_______
Textiles—
Bags...... .................. ......... ...........
Cotton goods____ _____
Hosiery______________ _____
Knit underwear____________
Woolen goods........ .................. I.
Yarns................. .......................
Tobacco products—
Cigars_______ _______ ___
Other___________ ________ "
Wood products—
Boxes__________ _____ _____
Furniture__________________
Other________________ ____ _
Miscellaneous________________
General mercantile_____________
5-and-10-cent stores_______ _____
Laundries.._______ ____________

3 V2 days

4 days

4J4 days

5 days

5H days

M edian
earnings

M edian
earnings

N um ber

1

1

3 days

3
.2 |
il

.3 s

gf
S3

S$

I

M edian
earnings

2)4, days

Vi
tJD

a

.2 a
•ga

ii §

2

6 days
§»

Is1
|e
Sg

.So

og

23
"s s
§1

5, 688 $11. 45 116 $1.50 39 $2.35 125 $3. 45 55 $4.46 ISO $5.50 108 $6.80 270 $7.90 332 ;9.45 787 $10. 95 2,130 $12. e 1,546 $12.85
5,
47

6.85

4

0

3

0

2

0

1

0

7.00

0

409 11.40
296 17. 55
7 0
36 9.85
115 7. 00

4

0

8
2

0
0

6
7

0)

8

9. SO
0)
0

9.45

0

0
0

0
3 0

1

0

3

0)

0

2. 80

1
1

0
0

7.15
0)

286 9. 50
37 13. 25
9 0
44 11.25
5 0
12 0
27
259
1, 543
62
170
59

10

(>)

9
2

0

2
2
1

0
0

15.20
11. 50
10.20
11. 55
10. 60
11. 95

5
37
2
6
1

319 8.95
128 16.00

2
2

11 (l)
26 8.00
31 8.70
134 13.65
1,269 13.95
66 6. 50
281 8.90

* Not computed, owing to small number involved.




2 days

4
16
7

0

1

2

19

2. 56

(!)
0

0

1
7
38
2
2
18

1
3

0
2.00

0

0

1
1
1

0
0
0

8
8
2

14. 25

0)
12. 50
15. 25

0

5.75
12.00

0)
0

(')

0)

(!)

(!)
1.20
0)
(1)
0)

15
2

18

0

0

0

0

125 10.10
21 13. 95
6

0)
5.15

0

0

0

0

2. 85

0)

0
0
0

7.65
7.95

4.90

0)
0)

0
(•)

0
0
1

0

0

5.50

0

(l)

0

0
0

0)
0

6. 70

1

0

0)
0

0

28 12.20

0
0)
4.15
0)

0
16 12.00

0

(!)
0)
0)
3.70
0)
o)

3
30
1
1

0)

266 12.65
188 20. 15
2 (0
33 9.95
63 8.70

,
1

0
l1)
(>)

1 0

0

0
8.90
0
0

0)
8. 70
12. 75
6. 25
0)

9.90
10.35

0

8

17
147
793
25
126
47

0)

15.80
14.20
12.35
12.85

0)
0)
0

12. 20

11. 95

6.85
17.45

0)

0

0)

0

0

10.95
7.90
6.75

24(1

9. 85

8.00

1091
23
13
59

1 0
14.40
3 0
11.90 1,107 15.00
0)
0
9.65 152 10.00

1

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

All industries.......... ............................. ..

days

M edian
earnings
N um ber

M edian
earnings

Z

I

N um ber

k.
O
-a

N um ber

1 day

Industry

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

21

For 5,688 white women working in factories, stores, and laundries
the records showed on how many days they had worked. When
this method of recording attendance was used, there was a more
definite and positive relation between time worked and earnings, the
time, except for the group “ 5y2 days or more,” being expressed roughly
in terms of the proportion of the normal week worked. The median
earnings increased with each added half day of work, although the
median for the women who had worked on six days was only 25 cents
higher than that of the women who had worked on five and onehalf days. The distribution of earnings by days on which work
was done is given in Table III-B in the appendix.
So far as material was available for such comparison within the
individual industries the higher medians accompanied the greater
number of days worked, although not in all cases were the highest
wages received by the women who had worked on six days.
Earnings of full-time workers.
In the preceding section the amount earned was correlated with
the number of hours or the number of days worked. In calling at­
tention to the lack of positive relation between time worked and
amount earned it has been noted that, of a group of women working
any specific number of hours, some had worked the regular week
of the firm while others must have lost time, and that fact is largely
responsible for the lack of progression of earnings with hours
worked. Therefore it is desirable to show the earnings of the women
who had worked the firm’s scheduled week. When a record of at­
tendance was definitely kept in terms of the number of hours worked
it was easy to determine whether the women reported had put in a
full week. In other cases, however, the records showed only the
number of days on which the women had been at work. For the
purpose of this correlation, if the scheduled week of the plant con­
sisted of six days and the woman had reported for work on six days,
or if five and one-half days constituted the week and she had been
present on that number of days, she was included as having worked
the firm’s scheduled week. In using this method it was realized that
it was inexact, permitting the inclusion both of women who had
lost time and of those who had worked longer than their scheduled
week, definitely excluding only those who had been absent at least
as much as one-half day at a time. For that reason, the earnings
of the women with the different bases for recording time worked
have been tabulated separately, and the distribution is given in
Table IV in the appendix.
Ordinarily, exact attendance records are more likely to be available
for the women who are paid on a time basis. However, women paid
on both bases—time and piece—are found among those for whom hour




22

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

records were available, although it is probable that the majority of
women in manufacturing industries who had only a daily record were
pieceworkers. At all events, either the women with records in terms
of days were able to make pretty good pay or the majority of the women
who worked on the full number of days had actually worked close
to a full week, for the median earnings of all the full-time workers
who were so classed on the basis of hours worked were lower than
those for the women who had been at their jobs the scheduled num­
ber of days. For some industries the women with daily records
showed the higher earnings while in others those whose time was
reported in hours made the better showing.
In the summary in Table 7 all the women who may be counted
as full-time workers, both those who had worked the firm’s sched­
uled hours and those who had been on the job on the required num­
ber of days, have been grouped together and the median given is
that for the total number.
Table 7.—Earnings of women who ivorked the firm’s scheduled week compared

with those of all workers, by industry
Women who
worked the firm’s
scheduled week *
Industry

All industries...... .........................
Manufacturing:
Candy................................................
ClothingMen’s shirts______ ____ ___
Overalls------ -------- ------------Women’s dresses and aprons.
Other........... ................... ...........
Drugs and chemicals............ .........
Food products—
Bakery products....... ..............
Other................................ .........
Metal products. ..............................
Paper boxes__________ ____ ___
Printing and publishing...............
Textiles—
Bags............................................
Cotton goods.......... ..............
Hosiery....................................
Knit underwear----------------Woolen goods.......................... .
Yarns............ ..............................
Tobacco products—
Cigars..........................................
Other............. .............................
Wood products—
Boxes. .........................................
Furniture—............................ .
Other_____________________
Miscellaneous__________ ____ _
General mercantile......................... .......
5-and-10-cent stores________________
Laundries...____ _____ _____ ______

Median earnings
of—

Per cent
of women
for whom Full-time
All
Number
time
workers workers
record
was
available

Per cent
by which
median
earnings
of full­
time
workers
exceeded
those of
all
workers

*7, 588

56.8

$12.45

$11.10

12.2

148

37.4

10. 40

9.70

7.2

282
239
54
129
206

65.4
70.5
44.6
62.6
73.6

12.40
18. 65
10.50
12. 45
9.80

11.70
15.90
9.50
11.30
9. 45

6.0
17.3
10.5
10.2
3.7

127
67
25
67
128

38.7
65.7
42.4
46.2
44.1

11.30
12.45
14. 40
12. 75
18.10

9.85
11.75
12. 50
11.70
16.10

14.7
6.0
15.2
9.0
12.4

181
623
1,363
776
461
293

41.2
57.9
46.8
43.6
75.2
65.8

11.10
12. 40
12.05
13. 40
10. 55
13. 45

9. 75
10. 80
10.20
12.30
9.50
12.36

13.8
14.8
18.1
8.9
11.1
8.9

340
230

70.8
65.2

9. 85
14. 60

8. 70
13.20

13.2
10.6

24
28
48
149
1,114
247
231

34.8
52.8
42.1
42.1
85.8
78.4
70.4

9.00
8.60
8.95
13.95
15. 00
9. 65
10.00

8.65
8.30
8.60
12.15
14. 15
9. 20
8.95

4.0
3.6
4.1
14.8
6.0
4.9
11.7

1 See text introducing this table.
2 Total includes women in the manufacture of springs and mattresses, not given separately because
number too small to make a median significant.




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

23

Time records were secured in terms of either days or hours for
13,368 women. Of this number, 7,588, or 56.8 per cent, had worked
the normal week of the firm in which they were employed. Over
400 more had worked in excess of their scheduled week, but they
were not included in the table because the aim was to learn the
amount earned by the women who had worked a full week without
overtime.
The median earnings for the full-time workers are compared, not
with the median for only those women for whom time worked wTas
reported but with the median for all the women with wage records.
The median earnings for the full-time workers in all industries were
$12.45, only 12.2 per cent higher than the median for all the women
for whom earnings wrere reported. While the earnings of the
smaller group were at a higher level for the most part than those
of the more inclusive group, there was less difference between the
two than might have been expected. There were women who had
worked the full week of the firm, some of them the exact number
of scheduled hours, who had earned less than $5; four of these—
women on piecework—earned even less than $3. Only 2.6 per cent
of the full-time workers had earned as much as $25.
The difference between the median earnings of the whole industry
group and the median for those in the industry who had worked
the normal week was greatest in the manufacture of hosiery. The
least difference in the earnings of the two groups of women was
found in the manufacture of drugs and chemicals and of the various
wood products, in spite of the fact that in the last named the pro­
portion of women losing time was considerable.
Earnings and rates.
When reports on the earnings of any group of workers show that
the amounts received were conspicuously low it is always possible that
the women had not been earning as much as they might—that for per­
sonal reasons or plant reasons they had not worked steadily during
the period for which records were taken. Consequently it is impor­
tant to consider as well the weekly rate of pay, the amount which
the worker might expect to receive if she worked a normal sched­
uled week. Though it is true that the woman worker must meet her
living expenses with actual, not expected, earnings, a checking up of
the weekly rate against the week’s earnings serves to give a more
complete picture of the general wage situation.
For the sake of completeness, it would be preferable to make such
a comparison for all the women whose earnings were secured, but this
can not be done. Two-thirds of the Tennessee women for whom
week’s earnings were obtained were employed on a complete or
partial piecework basis. It is obvious that for these women there
20725°—27-----3




24

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

was no such thing as a definite weekly rate, the amount in their pay
envelope depending upon their week’s output. For those workers
who had a definite rate, the rate was not always given for the same
length of time. However, when information on both hourly rates
and scheduled hours appeared, it was felt that a weekly rate could
be computed. Rates quoted on the basis of the day or of the half­
month also were converted into terms of a weekly rate.
A comparison between earnings and rates is possible for 4,640
white women, the majority of the time workers surveyed, and a
summary of the distribution of the twro sets of figures is given in
Table 8.
Table 8.—Weekly

rate and actual week’s earnings—all industries
Number of women for
whom amount speci­
fied was—

Per cent of women for
whom amount speci­
fied was—

Amount
Weekly
rate
Total-

Week’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

W'eek’s
earnings

............ ................................ .........................

4, 640

4,640

100.0

100.0

$5 and under $10--- --------------- -------- -------------------------$10 and under $15------ -------------------------------------$15 and under $20______________________ ___________
$20 and under $25------------------------------- ------------------$25 and over --------- ------------------------------------------------

5
1,532
2,033
813
150
107

248
1,597
1, 754
749
165
127

0.1
33.0
43.8
17.5
3.2
2.3

5.3
34.4
37.8
16.1
3.6
2.7

While the difference in distribution is not marked, it is inter­
esting. It was to be expected that there would be more women
who earned less than $5 than of those who had rates below that
amount. It is rather startling that any women should have so lowT
a rate. The $5 to $10 groups also claimed more earnings than
rates, but the two mid groups accounted for a larger proportion of
the rates than of the earnings. When the two higher dollar groups
are reached the proportion of women with such earnings exceeds
the proportion with rates of those amounts, although to no consid­
erable extent. In other words, the distribution of the two sets of
figures shows the effects both of lost time and of overtime, although
the extent of the latter was slight.
In two industries—the manufacture of springs and mattresses
and that of cigars—figures on weekly rates were given for too few
women to make the computation of a median worth while. For all
the other industries included in the survey the median rates and
earnings are compared in Table 9, the detailed figures from which
the medians were computed appearing in Table V in the appendix.




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

25

Table 9.—Median rate and median earnings, by industry

Number
of women
reported

Industry

All industries......... ...........................................
Manufacturing:
Candy_________ ______ _____ ___
Clothing—
Men’s shirts................ ................
Overalls.__________
Women’s dresses and aprons_________
Other____________________
Drugs and chemicals...
___________
Food products—
Bakery products____ __________
Other____________
Metal products___ ____________
Paper boxes___________ _____
Printing and publishing...................................
Textiles—
Bags____ ____ ______________
Cotton goods___ ________________
Hosiery____________________
Knit underwear___________ ______
Woolen goods. __________________
Yarns______________ __________
Tobacco products other than cigars_
_
Wood products—
Boxes_____________
Furniture_____ ._
Other______________
Miscellaneous._________________
General mercantile________ ______ _
5-and-i0-cent stores________ _____
Laundries__________________

Median
weekly
rate

1 4,640

$11.45

$10.85

-5.2

9.95

9.35

-6.0

44
33
58
15
158

11.70
16.35
9.20
13.75
10.15

11.40
16.05
8.00
12.50
9.90

-2.6
-1.8
-13.0
-9.1
—2.5

152
73
32
42
229

9.80
11.30
10.95
12. 30
16.90

9.40
9.85
11.00
11.00
16.50

-4.1
-12.8
+.5
-10.6
-2.4

161
198
322
332
246
119
65

10.25
10.95
10.75
13.20
9. 35
11.20
12. 50

9.20
10.90
9.50
12.40
8.65
9.55

-10.2
—.5
-11.6
-6.1
-7.5
-14.7

58
18
68

9.00
8. 50
9.25

-3.9
-10.0
-5.9

1,232
317
327

13.30
9. 55
9.40

8.65
7.65
8.70
8.75
14.25
9.20
8.95

279

.

•

Median
week’s
earnings

Per cent
by which
actual
earnings
fell below
(-) or
exceeded
(+)
weekly
rate

+7.1
-3.7
-4.8

! Total includes women in the manufacture of springs and mattresses and of cigars, not given separately
because numbers too small to make a median significant.

The median rate for all the women for whom such information
was obtainable was $11.45, while the median earnings for the same
women were $10.85, the earnings falling short of the rates by 5.2 per
cent. It may seem strange that the weekly rates, as characterized by
the median, were lower than the earnings of full-time workers
($12.45), but it must be borne in mind that the figures on the two
subjects to a considerable extent relate to different groups of women.
The women included in the rate table were all timeworliers, for
obviously no woman paid on a piece basis could have a rate con­
vertible into terms of the amount she should expect for a definite
weekly schedule. Figures on full-time earnings, however, cover piece­
workers as well as timeworkers, and it has been pointed out already
that the earnings of the former tended to be higher than those of the
latter. It will be noted further that there was less difference between
the median rate, $11.45, and the median earnings of the whole group




26

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

of women covered in the survey, $11.10, than between rates and earn­
ings of the smaller group for whom the rates were reported.
In only two of the industries for which a comparison of median
rate with median earnings was possible—general mercantile and the
manufacture of metal products-—did the earnings exceed the rates,
and in the latter industry the difference was slight. In two others
the earnings maintained the same level as the rates, but in the remain­
ing industries the workers’ earnings averaged less than their rates,
although in some cases the difference was not great. In seven indus­
tries—the manufacture of women’s dresses, miscellaneous food prod­
ucts, paper boxes, bags, hosiery, yarns, and furniture—the median
earnings fell below the median rate by at least 10 per cent.
Of the industries compared in Table 9 the workers with the highest
median rate were employed in printing and publishing, an industry
which employs women on relatively skilled jobs. In this industry
the earnings compared favorably with the rates. The manufacture
of overalls came next, with a median rate of $16.35, and in this
industry also the discrepancy .between earnings and rates was not
great. The lowest median rates belonged to the manufacture of
furniture and to the miscellaneous manufacturing group, with
median rates of $8.50 and $8.75, respectively, but there were eight
other industries in which the median rate fell between $9 and $10.
Weekly rates and scheduled weekly hours.
Attention has been given to the amounts earned by women who
had worked weeks of various specified lengths, and it was seen that
there was no regular and definite tendency for earnings to increase
with an increase in the number of hours worked. However, in that
case the women who had worked the greatest number of hours, though
they had not the highest median did stand second in line when the
hour groupings were compared on that basis. It seems worth while
to examine a similar correlation for rates of pay and scheduled hours
to see whether the standard rate of pay set by the industry had any
direct relationship to the standard number of hours of work. The
following table, compiled from detailed figures which do not appear
in this report, shows the median rates by scheduled weekly hours in
each industry. Table VI in the appendix gives the detailed figures
on distribution of rates for all industries combined.




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

27

Table 10.—Median weekly rate and scheduled weekly hours, hy industry

Number of women and their median rates whose scheduled hours '
All
women

39

42 and
under
44

42
Industry

§
a
o
£

<3?

M
P
03
3
S

n
&

All industries 1 4,337 $11.15
Manufacturing:
Candy................
Clothing—
Men’s shirts _
Overalls
Women’s
dresses and
aprons
Other Drugs and
chemicals___
Food productsBakery products............
Other
Metal products
Paper boxes___
Printing and
publishing...
Textiles—
Bags-----------Cotton goods.
Hosiery_____
Knit underwear
Woolen goods
Yarns______
Tobacco products other
than cigars.
Wood
products—
Boxes.............
Furniture___
Other_____
Miscellaneous..
General mercantile_______ _
5-and-10-eent
stores
Laundries.............

279

p
<o
§
is
Ui
<y
X2
jjj

z
11

s
e
3
a

p
a
o
£
<3
XI

z

a
g
a
.9
V
a

44

P
OI
a
o
is
Ui
2
y
£

<D
a
p
.a
X)
a

Over 44
andunder 48
s
a
&
6
2i
a
fc

Over 48
and under 50

48

s

§
a

E
<D
c3
c
P
_o3
xi
a

e6
o
a

X2

z

©
a
p
o3

h
o
u
£
a

2
2
p
.a

a

z

s
1
IS
O
u
CD
XI
s

a

X!

Over 50
and under 52

50

p
a
i
2
T3
a

o
<3
J2J

s
03
"3
a

0 63 $12. 55 25 $17.15 95 $10. 75 404 $15.45 280 $13.05 294 $12.40 40C $12.35

9.95

29

44 11.70
33 16.35

20 16.90

13

0

9

0

68 9.20
15 13.75

13

158 10.15

23 10.50

152 9. 80
73 11.30
32 10. 95
42 12. 30

7

229 16. 90

5

«

0

0

45 11.30 16 10.00 25

1

13

(?)

45 12.05

48 18.00
13

9.50

0
0

0

0

96 18.55

161 10.25
198 10.95
322 10. 75

9.85

20 12.00

11

0

0

10

0

11

0

332 13.20
246 9.35
119 11. 20
65 12.50
58
18
68
45

9.00
8.50
9.25
8.75

63 12. 55

0

11 «
6

0

929 13.00

23 14.50

317
327

23

9.55
9.40

6.65

(?)
12. 85 184 15.10 94 14.15 319 12.65
24 10.65

i Total includes women in the manufacture of springs and mattresses and of cigars, not given separately
because numbers too small to make a median significant.
a Not computed, owing to small number involved.




28

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Table 10.—Median weekly rate and scheduled weekly hours, by industry—Con.

Number of women and their median rates whose scheduled hours were—

Over 52
and un­
der 54

52

Industry

Over 54
and un­
der 55

54

Over 55
and un­
der 57

55

d

d

d

d

Eh

d

o
a
o
it
'o
55
X!

a>
a
o
t

o>
S
0

03
£
0
1

CJ
a
o
£
o
03
-C

03
£
o
£
o
3)
rQ

S

3
£

03

2

03
c3
i

o

§

£

5
rQ

a

a

*3
a
0)

*
'o

<13

2
a

1

•3

a
3
£

£

1

0

03
to
S-H

a
•2
",3

03
a

£

03'
C3

1

"'S
03
S

£

03
1

z)

03

a

Over
57 and
under
60

57

§
i
o
*

d

03
0
6

03

1

2

o

o
03
x>

1

3
£

a

6

'O
03

£

£

03

2
d
•2
£3
03

a

*38 $12.90 ‘650 $9. 90 230 $9.65 73 $10. 20 859 $11.40 262 $10.05 ‘620 $9. 75 33 $9.55

All industries
Manufacturing:

81 9. 50

1

pi

2

(s>

12

Women’s dresses and

(>)

Food products—

77 10. 70 48 10.15

2 (2)
12 (2)
21 9. 75

37

33 10.30

Clothing—

16

39 9. 75 26 11.55
43 9. 30

10. 65

29 12. 30

5

11

6.95
8. 85

13 (2)
74 13.40

121 10. 95
106 9. 90
260 13.20

39 10. 65
29 12.90
38 12.45
55 10.60 191 8.65
30 11.15
84 10.90

12

(a)

4

Tobacco products other

10.00

87 9.40
20

Textiles—
103 8.70
24 14.00
135 10.00 19 13.30
34 15.45

44

«

3

m

Wood products—
Other...............................

11
Laundries..._____

i

11

m
(>)

30
160 9. 80
41 7.40 58 8.55

58
18

9.00
8.50
45 8.50
28 7.65

9. 80
49

9.90

68 8.40
88 11.10 24 9.00 33 9.55

1 Total includes women in the manufacture of springs and mattresses and of cigars, not given separately
because numbers too small to make a median significant.
a Not computed, owing to small number involved.

When the weekly rate is tabulated according to the scheduled
hours of the firm no relation is found between the hours which the
worker was expected to put in to make up a normal week and the
amount of pay which she could count on receiving for such a week.
In fact, the highest median rate ($17.15) was that for the women
who were scheduled to work only 44 hours a week, while the lowest
($9.55) was the median rate of the women with the longest hours,
those who were expected to work regularly more than 57 hours a
week. The women with a 48-hour schedule stood next to the 44-hour
women in regard to the amount of their median rate,




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

29

Within the various industries there was no positive relation be­
tween weekly rates and scheduled hours. Of those industries in
which it was possible to make any comparison, based on medians,
there was no case in which the highest median rate was that of the
women who had the longest weekly schedule. Within the other in§

*•0

3

Dollars

Under
44

hours

3

I

wo

3

I

§

§

44 0ver41 IS
0,er48 50
OuerSO SZ OrerSZ S4
OuerS4 SS 0eerS5 ST tJeerSI
hours s-under hours Sunder hours sunder hours Sunder hours Sunder hours sunder hours sunder
48 hours
-SO hours
SO hours
Slhours
SS hours
SIhours
hOhours

Scheduled Hours
RELATION BETWEEN EARNINGS OF FULL-TIME WORKERS
AND THEIR SCHEDULED WEEKLY HOURS.

dustries, for which that form of comparison was not possible, it
was seldom that the highest rates for the industry were found among
those women who had the longest weekly hours.
Full-time earnings and scheduled weekly hours.
The figures in the previous section obviously relate only to time
workers, because for that group alone can weekly rates exist. Data




30

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

on the earnings of full-time workers have been presented already
by industry. Because of the fact that among these women were
included both timeworkers and pieceworkers, it seemed worth while
to correlate the facts about their earnings with their schedided
hours. The earnings are those of the women who had worked
exactly or approximately the firm’s scheduled week, so that they
have a significance similar to that of rates in that they represent
maximum possibilities.




Table 11.—Median earnings of women who worked the firm’s scheduled weekly hours or days, by industry and scheduled hours
Number of women working the firm’s scheduled time and their median earnings where scheduled weekly
reported
Industry

39 and
under 42

42 and
under 44

Over 44 and
under 48

44

Over 48 and
under 50

48

Over 50 and
under 52

.50

Me­
Me­
Me­
Me­
Me­
Me­
Me­
Me­
Me­
dian Num­ dian Num­ dian Num­ dian Num­ dian Num­ dian Num­ dian Num­ dian Num­ dian
ber
ber earn­ ber
ber
ber
ber
ber
ber
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
ings
ings
ings
ings
ings
ings
ings
ings
ings

i 7, 328

$12. 35

129

$16.05

133

$10. 75

428

$16. 35

466

$13. 55

10. 60
(»)

78

17. 30

155

11.60

20.05

47
13

10.50

78
36

6

m

$19. 95

22

10

c!>

238

$12. 80

17

15.15
10.35

35

11.25

«

8

15.45

$12.90

74

8. 75

(?)

22

592

9.70

4

201

Manufacturing:

Other _____ _______ __________
Drugs and chemicals_______________
Food products—
Bakery products
Other. ........... ......................................

Textiles—
.
Bags.........................................................

Tobacco products—
Wood products—

148

10.40

282
239
54
129
206

32. 40
18.65
10.50
12.45
9.80

127
67
25
67
128

11. 30
12.45
13.40
12. 75
18.10

181
623
1,363
776
461
293

11.10
12.35
12. 05
13.40
10. 55
13.45

340
230

9.85
14. 60

24
28
48
149
854
247
231

Clothing—

9.00
8. 60
8. 95
13. 95
15.10
9.65
10.00

197

13

129

10

16.05

1

(2)
15.15

17

11. 35

3

(2)

m

55

14.40

119
318
23

14.25
14. 25
9.45

6. 75

<?)

2
277

15. 40

171

15. 40

i Total includes women in the manufacture of springs and mattresses, not given separately because number too small to make a median significant.
1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.
-




17.50
13.50

W

6
21

18.65

33

2

60

41

30

4

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Num­
ber

(2)

56
14

14.00

CO

Table 11.—Median earnings of women who worked the firm's scheduled weekly hours or days, etc.—Continued

03
to

Number of women working the firm’s scheduled time and their median earnings where scheduled weekly hours were—
Over 52 and
under 54

52
Industry

Num­
ber

$12.65

27

13.65

Me­
Me­
dian Num­ dian
ber
earn­
earn­
ings
ings

1,236

$11.65

11,872

$12.40

291

$10.55

1,212

$11. 05

10.40

21

9. 60

35

12.25

31

10.50

o
23
16
16
25

(2)
12.15
9. 70
8.00
10.15

38

12.50

14

«

91
28
6
50

11.10
9.90
(2)
13.25

14

0

12. 90
14.90

93
79
369
77

13. 50
12. 80

339

(?)

10.10

Num­
ber

639
63

6
35

Me­
Me­
Me­
dian Num­ dian Num­ dian
ber
ber
earn­
earn­
earn­
ings
ings
ings

9.85

36
24

8. 70
13."'

61

358

22

$11.40

46

$9.95

11.55
17
10

126
74
107

9. 35
12. 75
13.15

12
8

(!)
(!)

9. 85
13. 35

155

45

9

»

142
30

9. 75
7.45

29

26
8.65

$9. 70

9. 00
8.60

27

10.85

12. 50

13.40

24
28

0

10. 75

14.80

99

11

28

9.50

92

12. 75

Me­
Me­
dian Num­ dian
ber
earn­
earn­
ings
ings

12.40
13. 65

431
634

Num­
ber

9.80

42

8. 80
11.45

14

1 Total includes women in the manufacture of springs and mattresses, not given separately because number too small to make a median significant.
2 Not computed, owing to small number involved.




Over 57 and
under 60

57

44

88
Manufacturing:
Candy________ _________ ________ _______
Clothing—
Men’s shirts..... .................................
Overalls ................ ......................................
Women’s dresses and aprons. ........... ...
Other______
Drugs and chemicals __ _____________
Food products—
Bakery products... _
_
Other ____________
Metal products. ...............
Paper boxes______ _ ____
Printing and publishing..... .......... .
Textiles—
Bags _ _ _____________________
Cotton goods. __________
TTosiery_____________________________
Knit underwear______________ ____ ______
Woolen goods. _ ___ _
Y arns
__________ _________
Tobacco products—
Cigars. ___ ____ ___________
Other
.............................................................
Wood products—
Boxes. __ _________________
Furniture________
Other_________
Miscellaneous______
General mercantile______________________
5-and-10-cent stores_____________
Laundries _ _ ________ __________ _

Over 55 and
under 57

55

^ ^0

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Me­
Num­ dian
ber
earn­
ings

Over 54 and
under 55

54

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

33

There was no more tendency for the earnings of full-time workers
to increase with the hours of the scheduled week than there was for
rates to show such correlation. The highest earnings were those of
the women with a 44-liour schedule. It was the time workers with
a schedule of 44 hours for whom the highest rates had been reported,
and that weekly schedule remains at the top when earnings of 201
full-time workers, some employed on piece and some on time rates,
form the basis of comparison. With full-time earnings as with
rates, the lowest median accompanied the longest scheduled week.
Earnings and experience.
A correlation between the length of experience and the amount of
earnings may serve as an indication of the possibilities of increased
earning capacity which the various industries hold out to their
workers. Information on the actual length of time which the
women had been in their various trades is important also to show to
what extent the women in the State remained in their trades long
enough to profit to any extent by the higher earnings that accom­
pany longer periods in the trade. Table 12 shows the extent of
experience of the women whose records were secured and the median
earnings of the various groups.




Table 12.—Median earnings and time in the trade of women who supplied personal information, by industry

CO

Number of women and their median week’s earnings after experience in the trade of—

All industries______
Per cent distribution_____
Manufacturing:
Candy......................................... .
ClothingMen’s shirts_______________
Overalls___________________
Women’s dresses and aprons.
Other_____________________
Drugs and chemicals_________
Food products—
Bakery products___________
Other______________ -______
Metal products..... ........................
Paper boxes_____________ ____
Printing and publishing_______
Springs and mattresses.......... . _
Textiles—
Bags---------------------------------Cotton goods_______ _____ _
Hosiery_______ ____ _______
Knit underwear____________
Woolen goods________ _____
Yarns_____ _____ __________
Tobacco products—
Cigars..........................................
Other.____________________
Wood products—
Boxes_______ ____ _________ _
Furniture__________________
Other________________ ____
Miscellaneous________________
General mercantile_____________
5-and-10-cent stores_____________
Laundries_________ ____________

5 and
under 10
years

10 and
under 15
years

15 years
and over

N um ber

N um ber

M edian
earnings

M edian
earnings

M edian
earnings

M edian
earnings

N um ber

M edian
earnings

I

1

N um ber

M edian
earnings

N um ber

M edian
earnings

I

<3
■O
a
a
&

4 and
under 5
years

|

1

M edian
earnings
N um ber

M edian
earnings
N um ber

N um ber

M edian
earnings

M edian
earnings

N um ber

M edian

earnings

£

3 and
under 4
years

6,674 $11.70 1,128 $8.60 197 $7. 35 414 $8.40 374 $9.15 143 $9.55 969 $10.35 996 $11.00 603 $12. 40 436 $12.36 1,473 $13.40 523 $14.30 546 $15.30
16.9 — 3.0 — 6.2
b.b — 2.1
i4. 5
14.9
9.0
6.5
22.1
7.8 — 8.2
100. c
..........
..........
.....
......
164 10.50

18 9.25

1 o

7 «

346
33£
104
86
202

12.50
16.70
11.45
12.10
9.90

88
25
21
14
46

9. 45
13. 5f
7.65
0
8.15

10 «
6 0
4 0
1 (>)
13 0

37 8.95
0
12 0
7 0
8 0

28 10.35
14 (i)
4 0
a 0
18 8.25

170
25
34
68
218
25

10.70
12. 05
14.15
12.30
16.60
16.50

32
7
7
10
21
6

7.90
(l)
(i>
0
10.1.5
(>)

5 «

7 0
■ 0
0
5 0
3 0
1 0

15 7. 65
4 0
2 0
3 0
10 0
2 0

240
529
1, 583
629
217
103

11.35
11.15
10. 55
12.95
10.60
10.45

46 7.70
59 7.95
273 7. 50
98 10.55
25 7.90
28 8.60

118 8.10
265 13. 55

30 6.40
29 11.85

35 8.95
11
28 8. 25
3
60 9.80
12
257 12.35
84
522 13.90
51
178 9. 40
63
130 10.1526
1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.




a>

rO
I

2 and
under 3
years

(0

0

0
10.10
9. 70
8. 65
8.35

1 0)
8 0
6 0)
93 7.10
6 0
3 to
2 0

13
20
92
45
10
14

1 0
14 0)

12 0
6 0

1
2
3
10
3
3
1

0)
(’)
0
0)
0)
<‘>
0)

0
7.30
7. 70
9.10
0
(>)

5 0
6 0
43 9.60
15 10.40
21 9.15
12 0

8

16
24
56
36
8
8

0

9. 35
8.50
7. 80
11.15

0

0)

13
8

0
0
5 0

1 0)
3 0
21 11.15
27 9.40
29 8. 55
8 0

2

0

8.90

26 10.50

21 12. 75

18 11.00

42 11. 65

0
1 0

60 13.50
14 0)
8 0)
9 0
26 9.20

51 12.80
31 13. 50
19 10.75
12 0
26 9.65

39 13.95
23 13. 75
8 0
4 0)
17 10.75

22 14.50
23 19 75
10 0
3 0
12 0

54 13.15

19 12.50

18 15.50

24 13.00
22 12. 65
54 12.00

8
10
9

0
0
0

6
12
12

5 0)

32 9. 85
7 0
5 0)
15 1L50
43 13.50
2 0

42 11.25 21 11.15
3 0
‘ 5 0
5 0
0
11
27 12.85 15 15.50
4 0
3 0

10
1
3

26 14.00
0
9 0)

3

0)

8

3 0
7 0

2 0
7 0
3 0

29

8
1

0
0
(1)
0
0
0

9 0
35 12.10 28 10.00 25 11.15 18 13.00
9 0
47 10.05 74 10.20 40 10.25 25 12.50
32 8. 65 197 9.20 234 9.95 157 11.15 120 11.10
11 0 115 12. 65 112 12.85 53 13.70 53 13.85*
4 0
27 9.15 27 9.40 25 9. 75 10 0
4 0
21 11.75 18 12.00
9 0
9 (i)
4 0
1 0

10
6
10
5

0
0
0
0

36 7.65
20 13.15

47 9.45
33 13.30

30 13. 55

2 0)
19 12.95

13 0
4 0
8 0
79 12.90
46 10. 70
51 9. 25
20 9.00

3 0)
6 0
8 0
40 14.00
62 12.30
30 9. 65
17 10.40

2 0
5 0)
3 0)
12 0
56 13.15
13 0
8 0

2 0
2 0
6 (i)
9 0
31 13.35
4 0)
8 0

54 18. 35
5 0
60
104
390
130
45
16

4

o)

0
26 19.35
2 0

0

0
0
0
4 0
0

V/
24 19.55
2 0

12.86 13 0
15 14.50
11. 35 66 12.45 114 14. 55
12.45 117 12. 45 95 13.25
15.20 35 13.90 33 14.60
12.15 28 12.40 30 16.00
12.00
2 0

2 0
83 14. 55

30 14.15

0)
0
0
15. 75
15.20
11.00
12.50

1 0
7 0
3 0
64 17.35
1 (i)
13 0

4
7
13
28
135
16
20

6

1 (0
21 14.90

3 0
2 0
77 18.20
18 12. 65

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

N um ber

i

Industry

1 and
3 and
6 and 9 months under 2
Under 3 under
under
and un­
months 6 months 9 months der 1 year years

M edian
earnings

Total

Num ber

Under 1 year

All women
reporting

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

35

The figures reported from Tennessee indicate a very considerable
degree of stability in -work among the women employed in the indus­
tries surveyed. But slightly more than one-sixth of the women
reporting had worked less than one year in the trade in which they
were then reported. Almost two-fifths of the women had worked in
the trade at least as long as 5 years, while a considerable group had
been so employed for 15 years or more. The girls in the 5-and-10cent stores were less likely to stay in that type of job than were the
women in any of the other industry groups. Over one-third of the
women employed in 5-and-10-cent stores had been so engaged less
than 1 year, and only one woman reporting had remained in that
employment for 10 years. The women in the cotton mills showed
more tendency to stay in the trade than did those of any other
industry, for more than one-fifth of them had worked in the mills 15
years or more. Slightly more than one-tenth of the cotton-mill
workers had been so employed less than 1 year.
For the 6,674 women reporting on both earnings and experience
there was practically a steady increase in median earnings with added
years of experience in the trade, starting with a median of $8.60 for
those who had been employed in their trades less than 1 year, and
mounting to $15.30, the median for those who had been in the trade
15 years or longer.
Not in all of the industries reported was information sufficiently
complete to make possible comparison in the earnings of the women
who had worked the various periods of time. So far as it was, how­
ever, higher earnings ordinarily accompanied longer experience in
the trade. The difference between the earnings of the women who
had been in the trade 15 years or more and those who had been so
employed less than 1 year was greater in the manufacture of woolen
goods than in any other industry, for the median earnings of those
with the long period of experience were more than double those of
the women who were new in the trade. In general mercantile estab­
lishments, in printing and publishing, and in the manufacture of
bags and of cotton goods experience seemed to have more effect on
earnings than in the other industries, since in each case the earnings
of women who had been in the trade 15 years or more were over 80
per cent higher than the earnings of the women who had had less
than 1 year’s experience.
Earnings and age.
Table 13 shows the relation between earnings and age, giving only
the medians, which are based on distributions not printed in the
report,




36
Table

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
13

.—Week's

earnings of women who supplied personal information, by
age group
Age group

Number Median
of women earnings
635
1,283
1, 754
' 928
1, 224
' 702
355
90

$8.50
10.20
12.00
12. 95
13. 35
12. 65
11.90
10. 80

The amount of the median earnings increased with each age group
until the 40-to-50-year group was reached, when earnings dropped.
The highest median was that of the women between 30 and 40 years
of age. Although the women who had earned $25 or more were
found in all the age groups, the great majority of those who had
earned such an amount were between 20 and 50 years of age. The
median for those between 40 and 50 years of age was lower than
that of the women in the 30-to-40-year group, but a larger propor­
tion of the older women than of the younger group had earnings
of $25 or more.
YEAR’S EARNINGS

The wage figures presented up to this point are for one week only.
The week selected was one which was in no way abnormal, one in
which there had been no unusual amount of overtime nor of time
lost, and in which there had been no holidays nor general shutting
down of the plant. However, a week’s earnings have meaning only
so far as they reflect the average earnings for 52 weeks. The worker
must live for 52 weeks whether she works 52 normal weeks or not.
In addition to the one week’s report, therefore, records were taken
for a limited proportion of the total number of women to show the
complete figures in earnings for the 52 weeks previous to the week
of the study. The women for whom year’s records were secured
were the steady workers in the plants visited, those who had been
with the firm for at least a year and whose names had appeared on
the weekly pay rolls at least forty-four times. Such figures were
obtained for 1,054 women employed in factories, stores, and laundries.
None of these women had worked less than 44 weeks during the year
and almost two-thirds of them had worked at least 50 weeks.
The additional figures on year’s earnings for the women in the
various industries are given in Table VII in the appendix. The
median year’s earnings for the whole group were $629. The median
earnings of the various industries are listed in Table 14.
,




37

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

—Year’s earnings, by industry

Table 14.

Industry

Number Median
of women earnings
reported
11,054

532
600
650
652
578

22
35
17
39
152
38
39

Tobacco products—

525
713
920

45
82
92
172
50

Textiles—

703
592
498

39
15
34

Food—

490

47
23
31

Clothing—

$629

26

Manufacturing:

467
796
508
625
780
510
546

1 Total includes several industries not given separately because numbers too small to make a median
significant.

The range in earnings was from $200 to over $2,000, but only 72
women were reported as having earned $1,000 or more. Almost
three-fifths of all the women earned between $450 and $750. The
highest median earnings were $920, those of the women employed in
printing and publishing, while the lowest median, $467, was that
of the women cigar workers.
EARNINGS OF NIGHT WORKERS

There were 338 women employed on night work in the estab­
lishments visited in Tennessee, all of them in the textile industries.
None of these women are included in the regular tables on earnings
or rates. The median earnings for the group as a whole were
only $10.50 and the highest amount earned by any woman reported
on a night shift was between $21 and $22. Medians were computed
for night workers engaged in the manufacture of cotton goods,
hosiery, knj,t underwear, and woolen goods and for all of these but
the last the median earnings were lower than the median earnings
of the day workers in the same industries. In the woolen mills, the
median earnings of the 24 night workers were higher than those
for the women employed on day shift in the same industry. Only
one-eighth of the night workers had earned as much as $15 in the
week recorded.




r




PART III
EARNINGS OF NEGRO WOMEN

There were 1,401 negro women for whom information on earnings
was obtained in Tennessee. Not far from one-half of them worked
in laundries. Over 200 were employed in the manufacture of furni­
ture and other wooden products, and the tobacco industry claimed
practically the same number. The groups in other industries were
smaller, although some negro women were employed in the majority
of the industries surveyed.
WEEK’S EARNINGS

Table 15 gives the median earnings of the negro women for those
industries in which 15 or more were employed.
Table 15.

—Week’s

earnings of negro women, t>y industry
Women reported

Industry

Median
earnings
of white
Median
women
earnings in corre­
sponding
industries

Number

Per cent

1 1,401

100.0

$6. 95

$11.10

17
35
55
16
19

1. 2
2. 5
3. 9
1.1
1. 4

8. 25
8.15
8. 00
9. 20
6. 25

11. 70
9. 50
9.45
16.10
15. 00

54
35
26
198

3. 9
2. 5
1.9
14.1

5. 75
7. 60
8.60
7. 60

9. 75
10.80
10. 20
13. 20

139
78
35
648

9. 9
5.6
2. 5
46.3

7.85
6. 70
8.45
6.55

8. 30
8. 60
14.15
8.95

Manufacturing:
Clothing—

Textiles—
Hosiery
Wood products—
Furniture
Other than boxes and furniture.............................. ...........
Laundries........................ ... _______________

1 Total includes several industries not given separately because numbers too small to make a median
significant.

The earnings of the negro workers reported fell very much below
those of the white women. While the median earnings for all the
white women reported were $11.10, those for all the negro women
reported were $6.95. The highest wage received by any negro
20725°—27----- 4




39

40

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

woman for the week of the survey was $21 and under $22, and only
15.2 per cent of them had earned as much as $10. In the laundries,
the industry which employed the largest group of negro women,
the median earnings were only $6.55, while the figure for the white
women in laundries was $8.95. In the manufacture of tobacco
products other than cigars, the industry which employed the second
largest number of negro women, the median was only $7.60. For
white women there were only four industries with higher median
earnings than tobacco products, where one-half earned as much as
$13.20. In the manufacture of furniture, however, the earnings
of the two groups came nearer together, the median earnings of the
negro women being $7.85, as compared with $8.30 for the white
women, the lowest median for any of the groups of white workers
included.
Table 16.—Distribution

of negro women and their median earnings, by locality
Women employed

Locality

Median
earnings,
week of
pay-roll
Number Per cent investi­
gation
1,401

Knoxville........................ ..................... ..................
Memphis______________________________________

100.0

$6.95

237
78
500
464
122

16. 9
5. 6
35. 7
33.1
8.7

6.85
8. 70
7.00
6. 70
7.30

The largest groups of negro women reported were employed in
Memphis and Nashville, and in these cities also they formed the
largest proportions of the total number of women reported in the
establishments visited, 24 per cent and 15.2 per cent, respectively.
Fewer negro women were reported from Knoxville than from any
of the other localities. Here they formed the smallest proportion
of the female employees, and the median earnings were higher for
the negro women employed in Knoxville than for those in the other
cities.
Week’s earnings and time worked.
Table 17 gives a summary of the material on earnings and hours
worked for negro women.




41

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

—Week’s earnings

Table 17.

of negro women, bit time worked

A. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS
REPORTED IN HOURS
Number Median
of women earnings
reported

Hours worked

550

44
48

_

________

_______

50
54
57
Over 57 and under 60
60 and over__

_

—

2.25
5.40
7.15
(!)
7. 40
(!)
0)
8. 40
7. 90
9. 25
8. 25
6.60
m
w

Number Median
Days on which work was done of women earnings
reported

$7. 55

41
38
37
5
50
1
13
44
75
33
172
35
3
3

B. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS
REPORTED IN DAYS

792
1

iy2

2______________
_
2H ______________________
3_____________ ____ ________
3H
4
4V2

hVi

6

$6. 75

11
3
7
1
10
2
21
43
71
371
252

0)
0)
0)
(0
(1)
(!)
4.45
5.95
5. 70
7.60
6. 75

1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.

The number of hours of work which brought the highest earnings
was greater for the negro women than for the white. The highest
median among negro workers was that of the women who had worked
54 hours, and one-lialf of these earned as much as $9.25. There were
only two hour groups which had medians lower than that of the
women wTho had worked 57 hours and they represented the standards
for those women who had worked less than 30 hours or 30 and under
39 hours.
Only a small proportion of the negro women for whom time
worked was reported in days had worked on less than four days, the
majority having worked on five and one-half or six days. The
median earnings of the women who had worked on five and one-half
days were considerably higher than those of the women who had
worked on six days.




42

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Table 18.—Earnings of negro women who worked the firm's scheduled) week,

by industry
Women working the firm’s scheduled
week who5>e time worked was reported
in—
Industry

Hours

Days

Number Median Number Median
of women earnings of women earnings
i 268

$8.00

28

8.45

21
17
45

7.95
9.30
8.95

27

6. 80

66

6. 30

i 447

$7.10

99

7.90

23
31
274

6. 60
8.55
6.90

Manufacturing:
Textiles—
Hosiery___ _ _
_

_

Wood products—
Furniture.. _______ _
_
Other than boxes and furniture _
General mercantile________________________________________

1 Total includes women in certain industries not given separately because numbers too small to make
a median significant.

Earnings of full-time workers.
There were 268 negro women who had worked the exact scheduled
hours of the firms in which they were employed and 447 who had
worked on the regular number of days in the week. The median
earnings for the first group were $8 and those for the second were
$7.10. Taking the two groups together, only half of the negro
women who worked approximately a full week had earned as much
as $7.40 during the week recorded.
Laundries and the manufacture of wooden products showed the
lowest earnings for full-time workers, with a median of $6.30 for the
laundry workers with hour records, a median of $6.90 for the
laundry workers whose attendance was reported in days, and medians
of $6.60 and $6.80 in the two branches of the wooden-products
industry.
Earnings and rates.
For over 900 negro women employed on a time basis of pay were
data on both earnings and rates secured. The median rate was
$7.10 as contrasted with median earnings for the same women of
$6.75, the earnings falling less than 5 per cent short of the rates.
In each of the industries for which such a comparison was possible
the median rate exceeded the median earnings.




43

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

—Weekly rate

Table 19.

and actual week’s earnings of negro women—all
industries
Number of women
for whom amount
specified was—
Weekly
rate

Total______________________________
Under $5
____
_
$5 and under $10-__
_ _ __
$10 and under $15________________ _
$15 and over____________
___

_

Week’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

936

936

100.0

100.0

834

Amount

Per cent of women
for whom amount
specified was—

99
749

89.1

80.0

7

7

.7

.7

Week’s
earnings

None of the negro women for whom rates were reported were
scheduled to receive a weekly wage of less than $5, but slightly over
one-tenth of them actually received less than that amount for
the week surveyed. More women were reported with a weekly rate
of $5 and over than had earnings of as much as $5. While only a
very few women had jobs expected to pay as much as $15 a week,
the same number had in fact received such amounts. Apparently
there had been more lost time in the lower wage groups than in the
higher.
Weekly rates and scheduled weekly hours.
There were 924 negro time workers for whom information on
rate and scheduled hours was available. The shortest weekly sched­
ule for which a median was computed was 50 hours and the longest
was between 57 and 60 hours. With these women, as with the white
workers, there was no tendency for high rates of pay to accompany
long hours. The highest median earnings were those of the women
who normally worked 55 hours, while the 50-hour group came next
in order. The lowest median was that of the women who had a
scheduled week of over 55 and under 57 hours.
Earnings and experience.
The relation between earnings and experience is shown for negro
women in Table 20.

—Week’s earnings and time in the trade of negro women who supplied
personal information—all industries

Table 20.

Time in the trade
Under 3 months__________
3 and under 6 months____

6

and under 9 under 1 year.
9 months and months____
1 and under 2 years_______
2 and under 3 years______
3 and under 4 years______
4 and under 5 years______
6 and under 10 years_____
10 and under 15 years..........
15 years and over_________




Number
of women Median
reporting earnings
24
40
50
29
89
93
51
36
146
18
41

$6.00
6. 35
6.50
6. 75
6. 90
7.15
8. 25
7. 80
7. 95
7. 85
9.15

44

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

The tendency for earnings to increase with time in the trade was
less definite and regular for negro than for white women, but for
the most part higher earnings did accompany the longer experience.
The highest median earnings were those of the women who had been
employed in one trade 15 years or more, while for those who had
been employed in a trade less than three months the median was only
$6. Although the highest earnings accompanied the greatest amount
of experience and the lowest earnings the shortest period in the trade,
the progression with intervening periods of service was not regular.
YEAR’S EARNINGS

Figures on year’s earnings were obtained for only a small propor­
tion—107 women—of the total number of negro women for whom
wages were reported. The largest number of these were employed
in laundries. The earnings of the majority of the negro women fell
between $300 and $400, with a median for the whole group of $386.
The median of the year’s earnings of negro women bore practically
the same relation to those of the white women as did the median
weekly earnings. The low earnings of these women were not due to
slack employment, for over four-fifths of the women appeared on the
weekly pay rolls at least as often as 50 times and many of them had
worked during the full 52 weeks of the year.




PARTIV
SCHEDULED HOURS

The figures on scheduled hours were obtained from the managers
of the establishments visited, checked by records, and represent the
length of the normal working day and week for the women reported.
The time actually worked by the employees of an establishment may
exceed or fall short of the plant schedule on any particular day; the
rush of extra work may call for overtime, and plant or personal
Per e.et»

Under & hours M

S

10

IS

tO

IS

35

30

y

Scheduled Oail

Hours

6 hours
Over 6 and
under

7 hours

7 hours
Over 7 and
under
10 hours

10hours

348

Over tOand
under
IO'/j. hours

!0'A hours

reasons may cause the number of hours worked to fall below the
regular work hours. However, in every plant there are definite
times of beginning and stopping, applying either to the whole estab­
lishment or to individual departments, and these schedules repre­
sent, to a considerable extent, the hour standards of the industry.
Daily hours.
The material on scheduled hours for the days of the week exclusive
of Saturday is given in Table 21.




45

Table 21.—Scheduled

daily hours, by industry

05

Number of establishments and number of women whose scheduled daily hours were—

Number
reported
Under 8

Over 8 and
under 9

8

Industry

Over 9 and
under 10

9

Over 10 and
under 103^

10

10J4

Estab­ Wom­ Estab­ Wom­ Estab­ Wom­ Estab­ Wom­ Estab­ Wom­ Estab­ Wom­ Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
lish­
lish­
lish­
lish­
lish­
lish­
lish­ Wom­ lish­ Wom­ lish­ Wom­
en
en
en
en
en
en
en
en
en
ments
ments
ments
ments
ments
ments
ments
ments
ments

Manufacturing:
Candy__________ ________
ClothingMen’s shirts.....................
Overalls_______________
Women’s dresses and aprons.
Other............ ....................
Drugs and chemicals...... .........
Pood products—
Bakery products___ _____
Other...... ............................
Metal products_______ ___ _
Paper boxes______ ___ _____
Printing and publishing...........
Springs and mattresses............
Textiles—
Bags______ ________ ___
Cotton goods.......... ......... .
Hosiery_______________
Knit underwear________ _
Woolen goods................. .
Yarns.............................. .
Tobacco products—
,
Cigars_______ _______ _
Other__________ ______
Wood products—
Boxes___________ _____
Purniture...___________
Other___ ____ _________
Miscellaneous______________
General mercantile____________ _
5-and-10-cent stores__________ __
Laundries_________ ___ _______

i 216

16,239

7

7
5
5
6
13
3
i5
7
23
6
5
6

3
8
11
4
16
14
18

69
192
200
376
1,353
335
977

3
1

187
281
135

1
5

133
66

8
27

2
2
1

26
18
6

6

109

3

82

3

201

1

527
554

36

51

495
1,169
3,326
2,076
702
462

4
6

1, 760
10.8

1
2

334
102
62
153
357
61

651
4.0

33

5

656
448
265
230
361

16

397

6
7
3
4
14

312
1.9

2
1

70
46

1,178
7.3

*61

4,933
30.4

54

5, 657
34.8

1

1

100.0

31

3

254

3

112

2
1

373
14

1
3
1
3
3

96
83
113
97
139

1

106

1

21

3
2
1
4

199
76
9
128

2

109

1

46

20
25
120
22

8
1

1
1

312

2

11

6
2

417
53

203

1
6
7

6
590
214

1

4
1
3
5

1 Details aggregate more than total because 1 establishment appears in more than one hour group.
2 Includes 5 establishments working 8 to 9 hours on Monday and 1 working 9 hours on Monday and Tuesday,




7

56
12
34
68

39

1
2
1
1

2
1
11
2

273
141
1, 632
'303

1
3
9
2

21
720
1,364
1,491

1

3

85

3

242

3
1

519
119

3

2
1

40
151

69
192
51
207

2 11

437

7

540

1,562
9.6

2

2
2
1
5
2

269
279
135
702
135

1

39

1

147

2

42

225

3
8
2
1

14

186
1.1

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

All industries..
Per cent distribution.

47

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Of all the establishments visited in Tennessee, only two, employing
1.1 per cent of the women surveyed, regularly operated on the lOi/ohour schedule permitted by law, but not far from one-tenth of the
women were working in plants with a regular workday of 10 hours
and 15 or 20 minutes. In each of these plants, however, the weekly
hours of the plant came up to the legal limit set on the wreek’s work,
even though the day’s work fell slightly short of the maximum hours
permitted by law. Although the proportion of women with work­
days more than 10 hours in length was not large, neither were there
many establishments in Tennessee which were operating a short day.
One establishment had a schedule of less than 8 hours, and 16 plants,
employing less than one-twentieth of the women surveyed in the
State, regularly required only 8 hours of work a day. The great
bulk of the women in the establishments visited were working on a
schedule of 10 hours or one of over 9 and under 10, almost two-thirds
of all the women reported falling into these two classifications.
In only seven industries were there any establishments which reg­
ularly employed their women workers on a schedule of 8 hours or
less, and these industries are listed here with the percentage of women
in each who were on a schedule of 8 hours or less:
Per cent

Overalls * 15. 6
Women’s dresses and aprons-------------------------------------------------------------Printing and publishing 12. 9
Cigars--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Miscellaneous wood products
5. 5
General mercantile 53. 9
5-and-10-cent stores 15. 8

17.4
1.5

In four of these industries—the manufacture of overalls and cigars
and the two types of stores—there were no establishments with a
scheduled workday as long as 10 hours. Of only three other indus­
tries—the manufacture of men’s shirts, of miscellaneous clothing,
and of miscellaneous food—could this be said.
The shortest hours were those of the women employed in stores.
In neither mercantile group did any establishment employ its women
workers regularly more than nine hours a day. The only women
in the State reported on a schedule of less than eight hours were
in a general mercantile establishment, and that industry group had
a larger proportion of its women employed on an 8-hour schedule
than had any other. In fact, approximately three-fourths of the
8-hour workers reported in the State were employed in stores, either
in general mercantile or in 5-and-10-cent stores.
The longest daily hours were found in the various branches of
the textile industry and in the manufacture of miscellaneous wooden
products. The industries with some women employed on a schedule




48

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

longer than 10 hours are listed below, with the percentage of women
in each who were so employed:
Per cent

Woolen goods 100. o
Yarns---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------ 29.2
Cotton goods 26. 3
Miscellaneous wood products 21. 0
Knit underwear,.
13. g
Hosiery
8.4

Weekly hours.
The length of the scheduled week of the women surveyed in Ten­
nessee is given in Table 22.




Table 22.—Scheduled weekly hours, by industry
Number of establishments and number of women 1 whose scheduled weekly hours were—
Over 48
and
under 50

48

Manufacturing:
n

656
448

4
14

265
230
361

12 375
2.3

—

Food products—

7

1

334
102
62
153
357

2 326

2
1

70
14

1

25

Wood products—

39

1

19

3
8
4

68
192
200
376

14
18

335
977

13 790
4.9

—

6 173
1.1
—-

31

5

4

81

1

35

1
1

5 181
1.1

—-

65

12

1
2

Over 57
and
under 58

57

3 130

1

38

1
2
2
2
2
1
4
1
1

184
43
9
128
17
30

1
1

6

1

41

1

9

51

78

8 1, 312
2 303

2

5 345

3 336

2
1

50
99
24

2 163
4 366
2 47

Establish ­
m ents

56

124

2
2
2
4
2

232
279
282
547
135
519

3
1

82
207

3

259

| Women

W omen

1

Establish ­
m ents

Establishm ents
W omen
|

1

1

21

1

26
1

2 273
1 141
2 406

20
2
1
1

1 17
1 105

25
120
22

21
1
2 703
8 1,095
2 1,491

1

11

1

62

85

3

119

3
3
7
1

69
156
11

2

78

1 155

18

2

76

225

46

1

242

3

1

3

62

1 125
0.8
—:

106

1

1

8

203

29

26 2,722
16.8

3

1

113
59
33

112

1

2

12 677
4.2

96
71

2 166
1

1
6
2 169

|

W omen

I

43 4,515
27.8

—-

3

136

5
3

166
62

3

82

1
1

9
30

1 For the purpose of tabulation, women working alternate schedules of different duration have been divided between the two hour groups.
2 Details aggregate more than total because some establishments appear in more than one hour group.



|

W omen
Establishm ents
1

Establishinents
1

|

E stablish ­
m ents
W omen

W omen

43 3,012 10 928
18.5 — 5.7

....

1

13
6

2

1

6 110

1
554

19 593
3.7

—

2 373

1 133
' 3 71

25
495
7 k 169
23 3,326
6 2r 076
702
5
6
462
4
6

Over 55
and
under 57

55

3

4G

8

II
W

1

1 117

Textiles—

Tobacco products—

Over 54
and
under 55

54

|

I

11 953
5.9

1

Clothing—
Women’s dresses and

13 591
3.6

397

7

3 239
4 365
1.5 — 2.2

£

J}

I

is

c
©
a
o

Women
[ Establishm ents
| W omen

Establishments

Establish ­
ments

Women

s
a
o

1

Establish ­
m ents

W omen

Women

Establish ­
m ents

Establish ­
ments

Establish ­
ments
W omen

Women

Establish ­
m ents

*216 16,239
100.0

Over 52
and
under 54

52

1

36

5 68
3 280

l 125

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Per cent distribution________

Over 50
and
under 52

50

|

Industry

Over 44
and
under 48

44

!

Under
44

Establish ­
m ents

Number
reported

50

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

The largest group of the women reported was that working on
a weekly schedule of 55 hours, while the next largest was that
composed of those with a weekly schedule of over 52 and under
54 hours. One-sixth of the women reported were working in estab­
lishments which ran on the maximum schedule permitted by law
for women workers. Less than one-tenth of the women surveyed
in the State had weekly hours of 48 or less.
In less than half of the industries included were there any firms
visited in which 48 hours or less was considered a full week for the
women employed. The following list shows the percentage of
women in each of these industries who had a weekly schedule at
least as short as 48 hours:
Per cent
Overalls_____________________________________________ ___ 81. 5
Metal products_____________43. 5
Printing and publishing----------------------------------------------------41. 7
General mercantile38. 0
Tobacco products other than cigars36.6
Men’s shirts---------------------------------------------------------------------- 28.5
Women’s dresses and aprons17.4
Drugs and chemicals 6.9
Miscellaneous woodproducts 5. 5
laundries 3.0
Miscellaneous manufacturing 1. 6
Cigars------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 1.5

The majority (70.8 per cent) of all the women with the shorter
weekly schedule were employed in the various branches of the
clothing industry or in general mercantile establishments, although
the proportion of women on such schedules in some other industries
was larger than in some of the clothing groups. Even so, there was
less contrast between the hours in the clothing plants and those in
other industries than is the case ordinarily.
Of the industries listed above there were only two—the manufac­
ture of men’s shirts and of overalls—in which all of the plants
visited had a regular week of less than 54 hours.
There were industries—cotton goods, woolen goods, wooden boxes,
and furniture—in which no firms were reported with a scheduled
week of less than 54 hours, and there were others in which the
majority of the women had a week in excess of 54 hours. The
industries in which there were women on the longer schedules,
together with the percentage with a week longer than 54 hours, are
listed here:
Per cent
Woolen goods100.0
Wooden boxes100.0
Furniture 100.0
Cigars 98.5
Cotton goods______




87.9

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

51

Per cent
Knit underwear 85.4
Yarns 81.6
Laundries 75.9
Candy-------------------------------------------- ------------------------------- 57.9
Miscellaneous manufacturing 55.1
Miscellaneous wood products 46. 5
Hosiery-------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44. 5
Tobacco products other than cigars 40. 6
Women’s dresses and aprons 40.0
Bakery products 37.1
Springs and mattresses 36.1
Printing and publishing_____________ 33.6
Metal products 32.3
5-and-10-eent stores 29. 3
Paper boxes 16.3
Drugs and chemicals
5. 8
Bags (textile)1_________________________________________
4.2
General mercantile
2.0

Saturday hours.
Data on Saturday hours were taken separately from those for the
other days of the week because the duration of Saturday’s work so
often differs from that of the other days. The Saturday hours have
been tabulated in correlation with regular daily hours in Table X
in the appendix, classified only according to the broader industrial
groups. The length of the Saturday’s work is tabulated inde­
pendently by the more detailed industry groupings in Table IX in
the appendix.
Table 23.—Relation of Saturday hours to daily hours, hy industry group.

Industry group

Factories.......... ....................................
Laundries_____ ____

Number
of women
* reported

13,574
1,688
977

Number of women whose
Saturdays, in relation to Number
of women
regular hours, were—
with no
Satui day
work
Shorter
Same
Longer
12,675
778

646
662
170

253
1,026

29

The majority of the manufacturing establishments (94.6 per cent)
ordinarily ran a shorter day on Saturday than on the other days
of the week, and in four establishments, employing 253 women, it
was customary to close all day Saturday. Although some of those
who come in the group with a Saturday shorter than the other days
of the week still worked considerably over half a day, approximately
three-fourths of those whose Saturdays were thus classed ordinarily
worked five hours or less on the last day of the week. Looking at
the appendix table which gives Saturday hours by individual indus­




52

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

try it becomes evident that the long hours on that day of the week
were to be found in only a few industries. The only manufacturing
groups in which there were any establishments which regularly ran
as long as six hours on Saturday were candy, drugs and chemicals,
bakery products, miscellaneous food, cigars, printing and publishing,
miscellaneous wood, and miscellaneous manufacturing.
None of the factories which had daily hours of 10 or more oper­
ated on a schedule as long as that on Saturday, the shorter Saturday
keeping the weekly hours down to the legal limitation of 57.
In the laundries, also, the short Saturday was common, for almost
four-fifths of the women in laundries normally worked shorter hours
on Saturday than the rest of the week. The other fifth were counted
as having a Saturday of normal length, because the employer stated
that he reserved the privilege of keeping the plant open the full
nine and one-half hours, and the pay of most of the women was based
on a full Saturday, deduction being made for any shortening of
the day.
Although some of the stores visited were open only the normal
hours on Saturday, others remained open as late as 9.30, and none
of the 5-and-10-cent stores closed as early on Saturday as on other
days. Six stores remained open until 9.30, four until 9, six until
8.30, and two until 8. Even though shifts are so arranged that
actual working hours are not increased by the evening hours, the day
is drawn out over a long range of hours, making the day less con­
venient for the worker than the more compactly arranged normal
hours.
Three-fifths of the women reported in the stores visited worked
somewhat longer on Saturday than on the other days of the week.
Lunch periods.
Information on the length of the lunch periods of the women
surveyed in Tennessee is given in Table XI in the appendix. All
the establishments visited in the State allowed time for lunch, and
only one plant allowed less than 30 minutes. The majority of the
women had a 30-minute break in the middle of the day, and in stores
and in a few manufacturing groups a lunch period of 45 minutes
or an hour was common.
Hours of night workers.
There were 357 women who worked on a night shift in the estab­
lishments visited, and all these night workers were found in textile
mills, the majority in mills manufacturing cotton goods or knit
underwear. Their regular hours are presented in Table 24.




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
Table 24.—Scheduled

53

hours of night workers in textile manufacturing1

Length of shift

Number of establish­
ments and number of
women working on
shift of specified
length
Establish­
ments

Women

Total., _________

11

357

9 hours...... ....................
Over 9 and under 10 hours. _
10 hours.....................
Over 10 and under 11 hours _ _
11 hours____________
12 hours................ __

1
1
3
4

5
20
57
255
3
17

1
1

1 No night workers found on the pay rolls of the other industries surveyed.

The majority of the night workers were on shifts of 10% or 10%
hours, although in one case the women were expected to put in 12
hours a night.
These night employees worked five nights a week and their weekly
hours ranged from 45 to 57, with the largest number of women
working on a 52%-hour schedule.
Supper periods were allowed for the night workers in all but one
mill. Here no definite period for meals was allowed the 17 women,
though they were employed on a 12-hour shift. These women came
to work at 6 in the evening and continued without any definite
break until that same hour in the morning. In one establishment
the period given was one hour, but in all of the others there was a
30-minute supper period.
Time lost and overtime.
Frequently the hours actually worked are not the scheduled
hours of the firm. As already mentioned, personal reasons of the
individual workers or slack work in the department, plant, or indus­
try serve to bring the hours worked below the normal week. Occa­
sionally pressure of work brings the number of hours worked above
the regular schedule. It is never possible to obtain information on
actual hours worked for all of the women for whom wage records
are obtained, because in many instances the firm does not take
account of detailed information on the attendance of its workers.
For pieceworkers especially such records often are not kept, because
they are not needed in calculating the workers’ earnings. Even
among those whose wages are paid on a time basis there are groups
for whom time worked is not given in terms of hours. Although
practically all the women employed in general mercantile estab­
lishments were time workers, actual hours worked were reported
for a very small proportion of them. The details of the information
on lost time and overtime of the women employed in the industries




54

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

surveyed in Tennessee are given in Tables XII and XIII in the
appendix, while a summary of the facts from these tables is given
in Tables 25 and 26, which follow.
Table 25.—Time

lost and overtime, by industry—uiomen whose time worked
teas reported in hours
Women for whom hours worked were reported who—

Industry

All industries............... ..............
Manufacturing:
Candy.................................... .........
Clothing—
Men’s shirts........ ...................
Overalls
Women’s dresses and aprons
Other............. ................ ...........
Drugs and chemicals.......... .........
Food products—
Bakery products.......... .........
Other
Metal products_______________
Paper boxes._________________
Printing and publishing
Springs and mattresses
Textiles—
Bags........... .................. ...........r
Cotton goods_____________
Hosiery_____________ _____
Knit underwear
Woolen goods____ ________
Yarn-------------- ------ --------Tobacco products—
Cigars........................................
Other
Wood products—
Boxes_______________ ____
Furniture
Other........................................
Miscellaneous
General mercantile
5-and-10-cent stores..............................
Laundries

Num­
ber of
women
for
whom
hours
worked
were re­
ported

Lost time

Worked overtime

Per cent of those
Per cent of those
who worked over­
who lost—
Per
Per
time—
cent of
cent of
all re­
all re­
porting
porting Under 5 and
10
10
5 and
under hours hours Under under hours
hours
5
worked hours
and worked
5
10
10
and
hours hours
hours over
over

7, 680

44.0

24.1

349

57.6

22
43
114
170
165

18.2
11.6
50.0
42.9
13.3

42
65
50
101
285
30

21.4
29.2
48.0
59.4
37. 5
93.3

412
817
1,368
1,719
443
386

11.7

25.1

50.7

49.3

19.9

30.8

1.4

40.0

60.0

50.0

25. 0
80.0
21.1
27.4
9.1

25.0
20.0
28.1
45.2
40.9

9.1

50.0

50.0

4.4

100.0

33.3
15.8
29.2
55.0
11.2
75.0

66.7
63.2
29.2
23.3
34.6
25.0

28.6

33.3

21.1
41.7
21.7
54.2

14.0

100.0
100.0

18.6
3.3

71.7

57.8
41.5
56.8
44.5
22.3
35.2

34.9
8.3
17.4
20.9
12.1
15.4

26.9
20.6
26.6
23.1
18.2
37.5

38.2
70.8
56.0
55.9
69.7
47.1

2.4
11.8
2.0
1.0

80.0
50.0
95.2
89.7
100.0
100. 0

161
225

42.2
28.9

8.8
9.2

27.9
20.0

63.2
70.8

15.6

100.0

58
27
83
220
29
249
47

34.5
70.4
37.3
82.3

15.0
21.1
25.8
54.1

20.0
21.1
16.1
26.0

65.0
57.9
58.1
19.9

32.8

100.0

4.8
.9
96.6

100.0
100.0
100.0

1.2
55.3

23.1

42.3

6.4

33.3

50.9
27.4
50.0

166.6

34.6

5.6

2.0

.2

1.5

10G.0
66.7

26.4

1.9

100.0
20.0

50.0
4.8
10.3

16.7

There were 7,680 white women for whom it was possible to obtain
an attendance record in terms of the actual number of hours worked.
Of these, 3,376, or over two-fifths of the total number reported, had
worked fewer hours during the week than they were scheduled to do
under normal circumstances. Half of this number had lost 10 hours
or more during the week recorded, while one-fourth had fallen short
of the scheduled week by less than 5 hours. The largest proportion
of the women losing time was found in the manufacture of springs
and mattresses, where over nine-tenths of the women reported had
lost some time. The number reported in this industry, however,




55

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

was very small. In the miscellaneous manufacturing group, which
included canvas-glove, paper-stock, tent and awning, and shoe fac­
tories, over four-fifths of the women for whom record was given had
lost some time. Less than one-fifth of those losing time in this in­
dustry group, however, had fallen short of the schedule by as much
as 10 hours.
Table 26.—Time

lost and overtime, by industry—women whose time worked
was reported in days
Number and per cent of women who worked on—

Industry

All industries................... _.........................
Manufacturing:
Candy _ _
______
Clothing—
Men's shirts...............................................
Overalls............................ __.............. .
Women’s dresses and aprons
Other _ ........ .........................
Drugs and chemicals .. .............................
Food products—
Bakery products.—................................ .
Other
Metal products__________ ____ ___
Paper boxes_______ —____ _______ ____
Printing and nuhlishing .........................
Springs and mattresses
Textiles—
Bags................ ..........................................
Cotton goods___________ ___________
Hosiery
Knit underwear
Woolen goods .
....................... ...........
Yarns. ____________ ________ ______
Tobacco products—
Cigars.........................................................
Other. ...... ................................. .............
Wood products—
Boxes.. _____ ____ _______ ______
Furniture.. .............................................
Other_____ _______ ________________
Miscellaneous
General mercantile.. . ... _________
5-and-10-cent stores................... .......................
Laundries_______________________

women
whose Scheduled num­ Less than the More than the
scheduled num­ scheduled num­
time
ber of days
ber of days
ber of days
worked
was re­
ported
Per
Num­
Per
Num­
Per
in days Num­
ber
ber
ber
cent
cent
cent
5, 688

3, 712

65.3

1,957

34.4

19

0.3

3

6.4

47

5

10.6

39

83.0

409
296
7
36
115

266
201
2
33
63

65.0
67.9
28.6
91 7
54.8

143
95
5

32 1
71.4

51

44.3

1

.9

286
37
9
44
5
12

106
21
6
28
3
7

37.1
56. 8

179
16

62.6

1

.3

60 0
58.3

2
5

4l! 7

27
259
1, 543
62
170
59

17
147
793
25
126
47

63.0
56.8
51.4
40. 3
74.1
79. 7

9
104
746
37
44
12

1
8
4

3.7
3.1
.3

20.3

319
128

247
105

77. 4
82.0

72
23

22 6
18.0

11
26
31
134
1, 269
' 66
281

5
20

45. 5
76. 9

6

112
1,113
' 1
213

87.7
1.5
75.8

33.3
40.2
48.3
59 7

3.2
65
68

98 5
24.2

For those women whose time was reported in days rather than
hours no definite statement can be made as to how many lost time.
However, in Table 26 the women are listed according to whether they
had worked on the normal number of days of the weekly schedule,
more than that number, or less than that number. There is no
doubt that the women who had been in attendance fewer days than
the number which made up the working week had lost some time,
and it is probable that the hours worked by the woman who had
been at her job more than 5% or 6 days of her schedule exceeded
the number of hours which made up her regular week. But it can
20725°—27----- 5




56

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

not be said definitely of the women who worked on the scheduled
number of days that they had put in the exact scheduled time,
neither losing time nor working overtime, because it is not possible
to say for how many hours they had worked on the various days of
the week.
Over one-third of the white women with daily attendance reports
had not been present on each of the days of their scheduled week;
in other words, over a third of the women in this group had been
absent at least one half day at a time. The largest proportions of
women who had been present less than the normal week were found
in the 5-and-10-cent stores, candy factories, and miscellaneous wood
products plants. The contrast between the two mercantile groups
in this respect is interesting because so marked, but no reason ap­
pears on the surface why the great majority of the 5-and-10-cent
store workers should have worked on less than the scheduled number
of days, while for only an eighth of the women in general mercantile
establishments was this true.
There were 550 negro women for whom attendance records were
kept by the hour, and of this number 251, or practically the same
proportion as obtained for the white women, had wrnrked less than
their regular week. Nor was there any great difference between the
number of hours lost by the negro women who fell short of their
schedule and the amount lost by the white women. For 792 negro
women attendance was recorded only in terms of the number of days
on which they had worked. The proportion of these women who
had been absent at least as much as a half day was somewhat higher
than that proportion among the white women reported (41.3 per
cent as compared with 34.4 per cent).
There was very little overtime in the Tennessee plants visited
during the vTeek reported. Only 5.6 per cent of the women for whom
material was available on the number of hours worked had put in
hours in excess of their regular weekly schedule, and the majority
of these women had exceeded their schedule by less than five hours.
Of those women whose time worked was reported in days, only 19,
or less than 1 per cent of the total number reported, had worked on
more than the scheduled number of days, and the majority of these
were in textile mills. The proportion of the colored women with
hour records who had worked overtime was practically identical
with the proportion of the corresponding group of white women,
although a higher percentage of the negro women than of the white
women had worked more than the scheduled number of days.




PART y
WORKING CONDITIONS

Factories, stores, and laundries are run primarily to supply definite
needs, either in service or in material things. In order to render this
service to society as a whole a considerable proportion of the popu­
lation—men, women, and even children—spend the greater part of
the day within the walls of factories or other places of work. Pro­
duction and distribution of products must not be carried on at too
great expense of the energy and health of these workers. Their
health is affected inevitably by the conditions of the room in which
they spend their day, by the position in which they must work, and
by the relation of light supply to their bench or machine. The ade­
quacy and condition of the sanitary equipment has a tremendous
effect on the health of the workers, because of the possibilities of in­
fection which exist where such facilities have not been given intelli­
gent attention. The provision of rest rooms and lunch rooms may
seem less a necessity than other equipment, and yet they too play an
important part in an industrial health program. Noon hours can
not refresh the worker for continuing the job during the afternoon
unless an opportunity is given to get away from the machine and
the workroom to some place that is reasonably restful.
In the inspection of the various types of establishment in Ten­
nessee it was the aim of the agents to note the extent to which the
essentials of sanitation had been met, to see what attention had
been given to the important problems of seating, lighting, and ven­
tilation, to evaluate the adequacy of the service equipment provided
for the women workers and the plant as a whole, and to make a
general survey of plant conditions so far as they directly affected the
women workers.
GENERAL PLANT CONDITIONS

Arrangement of rooms.
Work is slowed down and made more difficult when workrooms
are crowded and the floor space is poorly arranged. In the majority
of the factories and laundries visited the workrooms had been satis­
factorily arranged and floor space had been kept free of obstacles.
There were 184 factories and laundries for which report was made,
and in almost three-fourths of these all the workrooms had been so
planned and arranged that there were satisfactory aisles between
57



58

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

workbenches or machines and the aisles had been kept clear. In
21 establishments the original layout of the work units was satisfac­
tory in all the rooms where women worked but the aisles were ob­
structed by piles of materials or containers. In 16 other establish­
ments conditions were not uniform and adequate aisles were allowed
in only part of the workrooms. In some of these the situation was
made worse because the aisles had not been kept clear.
In 14 establishments the work units were too closely crowded to­
gether throughout the plant, and in 6 of these such aisles as had
been allowed were cluttered in all the workrooms.
An example of a badly cluttered workroom was found in one
clothing factory where—
Tlie aisles were obstructed by piles of materials and by benches made to hold
the finished product. In addition, the aisles were narrow, girls sitting with
their backs to the benches on which the product was piled, and there was
very little room for passing.

One hosiery mill was reported as having aisles that were very
narrow, so narrow that the workers had to turn aside from their
machines to allow others to pass. In one bag factory the aisles
were badly obstructed by piles of bags which the agent had to climb
over to get about.
The examples that have been cited call attention to those instances
only in which there had been obvious lack of attention to the arrange­
ment of work and materials. In many instances, the workrooms
were so well arranged as to cause the agent to make special com­
ment on the orderly and roomy appearance.
The stores in Tennessee were more often overcrowded than were
the factories and laundries. Only 30 stores were visited, and yet in
6 of these all the aisles were too narrow, although free from obstruc­
tion. In 5 others some of the aisles were too narrow. Frequently
the space behind counters was so narrow as to make it difficult for
two salespeople to pass.
Condition and materia! of floors.
For workers who stand at their job for 8 to 10 hours a day, the
material of the workroom floors is of great importance. Although
concrete floors may have a long life even with heavy use, and are more
easily kept clean than are floors of some other material, constant
standing on such an unyielding surface adds greatly to the worker’s
fatigue. The advantages of durability and ease of cleaning may be
retained without loss of comfort to employees if wooden platforms
are provided for standing workers.
Of the 186 factories and laundries visited, there were 23, or prac­
tically one-eighth of the total number, in which the floors of all the
rooms in which women worked were of concrete or brick. In 18 of




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

59

these establishments all the women who stood at their work had to
stand on the floor itself and only 2 plants provided wooden plat­
forms for all the women employed. In 40 other establishments some
of the floors were of concrete, and no wooden platforms were pro­
vided in 32 of these; some workers had platforms in 2 plants and in
6 they were furnished wherever needed.
Floors in all the stores visited were of wood, or covered with
carpet or linoleum. In no case did the employees in these establish­
ments have to stand on hard floors.
Unless workroom floors are kept in repair they may become un­
satisfactory, whatever their material. For the most part the Ten­
nessee establishments visited met this test and in only 15 were any
of the workroom floors out of repair.
Stairways.
In 174 of the establishments visited there were stairways used by
the women, although in some cases they led only to toilet rooms,
cloak rooms, or other service equipment located in a basement or
on another floor. In 106, or three-fifths, of these establishments all
the stairways were satisfactory in all essential respects. They were
straight flights of stairs of satisfactory width and slope, provided
with satisfactory handrails, adequately lighted, and kept in good
repair.
In 11 establishments there were winding stairways with tri­
angular treads, but fortunately all these stairways were well lighted.
In 33 some of or all the stairways were too narrow to permit two
people to pass or walk abreast. In 11 establishments all the stair­
ways were reported as steep, and in 12 others some were steep; for
3 of the first group the situation was made doubly bad by reason
of the fact that none of these stairways had adequate light. There
were 4 establishments in which some of the stairways and 6 in
which all used by the women, were in poor repair. In addition,
the stairways in 3 of these 10 were dark, making even more serious
the faulty repair. In 17 establishments there were stairways which
had either no handrail or one which was unsatisfactory. In only
11 establishments were all the stairways dark, while in 4 others some
had too little light.
Frequently a stairway unsatisfactory in one respect had other
lacks as well, as the two samples described below indicate:
The stairway had open risers and no platform at the top, the door from
the workroom leading directly to the steps. It was very dark and the agent
felt her way along the wall.
The stairway leading to the paper-box department in the basement, was
poor, with open risers and wobbly treads made of slabs. One had to stoop
to avoid knocking one’s head against the rafters.




60'

WOMEN TN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Cleaning.
In most of the plants reported the desirability of clean work­
rooms had been recognized, but in 23 of the 216 establishments
visited the floors were dirty throughout. In another 23 some of
the workrooms had not received adequate attention as to cleaning.
Some establishments gave much more definite and regular atten­
tion to cleaning than did others. All but two of those visited were
reported as having some provision for sweeping, and a daily sweep­
ing was the most common practice, with 149 establishments report­
ing this frequency. In 60 plants, however, the workrooms were
being swept constantly, or at least as often as twice a day. Unfor­
tunately, from the point of view of public interest, a candy plant
was one of those for which there was no provision for sweeping,
while another one of the candy firms had no regular scheduled
frequency for sweeping, although the men and women who were
employed for other work were expected to look after the sweeping
as well. In over four-fifths of the establishments the sweeping
was in the hands of porters, janitors, or maids, who were employed
specifically for such work. In 19 establishments the regular women
employees were responsible entirely or partially for the sweeping
of their places of work.
In almost three-fifths of the cases sweeping was considered a
sufficiently adequate method of cleaning, and in only 90 of the
establishments visited had the management considered scrubbing
necessary. In the majority of these it was done by people em­
ployed only for such work, but in one the women, and in 14 the
men, employed regularly for other work were expected to scrub
the workroom floors, so far as they received any such attention. Of
those establishments in which workroom floors were scrubbed at
all the majority received such cleaning once a week, although in
10 establishments the floors were scrubbed once a day and in 4
others oftener than that. In 8 establishments the time between
scrubbings was longer than a month, and in 12 others there was no
definite period, the floors being scrubbed irregularly whenever it was
thought that they needed it.
Obviously the character of the process and product determines
to a considerable extent the frequency and type of cleaning neces­
sary to keep the workroom in a satisfactory condition. While there
were 125 establishments which were reported as never scrubbed,
91 of these had been checked as clean throughout. On the other
hand, one candy factory was dirty in spite of the fact that the
floors were reported to have been scrubbed daily.
Some descriptions taken from the schedules illustrate more graphi­
cally the sort of condition which occasionally existed, sometimes in
spite of cleaning and sometimes because of its absence.




•WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

61

Tlie floor was covered with rolls of lint from the jute, waste from the
machines, anil wires from the bundles of bags. It was swept once a day, but
that was not enough.
Floor was thickly caked with product. Agent was told, “ When it gets thick
we scrape it off about once or twice a year.”
Workroom was disorderly. Floor had been swept and sweepings were left
in mounds in corners and around supporting posts.
Floor was very dirty, sticky, and thick with sugar. Girls said only cleaning
it got was what they did—“ swabbed over with a mop.”

Ventilation.
It is more difficult to assure satisfactory ventilation in some types
of plants than in others, but it is a problem which demands some
attention even when the processes are not such as to cause special
difficulties. The mere fact that a considerable number of people
must spend the day in one room in itself makes necessary some
special attention to ventilation.
In one of the plants visited the work was carried on in open sheds,
and there wras no question 1 here as to the presence of an adequate
supply of fresh air. There were 214 establishments for which report
on ventilation was made. In practically two-thirds of these the
ventilation in all the workrooms was satisfactory. In about onetenth of the plants visited the workrooms had a sufficient air sup­
ply, but the condition was not entirely satisfactory, because toilet
rooms were not completely separated from them and depended for
their ventilation, either partially or entirely, upon the air in the
workroom. In 80 establishments some of the rooms were ventilated
satisfactorily and others were not, while in 21 the air supply was
not satisfactory in any of the rooms where the women were em­
ployed.
Of the 163 establishments in which all the workrooms were ade­
quately ventilated, including those which fell short of being satis­
factory because of toilet rooms, 88, or over one-half, had both nat­
ural and some form of artificial ventilation throughout the plant.
Over one-third of these 163 had no form of artificial ventilation to
supplement the natural, while in the rest some of the workrooms
had both natural and artificial means of ventilation.
There were only 21 establishments which were unsatisfactorily
ventilated throughout, and of these only 11 relied entirely on natural
means of ventilation—on doors, windows, or skylights.
All told, 77 of the plants visited relied on natural means only,
whereas in 103 some artificial means of ventilation was used in all
the workrooms and in 27 establishments such method of ventilation
was found in part of the plant. There were 7 establishments with at
least one room which had no direct outside ventilation. Of these




62

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

there were 3 in which some type of artificial ventilation was supplied
for these rooms and 4 in which such air as they had came through
other rooms.
The majority of the rooms which lacked any natural ventilation
were in food-manufacturing plants of one type or another, where
the work demanded that the rooms be kept at a constant tempera­
ture. The following description and comment of an employee were
given on the schedule for one candy factory :
It was cold in the chocolate-packing room, and there were double windows
which could not be opened. The guide said, “It’s awful how they have to
breathe one another’s air.” There was no ventilation in the chocolate dipping
room, for it was built within another room.

In another establishment there was one room in which Eskimo
pies were made where there was neither natural nor artificial ventila­
tion and the room was kept at a temperature of 30°.
In one packing plant there was a room in which all the windows
were kept closed so as to maintain a temperature of between 45°
and 50°. There was a fan in the room which kept the air in motion,
but there was no intake of fresh air.
The ventilation of laundries demands special attention. One
laundry visited apparently had solved its problem satisfactorily, even
without any artificial aids to ventilation.
The plant was new and designed so as to make cross ventilation possible by
sash windows plus windows in the monitor roof. The owner said that ventila­
tion was such that women had not complained of heat in summer in the present
plant as much as they had in the old building where they had exhausts and
fans.

In over one-fourth of the establishments there was some special
atmospheric problem in at least part of the plant. In 26 cases heat
was sufficient to constitute a definite problem in some rooms or
throughout the plant. In four of these there were rooms in which
humidity, dust, or lint existed as well, and some had rooms that
were cold. The majority of the establishments in which heat had
not been carried off were laundries. In 14 establishments the air in
some parts of the plant was dust laden, sawdust was not taken care
of properly in woodworking plants, or the dust in tobacco or drug
and chemical establishments filled the air. In other establishments
fumes, humidity, lint, or steam made workroom conditions unsatis­
factory.
Although there were 137 establishments which provided some arti­
ficial aid to ventilation, in over two-thirds of these cases the equip­
ment consisted only of ceiling, wall, or table fans which served
merely to keep the air in motion. In 32 plants there were exhaust
fans, supplemented in more than half the cases by some other equip­
ment—wall or ceiling fans, hoods over units, or individual vents.




63

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Only in six establishments was there any general system for the
distribution of freshly-taken-in air.
Lighting.
This survey has not attempted to go into the technical details of
lighting, and the summing up of the conditions existing in the estab­
lishments visited in Tennessee has been based upon the agent’s report
as to whether the sources of light, natural or artificial, seemed suffi­
cient for the work to be done and whether either type of lighting
caused a glare in the workers’ eyes.
The subject of adequacy has been divided so as to take account of
whether the light, natural or artificial, was adequate throughout the
plant or only in some of the workrooms. The subject of glare, how­
ever, was not so handled. Very rarely would glare trouble all
workers in a plant, and those establishments which are shown as
being unsatisfactorily lighted for this reason are so classed if there
was glare in the eyes of any of the women as they worked.
Table

27.—Lighting of workrooms, by industry group
NATURAL LIGHTING
Number of establishments in which lighting was—
Unsatisfactory due to—

Industry group

Number
of estab­
lishments Satisfac­
tory
reported through­
out

Both inadequacy
and glare

Inadequacy
Glare
In part

Through­
out

In part

i 215

Laundries

2117

24

35

2 97
9
11

14
6
4

19
14
2

2 59

6

29
1
1

14

2

31

i 167
30
18

Through­
out

6

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING

Stores-- ____________________
Laundries-__________________

84

i 167
30
18

58
23
3

1

13
1

1

6
0 C
0 n

i 215

51

4
2

46
5

1 Excludes 1 establishment in which the women worked in outdoor sheds.
2 Includes 1 establishment in which natural light was adequate, but for which there was no report on
glare.
3 For 13 factories and 5 laundries glare was reported, but no note was made of adequacy.

In 148 of the 215 establishments visited the natural light was
adequate throughout under ordinary circumstances, while in 26
others there was sufficient light in part of the workrooms. The
proportion of the stores in which the natural light was well planned
was smaller than the proportion of factories with adequate daylight,




64

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

for only one-third of the stores as compared with three-fourths of
the factories were sufficiently well lighted to make unnecessary the
use of artificial light for average work under ordinary circumstances.
Often a plant that was badly arranged from the point of view of
making use of daylight also lacked any satisfactory means of arti­
ficial lighting. Of 41 establishments with insufficient natural light­
ing throughout there were 1G in which none oh the rooms had
adequate artificial lighting.
In 31 establishments the natural lighting was unsatisfactory on
account of glare, although in other respects it was satisfactory. In
8 others there was glare from natural lighting for some of the
workers, although part of all the workrooms received an insufficient
amount of light from natural sources. Of the 39 establishments
with glare from natural light there were 10 in which shades or
awnings were provided, but the worker’s position in relation to the
source of light was such as to make glare almost unavoidable.
Although there were as many as 175 plants in which no glare was
reported from the natural lighting for any of the workers, in only
82 of these were there shades or awnings at any of the windows or
skylights. In the others the placing of the windows or the arrange­
ment of work places in relation to them made it unnecessary for the
women to face the light as they worked.
It is not always possible to plan a workroom so that natural light
will be adequate at all times for certain classes of work, but there
is no reason why satisfactory methods of artificial lighting can not
he worked out to fit all needs. However, in Tennessee a smaller
proportion of the establishments visited had satisfactory artificial
lighting than had natural light which met the requirements. In
only 84 of the 215 establishments reported was the artificial light­
ing satisfactory throughout. In 57 establishments the lights were
inadequate and so placed that what light there was shone in the
workers’ eyes. There were 59 establishments in which enough light
was provided, or for which no report on adequacy was made, in
which artificial lights were either unshaded or so poorly placed that
they caused a glare. In contrast to the situation in regard to natural
lighting, the stores stood in better position from the point of view
of artificial lighting than did the factories and laundries, and in
those which were unsatisfactorily lighted the problem was more often
one of glare than of insufficiency.
1 he majority of cases in which glare was reported from artificial
lighting were due to general rather than to individual lighting,
although in one plant it was reported that the poor placing of
shaded individual lights had caused the lights to shine in the work­
ers’ eyes. However, there were 69 establishments reported which
depended entirely on general overhead or drop lights and in which




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

65

the artificial lights were not reported as causing glare. Of the
establishments which were free from any undesirable glare there
were 30 with individual shaded lights where the work demanded it.
In 68 establishments some type of individual light was provided
in at least part of the plant. In the majority of these it was drop
lights, some of them shaded and some not. Of 49 establishments
equipped with individual drop lights there were 18 in which none
of the bulbs were shaded and 4 in which some had shades and some
had not. There were individual adjustable lights in 17 plants and
in only 1 were any of these lights unshaded.
Seating.
The problem of seating industrial workers too often is given only
haphazard attention. Sometimes it would seem that workrooms had
been planned to contain only units of machinery, rather than ma­
chinery tended by human beings. If at a certain machine workers
have stood always, it frequently is taken for granted that they will
have to do so in the future. Many machines or workbenches could
be so designed that seats might be used, and in other cases there
could at least be opportunity to sit at the times when the machine
did not require attention. The women who spend their days at
sewing machines and those who work at many other occupations
always sit down, but frequently the management seems to have been
concerned only in finding a chair which would not be too much
in the way, without giving thought as to whether it was adapted to
the comfort of the worker.
In summarizing the facts concerning the seating provisions of the
Tennessee establishments visited, the occupations have been classified
according to whether the women stood to operate, regularly were
seated, or could work in either position. It is realized that in using
this method the same occupations often fell in different classes
because of the provision or lack of provision of suitable seats in the
establishments visited, but an attempt to follow identical occupa­
tions through various plants would lead to confusion and the some­
what arbitrary classification used seems most practical. The table
which follows takes account only of whether seats were provided,
whether they were sufficient in number, and whether they were or
were not seats with backs. Such a summary of facts does not give
a complete picture of the situation; but, although not all backs to
seats are of much service, most seats with backs are more satisfactory
than boxes or stools, and almost any kind of seat is better than
none at all,




Table

28.—Type and adequacy of seats in sitting and standing occupations—factories and laundries

C5

05

_____

Number of establishments in which—

Position of women when operating

Sitting...... ...................... ..........
Standing_____ _____ ____
Sitting or standing_______ ____ _____

132
154
62

58

Insufficient seats were provided 1

Total

48
3

Having
seats
with
backs

5
1

Sufficient seats were provided

Having
Having
seats
seats
with and
without without
backs
backs

6

37

2

Total

132
48
59

Having
seats
with
backs

Haying
seats
with and
without
backs

76
13
4

24
3
9

Having
seats
without
backs

2 32
32
46

-----------------------------------------------------------^Establishments whose standing workers in part ot the plant had seats while those in other parts of the plant had none are included among those providing an insufficient
2 Includes 1 establishment in which women had only the worktables to sit on.




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTBIES

Number
of estab­
lishments
reporting
women No seats
in
were
specified provided
group

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

67

In 54 factories and laundries none of the women employees regu­
larly sat at their work. Of the 132 factories and laundries in which
there were women employed on ivhat were classed as sitting opera­
tions there were 76, or less than three-fifths, in which seats with
backs were provided for all the sitting workers. In 24 establish­
ments there was no uniformity in the seating provisions, so that in
some places there were backs and in others not. In 32 establish­
ments none of the women who sat all day at their work had any form
of back rests. In 11 establishments at least part of the seats for this
group of workers were benches, boxes, or upturned kegs. In one
plant a woman who always sat as she worked had only the worktable
for a seat.
Some of the chairs provided were of such a type that they had very
little advantage over stools or benches. In one establishment a regu­
lar folding chair had been used, and the angle of the back as well as
the absolute squareness of the seat made it a very poor work chair.
Even the more substantial ordinary straight chair with either hard or
padded seat, while more satisfactory than the last example cited,
offers practically no support, to the back when the operator is
actually at work.
In only one establishment visited was there a saddle-seated chair
designed for a work chair. That does not mean, however, that no
heed had been given to making some adjustment to fit the chair to
the need.
In one establishment where a benchlike stool with a back was pro­
vided for each girl, the stools were of several sizes and each girl was
allowed to pick the height most comfortable for her. In one knitting
mill the girls made their own adjustments as best they could and
many of the loopers had tilted their chaii s back to get a better posi­
tion in relation to the machine. In the same plant a bench was built
along the full length of the knitting machine about 2 feet from it,
but it "was both too high and too narrow for comfort and there was
no possibility of change.
In 154 factories and laundries there were women who stood all day
as they worked. In 58 of these no seats were provided for any of
these workers, while in 48 more the number provided was insuffi­
cient—sometimes none at all in some rooms with standing workers
and in other cases too fewT seats in any workroom. In less than
one-third of the establishments with standing workers were these
women supplied with an adequate number of seats for occasional
use, and of these there were only 13 in which all the seats had backs.
The following notes from schedules indicate more clearly the sit­
uation which existed:
There were no seats of any kind on the second floor and only one stool for
nine girls on the first floor.




68

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

No seats except the occasional boxes to hold waste.
The spindle and waste boxes at the end of the machine were used for seats.
Only one person was noticed sitting at the time of the inspection, and she
was sitting on a broken packing case.

In only 62 factories and laundries were there women whose work
ivas so arranged that they stood part of the time and sat part of the
time as they worked. These women had the most satisfactory condi­
tions, for the possible change of position gave them rest. Sometimes
such a change was accomplished by shifting jobs and sometimes by
the adjustment of work place and seat so that the women could work
from either position.
All the stores in which women in repair or alteration rooms sat at
their work provided these women with seats which had backs.. Nor
were there any stores in which no seats were provided for the sales­
people or others who stood at. their work, although in some cases the
number was not sufficient, as in one store where the agent could dis­
cover only one chair behind the counter. The mere presence of a
seat does not tell the whole story. The policy of one store was
described on the schedule thus:
The girls had the usual 10-cent-store slide seats, but the manager said there
was no time to sit. If he saw a girl sitting he usually could show her some­
thing that needed to be done either in straightening or rearranging goods.
SANITATION

The question of plant sanitation is of quite as much importance as
the conditions which affect the worker while actually on the job.
The need for stressing this subject arises from the fact that many
employers fail to realize the necessity for maintaining high standards
in the installation and maintenance of drinking, washing, and toilet
facilities.
Drinking facilities.
The table next presented gives a summary of the drinking facilities
provided iji the different establishments visited,




Table 29.—Type of drinking facilities, by industry
Number of establishments which provided—

Industry

Number
of estab­
lishments
reported

216

Clothing—

Food products—

Textiles—
Bags.............-.........-.................. ..................... ------- ------- —
Knit underwear----------------- ------- -.................. ...............
Tobacco products—
Wood products—

Laundries____

Tank, cooler, or faucet with—

Some
sanitary Individ­ Common
No cup
and some ual oup
cup
in­
sanitary

Insani­
tary

Individ­ Common No cup
ual cup
cup

8

70

7
5
5
6
13
3
5
7
23
6
5
6

i

2
2

3

2

4
5

2
1

4
1
i

3
1
1
1

1
1
2
1
1

2
i2
2

1
3
18
3
2
3

4
6

3
5
4
2
5
2
1

1

1
1

1

I
,

1

1

2
1
1

2
1

3
1

1
2
2

1

2
3

1

2
2
2

1
14

1

4
2

.

i Includes 1 establishment reporting source of water supply as other than bubbler, faucet, tank, and cooler, but type not specified.

21

1
1

i1
1
1

1

1

1
1
1

2
1

3
8
11
4
16
14
18

1

1

33

4

21

1

2
1
2

1 Includes 1 establishment with other equipment supplemented by pitcher, keg, pail, or pump.<
2 Includes 2 establishments with other equipment supplemented by pitcher, keg, pad, or pump.




2 51

4

i 11

i 10

2 35
2

2

1

7
6
7
3
4
14

5

Barrel
with
common
cup

5
3

4

*5

2
3
2
1
2
18

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Sanitary

Manufacturing:

Drinking fountain supple­
mented by tank, cooler, or
faucet with—

Drinking fountain

70

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

The standards for drinking facilities were not high in the Ten­
nessee establishments visited. Fifty-one establishments relied en­
tirely upon tanks, coolers, or faucets at which no cups were provided.
Whether the workers brought their own or drank directly from the
faucets can not be said. In 11 other establishments drinking foun­
tains furnished only part of the supply, and no cups were provided
to be used at the other source.
The situation may be worse in the establishments supplying com­
mon cups than where no cups or glasses are provided, for where there
are none the workers may bring their own. Common drinking cups
were found in 45 establishments and in 35 of these there were no
drinking fountains—only faucets, tanks, or coolers.
In 106 establishments the management had given enough attention
to drinking facilities to have fountains installed in at least part of
the plant. In only 16 of these were there fountains of the sanitary
type, fountains from which the water emerges at an angle of 15°
to 60°' so that it can not fall back upon the orifice. The sanitary
fountains, moreover, supplied only part of the drinking water in 8
of these establishments.
In only 29 establishments, or slightly over one-eighth of the total
number visited, was there an adequately guarded supply of drinking
water; in these 29 there were sanitary drinking fountains or faucet,
tank, or cooler, with individual cups.
The majority of the establishments visited made some provision
for cooling the drinking water, 79 having water cooled all the year
around and 73 during the summer months only.
Washing facilities.
■ In practically all the Tennessee establishments visited some pro­
vision of washing facilities was made, although there were 11 estab­
lishments among those visited in which no attention had been given
to this subject. Seven of these were woodworking firms and 2 were
laundries. In the latter establishments there was water, of course,
but it was not made available for personal use in the departments
in which the women were working.




Table 30.—Condition of washing facilities, by industry

20725

Number of establishments in which washing facilities were unsatisfactory in part or throughout and number of women
employed therein
Number reported
No washing
facilities

Industry

Facilities not clean

No hot water

No soap

No towel

Common towel

c&
All industries......................

216

16,596

7

397

6
7

656
448

3
4
14

265
230
361

7
5
5

334

6
13

153
357
61

214

55

3, 822

4

11

142

151

13,002

Manufacturing:
Clothing—
Women’s dresses and
Drugs and chemicals._
Pood products—

Textiles—

3
5
7
23

Knit underwear
Yarns.................................
Tobacco products—
Cigars___ _____ ____
Other__________ ____
Wood products—
Boxes------ -------- --------Furniture........... ...........
Other__________ _

Laundries..................... ...................




6
6
6
4

6
3

8
114

16
14
18

1

19

2
1
1
1
1
2
6
2
1
3
3

102
62
503
1,337
3, 348
2,206
726
467
527
554
69
192

200

376
1, 353
335
977

1
1
1
3

1
1
1
5
2

29
25
13
71

57

1
1
5

2
1
2
7
3

43

5

443
167

10,614

109

199

4

112

6

11, 251

61

3, 201

88
338

5

408

4

79

4

2

100
81

1

110

2

20

247

113

20
54
33
81

8*
34

22
181
706
710
260
353

88
8
23
161
76
207
155
157
187

4
7

2

230

110
110
81

3
3
4
5
3

34
123
168
61

5
5
23

503
945

4

6
6
2
3

2.' 206
726
467

21
4
6
5

195
149

2
7

44
179
119
376
972
293
489

5

5
4

11
12
6

156

3

40

4

1
2
2

39

42

20
31

928
l’ 342

6
6

1 320

2 206

364

4

527
315

4
3

315

2
6
6
3

44
170
129

2
6
5

44
170
118

3

168

1

39

2
6

141

14

793

92

173

4
3

30

1

731
179

1

7

2

127

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
Estab­
lishments Women lishments W omen lishments Women lishments Women lishments Women lishments W omen lishments Women

72

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

In 79 establishments some of or all the wash basins or troughs
were located in hallways or workrooms where they were used by the
men as well as the women employees. In 13 stores the washing facili­
ties were shared with the public.
Of the 205 establishments equipped with washing facilities there
were 146 in which there was only cold water throughout the plant,
while 5 others had hot water at only some of the basins. Of the
19 establishments engaged in the preparation of food products (in­
cluding candy) there were 9 which furnished only cold water for the
personal use of their employees, and 1 other which had hot water in
the cloakroom but cold only in the toilet room.
Many establishments failed to supply soap, but the proportion was
smaller than of those in which there was only cold water. In 108
establishments there was no soap at any of the basins and in 4 others
there was soap at some of the basins only.
In only 45 of the establishments visited were individual towels
furnished for all the women employed. In 10 there were individual
towels in addition to common towels or for some of the employees
only. In almost two-thirds of these paper towels were furnished.
In one there was a continuous-service cloth towel, but ordinarily cloth
towels were given to the workers at definite intervals and left in their
care.
Common towels were found in 63 establishments, although in 2 of
these no towels were furnished in some of the wash rooms. It was
not possible to ascertain how many people used each towel, and
without such facts information concerning the frequency of change
only half tells the tale. In 11 establishments the common towels were
changed more often than once a day, in 32 once a day, in 9 two or
three times a week, and in 10 only once a week. Towels changed
once a day are likely to be pretty dirty before the end of the day if
many are using them, but towels changed only once a week probably
would become worse than useless even if the number of people using
them was small.
In connection with the subject of towels the remark made to one
of the agents when being taken through a plant is of interest:
It wouldn’t be a printing office without a roller towel. We provide paper
towels, but the employees want a common roller towel. We can’t get them to
take individual cloth towels either.

In 109 establishments there were some workers for whom no
towels were supplied, and in 106 of these no towels were furnished
for any of the women employees. Four of the establishments which
neglected to furnish towels were engaged in the preparation of
foods.
.




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

73

Of the 205 establishments providing washing facilities there were
44 in which none of the basins or troughs were clean and 11 more
in which some of them were dirty. The following descriptions
give an idea of poorly kept washing equipment. In one case the
plant was engaged in the preparation of food products.
The basins had not been washed for a long time.
for their cleaning.

No one was responsible

The washing facilities were wretched, only a dirty, slimy-looking wooden
trough.

Toilet rooms.
The 216 plants visited provided a total of 421 toilet rooms for the
use of the women employees. In one establishment the number of
women was not reported and the 5 toilet rooms in that establishment
necessarily are left out of consideration in the table following on
the adequacy of the toilet facilities provided. Wherever such figures
could be obtained, the reports on adequacy of equipment were based
on the number of women working in the part of the plant served by
one toilet room rather than on the average number per seat for the
plant as a whole, although in some cases an average based on the
total number of women employed in the establishment had to be
used.




Table 31.—Adequacy of toilet equipment, by industry

<1

Number of establishments and of toilet rooms in which the number of women per seat was—
Number reported
Industry

15 and under
Estab­
lishments
4 215

416

17
46
7
43

Estab­
lishments

Toilet
rooms

Estab­
lishments

158

2 247

15

5
2
4
2
3
11

2
3
3
15

13

12
6
5
13
21
6

4
4
5
5
12
3

7
4
5
12
19
5

45
47
4 23
46
45
46

11
28
50
26
14
11

4
6
12
3

44
46

7
12

4

3
48
11
44
4 15
14
4 18

4
15
13
6
34
14
44

3
8
10
3
11
11
12

14

4 14
17
15
5
6
■

13

4

39

346

Estab­
lishments

26 and under 31

Toilet
rooms

1
1

3

4 49

Estab­
lishments
18

31 and over

Toilet
rooms

Estab­
lishments

1

1

5

41
1

Toilet
rooms

1

36

54

1

1

1

4 20

1

1
13
3

2
17
13

2
3

1
2

3
4
3

3
4
3

4

4

5

1

1

1

2
2
1

4
2
1

2

5
16
16
6
8
5

1

1

3

3
9
2

3
11
3

3

3

1

1
1

4
12
12
2 23
11
24

2

2
5

1 Details aggregate more than total because conditions in some establishments were not uniform.
2 Includes 12 toilet rooms in 8 establishments used by the public also.




Toilet
rooms

11

9
8
7
6
19

21 and under 26

44
42
8

3

46

5

5

2

1

1
2

3 Includes 2 toilet rooms used by the public also.
4 Includes 1 toilet room used by the public also.

4

5

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

All industries
Manufacturing:
Candy___ ___________________________
Clothing—
Men’s shirts
Overalls _ _____
________________
Women’s dresses and aprons____________
Other_____________
_______
Drugs and chemicals_____
Food products—
Bakery products. _ _____ __
Other___ _______________
Metal products_________________
Paper boxes_____________
Printing and publishing.. _______
Springs and mattresses_____
Textiles—
Bags----------------------- ----------------------Cotton goods________
_____
Hosiery
__ _ ...
Knit underwear____________
__ _
Woolen goods_________ ____
Yarns.
__
___ _____
Tobacco products—
Cigars.. ____________________
Other_______ ____ _____
Wood products—
Boxes. _______ _
Furniture_____________________
Other___________
_ _ _ _
Miscellaneous_______
General mercantile_______
5-and-10-eent stores____ _
Laundries___
...

Toilet
rooms

16 and under 21

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

75

Conditions were not always uniform throughout a plant. Often
the toilet rooms provided on different floors were uniform in size,
but there was a considerable difference in the number of women
employed in the different parts of the plant. A plant in which the
number of women to each toilet facility does not exceed 15 is con­
sidered adequately equipped. On that basis practically three-fifths
of the toilet rooms reported had a satisfactory standard, so far as
the number of facilities provided was concerned. In 95 toilet rooms
the average number of women per seat was above the number con­
sidered satisfactory but did not exceed 25. In 54 other toilet rooms,
however, the number of women per seat averaged more than 30.
In the stores it was impossible in many cases to make any accu­
rate statement as to the adequacy of the toilet accommodations
because the toilet rooms were shared by the public. Even though
the number of women employed in the store was not more than 15
per seat, the situation would not be satisfactory if much use was
made of the rooln by the public. In 13 toilet rooms in stores, how­
ever, the number of women employees per seat was greater than 15,
and these same rooms were available for the public as well.
In some establishments the toilet equipment was conspicuously
inadequate. In an establishment where 86 white women were em­
ployed the only provision was one toilet room with only one toilet
seat. In another plant there was one small compartment off a work­
room where 100 women were working. In several cases there was
only one toilet seat for 45 women or more. When such inadequate
provision is made, not only are the workers inconvenienced but
the problem of cleaning becomes more pressing than it otherwise
would be.
Ordinarily the establishments visited were equipped with plumb­
ing, and of the 421 toilet rooms in the establishments visited only
13 were privies.




76

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
Table

32.—General

condition of toilet equipment, by industry
Number of establishments having toilet rooms as specified and
number of toilet rooms—

Number
reported

With seat inclosed—
Not desig­
nated

Not ceiled

Not
screened

On 3 sides
only

Establishm ents

Toilet rooms

Establishm ents

90

132

107

180

77

118

17

34

49

77

1

4

1

1

3

4

1

1

3

3

1

1

i

1

7

17

4

5

4

4

2

4

6

9
8

2
4

3
4

6
4

8
4

2
4

2
4

3
4
14

7
6
19

2

3

9

10

2
4
7

4
G
9

1
1
4

l
1
5

7
5
5
G

12
6
5
13

2
4
3
4

2
6
3
7

1
2
4
3

1
2
4
9

1
1
1
4

1
1
1
4

1

4

1

1

13
3

21
6

3
2

3
3

8
2

10
2

1
2

1
3

1

3
i

1

5
7
23
0
5
6

12
28
60
26
14
11

3
2
8
3
2
1

4
4
13
4
4
1

3
5
10
5
2
1

17
14
14
2
1

4
8
1
8
1

11
15
6
5
1

1
1
4
1

1
1
6
1

2
3
10
4
1
2

3
10
16
10
5
.2

4
6

7
12

1
3

1
7

1
2

1
4

1
2

1
4

1

3

2

3

3
8
11
4
16
14
18

4
16
13
6
36
14
44

2
4
6
1
2

2
5
8
1
6

1
5
7
1

1

1

1
1

1
2

1
2
7

1
2
7

2

2

25

1
9
4
3
4
1
37

1
4
7
1

13

1
4
4
2
4
1
1G

6
14

6
27

1

5

3

5

Printing and publishSprings and mattresses.
Textiles—
Cotton goods-------Hosiery
Knit underwear—
Tobacco products—
Other............. -------Wood products—
Other

Laundries------------------------




Toilet rooms

Establishm ents

421

| Toilet rooms

Toilet rooms

Drugs and chemicals.-Food products—
Bakery products. __

Establishm ents

Women’s dresses
and aprons...........

216

Toilet rooms

-

Establishm ents

All industries........

Manufacturing:
Candy----------------------Clothing—

Not at all

Toilet rooms

Establishm ents

Industry

77

WOMEN TN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
Table 32.—General condition of toilet equipment. by industry—Continued

Number of establishments having toilet rooms as specified and number of
toilet rooms—

Arti­
ficial
light
only
M
a

Ventilated—

Both nat­
Neither
By
ural and natural nor By outside arti­
artificial
artificial
window
ficial
light
light
means

Into
other
rooms

Toilet rooms

Establishments

Toilet rooms

Establishments

213

20

36

157

284

15 21

13

1

1

5

12

43 72 58 89
1

3

5

2
3

4
3

5
4

]
1
1

1
1
1

1
3
5

1
4
6

2
1
9

1
1
2

5
1

1
1
]
1
G
1
4
2
5
3
1

1
2
1
1
6
1
8
4
G
10
3

1
1
1

1
2

I
1
4
3
5

1
1
7
3
9

5
3
3
2
7
3
1
5
14
3
3
3
3
2
1
2
1
2
12
8
8

3

2
4

1
1
4
1
2
4

2
3
6
1
6
G

3

7

1
3
4
1
1
3
4

1
5
6
1
4
3
6

Toilet rooms

Establishments

117

Toilet rooms
Establishments

Toilet rooms

Toilet rooms

Establishments

All industries..........__
Manufacturing:
Candy.._ ____ ____ _
Clothing—
Men’s shirts_____
Overalls.. ...__
Women’s dresses
and aprons
Other
Drugs and chemicals__
Food products—
Bakery products__
Other_____ ___
Metal products... __
Paper boxes_____ ___
Printing and publishing
Springs and mattresses..
Textiles—
Bags___ _______
Cotton goods
Hosiery___ ._ ...
Knit underwear
Woolen goods
Yarns______ __
Tobacco products—
Cigars......... ............
Other __ .
Wood products—
Boxes
Furniture..... ........
Other_______
Miscellaneous. _____
General mercantile__ ____
5-and-10-cent stores..........

§

43
3
cd
w
w

|

|

j

Industry

Win­
dow
only
Establishments
Toilet rooms

Lighted by—

1

5

5
4
1
12
6
3
3
7
11
5
2
20
30
14
5
5
6
2
1
3
1
4
25
8
12

1

1
1

1

1
3

1
6
1

1

1
1
5

1

1 105

1

3
2
9

5
12

6
4
3
4

11
4

1

1

9
15
tj

1

1
2

1

3

25
38
15
11
11
G

1
1

1
1

2
6
3

2
29
11
3

~T

1

10
3
1
3
1

G6

6
19
4
4
3
3
5
3
13
11
10

G

7
11
18

3
12

24

1 Includes 2 toilet rooms in which was neither natural nor artificial ventilation and room was screened
so that there was ventilation from workroom only when door was opened.
2 Includes 1 toilet room in which was neither natural nor artificial ventilation and room was screened
so that there was ventilation from workroom only when door was opened.

In many cases the general condition and type of the toilet rooms
were unsatisfactory. Almost one-third of them were not designated,
over two-fifths were not ceiled, and over one-fourth were not
screened from the room into which they opened, whether workroom
or hall. Wherever the toilet room opened into a cloak room or rest
room which was used by the women workers only, it was considered
satisfactory in this respect, even though it was not screened from
the room into which it opened. In 34 toilet rooms there were
partitions between the toilet seats, but in 77 toilet rooms, not far




78

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

from one-fifth of the total number, not even this much privacy was
afforded.
.
In over one-half of the toilet rooms there was both natural and
artificial lighting. In 89 others there was artificial light but there
were no windows, while 72 had windows but no artificial light.
Toilet rooms which relied only on natural sources of light would
be dark on winter afternoons, but obviously they were much more
satisfactory than the 36 rooms which had no light whatsoever.
The reports on ventilation included only toilet rooms within
plants, omitting outdoor toilets and privies. Of the 408 reported,
284 had outside windows. Of this number, 103 derived part of their
air supply from the workrooms, for they were not completely cut
off from such room, being either unceiled or without a door. Twentyone toilet rooms had no windows, but had some form of artificial
ventilation, and 6 of these ventilated into workroom or some other
room as well. In one-fourth of the toilet rooms all ventilation came
from other rooms.
There were 135 toilet rooms which were reported as dirty. Thir­
teen of these were never swept, and for 53 no scrubbing provision
was made. Furthermore, 92 were dirty in spite of the fact that
they were supposed to be swept by some one especially employed
for such work, but 12 of these were not swept at any regular inter­
val and 6 were swept only once a week. As many as 69 of the dirty
toilet rooms were supposed to be scrubbed by a janitor or scrub­
woman once a week or more frequently.
The majority of the 286 toilet rooms which were reported as
clean at the time of the visit were in the hands of some definite
person for both sweeping and scrubbing. However, there were 8
clean toilet rooms with no one responsible for sweeping and 36 for
which there was no plan for scrubbing. Two hundred of these
rooms were swept once a day and 59 more than once a day. For
123 there was a daily scrubbing schedule and 5 were scrubbed more
frequently than that.
Establishments which were careless in regard to one aspect of
toilet equipment were likely to be slack in other respects as well,
and a clearer picture of the sort of conditions which actually were
found may be gained from the descriptions given by the agents who
inspected. The examples which follow are taken from the schedides
and represent some of the outstanding cases:
Toilet rooms were unusually bad. There were no windows, only small
,shutterlike openings, which left the room dark. The plumbing was crowded
and dirty and the floor filthy.
The toilet rooms had no doors and partitions were only 6 or 6% feet high.
The entrance faced the wall, but on the second floor the hall connected with the
spool room and was a constant thoroughfare and loitering place for the men.
In addition the seats were not inclosed.




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

79

Toilet and dressing room were in a shed about 100 yards from the work
place and were very dirty. The toilet was out of repair and could be flushed
only by pouring a pail of water into the bowl. The water had to be carried
from a spigot in the yard.
The odor was very bad in all of the toilet rooms. A colored woman was
cleaning rooms, but she didn’t seem to be making much impression.
The toilet rooms were separate compartments in the workroom, with board
partitions about 6 feet high, giving plenty of light from the workroom. Two
of the rooms had burlap sacking hung in the doorways instead of doors.
Toilet and cloak room combination filthy, floor sticky with sugar tracked in
from the workroom. Floor was literally covered with newspapers, old clothing,
old shoes, boxes, and dirty aprons.
Toilet room was not designated, not ceiled, not screened from the workroom,
and the toilet seats were not inclosed. There was no window, the room and
seats were dirty, and the plumbing was out of repair. No one was responsible
for cleaning.
SERVICE EQUIPMENT

There was no uniformity in the extent to which the Tennessee
establishments visited had made provision for the comfort and con­
venience of their workers during the periods when they are not
definitely on the job. Some had made adequate provision, while
others seemed to have given little or no thought to the subject.
Lunch rooms.
The majority of the establishments had felt no responsibility for
their employees during the noon hour, for in almost three-fourths
of them no lunch-room provision had been made. There were 52
establishments which had lunch rooms. Of these 20 were cafe­
terias, but 19 were merely rooms with tables and chairs, without
cooking convenience or any hot food.
Three establishments provided cooking conveniences in the work­
room, and three others furnished hot food or drink, although the
women had no special place in which to eat. In 158 establishments
there was no food, no place in which to cook, and nowhere to eat.
In several instances the lunch room was not used for that purpose
alone but served as cloak or rest room as well. The majority of the
lunch rooms which were provided were satisfactorily ventilated.
Some employers realize the value of lunch rooms, not to the work­
ers but to the care of the output, and the arrangement in one plant
visited is quoted here:
No one is allowed to eat in the workrooms. If they eat on the premises,
they must eat in the lunch room. Coffee and milk are served free by the
firm. In the workroom there is a cabinet with compartments about 8 inches
square. Each of these is numbered and each worker must keep his or her own
lunch in his own compartment during working hours. Near the cabinet there
is a table and chair, and if anyone feels he must have lunch during the day




80

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

he comes to the table and sits down. The manager feels this saves time, keeps
greasy spots from the material, and prevents roaches and mice. Hopes to
have a regular cafeteria some day.

A description of a very different sort of situation comes from
another schedule:
There were three girls sitting on the toilet room floor eating lunch. A large­
sized rat ran out to nibble crumbs. Upon an exclamation from the agent one
of the girls said, “ He can’t hurt; he’s nothin’ but a coward.”

Cloakrooms.
A place where employees’ wraps and other personal possessions
may be kept safe during working hours would seem to be something
which no manager would overlook, and it is surprising to see in
how many of the factories, stores, and laundries visited in Tennessee
the provision was entirely inadequate. In five establishments no pro­
vision whatsoever was made, and the women had to leave wraps and
lunches in any place around the plant where they could find space.
In one veneer plant they wore their hats and coats at work.
In 155 establishments there were cloakrooms for some or all the,
women employees, but in 9 of these plants they did not accommo­
date all. In some cases the room served a double or triple purpose,
being used as lunch or rest room as well as a place for wraps. In
31 of these establishments all of the cloakrooms were equipped with
lockers and there were enough lockers for all the women who used
the cloakrooms. In 14 other establishments lockers did not fill the
need entirely, and were supplemented by hooks, nails, or other equip­
ment. In 13 establishments having cloakrooms nails on the wall
were the only equipment provided, and in 17 others nails had to serve
in part. It is something to have a place other than the workroom
in which to leave wraps and where one may change from work to
street clothing if desired, but nails hardly make suitable hangers for
garments, and where there are neither shelves nor lockers lunches
and other packages must be left, on window sill or floor. Shelves
were provided, in addition to other equipment, in the cloakrooms of
57 establishments.
In 61 establishments there were no cloakrooms for any of the
women employees. In five of these there were lockers and in one
wardrobes for all the women, so they had a satisfactory place in
which to keep their street clothing and other possessions even though
they had no very good opportunity to make a change of clothing.
In 17 nails were the only equipment, and in 4 others nails served
in part. In a number of cases there were hooks, and in 5 establish­
ments there were shelves for things that could not be hung up. In
all but 9 of the establishments in which there were no cloakrooms,
such provision as existed was in workroom or salesroom. In the
other cases stock room, hall, or toilet room was used.




WOMEN IN’ TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

81

Cloakrooms may be very dark and unsatisfactory even where they
exist, but in only six of the establishments visited were the cloakrooms
without either natural or artificial light.
The following descriptions from schedules represent a sharp con­
trast in the policies of two plants:
The locker room was well kept. A sign on the wall says that wraps must
he kept in lockers anrl that anything left lying around will be considered of
no value and thrown away. The result was a neat room.
The cloakroom floor was covered with papers, old shoes, rags, and dirt.

An unusually well-equipped locker room was found in one bakery:
The locker room had a long trough with hot and cold water, and there were
shower baths in the dressing room. There were steel lockers with keys for all.

Rest rooms.
It is to the advantage of both employee and management to have a
place near the workroom for the women to rest. Frequently a short
period of rest enables a worker over-fatigued or slightly ill to return
to her bench or machine, saving the remainder of the day from the
point of view of both plant efficiency and woman’s pay envelope.
However, the idea of such a possibility in many cases does not occur
to the management, or any provisions which do not relate directly
to production are considered unnecessary.
Only 28 of the 216 establishments had a room used exclusively
as a place where the women employees might rest, and in one of these
there was no cot or other accommodation for lying down. In 27
other plants one room combined the functions of a rest room with
that of cloak, lunch, or toilet room, or with more than one of those.
The majority had cots, but four had not. In 18 establishments there
was no general rest room, but a cot was provided in cloak room, toilet,
or hospital room. One of these cots had no mattress. In 143 estab­
lishments, practically two-thirds of the total number, there was no
rest room and no cot anywhere.
In one of these plants which afforded no chance for rest, the fore­
man showed the agent a pile of cheesecloth in the closet adjoining
the cloakroom, which, he said, the women could spread on the table
and use the latter for a resting place. Even a large supply of cheese­
cloth could not make a very comfortable couch of a hard table top.
However, it may be considered better than the situation in two
textile mills, where girls were found sitting on the toilet-room floor
to rest.
On the other hand, one textile mill showed marked contrast to
the conditions described above:
Rest and recreation rooms were combined. There was a piano, rug, chairs,
and a small collection of books which could be drawn out. One side of the
room was curtained with heavy denim, behind which were two cots made up
with clean, light counterpanes and pillows.




82

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Health equipment.
Every industrial establishment should make some provision for
aid in cases of illness or accident. Small plants can not be expected
to maintain elaborate equipment, but a first-aid kit in charge of some
responsible person is essential in all establishments. More complete
equipment is desirable when the size of the plant permits.
Only 19 of the establishments visited had a hospital room, and
some of these were of less use than they should have been because of
lack of adequate supervision. There were three with part-time doc­
tors. In two of these a nurse was on duty during the working hours
of the plant, but no one was in charge of the other except during the
time when the doctor was there. Seven of the hospital rooms were in
charge of full-time nurses, 10 in charge of some specified person
other than a doctor or nurse, and for one there was no one respon­
sible.
In 158 establishments there was some type of first-aid equipment,
although in many cases it was nothing more elaborate than iodine
and gauze. In one of the establishments a doctor was on duty part
time, and in another there was a part-time nurse. Aside from these
two instances there was no one with any special knowledge of how
to use the equipment provided. In 98 establishments a definite per­
son, such as matron or forelady, was in charge, while in 58 others no
one person was responsible for first-aid administration, even though
some equipment was provided. Thirty-nine establishments made no
provision either of first-aid equipment or of simple remedies.
Although 13 of these were stores, in which accidents were perhaps
less likely, 26 were factories or laundries which had given no thought
to such emergencies as might arise. One of the laundries probably
will change its policy. The proprietor had been burned the day
before the agent’s visit and there had been nothing in the plant to
apply to the burn.
Only three establishments gave any sort of physical examination,
and one of these was a knitting mill, which tested the eyes only.




PART VI
THE WORKERS

Attention has been given to the earnings of the women employed
in Tennessee industry, to the hours which they were required to work,
and to the plant conditions which affected them while they worked,
but thus far no information has been given about the women them­
selves. It is interesting to know whether mature women or young
girls predominate in the industries of the State, as well as which
industries have made particular appeal to certain age groups. Iffow
large a proportion of the women are married? How many live with
families and how many independently? The answers to these ques­
tions help to complete the picture of the employment of women in
Tennessee.
In order to obtain such information cards were distributed to the
women in each of the plants visited, and they were asked to answer
questions on age, conjugal condition, living arrangements, and
nativity. Not all of the women returned the cards and some cards
were incompletely made out, but personal information was obtained
from approximately 10,000 women. This group of women does not
coincide exactly with the group for which information on earnings
was given, because often there was a considerable lapse of time
between the pay-roll date for which records were taken and the
time when the inspection was made and cards were circulated in
the plant. Consequently women are included in the wage tables who
do not appear in the personal history tables and women for whom
personal data were given whose names were not on the pay rolls for
the date recorded. As no question concerning race was on the cards
distributed to the women, the information could be given separately
for white and negro women only when these records could be
matched with pay-roll cards. In most of the tables, however, the
difference in the distribution of the white and negro workers was
not great, often not so great as the difference between either of these
groups and the others for whom race was not reported. In the
printed tables, therefore, there has been no attempt to separate the
information for white and negro workers.
Age.
Age was reported by 9,884 women employed in factories, stores,
and laundries, and the facts relating to this subject are presented in




83

84

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Table XIV in the appendix. There was no conspicuous grouping of
the women at any one age, but they were pretty well distributed
among the various age groups, with a very considerable number of
them at least 30 years old. Of the 9,884 reported, 29 per cent were
Jess than 20 years of age, 25.2 per cent were between 20 and 25,
13.6 per cent were between 25 and 30, and 32.2 per cent were 30 years
of age or over.
The manufacture of yarn and of cigars showed larger proportions
of young workers than did any of the other industries surveyed. Of
the women employed in the yarn mills, 26.3 per cent were 16 but less
than 18 years old, and 24.8 per cent of the cigar workers came in
the same age group. In tlie 5-and-10-cent stores and in the woodenbox factories over one-fiftli of the women were in tliis young group.
The needle trades claimed a larger proportion of the older women
than did most of the industries, for in each branch surveyed practi­
cally one-fourth of tire women reported were 40 years of age or
more. Of the women engaged in the manufacture of men’s shirts
23.3 per cent, of the overall workers 27.8 per cent, of the women in
dress or apron factories 28.5 per cent, and of the other clothing
workers 26 per cent belonged to these age groups. In each of these,
moreover, there were women who reported their age as 60 years or
more. Drugs and chemicals and tobacco products other than cigars
showed larger proportions of older workers than did any of the
manufacturing industries other than clothing.
The age distribution of the women employed in general mercan­
tile establishments was in marked contrast to that of the women
employed in the 5-and-10-cent stores. While over one-half of the
latter were less than 20 years old, only 17.1 of the former were so
young as that and 22.6 were at least 40 years old.
Ordinarily laundry work claims a good many older working
women, but in Tennessee this did not seem to be conspicuously true.
Practically one-fourth of the laundry workers who reported on age
were less than 20 years old, almost as many were 20 but less than 25,
while only 15.3 per cent were 40 or more.
Nativity.
Practically all the women in the Tennessee industries surveyed
were native born. Of the 10,000 women who reported personal
information, only 39 were foreign born. So far as there were any
foreign-born women they were not grouped in one type of work
but were employed in 11 different industries. Because of the fact
that race was known only for those women for whom there were
both personal history and pay-roll cards, there were only 7,684
women whose race was reported. Over nine-tenths of these were
white. Native-born white workers formed the overwhelming major-




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

85

ity of the women workers in the factories, stores, and laundries of
the State.
Conjugal condition.
The facts on the conjugal condition of the 9,'761 women who re­
ported are presented in Table XV in the appendix. Of these prac­
tically one-half were single, three-tenths were married and living
with their husbands, while one-fifth were widowed, separated, or
divorced. These figures relate to both -white and negro women, and
to over 2,000 women whose race was not reported. Ordinarily there
is a considerable difference between the white and negro women with
respect to their distribution according to conjugal condition. Of the
6,915 white women reporting their conjugal condition 52.4 per cent
were single, 28.4 per cent were married, and 19.2 per cent wTerc
widowed, separated, or divorced. Of the 693 negro women, 34.1 per
cent were single, 33.9 per cent married, and 32 per cent widowed,
separated, or divorced.
The largest proportion of unmarried workers was found among
those employed in the 5-and-10-cent stores, 87.9 pci- cent of whom
were single. The manufacture of cigars, yarn, and wooden boxes,
and printing and publishing claimed the next largest proportions
of single workers.
In three branches of the clothing industry practically two-thirds
of the women were or had been married. Of the 47 women in the
manufacture of springs and mattresses who reported on conjugal
condition, only 9 were unmarried and the rest were evenly divided
between those married at the time and those who had been married.
In the manufacture of tobacco other than cigars the proportion of
single women was small also.
Living condition.
The inquiry as to living condition was quite generally answered,
10,003 women reporting on this. (Appendix Table XVI.) Of
these 79 per cent were living at home, 7.9 per cent with relatives
outside their immediate family, and 13.1 per cent independently.
There were no very striking differences among the industries in the
proportions of women who lived at home and independently. The
highest proportion living independently was found among the cigar
workers, this group comprising 27.5 per cent of all.' Of the women
who were engaged in the manufacture of dresses and aprons and of
those in the spring and mattress factories, over one-fifth were living
independently. It is important to remember that the financial needs
of the women who lived independently were not necessarily any
higher than those of the women who lived at home, for in many
cases the women in this latter group were responsible, either par­
tially or entirely, for the support of others.




86

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Education.
There were 9,657 women who gave information on the extent of
their schooling, and the facts are presented in Table XVII in the
appendix. The largest number in any one group were 2,200 who
had quit school at the end of the eighth grade. Aside from this,
more of them had left school at the end of the fifth, sixth, or seventh
grade than at any other stage of training. Only 18.3 per cent had
continued in school beyond the eighth grade. Ninety-six women
reported that they had never attended school.
So far as there was separate information by race, the negro women
showed a tendency to leave school somewhat earlier than the white
■women. The largest group of negro women (15.3 per cent) had
quit at the end of the fifth grade, although almost as many had
remained through the eighth. There were 12.8 per cent of the
negro women as compared with 18.8 per cent of the white women
workers who had gone beyond the eighth grade. There was less
difference than might have been expected in the proportions of the
two groups who had never been in school, 1 per cent of the white
women and 1.9 per cent of the negro women.
In the table the women’s age at the time of the survey was cor­
related with the amount of schooling. On the whole, the younger
women had completed more years of school work than had the older.
The women between 18 and 20 showed the smallest proportion who
had stopped short of the eighth grade, the next to the highest pro­
portion who had quit with the eighth, and the highest percentage
who had gone on beyond that. Of the women who were 60 years of
age or older, over one-eighth had never .attended school and less
than a fifth had gone as far as the eighth grade. Quite a number
of the women gave an indefinite reply, and it was probable that
these had not attended school many years.




APPENDIXES
APPENDIX A—General tables
APPENDIX B—Schedule forma

20725°—27-




■7

87




APPENDIX A
Table I.— Week’s earnings, by industry
Number of women earning each specified amount in—
The manufacture of—
Week’s earnings

$2 and under $3____ ____________________

$6 and under $7___________________ ____
$10 and under $11
$11 and under $12

$12 and under $13
$13 and under $14 __ ______________ . _ _
$14 and under $15 . ________ ____________
$15 and under $16__________________ ____
$16 and under $17. __ ____
$17 and under $18 ..
$18 and under $19___ ______ _____

$21 and under $22________ ____ _____ ____
$23 and under $24__________
$24 and under $25......................................... .
$25 and under $30
$30 and under $35_________ _______ ______




All in­
dustries

Candy

14,642
$11.10

397
$9.70

77
189
238
299
390
520
723
960
1,189
1 281
1 345
1,080
1,276
902
745
890
576
437
422
233
249
129
113
72
56
164
60
15

2
6
8

12

Men’s
shirts

Women’s
dresses
and
aprons

Over­
alls

609
$11. 70

441
$15. 90

2
1
2
7

4

9
18
5
5
18
28
36
52
39
53
60
41
44
28
41
30
17
17
18
13
15
4
3
3

10
1

3

9
9

22

28
53
82
43
27
25

22
11
11
6
3
4
3

2
1

8

9

20

24
15
26
14
26
27

21
22
31
32
17
16
31
15
16

8

9
32

10
1

Drugs
and
chem­
icals

Other

Bakery
products

Metal
products

Other

Printing
and
publish­
ing

Paper
boxes

Springs
and
mat­
tresses

230
$9.50

226
$11.30

306
$9.45

328
$9.85

$11. 75

102

59
$12. 50

145
$11. 70

336
$16.10

42
$15.00

2
2

7

1

7
3
3
4

1
11
9
10

4

1
1

1

3

1

1
6
6
8

3

1

3
3
5

4

12

7
4

8

18

22
20

19
25
17
14

20

2
6

5
4
13
17
16
16

21

38
17

15
7
16
4
4
4

12
10
12
13
10

1

o

9

i
4

1

1
1

3
3

1

6

18
24
19
47
48
43
7

21
10

15
13
19
29
26
37
32
31
38
19

3
5
3

2
9
12
5
8

19

20

10
6

14

9
3

11

1

2
1

5

10
3

3

1
1

1
1

4
3
3

1
1

1

6
6
8

7
5
7
3
7

1
1
2

19
14
14
17

11
5
10

4
3
4

6
4
1
1
1
1

4
5
7
5

10

5
19

21

17
23
16

12

26
17
44
25
13

8

Q
9

1
10
5

2
2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

4
3
3

1
1

6
3

2
2
1
2
1
2

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Total....................................................
Median earnings_____ _-______________

Food products

Clothing

Table

CO

1.—Week’s earnings, by industry—Continued

o

Number of women earning each specified amount in—
The manufacture of—
Week's earnings

Tobacco products

Textiles

Woolen
goods

Median earnings------------

$2 and under $3
$5 and under $6-------------$6 and under $7-------------$7 and under $8...................
$8 and under $9________
$9 and under $10
$10 and under $11
$12 and under $13




Cotton
goods

Hosiery

439
$9.75

1,109
$10. 80

3,269
$10.20

2.036
$12.30

699
$9.50

447
$12. 35

506
$8. 70

3
17
14
16
30
35
59
74

3
59
76
115
137
167

27
28

8
6
12

4

1
1

5
13
14
16
27
41
39
51

11

7

21
21

59
35
40
27
31
31

21

88

94
152
94
92
73
64

220

252
237
285
269
241
240
176
173
158
79
85
41
34

10

41
59
93
118
167
182
194
168
146
165
146
138
93

23
31
37
57
69
74

66

58
48
47
40
30
26
9

7
4
4

10
13

1

6

9

1
6
4
1

Yams

Other

Cigars

2

4
9
17
37
30
33
27
40
56
50
36
36
17
14
3

68

57
51
54
32
14

10
6
1

2
1
1

Furni­
ture

Boxes

356
$13.20

1
2
2
7
9

6
6
9
11

16
19
80
48
26
30
16
13
17

10
11

Miscel­
laneous

69
$8.65

1
2
2
5
2

7
23
15
5

6
1

Laun­
dries

Other

53
$8.30

$8.60

120

363
$12.15

1,309
$14.15

317
$9.20

1
2

4
4

3

8
6
5
6
11
21
21

1
6

6

4
7
4
13
29

4

8
10
5
4
3

12
6
12

8
4
1

9
3

1
2

1
1
1

2

2
6

3
3

6

29

22

25
40
37
38
30
19
32
13
16

45
67
136
50
191
79
50
177
54
57

12
5
11
3
3

14
67

10
10

63
35

11

1

11
11

18
85
75
65
14

329
$8.95
3
5

1
6

7
18
41
39
48
26
28

12
10
6

8

25

2

29
5

4
4

1
10
8

27
13

3

1

5
7

66

2

2

9
4
3

1

General 5-and-10ccnt
mercan­
tile
stores

9

1

1

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Knit
under­
wear

Bags

Wood products

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
Table

91

II.—Week’s earnings of timeworkers and pieceworkers—all industries
Number of women earning
each specified amount who
did—
Week’s earnings

Total.................... .
Median earnings________
Under $1...................
$1 and under $2_____
$2 and under $3..........
$3 and under $4_________
$4 and under $5___
$5 and under $6_____
$6 and under $7______
$7 and under $8___
$8 and under $9.._
$9 and under $10.-$10 and under $11. _
$11 and under $12..
$12 and under $13_______
$13 and under $14..
$14 and under $15_____
$15 and under $16... .
$16 and under $17..........
$17 and under $18...
$18 and under $19___
$19 and under $20...
$20 and under $21. _.
$21 and under $22...
$22 and under $23..........
$23 and under $24...
$24 and under $25.. _
$30 and under $35.. _
$35 and under $40 ..
$40 and over..................




Number
of
women
reported

Time­
work

9,279
$11. 25

$11.10
76

Piece­
work

11

377
$11.55

62
2
3

234
297
388
517

8
13

958

33
22
30
34
36
27
48
28
18
18
9

882
573
419
231
153

56
160
60
15
11

Both
time­
work and
piece­
work

9
66
39
13
10

47
93
21
1

6
3
1
1
—..........

Table

O
to

III.—Week’s earnings and time worked—all industries

A. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS

REPORTED IN HOURS

Number of women earning each specified amount who worked—
Week’s earnings

UliucT

7,680
$11.00

538
$3.75

437
$7.50

482
$10.20

99
88

3
17
46

1
5
25
26
40
38
45
51
41
35
70
26
23
16
17
3
7
3
2
2
2
1

124
$11.40

798
$10.40

423
$11. 75

1,148
$11.30

1
2
9
13
20
26
35
19
31
27
19
17
20
15
11
12
6
4
2
2
1
3

3
11
15
23
29
59
44
36
51
38
27
23
22
10
15
5
6
1
3
1

1
3
10
38
64
124
148
160
82
98
75
74
53
44
28
40
22
16
12
9
12
7

1

4

300
$11. 80

2
4
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
17
3
25
15
4

742
$10.90

1
1
8
26
50
109
118
188
215
216
2ii
218

2
5
13
46
30
46
38
35
42
26
25
31
18
8
7
4
3
2
4
4
3

1

2,089
$12.55

395
$11.50

114
$16. 70

48
$15.00

42
$10.35

2

_ — ------ -----------------95
193

$24 and under $25....................................
$25 and under $30...................................
$35 and under $40..-.............................
$40 and over_______ ______________




360
529
650
772
767
614
683
501
423
417
328
223
215
120
81
54
42
33
23
47
14
4
2

41
23
14
10
5
6
2
2

64
65
.53
44
36
20
10
6
9
4
1
2
I

2
1

1
9
3
11
10
12
11
12
12
8
4
6
9
7
4
3
1

2
2
10
27
46
67
103
98
108
80
69
36
38
30
13
22
17
7
5
6
4
3
3

2

1
1

5
24
37
61
98

186
132
89
63
46
22
13
9
4
4

1

i

83
53
40
37
24
29
19
11
8
14
7
4
1

1

4
1

1
12
8
2

4
5
2
7
3
1

1

!

----

WOMEN TN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Median earnings. ................................

Number
of
Over
Over
Over
Over
Over
54 and
57 and 60 hours
women Under 30 and 39 and
.r0 and
48 and
44 and
under 44 hours under 48 hours under 50 hours under 54 hours under 57 hours under and over
reported 30 hours under
39 hours 44 hours
60 hours
57 hours
54 hours
50 hours
48 hours

B. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS REPORTED IN DAYS

Week’s earnings

Total________________ ______
Median earnings_____________ ____




Number of wemen earning each specified amount who worked on—
1 day

1 Yi days

2 days

2H days

3 days

3M days

5,688
$11. 45

116
$1.50

39
$2.35

125
$3. 45

55
$4.45

180
$5.50

108
$6.80

32
85
100
133
138
213
306
345
426
414
473
3f5
5C5
316
260
419
191
174
164
101
143
61
60
36
27
105
45
11
10

32
54
23
3
1
1
1

14
15
6
1
2

10
35
40
24
7
3
2
2
1
1

2
5
15
12
10
6
1
1

3
9
33
31
28
26
14
11
10
8
2
2
2

2
6
6
12
13
19
16
8
6
•5
9
3
1

1

2
1

2

1

1

4 days

4Yi days

5 days

5X days
A

270
$7.90

332
$9.45

787
$10.95

2,130
$12.60

2
8
15
34
46
34
38
17
18
19
12
7
9
5
3
1

3
8
14
26
29
26
41
42
33
25
20
13
14
8
9
9
4
2
1
1
2

1
7
14
45
59
56
73
69
75
44
52
46
56
52
32
18
23
17
24
9
4
5
3
2
1

1
7
12
29
83
142
150
159
167
201
185
163
120
162
97
91
70
69
56
43
29
18
14
48
13

1
1

1
1

1

6 days
1,546
$12.85

2
18
34
53
102
110
164
95
230
84
61
192
50
53
67
12
61
7
24
13
9
54
31
11
9

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Under $1___ _ ... ... . . .
$1 and under $2....................... . .
$2 and under $3______________ _____
S3 and under $4________
$4 and under $5__________ .
$5 and under $6___________________
$6 and under $7___ _
$7 and under $8...........................
$8 and under $9............... .
$9 and under $10_______ .
$10 and under $11...........................
$11 and under $12_____________________
$12 and under $13________
$13 and under $14_________ . .
$14 and under $15_____________ _______
$15 and under $16_______ . .
$16 and under $17.................. .
_
$17 and under $18_________ . .
$ 18 and under $19____ _.. .
$ 19 and under $20...................... _
$20 and under $21______ _ _
$21 and under $22________
$22 and under $23_________ . .
$23 arid under $24____ _______
$24 and under $25. _ _____
$25 and under $30.......................
$30 and under $35______ ______________
$35 and under $40______
$40 and over.......................

Number
of women
reported

CO

CO

CO

Table IV.—Earnings of women who worked the firm’s scheduled week, by industry
A. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS REPORTED IN HOURS
Number of women earning each specified amount who worked the firm’s scheduled hours inThe manufacture of—

Candy
Men’s
shirts

Total_____
Median earnings.
$2 and under $3___
$3 and under $4___
$4 and under $5___
$5 and under $6___
$6 and under $7___
$7 and under $8___
$8 and under $9___
$9 and under $10—.
$10 and under $11. _
$11 and under $12..
$12 and under $13..
$13 and under $14..
$14 and under $15..
$15 and under $16..
$16 and under $17..
$17 and under $18..
$18 and under $19..
$19 and under $20..
$20 and under $21..
$21 and under $22..
$22 and under $23..
$23 and under $24..
$24 and under $25..
$25 and under $30..
$30 and under $35..
$35 and under $40.




Food products

Clothing
All in­
dustries

3,876
$11.95

143
$10.50

1

15
51
99
233
316
428
459
342
413
315
243
269
196
127
133
71
44
25
27
16
16
24
7
3

1

16
42
26
12
8

12

3
7
1

2
3

1

16
$10. 50

Women’s
Overalls dresses
and
aprons
38
$16.20

52
$10.65

Other

96
$13.80

Drugs
and
chemicals Bakery
products

143
$10.15

21

$11. 40

Metal
products

Paper
boxes

Other

46

$12.00

19
$14.15

39
$13.75

Printing Springs
and pub­ and mat­
lishing
tresses

125
$18.15

0)

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Week’s earnings

Number of women earning each specified amount who worked the firm’s scheduled hours inmanufacture of—
Week’s earnings

164
$10.30

Cotton
goods

Hosiery

Knit un­
derwear

Woolen
goods

476

570
$11.50

751
$13.40

$10.20

335

246
$13. 65

93
$9. 85

4
16
27
36
40
35
39
23
25

9

5
12
8
16

19
9

32

$12.10

$2 and under $3_
_
$3 and under $4—
$4 and under $5___
$5 and under $6___
$6 and under $7—
$7 and under $8___
$8 and under $9___
$9 and under $10.
$10 and under $11..
$11 and under $12..
$12 and under $13..
$13 and under $14..
$14 and under $15..
$15 and under $16..
$16 and under $17..
$17 and under $18..
$18 and under $19..
$19 and under $20..
$20 and under $21..
$21 and under $22..
$22 and under $23..
$23 and under $24_.
$24 and under $25..
$25 and under $30..
$30 and under $35..
$35 and under $40..

2
6

16
22
49
64
105
81
75
76
69
61
36
31
20

13
11
6

3
2

3

Yarns

12
12

Cigars

6
2
1
1

Furni­
ture

125
$13.15

19
$9. 05

(0

8

48
$8.95

2
4

9
9
1

General 5-and-10cent
mercan­
tile
stores

Laun­
dries

Other

48
25
10
16
3

1
1
2
2

1
2
22
4
3
8
5
2

1
1

1

2
1
3
5
2
3
3
4
10

1

(0

1

1

246
$9.65

18
$12. 75

2
7
67
74
64
13
8
4
4
2

2
1
1
1
1
4
3
1
1

1

37
$13.85

2

1

3

1

6

3
3

Miscel­
laneous

Boxes

Other

6

2
2
2

Wood products

1

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Bags

Total_____
Median earnings..

Tobacco products

Textiles

1

6

4

1

i Not computed, owing to small number involved.




O
Q*

Table IV.—Earnings of women who worked the firm's scheduled week, hy industry—Continued
B. WOMEN WHOSE TIME WORKED WAS REPORTED IN DAYS
Number of women earning each specified amount who worked on each of the firm’s scheduled days in—
The manufacture of—

Candy

Total..........................................................
Median earnings----- -----------------------------,

,

_

$4 and under $5------------------ ------------------$5 and undei $0------------------------------------$7 and under $8.-. ----------------- --------------$8 and under $9---- ------ --------------------------

$14 and under $15.._ ...........---------------- -­
$15 and under $16...........................--------.........




Food products

Clothing
All in­
dustries

3, 712
$12. 90
1
7
14
47
122
178
231
259
331
291
417
257
187
362
153
151
150
89
129
56
56
34
24
J01
44
11
10

(l)

Men’s
shirts

6

1
3
1

Women’s
Overalls dresses
and
aprons

266
$12.65

201
$19. 75

1
4
9
18
22
14
20
34
17
21
11
23
12
13
5
12
6
7
4
3
2
6
2

2
2
4
3
6
3
9
9
5
12
9
17
10
13
19
14
12
6
6
29
10
1

0)

2

1
1

Drugs
and
chemicals Bakery
products

Other

33
$9.95

63
$8.70

2
1
3
4
4
5
2 ........
1
1
1
1
1

12
8
17
8
4
2

3
1
3
2
2
1

106
$11.30

3
2
3
5
17
16
24
16
9
7
2
2

Metal
products

Printing Springs
and pub­ and mat­
lishing
tresses

Paper
boxes

Other

21
$13.95

2
2
7
3
1
2
1
3

0)

6

28
$12.20

2

1
6
3
3
5
3

3
1
1 ..............
1
1
1
2

0)

3

(9

7

3
l
l
l
3

1
1

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Week’s earnings

Number of women earning each specified amount who worked on each of the firm's scheduled days in—Continued
The manufacture of——
Week's earnings

Median earnings---------------------

17
$15. 80

1

7
3
1

1

Hosiery

Knit
under­
wear

Woolen
goods

147
$14.20

793
$12. 35

25
$12. 85

126
$12. 00

2
2
7
4
23
17
9
12
21
6
8
12
5
7
1

1
3
8
18
39
50
51
60
68
71
84
61
53
44
31
33
17
14
11
9
5
3
7
1

Yarns

47
$11.95

4
3
2
1
2
3
2
3
4
1
5
1
.

4
13
10
9
9
8
17
14
12
4
3
3
4
3
1

8
2
14
4
6
6
3
3

Cigars

247
$9.90

2
12
17
23
42
3!
27
40
24
11
9
1
2

1

Other

Furni­
ture

Boxes

0)

_____

5

20
$8.00

1
2

105
$17. 45

1
3
6
4
1
1
4

1

I
5
11
13
12
7
8
14
10
10
7
3
3
1

1

1
I

...

Miscel­
laneous

112
$14.00

2
1
7
6
9
18
13
4
12
6
11
5
3
6
2
1
3
3

General
mercantile

1,113
$15. 00

6
5
12
26
59
113
38
181
69
44
169
47
52
60
12
60
7
24
13
9
56
31
11
9

5-and10-cent
stores

(>)

Laun­
dries

213
$9. 85

1

1
26
31
32
20
22
12
17
7
3
25
2

1

8
6

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Cotton
goods

Bags

Wood products

Tobacco products

Textiles

1
1

1
1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.




ZO
-4

Table V.—Weekly rate and actual week’s earnings, by industry

CD

oo

Number of women for whom amount specified was weekly rate and number for whom it was actual week’s earnings in—
The manufacture of—
All industries

Amount

Clothing
Men’s shirts

Women’s dresses
and aprons

Overalls

Other

Weekly
rate

$10 and under $11...... ........... ............................. .

..........

$13 and under $14 _______________________________
$16 and under $17_____________ ____ ______________

$30 and under $35________ ______ _________




Weekly
rate

Week’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

Week’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

Week’s
earnings

Weekly
rate

Week’s
earnings

W'eekly
rate

4,640
$11. 45

4,640
$10.85

279
$9.95

279
$9.35

44
$11. 70

44
$11. 40

33
$16.35

33
$16. 05

58
$9.20

58
$8.00

15
$13. 75

15
$12. 50

3

Total................................................... ......................—
Median earnings
______________________________

Week’s
earnings

47
53
68

2
1
3
2
o
1
1
2
1

2
4
3
1
1

39
141
312
456
584
607
381
649
267
129
366
172
68
150
57
93
11
38
4
4
57
28
11
11

150
460
473
543
323
516
229
143
310
149
98
148
44
89
20
34
13
9
65
39
13
10

3
49
92
53
23
22
21
1
8
5
1
1

2
3
7
6
7
16
27
47
71
33
17
14
3
6
3
1

Week’s
earnings

1

3

1
2
3
8
12
3
4
7
4
3

1
1
5
2

1
2
5
1

2

2

1
1
1
3
3
1
10
5
2
3

4
11
1

6
7

1
1

2
1

2
1
1

4

3

2
1
2
1
10
4
3

2
4
1
1
7
4
3

3

4
2
1
10
7
2
2

21
3
3
10

3

1
2
1

i

i
1
1
.' ________ L

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Candy

Number of women for whom amount specified was weekly rate and number for whom it was actual week’s earnings in—Cont.
The manufacture ofAmount

Drugs and chem­
icals

Food products
Bakery products

Metal products

Springs and
mattresses

Printing and
publishing

Paper boxes

Other

Median earnings

158
$10. 15

$3 and under $4------------------------------------------$4 and under $5----------------------------------------$7 and under $8--------- ------ -------------------------$8 and under $9------------------------------------------

1
11
25
37
36
12
21
2
2
4
1
1
2
1
1

158
$9.90

1
2
6
11
27
36
36
6
18
2
2
4
1
1
2
1
1

152
$9.80

152
$9. 40

73
$11. 30

10
16
17
19
18
17
15
8
2
2
2

1

1

9
11
9
6
5
25

5
3
2
8
11
5
5
16

1
4

2
3

1
2

42
$12. 30

42
$11.00

229
$16.90

229
$16.50

1
1
2

6

0)

6

5
4
3

6
5
4
7
1
1

1
1

1
2

1
7
3
3
4
10
7
4
2
I

1

o

3

1
1
16
1
9
1

1
1

1

1




32
$11.00

1

1
2

1

1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.

32
$10.95

1
4
1

3
4
3
10
2
2
11
29
39
27
19
10
6
2
2
2

73
$9.85

3
7
6
7
3
1
3
1

1
2
3
3
22
10
22
10
6
23
3
41
29
10
3
13
1
5
2
3
o

4
14
15
12
11
10
9
22
6
39
21
11
4
6
3
1
4
5
2
1

-............

1
1
1
1
1
3

3
1

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Weekly Week’s Weekly Week’s Weekly Week’s Weekly Week’s W eekly Week’s Weekly Week’s Weekly Week’s
earnings
rate earnings
rate
rate earnings
rate earnings
rate earnings
rate earnings
rate earnings

Table V.—Weekly rate and actual week’s earnings, by industry—Continued
Number of women for whom amount specified was weekly rate and number for whom it wras actual week's earnings in—Continued
The manufacture of—
Amount

Textiles
Cotton goods

Hosiery

Knit underwear Woolen goods

Week’s
Weekly Week’s Weekly
Weekly Week’s
earn­
earn­
earn­
rate
rate
rate
ings
ings
ings
Total______ ___________________
Median earnings________ _ _ _

161
$10.25

Under $1..................... ............... ..................

4
38
20
17
6
18
17
16
2
14
8
1

161
$9.20
1
6
2
4
3
13
5
33
10
19
8
13
5
11
5
10
10
2
1

198
$10.95

1
3
6
18
73
40
14
16
12
8
2
3
1
1

198
$10.90
1
1
1
1
1
3
5
13
14
65
41
15
16
6
8
2
3
1
1

322
$10. 75

3
1
9
18
50
13
55
16
36
43
21
16
19
10
4
6
1
1

Weetdyi

Peek's

rate

tag

322
$9. 50

332 '
332
$12. 40
$13.

3
11
10
12
6
20
15
37
27
41
23
28
30
14
11
17
6
2
7
1
1

1
1
4
4
3
4
7
8
15
19
35
50
38
26
25
20
27
20
14
4
2
5

1
2
7
13
26
72
34
49
30
18
45
2
11
13
6
2

Y arns

Cigars

Other

Weekly Week’s Weekly Week’s Weekly Week’s Weekly Week’s
earn­
earn­
earn­
earn­
rate
rate
rate
rate
ings
ings
ings
ings
246
$9.35

246
$8. 65

1
17
29
34
31
33
29
16
25
12
2
10
2
5

2
2
3
8
5
23
24
33
35
26
25
17
16
14
1
9
2
1

119
$11.20

119
$9.55

11
0)

11

0)

65
$12.50

1
1
1

17
19
11
9
19
33
5
3
2
1

3
3
11
15
20
8
11
6
29
4
2
3

1

3
1
5
1
1

2
1
2
1
3
1
1

1




1

2
1

1
3
.54
1
2
2

6
3
41
6
3
1

1

1
$24 and under $25______________ _______
$25 and under $30

65
$12.50

1

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Bags

Tobacco products

*

Number of women for whom amount specified was weekly rate and number for whom it was actual wreck's earnings in—Continued

The manufacture of—
General mer­
cantile

Wood products

Amount

5-and-10-cent
stores

Laundries

Miscellaneous
Furniture

Boxes

Other

Total.............. .................... ................ ..........
Median earnings......... ............-.............................

58
$9.00

58
$8.65

18
$8.50

18
$7.65

68
$9. 25

68
$8.70

45
$8. 75

45
$8.75

1.232
$13.30

tinder $1..---------- ------------------------------- ------............... ..............- ................ -.............. ................
$1 and under $2............................................... ......... ::::— ............r ::::::::: ..........
.....
.....
............ 2
$2 and under $3................-.......................................
1 .......... —
3 ——
2
3
7
1
4
1
5
$5 and under $6........ ............................... -.........—5
4
1
4
1
2
3
$6 and under $7.........................................................
22
21
14
9
10
3
7
5
$7 and under $8---------- --------- -...........................
28
2
2
18
22
1
2
21
26
$8 and under $9.............. ..........................................
89
6
2
4
15
22
$9 and under $10—................... .............................
156
2
2
4
4
2
1
$10 and under $11....................................................
32
2
2
8
11
2
4
$11 and under $12. _ .................................................
260
6
5
7
7
2
3
4
5
$12 and under $13.....................................................
61
2
2
1
3
1
$13 and under $14.....................................................
28
4
4
1
213
4
5
38
35
62
1
1
2
1
$18 and under $19------ ------------- ------------------7
2
63
________
i
_____ ............I"
-23
_____ —
4
2
51
$25 and under $30_—---- --------- -------------- 25
$30 and under $35._.................................................
8
$35 and under $40. ...................................................
:::::::::
9
..........
$40 and over....... ........................................................ ...............
..........

J Not computed, owing to small number involved.




1,232
$14.05

317
$9. 55

317
$9.20

327
$9.40

327
$8.95

3
..... —
-..............
5
1
6
5
—
6
5
4 —
7
7
6
18
1
11
10
41
48
11
5
18
39
43
20
18
21
57
46
• 85
84
42
26
35
75
91
63
28
28
65
79
129
12
14
14
16
46
25
24
8
10
190
10
11
4
72
4
6
5
4
49
4
29
33
2
169
3
5
7
51
1
1
50
10
11
60
12
8
8
1
1
61
---------- 26 ................ — —
10
7
1
1
60
34
10
9

.......... ..........

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Week’s Weekly Week’s Weekly Week’s
Weekly Week’s Weekly Week’s Weekly Week’s Weekly Week’s Weekly earnings rate
earnings
earnings rate
earnings rate
earnings rate
earnings rate
earnings rate
rate

O

102

Table VI.—Weekly rate and scheduled weekly hours—all industries
Number of women receiving each specified rate whose scheduled weekly hours were—
Weekly rate

$2 and under
$4 and under
$5 and under
$6 and under

44

Over
44 and
under
48

48

Over
48 and
under
50

50

Over
50 and
under
52

52

Over
52 and
under
54

54

Over
54 and
under
55

55

Over
55 and
under
57

57

4,337
$11.15

63
$12.55

25
$17. 15

95
$10. 75

404
$15. 45

280
$13.05

294
$12. 40

400
$12.35

38
$12.90

650
$9.90

230
$9. 65

73
$10. 20

859
$11.40

262
$10. 05

620
$9. 75

1
16
5
1
4
28
1
16
4
1
7

1
1
4
12
40
45
5
59
3
7
57
23
7
50
20
25
1
11
1

4
10
9
16
27
23
50
15
8
44
10
13
9
3
10

1
4
7
15
48
37
19
42
21
15
18
13
9
16
6
8
3
7

6
2
16
25
47
65
12
77
8
9
50
8
3
14

$3...______
$5________ _______
$6...
$7.......................... ... •

$8 and under SO. . _____
$9 and under $10_______
$11 and under $12........._____............

$15 and under $16_________ ______
$16 and under $17_______________
$19 and
$20 and
$21 and
$22 and
$23 and
$24 and
$25 and
$30 and
$35 and
$40 and

42 and
under
44

under $20...............................
under $21_______ ________
under $22______ ____ ____
under $23_____ ...
under $24______ ____ ____
under $25............. .................
under $30
under $35___
under $40____ _____ _____
over_________

3
2
39
141
312
455
578
579
370
564
231
126
296
161
60
132
57
81
9
35
4
4
49
27
11
11

0)

11

1
3
3
5

3
54
1
2
2

1

1
1
9
4
2
3
4

2
3
3
1
2

14
9
4
5

4
1
2
13
4
4
1

1
1
2
1

18
1
4
1
1
16
11
2
4

1
7
12
3
3
5
1
1
4

11
46
41
26
8
17
20
13
12
19
13
1
3




9
31
28
99
88
101
166
56
98
28
35
62
4
13
18
8

6
2
22
26
2
9
2
1
1
1

7

1

3
1
1

—
..........1

1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.

4

33
$9. 55

3

1
2
20
68
114
133
111
51
54
26
14
26
12
3
9
5
2

Over
57 and
under
60

.

10
38
29
52
44
13
39
10
2
19
2
2
2

1
19
36
84
100
94
74
56
76
19
24
12
0
11
3
1
1
3

2
10
8
3
1
1
1
2
1
4

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Total_____________________

Num­
ber of
women 39 and
re­
ported under
42

103

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
Table

VII.—Year's earnings of women for whom Yt-iceck pay-roll records
were secured, bu industry
Number of women earning each specified amount in—

$200 and under $250..........................
$250 and under $300--. __________
$300 and under $350 ___
$350 and under $400__________
$100 and under $450_______
$450 and under $500_________
$500 and under $550_________
$550 and under $600____________
$600 and under $650__________
$650 and under $700____
$700 and under $750_________________
$750 and under $800______ ____
$800 and under $850_________
$850 and under $900__________
$900 and under $1,000____
$1,000 and under $1,100 ____________
$1,100 and under $1,200________
$1,200 and under $1,400_________
$1,400 and under $1,600. _ ___
$1,600 and under $1,800 ___
$1,800 and under $2,000___________
$2,000 and over________________

1,054 26 47
3
$620 $400 $703 (>)




tresses

and

publishing
Springs and m at ­

P rin tin g

products

Paper boxes

I

[

icals

6

O

23 31 39
9 12 15 34
6
$592 $498 $525 (') (•) $713 $920 «

1
16
42
04
108
109
113
117
86
80
76
59
4Z
59
39
15
7
7
2
1
1

____ computed, owing to small number involved.
’ Not
20725°—27-----8

B a k e ry

1

d re sse s

O v e r a lls

W o m e n ’s

Candy

All industries

w
* w
a ti
a>!5
K
2

|

Total______ _______ :______
Median earnings. _______

Food
products

Clothing

Year’s earnings.

M etal products

and aprons
Other
Drugs and chem ­

The manufacture of—

1
5
4
5
6
2
1
2

1

1
2
8
3
6
3
8
4
5
2
2
3

3
1
1
1
1

1
1
2
1
.1
3
3

6
10
?
3

3
5
6
4

3

1
1

3
2
1
2

1
1

9

3

1
1
1
1

1

104

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Table VII.—Year’s

earnings of women for whom 52-week pay-roll records
were secured, by industry—Continued
Number of women earning each specified amount in—
The manufacture of
v>
03

i~
o
W
O
!

-*•>

&

s
•a
lx

o

a
a

§

!

o

Laundries

Miscellaneous

Other

<3?

-3
§

|

Furniture

Other

Boxes

Wood
products

|

j

wear

goods

Yarns

K nitunder-

W o o le n
j

j

J

Hosiery
|

Bags

Cotton goods
|

Cigars

Tobacco
products

Textiles

Year’s earnings

4 17 39 152 38 39
3
45 82 92 172 50 13 22 35
Median earnings______________ ____ $532 $600 $650 $652 $578 (0 $467 $796 <>) to $508 $625 $780 $510 $546

1
7
5
5
7
5
8
4
3

1
3
3
13
7
14
9
5
3
5
7
7
5

2
7
6
9
9
13
13
8
7
1
5
9
2
1

1
1
4
16
15
22
26
24
21
13
10
6
8
3
2

1
1
3
3
3
5
4
9
3
3
3
3
4
3
2

1
3
1
i
2
3
1
2

1
3
5
6
5
1
1

1
1

__1

1

I
1
5

1

1

5
6
6
6
3
2

2
1
4
3
1
1
1
1
1
1

1

2
1
1
4
3
4
4
5
1
6
4
1
2
3

__1
12
__

1
9
17
12
15
15 __
11 _
11
11
11 __
1C __
7
e
2

i

1
* Not computed, owing to small number involved.




1
3
6
7
10
6
4
1

5
5
2

a
3
3

__2

5
2
2
2

Table VIII.— Week's earnings, by industry—negro women
Number of women earning each specified amount in—
The manufacture of—

Week’s earnings

Tobacco
Wood
Gen­
Textiles
products
products
eral Laun­
Print­
Food,
indus­
ing
Drugs bak­
Mis­ mer­ dries
can­
tries
and
Paper and
and
cella­ tile
Wom­
ery
chemi­ prod­ boxes pub­ mat­
Knit
en’s
lish­ tresses Bags Cot­ Ho­ under­ Yarns Cigars Other Furni­ Other neous
Men’s dresses Other cals ucts
ton siery
ture
ing
shirts and
goods
wear
aprons
Clothing

74
218
333
206
116
72
47
38
24
9

1
1
3
2
3
3

35
$8. 15

3
7
6
4
2
2
5
1
4

4
(•)

55
$8.00

1

17
1,401
Median earnings....................... $6. 95 $8. 25

3

1
4
3
14
24
2

1

1

5

8
w

1
2
2

c>)

54
19
35
26
$0.25 $5. 75 $7. 60 $8.60
1
4
2
1

1
1

1

3

2

1

1
1
1

5
2

1
1

6
4

1
1

1
1

16
$9.20

6
2
1
2

2
4
1
7
17
6
5
1
7
4

2
2
2
1
2
14
8
4

13
(■)

«

8

«

7

1

1
6
2
5
5
1
2
2
1

l
1
4
1
6
1

3
4

1
3
1
2

198
$7.60
2
1
6
2
12
28
23
43
18
6
15
4
14
9
5
2
4
1
2

139
78
$7.85 $6.70
5
3
3
10
13
22
16
10
12
10
11
10
6
3
3

2
2
1
5
3
11
22
9
18
3
1
1

c)

1

1

35
$8.45

648
$6. 55

1
2
7
3
10
6
3

1
16
8
11
35
136
220
82
36
50
19
20
7
3

2

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

All

1
2

2
1

1

1

1 Not computed, owing to small number involved.




O
Cn

106

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
Table IX.—Scheduled

Saturday hours, by industry

Number of establishments and number of women for whom
scheduled Saturday hours were!—
Number
reported
Un­
None der 4

Manufacturing:

6 282
...

1.7

Over 6
and
under
7

6

...

1.7

--

2.7

7

...

8.9

--

--

6

1.6 ...

Establishments
Women
|

|

|

Women

Establishments
Women
Establishm ents
)

Women

|

—

15.3

308 6 445
1.9

--

2. 7

96
71

46 1
171 2
71

106
59
96

1
5 1
39 2
6

102
13
15
153

103 a
39 i

22

1
?
1
1

35
56
78
147

s
3S

1

1
2
5

153

Printing and publish-

|

490 1
12 2

2

361

3
]
2
3

dresses
14

46.0
279

70
1 281 1 45

656

Food products—

Establishments

Establishments

1 281 8 437 26 1,443 84 7,473 24 2,482 6 258

397

Clothing—

Women

1

Women

Establishm ents

co
W

j

a
.r.
22
3

Women

Establishm ents

%
a

Women

Women

Establishm ents

Women

Establishm ents

All industries---------- 2 216 16, 239
Per cent distribution of
100.0
women............. -..................

Women’s

Over 5
and
under
6

5

1

Industry

Over 4
and
under
5

4

:n„

61

269

a 187
3 779
17 2, 458
4 1,794
4

462

327

1

113

2

115 1 19
1 82

?

76

2
2
4
1
5
2

273
334
521
135
702
135

1
2

3f
42

Tobacco products—
554

351

203

Wood products—

2
7
6

192
11

1

6

1

156
101

1

46

J

151

1 4ft
12 1 207

1,353
18

977

2 29

4 157

29b 2 89

i For the purpose of tabulation, women working alternate schedules of different duration have been

^*2 Details'aggregat c more than total because some establishments appear in more than one hour group.
3 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.
..... ..n _
«„!C,v,ori
* One establishment, with 125 women, reports its employees as remaining until the work is finished,
s This establishment reports a 4H'hour Saturday, but reserves the right to work 9/2 hours on Saturday
and pays part of the workers op a 93^-hour basis, making deductions for the shorter day,




WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
Table

IX.—Scheduled

107

Saturday hours, by industry—Continued

________________________ _______ ____________
Number of establishments and number of women for whom
scheduled Saturday hours were 1—
Over 9
and
under
10

Manufacturing:
Candy_______________ _____
Drugs and chemicals.............
Food products—
Bakery products_______
Other_________________
Printing and publishing.........
Tobacco products—Cigars___
Wood products—Other___
General mercantile............ .......
5-and-10-cent stores___ _________
Laundries___ ____ _____
4

45

1

6

1

25

6 385
2.4

Establishm ents

[

o
£

Women

8

Establishm ents

j

I

Establishm ents

a

a
1

o
£

8

2

26

4 362 11

1

2

7 162
1.0

26
0.2

i

3
w

15
519

2

3 190

7 162
1.0

56

3

1

1

15

24

1
6
6 489

Over
10J*

10H

ioy2

3 28 12 1,217
0.2
7.5
...

62
1

2

Women

o
£

Establishm ents

a

Over 10
and
under

10

[

|

1
2

Establishm ents

...

|

All industries__________
Per cent distribution of women.-

P

Women

Establishm ents

7 266 10 581
1.6 ... 3.6

p

8
o
!>

|

Women

Establishm ents

Industry

Establishm ents

1

9

Establishm ents

Over 8
and
under
9

8

Wromen

Over 7
and
under
8

457
51

144

170

[Footnotes, see opposite page,]
Table

X.—Scheduled

daily and Saturday hours, by industry group
FACTORIES
Number of establishments and number of women whose scheduled
Saturday hours were 1—
Over
6 and
under 7

Establishm ents
Women

Establishm ents

Women
|

Establishm ents

Establishm ents
|

4 253

1 281 8 437 26 1,443 83 7,427 24 2,482 2 101

1

2 36
1 203
1 14

3
1 281 4

P
o>

1

IS
05

co
K

12
p

a
M
P

§
o
£

2
CO
n
W

p
<D
a
o
£

|

1

£

a
|

Women

<&

Women

12
p

7
|

6

Establishm ents
Women

Over
5 and
under 6

5

1

Over
4 and
under 5

4

Establishm ents

Women
|

Women

Establishm ents
|

Establishm ents
|

Scheduled daily hours
(Monday to Friday)

Under
4

|

None

1

Number
reported

Total...................... 2168 13,574
8________ ___________
Over 8 and under 9___
9..........................................
Over 9 and under 10_
_
10
Over 10 and under 10^_

ioa-------------------

8
20
28
50
47
14
2

181
956
1,076
4,496
5,117
1,562
186

84
84

1 269

1
9
6
6
2
2

46 1
8
303 1
25
553 15 439
9
318 26 2, 460 9 951 2 101
37 39 4,419 1
1
76 13 1,486
186

12

356

12
356

STORES
Total
Under 8.
Over 8 and under
1 For the purpose of tabulation, women working alternate schedules of different duration have been
divided between the two hour groups.
2 Details aggregate more than total because some establishments appear in more than one hour group.




108

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Table X.—Scheduled

daily and Saturday hours, by industry group—Continued
LAUNDRIES
Number of establishments and number of women whose scheduled
Saturday hours were

18
10

977

2

437
540

2

1

29

1

7

Establishm ents

Women

|

Establishm ents

W omen
T
|

[

|

j

1

Establishm ents

Women

|

|

to
w

Over
6 and
under 7

6

|

s

Women

s

W omen

Women

1

a
ss

Establishm ents

Establishm ents

|

[

Over
5 and
under 6
'

5

p

29

11
7

Women

P
o
a
o
fs

|

3
03
to
w

Over
4 and
under 5

4

Establishm ents

%

Women

03

to
w

CO
p
aj
a

Establishm ents

CO

1
a
1

Women

Scheduled daily hours
(Monday to Friday)

Under
4
|

None

|

Number
reported

46

4 157

5 296 2

89

46

3 108
1 49

3 65
2 231 2
i

89

FACTORIES—Continued
Number of establishments and number of women whose scheduled Saturday
hours were 1—

Over
7 and
under 8

Over
8 and
under 9

Over
9 and
under 10

Scheduled daily hours
(Monday to Friday)

Over
10 and
under

ioy2

Total
Over 8 and under 9.
Over 9 and under 10___
Over 10 and under loy.

ioy.......................
STORES—Continued
Total
Under 8.
Over 8 and under

LAUNDRIES—Continued
Total
Over 9 and under 10.
10

......................

1 For the purpose of tabulation, women working alternate schedules of different duration have been
divided between the two hours groups.
2 Details aggregate more than total because some establishments appear in more than one hour group.
* One establishment, with 125 women, reports its employees as remaining until the work is finished.
4 This establishment reports a 4>^-hour Saturday, but reserves the right to work 9>4 hours on Saturday
and pays part of the workers on a 9K-hour basis, making deductions for the shorter day




#
Table

XI.—Length of lunch period, by industry
Number of establishments and number of women with lunch period of—

Number reported
Under 30 minutes

Industry

Per cent distribution of women................
Manufacturing:
Candy_____________________________
Clothing—

Women

i 216

16, 239
100.0

Estab­
lish­
ments

Women

Estab­
lish­
ments

Women

Estab­
lish­
ments

Women

Estab­
lish­
ments

Women

Estab­
lish­
ments

135

10,364
63.8

10

1.085
6. 7

21

1. 599
9. 8

Q

422
2.6

48

2, 733
16.8

1

96

1
1
1
3

1!
106
20
63

2
1

90
13

2

12

2
1
1

590
90
147

7

397

-

5
6
2
3

560
434
159
210
119

5
5
6
13
3

334
102
62
153
357
61

5
3
4
5
11
3

244
81
43
133
345
61

5
7
23
6
5
6

415
1,169
3,826
2, C/6
7C2
462

5
3
17
4
4
1

495
310
2. 403
1. 794
349
186

4
6

527
554

3
8
11
4
1 16
14
18

69
192
200
376
1.353
335
977

6

4

1
2
1
1
2

76
237
135
353
135

179

i
l
l

8
19
20

2

367

1

1
1

193
229

85

1

36

69
155
123
18
169

16

948

2

56
527

1
1
]
11
12
1

15
10
207
485
270
18

554

3
£
6
2
2

1 Details aggregate more than total because 1 establishment appears in more than one hour group.




...1___

4

Tobacco products—

Laundries

Women

397

656
44S
265
230
361

Food products—

Wood products—

1 hour

Women

3
4
14

Textiles—

Over 45 minutes
and under 1 hour

45 minutes

36
0.2

Estab­
lish­
ments

6

Other______

Over 30 and
under 45 minutes

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Estab­
lish­
ments

30 minutes

|
1

6

1

47

2
2
1
4
1
1

22
20
151
6C9
18
11 .............

O
CD

Industry

Manufacturing:
Candy................ .................................
ClothingMen’s shirts........ .................. —.
Overalls___________________
Women’s dresses and aprons..
Other................ ...........................
Drugs and chemicals-----------------Pood products—
Bakery products______ _____
Other____ _________._______
Metal products...... ................ ...........
Paper boxes........ ................................
Printing and publishing...............
Springs and mattresses....................
Textiles—
Bags..............................................
Cotton goods.......................... .
Hosiery____ ___ _______ _____
Knit underwear. .................. .
Woolen goods—.........................
Yarns____ _____ ____ _______
Tobacco products—
Cigars—
Other...........................................
Wood products—
Boxes________ _____________
Furniture................ .................
Other............................................
M iscellaneous....................................
General mercantile—------ --------------C-and-10-cent stores....................... ...........
Laundries------------------------------ --------




7,680

XII.—Hours worked less than scheduled, by industry

Women who
worked less than
scheduled hours

Num­
ber

Per
cent

Number of women who worked less than scheduled hours to the extent of—

4 and
20 and 25 and 30 hours
5 and
10 and 15 and
under
under
and
under
under
under
under
5 hours 10 hours 15 hours 20 hours 25 hours 30 hours
over

Under
1 hour

1 and
under
2 hours

2 and
under
3 hours

3 and
under
4 hours

87
2.6

159
4.7

235
7.0

142
4.2

193
5.7

849
25.1

653
19.3

245
7.3

250

7.4

185
5.5

378
11.2

24

20

28

23

40

27

14

4

5

12

1
11
1

1
4
12!
20
2

6
9
2

3
4
1

3
3
7
33
12
21

5
3
12
2

1
6
1
1
3
1

3,376
100.0

44.0

349

201

57.6

4

22
43
114
170
165

4
5
57
73
22

18.2
11. 6
50.0
42.9
13.3

2

42
65
50
285
30

9
19
24
60
107
28

21.4
29.2
48.0
59.4
37.5
93.3

412
817
1,368
1, 719
443
386

238
339
777
765
99
136

57.8
41.5
56.8
44.5
22.3
35.2

161
225

68
65

58
27
83

3

7
6
1

5
1
12

3
1
4
13

1
3
5

4
14
2
5

6
3
15
40
3
1

78
77
2
5

42.2
28.9

]

4

34. 5
70.4
37.3
82.3

3

220

20
19
31
181

29
249
47

3
26

1.2
55.3

101

13

18

28

4

4
3
6

1

2
3
2
22

14
44
52
74
14
11

17
20
55
36
7
3

27
54
83
81
10
11

8
2

3
5

6
13

15
12

6
6
2
17

2

1
1
2
3

1
1
3
2

3
3
6
11

2
2

*1
2

4

1

11
2
8
19
4
4

37
23
30
10
1
6

64
71
207
177
18
51

18
86
175
190
28
30

15
36
70
47
10
9

4

19
13

11
14

4
4
5
47
11

6

2
17

3

1
3
15
1

2

3
24

1
1
1
31

2
1
2

2
3
1
4
17
2

1
3
2
4

2
1

11

2
4
3

5
3

♦

3
5
5

1

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

All industries—
Per cent distribution.

Num­
ber of
women
reported

110

Table

*

Table XIII.—Hours worked more than scheduled, by industry

Industry

Number
of women
reported

Women who
worked
more
than scheduled
hours

1 and
undei 2
hours

2 and
under 3
hours

3 and
under 4
horns

4 and
under 5
hours

Manufacturing:
Tandy...............................................
Clothing—
Men’s shirts_______________ _____ ______
Overalls. ..................... ............. ............
Women's dresses and aprons____ _ _
Other. _ ________ ___________________
Drugs and chemicals___________ ________ ______
Food products—
Bakery products.......................................... . ...
Other...... ...................................
...............
Metal products_____ _________
Paper boxes ............................. ............... .......
Printing and publishing______
Springs and mattresses_____ ... __________ ___
Textiles—
Bags... ...
Cotton goods...___ _______ ____ _
Hosiery........ ................ ..................................
Knit underwear____________________ ...
Woolen goods. ....................................................
Yarns
Tobacco products—
Cigars __________ ____ ____________________
Other____________________________
Wood products—
Boxes..____ ___ ________
Furniture........ ...................................................
Other
Miscellaneous. ...... ............. ....................................
General mercantile................................................ ..........
5-and-l0-eent stores____ ___________ _____
Laundries_________ ____ ______ ________ ________




7,680

5.6

60
11.7

139
32.5

156
36.4

12
2.8

16
3.7

2

Per cent

428
100.0

349

5

1.4

22
43
114
170
165

2

9.1

5
1

4.4
.6

5 and
10 and
15 and
under 10 under 15 under 20
hours
hours
hours

50
11.7

2
0.5

2
0.5

1
0.2

1

1

1
3

2
1

42
65
50
101
285
30

12

28.6

7
2
53
1

14.0
2.0
18.0
3.3

7

412
817
1,368
1,7i9
443
386

10
2
21
203
9
4

2.4
.2
1. 5
11.8
2.0
1. 0

1
1

3

5
76
8
1

161
225

35

15.6

25

8

19

32.8

.........4

2
28

4.8
.9
96.6

3

6.4

58 |
27
83
220
29
249
47

i

2

2

8

4

5

14
1

1
5

2
3

9
1

7

25 and
under 30
hours

27
7
12
91

2
1
21

2
19

4
2
3

24
1

2

1

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Under 1
hour
Number

All industries__________________
Per cent distribution_________ ___________________

Number of women who worked more than scheduled hours to the extent of—

Table

XIV.—Age of the women employees who supplied personal information, by industry

Industry

Manufacturing:
Candy...________ _________________ ______ ______ _________ ___________
Clothing—
Men’s shirts______ ________________ ____ . ...
Overalls____ ___________ _____________ ____ __________ ___________
W omen’s dresses and aprons______________________ ____________
Other
.
Drugs and chemicals___ _____ _____ ___________________ ____ _
Food products—
Bakery products___ ________
___...........
Other.. ____________ _________ __________ ________________ _ _ .
Metal products----------- ----------------------------------------------------------- --------

9,884
100.0

1,000
10.1

1,863
18.8

230

12

48

472
388
137
127
294

37
7
4
10
15

33
38
90
278
47

2,494
25.2

1,343
13.6

1,693
17.1

899
9.1

471
4.8

121
1.2

28

48

19

8

3

66
18
14
19
41

100
S3
31
19
74

51
64
19
16
36

108
108
30
30
62

65
60
19
13
41

35
39
13
15
21

10
9

4

9
9

8

3

6

4

56
2

89
H

38
H

56
17

22

8

5

348
731
2,138
976
284
156

48
82
292
121
40
41

79
133
416
232
42
45

68
167
589
272
57
39

42
86
296
139
34
16

62
130
306
113
56

24
80
147
61
37
5

20
38
74
32
16
2

5
15
18
6
2
l

149
479

37
14

74

43

11

47
164

10
9

Miscellaneous._________________________ .
. ...___________ _
General mercantile_______________________ . _ . ______ . . .. _______

373
601

40
23

Laundries__________________________________ ______ ___________________________

645

41

Printing and publishing....... ............................................ ........... .
Springs and mattresses_____ __________________ _____________________
Textiles—
Bags____________________ ___ ______________ ___ _
Cotton goods_____ ______________ .
.........
Hosiery__________ ____________ ____
____ ...
Knit underwear________ _____ ______ ___________ _________
Woolen goods___________________________________ ......
\ arns______________ _________________________ _________
Tobacco products—
Other_ _ _______________ _____________ ____________________
_
Wood products—
Boxes . .............................................................. ...................... ... _____ ... _ . .
Furniture___ ... .




42
421
11
36
24
85
80
86
124

5
4

12
1

82

TO1

137

14
51

28

27

11

1

1

50
104

50
120

26
88

7
37

4
11

111

111

55

40

4

111
138
82
159

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

All industries______ ______ ____ ______________________ ___________________
Per cent distribution_____ ____ ______ _______ ..
______ ____ ._____

Numt er of worn 3n whose a ge was—
Number
of
16 and
18 and
20 and
25 and
40 and
30 and
50 and
women
reporting under 18 under 20 under 25 under 30 under 40 under 50 under 60 60 years
and over
years
years
years
years
years
years
years

113

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Table XV.—Conjugal comtition of the women employees who supplied personal

information, by industry
N umber of women who were—
Industry

All industries_______________
Per cent distribution______________

4

r

Manufacturing:
Candy...............................................
ClothingMen's shirts______________
Overalls _______ _________
Women’s dresses and aprons
Other.......................................
Drugs and chemicals__________
Food products—
Bakery products__________
Other____________________
Metal products_______________
Paper boxes__________________
Printing and publishing_______
Springs and mattresses________
Textiles—
Bags........................................... .
Cotton goods.. ..................... .
Hosiery................... ...................
Knit underwear___________
Woolen goods.........................
Yarns________ ___________
Tobacco products—
Cigars........................................ .
Other................ ........................
Wood products—
Boxes............. ...........................
Furniture______ __________
Other________ ____________
Miscellaneous_________________
General mercantile__________ ____ __
5-and-10-cent stores___________ _
_
Laundries_______________
____

%

4




N umber
of
women
reporting

Single

Widowed,
Married separated,
or divorced

9,761
100.0

4,824
49.4

225

118

43

64

458
379
135
127
288

158
132
44
54
132

176
167
58
39
83

124
80
33
34
73

250
33
37
87
273
47

169
21
14
50
199
9

44
9
14
22
32
19

37
3
9
15
42
19

341
694
2, 092
970
271
153

171
309
1,053
566
127
116

96
226
680
246
112
20

74
159
359
158
32
17

149
472

118
116

18
192

13
164

47
159
145
369
676
257
627

33
69
54
183
350
226
233

3
53
47
118
196
19
217

11
37
44
68
130
12
177

2,949
30. 2

1,988
20.4

114

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

Table XVI.—Living condition of the women employees who supplied personal

■information, by industry

Industry

Number
of
women
reporting

Number of women who were
living—
At
home

With
Independently
relatives

7. 901
79.0

792
7.9

1,310
13.1

231

177

29

25

471
391
138
120
298

375
336
100
107
2-38

32
17
8
9
21

64
38
30
10
39

254
33
38
90
279
46

192
27
31
72
225
33

25
1
7
16
3

37
6
6
11
38
10

350
733
2,142
985
286
153

275
611
1, 747
715
236
120

28
53
148
118
26
21

47
69
247
152
24
12

149
479

100
363

8
51

41
65

47
163
147
373
690
264
647

38
132
106
293
547
203
502

1
12
16
23
41
29
49

8
19
25
57
102
32
96

10,003
100.0
Manufacturing:
Candy----------------------------------------------------------------------Clothing—
Men's shirts...___________________________________
Overalls._____
Women’s dresses and aprons------------------------ --------Otlier------------- ------ ---------------------------------------------Food products—
Bakery products---------------------------------------------------Metal products _. __________
Paper boxes--------------------- ----- ------------------------------------Textiles—

Tobacco products—
Wood products—




¥
Table

XVII.—Extent of schooling of the women employees who supplied personal information, by age at time of survey
Number of women having schooling as specified whose age at time of survey was—
Extent of schooling

of women 16 and
18 and
25 and
30 and
40 and
50 and
reporting under 18 under 20 20 and
under 25 under 30 under 40 under 50 under 60 60 years
and over
years,
years
years
years
years
years
years
S, 667
96
53
137
326
792
1,118
1,334
1,656
2, 209
759
536
195
220
50
10
166

1 “Several years,” “country school,” etc.




998
1
5
26
64
97
172
2l9
278
83
32
7
4
1
9

1,856

2,475

,308

1,645

841

426

108

5
6
11
29
90
146
255
360
484
216
138
47
42
5
2
20

3
7
27
61
138
231
329
456
609
221
180
84
82
17
2
28

11
4
25
48
138
172
168
2i4
270
9i
81
27
33
4
1
21

IS
19
34
89
202
270
237
237
300
93
54
17
35
9
2
28

28
7
14
42
98
119
106
124
174
37
31
10
19
10
2
20

15
7
16
23
51
70
57
38
77
17
19
2
4
5

15
2
5
8
11
13
10
8
17
1
1
1
1

25

15

w o m e n i n T e n n e s s e e in d u s t r ie s

Total.......... .................. ................. ................
No schooling__________________ _____ ______
First grade completed_____________________
Second grade completed___________________
Third grade completed___________ ____ ____
Fourth grade completed___________________
Fifth grade completed_____________________
Sixth grade completed..........................................
Seventh grade completed__________________
Eighth grade completed____________________
First year high school completed___________
Second year high school completed_________
Third year high school completed.................
Fourth year high school completed_________
College or other higher school attended______
Business or other commercial school attended.
Indefinite information reported 1........................

APPENDIX B
SCHEDULE FORMS
Schedule

I

This schedule was used for recording the firm's scheduled hours, the number
of employees, and data on working conditions in factories, stores, and laundries.

C

TJ. S. Department of Labor
Factory schedule
Sheet 1

Women’s Bureau

1. Name of factory Address---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. Product City-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. Person interv Pos-------------------------------------------------------------- Agent------------------------------Person interv--------------------------Pos---------------------------------Date---------------------------------i. Number employed :
Night

Day
Negro

White

Total

Negro

White

Total

1U,™
Girls..............................................

5. Firm's scheduled hours :
End

Begin

Lunch

Rest

Total

Begin

i

End

Lunch

Rest

Total

Sat.......................................-

Keg. wk. days Keg. wk. hrs Reg-, wk. days-----------------------------------------

Reg. wk. hrs..

6. Seasonal or overtime---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. Home work given out

Same work done in shop-------------------------------------------

Identical rates -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8.

Wages :
Length pay period Vac. without pay.
With pay-------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------Deductions
Bonus or commission
Overtime pay

9.

Employment policy :
Empl. mgr-------

Other----------Records kept__

116




Oth. centr. method

*

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

117

10. Stairways :
Location

Mat.

Wind.

Light Handrl.
0. K. 0. K.

Nar.

Stp.

Rpr.

Other

Notes

11. Employees allowed to use elevators.

Workrooms

*
12. Rooms

1

Workroom

13. Floors

Code

14. Aisles

Other Obst.

15. Ventilation

Artif.

Special
prob­
lem

Notes
17. Cleaning: Sweep Freq.
(by whom) Scrub ___________________________
Freq.
18. Natural light: General_______________________________
Shades or awnings.
In roof____________
Glare_______________
General statement .
19.

Art. light: General.
Indiv. hang, or adj.
Glare_______________
General statement.

Seats

Foot rests

20. Occupations

Notes
Kind

Sit_____ _______ ___ _________
Stand_______ ____ _

*

Both_____________




No. 0. K.

Kind

Need

16. Other
problem

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES

118
21. Heating.

23. Washing facilities

22. Drinking facilities
Public__________ _______
Conven..................... .............
Bblr. san................................
Bblr. insan_____________
Cooled...... .............................
Tank............. .......................
Cooler......................... ...........
Faucet....................... ...........

Towels
Share
with—
Floor Kind

Cln.

Hot
wa­
ter

Individual

Soap

Common

Far.
Kind Fre<i. No. Freq.

M. P.

Notes................................................................... .............. ......................... -----------_________ __________--­
24. Toilets: Kind.____._____ Paper______________ Instrt________ Room cleaned by—
Seat rpr.............. Clean............ Hand fl_______ Seat fl.......... .
Sweep.......... .
Freq.
Plbg. rpr______ Clean______ Auto, fl.............. Freq.................. Scrub................ Freq.
Ventilation

No. using
Fl.

Women
W. Oth.

___

Light

Fir. Room
No. No. Seat Room
of
per end. desig. Scrn. non- ceil.
Oth. Out. Art.
Out.
abs.
seats seat
M. P.
wnd. Art. rm. wnd.

Room
cln.

25. Service facilities:

Lunch

Fl.

Comb.
with

Cln.

Artif.
light

Out. Toilet
Caf.
wnd. ventil. Supr.
into

Seat Hot F. Hot D. Ck. conv.

Tab.

Rest

Cot

Chairs

Cloak

Lokr.

Shiv

Comf. ch.

Racks

Wall hk.

-

26. Uniforms req. by firm Kind------------------------------------- -------- Supplied by firm--------Laundered by firm Free—............................................................. Cost to girl----------------27. Health service:
Hosp_________ First aid.................. Chg. of dr. full time.............. . dr. part time.
Other________ No one resp............ Med. exam Other welfare.




Bench

Seats

119

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
Schedule

II

Pay-roll information was copied onto this card, one card being used for each
woman employee
U. S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau

Establishment

Employee's No.

Department

Name

Male

Address

Age

Conjugal condition
S

Occupation

Rate
of
pay

Female

f

Piece

l

Days
worked

Hour

Day

Week

$0.
Regular
weekly
hours

$

$

Hours
worked
this period

Overtime
hours

Undertime,
hours

Yi Month

$

Began work

Board

Pay-roll period
___days ending

20725°—27---- -9




Month
$

Earrlings

Time at work

Age
At home

D

NR

Additions
$
Deductions

This period Computed for
regular time
$

Country of birth

M | W

$
In this trade

$
This Ann

120

WOMEN IN TENNESSEE INDUSTRIES
Schedule

III

These cards were distributed in the plant to be filled out by the women
employees.
U. S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau

Establishment Employee’s No____________________________
Department____________
Name Male or female
Address
Single, married, widowed, sepa-----------:-----------------------------------------------rated, or divorced
Country of birth-----------------------------------------------------Age
How old were you when you began to work for wages
IIow long have you been in this trade or business
How long have you been working for this firm___ ___
What is your regular work here:
Schooling—Last grade completed___________________ ._______
Do you live with your family________ With other relatives.
Do you board or room with persons not relatives___________

Schedule

IV

This schedule was used to record earnings for each week in the year of
individual women.
U. S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau
Firm______________ _______ -.............................. .........

City....................................................................................

Employment........ .................................................................................................................................................
Occupation---------- ---------- ------------------------------------ --------------------------------------------------------Wage
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.
S.

9.

10.

11.
12.

13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.

22.
23.
24.
25.
26.

Remarks

Date
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.

Amount____

Weeks worked.

Weeks closed

Weeks lost___




Wage

W. N.
T.P.B.

Remarks

PUBLICATIONS OF THE WOMEN’S BUREAU
Any of these bulletins still available will be sent free of charge upon request:
No. 1. Proposed Employment of Women During the War in the Industries of Niagara
Falls, N. Y. 16 pp. 1918.
No. 2. Labor Laws for Women in Industries in Indiana. 29 pp. 1918.
No.
3. Standards for the Employment of Women in Industry. 7 pp. 1919.
No.
4. Wages of Candy Makers in Philadelphia in 1919. 46 pp. 1919.
No.
5. The Eight-Hour Day in Federal and State Legislation. 19 pp. 1919. (Out of
print.)
No. 6. The Employment of Women in Hazardous Industries in the Llnitcd States 8 on
1919.
'
No. 7. Night-Work Laws iu the United States. 4 pp. 1919.
No. 8. Women in the Government Service. 37 pp. 1920. (Out of print.)
No. 9. Home Work in Bridgeport, Conn. 35 pp. 1920. (Out of print.)
No. 10. Hours aud Conditions of Work for Women in Industry in Virginia, 32 nn.
1920. (Out of print.)
No. 11. Women Street Car Conductors and Ticket Agents. 90 pp. 1920.
No. 12. The New Position of Women in American Industry. 158 pp. 1920. (Out of
print.)
No. 13. Industrial Opportunities and Training for Women and Girls. 48 pp. 1920.
No. 14. A Physiological Basis for the Shorter Working Day for Women. 20 pp. 1921.
No. 15. Some Effects of Legislation Limiting Hours of Work for Women. 26 pp. 1921.
(Out of print.)
No. 16. See Bulletin 40.
No. 17. Women’s Wages in Kansas. 104 pp. 1921.
No. 18. Health Problems of Women in Industry. (Reprint of paper published in the
Nation’s Health, May, 1921.) 11 pp. 1921.
No. 19. Iowa Women in Industry. 73 pp. 1922.
No. 20. Negro Women in Industry. 65 pp. 1922. (Out of print)
No. 21. Women in Rhode Island Industries. 73 pp. 1922.
,
No. 22. Women in Georgia Industries. 89 pp. 1922. (Out of print.)
No. 23. The Family Status of Breadwinning Women. 43 pp. 1922.
No. 24. Women in Maryland Industries. 96 pp. 1922.
No. 25. Women in the Candy Industry in Chicago and St. Louis. 72 pp. 1923.
No. 26- Women in Arkansas Industries. 86 pp. 1923.
No. 27. The Occupational Progress of Women. 37 pp. 1922.
No. 28. Women’s Contributions in the Field of Invention. 51 pp. 1923.
No. 29. Women in Kentucky Industries. 114 pp. 1923.
No. 30. The Share of Wage-earning Women in Family Support. 170 pp. 1923.
No. 31. What Industry Means to Women Workers. 10 pp. 1923.
No. 32. Women in South Carolina Industries. 128 pp. 1923.
No. 33. Proceedings of the Women’s Industrial Conference. 190' pp. 1923.
No. 34. Women in Alabama Industries. 86 pp. 1924,
No. 35. Women in Missouri Industries. 127 pp. 1924.
No. 36. Radio Talks on Women in Industry. 34 pp. 1924.
No. 37. Women in New Jersey Industries. 99 pp. 1924.
No. 38. Married Women in Industry. 8 pp. 1924.
No. 39. Domestic Workers and Their Employment Relations. 87 pp. 1924.
No. 40. State Laws Affecting Working Women. 53 pp. 1924. (Revision of Bulle­
tin 16.)
No. 41. Family Status of Breadwinning Women in Four Selects Cities. 145 pp. 1925.
No. 42. List of References on Minimum Wage for Women in the United States and
Canada. 42 pp. 1925.
No. 43. Standard and Scheduled Hours of Work for Women in Industry. 67 pp. 1925.
No. 44. Women in Ohio Industries. 137 pp. 1925.
No. 45. Home Environment and Employment Opportunities of Women in Coal-mine
Workers’ Families. 61 pp. 1925.
No. 46. Facts About Working Women—A Graphic Presentation Based on Census Sta­
tistics. 64 pp. 1925.




(I)

Publications of the Women's Bureau—Continued
No. 47. Women in the Fruit-Growing and Canning Industries in the State of Washing­
ton. 223 pp. 1926.
No. 48. Women in Oklahoma Industries. 118 pp. 1926.
No. 49. Women Workers and Family Support. 10 pp. 1925. (.Out of print.)
No. 50. Effects of Applied Kesearch Upon the Employment Opportunities of American
Women. 54 pp. 1926.
No. 51. Women in Illinois Industries. 108 pp. 1926.
No. 52. Lost Time and Labor Turnover in Cotton Mills. 203 pp. 1926.
No. 53. Status of Women in Government Service in 1925. 103 pp. 1926.
No. 54. Changing Jobs. 12 pp. 1926.
No. 55. Women in Mississippi Industries. 89 pp. 1926.
No. 56. Women in Tennessee Industries. 120 pp. 1927.
No. 57. Women Workers and Industrial Poisons. 5 pp. 1926.
No. 58. Women in Delaware Industries. (In press.)
No. 59. Short Talks' About Working Women.

(In press.)

Annual Reports of the Director, 1919, 1920, 1921, 1924. (Out of print.)
Annual Reports of the Director, 1922, 1923, 1925, 1926.




O

(IX)


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102